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Full text of "The Pennsylvania-German : devoted to the history, biography, genealogy, poetry, folk-lore and general interests of the Pennsylvania Germans and their descendants"

INDEX 1Q08. 



SUBJECTS. 



Biography: Page. 

Threescore Years of Public School Work 6 

iohn Wanamakcr, Merchant and Philanthropist. i6 
lenry William Stiegel 7' 

Henry A. Schuler 99 

The Mayors of a Typical Pennsylvania-German 

City (Allentown, Pa.) i47 

Rev. Revere Franklin Weidner, D.D., LL.D... 153 

Rev. Elmer Frederick Krauss, D.D 156 

Frederick X'alentine Melsheimer 213 

Henry Sylvester Jaeoby.' 222 

Ezra E. Eby, the Historian, and His Work... 273 

Abraham Harley Cassell 303 

Edgar Fahs Smith, Vice Provost, University of 

Pennsylvania 346 

Philip H. Glatfelder 399 

Godlove S. Orth 43 5 

David Schuftz: An Old Time "Bush Lawyer".. 499 
Col. Washington A. Roebling 511 

History: 

A German .Schoolmaster of "Ye Olden Time". 3 
vTleminiscences of a P'ormer Hereford Schoolboy, 1 1 

•'The Pennsylvania-Germans 21 

Pennsylvania-German Patriotism 34 

VSumneytown and Vicinity 51, 359 

^^he Pennsylvania-German in the Field of 

Science 59 

. The Pennsvlvania-German as Biologist 60 

^ Is the Dialect Dying Out? 85 

b^ Old-Time Battalion Drills (B'dolya) 106 

\ The Gun Makers of Old Northampton no 

V \\'itchcraft 114 

A Pennsylvania-Germans as Teachers of Science 

^ in Colleges and Universities 121 

^ . The Pennsylvania-Germans in Loudoun County, 

^ \"irginia 125 

Lynn Township and Hs Professional Men.... 158 
^ The Lutheran Congregation of Heidelberg.... 17s' 

U., The Germans 1 80 

' Picturesque and Historic Durham Valley 195 

Pennsylvania's Part in Winning the West 205 

r The Maternal Grandmother of George Wash- 
ington 226 

■* Literary Opportunities in Pennsylvania-Ger- 

^ many 243 

N The Conway Cabal at York, Pennsylvania, 

C> 1777-1778 ..248 

^ Historv of St. Luke's Reformed Church, 

Trap'pe, Pa ... 255 

^.^^ VT'ennsylvania-Germans as Teachers of Science 

vj«i;_ in Private Schools 262 

Flax Culture and Its Utility 266 

The Pennsylvania-German in Minnesota 277 

^^ The Burning of Chambersburg, Pa 291 

V^ The Germans in Franklin County, Pa 307 

V^ A lourney Over the Route Travelled by Rev. 
;.»^ F. A. C. Muhlenberg on His Trips to Shamo- 

.^=^ kin, 1777 339 

i \/"The Pennsylvania-Dutch" — A Few Observa- 
tions 370 

The Ancestral Home of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man 387 

The Pennsylvania-Germans in the Revolutionary 

War 407 

The Pennsylvania-German as Geologist and Pa- 
leontologist 411 

The Hassinger Church 415 

y Old Germantown 443 

German Supplanters 461 

First Audience Given by Congress to the French 

Minister to the United States 463 

Regulars and Militia 483 

A Pennsylvania-German Settlement in Indiana.. 487 

Canaling 490 

Hiester Homestead in Germany 496 

A German Cradle Song 505 

Genealogy: 

.1^ The Fretz Family 68 

Descendants of Martin Luther 84 



The Nationality of Daniel Boone 141 

Schwartz Descendants 145^ 

Hanjeorg Kistler and His Descendants 173, 

Ancestors of Daniel Boone 233 , 

The Maternal Grandmother of Washington 313 

The Blickensderfer Family 32z- 

The Mohr Family 35a- 

The Smith Family 354 

The Glatfelder Family 396 

The Shoemaker Family of Shoemakersville, Pa. 559 

Folklore and Fiction: 

William Holler, the Red Man's Terror 29- 

The Chimes of St. Peter 77 

Elizabeth's Mad Ride 165 

Pennsylvania-German Folklore 171 

The '.S(|uire and Katrina 223, 

Marriage Superstitions 372 

The Home: 37, 86, 134, 182, 228, 422, 466, 516, 563. 

Some Oldtime Breakfast Cakes 37 

A Clock Dated B. C. 1 780 37 

Revival of Patch Work Quilt 86- 

"Pennsylvania-Dutch" Recipes 134 

Eyelet Embroidery 134, 

Easter Customs 182 

Apple Dumplings 182 

.Steamed Dumplings 182 

Baked Dumplings 182' 

The Old Crepe Shawl 422 

The Old Merry-Go-Round 422 

Applebutter Boiling 516, 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies: 

Lancaster County Historical Society .85, ^33, 477, 575 

Bucks County Historical Society "133, 287, 333 

Lehigh County Historical Society 133.478,575 

The Wyoming Society 191 

The Schuylkill County Society 191, 33^ 

The York County Society 191, jj^ 

The Montgomery Society 191, 574: 

Historical Society of Frankford 237, 383, 430- 

The Lebanon County Historical Society ... .238, 526' 

The Kittochtinny Society 23S 

Hamilton Library Association 287 

Society for the History of the Germans in Mary- 
land 287 

Swatara Collegiate Institute, Jonestown, Lebanon 

County, Pa 287 

The Historical Society of Berks County. 333, 477, 526 

The Presbyterian Historical Society 333, 526. 

The New England Historical Genealogical So- 
ciety 333. 

The Pennsylvania-German Society 38s 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Historical So- 
cieties 383s. 

The Bradford Flistorical Society 430. 

The Chester County Historical Society 430- 

Annals of Iowa 477 

The General Council Historical Society 478^ 

The Moravian Historical Society 574. 

Snyder County Historical Society 575 

Deutsche Pionier Verein 575 

The German American Historical Society 575 

Miscellaneous: 

The German-.American Collection in the New 

York Public Library 26 

Pure German and Pennsylvania-Dutch 36 

Is Pennsylvania-German a Dialect ? 66 

Spinning in the Oldtime Winter Nights 83 

Alice E. Traub 86 

Rev. Calvin E. Kuder 86 

Rev. A. B. Shelly 88 

Chicago's Largest Lutheran Congregation 88 

Himmclsbrief 217 

Die .Mt Heemet 279 

An Historic Pilgrimage Along Mountain By- 

Ways 3,6 

Pioneer Home Life 323 



\) 



The Urderground Railroad 

Extracts From the Justice Docket of John Potts 

of Pottstown 

An Immigrant's Letter, 1734 

Country Funerals and Mortuary Customs of 

Long Ago 

Aaturalization Paper of Adam Miller 

Four Hundred Miles Overland for Salome Heck- 

ervelder 

Pennsylvania-Dutch or German ? 

\\1\\ and Inventory of Casper Glattf elder 

A Glimpse of the Perkiomen Valley 

•Oldtime Xeijohrswunsch 

First Mook Printed in Reading 

A WellPreserved Centenarian Cliurch 

■German Surnames 169, 349, 

Battalion [)ay 

Swiss and Hohtein I'.ar; s 

l^ITERARV (^F.MS: 

Hurrah for der Winter 

The Departed Year — Das \bgesrhiedere Yohi . . 
Des Xeujohrs Mahning — New Year's Monition.. 

A Calendar of Gems — En Gem Kalenner 

J\m Barahunta 

<ieburtsmonet — Profezeiings 

Jis Feiar un Boyertown 

Six I ove Lyrics of St. Valenti; e 

.,m Dinkey sei Knecht 

Zuf riedenheit — Conte- tment 

Wie Die I eut Des Duhue 

Der Hexelok^or 13(1, 

Die Mutterschproch 

Das Herz — The Heart 

P^in Fruhlingflied von Dr. M. Luther 

Schlafend in Je?u — .Asleep in Jesus 

Die Mami Schloft 



361 

364 
367 

403 
421 

450 

458 

493 

508 

28 

33 

33 

455 

355 

398 



38 
38 
39 
39 

40 

41 
87 



135 
13s 
184 
183 
183 
184 
229 
229 



Em Sam sei Kin ner 

Eppes ueber Pennsylvanisch-Deutsch . . . . 

Brief an "Der Deutsch Pioneer" 

'Ihe American: (The First) (The Second) 

In Der Erndt 

Der Viert July [\ 

Poe's Raven — Der Krab '. 

Der Gapenschenda Merder 

The Reaper and the Flowers — Der Schnitter 

und die Blumme 

Schnitter mit der Sens 

Der Olmechtich Dawler 

De College Boova 

Tov 

The Old Way of Thrashing '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Jubilee Ode 

Mei' Erst' Blugges 

Die Scientists un de He.xaduckter 

Whereever It May Be 

Mei Drom , \ 

Kriegslicd 

Montgomery County Pies 

En Thanksgiving Shtory 



230 
230 
325 
3-26 
326 
327 
373 
375 

423 
423 
424 
425 
468 
468 
469 
470 
471 
S17 
517 
518 
518 
519 



Editorial Department: 42, 90, 138, 187, 232, 281, 

3-'8, 378, 420, 472, 520, 568 - 

Clippings from Current News, 43, 92, 13", 188, 213, 

281, 328, 379, 420, 472, 531, 569 
Chat with Correspondents, 45, 94, 141, 189, 235, 285, 

331, 382, 429, 476, 572 
Genealogical Notes and Queries, 46, 286, 334, 382, 

431. 525 
Our Book-Table, 46, 95, 143, 192, 239, 287, 335, 

384, 431, 479, 527, 575 

Death of the Editor 90 

A Few Words of Commendation 91 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Portraits: 



John \\'anamaker 2 

Jonn M. 'Wolf 7 

A. B. Myers 8 

John Wanamaker at Twenty-Five 17 

Kroft Fisher 107 

John W. Cyphert 107 

Captain Edward T. Hess 108 

Rev. Fllmer F. Krauss, D.D 146 

Rev. R. F. Weidner, D.D., LL.D 146 

Samuel McIIose 147 

Col. Tilghman H. Good 147 

Theodore C. Yeajer, M.D 148 

Col. Edward B. Young 148 

Herman Schuman 148 

Alfred J. Martin, M.D 149 

Edwin G. Martin, M.D 149 

Edward S. Shinier 149 

Werner Knauss Ruhe 150 

Col. Samuel D. Lehr 150 

Henry W. Allison 1 50 

Fred. E. Lewis 151 

Capt. James L. Schaadt 15' 

Alfred J. Yost, M.D 151 

C. D. Schaeffer, M.D 152 

Harry Gibson Stiles 152 

Rev. Dr. .\bram R. Home 194 

David W. Hess i94 

Prof. Aaron S. Christine 194 

Prof. Henry Sylvester Jacoby 194 

Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D.D., LL.D 242 

Ezra E. Eby 242 

Abraham Harley Cassell 290 

Edgar Fahs Smith 338 

Godlove S. Orth 434 

Mary Ball Washington 53° 

Prof. John S. Ermentrout 55° 

Rev. Dr. Abram R. Home 552 

State Supt. Dr. N. C. Schaeffer 555 

Rev. Dr. G. B. Hancher 556 

Dr. A. C. Rothermel 557 

Scenes and Views: 

Birthplace of John Wanamaker 16 

Brickyard in which young Wanamaker worked.. 17 

Mr. \\'anamaker's First Store 18 

The Hiester House, Sunineytown, Pa 52 

Ruins of Powder-Mill, Sumneytown, Pa 54 

Ruins of Dryhouse Used by Miller Bros 55 

Frieden's Lutheran and Reformed Church, Sum- 
neytown, Pa 56 



Sumneytown's Quaintest Bridge 58 

John Fretz Homestead 69 

Christian Fretz Home.stead 70 

The Stiegel Mansion 73 

Stiegel's Office 74 

Stiegel's Ten Plate Stove 75 

Elizabeth Stiegel's Tombstone 76 

The Old Home of H. A. Schuler loi 

Remaining Accountrements of the Springfield 

Pioneers 109 

Taylortown Mill on Catoctin Creek 127 

German Reformed Church, Lovettsville, Va.... 128 

Tankerville Church. Erected in 1865 129 

Shinar Church, Erected in 1895 130 

Lovettsville lutheran Church 131 

Lovettsville Reformed Church 132 

Donat's Kopf 159 

Daniel Kistler Farm 160 

Jonas Bachman Farm i6i 

Lynville Schoolhouse 162 

Lynnville Hotel 162 

St. Daniel's Church 176 

Cemetery, St. Daniel's Church 178 

Birthplace of Rev. Dr. Abram R. Home 196 

Springfield Meeting House 197 

Springfield Church 198 

Skull Rock 200 

Houpt's Old Mill 201 

Durham Furnace 203 

Delaware Narrows 204 

Doorway to a Farm House 244 

Historic Flouring Mill 246 

An Old Mill 247 

St. Luke's Reformed Church 260 

Interior of St. Luke's Reformed Church 261 

Pulling Flax 268 

Thrashing Fla.x 269 

Braking Flax 270 

Flaxswingling 271 

Flaxhatcheling 272 

After the Fire, Main Street, south from Public 

Square. Now Memorial Hall 294 

After the Fire, south from Market Street Bap- 
tist Church. Now G. A. R. Hall on Emi- 
nence 297 

After the Fire, Rosedale Seminary. Site of 

present Rosedale Opera House 300 

After the Fire, Courthouse, Northeast Corner 

Memorial Square 302 

View of Saylor's Lake, looking northward 321 

Glatf elder 386 

Glatfelder Church , 386 

Glatf elder Homestead 397 



■"Pennsylvania ^^■agon" — The Hearse of our 

Pennsylvania Ancestors 404 

Hassinger's Cliurch 416 

The Orth Homestead 437 

Ilomestead of Francis Daniel Pastorius 443 

Old Germantown 445 

The Johnson House 446 

The Roberts Mill 447 

First Dunker Church 44S 

St. Michael's Evangelical-Lutheran Church 449 



Church at Elsoff, Germany 482 

Trinity Reformed Church, Mulberry, Indiana... 487 

School Building, Mulberry, Indiana 489 

\'iew near Corning, Pa 508, 509 

The Normal in Early Days . . .' 547 

The Normal of Today ' 548 

The (iymnasium rcg 

Old Stone M ansion ...'.'. 560 

\\ eiden Schollen !!!!!!! 561 

N'iew of Shoemakersville, Pa 562 



.\UTIIORS AND CONTRirsUTORS. 



Adams, Charles Poller 565 

-Vnderson, Rev. M. M 508 

Kachman, J. Fred J9 

Hergey, Prof. D. H 59, ui, 411 

Bittengen, Lucv Fornev 171 

Eetz, Dr. I. II.' 248, 361 

Ulickensdcrfer, .\1. T 322 

Boonastiel, Gotlieb 425 

Beaver, P. II 4t".537 

Betz. Dr. I. H 490 

Croll, Rev. P. C, D.D 16, 505, 511 

Diffenderfer, Frank R 370 

Diller (Dr.) Theodore 458 

Elliot, Mrs. Ella Zerbey 165, 2J3 

Earlv, Rev. I. W .' 339 

Freti, Rev. A. J 68 

Fuid. Leonard Felix, M.A., LL.M 169,349,455 

Foltz. Hon. M. A 307 

Funk, Mrs. li. H. (.Editor Home Department) 

372, 422 

Fisher, H. 1 373, 468 

Gruber, M. A 2:, 175 

"Gothc von Berks" 135 

Gerhart, Prof. E.S. (Editor Reviews and Notes), 192 

Grumbine, Lee L 327 

Grubb. Rev. N. B 364 

Glatfelder, F. S 396 

Grift, A. K 415 

Grumbine, Dr. Harvey Carson 469 

Gerhart, Rev. VN'illiam, D.D 470 

Hart. Albert Bushnell 21 

Helbig, Richard E 26 

"llulsbuck, Sollv" 40, 87, 424, 519 

Huch, C. F....' 71 

Ilelfrich, Dr. W. A 83 

Helfrich, Rev. W. U 83 

Hess, Asher L 106, 195 

Heller, William J no 

Hartman, William L 147 

Hartford, Courant 180 

Haupt, Rev. .\. J. D 277 

Hayden, Rev. Horace Edwin, M.A 313 

Harter, F. H 47 1 

Hiester, Issac, Esq 496 

Jordan, H. E., Ph.D 60 

Kadelbach, Elizabeth 534 

Kriebel, H. \\' 37, 86, 99, 443 

Kistler, Rev. John 173 

Kaiser, Frederick 183 

Kephart, Horace 205 

Keller, Rev. Eli, D.D 266 

Krebs, Frank S 547 

Long, F. A., M.D 85 



Luther, Dr. M 184 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 423 

Lower, Rev. Williams Barnes 518 

Mays George M.D 3, 355, 4,^ 

Alauch, Russell t 34 

More, Charles C i ij6, 184^ 517 

Messinger, Rev. S. L., S.T.D ." 255 

Mcllhaney, Asa K 316 

Meschter, Prof. Charles K 326, 468 

Mohr, Mrs. Charles Shoemaker 559 

Mohr, Richard G -,^2 

Meyer, Dr. T. P '.'.'.'.'.'. 483 

Miller, Lizzie B 42 1 

Neifert, William \V . 114 

'n Alter Pennsylvanier 325 

Prentice, George Dennison 38 

Prowell, George R 213 

Paules, Howard S 230 

Pennypacker, Hon. Samuel W 303 

Parr, Rev. Amos A 399 

Rpush, Rev. J. L 5,, 359 

Kidder, Herman 180 

Rupp, Prof. I. D 230 

Raschen, Prof. J. F. L 387 

Richards, H. M. M 407 

Rice, William H., D.D 4,0 

Shimmel, L. S., Ph.D 3 

Schuler, H. A m jic 

Schultz, Alfred P., M.D 544 

StaufFer, Josiah W .3 

Scheffer, Rev. J. A 34 

Stibitz, George 36 

Singmaster, Elsie 77 

Seiberling, F. C, M.D 158 

Stotsenburg, Hon. John H 226,543 

Stump, Rev. Adam 229 

Sherk, Rev. A. B 273 

Seibert, Rev. Dr. G. C 291 

Smith, .\llen J 346 

Seipt, David 367 

Shinier, Prof. W^ H 411 

Seip. J. W., M.D 470 

Shuey. Rev. D. B 487 

Schedel, Samuel 518 

\'om A Aagazeia V'erzehit 375 

Washington, W. Lanier 541 

Wolf, John M 6 

M^uchter, Rev. A. C 89, 183, 517 

Waage, Rev. Oswin F 156 

W^-ilter, Frank K 262 

Louise A. W'eitzel 531 

Ziegler, Charles Calvin 66, 423 

Zimmerman, Col. T. C 183 



NUMBER OF PAGES IN EACH MONTHLY ISSUE. 

The following list, showing the number of pages in each monthly issue, will be convenient in connection 
with the foregoing Index, for finding the separate numbers containing any desired article. 



January, Pages i to 48, inclusive 

February " 49 to 96, 

March, " 97 to i44i 

April, " 145 to 192, 

May, " 193 to 240, 

June " 241 to 38S, 



July Pp. 

August, " 

September, " 

October, " 

November " 

December " 



289 to 336, inclusive 

337 to 384, 

385 to 432, 

433 to 480, 

481 to 528, 

529 to 576, 



HBBIBlii^BiiiffiaHl 



AT REST 



Henry A. Schuler, Editor 

Born, July 12, 1850 
Died, Jan. 14, 1908 



Tho' no shaft of marble rise upon my grave, 
Nor above my coffin martial banners wave: 
Let sweet peace within my simple shroud abide, 
Friends, a few, stand weeping - - 1 am satisfied 




JOHN WANAMAKER. 

(See page 16.) 



Vol. IX JANUARY, 1908 No. 1 

The Pennsylvania-German in His 
Relation to Education 



A Symposium of Historical and Descriptive Articles 
Edited By Prof. L. S. Shimmel, Ph. D., Harrisburg, Pa. 



A German Schoolmaster of "ye Olden Time" 

BY GEORGE MAYS, M.D., PHILADELPHIA. 




FTER reading the very inter- 
esting historical sketches of 
the early schools in the Ger- 
man settlements of eastern 
Pennsylvania, I can not re- 
sist the temptation to in- 
dulge in a little reminiscence, or rather 
character-sketch, of one of those German 
masters, who still flourished in my boy- 
hood days, and with whose peculiar 
character I had an opportunity to be- 
come intimately acquainted. 

Before proceeding with my story, I 
wish to say-fhat k is not simply a fancy- 
sketch, but an unvarnished representa- 
tion of what I actually saw and heard. 
We all know that in efforts of this kind 
the writer is often led to embellish or 
even exaggerate his characters for the 
purpose of rendering his work more in- 
teresting and popular, but it is equally 
patent that the impressions of early life 
are so seldom modified or influenced by 
later experience and observation, that 
w^hatever appears unnatural or grotesque 
is sure to remain indelibly fixed in the 
mind, and comes back in after life as 
fresh and clear as on the day it oc- 
curred. 

This, then, is the apology I have to 
offer for the delineation of a character 
at once strange and somewhat luiique. 

But, in order that the younger reader 
at least may have a clearer conception of 
the manifold duties required of those 



pioneer teachers, it is necessary that I 
should explain their position. 

Teachers as Organists and Choir-Masters. 

Nearly all the first schools in that sec- 
tion were controlled by some religious de- 
nomination, and most of the men em- 
ployed as teachers had been trained chief- 
ly as organists and choir-masters, the 
secular education of the children being 
looked upon by many of the parents as 
of much less importance than their train- 
ing for admission into the church. 

The first requisite, therefore, was that 
the teacher should know how to play the 
organ and lead the congregation in sing- 
ing. If his work in the schoolroom only 
succeeded in teaching the pupil to read 
the Catechism and write and cipher after 
a fashion, the parents as a rule were 
satisfied. Nor were his musical accom- 
plishments often called into question, no 
matter how limited they may have been, 
so long as he possessed the knack to 
make the organ scream and had a voice 
to match it ; while its soul-stirring and 
awe-inspiring effects were considered 
just as essential to Christian worship as 
at present, the organist seldom had a 
very critical audience to contend with. 
This made his work comparativelv easy, 
and allowed him to indulge in all sorts 
of fantastical and discordant exhibitions 
that would hardly be tolerated anywhere 
today. Looking back to that period, I 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Tiave sometimes wondered if Congreve, 
one of England's earliest poets, had one 

•of those performances in mind when he 
wrote : 

"Music hath charms to soothe the savage 
breast, 
To soften rocks and bend a knotted oak." 

Or, probably its boisterous character 
-suggested the well known parody :. 

■"Music has charms to soothe a savage, 
To rend a rock and split a cabbage." 

A Laughingstock of the Boys. 

The subject of this sketch was one of 
the last of his tribe, and, with all due re- 
spect to him, his general unfitness for the 
triple occupation in which he engaged 
leaves little doubt of the fact that he be- 
longed to the class which I have just men- 
tioned ; altho the reader must not conclude 
that the teacher I am about to describe 
was a typical specimen of his profession, 
for I am only too ready to defend those 
pioneer pedagogs who labored faithfully 
with the limited means at their command, 
to teach the young idea how to shoot. 
The hero of my story, it is admitted by all 
who knew him, was temperate, prompt 
and faithful in the discharge of all his 
church-duties, but had the misfortune to 
be one of those half-finished products 
of humanity who always furnish more or 
less fun for the vulgar crowd. When- 
ever he appeared in public, his lank form, 
tremendous strides and swinging arms 
gave him such a ludicrous appearance 
that the younger element of the town, 
ever on the alert for some escapade or 
other, could not resist the temptation to 
poke- fun at him, and often tormented 
him with hardly ever any provocation 
than his singular looks and queer gesticu- 
lations when he was angry. It is readily 
seen that the repetition of such rude dem- 
onstrations and want of deference to the 
man who stood next to the minister in 
the community would have to end in re- 
taliation sooner or later, tho because of 
his position in the church he paid little 
attention to the matter at first. However, 
as the taunts and insults grew more fre- 
quent and unbearable, I have seen him 
turn upon his tormentors and rebuke 
them, but generally in language so intem- 
perate and often vile that it only en- 
couraged the youngsters to become more 



persistent in their attacks. His violent 
gesticulations gave still greater zest to 
the sport, so that it was not long before 
he had become the butt and ridicule of 
the neighborhood. 

In justification of his peculiar conduct 
at such times, it is my duty to mention 
that his unfortunate domestic relations 
had soured his life ; it is conceded by all 
who knew him well that, if his termagant 
wife had fully realized the significance 
of her promise to love and obey, he would 
in all probability have been a different 
man. As it was, his manhood had been 
crushed, for he never was allowed to de- 
fend himself against those family-as- 
saults ; but in the schoolroom, where he 
reigned supreme, his violent temper often 
asserted itself on the slightest provoca- 
tion, and woe betide the unfortunate 
pupil who happened to incur his displeas- 
ure. I never attended his school, but, 
living next door to the schoolhouse, fre- 
quently had occasion to find my sympa- 
thies aroused by the cry of distress from 
some unhappy boy or girl who was again 
receiving a terrible tongue-lashing, which, 
I was often told, left a deeper sting than 
the stripes of the rod, which he had the 
reputation of wielding with equal force 
and effect. 

Had Scholarship Enough for His Needs. 

Altho old enough to enjoy the fun of 
seeing him in his wordy encounter with 
the older boys, I was still too young to 
form an estimate of his qualifications as 
teacher. I learned, however, from others 
that his German was not the best, and 
that he evidently had never passed thro' 
any gymnasium or higher school in Ger- 
many, from which country he had been 
directly impoited to take charge of the 
organ and school connected with one of 
the churches of my native town. As al- 
ready remarked, the duties of a pedagog 
in those days were few and confined to 
the rudest form of instruction ; so I have 
no doubt he knew enough to meet the 
requirements of his school. At all events, 
he managed to teach the pupil to read 
the Catechism and Psalter, to write his 
name and compute his simple accounts. 
To the scholar of the present such a 
condition of affairs must seem very 
strange indeed, but it must not be for- 



A GERMAN SCHOOLMASTER OF "YE OLDEN TIME" 



gotten that few young people at that 
time aspired to anything more in the way 
of an education ; their position in after 
life demanded no more, and they were 
satisfied. How the master classified his 
school, or if he had any system at all, 
I am unable to say ; but the probability 
is that his lack of discipline and interest 
in school-work generally led him to fol- 
low no fixed method whatever. Such, at 
least, was the impression of those who 
kept an eye on the work of the school. 

An Enthusiastic, Forceful Singer. 

Singing appeared to be the most im- 
portant exercise, and almost every hour 
of the session one could hear a chorus 
of voices issuing from that schoolroom, 
but invariably with the master's far in 
the lead. He took a peculiar pride in his 
vocal accomplishments, and seldom re- 
strained any of his pupils in their attempts 
to outdo each other in screaming at the 
top of their voices. Time and harmony 
never appealed to either teacher or pupil, 
and the pandemonium which sometimes 
reigned in that school disgusted many of 
his patrons, who often remonstrated with 
him, but never to any purpose. His soul 
seemed to be completely wrapt up in 
his musical aspirations, and nothing satis- 
fied him better than the opportunity to 
lead the singing, especially on funeral oc- 
casions, when he would often give such 
latitude to his vocal powers during the 
burial-service as almost to suggest the 
fear it would rouse the occupants of the 
surrounding graves. No reason was ever 
assigned for thus disturbing the solemnity 
of the grave, but probably he was imbued 
with the idea still prevalent in some 
heathen countries, that much noise is ac- 
tually necessary to drive away the evil 
spirits that are seeking entrance into the 
sanctuary of the dead. By reason of iiis 
mental infirmity, his intimate association 
with the local minister as Vorsinger 
(leader of the singing) added not a little 
to his self-importance; I have been told 
by those who understood his antics better 
than myself, that it was very amusing to 
see him at times trying to imitate his su- 
perior. He was faithful in the discharge 
of all his church-duties, and shrewd 
enough never to show any of his weak 
points on public occasions when in the 



presence of his pastor; but, I regret to 
add, his piety was like his coat, which 
he put on and off as time and occasion 
demanded. No one seeing him only in 
his official capacity would ever believe 
that a man who could display so much 
zeal and earnestness in church would be 
guilty of such violent outbursts of pas- 
sion in school and on the street, no mat- 
ter how great the provocation. 

