ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
3 1833 02144 0471
SKETCH OF ITS ORIGIN
y PROCEEDINGS, AND ADDRESSES
Lancaster, April 15th/ 1891.- f 3»>
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
Printing Committee's Xote, 4
Origin of the Society, 6
Proceedings of Convention, 9
The Call, 10
Prayer, by Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, 12
Address of Welcome, by E. K Martin, Esq., .... 14
Response, by George F. Baer, Esq., 18
Report of Local Committee, 26
Xames of Persons Present, 30
Committees Appointed, 32
I)e Olta un Neia Tzeita, by E. II. Rauch, Esq., . . . .33
Puritan and Cavalier ? Why Xot the Pennsylvania-
Germans? by Col. Thos. C. Zimmerman, .... 36
Auswahlen der Alte Zeite, by Henry L. Fisher, Esq., . 48
The Pennsylvania-Germans in Church and State, by
Rev. C, Z. Weiser, D. D., 62
What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans, by Rev.
F. J. F. Schantz, I). D., 71
Permanent Organization, 82
Officers of the Society, 93
Societv Meeting 94
Digitized by the Internet Archive
To the Members of the Pennsylvania-German Society:
Your Committee j appointed by the Convention held at
Lancaster, Pa., on April 15, 1891, herewith presents to
you the volume of Proceedings and Addresses it was
authorized to prepare, together with a brief sketch of the
origin of our Society, and the proceedings of the meet-
ings preliminary to the organization. Hoping that our
work may meet with your approval, we remain respect-
E. W. S. Parthemore,
Frank E. Diffenderffer,
John S. Stahr,
J. Max Hark,
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P P M i\J Q V I V A IV I A r"*l edmam
l L, 1 N i \ O i L V A i N 1 /\~ kJ 12 1 \i V LA 1 N
It has been thought that a brief account of the begin-
nings of the movement which culminated in the organ i-
zation of the Pennsylvania-German Society, would be a
suitable prefix to this little volume, containing the rec-
ord of the formal establishment of the said Society on the
loth of last April.
In this, as in many other progressive movements of the
day, the newspaper press has been a very important fac-
tor. The idea of such an organization, inspired with
such purposes, it is true, did not originate with the news-
papers. It is an old one and had its conception in the
minds of many persons, long years ago. In fact, it was a
favorite, scheme with writers and thinkers of Pennsyl-
vania-German origin for generations. The " Sleeping
Giant/' as the Pennsylvania-German element has been
aptly called, could not fail to impress them with his la-
tent possibilities, and for almost a century there seems to
have been a yearning among these people towards that
fuller recognition, which, as the preponderating element
of this great State, it was felt they deserved. But, with
characteristic diffidence, they kept themselves in the back-
ground and permitted men of other nationalities to till
the places and exercise controlling influence where they
themselves should have assumed direction. In the full-
ness of time, the hour seems to have come. The " Sleep-
ing Giant " is about to awake from his prolonged slum-
bers and arouse to the magnitude and importance of the
destiny that lies before him. That he will measure up to
the full stature predicted of him, and prove himself sec-
ond to none in all that constitutes loyalty to race and
progress, and fidelity to the land of his adoption, seems
During the months of December, 1890, and January,
1891, articles appeared in various journals throughout
Eastern Pennsylvania, the earliest being in The Lebanon
Daily Report, followed by -The jS t ew Era, of Lancaster,
and the Philadelphia Inquirer, advocating the formation
of a Pennsylvania-German Society. A correspondence on
the subject was finally opened by Mr. Frank R. DifFen-
derffer, one of the editors of The Few Era, with Dr. "Will-
iam H. Egle, State Librarian, and he was invited to come
to Lancaster to discuss the question. The result was that
on February 14, 1891, he came to Lancaster, and, in tlie
editorial rooms of The New Era, found John S. Stahr, D,
D., J. Max Hark, D. D., R, K. Buehrle, Ph. D., E. 0. Lyte,
Ph. D., and Frank R. DirTenderffer, who had been invited
to meet him. After a full and free discussion of the whole
question, it was decided to invite a number of representa-
tive men in the German counties of Eastern Pennsylvania
to an informal conference in the city of Lancaster, on the
26th of February.
This was done, and on the above mentioned day, the
conference met in the study of Dr. Hark, in the Moravian
parsonage. It was found that nine counties were repre-
sented, namely :
Carbon County — E. H. Rauch.
Chester County — Julius F. Sachse.
Dauphin County— \Y. II. Egle, E. \Y. S. Parthemore,
Maurice C. Eby.
Lancaster County — J. Max Hark, H. A. Brickenstein,
Frank R. Dirlenderfler.
Lebanon County — Theodore E. Schmauk, Lee L. Grum-
Lehigh County — Edwin Albright, A. R. Home.
Luzerne County — F. K. Levan.
Northampton County — Jeremiah H. Hess, Paul de
York County — Hiram Young.
Dr. Egle was called to preside over the meeting, and in
doing so succinctly stated the purpose and importance of
the contemplated movement. Frank P. DifFenderfTer was
chosen as temporary Secretary. A large number of letters
were read from prominent citizens of the State, who were
unavoidably absent, but who nevertheless felt a deep in-
terest in the step under consideration, and were anxious
to promote it in every possible way. Encouragement
came from all sides, and co-operation was promised on
All present in turn gave expression to their views, and
it was found that the universal feeling was towards a
permanent organization, having for its aim the collection
and preservation of all landmarks and records relating to
the early German and Swiss immigrants to Pennsylvania,
and the development of a friendly and fraternal spirit
among all united by the ties of a common ancestry.
An animated discussion arose over the name to be given
to the proposed organization, the names " Pennsylvania-
German Society " and " Pennsylvania-Dutch Society " be-
ing warmly supported. A suggestion to defer the matter
to a subsequent meeting was not agreed to, and a resolu-
tion to use the name Pennsylvania-German Society in the
call for a general Convention was finally adopted. Leb-
anon, Philadelphia and Lancaster were severally proposed.
as the place where this Convention should be held. The
last named city was finally decided upon, and the 15th of
the following April was selected as the time.
The Chairman was instructed to name a committee of
five, of which he was also to be a member, to prepare a
a call for the general Convention. The Committee, sub-
sequently named, consisted of Theodore E.. Sehmauk,.
J. S. Stahr, Hiram Young, Frank E. Diffenderffer and
George F. Baer. This Committee met in The New Era
building on the 9th of March, all the members being
present except Mr. Baer, who was unavoidably absent.
The general character and phraseology of the proposed
address and call were discussed. The document on page
10 in this volume was finally adopted. It was decided
to circulate it as widely as possible by circular and through
the medium of the newspaper press. This was subse-
quently done, and the large Convention held on April 15,
in the Lancaster County Court House, was the result. In
the following pages will be found a full report of the pro-
ceedings and addresses attending the formal organization
of the Society. F. E. D.
EEPOET OF THE PROCEEDINGS
— OF THE —
Held in Court House, Lancaster, Pa.,
On WEDNESDAY, APKIL loth, 1891.
Morning Session, 10 o'clock.
The Convention was called to order at 10 o'clock, a. m.,
by W. II. Egle, M. D., of Harrisburg, who said:
" Ladies and Gentlemen : — As Chairman of the Pre-
liminary Conference, it becomes my duty to call this as-
semblage to order, which I now do; and we will have,
before effecting a temporary organization, music from the
After the Lancaster MaBnnerchor had rendered several
characteristic German folk-songs, led by Prof. Carl Matz,
the call that had been issued convening this meeting; was
read by Frank R. DiffenderfTer, of Lancaster.
10 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
People who will take no pride in the coble achievements of remote
ancestors, -will never achieve anything worthy to be remembered with
pride by remote descendants. — Macaulay.
To the Descendants of the Early German and Swiss Settlers
in Pennsylvania, Wheresover Dispersed.
At a preliminary conference of descendants of the early
German and Swiss settlers, held at Lancaster on the 2Cth
of February, it was resolved to call a meeting on April
15th, 1891, to organize a Pennsylvania-German Society.
It is eminently proper that the descendants of these
people should associate themselves in memory of those
who " made the wilderness blossom as the rose," to show
to the offspring of other nationalities that they are not
behind them in any of the attributes which go to make
up the best citizens of the best State in the best Govern-
ment of the world. In the art of printing, in the realm
of science and letters, in religious fervor, in pure statesman-
ship, in war and in peace, the Pennsylvania-German-
Swiss element has equalled any other race.
It has long been everywhere recognized by the descend-
ants of the early American colonists as a matter of great
importance to effect organizations of the character we
propose, for the purpose of searching out and preserving
all ancestral records; for the purpose of bringing their
forefathers into such recognition in the eyes of the world,
and especially of their own children, as they deserve ; for
the purpose of developing the friendly and fraternal spirit
that should exist between those in whose veins the same
blood flows ; for the purpose of lifting history, now un-
The Call 11
noticed or unknown, into honor; and, very particularly,
for the purpose of preserving to posterity the old public
records, landmarks and memorials, which in another gen-
eration will have entirely disappeared.
The co-operation of our fellow Pennsylvania-Germans is
hereby cordially invited in this movement, and they are
earnestly requested to be present in the City of Lancaster
at 10 o'clock a. m., on the 15th day of April, and we ask
them to use their influence to secure the presence of all
representative descendants of our common ancestry, that
the meeting may prove a great success,
"W. II. Egle, Dauphin County.
E. W. S. Parthemore, Dauphin County.
R. K. Buehrle, Lancaster County.
H. A. Brickcnstein, Lancaster County.
F. R. DifFenderfFer, Lancaster County.
T. C. Zimmerman, Berks County.
A. R. Home, Lehigh County.
Paul de Schweinitz, Northampton County.
Hiram Young, York County.
L. L. Grumbine, Lebanon County.
S. P. Heilman, Lebanon County.
Julius F. Sachse, Chester County.
Benjamin Whitman, Erie County.
C. P. Humrich, Cumberland County.
Benjamin M. Xead, Franklin County.
Daniel Eberly, Adams County.
Maurice C. Eby, Dauphin County.
John S. Stahr, Lancaster County.
J. Max Hark, Lancaster County.
12 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
E. 0. Lyte, Lancaster County.
George F. Baer, Berks County.
Edwin Albright, Lehigh County.
Jere. A. Hess, Northampton County.
E. H. Rauch, Carbon County.
Theodore E. Schmauk, Lebanon County.
Grant Weidman, Lebanon County.
F. K. Levan, Luzerne County.
James A. Beaver, Centre County.
Boyd Crumrine, Washington County.
S. W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia.
H. A. Muhlenberg, Berks County.
Then, after a motion had been passed to proceed to tem-
porary organization, the Rev. John S. Stahr, D. D., Pres-
ident of Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa.,
nominated as chairman the Hon. George F. Baer, of
Reading, Pa., who was unanimously chosen.
Thereupon the following prayer was offered up by the
Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, of Nazareth, Northampton
Lord, God, our Father, who art in heaven, Thou God
of our fathers, we praise Thee and acknowledge Thee to
be the Lord. We thank Thee, that Thou hast permitted
us to gather together in this Convention so auspiciously
for the purpose we have in view, and we humbly be-
seech Thee to look down in favor upon us, and to bless
us in our undertaking. We praise Thee, Lord, for this
fair land Thou hast given us, and for the liberty of con-
Prayer. * 13
science we Lave enje^ed therein. We praise Thee for the
frugal, industrious, pious ancestry we may look hack
upon, and for the blessing upon their labors, which have
made the wilderness to blossom as the rose. We praise
Thee for the Christian faith of our fathers and for the
transplanting of the earnest German piety of earlier
years to these shores. We praise Thee for the school
houses and the churches that dot our lands, and for the
testimony they have borne unto Thy Holy iSTame. But
we would fain confess before Thee, Lord, that we have
not ever walked in the paths of the holy faith we knew,
nor ever lived up to the high ideals of our fathers, and we
beseech Thee to mercifully forgive our many sins and
shortcomings, and to inspire us to reveal in our present
lives the deep-flowing German piety of former days to
the honor of Thy name. Grant that we as a society may
not be filled with a spirit of self-glorification, but that in
our efforts to perpetuate the noble deeds of our German
ancestors, we may be moved to emulate their virtues, to
avoid their faults, and to testify by our lives to the influ-
ence of worthy parentage. Grant that the labors of this
society may result in a more glowing patriotism for the
land where our fathers settled, and for whose weal they
labored, in a sanctified patriotism, desirous of having
this country become, be, and remain a Christian nation.
Grant that nothing may be done contrary to the spirit of
Thy holy law, and then graciously cause us and our under-
taking to prosper. Hear us, we beseech Thee, in these
our imperfect supplications, for the sake of Thy Son,
Jesus Christ, our Redeemer, to Whom, with Thee, and
14 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
the Holy Spirit, be honor and glory, now and evermore.
On assuming the Chair, the Hon. George F. Baer said :
"Gentlemen of the Convention, permit me to thank you
for this compliment. I will reserve speech making until
after the address of welcome. I have the honor, there-
fore, to introduce to you the Hon. E. K. Martin, of Lan-
Address of Welcome.
Mr Martin sjtoke as follows :
Bancroft says of the Germans in America : " Xeither
they nor their descendants have laid claim to all that is
their due." This may be attributable partly to language,
partly to race, instincts and hereditary tendencies. Quiet
in their tastes, deeply absorbed in the peaceful vocations
of life, undemonstrative to the verge of diffidence, without
clannish propensities, they have permitted their more ag-
gressive neighbors to deny them a proper place even on
the historic page.
At the close of the Thirty Years' war there ran through
Protestant Germany a broad line ; upon the one side of
that line stood the followers of Luther and Zwingli, of
Melanchthon and Calvin — these were the Church people ;
upon the other side stood Menno Simon and " The Sepa-
ratists " — these were the Sect people. It was a line which
divided persecution by new boundaries, and left the fag-
got and the stake in new hands, for the Peace of West-
phalia had thrown the guarantees of its powerful protec-
tion onlv over the one side of this Protestant division. It
Address of Welcome. 15
was a line which in the New World, though less discern-
ible than in the Old, is only becoming obliterated in the
widening philanthropy of our own times.
We meet here to day in the home of the descendants of
the Sect people, where, perhaps more than anywhere else
in America, have been preserved in their original purity,
the thoughts, the faith, the habits, the ways of living,
even the dress of the Eeformation period.
"When " the new3 spread through the Old World that
William Penn, the Quaker, had opened an asylum to the
good and the oppressed of every nation, and Humanity
went through Europe gathering up the children of mis-
fortune," our forefathers came out from their hiding places
in the forest depths and the mountain valleys which the
sun never penetrated, clad in homespun, their feet shod
with wood, their dialects ofttimes unintelligible to each
other. There was scarcely a family among them which
could not be traced to some ancestor burned at the stake
for conscience sake. Judge Pennypacker says : " Their
whole literature smacks of fire. Beside a record like
theirs the sufferings of Pilgrim and Quaker seem trivial."
And yet, my friends, even the German schoolboy is taught
to regard these Pilgrim sacrifices of a handful of Eng-
lishmen as the noblest ever laid upon the altars of con-
science and humanity. The story of their sufferings,
which at most extended over a few generations and a small
area of territory, has been told and retold with distressing
particularity. There is not an event or object from the
departure from Delftshaven to the chair of Carver and the
pot and platter of Miles Standish, which have not been
held up to veneration by poet, painter and orator.
16 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
But in the noisy clamor for worldly recognition our
people have gone their silent, uncomplaining way, and
their story is yet to be told ; and they have not been en-
tirely unmindful of worldly attributes, either. They
have simply discriminated. While New England, with
her stony acres, is fast becoming depopulated by the sons
of the Puritan, and her old homesteads are empty or oc-
cupied by an alien race, the descendants of our ancestors
live in the first agricultural county of the United States,
shape its destiny, control its life, hold its lands by an-
cient indentures, supplemented by grants from father to
son reaching backward in one ever-strengthening chain of
titles to the original patents of Penn, implanting in a
glorious Commonwealth a true conservatism and adorning
it continually with renewed evidences of prosperity and
I know you will pardon me for having taken this
type of German-American life with which I am most
familiar as an illustration of the thought which this
society has been formed to emphasize. What may be said
of the Lancaster county German and the descendants of
the Sect people may be said of the German descendants of
the early immigrants of every class. We of the nine-
teenth century have not been sufficiently mindful . of that
glorious history which with rigid simplicity, and stout
self-denial, so long and so successfully resisted Roman ab-
solutism in Europe during the fifteenth century. We
have failed to preserve with true fidelity the records of
the great pioneer period of Pennsylvania, when our
forefathers broke in upon the forest and helped to plant
Address of Welcome. 17
the foundations of our National life. We do not suffi-
ciently share the pride that their glorious names have given
to the Revolutionary period when this Government took
shape, and to the magnificent army of German-American
statesmen, and warriors and patriots from that hour to
this. The descendants of the old Knickerbockers have a
Holland Society in 'New York, the pride of membership
in which is held with more favor than across the water
they regard a royal mark or garter. The Huguenots pre-
serve in their organized circles the history of the grand
old Frenchmen who stood for civil and religious liberty
in the face of axe and faggot, and their descendants yearly
assemble in our seaboard cities to congratulate them-
selves upon the blood of the martyrs which flows in their
The Xew England Society — They have a banquet every
night, I think ; at least an issue of the "New York Tri-
bune would not be complete without some account of
their meeting somewhere.
And yet I say to you, fellow Germans, if you will turn
to the history of your ancestors, and read the story of
their sufferings, persecutions, stout abnegation through
eight centuries in which cruel selfishness and heartless
bigotry assumed the wardship of conscience, you will
find that the trials of the ancestors of these feasting Puri-
tans, great as they were, compared with the trials of your
own people, are as the waters of Marah beside the plagues
But this gathering here is an earnest of the fact that
the Pennsylvania-German, who has been called a sleeping
18 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
giant, is about to bestir himself, and I welcome you to
our midst to inaugurate the great undertaking.
Lancaster county, which glories in being a typical
Pennsylvania-German community, bids you thrice wel-
come to her borders. Lancaster city, where every heart-
throb is in sympathy with the German- American life,
bids you welcome.
Response by Mr. Baer :
Gentlemen: — The duty devolves upon me as Chair-
man of this Convention to make a brief response to the
high words of praise in which the kindly welcome of the
citizens of Lancaster has been extended to the descendants
of the early Pennsylvania-Germans assembled here to-day.
It is meet and right that the first meeting of the
Pennsylvania-German Convention should be held here, in
the heart of Eastern Pennsylvania; here in Lancaster
County, the garden-spot of Pennsylvania, made such by
the industry, thrift and taste of the early German settlers.
It is singular that the true character, mission and
work of the early Pennsylvania-Germans, the influence
they exerted, and the part they took in the struggle for
independence and the formation of our government,
should be so completely ignored or misunderstood. Some
of our friends are disposed to attach the whole blame to
the Xew England and the English historians. It is un-
doubtedly true that as a rule they have utterly failed to
understand our people, and do not regard them as factors
in the history of the nation. But which of you, looking
honestly into the matter, can fail to see that the blame
Response by 'Mr. Baer. 19
falls as mucli on the German descendants as on the his-
torians of this and of former days ? Have we not been
remiss in asserting the truth of History ? Have we not
been indifferent to the good deeds and fame of our ances-
try? Have not many of us in acquiring an English
tongue, lost all interest in our Teutonic ancestors, and be-
come disposed to regard the general order of our American
national life as an English development pure and simple ?
When we recall the fact, that, at the time of the Dec-
laration of Independence, nearly one-half of the popula-
tion of Pennsylvania was German, we may well ask our-
selves: "How comes it that in the many stories of this
struggle for independence, the German figures so indiffer-
ently on the pages of written history."
The answer is not difficult. You must remember that
Pennsylvania was an English colony, regulated and con-
trolled by English laws and customs. The thousands of
Germans, Swiss and Dutch who migrated here on the in-
vitation of Penn, came without ability to speak the Eng-
lish language, and without any knowledge, except that
derived from general report, of the customs and habits of
thought of the English people. They went vigorously
to work to clear the wilderness and establish homes.
They were sober, religious, orderly, industrious and
thrifty. The reports the earlier settlers made to their
friends at home of the prosperity and liberty they enjoyed
in their new homes, induced from year to year many
others to come. Their numbers increased so much as to
alarm the proprietary officials. Logan wanted their immi-
gration prevented by Act of Parliament, "for fear the
colony would in time be lost to the crown." He wrote a
20 ' The Pennsylvania- German Society.
letter in which he says : " The numbers from Germany at
this rate will soon produce a German colony here, and
perhaps such a one as Britain received from Saxony in
the Fifth Century." As early as 1747, one of the pro-
prietary Governors attributed the prosperity of the Penn-
sylvania colony to the thrift, sobriety and good characters
of the Germans. ^Tumerous as they were, because this
was in its government a purely English colony, the part
they took in its public affairs was necessarily limited.
The Government officials and the vast majority of the
members of the Assembly were all English. During the
long struggle in the Colonies to adjust the strained re-
lations with Great Britain, the Germans were seemingly
indifferent. They saw no practical gain in surrendering
the Penn Charter, and Proprietary Government, under
which they had obtained their homes, for the direct rule
of the British King. They could not understand the
distinction between King and Parliament. The attempts
to condemn the acts of the King's Parliament and to
praise the King, were without meaning to them. They
had long learned not to put their trust in princes. Long
before the Commonwealth of England was created, the
people who spoke their language, practiced their relig-
ion, and loved freedom, had established the Dutch Re-
public and the Swiss Confederation. When, therefore, in
1776, the issue was suddenly enlarged into a broad de-
mand for final separation from Great Britain, and the
creation of a Republic, all their traditional love of free-
dom was fully aroused.
Under the Proprietary rule, although constituting
Response by Mr. Baer. 21
nearly one-half the population of the colony, they were
practically without representation in the General Assem-
hly, and without voice in the Government. The right of
" electing or being elected " to the Assembly was confined
to natural born subjects of England, or persons naturalized
in England or in the province, who were 21 years old, and
freeholders of the province owning fifty acres of seated
land, and at least twelve acres improved, or worth clear
fifty pounds and a resident for two years. Naturalization
was not the simple thing it now is. The conditions were
exceptionally severe, and comparatively few Germans
qualified themselves to vote.
The delegates to the Colonial Congress were selected
by the General Assembly. In November, 1775, the As-
sembly instructed the Pennsylvania delegates not to vote
for separation from Great Britain. The majority of the
delegates were against separation. The Assembly refused
to rescind the instructions of November, 1775. The efforts
to have the naturalization laws and the oath of allegiance
to the King repealed, failed. At the election for new
members in May, 1776, in Philadelphia, three out of four
of those elected were opposed to separation. The situa-
tion was most critical. Independence and union were not
possible without Pennsylvania. Geographically, she was
midway between the Colonies. She was one of the
wealthiest and strongest. Her government was in the
hands of those opposed to separation. One course only
remained. Peaceful efforts in the Assembly to enfran-
chise the Germans, by repealing the naturalization laws
and oath of allegiance, had failed, and now this must be
22 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
accomplished by revolution, because their enfranchise-
ment would give the friends of liberty and union an over-
whelming and aggressive majority. This was the course-
resolved on. The Philadelphia Committee called a con-
ference of committees of the Counties. On the 18th of
June, 1776, this provincial conference, numbering one
hundred and four, met in Philadelphia. The German
counties were represented . no longer by English tories.
There were leading; Germans in the delegations from
Philadelphia, Lancaster, Northampton, York, Bucks and
Berks. In Berks, the loyalist Biddle gives place to eight
prominent Germans, headed by Gov. Hiester, Cols.
Hunter, Eckert and Lutz.
The proprietary government of Pennsylvania, with
its Tory Assembly, was overthrown — foundation, pillar
This conference called a Provincial Convention to
frame a new Government. On the petition of the Ger-
mans, the members of that Convention were to be
elected by persons qualified to vote for Assembly, and by
the military associators (volunteers), being freemen
twenty-one years of age, resident in the province one year.
This gave the Germans the right to vote. Thus says
Bancroft : " The Germans were incorporated into the
people and made one with them." The 19th of June,
1776, enfranchised the Germans, and made the Declaration
of Independence possible.
The Provincial Conference signed a paper declaring
their willingness to concur in a vote of Congress to declare
the United Colonies free and independent States. Penn-
Response by 31r. Baer. 23
sylvania's attitude was no longer doubtful. The Tories
saw that with the German vote and power in the colony
against them, the cause of the King was hopeless. There-
were no German Tories. The effect of this new order of
things was felt instantly throughout the Colonies. When
on July 2, 1776, the Colonial Congress reached a vote on
the resolution declaring the Colonies free and independent
States, the vote of Pennsylvania was cast in its favor by
three of its delegates, Franklin, Wilson and Morton.
Dickinson and Morris stayed away. Willing and Hum-
ph re} r were present, but did not vote.
You see, it is absolutely true, that, as the English
people of the province were divided in 1776, the Germans
were the potential factors in securing the essential vote of
Pennsylvania for the Declaration of Independence.
These are pregnant facts worthy of marked notice in
the story of Independence, which hitherto have received
slight attention from historians, and have not been shout-
ed from the hilltops by the descendants of the Pennsyl-
Throughout the Revolution, these Germans, called by
the Xew England Historian Parkman " dull and ignorant
boors — a character not wholly inapplicable to the great
body of their descendants," were the steadfast defenders of
the new Republic. Dr. Stille, in his recent admirable
" Life of Dickinson," concedes that " no portion of the
population was more ready to defend its homes, or took
up arms more willingly in support of the American cause."
Washington, when in Philadelphia after the war, testified
his high appreciation of the hearty support the Germans
24 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
gave him, arid the cause he represented, by worshiping
with his family in the old German church on Race street.
The descendants of the Pennsylvania-Germans have
-settled all over the West, contributing to Ohio, Illinois and
other Western States, the same sturdy, honest population
that characterizes Pennsylvania. From Revolutionary
times until now, they have borne an honorable part in the
Nation's history and progress. In every work, in times
-of trial, in peace and war, they have shown themselves
the equals of the best in the land.
It is high time, therefore, men of Pennsylvania-Ger-
-man descent, that some action should be taken to assert
the truth of history. Let this meeting be the beginning
of a fixed determination to see that justice is done our an-
cestors for the part they took and the influence they
-exerted in the creation, development and support of this
glorious Republic. Although they came here from Ger-
many, they were as truly American as any of the English
speaking people. They have never claimed any other
nationality. In the same spirit, we do not propose to
organize a German society, to praise our ancestors as
Germans, or to bother with foreign German problems, or
customs. We have too many organizations in this land
whose sole concern is with Old World conditions. We are
Americans, and as such let us frown upon the insolence
that seeks to exalt any other than the American flag. It
is only because our ancestors became thoroughly American,
and as such brought whatever was ^ood in their old Ger-
man trainins: to the work of establishing this free Amer-
ican government, that we have a right to organize this
Response by Mr. Baer. 25
society. We will not come in conflict with other similar
organizations. No man can go further than I will to
praise the part the Puritans took in the formation of this
government. They are in many things narrow, con-
tracted and selfish, but they have great virtues, and some
that we might well imitate. We are a little slow, per-
haps too conservative to be very brilliant, but then we
are sure and safe, and in the long run this counts.
Neither would I detract from the great part the
Scotch-Irish took in Pennsylvania. They stood shoulder
to shoulder with the Pennsylvania-Germans in the great
contest I have described and in the early organization of
this government, and they are entitled to all praise. They
have their organizations to perpetuate the undying fame
of their ancestors, and it is right that we should follow
It is in this spirit, therefore, that we are assembled
here to-day ; and I hope that what we shall do will be
wisely done ; that the society we shall organize will re-
flect honor upon our ancestors and incite our descendants
to a just appreciation of their character and worth.
The attention of the chair beins; called to the absence
of a secretary, nominations for that office were received as
E. W. S. Parthemore nominated Frank R. Diffenderffer.
Nominations closed and he was declared elected.
The report of the local committee was next in order,
and the Rev. Dr. John S. Stahr reported as follows:
26 TJie Pennsylvania-German Society.
Report of the Local Committee.
As chairman of the Local Committee, I have only a par-
tial report to make. In the first place — hut hefore I proceed
to say what the committee has done I wish to state how this
committee came to he appointed. Those of the gentlemen
who were present at the convention of the preliminary
conference will recollect that a committee was appointed
to issue a call. That committee thought that there ought
to he a local committee of arrangements and it was ac-
cordingly appointed. ETow, as chairman of that com-
mittee, I wish to say that we have clone three things.
We have, in the first place, made arrangements for this
meeting ; we have secured the Court House ; we have
tried to secure a comfortable place in which to transact
your business. In the second place we have tried to as-
sist the committee appointed to send out invitations and
to secure the attendance here of representative Pennsyl-
Of course, in this matter we have felt the difficulty
under which we labored. "VYe did not have lists from the
different counties ; but we have done the best we could.
The Secretary of the Committee of the Preliminary Con-
ference has been diligent in sending out invitations. It
was impossible to reach everybody, but if we form our-
selves into a missionary society to-day, I hope we shall be
able to reach all Pennsylvania-Germans and secure them
for members of this body. It was thought that in order
to secure the successful prosecution of the business which
brings us together we ought to have the draft of a con-
stitution before us. The preparation of a constitution
Report of the Local Committee. 27
necessarily is a pretty difficult piece of work. We have,
therefore, met together, we have deliberated over this
matter and we have prepared a draft of a constitution
which will presently be read by the Secretary of our Com-
mittee. I wish to say, however, that we do not presume
to offer this constitution as one which you ought neces-
sarily to adopt, and what we present in the shape of a
constitution is merely in the way of suggestion. Wq have
tried to do the best we could. There are a number of
points in the constitution, I know, concerning which
there will be a difference of opinion ; and whether or not
you agree with what we have done on the subject of
membership and other points which will come up for
consideration here, you will please understand that we
have tried to be as liberal as we possibly could ; whilst at
the same time we may have felt that in some things we
might have drawn the lines more closely than we have.*
German Society of Pennsylvania Sends Greeting.
The chair here announced the presence of a committee
of gentlemen from the German Society of Philadelphia,
who had been appointed to present its respects and
good wishes to this convention.
Prof. Oswald Seidensticker, M. D., of the University of
Pennsylvania, and of said committee, said :
Mr. President: The German Society of Philadelphia,
founded in the year 1764, has had a long and honorable
*The gentlemen who served on this Committee were as follows :
J. S. Stahr, Chairman; J. Max Hark, Secretary; John B. Warfel,
R. K. Buehrle, J. TV. B. Bailsman, E. K. Martin and F, R. Difien-
28 The Pennsylvania- German Society .
career. Whilst devoted mainly to objects of charity, it
lias for a long time been entirely in sympathy with the
objects' which this newly-formed society is going to pur-
sue exclusively. For a number of years the Society has
been collecting matters pertaining to the Pennsylvania-
Germans. There was also connected with the German
Society an advanced society or verein, which pursued ex-
exactly the same objects which this society will pursue.
They held their meetings in the homes of the members
of the society and may be considered as a branch of it.
I will not delay your proceedings further than to say
that the German Society takes great interest in, and con-
veys its good wishes for the success of this Society.
General Louis Wagner, also of said Committee, then
spoke as follows :
It is a matter of regret that the President of the Ger-
man Society was not able to come with us. We are here
as the representative of this, the oldest Society in Penn-
sylvania, to bid it God-speed, and we are anxious to become
members of this new Society at the regular and proper
By the Chair :
If there is no objection, I suggest that these delegates
from the German Society be admitted to the floor and be
given the privilege of participating in our proceedings.
There was no objection, and the two gentlemen were
invited to the courtesies of the Convention.
The draft of the proposed constitution was next read
by the Rev. J. Max Hark, D. D., of Lancaster, Pa., sec-
retary of the local committee.
The Chair farther asked what order or disposition the
Convention would make of the proposed constitution, and
suggested that two committees be appointed, one to take
up exclusively the subject of membership, as being pos-
sibly the most important feature in the constitution ; and
the other committee to take up the general features of the
constitution and report at the afternoon meeting.
The Chair still further suggested that all announce
their names and residences when they rise and speak.
By Prof. I. S. Geist, of Marietta, Pa. :
It seems to me the name suggested by that paper
might be changed to the German Society of Pennsyl-
vania. It is a Society that is to be in this state, and it is
a Society of the descendants of the Germans.
By the Rev. Dr. John S. Stahr :
The course suggested by the President, I think, is a
proper one, to refer this constitution to a committee, or to
several committees, and then it will be in order to debate
It was then moved that two committees be appointed,
the one to report on membership and the other on the re-
mainder of the Constitution. The motion was seconded
The Chair asked what the size of these committees
H. A. Muhlenberg, Esq., ot Reading, Pa., moved that
each Committee consist of five members. The motion was
seconded and carried.
30 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
By the Chair :
Will the Convention name the members ?
The Rev. Dr. John S. Stahr suggested that the Chair
name the committees.
The Rev. Eaul de Schweinitz inquired whether it
would not he well to call the roll by counties and find out
who were present.
The Chair suggested that all persons report their names
and addresses to the Secretary, and for that purpose the
Convention took an intermission of ten minutes.
A motion was then carried to have the Secretary call a
list of the counties, and as the counties were called, the
gentlemen in attendance to give their names. The follow-
ing delegates were reported as present so far as could be
Berks. — Hon. George F. Baer, E*^», Geo. C. Heckman,
E»€fc» 5 Col. Thos. C. Zimmerman, Samuel A. Baer, II. A.
Muhlenberg, Esq., M. L. Montgomery, Esq., Amos Reiff.
Carbon.— E. H. Rauch.
Chester. — Julius F. Sachse, Esq., Isaac "W*. Urner.
Clearfield.— P. S. Weber.
Cumberland. — C. P. Humerick, Esq.
Dauphln.-^-Dr. W. II. Egle, Hon. David Mumma, Paul
A. Kunkel, Benjamin M. ISTead, Maurice C. Eby, E. W. S.
Parthemore, D. C. Maurer, II. C. Reinhold, B. F. Myers,
Judge A. 0. Hiester, Gabriel Hiester, William P. Smull,
Dr. John P. Keller, Dr. Xead.
Franklin. — Franklin Keagy.
Lancaster. — J. L. Steinmetz, Esq., Rev. John S. Stahr,
D. D., Rev. J. Max Hark, D. D., Rev. Chas. L. Fry, F.
Persons Present. 31
R. Diffenderffer, W. M. Franklin, S. M. Sener, Esq., J. W.
B. Bailsman, Esq.,R. K Buehrle,Ph. D.,Rev. D. W. Ger-
hart, Eev. Theo. Appel, D. D., Prof. Carl. Thorbahn, J. B.
Warfel, Esq., E. A. Becker, C. Musselman, II. E. Slay-
maker, M. J. Brecht, W. D. Weaver, Esq^ Major A. C.
Reincehl,T. P. Bowman, E. K Martin, Esq., city; Geo. H.
