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Lancaster, April 15th/ 1891.- f 3»> 








Printing Committee's Xote, 4 

Origin of the Society, 6 

Proceedings of Convention, 9 

The Call, 10 

Prayer, by Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, 12 

Address of Welcome, by E. K Martin, Esq., .... 14 

Response, by George F. Baer, Esq., 18 

Report of Local Committee, 26 

Xames of Persons Present, 30 

Committees Appointed, 32 

I)e Olta un Neia Tzeita, by E. II. Rauch, Esq., . . . .33 
Puritan and Cavalier ? Why Xot the Pennsylvania- 
Germans? by Col. Thos. C. Zimmerman, .... 36 
Auswahlen der Alte Zeite, by Henry L. Fisher, Esq., . 48 
The Pennsylvania-Germans in Church and State, by 

Rev. C, Z. Weiser, D. D., 62 

What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans, by Rev. 

F. J. F. Schantz, I). D., 71 

Permanent Organization, 82 

Constitution, 84 

By-Laws, 90 

Officers of the Society, 93 

Sub-Committees, 94 

Societv Meeting 94 

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in 2013 


To the Members of the Pennsylvania-German Society: 

Your Committee j appointed by the Convention held at 
Lancaster, Pa., on April 15, 1891, herewith presents to 
you the volume of Proceedings and Addresses it was 
authorized to prepare, together with a brief sketch of the 
origin of our Society, and the proceedings of the meet- 
ings preliminary to the organization. Hoping that our 
work may meet with your approval, we remain respect- 


E. W. S. Parthemore, 

Frank E. Diffenderffer, 

John S. Stahr, 

J. Max Hark, 

Hiram Young, 



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It has been thought that a brief account of the begin- 
nings of the movement which culminated in the organ i- 
zation of the Pennsylvania-German Society, would be a 
suitable prefix to this little volume, containing the rec- 
ord of the formal establishment of the said Society on the 
loth of last April. 

In this, as in many other progressive movements of the 
day, the newspaper press has been a very important fac- 
tor. The idea of such an organization, inspired with 
such purposes, it is true, did not originate with the news- 
papers. It is an old one and had its conception in the 
minds of many persons, long years ago. In fact, it was a 
favorite, scheme with writers and thinkers of Pennsyl- 
vania-German origin for generations. The " Sleeping 
Giant/' as the Pennsylvania-German element has been 
aptly called, could not fail to impress them with his la- 
tent possibilities, and for almost a century there seems to 
have been a yearning among these people towards that 
fuller recognition, which, as the preponderating element 
of this great State, it was felt they deserved. But, with 
characteristic diffidence, they kept themselves in the back- 
ground and permitted men of other nationalities to till 
the places and exercise controlling influence where they 
themselves should have assumed direction. In the full- 
ness of time, the hour seems to have come. The " Sleep- 
ing Giant " is about to awake from his prolonged slum- 
bers and arouse to the magnitude and importance of the 
destiny that lies before him. That he will measure up to 
the full stature predicted of him, and prove himself sec- 
ond to none in all that constitutes loyalty to race and 

vi Introductory. 

progress, and fidelity to the land of his adoption, seems 

During the months of December, 1890, and January, 
1891, articles appeared in various journals throughout 
Eastern Pennsylvania, the earliest being in The Lebanon 
Daily Report, followed by -The jS t ew Era, of Lancaster, 
and the Philadelphia Inquirer, advocating the formation 
of a Pennsylvania-German Society. A correspondence on 
the subject was finally opened by Mr. Frank R. DifFen- 
derffer, one of the editors of The Few Era, with Dr. "Will- 
iam H. Egle, State Librarian, and he was invited to come 
to Lancaster to discuss the question. The result was that 
on February 14, 1891, he came to Lancaster, and, in tlie 
editorial rooms of The New Era, found John S. Stahr, D, 
D., J. Max Hark, D. D., R, K. Buehrle, Ph. D., E. 0. Lyte, 
Ph. D., and Frank R. DirTenderffer, who had been invited 
to meet him. After a full and free discussion of the whole 
question, it was decided to invite a number of representa- 
tive men in the German counties of Eastern Pennsylvania 
to an informal conference in the city of Lancaster, on the 
26th of February. 

This was done, and on the above mentioned day, the 
conference met in the study of Dr. Hark, in the Moravian 
parsonage. It was found that nine counties were repre- 
sented, namely : 

Carbon County — E. H. Rauch. 

Chester County — Julius F. Sachse. 

Dauphin County— \Y. II. Egle, E. \Y. S. Parthemore, 
Maurice C. Eby. 

Lancaster County — J. Max Hark, H. A. Brickenstein, 
Frank R. Dirlenderfler. 

Lebanon County — Theodore E. Schmauk, Lee L. Grum- 

Lehigh County — Edwin Albright, A. R. Home. 

Luzerne County — F. K. Levan. 

Introductory. vii 

Northampton County — Jeremiah H. Hess, Paul de 

York County — Hiram Young. 

Dr. Egle was called to preside over the meeting, and in 
doing so succinctly stated the purpose and importance of 
the contemplated movement. Frank P. DifFenderfTer was 
chosen as temporary Secretary. A large number of letters 
were read from prominent citizens of the State, who were 
unavoidably absent, but who nevertheless felt a deep in- 
terest in the step under consideration, and were anxious 
to promote it in every possible way. Encouragement 
came from all sides, and co-operation was promised on 
every hand. 

All present in turn gave expression to their views, and 
it was found that the universal feeling was towards a 
permanent organization, having for its aim the collection 
and preservation of all landmarks and records relating to 
the early German and Swiss immigrants to Pennsylvania, 
and the development of a friendly and fraternal spirit 
among all united by the ties of a common ancestry. 

An animated discussion arose over the name to be given 
to the proposed organization, the names " Pennsylvania- 
German Society " and " Pennsylvania-Dutch Society " be- 
ing warmly supported. A suggestion to defer the matter 
to a subsequent meeting was not agreed to, and a resolu- 
tion to use the name Pennsylvania-German Society in the 
call for a general Convention was finally adopted. Leb- 
anon, Philadelphia and Lancaster were severally proposed. 
as the place where this Convention should be held. The 
last named city was finally decided upon, and the 15th of 
the following April was selected as the time. 

The Chairman was instructed to name a committee of 
five, of which he was also to be a member, to prepare a 
a call for the general Convention. The Committee, sub- 
sequently named, consisted of Theodore E.. Sehmauk,. 

viii Introductory. 

J. S. Stahr, Hiram Young, Frank E. Diffenderffer and 
George F. Baer. This Committee met in The New Era 
building on the 9th of March, all the members being 
present except Mr. Baer, who was unavoidably absent. 
The general character and phraseology of the proposed 
address and call were discussed. The document on page 
10 in this volume was finally adopted. It was decided 
to circulate it as widely as possible by circular and through 
the medium of the newspaper press. This was subse- 
quently done, and the large Convention held on April 15, 
in the Lancaster County Court House, was the result. In 
the following pages will be found a full report of the pro- 
ceedings and addresses attending the formal organization 
of the Society. F. E. D. 


— OF THE — 


Held in Court House, Lancaster, Pa., 
On WEDNESDAY, APKIL loth, 1891. 

Morning Session, 10 o'clock. 

The Convention was called to order at 10 o'clock, a. m., 
by W. II. Egle, M. D., of Harrisburg, who said: 

" Ladies and Gentlemen : — As Chairman of the Pre- 
liminary Conference, it becomes my duty to call this as- 
semblage to order, which I now do; and we will have, 
before effecting a temporary organization, music from the 
Lancaster Maennerchor." 

After the Lancaster MaBnnerchor had rendered several 
characteristic German folk-songs, led by Prof. Carl Matz, 
the call that had been issued convening this meeting; was 
read by Frank R. DiffenderfTer, of Lancaster. 

10 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

The Call. 

People who will take no pride in the coble achievements of remote 
ancestors, -will never achieve anything worthy to be remembered with 
pride by remote descendants. — Macaulay. 

To the Descendants of the Early German and Swiss Settlers 

in Pennsylvania, Wheresover Dispersed. 

At a preliminary conference of descendants of the early 
German and Swiss settlers, held at Lancaster on the 2Cth 
of February, it was resolved to call a meeting on April 
15th, 1891, to organize a Pennsylvania-German Society. 

It is eminently proper that the descendants of these 
people should associate themselves in memory of those 
who " made the wilderness blossom as the rose," to show 
to the offspring of other nationalities that they are not 
behind them in any of the attributes which go to make 
up the best citizens of the best State in the best Govern- 
ment of the world. In the art of printing, in the realm 
of science and letters, in religious fervor, in pure statesman- 
ship, in war and in peace, the Pennsylvania-German- 
Swiss element has equalled any other race. 

It has long been everywhere recognized by the descend- 
ants of the early American colonists as a matter of great 
importance to effect organizations of the character we 
propose, for the purpose of searching out and preserving 
all ancestral records; for the purpose of bringing their 
forefathers into such recognition in the eyes of the world, 
and especially of their own children, as they deserve ; for 
the purpose of developing the friendly and fraternal spirit 
that should exist between those in whose veins the same 
blood flows ; for the purpose of lifting history, now un- 

The Call 11 

noticed or unknown, into honor; and, very particularly, 
for the purpose of preserving to posterity the old public 
records, landmarks and memorials, which in another gen- 
eration will have entirely disappeared. 

The co-operation of our fellow Pennsylvania-Germans is 
hereby cordially invited in this movement, and they are 
earnestly requested to be present in the City of Lancaster 
at 10 o'clock a. m., on the 15th day of April, and we ask 
them to use their influence to secure the presence of all 
representative descendants of our common ancestry, that 
the meeting may prove a great success, 

"W. II. Egle, Dauphin County. 

E. W. S. Parthemore, Dauphin County. 
R. K. Buehrle, Lancaster County. 

H. A. Brickcnstein, Lancaster County. 

F. R. DifFenderfFer, Lancaster County. 
T. C. Zimmerman, Berks County. 

A. R. Home, Lehigh County. 

Paul de Schweinitz, Northampton County. 

Hiram Young, York County. 

L. L. Grumbine, Lebanon County. 

S. P. Heilman, Lebanon County. 

Julius F. Sachse, Chester County. 

Benjamin Whitman, Erie County. 

C. P. Humrich, Cumberland County. 

Benjamin M. Xead, Franklin County. 

Daniel Eberly, Adams County. 

Maurice C. Eby, Dauphin County. 

John S. Stahr, Lancaster County. 

J. Max Hark, Lancaster County. 

12 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

E. 0. Lyte, Lancaster County. 
George F. Baer, Berks County. 
Edwin Albright, Lehigh County. 
Jere. A. Hess, Northampton County. 

E. H. Rauch, Carbon County. 
Theodore E. Schmauk, Lebanon County. 
Grant Weidman, Lebanon County. 

F. K. Levan, Luzerne County. 
James A. Beaver, Centre County. 
Boyd Crumrine, Washington County. 
S. W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia. 
H. A. Muhlenberg, Berks County. 

Then, after a motion had been passed to proceed to tem- 
porary organization, the Rev. John S. Stahr, D. D., Pres- 
ident of Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa., 
nominated as chairman the Hon. George F. Baer, of 
Reading, Pa., who was unanimously chosen. 

Thereupon the following prayer was offered up by the 
Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, of Nazareth, Northampton 
Co., Pa.: 


Lord, God, our Father, who art in heaven, Thou God 
of our fathers, we praise Thee and acknowledge Thee to 
be the Lord. We thank Thee, that Thou hast permitted 
us to gather together in this Convention so auspiciously 
for the purpose we have in view, and we humbly be- 
seech Thee to look down in favor upon us, and to bless 
us in our undertaking. We praise Thee, Lord, for this 
fair land Thou hast given us, and for the liberty of con- 

Prayer. * 13 

science we Lave enje^ed therein. We praise Thee for the 
frugal, industrious, pious ancestry we may look hack 
upon, and for the blessing upon their labors, which have 
made the wilderness to blossom as the rose. We praise 
Thee for the Christian faith of our fathers and for the 
transplanting of the earnest German piety of earlier 
years to these shores. We praise Thee for the school 
houses and the churches that dot our lands, and for the 
testimony they have borne unto Thy Holy iSTame. But 
we would fain confess before Thee, Lord, that we have 
not ever walked in the paths of the holy faith we knew, 
nor ever lived up to the high ideals of our fathers, and we 
beseech Thee to mercifully forgive our many sins and 
shortcomings, and to inspire us to reveal in our present 
lives the deep-flowing German piety of former days to 
the honor of Thy name. Grant that we as a society may 
not be filled with a spirit of self-glorification, but that in 
our efforts to perpetuate the noble deeds of our German 
ancestors, we may be moved to emulate their virtues, to 
avoid their faults, and to testify by our lives to the influ- 
ence of worthy parentage. Grant that the labors of this 
society may result in a more glowing patriotism for the 
land where our fathers settled, and for whose weal they 
labored, in a sanctified patriotism, desirous of having 
this country become, be, and remain a Christian nation. 
Grant that nothing may be done contrary to the spirit of 
Thy holy law, and then graciously cause us and our under- 
taking to prosper. Hear us, we beseech Thee, in these 
our imperfect supplications, for the sake of Thy Son, 
Jesus Christ, our Redeemer, to Whom, with Thee, and 

14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the Holy Spirit, be honor and glory, now and evermore. 

On assuming the Chair, the Hon. George F. Baer said : 
"Gentlemen of the Convention, permit me to thank you 
for this compliment. I will reserve speech making until 
after the address of welcome. I have the honor, there- 
fore, to introduce to you the Hon. E. K. Martin, of Lan- 

Address of Welcome. 

Mr Martin sjtoke as follows : 

Bancroft says of the Germans in America : " Xeither 
they nor their descendants have laid claim to all that is 
their due." This may be attributable partly to language, 
partly to race, instincts and hereditary tendencies. Quiet 
in their tastes, deeply absorbed in the peaceful vocations 
of life, undemonstrative to the verge of diffidence, without 
clannish propensities, they have permitted their more ag- 
gressive neighbors to deny them a proper place even on 
the historic page. 

At the close of the Thirty Years' war there ran through 
Protestant Germany a broad line ; upon the one side of 
that line stood the followers of Luther and Zwingli, of 
Melanchthon and Calvin — these were the Church people ; 
upon the other side stood Menno Simon and " The Sepa- 
ratists " — these were the Sect people. It was a line which 
divided persecution by new boundaries, and left the fag- 
got and the stake in new hands, for the Peace of West- 
phalia had thrown the guarantees of its powerful protec- 
tion onlv over the one side of this Protestant division. It 

Address of Welcome. 15 

was a line which in the New World, though less discern- 
ible than in the Old, is only becoming obliterated in the 
widening philanthropy of our own times. 

We meet here to day in the home of the descendants of 
the Sect people, where, perhaps more than anywhere else 
in America, have been preserved in their original purity, 
the thoughts, the faith, the habits, the ways of living, 
even the dress of the Eeformation period. 

"When " the new3 spread through the Old World that 
William Penn, the Quaker, had opened an asylum to the 
good and the oppressed of every nation, and Humanity 
went through Europe gathering up the children of mis- 
fortune," our forefathers came out from their hiding places 
in the forest depths and the mountain valleys which the 
sun never penetrated, clad in homespun, their feet shod 
with wood, their dialects ofttimes unintelligible to each 
other. There was scarcely a family among them which 
could not be traced to some ancestor burned at the stake 
for conscience sake. Judge Pennypacker says : " Their 
whole literature smacks of fire. Beside a record like 
theirs the sufferings of Pilgrim and Quaker seem trivial." 
And yet, my friends, even the German schoolboy is taught 
to regard these Pilgrim sacrifices of a handful of Eng- 
lishmen as the noblest ever laid upon the altars of con- 
science and humanity. The story of their sufferings, 
which at most extended over a few generations and a small 
area of territory, has been told and retold with distressing 
particularity. There is not an event or object from the 
departure from Delftshaven to the chair of Carver and the 
pot and platter of Miles Standish, which have not been 
held up to veneration by poet, painter and orator. 

16 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

But in the noisy clamor for worldly recognition our 
people have gone their silent, uncomplaining way, and 
their story is yet to be told ; and they have not been en- 
tirely unmindful of worldly attributes, either. They 
have simply discriminated. While New England, with 
her stony acres, is fast becoming depopulated by the sons 
of the Puritan, and her old homesteads are empty or oc- 
cupied by an alien race, the descendants of our ancestors 
live in the first agricultural county of the United States, 
shape its destiny, control its life, hold its lands by an- 
cient indentures, supplemented by grants from father to 
son reaching backward in one ever-strengthening chain of 
titles to the original patents of Penn, implanting in a 
glorious Commonwealth a true conservatism and adorning 
it continually with renewed evidences of prosperity and 

I know you will pardon me for having taken this 
type of German-American life with which I am most 
familiar as an illustration of the thought which this 
society has been formed to emphasize. What may be said 
of the Lancaster county German and the descendants of 
the Sect people may be said of the German descendants of 
the early immigrants of every class. We of the nine- 
teenth century have not been sufficiently mindful . of that 
glorious history which with rigid simplicity, and stout 
self-denial, so long and so successfully resisted Roman ab- 
solutism in Europe during the fifteenth century. We 
have failed to preserve with true fidelity the records of 
the great pioneer period of Pennsylvania, when our 
forefathers broke in upon the forest and helped to plant 

Address of Welcome. 17 

the foundations of our National life. We do not suffi- 
ciently share the pride that their glorious names have given 
to the Revolutionary period when this Government took 
shape, and to the magnificent army of German-American 
statesmen, and warriors and patriots from that hour to 
this. The descendants of the old Knickerbockers have a 
Holland Society in 'New York, the pride of membership 
in which is held with more favor than across the water 
they regard a royal mark or garter. The Huguenots pre- 
serve in their organized circles the history of the grand 
old Frenchmen who stood for civil and religious liberty 
in the face of axe and faggot, and their descendants yearly 
assemble in our seaboard cities to congratulate them- 
selves upon the blood of the martyrs which flows in their 

The Xew England Society — They have a banquet every 
night, I think ; at least an issue of the "New York Tri- 
bune would not be complete without some account of 
their meeting somewhere. 

And yet I say to you, fellow Germans, if you will turn 
to the history of your ancestors, and read the story of 
their sufferings, persecutions, stout abnegation through 
eight centuries in which cruel selfishness and heartless 
bigotry assumed the wardship of conscience, you will 
find that the trials of the ancestors of these feasting Puri- 
tans, great as they were, compared with the trials of your 
own people, are as the waters of Marah beside the plagues 
Of Egypt. 

But this gathering here is an earnest of the fact that 
the Pennsylvania-German, who has been called a sleeping 

18 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

giant, is about to bestir himself, and I welcome you to 
our midst to inaugurate the great undertaking. 

Lancaster county, which glories in being a typical 
Pennsylvania-German community, bids you thrice wel- 
come to her borders. Lancaster city, where every heart- 
throb is in sympathy with the German- American life, 
bids you welcome. 

Response by Mr. Baer : 

Gentlemen: — The duty devolves upon me as Chair- 
man of this Convention to make a brief response to the 
high words of praise in which the kindly welcome of the 
citizens of Lancaster has been extended to the descendants 
of the early Pennsylvania-Germans assembled here to-day. 

It is meet and right that the first meeting of the 
Pennsylvania-German Convention should be held here, in 
the heart of Eastern Pennsylvania; here in Lancaster 
County, the garden-spot of Pennsylvania, made such by 
the industry, thrift and taste of the early German settlers. 

It is singular that the true character, mission and 
work of the early Pennsylvania-Germans, the influence 
they exerted, and the part they took in the struggle for 
independence and the formation of our government, 
should be so completely ignored or misunderstood. Some 
of our friends are disposed to attach the whole blame to 
the Xew England and the English historians. It is un- 
doubtedly true that as a rule they have utterly failed to 
understand our people, and do not regard them as factors 
in the history of the nation. But which of you, looking 
honestly into the matter, can fail to see that the blame 


• = 

Response by 'Mr. Baer. 19 

falls as mucli on the German descendants as on the his- 
torians of this and of former days ? Have we not been 
remiss in asserting the truth of History ? Have we not 
been indifferent to the good deeds and fame of our ances- 
try? Have not many of us in acquiring an English 
tongue, lost all interest in our Teutonic ancestors, and be- 
come disposed to regard the general order of our American 
national life as an English development pure and simple ? 

When we recall the fact, that, at the time of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, nearly one-half of the popula- 
tion of Pennsylvania was German, we may well ask our- 
selves: "How comes it that in the many stories of this 
struggle for independence, the German figures so indiffer- 
ently on the pages of written history." 

The answer is not difficult. You must remember that 
Pennsylvania was an English colony, regulated and con- 
trolled by English laws and customs. The thousands of 
Germans, Swiss and Dutch who migrated here on the in- 
vitation of Penn, came without ability to speak the Eng- 
lish language, and without any knowledge, except that 
derived from general report, of the customs and habits of 
thought of the English people. They went vigorously 
to work to clear the wilderness and establish homes. 
They were sober, religious, orderly, industrious and 
thrifty. The reports the earlier settlers made to their 
friends at home of the prosperity and liberty they enjoyed 
in their new homes, induced from year to year many 
others to come. Their numbers increased so much as to 
alarm the proprietary officials. Logan wanted their immi- 
gration prevented by Act of Parliament, "for fear the 
colony would in time be lost to the crown." He wrote a 

20 ' The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

letter in which he says : " The numbers from Germany at 
this rate will soon produce a German colony here, and 
perhaps such a one as Britain received from Saxony in 
the Fifth Century." As early as 1747, one of the pro- 
prietary Governors attributed the prosperity of the Penn- 
sylvania colony to the thrift, sobriety and good characters 
of the Germans. ^Tumerous as they were, because this 
was in its government a purely English colony, the part 
they took in its public affairs was necessarily limited. 
The Government officials and the vast majority of the 
members of the Assembly were all English. During the 
long struggle in the Colonies to adjust the strained re- 
lations with Great Britain, the Germans were seemingly 
indifferent. They saw no practical gain in surrendering 
the Penn Charter, and Proprietary Government, under 
which they had obtained their homes, for the direct rule 
of the British King. They could not understand the 
distinction between King and Parliament. The attempts 
to condemn the acts of the King's Parliament and to 
praise the King, were without meaning to them. They 
had long learned not to put their trust in princes. Long 
before the Commonwealth of England was created, the 
people who spoke their language, practiced their relig- 
ion, and loved freedom, had established the Dutch Re- 
public and the Swiss Confederation. When, therefore, in 
1776, the issue was suddenly enlarged into a broad de- 
mand for final separation from Great Britain, and the 
creation of a Republic, all their traditional love of free- 
dom was fully aroused. 

Under the Proprietary rule, although constituting 

Response by Mr. Baer. 21 

nearly one-half the population of the colony, they were 
practically without representation in the General Assem- 
hly, and without voice in the Government. The right of 
" electing or being elected " to the Assembly was confined 
to natural born subjects of England, or persons naturalized 
in England or in the province, who were 21 years old, and 
freeholders of the province owning fifty acres of seated 
land, and at least twelve acres improved, or worth clear 
fifty pounds and a resident for two years. Naturalization 
was not the simple thing it now is. The conditions were 
exceptionally severe, and comparatively few Germans 
qualified themselves to vote. 

The delegates to the Colonial Congress were selected 
by the General Assembly. In November, 1775, the As- 
sembly instructed the Pennsylvania delegates not to vote 
for separation from Great Britain. The majority of the 
delegates were against separation. The Assembly refused 
to rescind the instructions of November, 1775. The efforts 
to have the naturalization laws and the oath of allegiance 
to the King repealed, failed. At the election for new 
members in May, 1776, in Philadelphia, three out of four 
of those elected were opposed to separation. The situa- 
tion was most critical. Independence and union were not 
possible without Pennsylvania. Geographically, she was 
midway between the Colonies. She was one of the 
wealthiest and strongest. Her government was in the 
hands of those opposed to separation. One course only 
remained. Peaceful efforts in the Assembly to enfran- 
chise the Germans, by repealing the naturalization laws 
and oath of allegiance, had failed, and now this must be 

22 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

accomplished by revolution, because their enfranchise- 
ment would give the friends of liberty and union an over- 
whelming and aggressive majority. This was the course- 
resolved on. The Philadelphia Committee called a con- 
ference of committees of the Counties. On the 18th of 
June, 1776, this provincial conference, numbering one 
hundred and four, met in Philadelphia. The German 
counties were represented . no longer by English tories. 
There were leading; Germans in the delegations from 
Philadelphia, Lancaster, Northampton, York, Bucks and 
Berks. In Berks, the loyalist Biddle gives place to eight 
prominent Germans, headed by Gov. Hiester, Cols. 
Hunter, Eckert and Lutz. 

The proprietary government of Pennsylvania, with 
its Tory Assembly, was overthrown — foundation, pillar 
and dome. 

This conference called a Provincial Convention to 
frame a new Government. On the petition of the Ger- 
mans, the members of that Convention were to be 
elected by persons qualified to vote for Assembly, and by 
the military associators (volunteers), being freemen 
twenty-one years of age, resident in the province one year. 
This gave the Germans the right to vote. Thus says 
Bancroft : " The Germans were incorporated into the 
people and made one with them." The 19th of June, 
1776, enfranchised the Germans, and made the Declaration 
of Independence possible. 

The Provincial Conference signed a paper declaring 
their willingness to concur in a vote of Congress to declare 
the United Colonies free and independent States. Penn- 

Response by 31r. Baer. 23 

sylvania's attitude was no longer doubtful. The Tories 
saw that with the German vote and power in the colony 
against them, the cause of the King was hopeless. There- 
were no German Tories. The effect of this new order of 
things was felt instantly throughout the Colonies. When 
on July 2, 1776, the Colonial Congress reached a vote on 
the resolution declaring the Colonies free and independent 
States, the vote of Pennsylvania was cast in its favor by 
three of its delegates, Franklin, Wilson and Morton. 
Dickinson and Morris stayed away. Willing and Hum- 
ph re} r were present, but did not vote. 

You see, it is absolutely true, that, as the English 
people of the province were divided in 1776, the Germans 
were the potential factors in securing the essential vote of 
Pennsylvania for the Declaration of Independence. 

These are pregnant facts worthy of marked notice in 
the story of Independence, which hitherto have received 
slight attention from historians, and have not been shout- 
ed from the hilltops by the descendants of the Pennsyl- 

Throughout the Revolution, these Germans, called by 
the Xew England Historian Parkman " dull and ignorant 
boors — a character not wholly inapplicable to the great 
body of their descendants," were the steadfast defenders of 
the new Republic. Dr. Stille, in his recent admirable 
" Life of Dickinson," concedes that " no portion of the 
population was more ready to defend its homes, or took 
up arms more willingly in support of the American cause." 
Washington, when in Philadelphia after the war, testified 
his high appreciation of the hearty support the Germans 

24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

gave him, arid the cause he represented, by worshiping 
with his family in the old German church on Race street. 

The descendants of the Pennsylvania-Germans have 
-settled all over the West, contributing to Ohio, Illinois and 
other Western States, the same sturdy, honest population 
that characterizes Pennsylvania. From Revolutionary 
times until now, they have borne an honorable part in the 
Nation's history and progress. In every work, in times 
-of trial, in peace and war, they have shown themselves 
the equals of the best in the land. 

It is high time, therefore, men of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
-man descent, that some action should be taken to assert 
the truth of history. Let this meeting be the beginning 
of a fixed determination to see that justice is done our an- 
cestors for the part they took and the influence they 
-exerted in the creation, development and support of this 
glorious Republic. Although they came here from Ger- 
many, they were as truly American as any of the English 
speaking people. They have never claimed any other 
nationality. In the same spirit, we do not propose to 
organize a German society, to praise our ancestors as 
Germans, or to bother with foreign German problems, or 
customs. We have too many organizations in this land 
whose sole concern is with Old World conditions. We are 
Americans, and as such let us frown upon the insolence 
that seeks to exalt any other than the American flag. It 
is only because our ancestors became thoroughly American, 
and as such brought whatever was ^ood in their old Ger- 
man trainins: to the work of establishing this free Amer- 
ican government, that we have a right to organize this 

Response by Mr. Baer. 25 

society. We will not come in conflict with other similar 
organizations. No man can go further than I will to 
praise the part the Puritans took in the formation of this 
government. They are in many things narrow, con- 
tracted and selfish, but they have great virtues, and some 
that we might well imitate. We are a little slow, per- 
haps too conservative to be very brilliant, but then we 
are sure and safe, and in the long run this counts. 

Neither would I detract from the great part the 
Scotch-Irish took in Pennsylvania. They stood shoulder 
to shoulder with the Pennsylvania-Germans in the great 
contest I have described and in the early organization of 
this government, and they are entitled to all praise. They 
have their organizations to perpetuate the undying fame 
of their ancestors, and it is right that we should follow 
their example. 

It is in this spirit, therefore, that we are assembled 
here to-day ; and I hope that what we shall do will be 
wisely done ; that the society we shall organize will re- 
flect honor upon our ancestors and incite our descendants 
to a just appreciation of their character and worth. 

The attention of the chair beins; called to the absence 
of a secretary, nominations for that office were received as 
follows : 

E. W. S. Parthemore nominated Frank R. Diffenderffer. 
Nominations closed and he was declared elected. 

The report of the local committee was next in order, 
and the Rev. Dr. John S. Stahr reported as follows: 

26 TJie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Report of the Local Committee. 

As chairman of the Local Committee, I have only a par- 
tial report to make. In the first place — hut hefore I proceed 
to say what the committee has done I wish to state how this 
committee came to he appointed. Those of the gentlemen 
who were present at the convention of the preliminary 
conference will recollect that a committee was appointed 
to issue a call. That committee thought that there ought 
to he a local committee of arrangements and it was ac- 
cordingly appointed. ETow, as chairman of that com- 
mittee, I wish to say that we have clone three things. 
We have, in the first place, made arrangements for this 
meeting ; we have secured the Court House ; we have 
tried to secure a comfortable place in which to transact 
your business. In the second place we have tried to as- 
sist the committee appointed to send out invitations and 
to secure the attendance here of representative Pennsyl- 

Of course, in this matter we have felt the difficulty 
under which we labored. "VYe did not have lists from the 
different counties ; but we have done the best we could. 
The Secretary of the Committee of the Preliminary Con- 
ference has been diligent in sending out invitations. It 
was impossible to reach everybody, but if we form our- 
selves into a missionary society to-day, I hope we shall be 
able to reach all Pennsylvania-Germans and secure them 
for members of this body. It was thought that in order 
to secure the successful prosecution of the business which 
brings us together we ought to have the draft of a con- 
stitution before us. The preparation of a constitution 

Report of the Local Committee. 27 

necessarily is a pretty difficult piece of work. We have, 
therefore, met together, we have deliberated over this 
matter and we have prepared a draft of a constitution 
which will presently be read by the Secretary of our Com- 
mittee. I wish to say, however, that we do not presume 
to offer this constitution as one which you ought neces- 
sarily to adopt, and what we present in the shape of a 
constitution is merely in the way of suggestion. Wq have 
tried to do the best we could. There are a number of 
points in the constitution, I know, concerning which 
there will be a difference of opinion ; and whether or not 
you agree with what we have done on the subject of 
membership and other points which will come up for 
consideration here, you will please understand that we 
have tried to be as liberal as we possibly could ; whilst at 
the same time we may have felt that in some things we 
might have drawn the lines more closely than we have.* 

German Society of Pennsylvania Sends Greeting. 

The chair here announced the presence of a committee 
of gentlemen from the German Society of Philadelphia, 
who had been appointed to present its respects and 
good wishes to this convention. 

Prof. Oswald Seidensticker, M. D., of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and of said committee, said : 

Mr. President: The German Society of Philadelphia, 
founded in the year 1764, has had a long and honorable 

*The gentlemen who served on this Committee were as follows : 
J. S. Stahr, Chairman; J. Max Hark, Secretary; John B. Warfel, 
R. K. Buehrle, J. TV. B. Bailsman, E. K. Martin and F, R. Difien- 

28 The Pennsylvania- German Society . 

career. Whilst devoted mainly to objects of charity, it 
lias for a long time been entirely in sympathy with the 
objects' which this newly-formed society is going to pur- 
sue exclusively. For a number of years the Society has 
been collecting matters pertaining to the Pennsylvania- 
Germans. There was also connected with the German 
Society an advanced society or verein, which pursued ex- 
exactly the same objects which this society will pursue. 
They held their meetings in the homes of the members 
of the society and may be considered as a branch of it. 

I will not delay your proceedings further than to say 
that the German Society takes great interest in, and con- 
veys its good wishes for the success of this Society. 

General Louis Wagner, also of said Committee, then 
spoke as follows : 

It is a matter of regret that the President of the Ger- 
man Society was not able to come with us. We are here 
as the representative of this, the oldest Society in Penn- 
sylvania, to bid it God-speed, and we are anxious to become 
members of this new Society at the regular and proper 

By the Chair : 

If there is no objection, I suggest that these delegates 
from the German Society be admitted to the floor and be 
given the privilege of participating in our proceedings. 

There was no objection, and the two gentlemen were 
invited to the courtesies of the Convention. 

The draft of the proposed constitution was next read 

Proceedings. 29 

by the Rev. J. Max Hark, D. D., of Lancaster, Pa., sec- 
retary of the local committee. 

The Chair farther asked what order or disposition the 
Convention would make of the proposed constitution, and 
suggested that two committees be appointed, one to take 
up exclusively the subject of membership, as being pos- 
sibly the most important feature in the constitution ; and 
the other committee to take up the general features of the 
constitution and report at the afternoon meeting. 

The Chair still further suggested that all announce 
their names and residences when they rise and speak. 

By Prof. I. S. Geist, of Marietta, Pa. : 

It seems to me the name suggested by that paper 
might be changed to the German Society of Pennsyl- 
vania. It is a Society that is to be in this state, and it is 
a Society of the descendants of the Germans. 

By the Rev. Dr. John S. Stahr : 

The course suggested by the President, I think, is a 
proper one, to refer this constitution to a committee, or to 
several committees, and then it will be in order to debate 
upon it. 

It was then moved that two committees be appointed, 
the one to report on membership and the other on the re- 
mainder of the Constitution. The motion was seconded 
and carried. 

The Chair asked what the size of these committees 
should be. 

H. A. Muhlenberg, Esq., ot Reading, Pa., moved that 
each Committee consist of five members. The motion was 
seconded and carried. 

30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

By the Chair : 

Will the Convention name the members ? 

The Rev. Dr. John S. Stahr suggested that the Chair 
name the committees. 

The Rev. Eaul de Schweinitz inquired whether it 
would not he well to call the roll by counties and find out 
who were present. 

The Chair suggested that all persons report their names 
and addresses to the Secretary, and for that purpose the 
Convention took an intermission of ten minutes. 

A motion was then carried to have the Secretary call a 
list of the counties, and as the counties were called, the 
gentlemen in attendance to give their names. The follow- 
ing delegates were reported as present so far as could be 
ascertained : 

Berks. — Hon. George F. Baer, E*^», Geo. C. Heckman, 
E»€fc» 5 Col. Thos. C. Zimmerman, Samuel A. Baer, II. A. 
Muhlenberg, Esq., M. L. Montgomery, Esq., Amos Reiff. 

Carbon.— E. H. Rauch. 

Chester. — Julius F. Sachse, Esq., Isaac "W*. Urner. 

Clearfield.— P. S. Weber. 

Cumberland. — C. P. Humerick, Esq. 

Dauphln.-^-Dr. W. II. Egle, Hon. David Mumma, Paul 
A. Kunkel, Benjamin M. ISTead, Maurice C. Eby, E. W. S. 
Parthemore, D. C. Maurer, II. C. Reinhold, B. F. Myers, 
Judge A. 0. Hiester, Gabriel Hiester, William P. Smull, 
Dr. John P. Keller, Dr. Xead. 

Franklin. — Franklin Keagy. 

Lancaster. — J. L. Steinmetz, Esq., Rev. John S. Stahr, 
D. D., Rev. J. Max Hark, D. D., Rev. Chas. L. Fry, F. 