As Vorsinger he was in his element, 
and I have often thought that if the sing- 
ing-method of teaching geography and 
mental arithmetic, whi-ch was not intro- 
duced into the schools until a number of 
years after he had laid down the rod, 
had been in vogue in his time, he would 
undoubtedly have been able to retire with 
laurels instead of obloquy. If his knowl- 
edge of the art of music had been able 
to keep pace with his inordinate conceit, 
the success and fame that followed would 
have extended far beyond the narrow 
precincts of the village-school. 

" Old Fox " in the Schoolmaster's Kitchen. 

I am not aware that the custom of 
barring out the teacher on Christmas 
holidays was ever tried in his school, but 
do know of one introduction which took 
place there, or rather in the kitphen of 
the schoolhouse — at that time many of 
the schools were held in a room of the 
dwelling occupied by the teacher and his 
family — that created a great sensation at 
the time. 

One dark night, after the teacher's fam- 
ily had retired, a party of young men 
took an old, worn-out horse belonging to 
one of the town-physicians and quietly 
installed him in the kitchen. When the 
master came down in the morning to 
open the house, there he found "Old Fox" 
very complacently chewing up a head of 
cabbage intended for the family-dinner 
that day. The horse appeared to feel 
perfectly at home, until the master re- 
covered sufficiently from his surprise to 
summon the family ; then he made an ef- 
fort to get away, but only succeeded in 
thrusting his head thro' the upper 
half of the old-style kitchen-door, where 
he stood, quietly surveying the crowd of 
boys, of which I was one, who had col- 
lected to see the fun, until the owner came 
and liberated him. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The master had been the victim of 
many a prank before, but this last he re- 
garded as the unkindest cut of all. His 
unpopularity and inability to teach Eng- 
lish, which had taken the place of Ger- 
man in that section, compelled him soon 
afterward to close his school, but where 
he went and how he fared to the end, no 
one appears to know. His spirit had been 
broken, his life wasted, and the proba- 
bility is that he never succeeded in ob- 
taining another situation as organist and 
teacher. 



In the picture I have tried to present 
no doubt many of my readers will recog- 
nize the counterpart of a character with 
whose life and work they are more or 
less familiar, which goes to show what 
difficulties were encountered by the early 
settlers in their efforts to provide even 
the simplest mental training for their chil- 
dren. Hence it behooves us still more to 
appreciate the educational blessings so 
bountifully lavished upon poor and rich 
alike in our day. Sic transit gloria 
honvinniu. 



Threescore Years of Public-School Work 



BY JOHN M. WOLF, HANOVER, PA. 



Editorial Note. — The author of the follow- 
ing highly interesting reminiscences is, as far 
as we know, the oldest public-school teacher, 
with respect to service, in the Keystone State. 
His name indicates his German ancestry, and 
that he is master of the Pennsylvania-German 
dialect is proved by the fact that he uses it for 
contributions to local papers. His article was 
submitted last May, when he had finished his 
fifty-ninth term of common-school teaching. 
Since then he has carried out his intention of 
. teacliing again, as we learn from the follow- 
ing newspaper-item, dated Hanover, October 

30, 1907: , , 

John M. Wolf, the veteran school-teach- 
er, resumed his work yesterday after hav- 
ing been oft' duty nearly a week because 
of illness. It was the first time in sixty 
years that he has been absent from the 
classroom so long a time. Threescore 
j^ears of service in the public schools of 
York and Adams counties is the remark- 
able record of this Hanover instructor. 
Although 75 years old, he continues in the 
harness, having lately been elected teach- 
er of Myers' School, in West Manheim 
township. Possessed of marked ability, 
an excellent disciplinarian and an untir- 
ing worker. Squire Wolf (he was a jus- 
tice of the peace for twenty-two years) is 
considered one of the most successful 
school-teachers in southern Pennsylvania. 
Throughout this section almost everybody 
ihas gone to school to ]\Ir. Wolf or to 
one of his daughters or son, four of his 
children having been school-teachers also. 

My Parentage and School-Advantages. 

Y parents were Pennsylvania- 
( iermans. My father was a 
farmer in comfortable cir- 
cumstances, considering the 
times and the community in 
which he lived. 
I was born in Hamilton townshi]). 
Adams county, Pa., June 27, 1832, and 




sent to school at the age of six. I at- 
tended the same school for nine consecu- 
tive terms of five months each. The 
building had been erected for school-pur- 
poses years before the people of the 
township accepted the free-school sys- 
tem. It was an old building then. The 
room contained two desks extending 
through its entire length, with benches of 
the same length occupied by the larger 
pupils, and additional benches for the 
smaller pupils. 

The school was very ordinary, as ail 
schools in the country then wer;, teach- 
ers often lacking the necessary qualifica- 
tions, even if they could impart al' they 
knew. Schools generally had from thirty 
to fifty pupils, male and female, from the 
child learning the A B C's up to the 
girl of eighteen and the boy of twenty. 
The first text-books of which I have 
any recollection were Cobb's Readers, 
Comly's Speller and Smily's Arithmetic; 
in later years Webster's Dictionary was 
added. Teachers had never seen an alge- 
bra or a blackboard, knew nothing about 
teaching phonics or the word-method, and 
were themselves incapable of giving an 
analytical solution of an arithmetical 
problem. 

Teachers then applied the rod freely, 
and I was not exempt from its influence. 
Timber was plenty, and the boys were 
generally sent for the rods intended for 
their own benefit. 

I harbored no ill feelings against my 
- teachers, either vyhile attending school or 
in after years. My last teacher was high- 
ly respected in the community, and fre- 



THREESCORE YEARS OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL WORK 




JOHN M. WOI>F, VEIEKAN TEACJHER. 

■quently befriended me in after years. 
In nsin,^ the rod those masters simply 
followed the custom in vogue at the time 
they were pupils. 

Beginning a Teacher's Career. 

At a little over fifteen years of age I 
succeeded my teacher and secured the 
position, mainly through his influence, at 
a salary of $i8 per month. 

At the close of the term, I entered 
New Oxford College as a student. The 
session lasted twenty-two weeks, and 
comprised the only educational advan- 
tages afforded me except the common 
schooling. 

In 1848 I took charge of the Abbotts- 
town school and taught it for three con- 
secutive terms. After that I took charge 
of a school in Paradise township, ^'ork 
county. In th^is school the pupils were 
from six to twenty-four years of age. and 
it was the only one 1 ever taught in 
which the New Testament was used by 
some of the larger 'pupiJs as a reader. 
At that time the township contained 
twenty-one schools. I taught the sc!kx)1 
•one term. In 185 1 and 1852 he directors 



of the township employed me to examine 
their applicants for schools. 

A New Era in Schoolroom- Work. 

In 1854 a new era in school room- work 
began, when Henry C. Hickok came to 
tlie helm as State-superintendent of 
schools. The first improved condition 
was the organization of teachers' associa- 
tions, hence institute-work, closely fol- 
lowing the election of county-superinten- 
dents. 

The first superintendent of Adams 
county was J3avid Wills, a young attor- 
ney. The first teachers' institute was held 
at Gettysburg in 1854; it was attended 
by thirty-five teachers, including myself. 
So far as known only five of these are 
living, of whom I am the only one still 
teaching. My first provisional certificate 
was granted by David Wills ; it is No. 20, 
and dated August 7, 1855. 

During my pedagogical career in 
Adams county, the county-superintendents 
were Messrs. Wills, Campbell, Mcllhen- 
ny, Ellis, Sheely and Thoman, tlie last- 
named being one of my former pupils. 
Those of York county were Messrs. Et- 
tinger, Blair, Heiges, Boyd, Williams, 
Kain, Brfenneman, Gardner and Stine. 

In 1854, I again took charge, as prin- 
cipal, of the Abbottstown schools, and 
with the exception of three terms taugrit 
the school till 1869, my salary for the 
last seven terms being $52.50 per month. 
At a meeting of the school-board in 18^, 
the salary of the principal was reduced 
from $52.50 to $35 per month. Old- 
fogyism was the cause. 

The teachers' institutes held in Adams 
county prior to i860 were not well at- 
tended, but institute-work was done by 
the teachers. The subjects for discus- 
sion were promptly taken up and ably 
handled. Many teachers of the county 
had begun to feel confidence in them- 
selves. The timidity that had character- 
ized the first institutes had partly disap- 
peared. Thoughts uttered were well ex- 
pressed, were practical, and so given that 
they could not fail to be of great benefit 
to the less experienced teachers. De- 
spite all discouragements. Adams county 
had, before the War of the Rebellion, 
many noble, able and self-sacrificing 
teachers, both male and female. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



School Conditions Fifty Years Ago. 

Prior to 1855 a vast majority of the 
people in our community spoke Pennsyl- 
vania-German. But the parents being 
mindful of the lack of facilities for ac- 
quiring an education, their desire in after 
years was to educate their children, and 
opposition to schools had partly ceased. 
Hence I still contend that generally peo- 
ple will only interest themselves in any- 
thing when they are compelled to furnish 
the pecuniary means. 

In schools then any violation of rules 
was punished either by rod or ruler. The 
ruler was applied on the palm of the 
hands, and occasionally on the finger- 
tips, and I could never understand why 
such brutality was tolerated. I never 
used the ruler and had little occasion to 
resort to the rod. 

In my earlier pedagogical career text- 
books were such as would not command 
the favorable consideration of school- 
boards at present. 

Many of the school-buildings were 
simply relics of bygone ages. In the 
room was a ten-plate stove, and two 
desks extending the entire length of the 
room, with benches of the same length, 
as described above. The conditions of the 
room were such as to require no extra 
ventilation. 

Teachers had little opportunity to pre- 
pare themselves for school-work. School- 
terms lasted four or five months and sal- 
aries ranged from $15 to $20 per month. 
The great majority of the teachers lacked 
the necessary qualifications to impart in- 
struction in either grammar, geography, 
history or mathematics. Many of them 
were not even qualified to teach "the 
three R's." 

About 1850 school-directors took 
more interest in schools, and in the fol- 
lowing four years few teachers were em- 
ployed without examination. These ex- 
aminations were conducted in the pres- 
ence of the boards of directors. Directors 
demanded a more rigid examination in 
arithmetic than in any other branch. 

Spelling-Bees — A Handless Pupil. 

From 1845 to i860 spelling-bees were 
in great demand. These spelling-bees 
created a spirit of emulation between the 



pupils of neighboring schools, as the con- 
tests were generally between the pupils 
of two schools. Parents were much in- 
terested in them. Many boys and girls 
from twelve to sixteen years of age were 
experts in spelling, and my opinion is 
that there were better spellers then than 
now. The consensus of opinion of our 
principal educators at present is, that 
spelling and arithmetic are two branches 
that are neglected in our schools. 

In one of my local normals I had a 
handless pupil by liame of A. B. Myers, 
aged about twenty years. He lost his 
hands in a stone-quarry by a premature 
explosion. I persuaded him to take up 
penmanship, which he did, becoming an 
excellent penman. He passed the exami- 
nation, secured a school, taught one 
term, and then took the State normal 
course at Shippensburg. He taught 
school a number of terms in Penn town- 
ship, York county, and some six years 
ago located in Lancaster county. In 1906 
he announced himself as a candidate for 
recorder of deeds, was nominated and 
elected. 

Fifty-Nine Years in the Harness. 

My professional employment has been 
almost continuous for fifty-nine years. 
I closed my last term April 3, 1907, hav- 
ing taught the school for five consecutive 
terms. In more than half a century of 
service I missed but three and a half days 
from the schoolroom, owing to the 
grippe. That happened in the term of 
1899. 




A. B. MYEKS. 



THREESCORE YEARS OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL WORK 



During the many years that I was a 
resident of Adams county, I never was 
absent from any of the successive teach- 
ers' meetings. Since 1870 I have been 
a resident of Hanover, and during my 
first term taught the grammar-school 
there. In 1870 I was elected principal 
of the Hanover schools, and re-elected for 
seven consecutive terms. Since then I 
have been principal of the Goldsboro 
schools, also of the New Oxford and 
Littlestown schools. 

In addition to the regular school-terms 
taught by me, I was principal of twenty- 
two local normal sessions of twelve 
weeks each. The object of these normal 
schools was to prepare students, male and 
female, for teaching, of whom at least 125 
took up the profession. Some of them 
are still teaching. 

In my first few years of teaching there 
was some opposition to me, nominally on 
account of my youth, but really because 
of my determined efforts in urging the 
necessity of better schools, better teachers 
and a change of textbooks. This opposi- 
tion especially manifested itself in my 
first few terms of teaching at Abbotts- 
town, when I put in practice the methods 
in use in the New Oxford Institute. The 
opposition to my efforts for the better- 
ment of the school became so apparent, 
after teaching my third term, that they 
employed another teacher. But in 1854 
the board employed me again to take 
charge of the school, and I taught it thir- 
teen terms more, thus demonstrating the 
one fact, that my services were appre- 
ciated. I was finally paid $52.50 per 
month, and after the reduction of the sal- 
ary refused to be an applicant for the 
position. 

Before 1854, in many of the schools in 
rural districts, nothing was taught but 
"the three R's." There were no black- 
boards and no maps or charts. People 
at that period were opposed to having 
their children take up any other branches. 
There were, however, somie few excep- 
tions. But in after years the people be- 
came more interested in education, and 
the antiquated teachers were dropped. 

Introducing Higher Studies. 

In taking charge of a school in Penn 
township in 189 1, I had TJ pupils on the 



roll ; there was but one studying gram- 
mar, four geography and two United 
States history. The year before I took 
charge of the school, it required four 
teachers to finish the term. 

I reported the condition of the school 
to the board, pointing out the necessity 
of a change in textbooks and of more 
school-supplies, and the board authorized 
me to have the pupils supplied with the 
necessary books. I reorganized the 
classes and persuaded the larger and 
more advanced pupils to take up gram- 
mar, geography, United States history, 
mental arithrrietic, algebra and civil gov- 
ernment. I taught the school four con- 
secutive terms. One of the pupil? tcok 
up Latin, and when I quit he entered the 
Hanover high school, graduated there- 
from in two terms, took first honors, and 
is now a graduate of Yale. 

Four of my children have been teach- 
ing, a son and three daughters. The 
oldest daughter taught thirty-two terms^ 
thirty of them in Hanover. She taught 
her first term in 1869, ^n the same old 
building in which I taught when I started 
on my pedagogical career. My other 
two daughters taught ten terms each^ 
the younger ten consecutive terms in 
Hanover. My son taught eighteen terms. 
Work in Two Counties Only. 

During my professional career, I ex- 
perienced little difficulty in controlling 
the pupils. As a general thing I had 
the good will of the patrons and co/dial 
co-operation of directors and county-su- 
perintendents. I never, in all my profes- 
sional career, taught a school outside of 
Adams and York counties. 

As yet my intellectual faculties remain 
unimpaired. A few weeks ago, I met 
two of the former county-superinten- 
dents, when one remarked to the other, 
in my presence: "Here is the youngest 
old man in York county." If God is 
willing and I retain my health, I shall 
teach again the coming school-term, hav- 
ing already been requested to take charge 
of a school. 

A Few Schoolday-Reminiscences. 
During my schooldays "barring out 
teachers" was the custom. Teachers ex- 
pected it, and patrons favored it. It 
was done by the larger pupils ; the more 



:io 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



timid and smaller pupils refrained from 
participating. It was generally done the 
dav before Christmas, the demand being 
a treat or vacation between Christmas 
and New Year. It was generally a vaca- 
tion, on account of the pecuniary end to 
treating. Sometimes the pupils were un- 
successful in obtaining either. 

At one time, in barring out a teacher 
by the name of J. George Wolf, we did 
not succeed in keeping him out. But dur- 
ing the time that he was out he positive- 
ly" refused to comply with our demand, 
and we were just as determined that he 
should yield to us. 

Unfortunately for us, who were inside, 
the unexpected happened. The stovepipe 
ran out through the roof of the old 
school-house. We had neglected to ex- 
tinguish the fire in the stove. The master 
secured a ladder from a near neighbor, 
mounted the roof, closed up the stove- 
pipe and smoked us out ! The only thing 
to do was to open the windows and jump 
out, or suffocate. Myself was barred 
out several times, but, as I wanted a va- 
cation myself, the pupils' request was 
granted without any objection on my 
part. 

German was not taught during my 
schooldays, either in our own or any 
adjoining township. It was, however, 
taught when my parents attended school. 
They said there was opposition to the 
introduction of English into the schools, 
especially by the teachers of that time, 
many of them being unable to speak the 
English language themselves. 

The following Pennsylvania-Dutch 
stanza was written by a gentleman about 
the teacher he had during his first school- 
term, about 1832 : 

Doch hot er's Englisch 's letscht erlaabt, 

Weil Viel hen's lerna wella. 
Er 'hot uns 's A B C's erscht g'lernt — 
Was hot nns awer sel verzcrnt! — 

Nord hen nier lerna schpella. 
Un dann war's Zeit for auszuschpanna, 
For welter hot er's net verschtanna. 

Before 1850 the custom of "boarding 
around" prevailed in our community ; in 
some of the adjoining townships a few 
teachers followed it even as late as i860. 
The custom was very unpopular in many 
districts, and the practice, where it pre- 



vailed, depended, in a great measure, on 
the popularity and qualifications of the 
teacher. The primary reason for its dis- 
continuance was the claim of some of the 
patrons that the boarding-around teach- 
ers were partial to the children at whose 
homes they boarded. 

Lady Teachers Were at a Discount. 

There were no lady teachc^rs employed 
by school-boards in the townships of 
Hamilton, Adams county, until 1869, 
when my daughter was elected to teach 
the Union school, and as far as I know 
but one has been employed since. No 
lady teachers were employed in Oxford 
or Berwick township, Adams county, 
prior to 1880. In Washington, Para- 
dise, Heidelberg, Manheim, West Man- 
heim and Penn townships few lady teach- 
ers were employed, and but .few are em- 
ployed there at present. For years no 
lady teachers have been <Mnployed in 
West Manheim, and but two in Penn, 
since 1902, only as primary teachers in 
two graded schools. 

In 1852 and 1853 I examined the ap- 
plicants for schools in Paradise township, 
York county. Among the thirty appli- 
cants for their twenty-one schools, exam- 
ined by me each year, there was not a 
single lady. 

I have known school-boards of the 
townships named to turn down lady 
teachers holding either State normal di- 
plomas or professional certificates, and 
employ male teachers holding provision- 
al certificates, who had no experience in 
school work. Their reason for refusing 
to employ female teachers was that these 
could not control the larger pupils. 

In my experience as principal of 
schools the female teachers in the build- 
ing were better disciplinarians than the 
male teachers. I have also noticed that 
in townships where the great majority 
of teachers employed are females there is 
less complaint by parents and directors 
than in townships where the majority are 
male teachers. 

It is also known that in those parts 
of Adams and York counties that were 
originally settled by English-speaking 
people there is not that opposition to fe- 
male teachers which is manifested by 
directors in parts settled originally by the 



THREESCORE YEARS OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL WORK 



Germans. I have reference only to teachers who have taught school for 

twenty-five years, have not kept up with 
school-work, are not "up-to-date" teach- 
ers, and the sooner they are relegated to 
the rear, the sooner will the children 
taught by them get a "square deal." 



Adams and York counties. 

There are no better instructors in the 
two counties named than the lady teach- 
ers. They are doing noble and excellent 
work in the schoolrooms. There are male 



Reminiscences of a Former Hereford Schoolboy 



I'.Y THE EDITOR. 



THE schoolday - reminiscences 
contributed to this Sym- 
posium by different writers 
liave been greatly enjoyed 
by the editor of this maga- 
zine. He acknowledges to 
those writers an obligation which he will 
now attempt to repay in part by telling 
some of his own reminiscences of that 
happy opening period of life. 

Aly school-reminiscences do not date 
back further than the winter of 1859 to 
i860. The first school I attended was 
that which succeeded the subscription- 
school described by our publisher in the 
November number, being located near the 
present village of Chapel, in Hereford 
township. Berks county. The school- 
house in which I was taught was prob- 
ably built soon after 1854, in which year 
the trustees of the subscription-school, as 
related by Mr. Kriebel, sold their prop- 
erty to the public-school board of the 
township. 

A Few Parental School-Recollections. 

As an introduction to my personal nar- 
rative let me repeat a few things which 
I have heard my parents relate of their 
schooldays, wdiich were spent across the 
line in Lehigh, seventy and more years 
ago. 

School-teaching even in those days 
was somewhat of a profession, though 
there was no organization and a mere pre- 
tense of examination for applicants. Cer- 
tain men followed the business more or 
Jess successfully for a number of years. 
A veteran schoolmaster two generations 
ago in the lower end of Lehigh was John 
Walter, the man to whom my mother 
owed the greater part, possibly all. the 
schooling she ever received. 

The length of the yearly school-term 
did not exceed four months ; more likely 



it was only three or three and a half. 
The teacher boarded around with his 
patrons ; that is, he would go home al- 
ternately with the children of each fami- 
ly represented in his school and take his 
meals and lodging under their parental 
roof. In the school German was taught 
first, English afterwards ; many pupils, 
girls especially, never advanced to the 
English classes. It was considered quite 
sufficient for them to be able to read and 
write their mother-tongue. The first 
textbook in German was the A B C-Biicli, 
the next the Psalter, the third and last 
the New Testament. The school was 
regularly opened, probably also closed, 
with singing and prayer. 

The first English manual was the A B 
C-book or Primer, the next Comstock's 
Speller, which included reading-lessons. 
What higher readers, if any, were used, I 
can not sa\' ; but larger boys, who had 
learned to read and write tolerably well, 
often went to school for the sole purpose 
of making further progress in arithmetic 
— taking a post-graduate course, as it 
were. 

An indispensable part of the oldtime 
schoolmaster's outfit w^as a good stout 
rod, or rather an assortment of good 
stout rods. This time-honored instilu- 
ment of discipline was applied without 
any conscientious scruples and with hard- 
ly any fear of legal interference, when- 
ever the teacher's judgment or temper ad- 
vised its use. A schoolmaster who could 
or would not flog his pupils was incon- 
ceivable ; some were noted for the fre- 
quency and severity with which they 
wielded the birch-stick. It seems they 
took positive pleasure in whipping and 
often applied it, on general principles, to 
a lot of boys, so they might be sure to 
])unish the right one. My father used to 
tell how one of his teachers tried to whip 
the habit of swearing out of a certain 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



boy. The culprit crept under the desk, 
but the master continued laying on the 
rod. With every blow he asked: "JVit 
du rmu del Fhicha schtoppa?" but to 
every blow the boy responded with a 
fresh oath, and the master finally had to 
give him up. 

Probably it was this same boy of 
whom my father used to tell another 
amusing story. Tho' rather big and 
somewhat advanced in years, he was still 
wrestling with his (German) ABC. The 
letter G, in particular, would not stick to 
his mind ; so one day he bored it out of 
the book with his finger, remarking to his 

mates : "Ich zvill den D—- mol zveg- 

schaifa." This may have been the result, 
not so much of. natural dullness as of the 
absurd method of teaching that required 
a pupil to know every letter before he 
was allowed to spell or read. But it is 
time to turn to my own experiences. 

My First Winter at School. 

Being an only child and living a mile 
and a half from school, I was not sent 
thither until nine years old. I remember 
how my mother took me to a neighbor's 
one morning, Monday probably, that his 
school-going children — two boys and a 
girl — might take me^ along. Returning in 
the evening I was asked what had been 
my impressions on seeing the school. I 
answered that I had had "all kinds of 
thoughts." 

It was the school near Herefordville, 
now Chapel, that I joined, and the teacher 
engaged for that term of 1859 to '60 was 
a young man from Philadelphia or vicin- 
ity, Frederic M. Fry. I remember hear- 
ing one of the directors tell my father 
how fortunate it was that they had se- 
cured a teacher who could not speak 
German ; for now, he said, the pupils must 
learn to speak English, Of course this 
was an idle hope. The few pupils who 
spoke English at home conversed in that 
language with the teacher ; the rest spoke 
German among themselves, as before. 
Having learned the rudiments of English 
at home under my father's tuition, I start- 
ed in with Sanders's Second Reader. Our 
reading-class was large, and one day all 
of us were ordered to stay in after din- 
ner and repeat the recitation, because we 
had failed to spell the word, tuition. I, 



like several others, had spelled to-zuish- 
en; yet I for one managed to escape the; 
punishment and spend the noon-intermis- 
sion outdoors, as usual. 

My studies that first winter were read- 
ing, writing and arithmetic. Of that first 
teacher's methods of discipline I can say 
but little. He never corrected me that 1. 
remember, but this is not saying that I 
never deserved correction. He made an' 
offending boy sit squarely on the flat table- 
before him, and he had what we called. 
die schzvars Brill — a sort of leather mask 
which he would throw at a culprit, them 
make him bring it out, fasten it over his 
face and make him stand in a corner. 

Mr. Fry was very fond of playing ball 
with the larger boys and often would pro- 
long the intermissions to indulge in his- 
favorite sport. I suppose he was dis- 
missed for that reason ; at any rate he- 
did not finish his term. His successor 
was Lewis Riegner, an older and much- 
more serious man, who used to begin the 
day's exercises with Scripture-reading- 
and prayer in English. 

A " Summer-School " with a Good Teacher. 

The regular winter-term was followed' 
•by a private "summer-school," which I, 
with a good many boys and -girls of -the 
vicinity was privileged to attend. The 
teacher was Josiah W. Stauffer, and a 
good, faithful teacher he proved to be. 

I shall never cease to be grateful to- 
that man for the pains he took to cure 
me of the habit of lisping and the good 
start he gave me in grammar and geog- 
raphy. He spoke German to us almost, 
continually, and we all understood his 
explanations. He hung up outline maps,, 
and in the afternoon, when we had re- 
cited our lesson in class, we would go- 
to those maps and hunt up states, cities, 
rivers and mountains. While doing this, 
we were permitted to talk aloud, and you' 
may be sure we made liberal use of the- 
privilege. Mr. Stauffer was a great 
lover of music, and made us sing eight 
times a day — at every opening and every 
closing, before and after every intermis- 
sion. Many of the songs he taught us- 
are familiar and favorites still. Tho' we 
all liked him, he was "too good" in point 
of discipline for his own good, and when, 
the following winter, he tried to enforce 



REMINISCENCES OF A FORMER HEREFORD SCHOOLBOY 



15 




JOSIAH W. ST \UFFER, VETERAN TEACHER 

stricter rules, there were some collisions. 
There was one freckled, tow-headed boy 
sitting beside me, who repeatedly caught 
a whipping, and may have deserved it 
oftener than it came ; of my own deserts 
in this connection I will not speak. Mr. 
S. offered me a whipping one day, but he 
asked me first whether I wanted it, and 
I did not hesitate to say no. Though I 
-did much that under his code would have 
deserved such punishment, I have been 
wondering ever since what I had done 
on that particular occasion to provoke his 
ire. 