Richards, Isaac L. Bowman and Rev. J. II. Pennypacker,
Columbia; Hon.EsaiasBillingfelt, Adamstown; Christian
Keneagy, M. D., Strasburg ; Isaac Bushong, Bird-in-Hand ;
Prof. I. S. Geist, Marietta ; W. L. Hershey, Landisville ;
Rev. John P. Stein, A. 0. Xewpher, Esq., Millersville ;
Peter Hershey, Leaman Place ; Hon. G. II. Ranck, Xew
Holland ; J. R. Hoffer, Mount Joy ; John G . Zook, George
Hepp, Captain John R. Bricker, Lititz ; W. J. "Kafroth,
West Earl ; Rev. A. B. Say lor, Terre Hill ; Abram Summy,
J. L. Brandt, Marietta ; Dr. J. L. Hertz, Lexington ; Rev.
S. M. Roeder, Elizabethtown ; Daniel Herr, Pequea ; Dr.
E. 0. Lyte, Levi S. Reist, Rev. J. W. Meminger, Prof. G.
F. Mull, Prof. J, E. Kershner, Rev. John Kohler, D. M.
Swarr, Prof. Jos. H. Dubbs, D. D., John W. Appel, Esq.,
Dr. Thos. G. Appel, Hon. E. S. Hoover, A. J. Kauffman,
Esq., Rev. J. ~W. Hassler, J. Hay Brown, Esq., B. Frank
Eshleman, Esq., Hon. Marriott Brosius, Eaeft, Judge D.
W. Patterson, Hon. Henry M. Engle.
Lebanon. — L. L. Grumbine, Esq., Dr. E. Grumbine, Dr.
J, R. Heilman, John W. Mish, A. Hess, Henry S. Heilman,
J. H. Redsecker, Jacob A. Shindel, Grant Weidman,Esq.,
Geo. B. Shock, Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, D. D., Rev. T. E.
Schmauk, B. Frank Hean, C. Shenk.
Lehigh.— Dr. A. R. Home, Dr. A. J, G. Dubbs, T. H.
Diehl, Hon. E. Albright, E. A. Reiser.
32 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Luzerne. — Rev. F. X. Levari, D. D.
Montgomery. — Rev. Dr. C. L. Weiser, J. X. Faust,
Samuel Grob, Rev. Matthias Sheeleigh, D. D.
Northampton. — J. F. Beitel, Eev. Paul de Schweinitz,
Rev. C. D. Levan, Hon. Jere. S. Hess.
Philadelphia. — Rudolph Blankenberg, Dr. Oswald Seid-
ensticker, Gen. Louis Wagner.
Westmoreland. — J. J. Bierer.
York. — Henry L. Fisher, Esq., Hon. A. Hiestand Glatz,
Hiram Young, Jos. S. Keagy.
M. D. Larned, Associate Professor of German in Johns-
Hopkins University, was among the visitors.
It was suggested that a member from each county be
represented on the Committee on Constitution.
By the Chair :
Will Lancaster county name one member for each of
these committees ?
The roll of counties was then called and the names and
addresses of those present taken, after which the chair
announced the following committees :
Committee on Membership — II. A. Muhlenberg, Berks
county ; Samuel Grob, Montgomery county ; F. K. Levan,
Luzerne county ; W. H. Egle, Dauphin couuty ; Grant
Weidman, Lebanon county.
Committee on Constitution — L. L. Grumbine, Lebanon
county ; H. L. Fisher, York county; J. S. Hess, North-
ampton county ; Julius F. Sachse, Chester county ; A. R.
Home, Lehigh county.
By the Chair :
The next thing in order is the appointment of a Com-
mittee on Permanent Organization.
Be Olta un'Neia Tzeita. 33
A motion for the appointment of such committee was
seconded and carried, and the Chair appointed the follow-
ing on said committee : John S. Stahr, Lancaster county;
E. W. S. Farthemore, Dauphin county; H. A. Muhlen-
berg, Berks county ; Hiram Young, York county ; J. II.
Pedsecker, Lebanon county.
After the preliminary business, the convention listened
to the following address in Pennsylvania-German, by E.
II. Rauch, of Mauch Chunk, on
"De Olta un Heia Tzeita."
Ich con on nix bessers denka os a pawr wardt sawga
weaga de olta un neia tzeita. Suppose mer mista now
widder tzurick gae ivver fooftzich yohr, un laiva we sella-
mohls? Denk a mohl drau, ainer het business in Pittsburg,
un mist dort si in dri odder feer dawg. Ar kent's net du
in wennicher os sex daws; in der stasre we se ols s;atraveled
sin sellamohls. Un suppose eber het in sella dawga ba-
hawpt 03 de tzeit yeamohls coomd wann ainer mit feer
odder finf hoonert onnera, all in ainer foor ob shtarta con
fun doh om sivva uhr owets, un im same grossa foorwaisa,
os runn'd ona geil, ins bet gre, un goot shlofa, un der
naigsht morya om sivva uhr uf wecka un grawd ous der
foor in de shtadt Pittsburg shteppa, un ins grose wserts-
house shteppa, un ins grose wrertshouse, esst'n morya-essa
un don si bisness tenda in a pawr shtund, un d'no widder
in der shteam foor tzurick un by siner fraw un fomelia
aw landa un si naucht essa nemma derhame alles inside
fun feer un tzwansich shtoond ! Wann aner for fooftsich
yohr tzurick contend het os mer yeamohls so travella con,
34 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
sex, odder sivva hoonert mile in ame dawg, so ainer hetta
se grawd ei gshpart im norra house. Un suppose ebber
het sellamohls bahawpt os de tzeit coom'd os de leit in
unserm loud all de particulars laisa kenna in de tzeitunga
wass g'bappened is om dawg tzulbre in Deitshlond, Eng-
lond un all de hawpt shtedt in der gonsa welt, un os leit
direct mitnonner shwetza kenna warm se aw fooftsich
odder a hoonert mile fun annonner sin — so ainer, os pro-
weert het de leit so saucha weis maucha, hetta se aw ins
norra house gadu.
Awer, doh sin mer now. Mer kenna all sell du, un noch
feel mainer. Eb mer awer om end feel besser laiva con
ich net exactly sawga. Denk amohl drau, in de olta
tzeita hut mer'n whiskey jigger kawfa kenna for drei
cent ; heit kushts tzain cent yusht for 's common shtuft
ous'm Kitzelderfer si shwartzy buttle. Sellamohls hut
mer'n cent batzawlt for feer cigars ; heitich dawgs kusht
ea cigar finf cent. Un so wars sheer mit ollas soonsht.
De leit waura sellamohls shpawrsom, awer se hen doch
goot galaib'd, un waura goot tzufridda. Ainer os finf
daussend dawler wajrdt property g'aignt hut war 'n reicher
mon considered. Der bauer's dawg lainer os regular
g'shafFt hut for fartsich cent der dawg un si kusht hut
geld ganunk safa kenna in sex odder sivva yohr for 'n
bauerei kawfa un a pawr hoonert druf batzawla. Un de
leit era parlors sellamohls waura im grandshta shtyle uf
g'fixed mit roat un gail shtraifich loompa carpet, J n
shpiggle-glaws im a mahogany frame, 'n holb dootzend
shteel, 'n feer eckicher huls uffa, un aw'n plotz im eck
fum parlor for's shpinrawd un der hoshpel.
JDe Olta un Neia Tzeita. 35
Un se hen ols'n corjoser waig g'hot for deala mit ras-
cals un deeb. "Wann se ols so ainer ferwisht ben, om ba-
treega odder shtaila, don ben se'n grawd in de jail
ff'shteckd. Awer heitich dawgs du'n se for common de
shmartsbta deeb in de grossa offissa ni'lecta, un yusbt so
karls os olta bussa, odder'n sbtick naisb un so sauch
sbtaila cooma in de jail.
Es war in de olta tzeita we unser foreeltra fun Deitsh-
lond in Pennsylvania aw galand sin, un according tzu a
dale leit, nocb gor in unsera dawga, sin de Deitsha leit
dick-keppich, grose-feesich, dumm un dobbicb. Well,
now, is sell wobr? For now ous nnna we durum un dob-
bicb os de Pennsylvania Deitsha sin, travel amobl dorricb
so counties we Lenkesbter, Lebanon, Barricks, Lecbaw,
Northampton, Yorrick un onnera fun der same awrt, un
du finnsbt ivverall de beshta bauereia, mit goota pusbta
fensa, grossa Schweitzer sbeira, first rata geil, fetty uxa,
shainy, shmarta un g'sunta weibsleit, un frisba un fetta
bubbalin ; shtup on anes fun so pletz un ich insures os du
grawd derhame feelsbt unner Deitsha leit. "Wann's mid-
dawg is, haists, " coom, buck dicb dob on der dish un ess
mit ; nems we mer's hen ; helf der selwer on si net blaid."
Dort uf sellam dish is fum beshta flaish, longa un frisha
brodwsersht, un sheer olles goots os mer denka con. Es
is evva'n rale Deitshes middawg essa, un'es nemmd ame
net long for ousfinna os de dumma un dobbicb a Deitsha
anyhow wissa we mer goot, airlich un monneerlich laibt
uf m beshta lond in der gonsa welt.
Awer, we is mit de ivver ous shmarta leit os yusbt
English shwetza ? Un wo wohna se ? Ei, marsh tens on
36 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
so pletz os we drunna in der Jrsey, wo der drooka sond
sex tzull deef is in der midda shtrose ; wo de shtawka
fensa ura tzomma fowla sin ; wo de beshta crops os se
raisa kenna is wull-kraut, dishtla, wockashtse un huckel-
baira hecka; wo era live shtock is -marsh tens possams,
nauchteila, rossle-shlonga un de sei so mawger os sc knep
in era sliwens binna missa os se net unner der deer ins
wohnhouse ni shloopa keena. In so umgaigenda fmnd
mer gor kse dumma odder dobbicha Deitsha. Dort sin se
hoch-awrtieh, un shmart, unsbwetza Englisb. Awer icb,
for my dale, bin g'satisfied mit 'em Pennsylvania Deitsha
waig dorrich de welt tzu travella. Ich bin's net yusht
agreed awer ich mus confessa os es mich ols noch gor a
wennich hoch-meetich feela maucht wan 'n ormer, mit-
leidicher, holb ferhoongerter dude mer's fore shmeist os
ich nix bin os yusht'n commoner Pennsylvania Deitsher.
Then was read the following paper, by Col. T. C.
Zimmerman, of Reading, entitled
" Puritan and Cavalier ? Why i^ot the Pennsyl-
In looking over the list of those selected to speak
at this meeting, and realizing the discomforting fact
that the words of Mercury are harsh after the songs of
Apollo, it was with a good deal of misgiving that I ac-
cepted the invitation of your Committee to say anything
here to-day. Xor could I quite understand the purport
of this invitation, unless it was intended that my remarks
should add dryness to the otherwise sparkling excellence
of a tempting literary feast. If, therefore, what follows
Puritan cmd Cavalier* 37
herewith should suggest only a mere passing whiff of that
fleeting, fragrant quality of dryness which imparts to the
enlivening virtues of champagne its chief zest, I shall be
Be this as it may, I hope it may go better with you
than it once did with Abraham Lincoln, after he had
been shaken up in his boat in a storm in Chesapeake Bay.
When he complained of the feeling of gastronomic un-
certainty which one suffers on the water, a young staff
officer rushed up to him with a bottle of extra dry cham-
pagne and said: " This is the cure for that sort of an ill."
To which the President made answer: "Xo, young man,
I have seen too many fellows seasick ashore from drink-
ing that very article."
That we may successfully transmit the historic mem-
ories of our forefathers, and preserve their traditions and
records — just as Greece, in letters, "laid her hands to
transmit an Apostolic succession of memory on the bowed
and studious head of the modern world " — such, I under-
stand, is the purpose of this meeting.
An organization with such an end in view, cannot fail
to rescue from oblivion many precious memories. Just
as literature is the immortality of speech, so will the col-
lection and preservation of swiftly-receding and nearly-
forgotten events be imbued with an imperishable life.
In this way will be recalled the pride and glory of our
ancestral virtues, and the records of as good a people as
ever grappled with the hosts of Caesar, and marched under
the banner that threw its shadow over thrones and armies,
38 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Years ago — so goes the story — a Marshal of France was
sneered at by the haughty nobles of Vienna, who, boast-
ing of their long line of descent, refused to associate with
him because of his humble origin, when he said: "I am
an ancestor; you are only descendants." "No such ignoble
pride pervades the Pennsylvania-Germans of to-day. As
descendants of a class of early immigrants whose achieve-
ments, although quite as important as those of their more
self-assertive brethren, we stand here proud of our an-
cestry, humble, patient, unobtrusive though it may have
It is not, however, a one-sided racial egotism that seeks
expression here to-day — no assertion of self-superiority
vaunting its vanity before the world. ]STor is the occasion
of this gathering due to a re kindling of the spirit of lib-
erty that had its inspiration in the patriotic heart of Ger-
many, which centuries ago rushed forth out of the
deep repose of its woods like the breath of thunder, and,
amid its revealed lightnings, lit up the popular heart with
an ardor touched as by Promethean fire. It is, rather, the
recognition, in a formal way, of the work of our fore-
fathers as a formative force in the upbuilding of our
The descendants of the Cavalier and Puritan, of the
Huguenot and Netherlander, with engaging gallantry and
fervid eloquence, in their efTort to preserve a sort of his-
torical equilibrium, never grow weary in telling the story
of their virtues. Apropos, May 16, 1891, a Scotch-Irish
Congress will assemble at Louisville, Ky. ? with a view no
doubt to effect a permanent organization of this brave,
Puritan and Cavalier. 39'
shrewd, sturdy, liberty-loving people. It may be gratify-
ing to know that our own State will be well represented
there. The descendants of this noble lineage, and of the
Puritan and Cavalier, the Huguenot and ^Netherlander,,
fully realize, as they should, that great deeds cannot die —
that they live iu the forms and in the language which
centuries cannot efface. As with our own ancestry, they
came to this country " like a dawn, wherein a beam had
slanted forward, falling in a land of promise, where fruit
For almost the first time, in a systematic way, the
Pennsylvania-German is demanding recognition for the
part he took in the great national drama. And what an
important service he rendered in laying the foundations
of this Commonwealth. Said a brother editor of this city
in his paper recently: "The Scotch-Irish influence has
been stamped indelibly on our institutions and the fierce
mastery of law, organization and nature. But the Ger-
man — philosophic, calm, brave and patient — has been
building noble and imperishable the superstructure of our
greatness upon the foundations of the forefathers."
Cradled into freedom by hated injustice, and richly
dowered with conscience and the sterner virtues of civili-
zation, our forefathers naturally became a liberty-loving
and Christian people. Their earnest and hopeful spirit,
in full sympathy with the upswelling tide which marked
the triumphs of humanity, were in fierce contrast with
the spirit of languor which finds its chief satisfaction in
the pursuit of pleasures that either cloy with their sweets
or elude possession as soon as grasped.
40 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
And where, let me ask, is there a worthier people? l$o
golden visions haunt their healthy sleep, nor do they have
day-dreams of fortunes made by doing nothing. With
their sturdy character, modest demeanor, and good, quiet
• citizenship; making progress in every path of life ; with
their simple tastes, and contempt for all forms of ostenta-
tion and extravagance; with candor, honesty and fair
dealing as the foundations of their success in life, what
,need of rhetorical artifice in depicting the full-rounded
manhood of these people. They are of a kind in whose
-estimation almost any honest employment is more respect-
able than idleness or ignoble ease.
As with the German immigrant of to-day, so with the
Germans who settled in Pennsylvania in the early days of
this country. They did not look upon the United States
as an El Dorado, but as the best country under heaven for
a man or woman willing to work, and Germans are
workers. They had heard of this new country, with its
promise of fertility and loveliness and enduring treasures.
It was to them a sort of Elysium which had long been
prefigured in the chambers of a delighted expectancy.
Filled with high hopes and aglow with a restless en-
ergy, the lives and destinies of these people, which at home
had been hardened under years of severe discipline and
surrounded with scenes of disappointment and joyless
stagnation, were upon reaching our shores lifted into the
light where "paradise found its fancied parallels ;" where
the earliest glimpses of this fair land must have been to
them like the influence of the premonition of a first pas-
Puritan and Cavalier. 41
" Every bird of Eden bursts
In carol, every bud in flower."
Typical as was the serene and wholesome life of our
forefathers when they came over to this country, the same
pacific conditions are observable in much of the life of
their descendants throughout Eastern Pennsylvania to-
day. What a picture of sweet content is that described
by Whittier in " The Pennsylvania Pilgrim," where he
says of Pas tori ous :
Glad even to tears he heard the robin sing
His song of welcome to the western spring,
And the blue-bird borrowing from the sky his wing.
And when the miracle of autumn came,
And all the woods with many-colored flame
Of splendor, making summer's greenness tame,
Burned uncousumed, a voice without a sound
Spoke to him from each kindled bush around,
And made the strange, new landscape holy ground !
Who knows what goadings in their sterner way
O'er jagged ice, relieved by granite gray,
Blew round the men of Massachusetts Bay?
What hate of heresy the east wind woke ?
' What hints of pitiless power and terror spoke
In waves that on their iron coast-line broke ?
Be it as it may ; within the land of Penn
The sectary yielded to the citizen,
And peaceful dwelt the many-creeded men.
Hegel was undoubtedly right in declaring that the Ger-
man spirit is the spirit of the new world. As early as
1790, when the total population of Pennsylvania did
not exceed 435,000, there were already 145,000 Germans.
4*2 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
It is estimated that from this stock have sprung descend-
ants in this State to the number of 1,200,000, and that
within the past seventy years about 4,000,000 German
immigrants have come to this country — as some one aptly
puts it — "every man of them with four hands." They
came from every part of Germany and Austria, and they
were of all trades except those of gentleman, idler and
What their influence on the wealth, the development,
and progress of this country is, it is impossible to esti-
mate. It, however, forms no inconsiderable part, and as
to the future, in the language of Andrew D. AVhite, for-
merly United States Minister to Germany, "the healthful
element of German thought will aid powerfully in evolv-
ing a future for this land purer in its politics, nobler in
its conception of life, more beautiful in the bloom of art,
more precious in the fruitage of character."
This tide of immigration continues with unabated flow.
Indeed, owing to the abnormal movement of German pop-
ulation to this country, agricultural workers have be-
come so scarce in Germany as to greatly alarm many sa-
gacious German economists. This fact will be the more
apparent when it is learned that during the past year the
German Government established a newspaper whose mo-
tive is the diminution of emigration and the exploitation of
the colonies. So eager are the people to emigrate (I quote
from an official report to our State Department) " that
men walk 100 miles by devious and obscure routes and by-
ways to escape the Austrian gendarmes and to rind some
road that leads to the United States. "All roads no Ion-
Puritan and Cavalier. 43
ger lead to Rome," says this official, "but all highways
and seaways lead to America." lie adds: "Xo one who
has lived awhile in the German countryside but feels
anew the conviction that in patient and painstaking in-
dustry, thrift, and the serious character which is anti-re-
volutionary and truly civic, the Germans are the most ad-
mirable people on the continent of Europe."
In many portions of our own State the descendants of
the Pennsylvania-German settlers are to-day the central
influence and impelling power of a large proportion of
the industrial, commercial, educational and agricultural
activities. They are not only on your farms and in your
workshops, but at your bars, in your pulpits, in your col-
leges, on your newspapers. They have become teachers,
professors, scientists, Judges, Senators, Congressmen, Gov-
ernors — aye, in every calling in life, be it high or low, you
will find a brilliant array of men — descendants of ances-
tors who not only made this portion of the State so rich
in historic reminiscence and its people so tolerant of re-
ligion, but who laid deep the foundations of a stable and
Look whereso'er yon may, you will find well-nigh
countless evidences of German genius and German skill,
while along almost every artery of trade are felt the
quickening currents of German life. The Germans gave
to this country much of the religious conscience that per-
vades the community. They were the first in America to
protest against human slavery. They printed the first
edition of the Holy Bible in this country. They issued
the first work on the philosophy of teaching. AtEphrata
44 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
they made all their own materials, possessed their own
plant of paper mill, type foundry and bindery. The col-
onial army was organized by Von Steuben, a German.
"Washington's body-guard of fifty-seven men were Ger-
mans. The drill-masters of the Continentals were Ger-
mans. The bloodiest battle of the Revolution, for the
numbers engaged, was fought at Oriskany, X. Y., by the
Palatine Germans, headed by ISTicolaus Herkimer, a Ger-
man. The preaching and social and personal influence of
the Pennsylvania-Germans— led off by Washington's baker-
general, Ludwig — did more to decimate by desertion, and
weaken by enlightenment the ranks of the Hessians, than
all the infantry bullets or artillery balls of militia and
Continentals, or the accidents or sickness of war. Ger-
man and Swiss industries opened the forests of Eastern
Tennessee. In Xorthern Louisiana German and Alsatian
settlers were found as early as the time of Louis XV. A
German Mary lander, Johann Lederer, was the first to ex-
plore, in 1669, the country west of the Alleghenies. A
German made the first adequate map of Maryland and
Virginia. John Zenger, a German printer of Xew York,
was the father of the liberty of the press of this country.
The two Conrad Weisers, father and son, were the first
interpreters of the Indians. Gen. Muhlenberg, of Revo-
lutionary fame, who was afterwards the first Speaker of
Congress, and his illustrious sire, were Germans. xV Ger-
man-American, J. L. Hassler, created our coast survey.
Two Germans, the Roeblings, father and son, planned and
set into execution the great Brooklyn bridge. The iron
railroad bridges, which span the ravines and rivers of this
Puritan and Cavalier. 45
continent, were the invention of Wendell Bollman, a Ger-
man of Baltimore. The father of the canning industry
was a German, William Xumsen, of the same city.
While all this is true and something to be proud of, but
little can be said in favor of the perpetuation of the Penn-
sylvania-German dialect. In other words, notwithstand-
ing the extraordinary vitality of the vernacular, which
has survived the wreck of centuries, there need be no un-
due solicitude about its gradual, but ultimate disappear-
ance from the languages of the earth. Its somewhat
limited capabilities have been fully tested by Harbaugh,
Home, Fisher, Rauch and others, all of whose writings
show that while the dialect is ample for the ordinary
needs of expression, from its inherent limitations it lacks
compass and flexibility. But the compulsory teaching
of English in our public schools must eventually displace
it as a medium of intercourse, even in this section where
its lodgment has been so deep-seated and its use so gen-
While I yield to none in reverence for the associations
of childhood — and the Pennsylvania-German dialect is
interwoven with every warp and woof of my early days
— and while admitting the value of the vernacular as a
help to the understanding of the pure German, with op-
portunities for appropriating something from its store-
house filled with treasures of human intelligence, it is not
a growing indifference to its merits which prompts me to
say that, in the category of living tongues, it should
take its place as a purely secondary lingual accom-
46 The Pennsylvania-German Society,
Tenacious as its life lias been, it cannot, of course, lay
even the shadow of a claim, as can the dead language of
Rome, which exists only by sufferance in the liturgy of
an ancient faith, to be "the voice of Empire and of Law,
of War and of State ; breathing the maxims of the world
and not the tenets of the schools ;" nor yet like that of
Greece, which " speaks to the ear like Italian, to the mind
like English ;" but it has proved itself good enough for
the social and business intercourse of millions of people
for hundreds of years.
And now, before closing, I may be permitted to express
the hope that in the temple of Good Fellowship the Penn-
sylvania-German will hereafter take his seat as an honor-
ed guest between his more pretentious brethren, the Puri-
tan and the Cavalier. He has been content, heretofore,
with a mere passing glimpse of its portals, better satisfied
to leave to others the seductive pleasures of the feast, with
its tempting viands, its solid comforts, the soothing swirl
of its music and all the cognate fascinations of the enter-
tainment, while withdrawing himself to the " sweet si-
lence of restful solitude."
Looking back we see, or seem to see, an ethereal bridge
spanning the centuries — one of its approaches supported
by the golden traditions and precious memories of a noble
ancestry ; the other resting upon the deep-laid foundation
of an undying reverence and affection of a grateful pro-
geny. Generations of dear ones are clasped in loving em-
brace across the shadowy structure, and the clasp starts
an impulse that is felt along the line of the departed
years. Although the farther shore is dim, yet across " the
Puritan and Cavalier. 47
pulsing stream there are lines of light "by the aid of
which the imagination may behold the sainted splendor
of sacred shrines whereat our forefathers syllabled their
hopes and fears in prayerful petitions, and fond fancy
linger lovingly for a little while upon the parental nest
where patriotism and valor and all the domestic virtues
were tenderly nurtured, and where frugality, honesty and
sweet content had their habitation.
Better and far more sacred than " the glowing purple
of Tyre, the gold of the Ark, the sapphire and ruby of
Persia, the unforgotten spoils of ruined Babylon, that
tinged the reveries of the early Christians as they slept in
the dens of amphitheatres, waiting death," are the sainted
memories of our forefathers, for the successful transmis-
sion of which we have organized this day.
May the mellow music of those golden memories, like
redolent breathings from some rarer world, sweep with its
invisible fingers over every heart-string, until each respon-
sive chord becomes vibrant with the voluptuous swell as
of some divine melody.
On motion the Convention adjourned until 1:30 o'clock.
48 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
Afternoon Session, 1:30 o'clock.
The Convention was called to order by the President,
the Hon. George F. Baer, who introduced H. L. Fisher,
Esq., of York, Pa., who read the following poems, under
the general title of
"AUSWAHLEN DER ALTE ZeITE."
Aus "D'e Alte Zeite."
Ihr Pennsylfanisch-deutsche Leut,
Ihr brauchet euch net schamme,
Juscht loss der Englisch euch auslache,
Mit seine hoochgelerndte Sache —
Er lernd euch a'h noch konne ;
Un's isch en Lerning, net in Biicher,
Wan net so hooch, doch juscht so sicher.
¥u schtammmt der Anglo-Saxon heer f
Wer leese kan der wees' ;
Du maagscht's rum drehe wie du wit,
Du kanscht nix annerscht mache mit,
Es isch en Deutscher Kiis (case) ;
Saag was du wit, des isch die Lehr —
Fom Sachsische, dort schtammt er heer.
* * * *
Mer kan'3 ah sene iiwerall — . ...
Maag hi' geh wu mer will,
Doch sehn'd mer ken so Bauerei',
Ken Leut meh ehrlich, braaf, un frei,
Un fleisig, doch, so schtill :
Sie schtehn for's Recht as wie en Mauer —
Die Pennsylfanisch-deutsche Bauer'.
Aus He Alte Zeite. 49
Sie waare fon de erschte Settler
In unser'm schone Land ;
Sie hen a'h for die Freiheit g'fochte,
!N~och allemol, un konne's nocli clhu —
Sie sin ihr Kecht bekann't ;
Un wer sei eg'ne Business meind,
Der find bei dene Leut fiel Freund.
Die Wohret isch net all gedrnckt —
Die Halft isch noch net g'sehriwwe ;
Wie kummt's das aus de Folks-geschichte,
Un aus de Englische Gediehte,
Die Deutsche sin gebliwwe ?
Hen sie net for die Freiheit g-'schtritte ?
"Was hen sie net for's Land gelitte !
Ich konnt fiel Deutsche iSTaame nenne,
Fon braaf, achtbaare Leut ;
Fiel waare, wol, net do gebore,
Doch hen fiel alles do ferlore
For Unabhangigkeit ;
Un net so fiel as wie sie heese
Kanscht uf a Dutzend Graabschte leese.
Ihr uralt, Deutsche Pioneer
Fon manchem Berg un Dhaal —
Die ungeborne Geschlechte
Errichte, endlich, eure Eechte —
Dauert's lang, doch kummt's amol :
In manchem unbekannte Graab
Schiooft eure langfersaumte Schtaab I
50 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Es Unrecht isch, jedoch, so schweer
As mer's fertraaga kann ;
Docli hoffe mir es kummt e' Zeit —
Fon uns, zwar, isch sie net meh weit —
Kummt alles an der Mann ;
Es Recht bleibt oftmols lang fon Hans,
Dock, bleibt's, ah, nimmer ewig aus.
Ich bin schun rum gatravelt, fiel,
Annere Lander sehne ;
Ich waar schun !Nort, Sout, East un West,
Doch welle Landschaft gleich ich's bescht ?
'S isch scho alt Pennsylvania —
In Pennsylfanisch muss ich schreiwe —
In Pennsylfani will ich bleiwe.
E' dhel Lent mache juscht en Schpott
Eon Pennsylfanisch Deutsch ;
'Sisch net weert meindes, un warum ?
Ei juscht for das, sie sin zu dumm —
'Sisch juscht ihr Lappigkeit ;
Sie saaga 'sisch fermixt, un lache —
Ei, so sin all die beschte Sache.
Es isch ken Schprooch in dere Welt
Wie Pennsylfanisch Deutsch ;
For alle Wort kummt fon 'em Herz,
Un's hot meh Peffer, Salz un Querz —
Ferloss dich druf, es schneid ;
Wan's Madel em net will, ferschteh,
Dan saagt's es schrecklich Wortli, " Xe !"
Aus DYAlte Zeite. 51
Un's geht em besser fon der Zung
As Englisch — don't you see f
In Englisch saage sie, " 0, yes"
Un ebmols saage sie, " I guess"
Un ebmols, " Yes siree;"
Doch isch ken Wort das bindt in Law,
Wie's Pennsylfanisch-cleutsch-wort, " Jah !"
(Die Englische, die, hasse " Schlang " —
Ferloss dich druf — " you bet"
*Sisch all X. G., oder "all played out;"
'Sisch " in the soup" oder " up the spout"
Tin ebmol's isch's, "you git"
"Soft snap," ; < too thin," oder all " 0. K"
En " kid " " dead beat" un — u s w.)
Es war, for alters, so der Weg r
In so'm'e Deutsche Eck, —
D'r Parre a'h Schul-Meeschter war,
Tin's Schul-Haus fon d'r Kerieh war
Gewiss net weit eweck ;
Un dort war a'h's alt Parre-haus,
Ken fertel Meil meh' weiter draus.
Sel alt Schul-haus fergess ich nie,
Es kummt m'r immer nooch,
Juscht wie mei Schadde in d'r Sun,
Den ich net hinnerlosse kan,
So kummt's m'r immer nooch ;
'S geht immer mit m'r wu ich geh,
'S schteht immer bei m'r wu ich schteh.
52 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Es war ken Thurn un a'h ken Glock
Uf seller alte Kerich ;
Es war ken Orgel un ken Choir,
Ken Bass-geig, Cymbel, un ken Leier ;
Doch, dorch den alte Berg —
Dorch Kerich un Berg un Keschte-wald
Hen hunnert Schtimm, wie e'ne, g'sehallt.
O was'n schone alte Kerich,
Un was'n Gottes-dinscht!
Die Kanzel war hooch drowe fescht
Gebaut, fiel wie'n Schwalme-nescht,
So wie die !Neschter finscht ;
Un weescht du noch, was war dort owe?
'$* Schall-bret, noch fiel hocher drowe.
Ich sehn d'r Parre uf d'r Kanzel,
Ich heer'n's Lied for-leese ;
D'r alt For-singer bassd uf — scharf ;
Ich heer sei Schtimm — wie David's Ilarf —
Was anner's kan ich's heese?
Ich heer sie singe aus dem alte —
"Wer nur den liebe' Gott lasst walte."
Ich bin dojetz 'mol widder z'riick
Mei alte Heemet sehne ;
Es guckt gar nimme wie's als hot —
Die alt Bekante sin all fort,
Mei Age sin foil Trane ;
Ich ruuf un froog, " Wu sin sie all ? "
D'r Schall antwort, " Wu sin sie ail ? "
Aus D'e Me Zeite. 53
E' dhel sin weit fort Ovvenaus,
Weit, weit, fom alte Hecrd ;
E' Paar, so alte, sin noch do,
Un die sin krumni-un-schop un groh,
Un fiel sin in d'r Erd ;
Ihr Alter, un a'h wie sie heese,
Kanscht uf de Schtee im Kerich-hoof leese.
Dort unne am Berg, dort war die Schpring,
¥u helle Wassere quelle —
Dort wu die alte Weide schtehne —
Wie oft liawich mei G'sicht drin g'sehne !
Un a'h en Drup Foralle ;
Sel Wasser war doch's aller-bescht —
Wie oft hawich mei Dorscht mit g'loscht !
Ach I wu isch nau sel alt Wohn-haus,
"Wu ich gebore war ?
Es war gebaut fon b'schlaag'ne Block,
5 S war krumm-un-grad in alle Eok —
So Haus-er sin nau rahr —
Die alte Block hen sie ferseeg't
For Schleepers, unner'n Riegelweeg.
D'r bescht Blatz in d'r ganse Welt,
D'r ruhigscht un d'r siischt —
D'r Blatz wu Hummer net hi' kummt
Wan Winter-wind *m Schornschte brummt,
Tin's Wetter noch so wiescht —
War dort im alte Schornschte-eck,
Bei'm Feier g'macht fon .ZZTc&'ri-block.
54 The Pcnnsylvo.itia-Gcrman Society.
Was Schtories hen m'r clort ferzahlt
So bei d'r Winters-nacht !
Was war's, doch, als'n grosse Freed,
So bei de Buwe un de Mad —
Was hen m'r doch als g'lacht !
Un schone Lieder hen m'r g'sunge,
Bis Kiich un Schornschte hen geklunge.
Un 1 was Cider hen m'r g'hat —
Frisch aus'm Fasz gezoge ;
Un wan m'rs Feier hen ufg'schtarrt,
Dan sin 'n dausend Funke fort,
D'r Schornschte nuf gefioge ;
En Blick, lewendig — ewig aus —
Dan schwarz un dood, zum Schornschte naus.
Der Schornschte war fon Schte gebaut,
Am alte Giwel-end ;
Un wie ich schon zu-for hab g'saad,
In alle Eck war's krumm-un-graad —
So wars, dan, juscht-amend ;
Un seller Schornschte schteht noch dort,
Doch, alles sunscht isch schon lang fort.
Dort schteht'r wie'n Monument
Fon was e'mol dor war ;
Der alt Familia Feier-heerd !
Wer hot dan net fon dem schon g'hord,
Un wie's e'mol dort war ?
Dort schteht der Schornschte, garil* allee,
Un mag noch man'che Johr dort schteh.
Aus Tfe Alte Zeite. 55
Er scliteht dort hinner'm neue Haus,
Un alles klohr drum'rum ;
Der Schniook kumrat nimme oweraus,
Un's F^eier am Heercl isch schon lang aus,
Un all isch schtill-un-schtumm ;
Juscht e' Schtimm hawich dort, noch, g'hord—
E' Kricks im alte Feier-heerd.
Wa3 guckt's doch alles annerscht jetz
As in d'r alte Zeit ;
Ach ! wu is'ch nau sel alt' Gebau ?