Persons Present. 31 

R. Diffenderffer, W. M. Franklin, S. M. Sener, Esq., J. W. 
B. Bailsman, Esq.,R. K Buehrle,Ph. D.,Rev. D. W. Ger- 
hart, Eev. Theo. Appel, D. D., Prof. Carl. Thorbahn, J. B. 
Warfel, Esq., E. A. Becker, C. Musselman, II. E. Slay- 
maker, M. J. Brecht, W. D. Weaver, Esq^ Major A. C. 
Reincehl,T. P. Bowman, E. K Martin, Esq., city; Geo. H. 
Richards, Isaac L. Bowman and Rev. J. II. Pennypacker, 
Columbia; Hon.EsaiasBillingfelt, Adamstown; Christian 
Keneagy, M. D., Strasburg ; Isaac Bushong, Bird-in-Hand ; 
Prof. I. S. Geist, Marietta ; W. L. Hershey, Landisville ; 
Rev. John P. Stein, A. 0. Xewpher, Esq., Millersville ; 
Peter Hershey, Leaman Place ; Hon. G. II. Ranck, Xew 
Holland ; J. R. Hoffer, Mount Joy ; John G . Zook, George 
Hepp, Captain John R. Bricker, Lititz ; W. J. "Kafroth, 
West Earl ; Rev. A. B. Say lor, Terre Hill ; Abram Summy, 
J. L. Brandt, Marietta ; Dr. J. L. Hertz, Lexington ; Rev. 
S. M. Roeder, Elizabethtown ; Daniel Herr, Pequea ; Dr. 

E. 0. Lyte, Levi S. Reist, Rev. J. W. Meminger, Prof. G. 

F. Mull, Prof. J, E. Kershner, Rev. John Kohler, D. M. 
Swarr, Prof. Jos. H. Dubbs, D. D., John W. Appel, Esq., 
Dr. Thos. G. Appel, Hon. E. S. Hoover, A. J. Kauffman, 
Esq., Rev. J. ~W. Hassler, J. Hay Brown, Esq., B. Frank 
Eshleman, Esq., Hon. Marriott Brosius, Eaeft, Judge D. 
W. Patterson, Hon. Henry M. Engle. 

Lebanon. — L. L. Grumbine, Esq., Dr. E. Grumbine, Dr. 
J, R. Heilman, John W. Mish, A. Hess, Henry S. Heilman, 
J. H. Redsecker, Jacob A. Shindel, Grant Weidman,Esq., 
Geo. B. Shock, Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, D. D., Rev. T. E. 
Schmauk, B. Frank Hean, C. Shenk. 

Lehigh.— Dr. A. R. Home, Dr. A. J, G. Dubbs, T. H. 
Diehl, Hon. E. Albright, E. A. Reiser. 

32 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Luzerne. — Rev. F. X. Levari, D. D. 

Montgomery. — Rev. Dr. C. L. Weiser, J. X. Faust, 
Samuel Grob, Rev. Matthias Sheeleigh, D. D. 

Northampton. — J. F. Beitel, Eev. Paul de Schweinitz, 
Rev. C. D. Levan, Hon. Jere. S. Hess. 

Philadelphia. — Rudolph Blankenberg, Dr. Oswald Seid- 
ensticker, Gen. Louis Wagner. 

Westmoreland. — J. J. Bierer. 

York. — Henry L. Fisher, Esq., Hon. A. Hiestand Glatz, 
Hiram Young, Jos. S. Keagy. 

M. D. Larned, Associate Professor of German in Johns- 
Hopkins University, was among the visitors. 

It was suggested that a member from each county be 
represented on the Committee on Constitution. 

By the Chair : 

Will Lancaster county name one member for each of 
these committees ? 

The roll of counties was then called and the names and 
addresses of those present taken, after which the chair 
announced the following committees : 

Committee on Membership — II. A. Muhlenberg, Berks 
county ; Samuel Grob, Montgomery county ; F. K. Levan, 
Luzerne county ; W. H. Egle, Dauphin couuty ; Grant 
Weidman, Lebanon county. 

Committee on Constitution — L. L. Grumbine, Lebanon 
county ; H. L. Fisher, York county; J. S. Hess, North- 
ampton county ; Julius F. Sachse, Chester county ; A. R. 
Home, Lehigh county. 

By the Chair : 

The next thing in order is the appointment of a Com- 
mittee on Permanent Organization. 

Be Olta un'Neia Tzeita. 33 

A motion for the appointment of such committee was 
seconded and carried, and the Chair appointed the follow- 
ing on said committee : John S. Stahr, Lancaster county; 
E. W. S. Farthemore, Dauphin county; H. A. Muhlen- 
berg, Berks county ; Hiram Young, York county ; J. II. 
Pedsecker, Lebanon county. 

After the preliminary business, the convention listened 
to the following address in Pennsylvania-German, by E. 
II. Rauch, of Mauch Chunk, on 

"De Olta un Heia Tzeita." 

Ich con on nix bessers denka os a pawr wardt sawga 
weaga de olta un neia tzeita. Suppose mer mista now 
widder tzurick gae ivver fooftzich yohr, un laiva we sella- 
mohls? Denk a mohl drau, ainer het business in Pittsburg, 
un mist dort si in dri odder feer dawg. Ar kent's net du 
in wennicher os sex daws; in der stasre we se ols s;atraveled 
sin sellamohls. Un suppose eber het in sella dawga ba- 
hawpt 03 de tzeit yeamohls coomd wann ainer mit feer 
odder finf hoonert onnera, all in ainer foor ob shtarta con 
fun doh om sivva uhr owets, un im same grossa foorwaisa, 
os runn'd ona geil, ins bet gre, un goot shlofa, un der 
naigsht morya om sivva uhr uf wecka un grawd ous der 
foor in de shtadt Pittsburg shteppa, un ins grose wserts- 
house shteppa, un ins grose wrertshouse, esst'n morya-essa 
un don si bisness tenda in a pawr shtund, un d'no widder 
in der shteam foor tzurick un by siner fraw un fomelia 
aw landa un si naucht essa nemma derhame alles inside 
fun feer un tzwansich shtoond ! Wann aner for fooftsich 
yohr tzurick contend het os mer yeamohls so travella con, 

34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

sex, odder sivva hoonert mile in ame dawg, so ainer hetta 
se grawd ei gshpart im norra house. Un suppose ebber 
het sellamohls bahawpt os de tzeit coom'd os de leit in 
unserm loud all de particulars laisa kenna in de tzeitunga 
wass g'bappened is om dawg tzulbre in Deitshlond, Eng- 
lond un all de hawpt shtedt in der gonsa welt, un os leit 
direct mitnonner shwetza kenna warm se aw fooftsich 
odder a hoonert mile fun annonner sin — so ainer, os pro- 
weert het de leit so saucha weis maucha, hetta se aw ins 
norra house gadu. 

Awer, doh sin mer now. Mer kenna all sell du, un noch 
feel mainer. Eb mer awer om end feel besser laiva con 
ich net exactly sawga. Denk amohl drau, in de olta 
tzeita hut mer'n whiskey jigger kawfa kenna for drei 
cent ; heit kushts tzain cent yusht for 's common shtuft 
ous'm Kitzelderfer si shwartzy buttle. Sellamohls hut 
mer'n cent batzawlt for feer cigars ; heitich dawgs kusht 
ea cigar finf cent. Un so wars sheer mit ollas soonsht. 
De leit waura sellamohls shpawrsom, awer se hen doch 
goot galaib'd, un waura goot tzufridda. Ainer os finf 
daussend dawler wajrdt property g'aignt hut war 'n reicher 
mon considered. Der bauer's dawg lainer os regular 
g'shafFt hut for fartsich cent der dawg un si kusht hut 
geld ganunk safa kenna in sex odder sivva yohr for 'n 
bauerei kawfa un a pawr hoonert druf batzawla. Un de 
leit era parlors sellamohls waura im grandshta shtyle uf 
g'fixed mit roat un gail shtraifich loompa carpet, J n 
shpiggle-glaws im a mahogany frame, 'n holb dootzend 
shteel, 'n feer eckicher huls uffa, un aw'n plotz im eck 
fum parlor for's shpinrawd un der hoshpel. 


JDe Olta un Neia Tzeita. 35 

Un se hen ols'n corjoser waig g'hot for deala mit ras- 
cals un deeb. "Wann se ols so ainer ferwisht ben, om ba- 
treega odder shtaila, don ben se'n grawd in de jail 
ff'shteckd. Awer heitich dawgs du'n se for common de 

to o 

shmartsbta deeb in de grossa offissa ni'lecta, un yusbt so 
karls os olta bussa, odder'n sbtick naisb un so sauch 
sbtaila cooma in de jail. 

Es war in de olta tzeita we unser foreeltra fun Deitsh- 
lond in Pennsylvania aw galand sin, un according tzu a 
dale leit, nocb gor in unsera dawga, sin de Deitsha leit 
dick-keppich, grose-feesich, dumm un dobbicb. Well, 
now, is sell wobr? For now ous nnna we durum un dob- 
bicb os de Pennsylvania Deitsha sin, travel amobl dorricb 
so counties we Lenkesbter, Lebanon, Barricks, Lecbaw, 
Northampton, Yorrick un onnera fun der same awrt, un 
du finnsbt ivverall de beshta bauereia, mit goota pusbta 
fensa, grossa Schweitzer sbeira, first rata geil, fetty uxa, 
shainy, shmarta un g'sunta weibsleit, un frisba un fetta 
bubbalin ; shtup on anes fun so pletz un ich insures os du 
grawd derhame feelsbt unner Deitsha leit. "Wann's mid- 
dawg is, haists, " coom, buck dicb dob on der dish un ess 
mit ; nems we mer's hen ; helf der selwer on si net blaid." 
Dort uf sellam dish is fum beshta flaish, longa un frisha 
brodwsersht, un sheer olles goots os mer denka con. Es 
is evva'n rale Deitshes middawg essa, un'es nemmd ame 
net long for ousfinna os de dumma un dobbicb a Deitsha 
anyhow wissa we mer goot, airlich un monneerlich laibt 
uf m beshta lond in der gonsa welt. 

Awer, we is mit de ivver ous shmarta leit os yusbt 
English shwetza ? Un wo wohna se ? Ei, marsh tens on 

36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

so pletz os we drunna in der Jrsey, wo der drooka sond 
sex tzull deef is in der midda shtrose ; wo de shtawka 
fensa ura tzomma fowla sin ; wo de beshta crops os se 
raisa kenna is wull-kraut, dishtla, wockashtse un huckel- 
baira hecka; wo era live shtock is -marsh tens possams, 
nauchteila, rossle-shlonga un de sei so mawger os sc knep 
in era sliwens binna missa os se net unner der deer ins 
wohnhouse ni shloopa keena. In so umgaigenda fmnd 
mer gor kse dumma odder dobbicha Deitsha. Dort sin se 
hoch-awrtieh, un shmart, unsbwetza Englisb. Awer icb, 
for my dale, bin g'satisfied mit 'em Pennsylvania Deitsha 
waig dorrich de welt tzu travella. Ich bin's net yusht 
agreed awer ich mus confessa os es mich ols noch gor a 
wennich hoch-meetich feela maucht wan 'n ormer, mit- 
leidicher, holb ferhoongerter dude mer's fore shmeist os 
ich nix bin os yusht'n commoner Pennsylvania Deitsher. 

Then was read the following paper, by Col. T. C. 
Zimmerman, of Reading, entitled 

" Puritan and Cavalier ? Why i^ot the Pennsyl- 
vania-German ?" 

In looking over the list of those selected to speak 
at this meeting, and realizing the discomforting fact 
that the words of Mercury are harsh after the songs of 
Apollo, it was with a good deal of misgiving that I ac- 
cepted the invitation of your Committee to say anything 
here to-day. Xor could I quite understand the purport 
of this invitation, unless it was intended that my remarks 
should add dryness to the otherwise sparkling excellence 
of a tempting literary feast. If, therefore, what follows 

Puritan cmd Cavalier* 37 

herewith should suggest only a mere passing whiff of that 
fleeting, fragrant quality of dryness which imparts to the 
enlivening virtues of champagne its chief zest, I shall be 

Be this as it may, I hope it may go better with you 
than it once did with Abraham Lincoln, after he had 
been shaken up in his boat in a storm in Chesapeake Bay. 
When he complained of the feeling of gastronomic un- 
certainty which one suffers on the water, a young staff 
officer rushed up to him with a bottle of extra dry cham- 
pagne and said: " This is the cure for that sort of an ill." 
To which the President made answer: "Xo, young man, 
I have seen too many fellows seasick ashore from drink- 
ing that very article." 

That we may successfully transmit the historic mem- 
ories of our forefathers, and preserve their traditions and 
records — just as Greece, in letters, "laid her hands to 
transmit an Apostolic succession of memory on the bowed 
and studious head of the modern world " — such, I under- 
stand, is the purpose of this meeting. 

An organization with such an end in view, cannot fail 
to rescue from oblivion many precious memories. Just 
as literature is the immortality of speech, so will the col- 
lection and preservation of swiftly-receding and nearly- 
forgotten events be imbued with an imperishable life. 
In this way will be recalled the pride and glory of our 
ancestral virtues, and the records of as good a people as 
ever grappled with the hosts of Caesar, and marched under 
the banner that threw its shadow over thrones and armies, 
be saved. 

38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Years ago — so goes the story — a Marshal of France was 
sneered at by the haughty nobles of Vienna, who, boast- 
ing of their long line of descent, refused to associate with 
him because of his humble origin, when he said: "I am 
an ancestor; you are only descendants." "No such ignoble 
pride pervades the Pennsylvania-Germans of to-day. As 
descendants of a class of early immigrants whose achieve- 
ments, although quite as important as those of their more 
self-assertive brethren, we stand here proud of our an- 
cestry, humble, patient, unobtrusive though it may have 

It is not, however, a one-sided racial egotism that seeks 
expression here to-day — no assertion of self-superiority 
vaunting its vanity before the world. ]STor is the occasion 
of this gathering due to a re kindling of the spirit of lib- 
erty that had its inspiration in the patriotic heart of Ger- 
many, which centuries ago rushed forth out of the 
deep repose of its woods like the breath of thunder, and, 
amid its revealed lightnings, lit up the popular heart with 
an ardor touched as by Promethean fire. It is, rather, the 
recognition, in a formal way, of the work of our fore- 
fathers as a formative force in the upbuilding of our 
national system. 

The descendants of the Cavalier and Puritan, of the 
Huguenot and Netherlander, with engaging gallantry and 
fervid eloquence, in their efTort to preserve a sort of his- 
torical equilibrium, never grow weary in telling the story 
of their virtues. Apropos, May 16, 1891, a Scotch-Irish 
Congress will assemble at Louisville, Ky. ? with a view no 
doubt to effect a permanent organization of this brave, 

Puritan and Cavalier. 39' 

shrewd, sturdy, liberty-loving people. It may be gratify- 
ing to know that our own State will be well represented 
there. The descendants of this noble lineage, and of the 
Puritan and Cavalier, the Huguenot and ^Netherlander,, 
fully realize, as they should, that great deeds cannot die — 
that they live iu the forms and in the language which 
centuries cannot efface. As with our own ancestry, they 
came to this country " like a dawn, wherein a beam had 
slanted forward, falling in a land of promise, where fruit 
would follow." 

For almost the first time, in a systematic way, the 
Pennsylvania-German is demanding recognition for the 
part he took in the great national drama. And what an 
important service he rendered in laying the foundations 
of this Commonwealth. Said a brother editor of this city 
in his paper recently: "The Scotch-Irish influence has 
been stamped indelibly on our institutions and the fierce 
mastery of law, organization and nature. But the Ger- 
man — philosophic, calm, brave and patient — has been 
building noble and imperishable the superstructure of our 
greatness upon the foundations of the forefathers." 

Cradled into freedom by hated injustice, and richly 
dowered with conscience and the sterner virtues of civili- 
zation, our forefathers naturally became a liberty-loving 
and Christian people. Their earnest and hopeful spirit, 
in full sympathy with the upswelling tide which marked 
the triumphs of humanity, were in fierce contrast with 
the spirit of languor which finds its chief satisfaction in 
the pursuit of pleasures that either cloy with their sweets 
or elude possession as soon as grasped. 

40 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

And where, let me ask, is there a worthier people? l$o 
golden visions haunt their healthy sleep, nor do they have 
day-dreams of fortunes made by doing nothing. With 
their sturdy character, modest demeanor, and good, quiet 
• citizenship; making progress in every path of life ; with 
their simple tastes, and contempt for all forms of ostenta- 
tion and extravagance; with candor, honesty and fair 
dealing as the foundations of their success in life, what 
,need of rhetorical artifice in depicting the full-rounded 
manhood of these people. They are of a kind in whose 
-estimation almost any honest employment is more respect- 
able than idleness or ignoble ease. 

As with the German immigrant of to-day, so with the 
Germans who settled in Pennsylvania in the early days of 
this country. They did not look upon the United States 
as an El Dorado, but as the best country under heaven for 
a man or woman willing to work, and Germans are 
workers. They had heard of this new country, with its 
promise of fertility and loveliness and enduring treasures. 
It was to them a sort of Elysium which had long been 
prefigured in the chambers of a delighted expectancy. 

Filled with high hopes and aglow with a restless en- 
ergy, the lives and destinies of these people, which at home 
had been hardened under years of severe discipline and 
surrounded with scenes of disappointment and joyless 
stagnation, were upon reaching our shores lifted into the 
light where "paradise found its fancied parallels ;" where 
the earliest glimpses of this fair land must have been to 
them like the influence of the premonition of a first pas- 
sion, when 

Puritan and Cavalier. 41 

" Every bird of Eden bursts 
In carol, every bud in flower." 

Typical as was the serene and wholesome life of our 
forefathers when they came over to this country, the same 
pacific conditions are observable in much of the life of 
their descendants throughout Eastern Pennsylvania to- 
day. What a picture of sweet content is that described 
by Whittier in " The Pennsylvania Pilgrim," where he 
says of Pas tori ous : 

Glad even to tears he heard the robin sing 
His song of welcome to the western spring, 
And the blue-bird borrowing from the sky his wing. 
And when the miracle of autumn came, 
And all the woods with many-colored flame 
Of splendor, making summer's greenness tame, 
Burned uncousumed, a voice without a sound 
Spoke to him from each kindled bush around, 
And made the strange, new landscape holy ground ! 

Who knows what goadings in their sterner way 
O'er jagged ice, relieved by granite gray, 
Blew round the men of Massachusetts Bay? 
What hate of heresy the east wind woke ? 
' What hints of pitiless power and terror spoke 
In waves that on their iron coast-line broke ? 

Be it as it may ; within the land of Penn 

The sectary yielded to the citizen, 

And peaceful dwelt the many-creeded men. 

Hegel was undoubtedly right in declaring that the Ger- 
man spirit is the spirit of the new world. As early as 
1790, when the total population of Pennsylvania did 
not exceed 435,000, there were already 145,000 Germans. 

4*2 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

It is estimated that from this stock have sprung descend- 
ants in this State to the number of 1,200,000, and that 
within the past seventy years about 4,000,000 German 
immigrants have come to this country — as some one aptly 
puts it — "every man of them with four hands." They 
came from every part of Germany and Austria, and they 
were of all trades except those of gentleman, idler and 

What their influence on the wealth, the development, 
and progress of this country is, it is impossible to esti- 
mate. It, however, forms no inconsiderable part, and as 
to the future, in the language of Andrew D. AVhite, for- 
merly United States Minister to Germany, "the healthful 
element of German thought will aid powerfully in evolv- 
ing a future for this land purer in its politics, nobler in 
its conception of life, more beautiful in the bloom of art, 
more precious in the fruitage of character." 

This tide of immigration continues with unabated flow. 
Indeed, owing to the abnormal movement of German pop- 
ulation to this country, agricultural workers have be- 
come so scarce in Germany as to greatly alarm many sa- 
gacious German economists. This fact will be the more 
apparent when it is learned that during the past year the 
German Government established a newspaper whose mo- 
tive is the diminution of emigration and the exploitation of 
the colonies. So eager are the people to emigrate (I quote 
from an official report to our State Department) " that 
men walk 100 miles by devious and obscure routes and by- 
ways to escape the Austrian gendarmes and to rind some 
road that leads to the United States. "All roads no Ion- 

Puritan and Cavalier. 43 

ger lead to Rome," says this official, "but all highways 
and seaways lead to America." lie adds: "Xo one who 
has lived awhile in the German countryside but feels 
anew the conviction that in patient and painstaking in- 
dustry, thrift, and the serious character which is anti-re- 
volutionary and truly civic, the Germans are the most ad- 
mirable people on the continent of Europe." 

In many portions of our own State the descendants of 
the Pennsylvania-German settlers are to-day the central 
influence and impelling power of a large proportion of 
the industrial, commercial, educational and agricultural 
activities. They are not only on your farms and in your 
workshops, but at your bars, in your pulpits, in your col- 
leges, on your newspapers. They have become teachers, 
professors, scientists, Judges, Senators, Congressmen, Gov- 
ernors — aye, in every calling in life, be it high or low, you 
will find a brilliant array of men — descendants of ances- 
tors who not only made this portion of the State so rich 
in historic reminiscence and its people so tolerant of re- 
ligion, but who laid deep the foundations of a stable and 
enduring prosperity. 

Look whereso'er yon may, you will find well-nigh 
countless evidences of German genius and German skill, 
while along almost every artery of trade are felt the 
quickening currents of German life. The Germans gave 
to this country much of the religious conscience that per- 
vades the community. They were the first in America to 
protest against human slavery. They printed the first 
edition of the Holy Bible in this country. They issued 
the first work on the philosophy of teaching. AtEphrata 

44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

they made all their own materials, possessed their own 
plant of paper mill, type foundry and bindery. The col- 
onial army was organized by Von Steuben, a German. 
"Washington's body-guard of fifty-seven men were Ger- 
mans. The drill-masters of the Continentals were Ger- 
mans. The bloodiest battle of the Revolution, for the 
numbers engaged, was fought at Oriskany, X. Y., by the 
Palatine Germans, headed by ISTicolaus Herkimer, a Ger- 
man. The preaching and social and personal influence of 
the Pennsylvania-Germans— led off by Washington's baker- 
general, Ludwig — did more to decimate by desertion, and 
weaken by enlightenment the ranks of the Hessians, than 
all the infantry bullets or artillery balls of militia and 
Continentals, or the accidents or sickness of war. Ger- 
man and Swiss industries opened the forests of Eastern 
Tennessee. In Xorthern Louisiana German and Alsatian 
settlers were found as early as the time of Louis XV. A 
German Mary lander, Johann Lederer, was the first to ex- 
plore, in 1669, the country west of the Alleghenies. A 
German made the first adequate map of Maryland and 
Virginia. John Zenger, a German printer of Xew York, 
was the father of the liberty of the press of this country. 
The two Conrad Weisers, father and son, were the first 
interpreters of the Indians. Gen. Muhlenberg, of Revo- 
lutionary fame, who was afterwards the first Speaker of 
Congress, and his illustrious sire, were Germans. xV Ger- 
man-American, J. L. Hassler, created our coast survey. 
Two Germans, the Roeblings, father and son, planned and 
set into execution the great Brooklyn bridge. The iron 
railroad bridges, which span the ravines and rivers of this 

Puritan and Cavalier. 45 

continent, were the invention of Wendell Bollman, a Ger- 
man of Baltimore. The father of the canning industry 
was a German, William Xumsen, of the same city. 

While all this is true and something to be proud of, but 
little can be said in favor of the perpetuation of the Penn- 
sylvania-German dialect. In other words, notwithstand- 
ing the extraordinary vitality of the vernacular, which 
has survived the wreck of centuries, there need be no un- 
due solicitude about its gradual, but ultimate disappear- 
ance from the languages of the earth. Its somewhat 
limited capabilities have been fully tested by Harbaugh, 
Home, Fisher, Rauch and others, all of whose writings 
show that while the dialect is ample for the ordinary 
needs of expression, from its inherent limitations it lacks 
compass and flexibility. But the compulsory teaching 
of English in our public schools must eventually displace 
it as a medium of intercourse, even in this section where 
its lodgment has been so deep-seated and its use so gen- 

While I yield to none in reverence for the associations 
of childhood — and the Pennsylvania-German dialect is 
interwoven with every warp and woof of my early days 
— and while admitting the value of the vernacular as a 
help to the understanding of the pure German, with op- 
portunities for appropriating something from its store- 
house filled with treasures of human intelligence, it is not 
a growing indifference to its merits which prompts me to 
say that, in the category of living tongues, it should 
take its place as a purely secondary lingual accom- 

46 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

Tenacious as its life lias been, it cannot, of course, lay 
even the shadow of a claim, as can the dead language of 
Rome, which exists only by sufferance in the liturgy of 
an ancient faith, to be "the voice of Empire and of Law, 
of War and of State ; breathing the maxims of the world 
and not the tenets of the schools ;" nor yet like that of 
Greece, which " speaks to the ear like Italian, to the mind 
like English ;" but it has proved itself good enough for 
the social and business intercourse of millions of people 
for hundreds of years. 

And now, before closing, I may be permitted to express 
the hope that in the temple of Good Fellowship the Penn- 
sylvania-German will hereafter take his seat as an honor- 
ed guest between his more pretentious brethren, the Puri- 
tan and the Cavalier. He has been content, heretofore, 
with a mere passing glimpse of its portals, better satisfied 
to leave to others the seductive pleasures of the feast, with 
its tempting viands, its solid comforts, the soothing swirl 
of its music and all the cognate fascinations of the enter- 
tainment, while withdrawing himself to the " sweet si- 
lence of restful solitude." 

Looking back we see, or seem to see, an ethereal bridge 
spanning the centuries — one of its approaches supported 
by the golden traditions and precious memories of a noble 
ancestry ; the other resting upon the deep-laid foundation 
of an undying reverence and affection of a grateful pro- 
geny. Generations of dear ones are clasped in loving em- 
brace across the shadowy structure, and the clasp starts 
an impulse that is felt along the line of the departed 
years. Although the farther shore is dim, yet across " the 

Puritan and Cavalier. 47 

pulsing stream there are lines of light "by the aid of 
which the imagination may behold the sainted splendor 
of sacred shrines whereat our forefathers syllabled their 
hopes and fears in prayerful petitions, and fond fancy 
linger lovingly for a little while upon the parental nest 
where patriotism and valor and all the domestic virtues 
were tenderly nurtured, and where frugality, honesty and 
sweet content had their habitation. 

Better and far more sacred than " the glowing purple 
of Tyre, the gold of the Ark, the sapphire and ruby of 
Persia, the unforgotten spoils of ruined Babylon, that 
tinged the reveries of the early Christians as they slept in 
the dens of amphitheatres, waiting death," are the sainted 
memories of our forefathers, for the successful transmis- 
sion of which we have organized this day. 

May the mellow music of those golden memories, like 
redolent breathings from some rarer world, sweep with its 
invisible fingers over every heart-string, until each respon- 
sive chord becomes vibrant with the voluptuous swell as 
of some divine melody. 

On motion the Convention adjourned until 1:30 o'clock. 

48 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Afternoon Session, 1:30 o'clock. 

The Convention was called to order by the President, 
the Hon. George F. Baer, who introduced H. L. Fisher, 
Esq., of York, Pa., who read the following poems, under 
the general title of 

Aus "D'e Alte Zeite." 
Ihr Pennsylfanisch-deutsche Leut, 

Ihr brauchet euch net schamme, 
Juscht loss der Englisch euch auslache, 
Mit seine hoochgelerndte Sache — 

Er lernd euch a'h noch konne ; 
Un's isch en Lerning, net in Biicher, 
Wan net so hooch, doch juscht so sicher. 

¥u schtammmt der Anglo-Saxon heer f 

Wer leese kan der wees' ; 
Du maagscht's rum drehe wie du wit, 
Du kanscht nix annerscht mache mit, 

Es isch en Deutscher Kiis (case) ; 
Saag was du wit, des isch die Lehr — 
Fom Sachsische, dort schtammt er heer. 
* * * * 

Mer kan'3 ah sene iiwerall — . ... 

Maag hi' geh wu mer will, 
Doch sehn'd mer ken so Bauerei', 
Ken Leut meh ehrlich, braaf, un frei, 

Un fleisig, doch, so schtill : 
Sie schtehn for's Recht as wie en Mauer — 

Die Pennsylfanisch-deutsche Bauer'. 

Aus He Alte Zeite. 49 

Sie waare fon de erschte Settler 

In unser'm schone Land ; 
Sie hen a'h for die Freiheit g'fochte, 
!N~och allemol, un konne's nocli clhu — 

Sie sin ihr Kecht bekann't ; 
Un wer sei eg'ne Business meind, 
Der find bei dene Leut fiel Freund. 

Die Wohret isch net all gedrnckt — 

Die Halft isch noch net g'sehriwwe ; 

Wie kummt's das aus de Folks-geschichte, 
Un aus de Englische Gediehte, 

Die Deutsche sin gebliwwe ? 
Hen sie net for die Freiheit g-'schtritte ? 
"Was hen sie net for's Land gelitte ! 

Ich konnt fiel Deutsche iSTaame nenne, 

Fon braaf, achtbaare Leut ; 
Fiel waare, wol, net do gebore, 
Doch hen fiel alles do ferlore 

For Unabhangigkeit ; 
Un net so fiel as wie sie heese 
Kanscht uf a Dutzend Graabschte leese. 

Ihr uralt, Deutsche Pioneer 

Fon manchem Berg un Dhaal — 
Die ungeborne Geschlechte 
Errichte, endlich, eure Eechte — 

Dauert's lang, doch kummt's amol : 
In manchem unbekannte Graab 
Schiooft eure langfersaumte Schtaab I 

50 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Es Unrecht isch, jedoch, so schweer 

As mer's fertraaga kann ; 
Docli hoffe mir es kummt e' Zeit — 
Fon uns, zwar, isch sie net meh weit — 

Kummt alles an der Mann ; 
Es Recht bleibt oftmols lang fon Hans, 
Dock, bleibt's, ah, nimmer ewig aus. 

Ich bin schun rum gatravelt, fiel, 

Annere Lander sehne ; 
Ich waar schun !Nort, Sout, East un West, 
Doch welle Landschaft gleich ich's bescht ? 

'S isch scho alt Pennsylvania — 
In Pennsylfanisch muss ich schreiwe — 
In Pennsylfani will ich bleiwe. 

E' dhel Lent mache juscht en Schpott 
Eon Pennsylfanisch Deutsch ; 

'Sisch net weert meindes, un warum ? 

Ei juscht for das, sie sin zu dumm — 
'Sisch juscht ihr Lappigkeit ; 

Sie saaga 'sisch fermixt, un lache — 

Ei, so sin all die beschte Sache. 

Es isch ken Schprooch in dere Welt 

Wie Pennsylfanisch Deutsch ; 
For alle Wort kummt fon 'em Herz, 
Un's hot meh Peffer, Salz un Querz — 

Ferloss dich druf, es schneid ; 
Wan's Madel em net will, ferschteh, 
Dan saagt's es schrecklich Wortli, " Xe !" 

Aus DYAlte Zeite. 51 

Un's geht em besser fon der Zung 
As Englisch — don't you see f 

In Englisch saage sie, " 0, yes" 
Un ebmols saage sie, " I guess" 

Un ebmols, " Yes siree;" 
Doch isch ken Wort das bindt in Law, 
Wie's Pennsylfanisch-cleutsch-wort, " Jah !" 

(Die Englische, die, hasse " Schlang " — 

Ferloss dich druf — " you bet" 
*Sisch all X. G., oder "all played out;" 
'Sisch " in the soup" oder " up the spout" 

Tin ebmol's isch's, "you git" 
"Soft snap," ; < too thin," oder all " 0. K" 
En " kid " " dead beat" un — u s w.) 

Es war, for alters, so der Weg r 

In so'm'e Deutsche Eck, — 
D'r Parre a'h Schul-Meeschter war, 
Tin's Schul-Haus fon d'r Kerieh war 

Gewiss net weit eweck ; 
Un dort war a'h's alt Parre-haus, 
Ken fertel Meil meh' weiter draus. 

Sel alt Schul-haus fergess ich nie, 

Es kummt m'r immer nooch, 
Juscht wie mei Schadde in d'r Sun, 
Den ich net hinnerlosse kan, 

So kummt's m'r immer nooch ; 
'S geht immer mit m'r wu ich geh, 
'S schteht immer bei m'r wu ich schteh. 

52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Es war ken Thurn un a'h ken Glock 

Uf seller alte Kerich ; 
Es war ken Orgel un ken Choir, 
Ken Bass-geig, Cymbel, un ken Leier ; 

Doch, dorch den alte Berg — 

Dorch Kerich un Berg un Keschte-wald 

Hen hunnert Schtimm, wie e'ne, g'sehallt. 
* ***** 

O was'n schone alte Kerich, 

Un was'n Gottes-dinscht! 
Die Kanzel war hooch drowe fescht 
Gebaut, fiel wie'n Schwalme-nescht, 

So wie die !Neschter finscht ; 
Un weescht du noch, was war dort owe? 
'$* Schall-bret, noch fiel hocher drowe. 

Ich sehn d'r Parre uf d'r Kanzel, 
Ich heer'n's Lied for-leese ; 

D'r alt For-singer bassd uf — scharf ; 

Ich heer sei Schtimm — wie David's Ilarf — 
Was anner's kan ich's heese? 

Ich heer sie singe aus dem alte — 

"Wer nur den liebe' Gott lasst walte." 

Ich bin dojetz 'mol widder z'riick 

Mei alte Heemet sehne ; 
Es guckt gar nimme wie's als hot — 
Die alt Bekante sin all fort, 

Mei Age sin foil Trane ; 
Ich ruuf un froog, " Wu sin sie all ? " 
D'r Schall antwort, " Wu sin sie ail ? " 

Aus D'e Me Zeite. 53 

E' dhel sin weit fort Ovvenaus, 

Weit, weit, fom alte Hecrd ; 
E' Paar, so alte, sin noch do, 
Un die sin krumni-un-schop un groh, 

Un fiel sin in d'r Erd ; 
Ihr Alter, un a'h wie sie heese, 
Kanscht uf de Schtee im Kerich-hoof leese. 

Dort unne am Berg, dort war die Schpring, 

¥u helle Wassere quelle — 
Dort wu die alte Weide schtehne — 
Wie oft liawich mei G'sicht drin g'sehne ! 

Un a'h en Drup Foralle ; 
Sel Wasser war doch's aller-bescht — 
Wie oft hawich mei Dorscht mit g'loscht ! 

Ach I wu isch nau sel alt Wohn-haus, 

"Wu ich gebore war ? 
Es war gebaut fon b'schlaag'ne Block, 
5 S war krumm-un-grad in alle Eok — 

So Haus-er sin nau rahr — 
Die alte Block hen sie ferseeg't 
For Schleepers, unner'n Riegelweeg. 

D'r bescht Blatz in d'r ganse Welt, 

D'r ruhigscht un d'r siischt — 
D'r Blatz wu Hummer net hi' kummt 
Wan Winter-wind *m Schornschte brummt, 

Tin's Wetter noch so wiescht — 
War dort im alte Schornschte-eck, 
Bei'm Feier g'macht fon .ZZTc&'ri-block. 

54 The Pcnnsylvo.itia-Gcrman Society. 

Was Schtories hen m'r clort ferzahlt 

So bei d'r Winters-nacht ! 
Was war's, doch, als'n grosse Freed, 
So bei de Buwe un de Mad — 

Was hen m'r doch als g'lacht ! 
Un schone Lieder hen m'r g'sunge, 
Bis Kiich un Schornschte hen geklunge. 

Un 1 was Cider hen m'r g'hat — 

Frisch aus'm Fasz gezoge ; 
Un wan m'rs Feier hen ufg'schtarrt, 
Dan sin 'n dausend Funke fort, 

D'r Schornschte nuf gefioge ; 
En Blick, lewendig — ewig aus — 
Dan schwarz un dood, zum Schornschte naus. 

Der Schornschte war fon Schte gebaut, 

Am alte Giwel-end ; 
Un wie ich schon zu-for hab g'saad, 
In alle Eck war's krumm-un-graad — 

So wars, dan, juscht-amend ; 
Un seller Schornschte schteht noch dort, 
Doch, alles sunscht isch schon lang fort. 

Dort schteht'r wie'n Monument 

Fon was e'mol dor war ; 
Der alt Familia Feier-heerd ! 
Wer hot dan net fon dem schon g'hord, 

Un wie's e'mol dort war ? 
Dort schteht der Schornschte, garil* allee, 
Un mag noch man'che Johr dort schteh. 

Aus Tfe Alte Zeite. 55 

Er scliteht dort hinner'm neue Haus, 

Un alles klohr drum'rum ; 
Der Schniook kumrat nimme oweraus, 
Un's F^eier am Heercl isch schon lang aus, 

Un all isch schtill-un-schtumm ; 
Juscht e' Schtimm hawich dort, noch, g'hord— 
E' Kricks im alte Feier-heerd. 

Wa3 guckt's doch alles annerscht jetz 

As in d'r alte Zeit ; 
Ach ! wu is'ch nau sel alt' Gebau ? 
'S isch alles fort, 's isch alles neu, 

Ich sehn's, jo, schon, fon Wert' ; 
En schone Heemet, sel isch's a'h, 
Doch heemelt's mich £ar nimme aV 

D'r Wasser huckt a'h nimme dort 

Im Hoof, am alte Haus ; — 
Dort unner de alte Schacfctebam — 
Er gauzt m'r nimme welcome-heem, 

En fremder Hund, der, gautz't ; 
'S guckt alles scho, sel wees ich wqL^v 
Doch warum isch mei Herz so foil ? 