]\Ir. Stauft'er was a well informed man 
and did not confine himself to the text- 
book in his teaching. He put in a little 
astronomy with our geography and al- 
lowed me to copy the Greek alphabet 
from a book of his on astronomy. One 
morning, on my way to school, I disputed 
with two companions about the rotation 
of the earth, which I affirmed and the}- 
denied. Finally we agreed to submit the 
-question to our teacher, who of course 
decided in my favor. 

Experiences of Four More Winters. 

From 1 86 1 to '62 and again two years 
later our school was taught by Joel B. 
Bower. It was customary then to teach 
every other Saturday, and I remember 
"how Mr. B. used to announce on Friday 
■evening whether or not there would be 
school on the morrow. Under him I ad- 
vanced from Rose's Arithmetic to Stod- 
dard's Practical and began to copy my 
problems into "cyphering-books." I 



had jumped from Sanders's Second Read- 
er to the Fourth in the spring of i860, 
and as that was the highest reading-man- 
ual used in school, could not advance 
further in that direction. 

During the winter of 1862 to '6^ our 
school was in charge of Abraham S. 
Krauss. This teacher made us sing our 
geography-lessons from the outline maps 
on the wall and took especial pains to 
drill us on English sounds, using charts 
made for the purpose. What pleased me 
best under his reign was the "spelling- 
schools," which he conducted during a 
part of the winter, one evening each 
week. "Spelling on sides" also was a 
frequent diversion on Friday afternoon. 
For some time I remained the victor in 
those contests, but one day I went down 
on the word anodyne, and I knew then 
that, tho' as a boy of ten I had spelled 
down all my opponents at the first spell- 
ing-bee I ever attended, I was not yet 
perfect in orthography. 

My last teacher in the school near 
Herefordville, now Chapel, was Abram 
Bechtel, who taught it during the winter 
of 1864 to '65. I liked him well, for he 
was a good scholar and made extra ef- 
forts for the benefits of our Fourth Read- 
er and grammar-class ; besides, I was old 
enough now to appreciate somewhat the 
importance of my school-studies. I was 
particularlv interested when he explained 
Latin and French phrases; but when he 
told us one day the proper pronunciation 
cf the name of the Duke d'Enghien, sta- 
ting his authority, I positively could not 
believe him. I have found out long ago 
that he was fight. 

Sent to Another School. 

In the fall of 1865 the children of three 
families in our corner of the district, ours 
included, were ordered to the Treichlers- 
ville school, in order that the pupils at- 
tending the two nearest schools might be 
more evenly divided. I did not like the 
change at all, and for a few days after 
entering the new school seriously talked 
of leaving and going back to the old one, 
where a late schoolmate now ruled as 
master. Soon, however. I accommodated 
mvself to the new surroundings and took 
the last two terms of public-school train- 
ing at Treichlersville under Henry H. 



14 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



book and was ambitious to keep up with 
Schultz. My principal, best loved studv 
there was arithmetic, with what it in- 
cluded of mensuration. I finished Stod- 
dard's Practical, writing out full solu- 
tions of the miscellaneous problems at the 
end, then advanced to Greenleaf's Com- 
mon School Arithmetic. I sat beside a 
neighbor's boy who used the same text- 
me ; he did so, at least for a time, tho' 
I had to do most of his work for him. 
H^ also wrote his "sums" into a "cypher- 
ing-book," into which I usually "printed" 
the headings for him. Sometimes I would 
decorate those headings with drawings 
that were not always true to nature, tho' 
they did- not miss their purpose of being 
funny. My conduct was not blameless, 
and I well deserved whatever reprimands 
I got. One evening, when school was dis- 
missed, the teacher requested me to stay 
for a private talk. j\Iy conscience was 
not clear, and I felt sure I was going to 
get it now. Imagine my relief when the 
teacher, instead of lecturing me on my 
misdeeds, began to commend me for my 
progress and advised me to attend some 
higher school, so as to fit myself for 
teaching or some other profession. 

Exercises, Methods and Discipline. 

I attended the public school seven 
terms and was there under the tutelage of 
seven teachers. I may say I liked them 
all and got along fairly well with them 
all. No doubt they did their work as well 
as they could, and if we, their pupils, 
learned nothing, it was our fault. Our 
studies were reading, writing, arithmetic 
(written and mental), grammar and 
geography ; the methods of teaching and 
the order of recitations were much the 
same all along. Grammar was usually 
the first thing after opening exercises in 
the morning ; then came the reading- 
classes, generally beginning with the 
highest, which used Sanders's Fourth 
Reader. Geography came after dinner, 
"mental" some time in the afternoon ; usu- 
ally each session closed with an oral 
spelling-exercise, in which the good old 
custom of trapping was observed. 
At least one of our teachers also gave 
us spelling-lessons from dictation. 
Spelling games and miscellaneous prob- 
lems in arithmetic as a blackboard-exer- 



cise sometimes came in on Friday after- 
noon ; compositions were usually called 
for at the same time. I disliked this 
most valuable exercise probably as much 
as my schoolmates for the simple reason 
that the teachers hardly ever gave us any 
help toward it. They would simply say 
that the members of such a class were ex- 
pected to write compositions and hand 
them in by a certain time. Sometimes 
they would announce a subject, but more 
frequently the choice of subjects was left 
to us. 

The discipline of the school varied 
somewhat with the master, but was never 
really severe ; if it had been, the writer 
would not have got thro' without a 
whipping and but one standing out in the 
"lazy boy's corner." Sometimes disci- 
pline was rather too loose. I remember 
one winter, in particular, when we smaller 
boys had to suffer a good deal from our 
bigger fellows, who were not kept in 
check or punished as they should have 
been. They would take their stand on 
the little platform before the door, and 
push us back into the mud as often as we 
tried to get on. One day one of these 
bigger fellows applied a pin quite forcibly 
to the soft rear portions of a smaller boy 
sitting on the next bench, and the latter 
jumped up with a howl that startled the 
whole school. Of course, there was an 
inquiry, and the culprit was quickly 
found, but he got off easily enough with 
a reprimand. On another occasion the 
teacher called out a boy for some offence 
and ordered him to stand on one leg. The 
boy's older brother interposed, saying that 
was a punishment unfit for civilized peo- 
ple. After some parleying the teacher 
substituted a whipping for the punish- 
ment first intended, and sent the offender 
back to his seat. 

School Recreations and Spelling-Bees. 

When school was out, we would play 
ball in various forms — Hcrrballa, IVed- 
dcrbaUa. Balla iiiit Sah, BaUio%'cr, Rund- 
balla. Eckballa and Long Town, which 
last I enjoyed most of all. Playing sol- 
dier was a frequent diversion during the 
war-time, and many a battle was fought 
with snow-balls, even on the way home. 
Sometimes we would vary the program 
with a fight in good earnest with fists. 



REMINISCENCES OF A FORMER HEREFORD SCHOOLBOY 



15. 



Stones, lumps of mud. bats or sticks. For- 
tunately these fights never lasted long. 
Often too we would "shoot rabbits" or 
play "hide and seek." One day when 
we were playing this, I came down to the 
old blacksmith-shop across the street, feel- 
ing sure no one would find me there. No 
one did find me ; but when I wanted to 
get out the door had locked itself some- 
how and I could not open it. For a 
while I was in great fear lest I should 
remain a prisoner there all afternoon ; 
but finally I espied a cleft in the rear 
wall and by a tight squeeze managed to 
crawl, thro' and rejoin my mates ere 
school was called in. The walls of that 
old shop are still there, and I regret that 
I can not illustrate this article with a 
picture of the venerable ruin. 

One winter, while I belonged to the 
Treichlersville school, we, that is the 
larger boys, used to attend spelling-bees 
held in the evening at Traub's school- 
house on the hill. In those contests we, 
the visitors, were usually lined up against 
the scholars there and tho' we considered 
ourselves good spellers and did our level 
best, we were invariably beaten, not in 
every game, but in most of them. The 
reason may be plain when I say that the 
local teacher gave out the words and nat- 
urally favored hJf, Own pupils. I remem- 
ber very well how we used to come down 
the hill in high dudgeon, bitterly com- 
plaining of the unfair treatment we felt 
we had received, but resolved to try 
again, in spite of it all. The spelling of 
German words sometimes formed part of 
those exercises. 

"Spelling-schools" are indeed one of 
the sweetest reminiscences of my youth- 
ful days. They became much more in- 
teresting a few years later, when, tho no 
longer a public-school pupil myself. I 
used to accompany my young friends, 
sometimes a whole crowd of them, to dif- 
ferent schools in the neighborhood where 
those exciting contests were held in the 
evening. To be sure, it was then no 
longer the mere interest we took in the 
spelling, but rather the presence and par- 
ticipation of certain advanced girl-pupils, 
that drew us to those gatherings week 
after week with irresistible power. 

There was a notable revival of the old- 
fashioned spelling-bee in the spring of 



1875. I was then a student at the State 
normal school at Millersville and took 
part in two or three which were held in 
that institution and at which valuable 
prizes were given to the victors. I con- 
sider it a distinct loss, intellectually and 
socially, that the spelling-bee has gone 
out of fashion, and. tho long past my 
schoolboy and schoolmaster-days, no one 
could welcome their resuscitation more 
heartily than myse'.f. But again I am 
"off the track." 

A Fond Remembrance. 

jVIy public-school days ended in the 
spring of 1867, sooner than I had 
thought or wished. My schoolmates are 
scattered far and wide, and some of them 
have for years been numbered with the 
dead ; yet I still love to send back my 
thoughts to those days of long ago which, 
with all their little troubles and trials, 
were pure happiness, compared with 
many that followed. Surely our school- 
advantages were far inferior to those the 
present generation enjoys even in the re- 
motest rural district. Yet how much 
better use each of us would make of them, 
if, with the experience the years have 
brought, we could be boys and girls 
again and sit along the old pineboard 
desks in the old schoolhouses under the 
teachers of forty years ago! • 

The old schoolhouse near Hereford- 
ville, now' Chapel, stood until the sum- 
mer of 1874. I am sorry that I cannot 
give an unbroken list of the teachers 
there from 1859 to the end, but will give 
my list as it is, hoping some one else maj; 
be able to fill out the gap: i859-'6o; 
Frederic M. Fry, Lewis Riegner ; 1860- 
'61, Josiah W. 'Stauffer; i86i-'62. Joel 
B. Bower; i862-'63, Abraham S. Krauss ; 
i863-'64, Joel B. Bower; i864-'65, 
Abram Bechtel ; i865-'66, Joel Y. 
Schellv; * * * * 1869-70, Cyrus Y. 
Schelly, W. H. Sallade, H. A. Schuler; 
i87o-'73, H. A. Schuler; i873-'74, Sam- 
uel S. Schultz. 

The other old schoolhouse in which I 
was taught at Treichlersville, now Here- 
ford, was replaced with a new one in 
1876. The writer had the privilege of 
teaching there during the last winter of 
its existence. 



116 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



John Wanamaker 

Merchant and Philanthropist 

(See Frontispiece Portrait) 
BY REV. P. C. CROLL, D.D., LEBANON, PA. 




At the recent annual meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania-German Society in Philadelphia, Mr. 
Wanamaker was unanimously elected presi- 
dent for the current year. The following 
sketch, originally prepared by the founder of 
this magazine and supplemented and brought 
up to date by Mr. Wanamaker's private sec- 
retary, does therefore appear well suited to 
the present issue of The Pennsylvania- 
German. — Ed. 

NOWING that Mr. Wana- 
maker is a descendant of our 
German ancestry (the name 
formerly was written Wan- 
namacher), but unable to 
gain reliable biographical 
data elsewhere, the author wrot€ a letter 
to this merchant-prince himself, politely 
demanding in highwayman style, not his 
money but his life. The busy and over- 
burdened man of affairs was just pre- 
paring for a trip to Europe, yet on the 
eve of sailing instructed his secretary, 
Mr. H. S. Jones, to furnish the necessary 
information, which he did. The follow- 
ing sketch, while somewhat meager, is 
carefully written and entirely correct as 
to facts. It is valuable as coming from 
the pen of one very closely associated 
with the subject. 

A Short Sketch of a Busy Life. 

John Wanamaker was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., July II, 1838. His grandfather and father, 
descendants of the early German settlers of 
Hunterdon county. New Jersey, carried on the 
"brickmakihg-business in the southern section 
of Philadelphia county, which was at that 
time mostly farming land. There most of his 
boyhood life was spent, and there, by work- 
ing before and after school-hours, he earned 
his first money in the brickyard. His only 
■opportunity for education was at a country 
public school not equal to the present grade 
of city primary school. When he was four- 
teen he was graduated, because the teacher 
■claimed that school-lessons could not carry 
him any farther. 

He then secured employment in the city 
as messenger-boy in the publishing-business 
•of Troutman and Hayes, on Market below 
Fifth street, at a salary of $1.25 a week. Here 
he remained until his father's family fol- 
lowed his grandfather to Kosciusco county, 
Indiana, whence he returned to Philadelphia 
in 1856. He entered the retail clothing-store 



of Barclay Lippincott, Fourth and Market 
streets, at a salary of $2.50 per week, but soon 
accepted a better offer of $6 a week from 
Mr. Joseph M. Bennet, proprietor of Tower 
Hall Clothing House, on Market above Fifth 
street. Mr. Bennet says of him : "John was 
certamly the most ambitious boy I ever saw. 
I used to take him to lunch with me, and he 
would tell me how he was going to be a 
great merchant. He was very much interested 
m tlie temperance-cause and had not been with 
me long before he had persuaded most of the 
employees of the store to join the temperance- 
"society to which he belonged. He was always 
organizing something. He seemed to be a 
natural-born organizer. This faculty is prob- 
ably largely accountable for his great success 
in afterlife." 

In 1858 his health gave way and he went 
for a short time to Minnesota. Returning 
much improved but not fully recovered, he en- 
tered the service of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, and was its first sal- 
aried secretary in the United States. When 
the Civil War broke out he was refused en- 
listment because of the condition of his lungs. 
On the day upon which Fort Sumter was fired 
upon, he, with Nathan Brown as partner, 
opened a small store at the southeast corner 
of Sixth and Market streets, dealing as 
Wanamaker and Brown. ' s^i Brown died in 
November, 1868, after whici.'^k'-''r. Wanamaker 
continued the business under the above firm- 
name until 1884. 

In 1869 he organized the house of John 
Wanamaker & Co., at 818 and 820 Chestnut 
street for the sale of a finer grade of ready- 
made clothing than had ever before been of- 
fered in Philadelphia. In 1875 he purchased 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company its 
old freight-depot at Broad and Market streets, 




BIRTHPLACE OP JOHN WANAMAKER 



JOHN WANAMAKER, MERCHANT AND PHILANTHROPIST 



17 




Brickyard in, which yaunj? Waiiamalor wjrkid 

and transformed it into a general store, adding, 
as demand was made, drygoods, carpets, 
house-furnishings, furniture, etc., until at 
present there are no less than seventy de- 
partments under the single roof which extends 
from Market to Chestnut streets, covering 
an area of 250 by 500 feet on the ground 
floor. 

In 1896 Mr. Wanamaker purchased the old 
■drygoods-house of A. T. Stewart & Company, 
in New York, which he opened, as a counter- 
part of the Philadelphia store, in September 
of that year. To accommodate the increasing 
business he has. since then purchased the prop- 
erty extending from Eighth to Ninth streets, 
on Broadwa)-, and erected thereon a fourteen- 
story building, adding to the attractions of 
the already attractive business a large audi- 
torium thoroughly furnished for musical and 
other entertainments of the highest class for 
the benefit of the public. This auditorium 
has a seating capacity of 1500. 

At present he is erecting on the site of the 
Philadelphia house a huge granite building 
two stories above ground and three beneath 
the surface. It is said that this will be, when 
completed, the finest retail-business structure 
in the world. 

From 1873 until after the close of the great 
Centennial Exposition Mr. Wanamaker was 
one of the most active of the Centennial Board 
of Finance. By his individual efforts he raised 
the first million dollars among the citizens, and 
he was influential in securing the second mil- 
lion from the Philadelphia city-councils. He 
was chairman of the Bureau of Revenue and 
had for his principal assistant ex-Governor 
William H. Bigler. He was chairman of the 
press-committee and served on numerous other 
•committees of the Board of Finance. He al- 
ways has had an interest in public affairs, 
acting as chairman of the citizens' relief-com- 
tnittees for the Irish famine and the yellow- 
fever sufferers of the South, flood-committees 
and general benevolences. 

Mr. Wanamaker was for eight years presi- 
<lent of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion of Philadelphia. During his administra- 
tion the fine property at Fifteenth and Chest- 
nut streets was purchased, the cornerstone 
laid and the building erected at a cost, great 



in those days, of nearly half a million dol- 
lars. The property is worth to-day double 
the cost. He has declined many proffered 
nominations to public office, auch'as that of 
Congressman-at-large and tlie mayoralty, but 
has always taken an interest in the political 
questions of the day, being a staunch Repub- 
lican. He declined membership in the Repub- 
lican National Committee in 1888, but con- 
sented to serve on an advisory committee, of 
which he was elected chairman and to which 
he gave tireless attention until the election 
of Benjamin iiarri.son to the Presidency. From 
the fourth of Marcii, 1889, until the fourth 
of March, 1893, he served in President Har- 
ri.son's cabinet as Postmaster General. He 
carried into this department of the Govern- 
ment his best ideas of organization, and ef- 
fected many valuable irrrprovements with the 
railway-mail service, the ocean-mails, free de- 
livery in rural districts, securing the most per- 
fect mail-service the nation ever had and en- 
tirely discontinuing Sunday-work in the de- 
partment-buildings in Washington. 

During the entire four years of his P-ost- 
master-Generalship he made trips from Wash- 
ington to Philadelphia every week to attend 
the services of the Bethany Sunday-school, of 
which he has been superintendent for forty- 
nine years. In 1857 he became a member 
of the Presbyterian Church, under the pastor- 
ate of the Rev. John Chambers, D.D., and in 
February, 1858, he organized, in the rooms of 
an humble shoemaker, a Sunday-school with 
27 members. His warm heart and cordial 
handgrasp won for him the goodwill of the 
roughest men in the neighborhood, which was 
then the battle-ground of the old volunteer 
fire-companies. The school became too large 
for its quarters and was removed to a tent. 
A modest chapel was then erected on South 
street near Twenty-first, and later, in 1864, 




JOHN WANAMAKER AT TWENTY-FIVE. 



i8 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



ground was broken for a much finer Sunday- 
school hall at Twenty-second and Bayibridge 
streets. There the previous building has been 
replaced by the present magnificent edifice, in 
which 3000 children assemble every Sabbath, 
while in addition to the school, an adult Bible- 
union of 1200 members meets in the great 
church by its side. 

One of his later efforts is the establishment 
of the First Pennj'-Savings Bank of Philadel- 
phia, of which he is president. Over 14,000 
depositors avail themselves of its advantages. 

In 1896 he organized, rebuilt and com- 
pletely furnished the Friendly Inn on Ninth 
above Spruce street, with the objective view 
of saving and helping men who want to re- 
form and lead honorable lives. The average 
daily list of boarders there now numbers one 
hundred and twenty-five. 

The old chapel on South street, which for 
many years had been occupied as a furniture- 
warehouse, was offered for sale a short time 
ago and the property was purchased by Mr. 
Wanamaker ; on this site he has erected the 
Bethany Brotherhood House and fitted it up 
for the use of the men of the Bethany chapter 
of the Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip, 
of which there are no less than iioo mem- 
bers. A little later he secured the two ad- 
joining properties, on which he erected a 
handsome building now known as the John 
Wanamaker Branch of the Free Library of 
Philadelphia, which has been furnished by the 
Free Library Association of Philadelphia with 
8000 volumes. 

Another of Mr. Wanamaker's philanthropic 
endeavors is the establishment of Bethany Col- 
lege, an institution for the instruction in book- 
keeping, stenography, drawing, dress-making, 
etc., of young people who have missed their 
early school-days and are now employed 



through the week earning their daily bread. 

No one can tell as yet the result of a politi- 
cal campaign which Mr. Wanamaker entered 
into in the summer of 1898 in opposition to 
the great political power which had sunk the 
grand old Keystone State in corruption, while 
it seemed as if there were no eye to pity nor 
any hand stretched out to save. He labored 
arduously for many months, delivering ad- 
dresses, sometimes as many as five in a single 
day, to some audiences of more than 10,000, 
often in the open air, exposing the chicanery 
of the bosses who at that time controlled every 
part of the State politics. The best men in 
all counties rallied to his standard and, while 
the work has not yet been completed, there is 
a noble body of little Pennsylvanians ready 
to stand for truth and righteousness in this 
State. 

Mr. Wanamaker is still in the prime of 
manhood. He is known as a philanthropist 
throughout America and Europe, and it may 
be said of him that he has used wisely the 
talents with which the Almighty has most 
wonderfully endowed him. 

A Visit to Wanamaker's Sunday-School. 

To this compendiotts sketch, every item 
of which might be elaborated with 
minuter detail and many personal inci- 
dents, we append an account of a visit to 
Mr. Wanamaker's Sunday-school, from 
which the reader may gain a glimpse of 
the man and his methods in this his favor- 
ite and very successful Christian mission. 
Having been established and personally 
supervised for a generation by Mr. Wan- 
amaker, the Bethany Sunday-school at 




MR. WANAMAKER'S FIRST STORE. 
At 818-820 Chestnut St., Phila., Pa. (The building with a tower.) 



JOHN WANAMAKER, MERCHANT AND PHILANTHROPIST 



19 



Twenty-second and Kainbridge streets, 
Philadelphia, is generally known as Mr. 
Wananiaker's Sunday-school. Many a 
stranger who liappened to sojourn in the 
city over Sunday has availed himself of 
the opportunity to visit it, both to see and 
hear this illustrious layman expound the 
Word of God to an eager multitude and 
to observe the method of conducting such 
a vast religious enterprise. So the author 
came to visit it on Sunday, July 6, 1890. 

The day was one of the hottest of the 
summer. A large portion of the city had 
emptied itself to the seaside and other 
neighboring resorts. Yet such has been 
the character of these services for years 
that, while vast numbers of laboring 
people on a hot Sunday afternoon seek 
recreation in parks and gardens, on the 
river or by the sea, hosts of workers in the 
vicinity of this Sunday-school prefer to 
find rest and refreshment in its cool 
rooms. To them Bethany has become a 
fountain in the desert of a monotonous, 
grinding city-life and as "the shadow of 
a great rock in a weary land." More 
than two thousand souls found this spir- 
itual refreshment on the day named. 

In the management of this large Sun- 
day-school the stranger finds the same 
genius at work that has founded, in the 
same city, the largest retail store in the 
world. Nothing is left to chance; every- 
thing is done according to a definite plan, 
faithfully followed. Still nothing ap- 
pears stiff or as if going by rote. Every 
part of the exercise is fresh and refresh- 
ing ; every wheel seems lubricated and 
the machinery runs with ease. 

Being a few moments late, we found 
the doors of the main room locked — an 
unalterable rule, to prevent disturbance of 
the opening exercises by late comers. 
However, a polite usher conducted us 
and a score of other tardy arrivals to the 
main audience-chamber of the church, 
where the adult Bible-class was gather- 
ing and being entertained with charming 
music. While this chamber was filling up 
with hundreds of eager learners, the head 
of this vast Sunday-school army was con- 
ducting the preliminary services in the 
main school-room, and a few of his wise- 
ly chosen lieutenants were getting the 
Bible-class ready for his exposition of the 
lesson. Though the main room of the 



school was now thrown open, we pre- 
ferred to stay and listen to the warm- 
hearted superintendent's instruction of 
this vast class of adult scholars. And 
what a treat it was ! The moment Mr. 
Wanamaker entered — and the very min- 
ute was known by all — everybody was in 
his place. Even the ushers had finished 
their work and the quiet which reigned 
in the vast auditorium was not broken by 
any distracting cause. The organist, the 
male quartet, the collectors and every 
other officer were in readiness to do the 
bidding of the superintendent. The exer- 
cises began with the singing of a beauti- 
ful Gospel hymn, printed on the back of 
an ingeniously constructed paper fan, 
which was handed to every one upon en- 
tering as a practical souvenir of the day. 

After a few routine announcements the 
class was invited to join an excursion on 
the following Friday (the superinten- 
dent's birthday) to the seashore, where 
Cottage Rest, a house erected by the 
class for the free accommodation of any 
members in need of rest by the sea, but 
too poor to defray the usual expenses of 
such a luxury, was to be formally opened. 
This called forth a significant supple- 
mentary statement from the superinten- 
dent, to the effect that, if he did not re- 
ceive a telegram at his department head- 
quarters at Washington, by Wednesday 
evening, that the indebtedness of this 
class-cottage had all been provided for, 
the class must go on this excursion with- 
out him, as he had a mind to keep his 
word and not enter the building until it 
had been entirely paid for. 

The offerings were now taken in enve- 
lopes provided for the day, and their con- 
tents revealed the fact that the condition 
on which hinged the prospect of enjoying 
the superintendent's company on this 
class-jaunt had been met. The announce- 
ment of this fact by some one who spoke 
for the class was followed with expres- 
sions and tokens of congratulation. Now 
came a selection by Prof. Sweeney's mag- 
nificent quartet of male singers, after 
which Mr. Wanamaker offered a most 
tender and touching prayer. Then an- 
other song, after which the lesson was 
prefaced by the reading of a beautiful 
and appropriate poem, which the super- 
intendent drew from his pocket as a way- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



side gem. He also read an extract from 
a letter received from a newly bereft 
mother belonging to the class. This led 
up to the lesson proper, which was cer- 
tainly a rare treat in Scripture-exposi- 
tion. The day's topic was Christ's Heal- 
ing of the Crooked Woman, recorded in 
St. Luke 13:10-17. It afforded oppor- 
tunity for a most precious and pathetic 
exposition of our Savior's tender love for 
suffering humanity, and for instruction 
on the proper observance of the Lord's 
day. In respect to both aspects the treat- 
ment of the lesson was a surprise, coming 
from a most busy man of secular affairs 
and from a Presbyterian. But so full of 
tenderness was the picture of Christ that 
it could not have been more beautifully 
colored, had the painter been a devoted 
missionary and evangelist, whose daily oc- 
cupation was to win souls and preach the 
glad tidings of salvation. And so devoid 
of legalistic, Sabbatarian cant was the in- 
struction on Sabbath-observance, that one 
was led, as one seldom is when this ques- 
tion is discussed, to see the gift-side, the 
beneficent, benediction-side of the sacred 
day. Altogether the graphic picture of 
this blessed miracle of Christ, in a Jewish 
synagog on the Sabbath-day, was pre- 
sented in so evangelical a light as to make 
every heart fall in love anew with the 
Mighty Healer. 

When, at the conclusion of the lesson, 
the superintendent returned to the main 
school to review the day's lesson and close 
the school — as is the invariable rule — a 
number of visitors, including the writer, 
followed him. These were shown to the 
visitors' gallery. Here they found the 
great leader surrounded by a vast sea of 
now upturned and attentive faces, mostly 
those of children. The vast room is so 
arranged that every class faces the plat- 
form, which is centrally located. From 
this elevated stand Mr. Wanamaker 
makes his weekly review of the lesson 
and the fifteen minutes occupied in doing 
so are crammed with simple exposition, 
happy illustration, graphic coloring and 
warm appeal, all centering about the 
main thought of the lesson. The stranger 
is charmed with the eloquence and power 
of the speaker. Graceful in movement, 
of pleasant address, winsome of face and 



manner and commanding in appearance, 
this model superintendent. Sabbath after 
Sabbath, impresses the weekly Scripture- 
lesson upon the heart and memory of his 
vast army of scholars so that one cannot 
see how its truth could ever escape the 
mind or conscience of any one. Though 
one hears a musical and penetrating 
voice, the speaker is soon forgotten in the 
contemplation of the truth that is pressed 
with burning love upon the heart. It 
takes a cold heart, indeed, that does not 
find itself kindling with the same fervent 
love for souls and the same warm feeling 
of universal brotherhood that must ani- 
mate the superintendent's bosom. 