'S isch alles fort, 's isch alles neu,
Ich sehn's, jo, schon, fon Wert' ;
En schone Heemet, sel isch's a'h,
Doch heemelt's mich £ar nimme aV
D'r Wasser huckt a'h nimme dort
Im Hoof, am alte Haus ; —
Dort unner de alte Schacfctebam —
Er gauzt m'r nimme welcome-heem,
En fremder Hund, der, gautz't ;
'S guckt alles scho, sel wees ich wqL^v
Doch warum isch mei Herz so foil ?
Jah, Haus un Scheur un Hoof sin neu —
Die Blume un die Bam ;
Wu sin die alte Pappel-bam ?
Weil doch die Weide noch dort schtehn,.
Guckt's wenig, noch, wie Heem ;.
Die Rose-schtock am Garde-zau —
Wu sin sie, jah, wu sin sie nau t
50 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
Es Bloos-horn liort m'r nimme dort —
Was war d'r Scliall so bell !
Was hankt dan, nau, dort uf 'in Dach ?
Ich wee/ nut heil ich, odder lach —
Ich glaab doch 's isch 'n Bell !
'S guckt schtylisch so, mit Bell and Thurn,
Doch hankt mei Herz im alte Horn.
¥u isch die gross alt Cider-press,
Die Flax-brech un's Schpinn-raad ?
ID'r Hashchpel un d'r Wickelschtock,
Die Deutsch Sens un d'r Dengel-Schtock,
Un's alt Deutsch-sense-g'maad ?
Ich ruf un frog, "Wu sin sie all ?
D'r Schall antwort, " Wu sin sie all ? "
Dan geh ich uf d'r Schpeicher, nuf —
Ferschlup mich im'n Eck,
Dort unner sellem alte Dach,
Umringt mit all deni alte Sach —
Die Bonnert un die Rock
Un schtell m'r's foor so deutlich, Heut,
Juscht graad wie's war in alter Zeit.
Dort an de Schparre hanke fiel
So ait f rgess'ne Sadie ;
Dort hanke Sichel, Schwert un Sens,
Un Sack foil Federe aus de Gans,
For Federe-decke mache ;
Un noch e'bissel weiter hinne,
Han^t Woll unFlax un wart for's schpinne.
Aus D'e Alte Zeite. 57
Dort hankt's Hufeise's aller-hochscht,
Un unned'ra die Flind ;
Un was schteht hinne 'm alte Drawer f
Die Wieg, wu ich drin g'schockelt war —
En hiilflos, selig Kind ;
Ach ! konnt mer nau so selig sei,
Fon Kurnmer un fon Sinde frei !
Dort sin die Katze uf d'r "Wacht —
Un was'n' Schtang-foll Worscht !
Dort iseh d'r alt Schtroh-ime-Korb,
Un's Sood-welsb-korn, mit goldne Farb,
Un ah, en Garbli Gerscbt ;
Un iiwerbaupt, die Krauter-sache —
Icb traam ! ieb wacb ! un beer micb lache !
Die Ubr, die, iscb bal nunnerg'loiie,
Docb gebt sie — tick, tick, tick ;
Die Zeit — an's "Wasser, g'maand micb fiel —
Juscbt e'mol gebt sie doreb die Miibl —
Kurnmt ewig-nimme z'riick ;
Acb Gott ! wie scbnell gebt docb die Zeit
Un tragt uns in die Ewio-keit!
Es war ken schonere' Heemet g'wesst
In sellem scbone Dhal ;
Ach ! wan icb dort daheem konnt sei,
War widder jung, wohluf, un frei,
So wie icb e'mol war !
Uf Erde kan nix besser's sei,
As jung, dabeem, wohluf un frei.
58 Hie Pennsylvania-German Society.
Es isch en Ilaus net g'macht rnit Hand,
Dort, ewig in d'r Hoh ;
Ach, wan ich dort daheem kan sei,
Gliick-selig — sind un kummer-frei —
Wie herlich un wie sclio 1
Dort isch ken Erwet meh zu dhu,
In jener ungeschtorte Ruh.
Fater un Mutter wohne dort,
Uf selle schone Hiigel ;
Sie leest im Wahre Chrischte-thum,
Un beet das ieh dock a'h bal kum,
Un er leest in d'r Biwel ;
So hen sie g'lese un gebeet
Im alta Haus, wu nimme schteht.
Dort sin die Buwe un die Mad —
Im Himmel, dort — wie fiei !
All widder ledig, frei un froh,
'S isch fiel wei's als daheem war do,
Mit Erwet un geschpiel ;
Sie schpiele nau uf goldne Harfe,
Un alles irdisch isch ferworfe.
* * * * *
Ich hab schon oft es Heemweh g'hat, —
Un hab's a'h alleweil ;
Un wan ich for d'r Doctor Schick,
Dan, glaw-ich das ich's arger grig,
Un huck mich hi un heil ;
Ach ! was dhut doch mei Herz so weh ?
Un's bat nix bis ich heem-zus geh !
Das Vatcrland am Rhein, 59
Das Vatehland am Rhein.
Glaub mir mein Freund, icli geb' kein Tand
Fur Liedofe oder G'sang,
Das mir nieht ruf t aus Yaterland,
Mit Sanftem Heimaths-klang ;
Uud giebt nicbt z'riick das Jugend-blut,
Uud Herzensonuenschein —
Da ich war frisch und frei im Muth,
Im Yaterland am Rhein.
Bevor mir war die freie Welt —
Der Weg war weit und breit,
Und ich war g'sund und stark im Feld,
In jener guten Zeit ;
Umsonst war Ehr und Ruhm zu mir,
Und Reichthum aller Erd —
Mit meiner liebe Jula, hier,
Was war'n sie alle werth ?
Damals war alles siisz und neu
Im froliehem Gemueth ;
Gesundheit, Stark und Kraft war'n mein
Im Geist und jedem Glied :
Als wie em Hirsch, schnell in der Flucht,
Wan's G'wehr dahinten knallt —
Ja, wei ein Hirsch, wan Man ihn sucht,
Und Walt mit Schreien schallt.
Wie wohl, wie frei, wie leicht von Herz,
Da sie noch bei mir war !
Mein liebe Jula ! wo war Schmerz
Und wo war Angst und G'fahr ?
60 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Konig war ich, sie Konigin
Um unseren Heimaths Herd ;
Ach Freund, verzeih' mir Wein und Thran-
Mit ilir £in£ Freud you Erd !
Den Sabel-schnitt auf meiuer Stirn
Hat sie mit Weh betracht —
Und's audere Theil von meinem Bein
Ging in der Sedan Sehlacht ;
Doch leicht die Wunden, und gelind —
Nur kurz ihr hochster Schmerz —
Die wehsten "\Yunden, immer, sind
Die Wunden an dem Herz !
" Ich tret in's traute Siibchen eiu,
Zu liebes Weib und Kind,
Da kamen sie zu springen, bei,
r Und kiissen mich, geschwiudt ;
Ich nahm das Kleine auf den Arm
Und driick't es an die Brust,
Und ^Kuss des Miindchen oftersinal
Mit wahrer Herzenslust."
" Was war auf Erde, noch, so schon —
"Was noch so honigsiisz !
Als Heimath, liebes Weib und Kind —
f \ Das war mein Paradies !
Obschon, ich war nichtreichbeschenkC^
Mit Ehr und gold'nes Werth,
Mein Heimath, Weib, und liebes Kind —
Mein Himmel auf der Erd."
Das Vaterlaifd am Rhein. 61
Ein armer Wand'rer bin ich, hier,
Unci oftmals schwer die ISToth ;
Oft well und einsam ist es mir —
Denn, TVeib und Kind sind tod !
So singe ieh das Trauerlied —
Ein Sehnsucht driick't mich sehr,
Und in mei'm Herz schlaft Weib un Kind,
Wie Perlen tief im Meer 1
Obschon ich wander hier, herum
In diesem schone Land,
Mein Herz geht iramer heimzus und
Es leb't an jenem Rand ;
Es leb't nur wo mein liebe 'sind —
Dort ist mein Herzens-schrein,
Am Grabe meines Weib und Kind,
Im Yaterland am Rhein.
Glaub mir, mein Freund, ich geb' kein Tand
Fur Liedge oder G'sang,
Das mir nicht ruft aus Yaterland
Mit sanftem lleimaths-klang.
Und giebt nicht z'riick das Jugend-blut
Da ich war frisch und frei im Muth
Im Yaterland am Rhein.
After the reading, the Convention was entertained by
several selections sung by the Franklin and Marshall Col-
lege Glee Club.
62 The Pennsylvania-Ge?~man Society.
The Rev. C. Z. Weiser, D. D., of East Greenville,
Montgomery County, was next introduced, and delivered
the following address on
"The Pennsylvania-Germans in Church and State."
My Pennsylvania-German Brothers:
It is written that God made of one blood all nations of
men, and appointed them their times and habitations.
Under so universal a charter the Pennsylvania-Germans
are surely embraced. Though not an original nation they
are still a people — a " peculiar people."
Our ancestors had been Germans — European Germans.
Our sires emerged from the Palatinate, from Switzerland,
from Holland, from Saxony, from Suabia, from every
province and principality in the Fatherland.
Their emigration occurred two full centuries ago —
about one hundred years later than that of the English,
the Scotch, the Welsh and the Irish.
Among their new neighbors, they were likewise known
as Germans, pure and simple. Perm's broad and liberal
views rendered his Commonwealth the central point of
emigration. Hence, the name of his Commonwealth
became the name of the people.
The patronymic, " Pennsylvania-Germans," attached
itself to their American born offspring, as the term
"Creole" affixed itself to the descendants of Spanish
blood, who were born outside of Spain. Accordingly,
John Key, who was the first born child of European
parents, in Pennsylvania, is the first Pennsylvania-Ger-
man, 1682, in Philadelphia.
Pennsylvania- Germans' in Church and Slate. 63
The Pennsylvania Germans are not confined to the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Let it be remembered
they are to be found in every state in the Union, nor do
all Pennsylvania-Germans speak the German language,
Many cannot utter a German word, and many more can,
but do not wish you to know it. But as St. Peter was
detected by the servants and menials about the palace in
Jerusalem, though he did his utmost to hide his rough
Galilean dialect, even so does their speech betray them.
It is not their nativity nor their language, however,
that constitutes a thoroughbred Pennsylvania-German. A
witty Irishman protested against being a horse, though
he had been born in a stable. Whether born within or
without Pennsylvania, and whether he says " Sibboleth "
or " Shibboleth," is not decisive. He is a genuine member
of our kith and kin, in whose veins Germanic blood
courses. " Blood will tell " of what manner of spirit you
are. As there are ichite blackbirds and white ISTegroes, so
are there Pennsylvania-Germans, who have never set foot
on Pennsylvania-German soil or known the German
"We may say that a double-edged sword, as it were,
carved the Pennsylvania-Germans into a sui generis peo-
ple, out of the lump of humanity on both sides of the
Atlantic. On the one side, the long winded wars in the
Fatherland dried the stream of emigration ; men and
means ceased to flow into the lap of the colonies ; the
fostering care of motherly Holland, of the Palatinate, of
Switzerland, and of all the Provinces was forestalled ; the
bonds of civil and ecclesiastical £Overnment were sun-
64 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
dered ; and the child became an orphan — like Melchisa-
deck, " without father or mother." On this side of the
waters, a like process of isolation from their surroundings
set in. The Revolution came down upon the colonies like
night ; the vernacular of our forefathers excluded them
from the English neighbors and contemporaries ; national
rivalry and tribal jealousy were inflamed ; complaints be-
came loud ; alienation, separation and stagnation ensued.
Sundered in this way, on the right hand and on the
left, the Pennsylvanians were driven back upon them-
selves ; the continuity of type was broken ; a higher kind
or a lower kind, or, to say the least, a different kind,
resulted. A dark day it was for our ancestors. So dark,
that a certain writer says, the " race of eagles degener-
ated into a brood of owls." In two directions, never-
theless, the Pennsylvania-Germans remained loyal and
true to the traditions of their forefathers. They held
fast to their ancestral Religiosity and their Schoolcraft.
The primitive German emigrants had been members of
the Christian church. All had been identified with the
Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, the Reformed, the Mora-
vian, the Mennonite, or some one of the Reformation
branch. Among their scanty baggage, deep down in the
traditional wooden chest, there was a Bible, a Liturgy, a
Hymn-book, a Catechism. The Pastor and the School-
master headed the colony to the iSTew "World. Simulta-
neously with their log houses, there rose the log school
and the log church. The church and school were twin
buildings in the American wilds. These two structures
you may still witness, throughout certain nooks and cor-
ners in Eastern Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania-Germans in Church and State. 65
Why does not that Pennsylvania-German artist —
Potiiermel — paint the landing of the Germans as the
landing of the Pilgrims has been thrown on canvas ? In
1749, twelve schoolmasters came across the Atlantic in
one cluster. Dr. Benjamin. Push, the author of the
" Manners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania/'
says : " All the different sects among them are particu-
larly attentive to the religious education of their children,
and the establishment and support of the Christian re-
ligion. They commit the education of their children, in a
peculiar manner, to the ministers and officers of their
churches. Hence, they grow up in the biases in favor of
public worship and the obligations of Christianity. Sach
has been the influence of a pious education among the
Germans in Pennsylvania that in the course of nineteen
years not one of them has ever been brought to a place
of public shame or punishment/' — 1769. This is good
and strong testimony ; all the more so, since it comes
from Dr. Rush, in whose veins not a drop of German
blood ever flowed.
The charge made against our forefathers, that they
stood out against learning, is false. Why did their school
houses always rise with their churches ? Why was the
schoolmaster always at the right hand of the pastor?
The General Assembly of Pennsylvania passed an Act
March 10, 1787, which reads thus:
" An Act to incorporate and endow the German Col-
lege and Charity School in the borough of Lancaster."
The preamble explains the object in these words :
"Whereas, the citizens of this State of German birth
66 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
or extraction, have eminently contributed by their indus-
try, economy and public virtues, to raise the State to its
present happiness and prosperity ; and whereas, a number
of citizens of the above description, in conjunction with
others, from a desire to increase and perpetuate the bless-
ings derived to them from the possession of property and
a free government, have applied to this House for a
charter of incorporation, etc.; and whereas, the presenta-
tion of the principles of the Christian religion and of our
Republican form of government in their purity depend,
under God, in a great measure in the establishment and
support of suitable places of education, for the purpose of
training a succession of youths, who being unable fully
to understand the grounds of both, may be led more
zealously to practice the one, and the more strenuously to
defend the other, etc. That the youth shall be taught in
German, English, Latin and Greek, and the other learned
languages, in Theology, in the useful Arts, Sciences and
This was the seed-bed of Franklin and Marshall Col-
lege. Its Principal and President was a native Penn-
sylvania-German, the Rev. Dr. Henry Ernest Muhlenberg.
Good old Dr. Franklin contributed largely to its plant-
ing. Some fifteen years earlier this artiste statesmen
and philosopher had been filled with the current Yankee
prejudice against the Germans. In 1753 he wrote bitter
words against this people. He learned better, and was
wise enough to retract his error. After he had been en-
lightened, and came to appreciate their stalwart virtues,
he cried : " Peccavi /" Herein he differed from those who
Pennsylvania- Germans in' Church and State. 67
still serve up their Crambe bis repetita. Like the story of
Galileo, it will not down. Men who know not what they
do, continue to write of the Pennsylvania-Germans as of
a race of serfs and slaves.
In 1836, a Buffalo sheet spoke of them as a petrifaction
— the like of which is no more to be found in the Old
World. The Public Ledger, of Philadelphia, replied to
the lines of the stupid and ignorant scribbler, in words
which did honor to the head and heart of the gentlemanly
and candid writer. " It is time," said he, " that the truth
should be spoken and justice done to our Pennsylvania-
Germans. We are willing to go as far as anyone in tes-
tifying to the value of books, newspapers and schools,
etc., but we are not yet so silly, to say that a man is nec-
essarily a bad man, a poor farmer, a disorderly citizen or
a profligate husband because he does not speak English, is
not crammed with book-learning or does not take in a
half dozen journals. In many particulars, German far-
mers surpass even the people of Xew England, who, of
late, have put in the claim, it would seem, to be the ne
plus ultra of all things.' 7
The Emperor of Germany said in bold w^ords what
you never heard any other modern ruler say ; he said
what I would like to hear our Governors and Presidents
say ; he said : " The Germans fear no one but Almighty
God I" That is characteristic of German blood, and has
been from the time when Tacitus wrote of their great,
grand and immortal ancestors — The Teutons.
All praise to the Pennsylvania-German Governors ; to
Simon Snyder, Hiester and Shultz, to Ritner, and Wolf,
68 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
and Shunk, and Hartranft, for their contributions toward
the founding and fostering of the Common Free School
System ; praise the memories of Thomas H. Burrows,
Thaddeus Stevens, to Dr. Wickersham and Dr. Higbee.
But weighed in the balance, the Parochial school, in
the sunshine and shadow of the Christian church, will
draw the beam. Thrice blessed be the words of the
earlier pedagogues, whose names are written in heaven.
^Ye lately attended the general services of one of the
last of their race, Francis G-. Berndt, of Egypt, Lehigh
county, Fa. One full half century he taught the youths
and children of the parish to spell and read, to write and
reckon, and to sing and pray. Ministers, attorneys, phy-
sicians and pious men in all spheres of life came to look
upon his dead face for the last time. About the time and
day when some of you in Lancaster bore our good and
learned friend to his resting place, Dr. Wickersham,
others of us stood at the tomb of this Pastor's Helper.
General Lafayette is known as a " Hero of two Worlds."
To my mind, those school masters of the church are fully
entitled to the same distinction.
Let us hear, finally, what a jovial stranger thought and
said of the "Pennsylvania Dutch :'"
" I have lately passed through the Dutchiest part of
Pennsylvania and have observed some new and instructive
points I never thought of before. Apparently said Dutch
are a sedate people. In reality they are as religious and
more Puritanistic than Xew Englanders were fifty years
ago. They are as sharp as Yankees after money, more
saving and more generous. They are more intelligent,
Pennsylvania- Germans in Church and State. GO
independent and happy than they appear, and bashful be-
fore strangers, especially the ladies. These and other
traits make them appear exclusive and clannish, yet they
are the most social and comical people in America.
Among them (if one understands their glib dialect) one
can hear more words, jokes and hearty laughs in a minute
than in even the modern Greek or nue hock JDeutsch. I
now have learned that the Pennsylvanians, who are well
acquainted in English, cling to their dialect in small,
rapid talk and the firing of a multiplicity of jokes. They
laugh oftener than do the Yankees, their women can de-
liver four words to a Yankee woman's one in English,
and more when excited. Therefore, Pennsylvania Dutch
is a phonetic dialect. T patent this idea, and say to those
who make " fun of it " that they can find more comical,
witty characters — real Yankees — in Pennsylvania than in
all New England."
After the address of Dr. C. Z. Weiser, in view of the
fact that a number of gentlemen had said that they would
be obliged to leave the city, L. L. Grumbine, Esq., of
Lebanon, Pa., made a motion to suspend the regular order
of business as laid down on the programme, and turn to
the consideration of the constitution, which was seconded
The report of the Committee on the Constitution in gen-
eral was read, and also that of the Committee on Member-
ship. On motion the proposed Constitution was taken up
for consideration, article by article. The first and second
articles were accepted as reported, with but little discus-
sion. The third article, however, called forth consider-
70 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
able difference of opinion ; particularly the second section
referring to the qualifications for regular membership.
The discussion of this point consumed the greater part of
the afternoon session. On the one hand it was maintain-
ed that only natives of Pennsylvania of German descent
were really Pennsylvania-Germans, and that such only
should be eligible to regular membership. To admit per-
sons born in Germany or Switzerland would be to virtually
make the Society a German Society. There must be a dis-
tinction between foreign-born and American-born Germans ;
and this would best be done by confining regular mem-
bership to the latter and giving the privilege of associate
membership to the former. On the other hand it was
argued that the place of birth was not as important a con-
sideration as spirit and temper. There were many foreigu-
born Germans who had done more for the interests of the
Pennsylvania-Germans, in studying and recording their
history, who had shown a truer interest in their cause, and
were more truly in sympathy with the purpose and end
of this Society, than any Pennsylvania-born Germans. To
make the distinction proposed would be to bar out such
men as Dr. Seidensticker, and some of the original mov-
ers in the present organization. In reply it was said that
all such persons could still become members, that is, asso-
ciate members, with all the rights and privileges of regu-
lar members, except that of holding office and of having
a vote on questions of property or location.
General Louis Wagner, of Philadelphia, here arose and
said it was evident to him that he, being; a foreisrn-born
German, was not wanted in the Society ; for as to becoming
What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 71
an associate member, that, under the circumstances, was
like taking the second table at dinner, which he did not
intend doing. He would therefore ask to be excused and.
would retire from the floor of the convention. At the
same time he would state that the committee from, the
German Society, of Philadelphia, represented by him and
Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, had been instructed to offer
the use of the German Society's building and library to
this Society, which he took great pleasure in herewith do-
ing. Thereupon Gen. Wagner and Dr. Seidensticker
took seats anions; the audience.
After the discussion had consumed considerable time,
the question was put, and article third as it now stands
The next question that promised to call forth prolonged
discussion was article seventh, on the location of the
Society's permanent headquarters. It was finally referred
to the Executive Committee for action.
Dr. Stahr then moved that the rest of the Constitution
be adopted in the form in which it had been reported by
the Committee on Constitution, which was done.
Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, of Lebanon county, next arose
and asked to be excused from delivering the address for
which he was down on the programme. This was not
granted, however, and Mr. Schantz then read the follow-
ing paper :
"What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans."
As I was born at the head of Cedar Creek, in Upper
Macungie township, Lehigh (Lecha) county, in Pennsyl-
72 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
vania, I ought to know something of Pennsylvania-Ger-
mans. My parents were born in Pennsylvania before the
year 1800. My two grandfathers and two grandmothers
were born in this country or came to this country when
young in years. My four great-grandfathers and four
great-grandmothers were all of German parentage. How
glad I would be if I had the portraits of all of these, and
also of my eight German great-great grandfathers and my
eight German great-great grandmothers !
I have resided among the Pennsylvania-Germans for
.more than fifty years — first in Lehigh county, then in
Lancaster, later in Adams, still later in Berks, a second
time in Lehigh, and for many years in Lebanon county.
When a boy of 12 years I became a resident of Allentown,
and I was greeted as a Pennsylvania-German, for the boys
called me " bush knippel." When I became a student of
the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg I received an
anonymous letter advising me to study Webster's diction-
The Pennsylvania-Germans are not the descendants of
Indians — nor did their ancestors come from Africa.
Their ancestors came from the German Fatherland — the
home of Martin Luther. To tell you of the experience of
my Great-grandfather Schantz and his four sons, two of
whom were in service for a number of years to pay pas-
sage money, would be the repetition of the experience of
the ancestors of others here to-day. The history of the
settlements of Germans at Germantown and other places
in Pennsylvania, on the Hudson, the Schoharie and Mo-
hawk in Xew York, and of the journey of some of them
What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 73
to Pennsylvania and their settlement in the Tulpehockcn
region in Pennsylvania is well known. What our ancestors
suffered in ships in crossing the Atlantic, and what trials
on land they had, who first found shelter in dug-outs, in
hollow trees, in hastily constructed huts, or under rude
tents under great trees, has often been told.
Our ancestors and their descendants have turned a wil-
derness into beautiful gardens. This was accomplished
by severe labors. For a long time men knew nothing of
modern improvements to aid in removing forests, prepar-
ing the soil, sowing the seed and gathering the harvest.
The country, once the home of Indians, became dotted
with the dwellings of immigrants. The rude log house
was followed by the substantial stone dwelling, and this
again by the stately mansion of brick or other carefully
prepared materials. Villages became towns and towns be-
came cities with their many industries.
Our people have taken an interest in schools, for the
old parochial school, the subsequent private schools, the
academy and seminary in villages and towns, the public
schools and normal schools of a latter day, as also the
regular colleges and institutions for the pursuit of profes-
sional studies, testify that they are in favor of education.
And what of our people with respect to their regard for
the Christian religion? The plain log church, with its
pulpit erected on the stump of a tree, with no wooden, but
stone floor, with rude pews, and for a long time without a
stove, was dear to them. The erection of church build-
ings of stone or brick was a great event to them. And to-
day the many beautiful church buildings, not only in
74 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
towns and cities, but also rural districts, and the large
congregations at public services and the many children at
sessions of the Sunday school, show the interest of our
people in the Christian religion. A few years ago two
men of Xew England visited a friend in one of our towns.
On a Sunday morning, whilst taking a ride with their
host, they observed many people on their way to churches.
One of them remarked : " You still make use of churches
here ; at our home we are beyond such use of them."
Our people have taken an interest in the affairs of the
State. To cast a ballot is the great privilege of the citi-
zen. Many have also filled offices of great trusts. The
Pennsylvania-German Governors have not disgraced their
fellow citizens. The Pennsylvania Germans honored Geo.
Washington, and he had the highest regard for them. My
father voted for General Jackson, and if my mother could
have voted I have no doubt she also would have voted
for him. I was more of a politician in 1844, when I was
eight years old and sang what Parson Jeremiah Schindel
had composed in praise of Polk, Dallas and Shunk, than
I was in subsequent years. Perhaps it is owing to the
fact that clergymen are expected to be silent in politics.
When in 1861, on the first fast day appointed by Abra-
ham Lincoln, which I considered it proper to observe, as
also subsequent days of Thanksgiving and Prayer, I said
in my sermon that demagogues had caused the war, I of-
fended some people greatly, for I was charged with hav-
ing; said that Democrats had caused the war. On a later
occasion I spoke of the fact that colored people emanci-
pated by Abraham Lincoln's celebrated proclamation,
What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 75
were learning to read, and that white people who had not
yet learned to read, might profitably follow their example.
I again gave offense. I suppose some men would have
doubted my word if I told them that my father had voted
for Andrew Jackson and that I followed in the footsteps
of my father politically. Since that day I have said little
but voted once at many elections. I have never been a re-
Pennsylvania-Germans have served as soldiers, l^ot
many years ago I heard a man speak of one of his ances-
tors who was with the forces led against the French and
Indians in western Pennsylvania and of incidents of his
The three hundred men who gathered on Benjamin
Speieher's farm, near Stouehsburg, in Berk's county,
whom Conrad Weiser counselled for the defense of
their home, to whom Pastor J. Xicolas Kurtz preached
the word of God and for whom he offered prayer, were
willing to move forward to guard the gaps in the moun-
tains to prevent invasion by the Indians. The Revolu-
tionary TVar was marked by the services of our ancestors.
I rejoice to-day that my grandfather was no Tory, but a
soldier of the war for Independence. In the war of 1812-
1814 many of the fathers of men still living were enlisted
and marched to the defense of their country. My father
was one of the soldiers at Marcus Hook. But the soldiers
at Marcus Hook did not get to see the enemy. Brave
men were marched to York, Pa., to be led to Baltimore.
At York, however, the courage of one man ended — for
he told his companions, " Boys, I am going home. I
76 The Pennsylvania-German Society,
heard that the British are coming up the turnpike with
their war vessels. Who knows what may happen."
Brave Pennsylvania-Germans fought in the war with
Mexico. And who can speak enough in praise of the
Pennsylvania-German soldiers in the late war for the pres-
ervation of our glorious union.
And what of the language of the Pennsylvania-Ger-
mans ? The ancestors spoke the dialect of their respective
homes in Germany. Their language of devotion was the
German of Luther's translation of the Holy Bible. The
use of the English lan^ua^e had its influence in affecting
the purity of the dialect. The introduction of the use of
the English has wrought great changes. We have to-day
Pennsylvania-Germans who speak in English, but are not
able to read the Bible iti German, nor to speak the dia-
lect. We have others who speak the dialect, but no
English and no high German. Many speak the dialect
and English, and a large number speak the dialect, English
and high German. Pennsylvania-Germans are asked to-
day where they were born in Germany. Pennsylvania-
Germans have been taken for men of English descent.
Those of our number who heard their fathers speak the
dialect and their mothers the same — with very rare at-
tempts to speak English cannot well lose their attachment
to the language of their early homes. ISTo wonder that
people never grow tired of Karnaugh's poems. 2To won-
der that people will sit for two hours and longer without
signs of weariness when listening to a lecture in Pennsyl-
vania-German. Xo wonder that the plain Pennsylvania
farmer, who wished to see the King of Saxony, gained en-
What I Know of Pennsylvania- Germans. 77
trance to the palace, when the King heard the former
shouting to the guard who did not wish to admit him :
" Sagt 'em Koenig es waer en Bauer do vim Pennsylfenie
in de United States der deht ihn gern sehne." And when
the King had ordered the guard to admit him no wonder
the King was pleased with the Pennsylvania-German
farmer, who extended his hand to the King and said :
" Well, Koenig, wie gehts, wiekummscht a? "
Pennsylvania Germans have served their country well
in the increase of the population of the same. Examine
some of the old family records and read the long list of
names under the heading, " Birth and Baptism.'' Not
lone; asro I traveled with a s;entleman whose home is in a
suburb of Boston. He acknowledged that many New
England families of the present day number but few chil-
dren and many none. He spoke of the fact that in the
South at present many families number many children,
accounting for a great increase in population. I told him
that Pennsylvania-German families, even of to-day, have
ofter many children. I told him that some years ago I
attended a funeral. I rode to the cemetery in an omni-
bus, in which there was an old lady, who said : " It is
hard to lose a child. I had twenty-three children, and
when one of them died I felt very sad." I said to the
lady : " And so, mother, you had twenty-three children ?"
She replied promptly : " Yes, sir ; I had twenty-three
and here is my daughter, who has also already eleven."
A good record for Pennsylvania-Germans — not readily-
broken by Yankees.
Pennsylvania-Germans left eastern counties of Pennsyl-
78 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
vania and moved southwestward and westward. Think
of the population we would now have in Eastern Pennsyl-
vania if all had remained here. Before 1800 some of my
relatives had settled in Bedford county, and others were
soon in the western part of Pennsylvania and in Ohio.
After the death of my great-grandfather, in the line of my
father's family, my great-grandmother, aged more than 90
years, traveled in a covered wagon to Bedford county to
have, for a time, her home with a son. She died there and
was buried in said county. In the fall of 1888 I attended
a reunion of the Bortz family near Shenango, in Mercer
Two hundred and fifty persons gathered and dined in
an orchard. More than two hundred of the persons pres-
ent were descendants and relatives of several families who
settled in Western Pennsylvania in the twenties of this
century. I have met Pennsylvania-Germans in Ohio,
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and on the
prairies of North Dakota. We know of the great num-
ber in Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska. In the month of
December I officiated at home at the funeral of the wife of
a Pennsylvania-German, who had asked her husband be-
fore her death at Tacoma, Washington, to take her re-
mains to her early home in Lebanon county to be buried
there. In India, in distant Asia, Pennsylvania-Germans
have labored and died in mission work.
Where Pennsylvania-Germans have settled, the story of
Pennsylvania-German piety, honesty, industry and success
in life has been repeated. Even in our day the Pennsyl-
vania-German still moves westward, and his influence is
for good in his western home.
What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 79
"Whilst I rejoice in being a member and minister in the
Christian Church — the highest honor we can attain to on
earth ; whilst I am proud of being a citizen of the United
States — the finest government in the world ; whilst I am
glad to be able to say I am of the good old Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, I glory in the fact of being of Pennsyl-
vania-German descent and having no reason to be ashamed
of my ancestors. I take great pleasure in visiting the
places where they dwelt, where they attended church
services and worshiped the Triune God, and where their
graves are in Pennsylvania soil.
In the fall of 1888, when the General Council of the
Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America met in
Minneapolis, the members of the same were invited to at-
tend the great festival of the Swedes, who celebrated the
250th anniversary of the settlement of Swedes on the
banks of the Delaware. The day was marked by so much
rain that the intended great procession of Swedish con-
gregations, Sunday-schools and societies on the beautiful
avenues of Minneapolis had to be abandoned. In the im-
mense building of the Inter-State Exposition there was,
however, a gathering of no less than seven thousand
Swedes, who were full of enthusiasm in singing, in prayer,
in speaking and in their applause when the history of the
toils, labors and success of their countrymen was repeated.
A number of the delegates of the General Council were
favored with seats on the platform where the addresses
were delivered. I sat within thirty feet of the speakers,
and I distinctly remember the remark made by a delegate,
a distinguished doctor of theology from Eastern Pennsyl-
80 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
vania: "I doubt whether the Germans could secure such
a gathering in Pennsylvania." I have often thought of
that remark, and I repeat it here to-day, with the sincere
wish that the Pennsylvania-German Society, organized
here to-day, may succeed in securing at a time not far dis-
tant great gatherings of Pennsylvania-Germans to com-
memorate important events in the life of their ancestors
of whom they may he justly proud.
I trust the day will come when the settlement of Palat-
inates in the Tulpehocken will be properly celebrated at
the grave of Conrad Weiser on his farm, not far from
Womelsdorf, in Berks county. Xot long before his death
General Washington spent a night at AVomelsdorf, and
during his stay honored the memory of Conrad Weiser by
visiting his grave, and why should not Pennsylvania-
Germans, nearly a century later, rejoice in the privilege of
standing where Washington stood and bestowing similar
The old Trappe church in Montgomery county was
erected in 1745, and is still standing. I can never forget
that when I visited the same in the spring of 1866, 1 was
alone one morning within its ancient walls. After view-
ing its old pulpit and altar, its unpainted pews, and its
old organ, many of the pipes and other parts of which had
been carried off by visitors (I saw a part of the organ at
Decatur, 111., in 18SS), I was so impressed by what I saw,
and by the recollection of the holy men who had served
within those walls, of the people, including some of my
relations, who had their spiritual home in the same, of the
meetings of our old Mother Synod held there, that I could
What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 81
not refrain from kneeling before the old altar and thank-
ing God for the blessings he had bestowed upon the
fathers and mothers, the benefits of which we still enjoy,
and to ask for the continuance of His favors to our people.
And why should we not on some day in the near future
have a great gathering at the Trappe — at the grave of the
Patriarch Muhlenberg — who labored most faithfully for
the spiritual welfare of our ancestors; at the grave of
General Peter Muhlenberg, the friend of General Wash-
ington, and the successful commander of soldiers of the
Revolutionary war ; at the grave of Governor Shunk, the
distinguished Pennsylvania-German, Chief Magistrate of
our beloved Commonwealth.
I have named but two places for such great gatherings
— scores, yea, many scores of places might be named for
such great meetings of our people in the future.
Much might be said of the Pennsylvania-Germans of the
past; let us so live in the fear, worship and service of the
Triune God, in strict obedience to State and ^National
laws, in faithful devotion to our callings, in our respective
spheres of activity, in the performance of duties in our
homes, that when men in the distant future will speak of
Pennsylvania-Germans, they may have no occasion to pass
over our period in silence, but imoytake pleasure in speak-
ing well of, as we take pleasure now of speaking well of,
A motion was made and carried to pass a vote of thank:
to Mr. Schantz for remaining and delivering his excellent
82 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
The Permanent Organization.