Jah, Haus un Scheur un Hoof sin neu — 

Die Blume un die Bam ; 
Wu sin die alte Pappel-bam ? 
Weil doch die Weide noch dort schtehn,. 

Guckt's wenig, noch, wie Heem ;. 
Die Rose-schtock am Garde-zau — 
Wu sin sie, jah, wu sin sie nau t 

50 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Es Bloos-horn liort m'r nimme dort — 
Was war d'r Scliall so bell ! 

Was hankt dan, nau, dort uf 'in Dach ? 

Ich wee/ nut heil ich, odder lach — 
Ich glaab doch 's isch 'n Bell ! 

'S guckt schtylisch so, mit Bell and Thurn, 

Doch hankt mei Herz im alte Horn. 


¥u isch die gross alt Cider-press, 

Die Flax-brech un's Schpinn-raad ? 

ID'r Hashchpel un d'r Wickelschtock, 

Die Deutsch Sens un d'r Dengel-Schtock, 
Un's alt Deutsch-sense-g'maad ? 

Ich ruf un frog, "Wu sin sie all ? 

D'r Schall antwort, " Wu sin sie all ? " 

Dan geh ich uf d'r Schpeicher, nuf — 

Ferschlup mich im'n Eck, 
Dort unner sellem alte Dach, 
Umringt mit all deni alte Sach — 

Die Bonnert un die Rock 
Un schtell m'r's foor so deutlich, Heut, 
Juscht graad wie's war in alter Zeit. 

Dort an de Schparre hanke fiel 

So ait f rgess'ne Sadie ; 
Dort hanke Sichel, Schwert un Sens, 
Un Sack foil Federe aus de Gans, 

For Federe-decke mache ; 
Un noch e'bissel weiter hinne, 
Han^t Woll unFlax un wart for's schpinne. 


Aus D'e Alte Zeite. 57 

Dort hankt's Hufeise's aller-hochscht, 

Un unned'ra die Flind ; 
Un was schteht hinne 'm alte Drawer f 
Die Wieg, wu ich drin g'schockelt war — 

En hiilflos, selig Kind ; 
Ach ! konnt mer nau so selig sei, 
Fon Kurnmer un fon Sinde frei ! 

Dort sin die Katze uf d'r "Wacht — 

Un was'n' Schtang-foll Worscht ! 
Dort iseh d'r alt Schtroh-ime-Korb, 
Un's Sood-welsb-korn, mit goldne Farb, 

Un ah, en Garbli Gerscbt ; 
Un iiwerbaupt, die Krauter-sache — 
Icb traam ! ieb wacb ! un beer micb lache ! 

Die Ubr, die, iscb bal nunnerg'loiie, 

Docb gebt sie — tick, tick, tick ; 
Die Zeit — an's "Wasser, g'maand micb fiel — 
Juscbt e'mol gebt sie doreb die Miibl — 

Kurnmt ewig-nimme z'riick ; 
Acb Gott ! wie scbnell gebt docb die Zeit 
Un tragt uns in die Ewio-keit! 

Es war ken schonere' Heemet g'wesst 

In sellem scbone Dhal ; 
Ach ! wan icb dort daheem konnt sei, 
War widder jung, wohluf, un frei, 

So wie icb e'mol war ! 
Uf Erde kan nix besser's sei, 
As jung, dabeem, wohluf un frei. 

58 Hie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Es isch en Ilaus net g'macht rnit Hand, 

Dort, ewig in d'r Hoh ; 
Ach, wan ich dort daheem kan sei, 
Gliick-selig — sind un kummer-frei — 

Wie herlich un wie sclio 1 
Dort isch ken Erwet meh zu dhu, 
In jener ungeschtorte Ruh. 

Fater un Mutter wohne dort, 

Uf selle schone Hiigel ; 
Sie leest im Wahre Chrischte-thum, 
Un beet das ieh dock a'h bal kum, 

Un er leest in d'r Biwel ; 
So hen sie g'lese un gebeet 
Im alta Haus, wu nimme schteht. 

Dort sin die Buwe un die Mad — 

Im Himmel, dort — wie fiei ! 
All widder ledig, frei un froh, 
'S isch fiel wei's als daheem war do, 

Mit Erwet un geschpiel ; 
Sie schpiele nau uf goldne Harfe, 
Un alles irdisch isch ferworfe. 

* * * * * 

Ich hab schon oft es Heemweh g'hat, — 

Un hab's a'h alleweil ; 
Un wan ich for d'r Doctor Schick, 
Dan, glaw-ich das ich's arger grig, 

Un huck mich hi un heil ; 
Ach ! was dhut doch mei Herz so weh ? 
Un's bat nix bis ich heem-zus geh ! 


Das Vatcrland am Rhein, 59 

Das Vatehland am Rhein. 
Glaub mir mein Freund, icli geb' kein Tand 

Fur Liedofe oder G'sang, 
Das mir nieht ruf t aus Yaterland, 

Mit Sanftem Heimaths-klang ; 
Uud giebt nicbt z'riick das Jugend-blut, 

Uud Herzensonuenschein — 
Da ich war frisch und frei im Muth, 

Im Yaterland am Rhein. 

Bevor mir war die freie Welt — 

Der Weg war weit und breit, 
Und ich war g'sund und stark im Feld, 

In jener guten Zeit ; 
Umsonst war Ehr und Ruhm zu mir, 

Und Reichthum aller Erd — 
Mit meiner liebe Jula, hier, 

Was war'n sie alle werth ? 

Damals war alles siisz und neu 

Im froliehem Gemueth ; 
Gesundheit, Stark und Kraft war'n mein 

Im Geist und jedem Glied : 
Als wie em Hirsch, schnell in der Flucht, 

Wan's G'wehr dahinten knallt — 
Ja, wei ein Hirsch, wan Man ihn sucht, 

Und Walt mit Schreien schallt. 

Wie wohl, wie frei, wie leicht von Herz, 

Da sie noch bei mir war ! 
Mein liebe Jula ! wo war Schmerz 

Und wo war Angst und G'fahr ? 

60 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Konig war ich, sie Konigin 

Um unseren Heimaths Herd ; 

Ach Freund, verzeih' mir Wein und Thran- 
Mit ilir £in£ Freud you Erd ! 

Den Sabel-schnitt auf meiuer Stirn 

Hat sie mit Weh betracht — 
Und's audere Theil von meinem Bein 

Ging in der Sedan Sehlacht ; 
Doch leicht die Wunden, und gelind — 

Nur kurz ihr hochster Schmerz — 
Die wehsten "\Yunden, immer, sind 

Die Wunden an dem Herz ! 

" Ich tret in's traute Siibchen eiu, 

Zu liebes Weib und Kind, 
Da kamen sie zu springen, bei, 
r Und kiissen mich, geschwiudt ; 

Ich nahm das Kleine auf den Arm 

Und driick't es an die Brust, 
Und ^Kuss des Miindchen oftersinal 

Mit wahrer Herzenslust." 

" Was war auf Erde, noch, so schon — 

"Was noch so honigsiisz ! 
Als Heimath, liebes Weib und Kind — 
f \ Das war mein Paradies ! 

Obschon, ich war nichtreichbeschenkC^ 

Mit Ehr und gold'nes Werth, 
Mein Heimath, Weib, und liebes Kind — 

Mein Himmel auf der Erd." 

Das Vaterlaifd am Rhein. 61 

Ein armer Wand'rer bin ich, hier, 

Unci oftmals schwer die ISToth ; 
Oft well und einsam ist es mir — 

Denn, TVeib und Kind sind tod ! 
So singe ieh das Trauerlied — 

Ein Sehnsucht driick't mich sehr, 
Und in mei'm Herz schlaft Weib un Kind, 

Wie Perlen tief im Meer 1 

Obschon ich wander hier, herum 

In diesem schone Land, 
Mein Herz geht iramer heimzus und 

Es leb't an jenem Rand ; 
Es leb't nur wo mein liebe 'sind — 

Dort ist mein Herzens-schrein, 
Am Grabe meines Weib und Kind, 

Im Yaterland am Rhein. 

Glaub mir, mein Freund, ich geb' kein Tand 

Fur Liedge oder G'sang, 
Das mir nicht ruft aus Yaterland 

Mit sanftem lleimaths-klang. 
Und giebt nicht z'riick das Jugend-blut 

Und Herzensonneoschein, 
Da ich war frisch und frei im Muth 

Im Yaterland am Rhein. 

After the reading, the Convention was entertained by 
several selections sung by the Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege Glee Club. 

62 The Pennsylvania-Ge?~man Society. 

The Rev. C. Z. Weiser, D. D., of East Greenville, 
Montgomery County, was next introduced, and delivered 
the following address on 

"The Pennsylvania-Germans in Church and State." 

My Pennsylvania-German Brothers: 

It is written that God made of one blood all nations of 
men, and appointed them their times and habitations. 
Under so universal a charter the Pennsylvania-Germans 
are surely embraced. Though not an original nation they 
are still a people — a " peculiar people." 

Our ancestors had been Germans — European Germans. 
Our sires emerged from the Palatinate, from Switzerland, 
from Holland, from Saxony, from Suabia, from every 
province and principality in the Fatherland. 

Their emigration occurred two full centuries ago — 
about one hundred years later than that of the English, 
the Scotch, the Welsh and the Irish. 

Among their new neighbors, they were likewise known 
as Germans, pure and simple. Perm's broad and liberal 
views rendered his Commonwealth the central point of 
emigration. Hence, the name of his Commonwealth 
became the name of the people. 

The patronymic, " Pennsylvania-Germans," attached 
itself to their American born offspring, as the term 
"Creole" affixed itself to the descendants of Spanish 
blood, who were born outside of Spain. Accordingly, 
John Key, who was the first born child of European 
parents, in Pennsylvania, is the first Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man, 1682, in Philadelphia. 

Pennsylvania- Germans' in Church and Slate. 63 

The Pennsylvania Germans are not confined to the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Let it be remembered 
they are to be found in every state in the Union, nor do 
all Pennsylvania-Germans speak the German language, 
Many cannot utter a German word, and many more can, 
but do not wish you to know it. But as St. Peter was 
detected by the servants and menials about the palace in 
Jerusalem, though he did his utmost to hide his rough 
Galilean dialect, even so does their speech betray them. 

It is not their nativity nor their language, however, 
that constitutes a thoroughbred Pennsylvania-German. A 
witty Irishman protested against being a horse, though 
he had been born in a stable. Whether born within or 
without Pennsylvania, and whether he says " Sibboleth " 
or " Shibboleth," is not decisive. He is a genuine member 
of our kith and kin, in whose veins Germanic blood 
courses. " Blood will tell " of what manner of spirit you 
are. As there are ichite blackbirds and white ISTegroes, so 
are there Pennsylvania-Germans, who have never set foot 
on Pennsylvania-German soil or known the German 

"We may say that a double-edged sword, as it were, 
carved the Pennsylvania-Germans into a sui generis peo- 
ple, out of the lump of humanity on both sides of the 
Atlantic. On the one side, the long winded wars in the 
Fatherland dried the stream of emigration ; men and 
means ceased to flow into the lap of the colonies ; the 
fostering care of motherly Holland, of the Palatinate, of 
Switzerland, and of all the Provinces was forestalled ; the 
bonds of civil and ecclesiastical £Overnment were sun- 

64 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

dered ; and the child became an orphan — like Melchisa- 
deck, " without father or mother." On this side of the 
waters, a like process of isolation from their surroundings 
set in. The Revolution came down upon the colonies like 
night ; the vernacular of our forefathers excluded them 
from the English neighbors and contemporaries ; national 
rivalry and tribal jealousy were inflamed ; complaints be- 
came loud ; alienation, separation and stagnation ensued. 

Sundered in this way, on the right hand and on the 
left, the Pennsylvanians were driven back upon them- 
selves ; the continuity of type was broken ; a higher kind 
or a lower kind, or, to say the least, a different kind, 
resulted. A dark day it was for our ancestors. So dark, 
that a certain writer says, the " race of eagles degener- 
ated into a brood of owls." In two directions, never- 
theless, the Pennsylvania-Germans remained loyal and 
true to the traditions of their forefathers. They held 
fast to their ancestral Religiosity and their Schoolcraft. 

The primitive German emigrants had been members of 
the Christian church. All had been identified with the 
Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, the Reformed, the Mora- 
vian, the Mennonite, or some one of the Reformation 
branch. Among their scanty baggage, deep down in the 
traditional wooden chest, there was a Bible, a Liturgy, a 
Hymn-book, a Catechism. The Pastor and the School- 
master headed the colony to the iSTew "World. Simulta- 
neously with their log houses, there rose the log school 
and the log church. The church and school were twin 
buildings in the American wilds. These two structures 
you may still witness, throughout certain nooks and cor- 
ners in Eastern Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania-Germans in Church and State. 65 

Why does not that Pennsylvania-German artist — 
Potiiermel — paint the landing of the Germans as the 
landing of the Pilgrims has been thrown on canvas ? In 
1749, twelve schoolmasters came across the Atlantic in 
one cluster. Dr. Benjamin. Push, the author of the 
" Manners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania/' 
says : " All the different sects among them are particu- 
larly attentive to the religious education of their children, 
and the establishment and support of the Christian re- 
ligion. They commit the education of their children, in a 
peculiar manner, to the ministers and officers of their 
churches. Hence, they grow up in the biases in favor of 
public worship and the obligations of Christianity. Sach 
has been the influence of a pious education among the 
Germans in Pennsylvania that in the course of nineteen 
years not one of them has ever been brought to a place 
of public shame or punishment/' — 1769. This is good 
and strong testimony ; all the more so, since it comes 
from Dr. Rush, in whose veins not a drop of German 
blood ever flowed. 

The charge made against our forefathers, that they 
stood out against learning, is false. Why did their school 
houses always rise with their churches ? Why was the 
schoolmaster always at the right hand of the pastor? 

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania passed an Act 
March 10, 1787, which reads thus: 

" An Act to incorporate and endow the German Col- 
lege and Charity School in the borough of Lancaster." 
The preamble explains the object in these words : 

"Whereas, the citizens of this State of German birth 

66 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

or extraction, have eminently contributed by their indus- 
try, economy and public virtues, to raise the State to its 
present happiness and prosperity ; and whereas, a number 
of citizens of the above description, in conjunction with 
others, from a desire to increase and perpetuate the bless- 
ings derived to them from the possession of property and 
a free government, have applied to this House for a 
charter of incorporation, etc.; and whereas, the presenta- 
tion of the principles of the Christian religion and of our 
Republican form of government in their purity depend, 
under God, in a great measure in the establishment and 
support of suitable places of education, for the purpose of 
training a succession of youths, who being unable fully 
to understand the grounds of both, may be led more 
zealously to practice the one, and the more strenuously to 
defend the other, etc. That the youth shall be taught in 
German, English, Latin and Greek, and the other learned 
languages, in Theology, in the useful Arts, Sciences and 

This was the seed-bed of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege. Its Principal and President was a native Penn- 
sylvania-German, the Rev. Dr. Henry Ernest Muhlenberg. 

Good old Dr. Franklin contributed largely to its plant- 
ing. Some fifteen years earlier this artiste statesmen 
and philosopher had been filled with the current Yankee 
prejudice against the Germans. In 1753 he wrote bitter 
words against this people. He learned better, and was 
wise enough to retract his error. After he had been en- 
lightened, and came to appreciate their stalwart virtues, 
he cried : " Peccavi /" Herein he differed from those who 

Pennsylvania- Germans in' Church and State. 67 

still serve up their Crambe bis repetita. Like the story of 
Galileo, it will not down. Men who know not what they 
do, continue to write of the Pennsylvania-Germans as of 
a race of serfs and slaves. 

In 1836, a Buffalo sheet spoke of them as a petrifaction 
— the like of which is no more to be found in the Old 
World. The Public Ledger, of Philadelphia, replied to 
the lines of the stupid and ignorant scribbler, in words 
which did honor to the head and heart of the gentlemanly 
and candid writer. " It is time," said he, " that the truth 
should be spoken and justice done to our Pennsylvania- 
Germans. We are willing to go as far as anyone in tes- 
tifying to the value of books, newspapers and schools, 
etc., but we are not yet so silly, to say that a man is nec- 
essarily a bad man, a poor farmer, a disorderly citizen or 
a profligate husband because he does not speak English, is 
not crammed with book-learning or does not take in a 
half dozen journals. In many particulars, German far- 
mers surpass even the people of Xew England, who, of 
late, have put in the claim, it would seem, to be the ne 
plus ultra of all things.' 7 

The Emperor of Germany said in bold w^ords what 
you never heard any other modern ruler say ; he said 
what I would like to hear our Governors and Presidents 
say ; he said : " The Germans fear no one but Almighty 
God I" That is characteristic of German blood, and has 
been from the time when Tacitus wrote of their great, 
grand and immortal ancestors — The Teutons. 

All praise to the Pennsylvania-German Governors ; to 
Simon Snyder, Hiester and Shultz, to Ritner, and Wolf, 

68 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

and Shunk, and Hartranft, for their contributions toward 
the founding and fostering of the Common Free School 
System ; praise the memories of Thomas H. Burrows, 
Thaddeus Stevens, to Dr. Wickersham and Dr. Higbee. 

But weighed in the balance, the Parochial school, in 
the sunshine and shadow of the Christian church, will 
draw the beam. Thrice blessed be the words of the 
earlier pedagogues, whose names are written in heaven. 

^Ye lately attended the general services of one of the 
last of their race, Francis G-. Berndt, of Egypt, Lehigh 
county, Fa. One full half century he taught the youths 
and children of the parish to spell and read, to write and 
reckon, and to sing and pray. Ministers, attorneys, phy- 
sicians and pious men in all spheres of life came to look 
upon his dead face for the last time. About the time and 
day when some of you in Lancaster bore our good and 
learned friend to his resting place, Dr. Wickersham, 
others of us stood at the tomb of this Pastor's Helper. 

General Lafayette is known as a " Hero of two Worlds." 
To my mind, those school masters of the church are fully 
entitled to the same distinction. 

Let us hear, finally, what a jovial stranger thought and 
said of the "Pennsylvania Dutch :'" 

" I have lately passed through the Dutchiest part of 
Pennsylvania and have observed some new and instructive 
points I never thought of before. Apparently said Dutch 
are a sedate people. In reality they are as religious and 
more Puritanistic than Xew Englanders were fifty years 
ago. They are as sharp as Yankees after money, more 
saving and more generous. They are more intelligent, 

Pennsylvania- Germans in Church and State. GO 

independent and happy than they appear, and bashful be- 
fore strangers, especially the ladies. These and other 
traits make them appear exclusive and clannish, yet they 
are the most social and comical people in America. 
Among them (if one understands their glib dialect) one 
can hear more words, jokes and hearty laughs in a minute 
than in even the modern Greek or nue hock JDeutsch. I 
now have learned that the Pennsylvanians, who are well 
acquainted in English, cling to their dialect in small, 
rapid talk and the firing of a multiplicity of jokes. They 
laugh oftener than do the Yankees, their women can de- 
liver four words to a Yankee woman's one in English, 
and more when excited. Therefore, Pennsylvania Dutch 
is a phonetic dialect. T patent this idea, and say to those 
who make " fun of it " that they can find more comical, 
witty characters — real Yankees — in Pennsylvania than in 
all New England." 

After the address of Dr. C. Z. Weiser, in view of the 
fact that a number of gentlemen had said that they would 
be obliged to leave the city, L. L. Grumbine, Esq., of 
Lebanon, Pa., made a motion to suspend the regular order 
of business as laid down on the programme, and turn to 
the consideration of the constitution, which was seconded 
and carried. 

The report of the Committee on the Constitution in gen- 
eral was read, and also that of the Committee on Member- 
ship. On motion the proposed Constitution was taken up 
for consideration, article by article. The first and second 
articles were accepted as reported, with but little discus- 
sion. The third article, however, called forth consider- 

70 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

able difference of opinion ; particularly the second section 
referring to the qualifications for regular membership. 
The discussion of this point consumed the greater part of 
the afternoon session. On the one hand it was maintain- 
ed that only natives of Pennsylvania of German descent 
were really Pennsylvania-Germans, and that such only 
should be eligible to regular membership. To admit per- 
sons born in Germany or Switzerland would be to virtually 
make the Society a German Society. There must be a dis- 
tinction between foreign-born and American-born Germans ; 
and this would best be done by confining regular mem- 
bership to the latter and giving the privilege of associate 
membership to the former. On the other hand it was 
argued that the place of birth was not as important a con- 
sideration as spirit and temper. There were many foreigu- 
born Germans who had done more for the interests of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans, in studying and recording their 
history, who had shown a truer interest in their cause, and 
were more truly in sympathy with the purpose and end 
of this Society, than any Pennsylvania-born Germans. To 
make the distinction proposed would be to bar out such 
men as Dr. Seidensticker, and some of the original mov- 
ers in the present organization. In reply it was said that 
all such persons could still become members, that is, asso- 
ciate members, with all the rights and privileges of regu- 
lar members, except that of holding office and of having 
a vote on questions of property or location. 

General Louis Wagner, of Philadelphia, here arose and 
said it was evident to him that he, being; a foreisrn-born 
German, was not wanted in the Society ; for as to becoming 

What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 71 

an associate member, that, under the circumstances, was 
like taking the second table at dinner, which he did not 
intend doing. He would therefore ask to be excused and. 
would retire from the floor of the convention. At the 
same time he would state that the committee from, the 
German Society, of Philadelphia, represented by him and 
Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, had been instructed to offer 
the use of the German Society's building and library to 
this Society, which he took great pleasure in herewith do- 
ing. Thereupon Gen. Wagner and Dr. Seidensticker 
took seats anions; the audience. 

After the discussion had consumed considerable time, 
the question was put, and article third as it now stands 
was adopted. 

The next question that promised to call forth prolonged 
discussion was article seventh, on the location of the 
Society's permanent headquarters. It was finally referred 
to the Executive Committee for action. 

Dr. Stahr then moved that the rest of the Constitution 
be adopted in the form in which it had been reported by 
the Committee on Constitution, which was done. 

Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, of Lebanon county, next arose 
and asked to be excused from delivering the address for 
which he was down on the programme. This was not 
granted, however, and Mr. Schantz then read the follow- 
ing paper : 

"What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans." 
As I was born at the head of Cedar Creek, in Upper 
Macungie township, Lehigh (Lecha) county, in Pennsyl- 

72 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

vania, I ought to know something of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans. My parents were born in Pennsylvania before the 
year 1800. My two grandfathers and two grandmothers 
were born in this country or came to this country when 
young in years. My four great-grandfathers and four 
great-grandmothers were all of German parentage. How 
glad I would be if I had the portraits of all of these, and 
also of my eight German great-great grandfathers and my 
eight German great-great grandmothers ! 

I have resided among the Pennsylvania-Germans for 
.more than fifty years — first in Lehigh county, then in 
Lancaster, later in Adams, still later in Berks, a second 
time in Lehigh, and for many years in Lebanon county. 
When a boy of 12 years I became a resident of Allentown, 
and I was greeted as a Pennsylvania-German, for the boys 
called me " bush knippel." When I became a student of 
the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg I received an 
anonymous letter advising me to study Webster's diction- 
ary daily. 

The Pennsylvania-Germans are not the descendants of 
Indians — nor did their ancestors come from Africa. 
Their ancestors came from the German Fatherland — the 
home of Martin Luther. To tell you of the experience of 
my Great-grandfather Schantz and his four sons, two of 
whom were in service for a number of years to pay pas- 
sage money, would be the repetition of the experience of 
the ancestors of others here to-day. The history of the 
settlements of Germans at Germantown and other places 
in Pennsylvania, on the Hudson, the Schoharie and Mo- 
hawk in Xew York, and of the journey of some of them 

What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 73 

to Pennsylvania and their settlement in the Tulpehockcn 
region in Pennsylvania is well known. What our ancestors 
suffered in ships in crossing the Atlantic, and what trials 
on land they had, who first found shelter in dug-outs, in 
hollow trees, in hastily constructed huts, or under rude 
tents under great trees, has often been told. 

Our ancestors and their descendants have turned a wil- 
derness into beautiful gardens. This was accomplished 
by severe labors. For a long time men knew nothing of 
modern improvements to aid in removing forests, prepar- 
ing the soil, sowing the seed and gathering the harvest. 

The country, once the home of Indians, became dotted 
with the dwellings of immigrants. The rude log house 
was followed by the substantial stone dwelling, and this 
again by the stately mansion of brick or other carefully 
prepared materials. Villages became towns and towns be- 
came cities with their many industries. 

Our people have taken an interest in schools, for the 
old parochial school, the subsequent private schools, the 
academy and seminary in villages and towns, the public 
schools and normal schools of a latter day, as also the 
regular colleges and institutions for the pursuit of profes- 
sional studies, testify that they are in favor of education. 

And what of our people with respect to their regard for 
the Christian religion? The plain log church, with its 
pulpit erected on the stump of a tree, with no wooden, but 
stone floor, with rude pews, and for a long time without a 
stove, was dear to them. The erection of church build- 
ings of stone or brick was a great event to them. And to- 
day the many beautiful church buildings, not only in 

74 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

towns and cities, but also rural districts, and the large 
congregations at public services and the many children at 
sessions of the Sunday school, show the interest of our 
people in the Christian religion. A few years ago two 
men of Xew England visited a friend in one of our towns. 
On a Sunday morning, whilst taking a ride with their 
host, they observed many people on their way to churches. 
One of them remarked : " You still make use of churches 
here ; at our home we are beyond such use of them." 

Our people have taken an interest in the affairs of the 
State. To cast a ballot is the great privilege of the citi- 
zen. Many have also filled offices of great trusts. The 
Pennsylvania-German Governors have not disgraced their 
fellow citizens. The Pennsylvania Germans honored Geo. 
Washington, and he had the highest regard for them. My 
father voted for General Jackson, and if my mother could 
have voted I have no doubt she also would have voted 
for him. I was more of a politician in 1844, when I was 
eight years old and sang what Parson Jeremiah Schindel 
had composed in praise of Polk, Dallas and Shunk, than 
I was in subsequent years. Perhaps it is owing to the 
fact that clergymen are expected to be silent in politics. 
When in 1861, on the first fast day appointed by Abra- 
ham Lincoln, which I considered it proper to observe, as 
also subsequent days of Thanksgiving and Prayer, I said 
in my sermon that demagogues had caused the war, I of- 
fended some people greatly, for I was charged with hav- 
ing; said that Democrats had caused the war. On a later 
occasion I spoke of the fact that colored people emanci- 
pated by Abraham Lincoln's celebrated proclamation, 

What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 75 

were learning to read, and that white people who had not 
yet learned to read, might profitably follow their example. 
I again gave offense. I suppose some men would have 
doubted my word if I told them that my father had voted 
for Andrew Jackson and that I followed in the footsteps 
of my father politically. Since that day I have said little 
but voted once at many elections. I have never been a re- 

Pennsylvania-Germans have served as soldiers, l^ot 
many years ago I heard a man speak of one of his ances- 
tors who was with the forces led against the French and 
Indians in western Pennsylvania and of incidents of his 

The three hundred men who gathered on Benjamin 
Speieher's farm, near Stouehsburg, in Berk's county, 
whom Conrad Weiser counselled for the defense of 
their home, to whom Pastor J. Xicolas Kurtz preached 
the word of God and for whom he offered prayer, were 
willing to move forward to guard the gaps in the moun- 
tains to prevent invasion by the Indians. The Revolu- 
tionary TVar was marked by the services of our ancestors. 
I rejoice to-day that my grandfather was no Tory, but a 
soldier of the war for Independence. In the war of 1812- 
1814 many of the fathers of men still living were enlisted 
and marched to the defense of their country. My father 
was one of the soldiers at Marcus Hook. But the soldiers 
at Marcus Hook did not get to see the enemy. Brave 
men were marched to York, Pa., to be led to Baltimore. 

At York, however, the courage of one man ended — for 
he told his companions, " Boys, I am going home. I 

76 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

heard that the British are coming up the turnpike with 
their war vessels. Who knows what may happen." 
Brave Pennsylvania-Germans fought in the war with 
Mexico. And who can speak enough in praise of the 
Pennsylvania-German soldiers in the late war for the pres- 
ervation of our glorious union. 

And what of the language of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans ? The ancestors spoke the dialect of their respective 
homes in Germany. Their language of devotion was the 
German of Luther's translation of the Holy Bible. The 
use of the English lan^ua^e had its influence in affecting 
the purity of the dialect. The introduction of the use of 
the English has wrought great changes. We have to-day 
Pennsylvania-Germans who speak in English, but are not 
able to read the Bible iti German, nor to speak the dia- 
lect. We have others who speak the dialect, but no 
English and no high German. Many speak the dialect 
and English, and a large number speak the dialect, English 
and high German. Pennsylvania-Germans are asked to- 
day where they were born in Germany. Pennsylvania- 
Germans have been taken for men of English descent. 
Those of our number who heard their fathers speak the 
dialect and their mothers the same — with very rare at- 
tempts to speak English cannot well lose their attachment 
to the language of their early homes. ISTo wonder that 
people never grow tired of Karnaugh's poems. 2To won- 
der that people will sit for two hours and longer without 
signs of weariness when listening to a lecture in Pennsyl- 
vania-German. Xo wonder that the plain Pennsylvania 
farmer, who wished to see the King of Saxony, gained en- 

What I Know of Pennsylvania- Germans. 77 

trance to the palace, when the King heard the former 
shouting to the guard who did not wish to admit him : 
" Sagt 'em Koenig es waer en Bauer do vim Pennsylfenie 
in de United States der deht ihn gern sehne." And when 
the King had ordered the guard to admit him no wonder 
the King was pleased with the Pennsylvania-German 
farmer, who extended his hand to the King and said : 
" Well, Koenig, wie gehts, wiekummscht a? " 

Pennsylvania Germans have served their country well 
in the increase of the population of the same. Examine 
some of the old family records and read the long list of 
names under the heading, " Birth and Baptism.'' Not 
lone; asro I traveled with a s;entleman whose home is in a 
suburb of Boston. He acknowledged that many New 
England families of the present day number but few chil- 
dren and many none. He spoke of the fact that in the 
South at present many families number many children, 
accounting for a great increase in population. I told him 
that Pennsylvania-German families, even of to-day, have 
ofter many children. I told him that some years ago I 
attended a funeral. I rode to the cemetery in an omni- 
bus, in which there was an old lady, who said : " It is 
hard to lose a child. I had twenty-three children, and 
when one of them died I felt very sad." I said to the 
lady : " And so, mother, you had twenty-three children ?" 
She replied promptly : " Yes, sir ; I had twenty-three 
and here is my daughter, who has also already eleven." 
A good record for Pennsylvania-Germans — not readily- 
broken by Yankees. 

Pennsylvania-Germans left eastern counties of Pennsyl- 

78 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

vania and moved southwestward and westward. Think 
of the population we would now have in Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania if all had remained here. Before 1800 some of my 
relatives had settled in Bedford county, and others were 
soon in the western part of Pennsylvania and in Ohio. 
After the death of my great-grandfather, in the line of my 
father's family, my great-grandmother, aged more than 90 
years, traveled in a covered wagon to Bedford county to 
have, for a time, her home with a son. She died there and 
was buried in said county. In the fall of 1888 I attended 
a reunion of the Bortz family near Shenango, in Mercer 

Two hundred and fifty persons gathered and dined in 
an orchard. More than two hundred of the persons pres- 
ent were descendants and relatives of several families who 
settled in Western Pennsylvania in the twenties of this 
century. I have met Pennsylvania-Germans in Ohio, 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and on the 
prairies of North Dakota. We know of the great num- 
ber in Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska. In the month of 
December I officiated at home at the funeral of the wife of 
a Pennsylvania-German, who had asked her husband be- 
fore her death at Tacoma, Washington, to take her re- 
mains to her early home in Lebanon county to be buried 
there. In India, in distant Asia, Pennsylvania-Germans 
have labored and died in mission work. 

Where Pennsylvania-Germans have settled, the story of 
Pennsylvania-German piety, honesty, industry and success 
in life has been repeated. Even in our day the Pennsyl- 
vania-German still moves westward, and his influence is 
for good in his western home. 

What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 79 

"Whilst I rejoice in being a member and minister in the 
Christian Church — the highest honor we can attain to on 
earth ; whilst I am proud of being a citizen of the United 
States — the finest government in the world ; whilst I am 
glad to be able to say I am of the good old Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, I glory in the fact of being of Pennsyl- 
vania-German descent and having no reason to be ashamed 
of my ancestors. I take great pleasure in visiting the 
places where they dwelt, where they attended church 
services and worshiped the Triune God, and where their 
graves are in Pennsylvania soil. 

In the fall of 1888, when the General Council of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America met in 
Minneapolis, the members of the same were invited to at- 
tend the great festival of the Swedes, who celebrated the 
250th anniversary of the settlement of Swedes on the 
banks of the Delaware. The day was marked by so much 
rain that the intended great procession of Swedish con- 
gregations, Sunday-schools and societies on the beautiful 
avenues of Minneapolis had to be abandoned. In the im- 
mense building of the Inter-State Exposition there was, 
however, a gathering of no less than seven thousand 
Swedes, who were full of enthusiasm in singing, in prayer, 
in speaking and in their applause when the history of the 
toils, labors and success of their countrymen was repeated. 
A number of the delegates of the General Council were 
favored with seats on the platform where the addresses 
were delivered. I sat within thirty feet of the speakers, 
and I distinctly remember the remark made by a delegate, 
a distinguished doctor of theology from Eastern Pennsyl- 

80 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

vania: "I doubt whether the Germans could secure such 
a gathering in Pennsylvania." I have often thought of 
that remark, and I repeat it here to-day, with the sincere 
wish that the Pennsylvania-German Society, organized 
here to-day, may succeed in securing at a time not far dis- 
tant great gatherings of Pennsylvania-Germans to com- 
memorate important events in the life of their ancestors 
of whom they may he justly proud. 

I trust the day will come when the settlement of Palat- 
inates in the Tulpehocken will be properly celebrated at 
the grave of Conrad Weiser on his farm, not far from 
Womelsdorf, in Berks county. Xot long before his death 
General Washington spent a night at AVomelsdorf, and 
during his stay honored the memory of Conrad Weiser by 
visiting his grave, and why should not Pennsylvania- 
Germans, nearly a century later, rejoice in the privilege of 
standing where Washington stood and bestowing similar 

The old Trappe church in Montgomery county was 
erected in 1745, and is still standing. I can never forget 
that when I visited the same in the spring of 1866, 1 was 
alone one morning within its ancient walls. After view- 
ing its old pulpit and altar, its unpainted pews, and its 
old organ, many of the pipes and other parts of which had 
been carried off by visitors (I saw a part of the organ at 
Decatur, 111., in 18SS), I was so impressed by what I saw, 
and by the recollection of the holy men who had served 
within those walls, of the people, including some of my 
relations, who had their spiritual home in the same, of the 
meetings of our old Mother Synod held there, that I could 

What I Know of Pennsylvania-Germans. 81 

not refrain from kneeling before the old altar and thank- 
ing God for the blessings he had bestowed upon the 
fathers and mothers, the benefits of which we still enjoy, 
and to ask for the continuance of His favors to our people. 
And why should we not on some day in the near future 
have a great gathering at the Trappe — at the grave of the 
Patriarch Muhlenberg — who labored most faithfully for 
the spiritual welfare of our ancestors; at the grave of 
General Peter Muhlenberg, the friend of General Wash- 
ington, and the successful commander of soldiers of the 
Revolutionary war ; at the grave of Governor Shunk, the 
distinguished Pennsylvania-German, Chief Magistrate of 
our beloved Commonwealth. 

I have named but two places for such great gatherings 
— scores, yea, many scores of places might be named for 
such great meetings of our people in the future. 

Much might be said of the Pennsylvania-Germans of the 
past; let us so live in the fear, worship and service of the 
Triune God, in strict obedience to State and ^National 
laws, in faithful devotion to our callings, in our respective 
spheres of activity, in the performance of duties in our 
homes, that when men in the distant future will speak of 
Pennsylvania-Germans, they may have no occasion to pass 
over our period in silence, but imoytake pleasure in speak- 
ing well of, as we take pleasure now of speaking well of, 
our ancestors. 

A motion was made and carried to pass a vote of thank: 
Mr. £ 

to Mr. Schantz for remaining and delivering his excellent 

82 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The Permanent Organization. 