An incident occurred that day which 
afforded an excellent opportunity to look 
into the innermost part of the man's great 
heart. While reviewing the lesson in the 
main school, where many hundreds of 
children seemed to hang spellbound 
upon his lips, a mischievous urchin of 
about twelve summers, immediately in 
front of the speaker's stand, persisted in 
annoying both the speaker and others 
with unseemly, inadvertent conduct. 
Twice the superintendent stopped to re- 
buke the offender. When the annoyance 
was still continued, the interrupted leader 
stopped suddenly, looked the boy in the 
face and demanded that he instantly leave 
the room. While the offender was get- 
ting his hat to go, Mr. Wanamaker said : 
'T am sorry to be obliged to do what I 
have not done in thirty years — dismiss a 
scholar in this manner." Then turning to 
the boy, he continued : "You may come 
back next Sunday, if you learn, 
meanwhile, not to interrupt a speaker 
again." In an aftermeeting of the 
"workers." for which strangers were 
invited to remain, the great leader's 
wounded soul was poured out in 
prayer to the throne of Grace for 
the boy. who had not heeded admonition, 
but needed correction, that day. The 
tone of his prayer was so sincere, and the 
petition so heartfelt, that it showed the 
superintendent's heart was more concern- 
ed in reclaiming that boy than in the 
gratification of any mere personal wish. 

The two hours' personal inspection of 
this one of Mr. Wanamaker 's religious 



JOHN WANAMAKER, MERCHANT AND PHILANTHROPIST 



enterprises convmced iis that, had he not 
achieved orroatncss as a business-man or 
in the poHtical world, he would still shine 
forth as an eminent man for what he is 
doing as a philanthropist and religious 
leader. And methinks, when a final ac- 



count of his busy and useful life shall be 
taken at the bar of imwavering justice, 
the treasures that will be founcl laid up 
to his account in heaven will greatly 
overbalance even those he has been enabl- 
ed to accumulate upon the earth. 



The Pennsylvania-Germans: 

A Reply to Professor Albert Bushnell Hart 

BY M. A. GRUBER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 




GXORANCE of many facts, 
hurried observation, and a 
number of misleading state- 
ments appear to be promi- 
nent factors in the produc- 
tion, by Professor Albert 
Bushnell Hart, of an article entitled 
"The Pennsylvania Dutch," which was 
published in the "Boston Evening Tran- 
script" of August 31, 1907, and reprinted 
in the November (1907) number of The 
Pennsylvania-German. 

It is much to be regretted that a man 
of the scholarship and literary attain- 
ments ascribed to Prof. Hart, should give 
to the world an historical account of a 
class of people of whom his knowledge 
appears to be very superficial, and in the 
description of whom he has interwoven a 
tangled thread of ridicule. 

A number of his statements are in the 
main true, but the process of exemplifica- 
tion, the parts left unsaid, and his appar- 
ent lack of definite information on the 
subject, render the article of no value 
from an historical point of view. There 
is also evidence of considerable narrow- 
mindedness ; and the tendency to belittle 
is by no means wanting in a number of 
instances. 

" Assimilation " and Absorption. 
His introductory word, "assimilation," 
is the exponent of his one-sided, selfish 
notion of what should be done by the 
Pennsylvania-Germans. His persistence 
in using the term "Pennsylvania-Dutch" 
for the proper and correct term "Penn- 
sylvania-German," indicates that his 
sense of humor, no matter in what light 
he may have intended it, has reverted to 
ridicule. Surely, it does not require a 
scholarly mind to note the incorrectness 
of making "Saxon-Dutch" the equivalent 
of "Sachse-Deutsch,"or of rendering "Das 



Deutsche Reich" as "The Dutch Empire." 
Nor is much speculation needed to ascer- 
tain the origin of the nickname "Penn- 
sylvania-Dutch," since it is well known 
that the English ofiiceholders and ofiice- 
seekers were sometimes loud in their com- 
plaints against the German immigrants 
and their descendants, who were found to 
have minds of their own as well as brains 
equal to those of their English brethren, 
although often directed in political op- 
position. 

In the first paragraph of the article is 
found this statement: "The matter is 
getting serious in view of the fact that of 
ninety millions of Americans about fifty 
milHons are not descended from English 
ancestors." Why should there be ex- 
pressed so glaring a predilection for the 
English? What has become of German 
art, German literature, German .philoso- 
phy, German scientific and historical re- 
search, German citizenship, and German 
scholarship, not to mention other nation- 
alities, that Prof. Hart should show so 
intense a prejudice in favor of the Eng- 
lish ? 

Then after intimating that the English 
were the native-born heirs to American 
soil, and designating the settlement of the 
Germans in Pennsylvania as the largest 
infusion of foreigners, he continues: 
"After nearly two centuries of life in 
America, these people, who have received 
very few accessions from Germany since 
the American Revolution, are still sep- 
arate, and show little signs of complete 
absorption into the remainder of the com- 
munity." 

Mark the peculiar proposition of "as- 
similation" contained in the last eight 
words of that statement. — complete ab- 
sorption into the remainder of the com- 
munity. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



These Pennsylvania-Germans comprise 
from two-thirds to nine-tenths of the 
people of different communities in Penn- 
sylvania ; they are a strong, sturdy, 
thrifty, healthy, honest, enterprising 
class of people ; they are patriotic, reli- 
able, sensible citizens ; they have intelli- 
gence, ability, and business capacity 
equal, and in some instances superior, to 
similar qualities possessed by persons of 
any other nationality living among them ; 
and yet, with all this splendid array of 
excellent qualifications and superiority in 
numbers, there is proposed a complete 
absorption hito the remainder (a small 
rninority) of the community. The minor- 
ity is being gradually absorbed, but the 
professor is not inclined to have it that 
way. 

It seems that Prof. Hart's extreme 
partiality for the English causes him to 
look for illogical, unnatural, and, con- 
sequently, improbable results ; or, to put 
a very charitable construction on his ac- 
tions, he neglected to consider the indi- 
vidual, local and national prominence of 
the Pennsylvania-German element, and, 
for the fun of the thing, tried to write 
what he thought should be a readable, 
"humorous magazine article. To the ne 
phis ultra New Englander and to those 
whose prejudices incline strongly to Eng- 
lish, he may have succeeded ; but to the 
man of careful observation, to the im- 
partial historian, to the thoughtful and 
considerate reader, and to those whose 
birthright he has attacked, his article is 
a bundle of prejudices or personal fancies 
intermingled with facts selfishly treated. 

Pennsylvania German Success in Farming. 

It is true that the Pennsylvania-German 
is conservative to a large degree; but 
conservatism is a virtue rather than a 
fault. The general success of the Penn- 
sylvania-German is due to that character- 
istic. He usually clings to the oid until 
he is satisfied, either by observation or 
experiment on a small scale, that the 
new is desirable and beneficial. 

He commenced his career in the New 
World principally as a farmer or tiller 
of the soil. His chief resources were in- 
dustry, thrift, cleanliness, health, and in- 
domitable energy. His conservatism in 
this respect is proverbial, and he has 



found no reason for a change. It has 
enabled him to buy on credit a farm by 
the side of English neighbors, pay for it 
from the ■ prod ctcts thereof, add other 
property to his possessions, and have suf- 
ficient money to furnish a fine horse and 
buggy to each of his boys, who were 
pleased to give to the daughters of that 
locahty a good time by taking them to 
fairs and social gatherings, while his 
neighbors were eking out a mere exist- 
ence with little means to add to the pleas- 
ires of life. 

Instances are also known of persons 
who, thinking that success in farming 
must be due to the fertility of the soil, 
purchased farms in fertile regions of 
Pennsylvania-Germandom. But the mode 
of life and the practice of agriculture by 
some of these new-comers were altogeth- 
er at variance with the industry and 
thrift of the native residents ; and when, 
in the course of a few years, failure 
marked their career, they tried to excuse 
their failure by condemning the old- 
fashioned methods pursued by their suc- 
cessful neighbors, which methods, how- 
ever, were productive of rich returns but 
had been set aside by those new-comers 
as -antiquated rubbish. 

On the other hand, it is an historical 
fact that Pennsylvania-German families 
removed to English localities and pros- 
pered on farms which they had put in 
excellent condition. But the two subse- 
quent generations brought about com- 
plete absorption into the greater re- 
mainder of the community ; and although 
parts of the land are owned and culti- 
vated by lineal descendants, the glory of 
those farms has disappeared, — buildings 
and fences are no longer repaired; the 
familiar scenes of industry and pros- 
perity are wanting; and. there is followed 
the mere routine of plowing, planting and 
reaping, with very little attention to the 
minor yet important details by means of 
which the Pennsylvania-Germans made 
the wilderness to blossom like the rose 
and have succeeded in preserving that 
condition for two centuries. Those as- 
similated descendants have lost the Ger- 
man accent and speak tolerably good 
English ; but wherein lies the benefit of 
assimilation with the English when the 
indispensable ancestral traits of r-'iaracter 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMANS: REPLY TO PROF. HART 



23 



are lost in the process of absorption ? 

This information may possibly aid 
Prof. Hart in solv'ns^ some of the "mys- 
teries of the situation" that cause the 
Pennsylvania-Germans to clin.c^ to the 
customs, principles and language of their 
ancestors. 

A careful study of this point will, no 
doubt, reveal other reasons than the ex- 
travagant fondness of owning land and 
the fondness for abstruse theological 
hair-splitting that cause the Pennsylvania- 
Germans to own whole regions of fertile 
farms and to become fixtures thereon to 
the exclusion of the Scotch-Irish and 
others ; for they are builders of homes ; 
they plant and provide for posterity ; and 
the early German settlers were 

•"Bold master-spirits, where they touched they 
gained 
Ascendance — where they fixed their foot, 
they reigned." 

Unique Classification — Our "Barbarous " Dialect. 

The classification of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans according to church organiza- 
tion is a unique feature of Prof. Hart's 
odd humor. However, his limited knowl- 
edge of the subject fixes the responsibil- 
ity for the division into six kinds upon 
"experts" ; yet those experts seem to take 
cognizance only of the region of Lan- 
caster county through which Prof. Hart 
made his trip. They overlook several 
equally prominent creeds among the 
Pennsylvania-Germans of other counties 
of the State as well as of localities in 
other States. 

But the particular characteristic of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans which, more than 
any other, seems to disturb the mind of 
Prof. Hart, is their langtiage and its 
extensive present use ; for as he states 
it, "they unite in obstinately sticking to 
two languages that are not English," and 
then adds : "The Pennsylvania-Dutch 
speak what is often called a dialect, but 
is really a barbarous compound of Ger- 
man and English words in German 
idiom." 

It is surprising that a man of reputed 
historical authority siiould allow his 
prejudices to control statements of facts. 
The Pennsylvania-German mode of 
speech is as really and truly a dialect of 



the German language as are any of the 
varied vehicles of thought found in dif- 
ferent parts of Germany ; for only in the 
changes and additions due to environ- 
ment, are there found material diflfer- 
ences from the South German dialects, as 
conclusively demonstrated, with numer- 
ous illustrations, in "The Story of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans," by William 
Reidelman, late of Northampton county, 
Pa., who, for the purpose of refuting 
with positive historical proof the stupid 
libels and malicious representations con- 
cerning those people, made several visits 
to the upper Rhine countries of South 
Germany, from which came the greater 
number of the early immigrants. 

Because the Pennsylvania-German dia- 
lect contains a number of English words 
adapted to its form of speech, detracts 
no more from the verity of that dialect 
than the addition to the English language 
of words from the Latin and Greek de- 
tracts from the English. 

The Scottish vernacular appears to be 
as much a "jargon for communication" 
to the cultivated English ear as is the 
Pennsylvania-German dialect to the clas- 
sical German ear or to persons who seem 
to see very little good in anything that 
is not English. Yet the Scottish songs 
of Robert Burns will endure to the end 
of time; and the beautiful, soul-stirring 
poetic compositions in such productions 
as Harbaugh's "Hccnnvch" and Lee 
Grumbine's "Dcngclsfock" will never 
cease to be classics of their kind. 

From the time that the English lan- 
guage became the means of communi- 
cating thought in England, there has 
been, in the western part of Great 
Britain, a little country a large propor- 
tion of the inhabitants of which is sHll 
speaking the Welsh language or some 
form thereof, notwithstanding that Wales 
is an integral part of the United King- 
dom in which for centuries the English 
language has held potent sway. For 500 
years or more the Welsh must have been 
"obstinately sticking" to their mother 
tongue, and that, too. in the face of the 
fact that Wales is only about half as far 
from London, the scat of English learn- 
ing, as is the distance between Lancaster 
and Boston. 



24 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



However, according to the present 
trend of matters, politically and socially, 
in this country and in the world at lai^e. 
the Pennsylvania-Germans will eventually 
be an English-speaking people ; but vs 
long as integrity, industry, economy, hos- 
pitality, preservation of home, parental 
concern and provision for the future, and 
respect for Christianity remain their 
watchwords, just that long a Pennsylva- 
nia-German community will be distin- 
guished from any other community, un- 
less it be that all' these excellent traits of 
character become the characteristic fea- 
tures also of communities where other 
nationalities predominate ; in v^hich event, 
the absorbing or assimilating agency 
would be on the side of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans. 

The examples and translations of 
Pennsylvania-Ger«ian speech given in the 
article', show Prof. Hart's want of famil- 
iarity with the "two languages that are 
not English," and especially does his ren- 
dering of "azv geu'ocksa" as "dropsy" 
need enlightenment on his part. His 
"sheep's ribs" and confusion of certain 
religious sects are other instances indi- 
cating a deplorable lack of knowledge 
with which to rush into print. 

Our Educational and Social Status. 

His remarks as to the educational 
status of the Pennsylvania-Germans seem 
to be the result of his unwillingness or 
neglect to make careful research into 
the matter, coupled with his strong pre- 
dilection for whatever is English. An ex- 
amination into the facts of the case will 
show that where both brains and muscles 
are required, the Pennsylvania-Germans 
are occupying front seats ; and where 
patiently directed and continuous intellec- 
tual effort is needed, they resemble their 
German brethren who have no superiors 
in that line of mentaj activity. They also 
have their full share of well-educated 
business-men, lawyers, physicians, minis- 
ters of the gospel, and instructors, some 
of whom are occupying prominent posi- 
tions in English localities and institutions. 

Taking the Pennsylvania-Germans as a 
whole, the illiteracy among them is no 
greater than that of any other section 
of the country. There may not be as 



many who have passed through the 
courses of higher education, but their abil- 
ity to make proper use of their mental 
attainments in the application thereof to- 
the varied pursuits of life is not ex- 
ceeded by any other class of people. They 
are genuine workers in whatever field of 
usefulness they choose to engage ; and the 
Englishman who tries to keep pace with 
them soon learns that the secret of their 
ability is the intelligent direction given 
to energy and thought. 

In connection with the educational in- 
terests of Pennsylvania, it may be men- 
tioned that there is at the head thereof,, 
as Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
a man of unmixed Pennsylvania-German 
lineage, whose profound and practical 
scholarship is known throughout the 
length and breadth of this great country, 
and who, as an educator, ranks with the 
foremost men of learning of other States. 

After commenting upon certain peculi- 
arities of the Pennsylvania-Germans, in 
some instances with artful humor, and 
regarding them, with other race-elements,, 
as a discordant factor in the State, Prof. 
Hart asserts : "Undoubtedly, however, 
one of the reasons for the permanence 
of the Pennsylvania-Dutch is the lack 
of harmony and neighborly feeling with 
their nearest neighbors." 

This statement, made as it is without 
explanation, indicates no kind motive on 
the part of the author. If it was intended' 
to convey the idea that the "nearest 
neighbors" are those who belong to quite 
different religious sects or those who dis- 
like the Pennsylvania-Germans, there may 
be an excuse for the assertion, as such 
conditions are to be found also in English 
localities. But if that lack of harmony 
and neighborly feeling is to be considered 
a general characteristic, the author of 
that assertion is guilty of stating an his- 
torical untruth. 

Because the elements of industry and 
personal attention to details of work and 
business enter so largely into the welfare 
and prosperity of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man farmers, they find no time to make 
frequent visits to their neighbors ; but no 
fair-minded person will think of attribut- 
ing this condition to a lack of harmony 
and neighborly feeling. An example of 
genuine neighborliness is their coming: 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMANS: REPLY TO PROF. HART 



25 



to church on Sundays a half hour or more 
before services, in order to have friendly 
chats with one another. In case some mis- 
fortune befalls a family, the neighborly 
feeling is shown by assistance and serv- 
ice in many ways, without the thought 
of remuneration. In short, their gener- 
osity, cordiality, sympathy and respect for 
the rights of others are proverbial. 

Unfair treatment of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans is shown also in the following 
statements: "Some of the children of 
the Pennsylvania-Dutch families find their 
way into the great world at last," and 
"Socially, politically, financially, indus- 
trially, the Pennsylvania-Dutch can not 
furnish their own leaders." 

Where ignorance is bfiss, 'tis folly to 
be wase ; but it is altogether inexcusable, 
and possibly criminal, to allow ignorance 
to enter into the composition of an his- 
torical article. 

After the Revolutionary War, emigrant 
trains of sons and daughters of the Penn- 
sylvania-Germans moved westward across 
the border-line of their native State and 
assisted in settling and erecting the com- 
monwealths of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois 
and Iowa. In due course of time, "some 
of the children of Pennsylvania-Dutch 
families" established homes in Kansas, 
Alissouri, Nebraska and other States. 
They then followed the trail across the 
Rockies to the Pacific Coast, and "at 
last" they are found serving as mission- 
aries in Japan and other regions of Asia. 

Some Prominent " Pennsylvania Dutchmen." 

Surely Prof. Hart must have read of 
the two Muhlenbergs, John Peter Gabriel 
and Frederick Augustus Conrad, than 
w^hom no stancher patriots and greater 
political leaders ever lived. Their serv- 
ices during the trying days of the Revo- 
lution, their influence as champions of 
the Constitution and as members of the 
National House of Representatives are 
of the highest order ; so much so that no 
greater encomium on the work of these 
two brothers can be pronounced than the 
following words by John Adams of New 
England fame, though uttered in a spirit 
of complaint : "These two Germans, 
who had been long in public aflfairs and 
in high ofiices, were the great leaders and 
oracles of the whole German interest in 



Pennsylvania and the neighboring States. 
* -1= * * The Muhlenbergs turned -the 
whole body of the Germans, great num- 
bers of the Irish, and many of the Eng- 
lish, and in this manner introduced the 
total change that followed in both Houses 
of the Legislature and in all the executive 
departments of the national government. 
Upon such slender threads did our elec- 
tions then depend." 

Then there are the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man governors of the great Keystone 
State. During two-thirds of the period 
covering the first half of the 19th cen- 
tury, the reins of State were held by 
these men, some of whom were highly 
educated and through whose influence the 
Common School System was brought to 
a successful issue. 

Michael Hillegas, the Pennsylvania- 
German merchant and sugar refiner, a 
man of ample means, a pure patriot, and 
the first treasurer of the United States, 
is another example of the early Pennsyl- 
vania-German men of note and promi- 
nence. 

There is also James Lick, a veritable 
Pennsylvania-German of what is now 
Lebanon county. Pa., whose public spirit 
and generosity gave to his country the 
grandest monument of its kind, — the Lick 
Observatory, cresting Mt. Hamilton, 
California, 4,300 feet above the level of 
the sea. Does Prof. Hart know of a 
nobler and more useful monument erected 
by the energy, genius, worth and wealth 
of one man? 

Two months before the birth of James 
Lick, there passed away the "Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutchman" David Rittenhouse, the 
mathematician and clockmaker, who ren- 
dered valuable services to this country in 
diflferent fields of labor, and of whose or- 
rery it was said, at the time, that "there 
is not the like of it in all Europe." 

Charles Rudy, born in Lehigh county. 
Pa., near the foot-hills of the Blue Moun- 
tains, is another example of success 
crowning the pluck and perseverance of a 
Pennsylvania-German. He was the 
founder and, at the time of his death, the 
president of the "International Institute" 
of Paris, the reputation of which school 
has gone to all the ends of the earth. 
His remarkable career is a verification of 



26 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



the adage, "Truth is stranger than fic- 
tion." 

The poet Whittier, of New England, 
has immoriaHzed in song the heroic deed 
of Barbara Fritchie, a Pennsylvania- 
German dame, born at Lancaster, Pa. 

There might be cited numerous oth^ir 
examples of Pennsylvania-Gerrnans who 
became prominent and famous in differ- 
ent fields of usefulness; but the fore- 
going are sufficient to show the incorrect- 



ness of Prof. Hart's assertions in that 
respect. 

"Be jubilant, ye Hill-tops old and hoary — 
..Pnrmd that theix- feet ha vevtrod- your- rocky 

ways ; 
Rejoice, ye Vales, for they have brought you 
glory 
And ever during praise. 

"O Rivers, with your beauty time-defying 
Flowing along our peaceful shores to-day, 
Be glad you fostered them — the heroes lying 
Deep in the silent clay." 



The German-American Collection in the New York 

Public Library 

BY RICHARD E. HELBIG, LENOX LIBRARY BUILDING, NEW YORK. 




This article was published in the Nezv- 
Yorker Staats-Zeitung of October 6, 1907, on 
the occasion of the biennial convention of the 
National German-American Alliance held in 
New York, October 4-8, 1907. It was after- 
wards embodied in the proceedings of the con- 
vention, to be published in German-American 
Annals. We gladly publish it here, as Mr. 
Helbig's successful work in building up a col- 
lection of German-American books is of ut- 
most importance, not only to the German ele- 
ment in this country, but to American history 
as a whole. — Ed. 

CCORDING to paragraph 11 
of its constitution and prin- 
ciples the National German- 
American Alliance of the 
United States of America 
recommends a systematic 
investigation of the share Germans have 
had in the development of their adopted 
country, in war and in peace, in all kinds 
of German-American activity, from the 
earliest days, as the basis for the found- 
ing and continuance of a German-Ameri- 
can history. 

What has the National German-Ameri- 
can Alliance as such done so far in this 
direction? This question should by all 
means be discussed at the convention now 
in session. I take the liberty on this oc- 
casion to inform the delegates and all 
others interested in the subject about the 
following : 

In addition to my regular work in the 
Library I have exerted myself for many 
•years to build up a large German-Ameri- 
-can collection for the New York Public 
I^ibrary. Already on March 17, 1902, 



prompted by the visit of Prince Henry 
of Prussia to this country, a comprehen- 
sive exhibition of books, manuscripts, il- 
lustrations, etc., relating to the German 
element in the United States, was opened 
in the spacious entrance-hall of the 
Lenox Library Building, in order to draw 
public attention to this collection. 

As no special fund is yet at our dis- 
posal to buy everything in this field, many 
of my recommendations for purchases 
could not be considered. For this reason 
the growth of the collection appeared too 
slow to me. So I began in October, 1903, 
to solicit donations of books, pamphlets 
and other material for the collection, by 
way of correspondence. This attempt 
proved to be very auspicious, as I could 
report, in an article published in the Neiv- 
Yorkcr Staafs-Zcifung of April 10, 1904, 
the receipt of 293 volumes and pamphlets 
from fifteen States, between November, 
1903, and February, 1904. Now I 
pressed vigorously forward in this path. 
The steadily growing work and corre- 
spondence compelled me to give up all 
my own time, often at the sacrifice of 
hours of sleep, to this labor of love. 

October 3, 1905. I sent a letter to the 
third convention of the National German- 
American Alliance in Lidianapolis, ex- 
plaining the scope of the collection and 
the progress made so far, also asking for 
official support of our aims and efforts. 
The letter was read before the conven- 
tion, then it was published in the New- 
Yorker Staats-Zeitung, October 9. '^y 



GERMAN-AMERICAN COLLECTION IN NEW YORK LIBRARY 



27 



mistake it was omitted from the printed 
minutes of the convention, pubHshed in 
German- American Annals, November, 
1905, but it appeared in the December 
issue. 

March 11, 1906, the New-Yorker 
Staats-Zcitnng printed an abridgment of 
my report on the progress of the collec- 
tion during the years 1904- 1905. It was 
published in full in German-x\merican 
Annals, May, 1906, pp. 147-157. As this 
report is of far-reaching interest to Ger- 
man-American research, many German 
papers reprinted it verhatim or gave ex- 
tracts with editorial comments. At that 
time the collection amounted to over 2,000 
titles. During the two years mentioned, 
about 225 works, including some rarities, 
had been purchased. 1332 volumes and 
pamphlets had been received as gifts 
from 301 persons in in cities, distributed 
over 31 States of the Union. The report 
also contains a list of about 125 names of 
German-American authors of belles-let- 
tres, represented in the collection. Since 
then the works of more than forty such 
authors have been acquired. 

After January i, 1908, a new report 
upon the growth of the collection and its 
use for the time 1906-1907 will be issued. 
For the present we can only reveal that 
the results surpass those of 1904- 1905. 
The foremost benefactor has been the 
Rev. John Rothensteiner, pastor of a large 
German parish in St. Louis, Mo. He has 
donated over 360 volumes and pamphlets 
between May, 1905, and June, 1907. Of 
great importance is also the gift of 40 
volumes of a New York weekly, entitled 
BcUctristiscJics Journal, established in 
1852, from the present publisher, Dr. 11. 
E. Schneider. The series has almost been 
completed from other sources. Mr. Hen- 
ry Feldmann, of New York, presented 
the rare volumes 13-15, dated 1864- '65- 
'66-'67. 

I repeat what I stated already in my 
letter to the convention in Indianapolis : 
^'The advantages to German-American re- 
search offered by a special collection in a 
large public library are so important and 
evident, that our efforts not only deserve, 
but that we may reasonably lay claim to. 
the support of all German-Americans." 
I have repeatedly called attention in the 



press to the fact that the publications, re- 
ports and smaller printed matter' of 
churches, societies and institutions have a 
positive value,„as original material for re- 
search. The National German-American 
Alliance could facilitate and hasten our 
arduous work by the passing of resolu- 
tions, wherein the local federations of so- 
cieties are requested to collect material in 
their respective districts and to send the 
same, if possible, collectively, to our ad- 
dress. Such action has already been taken 
by the German-American State Alliance 
of New York at its convention in Troy, 
June 23, 1907. . 

All publishers and editors are respect- 
fully requested to send us their publica- 
tions regularly. Complete volumes are 
bound and carefully preserved for the 
purpose of research. Volumes of past 
years are especially desired. As it is 
practically impossible to obtain complete 
files of all German newspapers ever pub- 
lished in this country, I have determined 
to find out the existence of- files in the 
libraries of other cities and in private pos- 
session. The result will be published 
later, whereby a great service will be 
done to historical research. . . . How 
often it has happened that old newspaper- 
volumes have been sold for a few cents as 
waste paper, or been destroyed outright ! 
Let us therefore rescue all we can. Due 
acknowledgment will be given to all who 
assist in this important "piece of work. 
The new grand structure of our Library 
at Fifth Avenue, between Fortieth an^ 
Forty-second Street, will be the largest 
library-building in the world. It is 
planned to hold four and a half millions 
of volumes. So there will be plenty of 
room for German-American material. 

In an article in the Nczi'-Yorkcr Staats- 
Zcitnng of April 10, 1904. I have already 
called attention to my Gcrnian-Americaii 
bibliography. At present it embraces 
over 10.000 titles, including contributions 
to periodicals and the publications of his- 
torical societies. For the sake of accuracy 
every conscientious bibliographer makes it 
a point to see all material himself. My 
plan is to include also the tides of books 
which are not vet in possession of the 
New York Public Library. This will re- 
quire visits to the libraries of other cities. 