Dr. Stahr, Chairman of the Committee on Permanent
Organization, reported that they would nominate the fol-
lowing for permanent officers :
President — Dr. TV r m. H. Eg-le, Harrisburs;.
Vice-President — Hon. Edwin Albright, Allentown.
Secretary — F. R. DiffenderfTer, Lancaster.
Treasurer — Julius F. Sachse, Esq., Berwyn.
Executive Committee — Dr. J. Max Hark, Lancaster ;
L. L. Grumbine, Esq., Lebanon ; H. A. Muhenberg, Esq.,
Reading ; E. H. Rauch, Mauch Chunk ; Hon. J. S. Hess,
Hellertown ; E. W". S. Parthemore, Harrisburg ; Judge S.
W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia ; Dr. C. Z. "Weiser, East
Greenville; C. P. Humrich, Esq., Carlisle; Hon. A.
Hiestand Glatz, York.
Dr. Stahr moved that a vote of thanks be tendered to
the German Society of Philadelphia for their generous
The Secretary of the Society was instructed to cast the
ballot for the officers nominated, which was accordingly
done, and the gentlemen named declared elected.
The following resolution was offered by Mr. E. W.
Resolved, That a Publication Committee, to consist of
five members, be nominated and elected, to whom shall
be referred the different papers read at this meeting,
which, together with the proceedings of the preliminary
conference and the full minutes, shall be published in a
The following were appointed on the committee : E.
W. Partkemore, F. R. Diffenderffer, Dr. Stahr, Dr. Hark
and H. Young, Esq.
The Secretary was instructed to receive the initiation
fees of the members in the absence of the Treasurer.
It was moved and carried that when this Convention ad-
journ it do so to convene at such time and place as the
Executive Committee shall decide.
The Convention then adjourned.
ARTICLE I.— Name.
The name of this organization shall be " The Pennsyl-
ARTICLE II— Object.
The object of the Society shall be :
First : To perpetuate the memory and foster the prin-
ciples and virtues of the German ancestors of its members,
and to promote social intercourse among the latter.
Secondly: To discover, collect and preserve all still
existing documents, monuments, etc., relating to the
genealogy and history of the Pennsylvania-Germans, and
from time to time publish them, particularly such as shall
set forth the part belonging to this people in the growth
and development of American character, institutions and
Thirdly : To gather by degrees a library for the use of
the Society, composed of all obtainable books, monographs,
pamphlets, manuscripts, etc., relating to the Pennsylvania-
Fourthly : To cause statedly to be prepared and read
before the Society, papers, essays, etc., on questions in the
history or genealogy of the Pennsylvania-Germans.
ARTICLE III— .Membership.
Section 1. First: The members of the Society shall
consist of three classes, viz. : Regular, Associate and
Secondly : Xo one shall be eligible as a regular member
unless he be of full age, of good moral character, and a di-
rect descendant of early German or Swiss emigrants to
Thirdly : Xo one shall be eligible as an associate mem-
ber unless he be of full age, good moral character, and of
German descent not native in this State, or a foreign-born
German naturalized and resident in this State not less
than ten years. The rights and privileges of an associate
member shall be the same as those of a regular member,
except that he shall be ineligible to office, and shall have
no vote on questions of property or location.
Fourthly : Persons who have made the history, geneal-
ogy, principles, etc., of the Pennsylvania-Germans a special
subject of study and research, and any other persons emi-
nent in their profession or calling, to whatever nationality
they may belong, who have shown themselves in sym-
pathy with the Pennsylvania-Germans, shall be eligible
to honorary membership.
Sec. 2. The mode of electing members shall be as fol-
lows : Candidates may be proposed in writing to the Ex-
ecutive Committee. Such nominations, with a written
statement of the name, address, occupation and descent of
each candidate, shall be considered at the next meeting
of said Committee after the nomination has been made,
who shall pass thereon. If no objection be made the said
committee shall report favorably upon the nomination,
and the candidate shall be considered as duly elected ; but
if any member of the Executive Committee demand a
ballot, the election shall be by ballot, and a two-third vote
86 The Pennsylvaliia-German Society.
of the members of the Committee present shall be neces-
sary to elect.
Sec. 3. The annual dues of regular and associate mem-
bers shall be two dollars. In both cases payment must be
made in advance. The payment of twenty-five dollars
constitutes anv regular member a life member. Regular
and associate members must pay their first annual dues
and sign this Constitution, before entering upon the en-
joyment of the rights and privileges of membership.
Sec. 4. Should any member neglect to pay his annual
dues for one year after the same shall become due, he shall
ipso facto cease to be a member of the Society, unless, upon
a satisfactory excuse being given, and the payment of all
arrearages, the Executive Committee shall see fit to re-
mit the penalty.
Sec. 5. The Executive Committe shall have power, by
a vote of a majority of its members, to suspend or forfeit
the membership of any member of the Society for conduct
likely to endanger the welfare and interests of the Society,
an opportunity being first given such member to be heard
before the Executive Committee in his defense.
Sec. 6. Any person who shall cease to be a member of
the Society shall forfeit all right or interest in the prop-
erty of the Society.
ARTICLE IV.— Officers.
Section 1. First: The officers of the Society shall con-
sist of a President, two Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a
Treasurer and an Executive Committee of eleven mem-
Secondlv: The President, Vice Presidents and Treas-
urer shall be elected at each annual meeting; and the
President shall be ineligible for re-election.
Thirdly : The Secretary shall be elected for a term of
three years and shall be ex-officio a member of the Execu-
Fourthly: The Executive Committee elected at the
first election shall divide itself into five classes. The first
class of two members shall hold office for five years ; the
second class of two for four years ; the third class of two
for three years ; the fourth class of two for two years, and
the fifth class of two for one year. At each annual meet-
ing thereafter successors shall be chosen to the class whose
term shall then expire.
Sec. 2. All elections shall be by ballot, under the direc-
tion of inspectors, to be appointed by the President, and a
majority of votes shall elect.
ARTICLE V.— Duties of Officers.
First : The duties of the President shall be those usually
pertaining to that office ; and also to deliver an address at
the annual meeting.
Secondly : The duties of the Vice President shall be the
same as those ordinarily belonging to that office.
Thirdly : The duties of the Secretary shall be to keep an
accurate record of all the proceedings of the Society ; to
conduct the correspondence of the Society ; to notify
members of the meetings of the Society ; to inform officers
and new members of their election ; to countersign all
drafts made on the Treasurer ; and to call and arrange for
88 The Pennsylvdnia-German Society.
all writings of the Society, under the direction of the Ex-
ecutive Committee; he shall also act as Librarian and
Curator, and have the keeping of all hooks, pamphlets,
manuscripts, and personal articles pertaining to the So-
Fourthly : The duties of the Treasurer shall be to col-
lect, and under the direction of the Executive Committee
disburse the funds of the Society and to keep regular ac-
counts thereof, which shall be subject to the examination
of the President and the Executive Committee. He shall
submit a statement thereof to the Executive Committee
at each regular meeting, and his accounts shall be audited
once every year.
Fifthly : The duties of the Executive Committee shall
be to examine and pass upon the credentials of candidates;
to engage suitable persons to deliver the addresses and
prepare the papers contemplated in this Constitution ; to
make all other arrangements necessary for the meetings
of the Society, and to transact all business of the Society
not otherwise provided for in the Constitution. It shall
also have power to fill any vacancy which may occur from
death or resignation among the officers of the Society, for
the unexpired term of the office so vacated.
Sixthly: The Executive Committee shall, from time
to time, make by-laws, rules and regulations, and appoint
standing committees and sub-committees ou matters not
ARTICLE VI.— Meetings.
1. The Society shall hold one regular meeting each
year, to be known as the anniversary meeting, which shall
be characterized by special exercises, including a banquet,
to be arranged for by the Executive Committee.
2. The Executive Committee shall have authority to
call three additional meetings of the Society each year,
time and place to be designated by the Executive Com-
mittee, at each of which the current business of the Soci-
ety may be transacted, and one or more papers or essays
shall be read on questions in the genealogy or history of
3. The Executive Committee shall hold its regular
meetings on the same dates as the regular meetings of the
Society, and special meetings, whenever called by its
chairman, notice of which must be given to each member
of the Committee not less than ten days prior to the
AB TICLE VII.—Headq uarters.
The Headquarters of the Society shall be located in
ARTICLE VIII. — Amendments to the Constitution.
1. To amend the Constitution an affirmative vote of
two-thirds of the members present at the annual meeting
shall be requisite.
2. Amendments to the Constitution can be offered only
at the annual meeting, and no amendment shall be voted
upon at the same meeting at which it is offered.
I. — Order of Business.
At all meetings of the Society the order of business
shall be as follows :
1. Reading and Adoption of the Minutes of the Pre-
2. Reports of Officers and Committees.
3. Miscellaneous Business.
4. Reading of Papers or Delivery of Addresses.
II. — Annual Meeting.
The annual meeting of the Society shall be held on the
second Wednesday of October at such place and hour as
the Executive Committee shall appoint, and at least ten
days' notice of the same shall be sent to each member by
Ill— Appointment of Committees.
All committees except the Executive Committee and
its sub-committees shall be appointed by the President or
the Chairman of the meeting, unless specially named in
the resolution creating the committee ; and the person
first named shall be chairman of each committee.
IV. — The Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee shall each year divide itself
into the following sub-committees : A Committee of
Three on Finance ; a Committee of Three on Genealogy ;
and a Committee of Five on History and Tradition.
These committees to he appointed by the Chairman.
V. — The Committee on Finance.
The Committee on Finance shall, at least once in each
year, and oftener, if they choose, audit the accounts and
vouchers of the Treasurer of the Society, and report upon
the same at the annual meeting of the Society, and oftener
to the Executive Committee, as they may see fit, or as the
latter may order.
VI. — The Committee on Genealogy.
It shall he the duty of the Committee on Genealogy to
collect and preserve, in accordance with the Constitution,
information and documents relating to the Genealogy of
the members of the Society, and of the German and Swiss
settlers of Pennsylvania and of the American colonies.
The Committee may expend the funds of the Society for
this purpose, subject to the subsequent approval of the Ex-
VII. — The Committee on History and Tradition.
It shall be the duty of the Committee on History and
Tradition to collect and preserve, in accordance with the
Constitution, information, documents, books, and monu-
ments relating to the history and traditions of the mem-
bers of the Society, and of the German and Swiss settlers
and their descendants in Pennsylvania and the rest of the
United States ; and to print and publish the sime, and
papers and essays relating to the same, copyrighting orig-
92 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
inal publications for the benefit of the Society. The Com-
mittee may expend the funds of the Society for this pur-
pose, subject to the subsequent approval of the Executive
VIII. — Attendance of Members of the Executive Committee.
Neglect on the part of any member of the Executive
Committee to attend the meeting of said Committee for
three consecutive meetings, shall be a tender of his resig-
nation from that Committee. But the Committee may
excuse any member for such absence if good and sufficient
reasons therefor be given.
IX. — Amendments.
These By-Laws can be altered, amended or abrogated
only at a regular meeting of the Executive Committee,
by the affirmative vote of six members of the said Execu-
William H. Egle, M. D. '
Henry A. Muhlenburg, Esq.,
Judge Edwin Albright.
Frank Ried Diffenderffer.
Julius F. Sachse, Esq.
J. Max Hark, D. D.,
E. W. S. Parthemore,
Lee L. Grumbine, Esq„
Clement Z. Weiser, D. D.,
Edwin H. Rauch,
Hon. A. Hiestand Glatz,
C. P. Humrich, Esq.,
Hon. Jeremiah S. Hes3,
Judge Samuel W. Pennypacker,
H. A. Muhlenburg, Esq.,
Frank Ried Diffenderffer.
94 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
H. A. Muhlenburg, Esq.,
C. P. Ilumrich, Esq.,
Hon. A. Hiestand Glatz.
E. W. S. Parthemore,
Hon. Jeremiah S. Hess,
Edwin H. Eaueh.
History and Tradition.
Lee L. Grumbine, Esq.,
Clement Z. Weiser, D. D.,
Hon. Samuel W. Pennypaeker,
J. Max Hark, D. D.,
Frank Ried Diffenderffer.
Printing and Publishing.
E. W. S. Parthemore,
John S. Stahr, D. D.,
J. Max Hark, D. D.,
Hiram Young, Esq.,
Frank Ried DifFenderiler.
Annual meeting of the Society on the second Wedne*
day of October.
Meetings of Executive Committee.
Second Wednesday of January.
Second Wednesday of April.
Second "Wednesday of July.
Second Wednesday of October.
-v s J >'- : I
PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES
HARRISBURG, OCT. 14, 1891,
MOUNT GRETNA, JULY 18, 1892.
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
Note of Printing Committee, 4
First Annual Meeting at Harrisburg, 5
Prayer, by Rev. George C. Hekman, D. P., 6
Annual Address, by President Wm. H. Egle, M. D., . . 7
Report of Secretary, F. R. Piifenderffer, 22
Members Elected 25
Election of Permanent Oihcers 26
Business Proceedings. 28
Early Literature of the Pennsylvania Germans, by Hon.
Samuel W. Pennypacker, LL.D 33
Proverbs and Sayings of the Pennsylvania Germans, by
Rev. A. R. Home. P. P * 47
The Marriage of the Muse, by Lee L. Grumbine, Esq... . 55
Piscussion on Permanent Location 63
Telegraphic Correspondence with the Poet Whittier, . . 71
The Annual Banquet 74
Address, by Gov. Robert Emory Pattison 75
Address, by Judge Edwin Albright 80
Address, by Dr. R. K. Buehrle 81
Address, by Hiram Young. Esq., 87
Address, by Rev. J. Max Hark. P. P., . . . 89
Translation, by Col. Thos. C. Zimmerman 90
Translation, by Henry L. Fisher. Esq., . .- 93
Address, by Rev. Paul de Schweinitz 100
Address, by J. H. Redsecker. Esq 102
Meeting of Society at Mt. Gretna 105
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania, by Julius F.
The Pennsylvania-German : His Place in the History of
the Commonwealth, by Wm. H. Egle, M. D 118
Obituary Notices 131-2
Gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-German Society:
The Printing Committee of your Society takes pleasure
in presenting to you the Second Annual Volume of the
Proceedings of the Society during the past year, together
with the various papers read before it at Harrisburg and
E. W. S. Parthemore,
Frank R. Diffenderffer,
John S. Stahr,
J. Max Hark,
EEPOET OF THE PROCEEDINGS
— OF THE —
| f PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY,
— AT ITS —
FIEST ANNUAL MEETING,
Held in Harrisburg, Pa.,
On WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 14, 1891.
Morning Session, 10:30 o'clock.
The Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania German
Society having fixed on Harrisburg, Pa., as the place for
holding the first Annual Meeting of the Society, that or-
ganization accordingly met in the rooms of the Young
Men's Christian Association, of that city, on "Wednesday,
October 14, 1891, at 10:30 a. m.
The Society was called to order by the president, Will-
iam H. Egle, M. D., and prayer was offered by the Rev.
Dr. George C. Heckman, as follows :
"Almighty God, be Thou our God. Be Thou our
country's God, for blessed is the nation whose God is the
6 The Pennsylvajiia-Gcrman Society.
Lord, the people whom He hath chosen for His own in-
heritance. We thank Thee that we are permitted to
meet here to-day. Bless us, we pray Thee, as the repre-
sentatives of the Society whose anniversary we cele-
brate. We praise Thee for the patriotism and the piety
of our fathers ; that thev were a God-fearing and a God-
loving people ; that they gave themselves and all theirs
for the welfare of their country. We pray that their ex-
ample may not he lost upon us, and that we be not un-
worthy descendants of our pious sires. May we be found
faithful citizens, true children of those who were faithful
in their day, and be able to transmit their patriotism
and piety to our children. Let Thy blessing rest upon
the members of this Society. May we, as the children of
the founders of this State, be a blessing to our Common-
wealth ; and may our country long be preserved as a
monument of Thy mercy and an instrument of Thy
praise. Bless us now, we humbly beseech Thee, with
the guidance of Thy spirit. Guide us with Thy counsel
through life in our Lord Jesus Christ, to the glory of
the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit, our one
God, everlasting. Amen."
Hon. B. Y. Meyers was introduced by President Egle,
and delivered the following
ADDRESS OF WELCOME.
Gentlemen : — In the name of the people of Harrisburg
I give you a cordial welcome. It is, indeed, in accordance
with the fitness of things that your Society should meet at
Address of "Welcome. 7
the capital of the noble Commonwealth which your an-
cestors assisted in founding, which has been reared in
great part by the industry, thrift and intelligence of their
children and which gives you, in turn, the appellation
that distinguishes you as the representatives of a peculiar
people. Besides, here you find yourselves in the midst of
descendants of the first German settlers of the State, many
of whom still use the Pennsylvania-German dialect, in
the market, in the store, in the ordinary everyday trans-
actions that may be accomplished by word of mouth, and
who speak no other tongue in their families and homes.
"While this is the case only to a limited extent in the city
of Harrisburg, it is largely the rule in the rural districts
adjacent. You have, therefore, the double welcome of
the generous and hospitable people of the city in general,
and particularly of those among them who are united to
you by a common ancestry, common traditions and a
It has been said that history has neglected the suf-
ferings, trials and achievements of the first German set-
tlers of Pennsylvania. This is true in the sense that the
historian has failed to record them as differentiated from
those of other early settlers belonging to other races of
people. But the story of their privations, their fortitude
and their patriotism is blended with that of the other
elements of the composite people which formed the base
of the grand structure of American nationality. Re-
pressed by a hostile legislature, denied the privileges of
citizenship for many years, accorded no rights except the
right to pay taxes which began with a tariff laid upon
8 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
their persons when they left the ships that brought them
over, the first German settlers could not, in the nature of
things, supply their adopted country with either political
or military leaders. Nor did they leave the Fatherland
to seek power and glory in the savage wilderness to
which they emigrated. They forsook their native coun-
try and braved the perils of the deep in search of a land
where they might enjoy liberty of conscience. Their
landing was not made dramatic by the tossing of their
ships on a rock-bound coast. History has not so recorded
it, nor has it been so celebrated in poesy. Yet the verses
that have made the " Landing of the Pilgrims at Ply-
mouth Rock " familiar as a twice-told tale to every school
boy in the land might have been appropriately written of
the debarkation of the first German settlers of Pennsyl-
" Not as the conqueror comes,
They, the true-hearted came,
Not with the roll of the stirring drums,
Or the trumpet that sings of fame."
* * * -* * #
" What sought they, thus afar ?
Bright jewels of the mine ?
The wealth of seas, the spoils of war ?
They sought a faith's pure shrine."
Verily they were men of peace, these ancestors of ours.
They bore the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
with resignation and humility. But they loved freedom
more than they hated war. When the tocsin of liberty
Address of Welcome. 9
sounded they sprang to the call, and, though enfranchised
just in the nick of time, they gave an account of them-
selves in the war for independence which makes them an
indisputable place in history on the patriotic side of that
grand and glorious contest. While only a few of them
appear conspicuously in the records of the Revolution we
find the muster rolls of the Pennsylvania line containing
many German names, while in the Provincial Convention
of 1775, held at Philadelphia, which approved the con-
duct and proceedings of the Continental Congress, ap-
peared as delegates from Pennsylvania such representa-
tives of the German settlers as Hassenclever, Melcher, •
Ludwig, Schlosser, Kuhn, Graaf, Hay, Schultz, Levan,
Gehr, Kechlein, Arndt and Weitzel. Afterward the
political as well as the military annals of Pennsylvania
were made luminous with the splendor of the services of
citizens of German extraction.
It has also been said that a Pennsylvania-German lit-
erature is impossible, because a mere dialect cannot pro-
duce a literature. This is likewise true, but rather be-
cause the Pennsylvania-German dialect is provincial or
local. If it could be general or national it would neces-
sarily burst the chrysalis of the dialect and become a full-
fledged language. But the barrenness of its vocabulary,
rendering necessary the importation of many words from
other tongues, limits its use to communities which either
discard literary refinement or seek it in the prevailing
language of the country. It must not be forgotten, how-
ever, that representative Pennsylvania-Germans have con-
tributed something to the upbuilding of American litera-
10 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
ture. In English as well as Pennsylvania-German verse
the genius of the lamented Harbaugh shines with unfad-
ing lustre. "S'Alt Schulhaus an der Krick," "Haem-
weh " and " Lah Bisness," are as familiar to the descend-
ants of the Palatines as "Tarn O'Shanter " to the admirers
of Burns, Moore's Irish melodies to the sons of Erin, or
Longfellow's "Excelsior" to the average American.
Among historians Pupp and Egle represent Pennsyl-
vania-Germans very creditably. And if humorists may
be admitted to the company of immortals, " Pit Schwet-
felbrenner" is sure to find a place among their number.
So, while there is, indeed, no possibility of a distinctive
Pennsylvania-German literature, Pennsylvania-Germans
are not without representation in the literature of the
If time permitted, an interesting study of the admix-
ture of German, Irish, Scotch, English and other races,
which is now the tj-pe of a large portion of the people of
this State, and of other states of the Union, might be pre-
sented. Some of us present here, for instance, might
legitimately belong to a society representing the de-
scendants of the first Irish settlers, and yet not lose our
identity as descendants cf the first German settlers. But
I have already digressed too much from the purpose for
which I have appeared before you.
Again I extend to you a most sincere and hearty wel-
The President, Dr. William H. Egle, in accordance
with Art. 5 of the Constitution, then delivered the
pgPMW 1 - 111 1
Annual' Address. 11
There is so much to be told of the early history of the
German and Swiss settlement in Pennsylvania, that you
would naturally expect me to narrate some of the more
interesting and yet little known of the facts bearing upon
and relating to that people who have given to our great
Commonwealth so much of its industry, wealth, and by
far its good name. I feel, how r ever, that in the light of
recent attacks made by blundering historians and sensa-
tional newspaper scribblers, the more prominent of the
errors concerning not only our ancestry but ourselves,
should be commented upon. It is true the Pennsylvania-
German does not need any defense, but in this age of lit-
erary culture and educational advantages, the leading
events in our history deserve a proper place.
It is not my province to enter into a full narration of
the causes which led to the early emigration of the people
from the Palatinate and the vine-clad hills of Switzerland
to this new found land in America. Suffering from polit-
ical persecution, hounded by the minions of an infatuated
religious crusade, they found the doors wide open wdiich
led to the wilds of Pennsylvania, and towards the close
of the seventeenth century the highway of the Atlantic
was crowded by them. Invited by the hospitable Propri-
etary, they entered eagerly and hopefully upon the lands
offered them. They came not empty handed, as some
would have you believe — they were not the paupers of
the old world, but the well-to-do — some even w T ith titled
honors, yet the multitude, with the fear of God in their
12 The Pennsylvanid- German Society.
hearts, with energy and industry in their makeup, with
the high hopes and expectations, that here there were
freedom of religious worship, a benign government and
homes for all who wanted them. Pennsylvania was their
land of Canaan — here they settled, and the " wilderness,''
indeed, " blossomed as the rose," and left us an inheri-
tance great and grand.
While upon the subject of this early settlement, it may
as well he stated that the Pennsylvania-Germans are not
the descendants of the Hessians who were brought to
America by the British government to put down the re-
bellion of 1776, as has been repeatedly charged by Xew
England historians. This statement is as impudent as it
is false. All of the German " Mercenaries," as they are
called, who were prisoners of war and stationed in Penn-
sylvania, according to Baron Reidesel, who was one of the
commanders, were properly accounted for, and were re-
turned to their own country upon the evacuation of Xew
York by the British. They did not remain, as it was a
condition entered into by the English government with
the Landgrave of Brunswick, the Duke of Hesse-
Cassel, and the petty princes of Hanau and "Waldeck,
that a certain price was to be paid for every man
killed, wounded or missing. Before the official procla-
mation of the peace, the Hessian prisoners were on
their way to Xew York by direction of the Supreme Ex-
ecutive Council of Pennsylvania. Some few deserted,
and some eventually returned to America after their
transportation to Germany, but the bald assertion that
the origin of the large German population of Pennsyl-
Annual Address. 13
vania is due to the settlement of those hired mercenaries
of England cannot be supported, and shows the profound-
est historical ignorance and audacious stupidity.
Impelled by the highest motives to leave the home of
their ancestors, the political beginnings of such a people
are the admiration of their descendants. With them came
their church ministers who at the outset were their chief
advisors and the teachers of their children. Wherever
the church was erected there was the school, and although
illiteracy has been charged in general upon our early
German and Swiss settlers, yet bare assertions have never
been verified. " Illiterate 1" God save the mark ! Prior
to the Revolution, there were more printing presses oper-
ated by Pennsylvania-Germans and more books published
than in the whole of "New England. Just glance over
Mr. Hil deb urn's valuable work, " Issues of the Pennsyl-
vania Press, 1682 to 1784," and you will have the proof
of what I say. The fact is, there is abundant evidence
by existing documents, which go to show that they were
able to write their names legibly, conclusive too that
their education did not stop there. In a memorial to the
authorities by the German inhabitants, written a century
and a-half ago, containing over two hundred signatures,
but one man made his mark. There is not a provincial
or colonial document in existence from puritan £s"ew Eng-
land to cavalier Georgia, of that period, which can match
the one referred to.
The so-called " Scheme for the Education of the Ger-
mans " in Pennsylvania has no doubt given rise to the
statements that they were illiterate, " unlearned." Un-
14 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
lettered they were as to the English language, but in the
tongue of the Fatherland, they knew more than the three
" R's " of a rudimentary education. The " Scheme " was
a political one, and the chief aim, through the instruction
of the English, was to extend partisan influence, for it is
well known that in the Provincial era, as later on in the
history of our Commonwealth, there were all sorts of
schemes devised " to catch the German vote." The Penn-
sylvania-German was just as wise then as now, and those
not of our race and lineage may speak of our good people
of Berks as voting for Andrew Jackson at every election,
but the sturdy and steady Democratic majority given by
Pennsylvania-Germans in that, magnificent county is
only offsetted by the strong Republican majority given by
the Pennsylvania-Germans in the adjoining grand old
county of Lancaster. Both are true and steadfast to their
principles, whatever they may be, never swerving, always
to be relied upon. If illiteracy leads one, assuredly the
other is just as unfortunate, but neither is the case ; the
inhabitants of both are just as cultured, just as highly ed-
ucated and imbued with the loyal and true doctrines
of constitutional government.
Coming to Pennsylvania for the enjoyment of religious
principles, deeply tinged with a hatred of king-craft and
the exactions of royalty, when the thunders of the Revo-
lution called the people of Pennsylvania to arm for the
struggle with tyranny, the German and Swiss settler was
ready. He entered heartily into the conflict, and, al-
though owincr solely to his want of knowledge of the
English language, his was seldom to command, giving
Annual Address. 15
way to his Scotch-Irish neighbor ; still no braver body of
men went forth from hillside and valley to defend their
homes in the name of God and perpetual freedom. Their
bones lie upon every battle-field of the Revolution; and
yet, owing to their language, few rose to command.
And still there were the Muhlenbergs, the Hiesters and
others, who became distinguished in the days of 1776,
none superior in military training, or in deeds of valor.
Patriotism has always been an inherent principle in the
hearts of the early German settlers in Pennsylvania, and
since the days of Independence their descendants, genera-
* tion after generation, have been distinguished upon every
well-fought battle-field of the Republic. From Lundy's
Lane, in the swamps of Florida, through the cactus-
crowned plains of Mexico, and in that later fraternal, yet
bloody, strife, Manassas to Appomattox, they were there,
officers and men, reflecting honor and renown upon their
State, the nation, and their race.
Pennsylvania took the lead of all the colonies in agri-
culture owing to the great number of Germans settling in
the Province; and Governor Thomas, as early as 1738,
wrote: " This Province has been for some years the asy-
lum of the distressed Protestants of the Palatinate and
other parts of Germany, and I believe it may with truth
be said that the present flourishing condition of it is in a
great measure owing to the industry of those people. It
is not altogether the goodness of the soil, but the number
and industry of the people that make a flourishing col-
As we have stated, the first settlers were staid farmers.
16 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Their mutual wants produced mutual dependence, hence
they were kind and friendly to each other; they were
ever hospitable to strangers. Their want of money in
the early times made it necessary for them to associate
for the purpose of building houses, cutting their grain,
etc. This they did in turn for each other without any
other pay than the pleasures which usually attended a
country frolic. Strictly speaking, what are attributed to
them as virtues might be called good qualities, arising
from necessity and the peculiar state of society in which
our people lived — patience, industry and temperance.
That the Germans of Pennsylvania have been so uni-
formly successful in acquiring wealth is due to their
laboriousness, to their thrift, and to their knowledge of
agricultural pursuits. In some portions of Pennsylvania
are the garden-spots of America. They have been made
so by the Germans who have cultivated them. Not any-
where in the New England States, in New York, nor in
the South, are farms so well tilled, so highly improved,
as in the sections of Pennsylvania where the descendants
of the Germans predominate. And we assert, without
fear of contradiction, that more works on agriculture,
more papers devoted to farming, are taken and read by
the so-called "Pennsylvania Dutch" farmers than by the
farmers of any other section of the Union. That the
Pennsylvania German is not "content to live in huts" is
palpably certain, and whoever will go into the homes of
our farmers will find evidence of both refinement and cul-
ture; their farms being easily distinguished from those of
others by the good fences, the extent of the orchard, the
Annudl Address. 17
fertility of the soil, the productiveness of the fields, the
luxuriance of the meadows, the superiority of his horse,
which seems to feel with his owner the pleasure of good
living. And although their barns are capacious, because
their dwellings are not castles, they should not be ac-
cused of indifference to their own domiciles. At the
present time it is rare to find a farm house in the old
German settlements that does not contain a double parlor,
sitting room, dining room, kitchen and out kitchen, with
six or eisrht bed rooms. This is more general in the
counties of Berks, Lancaster, Lebanon, Dauphin and
Cumberland than among the Xew England settled coun-
ties of the Xorth and West, the Quaker counties of Ches-
ter and Bucks, in Pennsylvania, and to go to Xew Eng-
land, the latter are not to be mentioned in comparison.
It has been charged time and again that the opposition
to the public school system came from the German ele-
ment of the State. In a measure this was partly true,
but the fiercest attacks came from those of another faith
and ancestry, and why ? Xoth withstanding all that has
been stated to the contrary, there was a system of paro-
chial or congregational education in vogue, and those op-
posed to the new scheme held that, over and above all,
Christianity ought to enter into all plans for educating
the young. But that antagonism was of short duration,
and these became to be the heartiest supporters of the
free schools. The earliest advocates and promoters of that
system which has shed so much lustre upon our State
were Governors Wolf and Ritner, while another man who
more than anyone else was the originator, and who should
18 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
be known far and wide in the matter, was William Au-
denreid, all three of Pennsylvania-German descent. And
to-day the great majority of the ablest educators in the
State are of that illustrious origin. This is a fruitful
subject, and one which I trust will be fully dwelt upon
by abler hands at some future meetings of the Society.
As has been stated, the clinging to the language of the
Fatherland interfered much with the prominence they
might have reached in the early history of our State — not
only in political affairs, but in the legal profession. Pro-
fessors in Theology may cite the Pennsylvania-German as
an illustration of the evil of maintaining the use of the
German language, but iC the evil" exists only in their
fertile imaginations. They no doubt believe the current
histories, as written from a Puritan New England or
Low Dutch Xew York stand-point.
Time, however, has wrought wonderful changes. At
least one-half of the Governors of the Commonwealth,
from good and honest Simon Snyder to the brave and cul-
tured Gen. James Addams Beaver, have come from pure
Pennsylvania-German stock. The influence of that race
has been felt in every Constitutional Convention from
July, 1776, to the last body which gave us our present
fundamental law ; while the halk of Congress and of
State legislation have re-echoed the glowing words of
Pennsylvania-German representatives, the peers of those
descended from Puritan, Holland, Scotch-Irish, or Eng-
A somewhat notorious writer in a recent lengthy
article devoted to Pennsylvania politics and Pennsyl-
Annual Address. 19
vania statesmen, infers that the reason this State has had
but few men who have been prominent in national affairs
is owing to the stubbornness of the Scotch-Irish, and the
want of literary culture among the Germans, neither of
which is true. Our Scotch-Irish friends, however, must
look after their side of the house, for this is Pennsyl-
vania-German day, and we will take care of ourselves.
In keeping with such representations it may be here
mentioned that the time was in the early Ante-Revolu-
tionary clays that the Scotch-Irish and the German set*
tiers had very little in common; there was no sympathy
one for the other. Language and customs were so
widely different. By and by a Scotch-Irish lad went off
with a German lassie, and all the settlement was in an
uproar. lie was outlawed by his friends. As year after
year rolled on, however, the prejudices of the former sub-
sided, and in this year of grace there are few Scotch-Irish
in who<e veins we do not find the blue blood of the Ger-
man and the Swiss, and they are the better for this ad-
mixture. Surely a little German leavens many an Ul-
Now I want to make some suggestions before I say
" finally brethren." We have decade after decade ne-
glected the preservation of our family history. From the
foundation of the world the family was instituted, and
from this have emanated piety and patriotism, those human
virtues upon which rest the prosperity and strength of
the State. As the records of the family constitute the
framework of history, there can be no greater auxiliaries
to science, religion and especially to civilization. With-
20 TJte Peiinsylvdma-German Society.
out the family there can be no golden cord to unite the
destinies of communities or nations, and what is more con-
ducive to this union than the recording and preservation
of all that pertains to the history of our families. He
who collects and preserves his own family history is not
only a benefactor in his way, but will deserve and receive
the grateful thanks of those to come after him. The ven-
erable George Bancroft, with whom I was in frequent
correspondence, upon the appearance of the volume of
"Pennsylvania Genealogies" wrote, " future generations
will rise up and call you blessed for what you have done ;"
but I do not want to apply this to myself. I want to
counsel every one within the limit of my voice to gather
up the fragments of his own family history. lie will
thereby confer a priceless boon upon those whose names
and achievements are thus rescued from oblivion, and pre-
serves the experience and wisdom of ages for the emula-
tion and admiration of posterity. With the loss of church
and bible records, many may consider this no easy task.
This is true, if there is no enthusiasm in your soul. But
" to him who wills there is a way," and I call to mind
the fact that in this audience there is a gentleman who
has done valiant service in this line, and yet who when
he began scarcely knew the name of his grandfather's
family. But he had Pennsylvania-German industry,
pluck and perseverance, with over and above all filial
love, and he accomplished all that any patient laborer in
family history can and may do. I wish I could induce
all of you to follow his example. Xone of us live for our-
selves, or we would not be here to-day. We are looking
Annual Address. 21
to the future and to those who follow after. Our ances-
tors, although neglectful of their family records, owing to
their modes of living, to the one thought, the establish-
ing homes for us, richly deserve this remembrance of
them, the recording of their names and of their services,
humble though they may have been. If, therefore, my
advice is worth anything, if it will bear fruit in due sea-
son, I shall never regret the opportunity afforded me of
saying what I have so earnestly at heart. There is so
much to be done in the family history of our people that
no one should lack interest. And now my friends, al-
though there is great work to be done, not only by this
Society, but by each individual member thereof in his
own behalf, it cannot but be gratifying to all of us, that
within our own State the number of descendants of the
early German settlers greatly exceed all others in patient
and unwearying research among the records of the by-
gone, in the too much neglected harvest fields of Pennsyl-
vania history, biography and genealogy.