Dr. Stahr, Chairman of the Committee on Permanent 
Organization, reported that they would nominate the fol- 
lowing for permanent officers : 

President — Dr. TV r m. H. Eg-le, Harrisburs;. 

Vice-President — Hon. Edwin Albright, Allentown. 

Secretary — F. R. DiffenderfTer, Lancaster. 

Treasurer — Julius F. Sachse, Esq., Berwyn. 

Executive Committee — Dr. J. Max Hark, Lancaster ; 
L. L. Grumbine, Esq., Lebanon ; H. A. Muhenberg, Esq., 
Reading ; E. H. Rauch, Mauch Chunk ; Hon. J. S. Hess, 
Hellertown ; E. W". S. Parthemore, Harrisburg ; Judge S. 
W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia ; Dr. C. Z. "Weiser, East 
Greenville; C. P. Humrich, Esq., Carlisle; Hon. A. 
Hiestand Glatz, York. 

Dr. Stahr moved that a vote of thanks be tendered to 
the German Society of Philadelphia for their generous 

The Secretary of the Society was instructed to cast the 
ballot for the officers nominated, which was accordingly 
done, and the gentlemen named declared elected. 

The following resolution was offered by Mr. E. W. 
Parthemore : 

Resolved, That a Publication Committee, to consist of 
five members, be nominated and elected, to whom shall 
be referred the different papers read at this meeting, 
which, together with the proceedings of the preliminary 
conference and the full minutes, shall be published in a 

Proceedings. 83 

The following were appointed on the committee : E. 
W. Partkemore, F. R. Diffenderffer, Dr. Stahr, Dr. Hark 
and H. Young, Esq. 

The Secretary was instructed to receive the initiation 
fees of the members in the absence of the Treasurer. 

It was moved and carried that when this Convention ad- 
journ it do so to convene at such time and place as the 
Executive Committee shall decide. 

The Convention then adjourned. 


ARTICLE I.— Name. 
The name of this organization shall be " The Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society." 

ARTICLE II— Object. 

The object of the Society shall be : 

First : To perpetuate the memory and foster the prin- 
ciples and virtues of the German ancestors of its members, 
and to promote social intercourse among the latter. 

Secondly: To discover, collect and preserve all still 
existing documents, monuments, etc., relating to the 
genealogy and history of the Pennsylvania-Germans, and 
from time to time publish them, particularly such as shall 
set forth the part belonging to this people in the growth 
and development of American character, institutions and 

Thirdly : To gather by degrees a library for the use of 
the Society, composed of all obtainable books, monographs, 
pamphlets, manuscripts, etc., relating to the Pennsylvania- 

Fourthly : To cause statedly to be prepared and read 
before the Society, papers, essays, etc., on questions in the 
history or genealogy of the Pennsylvania-Germans. 

ARTICLE III— .Membership. 
Section 1. First: The members of the Society shall 
consist of three classes, viz. : Regular, Associate and 

Constitution. 85 

Secondly : Xo one shall be eligible as a regular member 
unless he be of full age, of good moral character, and a di- 
rect descendant of early German or Swiss emigrants to 

Thirdly : Xo one shall be eligible as an associate mem- 
ber unless he be of full age, good moral character, and of 
German descent not native in this State, or a foreign-born 
German naturalized and resident in this State not less 
than ten years. The rights and privileges of an associate 
member shall be the same as those of a regular member, 
except that he shall be ineligible to office, and shall have 
no vote on questions of property or location. 

Fourthly : Persons who have made the history, geneal- 
ogy, principles, etc., of the Pennsylvania-Germans a special 
subject of study and research, and any other persons emi- 
nent in their profession or calling, to whatever nationality 
they may belong, who have shown themselves in sym- 
pathy with the Pennsylvania-Germans, shall be eligible 
to honorary membership. 

Sec. 2. The mode of electing members shall be as fol- 
lows : Candidates may be proposed in writing to the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. Such nominations, with a written 
statement of the name, address, occupation and descent of 
each candidate, shall be considered at the next meeting 
of said Committee after the nomination has been made, 
who shall pass thereon. If no objection be made the said 
committee shall report favorably upon the nomination, 
and the candidate shall be considered as duly elected ; but 
if any member of the Executive Committee demand a 
ballot, the election shall be by ballot, and a two-third vote 

86 The Pennsylvaliia-German Society. 

of the members of the Committee present shall be neces- 
sary to elect. 

Sec. 3. The annual dues of regular and associate mem- 
bers shall be two dollars. In both cases payment must be 
made in advance. The payment of twenty-five dollars 
constitutes anv regular member a life member. Regular 
and associate members must pay their first annual dues 
and sign this Constitution, before entering upon the en- 
joyment of the rights and privileges of membership. 

Sec. 4. Should any member neglect to pay his annual 
dues for one year after the same shall become due, he shall 
ipso facto cease to be a member of the Society, unless, upon 
a satisfactory excuse being given, and the payment of all 
arrearages, the Executive Committee shall see fit to re- 
mit the penalty. 

Sec. 5. The Executive Committe shall have power, by 
a vote of a majority of its members, to suspend or forfeit 
the membership of any member of the Society for conduct 
likely to endanger the welfare and interests of the Society, 
an opportunity being first given such member to be heard 
before the Executive Committee in his defense. 

Sec. 6. Any person who shall cease to be a member of 
the Society shall forfeit all right or interest in the prop- 
erty of the Society. 

ARTICLE IV.— Officers. 

Section 1. First: The officers of the Society shall con- 
sist of a President, two Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a 
Treasurer and an Executive Committee of eleven mem- 

Constitution. 87 

Secondlv: The President, Vice Presidents and Treas- 
urer shall be elected at each annual meeting; and the 
President shall be ineligible for re-election. 

Thirdly : The Secretary shall be elected for a term of 
three years and shall be ex-officio a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

Fourthly: The Executive Committee elected at the 
first election shall divide itself into five classes. The first 
class of two members shall hold office for five years ; the 
second class of two for four years ; the third class of two 
for three years ; the fourth class of two for two years, and 
the fifth class of two for one year. At each annual meet- 
ing thereafter successors shall be chosen to the class whose 
term shall then expire. 

Sec. 2. All elections shall be by ballot, under the direc- 
tion of inspectors, to be appointed by the President, and a 
majority of votes shall elect. 

ARTICLE V.— Duties of Officers. 

First : The duties of the President shall be those usually 
pertaining to that office ; and also to deliver an address at 
the annual meeting. 

Secondly : The duties of the Vice President shall be the 
same as those ordinarily belonging to that office. 

Thirdly : The duties of the Secretary shall be to keep an 
accurate record of all the proceedings of the Society ; to 
conduct the correspondence of the Society ; to notify 
members of the meetings of the Society ; to inform officers 
and new members of their election ; to countersign all 
drafts made on the Treasurer ; and to call and arrange for 

88 The Pennsylvdnia-German Society. 

all writings of the Society, under the direction of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee; he shall also act as Librarian and 
Curator, and have the keeping of all hooks, pamphlets, 
manuscripts, and personal articles pertaining to the So- 

Fourthly : The duties of the Treasurer shall be to col- 
lect, and under the direction of the Executive Committee 
disburse the funds of the Society and to keep regular ac- 
counts thereof, which shall be subject to the examination 
of the President and the Executive Committee. He shall 
submit a statement thereof to the Executive Committee 
at each regular meeting, and his accounts shall be audited 
once every year. 

Fifthly : The duties of the Executive Committee shall 
be to examine and pass upon the credentials of candidates; 
to engage suitable persons to deliver the addresses and 
prepare the papers contemplated in this Constitution ; to 
make all other arrangements necessary for the meetings 
of the Society, and to transact all business of the Society 
not otherwise provided for in the Constitution. It shall 
also have power to fill any vacancy which may occur from 
death or resignation among the officers of the Society, for 
the unexpired term of the office so vacated. 

Sixthly: The Executive Committee shall, from time 
to time, make by-laws, rules and regulations, and appoint 
standing committees and sub-committees ou matters not 
herein determined. 

ARTICLE VI.— Meetings. 
1. The Society shall hold one regular meeting each 
year, to be known as the anniversary meeting, which shall 

Constitution. 89 

be characterized by special exercises, including a banquet, 
to be arranged for by the Executive Committee. 

2. The Executive Committee shall have authority to 
call three additional meetings of the Society each year, 
time and place to be designated by the Executive Com- 
mittee, at each of which the current business of the Soci- 
ety may be transacted, and one or more papers or essays 
shall be read on questions in the genealogy or history of 
the Pennsylvania-Germans. 

3. The Executive Committee shall hold its regular 
meetings on the same dates as the regular meetings of the 
Society, and special meetings, whenever called by its 
chairman, notice of which must be given to each member 
of the Committee not less than ten days prior to the 

AB TICLE VII.—Headq uarters. 
The Headquarters of the Society shall be located in 

ARTICLE VIII. — Amendments to the Constitution. 

1. To amend the Constitution an affirmative vote of 
two-thirds of the members present at the annual meeting 
shall be requisite. 

2. Amendments to the Constitution can be offered only 
at the annual meeting, and no amendment shall be voted 
upon at the same meeting at which it is offered. 


I. — Order of Business. 
At all meetings of the Society the order of business 
shall be as follows : 

1. Reading and Adoption of the Minutes of the Pre- 
vious Meeting. 

2. Reports of Officers and Committees. 

3. Miscellaneous Business. 

4. Reading of Papers or Delivery of Addresses. 

5. Adjournment. 

II. — Annual Meeting. 
The annual meeting of the Society shall be held on the 
second Wednesday of October at such place and hour as 
the Executive Committee shall appoint, and at least ten 
days' notice of the same shall be sent to each member by 
the Secretary. 

Ill— Appointment of Committees. 
All committees except the Executive Committee and 
its sub-committees shall be appointed by the President or 
the Chairman of the meeting, unless specially named in 
the resolution creating the committee ; and the person 
first named shall be chairman of each committee. 

IV. — The Executive Committee. 
The Executive Committee shall each year divide itself 
into the following sub-committees : A Committee of 

Bif-Laics. 91 

Three on Finance ; a Committee of Three on Genealogy ; 
and a Committee of Five on History and Tradition. 
These committees to he appointed by the Chairman. 

V. — The Committee on Finance. 
The Committee on Finance shall, at least once in each 
year, and oftener, if they choose, audit the accounts and 
vouchers of the Treasurer of the Society, and report upon 
the same at the annual meeting of the Society, and oftener 
to the Executive Committee, as they may see fit, or as the 
latter may order. 

VI. — The Committee on Genealogy. 
It shall he the duty of the Committee on Genealogy to 
collect and preserve, in accordance with the Constitution, 
information and documents relating to the Genealogy of 
the members of the Society, and of the German and Swiss 
settlers of Pennsylvania and of the American colonies. 
The Committee may expend the funds of the Society for 
this purpose, subject to the subsequent approval of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 

VII. — The Committee on History and Tradition. 

It shall be the duty of the Committee on History and 
Tradition to collect and preserve, in accordance with the 
Constitution, information, documents, books, and monu- 
ments relating to the history and traditions of the mem- 
bers of the Society, and of the German and Swiss settlers 
and their descendants in Pennsylvania and the rest of the 
United States ; and to print and publish the sime, and 
papers and essays relating to the same, copyrighting orig- 

92 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

inal publications for the benefit of the Society. The Com- 
mittee may expend the funds of the Society for this pur- 
pose, subject to the subsequent approval of the Executive 

VIII. — Attendance of Members of the Executive Committee. 
Neglect on the part of any member of the Executive 
Committee to attend the meeting of said Committee for 
three consecutive meetings, shall be a tender of his resig- 
nation from that Committee. But the Committee may 
excuse any member for such absence if good and sufficient 
reasons therefor be given. 

IX. — Amendments. 
These By-Laws can be altered, amended or abrogated 
only at a regular meeting of the Executive Committee, 
by the affirmative vote of six members of the said Execu- 
tive Committee. 




William H. Egle, M. D. ' 

Vice Presidents. 
Henry A. Muhlenburg, Esq., 
Judge Edwin Albright. 

Frank Ried Diffenderffer. 

Julius F. Sachse, Esq. 

Executive Committee. 
J. Max Hark, D. D., 
E. W. S. Parthemore, 
Lee L. Grumbine, Esq„ 
Clement Z. Weiser, D. D., 
Edwin H. Rauch, 
Hon. A. Hiestand Glatz, 
C. P. Humrich, Esq., 
Hon. Jeremiah S. Hes3, 
Judge Samuel W. Pennypacker, 
H. A. Muhlenburg, Esq., 
Frank Ried Diffenderffer. 

94 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 


H. A. Muhlenburg, Esq., 
C. P. Ilumrich, Esq., 
Hon. A. Hiestand Glatz. 

E. W. S. Parthemore, 
Hon. Jeremiah S. Hess, 
Edwin H. Eaueh. 

History and Tradition. 
Lee L. Grumbine, Esq., 
Clement Z. Weiser, D. D., 
Hon. Samuel W. Pennypaeker, 
J. Max Hark, D. D., 
Frank Ried Diffenderffer. 

Printing and Publishing. 
E. W. S. Parthemore, 
John S. Stahr, D. D., 
J. Max Hark, D. D., 
Hiram Young, Esq., 
Frank Ried DifFenderiler. 

Annual meeting of the Society on the second Wedne* 
day of October. 

Meetings of Executive Committee. 
Second Wednesday of January. 
Second Wednesday of April. 
Second "Wednesday of July. 
Second Wednesday of October. 










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HARRISBURG, OCT. 14, 1891, 






Note of Printing Committee, 4 

First Annual Meeting at Harrisburg, 5 

Prayer, by Rev. George C. Hekman, D. P., 6 

Annual Address, by President Wm. H. Egle, M. D., . . 7 

Report of Secretary, F. R. Piifenderffer, 22 

Members Elected 25 

Election of Permanent Oihcers 26 

Business Proceedings. 28 

Early Literature of the Pennsylvania Germans, by Hon. 

Samuel W. Pennypacker, LL.D 33 

Proverbs and Sayings of the Pennsylvania Germans, by 

Rev. A. R. Home. P. P * 47 

The Marriage of the Muse, by Lee L. Grumbine, Esq... . 55 

Piscussion on Permanent Location 63 

Telegraphic Correspondence with the Poet Whittier, . . 71 

The Annual Banquet 74 

Address, by Gov. Robert Emory Pattison 75 

Address, by Judge Edwin Albright 80 

Address, by Dr. R. K. Buehrle 81 

Address, by Hiram Young. Esq., 87 

Address, by Rev. J. Max Hark. P. P., . . . 89 

Translation, by Col. Thos. C. Zimmerman 90 

Translation, by Henry L. Fisher. Esq., . .- 93 

Address, by Rev. Paul de Schweinitz 100 

Address, by J. H. Redsecker. Esq 102 

Meeting of Society at Mt. Gretna 105 

True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania, by Julius F. 

Sachse, 106 

The Pennsylvania-German : His Place in the History of 

the Commonwealth, by Wm. H. Egle, M. D 118 

Obituary Notices 131-2 

Gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-German Society: 

The Printing Committee of your Society takes pleasure 

in presenting to you the Second Annual Volume of the 

Proceedings of the Society during the past year, together 

with the various papers read before it at Harrisburg and 

Mt. Gretna. 

E. W. S. Parthemore, 

Frank R. Diffenderffer, 

John S. Stahr, 

J. Max Hark, 

Hiram Young, 



— OF THE — 


— AT ITS — 


Held in Harrisburg, Pa., 


Morning Session, 10:30 o'clock. 

The Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania German 
Society having fixed on Harrisburg, Pa., as the place for 
holding the first Annual Meeting of the Society, that or- 
ganization accordingly met in the rooms of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, of that city, on "Wednesday, 
October 14, 1891, at 10:30 a. m. 

The Society was called to order by the president, Will- 
iam H. Egle, M. D., and prayer was offered by the Rev. 
Dr. George C. Heckman, as follows : 

"Almighty God, be Thou our God. Be Thou our 
country's God, for blessed is the nation whose God is the 

6 The Pennsylvajiia-Gcrman Society. 

Lord, the people whom He hath chosen for His own in- 
heritance. We thank Thee that we are permitted to 
meet here to-day. Bless us, we pray Thee, as the repre- 
sentatives of the Society whose anniversary we cele- 
brate. We praise Thee for the patriotism and the piety 
of our fathers ; that thev were a God-fearing and a God- 
loving people ; that they gave themselves and all theirs 
for the welfare of their country. We pray that their ex- 
ample may not he lost upon us, and that we be not un- 
worthy descendants of our pious sires. May we be found 
faithful citizens, true children of those who were faithful 
in their day, and be able to transmit their patriotism 
and piety to our children. Let Thy blessing rest upon 
the members of this Society. May we, as the children of 
the founders of this State, be a blessing to our Common- 
wealth ; and may our country long be preserved as a 
monument of Thy mercy and an instrument of Thy 
praise. Bless us now, we humbly beseech Thee, with 
the guidance of Thy spirit. Guide us with Thy counsel 
through life in our Lord Jesus Christ, to the glory of 
the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit, our one 
God, everlasting. Amen." 

Hon. B. Y. Meyers was introduced by President Egle, 
and delivered the following 


Gentlemen : — In the name of the people of Harrisburg 
I give you a cordial welcome. It is, indeed, in accordance 
with the fitness of things that your Society should meet at 

Address of "Welcome. 7 

the capital of the noble Commonwealth which your an- 
cestors assisted in founding, which has been reared in 
great part by the industry, thrift and intelligence of their 
children and which gives you, in turn, the appellation 
that distinguishes you as the representatives of a peculiar 
people. Besides, here you find yourselves in the midst of 
descendants of the first German settlers of the State, many 
of whom still use the Pennsylvania-German dialect, in 
the market, in the store, in the ordinary everyday trans- 
actions that may be accomplished by word of mouth, and 
who speak no other tongue in their families and homes. 
"While this is the case only to a limited extent in the city 
of Harrisburg, it is largely the rule in the rural districts 
adjacent. You have, therefore, the double welcome of 
the generous and hospitable people of the city in general, 
and particularly of those among them who are united to 
you by a common ancestry, common traditions and a 
common dialect. 

It has been said that history has neglected the suf- 
ferings, trials and achievements of the first German set- 
tlers of Pennsylvania. This is true in the sense that the 
historian has failed to record them as differentiated from 
those of other early settlers belonging to other races of 
people. But the story of their privations, their fortitude 
and their patriotism is blended with that of the other 
elements of the composite people which formed the base 
of the grand structure of American nationality. Re- 
pressed by a hostile legislature, denied the privileges of 
citizenship for many years, accorded no rights except the 
right to pay taxes which began with a tariff laid upon 

8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

their persons when they left the ships that brought them 
over, the first German settlers could not, in the nature of 
things, supply their adopted country with either political 
or military leaders. Nor did they leave the Fatherland 
to seek power and glory in the savage wilderness to 
which they emigrated. They forsook their native coun- 
try and braved the perils of the deep in search of a land 
where they might enjoy liberty of conscience. Their 
landing was not made dramatic by the tossing of their 
ships on a rock-bound coast. History has not so recorded 
it, nor has it been so celebrated in poesy. Yet the verses 
that have made the " Landing of the Pilgrims at Ply- 
mouth Rock " familiar as a twice-told tale to every school 
boy in the land might have been appropriately written of 
the debarkation of the first German settlers of Pennsyl- 

" Not as the conqueror comes, 
They, the true-hearted came, 
Not with the roll of the stirring drums, 
Or the trumpet that sings of fame." 
* * * -* * # 

" What sought they, thus afar ? 
Bright jewels of the mine ? 
The wealth of seas, the spoils of war ? 
They sought a faith's pure shrine." 

Verily they were men of peace, these ancestors of ours. 
They bore the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune 
with resignation and humility. But they loved freedom 
more than they hated war. When the tocsin of liberty 


Address of Welcome. 9 

sounded they sprang to the call, and, though enfranchised 
just in the nick of time, they gave an account of them- 
selves in the war for independence which makes them an 
indisputable place in history on the patriotic side of that 
grand and glorious contest. While only a few of them 
appear conspicuously in the records of the Revolution we 
find the muster rolls of the Pennsylvania line containing 
many German names, while in the Provincial Convention 
of 1775, held at Philadelphia, which approved the con- 
duct and proceedings of the Continental Congress, ap- 
peared as delegates from Pennsylvania such representa- 
tives of the German settlers as Hassenclever, Melcher, • 
Ludwig, Schlosser, Kuhn, Graaf, Hay, Schultz, Levan, 
Gehr, Kechlein, Arndt and Weitzel. Afterward the 
political as well as the military annals of Pennsylvania 
were made luminous with the splendor of the services of 
citizens of German extraction. 

It has also been said that a Pennsylvania-German lit- 
erature is impossible, because a mere dialect cannot pro- 
duce a literature. This is likewise true, but rather be- 
cause the Pennsylvania-German dialect is provincial or 
local. If it could be general or national it would neces- 
sarily burst the chrysalis of the dialect and become a full- 
fledged language. But the barrenness of its vocabulary, 
rendering necessary the importation of many words from 
other tongues, limits its use to communities which either 
discard literary refinement or seek it in the prevailing 
language of the country. It must not be forgotten, how- 
ever, that representative Pennsylvania-Germans have con- 
tributed something to the upbuilding of American litera- 

10 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ture. In English as well as Pennsylvania-German verse 
the genius of the lamented Harbaugh shines with unfad- 
ing lustre. "S'Alt Schulhaus an der Krick," "Haem- 
weh " and " Lah Bisness," are as familiar to the descend- 
ants of the Palatines as "Tarn O'Shanter " to the admirers 
of Burns, Moore's Irish melodies to the sons of Erin, or 
Longfellow's "Excelsior" to the average American. 
Among historians Pupp and Egle represent Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans very creditably. And if humorists may 
be admitted to the company of immortals, " Pit Schwet- 
felbrenner" is sure to find a place among their number. 
So, while there is, indeed, no possibility of a distinctive 
Pennsylvania-German literature, Pennsylvania-Germans 
are not without representation in the literature of the 

If time permitted, an interesting study of the admix- 
ture of German, Irish, Scotch, English and other races, 
which is now the tj-pe of a large portion of the people of 
this State, and of other states of the Union, might be pre- 
sented. Some of us present here, for instance, might 
legitimately belong to a society representing the de- 
scendants of the first Irish settlers, and yet not lose our 
identity as descendants cf the first German settlers. But 
I have already digressed too much from the purpose for 
which I have appeared before you. 

Again I extend to you a most sincere and hearty wel- 

The President, Dr. William H. Egle, in accordance 
with Art. 5 of the Constitution, then delivered the 

pgPMW 1 - 111 1 

Annual' Address. 11 


There is so much to be told of the early history of the 
German and Swiss settlement in Pennsylvania, that you 
would naturally expect me to narrate some of the more 
interesting and yet little known of the facts bearing upon 
and relating to that people who have given to our great 
Commonwealth so much of its industry, wealth, and by 
far its good name. I feel, how r ever, that in the light of 
recent attacks made by blundering historians and sensa- 
tional newspaper scribblers, the more prominent of the 
errors concerning not only our ancestry but ourselves, 
should be commented upon. It is true the Pennsylvania- 
German does not need any defense, but in this age of lit- 
erary culture and educational advantages, the leading 
events in our history deserve a proper place. 

It is not my province to enter into a full narration of 
the causes which led to the early emigration of the people 
from the Palatinate and the vine-clad hills of Switzerland 
to this new found land in America. Suffering from polit- 
ical persecution, hounded by the minions of an infatuated 
religious crusade, they found the doors wide open wdiich 
led to the wilds of Pennsylvania, and towards the close 
of the seventeenth century the highway of the Atlantic 
was crowded by them. Invited by the hospitable Propri- 
etary, they entered eagerly and hopefully upon the lands 
offered them. They came not empty handed, as some 
would have you believe — they were not the paupers of 
the old world, but the well-to-do — some even w T ith titled 
honors, yet the multitude, with the fear of God in their 

12 The Pennsylvanid- German Society. 

hearts, with energy and industry in their makeup, with 
the high hopes and expectations, that here there were 
freedom of religious worship, a benign government and 
homes for all who wanted them. Pennsylvania was their 
land of Canaan — here they settled, and the " wilderness,'' 
indeed, " blossomed as the rose," and left us an inheri- 
tance great and grand. 

While upon the subject of this early settlement, it may 
as well he stated that the Pennsylvania-Germans are not 
the descendants of the Hessians who were brought to 
America by the British government to put down the re- 
bellion of 1776, as has been repeatedly charged by Xew 
England historians. This statement is as impudent as it 
is false. All of the German " Mercenaries," as they are 
called, who were prisoners of war and stationed in Penn- 
sylvania, according to Baron Reidesel, who was one of the 
commanders, were properly accounted for, and were re- 
turned to their own country upon the evacuation of Xew 
York by the British. They did not remain, as it was a 
condition entered into by the English government with 
the Landgrave of Brunswick, the Duke of Hesse- 
Cassel, and the petty princes of Hanau and "Waldeck, 
that a certain price was to be paid for every man 
killed, wounded or missing. Before the official procla- 
mation of the peace, the Hessian prisoners were on 
their way to Xew York by direction of the Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council of Pennsylvania. Some few deserted, 
and some eventually returned to America after their 
transportation to Germany, but the bald assertion that 
the origin of the large German population of Pennsyl- 

Annual Address. 13 

vania is due to the settlement of those hired mercenaries 
of England cannot be supported, and shows the profound- 
est historical ignorance and audacious stupidity. 

Impelled by the highest motives to leave the home of 
their ancestors, the political beginnings of such a people 
are the admiration of their descendants. With them came 
their church ministers who at the outset were their chief 
advisors and the teachers of their children. Wherever 
the church was erected there was the school, and although 
illiteracy has been charged in general upon our early 
German and Swiss settlers, yet bare assertions have never 
been verified. " Illiterate 1" God save the mark ! Prior 
to the Revolution, there were more printing presses oper- 
ated by Pennsylvania-Germans and more books published 
than in the whole of "New England. Just glance over 
Mr. Hil deb urn's valuable work, " Issues of the Pennsyl- 
vania Press, 1682 to 1784," and you will have the proof 
of what I say. The fact is, there is abundant evidence 
by existing documents, which go to show that they were 
able to write their names legibly, conclusive too that 
their education did not stop there. In a memorial to the 
authorities by the German inhabitants, written a century 
and a-half ago, containing over two hundred signatures, 
but one man made his mark. There is not a provincial 
or colonial document in existence from puritan £s"ew Eng- 
land to cavalier Georgia, of that period, which can match 
the one referred to. 

The so-called " Scheme for the Education of the Ger- 
mans " in Pennsylvania has no doubt given rise to the 
statements that they were illiterate, " unlearned." Un- 

14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

lettered they were as to the English language, but in the 
tongue of the Fatherland, they knew more than the three 
" R's " of a rudimentary education. The " Scheme " was 
a political one, and the chief aim, through the instruction 
of the English, was to extend partisan influence, for it is 
well known that in the Provincial era, as later on in the 
history of our Commonwealth, there were all sorts of 
schemes devised " to catch the German vote." The Penn- 
sylvania-German was just as wise then as now, and those 
not of our race and lineage may speak of our good people 
of Berks as voting for Andrew Jackson at every election, 
but the sturdy and steady Democratic majority given by 
Pennsylvania-Germans in that, magnificent county is 
only offsetted by the strong Republican majority given by 
the Pennsylvania-Germans in the adjoining grand old 
county of Lancaster. Both are true and steadfast to their 
principles, whatever they may be, never swerving, always 
to be relied upon. If illiteracy leads one, assuredly the 
other is just as unfortunate, but neither is the case ; the 
inhabitants of both are just as cultured, just as highly ed- 
ucated and imbued with the loyal and true doctrines 
of constitutional government. 

Coming to Pennsylvania for the enjoyment of religious 
principles, deeply tinged with a hatred of king-craft and 
the exactions of royalty, when the thunders of the Revo- 
lution called the people of Pennsylvania to arm for the 
struggle with tyranny, the German and Swiss settler was 
ready. He entered heartily into the conflict, and, al- 
though owincr solely to his want of knowledge of the 
English language, his was seldom to command, giving 

Annual Address. 15 

way to his Scotch-Irish neighbor ; still no braver body of 
men went forth from hillside and valley to defend their 
homes in the name of God and perpetual freedom. Their 
bones lie upon every battle-field of the Revolution; and 
yet, owing to their language, few rose to command. 
And still there were the Muhlenbergs, the Hiesters and 
others, who became distinguished in the days of 1776, 
none superior in military training, or in deeds of valor. 
Patriotism has always been an inherent principle in the 
hearts of the early German settlers in Pennsylvania, and 
since the days of Independence their descendants, genera- 
* tion after generation, have been distinguished upon every 

well-fought battle-field of the Republic. From Lundy's 
Lane, in the swamps of Florida, through the cactus- 
crowned plains of Mexico, and in that later fraternal, yet 
bloody, strife, Manassas to Appomattox, they were there, 

officers and men, reflecting honor and renown upon their 
State, the nation, and their race. 

Pennsylvania took the lead of all the colonies in agri- 
culture owing to the great number of Germans settling in 
the Province; and Governor Thomas, as early as 1738, 
wrote: " This Province has been for some years the asy- 
lum of the distressed Protestants of the Palatinate and 
other parts of Germany, and I believe it may with truth 
be said that the present flourishing condition of it is in a 
great measure owing to the industry of those people. It 
is not altogether the goodness of the soil, but the number 
and industry of the people that make a flourishing col- 


As we have stated, the first settlers were staid farmers. 

16 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Their mutual wants produced mutual dependence, hence 
they were kind and friendly to each other; they were 
ever hospitable to strangers. Their want of money in 
the early times made it necessary for them to associate 
for the purpose of building houses, cutting their grain, 
etc. This they did in turn for each other without any 
other pay than the pleasures which usually attended a 
country frolic. Strictly speaking, what are attributed to 
them as virtues might be called good qualities, arising 
from necessity and the peculiar state of society in which 
our people lived — patience, industry and temperance. 

That the Germans of Pennsylvania have been so uni- 
formly successful in acquiring wealth is due to their 
laboriousness, to their thrift, and to their knowledge of 
agricultural pursuits. In some portions of Pennsylvania 
are the garden-spots of America. They have been made 
so by the Germans who have cultivated them. Not any- 
where in the New England States, in New York, nor in 
the South, are farms so well tilled, so highly improved, 
as in the sections of Pennsylvania where the descendants 
of the Germans predominate. And we assert, without 
fear of contradiction, that more works on agriculture, 
more papers devoted to farming, are taken and read by 
the so-called "Pennsylvania Dutch" farmers than by the 
farmers of any other section of the Union. That the 
Pennsylvania German is not "content to live in huts" is 
palpably certain, and whoever will go into the homes of 
our farmers will find evidence of both refinement and cul- 
ture; their farms being easily distinguished from those of 
others by the good fences, the extent of the orchard, the 

Annudl Address. 17 

fertility of the soil, the productiveness of the fields, the 
luxuriance of the meadows, the superiority of his horse, 
which seems to feel with his owner the pleasure of good 
living. And although their barns are capacious, because 
their dwellings are not castles, they should not be ac- 
cused of indifference to their own domiciles. At the 
present time it is rare to find a farm house in the old 
German settlements that does not contain a double parlor, 
sitting room, dining room, kitchen and out kitchen, with 
six or eisrht bed rooms. This is more general in the 
counties of Berks, Lancaster, Lebanon, Dauphin and 
Cumberland than among the Xew England settled coun- 
ties of the Xorth and West, the Quaker counties of Ches- 
ter and Bucks, in Pennsylvania, and to go to Xew Eng- 
land, the latter are not to be mentioned in comparison. 

It has been charged time and again that the opposition 
to the public school system came from the German ele- 
ment of the State. In a measure this was partly true, 
but the fiercest attacks came from those of another faith 
and ancestry, and why ? Xoth withstanding all that has 
been stated to the contrary, there was a system of paro- 
chial or congregational education in vogue, and those op- 
posed to the new scheme held that, over and above all, 
Christianity ought to enter into all plans for educating 
the young. But that antagonism was of short duration, 
and these became to be the heartiest supporters of the 
free schools. The earliest advocates and promoters of that 
system which has shed so much lustre upon our State 
were Governors Wolf and Ritner, while another man who 
more than anyone else was the originator, and who should 

18 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

be known far and wide in the matter, was William Au- 
denreid, all three of Pennsylvania-German descent. And 
to-day the great majority of the ablest educators in the 
State are of that illustrious origin. This is a fruitful 
subject, and one which I trust will be fully dwelt upon 
by abler hands at some future meetings of the Society. 

As has been stated, the clinging to the language of the 
Fatherland interfered much with the prominence they 
might have reached in the early history of our State — not 
only in political affairs, but in the legal profession. Pro- 
fessors in Theology may cite the Pennsylvania-German as 
an illustration of the evil of maintaining the use of the 
German language, but iC the evil" exists only in their 
fertile imaginations. They no doubt believe the current 
histories, as written from a Puritan New England or 
Low Dutch Xew York stand-point. 

Time, however, has wrought wonderful changes. At 
least one-half of the Governors of the Commonwealth, 
from good and honest Simon Snyder to the brave and cul- 
tured Gen. James Addams Beaver, have come from pure 
Pennsylvania-German stock. The influence of that race 
has been felt in every Constitutional Convention from 
July, 1776, to the last body which gave us our present 
fundamental law ; while the halk of Congress and of 
State legislation have re-echoed the glowing words of 
Pennsylvania-German representatives, the peers of those 
descended from Puritan, Holland, Scotch-Irish, or Eng- 
lish ancestry. 

A somewhat notorious writer in a recent lengthy 
article devoted to Pennsylvania politics and Pennsyl- 

Annual Address. 19 

vania statesmen, infers that the reason this State has had 
but few men who have been prominent in national affairs 
is owing to the stubbornness of the Scotch-Irish, and the 
want of literary culture among the Germans, neither of 
which is true. Our Scotch-Irish friends, however, must 
look after their side of the house, for this is Pennsyl- 
vania-German day, and we will take care of ourselves. 
In keeping with such representations it may be here 
mentioned that the time was in the early Ante-Revolu- 
tionary clays that the Scotch-Irish and the German set* 
tiers had very little in common; there was no sympathy 
one for the other. Language and customs were so 
widely different. By and by a Scotch-Irish lad went off 
with a German lassie, and all the settlement was in an 
uproar. lie was outlawed by his friends. As year after 
year rolled on, however, the prejudices of the former sub- 
sided, and in this year of grace there are few Scotch-Irish 
in who<e veins we do not find the blue blood of the Ger- 
man and the Swiss, and they are the better for this ad- 
mixture. Surely a little German leavens many an Ul- 

Now I want to make some suggestions before I say 
" finally brethren." We have decade after decade ne- 
glected the preservation of our family history. From the 
foundation of the world the family was instituted, and 
from this have emanated piety and patriotism, those human 
virtues upon which rest the prosperity and strength of 
the State. As the records of the family constitute the 
framework of history, there can be no greater auxiliaries 
to science, religion and especially to civilization. With- 

20 TJte Peiinsylvdma-German Society. 

out the family there can be no golden cord to unite the 
destinies of communities or nations, and what is more con- 
ducive to this union than the recording and preservation 
of all that pertains to the history of our families. He 
who collects and preserves his own family history is not 
only a benefactor in his way, but will deserve and receive 
the grateful thanks of those to come after him. The ven- 
erable George Bancroft, with whom I was in frequent 
correspondence, upon the appearance of the volume of 
"Pennsylvania Genealogies" wrote, " future generations 
will rise up and call you blessed for what you have done ;" 
but I do not want to apply this to myself. I want to 
counsel every one within the limit of my voice to gather 
up the fragments of his own family history. lie will 
thereby confer a priceless boon upon those whose names 
and achievements are thus rescued from oblivion, and pre- 
serves the experience and wisdom of ages for the emula- 
tion and admiration of posterity. With the loss of church 
and bible records, many may consider this no easy task. 
This is true, if there is no enthusiasm in your soul. But 
" to him who wills there is a way," and I call to mind 
the fact that in this audience there is a gentleman who 
has done valiant service in this line, and yet who when 
he began scarcely knew the name of his grandfather's 
family. But he had Pennsylvania-German industry, 
pluck and perseverance, with over and above all filial 
love, and he accomplished all that any patient laborer in 
family history can and may do. I wish I could induce 
all of you to follow his example. Xone of us live for our- 
selves, or we would not be here to-day. We are looking 

Annual Address. 21 

to the future and to those who follow after. Our ances- 
tors, although neglectful of their family records, owing to 
their modes of living, to the one thought, the establish- 
ing homes for us, richly deserve this remembrance of 
them, the recording of their names and of their services, 
humble though they may have been. If, therefore, my 
advice is worth anything, if it will bear fruit in due sea- 
son, I shall never regret the opportunity afforded me of 
saying what I have so earnestly at heart. There is so 
much to be done in the family history of our people that 
no one should lack interest. And now my friends, al- 
though there is great work to be done, not only by this 
Society, but by each individual member thereof in his 
own behalf, it cannot but be gratifying to all of us, that 
within our own State the number of descendants of the 
early German settlers greatly exceed all others in patient 
and unwearying research among the records of the by- 
gone, in the too much neglected harvest fields of Pennsyl- 
vania history, biography and genealogy. 