28 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



In 1904 I sacrificed three weeks of my 
vacation for the purpose of research at 
the Library of Congress in Washington, 
in 1905 a shorter time at hbraries in Phil- 
adelphia. Economy of time a;nd expendi- 
tures out of my own pocket make it pru- 
dent to postpone the publication of my 
bibliography until the books in the Astor 
and Lenox Libraries have been united in 
the new building, which present-day 
prophets say will take place in about two 
to three years. The great mass of our 
German-Americans has little comprehen- 
sion of the gigantic task of such a bibli- 
ographical undertaking. I am well aware 
of the difficulties of the work, but I must 
necessarily finish it alone to insure uni- 
formity. As a member of the American 



Historical Association and the Biblio- 
graphical Society of America, I am in 
touch with competent persons and can at 
the same time reach those circles whose 
interest for German-American historical 
research should be won. 

Our dear fellow-citizens of German 
origin may be assured that much more is 
effected by our collection than by the 
senseless assertions of certain "speakers, "^ 
who vehemently try to impress their hear- 
ers on every occasion that American his- 
torians wilfully ignore the merits of the 
German element. The principal thing is 
to gather the original material and to 
make it available for systematic scientific 
research. The whole apparatus is already 
in our library. 



Another Oldtime "Neijohrswunsch" 




N our issue of January, 1907, 
we described the peculiar 
Pennsylvania-German cus- 
tom of shooting-in and 
wishing-in the New Year. 
In the course of that article 
we published two of the Ncnjahrs- 
wiinsche usually recited on those occa- 
sions, one addressed to the head of the 
house, the other to an unmarried young 
lady. It affords us pleasure to be able 
to-day to lay before our readers another 
of those queer old-time New Year's greet- 
ings, which is addressed to the whole 
household — father and mother, "sons and 
daughters, man-servants and maid-serv- 
ants, and all who go in and out of this 
house." It is one of three that were 
printed on a "broadside," about ten by 
sixteen inches in size, for the loan of 
which we are indebted to the kindness of 
Mr. Jacob Arner, of Weissport. and Mr. 
George H. Enzian, of Lehighton. The 
other two are those which may be found 
on pages 16 and 17 of our issue of Janu- 
ary, 1907. 

Ich wiinsche Euch und Eurer Hausfrau, 
Sohnen und Tochtern, Knechten und Magden 
und alien den jenigen, die in diesem Hause 
ein- und ausgehen : 

Ein gliickselig neues Jahr, 

Gott gebe, dass es werde wahr, 

Wir wiiunschen Euch ein grosses Gliick 

Und alles Ungliick weit zuriick. 



-ste Jahr tritt ein. 



Das - 

Nun auf im Namen Jesu Christ, 

Weil das neue Jahr vorhanden ist. 

Das alte Jahr ist nun dahin, 

Denn heute fangen wir ein neues an. 

Gott Lob und Dank dass diese Zeit 

Erlebet ist in Ruh' und Freud, 

Und es kommt noch uber Euch 

Und der ganzen Christenheit 

Was Gott und Vater hat bereit, 

Von einem Jahr zum andern, 

Und wir gehen dahin und wandern, 

Wir leben und gedeihen, 

Vom Alten bis zum Neuen, 

Durch so viel Angst und Plagen, 

Durch Zittern und durch Zagen, 

Durch Krieg und grosse Schrecken 

Die alle Welt bedecken. 

Un weiter wiinschen wir Euch 

Ein gliickselig neues Jahr 

Dass Gott Euer ganzes Haus bewahr', 

Fiir Feuers-und fiir Wassersnoth, 

Fiir Krakheit und fiir schnellem Tod, 

Es hat uns zwar, o Herr und Gott 

Dies letzte Jahr gedroht 

Viele Angst und Noth. 

Doch hat er alles gniidiglich 

Von uns gewendet vaterlich. 

Und weiter wiinschen wir Euch 

Das hochgelobte neue Jahr 

Bis Ihr bekonimt ^raues Haar, 

Und mit Ehren werden alt 

Und hernach den Himmel erhalt, 

Himmelslust und Gottes Segen, 

Gottes Gunst bleibt Euch bewogen. 

Bis die Seele mit der Zeit 

Kommt gehn Himmel aufgeflogen 

Und Euer Sitz der bleibt bereit 

Dort in der ewigen Seligkeit. 

Der Herr der breite iiber Euch seine Hand 

Und segne dieses Haus und Land, 

Es gebe Euch auch Gott der Herr, 



ANOTHER OLDTIME "NEIJOHRSWUNSCH" 



29 



Das tiiglich Rrnd unci was noch mehr gobriclit 

Alls Geduld (lurch Jcsuui Christ. 

So wollcn wir hicr allzugleich 

O hochster Gott in's Himinelrcich, 

Dich loben an dem neuen Jahr 

Und darnach werden es mimcrdar, 

So vvohl auf Erden in diescr Zeit 

Als dort in der ewigen Scligkeit. 

Und weitcr wiinschcn wir Euch 

Ein gluckseligos noues Jahr, 

Eine Friedenszcit, 

Gott helf Euch ins Himmelreich. 

Dieses alles wollst Du geben, 

O meines Lebens Leben, 



Euch und dcr ganzen Christenschaar, 

Zu diesom seligcn neuen Jahr. 

Nun will ich mit Euch wachen, 

Und Euch in Ehren fragen, 

Ob auch das Schiessen und das Knallen 

Heut an Eurem Haus darf schallcn, 

Denn wir sind so frcmd hierher gekommen, 

Das ncue Jahr mit Euch anzufangen. 

So bchiit luich Gott wohl vor dem Schrcckcn, 

Wann wir luich so friih aufwecken, 

Ich hoff cs wird luich nicht verdriessen, 

Wann wir Euch das neue Jahr anschiessen, 

Wenn's Euch abcr thut verdriessen, 

So miisst Ihr es sagen, eh' wir schiessen. 



William Holler, the Red Man's Terror 

A Blue Mountain Tale 



BY J. FRED BACH MAN, D.S.NIELS\ILLE, PA. 



I. 



WILLIAM, if you want a roast 
for your dinner to-morrow, 
you had better look around 
for it," said Widow Holler 
to her son, who was lying 
on the bench and stretching 
his feet towards the fire on the hearth to 
warm them. 

William was dozing at the time. He 
had been out in the cold getting wood for 
the family. His mother was darning 
stockings, while his pet dog, Wasser, was 
lying under the bench asleep. 

"William," she said again shortly after- 
wards, "if you want a good roast for 
your dinner to-morrow, you had better 
look around for it." 

W^illiam Holler was a strong, hearty 
young man, used to the hardships of pio- 
neer life along the Blue Mountains, and 
the only child and support of his mother. 
Mrs. Holler knew that her son was an 
expert hunter. He knew how to handle 
the long heavy rifle which was his con- 
stant companion when at work. He sel- 
dom failed to bring home a deer or other 
wild animal that chanced to cross his 
path. Why should he not be equally suc- 
cessful to-day? 

His father had been killed one winter's 
■day some years before during an Indian 
attack upon his lonely home, and William 
liad sworn vengeance on the redskins for 
his death. When, early in 1756, IJenja- 
inin Franklin came to Xeu-Gnadenhiitten, 
near the present Weissport, with a de- 



tachment of troops. Holler was one of the 
first to shoulder his rifle and step into the 
ranks. 

He had reached the age when his 
mother thought he should look around 
for a wife, especially as she was getting 
old and feeble. She would frequently 
tease him about getting married. "Now, 
had you not better close that contract 
with Barbara Case?" she would say. "I 
think it is about time for you to do so. 
I am getting old and you will be in want 
of a housekeeper soon. You know Mr. 
Case and his family are very good neigh- 
bors, and I think Barbara would make a 
good housekeeper for you." 

The Case family lived across the hill 
in the next valley. Mrs. Holler was in 
the habit of calling them neighbors, but 
at present they would be considered very 
distant neighbors. 

William agreed with his mother in her 
good opinion of the Case family. He 
frequently called on liarbara and was al- 
ways received by her and her parents 
with open arms. But somehow he was 
bashful and could not venture to pop the 
question. 

He would frequently say to himself: 
"I have no hesitancy to fight the Indians, 
but I can not manage to speak this word." 

Barbara assisted her mother in the 
household duties, and sometimes helped 
her father in clearing the land. She. too, 
was often teased by her parents about 
William, and in answer to their teasing 
would sav: "I know he is a fine young 



30 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



man, and I think he would make a good 
husband for me, but it is for him to do 
the asking. If I am not worth asking 
for, I am not worth halving." 

Things went on ir. this way for some 
time. William made still more frequent 
visits, but he was too timid "to close that 
contract," as his mother had suggested. 

It was the last day of the year, and his 
mother desired to give him a good New 
Year's dinner, as had always been her 
custom. 

William rose from the bench, put on 
his hunting-coat and reached for his 
trusty rifle. He looked at the priming 
and thrust the ramrod into the barrel. "I 
think it is all right," he said. 

No sooner did Wasser see his master 
reach for the rifle than he sprang from 
under the bench and began capering 
around him. 

William patted the faithful dog on the 
head. "Wasser will remain at home with 
Mother and help her take care of the 
house until I come home. I will not be 
gone long. That is a good doggy," he 
said. 

The faithful animal seemed to under- 
stand William. He laid down his long 
ears, cast a yearning look on his master, 
then returned to his favorite resort under 
the bench. 

"Poor doggy," said William as he 
opened the door and stepped out. "He 
takes it hard, but he will be glad to see 
me when I come back." 

William took the path along the creek, 
going over the hills past Mr. Case's house 
towards the north. He had frequently 
shot deer along this creek, to which they 
came to quench their thirst. He followed 
the path until he reached the hill, but saw 
no deer. He went to the top of the hill, 
probably not so much in quest of deer as 
in quest of Barbara. When he could see 
down into the valley he was dumbfound- 
ed. 

It could not be true ! He looked again. 
It was only too true. The house occupied 
by Mr. Case and family was on fire, and 
he thought he saw some Indians and cap- 
tives going up the hill back of the house. 
II. 

William Holler took in the situation at 
a glance. While he was warming himself 
before his own hearth and thinking of 



Barbara, a party of Indians, who had 
skulked thro' between the forts, attacked 
Case's house, taking the family complete- 
ly by surprise. They had set fire to the 
house and outbuildings and either cap- 
tured or killed the occupants. 

Barbara was first in William's mind. 
"I must save her, if it costs my life."' 
So saying he sprang forward, keeping 
well behind the trees, to screen himself 
from the enemy. When he came to the 
house, he called softly, "Barbara." There- 
was no answer. "They are in the fire 
or captives. Perhaps they are hid some- 
where," he said to himself. 

He rushed from place to place, keep- 
ing well under cover, for he well under- 
stood the ways of the wily Indians. -To 
his horror he discovered the tracks of 
several captives. 

No time was to be lost. He followed 
the savages across the hill, now and then- 
making sure that he was still on the trail. 
He was descending into the valley, when 
he thought he heard cries, and his eagle- 
eyes caught sight of the Indians with their 
captives. 

"Six Indians and four captives," he 
said. "What shall I do? Six redskins 
are too many for me. But can not the 
captives come to my aid?" 

He followed on stealthily, and as he 
drew nearer he thought he saw Barbara 
with her father and mother among the 
captives. "If only those redskins would 
scatter more, so that I could attack them- 
singly. They are too many for me," he 
said again. 

At that moment he saw one Indian turn 
and apply a switch to the back of one of 
the captives. It was Barbara's mother. 
William's blood began to boil. He poised 
his rifle, took aim. then lowered it again. 
"If my rifle fails, I am lost," he muttered 
to himself. 

He looked at the priming. It was all 
right. "Barbara, can you not get away 
from that Indian, so that I can shoot 
him and not harm you?" he said under 
his breath. 

William was almost betrayed when, as 
he sprang cautiously along, he happened 
to step on a dry piece of wood, which 
broke in two. The hindmost Indian- 
turned and looked, but seeing nothing: 
passed on. 



WILLIAM HOLLER, THE RED MAN'S TERROR 



3r 



Barbara's mother fell again. Her hus- 
band, bound as he was, made an effort to 
assist her to rise, but could not. The 
same switch was now applied to both. 
Barbara shuddered and offered a silent 
prayer. 

The Indian who had Barbara in charge 
turned towards her and said : "White 
squaw make good wife for Indian." She 
made no reply, but again sent up a silent 
prayer : "God, remove me at once. I 
can not endure to see my lather and 
mother thus tortured." 

William saw it all. He could hardly 
refrain from calling to Barbara to be 
patient. 

"God!" said he. "Must I see this and 
not be able to help them? I do not fear 
for my life, but what would Mother do 
without me?" 

The Indians and their captives were 
still ascending the hill. The savages now 
thought themselves safe from pursuit and 
were becoming careless. 

William was following swiftly but 
cautiously, watching for an opportunity 
to pounce on them. He knew that the 
Indian Spring was close by, for he was 
well acquainted with the locality. Would 
some of the redskins turn aside to quench 
their thirst? 

Stretching his head out from behind a 
tree, he saw three of the savages lay down 
their rifles and turn from the path toward 
the spring. The moment for action had 
arrived. It might be the last, but what 
was his life to him ? Quick as lightning 
he raised the rifle and fired. The Indian 
by the side of Barbara fell. 

"Seize the guns and attack your cap- 
tors," he cried. 

Barbara, hearing the voice of William 
and thinking some one was with him, 
sprang upon the dead Indian, seized his 
tomahawk and struck it deep into the head 
of the savage near her father and mother. 
The other Indian was bewildered and be- 
fore he could collect his thoughts William 
had possession of the rifles. 

"Barbara, for God's sake release your 
father and mother and that boy," shouted 
William. 

She did release them, and they were 
now masters of the ground. The Indians 
fled, not knowing how many white men 



were after them. William Holler had 
avenged the death of his father and re- 
leased all his captive neighbors. 

No sooner had the Indians fled than 
the late captives surrounded William, all 
endeavoring to thank him for his kind- 
ness. But William was too well versed 
in the ways of the wily savages. He 
waved them away. 

"We must first make sure that the 
Indians are gone, then we will settle this 
little bill," he said. 

Barbara thought to herself, "Now he- 
will ask the important question." But 
William failed to do so. 

When assured that they were no longer 
in danger from the Indians, they took the 
rifles, tomahawks and other articles and 
turned towards their homes, Barbara 
joyfully walking by the side of her res- 
cuer. 

When they came to the place where the 
Cases had lived, they found the house and' 
all other buildings destroyed. 

"Where shall we stay now?" said Bar- 
bara's mother. "All we had is in ashes." 

"You can all come home with me," 
said William. "Mother will be glad tO' 
have you come." 

Barbara looked inquiringly at him. 
"Sooner with you than anyone else," she- 
said. 

"We must be very careful and not talk 
too loud," said William. "These wily red- 
skins might return and make us more 
trouble. It is bad enough as it is." 

Barbara said, "We lost our home, but 
it might be worse. We might have lost 
you also." 

William made no reply, and Barbara 
almost thought aloud: "You know how 
to fight Indians, but you are too bashful 
to ask a woman to marry you, after sav- 
ing her life." 

At this moment Barbara's father and 
mother and the boy, who were walking on 
behind, heard a rustling in the bushes. 
Thinking the savages were upon them 
again, they rushed around William 
shrieking: "The Indians ! The Indians!" 

"Get behind the trees, quick," cried' 
William. 

It was not many seconds before his 
sharp ears perceived that the noise in the- 
bushes was different from the stealthy 



32 



THE PENNSYLVAlsUA-GERMAN 



tread of the savages. Venturing out 
from behind his tree, he noticed a fine, 
large deer at the stream. His unerring 
rifle brought it to the ground. 

"That is what I came out for," said 
WilHam. "This will make a fine roast 
for dinner tomorrow." 
III. 

When the party reached William's 
home they found the door and window- 
shutters closed and barricaded on the in- 
side. William had not returned at the 
proper time, and his mother, fearing for 
her safety, had kept the dog in the house 
and secured the door. 

William was puzzled and began to fear 
something might be wrong. He crept 
cautiously to the door and called, 
"Mother." No answer came. 

As he was sadly turning away, not 
knowing what to do, he heard his faith- 
ful dog capering around the room He 
rapt at the door and called again. 

His mother was hard of hearing, but 
noticing the antics of the dog, she con- 
cluded that William was out. "There 
must be some one out, old fellow," she 
said. "I think it's your master." So, 
having confidence in the dog, she undid 
the door. William and the rest stood 
l)efore her with a fine large deer lying 
on the snow beside them. 

"Law sakes alive ! What does this 
mean? Come in! Come in!" she said. 

All that had happened was explained 
to her. Then she said : 

"You will all remain with us until you 
have another home. To-morrow will be 
New Year's day, and we will have a 
thanksgiving-dinner together. I have a 
fine, good and brave son." she continued 
proudly. "He would risk his life for his 
friends at any time." 

All present readily assented to this last 
remark, only Barbara made a mental 
reservation. "He is not brave enough to 
demand the ladv he rescued for his wife," 
she told herself. 

The next morning, while hosts and 
guests partook of the scanty fare placed 
before them, William observed that the 
old-fashioned dishes were carefully ar- 
ranged, and he thought the viands tasted 
unusually good. 

During the meal Widow Holler ad- 
dressed ' her son :' "W-illiam, see how 



nicely things are arranged. What a fine 
home a young woman could make here ! 
What a help she would be to me !" 

Barbara blushed, and William was 
silent. The rest looked at him and smiled. 

William could hardly brook this. He 
longed for a partner and Barbara was 
his choice. His mother was getting old 
and feeble. The evenings were long and 
dreary, to sit by himself while his mother 
sat in her old chair and dozed. 

Breakfast over, William walked out- 
doors and stood musing by himself. "I 
believe that she is a good girl. She 
seems to like mother and I dare say she 
is nice to me. I need help in this home. 
I would ask her to become my wife, but 
what would she say? I think she would 
have accepted my oflfer yesterday. I think 
she wished me to propose, but how could 
I, her parents being by? I would have 
been in a nice muddle, had I proposed 
and she had rejected me." 

Unconsciously he had got to thinking 
aloud. On looking up he saw Barbara 
standing before him. 

"William, you seem to be in trouble." 

"Why, no— I only"— 

"What would you do if she should say 
no ?" 

William blushed. "I do not"— 

"What would vou do if she should say 
yes ?" 

William summoned courage to ask: 
"What would you sav if I — should ask 
you"— 

"I would say yes, of course." 

"Get ready then. We might just as 
well settle this little job right now," said 
William, suddenly grown bold. 

"All right," said Barara. She went 
into the house, and William went to the 
stable to get "Old Sam." 

Having thrown a bearskin over the 
horse and put a large piece of venison in 
a bag, they both mounted for a ride. As 
the others came to the door, William 
called out : "We are going to Squire 
Bertch. We will be back by dinner- 
time." 

IV. 

Squire Bertch lived about five miles 
from William's home. He was a hale, 
hearty country justice, fond of stating 
that he held a commission under "his 
Royal Tghness." He stood at the gate 



WILLIAM HOLLER, THE RED MAN'S TERROR 



33 



awaitins:^ the arrival of his son and family, 
to spend tile day. When he saw William 
and r)arbara coming:, he could hardly be- 
lieve his eyes. It was an uncommon 
things to see a gentleman ride a horse 
with a lady sitting behind him, and he 
could not at first understand what had 
gotten into W'illiam's head. 

"Well, by our Royal 'Ighness, Wil- 
liam, what are you up to?" he said, as the 
couple alighted. 

"W-hy. w-hy, Scpiire," stammered 
William, "I had good luck yesterday, and 
I brought you a haunch of venison 
and" — 

The squire looked good-naturedly at 
both and taking in the situation said: "I 
guess you are here for something else. 
Come right in." 

The ceremony was not such a terrible 
ordeal as William had anticipated. When 
it was over the bride and groom related 
the story of the Indians' attack and the 
rescue of their captives. This was too 
much for the squire. He could not take 
any fee for performing the ceremony for 
the simple reason that he feared doing so 
would displease "his Royal Tghness," 
should it ever come to his ears. 

The squire's wife had prepared plenti- 
fully for their son and his family, and 
nothing would please her better than to 
give the newly married couple one of her 
fine fruit-cakes for a wedding-cake. This 
was not all. Barbara and her parents 
needed clothing, so she filled the bag in 
which William had brought the venison 
with various articles of apparel which 
they could use. 

William felt somewhat displeased that 
he had to walk on the wav home, but 



when he saw all that was contained in 
the bag, he felt quite dififerently. Their 
New Year's wedding-dinner was a very 
enjoyable occasion. 

V. 

William and Barbara lived hapi)ily to- 
gether. William was fond of relating the 
story of his New Year's marriage. He 
always denied asking Barbara to become 
his wife, but admitted that he was a little 
out of humor when he had to walk home 
after the ceremony. The only fault Bar- 
bara had to find with him was that he 
always insisted upon allowing Wasser to 
lie at his accustomed place under the 
bench, while she was in fear continually 
that little William, who was in the habit 
of pulling the old dog's hair, would be 
bitten by him. 

The dwelling-place of William and 
Barbara Holler is greatly changed. A 
large stone house stands where the old 
log house stood, and the merry gambol- 
ing children who roll about the grass in 
the yard in summer are fond of relating 
the pioneer stories of William Holler, "the 
Red Man's Terror." 

A short distance from the place where 
the Hollers lived is a small piece of 
ground enclosed by a stone wall. In this 
enclosure stand two sandstones marking 
the last resting-place of the hero and the 
heroine of our story. 

Some distance north of this enclosure, 
near the Indian Spring, stands a huge 
black bowlder. Tradition points to this 
spot as the last resting-place of the two 
Indians who perished by the hands of 
William and Barbara on the day with 
which our tale begins. 



First Book Printed in Reading. 

George P. Hartgen, of Reading, owns the 
first book printed in Reading, a novel 
the German language, entitled "The Story of 
Florentine von Fallendorn,'' written by Hein- 
rich Stilling and printed Irom the press of 
Jacob Schneider & Co. in 1707. 

A Well Preserved Centenarian Church. 

The Emmanuel Lutheran congregation at 
Brickerville, Lancaster county, which recently 
celebrated the centennial of its present church- 
building, dates its own history back to 1730. 
Rev. John Casper Stoever was its first pa.stor, 
and the main factor in its organization. Its 
first church, according to tradition, was built 



in 1733, and the adjoining old cemetery is 
believed to have been the burial-place of Baron 
Henry William Stiegel, the famous iron- 
master. The present church-building, which 
was consecrated Oct. 25, 1807, is made of 
brick burnt near the place. It has a gallery 
with a high, arched ceiling, high-backed pews 
with shelves for Bibles and luannbooks and 
a curious "wineglass" or "candlestick" pulpit, 
surmounted by a quaint sounding-board. The 
Coleman furnaces at Cornwall furnished iron- 
work to strengthen the trusses. The church 
cost about $8,000 and it is recorded that a 
barrel of whiskey was consumed during its 
construction. It is in good condition and bids 
fair to stand another hundred vears. 



34 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Pennsylvania-German Patriotism 

German Oration Delivered at the Commencement of Muhlenberg; 
College, June 20, 1907, by Russell C. Mauch 

TRANSLATED BY REV\ J. A. SCHEFFER, A.M., ALLENTOWN, PA. 




HIRTEEN German families 
landed at Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 6, 1683. Their leader 
was Francis Daniel Pastor- 
ius, one of the most learned 
men of his time. These 
Germans settled in the woods where Ger- 
mantown, a part of the city of Philadel- 
phia, now is. The first paper-mill in 
America was erected in this German 
settlement by Wilhelm Rittinghuysen, 
father of the celebrated astronomer, 
David Rittenhouse. Only five years after 
arriving, this little German colony pro- 
tested against human slavery, and pub- 
lished a petition that all slaves be freed. 
Governor Pennypacker spoke truly of 
this event when he said : "Whenever men 
seek to learn the beginning of the move- 
ment that led on to Shiloh, Gettysburg and 
Appomattox, they will have to go back to 
the conscientious farmers and artisans 
along the Wissahickon." 

During the centuries since 1683 some 
of Germany's best people came to Amer- 
ica. More than six millions of Germans 
have become citizens of the United 
States. And no one can overestimate 
their influence in this country. 

The Pennsylvania-German is a thor- 
ough-going, liberty-loving citizen. From 
the depths of his heart he is the protector 
and defender of home and country. And 
out of his great love for freedom and 
justice, grows a bitter hatred of oppres- 
sion and tyranny. These qualities and 
characteristics make, him morally and 
physically courageous in upholding and 
defending the rights of every citizen. 

In times of peace the Pennsylvania- 
German is a good, quiet citizen, always 
in favor of morality and religion, politi- 
cal and financial honesty, correcting and 
reforming any and all wrongs. When 
war-times came, he was among the first 
to go forth in defense of his country. 
Two years before the Declaration of In- 
dependence was proclaimed, the German 



settlers in Pennsylvania declared them- 
selves in favor of absolute, unconditional 
separation from England. As the dissat- 
isfaction of the American colonists in- 
creased and revolt became more evident, 
the kin^ of England asked to be inform- 
ed as to two matters : first, whether the 
Germans in America favored an inde- 
pendent government, and second, if many 
of them had been soldiers before emi- 
grating. When he received an affirma- 
tive answer to both questions his counten- 
ance fell. 

The first troops to arrive in Boston to 
help the New Englanders in the Revolu- 
tion were Germans from Pennsylvania. 
They arrived there July 18, 1775, only 
thirty-four days after Congress called 
the citizens to arms. The first soldiers 
to go thither from the South were Ger- 
mans from Virginia. They marched to 
Boston, a distance of 600 miles, over 
rough roads, in fifty-four days. These 
Pennsylvanian and Virginian Germans 
were better armed than the New Eng- 
land citizen-soldiers, and their rifles did 
much more effective service in battle 
than the shotguns of the latter. When 
Washington saw them march into camp, 
he sprang from his horse to shake their 
hands, while tears of gratitude rolled 
down his comely face. 

The German Moravians at Bethlehem, 
Pa., had the best equipped military hos- 
pital, provided with nurses, for the sick 
and wounded soldiers of the Revolution- 
ary war. Berks and Lancaster counties 
at that time had the furnaces and found- 
dries that smelted the ore and cast the 
cannon and balls for the Continental 
army. Most of the rifles and others arms 
were manufactured in Northampton, 
York and other German counties of 
Pennsylvania. The well tilled farms of 
the Germans in Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia furnished a large portion 
of the food-supplies of Washington's 
troops. 



PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN PATRIOTISM 



35 



In covering Washington's retreat af- 
ter the battle of Long Island, one com- 
pany from Easton, Pa., of less than a 
hundred men, lost seventy. A historian 
has well said : "Long Island was the 
Thermopylae of the Revolution and the 
Pennsylvania-Germans were the Spar- 
tans." 

General Peter Muhlenberg was the 
most distinguished of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans in the army. He was the trusted 
friend of Washington and other generals. 
He led the reserve-troops in the battle of 
Brandy wine and other bloody fights. It 
was a division of Germans that planted 
the flag on the conquered fortifications, at 
Yorktown, Va. Thus from the beginning 
to the end, did the former countrymen of 
Frederic the Great and their sons take a 
prominent part in the war for independ- 
ence and freedom. 

Long before the North expected the 
close approach of the Rebellion of 1861 ; 
long before the South resolved to secede, 
did the foresight of the Germans in St. 
Louis and other places lead them to drill 
the members of their athletic societies in 
the manual of arms for the defense of 
the Union. When Abraham Lincoln 
called on Missouri for her cjuota of sol- 
diers, the Governor replied indignantly 
that Missouri w^ould never furnish sol- 
diers to fight her sister States. But that 
Governor did not take into account the 
Germans and their influence in his State. 
At the close of the Civil War, Missouri 
had given more soldiers in defense of the 
Union than Massachusetts, the so-called 
rock of anti-slavery. Four hundred thou- 
sand Germans served in the Union army 
and only comparatively few in the 
Southern. 