Finally brethren, this is Pennsylvania-German Day.
The Executive Committee has prepared a " Literary Re-
past," [the invitations had it a " report,"] which I feel
confident will be heartily appreciated by all who may
be present. I do not want this Society to be transformed
into a mutual admiration society, yet I must congratulate
every one of its members upon the excellent work which
has already been attained, and the harvest has only just
begun. Oar great Commonwealth is destined to be, in
the next decade, the empire state in wealth and national
importance. It is an honor to belong to it, whether we
22 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
be of English-Quaker, Scotch-Irish, or Huguenot ancestry,
and yet the prouder of that race which gave it thrift, fru-
gality and wealth — the Pennsylvania-German 1
The President then announced that the proceedings of
the Society when it organized at Lancaster, April 15,
1891, had been printed in pamphlet form, and were now
for sale, and on account of being so published, the minutes
proper would not be read.
The Secretary then read his annual report, which was
as follows :
The Pennsylvania-German Society will be six months
old to-morrow. This is but a brief period, and as the
work during that time has been mainly of a formative
character, your Secretary may have little to say that will
interest the members, and yet, a good deal of work has
been done, mostly in the way of organization.
The Executive Committee, provided for by the Consti-
tution, and named by the Chairman of the Convention of
April 15th, has not been idle. It has held three business
meetings, the last one this morning. It has performed
all the duties assigned to it, and is in excellent working
order. All its members have been animated with a sin-
ode aim to the common welfare, and have worked har-
moniously towards that end.
The Printing Committee has also had several meetings
at which the duties pertaining to it have been discharged.
It places before the Society to-day, for its approval and
acceptance, a volume containing a brief sketch of our
Secretary's Report. 23
origin, together with all the addresses and a full report of
the proceedings of our organization on the 15th of last
April. This little book will, I think, compare favorably
with similar publications, and it is hoped our first
venture in this direction will meet the approval of the
Concerning his individual work, your Secretary would
say that he has endeavored to discharge the duties of his
position faithfully, and to the best of his ability. There
has been considerable correspondence along with much
other routine work, and as he is also a member of the
Executive and Printing Committees, he besrs the in-
diligence of the members for any shortcomings in his
work, owing to the extended character of it. His rela-
tions have been very pleasant with the entire member-
ship, and he cordially thanks all with whom he had busi-
ness relations for their uniform kindness.
The work of organization over, and our Society fairly
set afloat, more time should now be given to pushing and
extending its work. We have to-day the names of 83
members on our rolls, and 14 additional names were pre-
sented to the Executive Committee this morning. These,
when admitted, will bring up our membership to 97.
This is not a large number, it is true, but it is very en-
couraging. It deserves to be stated that no special efforts
have thus far been made to increase the membership rap-
idly. The aim has been rather to secure the names of
persons in hearty sympathy with our aims and purposes,
and of high standing and character. I have no doubt
that earnest effort on the part of our members will add
24 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
largely to our numbers during the coming year. This
must be done. We cannot afford to stand still. That
would mean stagnation and ultimate decay. We must
progress if we would live.
There has been one death in our ranks — Mr. H. S.
Reinhold, of Harrisburg.
The Secretary suggests that one of the main purposes
of our organization and an important provision of our
Constitution, that relating to the collection of books,
records and documents, be kept steadily in view. We
cannot begin our collection — shall I say library — too
soon. It is a matter of vital importance and concerns us
all. Let every member do what he can individually, and
invite contributions from every quarter. Thus far my
duties as librarian have been far from onerous.
The Secretary further suggests that the question of a
permanent home for the Society be decided without
further delay. The Executive Committee has declined to
take upon itself this responsibility, although requested to
do so by the Convention of last April, and the matter now
comes back to the Society for its final action. Many
reasons could be urged for this step at this time, but as
they will readily suggest themselves to every member,
they need not be more particularly referred to here.
The cost of organization has been moderate, having
been confined to the printing of circulars, blanks, the
Constitution and other documents and the purchase of
stationery and other necessary expenditures. It is to be
wished that every member will purchase a copy of the
book issued by the Society, thereby aiding in paying for
Members 'Elected. 25
the printing of the same and also in putting a little
money into the treasury.
In conclusion the Secretary would thank all the mem-
bers for their uniform courtesy towards himself, and at
the same time cordially invite suggestions of whatever
kind from them, which may serve to more effectually
promote the interests of our Society.
The President : What action will be taken upon the
report of the Secretary ?
It was moved and seconded that the report be received
and entered upon the minutes.
Agreed to, and so ordered.
In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary was au-
thorized to receive the annual dues, the matter having
been disposed of in the meeting of the Executive Com-
The Secretary reported that the following gentlemen
had been elected members at the meeting; of the Execu-
tive Committee held earlier in the morning :
Rev. Charles G. Fisher, D. D., Philadelphia.
Prof. George W. Bowman, Annville.
Samuel K. Lehman, Upper Strasburg.
Simon P. Eby, Esq., Lancaster.
Col. Samuel Cochran Slaymaker, Lancaster.
Rev. TnoMAS Conrad Porter, D, D., Easton.
John D. Skiles, Esq., Lancaster.
David McXeely Stauffer, Xew York City.
Rudolph Frederick Kelker, Harrisburg.
William Anthony Kelker, Harrisburg.
26 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
The Committee acted upon fourteen applications for
membership, and resolved to recognize these fourteen as
members elect, as many of them wished to take part in
the proceedings of the Society. The names of the gentle-
men proposed for membership are as follows:
Cyrus K. Lantz, Lebanon.
John A. Batjsman, Lancaster.
John Peter Keller, Harrisburg.
Edw. G. Hake, Xew Cumberland.
George Kunkel, Harrisburg.
Gabriel Hiester, Harrisburg.
William Luther Gorgas, Harrisburg.
George Albert Gorgas, Harrisburg.
Constantine J. Erdman, Allentown.
Israel H. Betz, Oakville.
John Bayard McPherson, Lebanon.
John P. S. Gobin, Lebanon.
Dr. Frank Muhlenberg, Lancaster.
Dr. Henry Houck, Lebanon.
President: I would state that at the meeting: of
the Executive Committee, held one hour ago, it was de-
cided to recommend, if it was necessary, to go into an
election of officers of this Society, as the officers elected
on April loth are to be considered as temporarily elected
to serve until the annual meeting. The officers elected
to-day will serve until the next annual meeting, so we
will get in regular order.
It was moved and seconded that the Society now pro-
ceed into an election of officers.
Election of Officers. 27
President : The matter is now before the Society for
discussion. According to the second section of article
second of the Constitution, the President, Vice-Presidents
and Treasurer are to be elected at each annnal meeting,
and two members of the Executive Committee also are to
Mr. Hess moved that the present officers be elected by
acclamation, to serve until the following autumn.
President : The Constitution provides that the officers
shall be elected by ballot.
Dr. Hark: I move that the Secretary shall be directed
to cast a ballot for the present set of officers.
Mr. A. J. Kauffman: It seems to me that we are go-
ing to get ourselves into a snarl. I think the best plan is
to look upon the present officers as temporary. I heartily
agree with the gentlemen about the re-election of the
present officers, and think they are the choice of the So-
ciety. If we look upon the matter otherwise the Presi-
dent himself will be debarred from re-election, as he has
either served a term or he hasn't. Let us regard them as
having only served temporarily. I think that would be
the better way.
Dr. Hark: This is the first annual meeting, and the
officers were only elected temporarily. At a prior meet-
ins: of the Executive Committee it was resolved that the
whole organization be regarded as preliminary, and I
move that the Secretary be requested to cast a ballot for
the present officers.
The motion was seconded, agreed to, and it was so or-
28 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
The Secretary announced that in accordance with that
motion he had cast the ballot of the Society for the pres-
The Secretary read a letter from Prof. M. D. Learned,
of Johns Hopkins University, in regard to the publication
of a Pennsylvania-German Lexicon, and asking the co-
operation of the Pennsylvania-German Society.
President : Gentlemen, you have heard the letter ;
what action will you take upon that letter ?
It was moved and seconded that the communication be
referred to the Executive Committee.
President : I would like to hear from some of those
gentlemen who have been paying considerable attention
to the Pennsylvania-German dialect. If the Society is
going to take part in any such publication, I am not in
favor of the Johns Hopkins University or any other Uni-
versity stealing the thunder of this Society.
Mr. Fisher: I would suggest that it would be well
to have the report of the Executive Committee for con-
sideration, and I doubt if anybody here is prepared to
know what we ought to do with the proposition.
Mr. Muhlenberg : As there is only one fixed meeting
in the year, I think that the whole Society should deter-
mine what should be done with the letter, because there
will be no meeting, in all probability, for one year. At
any rate it seems to rne that it would be a proper thing
to appoint a committee from the general body of the
membership to consider this and give them power to act
and to correspond with Professor Learned. I move that
Pennsylvania-German Dictionary. 29
a committee of five be appointed, of which the President
shall be one.
President : It is simply that the Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity would like to have the co-operation of this Society.
Mr. Kauffman ': I don't, see that this special com-
mittee could do better work than the Executive Com-
mittee, and I would like to know how much we become
financially involved by the publication of this dictionary?
Secretary : Say $25 or §30 for the printing and dis-
* tribution of various blanks. The expense would not be
$5, 1 think, in case we take any action at all. I believe
that the Executive Committee should take this matter in
charge. I do not think it is necessary to have a special
Mr. Richards : We are asked to-day to buy these
reports and put the money in the treasury. It seems to
me that this would indicate that we are not rich, and I
do not think it would be good policy to spend now $25 or
$30 for a dictionary that would not be of use for many
years. I don't feel like giving the Committee the priv-
ilege of spending $25 or $30 until we feel that there are
no more ways in which we could put the money to use.
Mr. Sachse : I wish to say in relation to the diction-
ary that I hardly think it is worth while to go to that
expense. If the gentleman could get a copy of the old
Pennsylvania-German dictionary, I think it would give
him everything that he wants and probably a good many
things that he has never heard of.
. Mr. Sener: The same ground that this professor wants
to cover lias already been covered in a work called
30 The Pennsylvania-German Sorirty.
"Pennsylvania Dutch," and it seems to me that it is use-
less to spend $25 or $30 when we could put it to better
Mr. Fisher: I beg to say a few more words in regard
to this subject. I have known Prof. Learned for years. I
have known him as a scholar and as a man versed in his
profession. Few men, — for few men can find the time, —
few men are willing to make the sacrifice of time to work
of this kind. Prof. Learned is one of them. It is not a
matter of profit to him, as I understand. I am unac-
quainted with the condition of the finances of this So-
ciety, but it does seem to me that you ought not hesitate
to consider the pittance that is asked for the purpose for
which it is asked. Reference has been made to certain
publications, and, so far as they go, they are well enough.
I don't think that we have anything in the form of a
lexicon. One objection, if I am correct, is that he called
it "Pennsylvania Dutch," which is all wrong. It is
Pennsylvania-German pure and simple, and as such we
want to preserve it. It does seem to me that it does not
cover the ground. If we have organized for preserving
the history of the Pennsylvania-Germans we should
recognize the fact that there is such a dialect as Pennsyl-
vania-German. There is a difference and if you want to
do anything that is really important it is just something
of this kind, to preserve in permanent form just what our
dialect is. I have had no consultation with the Professor.
I have had one communication from him. I think well
of him. If no more is asked than a small sum it seems
to me that this convention ought to take some favorable
action upon it.
Pennsylvania-German Dictionary. 31
Dr. Hark: I believe that we are discussing something
that is not before us. Leave the matter entirely to the
Executive Committee, as to whether it is to be made or
not, whether it is to be reported favorably or not.
Mr. Kauffman : We can print a good many circulars
for five dollars, and, if the expenditure does not exceed
that, I think it would be wise to make that.
Mr. Muhlenberg: I will withdraw my motion, Mr.
Dr. Buehrle: I move that the committee be allowed
to expend the sum of ten dollars. That will fix a definite
Dr. Heckman : I think it is safer to leave this matter
to the Executive Committee. I think from the knowl-
edge we have, we have no knowledge to act on the sub-
ject. The fact that other lexicons have been published
does not make it appear that this would not be a desira-
ble publication. It may be an improvement. I think, as
descendants of the German settlers, that we have an in-
terest in it, even though it becomes a dead language. But
how far are we involving ourselves in the publication?
Suppose the Executive Committee spends twenty-five or
thirty dollars. Does that involve anything more ? Is it
a pledge that we may be called upon financially hereafter
to assist in some other way ? I am willing, as one, to
leave the whole thins: to the Executive Committee.
Mr. Mumma: I don't understand what is best to be
done under the circumstances. But I think it unques-
tionably important that there should be some arrange-
ment for the Dreservatiou of the Pennsvlvania-German
32 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
dialect, because as it stands it is very much under the old
definition of the law, it is good because most of it is still
in use ; because the rule of law runs not to the contrary.
I have heard it said that it is a low "jargon." In differ-
ent localities it is somewhat different. In some portions
of counties it is entirely different from that in other
portions. If we could get it into some shape it would be
better. Whether this is a better way or not I cannot say.
I don't see why we can't spend that amount.
President: I also received a letter from Professor
Learned, and all he asked was to lay this matter before
the Society ; all he asked was that the Society give its
co-operation. That was all he requested.
Mr. Mttmma : In what form ? By kind words or by
Mr. Sener: Mr. Fisher evidently misunderstood me.
I did not call this Society " Pennsylvania Dutch." I
simply called the work " Pennsylvania Dutch."
President: Gentlemen, you have heard the motion
that the whole matter be referred to the Executive Com-
The motion was agreed to.
The Society then adjourned to meet at two o'clock.
Afternoon Session, 2 o'clock.
The Society was called to order by the President at two
The roll was called by the Secretary.
The President then introduced the Hon. Samuel W.
Early Literature. 33
Penn} T packer, LL. D., of Philadelphia, who delivered the
following address, the subject being
" THE EARLY LITERATURE OF THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMANS."
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-
German Society :
Although, when the kind invitation of your Committee
was extended to me to deliver an address before you, it
was arranged that no written paper should be required, I
still much regret that amid the complications and duties
of life, I have not been able to prepare carefully some-
thing more worthy of such an occasion, and I should not
have ventured to address you extemporaneously upon a
topic of this kind were it not for the fact that, through
the study of many years, I feel more or less familiar with
it. It must be understood, at the outset, that in what I
shall say to you I shall include the works of the Hol-
landers, the descendants of the Dutch emigrants who set-
tled along the Delaware, of the people from the Lower
Rhine and Holland who came to Germantown, of the
Switzers who came to Lancaster county, and still later of
the Germans of Berks and Lebanon and the other coun-
ties of Pennsylvania, who, in the course of two hundred
years, have become welded together into a people known
as the " Pennsylvania Dutch." For my own part I like
the title, and in whatever of credit there may be in
the achievement of that people, and in whatever of re-
proach, if any, may be attached to them, I want to bear
my share. To exclude the descendants of the Hollanders,
would be to throw out the families bearing the names of
34 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Keyser, Rittenhouse, Vanderslice and Pennypacker, and
many others that have become well-known in the history
The foundation stone of Pennsylvania history, and, in
the broad sense, of Pennsylvania literature, the first work
produced by a man who lived and died within the limits
of Pennsylvania, concerning this region of country, was
the little book written by Peter Cornelius Plockhoy.
He was the leader of a colony of Mennonites, who came
over to the Delaware and settled some distance below
Philadelphia, at the Hoorn Kill. The colony existed
about two years, and when Xew York went into the
possession of the English the English Governor, Robert
Carr, sent an expedition to the settlement, which de-
stroyed it, as he says, "even to a nail." Plockhoy, who
was the founder and leader of that settlement, published
in 1662 some account of it, descriptive of the people and
the regulations of the colony, in a little Dutch tract,
printed in Amsterdam. Thinking it would be of inter-
est to you, and as I believe this is the only copy of it in
Pennsylvania, and as it is of such unique importance in
Pennsylvania literature, I have brought it along in order
that you might see it. (See fac-simile on opposite page.)
What became of Plockhoy for thirty years afterward re-
mains a mystery. But, in 1694, blind and destitute, he
came with his wife to the settlement in Germantown, and
the Mennonites there built him a little house, planted
for him a garden and a tree, and there he died. The
story, from the remote past, is pathetic and interesting.
Francis Daniel Pastoriu3, who came over to German
Early Literature. 35
town in 1683, one of the most conspicuous figures of that
settlement, but not the organizer of the movement, as has
been sometimes said, a man of the most scholarly attain-
Kort en felaer ontwerp,
Een onderling Accoor t ,
m® arbepD / ontttS in tnttm-
Volck-planting(onder de procecftic vandcH: Mo:
Heeren Sracen Generael der yereenigde Neder-Jaa.
den^en by fonder onder hec gunfbggefag vande
Achtbare Magiflracen der Scad AmTteire*
dam) aen de Zu.yt-revier in Nieu-ne-
der-land op ce reenter^ Beftaendein
Zee-varende Ptrfonen y
jiUerbjndt noodtgc Arnhachti-luyiai^ eri Mcjlers
*uango:de konjlen en ■wetenfehappen,
feam^fccruatefjifr nafcoigt) tot Dien eptvoe ucckent.
Deer PiettrCcj-nelifz,. Tlcclhoy van Zierck-zet, vcorbentfclvencnandtre
l*ief~bcbbm van Nieu-neder-land.-
t'Smflto&affigttyutktfcpOtto Barentfz.Sniieos, Anno i$6*2.*
ments, who read and wrote in the German, Spanish,
English, French, Italian, Greek and Latin languages,
and whose learning was probably not equalled in any
36 The Pennsylvania- German Society,
colony at that time, devoted very much of his life to the
pursuits of literature. He produced a number of books,
many of which were at the time printed. Among them
were some controversial pamphlets in the Keith contro-
versy, in opposition to Keith, and an " Umstandige Geo-
graphische Beschreibung" or a description of the colony
of Pennsylvania, the first edition of which appeared in
1692. In 1690 there was printed, ostensibly at German-
town, but probably abroad, a work from his pen called
his " Four Treatises" It was a discussion of philosophi-
cal and philological subjects, and although there had been
before produced a few almanacs in English, this may be
said to have been the first attempt at serious literature in
Pennsylvania. I regret to say that it does not appear in
the bibliography of Mr. Hildeburn, an invaluable work
covering the literature of Pennsylvania during the first
one hundred years. Pastorius also wrote a number of
books, never put into print ; among them a large folio
called the " Bee" which included poetry, lexicography,
aphorisms and dissertations, a great tribute to his learn-
ing, and is still preserved.
The first Germans who came to Pennsylvania were
either Mennonites, or they were people of that sect con-
verted to the Quaker doctrines by the Quaker preachers
who traveled through Germany. The Mennonites were
followers of Menno Simon, the Dutch reformer, who was
born in 1492. lie gathered around him the scattered
Anabaptists, most of whom became known as Menno-
nites. They were opposed to warfare and to the taking
of oaths, and refused to baptize infants. The Mennonites
Wil. ' P 1
Early Literature. 37
were very much persecuted, and there were more people
of that sect who were put to death in one city, Antwerp,
in one year, than there were martyrs in all England dur-
ing the time of Queen Mary. Penn invited them over
here and many of them settled in Germantown and in
Philadelphia, Lancaster and other counties. They sent
over to Amsterdam to have their Confession of Faith
printed in 1712. It was afterward printed again hy An-
drew Bradford, in Philadelphia, in 1727. That was the
beginning of their literature. It is quite extensive.
Among their printed books is one consisting of verse and
hymns concerning the persecutions to which they had
been exposed, and detailing the martyrdoms and suffer-
ings of those who had been their leaders abroad. That
book, the " Ausbund" which was first printed in German-
town, in 1742, has been through, in Pennsylvania, no less
than eight editions, and is still used as a hymn book
among the Mennouite churches in Lancaster county and
in the West. There is published with it in all of these
editions a series of biographical sketches of Swiss fami-
lies, a book utterly lost and much sought for in Europe.
Another work, and one of the most serious importance,
is the " Martyrer Spiegel" of Van Braght. This great his-
torical and biographical work of the Mennonites had been
wiitten in Dutch. Peter Miller made a German transla-
tion of it here. Heinrich Funck and Dielman Kolb, in
Philadelphia, now Montgomery county, undertook to
supervise the translation, and it was published in Ephrata
in 1749, a folio volume of 1500 pages, which was the most
extensive outcome of the literature of the American colo-
38 The Pennsylvanrti-German Society.
nies. It took thirteen men three years to do the printing.
The paper was made at Ephrata ; the binding was done
there, and there was nothing anywhere else in the colonies
to compare with it as an illustration of literary and theo-
I want to call your attention to another sect, the
Schwenkfelders, who came to Pennsylvania. They were
the followers of Caspar Schwenkfeld, and the doctrines
taught by him were almost identical with those since
taught by the Quakers. They came in 1734. Their lit-
erature was extensive and interesting. It is reproduced
for the most part in manuscript in huge folios, written
often upon paper made at the Rittenhouse paper mill, on
the Wissahickon, the earliest in America. These vol-
umes sometimes contained 1,000 pages, bound in stamped
leather with brass corners and brass mounting. Among
the notable facts connected with their history is that they
prepared here a written description of all the writings of
Schwenkfeld and their other authors, and it is, as far as
I know, the first attempt at a bibliography in this coun-
try. They are also remarkable in this respect. They
landed in Philadelphia on the 24th of September, 1734,
and thankful for their escape from persecution abroad,
they determined to set apart the 24th of September as a
day to be religiously observed for all time thereafter.
Their Gedachtnis Tag, as they term it, is still maintained
and a record of each annual observance from the bes;in-
ning is preserved.
With the establishment of the printing press, by Chris-
topher Saur, in Germantown, in 1738, there began an im-
Early Literature. 39
mense Hood of German literature. In fifty years there
must have been produced two hundred and fifty books at
that place. I feel that I do not overestimate it, because I
myself have one hundred and eighty of them. Of course,
it would be impossible for me to give to any extent a de-
scription of that literature to-day. The first outcome of
his press was a broadside entitled " Elne Emstliche Ermah-
nung" printed by Saur in 1738. Of that broadside there
are but two known copies in existence, and this which I
show you is one of them. The first book he printed I
have also brought along with me. It was called the
" Zionitischer Weyrauchs Huegel" It appeared in 1739,
and was the first book printed in German type in Amer-
ica. It contained a collection of the hymns of the Eph-
rata brethren. Another book of importance from his
press was Christopher Dock's " Schul Ordnung" an orig-
inal essay on school teaching, written in 1750 and pub-
lished in 1770, absolutely the first treatise upon that
subject which appeared in America.
In this old leather bound box I have a collection of
three hundred and eighty-one tickets that may be termed
Sunday-school tickets. You have all probably read that
Sunday-schools were first started in England in 1780 by
Robert Raikes. These tickets were printed by Saur in
1744. Practically they are unknown, and this is a com-
plete collection of them. On every card is printed a text
of Scripture and a religious verse, and on Sunday after-
noons the children met together, and as each drew a card
from the box, he read aloud what appeared upon it.
At Ephrata, in Lancaster county, there were printed,
40 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
during the last century, probably one hundred books.
They are, for the most part, made up of hymns written
there and they contain a system of music, original in that
community, different from the music then taught, and
which was elaborately described by Conrad Beissel in the
preface to the " Tartel Tanbe" in 1747.
Almanacs appealed strongly to the tastes of the early
Germans. Of course, almanacs were not at all confined to
the Germans, but while the English almanac was gener-
ally an octavo limited in its literary contents to accounts
of the weather and trivial matters, the German almanac
was an ambitious quarto of from forty to forty-eight
pages, oftentimes with continued historical and philosoph-
ical treatises, and even attempts at artistic illustrations.
At the time of the capture of Quebec, the Saur almanac
gave a pl&n of the city with a portrait of Wolfe. I
brought with me a specimen of these almanacs, printed
at Lancaster in 1779. Its special interest consists in the
fact that in it for the first time General Washington was
called "The Father ot his Country/' Mr. W. S. Baker,
our learned authoritvon Washington literature, has found
no other early reference to this title before its appearance
in a book called u Ilardie's Remembrancer," published in
1795. You will see upon the title page of this German
almanac, a representation of Fame. She is holding in one
hand a rude portrait, under which is inserted the name of
Washington ; with the other hand she is holding to her
mouth a trumpet, from which she blows with a loud blast
" Des Landes Vater." (See reproduction on page 41.)
* It would be impossible, in the short time allotted to
me to do anything more than to touch upon a few points
in the literature of the Pennsylvania Dutch. They pro-
duced, as I have before said, the largest and most ambitous
gatt'c alter: $et>vuc?t bw grate Met).
' — '-;_-?>
M 1 779- Ml
work that appeared in the American colonies. The Bible
was printed in German in America three times before it
was printed in English. The Testament was printed
42 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
in German in America seven times before it was printed
in English. To them must be awarded the credit not
only of our first book, that of Plockhoy, but also of the
earliest Pennsylvania essays upon music, bibliography,
pedagogy and astronomy. Mr. Hildeburn, in his Bibli-
ography, has described the newspapers printed in Penn-
sylvania before 1785. Down to the time of the Revolu-
tionary war, there were eight newspapers published in
Pennsylvania in English, and there were ten newspapers
published in Pennsylvania in German. What is true of
the East is also true of the West. The first time that a
Bible appeared west of the Alleghenies it was published
in 1814, in German, at Somerset.
There are some more general topics to which I shall
briefly call your attention. Perhaps the most momentous
event in the early history of America, in its effects upon
the future of the country, was the adoption of the Consti-
tution and the formation of the government under which
we live. I am aware that in the written histories the
Declaration of Independence has met with more -apprecia-
tion and that it has made more impression on the minds
of the people. It seems to me, however, to be a case where
although the credit given has been greater, the merit is less.
If you look at it accurately, the Declaration of Independ-
ence was, after all, only an announcement, a proclamation.
Independence was not secured by any declaration. It de-
pended upon the results of battles to be fought. It
was gained by courage and persistence in war. At most
the Declaration of Independence was an event looking to
the breaking down of a government. Constructive work
Early Literature. 43
is much more serious. To establish a government which
will stand the test of time is a more difficult task than to
destroy one already created, as the experience of all na-
tions has shown. We know how the problems that con-
fronted the statesmen who assembled in Philadelphia in
1787 were met, how the differences of interests and opin-
ion were reconciled, and how the reluctance of the smaller
States was overcome. After the Constitution had been
framed it was still a matter of grave doubt whether it
would be accepted by the States. It is generally conceded
that the adoption of the work of the convention was due
to the early action taken by Pennsylvania. She was the
first of the great States to declare in favor of it. When
the question of the adoption of the Constitution arose in
the Pennsylvania Assembly there was the greatest diver-
sity of views and the contest became heated and earnest.
In that eventful crisis the very earliest effort in behalf of
the new government came from the Germans. The Con-
stitution was signed bv the members of the Convention on
the 17th of September, 1787. On the 24th of September
there was presented to the Pennsylvania Assembly this
petition from two hundred and fifty inhabitants of the
town of German town :
" To the Honorable the Representatives of the freemen
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assem-
bly met, the petition and declaration of the inhabitants
of Germantown respectfully showeth, that your petitioners
have seen with great pleasure the proposed Constitution
of the United States, and as they conceive it to be wisely
calculated to form a perfect union of the States, as well as
44 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
to secure to themselves and to posterity the blessings of
peace, liberty and safety, they have taken this method
of expressing their earnest desires that the said Constitu-
tion may be adopted as speedily as possible by the State
of Pennsylvania in the manner recommended by the reso-
lution of the late honorable convention."
The Assembly was at that time composed of sixty-two
members. When the question of calling a convention
for the adoption of the Constitution came to be deter-
mined, there were forty-three votes in favor of it, and
nineteen votes against it. Among the sixty-two mem-
bers there were twelve Pennsylvania Dutchmen. To
their everlasting honor be it said every mau of them
voted in favor of the resolution. Let their names be
written down and let the fact be proclaimed throughout
the length and breadth of that land which they did so
much to benefit. They were Jacob Hiltzheimer, Ge-
rard us Wynkoop, Michael Schmyser, Gabriel Hiester,
Philip Kreamer, Joseph Hiester, Peter Trexler, Jr.,
Peter Burkhalter, Frederick Antes, Jacob Reiff, Valen-
tine Upp and Emanuel Carpenter.
Not only did Pennsylvania take the responsibility of
the adoption of the Constitution and give her effective
support to the organization of the government, but in all
of the great crises of American affairs her voice and her
arms have been potent. Massachusetts did much to bring
about the Revolutionary straggle, and in the war that
ensued she bore her part; bat in the war of 1812,
which may be regarded as the final effort to maintain our
independence, she utterly failed. She refused recruits,
Early Literature. 45
and there was organized in Isew England that notorious
convention which set the keynote for the pernicious doc-
trine of secession. In the building up of this great
country no State was more earnest in her exertions or
bounteous in her contributions than Virginia. She gave
the Commander-in-chief of the army, the Chief Justice
who interpreted the Constitution, and in her generosity
the lands out of which have been carved the Common-
wealths of the West, but later she fell in the wake of
South Carolina and did what lay in her power to destroy
the government she had aided so much to establish. But
Pennsylvania has always been true. When the people of
the nation, grateful for the public blessings conferred upon
them, want to see Independence Hall, or to learn how
and where their Government was formed, or to crather in-
spiration from the battlefield of Gettysburg, they come
to Pennsylvania. It is her peculiar glory that she has
The winter of 1776 was the most trying period of the
Revolutionary war. Up to that time every effort had re-
sulted in failure and hope was almost lost. Patriots who
had been faithful were making their peace with the en-
emy. The army of Washington was reduced to three
thousand men and he was considering the necessity of re-
treating to the westward of the Alleghenies, there to
maintain a desultory and doubtful struggle. At this
crisis fifteen hundred recruits came to his rescue. With
this addition to his forces he fought and won the battles
of Trenton and Princeton and the tide was turned. Every
man of those fifteen hundred recruits was a Pennsyl-
46 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
vanian. In the war of the rebellion, after we had made
the first trial of strength with the opposing forces and
had lost, the President of the United States and his cabi-
net sat in the city of Washington awaiting that attack
from the successful rebel army which would in all proba-
bility have given them possession of the capital. Think
for a moment of what would have been the result at home
and abroad from such a catastrophe. Within a few days
sixteen thousand Pennsylvanians were there to man the
intrenchments and the peril passed. These things are not
due to accident. They are the result of character. They
come about because of the mental and moral fibre of the
stock. And in my judgment the many and great achieve-
ments of the people of Pennsylvania, cut in bold letters
upon every tablet of American history, from the time
when Pastorius in 1088 made his brave protest against
the wrong of slavery down to that later time when Hof-
mann in 1863 opened the battle of Gettysburg, are largely
to be accounted for by the fact that mingled with the Ens:-
lish who settled the Province were in almost equal num-
bers the scions of that sturdy race which as Germans
overthrew the Roman Empire and as Dutch broke the
power of Spain and made England as we know her to-
day a possibility.
It was moved by Mr. Fisher, seconded and agreed to,
that the thanks of the Society be tendered to Judge Pen-
nypacker for his able address.
A. R. Home, D. D., delivered the following address,
his subject being
Proverbs and' Sayings. 47
"PROVERBS AND SAYINGS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMANS."
Mr. President and Gentlemen: — It is sometimes
taken for granted by ignorant persons, that the Pennsyl-
vania-Germans have no language of their own, that 1hey
speak a patois, that their language is an admixture of
English or that it is Dutch. Hence it may not be out of
place to give the origin of the language.
Martin Luther, in the early part of the sixteenth cen-
tury, by his Bible translations, hymns and extensive writ-
ings in High German, caused that dialect to become the
standard language of German literature. Hence, to this
day the High German is employed in literary productions
as well as in discourse. But there were also other dialects
spoken through all the centuries in different parts of Ger-
many. In the southern portion — whence the greater part
of the Germans who settled in Pennsylvania came — a dia-
lect akin to that which prevails in the German counties
of Pennsylvania was spoken, and has continued to be used
to a certain extent to this day.
This is the origin of the Pennsylvania-German. It is
as old as the High German, possibly older and frequently
more expressive. It has never been extensively used in
print, because the High German was adopted for this end.
As a spoken language, however, it has prevailed from
time immemorial in the South German dialects. The an-
cestors of many of the Pennsylvania-Germans came from
the Palatinate or Pfaltz, now included in Baden, Bavaria
and Darmstadt, where a language resembling that of the
Pennsylvania-German very closely, is still spoken. It
48 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
also has a number of Swiss and Alsatian characteristics.
Many of the Pennsylvania-German words can be traced
back to older roots, and they are often more expressive
than their High German synonyms. " Goul," the Penn-
sylvania-German word for horse, is older and more purely
German than "pferd," the High German, which is de-
rived from the Latin " veredus ;" " hutsch," colt, and
"hutschli," little colt, from the Suabian "hutschel,''
" hutschele," Westerwald u husz," Lusatian " huszche," is
more purely German and more expressive than "fiillen,"
the High German, which is derived from the Greek and
the Latin. " Hutschli " and " hutschla " is an imitation
of the sound made by young colts, and, therefore, as that
large class of words, which are the oldest in all languages,
it must come down from the historic age when the names
of objects were first invented.
" Homili," little calf, can be traced back through the
Swiss "ammeli" and "mammeli" to the language of
nature, which gives us ki mamma," the labial sound made
in imitation of the mother, when the child observes her
lips move in talking to it, while she is bending over the
cradle — a word common to all languages.
The Pennsylvania-German for pig, sow, with its " bus
sow " aud " wuts," are striking illustrations of the an-
tiquity of this language, when it is remembered that
these words are derived from the sound made in imita-
tion of the pig, words belonging to the common language
of nature, from which the Latin " sus," the Greek " bus,"
the English " sow," the Dutch " soe," etc., are derived.
"Schwein," the High German, is of much more recent
Proverbs and Sayings. 49
origin, it being a derivative from the Saxon " svin " and
" 8W." The Pennsylvania-German " grumbeer," potato,
is much more expressive and original, meaning a crooked
pear, or " grund-beer," ground pear, than the High Ger-
man " kartofFel," derived from " erdapfel," an artichoke.
The Pennsylvania-German " krop," crow ; " schpel," pin ;
" schtreel," comb ; " schtruwlich," stroobly ; " ponhaws,"
scrabbel ; " biivi," a young chicken ; " mullakup," tad-
pole; "blech," tin cup; "botser," a tailless chicken;
"butzich," stumpy, are vastly more expressive and orig-
inal than their English or High German equivalents.