Finally brethren, this is Pennsylvania-German Day. 
The Executive Committee has prepared a " Literary Re- 
past," [the invitations had it a " report,"] which I feel 
confident will be heartily appreciated by all who may 
be present. I do not want this Society to be transformed 
into a mutual admiration society, yet I must congratulate 
every one of its members upon the excellent work which 
has already been attained, and the harvest has only just 
begun. Oar great Commonwealth is destined to be, in 
the next decade, the empire state in wealth and national 
importance. It is an honor to belong to it, whether we 

22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

be of English-Quaker, Scotch-Irish, or Huguenot ancestry, 
and yet the prouder of that race which gave it thrift, fru- 
gality and wealth — the Pennsylvania-German 1 

The President then announced that the proceedings of 
the Society when it organized at Lancaster, April 15, 
1891, had been printed in pamphlet form, and were now 
for sale, and on account of being so published, the minutes 
proper would not be read. 

The Secretary then read his annual report, which was 
as follows : 

secretary's report. 

The Pennsylvania-German Society will be six months 
old to-morrow. This is but a brief period, and as the 
work during that time has been mainly of a formative 
character, your Secretary may have little to say that will 
interest the members, and yet, a good deal of work has 
been done, mostly in the way of organization. 

The Executive Committee, provided for by the Consti- 
tution, and named by the Chairman of the Convention of 
April 15th, has not been idle. It has held three business 
meetings, the last one this morning. It has performed 
all the duties assigned to it, and is in excellent working 
order. All its members have been animated with a sin- 
ode aim to the common welfare, and have worked har- 

moniously towards that end. 

The Printing Committee has also had several meetings 
at which the duties pertaining to it have been discharged. 
It places before the Society to-day, for its approval and 
acceptance, a volume containing a brief sketch of our 

Secretary's Report. 23 

origin, together with all the addresses and a full report of 
the proceedings of our organization on the 15th of last 
April. This little book will, I think, compare favorably 
with similar publications, and it is hoped our first 
venture in this direction will meet the approval of the 

Concerning his individual work, your Secretary would 
say that he has endeavored to discharge the duties of his 
position faithfully, and to the best of his ability. There 
has been considerable correspondence along with much 
other routine work, and as he is also a member of the 
Executive and Printing Committees, he besrs the in- 
diligence of the members for any shortcomings in his 
work, owing to the extended character of it. His rela- 
tions have been very pleasant with the entire member- 
ship, and he cordially thanks all with whom he had busi- 
ness relations for their uniform kindness. 

The work of organization over, and our Society fairly 
set afloat, more time should now be given to pushing and 
extending its work. We have to-day the names of 83 
members on our rolls, and 14 additional names were pre- 
sented to the Executive Committee this morning. These, 
when admitted, will bring up our membership to 97. 
This is not a large number, it is true, but it is very en- 
couraging. It deserves to be stated that no special efforts 
have thus far been made to increase the membership rap- 
idly. The aim has been rather to secure the names of 
persons in hearty sympathy with our aims and purposes, 
and of high standing and character. I have no doubt 
that earnest effort on the part of our members will add 

24 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

largely to our numbers during the coming year. This 
must be done. We cannot afford to stand still. That 
would mean stagnation and ultimate decay. We must 
progress if we would live. 

There has been one death in our ranks — Mr. H. S. 
Reinhold, of Harrisburg. 

The Secretary suggests that one of the main purposes 
of our organization and an important provision of our 
Constitution, that relating to the collection of books, 
records and documents, be kept steadily in view. We 
cannot begin our collection — shall I say library — too 
soon. It is a matter of vital importance and concerns us 
all. Let every member do what he can individually, and 
invite contributions from every quarter. Thus far my 
duties as librarian have been far from onerous. 

The Secretary further suggests that the question of a 
permanent home for the Society be decided without 
further delay. The Executive Committee has declined to 
take upon itself this responsibility, although requested to 
do so by the Convention of last April, and the matter now 
comes back to the Society for its final action. Many 
reasons could be urged for this step at this time, but as 
they will readily suggest themselves to every member, 
they need not be more particularly referred to here. 

The cost of organization has been moderate, having 
been confined to the printing of circulars, blanks, the 
Constitution and other documents and the purchase of 
stationery and other necessary expenditures. It is to be 
wished that every member will purchase a copy of the 
book issued by the Society, thereby aiding in paying for 

Members 'Elected. 25 

the printing of the same and also in putting a little 
money into the treasury. 

In conclusion the Secretary would thank all the mem- 
bers for their uniform courtesy towards himself, and at 
the same time cordially invite suggestions of whatever 
kind from them, which may serve to more effectually 
promote the interests of our Society. 

The President : What action will be taken upon the 
report of the Secretary ? 

It was moved and seconded that the report be received 
and entered upon the minutes. 

Agreed to, and so ordered. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary was au- 
thorized to receive the annual dues, the matter having 
been disposed of in the meeting of the Executive Com- 

The Secretary reported that the following gentlemen 
had been elected members at the meeting; of the Execu- 
tive Committee held earlier in the morning : 

Rev. Charles G. Fisher, D. D., Philadelphia. 

Prof. George W. Bowman, Annville. 

Samuel K. Lehman, Upper Strasburg. 

Simon P. Eby, Esq., Lancaster. 

Col. Samuel Cochran Slaymaker, Lancaster. 

Rev. TnoMAS Conrad Porter, D, D., Easton. 

John D. Skiles, Esq., Lancaster. 

David McXeely Stauffer, Xew York City. 

Rudolph Frederick Kelker, Harrisburg. 

William Anthony Kelker, Harrisburg. 

26 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

The Committee acted upon fourteen applications for 
membership, and resolved to recognize these fourteen as 
members elect, as many of them wished to take part in 
the proceedings of the Society. The names of the gentle- 
men proposed for membership are as follows: 

Cyrus K. Lantz, Lebanon. 

John A. Batjsman, Lancaster. 

John Peter Keller, Harrisburg. 

Edw. G. Hake, Xew Cumberland. 

George Kunkel, Harrisburg. 

Gabriel Hiester, Harrisburg. 

William Luther Gorgas, Harrisburg. 

George Albert Gorgas, Harrisburg. 

Constantine J. Erdman, Allentown. 

Israel H. Betz, Oakville. 

John Bayard McPherson, Lebanon. 

John P. S. Gobin, Lebanon. 

Dr. Frank Muhlenberg, Lancaster. 

Dr. Henry Houck, Lebanon. 

President: I would state that at the meeting: of 
the Executive Committee, held one hour ago, it was de- 
cided to recommend, if it was necessary, to go into an 
election of officers of this Society, as the officers elected 
on April loth are to be considered as temporarily elected 
to serve until the annual meeting. The officers elected 
to-day will serve until the next annual meeting, so we 
will get in regular order. 

It was moved and seconded that the Society now pro- 
ceed into an election of officers. 

Election of Officers. 27 

President : The matter is now before the Society for 
discussion. According to the second section of article 
second of the Constitution, the President, Vice-Presidents 
and Treasurer are to be elected at each annnal meeting, 
and two members of the Executive Committee also are to 
be elected. 

Mr. Hess moved that the present officers be elected by 
acclamation, to serve until the following autumn. 

President : The Constitution provides that the officers 
shall be elected by ballot. 

Dr. Hark: I move that the Secretary shall be directed 
to cast a ballot for the present set of officers. 

Mr. A. J. Kauffman: It seems to me that we are go- 
ing to get ourselves into a snarl. I think the best plan is 
to look upon the present officers as temporary. I heartily 
agree with the gentlemen about the re-election of the 
present officers, and think they are the choice of the So- 
ciety. If we look upon the matter otherwise the Presi- 
dent himself will be debarred from re-election, as he has 
either served a term or he hasn't. Let us regard them as 
having only served temporarily. I think that would be 
the better way. 

Dr. Hark: This is the first annual meeting, and the 
officers were only elected temporarily. At a prior meet- 
ins: of the Executive Committee it was resolved that the 
whole organization be regarded as preliminary, and I 
move that the Secretary be requested to cast a ballot for 
the present officers. 

The motion was seconded, agreed to, and it was so or- 

28 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The Secretary announced that in accordance with that 
motion he had cast the ballot of the Society for the pres- 
ent officers. 

The Secretary read a letter from Prof. M. D. Learned, 
of Johns Hopkins University, in regard to the publication 
of a Pennsylvania-German Lexicon, and asking the co- 
operation of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

President : Gentlemen, you have heard the letter ; 
what action will you take upon that letter ? 

It was moved and seconded that the communication be 
referred to the Executive Committee. 

President : I would like to hear from some of those 
gentlemen who have been paying considerable attention 
to the Pennsylvania-German dialect. If the Society is 
going to take part in any such publication, I am not in 
favor of the Johns Hopkins University or any other Uni- 
versity stealing the thunder of this Society. 

Mr. Fisher: I would suggest that it would be well 


to have the report of the Executive Committee for con- 
sideration, and I doubt if anybody here is prepared to 
know what we ought to do with the proposition. 

Mr. Muhlenberg : As there is only one fixed meeting 
in the year, I think that the whole Society should deter- 
mine what should be done with the letter, because there 
will be no meeting, in all probability, for one year. At 
any rate it seems to rne that it would be a proper thing 
to appoint a committee from the general body of the 
membership to consider this and give them power to act 
and to correspond with Professor Learned. I move that 

Pennsylvania-German Dictionary. 29 

a committee of five be appointed, of which the President 
shall be one. 

President : It is simply that the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity would like to have the co-operation of this Society. 

Mr. Kauffman ': I don't, see that this special com- 
mittee could do better work than the Executive Com- 
mittee, and I would like to know how much we become 
financially involved by the publication of this dictionary? 

Secretary : Say $25 or §30 for the printing and dis- 
* tribution of various blanks. The expense would not be 
$5, 1 think, in case we take any action at all. I believe 
that the Executive Committee should take this matter in 
charge. I do not think it is necessary to have a special 

Mr. Richards : We are asked to-day to buy these 
reports and put the money in the treasury. It seems to 
me that this would indicate that we are not rich, and I 
do not think it would be good policy to spend now $25 or 
$30 for a dictionary that would not be of use for many 
years. I don't feel like giving the Committee the priv- 
ilege of spending $25 or $30 until we feel that there are 
no more ways in which we could put the money to use. 

Mr. Sachse : I wish to say in relation to the diction- 
ary that I hardly think it is worth while to go to that 
expense. If the gentleman could get a copy of the old 
Pennsylvania-German dictionary, I think it would give 
him everything that he wants and probably a good many 
things that he has never heard of. 

. Mr. Sener: The same ground that this professor wants 
to cover lias already been covered in a work called 

30 The Pennsylvania-German Sorirty. 

"Pennsylvania Dutch," and it seems to me that it is use- 
less to spend $25 or $30 when we could put it to better 

Mr. Fisher: I beg to say a few more words in regard 
to this subject. I have known Prof. Learned for years. I 
have known him as a scholar and as a man versed in his 
profession. Few men, — for few men can find the time, — 
few men are willing to make the sacrifice of time to work 
of this kind. Prof. Learned is one of them. It is not a 
matter of profit to him, as I understand. I am unac- 
quainted with the condition of the finances of this So- 
ciety, but it does seem to me that you ought not hesitate 
to consider the pittance that is asked for the purpose for 
which it is asked. Reference has been made to certain 
publications, and, so far as they go, they are well enough. 
I don't think that we have anything in the form of a 
lexicon. One objection, if I am correct, is that he called 
it "Pennsylvania Dutch," which is all wrong. It is 
Pennsylvania-German pure and simple, and as such we 
want to preserve it. It does seem to me that it does not 
cover the ground. If we have organized for preserving 
the history of the Pennsylvania-Germans we should 
recognize the fact that there is such a dialect as Pennsyl- 
vania-German. There is a difference and if you want to 
do anything that is really important it is just something 
of this kind, to preserve in permanent form just what our 
dialect is. I have had no consultation with the Professor. 
I have had one communication from him. I think well 
of him. If no more is asked than a small sum it seems 
to me that this convention ought to take some favorable 
action upon it. 

Pennsylvania-German Dictionary. 31 

Dr. Hark: I believe that we are discussing something 
that is not before us. Leave the matter entirely to the 
Executive Committee, as to whether it is to be made or 
not, whether it is to be reported favorably or not. 

Mr. Kauffman : We can print a good many circulars 
for five dollars, and, if the expenditure does not exceed 
that, I think it would be wise to make that. 

Mr. Muhlenberg: I will withdraw my motion, Mr. 

Dr. Buehrle: I move that the committee be allowed 
to expend the sum of ten dollars. That will fix a definite 

Dr. Heckman : I think it is safer to leave this matter 
to the Executive Committee. I think from the knowl- 
edge we have, we have no knowledge to act on the sub- 
ject. The fact that other lexicons have been published 
does not make it appear that this would not be a desira- 
ble publication. It may be an improvement. I think, as 
descendants of the German settlers, that we have an in- 
terest in it, even though it becomes a dead language. But 
how far are we involving ourselves in the publication? 
Suppose the Executive Committee spends twenty-five or 
thirty dollars. Does that involve anything more ? Is it 
a pledge that we may be called upon financially hereafter 
to assist in some other way ? I am willing, as one, to 
leave the whole thins: to the Executive Committee. 

Mr. Mumma: I don't understand what is best to be 
done under the circumstances. But I think it unques- 
tionably important that there should be some arrange- 
ment for the Dreservatiou of the Pennsvlvania-German 

32 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

dialect, because as it stands it is very much under the old 
definition of the law, it is good because most of it is still 
in use ; because the rule of law runs not to the contrary. 
I have heard it said that it is a low "jargon." In differ- 
ent localities it is somewhat different. In some portions 
of counties it is entirely different from that in other 
portions. If we could get it into some shape it would be 
better. Whether this is a better way or not I cannot say. 
I don't see why we can't spend that amount. 

President: I also received a letter from Professor 
Learned, and all he asked was to lay this matter before 
the Society ; all he asked was that the Society give its 
co-operation. That was all he requested. 

Mr. Mttmma : In what form ? By kind words or by 
money ? 

Mr. Sener: Mr. Fisher evidently misunderstood me. 
I did not call this Society " Pennsylvania Dutch." I 
simply called the work " Pennsylvania Dutch." 

President: Gentlemen, you have heard the motion 
that the whole matter be referred to the Executive Com- 

The motion was agreed to. 

The Society then adjourned to meet at two o'clock. 

Afternoon Session, 2 o'clock. 

The Society was called to order by the President at two 

The roll was called by the Secretary. 

The President then introduced the Hon. Samuel W. 


Early Literature. 33 

Penn} T packer, LL. D., of Philadelphia, who delivered the 
following address, the subject being 


Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society : 

Although, when the kind invitation of your Committee 
was extended to me to deliver an address before you, it 
was arranged that no written paper should be required, I 
still much regret that amid the complications and duties 
of life, I have not been able to prepare carefully some- 
thing more worthy of such an occasion, and I should not 
have ventured to address you extemporaneously upon a 
topic of this kind were it not for the fact that, through 
the study of many years, I feel more or less familiar with 
it. It must be understood, at the outset, that in what I 
shall say to you I shall include the works of the Hol- 
landers, the descendants of the Dutch emigrants who set- 
tled along the Delaware, of the people from the Lower 
Rhine and Holland who came to Germantown, of the 
Switzers who came to Lancaster county, and still later of 
the Germans of Berks and Lebanon and the other coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania, who, in the course of two hundred 
years, have become welded together into a people known 
as the " Pennsylvania Dutch." For my own part I like 
the title, and in whatever of credit there may be in 
the achievement of that people, and in whatever of re- 
proach, if any, may be attached to them, I want to bear 
my share. To exclude the descendants of the Hollanders, 
would be to throw out the families bearing the names of 

34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Keyser, Rittenhouse, Vanderslice and Pennypacker, and 
many others that have become well-known in the history 
of Pennsylvania. 

The foundation stone of Pennsylvania history, and, in 
the broad sense, of Pennsylvania literature, the first work 
produced by a man who lived and died within the limits 
of Pennsylvania, concerning this region of country, was 
the little book written by Peter Cornelius Plockhoy. 
He was the leader of a colony of Mennonites, who came 
over to the Delaware and settled some distance below 
Philadelphia, at the Hoorn Kill. The colony existed 
about two years, and when Xew York went into the 
possession of the English the English Governor, Robert 
Carr, sent an expedition to the settlement, which de- 
stroyed it, as he says, "even to a nail." Plockhoy, who 
was the founder and leader of that settlement, published 
in 1662 some account of it, descriptive of the people and 
the regulations of the colony, in a little Dutch tract, 
printed in Amsterdam. Thinking it would be of inter- 
est to you, and as I believe this is the only copy of it in 
Pennsylvania, and as it is of such unique importance in 
Pennsylvania literature, I have brought it along in order 
that you might see it. (See fac-simile on opposite page.) 
What became of Plockhoy for thirty years afterward re- 
mains a mystery. But, in 1694, blind and destitute, he 
came with his wife to the settlement in Germantown, and 
the Mennonites there built him a little house, planted 
for him a garden and a tree, and there he died. The 
story, from the remote past, is pathetic and interesting. 

Francis Daniel Pastoriu3, who came over to German 

Early Literature. 35 

town in 1683, one of the most conspicuous figures of that 
settlement, but not the organizer of the movement, as has 
been sometimes said, a man of the most scholarly attain- 

Kort en felaer ontwerp, 


Een onderling Accoor t , 

O M 

m® arbepD / ontttS in tnttm- 



Volck-planting(onder de procecftic vandcH: Mo: 

Heeren Sracen Generael der yereenigde Neder-Jaa. 

den^en by fonder onder hec gunfbggefag vande 

Achtbare Magiflracen der Scad AmTteire* 

dam) aen de in Nieu-ne- 

der-land op ce reenter^ Beftaendein 


Zee-varende Ptrfonen y 

jiUerbjndt noodtgc Arnhachti-luyiai^ eri Mcjlers 

*uango:de konjlen en ■wetenfehappen, 

feam^fccruatefjifr nafcoigt) tot Dien eptvoe ucckent. 

t'Samen geftek 

Deer PiettrCcj-nelifz,. Tlcclhoy van Zierck-zet, vcorbentfclvencnandtre 
l*ief~bcbbm van Nieu-neder-land.- 

t'Smflto&affigttyutktfcpOtto Barentfz.Sniieos, Anno i$6*2.* 

ments, who read and wrote in the German, Spanish, 
English, French, Italian, Greek and Latin languages, 
and whose learning was probably not equalled in any 

36 The Pennsylvania- German Society, 

colony at that time, devoted very much of his life to the 
pursuits of literature. He produced a number of books, 
many of which were at the time printed. Among them 
were some controversial pamphlets in the Keith contro- 
versy, in opposition to Keith, and an " Umstandige Geo- 
graphische Beschreibung" or a description of the colony 
of Pennsylvania, the first edition of which appeared in 
1692. In 1690 there was printed, ostensibly at German- 
town, but probably abroad, a work from his pen called 
his " Four Treatises" It was a discussion of philosophi- 
cal and philological subjects, and although there had been 
before produced a few almanacs in English, this may be 
said to have been the first attempt at serious literature in 
Pennsylvania. I regret to say that it does not appear in 
the bibliography of Mr. Hildeburn, an invaluable work 
covering the literature of Pennsylvania during the first 
one hundred years. Pastorius also wrote a number of 
books, never put into print ; among them a large folio 
called the " Bee" which included poetry, lexicography, 
aphorisms and dissertations, a great tribute to his learn- 
ing, and is still preserved. 

The first Germans who came to Pennsylvania were 
either Mennonites, or they were people of that sect con- 
verted to the Quaker doctrines by the Quaker preachers 
who traveled through Germany. The Mennonites were 
followers of Menno Simon, the Dutch reformer, who was 
born in 1492. lie gathered around him the scattered 
Anabaptists, most of whom became known as Menno- 
nites. They were opposed to warfare and to the taking 
of oaths, and refused to baptize infants. The Mennonites 

Wil. ' P 1 



Early Literature. 37 

were very much persecuted, and there were more people 
of that sect who were put to death in one city, Antwerp, 
in one year, than there were martyrs in all England dur- 
ing the time of Queen Mary. Penn invited them over 
here and many of them settled in Germantown and in 
Philadelphia, Lancaster and other counties. They sent 
over to Amsterdam to have their Confession of Faith 
printed in 1712. It was afterward printed again hy An- 
drew Bradford, in Philadelphia, in 1727. That was the 
beginning of their literature. It is quite extensive. 
Among their printed books is one consisting of verse and 
hymns concerning the persecutions to which they had 
been exposed, and detailing the martyrdoms and suffer- 
ings of those who had been their leaders abroad. That 
book, the " Ausbund" which was first printed in German- 
town, in 1742, has been through, in Pennsylvania, no less 
than eight editions, and is still used as a hymn book 
among the Mennouite churches in Lancaster county and 
in the West. There is published with it in all of these 
editions a series of biographical sketches of Swiss fami- 
lies, a book utterly lost and much sought for in Europe. 
Another work, and one of the most serious importance, 
is the " Martyrer Spiegel" of Van Braght. This great his- 
torical and biographical work of the Mennonites had been 
wiitten in Dutch. Peter Miller made a German transla- 
tion of it here. Heinrich Funck and Dielman Kolb, in 
Philadelphia, now Montgomery county, undertook to 
supervise the translation, and it was published in Ephrata 
in 1749, a folio volume of 1500 pages, which was the most 
extensive outcome of the literature of the American colo- 

38 The Pennsylvanrti-German Society. 

nies. It took thirteen men three years to do the printing. 
The paper was made at Ephrata ; the binding was done 
there, and there was nothing anywhere else in the colonies 
to compare with it as an illustration of literary and theo- 
logical zeal. 

I want to call your attention to another sect, the 
Schwenkfelders, who came to Pennsylvania. They were 
the followers of Caspar Schwenkfeld, and the doctrines 
taught by him were almost identical with those since 
taught by the Quakers. They came in 1734. Their lit- 
erature was extensive and interesting. It is reproduced 
for the most part in manuscript in huge folios, written 
often upon paper made at the Rittenhouse paper mill, on 
the Wissahickon, the earliest in America. These vol- 
umes sometimes contained 1,000 pages, bound in stamped 
leather with brass corners and brass mounting. Among 
the notable facts connected with their history is that they 
prepared here a written description of all the writings of 
Schwenkfeld and their other authors, and it is, as far as 
I know, the first attempt at a bibliography in this coun- 
try. They are also remarkable in this respect. They 
landed in Philadelphia on the 24th of September, 1734, 
and thankful for their escape from persecution abroad, 
they determined to set apart the 24th of September as a 
day to be religiously observed for all time thereafter. 
Their Gedachtnis Tag, as they term it, is still maintained 
and a record of each annual observance from the bes;in- 
ning is preserved. 

With the establishment of the printing press, by Chris- 
topher Saur, in Germantown, in 1738, there began an im- 

Early Literature. 39 

mense Hood of German literature. In fifty years there 
must have been produced two hundred and fifty books at 
that place. I feel that I do not overestimate it, because I 
myself have one hundred and eighty of them. Of course, 
it would be impossible for me to give to any extent a de- 
scription of that literature to-day. The first outcome of 
his press was a broadside entitled " Elne Emstliche Ermah- 
nung" printed by Saur in 1738. Of that broadside there 
are but two known copies in existence, and this which I 
show you is one of them. The first book he printed I 
have also brought along with me. It was called the 
" Zionitischer Weyrauchs Huegel" It appeared in 1739, 
and was the first book printed in German type in Amer- 
ica. It contained a collection of the hymns of the Eph- 
rata brethren. Another book of importance from his 
press was Christopher Dock's " Schul Ordnung" an orig- 
inal essay on school teaching, written in 1750 and pub- 
lished in 1770, absolutely the first treatise upon that 
subject which appeared in America. 

In this old leather bound box I have a collection of 
three hundred and eighty-one tickets that may be termed 
Sunday-school tickets. You have all probably read that 
Sunday-schools were first started in England in 1780 by 
Robert Raikes. These tickets were printed by Saur in 
1744. Practically they are unknown, and this is a com- 
plete collection of them. On every card is printed a text 
of Scripture and a religious verse, and on Sunday after- 
noons the children met together, and as each drew a card 
from the box, he read aloud what appeared upon it. 

At Ephrata, in Lancaster county, there were printed, 

40 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

during the last century, probably one hundred books. 
They are, for the most part, made up of hymns written 
there and they contain a system of music, original in that 
community, different from the music then taught, and 
which was elaborately described by Conrad Beissel in the 
preface to the " Tartel Tanbe" in 1747. 

Almanacs appealed strongly to the tastes of the early 
Germans. Of course, almanacs were not at all confined to 
the Germans, but while the English almanac was gener- 
ally an octavo limited in its literary contents to accounts 
of the weather and trivial matters, the German almanac 
was an ambitious quarto of from forty to forty-eight 
pages, oftentimes with continued historical and philosoph- 
ical treatises, and even attempts at artistic illustrations. 
At the time of the capture of Quebec, the Saur almanac 
gave a pl&n of the city with a portrait of Wolfe. I 
brought with me a specimen of these almanacs, printed 
at Lancaster in 1779. Its special interest consists in the 
fact that in it for the first time General Washington was 
called "The Father ot his Country/' Mr. W. S. Baker, 
our learned authoritvon Washington literature, has found 
no other early reference to this title before its appearance 
in a book called u Ilardie's Remembrancer," published in 
1795. You will see upon the title page of this German 
almanac, a representation of Fame. She is holding in one 
hand a rude portrait, under which is inserted the name of 
Washington ; with the other hand she is holding to her 
mouth a trumpet, from which she blows with a loud blast 
" Des Landes Vater." (See reproduction on page 41.) 
* It would be impossible, in the short time allotted to 

Early Literature. 


me to do anything more than to touch upon a few points 
in the literature of the Pennsylvania Dutch. They pro- 
duced, as I have before said, the largest and most ambitous 

gatt'c alter: $et>vuc?t bw grate Met). 



''A J 


' — '-;_-?> 

M 1 779- Ml 



work that appeared in the American colonies. The Bible 
was printed in German in America three times before it 
was printed in English. The Testament was printed 

42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

in German in America seven times before it was printed 
in English. To them must be awarded the credit not 
only of our first book, that of Plockhoy, but also of the 
earliest Pennsylvania essays upon music, bibliography, 
pedagogy and astronomy. Mr. Hildeburn, in his Bibli- 
ography, has described the newspapers printed in Penn- 
sylvania before 1785. Down to the time of the Revolu- 
tionary war, there were eight newspapers published in 
Pennsylvania in English, and there were ten newspapers 
published in Pennsylvania in German. What is true of 
the East is also true of the West. The first time that a 
Bible appeared west of the Alleghenies it was published 
in 1814, in German, at Somerset. 

There are some more general topics to which I shall 
briefly call your attention. Perhaps the most momentous 
event in the early history of America, in its effects upon 
the future of the country, was the adoption of the Consti- 
tution and the formation of the government under which 
we live. I am aware that in the written histories the 
Declaration of Independence has met with more -apprecia- 
tion and that it has made more impression on the minds 
of the people. It seems to me, however, to be a case where 
although the credit given has been greater, the merit is less. 
If you look at it accurately, the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was, after all, only an announcement, a proclamation. 
Independence was not secured by any declaration. It de- 
pended upon the results of battles to be fought. It 
was gained by courage and persistence in war. At most 
the Declaration of Independence was an event looking to 
the breaking down of a government. Constructive work 

Early Literature. 43 

is much more serious. To establish a government which 
will stand the test of time is a more difficult task than to 
destroy one already created, as the experience of all na- 
tions has shown. We know how the problems that con- 
fronted the statesmen who assembled in Philadelphia in 
1787 were met, how the differences of interests and opin- 
ion were reconciled, and how the reluctance of the smaller 
States was overcome. After the Constitution had been 
framed it was still a matter of grave doubt whether it 
would be accepted by the States. It is generally conceded 
that the adoption of the work of the convention was due 
to the early action taken by Pennsylvania. She was the 
first of the great States to declare in favor of it. When 
the question of the adoption of the Constitution arose in 
the Pennsylvania Assembly there was the greatest diver- 
sity of views and the contest became heated and earnest. 
In that eventful crisis the very earliest effort in behalf of 
the new government came from the Germans. The Con- 
stitution was signed bv the members of the Convention on 
the 17th of September, 1787. On the 24th of September 
there was presented to the Pennsylvania Assembly this 
petition from two hundred and fifty inhabitants of the 
town of German town : 

" To the Honorable the Representatives of the freemen 
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assem- 
bly met, the petition and declaration of the inhabitants 
of Germantown respectfully showeth, that your petitioners 
have seen with great pleasure the proposed Constitution 
of the United States, and as they conceive it to be wisely 
calculated to form a perfect union of the States, as well as 

44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

to secure to themselves and to posterity the blessings of 
peace, liberty and safety, they have taken this method 
of expressing their earnest desires that the said Constitu- 
tion may be adopted as speedily as possible by the State 
of Pennsylvania in the manner recommended by the reso- 
lution of the late honorable convention." 

The Assembly was at that time composed of sixty-two 
members. When the question of calling a convention 
for the adoption of the Constitution came to be deter- 
mined, there were forty-three votes in favor of it, and 
nineteen votes against it. Among the sixty-two mem- 
bers there were twelve Pennsylvania Dutchmen. To 
their everlasting honor be it said every mau of them 
voted in favor of the resolution. Let their names be 
written down and let the fact be proclaimed throughout 
the length and breadth of that land which they did so 
much to benefit. They were Jacob Hiltzheimer, Ge- 
rard us Wynkoop, Michael Schmyser, Gabriel Hiester, 
Philip Kreamer, Joseph Hiester, Peter Trexler, Jr., 
Peter Burkhalter, Frederick Antes, Jacob Reiff, Valen- 
tine Upp and Emanuel Carpenter. 

Not only did Pennsylvania take the responsibility of 
the adoption of the Constitution and give her effective 
support to the organization of the government, but in all 
of the great crises of American affairs her voice and her 
arms have been potent. Massachusetts did much to bring 
about the Revolutionary straggle, and in the war that 
ensued she bore her part; bat in the war of 1812, 
which may be regarded as the final effort to maintain our 
independence, she utterly failed. She refused recruits, 

Early Literature. 45 

and there was organized in Isew England that notorious 
convention which set the keynote for the pernicious doc- 
trine of secession. In the building up of this great 
country no State was more earnest in her exertions or 
bounteous in her contributions than Virginia. She gave 
the Commander-in-chief of the army, the Chief Justice 
who interpreted the Constitution, and in her generosity 
the lands out of which have been carved the Common- 
wealths of the West, but later she fell in the wake of 
South Carolina and did what lay in her power to destroy 
the government she had aided so much to establish. But 
Pennsylvania has always been true. When the people of 
the nation, grateful for the public blessings conferred upon 
them, want to see Independence Hall, or to learn how 
and where their Government was formed, or to crather in- 
spiration from the battlefield of Gettysburg, they come 
to Pennsylvania. It is her peculiar glory that she has 
them all. 

The winter of 1776 was the most trying period of the 
Revolutionary war. Up to that time every effort had re- 
sulted in failure and hope was almost lost. Patriots who 
had been faithful were making their peace with the en- 
emy. The army of Washington was reduced to three 
thousand men and he was considering the necessity of re- 
treating to the westward of the Alleghenies, there to 
maintain a desultory and doubtful struggle. At this 
crisis fifteen hundred recruits came to his rescue. With 
this addition to his forces he fought and won the battles 
of Trenton and Princeton and the tide was turned. Every 
man of those fifteen hundred recruits was a Pennsyl- 

46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

vanian. In the war of the rebellion, after we had made 
the first trial of strength with the opposing forces and 
had lost, the President of the United States and his cabi- 
net sat in the city of Washington awaiting that attack 
from the successful rebel army which would in all proba- 
bility have given them possession of the capital. Think 
for a moment of what would have been the result at home 
and abroad from such a catastrophe. Within a few days 
sixteen thousand Pennsylvanians were there to man the 
intrenchments and the peril passed. These things are not 
due to accident. They are the result of character. They 
come about because of the mental and moral fibre of the 
stock. And in my judgment the many and great achieve- 
ments of the people of Pennsylvania, cut in bold letters 
upon every tablet of American history, from the time 
when Pastorius in 1088 made his brave protest against 
the wrong of slavery down to that later time when Hof- 
mann in 1863 opened the battle of Gettysburg, are largely 
to be accounted for by the fact that mingled with the Ens:- 
lish who settled the Province were in almost equal num- 
bers the scions of that sturdy race which as Germans 
overthrew the Roman Empire and as Dutch broke the 
power of Spain and made England as we know her to- 
day a possibility. 

It was moved by Mr. Fisher, seconded and agreed to, 
that the thanks of the Society be tendered to Judge Pen- 
nypacker for his able address. 

A. R. Home, D. D., delivered the following address, 
his subject being 

Proverbs and' Sayings. 47 


Mr. President and Gentlemen: — It is sometimes 
taken for granted by ignorant persons, that the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans have no language of their own, that 1hey 
speak a patois, that their language is an admixture of 
English or that it is Dutch. Hence it may not be out of 
place to give the origin of the language. 

Martin Luther, in the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, by his Bible translations, hymns and extensive writ- 
ings in High German, caused that dialect to become the 
standard language of German literature. Hence, to this 
day the High German is employed in literary productions 
as well as in discourse. But there were also other dialects 
spoken through all the centuries in different parts of Ger- 
many. In the southern portion — whence the greater part 
of the Germans who settled in Pennsylvania came — a dia- 
lect akin to that which prevails in the German counties 
of Pennsylvania was spoken, and has continued to be used 
to a certain extent to this day. 

This is the origin of the Pennsylvania-German. It is 
as old as the High German, possibly older and frequently 
more expressive. It has never been extensively used in 
print, because the High German was adopted for this end. 
As a spoken language, however, it has prevailed from 
time immemorial in the South German dialects. The an- 
cestors of many of the Pennsylvania-Germans came from 
the Palatinate or Pfaltz, now included in Baden, Bavaria 
and Darmstadt, where a language resembling that of the 
Pennsylvania-German very closely, is still spoken. It 

48 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

also has a number of Swiss and Alsatian characteristics. 
Many of the Pennsylvania-German words can be traced 
back to older roots, and they are often more expressive 
than their High German synonyms. " Goul," the Penn- 
sylvania-German word for horse, is older and more purely 
German than "pferd," the High German, which is de- 
rived from the Latin " veredus ;" " hutsch," colt, and 
"hutschli," little colt, from the Suabian "hutschel,'' 
" hutschele," Westerwald u husz," Lusatian " huszche," is 
more purely German and more expressive than "fiillen," 
the High German, which is derived from the Greek and 
the Latin. " Hutschli " and " hutschla " is an imitation 
of the sound made by young colts, and, therefore, as that 
large class of words, which are the oldest in all languages, 
it must come down from the historic age when the names 
of objects were first invented. 

" Homili," little calf, can be traced back through the 
Swiss "ammeli" and "mammeli" to the language of 
nature, which gives us ki mamma," the labial sound made 
in imitation of the mother, when the child observes her 
lips move in talking to it, while she is bending over the 
cradle — a word common to all languages. 

The Pennsylvania-German for pig, sow, with its " bus 
sow " aud " wuts," are striking illustrations of the an- 
tiquity of this language, when it is remembered that 
these words are derived from the sound made in imita- 
tion of the pig, words belonging to the common language 
of nature, from which the Latin " sus," the Greek " bus," 
the English " sow," the Dutch " soe," etc., are derived. 
"Schwein," the High German, is of much more recent 

Proverbs and Sayings. 49 

origin, it being a derivative from the Saxon " svin " and 
" 8W." The Pennsylvania-German " grumbeer," potato, 
is much more expressive and original, meaning a crooked 
pear, or " grund-beer," ground pear, than the High Ger- 
man " kartofFel," derived from " erdapfel," an artichoke. 
The Pennsylvania-German " krop," crow ; " schpel," pin ; 
" schtreel," comb ; " schtruwlich," stroobly ; " ponhaws," 
scrabbel ; " biivi," a young chicken ; " mullakup," tad- 
pole; "blech," tin cup; "botser," a tailless chicken; 
"butzich," stumpy, are vastly more expressive and orig- 
inal than their English or High German equivalents. 