Early in the morning of April 12, 
1 861, the secessionists fired on the United 
States troops in Fort Sumter. Before 
sunset of that eventful day, Pennsylvania 
offered $500,000 to suppress the rebellion. 
Three days after Abraham Lincoln's first 
call for soldiers, five companies of Penn- 
sylvania-Germans from x-Mlentown, Read- 
ing, Lewistown and Pottsville arrived in 
Washington. When at a critical period, 
aduring the Rebellion, Lincoln desired 
Soi-ore soldiers the Irish in New York in- 
"'^ gated the unpatriotic "draft-riots." The 



English Governor addressed these rioters 
as "my friends," but the German societies 
called on their countrymen to repulse the 
enemies of their country. 

In the late war with Spain, Admiral 
Schley, of German descent, destroyed the 
Spanish fleet, near Santiago. General 
Shafter, another German-American, con- 
quered the land-forces in that part of 
Cuba, and an American of Dutch ances- 
try was the hero of a battle with the 
Spaniards at San Juan. 

When the thunders of war were over 
and the victories were won, the Germans 
settled down quietly and followed their 
peaceful occupations of farming, manu- 
facturing and commerce. They left the 
boasting and the political scheming to 
those who probably had done little to win 
the military victories. 

The Germans left their fatherland, 
which had been impoverished by wars. 
They were, however, willing and prepar- 
ed to fight for freedom and peace in their 
adopted home. 

Two thousand years ago Csesar and 
Tacitus wrote that the Germans were 
brave warriors for country, home and 
freedom. These historians would recog- 
nize the same characteristics in the Penn- 
sylvania-German of modern times. Wil- 
liam Penn invited the German people to 
come to America and take part in the 
"holy endeavor" to establish civil and re- 
ligious liberty. They came to contend 
courageously with yet untried hardships, 
in order to attain these rights and bless-, 
ings. These pioneers had to clear the 
dense, unbroken forests, to protect them- 
selves, at every step, from death by In- 
dians and wild beasts, to labor amidst 
many needs, privations and much suffer- 
ing, in order to get food and shelter for 
themselves and children. 

In addition they had to submit to un- 
desirable regulations by the new colon- 
ial government. But they continued 
stedfast in their undertakings. Many 
fought, bled and died for the country 
they helped to clear, settle and make in- 
dependent, free from tyranny and slavery. 

Whoever questions the honest patriot- 
ism of the Pennsylvania-Germans is 
either ignorant of their character and 
history or a malicious perverter of facts. 



36 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Few of them have had any blameworthy 
part in the corrupt pohtics of our times. 
There is not even a word in their dialect 
for the hateful English word "graft," 
May it never be needed. 

iMay our patriotism be kindled afresh 
by the words which the great German • 
patriot, Schiller, addressed to his people 
in his magnificent drama of liberty, en- 
tided "William Tell": 



To our dear fatherland espouse thy soul ; 
Clasp it with ev'ry fiber of thy being. 
Here are the mainsprings of thy manhood's 
strength. 



One people, as of brothers, we will be ; 
Distress and danger never shall divide us. 
We will be freemen, as our fathers were. 
Choosing to die rather than live in bondage. 
In God Almighty we will ever trust, 
And never fear the might of puny man. 



"Pure German" and "Pennsylvania-Dutch" 

REV. GEORGE STIBITZ IN THE "yORK (pA.) DISPATCH." 



[The object of the article from which the 
following extract is taken was to refute two 
assumptions made by a previous correspondent 
of the Dispatch. The first of these assump- 
tions was that "pure German" is a language 
native to the soil of Germany and the natural 
product of the German people ; the other, that 
the Pennsylvania-German dialect is a corrup- 
tion of this pure language of the fatherland. 
Rev. Stibitz's remarks confirm the assertion 
made editorially in our November issue, that 
the Pennsylvania-German originally was as 
good and pure a dialect as any spoken in 
Germany. — ^Ed. ] 

Pure German is nowhere naturally spoken 
in Germany. It is always a language that 
has been directly or indirectly learned in the 
schools or from literature. There are as many 
dialects as there are petty kingdoms in Ger- 
many. These differ in some cases so much 
from each other as to be unintelligible to 
all who are not to the manner born. I have 
often found words and phrases in the speech 
of old Bavarians, Hessians and northern Ger- 
mans in general, which I could not under- 
stand, though a German by birth. According 
to a statement recently made to me by the 
pastor of one of the large German congrega- 
tions-; in Philadelphia, the Gernians of his 
churcii find it necessary to use the literary 
language of the homeland so as to be able 
to converse with each other. Each has a 
language of his own wherein he was born, but 
this (the High German) they all had to learn 
as a part of their education. 

So-called pure German is in a sense artifi- 
cial, as it is made up of the best elements of 
all the differing dialects and grammatically re- 
duced to a system. The father, so to speak, 
of this German literary language was Martin 
Luther. Before his time even the German 
book language vacillated between the many 
dialects of the country. After his vigorous 
and able construction of the language it was 
gradually adopted by all learned men, and 
now every one who lays any claim to edu- 
cation or desires a medium of intercourse 
with all the Germans must use this language. 
It is therefore taught in the schools and 
preached in the pulpits. Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans even will not tolerate anything, else in 
their churches. It was made by the- learned 



and it lives as the language of such to this 
day. 

W'hat is known to us as Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man, or as some inappropriately call it, 
Pennsylvania-Dutch, is simply one of these 
many dialects of the German soil, translated 
by the Palatine immigrant to Pennsylvania. 
It is still spoken in Germany today substan- 
tially as it is spoken in York and other coun- 
ties. Three years ago I was surprised to hear 
on the streets of Heidelberg just such speech 
as I hear on the streets of York or Allen- 
town. Expressions which I had thought to 
be the product of this Pennsylvania-German, 
I find galore in a little book of poems in 
the Palatine dialect by Karl G. Nadler, a 
native of Heidelberg, Another book in the 
same dialect, ''Die Rhcin-Schnoke," which I 
examined in Heidelberg, is still more like 
Pennsylvania-German than this of Nadler's. 
There are in both Heidelberg and York the 
use of the same provincial expressions, the 
French nasal sound, and the general move- 
ment of the speech from the throat toward the 
lips. This latter is according to the most 
universal law of language. 

The great objection to the use of this dialect 
to the exclusion of proper language is be- 
cause it is a dialect and provincial. It cannot 
have a literature because its field is too-iMall. 
Going to school the farmer's child has to learn 
the mediimi of communication with which 
others are alreadv supplied. But a corruption 
it is not. It has maintained itself most won- 
derfully here during these one hundred and 
fifty years or more. The York county farmer 
and the Palatinate peasant could converse 
without any difficulty. It is a dialect, but it is 
the free child of nature and strictly obeys the 
laws of nature. I believe any one going 
through the length and breadth of Germany 
selecting a dialect for its .softness and ease, 
qualities for which the French has been 
lauded to the skies, would select this despised 
Pennsylvania-German as it is spoken in the 
Palatinate today. The hard guttural pronun- 
ciation of those professors in Heidelberg uni- 
versity who came from the north made one 
wish for the softer tones of the native Palati- 
nate. There is more to be 5 aid in defen?-,* 
not of the use but of the genuineness. of tW & 
human speech. ' 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



37 



The Home 

Thisdepartmenl is in ehartre of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of bprinu'town. Pa. to whom all eommunication.s for ii 
should be addressed. Conlrilniiioiis relating to domestic matters— cooking, baking, house-work, gardening, 
flower culture, oldtime customs and ways of living, etc., etc.— are respectfully s>liciled Our lady readers are 



specially requested to aid in making this department generally interesting 



Some Oldtime Breakfast-Cakes 



BY THE HOME EDITOR. 



A tempting and daintily served breakfast 
of hot cakes and coffee invariably tickles the 
palate of the most whimsical epicurean and 
will always appeal to the average person. It 
has soothed many a rufHed temper, healed 
many a heartache and sent many a despondent 
mortal away from home with a lighter step 
and a more cheerful mind, to cope with the 
duties of the day. Altho many changes in the 
diet of the breakfast-table have taken place 
in the past century, yet griddle-cakes have 
been almost indispen.sable from that time to 
this. There were only a few varieties to 
choose from ; nevertheless they were hot 
cakes, just from the griddle, steaming hot. 

In interviewing an old Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man mother on this subject, she replied: ''The 
cakes we baked were plain, cheap and whole- 
some. When eggs were more than a eent 
apiece, we made them without eggs ; when 
butter was eighteen cents a pound, we sub- 
stituted lard, and when some other ingredient 
was lacking, we took something that was just 
as good." So the reader will understand that 
it is hard to get any accurate recipes from 
these natural-born old cooks. Hot cakes were 
then limited to two varieties. The raised buck- 
wheat-cakes that graced the table daily 
thro'out the sausage-season, which lasted from 
early fall to late in spring, were one kind. 

For a change there were "Journey-cakes" 
or "Johnny-cakes." These were coi^idered 
a special treat, and found their way on the 
table mostly when company was present. 

These hot-cake-and-sausage breakfasts were 
then topped oflf with a little spice-cake, locally 
called vinegar-cake, or the sweet cake, now 
termed gingerbread, and a cup of coflfee. This 
comprised the breakfast Dicint of the aver- 
age Pennsylvania-German family. 

Buchzi'licaf - Cakes. — The buckwheat - cakes 
were put to raise in the evening. I am in re- 
ceipt of the following recipe for making them : 
Half a cup of home-made yeast, three cups 
of buckwheat flour, enough milk or water 
to make a very stiff batter. This was covered 
well imti! ready for use in the morning; .salt 



was then added to taste, also two tablespoons 
of table-molasses and enough skimmed milk 
to make a thin batter. It was baked on a 
hot griddle. A small quantity of the batter 
would be left in the pot for a starter, instead 
of yeast, thus keeping the pot agoing thro' 
the entire season. 

"Johnny-Cakes" — The "Journey" or "John- 
ny-cakes" were made with cornmeal ground 
exceptionally fine for the purpose, and were 
considered an exceptional luxury. 

A good recipe still in use is as follows: One 
pint of Indian meal, three eggs, one cup of 
wheat-flour, two teaspoons of iDaking-powder, 
one teaspoon of salt and a pint of sweet 
»nilk. Put meal in a bowl, pour on enough 
boiling water to scald it, but not to make it 
too soft, and let stand until cool. Add the 
milk, beat eggs without separating until very 
light and add to batter, then add flour and 
salt and beat vigorously for three minutes. 
Then add baking-powder, mix well and bake 
on a hot griddle. 

Vinegar or Spice-Cake. — One cup New Or- 
leans molasses put in a pan on the stove and 
heated. Into a bowl put one cup of brown 
sugar and one teaspoon of saleratus ; add mo- 
lasses when foamy, one tablespoon of ginger, 
one tablespoon of vinegar, and flour to stiffen. 
When as stiff as can be made, roll out thin, 
cut round, about two inches in diameter, and 
bake in a moderate oven. 

Sweet Cake or Gingerbread. — This was the 
children's special treat. It was baked in a 
long or square pan, and then cut in square 
blocks for the table. 

Take two quarts of New Orleans molasses, 
one pint of sweet milk, half a pound of butter, 
one ounce of ginger, one and a half ounces 
of baking-soda ; work in flour to roll soft a 
half-inch thick, wash the top with sweet milk 
and bake rather slow. 

It is the intention of this department to 
cover this subject fully, adding recipes as rap- 
idly as space and circumstances will permit. 



A Clock Dated B. C. 1780. 

At a public sale recently held at a farm- 
house near Chalfont, Berks county, Factory- 
Inspector Egolf, of Norristown, an authority 
on antique furniture, observed an old clock 
across the face of which was painted "John 
Solliday, B. C. 1780." A deeply interested 
old lady who stood near turned to Egolf and 



asked: "Is it true that clock is as old as 
that?" "Yes," answered Egolf; "that's the 
age of the clock ; but I have bought clocks 
much older than this one." "Why, I can 
hardly believe it," exclaimed the woman, "for 
this clock was made 1780 years before Christ!" 
Then Egolf explained that "B. C." on the 
clock stood for "Bucks Countv." 



38 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Literary Gems 



HURRAH FOR DER WINTER ! 



. Hurrah for der Winter, hurrah for der Schnee ! 
Nau raus niit'm Schlitta, un zahl mer ken Zwee. 
Do muss mer sich dummla, sunscht geht er aweg; 
Villticht bis uf marga hot's nix as wie Dreck. 

Hurrah for der Winter! Der SchHtta muss raus. 
''"is hockt mer am Offa, was will mer im Haus? 

druf mit da Bella, sunscht is's ken G'fahr. 
i^er Wint ,r is karz un die Schlittabah rar. 

Hurrah for der Winter ! Nau geht's amol ab, 
Wie schneller wie Hewer. '"Git up, Sal un Bob !" 
Was rappla die Bella, was schpringa die Geil ! 
Des is mol en G'fahr, es geht jo wie'n Peil ! 

Hurrah for der Winter! So ebbes is G'schpass. 

Die Aleed sign'n en Liedel, die Buwa der Bass. 

Un geht's in die Schneebank un schmeisst's emol um, 

Geht's drunner un driwer, was gebt mer dann drum ? 

Hurrah for der Winter, mit Eis, Schnee un Kalt ! 
Wann's glanzt as wie Silwer — sel is juscht was fehlt. 
Wann's Schnee hot, werd g'fahra ; wann's Eis hot, werd g'schkeet. 
Hurrah for der Winter, abbartig wann's schneet ! 

Hurrah for der Winter, hurrah un hurrah ! 
Nau raus niit'm Cutter un druf mit der Frah. 
Un loss's mol klingla, dass alia Hund blafift ! 
Der Winter is do un die Erwet is g'schafft. 



THE DEPARTED YEAR. 

BY GEORGE DENISON PRENTICE. 

'Tis midnight's holy hour, and silence now 

Is brooding like a gentle spirit o'er 

The still and pulseless world. Hark! on the 

winds 
The bell's deep tones are swelling — 'tis the 

knell 
Of the departed year 

The year 
Has gone, and with it many a glorious 

throng 
Of happy dreams. Its mark is on each brow. 
Its shadow in each heart. In its swift course 
It waved its .scepter o'er the beautiful. 
And they are not. It laid its pallid hand 
Upon the strong man ; and the haughty form 
Is fallen, and the flashing eye is dim. 
It trod the hall of revelry, where thronged 
The bright and joyous; and the tearful wail 
Of stricken ones is heard, where erst the song 
And reckless shout resounded 

Remorseless Time ! 
Fierce spirit of the glass and scythe! What 

power 
Can stay him in his silent course, or melt 
His iron heart to pity! On, still on, 
He presses, and forever 



DAS ABGESCHIEDENE JAHR. 

DEUTSCH VON H. A. S. 

's ist Mitternacht und feierliches Schweigen 
Herrscht rings, als schwebt' ein milder Engel 

iiber 
Der stillen, starren Welt. Horch ! auf dem 

Winde 
Schwillt dumpfer Glockenklang — das Grabge- 

liiut 
Des abgeschied'nen Jahrs 

Das Jahr 
Ist hin, mit mancher licht umfloss'nen Schar 
Glucksel'ger Traume. Jede Stirne tragt 
Sein Mai, sein Schatten diistert jedes Herz. 
Den Schonen winktc es im schnellen Flug; 
Sie sind nicht niehr. Es legte seine bleiche 
Hand auf den Starken, und die Kraftgestalt 
Sank hin, sein blitzend Auge wurde triib. 
Es trat im Festsal mitten in die Menge 
Der Frohlichen ; wu jiingst noch Lustgesang 
Und Jubelruf erschallten. hort man jetzt 
Das Wimmern der Verlass'nen 

Mitleidlo.se Zeit ! 
Du grimmer Geist des Glases und der Sense! 
Wer kann im stillen Lauf ihn halten oder 
Sein Eisenherz erweichen? Stets voran 
Drangt er, voran auf ewig 



LITERARY GEMS 



39 



DES NEUJAHRS MAHNUNG 

Zu Jung und Alt, zu Weib iind Mann, 
Tritt jetzt das Neujahr frisch hcran 
Und spricht zu jedeni: Sorgx; niclit 
Wie's morgen wird — thu' dcinc Pllicht! 

Nicht jeder Tag ist licb und hold, 
Nicht jeder lacht im Sonnengold; 
Heut' ist es dunkel, morgen licht. 
Frag' nicht darnach — thu' dvinc Pflicht ! 

•So ist's im krausen Lauf dcr Welt: 
Der Eine steight, der And're fallt. 
Geh' graden Wcgs ; in's Angesicht 
Schau' jedem frei — thu' deine Pflicht! 

Was morsch und alt, verging voll Leid ; 
Die Stunde ruft : 's ist an dcr Zeit ! 
Der Morgen mahnt, der Abend spricht: 
Kurz ist der Tag — thu" deine Pflicht ! 

Kurz ist der Tag, rasch ist der Tod, 
D'rum sei ein Heifer in der Not. 
"Was du auch thust, mehr thust du nicht— 
X)as merke wol — als deine Pflicht ! 



NEW YEAR'S MONITION. 

To man and woman, young and old, 
New Year to-day advances bold, 
To each one saying: Sorrow naught 
For coming days — do what you ought ! 

Not ev'ry day is fair and bright, 
Filled with the sun's sweet, golden light. 
Be it with joy or sorrow fraught. 
What matters it? — 'do what you ought! 

Thus this old world jogs onward still, 
While fortune scatters good and ill. 
Keep your straight course ; be not distraught 
By friend or foe — do what you ought! 

O'd, worn-out things have passed ' vay ; 
You're living now, spend well to-day. 
This morn and eve by turns have taught: 
Time quickly flies — do what you ought! 

Time quickly flies, death comes with speed. 
Be e'er a help to those in need. 
Whate'er you do, hold fast this thought — 
You ne'er can do more than you ought ! 



A CALENDAR OF GEMS. 



EN GEM-KALENNER. 



The January girl is fair. 
And garnets only she should wear. 
These will insure her constancy. 
True friendship and fidelity. 

The February-born will find 
Sincerit}' and peace of mind 
In amethysts; these bring relief 
From ev'ry passion, care and grief. 

"Who on this world of ours their eyes 
In March first open, shall be wise, 
Jn days of peril firm and brave, 
And wear a bloodstone to their grave. 

She who from April dates her years 
Should diamonds wear, lest bitter tears 
For vain repentance flow ; this stone 
As emblem of good luck is known. 

Who first beholds the light of dav 
In spring's sweet flowery month of May, 
And wears an emerald all her life. 
Will be a loved and happy wife. 

Who comes with summer to this earth 
And owes to June her day of birth. 
With ring of agate on her hand 
-Can health, weaUh and long life command. 

The glowing ruby should adorn 
Those who in warm July are born ; 
Then will they be exempt and free 
From love's doubts and anxiety. 

The moonstone will secure for thee 
True conjugal felicity. 
If August-born; without this stone 
"Thou'lt pass thro' life unloved and lone. 



Die Jannermeed sin alfert schee 

Un sotta nix weera as Garnetschtee ; 

For sel inschurt en schmiirter Buh, 

Wu sei Freind hoch halt un schtickt dazu. 

Harcht emol, ihr Harningmeed : 
Wann ihr finna wot Ehrlichkeet 
Un nix vun Sarg' un Truwel heera, 
Sot ihr lauter Amethysts weera. 

Der Marz bringt als es Frijohr bei. 
Wer g'heert in seller Monet nei, 
Werd g'scheit un halt sich aus der G'fohr, 
Wann sie weert Blutschtee 's ganza Johr. 

Der April is arg verannerlich, 
Un wer sel Zeit dut jiihra sich, 
Sot weera klora Deimondschtec, 
Sunscht kann's am End ihr iwcl gch. 

' Im Moi is alles Luscht un Freed. 
En Emerald for die Moiameed ; 
Sel halt sie seef vun Zank un Schtreit 
Un bringt en frohe Heierzeit. 

Im June werd's Summer uf der Erd. 
Wer sella Monet gebora werd 
Un tnicht en Agate an der Hand, 
Werd glicklich, reich un alt im Land. 

July, der bringt die Hundsdag bei ; 

Sei iVIecdel, des is wunnerfei. 

En Ruby is, was ihra suht ; 

Sel bringt en Liebschaft siess un gut. 

I'ji Mcrdcl.im Auguscht gebora, 
ilot Ivedcr all ihr Glick ferlora, . 
Except sie weert en Mondschtee; dann 
Kriegt sie doch noch en guter Mann. 



40 



THE PENMSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



A maiden born when autumn leaves 
Are rustling in September's breeze, 
A sapphire on her brow should bind ; 
'Twill cure diseases of the mind. 

October's child is born for woe, 
And life's vicissitudes must know. 
But lay an opal on her breast. 
And hope will lull her fears to rest. 

Who first comes to this world below 
With drear November's fog and snow. 
Should prize the topaz's amber hue. 
Emblem of friends and lovers true. 

If cold -December gave you birth, 
The month of snow and ice and mirth. 
Place on your hand a turquoise blue; 
Success will bless whate'er you do. 



September kummt mit Farwa g'schmickt, 
Seim Meedel awer nix recht glickt. 
Sie soil en Sapphire weera, noh 
Werd all ihr Lewa schee un froh. 

Oktower, der bringt seina Meed 
Viel Truwel oft un Traurigkeet. 
Wann awer sie en Opal weera, 
Sel dut ihr Leed in Luscht verkehra. 

November kummt mit Reif un Schnee. 
En Topaz is der Wunnerschtee 
For sei Meed — meent mer nau 'skenntsei?- 
Er ziegt die Bobs in Schara bei. 

Wann d' im December gebora bischt, 
Dann hoscht en glickliche Zeit verwischt. 
Weer en Turquoise un sei net bang; • 
Es geht dir gut dei Lewa lang. 



AM BARAHUNTA. 

FROM "SOLLY HULSBUCK's" FUNNY FACTS AND FICTION. 



Es is net oft dass ich die Zeit nem for Bara 
hunta, awer do neHich war ich mol dra, un 
for Recht zu dub zum Biir, zu meina Bekannts- 
leit im zu mer selwer, will ich do bezeiga wie's 
ganga is. Am erschta Platz, ich war net am 
Sucha' for en Bar, un ich wees net, das een- 
iger Bar en Ursach bet for sucha for mich. 
Die Fact is mer hen enanner juscht so umbe- 
hofft a'getrofifa im Busch. 

Ich war draus am Keschtalesa, mit ma 
Schnap-sack uf m Buckel un mit ra alta Flint, 
as der Bill Hoppich kaaft hot dreissig Johr 
zurick, for'n Hersch schiessa. Zum Beschta 
vun meim Gewissa is der Hersch noch am 
Schpringa. Darch en Handel is die Flint in 
mei Hand kumma. Was ich mit ma Schiess- 
eisa hab wella, kann ich der net saga. Ich 
bin ken Schitz. Johra zurick awer haw ich 
amol en Has g'schossa. Er hot im Nescht 
g'hockt. Ich hab die Flint uf 'n Fenzarigel 
gelegt mit'm Bisnessend abaut fufzeh Fuss 
vum Has, die Aaga zugedrickt un der Drick- 
«r abgezoga. Wie der Schmok verzoga is, 
war net genunk vum Has meh do for'n Post- 
mortem hewa, un's hot mer'n widerlich Ekel 
gewa. 

Dfs hot nix zu dub mit'm Barahunta, awer 
ich sag's do for zu weisa, dass der Bar un ich 
gleicha Chances g'hat hen. Ich war fleissig 
am Keschtalesa un hab zu mer selwer so 
kleena Liedlin saftig g'sunga un ebmols ge- 
piffa. Die Zeit is langsam rumganga. Weit 
ab haw ich die Baura heera Odders gewa 
iwer'm Welschkarnschtrippa, un alsemol hen 
die Krappa Singschul g'halta am Berg drowa. 
Wie ich darch so'n Dcich im Busch bin, haw 
ich en wilde Ihm g'funna in ma hohla Baam, 
wu sie Hunnig bei'm wholesale g'sammelt hen 
g'hat, un die seem Zeit hot der Bar mich 
g'funna. Er hot uf da hinnera Fiess g'schtan- 
na, wie'm Heckabauer sei Esel, wann er en 
Locomotion sehnt uf'm Rigelwcg. Er hot mich 
plessierlich a'geguckt for all dass mer so frem 
wara, un ich confess ich hab verzagt g'fihlt. 

Ich hab net gewisst dass mer sich so 
schandlich a'fihrt, wann mer net besser be- 



kannt is. Es is all gut genunk for sich eibilda, 
was mer deet unnig so LTmschtanda, awer 
wann mer in da Schuh is, deet mer's villeicht 
am End net so. Ich hab ennihau net so ge- 
duh. Der Bar hot sich uf die Vorfiess gelosst 
un is langsam neecher kumma. Uf en Baam 
krattla war net dawert, mit ma guta Krattler 
hinnanoh. Wann ich g'schprunga wiir, het er 
ah schpringa kenna. 

Er is als neecher kumma. Darnoh haw ich 
en Idea in der Kop kriegt. Ich hab gedenkt: 
"Nau, wann ich juscht 'm Bar sei Meind uf 
ebbes schunscht kriega kann, sel losst mer'n 
Chance for aweg." So bin ich schlo zurick- 
gebackt vum Baam, un wie der Bar der Hun- 
nig frisch gerocha hot, is er schteh gebliwa. 
Er hot paarmol die Nas um der Baam rum 
g'schowa, bis er's Loch g'funna hot, darnoh 
is er dazu nei mit'm ganza G'fress. Ich hab 
dart g'schtanna zugucka un kunsiddert, was 
en guter Schuss sel macht ; dann is 's mer 
beig'falla, dass ich die Flint uf der annera Seit 
vum Deich gelosst hab. Noh bin ich awer 
an's Schpringa. Ich bin hi'kumma un hab 
die Flint kriegt ganz aus Odem, awer juscht 
in Zeit. Ich hab der Bar g'heert grummela 
hinnadrei darch die Hecka un hab g'schpiert, 
dass die Zeit vun eem vun uns uf dera Welt 
karz is am beschta. 

's is wunnerbar, wie schtark 'm Mensch sei 
Gedanka trawcla, wann mer in en Pinch kummt 
wie sel. Dieweil as der Bar in da Hecka rum- 
gedroscha is, haw ich meh im Kop g'hat as en 
Frenologist mer saga kennt. Wie ich die 
Flint gecockt hab, haw ich darch mei ganr 
Lewa g'sehna, ini's war gar net satisfactory ; 
sel muss ich b'schteh. Die Polly hot sel schun 
oft g'saat, awer ich hab als gemeent, ihr Judg- 
ment wiir schwach. Nau hot's mich erinnert, 
dass ich der Drucker net bezahit hab for die 
Zeiting drei Johr. Ich hab der Polly ken neier 
Bonnet kaaft sitter as der Horace Greeley 
geronnt is for President, un ich hab da 
Kercharot verscholta, weil sie mich g'frogt hen 
for fufzig Cent zum Parresloh duh. All mei 
Sinda sin ufg'schtanna wie Saldata, for mich 



LITERARY GEMS 



4r 



nunner schlag-a. Ich hab an inei l)eliebte arme 
Familia gedcnkt. Liewer Gruiid, wie geht's 
mit ihna, wann der Biir mich fresst? 