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS.
The proverbs, adages, songs and sayings of a people
are, to a great extent, an index of their character. The
proverbs handed down from generation to generation are
very expressive and original. The following, among
many others, are proverbs, so common among the Penn-
sylvania-Germaus that, by their frequent repetition, they
have made impressions upon them sufficiently strong to
influence life and character. They are the household say-
ings of every family, familiar to young and old.
" Kumt mer iwwer der hund so kumt mer iwwer der
schwonz." If one can climb over the dog he can also get
over the tail. By this is meant that when the most diffi-
cult part of an undertaking can be managed, the less diffi-
cult can be easily accomplished.
" Wie mers mocht so hut mers." As one makes it, so
lie has it. That is, a person must expect results in ac-
cordance with his actions or deportment.
50 The Pennsylvartia-German Society.
" Der obbel f olt net weit f om schtornm." The apple
does not fall far from the stem of the tree ; usually ap-
plied to children when they have the faults of the pa-
" Wer net haert muss fiehla." Who will not hear must
feel. A person who will not listen to good advice must
suffer the consequences.
" Wer lauert an der wond, haert sei egne schont." He
that listens by the wall hears his own disgrace. Eaves-
droppers hear their own faults spoken of.
" Der holer is so 3chlecht wie der schtehler." The
concealer is as bad as the stealer.
" Uf en gruwwar bluck g'hert en gruwwer keidel." A
rough wedge is required for a rough block. A rough,
boorish fellow must be handled without gloves.
" De kinner un die norra saw^a de wohret." Children
and fools tell the truth.
"Wer ahalt g'winnt." He that perseveres will gain
"Frish gewogt is halwer g'wunna." That which is
zealously entered upon is half achieved.
" Mer muss sich nuch der deck schtrecka/' Stretch
yourself according to the cover. That is, venture out
only as far as your means will allow ; do not venture out
" Wos mer net im kup hut, hut mer in da fees." What
one has not in his head he has in his feet. If your
thoughts are not collected, you must make up for it in
extra labor. Frequently applied when anything is for-
gotten, and a person is obliged to return for it.
Proverbs and Sayings. 51
" Fors denka kon em nemond henka." Xo one can be
hanged for his thoughts. A person is allowed to think
as he pleases.
"Lushdich wer nueh leddig is, drourieh wer fersch-
prucha is." Jolly who is single, sad who is engaged.
Frequently used by persons who have no prospect of get-
" Wos grewwar is wie dreck, geht selwer aweck."
What is coarser than dirt removes itself. Applied by
persons while sweeping, when anyone is in their way.
" Wer net kummt zu reenter zeit muss nemma was
iwwerich bleibt." He that does not come in season must
take what is left. Used when persons are belated in
coming to meals.
" Gros scekrisch un wenni^ woll." A bis: noise and
O CD CD
little wool. Applied where a great ado is made about
anything which is of little importance.
"Gut g'wetst is halwer g' meht." Well whetted is
half mowed. Keep your tools in good condition, if you
w^ould work with ease ; especially applicable to mowing
with the German scythe, which had to be well hammered
and frequently whetted.
u Wos en dorn werra will schpitst sich in der zeit."
The thorn prepares in season to sharpen its point. That
is, it is early noticeable when a youth is preparing for a
" Eh ehr is die onner werth." One honor is worth
another. Signifying that one favor deserves another.
" De maid wo peifa und de hinkel wo graah mus mer
bei zeit der hols rum dreha." Girls who whistle and
52 Tlie Pennsylvania- German Society.
hens that crow must have their necks wrun^; in good
time. It is so much out of place for women to whistle, as
it is unusual for hens to crow.
" Es kummt net uf die graes awh, sunscht kennt en
kuh en haws fonga." It does not depend on the size,
otherwise a cow could catch a rabbit. A small person
can often accomplish as much as large ones.
" Kortsa hor sin glei geberscht." Short hairs are soon
brushed. This is applied to doing a small job, traveling
a short distance, seeing a small place, etc.
" Wer em onnera en grub grawbt follt selwer nei."
Whosoever digs a pit for another falls into it himself.
" Wer en buck schtehlt is ken schof dieb." Whoever
steals a ram is no sheep thief. That is, a person may be
accused of a deed of which he is not guilty, when he has
committed another of a similar character.
" Mer mus ken kotz im sock kawfa." Do not buy a
cat in a bag.
"Won mer der esel nennt kumt er garennt." When
the ass is named he comes trotting along. When a per-
son is named in conversation he often comes.
" Wer sich nehra will mit fisha und yawsra mus feris-
sena hussa drawga." He that would live by fishing and
hunting must wear torn breeches. Fishing and hunting
are poor occupations.
" Mer hut nix unne druwwel." Xothiuo; without
" Wonn mer der hund dreft, bloft er." The dog barks
when he is hit. When a person is guilty he speaks out
when allusion is made to him.
Proverbs and Sayings. 53
" Saurkrout un schpeck droibt olla sorga week." Sour-
krout and bacon drive care away. A srood substantial
meal is a corrective of dull care.
""Woiin de meis sott sin, is es mehl bitter." When the
mice are done eating, the meal is bitter. When anyone
has a surfeit he does not relish his victuals any longer.
" De morga schtund hut gold im mund." The morn-
ing hour has its mouth filled with gold. Early to bed
and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
The early bird catches the worm.
" Besser en lous im krout os gawr ken flesch." A louse
in the cabbage is better than no meat. It is better to
have a little of a good thing, even if not extra good, than
to dispense with it entirely.
" Morga roth mocht bocka roth, ovet roth bringt drucka
brod." Morning red makes red cheeks, evening red
brings dry bread. Early rising is promotive of health,
while deferring work till evening produces poverty.
44 JSeia besem kehra gut " "New brooms sweep clean.
A new employe makes a good beginning.
" Zub on deiner egna naws." Pull your own nose. At-
tend to your own faults.
" Yeder mus sei egue hout zum gerwer drawga."
Everyone must carry his own hide to the tanner.
Everyone is responsible, amenable for his own actions.
" Nuch em essa en peif duwock, un dos schteht in der
biwel." After a meal a pipe full of tobacco, and this is
found in the Bible. A pun on "this," which word is
found in the Bible.
" En blinde sow findt aw olsamohl en aechel." A blind
54 The PennsylvaniatGerman Society.
pig finds an acorn occasionally. An unsophisticated per-
son may sometimes make a happy hit.
" Ern g'schenkta goul gukt mer net ins moul." The
mouth of a horse received for a present is not examined.
Be not supercilious about a. gift. Beggars must not be
" Mit schpeck fongt mer die meis." Mice are caught
with bait. Enticements are held out to dupes.
" Besser en wenig geleiert os gons g'feiert." Better to
do a little of sometino; than nothing.
" Mer muss lewa und lewa lussa." Live and let
" Zu wenig und zu fiel ferderbt olle schpiel." Too
little and too much spoils everything.
" Zu schorf schneit net, und zu schpitsich schtecht net."
Too sharp does not cut, and too pointed does not stick.
It will not do to be too exacting. Extremes spoil every-
" Do sitst der haws im peffer." There the rabbit sits in
the pepper. There lies the secret. There is where the
" Glena grutta hen aw gift." Little toads have poison
too. Applied to small persons asserting that they too can
accomplish great deeds.
" Wo schmoke is is aw feier." Where there is smoke
there is also fire.
It was moved by Mr. Diffenderffer, seconded and agreed
to, that the thanks of the Society be extended to Dr.
Home for his address.
The Marriage of the Muse. 55
Lee L. Grumbine, Esq., then read a poem entitled
" THE MARRIAGE OF THE MUSE."
where 's the happy bard, the poet and the seer,
Whose voice, with its tuneful charm, will make men hear,
As he tells, in stately epic or fabled story,
Of a quiet and simple folk, of their trials and glory —
As he sings with wisdom and grace and musical measure.
To their children's glad delight, or a busy world's pleasure,
The sterling virtues of that brother band,
" The sorrowing exiles from the Fatherland,
Leaving their homes in Kriesheim's bowers of vine,
And the blue beauty of their glorious Rhine,
To seek amid their solemn depths of wood
Freedom from man and holy peace with God."
"Wilt thou, sweet Euterpe, goddess fair,
Permit thyself be wooed with passion rare,
With ardor fresh, and chivalric devotion,
Of a new swain's first amorous emotion?
!Nay do not spurn thy eager suitor's heart,
Nor bid him thy sweet presence to depart,
But take him with a fond, connubial press,
Into the warm embrace of love's caress,
And touch his soul with that ecstatic bliss
Which poets feel, when with thy magic kiss
Thou thrills't their being, dost their thought inspire,
With holy passion and with genius' fire.
He loves thee with a passion strong and true,
And for thy loving favor fain would sue
56 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
With simple words, for lie's a timid youth,
Who only knows to speak with simple truth
His love. JSTot skilled in trifling ; and the art
Coquettish knows not, but an honest heart
He offers, and a dowry rich and rare,
For. his new bride in sweet content to share,
Of story, legend, myth, tradition quaint,
For their inspired sons to grave or paint
In song or sonnet on th' immortal page,
With skill of seer and wisdom of a sage.
Woulds't know who dares by such a bold demand
Persistent, sue the muse's heart and hand ?
Woulds't know his history, and from what line
He comes, what deeds of virtue or of valor shine,
What great achievements run throughout his life,
That he makes bold to ask the muse to wife ?
Know then, his lineage he reveals with pride,
Nor aught of crime or shame need he hide,
That clouds with stain or infamous disgrace
The honored history of his noble race.
Descended he from ancient Teuton stock —
In heart and brain the peer of Plymouth rock.
Illustrious is his ancestry, and old —
From Scandinavian warriors brave and bold,
Who came in hordes from Boreas' wintry clime,
To sunnier south lands in the ancient time.
The fearless Norseman, valiant Goth and Saxon,
With ruddy face and hair both fair and flaxen ;
An eye unflinching, like the sky as blue,
A heart to love and honor always true,
The Marriage of the Muse,
A form, erect and proud, with limb of steel
That ne'er was made before a lord to kneel ;
A spirit that would bow 'fore God alone ;
No other master would the Teuton own.
The noble founder of th' illustrious house
Of him who longs to be thy loving spouse,
'Tis said, by those whose pleasure 'tis to pore
O'er history's page, and books of ancient lore,
Can trace the thread of his ancestral line
Through ages past to parentage divine —
In myth and legend, — that his noble blood
Descended from old Thor, the thunder god.
Still others of the misty past inquire
Say Noah's son, Thuiscon, was the sire
Of the Teutonic people, and all such
As go by the generic name of " Dutch."
Dear name ! In harsh reproach 'twas once applied,
But now a term of honor and of pride ;
No more a mere derisive appellation,
Or narrow territorial limitation,
It now denotes with meaning more euphonic
Aught under the generic name Teutonic.
The day has dawned when men this name esteem,
And kinship with the Dutch an honor deem.
This is the stock and line of him who woos
The nymph of song, and for his bride would choose ;
Distinguished by his virtues, deeds and piety,
His name — The Pennsylvania Dutch Society.
And here the marriage feast we celebrate
This day, when this young groom doth mate
58 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
With bride the fairest e'er to alter led,
And the sweet muse of poesy doth wed.
Let all her bridesmaids, and the guests rejoice ;
Let minstrelsy and music raise their voice
"With mirth and gaiety ; let dance and song
The gladness of the festal day prolong ;
Ye poet souls to unseen realms fled,
Rejoice ; ye spirits of the minstrel dead,
Be glad. The choirs of angel hosts do share
The festal pleasures of the wedded pair.
And from this holy union may there spring
A progeny of poets, that will sing
The praises of those hero souls who came,
In search of neither fortune nor of fame,
From Alpine slope and banks of castled Rhine,
To land where liberty's fair sun would shine,
From cruel persecution to escape,
Resolved anew their destinies to shape,
By virtue, thrift and industry and toil,
A simple life from new and friendly soil
To gain, where man's fierce hate would cease,
And they might serve their God in holy peace.
For a devout and pious folk were they,
T' whom duty was a pleasure, and to pray
Was joy and constant habit ; and they brought
Their German Bibles, and their hymns that taught
Them piety and love of God, and good ;
And as they worshiped in the primal wood,
The sweet and solemn melodies would sound
Through vale, and echo o'er the hills around,
The Marriage of the Muse. 59
Until ■' the sounding aisles of the dim woods rang "
"With their tuneful praise and the glorious hymns they
As up to Heaven's ear from the greenwood hall,
The sacred music rose, of the grand choral.
For they had suffered much for conscience' sake,
And longed the yoke of bigotry to break :
Long years of persecution and despair,
Of bitter, dire sufferings were their share.
Inhuman, cruel martyrdoms the fate
Of those who dwelt in the Palatinate
And neighboring provinces ; while home and village,
Town and city given o'er to pillage,
Were plundered by the robber hordes of France,
Upon the revocation of the Nantes
Decree, by royal beast whose very name
Comes down the years a synonym of shame.
Thus starts the story of their deep privation
Amid the struggles of the Reformation ;
"With precious price that ever must be paid
Th' advance of freedom's holy cause to aid, —
With price of blood and suffering they bought,
Freedom of heart and brain and soul and thought,
They freely dared all danger for the right,
As they conceived it in God's holy sight ;
All perils of both land and sea they braved,
Lost all possessions, but their manhood saved.
And many victims of the cruel strife,
With all the rest, surrendered even life.
60 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
But others from their persecutors fled,
By Providence to hetter fortunes led,
To Albion's isle for refuse first they turn ;
The kind Queen Anne in sympathy doth yearn,
Her heart is big enough, too 'small the space
For an asylum to the exiled race.
But as they tarry in the foreign city,
The sad recital of their woes, to pity
Moves the savage heart of swarthy chief
From western world, who soothes their troubled grief,
And hospitably offers them a home,
If to the far off sunset land they'd come.
Across the trackless sea their longing eyes
They turned, with hope afresh, on freedom's prize,
Xo homes, no goods, no laud, no peace, no rest,
The wilderness invited the oppressed.
Like Moses' tribe, with reverence be it said,
When Pharaoh's cruel bondage, Israel fled,
Cross flood more deep than Egypt's ruddy tide,
They had th' eternal God of Israel to guide,
Their pathway over land and sea ; by day
The dusky cloud stood up and marked the way,
By night the fiery pillar in the unseen Hand
Led on, and beckoned to the promised land.
At last their painful wanderings had an end ;
At last they found a refuge and a Friend,
Whose name and memory are loved by men ;
Their home was waiting in the land of Penn.
There was an old tradition in those days
Of persecution, that the Lord would raise
The Marriage of the Muse. 61
Prosperity from affliction, and would bless
The German people, in the wilderness.
Behold the glorious prophecy fulfilled I
What heritage for their children did they build.
A garden of the Lord, as rich and fair
As Eden home, their heaven devised share.
Look out upon the beauty of the land,
Abundantly bestowed on every hand.
The fruitful acres and well watered plains
Contribute nature's bounty to their gains.
The bursting hills are filled with mineral wealth ;
The climate laden with the breath of health ;
The pregnant earth doth yield her rich increase,
And every prospect ministers to man's peace.
This home, in western world, in country strange,
For their loved Fatherland did they exchange.
'Tis freedom's home, more excellent and fine
Than Canaan land, or country of the Rhine.
Yet all this lavish wealth of nature's gift,
Without the record of their deeds and thrift,
Were void of charm ; 'tis what our fathers wrought,
What trials overcame, what battles fought,
What great achievements gained, successes won,
The sufferings endured, the exploits done,
By busy hand, brave spirit, patient heart —
These are the themes t' engage the poet's art.
What man hath done for good, and not for ill,
How he obeyed the Everlasting Will,
How he hath been rewarded from above,
For living for the right and truth and love.
62 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
And yet 'tis true, tho' passing strange may seem,
These worthy folk historians scarcely deem
"Worth menti'ning, save with passing sneer or slight
Of prejudice or ignorance; or quite
Ignore them. Is it naught to have subdued
The wilderness when cruel fate pursued,
Yet conquered every foe and bitter trial,
By virtue, industry and self-denial —
In spirit fervent — cleaving to the good —
In tribulation patient — humble mood —
In hope rejoicing — and to kindness given —
With faithful heart to serve the Lord of Heaven ?
Of no account a heritage to own,
Broad as the limits of the proud Keystone,
Whence, like a swarm of bees, from busy hive,
Their sons, to every state have flown, to thrive
In comfort and in sweet content ? It is naught
The Pennsylvania-German bravely fought
For freedom's cause, on every battlefield,
To succor the oppressed, the weak to shield?
When independence in the balance quavered,
And many in their fealty had wavered,
Could not the infant State on him depend
In every strait, her fortunes to defend ?
Has he not loved the cause of education ?
Does he not sit in halls of legislation ?
Doth make the law ? And from the bench expound
The same, with judgment, righteous and profound?
With honor practice at the bar ? Doth heal
The sick? And care for our eternal weal?
Permanent Headquarters. 63
Is not his name to art and science known ?
Does not the State his trusted service own ?
If history seals her lips, or does not know it,
The truth is spoken by the Quaker poet, —
The German pilgrim's glory, first to brave
Men's scorn for justice to the helpless slave.
Inspired child, that of this happy union
Shall be born! when the divine communion
Fills thee, do thou take this crude material
Loosely gathered, and with art ethereal
"Weave th' immortal verse. By prophet seer,
To whom the ways of Providence are clear,
Who knows the well springs of the human soul —
Who reads men's actions like an open scroll —
With sweetest melody of silver tongue
Throughout the future ages will be sung,
With charm of epic, and with truth of sermon,
The praises of the Pennsylvania-German !
It was moved, seconded and agreed to that the thanks
of the Society be extended to Mr. Grumbine for his inter-
The Secretary called up the matter of permanent head-
quarters for the Society, as follows :
You will find in Article 2 of the Constitution the
words " The head-quarters of the Society shall be located
in ." This matter has been referred back
to the Society by the Executive Committee, and it now
comes before the Society. We must have a certain per-
64 The Pennsylvania-German Society,
rnanent locality for the deposit of such things as may
come into the possession of the Society.
Mr. Muhlenberg : It seems to me that, as this Society
only starts out to-day with its first annual meeting, and
up to the time of the election, the officers have been
merely provisional, it is not yet time for this Society to
get settled and vote for a permanent location. I think
that after another year's existence, in October, 1892, after
it has grown to a membership of not only 100, but 400
members, then I think it will be the time for us to say
where the permanent home of this Society will be. I
think that at this time it is too early, and I think that
for another year it will be better to . move along as we
have done. I think it is better for the Society to remain
as it is, moving about from place to place. Therefore, I
move that the selection of a permanent place be postponed
for one year from the present time.
Dr. Hark : This was a question when the Society was
first organized. The selection of a home was postponed,
and it left this Society homeless, and I am surprised that
this spirit is still manifested. I have felt that the one
thing that is imperfect in our Society is that we have no
permanent home. The point of keeping our conventions
and its meetings at different places will not be touched.
The idea is not at all to make the headquarters where all
its meetings have to be held, but if I am not mistaken, it
is intended that we are to move about from place to place,
whether we have fixed headquarters or not. But the
question is simply this : if there are people, and I know
there are, through the State, who have valuable literary
Permanent Headquarters. 65
material, and who are anxious and willing to contribute
to our Society, they are waiting for us to fix a place where
they can be taken care of, where they will not be scat-
tered and go to nothing. Then it appears to me that
we will have to postpone the reception of these gifts.
Another year is unnecessary. I think we should have a
depository. If I am not mistaken there was a resolution
of thanks passed to the German Society of Philadelphia
for the offering of their room, and they were informed
that the matter had not yet been decided.
Mr. Mumma : We thanked them for the offer, but we
did not accept their offer.
Mr. G rumbine : Does that offer still remain open ?
Tiie Secretary : It has never been recalled.
Mr. Mumma : I would state that there ought to be
some place. The meetings of the Society could be held
at different localities, even if the offices were at one place.
There ought to be some one place where we could go, and
where anything we have in the shape of a donation should
be taken care of.
Mr. Parthemore : I don't think that time has arrived.
I don't see any necessity for it. I don't believe as Dr.
Hark does, People are generally holding on pretty
tightly to these things at this time. If we were to rush,
perhaps next year we would want to re-locate.
Dr. Hark : May I ask some reason why this time is not
just as good as next year ?
Mr. Parthemore: I tried to intimate that we are
hardly organized yet. We want to think over this mat-
ter, and exchange views with one another. If Lancaster
G6 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
was suggested, I could not vote for it; if Philadelphia
was suggested, I could not vote for it ; if Harrisburg
was suggested, I could not vote for it.
Mr. Kauffman: What Mr. Muhlenberg says is true.
"We are in a sort of an embryo state, and not in a con-
dition to locate permanently. But, as Dr. Hark says,
there must be a beginning. There are no doubt many
people who might have things which we might get now
that we could not get later on. I don't see any reason
why we should not go to Lebanon, West Chester, etc.,
wherever there is more or less of a German population,
but I can't see that you can have it at any other place
than at the home of the Secretary. I can't see that you
can fix a place at any other place than where the Secre-
tary resides, as he has been selected for five years, where
he could receive deposits. Harrisburg is the only cen-
tral place possible, the most central. I can't see any
other place than Lancaster, however, it being the home
of the Secretary. It is reasonable to suppose that the
Secretary will reside in Lancaster for the next five years.
Mr. Zahm: We don't know of any donations, but, in-
side of an hour and a half ago, one of the members said
that he had a number of things which he would like to
give, but without a location, he would not like to do so.
I am in favor of locating somewhere. Lancaster would
be my preference, of course.
Mr. Fisher : I take it for granted that all the mem-
bers of the Society have at heart the success of this So-
ciety. It strikes me from what little I have heard that
the postponement of action upon this subject for at least a
Permanent Headquarters. 67
number of years would be calculated to promote the suc-
cess of the Society. I do not know what the member-
The President: Ninety-seven.
Mr. Fisher: Ninety-seven, not yet a hundred. The
nuptials have taken place, but before we go to house-
keeping let us have something to go to houskeeping
with. The family is small. Where are the things with
which to incur the expense of a permanent location?
When you do want to locate permanently you want to
locate in such a place as shall be convenient and comfort-
able, and I think that this location should be as central as
possible, speaking of the German counties of the State.
It has occurred to me that if you hold several meetings
during the intervening time it would be calculated to in-
crease our membership, and that is one thing we need.
Nothing can be lost by the postponement. I may be
wrong, but I am inclined to think that postponement
would be to our advantage.
Mr. Muhlenberg : I would like to say one thing in
answer to the gentlemen. He asked for one reason why
it should be postponed. He gave one reason why it was
necessary that we should fix upon a permanent home.
His reason was that there is no place for the donations,
which he thinks the Society may be endowed with by the
generosity of its own members or by outsiders. But
until this Society is, as we might say, out of its swaddling
clothes, no man iu his senses would give this Society man-
uscript, records, etc. We must wait until we shall show
that the Society is permanent, like others of its kind. I
68 The Pennsylvania-Jj-ermoM Society.
think, Mr. President, and I think that most of the gen-
tlemen here present will agree with me, that during the
next year its membership will double. We have, of the
ninety-seven members, no more than forty in this room.
The gentlemen would have these forty members deter-
mine this afternoon without consultation the location to
adopt. During the next year I hope, and I hope that you
all hope, with me, that we will double our membership.
Certainly those members who are not with us, whom we
expect to join next year, are entitled to vote in this mat-
ter, because when we have once established its home we ■
will have more trouble in changing it. I further say that
the instant we bring this question in, we will have this
Society split up into factions, on account of those who
desire to locate in Berks County, Lancaster County or
Dauphin County. For my part I would consider that
the permanent home of the Society should be in Phila-
delphia, and all I ask is that the determination of this
question shall be one year hence.
Mr. Sener : At Lancaster, last April, when we started
the Pennsylvania-German Society, we had one hundred
and fifty or one hundred and seventy-five who attended
there. Out of that number eighty-three filed their appli-
cations, fourteen were received to-day, making a total of
ninety-seven members to-day ; I don't think that defer-
ring this matter a year longer would increase it even two
fold. The time, I think, has come for a permanent home.
I think more men will join it if we have a permanent
home, than have joined it, and, as for Philadelphia, I,
for one, wish to ask how many Pennsylvania-Germans
Permanent Headquarters. 69
you will find in Philadelphia ? If we locate anywhere,
let us locate in a German settlement. I am in favor of
Lancaster or Harrisburg. The community will get it
into their heads that this is a Society for mutual admira-
tion, and will exist for only a few years.
Dr. Hark: I think we should have a depository for
records and a permanent home. I think we should have
a fireproof room for a depository, and I think this ques-
tion should be acted upon to-day.
Mr. Buehrle : The motion, as I understand it, is to
postpone for a year. I would like to add that the Secre-
tary be authorized to receive any donations that may be
given, and to incur the necessary expenses in caring for
Mr. Richards : Upon the main question of a perma-
nent home I have no feeling, and until Mr. Muhlenberg
stated that there would be a feeling of rivalry growing
out of it, I considered that we had organized a Society
that was made to exist, aud was not a body of men who
had an interest back of it all. Wherever you locate it, I
don't think you are going to injure it. We don't want
to feel that we don't know whether we are groins; to live
or die. I think we should feel that we are going to live,
whether we locate at Lebanon, Lancaster, Harrisburg or
some other important city in the State. I think the Ex-
ecutive Committee should have made a report. If it is
necessary for us to rent a room where we can keep the
papers, let us rent one ; a room where the Executive Com-
mittee can hold its meetings, and let us hold our annual
me3tin2fs here, there and evervwhere as the Constitution
70 The Tennsylvania-German Society.
permits us. Everything has to descend through the Sec-
retary. He takes charge of our papers and arranges for
our copyrights. As we have elected a Secretary from
Lancaster city we have virtually made that city the head-
quarters of our association. Why not make the head-
quarters there, since we have gone so far as electing a
Secretary from Lancaster. If it was Harrisburg I would
like it to be the same of Harrisburg. I think the So-
ciety will grow stronger if we make ourselves a perma-
Dr. Heckman: I don't like to prolong the discussion,
but if, as the gentlemen who has spoken has said, in
selecting the Secretary from Lancaster as permanent Sec-
retary, we have selected a home, I say we have gone too
far. I don't see how the Society has committed itself in
any way by the election of a Secretary residing in Lan-
caster. I think it is very important that we should not
be hasty in the selection of our location. I think we
should be very cautious in the making of our selection.
It so happens that nearly one-half of the organized mem-
bership is made up of citizens of Lancaster. If it had
met at Reading, or any other place, it would have been
the same way. It seems to me that by postponing ac-
tion we might increase the growth of our Society. I do
not think that we are prejudiced ; and, as to the matter of
the art gallery, museum, library and historical bric-a-brac,
that is to come into our possession, the Secretary can take
charge of it. I do hope that our association will be a
matter of great importance to the community at large,
and I do hope that its outcome will be a museum of great
Greeting to Whittier. 71
interest, hut that museum ought not to be located at a
place at one side. It should he in a place where it would
he open to visitors from different parts of the country,
hut who would not like to make a side journey to see our
collection. I think that a matter of so great importance
should not he decided hastily.
Mb. Sener : I move that the whole matter be tabled.
This motion was seconded.
Dr. Heckman: Is it to be laid on the table for the
present or permanently ?
The President : I presume it is to be laid on the table
for this session, unless it is moved to take it up again.
The motion was not agreed to.
The President : The question is now on the resolution
of Mr. Muhlenberg.
The motion of Mr. Muhlenberg to postpone action for a
year was agreed to.
The Secretary : I want to state that I am perfectly
willing to take charge of all things that come to me, al-
though, up to the present, they amount to very little.
Mr. Grumbine : I desire to ask leave of the Society to
present a short resolution.
The permission of the Society was granted, and the
following resolution was offered by Mr. Grumbine :
" Resolved, That the Pennsylvania-German Society, in
first annual session assembled, sends greeting to the Quaker
poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, as a token of their love
and veneration of him, and in recognition of his just ap-
preciation of the character of their ancestors, the early
German pilgrims of Pennsylvania."
72 The Pennsylvania- German Society r.
The resolution was unanimously adopted, and ordered
to be telegraphed to Mr. Whittier.
During the day the following reply to the foregoing
resolution was received from the venerable poet :
Amesbury, Mass., Oct. 16, 1891.
Dr. William H. Egle, President Pennsylvania-German So-
ciety : — I thank your Society for the kind words of the
resolution, and am glad that my pen-portrait of one of
the earliest German pilgrims meets the approval of the
descendants of the brave, true men of the Fatherland,
who made their forest homes on the Delaware and the
JOHX G. WHITTIER.
Mr. Mumma offered the following resolution :
" Resolved, That we cordially recommend the organiza-
tion of local societies, having the objects of this Society
in view, and invite them to co-operate with this Society
in furthering its objects. ,,
It seems to me that you ought to have something of
this kind, as the Society is to meet only once a year. Be-
sides, if the Society is to increase in its scope, and if we
have anything like the number of people we expect, these
local societies can send delegates to the present Society.
It cau scarcely be expected that any number of people
will send in their names and sign the Constitution, but,
if you have local Societies, such as the Dauphin County
Historical Society, there will be something to keep up the
interest. I think it is the only salvation to build up the
large Society which we expect.
Local Societies. 73
Dr. Hark: I see that the Executive Committee has
authority to call three meetings annually. Would not
local Societies be provided for by the article in the con-
stitution providing for that? It seems to me that we had
better not go out of our way and ask for the establish-
ment of other organizations, because we provide for this
under our own directions.
The President : As I understand it, the Executive
Committee shall arrange to have meetings in different
places for the purpose of working up the sentiment for
Mr. Mumma : That being the case, I withdraw the
Dr. Hark : May I urge upon the gentlemen the neces-
sity, if we are to grow, if the Society is to be doubled, the
necessity of every member doing his best to get that in-
crease? There have been no efforts made except on the
part of a few. I think every member should make it a
point to get such desirable members as would benefit the
Mr. Fisher : If you could get a meeting at York, I
think we can guarantee from fifty to one hundred mem-
bers who don't go away from home very much.
Dr. Heckman : If each member will take four or five
blanks with him and present them to friends at home,
we may secure a number of applications.
Mr. Parthemore : I move that the next annual meet-
ing be held at York.
The President: The matter has been referred to the
74 The Pennsylvania-German Society,
Mr. De Schweinttz : Are the Executive Commitee in
a position to furnish us with extra copies of the Constitu-
tion? I don't know whether they can afford to do it
The Secretary: There are extra copies here for any of
the members desiring them.
THE AXXTJAL BANQUET.
Wednesday Evening, October 14, 1891.
The local committee on arrangements had selected the
Commonwealth Hotel as the place for holding the annual
banquet. About 9 o'clock the members of the Society,
together with a number of invited guests, gathered about
the bountiful spread to which genuine Pennsylvania-Ger-
man justice was done.
President Egle presided, and in calling the meeting to
order after the banquet proper had been gone through
with, said :
Gentlemen : As I presume you have all partaken of the
good things of life this evening, it is now time to pass on
to another part of the programme. I therefore, in ac-
cordance with the request of the Committee, and as Pres-
ident of the Pennsylvania-German Society, state the first
toast: "The State of Pennsylvania, the early home of
the German and Swiss settlers in America." Responsive
to this sentiment I have great pleasure in introducing to
you the Governor of Pennsylvania, his excellency Robert
Emory Pattison :
The Annual Banquet. 75
Governor Pattison addressed the Society as follows :
Gentlemen y 31embers of the Penn sylvania-Ger man Society:
I was very much gratified to-day when I was waited
upon by a committee representing the Pennsylvania-Ger-
man Society. Dr. Egle, who was chairman of that Com-
mittee, in his most social way, presented the purposes of
the Committee, and extended to me an invitation to be
present. I did not know what part I was to take. I
thought, of course, that I would find here this evening a
bill of fare after the Pennsylvania-German fashion ; that
the toast or toasts would be written in Pennsylvania-Ger-
man ; that the conversation about the table would be
largely in Pennsylvania-German ; that the manner of dress-
ing the table would be after the Pennsylvania-German
manner. However, instead of that, I find that everything
is after the most modern English style ; that the table is
dressed like any other table ; that the bill of fare is with-
out any indication of a Pennsylvania dish, so that I
am taken somewhat by surprise. The toast, however,
whether it be proposed in Pennsylvania-German or
Pennsylvania English is such that there can be no
mistake, because it points out its purposes in naming
the State of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania is very proud
of her Pennsylvania-Germans. Do not think one mo-
ment that I mean, by such a suggestion, to flatter the
members of this Society. I make that assertion more out
of respect for the history of Pennsylvania-Germans than
for the presence of the representatives of the Pennsyl-
vania-Germans here to-night. Pennsylvania occupies, as
has been told repeatedly, over and over again in song and
76 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
speech, the Keystone of the arch of the States comprising
the Union. She is given that for many reasons, principally,
however, and I can only touch on one or two, because
of her important relative position as to the other States.
Upon either side of her, East and West, Xorth and South,
are situated the other States of the Union. She possesses
in herself all the products of every other State in the
Union. All other States might disappear, and yet Penn-
sylvania in herself, by her products and the industry of
her people, be such an empire that she could exist within
herself. This is the territory that the Pennsylvania-Ger-
man, what is now called the Pennsyvania-German, that
the German emigrant selected as his future home in
America. He came to these shores very early, induced
no doubt by the liberal propositions of the great founder
of this Commonwealth. There is no founder of any
Commonwealth, in this country or in any other country,
who equalled the wisdom displayed by the founder of the
State of Pennsylvania, William Penn. He came here
after securing possession of this land, as the Proprietor
and Proprietary Governor of the territory granted by the
English crown, and then he opened it to all the inhabit-
ants of the earth, without regard to religion, without re-
gard to nationality, and without regard to any human re-
lation whatever, and he extended all a home, and he at
once placed them upon the equal rights of the citizens
that were subsequently declared by Mr. Jefferson in draft-
ing the Declaration of Independence. I have no doubt
that the invitation given by the Governor of Pennsyl-
vania to the German emigrants was for the fact that, in
The Annual Banquet 77
the freedom he was to obtain here, such persons would
be a benefit and an advantage to his property. There is
no people on the European continent so identified with
individual freedom as the German race. The Roman
empire attempted to cross the Rhine and place these peo-
ple in subjection, but they were able at no time to do it.