The proverbs, adages, songs and sayings of a people 
are, to a great extent, an index of their character. The 
proverbs handed down from generation to generation are 
very expressive and original. The following, among 
many others, are proverbs, so common among the Penn- 
sylvania-Germaus that, by their frequent repetition, they 
have made impressions upon them sufficiently strong to 
influence life and character. They are the household say- 
ings of every family, familiar to young and old. 

" Kumt mer iwwer der hund so kumt mer iwwer der 
schwonz." If one can climb over the dog he can also get 
over the tail. By this is meant that when the most diffi- 
cult part of an undertaking can be managed, the less diffi- 
cult can be easily accomplished. 

" Wie mers mocht so hut mers." As one makes it, so 
lie has it. That is, a person must expect results in ac- 
cordance with his actions or deportment. 

50 The Pennsylvartia-German Society. 

" Der obbel f olt net weit f om schtornm." The apple 
does not fall far from the stem of the tree ; usually ap- 
plied to children when they have the faults of the pa- 

" Wer net haert muss fiehla." Who will not hear must 
feel. A person who will not listen to good advice must 
suffer the consequences. 

" Wer lauert an der wond, haert sei egne schont." He 
that listens by the wall hears his own disgrace. Eaves- 
droppers hear their own faults spoken of. 

" Der holer is so 3chlecht wie der schtehler." The 
concealer is as bad as the stealer. 

" Uf en gruwwar bluck g'hert en gruwwer keidel." A 
rough wedge is required for a rough block. A rough, 
boorish fellow must be handled without gloves. 

" De kinner un die norra saw^a de wohret." Children 
and fools tell the truth. 

"Wer ahalt g'winnt." He that perseveres will gain 
the victory. 

"Frish gewogt is halwer g'wunna." That which is 
zealously entered upon is half achieved. 

" Mer muss sich nuch der deck schtrecka/' Stretch 
yourself according to the cover. That is, venture out 
only as far as your means will allow ; do not venture out 
too far. 

" Wos mer net im kup hut, hut mer in da fees." What 
one has not in his head he has in his feet. If your 
thoughts are not collected, you must make up for it in 
extra labor. Frequently applied when anything is for- 
gotten, and a person is obliged to return for it. 

Proverbs and Sayings. 51 

" Fors denka kon em nemond henka." Xo one can be 
hanged for his thoughts. A person is allowed to think 
as he pleases. 

"Lushdich wer nueh leddig is, drourieh wer fersch- 
prucha is." Jolly who is single, sad who is engaged. 
Frequently used by persons who have no prospect of get- 
ting married. 

" Wos grewwar is wie dreck, geht selwer aweck." 
What is coarser than dirt removes itself. Applied by 
persons while sweeping, when anyone is in their way. 

" Wer net kummt zu reenter zeit muss nemma was 
iwwerich bleibt." He that does not come in season must 
take what is left. Used when persons are belated in 
coming to meals. 

" Gros scekrisch un wenni^ woll." A bis: noise and 


little wool. Applied where a great ado is made about 
anything which is of little importance. 

"Gut g'wetst is halwer g' meht." Well whetted is 
half mowed. Keep your tools in good condition, if you 
w^ould work with ease ; especially applicable to mowing 
with the German scythe, which had to be well hammered 
and frequently whetted. 

u Wos en dorn werra will schpitst sich in der zeit." 
The thorn prepares in season to sharpen its point. That 
is, it is early noticeable when a youth is preparing for a 
bad ending. 

" Eh ehr is die onner werth." One honor is worth 
another. Signifying that one favor deserves another. 

" De maid wo peifa und de hinkel wo graah mus mer 
bei zeit der hols rum dreha." Girls who whistle and 

52 Tlie Pennsylvania- German Society. 

hens that crow must have their necks wrun^; in good 


time. It is so much out of place for women to whistle, as 
it is unusual for hens to crow. 

" Es kummt net uf die graes awh, sunscht kennt en 
kuh en haws fonga." It does not depend on the size, 
otherwise a cow could catch a rabbit. A small person 
can often accomplish as much as large ones. 

" Kortsa hor sin glei geberscht." Short hairs are soon 
brushed. This is applied to doing a small job, traveling 
a short distance, seeing a small place, etc. 

" Wer em onnera en grub grawbt follt selwer nei." 
Whosoever digs a pit for another falls into it himself. 

" Wer en buck schtehlt is ken schof dieb." Whoever 
steals a ram is no sheep thief. That is, a person may be 
accused of a deed of which he is not guilty, when he has 
committed another of a similar character. 

" Mer mus ken kotz im sock kawfa." Do not buy a 
cat in a bag. 

"Won mer der esel nennt kumt er garennt." When 
the ass is named he comes trotting along. When a per- 
son is named in conversation he often comes. 

" Wer sich nehra will mit fisha und yawsra mus feris- 
sena hussa drawga." He that would live by fishing and 
hunting must wear torn breeches. Fishing and hunting 
are poor occupations. 

" Mer hut nix unne druwwel." Xothiuo; without 

" Wonn mer der hund dreft, bloft er." The dog barks 
when he is hit. When a person is guilty he speaks out 
when allusion is made to him. 


Proverbs and Sayings. 53 

" Saurkrout un schpeck droibt olla sorga week." Sour- 
krout and bacon drive care away. A srood substantial 
meal is a corrective of dull care. 

""Woiin de meis sott sin, is es mehl bitter." When the 
mice are done eating, the meal is bitter. When anyone 
has a surfeit he does not relish his victuals any longer. 

" De morga schtund hut gold im mund." The morn- 
ing hour has its mouth filled with gold. Early to bed 
and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 
The early bird catches the worm. 

" Besser en lous im krout os gawr ken flesch." A louse 
in the cabbage is better than no meat. It is better to 
have a little of a good thing, even if not extra good, than 
to dispense with it entirely. 

" Morga roth mocht bocka roth, ovet roth bringt drucka 
brod." Morning red makes red cheeks, evening red 
brings dry bread. Early rising is promotive of health, 
while deferring work till evening produces poverty. 

44 JSeia besem kehra gut " "New brooms sweep clean. 
A new employe makes a good beginning. 

" Zub on deiner egna naws." Pull your own nose. At- 
tend to your own faults. 

" Yeder mus sei egue hout zum gerwer drawga." 
Everyone must carry his own hide to the tanner. 
Everyone is responsible, amenable for his own actions. 

" Nuch em essa en peif duwock, un dos schteht in der 
biwel." After a meal a pipe full of tobacco, and this is 
found in the Bible. A pun on "this," which word is 
found in the Bible. 

" En blinde sow findt aw olsamohl en aechel." A blind 

54 The PennsylvaniatGerman Society. 

pig finds an acorn occasionally. An unsophisticated per- 
son may sometimes make a happy hit. 

" Ern g'schenkta goul gukt mer net ins moul." The 
mouth of a horse received for a present is not examined. 
Be not supercilious about a. gift. Beggars must not be 

" Mit schpeck fongt mer die meis." Mice are caught 
with bait. Enticements are held out to dupes. 

" Besser en wenig geleiert os gons g'feiert." Better to 
do a little of sometino; than nothing. 

" Mer muss lewa und lewa lussa." Live and let 

" Zu wenig und zu fiel ferderbt olle schpiel." Too 
little and too much spoils everything. 

" Zu schorf schneit net, und zu schpitsich schtecht net." 
Too sharp does not cut, and too pointed does not stick. 
It will not do to be too exacting. Extremes spoil every- 

" Do sitst der haws im peffer." There the rabbit sits in 
the pepper. There lies the secret. There is where the 
catch is. 

" Glena grutta hen aw gift." Little toads have poison 
too. Applied to small persons asserting that they too can 
accomplish great deeds. 

" Wo schmoke is is aw feier." Where there is smoke 
there is also fire. 

It was moved by Mr. Diffenderffer, seconded and agreed 
to, that the thanks of the Society be extended to Dr. 
Home for his address. 

The Marriage of the Muse. 55 

Lee L. Grumbine, Esq., then read a poem entitled 


where 's the happy bard, the poet and the seer, 

Whose voice, with its tuneful charm, will make men hear, 

As he tells, in stately epic or fabled story, 

Of a quiet and simple folk, of their trials and glory — 

As he sings with wisdom and grace and musical measure. 

To their children's glad delight, or a busy world's pleasure, 

The sterling virtues of that brother band, 

" The sorrowing exiles from the Fatherland, 

Leaving their homes in Kriesheim's bowers of vine, 

And the blue beauty of their glorious Rhine, 

To seek amid their solemn depths of wood 

Freedom from man and holy peace with God." 

"Wilt thou, sweet Euterpe, goddess fair, 

Permit thyself be wooed with passion rare, 

With ardor fresh, and chivalric devotion, 

Of a new swain's first amorous emotion? 

!Nay do not spurn thy eager suitor's heart, 

Nor bid him thy sweet presence to depart, 

But take him with a fond, connubial press, 

Into the warm embrace of love's caress, 

And touch his soul with that ecstatic bliss 

Which poets feel, when with thy magic kiss 

Thou thrills't their being, dost their thought inspire, 

With holy passion and with genius' fire. 

He loves thee with a passion strong and true, 
And for thy loving favor fain would sue 

56 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

With simple words, for lie's a timid youth, 
Who only knows to speak with simple truth 
His love. JSTot skilled in trifling ; and the art 
Coquettish knows not, but an honest heart 
He offers, and a dowry rich and rare, 
For. his new bride in sweet content to share, 
Of story, legend, myth, tradition quaint, 
For their inspired sons to grave or paint 
In song or sonnet on th' immortal page, 
With skill of seer and wisdom of a sage. 

Woulds't know who dares by such a bold demand 
Persistent, sue the muse's heart and hand ? 
Woulds't know his history, and from what line 
He comes, what deeds of virtue or of valor shine, 
What great achievements run throughout his life, 
That he makes bold to ask the muse to wife ? 
Know then, his lineage he reveals with pride, 
Nor aught of crime or shame need he hide, 
That clouds with stain or infamous disgrace 
The honored history of his noble race. 
Descended he from ancient Teuton stock — 
In heart and brain the peer of Plymouth rock. 

Illustrious is his ancestry, and old — 
From Scandinavian warriors brave and bold, 
Who came in hordes from Boreas' wintry clime, 
To sunnier south lands in the ancient time. 
The fearless Norseman, valiant Goth and Saxon, 
With ruddy face and hair both fair and flaxen ; 
An eye unflinching, like the sky as blue, 
A heart to love and honor always true, 

The Marriage of the Muse, 

A form, erect and proud, with limb of steel 
That ne'er was made before a lord to kneel ; 
A spirit that would bow 'fore God alone ; 
No other master would the Teuton own. 

The noble founder of th' illustrious house 
Of him who longs to be thy loving spouse, 
'Tis said, by those whose pleasure 'tis to pore 
O'er history's page, and books of ancient lore, 
Can trace the thread of his ancestral line 
Through ages past to parentage divine — 
In myth and legend, — that his noble blood 
Descended from old Thor, the thunder god. 
Still others of the misty past inquire 
Say Noah's son, Thuiscon, was the sire 
Of the Teutonic people, and all such 
As go by the generic name of " Dutch." 

Dear name ! In harsh reproach 'twas once applied, 

But now a term of honor and of pride ; 

No more a mere derisive appellation, 

Or narrow territorial limitation, 

It now denotes with meaning more euphonic 

Aught under the generic name Teutonic. 

The day has dawned when men this name esteem, 

And kinship with the Dutch an honor deem. 

This is the stock and line of him who woos 

The nymph of song, and for his bride would choose ; 

Distinguished by his virtues, deeds and piety, 

His name — The Pennsylvania Dutch Society. 

And here the marriage feast we celebrate 
This day, when this young groom doth mate 


58 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

With bride the fairest e'er to alter led, 

And the sweet muse of poesy doth wed. 

Let all her bridesmaids, and the guests rejoice ; 

Let minstrelsy and music raise their voice 

"With mirth and gaiety ; let dance and song 

The gladness of the festal day prolong ; 

Ye poet souls to unseen realms fled, 

Rejoice ; ye spirits of the minstrel dead, 

Be glad. The choirs of angel hosts do share 

The festal pleasures of the wedded pair. 

And from this holy union may there spring 

A progeny of poets, that will sing 

The praises of those hero souls who came, 

In search of neither fortune nor of fame, 

From Alpine slope and banks of castled Rhine, 

To land where liberty's fair sun would shine, 

From cruel persecution to escape, 

Resolved anew their destinies to shape, 

By virtue, thrift and industry and toil, 

A simple life from new and friendly soil 

To gain, where man's fierce hate would cease, 

And they might serve their God in holy peace. 

For a devout and pious folk were they, 
T' whom duty was a pleasure, and to pray 
Was joy and constant habit ; and they brought 
Their German Bibles, and their hymns that taught 
Them piety and love of God, and good ; 
And as they worshiped in the primal wood, 
The sweet and solemn melodies would sound 
Through vale, and echo o'er the hills around, 

The Marriage of the Muse. 59 

Until ■' the sounding aisles of the dim woods rang " 
"With their tuneful praise and the glorious hymns they 

As up to Heaven's ear from the greenwood hall, 
The sacred music rose, of the grand choral. 

For they had suffered much for conscience' sake, 

And longed the yoke of bigotry to break : 

Long years of persecution and despair, 

Of bitter, dire sufferings were their share. 

Inhuman, cruel martyrdoms the fate 

Of those who dwelt in the Palatinate 

And neighboring provinces ; while home and village, 

Town and city given o'er to pillage, 

Were plundered by the robber hordes of France, 

Upon the revocation of the Nantes 

Decree, by royal beast whose very name 

Comes down the years a synonym of shame. 

Thus starts the story of their deep privation 
Amid the struggles of the Reformation ; 
"With precious price that ever must be paid 
Th' advance of freedom's holy cause to aid, — 
With price of blood and suffering they bought, 
Freedom of heart and brain and soul and thought, 
They freely dared all danger for the right, 
As they conceived it in God's holy sight ; 
All perils of both land and sea they braved, 
Lost all possessions, but their manhood saved. 
And many victims of the cruel strife, 
With all the rest, surrendered even life. 


60 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

But others from their persecutors fled, 

By Providence to hetter fortunes led, 

To Albion's isle for refuse first they turn ; 

The kind Queen Anne in sympathy doth yearn, 

Her heart is big enough, too 'small the space 

For an asylum to the exiled race. 

But as they tarry in the foreign city, 

The sad recital of their woes, to pity 

Moves the savage heart of swarthy chief 

From western world, who soothes their troubled grief, 

And hospitably offers them a home, 

If to the far off sunset land they'd come. 

Across the trackless sea their longing eyes 

They turned, with hope afresh, on freedom's prize, 

Xo homes, no goods, no laud, no peace, no rest, 

The wilderness invited the oppressed. 

Like Moses' tribe, with reverence be it said, 

When Pharaoh's cruel bondage, Israel fled, 

Cross flood more deep than Egypt's ruddy tide, 

They had th' eternal God of Israel to guide, 

Their pathway over land and sea ; by day 

The dusky cloud stood up and marked the way, 

By night the fiery pillar in the unseen Hand 

Led on, and beckoned to the promised land. 

At last their painful wanderings had an end ; 
At last they found a refuge and a Friend, 
Whose name and memory are loved by men ; 
Their home was waiting in the land of Penn. 
There was an old tradition in those days 
Of persecution, that the Lord would raise 

The Marriage of the Muse. 61 

Prosperity from affliction, and would bless 
The German people, in the wilderness. 
Behold the glorious prophecy fulfilled I 
What heritage for their children did they build. 
A garden of the Lord, as rich and fair 
As Eden home, their heaven devised share. 

Look out upon the beauty of the land, 
Abundantly bestowed on every hand. 
The fruitful acres and well watered plains 
Contribute nature's bounty to their gains. 
The bursting hills are filled with mineral wealth ; 
The climate laden with the breath of health ; 
The pregnant earth doth yield her rich increase, 
And every prospect ministers to man's peace. 
This home, in western world, in country strange, 
For their loved Fatherland did they exchange. 
'Tis freedom's home, more excellent and fine 
Than Canaan land, or country of the Rhine. 

Yet all this lavish wealth of nature's gift, 
Without the record of their deeds and thrift, 
Were void of charm ; 'tis what our fathers wrought, 
What trials overcame, what battles fought, 
What great achievements gained, successes won, 
The sufferings endured, the exploits done, 
By busy hand, brave spirit, patient heart — 
These are the themes t' engage the poet's art. 
What man hath done for good, and not for ill, 
How he obeyed the Everlasting Will, 
How he hath been rewarded from above, 
For living for the right and truth and love. 

62 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

And yet 'tis true, tho' passing strange may seem, 

These worthy folk historians scarcely deem 

"Worth menti'ning, save with passing sneer or slight 

Of prejudice or ignorance; or quite 

Ignore them. Is it naught to have subdued 

The wilderness when cruel fate pursued, 

Yet conquered every foe and bitter trial, 

By virtue, industry and self-denial — 

In spirit fervent — cleaving to the good — 

In tribulation patient — humble mood — 

In hope rejoicing — and to kindness given — 

With faithful heart to serve the Lord of Heaven ? 

Of no account a heritage to own, 
Broad as the limits of the proud Keystone, 
Whence, like a swarm of bees, from busy hive, 
Their sons, to every state have flown, to thrive 
In comfort and in sweet content ? It is naught 
The Pennsylvania-German bravely fought 
For freedom's cause, on every battlefield, 
To succor the oppressed, the weak to shield? 
When independence in the balance quavered, 
And many in their fealty had wavered, 
Could not the infant State on him depend 
In every strait, her fortunes to defend ? 

Has he not loved the cause of education ? 

Does he not sit in halls of legislation ? 

Doth make the law ? And from the bench expound 

The same, with judgment, righteous and profound? 

With honor practice at the bar ? Doth heal 

The sick? And care for our eternal weal? 

? f 

Permanent Headquarters. 63 

Is not his name to art and science known ? 
Does not the State his trusted service own ? 
If history seals her lips, or does not know it, 
The truth is spoken by the Quaker poet, — 
The German pilgrim's glory, first to brave 
Men's scorn for justice to the helpless slave. 

Inspired child, that of this happy union 
Shall be born! when the divine communion 
Fills thee, do thou take this crude material 
Loosely gathered, and with art ethereal 
"Weave th' immortal verse. By prophet seer, 
To whom the ways of Providence are clear, 
Who knows the well springs of the human soul — 
Who reads men's actions like an open scroll — 
With sweetest melody of silver tongue 
Throughout the future ages will be sung, 
With charm of epic, and with truth of sermon, 
The praises of the Pennsylvania-German ! 

It was moved, seconded and agreed to that the thanks 
of the Society be extended to Mr. Grumbine for his inter- 
esting poem. 

The Secretary called up the matter of permanent head- 
quarters for the Society, as follows : 

You will find in Article 2 of the Constitution the 
words " The head-quarters of the Society shall be located 

in ." This matter has been referred back 

to the Society by the Executive Committee, and it now 
comes before the Society. We must have a certain per- 

64 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

rnanent locality for the deposit of such things as may 
come into the possession of the Society. 

Mr. Muhlenberg : It seems to me that, as this Society 
only starts out to-day with its first annual meeting, and 
up to the time of the election, the officers have been 
merely provisional, it is not yet time for this Society to 
get settled and vote for a permanent location. I think 
that after another year's existence, in October, 1892, after 
it has grown to a membership of not only 100, but 400 
members, then I think it will be the time for us to say 
where the permanent home of this Society will be. I 
think that at this time it is too early, and I think that 
for another year it will be better to . move along as we 
have done. I think it is better for the Society to remain 
as it is, moving about from place to place. Therefore, I 
move that the selection of a permanent place be postponed 
for one year from the present time. 

Dr. Hark : This was a question when the Society was 
first organized. The selection of a home was postponed, 
and it left this Society homeless, and I am surprised that 
this spirit is still manifested. I have felt that the one 
thing that is imperfect in our Society is that we have no 
permanent home. The point of keeping our conventions 
and its meetings at different places will not be touched. 
The idea is not at all to make the headquarters where all 
its meetings have to be held, but if I am not mistaken, it 
is intended that we are to move about from place to place, 
whether we have fixed headquarters or not. But the 
question is simply this : if there are people, and I know 
there are, through the State, who have valuable literary 

Permanent Headquarters. 65 

material, and who are anxious and willing to contribute 
to our Society, they are waiting for us to fix a place where 
they can be taken care of, where they will not be scat- 
tered and go to nothing. Then it appears to me that 
we will have to postpone the reception of these gifts. 
Another year is unnecessary. I think we should have a 
depository. If I am not mistaken there was a resolution 
of thanks passed to the German Society of Philadelphia 
for the offering of their room, and they were informed 
that the matter had not yet been decided. 

Mr. Mumma : We thanked them for the offer, but we 
did not accept their offer. 

Mr. G rumbine : Does that offer still remain open ? 

Tiie Secretary : It has never been recalled. 

Mr. Mumma : I would state that there ought to be 
some place. The meetings of the Society could be held 
at different localities, even if the offices were at one place. 
There ought to be some one place where we could go, and 
where anything we have in the shape of a donation should 
be taken care of. 

Mr. Parthemore : I don't think that time has arrived. 
I don't see any necessity for it. I don't believe as Dr. 
Hark does, People are generally holding on pretty 
tightly to these things at this time. If we were to rush, 
perhaps next year we would want to re-locate. 

Dr. Hark : May I ask some reason why this time is not 
just as good as next year ? 

Mr. Parthemore: I tried to intimate that we are 
hardly organized yet. We want to think over this mat- 
ter, and exchange views with one another. If Lancaster 

G6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

was suggested, I could not vote for it; if Philadelphia 
was suggested, I could not vote for it ; if Harrisburg 
was suggested, I could not vote for it. 

Mr. Kauffman: What Mr. Muhlenberg says is true. 
"We are in a sort of an embryo state, and not in a con- 
dition to locate permanently. But, as Dr. Hark says, 
there must be a beginning. There are no doubt many 
people who might have things which we might get now 
that we could not get later on. I don't see any reason 
why we should not go to Lebanon, West Chester, etc., 
wherever there is more or less of a German population, 
but I can't see that you can have it at any other place 
than at the home of the Secretary. I can't see that you 
can fix a place at any other place than where the Secre- 
tary resides, as he has been selected for five years, where 
he could receive deposits. Harrisburg is the only cen- 
tral place possible, the most central. I can't see any 
other place than Lancaster, however, it being the home 
of the Secretary. It is reasonable to suppose that the 
Secretary will reside in Lancaster for the next five years. 

Mr. Zahm: We don't know of any donations, but, in- 
side of an hour and a half ago, one of the members said 
that he had a number of things which he would like to 
give, but without a location, he would not like to do so. 
I am in favor of locating somewhere. Lancaster would 
be my preference, of course. 

Mr. Fisher : I take it for granted that all the mem- 
bers of the Society have at heart the success of this So- 
ciety. It strikes me from what little I have heard that 
the postponement of action upon this subject for at least a 

Permanent Headquarters. 67 

number of years would be calculated to promote the suc- 
cess of the Society. I do not know what the member- 
ship is. 

The President: Ninety-seven. 

Mr. Fisher: Ninety-seven, not yet a hundred. The 
nuptials have taken place, but before we go to house- 
keeping let us have something to go to houskeeping 
with. The family is small. Where are the things with 
which to incur the expense of a permanent location? 
When you do want to locate permanently you want to 
locate in such a place as shall be convenient and comfort- 
able, and I think that this location should be as central as 
possible, speaking of the German counties of the State. 
It has occurred to me that if you hold several meetings 
during the intervening time it would be calculated to in- 
crease our membership, and that is one thing we need. 
Nothing can be lost by the postponement. I may be 
wrong, but I am inclined to think that postponement 
would be to our advantage. 

Mr. Muhlenberg : I would like to say one thing in 
answer to the gentlemen. He asked for one reason why 
it should be postponed. He gave one reason why it was 
necessary that we should fix upon a permanent home. 
His reason was that there is no place for the donations, 
which he thinks the Society may be endowed with by the 
generosity of its own members or by outsiders. But 
until this Society is, as we might say, out of its swaddling 
clothes, no man iu his senses would give this Society man- 
uscript, records, etc. We must wait until we shall show 
that the Society is permanent, like others of its kind. I 

68 The Pennsylvania-Jj-ermoM Society. 

think, Mr. President, and I think that most of the gen- 
tlemen here present will agree with me, that during the 
next year its membership will double. We have, of the 
ninety-seven members, no more than forty in this room. 
The gentlemen would have these forty members deter- 
mine this afternoon without consultation the location to 
adopt. During the next year I hope, and I hope that you 
all hope, with me, that we will double our membership. 
Certainly those members who are not with us, whom we 
expect to join next year, are entitled to vote in this mat- 
ter, because when we have once established its home we ■ 
will have more trouble in changing it. I further say that 
the instant we bring this question in, we will have this 
Society split up into factions, on account of those who 
desire to locate in Berks County, Lancaster County or 
Dauphin County. For my part I would consider that 
the permanent home of the Society should be in Phila- 
delphia, and all I ask is that the determination of this 
question shall be one year hence. 

Mr. Sener : At Lancaster, last April, when we started 
the Pennsylvania-German Society, we had one hundred 
and fifty or one hundred and seventy-five who attended 
there. Out of that number eighty-three filed their appli- 
cations, fourteen were received to-day, making a total of 
ninety-seven members to-day ; I don't think that defer- 
ring this matter a year longer would increase it even two 
fold. The time, I think, has come for a permanent home. 
I think more men will join it if we have a permanent 
home, than have joined it, and, as for Philadelphia, I, 
for one, wish to ask how many Pennsylvania-Germans 

Permanent Headquarters. 69 

you will find in Philadelphia ? If we locate anywhere, 
let us locate in a German settlement. I am in favor of 
Lancaster or Harrisburg. The community will get it 
into their heads that this is a Society for mutual admira- 
tion, and will exist for only a few years. 

Dr. Hark: I think we should have a depository for 
records and a permanent home. I think we should have 
a fireproof room for a depository, and I think this ques- 
tion should be acted upon to-day. 

Mr. Buehrle : The motion, as I understand it, is to 
postpone for a year. I would like to add that the Secre- 
tary be authorized to receive any donations that may be 
given, and to incur the necessary expenses in caring for 

Mr. Richards : Upon the main question of a perma- 
nent home I have no feeling, and until Mr. Muhlenberg 
stated that there would be a feeling of rivalry growing 
out of it, I considered that we had organized a Society 
that was made to exist, aud was not a body of men who 
had an interest back of it all. Wherever you locate it, I 
don't think you are going to injure it. We don't want 
to feel that we don't know whether we are groins; to live 
or die. I think we should feel that we are going to live, 
whether we locate at Lebanon, Lancaster, Harrisburg or 
some other important city in the State. I think the Ex- 
ecutive Committee should have made a report. If it is 
necessary for us to rent a room where we can keep the 
papers, let us rent one ; a room where the Executive Com- 
mittee can hold its meetings, and let us hold our annual 
me3tin2fs here, there and evervwhere as the Constitution 

70 The Tennsylvania-German Society. 

permits us. Everything has to descend through the Sec- 
retary. He takes charge of our papers and arranges for 
our copyrights. As we have elected a Secretary from 
Lancaster city we have virtually made that city the head- 
quarters of our association. Why not make the head- 
quarters there, since we have gone so far as electing a 
Secretary from Lancaster. If it was Harrisburg I would 
like it to be the same of Harrisburg. I think the So- 
ciety will grow stronger if we make ourselves a perma- 
nent home. 

Dr. Heckman: I don't like to prolong the discussion, 
but if, as the gentlemen who has spoken has said, in 
selecting the Secretary from Lancaster as permanent Sec- 
retary, we have selected a home, I say we have gone too 
far. I don't see how the Society has committed itself in 
any way by the election of a Secretary residing in Lan- 
caster. I think it is very important that we should not 
be hasty in the selection of our location. I think we 
should be very cautious in the making of our selection. 
It so happens that nearly one-half of the organized mem- 
bership is made up of citizens of Lancaster. If it had 
met at Reading, or any other place, it would have been 
the same way. It seems to me that by postponing ac- 
tion we might increase the growth of our Society. I do 
not think that we are prejudiced ; and, as to the matter of 
the art gallery, museum, library and historical bric-a-brac, 
that is to come into our possession, the Secretary can take 
charge of it. I do hope that our association will be a 
matter of great importance to the community at large, 
and I do hope that its outcome will be a museum of great 

Greeting to Whittier. 71 

interest, hut that museum ought not to be located at a 
place at one side. It should he in a place where it would 
he open to visitors from different parts of the country, 
hut who would not like to make a side journey to see our 
collection. I think that a matter of so great importance 
should not he decided hastily. 

Mb. Sener : I move that the whole matter be tabled. 

This motion was seconded. 

Dr. Heckman: Is it to be laid on the table for the 
present or permanently ? 

The President : I presume it is to be laid on the table 
for this session, unless it is moved to take it up again. 

The motion was not agreed to. 

The President : The question is now on the resolution 
of Mr. Muhlenberg. 

The motion of Mr. Muhlenberg to postpone action for a 
year was agreed to. 

The Secretary : I want to state that I am perfectly 
willing to take charge of all things that come to me, al- 
though, up to the present, they amount to very little. 

Mr. Grumbine : I desire to ask leave of the Society to 
present a short resolution. 

The permission of the Society was granted, and the 
following resolution was offered by Mr. Grumbine : 

" Resolved, That the Pennsylvania-German Society, in 
first annual session assembled, sends greeting to the Quaker 
poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, as a token of their love 
and veneration of him, and in recognition of his just ap- 
preciation of the character of their ancestors, the early 
German pilgrims of Pennsylvania." 

72 The Pennsylvania- German Society r. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted, and ordered 
to be telegraphed to Mr. Whittier. 

During the day the following reply to the foregoing 
resolution was received from the venerable poet : 

Amesbury, Mass., Oct. 16, 1891. 
Dr. William H. Egle, President Pennsylvania-German So- 
ciety : — I thank your Society for the kind words of the 
resolution, and am glad that my pen-portrait of one of 
the earliest German pilgrims meets the approval of the 
descendants of the brave, true men of the Fatherland, 
who made their forest homes on the Delaware and the 



Mr. Mumma offered the following resolution : 
" Resolved, That we cordially recommend the organiza- 
tion of local societies, having the objects of this Society 
in view, and invite them to co-operate with this Society 
in furthering its objects. ,, 

It seems to me that you ought to have something of 
this kind, as the Society is to meet only once a year. Be- 
sides, if the Society is to increase in its scope, and if we 
have anything like the number of people we expect, these 
local societies can send delegates to the present Society. 
It cau scarcely be expected that any number of people 
will send in their names and sign the Constitution, but, 
if you have local Societies, such as the Dauphin County 
Historical Society, there will be something to keep up the 
interest. I think it is the only salvation to build up the 
large Society which we expect. 

Local Societies. 73 

Dr. Hark: I see that the Executive Committee has 
authority to call three meetings annually. Would not 
local Societies be provided for by the article in the con- 
stitution providing for that? It seems to me that we had 
better not go out of our way and ask for the establish- 
ment of other organizations, because we provide for this 
under our own directions. 

The President : As I understand it, the Executive 
Committee shall arrange to have meetings in different 
places for the purpose of working up the sentiment for 
the association. 

Mr. Mumma : That being the case, I withdraw the 

Dr. Hark : May I urge upon the gentlemen the neces- 
sity, if we are to grow, if the Society is to be doubled, the 
necessity of every member doing his best to get that in- 
crease? There have been no efforts made except on the 
part of a few. I think every member should make it a 
point to get such desirable members as would benefit the 

Mr. Fisher : If you could get a meeting at York, I 
think we can guarantee from fifty to one hundred mem- 
bers who don't go away from home very much. 

Dr. Heckman : If each member will take four or five 
blanks with him and present them to friends at home, 
we may secure a number of applications. 

Mr. Parthemore : I move that the next annual meet- 
ing be held at York. 

The President: The matter has been referred to the 
Executive Committee. 

74 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

Mr. De Schweinttz : Are the Executive Commitee in 
a position to furnish us with extra copies of the Constitu- 
tion? I don't know whether they can afford to do it 
or not. 

The Secretary: There are extra copies here for any of 
the members desiring them. 


Wednesday Evening, October 14, 1891. 

The local committee on arrangements had selected the 
Commonwealth Hotel as the place for holding the annual 
banquet. About 9 o'clock the members of the Society, 
together with a number of invited guests, gathered about 
the bountiful spread to which genuine Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man justice was done. 

President Egle presided, and in calling the meeting to 
order after the banquet proper had been gone through 
with, said : 

Gentlemen : As I presume you have all partaken of the 
good things of life this evening, it is now time to pass on 
to another part of the programme. I therefore, in ac- 
cordance with the request of the Committee, and as Pres- 
ident of the Pennsylvania-German Society, state the first 
toast: "The State of Pennsylvania, the early home of 
the German and Swiss settlers in America." Responsive 
to this sentiment I have great pleasure in introducing to 
you the Governor of Pennsylvania, his excellency Robert 
Emory Pattison : 

The Annual Banquet. 75 

Governor Pattison addressed the Society as follows : 
Gentlemen y 31embers of the Penn sylvania-Ger man Society: 
I was very much gratified to-day when I was waited 
upon by a committee representing the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man Society. Dr. Egle, who was chairman of that Com- 
mittee, in his most social way, presented the purposes of 
the Committee, and extended to me an invitation to be 
present. I did not know what part I was to take. I 
thought, of course, that I would find here this evening a 
bill of fare after the Pennsylvania-German fashion ; that 
the toast or toasts would be written in Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man ; that the conversation about the table would be 
largely in Pennsylvania-German ; that the manner of dress- 
ing the table would be after the Pennsylvania-German 
manner. However, instead of that, I find that everything 
is after the most modern English style ; that the table is 
dressed like any other table ; that the bill of fare is with- 
out any indication of a Pennsylvania dish, so that I 
am taken somewhat by surprise. The toast, however, 
whether it be proposed in Pennsylvania-German or 
Pennsylvania English is such that there can be no 
mistake, because it points out its purposes in naming 
the State of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania is very proud 
of her Pennsylvania-Germans. Do not think one mo- 
ment that I mean, by such a suggestion, to flatter the 
members of this Society. I make that assertion more out 
of respect for the history of Pennsylvania-Germans than 
for the presence of the representatives of the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans here to-night. Pennsylvania occupies, as 
has been told repeatedly, over and over again in song and 

76 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

speech, the Keystone of the arch of the States comprising 
the Union. She is given that for many reasons, principally, 
however, and I can only touch on one or two, because 
of her important relative position as to the other States. 
Upon either side of her, East and West, Xorth and South, 
are situated the other States of the Union. She possesses 
in herself all the products of every other State in the 
Union. All other States might disappear, and yet Penn- 
sylvania in herself, by her products and the industry of 
her people, be such an empire that she could exist within 
herself. This is the territory that the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man, what is now called the Pennsyvania-German, that 
the German emigrant selected as his future home in 
America. He came to these shores very early, induced 
no doubt by the liberal propositions of the great founder 
of this Commonwealth. There is no founder of any 
Commonwealth, in this country or in any other country, 
who equalled the wisdom displayed by the founder of the 
State of Pennsylvania, William Penn. He came here 
after securing possession of this land, as the Proprietor 
and Proprietary Governor of the territory granted by the 
English crown, and then he opened it to all the inhabit- 
ants of the earth, without regard to religion, without re- 
gard to nationality, and without regard to any human re- 
lation whatever, and he extended all a home, and he at 
once placed them upon the equal rights of the citizens 
that were subsequently declared by Mr. Jefferson in draft- 
ing the Declaration of Independence. I have no doubt 
that the invitation given by the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania to the German emigrants was for the fact that, in 


The Annual Banquet 77 

the freedom he was to obtain here, such persons would 
be a benefit and an advantage to his property. There is 
no people on the European continent so identified with 
individual freedom as the German race. The Roman 
empire attempted to cross the Rhine and place these peo- 
ple in subjection, but they were able at no time to do it. 
The freedom that the ancient Germans held they ought 
to have individually, extended back to the period of the 
control of the Roman government. At no time has the 
German citizen ever given up that individual desire for 
freedom which he believes belongs to him as a matter of 
right. He has not been at all demonstrative, but there is 
no nationality more obdurate in asserting his individual 
rights than the German citizen. He came into Pennsyl- 
vania with this feeling. He did not stop upon the borders 
of this State. He did not linger alono; the Delaware or 
Schuylkill, but pushed into the interior. He came up 
into the Cumberland Valley. He pushed forward to 
what was then the border territory. He had to mas- 
ter not only the dangers of the forest, but the dangers 
that oppressed the first emigrants at that time. But, 
notwithstanding the obstacles, there is no race that 
so settled down and staid there, more than the Ger- 
mans of Pennsylvania. I need but refer you to the Ger- 
man settlements in the Lebanon Valley, or the settle- 
ments down the Cumberland Valley, or the settlements 
in Lancaster County. They grow up with the country, 
and in that way attach themselves to their commu- 
nity. So that I come here to-night to address you not 
so much upon the purposes of your Society, because that 

78 The Pennsylvania'German Society. 

is for others, but upon the past history of the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans and the State of Pennsylvania. Other 
nations have come in from England, from Ireland, from 
Wales, from Scotland and from the North of Europe, 
whose nationality is to-day represented in the territory of 
the United States. The few millions of people represent- 
ing the original settlements at the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence have grown into a population of more than sixty 
millions. I know, and I believe, that it is well for a peo- 
ple to preserve in every way possible the associations con- 
nected with their ancestry. It is an inspiration to them 
to go forward in the world and do better individually 
than those who preceded them. It is an inspiration to 
build for the future better than has beeu built in the past 
for them. When we have lost a regard for our ancestors. 
when we have no patriotic sentiment, there is very little 
hope, not only for the present, but for the future. The 
development of our people, the growth of our people, the 
hope of our people, is to be found in the high patriotic 
regard for the history of the past, and for the ancestor 
that has given to the American what he to-day enjoys. 
While, therefore, I come to rejoice with you this night in 
this anniversary of your Society, and while I am perfectly 
willing to participate and enjoy the hospitality of other 
nationalities, I say to you that I feel to-night prouder of 
the fact that we are American citizens than any other in 
regard to our nationalities and our past history. The hope 
of our country, the hope of the future, is in the building 
up of such a citizenship that will give a patriotic ring to 
every purpose of our government, actuating every motive 

The Annual Banquet. 79 

in business and social life, and so develop society that 
it will realize in the country what was intended by the 
founders. You perpetuate here to-night your organization 
as Pennsylvania-Germans and give to the Society that his- 
tory which it is wise to preserve, but there is no title that 
you can have that is of more credit to you than the title 
of American citizens. I congratulate you therefore upon 
the work already done by the Society, and congratulate 
you upon the growth of your organization. I hope that 
the opportunity will be given to gather into your Society 
the whole history of the people who are generally, as I 
have said, modest and retiring, and who have not pushed 
themselves forward, but who have as great and patriotic a 
history as any other people who have ever come into this 
land. Give to the history of Pennsylvania all the history 
connected with the Pennsylvania-Germans, that they may 
go out into the world and become a part of the great 
history of Pennsylvania. Then, when the history is 
made up, when all nationalities shall point back to the 
history of the past, to the particular part their race took 
in the settlement of America, the Pennsylvania-Germans, 
through the Pennsylvania-German Society, will have car- 
ried out the purposes of the organization of the Society, 
in bringing to the knowledge of the public of Pennsyl- 
vania the magnificent record of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 

[The address of Governor Pattison was loudly cheered 
at its close.] 