Ich hab draurig g'fihlt for die Mourners 
sehna so solemn gucka, un gcwunnert was uf 
der Grabschtee kunmit. Juscht Ictscht Woch 
'haw ich en Verteldaler g'schpoiit for Duwak, 
un die Kinner hen ken Zuckerschtcnglen 
g'hat in scchs Monet, 's is mer beig'falla, dass 
die Polly g'schtichclt hot for zeha Cent for in 
die Collect, for Missionaries in die Heidalanner 
schicka, un ich hab sie schnarrig beantwort. 
Un der Biir is needier un neecher kumma. 

Ich hab's Weiss vun seina Aaga sehna ken- 
na. Er hot's Maul gross uf g'hat un erschreck- 
lich wietig geguckt. Ich hab abgedrickt, awer 



's is net los ganga. un der Bjir is als neecher 
kumma. 

Nau schtellt er sich widder uf die hinnera 
Fiess, un rast un brummt schauderhaft. Ich 
hab sei warmer Odem g'fihlt uf meim g'sicht, 
un 's is alles schwarz warra vor meina Aaga. 
0-o-o-o-oh ! Es trefft mich ebbes grad iwer's 
Herz. 

Wie ich widder zu kumma bin, hot die 
Polly a'g'fanga : "Du alt's Kalb, leg dich niwer 
un nemm dei kalta Fiess vun meim Buckel, 
odder ich kick dich aus'm Bett." 

Ich denk seller Biir lebt noch, awer der 
neekscht Dag haw ich so verdeihenkert klee- 
g'fihlt, ich het darch 'n Poschtaloch schluppa 
kenna unne die SchtifTcl auszuduh. 



GEBURTSMONET-PROFEZEIING A . 

FROM "UNSER PEENSYLVANISCH-DEITSCHER KALENNER." 



En Maniiskerl, wu im Janner gebora is, 
macht en schaffiger Kerl un gleicht ah ebbes 
zu trinka, wann er schun alsemol newanaus 
geht. Er gebt ennihau en arrig g'schpassiger 
Ding, ini singa kann er, bei Tschinks, dass 's 
alles biet. Es W^eibsmensch, wu in dem 
Monet uf die Welt kummt, gebt en schmarte 
Hausfrah. Wann sie schun alsemol en bissel 
brutzig dreiguckt, hot sie doch en gut Herz. 

Der Mann, wu im Harning gebora is, werd 
arg for Geldmacha, awer noch viel arger for 
die Weibsleit. Daheem is er arrig knaps, awer 
wann er uf en Schprie geht, noh fiJilt er reich 
un gebt net meh um en Daler as Unsereens 
um en Cent. Es Meedel, wu im Harning 
a'kummt, gebt en ivveraus gute Hausfrah un 
en gute Mammi, wu die Welt vun ihra Kinner 
denkt. 

Der Mann, wu im Marz gebora is, guckt so 
schlick as wann er juscht aus ra Bandbox 
g'schluppt wiir. O mei, was en scheener Buh ! 
Er gebt awer ah en ehrlicher, dummer Jockel, 
wu sei Lebdag zu nix kummt. 's Weibsmensch, 
wu sich im Marz jahrt, gebt en verdollt wiescht 
schpeitvoll Babbelmaul, wu ihr Nas iwerall in 
anner Leit Bisness neischteckt. 

Der IMann, wu en Aprilbobbel war, hot viel 
Kreiz un Elend darchzumacha. Er gebt en 
Rumlafer un Lodel, gleicht awer doch sei Frah 
iweraus — wann er eene hot. 's Meedel kann 
all recht sei, awer en Maul hot's — macht 
juscht. dass ihr aus'm Wew kummt. 

Schecna, schtolza Mannsleit bringt der Moi 
— un was sie siess schwetza kenna ! Die ]\Ieed, 
wu soicha kriega, meena wunners was sie Glick 
hetta. 's Weibsmensch, wu im Moi kimimt — 
well, des is juscht exactly's seem schtolzfihlig 
Ding. 

Die Junibuwa sin kleena Knerps, wu mer 
schier in en Sack schtecka kennt ; awer arrig 
schlimm for die Weibsleit — sei is en Fact — 
un iweraus grossa Kinnerfreind. Sie kenna's 
awer bei da Meed net recht kumma. 's Juni- 
meedel is net ganz wie sie sei sot, wann sie 
schun der Kaffee besser gle'icht as eenig ebbes 
sunscht. 

Was en gtitguckiger Dingerich is doch der 
Tschuleibuh un wie gut genadurt ! Er deet 
sei Lewa gewa for sei Frah. 's Meedel is so 



un so, juscht dass die Nas net so lang un 
schpitzig sei breicht. Sie is zimlich gut 
g'scheept, hot awer'n Maul, wann sie a'fangt 
schelta. as mer meena sot, en ganze Trupp 
Wildkatza deeta Hochzigfrolic drin halta. 

Der Mannskerl, wu im Auguscht a'kummt, 
will hoch naus un hot arrig Schponk. awer 
doch schlecht Glick in a deel Sacha. 's 
Weibsmensch is artlich schee un kriegt zwee 
Manner, denkt awer meh vum erschta as vum 
zwetta un bejuhst den alsemol. dass es arrig- 
is. 

Der Septemberbuh— guck amol. was en- 
schtauter Chap un was en langkeppiger Bis- 
nessmann, un doch so lass mit seinra Frah!' 
Ken Wunner, dass er so viel Truwel mit ra 
hot. 's Meedel is so schee, dass mer sie fressa 
kennt. Sie hot en appelrund G'sicht. hella 
Hoor, is plaudrig un geglicha vun alia Leit. 
Freindr-hot sie so viel as 's Micka gebt im 
Frihjohr. 

Der Oktowerbuh is gar net schlechtguckig, 
awer nemmt eich in Acht vor em, ^Nleed. er 
meent's net ehrlich. 's Meedel, wu'n Ok- 
towerlx)bbel war. gebt en gross, schtaut Dier, 
awer verannerlich. Sie gebt nix drum, wann 
doch viel besser. 

Was a schee G'sicht hot er doch. der Novem- 
berbuh. as wann's gemolt war! Awer meind, 
er is eener vun sella, wu heit warm sin un 
marga kalt. wu heit die Suss gleicha un marga 
der Sal nohlaafa. Er bringt's awer net weit 
mit sella Tricks un bleibt en armer Schlucker 
so lang er der Ochdem ziegt. 's Meedel hot en 
hibsch G'.sicht, awer 'n bissel a lose Zung. For 
all sei kriegt zie zwee Manner, wu vor lauter 
Freed iwer sie bal schterwa. 

Der Decemberbuh — ach. was en guter Mann 
for'n an der Nas rumfihra, wann er ah alse- 
mol en bissel mault ! Des gebt awer ah moi 
en Kerl, wu vun seinra Frah um der 
Schtumpa rum gewippt werd. 's Meedel kann 
net gebotta werra, so schee is sie. Sie is 
g'scheept as wann sie uf der Drehbank ab- 
g'schnitzelt war, un schwetza kann sie so siess 
as Hunnig. Sei macht, dass sie zwee Manner 
kriegt. wu ihr da letscht Cent versaufa, wann 
sie ah die Saufschulda all bezahlt, for ihr 
guter Nama halta. 



42 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



H. A SCHULER, 
Editor 



H. VV. KRIEBEL, 
Publisher and Proprietor 



Mrs. H. H. FUNK, E. S. GERHARD 
A-ssociate Ediiors 




The Pennsylvania-German is an illustrated monthly 
magazine devoted to the biography, history, genealogy, 
folklore, literature and general interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other States, 
and of their descendants. 

Price, per year, $1.50, in advance; single copies, 
15 cents. Foreign postage, 25 cents a year extra. 
Club-rates furnished on application. Payments 
credited by mail. 

Discontinuance. — The magazine will be sent until 
order to discontinue is received. This is done to 
accommodate the majority of subscribers, who do 
not wish to have their files broken. 

Notice of E.xpiration of subscription is given by 

Working Ahead and Falling Back. 

F there is an individual whose 
occupation compels him to 
"take time by the forelock," 
it is the magazine-editor. 
In order that his finished 
product may appear on 
time, he must work ahead of time a full 
month or more. 

This working- ahead has its disadvan- 
tages. The editor in his work is depen- 
dent on contributors, engravers and 
printers, and a little delay here added to 
a little there may mean a considerable 
belating of the final result. Unfortunate- 
ly we have experienced this anew ; our 
issues for November and December have 
appeared later in the month than usual 
and later than they ought. The delay 
was due pardy to the editor, but equally 
much to the printer. For certain reasons 
we rather fear this Januar\' number will 
not be ready for distribution quite as 
early as we would wish ; but we shall try 
•our best to obviate henceforth the causes 
of delay and have "our boy" make his 
monthly round in good time. 

Changes in Form and Substance. 
The beginning of a new volume is an 
appropriate time to make changes in a 
periodical, when such are desirable. We 
have made a few, as the reader will read- 
ily perceive. The Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man will come with a new title-page, 
wearing a new face, as it were. This 
may not be as artistic as the old one, but 
we believe it will be more serviceable. A 
fuller table of contents on the front cover 
is substituted for the one heretofore given 
within, which seems superfluous in view 
of the classified index furnished at the end 
<of the year. We take for granted that 



using red ink in addressing the wrapper of the 
magazine. 

Contributions. — Carefully prepared articles bearing 
on our field are invited and should be accompanied 
with illustrations when possible. No attention will 
be given to unsigned articles, nor will we be re- 
sponsible for the statements and opinions of con- 
tributors. Unavailable manuscripts will not be re- 
turned unless stamps are sent to prepay postage. 
■ Contributions intended for any particular number 
should be in the editor's hands by the twenty-fifth of 
the second preceding month. 

Advertising Rates will be furnished by the pub- 
lisher upon request. 

most of our readers will have their annual 
volumes bound for permanent keeping.. 
Other slight changes have been made and 
our editorial department has been en- 
larged so as to include a new subdivi- 
sion, which with its special editor will be 
duly introduced a little further on. 
Ambitions Outrunning Possibilities. 

Thus we begin the year of grace 1908 
still striving to improve our magazine and 
to search more systematically and thoro- 
ly the vast field of its endeavors. Yet 
we must confess that we often find our- 
selves in the situation of the little boy 
whose story we used to read in one of 
Sanders' School Readers many years 
ago. Coming home from school and 
seeing a jar of filberts on the table, he 
reached in and grasped so many of the 
nuts that he could not withdraw his hand. 
Unwilling to let go his hold, he was 
caught until his mother, hearing him cry. 
came to his relief. Thus our desires and 
ambitions are apt to outrun possibilities, 
and we too get caught occasionally. 
" Aufgeschoben ist Nicht Aufgehoben." 

For instance, we had hoped to begin 
in this January issue the Symposium on 
The Pennsylvania-German in the Field 
of Science, as announced some time ago. 
A superabundance of material and other 
• conditions, some avoidable, others tin- 
avoidable, have prevented this. We will 
say only this now\ that the articles belong- 
ing to this Symposium are coming and 
that the special editor. Professor D. H. 
Bergev, M.D., of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, is anxious to give our readers 
a superior and very valuable series of 
papers. This is shown bv his introduc- 
tion to the Symposium, from which we 
quote as follows : 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



A3 



What the Symposium-Editor Desires. 

It is the desire of the special editor and of 
•the pubHsher to make this Sjinposium as com- 
prehensive and accurate as possible. Every 
known means has been employed to secure 
the names of all Pennsylvania-Germans who 
have been or are now engaged in any field 
of science as investigators, teachers or authors. 
A great mass of facts has been gathered, and 
these are now being utilized by the differ- 
ent contributors to the Symposium. 

Nevertheless it is desired that all scientists 
as well as others interested in the subject 
will forward to the special editor, or to the 
publisher, the names of such as are known 
to be of Pennsylvania-German descent, who 
have been engaged in scientific pursuits or are 
now engaged in scientific work. In addition 
to this it is desired to secure information re- 
garding all the work of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans in the field of science, so that noth- 
ing of importance may be excluded. By the 
cordial co-operation of many contributors we 
first book published in Reading, a novel in 
may be able to make the Symposium a work of 
great interest and value. 

We urgently request every one who 
reads these lines and has knowledge of 
any data that may be of interest and value 
to the special editor, to correspond with 
him and communicate such information 
without delay. 

A General Request Repeated. 

It seeins proper at this point to repeat 
our general request that all items of in- 
terest relating to our field — local history, 
biographical and genealogical notes, folk- 
lore, books and documents old or new, 
newspaper- or magazine-articles, house- 
hold-affairs, the doings of historical so- 
cieties, etc., — be forwarded to the publish- 
er, the editor or the special editors. This 
magazine should be a record of all im- 
portant events bearing on Pennsylvania- 
German life, and if all take part in col- 
lecting the facts, its value wSJl be great- 



ly increased. It essentially belongs to the 
subscribers, whose subscription-moneys 
make its publication possible. The more 
aid they give, the luore interesting and 
valuable it must become. 

One Reason for Getting Caught. 

One main reason why the publisher, 
like the boy iii the schoolbook-story re- 
ferred to above, gets caught sometimes, 
is that his subscription-list has not been 
growing as fast as it should. An esteemed 
subscriber said recently: "It is high time 
for the Pennsylvania-Germans to assert 
themselves more generally, so as to nail 
more effectually the libels and misrepre- 
sentations purposely as well as innocent- 
ly cast abroad." If you agree with this 
correspondent, and we believe that you 
do, can you do much better service to 
this cause than securing new subscrip- 
tions for The Pennsylvania-German ? 

A few weeks ago we sent out to sub- 
scribers a circular letter, an appeal for 
aid, embodying among other items a nuin- 
ber of liberal clubbing-offers. If you 
have not yet replied to this letter, please 
do so at once. If each subscriber would 
secure but two new ones, at an outlay of 
$1.50 at the utmost, a great forward step 
could be taken. The publisher has given 
much time, thought and money to the 
magazine. Will you not do your part to 
help it and the cause it represents ? 

Correction of a Name. 

In our December issue the name of the 
subject of our biographical sketch was 
given erroneously, in the heading and 
under the frontispiece portrait, as Walter 
Jacob Hoffman. M. D. It should be 
Waher James Hoffman. M. D.. as it ap- 
pears in the text. 



Clippings from Current News 



Old Bible as Family-Heirloom. 

At a sale of personal property belonging to 
the estate of Aaron L. Trauger, deceased, of 
Nockamixon. Bucks countv. William H. 
Traucli bought a German Bible, printed at 
Nuremberg in 1747 and brought over by 
Christian Trauger, ancestor of the Trauger 
family in America. Christian Traueer was 
born at Beckinbach. Darmstadt. Germany, 
March 30, 1726, landed at Philadelphia from 
the ship Restoration, October 9. 1747, and 



settled in Nockamixon. He died January 8, 
181 1, and since then the Bible has passed thro' 
the Iiands of three of his descendants. 

A School-Teacher's Artistic Clock. 

William N. Brunner, a young school-teacher 
in Slatington, has constructed a grandfather's- 
clock that is a uninue w-ork of art and an 
exact timekeeper. The case, which is 90 inches 
high, is of walnut, the decorations are of 
American hollvwood. The clock shows Father 
Time with scythe and hourglass sitting against 



44 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



a sun-dial, a Roman sentinel with sword and 
shield, female lyre-players and dancers, boy 
buglers and other figures, surrounded by fine 
grille-work. Instead of striking the hour, 
the clock plays two tunes alternately. Its 
movements were made in New York, the musi- 
cal attachments in Switzerland. Mr. Brun- 
ner has had no training in wood-carving ex- 
cept that which he received in the Keystone 
State Normal School, at Kutztown, from 
which he graduated in 1906. 

Unexpected Honors in Orthography. 

Dr. W. W. Deatrick, a member of the fac- 
ulty of the Keystone State Normal School, 
was much surprised recently by a letter from 
the Simplified-Spelling Board informing him 
that, upon nomination by Dr. Charles P. G. 
Scott, he had been elected a member of the 
advisory council of said Board. This council 
is to consist of about a hundred "scholars, ed- 
ucators and others interested in intellectual 
and social progress, to whom shall be referred 
for their opinion and advice all prooosals for 
the simplification of English spelling." 

L)r. Scott is an eminent philologist and edi- 
tor-in-chief of the great Century Dictionary, 
which in its latest edition has given unquali- 
fied endorsement to the simplified-spelling 
movement. The distinction conferred on Dr. 
Deatrick was the more unexpected because he 
had no personal acquaintance with Dr. Scott 
and no previous correspondence on the sub- 
ject of simplified spelling with any one. 

Home Education for Rural Boys and Girls. 

Superintendent Eli M. Rapp.of Berks coun- 
ty, has inaugurated a very successful move- 
ment for home education among the boys and 
girls of the rural schools under his supervision. 
The pupils form clubs and undertake various 
kinds of farm and household work. The boys 
raise corn, potatoes and other vegetables, as 
well as poultry, hogs, pigeons, rabbits and cat- 
tle ; the girls engage in sewing, cooking, bak- 
ing and gardening, cultivating both vegetables 
and flowers. Parents, teachers and pupils 
take an active interest in the movement, and 
financial aid has come from many sources 
quite unsolicited, one person offering $100 in 
gold as prizes for the best work done along 
designated lines. The work does not interfere 
with the regular school-program, as it is all 
done at home under the supervision of the 
parents. The object of organizing those clubs 
is to arouse in rural conmiunities a general 
interest in industrial education ; moreover, the 
movement tends to inculcate the dignity of 
work and interest the children in agriculture 
and country life. 

In Memory of DeKalb and Steuben. 

The National German-American Alliance 
has decided to build bays in memory of 
Generals DeKalb and Steuben in the Porch 
of the Allies of the Washington Mernorial 
Chapel at Valley Forge. The bays will be 
built of Holmesburg granite and Indiana 
limestone, and will be similar to those in the 
Cloister of the Colonies on the other side of 
the chapel. The ceilings will be of oak, hand- 



carved, and will bear the arms of Prussia. 
The arms of the barons will be cast in bronze 
and set in the marble floors. 

Opposed to Memorial Windows. 

The proposal to have memorial windows- 
placed in the Moravian church at Nazareth 
was defeated with 38 to 8 votes and roused 
so much opposition that it was dropt imme- 
diately. Nineteen years ago the same ques- 
tion was discussed and decided negatively. The 
desire of the Church to uphold the beautiful 
ancient custom of keeping all members on 
an equal footing was forcibly presented. This 
equality is most conspicuously shown on 
Moravian graveyards, where all tombstones- 
are required to be flat, and no monuments or 
other special ornaments are allowed. 

The First White Man in the State. 

At a meeting of the Bradford County His- 
torical Society held in Towanda, Nov. 23, C. 
F. Heverly, editor of the Bradford County 
Star, made the startling statement that, ac- 
cording to reliable information recently un- 
earthed by himself, the first white man to 
set foot in the State of Pennsylvania was 
Stephen Brule, a Frenchman. Brule also was 
the first white man to visit what is now Brad- 
ford county, having entered along the Sus- 
quehanna. He had been sent in 1615 by Sam- 
uel de Champlain, the well known explorer, 
to secure five hundred Indian warriors to help' 
Champlain in an attack upon the Onondaga 
stronghold. Hitherto it was supposed that 
Conrad Weiser had been the first white man 
to visit Bradford county. 

To Commemorate a Bridge-Burning. 

Wilbur C. Kraber, of York, is chairman of 
a committee organized to place memorial tab- 
lets on the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge 
- across the Susquehanna at Columbia and 
Wrightsville. to commemorate the burning of 
the bridge there by the Federal forces dur- 
ing the Civil War. The burning took place 
on Sunday evening. June 28, 1863, by order 
of Colonel Jacob G. Frick, who commanded 
the Union forces in Columbia and vicinity. 
The day before an effort had been made to 
blow up the bridge, but the fuses failed ; then 
Colonel Frick ordered that it be burned, so 
that the Confederates could not cross the river. 

Erdenheim to Become a Girl's Orphanage. 

By the will of the late Robert N. Carson, his 
beautiful country-home Erdenheim, on the 
Wissahickon, in the lower end of Aiontgomery 
county, is to become the site of a great insti- 
tution for orphan girls. The place was settled 
and named in 1751 bv Johaim Georg Hocker. 
a wealthy native of Wiirttemberg. One night 
in 1800 two burglars, believing that Hocker had 
much money concealed in his house, broke in. 
but after a bloody combat were overpowered 
and tied. Some young men who had been 
attenc^ing an applebutter-party nearby came 
along and took the burglars to jail in Norris- 
town. Several days later the prisoners es- 
caped from jail and returned to the vicinity of 
Erdenheim, but were captured and afterwards 



CLIPPINGS FROM CURRENT NEWS 



45 



convicted and sentenced. Since tlie sixties, 
when Aristidvs Welsh bought Erdeniieim, it 
has been famous as a stock-farm. 

Reception to a Home-Coming Professor. 

The membership of tiie Association of (]er- 
man Writers in America, an account of which 
was given by its recording secretary. Riciiard 
E. Helbig, in our issue for May. 1907, now 
amounts to about 150. An important event of 
recent date was the reception and banquet 
given Professor John W. Burgess, exchange 
professor at tlie Berlin University during 
1906-1907. in the Liederkran/.-Halle, Nov. 21, 
1907. Addresses were given on this occasion 
by President N. M. Butler, of Columbia, Dr. 
R. Leonhard, the German exchange-profes.sor 
at Columbia, Dr. Kuno I^'rancke. Dr. Hugo 
Miinsterberg and others. Mr. _ Helbig has been 
re-elected recording secretary of the Associa- 
tion for the current year. 

First Volume of the " Corpus " Complete. 

The first volume of the Corpus S'ciizvnik- 
feldianoriDii, the great literary work in which 
Dr. Chester D. Hartranft and a force of as- 
sistants have been engaged since 1885, has been 
completed. It comprises 7;^;^ -^uarto pages, at- 
tractively and substantially bound in half calf. 
It contains an advertisement of the publica- 
tion-board, an introduction by Dr. Hartranft 
and six of the earlier letters of Schwenkfeld in 
the original, followed by a translation and criti- 
cal discussion. The entire work is to comprise 
eighteen volumes. 

Another Booksale by Ex-Gov. Pennypacker. 

The fifth section of Ex-tjovernor Penn}'- 
packer's collection of rare old volumes was 
recently brought under li.e auctioneer's ham- 
mer. The highest price paid, $210, was for 
seven New Testaments printed by Christopher 
Saur at Gcrmantown between 1745 and 1755, 
the only complete set on record. The next- 



highest price. $140, was for "An Account of 
Great Divisions Amongst the Quakers in 
Pennsylvania," etc., printed in London in 1692. 
"Trutli Advanced in the Correction of Many 
Gross and Hurtful Errors," etc., the first book 
published in New York, in 1694, brought $130. 
The first Bible printed in America, Saur's edi- 
tion of 1743, brought $26. A number of Saur 
almanacs, beginning with 1741, were .sold at 
$1 to $8 apiece. F. P. Harper, of New York, 
bought the fir.st book printed in German type 
in America, by Saur in 1739, for $26. Many 
other rare volumes were sold comparatively 
cheap. The celebrated Aiken Bible, in two 
volumes, valued at $800, sold for $420; a copy 
of the first American edition of the Proposed 
Book of Common Prayer for $20, and the first 
edition of The Federalist for $19. Similar 
copies of these two were recently sold for $85 
and $90. The first American edition of 
Shakespeare, in eight volumes, worth $150 ac- 
cording to the bookmen, sold for $5.25. 

OBITUARIES. 

Stephen Rex, known throout Lehigh coun- 
ty for fifty years as "the Cider-King," died 
near Fogelsville, Nov. 7, aged 77. He was a 
son of George Rex and as a young man bought 
a farm near Kernsville, on which he erected 
one of the first cider-presses in the county. 
This he operated until a few years ago. 

DANIEL Kehs, a well known citizen of 
Hereford, Berks county, died suddenly Nov. 
19, in his seventy-fourth year. Forty years 
ago, Mr. Kehs and his twin brother Henry 
were stage-drivers, making three trips a week 
from Hereford to Norristown and Boyertown, 
respectively. 

Beulah Funk, a missionary of the 
Christian and Missionary Alliance in China, 
died recently at Shanghai. She was a daughter 
of Rev. J. B. Funk, of Lancaster, a minister 
of the U. B. Church, and had gone to China 
about a year ago. 



Chat with Correspondents 



Suiting the Act to the Word. 

In sending his renewal a subscriber uses 
these encouraging words : 

It is with pleasure that I enclose money- 
order for $1.50 for the renewal of my sub- 
scription to The Pennsvlvani.\-Germ.\n. 
Permit me to congratulate you upon the 
able manner and the excellent makeup in 
which the magazine has come to its read- 
ers in the past. 1 certainly enjoy reading 
the many valuable articles that you pub- 
lish from month to month. 
Many thanks for your kind words. The 
publisher enjoys these. A certain old min- 
ister used to say: "A Gross Dank and a pen- 
ny will pay for a pretzel." While such words 
are greatly appreciated. respon.ses to our ap- 
peal for new subscriptions with cash enclosed 
will be much more serviceable for paying bills. 
We zcrlcomc expressions of opinion about the 
magazine, favorable or unfavorable, but we 
must hai'e more subscriptiorrs". 



" Go Ye and Do Likewise." 

The following, coming from a highly es- 
teemed friend in response to our recent circu- 
lar letter, is quoted in the hope that it may 
inspire other subscribers to follow the writer's 
example : 

Your latest in the interest of The Penn- 
sylvania-German is at hand. * * * I feel 
sort of guilty and ashamed for not doing 
something for so good a cause, so that 
now I must say: Almost thou persuadest 
me to become a — canvasser. I will' try 
and do something for the good Pennsvl- 
vani.a-Germ.\n. I will put a copy of it 
in my pocket— put The Pennsylvania- 
German, as it were, into a Pennsylvania- 
German, and will show it and speak a good 
word for it to such as ought to take it. 
Whether this will produce results. I know 
not. Keep on hustling. You have the 
satisfaction of knowing, that your work is 
appreciated, whether it pays or not. 



46 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Differences in the Dialect. 

A valued subscriber and contributor, in 
sending us a production in the dialect, writes 
thus : 

You are aware that the Pennsylvania- 
Germans in your part of the State use a 
number of words which we do not em- 
ploy in our section and vice versa. The 
same is true in regard to certain phrases, 
the structure of sentences, etc. 
Yes, Brother, we are aware of these differ- 
ences. Will you not jot down some of the 
variations you have noticed for publication in 
this magazine? We have been planning a 
series of papers on dialect-variations for some 
time. If you will set the ball rolling, others no 
doubt will follow. 

Is This Judgment too Severe ? 

With reference to Professor Hart's article, 
reprinted in our November number, a reader 
writes as follows : 

The more I look into the matter the 
more I am convinced that a full-fledged 
New-Englander, whether by birth or 
"assimilation," is not broad-minded enough 
to see much good outside of the 
six little New England States and the 
descendants of the early inhabitants there- 



of. I am inclined to believe that the ne 
plus ultra class are ready to taboo 
Whittier's Barbara Fritchie as soon as- 
they know that she was a real personage 
and a genuine Pennsylvania-German at 
that. 

I have also been thinking that it is high, 
time for the Pennsylvania-Germans to as- 
sert themselves more generalh^, so as to 
nail more effectually the libels and mis- 
representations purposely as well as in- 
nocently cast abroad. 

A Chance to Bestow a Gift. 

If any one of our subscribers wishes to dis- 
pose of his copies of the magazine, he may be 
interested in the following, coming from a 
Carnegie library. We had to say no to the 
opportunity, because we have no complete sets 
available and can not afford to go on the 
market and buy in order to give away. 

This Library has long wished to own 
a set of your Pennsylvania-German^ but 
has never been able to purchase one out- 
right. Would it be possible for you to 
present to the Library a complete set of 
The Pennsylvania-German, the same to 
be entered as a gift from your organiza- 
tion? 