The freedom that the ancient Germans held they ought
to have individually, extended back to the period of the
control of the Roman government. At no time has the
German citizen ever given up that individual desire for
freedom which he believes belongs to him as a matter of
right. He has not been at all demonstrative, but there is
no nationality more obdurate in asserting his individual
rights than the German citizen. He came into Pennsyl-
vania with this feeling. He did not stop upon the borders
of this State. He did not linger alono; the Delaware or
Schuylkill, but pushed into the interior. He came up
into the Cumberland Valley. He pushed forward to
what was then the border territory. He had to mas-
ter not only the dangers of the forest, but the dangers
that oppressed the first emigrants at that time. But,
notwithstanding the obstacles, there is no race that
so settled down and staid there, more than the Ger-
mans of Pennsylvania. I need but refer you to the Ger-
man settlements in the Lebanon Valley, or the settle-
ments down the Cumberland Valley, or the settlements
in Lancaster County. They grow up with the country,
and in that way attach themselves to their commu-
nity. So that I come here to-night to address you not
so much upon the purposes of your Society, because that
78 The Pennsylvania'German Society.
is for others, but upon the past history of the Pennsyl-
vania-Germans and the State of Pennsylvania. Other
nations have come in from England, from Ireland, from
Wales, from Scotland and from the North of Europe,
whose nationality is to-day represented in the territory of
the United States. The few millions of people represent-
ing the original settlements at the Declaration of Inde-
pendence have grown into a population of more than sixty
millions. I know, and I believe, that it is well for a peo-
ple to preserve in every way possible the associations con-
nected with their ancestry. It is an inspiration to them
to go forward in the world and do better individually
than those who preceded them. It is an inspiration to
build for the future better than has beeu built in the past
for them. When we have lost a regard for our ancestors.
when we have no patriotic sentiment, there is very little
hope, not only for the present, but for the future. The
development of our people, the growth of our people, the
hope of our people, is to be found in the high patriotic
regard for the history of the past, and for the ancestor
that has given to the American what he to-day enjoys.
While, therefore, I come to rejoice with you this night in
this anniversary of your Society, and while I am perfectly
willing to participate and enjoy the hospitality of other
nationalities, I say to you that I feel to-night prouder of
the fact that we are American citizens than any other in
regard to our nationalities and our past history. The hope
of our country, the hope of the future, is in the building
up of such a citizenship that will give a patriotic ring to
every purpose of our government, actuating every motive
The Annual Banquet. 79
in business and social life, and so develop society that
it will realize in the country what was intended by the
founders. You perpetuate here to-night your organization
as Pennsylvania-Germans and give to the Society that his-
tory which it is wise to preserve, but there is no title that
you can have that is of more credit to you than the title
of American citizens. I congratulate you therefore upon
the work already done by the Society, and congratulate
you upon the growth of your organization. I hope that
the opportunity will be given to gather into your Society
the whole history of the people who are generally, as I
have said, modest and retiring, and who have not pushed
themselves forward, but who have as great and patriotic a
history as any other people who have ever come into this
land. Give to the history of Pennsylvania all the history
connected with the Pennsylvania-Germans, that they may
go out into the world and become a part of the great
history of Pennsylvania. Then, when the history is
made up, when all nationalities shall point back to the
history of the past, to the particular part their race took
in the settlement of America, the Pennsylvania-Germans,
through the Pennsylvania-German Society, will have car-
ried out the purposes of the organization of the Society,
in bringing to the knowledge of the public of Pennsyl-
vania the magnificent record of the Pennsylvania-Ger-
[The address of Governor Pattison was loudly cheered
at its close.]
80 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
The Chairman: The next toast is "The Judiciary of
Pennsylvania," and I call on the Hon. Edwin Albright,
of Allentown, to respond to it.
Judge Albright: Your Chairman, Mr. Parthemore,
came to me when I came into this house this evening and
said that I should be called upon to respond to a toast.
I did not ask what the toast was, because my conviction
at the time was that I should not respond to it, for the
reason that I was sure that I had not anything to present
that would be worthy of the Society, and of the gentle-
men who should be at the festal board this evening. This
is my impression now, but, in order that it may not be
said that the car of progress, as represented by this Penn-
sylvania-German Society, stuck in the mud when it came
to my place, I have concluded to get upon my feet and
utter a few words. The judiciary of this Commonwealth,
of course, is a good field to work in. Exactly how it
connects itself with the Pennsylvania-German Society I
don't see, and I suppose that I am about as well off as any
of you ; you don't see it either. Xow, you would not ex-
pect me to say much as to the personnel of the judges now
in commission in this State, as it happens that I am now
in commission as a judge, and have been so for a number of
years. Although we hear of the diffidence and bashful-
ness of the Pennsylvania-German, and that he always be-
gins at the other end of the case, when you come to look
at the calendars he gets there in the long run. Well, we
get the credit of being bashful and diffident. Anyhow,
how. would you expect me to stand here and praise the
judges of the State. Your conviction would be that if
The Judiciary of Pennsylvania. 81
that performance was to be accomplished by any one, it
had better be done by some one else. Then, I have too
much pride of race and pride of my cloth to disparage
the judges. Therefore, I have little to say of the person-
nel of the judges of the State. The judiciary of the
State, so far as it relates to the body of the law emanat-
ing from the judge, has little connection with the Ger-
man race, as it is in this Commonwealth. Pennsylvania
was an English province. Many of the British statutes
were brought in and formed part of the body of the law
of this province, and, as many of us know, many British
statutes are in fact to-day the body of the common law,
a3 it was formed by the work of a century, of England,
and were bodily part of the law of the province of Penn-
sylvania, and are to-day the groundwork of our laws.
The statutes themselves took their inspiration to a great
extent from the common law of England. The ideas of
jurisprudence, as they prevailed several hundred years
ago on the continent of Europe, for instance in Germany,
have had very little influence upon the judicial system of
the State of Pennsylvania, and that is where our Pennsyl-
vania ancestors showed their great sense. I don't know
whether they had the power to impress ideas, which may
be said to have been practical to them, upon the laws of
this State, at least they never attempted it, and while it
is all well enough to tickle the ears of people, Germans,
for instance, and urge them to keep up the institutions
and religion of the Fatherland, when we have be-
fore us our Irish cousins, and see the whole catalogue
of nations that make up the great American people, it
82 The Pennsylvania-jG-erman Society,
it is true that he who dwells in this land or who expects
his children shall live in it after him, whether he comes
here to-day for that purpose, or whether he came two hun-
dred years ago, when the earliest Germans came to this
State, mistakes his duty to this country, if he does not
recognize that the practical institutions of the country he
came from, so far as they come in conflict with the insti-
tutions of this country, might just as well be forgotten,
for every person landing upon this country, expecting to
be an American citizen, should be an American citizen.
If there is any connection between German jurispru-
dence as it prevails in the Fatherland and the Pennsyl-
vania system, well, I don't know of it. I only know of
one instance where perhaps the Pennsylvania-German
idea was better in a judicial way. We had at our
bar, for many years, a half a century, a very promi-
nent lawyer, who hailed from Connecticut, but inas-
much as substantially all the people besides him were
Pennsylvania-Germans, he was given to the habit of flat-
tering the Pennsylvania-Dutch. At one time he wa3 try-
ing a case before a board of arbitrators composed of our
.good, square, level-headed Pennsylvania-Germans, and un-
fortunately for his side of the case, his opponent found a
case which ruled him out of Court, in the reports of the
Supreme Court of Massachusetts. But, said the Yankee
lawyer, u The idea of reading before a board of arbitra-
tors the law of Massachusetts. Let him bring law from
the good Dutch Supreme Court of Pennsylvania and read
The judiciary of this State, considering it in its effect
The Judiciary of Pennsylvania. 83
upon the government of this State, in the past and at pres-
ent, is a wide field to work in. The judges of this State
have heen the men at the rudder, who have directed the
course of the Ship of State, and who have steadied it,
and I suppose it may be said, generally speaking, that at
least the past is secure, so far as the judicial history of
this State is concerned. There is a great body of laws,
that was never made by the legislature. They are judge-
made laws. The Pennsylvania-German, if he has that
integrity and truth which is usually ascribed to him, of
course would naturally have, at least, a few of the promi-
nent qualifications for the judiciary. And right here,
where is the use of saying much in praise of the Ger-
mans ? For the last thousand years, the German, the Teu-
ton and the Goth have ruled the civilized world ; whether
he is a Goth in Spain, or along the shores of the Mediter-
ranean, in the Middle Ages or before ; whether he is a
Frank in Gaul or in Western France ; whether he was a
Saxon or a Dane in England, or whether he is an Anglo-
Saxon transported to these shores, the fact remains that,
to a great extent, government, for the last thousand years,
has been in the hands of the Xorthmen, or the Teu-
tons or Goths. So far as civil government is con-
cerned, he has held his own. Of course the German is
fitted for civil government, he is fitted for the administra-
tion of the law. Who is so serious and grave and owl-
like as the German, and surely a judge ought to be grave
and owl-like, or ought to be grave, at least. I am getting
far from the judiciary. But nobody expected me to say
anything that would interest or amuse him. The act has
84 The Pennsylvania* German Society.
been committed and the expectation has been met. The
Pennsylvania-German is modest, but when you look over
the list of the judiciary now in commission, you will find
that he has a good share of the judgeships ; fully his share,
especially in the eastern part of the State. In the counties
of Bucks, Berks, Lehigh, Lackawanna, Schuylkill, Phila-
delphia and Monroe, and some other districts, the judges
are of Pennsylvania-German stock, but it is not for us to
say how successfully we administer the law ; at least, we
fill the place. I think that the Pennsylvania-German So-
ciety has made a pretty fair beginning; you have devel-
oped pretty good, healthy appetites here. I hope, gentle-
men, as an individual and a Pennsylvania-Datcher, to
meet you and many more of our race at another anni-
versary occasion, and we ought not to forget to invite our
brethren of our State, for where is the use to hide our light
under a bushel basket. What is the use of being called
the good fellows that we are, if the outside fellow don't
The Chairman: I now come to u The Pennsylvania-
German in Education, perchance slow at first, but always
sure and yet in the forefront." I call on Prof. Robert K.
Buehrle, of Lancaster, to respond to this toast.
Prof. Buehrle: I have been admonished to be brief.
I was going to give the speech in Pennsylvania-German,
acting upon a suggestion that was given here this even-
ing, and I proposed at the convention that Pennsylvania-
German should be spoken, but the hint was not received,
so I concluded that I had better not attempt it. Xow the
The Pennsylvania-German in Education. 85
Pennsylvania-Germans have been in the rear, in the opinion
of most people that did not know them. If you read his-
tory carefully, you will find that a Pennsylvania-German
was appointed as teacher in one of the Friends' Schools in
Philadelphia. This was one of the first schools in the
State. I have no doubt that the idea of State education
in Pennsylvania was according to the provisions made by
the founder of the State for general education. I have no
doubt at all that the idea emanated from Germany. The
Yankees would not tell us so, but we find nothing of
that kind established in England. There is every proba-
bility that they got the idea from Martin Luther's letter,
urging the governments to establish schools. We know
that the Pilgrims arrived in Holland, and there is no rea-
sonable doubt but that they got their idea of schools
there. Again, the Pennsylvania-Germans never denied
the female equal rights with the male in schools. Xow,
it was very late until they came to that idea in Xew Eng-
land. The German argued that the woman was equal to
man in regard to intellect. But in Xew England, the
girl could go to school only when the room was not
needed for the boys. We have been told to-day how the
idea of Sunday Schools was long previous in this coun-
try to Robert Raike's establishment in England, thus
showing that not only in school education, but in relig-
ious education the Pennsylvania-German was not behind
hand, although he be unmentioned in the history of his
country. The German was not indifferent to education.
There is nothing to substantiate the charge. He was
ever anxious to have his children educated. The Penn-
86 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
sylvania-German Governors of this State were all ardent
advocates of the public school system ; from Governor
Wolfe, every one of the Pennsylvania-German Governors
stood by the general school system, and Pennsylvania
was ahead of the other States. I think Connecticut
had not free education until 1872, while we had free
education from the beginning of the Commonwealth. We
find that the first Normal School was established in what
may be called the Pennsylvania-German district. I have
reference to the Normal School at Millersville, which
antedates every other State Normal School in the State,
and was founded by Pennsylvania-Germans. If you will
look over the list of principals, you will find that some of
them are Pennsylvania-Germans, and to-day the two most
flourishing Normal Schools, ever since they have been es-
tablished, the only two that were never in danger, are the
one at Kutztown and the one at Millersville. They always
"could look the whole world in the face," for they
"owed not any man." It was not so with the other Nor-
mal Schools in other parts of the State. If you will look
over the reports you will find that what has been said of
the judiciary will be found true of the educational inter-
ests of the State. For the first time that I know of, last
winter, a Pennsylvania-German was named for the State
Superintendency. We hope that other Pennsylvania-
Germans will be struck by the lightning. We think the
time has come when that ought to be. We have had the
Irish, the Scotch-Irish, the English Quaker, and almost
every other nationality, but we have never had the Penn-
sylvania-German as Superintendent of Public Instruction.
The Pennsylvania-German in Agriculture. 87
In the schools, the German is very largely in possession.
The same thing is true of the Normal Schools of the State.
Millersville started with a Quaker. He was followed hy
a Yankee; the last two following were Pennsylvania- Ger-
mans. The same thing is true in Berks County, where
they have the Pennsylvania-Germans up to the present
da} r . This is true of the principals of the formal
Schools, and let me call your attention to this point : the
eight Pennsylvania-German counties of this Common-
wealth have school property valued at over $3,000,000,
one-fifth of all the school property in the State, outside of
Philadelphia ; the eight German counties have twenty
per cent, of the school property of the Commonwealth,
and yet they are only twelve per cent, of the counties ;
one-eighth of the counties owning one-fifth of the school
property. It seems to me then that we can see, from
these facts, that education is encouraged among the
TnE Chairman : We come next to " The Pennsylvania-
German in Agriculture — nowhere in the world have we
his superior." Let Mr. Hiram Young, of York, Pa.,
speak for him.
Mr. Young said : Mr, Chairman and Gentlemen, I have
not heard of that subject before, agriculture and the
Pennsylvania-Germans ; there is certainly something in
that. Pennsvlvania is a great agricultural Common-
wealth, and the Germans, I think, have been leading in
that industry in this great Commonwealth. We have a
large, productive agricultural Commonwealth, as has been
88 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
stated to-day. I see in the newspapers that we have this
year produced 22,500,000 bushels of wheat ; we produce
11,500,000 bushels of oats ; we produce 13,250,000 bush-
els of potatoes ; we produce 2,400,000 tons of hay ; we
we produce 44,000,000 bushels of corn. Xow, there is
nothing said about our cattle, our sheep, our horses, our
swine. In Lancaster County, and in other counties ad-
joining, we have a valuable product in tobacco. It is be-
ginning to become one of the most valuable products of
the Commonwealth. The consumption, of course, is
largely taken up by the German people, and it is one of
those practical things that becomes a source of benefit
and to some a source of pleasure. There was a time when
the people of Pennsylvania would resist any interference
with the most of their practical products. This diffi-
culty seems to have been dispelled. The Pennsylvania-
Germans are discussing economic questions. They are
devising new measures for the disposition of their com-
modities. They find markets elsewhere. They depend
upon an export market, and a diversified product will en-
large home markets. Pennsylvania is an empire within
itself and independent. If you were to place around this
Commonwealth a wall, we might be independent of all
other Commonwealths and nations, because we are a pro-
ductive people. We produce all that we can consume. We
have a market in consequence. We find purchasers for the
products of our farms in the cities and towns. The farm-
ers are becrinnino; to discuss those things in which thev
are interested. I have been among the farmers of several
counties lately, and I have been talking and hearing the
The County of Lancaster. 89
farmers talk about these questions, and I want to say here,
gentlemen, that that growing interest is not comprehend-
ed by the people of this Commonwealth at the present
time. They are not aware of the interest and intelli-
gence and the growth of intellect and educational spirit
that has been infused into the minds of the German farm-
ers. The people of Pennsylvania generally are beginning
to understand their wants. They are improving in this
direction as well as in every other direction.
u The Pennsylvania-German, wheresoever dispersed,"
was responded to by Hon. William Beidleman, Mayor of
Easton, in a humorous speech of some length
The Chairman: I will call upon the Kev. Dr. Hark to
say a word for " The County of Lancaster." Dr. Hark
responded as follows :
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: As I looked over this
board this evening, it occurred to me that it was typically
Pennsylvania-German, and for such Pennsylvania-Germans
are sometimes almost reviled, and for such Lancaster
customs, as practically Pennsylvania-German, are some-
times looked down upon. The fact is that they attend so
much to the physical and material that they are material-
minded materialists, and yet recognize that in that they
are simply following out a point of the Pennsylvania-
German character ; and recognizing that the material and
natural always come first, they attend to that first. When
the American army was on the point of starving at
Valley Forge, Baker Ludwig forwarded supplies of bread
to the American soldiers until the danger of starvation
90 The Pennsylvania-German Society,
had passed. But I think the time has come when these
material views, which are typified in Lancaster County,
where there has been more attention paid to developing
the material system of the county, I look for the time to
come soon when, they are almost beginning, to rear the
superstructing lines material into lines of literary and his-
torical development. Our county is one of the most
wealthy, one of the most populous in the State. I think
this Society will give a decided impetus to work upon this
field of history. It depends upon the work of the present.
We need to rightly understand the past, and to research
the history of the State. I look to Lancaster County to
reap for the organization of this Society great good in
this work. I look to Lancaster County to contribute its
full share to the work in the historical field. I know that
we are a slow moving people, but it is known that when
we get into line, we generally stay there in every case.
We generally make thorough work, because we are
typical Pennsylvania-Germans. These are characteristics
of the Pennsylvania-Germans.
The Chairman: Berks county has nut yet been heard
from. I will ask Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman to respond
to this toast, u The County of Berks."
Instead of making a set speech, Col. Zimmerman
recited the following translation, made by himself, of
Clement C. Moore's " 'Twas the Night Before Christmas.''
Die Nacht for de Chrischdaag. 91
"DIE NACHT FOR DE CHRISCIIDAAG."
'S waar die Xacht for de Chrischdaap; und doreh es sans
Verreegt sich ke' Thierli, net emol en Maus ;
Die Schtrump waare schnock ini Schornsckte gehunke,
In der HofYninp; der "Xick" dheet g-raad runner
Die Kinner so schnock waare all scho im Bett,
Yon Zuckerschleck draame un was mer, doch, wott ;
Die Mamme in Sehnupduch un ich in der Kapp,
Hen uns juscht hi geleegt for'n lang Winter's ISTap —
Dan draus in 'm Hoof waar so'n dunnerse Jacht,
Dass ich ufg'schprunge bin zu sehne war's macht.
An's Fenschter graad schpring ich so schnell wie'n Flasch,
Die Lade ufg'risse, ufg'schmisse die Sasch !
Der Moond uf der Bruscht dem neug'fallne Schnee
Macht Helling wie Mitdaag, iiwwer alles, so scho.
Im e' Aageblick kummt, jetz, un rund wie e' Kersch,
E' Fuhrmann im Schlidde un acht kleene Hersch —
E' Mannli in Pelze, so freundlich un frei —
'Hab graadeweck of wiisst's muss der Pelznickel sei !
Wie Aadler, so schnell, sin die Herschlin zusamme,
Un er peift un'r ruuft, un'r nennt sie mit Xaame :
" Jetz Dascher! jetz Danzer! jetz Pranzer! jetz Vixen!
Un Komet! un Kupid! un Dunder! un Blitzen!"
An der Porch isch er nuif, um die Mauer gefalle —
"Jetz schpringt eweck! schpringt eweck I schpringt
eweck, alle ! "
Wie laab for'm e Windschtorm — der wildscht das mer
92 The Pennsylvania German Society.
"Warm ebbes im "Weeg isch un's bimnielwerts geht,
Zum Ilausgiwwel nuf sin die Herseblin wie g'floge,
Mit'm Sclilidli foil Sacb un der "Nick" mit gezoge;
Im e' Aas;eblick borseht uf'm Dacb — owwodrowe —
En Gescbeer un Gedanz wie mit bbTzene Glow we.
Mei Hop zieg ich nei, guk um micb im Hans —
Un im Schornscbte do kummt'r wabrbaftig scbun raus!
Mit Peltze ferwickelt fon Kop biz zum Fuus,
Un alles ferscbnuttelt mit Aescbe un Ruus !
Uf'm Buekel en Bundel foil allerband G'scbpiel —
'S bat o;e2;uckt ^vie J m Kremer sei Kramm — artli^ fiel.
Sei Maul, wie 'n Kerscb, un sei Dimple die lacbe —
Sei Aage, die blinzle, und wie Rosa sei Backe.
Gans rund war sei Mauli un roth wie der Klee,
Un 's Scbnurbiirdli weiss wie woll, oder Schnee:
En schtumpiges Peifli, fescbt zwisebe de Zeb,
Un der scbmook scbteigbt in Ringlin so scbo in die Hob.
Sei G'sicbtli so breed, un sei Baucbli e' bissel
Uverm Lacbe bot g'sbittelt wie Dschelly in der Scbussel.
So diek un so rund war des luscbtige Elfge,
Muss lacbe, graad aus, un kan's gaar net helfe.
Sei Kopli waar eifrig un scbwatzig mit Xiicken —
Sei Aage, gaar freundlicb mit Blinzele un Blicken;
Die Schtriimp bot'r g'fiirt, un mit frolicbem Braus,
Da scbpringt inschtandig, den Scbornscbte binaus;
Er scbpringt uf sei Scblidde, zu der Fubr peift en Piffel,
Dann fliege sie fort wie Dunn fon der Discbtel :
Doch eb' er gans fort waar, sei Gruss bat er g'macht —
" En berrliclie Chriscbdaag ! un zu alle, Guut Xacbt !"
Ber Erath. 93
The Chairman: We now come to "The County of
York," and I call upon Henry L. Fisher, Esq., of that
place, to speak for her.
In reply Mr. Fisher said :
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-German
I think I shall have to ask you to excuse me from mak-
ing a speech; it is late and I feel very drowsy. I
have been indulging here in this material and literary ban-
quet, until I feel as though I was unfit to respond to a toast.
If you gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-German Society
will come to York, I will show you the Pennsylvania-
Germans there, and I would like very much to meet you
and greet you there. You will have to extend to me
the same privilege that you extended to Colonel Zim-
merman. It will not occupy much more time than
making a speech.
Mr. Fisher then read the following Pennsylvania-Ger-
man version, made by himself, of " Poe's Raven :"
Es war mitternacht un schaurig,
Ich war schlaf ? riir, mud, un traurisr
Uewer fiel so alte Biicher
Foil so gans fergess'ne Lehr ;
Un ich hab so halwer g'schlummert —
Hot's uf e'mol so gebummert —
So wie's macht wan's bissel dunnert —
Das es rappelt an der Dheer ;
94 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
" 'S iseh en B'sucher," sag icli zu mer
Selwert, — " Klopt an meiner Dheer —
Des, allee, isch's was ich hor."
Un, so wie ich rair erinner,
War's so a'fangs in em Winter,
Un en jede gliihend Zinder
Macht sei Geischtli nf 'em Floor.
Un ich hab gewiinscht 's war Morge,
Awwer do war nix zu borge
Aus de Biicher — nix as Sorge —
Sorge for die lieb Lenore ;
Ach, das sie noch bei mer war !
Encrel hen sie sc'nennt Lenore.
Do genennt, doch, nimmermehr.
Un ich war so halb im Zweifel —
Hirmer'm Umhang huckt der Deufel,
Un es war mer angschterlich,
Schauderig un schrecklich weh,
Juscht as wan mit jedem Droppe
Bluut, mei Herz dhet schtarker kloppe —
Denk ich, " do will ener schtoppe
Uewer nacht — feleicht a'h zwee —
Denk ich, alter, du magscht kloppe,
Oder magscht dei 's We2:es sceh —
Juscht so isch's, un gaarnix raeh."
Gleimol, awwer, fass ich Herze —
Denk ich will des Ding ferkerze —
' Sag ich, " alter," oder " alti,
Kann des kloppe net ferschteh ;
Der Krabb. 95
Awwer ich war schweer im Kop, un
Wie du so bischt kumme kloppe —
Hat rner konne Hoor ausroppe,
Wan ich's so hat konne schtoppe —
Juscht des kloppe, un net meh ;"
Dan mach ich die Dheer uf, weit —
Do war nix as Dunkelheit,
Dief in Dunkelheit gegnckt,
Un ich hab geglaabt es schpookt ;
'Zweifelt hawich, halb getraamt,
Wie ich nie net hab zufoor.
Nie so schtill as wie es jetz war,
ISTie so dunkel as es jetz war,
Un des eenzig Wort das g'schwatst war,
War 's gepischpert Wort, "Lenore!"
Hab 's gepischpert un net meh ;
Un der JScho, leis, " Lenore /"
Hawich g'hort, un des allee.
Dan war's wider schtill un schtumra,
Doch, so g'schwindt ich dreh mich urn,
Hawich 's wider hore kloppe,
Bissel lauter as zufoor :
Sag ich zu mer selwert, " 0,
Ebbes kloppt am Fenschter, do,
Awwer, halt e'mol, bei Jo,
Ich geh d'ra un fissedir ;
Braaf, mei Herz, ich hab die Kunscht,
Deufelsdreck un Hexeschmier " —
'S war der Wind un garnix sunscht !
96 The Pennsylvania- Grerman Society.
Nagschtens, mach ich uf der Laada,
Bat's nix, dhut's doch a'h ke' Schade ;
Un zum Fenschter nei gectapt
Kummt so 'n alter schwarzer Krabb !
Sagt ke' Wort— net'mol *' wie geht's ?"
Net " wie macht's un net we schteht's ?" —
Gar net zaud'rig un net blod,
Huckt sieh owig mei Kanimer-dheer —
Uf en Bild, dort in der Hoh —
Juscht dort owig der Schtuwwe-dheer,
Huckt der Fogel, un net meh.
Doch, so schterns carjose Sache
Hen mieh balwer lache mache;
Huckt er dort as wie en Parre,
Owis; meiner Schtuwwe-dheer :
Sag ich, u alter schwarzer, g'schorner,
In der alte-Zeit-geborner —
Was wees ich, feleicht, ferlorner —
'S wunnert mich so artlig sehr,
Weer du bischt, wu kummscht du heer?
Sag mer, sag mer, wie do heescht ;
Sagt der Fogel, " Ximmermehr."
Gans erschtaunt war ich zu hore
So en Fogel mir so lehre ;
Doch, die Antwort, in dem, meen ich,
War, juscht, ken so grosse Lehr.
Un en jede muss es eeg'ne
Das noch kenner so en Sege
G'hat hot in seim s;anse Lewe —
So en Fogel — so en Ehr —
Der Krabb. 97
Fogel oder Dhier uf Bilder,
Owig seiner Schtuwwe Dheer,
Mit dem Naame, " jSTimmerraehr."
Huckt er, awwer, dort alleenig,
Sagt mer awwer, doch, so wenig —
Juscht 'e Wort, as wan sei Seel
In dem Wort ferborge weer !
Un er sagt ke, anner "Wort —
Schtumm, un schtimmloos huck't er dort;
Sag iclij " manche Freund sin fort,
Un sie kumme net meli beer ;
Un bis Morge gescbt du a ? h,
Wie die Hofihing un die Ehr."
Sagt der Fogel, u Ximmermehr."
Un icb hab micb frisch ferwunnert
Uewer so en dunk'le Antwort :
" Obne Zweifel was er predigt,"
Sag icb, u iscb sei ganse Lelir,
Die er fon seim Meeschter g'lernt hot,
Den, en Ungliick, f leicht, ferzornt hot —
F'lorne Fruebt die er ge-erndt hot,
Bis sei Kummerlascht so scbweer war,
Un sei Trauerlied un Lehr war
? S melancholiscb, sehr un schweer,
" Nimmermehr ! acb, nimmermebr !"
Denk ich, du wit mich betriige
Mit so schwarze Fogelsliige:
'S hot mich g'liichelt, un ich huck mich
Foor den Fogel an die Dheer :
98 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Huck mich uf en Saramet kisse
Uf en Sehtuhl — so hawieh niiisse —
Denk ich, doch, jetz will ich wiisse
Meh fon dere Fogel'slehr —
Was der grimmis;, selirecklieh Fo^el.
Der mer propliezeit doheer,
Meent mit seinem " Nimmermehr."
Wunner als, un roth, beizeite,
Was des Ding mbcht foorbedeute,
Weil sei helle, schwarze Aage
Hen mei Herz geriihrt so sehr ;
Des, un meh, mocht ich, doch, wiisse —
Schweigend huck ich uf meim Kisse —
Allunruhig war mei G'wisse,
Weil die Helling sehtrahlt, ung'fahr
Nimmer iiwer die Begleeding
Wu, so wie ich ofters hor,
Sie geruhgt hot, nimmermehr.
Dan hot's g'scheint as wan die Luft
Schweerer war un siisz mit Duft ;
Un ich hor gans leise Trappe
Kumme uf m Carpet, heer:
" Ungliicks Mensch ! " hawieh gekrische,
" Faule Fisch sin do dcrzwische,
Ruh, ach Ruh," hawieh gekrische,
"Un fergess sie immermehr!
Drink, ach drink en — Hahneschwiinzli,
Unfergess sie immermehr! "
Kreischt der Fogel, " Nimmermehr ! ! "
Der Krabb. 99
Falseh Propheet, du, ohne Zweifel,
Ungliieks Fogel, oder Deufel,
Mich zu ketzere uu zu quale —
Wu der Deufel kummscht du heer ?
Warum dhuscht'du mich besuche ?
Was hoscbt du bei mir zu suche?
Wit mich in die Hell ferlluehe ?
Mit deim ewig " nimmermehr ? "
Sao; mer's, oder s:eh fon mir —
Hot's dan, do ken Hexeschmier ?
Sagt der Fogel, " Nimmermehr ! "
Falseh Propheet, un alles boses ?
Was du bischt, der Deufel wees es ;
Bei des Himmelsblo, do owwe —
Allem guut, un schleehts, — ich schweer —
" Week mit all so Ungllick's mensche,"
Kreisch ich — " week mit Forcht un Aengschte
Ruh ! ach Ruh ! in dem Nepenthe, .
Un fergess die Trauer schweer —
Drink, ach drink en Hahneschwanzli,
Un ferges3 sie immermehr !
Kreischt der Fogel, " Nimmermehr ! ! "
Jetz, will ich der ebbes saa& — '
"Naus mit dir, du Ungliicksklaage —
Mach dich wider z'riick in's Wetter
Un des Hellehunde Heer.
Loss zurlick ken schwarze Feder —
Liigscht as wie des Dunnerwetter —
Flieg zu deine falsche Gotter,
Fon dort owig meiner Dheer ;
100 The Pennsylvania German Society.
Nem dei Schnawwel aus meim Herz —
Schies dicli mit meiin alte G'wehr ! "
Sagt cler Fogel, " Nimmermehr."
Un der Ketzer isch net efnosre —
Huckt alsnoch, so schwarz, dort owe,
Uf dein Pallas-bildi^ dort— (
Juscht dort owig meiner Dheer ;
Un sei sehwarze Aage sehnich,
Foil fon Deufels g'schafte, nieenich,
Un die Lampehelling, schtromig,
Schmeist sei Schatte urn mieh lieer ;
Un mei Seel fon aus clem Schatfe,
Der so schweebt do um micb heer,
Heebt sicb nimmer, Nimmermehr !
The Chairman: The Pennsylvania-German County of
Northampton has not yet been heard from. Will the
Rev. Paul de Schweinitz make answer for her?
Mr. De Schweinitz said in reply: I am very glad to
respond for this county, for we can look back to a past
history of one hundred and twenty years in that county.
It represents mostly the settlers from the Northern part of
Germany, and I think you will find more of that class of
Germans there than elsewhere. It lias been related sev-
eral times to-day that the early German history of the
State is the history of the different sects that have been
mentioned that settled here. The Moravians were the
early settlers of our county. They were like the Quakers,
and in the War of the Revolution called down upon them-
The County of Northampton. 101
selves some feeling. There was established the first
Young Ladies' Seminary, which is there to this day. I
think we have heard a good deal of self-glorification to-
day, but perhaps it is our turn to glorify a little over our
Xew England brethren. I suppose you have heard the
story of the youngster who was anxious to have a donkey.
He was told to take a pumpkin and sit upon it for some
time, and then he would have a donkey. After some
time he went to the man who had told him to do that
and said, " The donkey has not come yet." The man said,
"That is all right, just roll the pumpkin from the top of
the hill." So the youngster took the pumpkin to the top
of the hill, and rolled it down, and as it was rolling
down, out came a rabbit. The boy hurried up to it
and got it, and he believed he had hatched out a rabbit.
So it is that the Xew England people claim the parentage
of the American people. A good many of our Germans
now are anxious to praise the part that the Germans took
in the War of the Revolution, and all glory to our fathers
who took part in that struggle, but they deserve renown
for the spirit of peace they have shown. I think the
Germans who settled in Bethlehem were the first settlers
cf the whole United States to introduce a modern system
of water works. Almost the first fire engine was employed
by the Moraviaus, and now that great institution in Beth-
lehem, which has become, to a certain extent, a part of
the national government, is engaged in making the armor
for the new navy. I think if our good old Moravian
fathers were aware of this, they would turn in their
graves. This county was founded by men who spoke the
102 The Pennsyhania-German Society.
Pennsylvania-German. They are perhaps slow to get hold
of an idea, but, when they get hold of one, they have it
and hold on to it. I have found that out in trying to
make some innovations in our church. Perhaps you have
heard of the Pennsylvania priest, who was walking down
a street one day between two lawyers. "Well, Father
G.," said one, " what do you do when you make a mistake
in preaching." "If it is a serious mistake," he said, "I
stop and correct it, but if not, I just let it go. For in-
stance, I once meant to say, 4 All liars shall have a place
in the fiery pool ;' but, instead of that, I said, ' All
lawyers shall have a place in the fiery pool,' but that was
such a little mistake, that I just left that slip." Then the
other lawyer looked at him and said, "Father G.,are you
a fool or a knave?" He replied, " I am neither one or the
other ; I am just between the two." I hope that our
Society will keep right on, and it will be brought largely
before the public, and I hope that Northampton will bring
a large number of members to the Society. I wish that
we conld have more interested that are from the northern
part of Germany.
The Chairman : The Dutch end of Dauphin, the County
of Lebanon, remains to be heard from; will Mr. Jacob II.
Iiedsecker, of Lebanon, look after her interests?
In answer, Mr. Kedsecker spoke as follows :
Mr. President and Gentlemen: I understood that Mr.
Weidman was to talk this evening, so that everything I
say that will not be of interest please attribute to Mr.
The County of Lebanon. 103
"Weidman. If I say anything of interest please credit it
to myself. Lebanon was not a county during the Revo-
lution, but it contributed very largely to the success of that
war. Lebanon County, though small in area, is not in arrear
of the other counties of the State. Lebanon County is a
place where people go to stay. It has contributed very
largely to the success of the country, not only from a mili-
tary point of view, but from an agricultural point of view.
It ha3 given to the State one Governor, John Andrew
Shultz, and it has in the county a number of others who
would like to be Governors, so that Lebanon County is
not just so backward as some of* the other counties are, or
as some others of the counties migdit be. Although Leb-
anon County is attached to Dauphin in a judicial way, she
finds sometimes that the attachment is rather galling, but
Dauphin County finds that Lebanon has helped her out
often. But it is crowing: late and I did not come here to
make a speech.