80 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The Chairman: The next toast is "The Judiciary of 
Pennsylvania," and I call on the Hon. Edwin Albright, 
of Allentown, to respond to it. 

Judge Albright: Your Chairman, Mr. Parthemore, 
came to me when I came into this house this evening and 
said that I should be called upon to respond to a toast. 
I did not ask what the toast was, because my conviction 
at the time was that I should not respond to it, for the 
reason that I was sure that I had not anything to present 
that would be worthy of the Society, and of the gentle- 
men who should be at the festal board this evening. This 
is my impression now, but, in order that it may not be 
said that the car of progress, as represented by this Penn- 
sylvania-German Society, stuck in the mud when it came 
to my place, I have concluded to get upon my feet and 
utter a few words. The judiciary of this Commonwealth, 
of course, is a good field to work in. Exactly how it 
connects itself with the Pennsylvania-German Society I 
don't see, and I suppose that I am about as well off as any 
of you ; you don't see it either. Xow, you would not ex- 
pect me to say much as to the personnel of the judges now 
in commission in this State, as it happens that I am now 
in commission as a judge, and have been so for a number of 
years. Although we hear of the diffidence and bashful- 
ness of the Pennsylvania-German, and that he always be- 
gins at the other end of the case, when you come to look 
at the calendars he gets there in the long run. Well, we 
get the credit of being bashful and diffident. Anyhow, 
how. would you expect me to stand here and praise the 
judges of the State. Your conviction would be that if 

The Judiciary of Pennsylvania. 81 

that performance was to be accomplished by any one, it 
had better be done by some one else. Then, I have too 
much pride of race and pride of my cloth to disparage 
the judges. Therefore, I have little to say of the person- 
nel of the judges of the State. The judiciary of the 
State, so far as it relates to the body of the law emanat- 
ing from the judge, has little connection with the Ger- 
man race, as it is in this Commonwealth. Pennsylvania 
was an English province. Many of the British statutes 
were brought in and formed part of the body of the law 
of this province, and, as many of us know, many British 
statutes are in fact to-day the body of the common law, 
a3 it was formed by the work of a century, of England, 
and were bodily part of the law of the province of Penn- 
sylvania, and are to-day the groundwork of our laws. 
The statutes themselves took their inspiration to a great 
extent from the common law of England. The ideas of 
jurisprudence, as they prevailed several hundred years 
ago on the continent of Europe, for instance in Germany, 
have had very little influence upon the judicial system of 
the State of Pennsylvania, and that is where our Pennsyl- 
vania ancestors showed their great sense. I don't know 
whether they had the power to impress ideas, which may 
be said to have been practical to them, upon the laws of 
this State, at least they never attempted it, and while it 
is all well enough to tickle the ears of people, Germans, 
for instance, and urge them to keep up the institutions 
and religion of the Fatherland, when we have be- 
fore us our Irish cousins, and see the whole catalogue 
of nations that make up the great American people, it 

82 The Pennsylvania-jG-erman Society, 

it is true that he who dwells in this land or who expects 
his children shall live in it after him, whether he comes 
here to-day for that purpose, or whether he came two hun- 
dred years ago, when the earliest Germans came to this 
State, mistakes his duty to this country, if he does not 
recognize that the practical institutions of the country he 
came from, so far as they come in conflict with the insti- 
tutions of this country, might just as well be forgotten, 
for every person landing upon this country, expecting to 
be an American citizen, should be an American citizen. 
If there is any connection between German jurispru- 
dence as it prevails in the Fatherland and the Pennsyl- 
vania system, well, I don't know of it. I only know of 
one instance where perhaps the Pennsylvania-German 
idea was better in a judicial way. We had at our 
bar, for many years, a half a century, a very promi- 
nent lawyer, who hailed from Connecticut, but inas- 
much as substantially all the people besides him were 
Pennsylvania-Germans, he was given to the habit of flat- 
tering the Pennsylvania-Dutch. At one time he wa3 try- 
ing a case before a board of arbitrators composed of our 
.good, square, level-headed Pennsylvania-Germans, and un- 
fortunately for his side of the case, his opponent found a 
case which ruled him out of Court, in the reports of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts. But, said the Yankee 
lawyer, u The idea of reading before a board of arbitra- 
tors the law of Massachusetts. Let him bring law from 
the good Dutch Supreme Court of Pennsylvania and read 
it.' r 

The judiciary of this State, considering it in its effect 

The Judiciary of Pennsylvania. 83 

upon the government of this State, in the past and at pres- 
ent, is a wide field to work in. The judges of this State 
have heen the men at the rudder, who have directed the 
course of the Ship of State, and who have steadied it, 
and I suppose it may be said, generally speaking, that at 
least the past is secure, so far as the judicial history of 
this State is concerned. There is a great body of laws, 
that was never made by the legislature. They are judge- 
made laws. The Pennsylvania-German, if he has that 
integrity and truth which is usually ascribed to him, of 
course would naturally have, at least, a few of the promi- 
nent qualifications for the judiciary. And right here, 
where is the use of saying much in praise of the Ger- 
mans ? For the last thousand years, the German, the Teu- 
ton and the Goth have ruled the civilized world ; whether 
he is a Goth in Spain, or along the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, in the Middle Ages or before ; whether he is a 
Frank in Gaul or in Western France ; whether he was a 
Saxon or a Dane in England, or whether he is an Anglo- 
Saxon transported to these shores, the fact remains that, 
to a great extent, government, for the last thousand years, 
has been in the hands of the Xorthmen, or the Teu- 
tons or Goths. So far as civil government is con- 
cerned, he has held his own. Of course the German is 
fitted for civil government, he is fitted for the administra- 
tion of the law. Who is so serious and grave and owl- 
like as the German, and surely a judge ought to be grave 
and owl-like, or ought to be grave, at least. I am getting 
far from the judiciary. But nobody expected me to say 
anything that would interest or amuse him. The act has 

84 The Pennsylvania* German Society. 

been committed and the expectation has been met. The 
Pennsylvania-German is modest, but when you look over 
the list of the judiciary now in commission, you will find 
that he has a good share of the judgeships ; fully his share, 
especially in the eastern part of the State. In the counties 
of Bucks, Berks, Lehigh, Lackawanna, Schuylkill, Phila- 
delphia and Monroe, and some other districts, the judges 
are of Pennsylvania-German stock, but it is not for us to 
say how successfully we administer the law ; at least, we 
fill the place. I think that the Pennsylvania-German So- 
ciety has made a pretty fair beginning; you have devel- 
oped pretty good, healthy appetites here. I hope, gentle- 
men, as an individual and a Pennsylvania-Datcher, to 
meet you and many more of our race at another anni- 
versary occasion, and we ought not to forget to invite our 
brethren of our State, for where is the use to hide our light 
under a bushel basket. What is the use of being called 
the good fellows that we are, if the outside fellow don't 
know it. 

The Chairman: I now come to u The Pennsylvania- 
German in Education, perchance slow at first, but always 
sure and yet in the forefront." I call on Prof. Robert K. 
Buehrle, of Lancaster, to respond to this toast. 

Prof. Buehrle: I have been admonished to be brief. 
I was going to give the speech in Pennsylvania-German, 
acting upon a suggestion that was given here this even- 
ing, and I proposed at the convention that Pennsylvania- 
German should be spoken, but the hint was not received, 
so I concluded that I had better not attempt it. Xow the 

The Pennsylvania-German in Education. 85 

Pennsylvania-Germans have been in the rear, in the opinion 
of most people that did not know them. If you read his- 
tory carefully, you will find that a Pennsylvania-German 
was appointed as teacher in one of the Friends' Schools in 
Philadelphia. This was one of the first schools in the 
State. I have no doubt that the idea of State education 
in Pennsylvania was according to the provisions made by 
the founder of the State for general education. I have no 
doubt at all that the idea emanated from Germany. The 
Yankees would not tell us so, but we find nothing of 
that kind established in England. There is every proba- 
bility that they got the idea from Martin Luther's letter, 
urging the governments to establish schools. We know 
that the Pilgrims arrived in Holland, and there is no rea- 
sonable doubt but that they got their idea of schools 
there. Again, the Pennsylvania-Germans never denied 
the female equal rights with the male in schools. Xow, 
it was very late until they came to that idea in Xew Eng- 
land. The German argued that the woman was equal to 
man in regard to intellect. But in Xew England, the 
girl could go to school only when the room was not 
needed for the boys. We have been told to-day how the 
idea of Sunday Schools was long previous in this coun- 
try to Robert Raike's establishment in England, thus 
showing that not only in school education, but in relig- 
ious education the Pennsylvania-German was not behind 
hand, although he be unmentioned in the history of his 
country. The German was not indifferent to education. 
There is nothing to substantiate the charge. He was 
ever anxious to have his children educated. The Penn- 

86 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

sylvania-German Governors of this State were all ardent 
advocates of the public school system ; from Governor 
Wolfe, every one of the Pennsylvania-German Governors 
stood by the general school system, and Pennsylvania 
was ahead of the other States. I think Connecticut 
had not free education until 1872, while we had free 
education from the beginning of the Commonwealth. We 
find that the first Normal School was established in what 
may be called the Pennsylvania-German district. I have 
reference to the Normal School at Millersville, which 
antedates every other State Normal School in the State, 
and was founded by Pennsylvania-Germans. If you will 
look over the list of principals, you will find that some of 
them are Pennsylvania-Germans, and to-day the two most 
flourishing Normal Schools, ever since they have been es- 
tablished, the only two that were never in danger, are the 
one at Kutztown and the one at Millersville. They always 
"could look the whole world in the face," for they 
"owed not any man." It was not so with the other Nor- 
mal Schools in other parts of the State. If you will look 
over the reports you will find that what has been said of 
the judiciary will be found true of the educational inter- 
ests of the State. For the first time that I know of, last 
winter, a Pennsylvania-German was named for the State 
Superintendency. We hope that other Pennsylvania- 
Germans will be struck by the lightning. We think the 
time has come when that ought to be. We have had the 
Irish, the Scotch-Irish, the English Quaker, and almost 
every other nationality, but we have never had the Penn- 
sylvania-German as Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The Pennsylvania-German in Agriculture. 87 

In the schools, the German is very largely in possession. 
The same thing is true of the Normal Schools of the State. 
Millersville started with a Quaker. He was followed hy 
a Yankee; the last two following were Pennsylvania- Ger- 
mans. The same thing is true in Berks County, where 
they have the Pennsylvania-Germans up to the present 
da} r . This is true of the principals of the formal 
Schools, and let me call your attention to this point : the 
eight Pennsylvania-German counties of this Common- 
wealth have school property valued at over $3,000,000, 
one-fifth of all the school property in the State, outside of 
Philadelphia ; the eight German counties have twenty 
per cent, of the school property of the Commonwealth, 
and yet they are only twelve per cent, of the counties ; 
one-eighth of the counties owning one-fifth of the school 
property. It seems to me then that we can see, from 
these facts, that education is encouraged among the 

TnE Chairman : We come next to " The Pennsylvania- 
German in Agriculture — nowhere in the world have we 
his superior." Let Mr. Hiram Young, of York, Pa., 
speak for him. 

Mr. Young said : Mr, Chairman and Gentlemen, I have 
not heard of that subject before, agriculture and the 
Pennsylvania-Germans ; there is certainly something in 
that. Pennsvlvania is a great agricultural Common- 
wealth, and the Germans, I think, have been leading in 
that industry in this great Commonwealth. We have a 
large, productive agricultural Commonwealth, as has been 

88 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

stated to-day. I see in the newspapers that we have this 
year produced 22,500,000 bushels of wheat ; we produce 
11,500,000 bushels of oats ; we produce 13,250,000 bush- 
els of potatoes ; we produce 2,400,000 tons of hay ; we 
we produce 44,000,000 bushels of corn. Xow, there is 
nothing said about our cattle, our sheep, our horses, our 
swine. In Lancaster County, and in other counties ad- 
joining, we have a valuable product in tobacco. It is be- 
ginning to become one of the most valuable products of 
the Commonwealth. The consumption, of course, is 
largely taken up by the German people, and it is one of 
those practical things that becomes a source of benefit 
and to some a source of pleasure. There was a time when 
the people of Pennsylvania would resist any interference 
with the most of their practical products. This diffi- 
culty seems to have been dispelled. The Pennsylvania- 
Germans are discussing economic questions. They are 
devising new measures for the disposition of their com- 
modities. They find markets elsewhere. They depend 
upon an export market, and a diversified product will en- 
large home markets. Pennsylvania is an empire within 
itself and independent. If you were to place around this 
Commonwealth a wall, we might be independent of all 
other Commonwealths and nations, because we are a pro- 
ductive people. We produce all that we can consume. We 
have a market in consequence. We find purchasers for the 
products of our farms in the cities and towns. The farm- 
ers are becrinnino; to discuss those things in which thev 
are interested. I have been among the farmers of several 
counties lately, and I have been talking and hearing the 

The County of Lancaster. 89 

farmers talk about these questions, and I want to say here, 
gentlemen, that that growing interest is not comprehend- 
ed by the people of this Commonwealth at the present 
time. They are not aware of the interest and intelli- 
gence and the growth of intellect and educational spirit 
that has been infused into the minds of the German farm- 
ers. The people of Pennsylvania generally are beginning 
to understand their wants. They are improving in this 
direction as well as in every other direction. 

u The Pennsylvania-German, wheresoever dispersed," 
was responded to by Hon. William Beidleman, Mayor of 
Easton, in a humorous speech of some length 

The Chairman: I will call upon the Kev. Dr. Hark to 
say a word for " The County of Lancaster." Dr. Hark 
responded as follows : 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: As I looked over this 
board this evening, it occurred to me that it was typically 
Pennsylvania-German, and for such Pennsylvania-Germans 
are sometimes almost reviled, and for such Lancaster 
customs, as practically Pennsylvania-German, are some- 
times looked down upon. The fact is that they attend so 
much to the physical and material that they are material- 
minded materialists, and yet recognize that in that they 
are simply following out a point of the Pennsylvania- 
German character ; and recognizing that the material and 
natural always come first, they attend to that first. When 
the American army was on the point of starving at 
Valley Forge, Baker Ludwig forwarded supplies of bread 
to the American soldiers until the danger of starvation 

90 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

had passed. But I think the time has come when these 
material views, which are typified in Lancaster County, 
where there has been more attention paid to developing 
the material system of the county, I look for the time to 
come soon when, they are almost beginning, to rear the 
superstructing lines material into lines of literary and his- 
torical development. Our county is one of the most 
wealthy, one of the most populous in the State. I think 
this Society will give a decided impetus to work upon this 
field of history. It depends upon the work of the present. 
We need to rightly understand the past, and to research 
the history of the State. I look to Lancaster County to 
reap for the organization of this Society great good in 
this work. I look to Lancaster County to contribute its 
full share to the work in the historical field. I know that 
we are a slow moving people, but it is known that when 
we get into line, we generally stay there in every case. 
We generally make thorough work, because we are 
typical Pennsylvania-Germans. These are characteristics 
of the Pennsylvania-Germans. 

The Chairman: Berks county has nut yet been heard 
from. I will ask Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman to respond 
to this toast, u The County of Berks." 

Instead of making a set speech, Col. Zimmerman 
recited the following translation, made by himself, of 
Clement C. Moore's " 'Twas the Night Before Christmas.'' 

Die Nacht for de Chrischdaag. 91 


'S waar die Xacht for de Chrischdaap; und doreh es sans 

Ha us 
Verreegt sich ke' Thierli, net emol en Maus ; 
Die Schtrump waare schnock ini Schornsckte gehunke, 
In der HofYninp; der "Xick" dheet g-raad runner 

dschumpe ; 
Die Kinner so schnock waare all scho im Bett, 
Yon Zuckerschleck draame un was mer, doch, wott ; 
Die Mamme in Sehnupduch un ich in der Kapp, 
Hen uns juscht hi geleegt for'n lang Winter's ISTap — 
Dan draus in 'm Hoof waar so'n dunnerse Jacht, 
Dass ich ufg'schprunge bin zu sehne war's macht. 
An's Fenschter graad schpring ich so schnell wie'n Flasch, 
Die Lade ufg'risse, ufg'schmisse die Sasch ! 
Der Moond uf der Bruscht dem neug'fallne Schnee 
Macht Helling wie Mitdaag, iiwwer alles, so scho. 
Im e' Aageblick kummt, jetz, un rund wie e' Kersch, 
E' Fuhrmann im Schlidde un acht kleene Hersch — 
E' Mannli in Pelze, so freundlich un frei — 
'Hab graadeweck of wiisst's muss der Pelznickel sei ! 
Wie Aadler, so schnell, sin die Herschlin zusamme, 
Un er peift un'r ruuft, un'r nennt sie mit Xaame : 
" Jetz Dascher! jetz Danzer! jetz Pranzer! jetz Vixen! 
Un Komet! un Kupid! un Dunder! un Blitzen!" 
An der Porch isch er nuif, um die Mauer gefalle — 
"Jetz schpringt eweck! schpringt eweck I schpringt 

eweck, alle ! " 
Wie laab for'm e Windschtorm — der wildscht das mer 


92 The Pennsylvania German Society. 

"Warm ebbes im "Weeg isch un's bimnielwerts geht, 
Zum Ilausgiwwel nuf sin die Herseblin wie g'floge, 
Mit'm Sclilidli foil Sacb un der "Nick" mit gezoge; 
Im e' Aas;eblick borseht uf'm Dacb — owwodrowe — 


En Gescbeer un Gedanz wie mit bbTzene Glow we. 

Mei Hop zieg ich nei, guk um micb im Hans — 

Un im Schornscbte do kummt'r wabrbaftig scbun raus! 

Mit Peltze ferwickelt fon Kop biz zum Fuus, 

Un alles ferscbnuttelt mit Aescbe un Ruus ! 

Uf'm Buekel en Bundel foil allerband G'scbpiel — 

'S bat o;e2;uckt ^vie J m Kremer sei Kramm — artli^ fiel. 

Sei Maul, wie 'n Kerscb, un sei Dimple die lacbe — 

Sei Aage, die blinzle, und wie Rosa sei Backe. 

Gans rund war sei Mauli un roth wie der Klee, 

Un 's Scbnurbiirdli weiss wie woll, oder Schnee: 

En schtumpiges Peifli, fescbt zwisebe de Zeb, 

Un der scbmook scbteigbt in Ringlin so scbo in die Hob. 

Sei G'sicbtli so breed, un sei Baucbli e' bissel 

Uverm Lacbe bot g'sbittelt wie Dschelly in der Scbussel. 

So diek un so rund war des luscbtige Elfge, 

Muss lacbe, graad aus, un kan's gaar net helfe. 

Sei Kopli waar eifrig un scbwatzig mit Xiicken — 

Sei Aage, gaar freundlicb mit Blinzele un Blicken; 

Die Schtriimp bot'r g'fiirt, un mit frolicbem Braus, 

Da scbpringt inschtandig, den Scbornscbte binaus; 

Er scbpringt uf sei Scblidde, zu der Fubr peift en Piffel, 

Dann fliege sie fort wie Dunn fon der Discbtel : 

Doch eb' er gans fort waar, sei Gruss bat er g'macht — 

" En berrliclie Chriscbdaag ! un zu alle, Guut Xacbt !" 

Ber Erath. 93 

The Chairman: We now come to "The County of 
York," and I call upon Henry L. Fisher, Esq., of that 
place, to speak for her. 

In reply Mr. Fisher said : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-German 

Society : 

I think I shall have to ask you to excuse me from mak- 
ing a speech; it is late and I feel very drowsy. I 
have been indulging here in this material and literary ban- 
quet, until I feel as though I was unfit to respond to a toast. 
If you gentlemen of the Pennsylvania-German Society 
will come to York, I will show you the Pennsylvania- 
Germans there, and I would like very much to meet you 
and greet you there. You will have to extend to me 
the same privilege that you extended to Colonel Zim- 
merman. It will not occupy much more time than 
making a speech. 

Mr. Fisher then read the following Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man version, made by himself, of " Poe's Raven :" 


Es war mitternacht un schaurig, 

Ich war schlaf ? riir, mud, un traurisr 
Uewer fiel so alte Biicher 

Foil so gans fergess'ne Lehr ; 
Un ich hab so halwer g'schlummert — 
Hot's uf e'mol so gebummert — 
So wie's macht wan's bissel dunnert — 

Das es rappelt an der Dheer ; 

94 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

" 'S iseh en B'sucher," sag icli zu mer 
Selwert, — " Klopt an meiner Dheer — 
Des, allee, isch's was ich hor." 

Un, so wie ich rair erinner, 

War's so a'fangs in em Winter, 
Un en jede gliihend Zinder 

Macht sei Geischtli nf 'em Floor. 
Un ich hab gewiinscht 's war Morge, 
Awwer do war nix zu borge 
Aus de Biicher — nix as Sorge — 

Sorge for die lieb Lenore ; 
Ach, das sie noch bei mer war ! 

Encrel hen sie sc'nennt Lenore. 

Do genennt, doch, nimmermehr. 

Un ich war so halb im Zweifel — 
Hirmer'm Umhang huckt der Deufel, 
Un es war mer angschterlich, 

Schauderig un schrecklich weh, 
Juscht as wan mit jedem Droppe 
Bluut, mei Herz dhet schtarker kloppe — 
Denk ich, " do will ener schtoppe 

Uewer nacht — feleicht a'h zwee — 
Denk ich, alter, du magscht kloppe, 
Oder magscht dei 's We2:es sceh — 
Juscht so isch's, un gaarnix raeh." 

Gleimol, awwer, fass ich Herze — 
Denk ich will des Ding ferkerze — 
' Sag ich, " alter," oder " alti, 

Kann des kloppe net ferschteh ; 

Der Krabb. 95 

Awwer ich war schweer im Kop, un 
Wie du so bischt kumme kloppe — 
Hat rner konne Hoor ausroppe, 

Wan ich's so hat konne schtoppe — 
Juscht des kloppe, un net meh ;" 

Dan mach ich die Dheer uf, weit — 

Do war nix as Dunkelheit, 

Dief in Dunkelheit gegnckt, 

Un ich hab geglaabt es schpookt ; 
'Zweifelt hawich, halb getraamt, 

Wie ich nie net hab zufoor. 
Nie so schtill as wie es jetz war, 
ISTie so dunkel as es jetz war, 
Un des eenzig Wort das g'schwatst war, 

War 's gepischpert Wort, "Lenore!" 
Hab 's gepischpert un net meh ; 

Un der JScho, leis, " Lenore /" 

Hawich g'hort, un des allee. 

Dan war's wider schtill un schtumra, 
Doch, so g'schwindt ich dreh mich urn, 

Hawich 's wider hore kloppe, 
Bissel lauter as zufoor : 

Sag ich zu mer selwert, " 0, 

Ebbes kloppt am Fenschter, do, 

Awwer, halt e'mol, bei Jo, 
Ich geh d'ra un fissedir ; 

Braaf, mei Herz, ich hab die Kunscht, 
Deufelsdreck un Hexeschmier " — 
'S war der Wind un garnix sunscht ! 

96 The Pennsylvania- Grerman Society. 

Nagschtens, mach ich uf der Laada, 
Bat's nix, dhut's doch a'h ke' Schade ; 

Un zum Fenschter nei gectapt 

Kummt so 'n alter schwarzer Krabb ! 

Sagt ke' Wort— net'mol *' wie geht's ?" 

Net " wie macht's un net we schteht's ?" — 

Gar net zaud'rig un net blod, 

Huckt sieh owig mei Kanimer-dheer — 

Uf en Bild, dort in der Hoh — 

Juscht dort owig der Schtuwwe-dheer, 
Huckt der Fogel, un net meh. 

Doch, so schterns carjose Sache 

Hen mieh balwer lache mache; 
Huckt er dort as wie en Parre, 

Owis; meiner Schtuwwe-dheer : 
Sag ich, u alter schwarzer, g'schorner, 
In der alte-Zeit-geborner — 
Was wees ich, feleicht, ferlorner — 

'S wunnert mich so artlig sehr, 
Weer du bischt, wu kummscht du heer? 

Sag mer, sag mer, wie do heescht ; 

Sagt der Fogel, " Ximmermehr." 

Gans erschtaunt war ich zu hore 

So en Fogel mir so lehre ; 
Doch, die Antwort, in dem, meen ich, 

War, juscht, ken so grosse Lehr. 
Un en jede muss es eeg'ne 
Das noch kenner so en Sege 
G'hat hot in seim s;anse Lewe — 

So en Fogel — so en Ehr — 

Der Krabb. 97 

Fogel oder Dhier uf Bilder, 

Owig seiner Schtuwwe Dheer, 
Mit dem Naame, " jSTimmerraehr." 

Huckt er, awwer, dort alleenig, 

Sagt mer awwer, doch, so wenig — 
Juscht 'e Wort, as wan sei Seel 

In dem Wort ferborge weer ! 
Un er sagt ke, anner "Wort — 
Schtumm, un schtimmloos huck't er dort; 
Sag iclij " manche Freund sin fort, 

Un sie kumme net meli beer ; 
Un bis Morge gescbt du a ? h, 

Wie die Hofihing un die Ehr." 

Sagt der Fogel, u Ximmermehr." 

Un icb hab micb frisch ferwunnert 

Uewer so en dunk'le Antwort : 
" Obne Zweifel was er predigt," 

Sag icb, u iscb sei ganse Lelir, 
Die er fon seim Meeschter g'lernt hot, 
Den, en Ungliick, f leicht, ferzornt hot — 
F'lorne Fruebt die er ge-erndt hot, 

Bis sei Kummerlascht so scbweer war, 
Un sei Trauerlied un Lehr war 

? S melancholiscb, sehr un schweer, 

" Nimmermehr ! acb, nimmermebr !" 

Denk ich, du wit mich betriige 
Mit so schwarze Fogelsliige: 
'S hot mich g'liichelt, un ich huck mich 
Foor den Fogel an die Dheer : 


98 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Huck mich uf en Saramet kisse 
Uf en Sehtuhl — so hawieh niiisse — 
Denk ich, doch, jetz will ich wiisse 

Meh fon dere Fogel'slehr — 
Was der grimmis;, selirecklieh Fo^el. 
Der mer propliezeit doheer, 
Meent mit seinem " Nimmermehr." 

Wunner als, un roth, beizeite, 
Was des Ding mbcht foorbedeute, 

Weil sei helle, schwarze Aage 

Hen mei Herz geriihrt so sehr ; 

Des, un meh, mocht ich, doch, wiisse — 

Schweigend huck ich uf meim Kisse — 

Allunruhig war mei G'wisse, 

Weil die Helling sehtrahlt, ung'fahr 

Nimmer iiwer die Begleeding 
Wu, so wie ich ofters hor, 
Sie geruhgt hot, nimmermehr. 

Dan hot's g'scheint as wan die Luft 
Schweerer war un siisz mit Duft ; 
Un ich hor gans leise Trappe 

Kumme uf m Carpet, heer: 
" Ungliicks Mensch ! " hawieh gekrische, 
" Faule Fisch sin do dcrzwische, 
Ruh, ach Ruh," hawieh gekrische, 

"Un fergess sie immermehr! 
Drink, ach drink en — Hahneschwiinzli, 
Unfergess sie immermehr! " 
Kreischt der Fogel, " Nimmermehr ! ! " 

Der Krabb. 99 

Falseh Propheet, du, ohne Zweifel, 

Ungliieks Fogel, oder Deufel, 
Mich zu ketzere uu zu quale — 

Wu der Deufel kummscht du heer ? 
Warum dhuscht'du mich besuche ? 
Was hoscbt du bei mir zu suche? 
Wit mich in die Hell ferlluehe ? 

Mit deim ewig " nimmermehr ? " 
Sao; mer's, oder s:eh fon mir — 

Hot's dan, do ken Hexeschmier ? 

Sagt der Fogel, " Nimmermehr ! " 

Falseh Propheet, un alles boses ? 

Was du bischt, der Deufel wees es ; 
Bei des Himmelsblo, do owwe — 

Allem guut, un schleehts, — ich schweer — 
" Week mit all so Ungllick's mensche," 
Kreisch ich — " week mit Forcht un Aengschte 
Ruh ! ach Ruh ! in dem Nepenthe, . 

Un fergess die Trauer schweer — 
Drink, ach drink en Hahneschwanzli, 

Un ferges3 sie immermehr ! 
Kreischt der Fogel, " Nimmermehr ! ! " 

Jetz, will ich der ebbes saa& — ' 

"Naus mit dir, du Ungliicksklaage — 
Mach dich wider z'riick in's Wetter 

Un des Hellehunde Heer. 
Loss zurlick ken schwarze Feder — 
Liigscht as wie des Dunnerwetter — 
Flieg zu deine falsche Gotter, 

Fon dort owig meiner Dheer ; 

100 The Pennsylvania German Society. 

Nem dei Schnawwel aus meim Herz — 
Schies dicli mit meiin alte G'wehr ! " 
Sagt cler Fogel, " Nimmermehr." 

Un der Ketzer isch net efnosre — 
Huckt alsnoch, so schwarz, dort owe, 

Uf dein Pallas-bildi^ dort— ( 

Juscht dort owig meiner Dheer ; 

Un sei sehwarze Aage sehnich, 

Foil fon Deufels g'schafte, nieenich, 

Un die Lampehelling, schtromig, 

Schmeist sei Schatte urn mieh lieer ; 

Un mei Seel fon aus clem Schatfe, 

Der so schweebt do um micb heer, 
Heebt sicb nimmer, Nimmermehr ! 

The Chairman: The Pennsylvania-German County of 
Northampton has not yet been heard from. Will the 
Rev. Paul de Schweinitz make answer for her? 

Mr. De Schweinitz said in reply: I am very glad to 
respond for this county, for we can look back to a past 
history of one hundred and twenty years in that county. 
It represents mostly the settlers from the Northern part of 
Germany, and I think you will find more of that class of 
Germans there than elsewhere. It lias been related sev- 
eral times to-day that the early German history of the 
State is the history of the different sects that have been 
mentioned that settled here. The Moravians were the 
early settlers of our county. They were like the Quakers, 
and in the War of the Revolution called down upon them- 

The County of Northampton. 101 

selves some feeling. There was established the first 
Young Ladies' Seminary, which is there to this day. I 
think we have heard a good deal of self-glorification to- 
day, but perhaps it is our turn to glorify a little over our 
Xew England brethren. I suppose you have heard the 
story of the youngster who was anxious to have a donkey. 
He was told to take a pumpkin and sit upon it for some 
time, and then he would have a donkey. After some 
time he went to the man who had told him to do that 
and said, " The donkey has not come yet." The man said, 
"That is all right, just roll the pumpkin from the top of 
the hill." So the youngster took the pumpkin to the top 
of the hill, and rolled it down, and as it was rolling 
down, out came a rabbit. The boy hurried up to it 
and got it, and he believed he had hatched out a rabbit. 
So it is that the Xew England people claim the parentage 
of the American people. A good many of our Germans 
now are anxious to praise the part that the Germans took 
in the War of the Revolution, and all glory to our fathers 
who took part in that struggle, but they deserve renown 
for the spirit of peace they have shown. I think the 
Germans who settled in Bethlehem were the first settlers 
cf the whole United States to introduce a modern system 
of water works. Almost the first fire engine was employed 
by the Moraviaus, and now that great institution in Beth- 
lehem, which has become, to a certain extent, a part of 
the national government, is engaged in making the armor 
for the new navy. I think if our good old Moravian 
fathers were aware of this, they would turn in their 
graves. This county was founded by men who spoke the 

102 The Pennsyhania-German Society. 

Pennsylvania-German. They are perhaps slow to get hold 
of an idea, but, when they get hold of one, they have it 
and hold on to it. I have found that out in trying to 
make some innovations in our church. Perhaps you have 
heard of the Pennsylvania priest, who was walking down 
a street one day between two lawyers. "Well, Father 
G.," said one, " what do you do when you make a mistake 
in preaching." "If it is a serious mistake," he said, "I 
stop and correct it, but if not, I just let it go. For in- 
stance, I once meant to say, 4 All liars shall have a place 
in the fiery pool ;' but, instead of that, I said, ' All 
lawyers shall have a place in the fiery pool,' but that was 
such a little mistake, that I just left that slip." Then the 
other lawyer looked at him and said, "Father G.,are you 
a fool or a knave?" He replied, " I am neither one or the 
other ; I am just between the two." I hope that our 
Society will keep right on, and it will be brought largely 
before the public, and I hope that Northampton will bring 
a large number of members to the Society. I wish that 
we conld have more interested that are from the northern 
part of Germany. 

The Chairman : The Dutch end of Dauphin, the County 
of Lebanon, remains to be heard from; will Mr. Jacob II. 

Iiedsecker, of Lebanon, look after her interests? 

In answer, Mr. Kedsecker spoke as follows : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: I understood that Mr. 
Weidman was to talk this evening, so that everything I 
say that will not be of interest please attribute to Mr. 

The County of Lebanon. 103 

"Weidman. If I say anything of interest please credit it 
to myself. Lebanon was not a county during the Revo- 
lution, but it contributed very largely to the success of that 
war. Lebanon County, though small in area, is not in arrear 
of the other counties of the State. Lebanon County is a 
place where people go to stay. It has contributed very 
largely to the success of the country, not only from a mili- 
tary point of view, but from an agricultural point of view. 
It ha3 given to the State one Governor, John Andrew 
Shultz, and it has in the county a number of others who 
would like to be Governors, so that Lebanon County is 
not just so backward as some of* the other counties are, or 
as some others of the counties migdit be. Although Leb- 
anon County is attached to Dauphin in a judicial way, she 
finds sometimes that the attachment is rather galling, but 
Dauphin County finds that Lebanon has helped her out 
often. But it is crowing: late and I did not come here to 
make a speech. 