The Chairman, before closing the exercises of the even-
ing, called upon Andrew John Kauffman for a German
sons*. Mr. Kaurfman, after a few introductory remarks,
sang one stave of a German ditty, and then sang an Irish
song for the benefit of any Dutch-Irish that might be
With this, the exercises closed and the first annual ban-
quet of the Pennsylvania-German Society was a thing of
the past. With many fraternal greetings the members
separated, resolved, however, to be on hand when Society
day should again summon them to a brotherly reunion.
PAPERS READ AT THE MEETING
OF THE —
— HELD AT
ON MONDAY, JULY 18, 1892.
An invitation having been extended to the Pennsyl-
vania-German Society by the Pennsylvania Chautauqua, to
hold a meeting on the Chautauqua grounds at Mt. Gretna,
on Monday, July 18, the day to be known as " Pennsyl-
vania-German Day,'' the Executive Committee accepted
the invitation, and arrangements were at once made to se-
cure the preparation of several papers to be read on the
An announcement was made of the fact and the mem-
bership was invited to be present. On the above men-
tioned day the Society accordingly held a regular meeting,
which was attended by members from various parts of
the State. The papers read on the occasion are now
printed along with the proceedings of the Harrisburg
meeting on October 14, 1891.
I0*J Y / 0&
106 Tlie Pennsylvania- German Society.
Julius F. Sachse, on being introduced to the audience,
Gentlemen and fellow members of the Pennsylvania-German
Society : The subject of my paper to-day will be the
" True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania, "
a theme which you will agree with me is a pertinent one
for this occasion.
The general tendency of the addresses before this hon-
orable and similar organizations has mainly been to exalt
the prowess of our forefathers in the Revolution ; it has
been wont to dwell upon their deeds, recount their suffer-
ings, exalt their services and glory in the victories they
helped to gain, just as if all the heroism of the German
element in Pennsylvania was exemplified within that cir-
Without wishing for a moment to detract a single iota
from the laurels due the actors during the Revolutionary
drama, I wish to call your attention to even greater hero-
ism, such as was displayed in innumerable instances
among the lowly and humble German population in the
early days of the Province. Heroes in every clay life, who
lived, labored, prayed and died, and now rest in unknown
and long-forgotten graves, yet whose influence, brought
about by lives of self-denial, survives unto the present
It is to these unknown humble heroes in civil life that
I wish to pay a slight tribute of respect by calling the
attention of the Pennsylvania-German Society to the
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 107
As a matter of fact, by far the great majority of Ger-
man emigrants who came to these shores were of a peace-
ful disposition ; as a matter of record most all were what
are classed as " non-combatants," who came to these west-
ern wilds as much to exercise their desire for religious
liberty as to escape from feudal oppression and a state of
religious intoleration then existing in some parts of Ger-
Then again where the English Quaker came to this
country from speculative and pecuniary motives, the
Scotch-Irishmen for political reasons or preferment,
the German came with the avowed intention of founding
a permanent home, where he could exercise the dictates
of his own conscience.
In carrying out his object the sole dependence of the
German settler was prayer and supplication to the Deity,
and an unbounded faith and trust in Providence, often in
direct contrast to his neighbors who depended mainly
upon their own prowess.
It is a curious fact that in all of my travels through
this State and in my historical researches I have yet to
find the first specimen of firearms or murderous weapons
brought over by the original German emigrant, yet there
is hardly a Pennsylvania-German family which cannot
point with pardonable pride to the German Bible, kate-
chismus, or gesangbuch, still in possession of the family,
which formed the chief treasure of the original emigrant,
as it proved his comfort in time of sorrow and trial.
Where relics of worldly handicraft still exist — precious
heirlooms as they are —they are found to be implements
108 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
of peaceful arts, used in the farm economy or the domes-
From the earliest days, the Germans in Pennsylvania,
partly on account of their retiring disposition, but mainly
from the fact of speaking a strange and foreign tongue,
were imposed upon by their English-speaking neighbors,
and often forced to suffer oppression and indignities,
which would have been resented by force by almost any
other nationality or race.
This submission to ruthless oppression was not, however,
caused by cowardice or lack of manhood, but was the re-
sult of the religious teachings learned in the Fatherland.
Their principle was to bear and to forbear, to labor and
hope, and with God's help to rear a permanent home for
themselves and their children. Among these earlv set-
tiers are to be found many of the unknown heroes of the
When the German emigrant arrived in the Province of
Penn after the long and tiresome voyage of the period,
and if fortunate enough to escape the clutches of the mer-
ciless souldrivers with which the province abounded,
reaching in safety the tract which he had purchased often
far away from all civilization, yet even before the smoke
on the improvised hearth-stone arose above the sur-
rounding tree tops, the fervent pra} T er of the settler wafted
heavenward, asking God's blessing upon the new home
in the western wilderness. Their whole trust was placed
in the Deity, and there the hardy settler rested fearless
and secure, far from home and friends, surrounded by the
primeval forest in which lurking savages abounded.
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 109
Yet he feared not ; secure in his trust, he labored, hoped
Trials innumerable beset his path, but all were met and
If one would ask what did this self-denial, suffering,
religious enthusiasm, and labor of the early German Emi-
grants result in, the query may he answered in a single
sentence, viz.: "The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania."
It was the religious spirit, the love of industry, the
peaceful disposition, together with the sterling honesty
for which the Pennsylvania-German is noted, which more
than any other influence has placed our great State in the
foremost rank of our national constellation.
Nor does the influence wrought by these earlier pioneers
rest within the borders of our Commonwealth, hut it has
spread over the whole country, so that that there is not a
single State within the American Union wherein Penn-
sylvania-German influence is not felt.
At the present day we can form hut little conception of
the trials which beset the German emigrant in the early
days of the Province.
By far the darkest blot upon our provincial history is
the period during which existed, under the protection of
the law, a system of slavery the victims of which were
mainly Germans, who, as the term "slaves" grated harshly
on the ears of the meek Quaker or pious churchman, be-
came known as Redemptionists or Redemption servants, a
distinction which, however, failed to make the lot of the
unfortunates any lighter.
Often lured from their peaceful homes in the Father-
110 Thx Pennsylvaniti-German Society.
land by the persuasive eloquence of designing agents they
gathered up their possessions, and placed their all in the
agents' hands and started for the new world, only to find
themselves stranded at the seaport, without the means of
proceeding on their journey, and in their dire extremity
were forced to sign themselves into a period of servi-
Yet, bad as their situation was, there were even worse
cases, where emigrants with their families, who had paid
their full fare, upon their arrival under some trivial pre-
text were sold into bondage, husband and wife separated
and taken into different parts of the country miles apart,
the children ruthlessly torn from the parents and sold into
slavery often worse than death, and all this by the Chris-
tian shipowner or churchly consignee in the province of
When not sold on shipboard the poor creatures, weak-
ened by their long voyage, were herded together and
driven through the country like a herd of cattle. Stops
were made at every cross-roads tavern to expose the
human drove for sale, until all were disposed of. If any
lagged or sank down under the fatigue of the journey or
the inhuman treatment, the lash of the soul-driver's
whip spurred them on until perhaps they fell dead by the
As a matter of fact the German white slaves of that
period were often treated with less consideration than the
unfortunate Xegro who was bought outright. It is but
necessary to scan the advertisements in the papers of the
day to get an insight into the situation which once flour-
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. Ill
ished in the Province and before which even negro slavery
pales. It is stated as a matter of honorable record, that
there is not a single case known where the husband and
wife (unless parted by death), failed to reunite at the end
of their servitude. Many descendants of these unfortu-
nates are to-day in our midst, men who occupy honored
positions in State and society, a living evidence of the
true heroism displayed by their ancestors under the most
adverse circumstances. In strange contrast the names
and families of those who profited by this infamous
traffic are in almost every instance lost in oblivion.
The world naturally asks why did these people, with
their strong love of liberty, submit? Why did they not
rise up against their oppressors and strike for liberty?
It is here again where the true heroism of the German
settler appears. Resistance meant death or imprison-
ment, and perhaps a separation forever from all that was
dear to the German heart.
Another class of true heroes, not to be forgotten, are
the men and women, call them religious enthusiasts if you
will, who, a century and a half ago, labored here in Penn-
sylvania, and devoted their lives to provide places of re-
ligious refuge for their scattered and spiritually neglected
countrymen. I now refer to the communities at Eph-
rata, in Lancaster county, and Bethlehem, in Northamp-
ton The former, a community of Seventh Day Baptists,
after exerting a widespread influence, has long since de-
clined through the peculiar construction of the article in
our State Constitution which was supposed to ensure re-
ligious liberty, but in this case almost crushed out the
112 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
organizations that felt it incumbent to keep the seventh
Helics of this community may still be seen on the Co-
calico in the old brethren and sister house with its adjoin-
ing Saal. Although these remnants of a once prosperous
community may crumble and soon be no more, the names
of the pilgrim preachers, Beissel and Wohlfarth, will not
be forgotten in history — two men who, time and again,
dared to harangue the Philadelphia Quakers, in meeting
and public market place, upon their iniquities, and their
treatment of the German settler in Pennsylvania.
Of the other heroic band who settled on the forks of
the Delaware and founded Bethlehem I need not speak, as
their history is too well known. Men and women who
worked, labored, prayed and suffered in common, that
the gospel might be free to every resident of the Province,
irrespective of race, color or nationality.
Many were the trials of this hero band. Most all rest
in the scattered God's acres of the church, a simple num-
bered breast-stone upon their grave ; the books of the
church alone recording how many had suffered torture
and martyrdom at the hands of the murderous savage.
That their lives were not spent in vain, is evident at the
present day, not only in our State and country, but in the
missionary stations extending from far off Alaska in the
frozen Xorth to torrid Surinam at the Equator, which all
bear evidence of the true heroism of the early pioneers on
the banks of the Lehigh.
We come now to another class of heroes, viz. : the
Lutheran and Reformed clergy, who labored and itiner-
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 113
ated throughout the Province, ministering to the sick,
baptizing children, comforting the dying, catechizing the
youth, correcting errors, and establishing congregations
and building churches wherever encouragement was given.
These clergymen were not subsidized by a wealthy cor-
poration, as were the ministers of the church of England.
!N"o tithes, government aid or perquisites fell to their lot.
Often having to work during the week to support their
families, yet we find them preaching on Sundays to con-
gregations at far distant points.
The history of a few of these humble heroes has been
written; the greater number, however, like their flock
rest in unmarked tombs, while their labors and teachings
still live in the influence engendered by their minis-
In enumerating the various classes of self-sacrificing
heroes of the provincial period, none deserve more credit
than the German schoolmaster, the pastor's helper ; upon
these men devolved not alone the education of the youth,
but in the absence of a regular clergyman or in outlying
districts, the spiritual cares of the settlers as well. His
labors were clearly a labor of love ; no salary was attached
to his mission, his only stipend being his board, and that
often not the best, as was obtained from the parents of
the scholars he taught. How onerous were his duties may
be gathered from the fact that there are cases on record
where a schoolmaster taught in two different places at the
same time, serving three days a week in each township.
Even these men did not escape the persecutions to
which the Germans were subjected. Thus we find from
114 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
an advertisement in the Philadelphia Mercury, February*
1737, where a prominent Chester county churchman ad-
vertises for sale — " A young Dutchman who understands
writing and accounts and lately kept school."
Think of it, fellow members of the Pennsylvania-Ger-
man Society, this unfortunate teaching school, perhaps
instilling the love of liberty in the hearts of his scholars
while he himself was held in a state of bondage, subject
to the lash at the pleasure of his owner.
"What greater heroism can be shown than here exempli-
fied by this humble, unknown schoolmaster. Humble and
unfortunate though he was, he was infinite^ greater and
nobler than the aristocratic church warden who held him
in bondage and offered his human body for sale to the
As an other example of the representative schoolmaster
it is but necessary to mention the name of the Mennonite
" Schulmeister " of the Skippack, Christopher Dock.
This quiet, unassuming man taught school in the vicin-
ity of the Skippack and Germantown for over half a cen-
tury, during which time he not alone taught his scholars
the elementary branches, but moulded their morals and
character as well, never forgetting to look after the spir-
itual welfare of any scholar who had once been under his
charge. His labors among the German Mennonites, his
writings which have come down to us, among which are
a number of hymns still used by the Mennonites in their
church service, all speak of the simplicity and true piety
of the writer. Well may Christopher Sauer in his
u Geistiliches Magazin " call him " den Gottselichen
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 115
His death in the fall of 1771 was a fitting end to his
pious life of heroic self-denial.
After he dismissed his school he was wont to remain
for a short time to pray and ask a blessing upon his
departing scholars. While thus engaged upon his knees
with hands uplifted the dread mandate came, calling him
to join the church triumphant.
I doubt whether his resting place is known. No em-
blazoned monument marks the spot, but the seed he
sowed took root and flourishes up to the present day.
The victories this hero won are far more important than
many gained at the cannon's mouth.
When we come to the Revolutionary period, the charge
is often made that during that memorable stru^o-le the
majority of Germans were non-combatants, or favorable
to the crown. Nothing can be farther from the truth.
Granted that many of the German settlers in Pennsyl-
vania were non-combatants, and from religious convictions
refused to bear arms. This fact did not make them trai-
tors or antagonistic to the patriot cause.
The main sects or denominations in question were the
Seventh Day Baptists, Moravians and Mennonites.
Now who was it that kept the fighting army in the
field ? It was just this contingent of peaceful Germans in
Pennsylvania. Heroes none the less. As a matter of
history the commissary stores during the most critical
periods of the struggle were most all supplied by these
same Pennsylvania-German non-combatants.
The men and farms supplied the subsistence for man
and beast, while the women furnished the clothing;, quilts
116 The Pennsylva aid-German Society.
and stockings for the soldiers. It is even said that such
of the women as were too old to sew or knit, picked the
lint and made bandages for the wounded.
I have seen it stated in an old document of the time
(I forget the writer), "that if it were not for the Penn-
sylvania Dutch women the army could not keep the field
Further, when after disastrous battles the buildings
and institutions of these people were seized by the mili-
tary authorities and turned into hospitals, and the peace-
ful occupants forced to seek shelter where best they could,
as was the case at Ephrata, Bethlehem, Lititz and else-
where. Did they object? No, they accepted the situa-
tion without a murmur, and both men and women as min-
isters of mercy attended the sick and dying no matter
how loathsome or pestilential the disease, in many cases
sacrificing their own health and lives for humanity's sake.
This was another example of true heroism of the Ger-
man settler in Pennsylvania. Xo one ever heard of these
people asking for any fee or reward or claiming damages
for losses sustained, similar to the Chester County Quak-
ers or Philadelphia Tory, although the buildings, on ac-
count of the deadly typhus or camp fever, were unfitted
for their original uses and had to be destroyed or aban-
doned to other purposes.
History thus far has failed to immortalize these humble
In Ephrata, on the hill above the old Settlement, was to
be seen for many years a rough deal board upon which
was painted in German fractur schrift the legend: "Heir
True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 117
Puhen die Gebeine Vieler Soldaten" but not a word or line
to indicate where rest those of the Theosophic community
who sacrificed their lives for the alleviation of the suffer-
ings of the country's defenders.
At the late Sesqui-Centennial festival at Bethlehem, a
memorial stone was unveiled " To the unknown dead who
were willing to die that their country might live,"
marking the burial place of soldiers who died in the gen-
eral hospital at Bethlehem.
The noble men and women, brethren and sisters of the
Unitas Fratrum, who volunteered as nurses and served as
hospital attendants during that critical period, and who
nursed hundreds of soldiers into recovery, in many cases
sacrificing health and life to their self imposed duty, rest
in the God's acre on the hill. The breast-stone bears only
their number. True heroes, who faced death with greater
fortitude and more frequently than many a soldier on
the battle field.
In conclusion I have now but to mention the grandest
heroic character in Pennsylvania history. I allude to the
" German Mother," and what person is there here who
would refuse to place a garland of tribute at her feet.
She needs no brazen tablet nor granite monument to re-
count her virtue, nor epic poem to sing her praise. Her
memory is enshrined in all our hearts. Ever patient,
self denying, devout, industrious, thrifty, her sole aim to
raise her family in the fear of the Lord.
Among no other nationality who settled in the province
of Penn can you produce her equal. It is due to her in-
fluence that the Pennsylvania-German of to-day occupies
118 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
his high position in society and state. Her teachings
moulded our character and made possible the Common-
wealth as it is.
Thus when we speak of the early settlers of our country
and admire their courage displayed during their trials
and privatious, none loom up grander and nobler than
the German settlers and their descendents in Pennsylvania.
Men and women, humble though they were, ever law
abiding citizens under all circumstances. ISTo matter how
oppressive the laws, or harsh their enforcement, loyal,
sober, thrifty, peaceful and devout, they laid the founda-
tion of that great distinctive race known as " The Penn-
sylvania-German," whose influence has made itself felt
wherever its representatives are to be found.
In calling your attention to this chapter in our history
I have by no means exhausted the subject, and trust that
renewed interest may be aroused and abler minds and
pens enlisted to do justice to the " True Heroes of Pro-
Dr. William If. Egle being kept away by unforseen
and unavoidable professional duties, the paper he had pre-
pared was read by another, and was as follows :
THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN: HIS PLACE IN THE HISTORY
OF THE COMMONWEALTH.
Ladies and Gentlemen : — This is the subject of a brief
paper to which I pray your patient hearing. Who is the
Pennsylvania-German ? I am asked. To be explicit in
reply — he is the descendant of the early German settlers
in Pennsylvania, and hence to be distinguished from the
The Pennsylvania German. 119
scions of that later race of emigrants from the Father-
land. By those who know not the distinction he is ig-
norantly named " Pennsylvania-Dutch;" by many who do,
" Pennsylvania-Deutsch." We, however, hold to the
compound or hyphenated word "'Pennsylvania-German, "
as being at once expressive and distinctive.
Born perchance in luxury, yet with the same religious
fervor which actuated the crusaders of old, the German
Palatinate and the Swiss endured the horrors of a six
months' voyage across the treacherous Atlantic that they
might plant the standard of religious toleration and lib-
erty in the wilderness of Pennsylvania.
To-day you may cross the ocean with comparative
safety, surrounded by all the luxuries and comforts of
home life. One hundred and fifty years ago to take the
same voyage was like entering a pest house, and as I have
recently gone over the records of these early immigrants,
I can certify to the doleful and heart-rending stories of
those voyagers. Xo tale of misery in later times can
compare with the sufferings of these early pilgrims.
Heaven grant that we, the descendants of a brave and
valiant ancestry, may appreciate the self-denials, the sim-
ple piety, the worth and the high moral character of
those who not only made our Commonwealth the garden
of the world, but assisted in founding in industry, in
thrift, religious education, surrounded by all the higher
attributes of a Christian civilization, God's own State —
I yield to no one in the veneration and the high esteem
of those of other people, who have aided in forming the
120 The Pennsylvania- German Society.
State and the Nation, but my loyalty first is to ancestry
and home. A nation like ours comprises too many
elements in the make-up of its early history, to disparage
either — but so charmingly have these coalesced that the
Free America of to-day is thegrandest country which ever
But I come to speak of the place the Pennsylvania-
German holds in the Commonwealth — not only in the
past, but in the present — a place which a mere glance
will show, that when grouped together, how important
and honorable in its history. There have been glorious
constellations in that firmament, which perchance have
not been appreciated, from the fact that no blazing or
erratic star hurled from its gyre has crossed the path of
observation, to dazzle and awe for a moment, then to sink
into the trackless sea of oblivion — but the light which
once shone glimmers down through the years undimmed.
Shall I call your attention at the first to those who
planted the banners of the Cross in the new w T orld — those
heroes of the Gospel of Christ — equal in holy zeal and
self-denial to the disciples of Loyola — yet superior in the
beauty of their lives :
To Muhlenberg, the saintly, the beloved, the grandest
patriarch of the Church in the pre-Revolutionary
To Spangenberg, the devout enthusiast — willing to
sacrifice his life in the cause of his Divine Master.
To Cammerhoff, the zealous and devoted missionary — a
beacon light to many a wayfarer.
To Schlatter, the disciple of the Swiss Reformation,
God-fearing and faithful to the end.
The Pennsyltania-German. 121
"With them or following came a host, as St. John, the
Divine, has said, " which no man could number."
"Who in Indian lore and language equalled Zeisberger
and Heckewelder ? Or who in diplomacy with the wily
red men of the forest, Conrad Weiser and Frederick Post ?
These men all came with the vanguard of civilization,
and they stood there beckoning on the army which, seeing
their beacon-light, followed on.
When the dawn of the Revolution was ushered in, and
the hills reverberated with the sound of war, who took an
earlier or a bolder stand than the Pennsylvania-German?
Of his substance he first gave to the starving; and dis-
tressed inhabitants of Boston, and then swelled the ranks
of that gallant band of heroes who marched to the relief
of the beleaguered city, and yet a century after in that
same city, her sons of to-day, forgetting the noble service
to their ancestors, seek to belittle the Pennsylvania-
From Boston to Quebec, in the Canada campaign of
1776, and in all the battles of that seven years' struggle
for independence, the Pennsylvania-German took a loyal
part, and, although owing to his foreign tongue, few were
in command, yet their blood stained the soil of every
battle-field during that conflict. In proportion to their
numbers they equalled the Scotch-Irish in their devotion
!to liberty and the principles of '76. With them patriot-
ism was an inborn and inseparable characteristic. For
this they left all and came to America, and none were
truer to the cause than the Pennsvlvania-German. Had I
the time, it would afford me delight to speak of the gal-
122 The PennsylvaniarGerman Society.
lant and patriotic services of the Hubleys, Hiesters, Muhl-
enbergs, Weitzels, of Hausegger, Klotz, ISTagel, Weidman,
Ziegler, Kichlein and others, bravest among the brave,
upon many a well-fought battle-field — at Trenton, Prince-
ton, Long Island, Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth
Coming down to the war of 1812, and that with Mexico
in 1846, how many among the leaders were of Pennsyl-
vania-German ancestry ; and so when we look over the
long array of officers and men, in the Civil Conflict
of 1861-18G5, the number who claimed that same descent,
whether from this or other States of the Union, were
legion. I cannot discriminate, and yet the names of some
who won their stars are called to mind — leaders and gen-
erals in very truth:
Hartranft, the model soldier of the war — one the State
delighted to honor and whose memory is revered and
esteemed by his comrades wherever scattered.
Heintzlemax, the chivalric and bold — the scion of a
hardy and patriotic race.
Pennypacker, the youthful brigadier, yet gallant and
dashing — one of the most successful officers of the War.
Beaver, the gifted, the trusted statesman, the brave and
valorous soldier and Christian gentleman.
Guss, the popular, admired and beloved by every veteran
in his command.
Gobin, the idomitable ; the honored statesman and silver-
Knipe, the industrious, brave, ardent patriot — ever loyal
to his State and country.
The Pennsylvania-German. 123
Schwenk, a hero, whose valor will endure to remote ages.
Leasure, the pet of the round heads ; ardent, loyal and
Xegley, renowned in love or in war, an errant knight of
And so I might lengthen out this list of men who shed
light on our Commonwealth — in that great fratricidal
strife which shook the world by its convulsion — as upon
its issue depended the permanency of free government.
In the States west of the Ohio, there were many heroic
soldiers who spread a lustre upon their Pennsylvania-
German ancestry. A Xew England Puritan of the Puri-
tans has made the statement that few stars shone from the
shoulders of Pennsylvania-German soldiers in that war.
I do not disparage the distribution of literary ability, but
some other basis must be taken than an Encyclopedia of
Biography written from a one-sided Ilollandish Xew
York or a Xew England cross-road school house stand-
point. Of the 300,000 veterans from Pennsylvania who
marched in defense of the Union two-thirds were of
Pennsylvania-German descent. Make a note of that, ye
In the century of Governors of the Commonwealth
one-half were of honored Pennsylvania-German ancestry,
almost wholly or in part, men equal in ability and states-
manship to any who filled the executive chair. Some of
them were grand old men, whose names and fame will
go down the ages, gathering in honor and renown.
They made their mark in the history of our Common-
124 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
If in the Senatorial-Congressional arena the Pennsylva-
nia-German has not made a distinctive mark, he it known
that that element has entered largely into the character-
istics of those who have — some have had more Pennsyl-
sylvania-German blood than the race from which their
surname is inherited. Who would believe that the senior
Senator from this State has a large preponderance of that
descent — although we only think of the clan Cameron of
Scotland. To this blood he is indebted for that energy,
thrift and great executive ability he has inherited. Ex-
Governor Ramsey, of Minnesota, is another personal ex-
ample of this prominent Pennsylvania-German character-
istic — only Scotch-Irish by name. In looking over the
records of a recent Scotch-Irish Congress, I was particu-
larly struck by the fact that many in that body belonged
to the same class as Senator Cameron and Governor Ram-
sey. Oh ! cries one, a little Scotch-Irish leavers the
whole lump of the Pennsylvania-German ! That may be,
but to call a rose a thistle would not make it so. I hold,
therefore, that all the sterling characteristics which have
entered into the make-up of these persons making them
pre-eminently men of mark, come from their Pennsylva-
The Pennsylvania-German has been the leader in " the
art preservative of all arts." Sauer, the Germantown
printer, manufactured the first type made in America,
and printed the first Bible in a European language in this
country. The Ephrata press was a remarkable one, and
more books were issued by that community and by the
Sauers prior to the Revolution, than from all the New
The Pennsylvania-German. 125
England and ]STew York printing presses together. The
first genealogical work printed in America was issued by
the Ephrata Society. Prominent in this work were
Billymyer, Henry Miller, Ritter, the Bears and others,
excelling in their printing, while to another, old Gustavus
Peters, are we indebted first for stereotyping, and secondly
as the inventor of printing in oil colors. To-day there are
none more prominent in editorial work on the principal
newspapers of the State than representatives of this same
industrious and vigorous people.
The first newspaper established west of the Susque-
hanna was by a Pennsylvania-German, and they led the
van when the command was given, ""Westward Ho?"
The Reading Kalendar and Baer's Almanacs for a
century have been more successful enterprises in that line
of publication, and considered the standard, than any
ever issued from the American press. And while upon
this point — what astronomers have equalled in calcula-
tion the accurate and admirable works of those self-made
men, Ibach and Engleman, the noted "almanac makers."
And here let me say, that a Pennsylvania-German, born
in this county of Lebanon, gave to the world the greatest
astronomical gift, the Lick Observatory in California.
In scientific literature who has excelled Haldeman in
archaeology, Stauffer in botany, or Rathvon in entymol-
ogy? Whose reputation has been more cosmopolitan
than that of Leidy the Scientist — a descendant of a gal-
lant soldier of the Revolution. These names place our
State high upon the roll of those famed in scientific re-
126 The Pennsylvania- German Society,
We must not forget Rittenhouse, the patriot astrono-
mer, whose name is the common heritage of America.
An attempt is being made to claim him for Holland de-
scent ; but he was neither low Dutch or Xetherland
Dutch, but Pennsylvania-Deutsch, pure and simple.
A Morse may reap the honors which should be an-
other's, but to Alter belongs the first putting into actual
practice the electric telegraph ; and so by suborning
witnesses, Drawbaugh may be deprived of the credit of
the so-called Bell telephone ; yet to these persons of Penn-
sylvania-German descent are we indebted for these high-
water marks of the progress of to-day.
In the world's history there are plenty such examples
where the true hero is not crowned with the laurel.
Americus Vespucius reaped the glory Columbus was en-
titled to, and this country named America, for a naviga-
tor who did little more than Cabot and other early
sailors to maritime countries. If courts can be influenced
by the pressure of corporations, in the minds and hearts
of the people are preserved the story of historic truths,
and the appreciation of the world's great benefactors.
We often hear of a "Scheme to educate the Germans,"
which was projected by some ill-advised persons in the
early days of the Province of Pennsylvania, and the
natural inference is that the settlers were ignorant. Such,
however, is far from the truth. The German immigrant,
from 1720 to 1760, was well educated ; he brought his
books, his pastor and school teacher with him. The
"scheme " alluded to was for the purpose of English edu-
cation, as it seemed then to be necessary for the purpose
The Pennsylvania-German. 127
of good and wise government that everybody understood
the theory of English citizenship. The scheme was not
a success, for the good old German pioneers preferred the
language of the Fatherland ; and so with the establish-
ment of German newspapers, and the issues of the Sauer,
Ephrata and other presses, information was more gener-
ally promulgated among the German and Swiss immi-
grants, than among those from the British Isles. Our
ancestors were diligent in educating their children. They
had not established colleges prior to the Revolution, but
they had splendid academies and schools, and the propor-
tion of Germans who could not read or write was less at
any period than in the other American States, Xorth or
South. Of course, it was a so-called foreign language,
but that made them no more ignorant or unlearned,
in comparison, than the graduate of Heidelberg with
him of Oxford.
And when free education was proposed, because the
Pennsylvania-German was slow to adopt new methods
and declined to make radical changes in the system
carried out for so many years, he has been deemed
boorish and unlearned; yet when truth is spoken, the
originator of the present plan of public education — the
free schools — was "William Audenreid, a Pennsylvania-
German, while its most earnest advocates and promoters
were Governors Wolf and Ritner, belonging to that same
pioneer race. The efforts of the "Great Commoner" came
after, when an attempt was made to repeal certain pro-
visions. In the equipment of normal, high and prepara-
tory schools, in the efficiency of superintendents and
128 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
teachers the status of German-Pennsylvania is equal to
any others in the Union. The Pennsylvania-German
leads the van. His impress on the Chautauquan move-
ment which has brought us together to-day is largely
shown. And thus it is in all the higher walks of Educa-
tion, University Extension, Social and Political Economy,
and in whatever tends to elevate thought, there are no
students or leaders more devoted.
No doubt some of my hearers may have heard of the
reason given by newspaper scribblers, for the large Demo-
cratic majority always assured in the county of Berks, as
due to the preponderance of Pennsylvania-German, his
ignorance and stupidity — failing to see that the same
would hold good for the large Republican majority al-
ways given by the county of Lancaster. It is a poor rule,
my friends, which will not work both ways. The Democ-
racy of Berks is just as intelligent as the Republicans of
Lancaster. It is principle which makes one man a Dem-
ocrat and another man a Republican. The success of any
political party does not show by any means its superior in-
tellectual endowments over another. Man is not of one
mind, and it is a blessed thing. It is a God-given differ-
ence, and we ought to be thankful that it is so.
If in education the Pennsylvania-German is in the ad-
vance, what shall we say of its theological literature — of
Rauch, and Scmucker, and Krauth, with a host of other
good men, who have passed on leaving a trail of brilliancy
in the firmament of advanced thought. And so with re-
ligious leaders. Who left behind them brighter records,
and the establishment of more powerful Christian or-
The Pennsylvania-German. 129
ganizations than Otterbein, of the United Brethren—
Winebrenner, of the Church of God — and Albright, of
the Evangelical Church. In their day they were pos-
sessed of a fervor and piety which made them fore-
runners in religious thought. "Their works do follow
them;" and so we have scattered through many States
those who believe in the doctrines these men taught.
In law the Pennsylvania-German of to-day is preemi-
nent. As jurists, few equal Pennypacker, Heydrick, Al-
bright, Bittinger, Bucher and a score of others, brilliant
in the legal profession, upright and honorable, shedding a
lustre and renown on the judiciary of the State. None of
the reports of the Supreme and other courts have equalled
in accuracy and conciseness those edited by Ammerman,
Crumrine and Pennypacker. While in certain lines of
legal lore who so prominent as Endlich, Wadlinger r
Jacobs and other Pennsylvania-German authors?
The field of medicine in Pennsylvania is largely occu-
pied by that class we have under consideration. Many
of these have risen to high positions in medical and
surgical practice. And thus it is in science and in me-
chanic arts of whatsoever nature. Who has excelled
Rothermel in descriptive painting — or how stands your
Peales, your Sully or St. Menin beside that Pennsyl-
vania-German portrait painter Eicholtz ?
In literature, many have left an enduring monument of
their patient and laborious research. The best history of
the War of the Revolution (unfortunately it was never
completed) was Hubley's, while Harbaugh, Reichel, Itupp
and others have gloaned successfully in fields where
others failed to reap.
130 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
And so, my friends, I might continue giving bright
examples of the men of mark in our State whose birth
and lineage is Pennsylvania-German. Yet I must not
pass over the man who more than any other has assisted
in making our Commonwealth the garden of the world.
To the Pennsylvania-German are we indebted for that in-
dustry and thrift which have made Pennsylvania farms the
of pride the Xation. In no section of the world do you
find better cultivated farms — better fences, better houses,
better barns, — better variety of crops — corn, grain and
tobacco, than those owned or managed by the Pennsyl-
vania-German. Within sis;ht of these surrounding hills
is a series of farms which, for the high character of their
buildings, for productiveness, for granaries, unsurpassed,
fully exemplifying the fact that " farming pays/' have
not their equal in any land under the sun — I refer to those
owned by Col. James Young, a Pennsylvania-German.
And now, why need I further recall the hosts of other
good and worthy men whose names and fame I have not
alluded to? High upon the historic escutcheon of the
Commonwealth are placed the insignia of those who have
honored and glorified it. For its place in the history of
the Union, the State is more largely indebted to the Penn-
sylvania-German than to any other class or race of people.
I cannot but be loyal to my ancestry — if I am loyal to my
State and my God.
..' "-; ^-^ ; - ;
Levi Eheaffar Heist
Was born in Warwick township, Lancaster county, on
April 13, 1817, and died on May 29, 1892. He was the
eldest son of Jacob Reist, a prominent farmer and busi-
ness man, His education was received in the schools of
the day, and the free school system never had a warmer
friend. He was foremost in all progressive movements.
Pie was one of the founders of the Lancaster County
Agricultural Society, its first President and one of its
Vice-Presidents at the time of his death. He always
manifested great interest in horticulture, farming and
forestry. He was one of the founders of the Lancaster
Fanner, and on its editorial staff. He was possessed of
an uncommon acquaintance with local history, especially
in its genealogical features, and his memory relative to the
old German families was remarkable. He was an earnest
member of the Pennsylvania-German Society from the
first, and would have made an active worker in its ranks.
He was a man of sterling character and universally es-
teemed. . F. R. D.
132 The Pennsylvani&-German Society.
esssss^^s^is^ssgr i i '^m
Henry Bherk Rginliold
Was born in Lancaster county on June 30, 1840. During
the war of the Rebellion, he went to the front as the Lieu-
tenant of a company raised chiefly by his own efforts and
equipped largely with his own money. He bore himself
gallantly in the war for the Union. At its conclusion he
removed to Harrisburg, where he died on August 7, 1891.
He was a generous man, and highly esteemed by all who
knew him. He was a member of Post 58, G. A. R.
F. R. D.
3 7 f- 4