The Chairman, before closing the exercises of the even- 
ing, called upon Andrew John Kauffman for a German 
sons*. Mr. Kaurfman, after a few introductory remarks, 
sang one stave of a German ditty, and then sang an Irish 
song for the benefit of any Dutch-Irish that might be 
present ! 

With this, the exercises closed and the first annual ban- 
quet of the Pennsylvania-German Society was a thing of 
the past. With many fraternal greetings the members 
separated, resolved, however, to be on hand when Society 
day should again summon them to a brotherly reunion. 






ON MONDAY, JULY 18, 1892. 

An invitation having been extended to the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society by the Pennsylvania Chautauqua, to 
hold a meeting on the Chautauqua grounds at Mt. Gretna, 
on Monday, July 18, the day to be known as " Pennsyl- 
vania-German Day,'' the Executive Committee accepted 
the invitation, and arrangements were at once made to se- 
cure the preparation of several papers to be read on the 

An announcement was made of the fact and the mem- 
bership was invited to be present. On the above men- 
tioned day the Society accordingly held a regular meeting, 
which was attended by members from various parts of 
the State. The papers read on the occasion are now 
printed along with the proceedings of the Harrisburg 
meeting on October 14, 1891. 

I0*J Y / 0& 


106 Tlie Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Julius F. Sachse, on being introduced to the audience, 
said : 

Gentlemen and fellow members of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society : The subject of my paper to-day will be the 

" True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania, " 

a theme which you will agree with me is a pertinent one 
for this occasion. 

The general tendency of the addresses before this hon- 
orable and similar organizations has mainly been to exalt 
the prowess of our forefathers in the Revolution ; it has 
been wont to dwell upon their deeds, recount their suffer- 
ings, exalt their services and glory in the victories they 
helped to gain, just as if all the heroism of the German 
element in Pennsylvania was exemplified within that cir- 
cumscribed period. 

Without wishing for a moment to detract a single iota 
from the laurels due the actors during the Revolutionary 
drama, I wish to call your attention to even greater hero- 
ism, such as was displayed in innumerable instances 
among the lowly and humble German population in the 
early days of the Province. Heroes in every clay life, who 
lived, labored, prayed and died, and now rest in unknown 
and long-forgotten graves, yet whose influence, brought 
about by lives of self-denial, survives unto the present 

It is to these unknown humble heroes in civil life that 
I wish to pay a slight tribute of respect by calling the 
attention of the Pennsylvania-German Society to the 

True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 107 

As a matter of fact, by far the great majority of Ger- 
man emigrants who came to these shores were of a peace- 
ful disposition ; as a matter of record most all were what 
are classed as " non-combatants," who came to these west- 
ern wilds as much to exercise their desire for religious 
liberty as to escape from feudal oppression and a state of 
religious intoleration then existing in some parts of Ger- 

Then again where the English Quaker came to this 
country from speculative and pecuniary motives, the 
Scotch-Irishmen for political reasons or preferment, 
the German came with the avowed intention of founding 
a permanent home, where he could exercise the dictates 
of his own conscience. 

In carrying out his object the sole dependence of the 
German settler was prayer and supplication to the Deity, 
and an unbounded faith and trust in Providence, often in 
direct contrast to his neighbors who depended mainly 
upon their own prowess. 

It is a curious fact that in all of my travels through 
this State and in my historical researches I have yet to 
find the first specimen of firearms or murderous weapons 
brought over by the original German emigrant, yet there 
is hardly a Pennsylvania-German family which cannot 
point with pardonable pride to the German Bible, kate- 
chismus, or gesangbuch, still in possession of the family, 
which formed the chief treasure of the original emigrant, 
as it proved his comfort in time of sorrow and trial. 

Where relics of worldly handicraft still exist — precious 
heirlooms as they are —they are found to be implements 

108 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of peaceful arts, used in the farm economy or the domes- 
tic household. 

From the earliest days, the Germans in Pennsylvania, 
partly on account of their retiring disposition, but mainly 
from the fact of speaking a strange and foreign tongue, 
were imposed upon by their English-speaking neighbors, 
and often forced to suffer oppression and indignities, 
which would have been resented by force by almost any 
other nationality or race. 

This submission to ruthless oppression was not, however, 
caused by cowardice or lack of manhood, but was the re- 
sult of the religious teachings learned in the Fatherland. 

Their principle was to bear and to forbear, to labor and 
hope, and with God's help to rear a permanent home for 
themselves and their children. Among these earlv set- 
tiers are to be found many of the unknown heroes of the 
early Province. 

When the German emigrant arrived in the Province of 
Penn after the long and tiresome voyage of the period, 
and if fortunate enough to escape the clutches of the mer- 
ciless souldrivers with which the province abounded, 
reaching in safety the tract which he had purchased often 
far away from all civilization, yet even before the smoke 
on the improvised hearth-stone arose above the sur- 
rounding tree tops, the fervent pra} T er of the settler wafted 
heavenward, asking God's blessing upon the new home 
in the western wilderness. Their whole trust was placed 
in the Deity, and there the hardy settler rested fearless 
and secure, far from home and friends, surrounded by the 
primeval forest in which lurking savages abounded. 



True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 109 

Yet he feared not ; secure in his trust, he labored, hoped 
and prayed. 

Trials innumerable beset his path, but all were met and 

If one would ask what did this self-denial, suffering, 
religious enthusiasm, and labor of the early German Emi- 
grants result in, the query may he answered in a single 
sentence, viz.: "The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania." 

It was the religious spirit, the love of industry, the 
peaceful disposition, together with the sterling honesty 
for which the Pennsylvania-German is noted, which more 
than any other influence has placed our great State in the 
foremost rank of our national constellation. 

Nor does the influence wrought by these earlier pioneers 
rest within the borders of our Commonwealth, hut it has 
spread over the whole country, so that that there is not a 
single State within the American Union wherein Penn- 
sylvania-German influence is not felt. 

At the present day we can form hut little conception of 
the trials which beset the German emigrant in the early 
days of the Province. 

By far the darkest blot upon our provincial history is 
the period during which existed, under the protection of 
the law, a system of slavery the victims of which were 
mainly Germans, who, as the term "slaves" grated harshly 
on the ears of the meek Quaker or pious churchman, be- 
came known as Redemptionists or Redemption servants, a 
distinction which, however, failed to make the lot of the 
unfortunates any lighter. 

Often lured from their peaceful homes in the Father- 

110 Thx Pennsylvaniti-German Society. 

land by the persuasive eloquence of designing agents they 
gathered up their possessions, and placed their all in the 
agents' hands and started for the new world, only to find 
themselves stranded at the seaport, without the means of 
proceeding on their journey, and in their dire extremity 
were forced to sign themselves into a period of servi- 

Yet, bad as their situation was, there were even worse 
cases, where emigrants with their families, who had paid 
their full fare, upon their arrival under some trivial pre- 
text were sold into bondage, husband and wife separated 
and taken into different parts of the country miles apart, 
the children ruthlessly torn from the parents and sold into 
slavery often worse than death, and all this by the Chris- 
tian shipowner or churchly consignee in the province of 

When not sold on shipboard the poor creatures, weak- 
ened by their long voyage, were herded together and 
driven through the country like a herd of cattle. Stops 
were made at every cross-roads tavern to expose the 
human drove for sale, until all were disposed of. If any 
lagged or sank down under the fatigue of the journey or 
the inhuman treatment, the lash of the soul-driver's 
whip spurred them on until perhaps they fell dead by the 

As a matter of fact the German white slaves of that 
period were often treated with less consideration than the 
unfortunate Xegro who was bought outright. It is but 
necessary to scan the advertisements in the papers of the 
day to get an insight into the situation which once flour- 

True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. Ill 

ished in the Province and before which even negro slavery 
pales. It is stated as a matter of honorable record, that 
there is not a single case known where the husband and 
wife (unless parted by death), failed to reunite at the end 
of their servitude. Many descendants of these unfortu- 
nates are to-day in our midst, men who occupy honored 
positions in State and society, a living evidence of the 
true heroism displayed by their ancestors under the most 
adverse circumstances. In strange contrast the names 
and families of those who profited by this infamous 
traffic are in almost every instance lost in oblivion. 

The world naturally asks why did these people, with 
their strong love of liberty, submit? Why did they not 
rise up against their oppressors and strike for liberty? 
It is here again where the true heroism of the German 
settler appears. Resistance meant death or imprison- 
ment, and perhaps a separation forever from all that was 
dear to the German heart. 

Another class of true heroes, not to be forgotten, are 
the men and women, call them religious enthusiasts if you 
will, who, a century and a half ago, labored here in Penn- 
sylvania, and devoted their lives to provide places of re- 
ligious refuge for their scattered and spiritually neglected 
countrymen. I now refer to the communities at Eph- 
rata, in Lancaster county, and Bethlehem, in Northamp- 
ton The former, a community of Seventh Day Baptists, 
after exerting a widespread influence, has long since de- 
clined through the peculiar construction of the article in 
our State Constitution which was supposed to ensure re- 
ligious liberty, but in this case almost crushed out the 

112 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

organizations that felt it incumbent to keep the seventh 
day holy. 

Helics of this community may still be seen on the Co- 
calico in the old brethren and sister house with its adjoin- 
ing Saal. Although these remnants of a once prosperous 
community may crumble and soon be no more, the names 
of the pilgrim preachers, Beissel and Wohlfarth, will not 
be forgotten in history — two men who, time and again, 
dared to harangue the Philadelphia Quakers, in meeting 
and public market place, upon their iniquities, and their 
treatment of the German settler in Pennsylvania. 

Of the other heroic band who settled on the forks of 
the Delaware and founded Bethlehem I need not speak, as 
their history is too well known. Men and women who 
worked, labored, prayed and suffered in common, that 
the gospel might be free to every resident of the Province, 
irrespective of race, color or nationality. 

Many were the trials of this hero band. Most all rest 
in the scattered God's acres of the church, a simple num- 
bered breast-stone upon their grave ; the books of the 
church alone recording how many had suffered torture 
and martyrdom at the hands of the murderous savage. 

That their lives were not spent in vain, is evident at the 
present day, not only in our State and country, but in the 
missionary stations extending from far off Alaska in the 
frozen Xorth to torrid Surinam at the Equator, which all 
bear evidence of the true heroism of the early pioneers on 
the banks of the Lehigh. 

We come now to another class of heroes, viz. : the 
Lutheran and Reformed clergy, who labored and itiner- 


True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 113 

ated throughout the Province, ministering to the sick, 
baptizing children, comforting the dying, catechizing the 
youth, correcting errors, and establishing congregations 
and building churches wherever encouragement was given. 

These clergymen were not subsidized by a wealthy cor- 
poration, as were the ministers of the church of England. 
!N"o tithes, government aid or perquisites fell to their lot. 
Often having to work during the week to support their 
families, yet we find them preaching on Sundays to con- 
gregations at far distant points. 

The history of a few of these humble heroes has been 
written; the greater number, however, like their flock 
rest in unmarked tombs, while their labors and teachings 
still live in the influence engendered by their minis- 

In enumerating the various classes of self-sacrificing 
heroes of the provincial period, none deserve more credit 
than the German schoolmaster, the pastor's helper ; upon 
these men devolved not alone the education of the youth, 
but in the absence of a regular clergyman or in outlying 
districts, the spiritual cares of the settlers as well. His 
labors were clearly a labor of love ; no salary was attached 
to his mission, his only stipend being his board, and that 
often not the best, as was obtained from the parents of 
the scholars he taught. How onerous were his duties may 
be gathered from the fact that there are cases on record 
where a schoolmaster taught in two different places at the 
same time, serving three days a week in each township. 

Even these men did not escape the persecutions to 
which the Germans were subjected. Thus we find from 

114 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

an advertisement in the Philadelphia Mercury, February* 
1737, where a prominent Chester county churchman ad- 
vertises for sale — " A young Dutchman who understands 
writing and accounts and lately kept school." 

Think of it, fellow members of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man Society, this unfortunate teaching school, perhaps 
instilling the love of liberty in the hearts of his scholars 
while he himself was held in a state of bondage, subject 
to the lash at the pleasure of his owner. 

"What greater heroism can be shown than here exempli- 
fied by this humble, unknown schoolmaster. Humble and 
unfortunate though he was, he was infinite^ greater and 
nobler than the aristocratic church warden who held him 
in bondage and offered his human body for sale to the 
highest bidder. 

As an other example of the representative schoolmaster 
it is but necessary to mention the name of the Mennonite 
" Schulmeister " of the Skippack, Christopher Dock. 

This quiet, unassuming man taught school in the vicin- 
ity of the Skippack and Germantown for over half a cen- 
tury, during which time he not alone taught his scholars 
the elementary branches, but moulded their morals and 
character as well, never forgetting to look after the spir- 
itual welfare of any scholar who had once been under his 
charge. His labors among the German Mennonites, his 
writings which have come down to us, among which are 
a number of hymns still used by the Mennonites in their 
church service, all speak of the simplicity and true piety 
of the writer. Well may Christopher Sauer in his 
u Geistiliches Magazin " call him " den Gottselichen 
Christopher Dock." 



True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 115 

His death in the fall of 1771 was a fitting end to his 
pious life of heroic self-denial. 

After he dismissed his school he was wont to remain 
for a short time to pray and ask a blessing upon his 
departing scholars. While thus engaged upon his knees 
with hands uplifted the dread mandate came, calling him 
to join the church triumphant. 

I doubt whether his resting place is known. No em- 
blazoned monument marks the spot, but the seed he 
sowed took root and flourishes up to the present day. 
The victories this hero won are far more important than 
many gained at the cannon's mouth. 

When we come to the Revolutionary period, the charge 
is often made that during that memorable stru^o-le the 
majority of Germans were non-combatants, or favorable 
to the crown. Nothing can be farther from the truth. 
Granted that many of the German settlers in Pennsyl- 
vania were non-combatants, and from religious convictions 
refused to bear arms. This fact did not make them trai- 
tors or antagonistic to the patriot cause. 

The main sects or denominations in question were the 
Seventh Day Baptists, Moravians and Mennonites. 

Now who was it that kept the fighting army in the 
field ? It was just this contingent of peaceful Germans in 
Pennsylvania. Heroes none the less. As a matter of 
history the commissary stores during the most critical 
periods of the struggle were most all supplied by these 
same Pennsylvania-German non-combatants. 

The men and farms supplied the subsistence for man 
and beast, while the women furnished the clothing;, quilts 

116 The Pennsylva aid-German Society. 

and stockings for the soldiers. It is even said that such 
of the women as were too old to sew or knit, picked the 
lint and made bandages for the wounded. 

I have seen it stated in an old document of the time 
(I forget the writer), "that if it were not for the Penn- 
sylvania Dutch women the army could not keep the field 
a month." 

Further, when after disastrous battles the buildings 
and institutions of these people were seized by the mili- 
tary authorities and turned into hospitals, and the peace- 
ful occupants forced to seek shelter where best they could, 
as was the case at Ephrata, Bethlehem, Lititz and else- 
where. Did they object? No, they accepted the situa- 
tion without a murmur, and both men and women as min- 
isters of mercy attended the sick and dying no matter 
how loathsome or pestilential the disease, in many cases 
sacrificing their own health and lives for humanity's sake. 
This was another example of true heroism of the Ger- 
man settler in Pennsylvania. Xo one ever heard of these 
people asking for any fee or reward or claiming damages 
for losses sustained, similar to the Chester County Quak- 
ers or Philadelphia Tory, although the buildings, on ac- 
count of the deadly typhus or camp fever, were unfitted 
for their original uses and had to be destroyed or aban- 
doned to other purposes. 

History thus far has failed to immortalize these humble 

In Ephrata, on the hill above the old Settlement, was to 
be seen for many years a rough deal board upon which 
was painted in German fractur schrift the legend: "Heir 


True Heroes of Provincial Pennsylvania. 117 

Puhen die Gebeine Vieler Soldaten" but not a word or line 
to indicate where rest those of the Theosophic community 
who sacrificed their lives for the alleviation of the suffer- 
ings of the country's defenders. 

At the late Sesqui-Centennial festival at Bethlehem, a 
memorial stone was unveiled " To the unknown dead who 
were willing to die that their country might live," 
marking the burial place of soldiers who died in the gen- 
eral hospital at Bethlehem. 

The noble men and women, brethren and sisters of the 
Unitas Fratrum, who volunteered as nurses and served as 
hospital attendants during that critical period, and who 
nursed hundreds of soldiers into recovery, in many cases 
sacrificing health and life to their self imposed duty, rest 
in the God's acre on the hill. The breast-stone bears only 
their number. True heroes, who faced death with greater 
fortitude and more frequently than many a soldier on 
the battle field. 

In conclusion I have now but to mention the grandest 
heroic character in Pennsylvania history. I allude to the 
" German Mother," and what person is there here who 
would refuse to place a garland of tribute at her feet. 
She needs no brazen tablet nor granite monument to re- 
count her virtue, nor epic poem to sing her praise. Her 
memory is enshrined in all our hearts. Ever patient, 
self denying, devout, industrious, thrifty, her sole aim to 
raise her family in the fear of the Lord. 

Among no other nationality who settled in the province 
of Penn can you produce her equal. It is due to her in- 
fluence that the Pennsylvania-German of to-day occupies 

118 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

his high position in society and state. Her teachings 
moulded our character and made possible the Common- 
wealth as it is. 

Thus when we speak of the early settlers of our country 
and admire their courage displayed during their trials 
and privatious, none loom up grander and nobler than 
the German settlers and their descendents in Pennsylvania. 
Men and women, humble though they were, ever law 
abiding citizens under all circumstances. ISTo matter how 
oppressive the laws, or harsh their enforcement, loyal, 
sober, thrifty, peaceful and devout, they laid the founda- 
tion of that great distinctive race known as " The Penn- 
sylvania-German," whose influence has made itself felt 
wherever its representatives are to be found. 

In calling your attention to this chapter in our history 
I have by no means exhausted the subject, and trust that 
renewed interest may be aroused and abler minds and 
pens enlisted to do justice to the " True Heroes of Pro- 
vincial Pennsylvania." 

Dr. William If. Egle being kept away by unforseen 
and unavoidable professional duties, the paper he had pre- 
pared was read by another, and was as follows : 


Ladies and Gentlemen : — This is the subject of a brief 
paper to which I pray your patient hearing. Who is the 
Pennsylvania-German ? I am asked. To be explicit in 
reply — he is the descendant of the early German settlers 
in Pennsylvania, and hence to be distinguished from the 


■r^: ■;■-.« 










The Pennsylvania German. 119 

scions of that later race of emigrants from the Father- 
land. By those who know not the distinction he is ig- 
norantly named " Pennsylvania-Dutch;" by many who do, 
" Pennsylvania-Deutsch." We, however, hold to the 
compound or hyphenated word "'Pennsylvania-German, " 
as being at once expressive and distinctive. 

Born perchance in luxury, yet with the same religious 
fervor which actuated the crusaders of old, the German 
Palatinate and the Swiss endured the horrors of a six 
months' voyage across the treacherous Atlantic that they 
might plant the standard of religious toleration and lib- 
erty in the wilderness of Pennsylvania. 

To-day you may cross the ocean with comparative 
safety, surrounded by all the luxuries and comforts of 
home life. One hundred and fifty years ago to take the 
same voyage was like entering a pest house, and as I have 
recently gone over the records of these early immigrants, 
I can certify to the doleful and heart-rending stories of 
those voyagers. Xo tale of misery in later times can 
compare with the sufferings of these early pilgrims. 
Heaven grant that we, the descendants of a brave and 
valiant ancestry, may appreciate the self-denials, the sim- 
ple piety, the worth and the high moral character of 
those who not only made our Commonwealth the garden 
of the world, but assisted in founding in industry, in 
thrift, religious education, surrounded by all the higher 
attributes of a Christian civilization, God's own State — 

I yield to no one in the veneration and the high esteem 
of those of other people, who have aided in forming the 

120 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

State and the Nation, but my loyalty first is to ancestry 
and home. A nation like ours comprises too many 
elements in the make-up of its early history, to disparage 
either — but so charmingly have these coalesced that the 
Free America of to-day is thegrandest country which ever 

But I come to speak of the place the Pennsylvania- 
German holds in the Commonwealth — not only in the 
past, but in the present — a place which a mere glance 
will show, that when grouped together, how important 
and honorable in its history. There have been glorious 
constellations in that firmament, which perchance have 
not been appreciated, from the fact that no blazing or 
erratic star hurled from its gyre has crossed the path of 
observation, to dazzle and awe for a moment, then to sink 
into the trackless sea of oblivion — but the light which 
once shone glimmers down through the years undimmed. 

Shall I call your attention at the first to those who 
planted the banners of the Cross in the new w T orld — those 
heroes of the Gospel of Christ — equal in holy zeal and 
self-denial to the disciples of Loyola — yet superior in the 
beauty of their lives : 
To Muhlenberg, the saintly, the beloved, the grandest 

patriarch of the Church in the pre-Revolutionary 

To Spangenberg, the devout enthusiast — willing to 

sacrifice his life in the cause of his Divine Master. 
To Cammerhoff, the zealous and devoted missionary — a 

beacon light to many a wayfarer. 
To Schlatter, the disciple of the Swiss Reformation, 

God-fearing and faithful to the end. 

The Pennsyltania-German. 121 

"With them or following came a host, as St. John, the 
Divine, has said, " which no man could number." 

"Who in Indian lore and language equalled Zeisberger 
and Heckewelder ? Or who in diplomacy with the wily 
red men of the forest, Conrad Weiser and Frederick Post ? 
These men all came with the vanguard of civilization, 
and they stood there beckoning on the army which, seeing 
their beacon-light, followed on. 

When the dawn of the Revolution was ushered in, and 

the hills reverberated with the sound of war, who took an 

earlier or a bolder stand than the Pennsylvania-German? 

Of his substance he first gave to the starving; and dis- 
cs o 

tressed inhabitants of Boston, and then swelled the ranks 
of that gallant band of heroes who marched to the relief 
of the beleaguered city, and yet a century after in that 
same city, her sons of to-day, forgetting the noble service 
to their ancestors, seek to belittle the Pennsylvania- 

From Boston to Quebec, in the Canada campaign of 
1776, and in all the battles of that seven years' struggle 
for independence, the Pennsylvania-German took a loyal 
part, and, although owing to his foreign tongue, few were 
in command, yet their blood stained the soil of every 
battle-field during that conflict. In proportion to their 
numbers they equalled the Scotch-Irish in their devotion 

!to liberty and the principles of '76. With them patriot- 
ism was an inborn and inseparable characteristic. For 
this they left all and came to America, and none were 
truer to the cause than the Pennsvlvania-German. Had I 
the time, it would afford me delight to speak of the gal- 

122 The PennsylvaniarGerman Society. 

lant and patriotic services of the Hubleys, Hiesters, Muhl- 
enbergs, Weitzels, of Hausegger, Klotz, ISTagel, Weidman, 
Ziegler, Kichlein and others, bravest among the brave, 
upon many a well-fought battle-field — at Trenton, Prince- 
ton, Long Island, Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth 
and Yorktown. 

Coming down to the war of 1812, and that with Mexico 
in 1846, how many among the leaders were of Pennsyl- 
vania-German ancestry ; and so when we look over the 
long array of officers and men, in the Civil Conflict 
of 1861-18G5, the number who claimed that same descent, 
whether from this or other States of the Union, were 
legion. I cannot discriminate, and yet the names of some 
who won their stars are called to mind — leaders and gen- 
erals in very truth: 

Hartranft, the model soldier of the war — one the State 
delighted to honor and whose memory is revered and 
esteemed by his comrades wherever scattered. 
Heintzlemax, the chivalric and bold — the scion of a 

hardy and patriotic race. 
Pennypacker, the youthful brigadier, yet gallant and 
dashing — one of the most successful officers of the War. 
Beaver, the gifted, the trusted statesman, the brave and 

valorous soldier and Christian gentleman. 
Guss, the popular, admired and beloved by every veteran 

in his command. 
Gobin, the idomitable ; the honored statesman and silver- 
tongued orator. 
Knipe, the industrious, brave, ardent patriot — ever loyal 
to his State and country. 

The Pennsylvania-German. 123 

Schwenk, a hero, whose valor will endure to remote ages. 
Leasure, the pet of the round heads ; ardent, loyal and 

Xegley, renowned in love or in war, an errant knight of 


And so I might lengthen out this list of men who shed 
light on our Commonwealth — in that great fratricidal 
strife which shook the world by its convulsion — as upon 
its issue depended the permanency of free government. 
In the States west of the Ohio, there were many heroic 
soldiers who spread a lustre upon their Pennsylvania- 
German ancestry. A Xew England Puritan of the Puri- 
tans has made the statement that few stars shone from the 
shoulders of Pennsylvania-German soldiers in that war. 
I do not disparage the distribution of literary ability, but 
some other basis must be taken than an Encyclopedia of 
Biography written from a one-sided Ilollandish Xew 
York or a Xew England cross-road school house stand- 
point. Of the 300,000 veterans from Pennsylvania who 
marched in defense of the Union two-thirds were of 
Pennsylvania-German descent. Make a note of that, ye 
carpers ! 

In the century of Governors of the Commonwealth 
one-half were of honored Pennsylvania-German ancestry, 
almost wholly or in part, men equal in ability and states- 
manship to any who filled the executive chair. Some of 
them were grand old men, whose names and fame will 
go down the ages, gathering in honor and renown. 
They made their mark in the history of our Common- 

124 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

If in the Senatorial-Congressional arena the Pennsylva- 
nia-German has not made a distinctive mark, he it known 
that that element has entered largely into the character- 
istics of those who have — some have had more Pennsyl- 
sylvania-German blood than the race from which their 
surname is inherited. Who would believe that the senior 
Senator from this State has a large preponderance of that 
descent — although we only think of the clan Cameron of 
Scotland. To this blood he is indebted for that energy, 
thrift and great executive ability he has inherited. Ex- 
Governor Ramsey, of Minnesota, is another personal ex- 
ample of this prominent Pennsylvania-German character- 
istic — only Scotch-Irish by name. In looking over the 
records of a recent Scotch-Irish Congress, I was particu- 
larly struck by the fact that many in that body belonged 
to the same class as Senator Cameron and Governor Ram- 
sey. Oh ! cries one, a little Scotch-Irish leavers the 
whole lump of the Pennsylvania-German ! That may be, 
but to call a rose a thistle would not make it so. I hold, 
therefore, that all the sterling characteristics which have 
entered into the make-up of these persons making them 
pre-eminently men of mark, come from their Pennsylva- 
nia-German ancestry. 

The Pennsylvania-German has been the leader in " the 
art preservative of all arts." Sauer, the Germantown 
printer, manufactured the first type made in America, 
and printed the first Bible in a European language in this 
country. The Ephrata press was a remarkable one, and 
more books were issued by that community and by the 
Sauers prior to the Revolution, than from all the New 


The Pennsylvania-German. 125 

England and ]STew York printing presses together. The 
first genealogical work printed in America was issued by 
the Ephrata Society. Prominent in this work were 
Billymyer, Henry Miller, Ritter, the Bears and others, 
excelling in their printing, while to another, old Gustavus 
Peters, are we indebted first for stereotyping, and secondly 
as the inventor of printing in oil colors. To-day there are 
none more prominent in editorial work on the principal 
newspapers of the State than representatives of this same 
industrious and vigorous people. 

The first newspaper established west of the Susque- 
hanna was by a Pennsylvania-German, and they led the 
van when the command was given, ""Westward Ho?" 

The Reading Kalendar and Baer's Almanacs for a 
century have been more successful enterprises in that line 
of publication, and considered the standard, than any 
ever issued from the American press. And while upon 
this point — what astronomers have equalled in calcula- 
tion the accurate and admirable works of those self-made 
men, Ibach and Engleman, the noted "almanac makers." 
And here let me say, that a Pennsylvania-German, born 
in this county of Lebanon, gave to the world the greatest 
astronomical gift, the Lick Observatory in California. 

In scientific literature who has excelled Haldeman in 
archaeology, Stauffer in botany, or Rathvon in entymol- 
ogy? Whose reputation has been more cosmopolitan 
than that of Leidy the Scientist — a descendant of a gal- 
lant soldier of the Revolution. These names place our 
State high upon the roll of those famed in scientific re- 

126 The Pennsylvania- German Society, 

We must not forget Rittenhouse, the patriot astrono- 
mer, whose name is the common heritage of America. 
An attempt is being made to claim him for Holland de- 
scent ; but he was neither low Dutch or Xetherland 
Dutch, but Pennsylvania-Deutsch, pure and simple. 

A Morse may reap the honors which should be an- 
other's, but to Alter belongs the first putting into actual 
practice the electric telegraph ; and so by suborning 
witnesses, Drawbaugh may be deprived of the credit of 
the so-called Bell telephone ; yet to these persons of Penn- 
sylvania-German descent are we indebted for these high- 
water marks of the progress of to-day. 

In the world's history there are plenty such examples 
where the true hero is not crowned with the laurel. 
Americus Vespucius reaped the glory Columbus was en- 
titled to, and this country named America, for a naviga- 
tor who did little more than Cabot and other early 
sailors to maritime countries. If courts can be influenced 
by the pressure of corporations, in the minds and hearts 
of the people are preserved the story of historic truths, 
and the appreciation of the world's great benefactors. 

We often hear of a "Scheme to educate the Germans," 
which was projected by some ill-advised persons in the 
early days of the Province of Pennsylvania, and the 
natural inference is that the settlers were ignorant. Such, 
however, is far from the truth. The German immigrant, 
from 1720 to 1760, was well educated ; he brought his 
books, his pastor and school teacher with him. The 
"scheme " alluded to was for the purpose of English edu- 
cation, as it seemed then to be necessary for the purpose 

The Pennsylvania-German. 127 

of good and wise government that everybody understood 
the theory of English citizenship. The scheme was not 
a success, for the good old German pioneers preferred the 
language of the Fatherland ; and so with the establish- 
ment of German newspapers, and the issues of the Sauer, 
Ephrata and other presses, information was more gener- 
ally promulgated among the German and Swiss immi- 
grants, than among those from the British Isles. Our 
ancestors were diligent in educating their children. They 
had not established colleges prior to the Revolution, but 
they had splendid academies and schools, and the propor- 
tion of Germans who could not read or write was less at 
any period than in the other American States, Xorth or 
South. Of course, it was a so-called foreign language, 
but that made them no more ignorant or unlearned, 
in comparison, than the graduate of Heidelberg with 
him of Oxford. 

And when free education was proposed, because the 
Pennsylvania-German was slow to adopt new methods 
and declined to make radical changes in the system 
carried out for so many years, he has been deemed 
boorish and unlearned; yet when truth is spoken, the 
originator of the present plan of public education — the 
free schools — was "William Audenreid, a Pennsylvania- 
German, while its most earnest advocates and promoters 
were Governors Wolf and Ritner, belonging to that same 
pioneer race. The efforts of the "Great Commoner" came 
after, when an attempt was made to repeal certain pro- 
visions. In the equipment of normal, high and prepara- 
tory schools, in the efficiency of superintendents and 

128 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

teachers the status of German-Pennsylvania is equal to 
any others in the Union. The Pennsylvania-German 
leads the van. His impress on the Chautauquan move- 
ment which has brought us together to-day is largely 
shown. And thus it is in all the higher walks of Educa- 
tion, University Extension, Social and Political Economy, 
and in whatever tends to elevate thought, there are no 
students or leaders more devoted. 

No doubt some of my hearers may have heard of the 
reason given by newspaper scribblers, for the large Demo- 
cratic majority always assured in the county of Berks, as 
due to the preponderance of Pennsylvania-German, his 
ignorance and stupidity — failing to see that the same 
would hold good for the large Republican majority al- 
ways given by the county of Lancaster. It is a poor rule, 
my friends, which will not work both ways. The Democ- 
racy of Berks is just as intelligent as the Republicans of 
Lancaster. It is principle which makes one man a Dem- 
ocrat and another man a Republican. The success of any 
political party does not show by any means its superior in- 
tellectual endowments over another. Man is not of one 
mind, and it is a blessed thing. It is a God-given differ- 
ence, and we ought to be thankful that it is so. 

If in education the Pennsylvania-German is in the ad- 
vance, what shall we say of its theological literature — of 
Rauch, and Scmucker, and Krauth, with a host of other 
good men, who have passed on leaving a trail of brilliancy 
in the firmament of advanced thought. And so with re- 
ligious leaders. Who left behind them brighter records, 
and the establishment of more powerful Christian or- 

The Pennsylvania-German. 129 

ganizations than Otterbein, of the United Brethren— 
Winebrenner, of the Church of God — and Albright, of 
the Evangelical Church. In their day they were pos- 
sessed of a fervor and piety which made them fore- 
runners in religious thought. "Their works do follow 
them;" and so we have scattered through many States 
those who believe in the doctrines these men taught. 

In law the Pennsylvania-German of to-day is preemi- 
nent. As jurists, few equal Pennypacker, Heydrick, Al- 
bright, Bittinger, Bucher and a score of others, brilliant 
in the legal profession, upright and honorable, shedding a 
lustre and renown on the judiciary of the State. None of 
the reports of the Supreme and other courts have equalled 
in accuracy and conciseness those edited by Ammerman, 
Crumrine and Pennypacker. While in certain lines of 
legal lore who so prominent as Endlich, Wadlinger r 
Jacobs and other Pennsylvania-German authors? 

The field of medicine in Pennsylvania is largely occu- 
pied by that class we have under consideration. Many 
of these have risen to high positions in medical and 
surgical practice. And thus it is in science and in me- 
chanic arts of whatsoever nature. Who has excelled 
Rothermel in descriptive painting — or how stands your 
Peales, your Sully or St. Menin beside that Pennsyl- 
vania-German portrait painter Eicholtz ? 

In literature, many have left an enduring monument of 
their patient and laborious research. The best history of 
the War of the Revolution (unfortunately it was never 
completed) was Hubley's, while Harbaugh, Reichel, Itupp 
and others have gloaned successfully in fields where 
others failed to reap. 

130 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

And so, my friends, I might continue giving bright 
examples of the men of mark in our State whose birth 
and lineage is Pennsylvania-German. Yet I must not 
pass over the man who more than any other has assisted 
in making our Commonwealth the garden of the world. 
To the Pennsylvania-German are we indebted for that in- 
dustry and thrift which have made Pennsylvania farms the 
of pride the Xation. In no section of the world do you 
find better cultivated farms — better fences, better houses, 
better barns, — better variety of crops — corn, grain and 
tobacco, than those owned or managed by the Pennsyl- 
vania-German. Within sis;ht of these surrounding hills 
is a series of farms which, for the high character of their 
buildings, for productiveness, for granaries, unsurpassed, 
fully exemplifying the fact that " farming pays/' have 
not their equal in any land under the sun — I refer to those 
owned by Col. James Young, a Pennsylvania-German. 

And now, why need I further recall the hosts of other 
good and worthy men whose names and fame I have not 
alluded to? High upon the historic escutcheon of the 
Commonwealth are placed the insignia of those who have 
honored and glorified it. For its place in the history of 
the Union, the State is more largely indebted to the Penn- 
sylvania-German than to any other class or race of people. 
I cannot but be loyal to my ancestry — if I am loyal to my 
State and my God. 



..' "-; ^-^ ; - ; 

Levi Eheaffar Heist 

Was born in Warwick township, Lancaster county, on 
April 13, 1817, and died on May 29, 1892. He was the 
eldest son of Jacob Reist, a prominent farmer and busi- 
ness man, His education was received in the schools of 
the day, and the free school system never had a warmer 
friend. He was foremost in all progressive movements. 
Pie was one of the founders of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural Society, its first President and one of its 
Vice-Presidents at the time of his death. He always 
manifested great interest in horticulture, farming and 
forestry. He was one of the founders of the Lancaster 
Fanner, and on its editorial staff. He was possessed of 
an uncommon acquaintance with local history, especially 
in its genealogical features, and his memory relative to the 
old German families was remarkable. He was an earnest 
member of the Pennsylvania-German Society from the 
first, and would have made an active worker in its ranks. 
He was a man of sterling character and universally es- 
teemed. . F. R. D. 


132 The Pennsylvani&-German Society. 

esssss^^s^is^ssgr i i '^m 

Henry Bherk Rginliold 

Was born in Lancaster county on June 30, 1840. During 
the war of the Rebellion, he went to the front as the Lieu- 
tenant of a company raised chiefly by his own efforts and 
equipped largely with his own money. He bore himself 
gallantly in the war for the Union. At its conclusion he 
removed to Harrisburg, where he died on August 7, 1891. 
He was a generous man, and highly esteemed by all who 
knew him. He was a member of Post 58, G. A. R. 

F. R. D. 

■\^*-^>*^<*&m&><&. v.' 


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