Genealogical Notes and Queries 

This department is open to all our subscribers. Contributors will please state their questions and in- 
formation as clearly and briefly as possible, being particularly careful in writing names and dates. For the 
benefit of readers generally, it is desired that answers to questions under this head be addressed to the 
editor of this magazine. 



XXXVI. 

The Nationality of Daniel Boone. 

A reader says : 

I have noticed in your magazine several 

references to Daniel Boone. Can you tell 

me certainly of his nationality? Was he 

German, English, or something else? 

Who can give us exact data in answer to 

these questions? 



XXXVII. 
Another Inquiry About Benjamin Newland. 

Information is desired as to the Revolution- 
ary services of Benjamin Newland, who was 
born in York county, Pa., in 1763 and who,, 
when sixteen years of age, joined the Revo- 
lutionary army. He probably went from York 
county. N. T. DePauw. 

New Albany, Ind. 



Our Book-Table 



Any book or pamphlet reviewed in this magazine will be sent to any address by the publisher of The 
Pennsylvania-German on receipt of the published price. Postage must be added when mentioned sep- 
arately. Any other book wanted by our readers may be ordered thro' us at the publisher's price. Inquiries- 
relating to such books will be promptly and cheerfully answered. 



The German Element of the Shenandoah Val- 
ley of Virginia. By John Walter Way- 
land, B.A., Ph.D., Assistant and Fellow 'in 
History, University of Virginia, Member 
of the Virginia Historical Society, the 
Southern History Association and the 
Pennsylvania-German Society. The 

Michie Company, Printers, Charlottesville, 
Va. 284 pages octavo. Price in cloth, 
$2; paper, $1.25. 
The history of the Germans in the Southern 



University of Virginia, to the title of Doctor 
of Philosophy, will be specially welcome to the 
student of German-American history. As the 
author states in his preface, he has turned to this 
subject partly from natural inclination, partly 
from a sense of duty. "It is a patent fact," he 
says, "that the German element in Virginia 
has received but slight attention, either in the 
thought and literature of our larger Virginia, 
or in the thought and concern of the German 
element itself. And the fact is not singular. 



States of the Union is a field i> which as yet The prevailing element of our State is English ; 

comparatively few explorers have labored. our language is English, and not even a Ger- 

Hence the present work, which embodies suf- man would have it anything else ; hence our 

ficient original research to have entitled the books and our thought are English and of 

author, in the judgment of the faculty of the England. . . . This is only analogous to the 



OUR BOOK-TABLE 



AT 



larger fact in our country as a whole. The 
German fiftli or fourth of our American na- 
tion is often forgotten — we love old England 
so well. Yet the student, at least, should not 
be so forgetful — he loves the German schools 
too well." . 

In the thirteen chapters of the book before 
us the student will find much, both of history 
and description, to repay his careful perusal. 
Beginning with a geographical outline of the 
Shenandoah Valley, tlie author gives an ac- 
count of the exploration and settlement of the 
country and then goes on to describe the people 
in their home and church life, "in their schools, 
fields and workshops, and in the larger rela- 
tions of Church and State as affected by peace 
and war." An Appendix of S8 pages, giving 
lists of names of inhabitants, members of Con- 
gress and the Virginia Legislature, Revolution- 
ary pensioners, etc., also an e.xtended bibliog- 
raphy, adds much to the interest and value of 
the book. 

Der Deutsche Tas^. Denkschrift zur Feier des 
Zweigverbandes Chicago, Deutsch-Ameri- 
kanischer Nationalbund, Sonntag den 6. 
October 1907, im Auditorium. 
This is a really elegant souvenir of last 
year's celebration of German Day in Chicago, 
comprising about forty quarto pages of ap- 
propriate reading-matter and a number of fine 
illustrations. Its leading feature is a history 
of the Germans in America, carefully pre- 
pared from reliable sources by Emil Mann- 
hardt, secretary of the German-American His- 
torical Society of Illinois, and a contributor 
to this magazine. It also contains the oration 
delivered by Dr. C. J. Hexamer, of Philadel- 
phia, president of the National German-Ameri- 
can Alliance, at the Jamestown Exposition, on 
German Day, Aug. i, 1907, in the original 
English. 

Weltbote-Kalender fiir das Jahr unseres Herrn 
1908. Weltbote Publishing Co., Allentown, 
Pa. Price, 25 cents. 
This is a pamphlet of 141 pages reading- 
matter in neat paper covers. The almanac 
proper is given in wonted fulness, with all 
needed explanations, extracts from the 
weather-forecasts of the Hxindertjdhrige 
Kalender and a table showing the date of 
Easter for every year of the twentieth cen- 
tury. Following the custom introduced by its 
former editor, the late John Waelchli, of de- 
scribing the leading cities of the world, we 
find here the first part of a description of 



Philadelphia. The new naturalization-law, ap- 
proved June 29, 1906, and a list of questions 
usually asked of applicants for citizenship, in 
German and English, are of special value tO' 
lately arrived immigrants from the fatherland ; 
so is the list of Government officials and of 
German, Swiss and Austrian consuls. A re- 
view of the world's history from October,. 
1906, to October, 1907, fills several pages. Be- 
sides, there is the usual variety of fiction, biog- 
raphy, poetry (including Harbaugh's Der Rcje- 
boge), music, household recipes, humor, etc. 
Modern Language Notes. Published month- 
ly, with intermission from July to October 
inclusive, by the managing editor, A. M. 
Elliott, at Baltimore. Price, $1.50 a year, 
20 cents a copy. 
This publication is "devoted to tlfe interests 
of the academic study of English, German and 
the Romance languages." The November issue 
has the continuation of an essay on All of 
the Five Fictitious Editions of Writings of 
Machiavelli and Three of Those of Pietro- 
Aretino Printed by John Wolfe of London 
(1584-1589), The Plays of Paul Hervieu, Notes 
on the Spanish Drama, etc. Those who de- 
light in the study of the languages above named' 
and can read them fluently, not only in their 
modern but also in their archaic forms, will 
here fine ample material for instruction and 
diversion. 

Nachrichten des "Verhands deutscher Schrift- 
steller in Amerika." This is the monthly 
organ of the Association of German 
Writers in America, an account of whose- 
origin, aims and purposes w-as given in 
this magazine in May, 1907, as contrib- 
uted by the Association's recording secre- 
tary, R. H. Helbig, of New York. 
It is devoted to the interests of members 

and contains a full list of their names and 

addresses, as well as of their contributions to- 

German-American literature. 

Dc Nocht for Kristdawg. By Solly Hulsbuck. 
Fully illustrated with drawings by the 
author himself. The Hawthorne Press^ 
Elizabethville, Pa. Price, 10 cents. 
A booklet, "short but sweet," and one that 
will be enjoyed even by those children whO' 
are yet too young to have learnt to read. 
The handmade pictures are not artistic, to be 
sure, but they are expressive and will be read- 
ily understood, when the story is told, by the 
little folks whom the author intends to enter- 
tain. 



TO BE EDITED BY PROF. E. S. 

True to its aim as a broad general maga- 
zine in its chosen field. The Pennsylv.\nia- 
German has secured the services of Professor 
E. S. Gerhard, teacher of English, German 
and Latin in the high school of Trenton, N. 
J., to edit a subdivision of this departmerit 
under the heading given above. This subdivi- 
sion will be devoted, as the name implies, to 
literary matters relating to the Pennsylvania- 
Germans. 



Literary Notes 



GERHARD, TRENTON, N. J. 

Its general purpose will be to record what 
is said or written by or about the people wdiom 
the magazine represents; to note articles re- 
lating to them in current literature, to an- 
nounce new books, pamphlets, stories, poems,, 
etc., produced by or bearing on the sons and 
daughters of the early German immigrants to- 
this countrv— in short, to provide, m connec- 
tion with Our Book-Table, a vademecum of 
matters literary for all our readers. 



48 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



It will naturally be impossible to know or 
record in detail all relevant matters, but the 
publisher feels sure that our readers will be 
indulgent with the editor and allow him a 
wide margin for working out his own person- 
ality. 

To the trite question that may suggest itself 
to some: ll'liaf's tlic use/ we will answer 
briefly, that the history of the German element 
in America has not yet been fully written ; 
that, when it comes to be written as it should 
and will be, the writers will be entitled to care- 
ful consideration ; that the present-day work- 
ers in this field are eminently worthy of the 
recognition hereby accorded them, and that, 
finally, these Notes themselves may serve as 
a partial answer to the sneers, the pouted lips 
and scornful language of those who mireason- 
ably and unjustly would make the world be- 
lieve that the sons and daughters of the early 
German and Swiss immigrants are but fit sub- 
jects to crack a joke, "to point a moral or 
adorn a tale" — in fact, a kind of Nazareth, 
from which no good can come. 

The special editor hopes to make applicable 
to his department the following words spoken 
with reference to The Pennsylvania-German 
by Richard E. Helbig, assistant librarian of the 
New York Public Library : "Your valued 
magazine is to be considered as a historical re- 
pository, which is to be also of future and 
permanent value." 

By way of introduction the publisher takes 



pleasure in noting a few biographical data re- 
lating to the new sub-editor : 

Born in Montgomery county. Pa., of good 
Pennsylvania-German stock, Elmer S. Gerhard 
spent much of his boyhood upon the farm. 
He attended Perkiomen Seminary to prepare 
for Princeton University, from which he grad- 
uated in igoo with the "degree of A.B. At the 
time of his graduation he was awarded the 
prize of the Class of 1859 for proficiency in 
English. He won the Scribner fellowship in 
English over a number of competitors and se- 
cured his degree of A.M. by postgraduate work 
at his a!i)ia mater in 1901. 

Since then Mr. Gerhard has spent five years 
in teaching", three of them as principal of the 
high school at Huntingdon, Pa. A few years 
ago he was awarded one of si.xteen prizes of 
$25 each distributed by the Funk & Wagnalls 
Publishing Company, of New York, for the 
best essays on assigned subjects. His prize 
essay was entitled, "The Value of Word-Study 
and How to Direct It." Contributions by 
Prof. Gerhard have been published in the New 
York School Journal, Educational Review and 
Education, of Boston, Ameri'-.an Education, of 
xA.lbany, N. Y., The Pennsylvania-German 
and other magazines. 

Professor Gerhard earnestly requests the 
readers of this magazine to help him make 
these Notes as comprehensive as possible by 
sending him any items they may have relating 
to the literary activity or literary mention made 
of the Pennsvlvania-Germans. 



Calendar of Pennsylvania History 

NOVENBER, 1907 



3. Three cottages destroyed by fire at Mount 
■Gretna. 

5. Republican victory at State-election. John 
O. Sheatz elected State-treasurer. 

7. Pennsylvania Congress of Mothers opens 
at Harrisburg. — Snow in Pocono mountains. 

8. . Sevehteenth annual 'meeting of - Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society in Philadelphia. 

9. Opening of seventh annual Philadelphia 
Automobile-Show. 

II. Chrvsanthemum-Show opens in Horticul- 
tural Hall, Philadelphia. 

13. Unitarian Conference of the United 
States and Canada opens twenty-third annual 
meeting in Philadelphia. — Receiver of defuifct 
Enterprise National Bank of Allegheny sues 
Ex-State-Treasurer Harris for $20,000 as al- 
leged bribe-money. 

14. Snow near Wilkes-Barre. 

15. Dwelling in Pitt.sburg destroyed by nat- 
ural-gas explosion; 25 injured, two fatally. 

16. Twenty-three Chinamen arrested as high- 
binders in Pittsburg. 

18. Federal Supreme Court approves consoli- 
dation of Pittsburg and Allegheny. — First 
City-Troop of Philadelphia jcelebrates hundred 
and thirty-third aiTniverstiry. 



19. Atlantic Waterways Conference opens in 
Philadelphia, attended by delegates from seven- 
teen States. 

20. Pennsylvania Society for Prevention of 
Tuberculosis opens second annual exhibition in 
Philadelphia. 

21. Bive children..of Thomas W. Zuver, near 
TitiTsville, perish in burning house. 

22. Pennsylvania Day is celebrated at State 
College with dedication of three agricultural 
buildings. — Pennsylvania Bar Association gives 
dinner to Chief Justice Mitchell on the semi- 
centennial of his admission to the bar. — David 
Scull, prominent businessman, dies in Phila- 
delphia. 

24. Snowstorm in eastern Pennsylvania. 

25. Seven men killed by explosion in foun- 
dry at Johnstown. — W. R. Chambers, oldest 
man in the State, dies at Cecils, Washington 
county, aged 106 years. 

27. Knights of Mystic Shrine lay coraerstone 
for new temple at Wilkes-Barre at midnight.— 
Collision of freight-trains on Port Richmond 
branch of Reading Railway in Philadelphia; 
three railroad men killed. 

29. Second annual banquet of York' Manu- 
facturing Association at Colonial Hotel, Phila- 
delphTa. 



-"^m 



BARON STIEGEL'S PRAYER 

Written on the Fly-leaf of his Hymn Book during his Imprisonment. ** 

"Honored and truthful God, Thou hast in Thy laws earnestly forbidden 
lying- and false witness, and hast commanded on the contrary that the truth 
shall be spoken. 

*T pray Thee with all my heart that Thou wouldst prevent my enemies 
who, like snakes, are sharpening their tongues and who, although I am inno- 
cent, seek, assassin-like, to harm and ridicule me, and defend my cause and 
abide faithfully with me. Save me from false mouths and lying tongues, who 
make my heart ache and who are a horror. Save me from the stumbling 
stones and traps of the wicked which they have prepared for me. Let me not 
fall among the wicked and perish among them. 

_ "Turn from me disgrace and contempt, and hide me from the poison of 
their tongues. 

"Deliver me from bad people and that the misfortune they utter about me 
may recoil on them. Smite the slanderers and let all lying mouths be stopped 
of those who delight in our misfortunes and when we are caught in snares, 
so that they may repent and return to Thee. 

"Take notice of my condition, Oh, Almighty Lord, and let my innocence 
come to light. Oh, woe unto me that I am a stranger and live under the huts 
of others. I am afraid to live among those who hate friends. I keep the 
peace. 

"My Lord, come to my assistance in my distress and fright amongst my 
enemies, who hate me without a cause and who are unjustly hostile, even the 
one who dips with me in the same dish is a traitor to me. 

"Merciful God, who canst forgive transgression and sin, lay noc this sin to 
their charge. Forgive them, for they know not what they do. Forbear 
with me, so that I may not scold again as I have been scolded, and not re- 
ward the wicked with wickedness, but that I may have patience in tribulation, 
and place my only hope on Thee, O Jesus, and Thy holy will. 

"Almighty God ! if thereby I shall be arraigned and tried for godliness, 
then will I gladly submit, for Thou wilt make all well. Grant unto me 
.strength and patience that I may, through disgrace or honor, evil or good, 
remain in the good, and that I may follow in the footsteps of Thy dearly- 
beloved Son, my Lord and Saviour, who had to suffer so much for my sake. 

"Let me willingly suffer all wrongs that I may not attempt to attain my 
crown with impatience, but rather to trust in Thee, my Lord and God, who 
seest into the hearts of all men, and who canst save from all disgrace. Yet, 
Lord, hear me and grant my petition, so that all may turn to the best for 
mine and my soul's salvation, for Thine eternal will's sake. Amen !" 



=■ 






Vol. IX FEBRUARY, 1908 

Sumneytown and Vicinity 
A Brief Historical Sketch 

BY REV. J. L. ROUSH, SUMNEYTOWN, PA. 



No. 2 




UMNEYTOWN, k .ated in 
the township named in hon- 
or of the Duke of Marlbor- 
ough, an EngHsh general 
whose military exploits 
about the year 1706 had 
gained for him a wide celebrity, and 
who died in 1722, is the oldest, and was 
for many years the most prominent vil- 
lage in the northwestern part of Mont- 
gomery county, Pa. The township was 
formed about 1745, and the first settle- 
ment within its bounds was made about 
1730. 

Early Settlers of Marlborough Township. 

The early settlers came by way of 
Philadelphia, thro' pathless forests, and 
erected their rude dwellings at the flow- 
ing springs, amid the romantic and beau- 
tiful scenery of the surrounding hills. 
Among those early arrivals were, as else- 
where, poor immigrants, who had been 
bound over by ship-captains to pay for 
their passage. Some of the settlers pro- 
cured land-warrants and paid for their 
homesteads at the rate of fifty cents per 
acre. 

During the years immediately follow- 
ing their arrival, while they were en- 
gaged in building their log-cabins and 
clearing small plots of ground for culti- 
vation, they were exposed to many hard- 
ships and privations. Notwithstanding 
their industry and foresight, and the help 
of friendly Indians, who came to them 
with gifts of meat, they frequently suf- 
fered for want of food. In those periods 



of distress, we are told, the dealings of 
a kind Providence with these hardy men 
and women, who had gone forth in faith 
to win for themselves homes in the for- 
ests of Pennsylvania, were in some re- 
spects not unlike the experiences which 
marked the emigration of the ancient 
Hebrews to the land of Canaan. Wild 
pigeons, which came down in dense 
flocks, were killed with sticks, and the 
meat thus obtained, when not needed for 
immediate use, was salted and kept until 
another supply of food was procured 
from the soil, which at that time was 
cultivated chiefly by means of the hoe. 

The nearest mill in those days was that 
of Edward Farer, on the Wissahickon 
creek, in Whitemarsh township, twenty- 
five miles distant. As the road was a 
mere bridle-path and the grain had to be 
carried thither in bags slung across the 
backs of horses, the most primitive 
means were often resorted to in the 
preparation of food for the family. Corn 
was hung up by the husk over the fire 
to dry, after which it was ground on the 
hominy-block and used for bread, mush 
and hominy. Corn-bread was baked on 
boards or, in the ashes, and the hominy 
was boiled with venison and salt. The 
materials for clothing were such as the 
settlers' limited means and surroundings 
could furnish. r>uckskin pantaloons and 
vests and rough linen shirts were worn 
by the men, while the women and chil- 
dren were clad in homespun. Cowhide 
and wooden shoes comprised the only 
footwear known to them. Under such 
circumstances they toiled and struggled. 



52 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



raised their families and developed those 
sturdy qualities which enabled them to 
aid the government and help to fight the 
battles of the Revolution. 

The Origin of Sumneytown. 

In the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury Sumneytown gradually came to be 
the center of an active trade. It was 
widely known both for its flourishing in- 
dustries and the excellence of its manu- 
facture^' products — gun-powder, flour, 
linseed-oil, etc. 

Its name was derived from Isaac Sum- 
ney, who, for some time prior to the 
Revolution, opened a tavern in a frame 
building in the forks of the Maxatawny 
and Macungie roads, on the spot where 
the Red Lion Hotel, conducted for many 
years by Samuel Brandt, now stands. 
Some authorities mention Dorn's inn as 
Jiaving been located here as early as 1758. 
In 1763 Mr. Sumney and his wife Mag- 
idalena bought the tract of land, 130 
acres, which includes part of the present 
site of '[\ie village. As early, however, 
as lyic) he owned 100 acres of land in 
another part of the township, which m- 



dicates that he was at that time a resi- 
dent of this place. His family consisted 
of himself, his wife and five daughters. 
Commenting on the absence of sons in the 
family, his guests occasionally twitted 
him with the remark that, with the mar- 
riage of his daughters, the family-name 
would die out. Annoyed by their remarks 
and being then the owner of a number 
of houses in the place, he resolved that 
thenceforth the village should bear his 
name. He had erected a brewery near 
the tavern and is reputed to have made 
an excellent equality of beer, which prob- 
ably accounts for the degree in which 
the taste for that beverage was culti- 
vated in the community, traces of which, 
among other things, are still preserved by 
some of the inhabitants of the village. 
Mr. Sumney had emigrated from Europe, 
and is said to have been a gentleman of 
more than ordinary culture. From this 
place he removed to Gwynedd township, 
and thence to Philadelphia, where he 
died. 

The Hiester House. 

One of the oldest buildings in Sum- 
nevtown is known as the Hiester House, 



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THE HIESTER HOUSE, SUMNEYTOWN- PA. 



SUMNEYTOWN AND VICINITY 



53 



and is situated on the east side of the 
Sunineytown and Spring House turnpike, 
close to Ridge X'alley creek. It was the 
home of many of the ancestors of the 
well known Hiester family, of 1 Jerks 
county. It is a massive building of red 
and black brick, in the colonial style of 
architecture, and was erected in 1757. 
Some years ago a new slate roof was put 
on, and its walls seem durable enough to 
last another century. This was the prop- 
erty of Daniel Hiester, a native of ElsotT, 
in Westphalia, who emigrated to Ameri- 
ca in 1737, with his brother Joseph, in 
the ship St. Andrew.* He had been 
preceded a few years by his elder brother, 
John. Daniel and his wife Catharine, }icc 
Schuler, settled on this tract, which was 
then known as Goshenhoppen, and reared 
a family of four sons and two daughters. 
Their sons were John, Daniel, Gabriel 
and \\'illiam, who were born on this 
homestead. They all served in the army 
of the Revolution, the first three being 
officers. John and Daniel afterwards be- 
came members of Congress, the former 
from Chester, the latter from Berks 
county, to which the Hiesters had re- 
moved. A number of the descendants of 
the family, up to the present day, have 
preserved the family reputation for use- 
ful activity and faithful devotion to busi- 
ness and political interests. 

On a tract of about 165 acres, the 
elder Hiester here carried on farming, 
conducted a tannery and engaged in the 
manufacture of brick and tiling. He died 
in 1795, aged eighty-two years, and was 
the uncle of Governor Joseph Hiester. 
The homestead was the center of political 
and social activity for miles around, and 
continued as such during the occupancy 
of his son, Daniel, Jr., to whom the 
property was transferred in 1774. In 
179() Daniel Hiester, Jr., conveyed the an- 
cestral home to Philip Hahn, of New 
Hanover, Montgomery county. Subse- 
quently it passed into the hands of the 
Krause family, and is now owned bv 
James S. Miller. 



*Iii Rupp's Thirty Thousand Names Dan. Hiister is 
nientioiied as one of 450 Palatines who landed at 
Philadelphia, Sept. 26, 1737, from the ship .St. An- 
drew Galley, John Stedman, master. His name is the 
first of four on the sick list. 



Industries Flour, Powder and Oil-Mills. 

Owing to the excellent water-power af- 
forded by tae Ferkiomen, Macoby and 
Swamp creeks, there were at various 
times in the early history of the com- 
munity not less than forty mills in opera- 
tion within several miles of Sunineytown. 
Among them were four flour mills, four- 
teen powder-mills, eight oil-mills, two 
saw-mills, three polishing-mills, one wool- 
en-mill, and one forge. Along the 
Swamp creek alone, within a distance of 
five miles, could be counted twenty-two 
wheels in operation, while three-fourths 
of that number could be found along the 
Perkiomen, between Green Lane and 
Perkiomenville. These streams played 
an important part in the early settlement 
and development of this region, and one 
of them, the Perkiomen, still supports a 
number of industries which add very 
materially to the trade and traffic of the 
Perkiomen Railroad. 

The first flour-mill was built in 1742 by 
Samuel Schuler, within one mile of Suni- 
neytown, on the property later owned by 
Isaac Stetler. P^rt of the foundation 
still remains, and the house nearby, built 
in 1748, continued to .be used as a dwell- 
ing until within receni years. About the 
same time, or a little later, another mill 
was built by Jacob Graff, at Perkiomen- 
ville. It was afterwards purchased by 
Jacob Johnson, who removed the old 
building and erected a large three-story 
brick building in its place. It was known 
for some time as Gehman and Hiestand's 
mill, and is now operated by John H. 
Nyce. 

.Plalfway between Perkiomenville and 
Green Lane stood until about five years 
ago a stone mill which during a part of 
its history belonged to the estate of Jacob 
Snyder. It had been built by one of the 
Alayberrys and was kept in constant op- 
eration for more than one hundred years. 
Prior to the year 1784 Jacob Nice erected 
a building on the east side of the Perkio- 
men. iJetween 1798 and i860 this prop- 
erty passed successively from the hands 
of Nice into those of Daniel Smith, Mat- 
thew Campbell, George Poley and Henry 
Bergey, and was changed first from a 
grist- and saw-mill to an oil- and powder- 



54 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




RUINS OF POWDER-MILL, SUMNEYTOWN, PA.. OPERATED BY MILLER BROS. 



mill, later to a fulling- and carding-mill. 
Here George Poky began the manufac- 
ture of satinets, linseys and stocking- 
yarn. When in 1871 the mill was de- 
stroyed by fire, the walls were rebuilt and 
the building was fitted up as a grist- and 
planing-mill. 

The exact time when gunpowder was 
first made in this vicinity can not be de- 
termined. According to the most gener- 
ally credited authorities, a German by the 
name of Sebastian Gotz was the pioneer 
in this industry, having made powder in 
Jacob Snyder's mill. His method of 
making the article was very simple. He 
mixed the ingredients in an iron pot, and 
ground them in a wooden mortar by 
means of a pestle operated by foot-power. 

The first powder-mill of any import- 
ance was located on the Swamp creek. 
It was built in 1780 by Jacob Dash, one 
of the early settlers, who continued the 
business until 1790. Before engaging in 
the manufacture of powder, Mr. Dash 
was the owner of a forge, in which he 
made iron pans and spoons, articles for 
which there was a ready sale in the com- 
munity, as cookstoves were then un- 
known. After the death of Dash his 
property was sold to Lorenz Jacoby, who 
erected additional mills and successfully 
carried on the business until he died, 
when the mills were transferred to his 



son Daniel. Other men who either 
erected or operated mills were William A. 
Jacoby, Jacob Leister, Franklin Leister, 
Charles Schaefifer, George Geiger, Balser 
Reed, John George Mpyer, Jacob Hersh 
and the Aliller Brothers. The business 
prospered to such a degree that in 1858 
eleven mills, making twenty tons of 
powder daily, were in full operation in 
Marlborough township. 

With the advent of the powder-mills 
came also the erection of oil-mills, of 
which seven were running at the same 
time on the banks of the Perkiomen and 
Swamp creeks. The manufacture of these 
products required the investment of a 
large amount of capital and gave em- 
ployment to a large number of men. Dur- 
ing the period in which these industries 
were at the height of their prosperity, 
some of the finest horse and mule-teams 
in the State were in use to carry the 
powder to Wilkes-Barre, Pottsville and 
other places, and to convey the oil to the 
market. 

The Forge at Greenlane. 

When and by whom the first houses 
were built in the nearby village of Green- 
lane is not definitely known. Some time 
in 1730 a large tract of land, comprising 
1240 acres, was purchased from the dep- 
uty governor of the province by a man 
named Mayberry, who erected a forge 



SUMNEYTOWN AND VICINITY 



55 



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RUINS OF DRYHOUSE, USED BY MILLEK BROS. 



there. Through the transference of the 
property from father to son for several 
successive generations, the forge was kept 
in continual operation for more than a 
.century. Between 1810 and 1815 the 
Mayberrys sold the entire property to 
Willis and Yardley, of Philadelphia, for 
■$45j500. For some twenty years after- 
ward the forge remained idle, and the 
land was rented. In 1833 the property 
was sold by Henry Longacre, the sheriff 
■of Montgomery county, to Col. William 
Schall, who for many years continued to 
•operate the forge and the furnaces which 
he had built there. While the forge was 
still in possession of the Mayberrys, a 
large force of men was employed to carry 
on the work, the majority of whom were 
negro slaves. In the immediate vicinity 
of the forge stood a number of cabins, 
in which the negroes lived. xA.t the foot 
-of the hill, directly opposite the present 
ice-house, a commodious log house had 
•been built, which was occupied by one of 
the Mayberrys. In the course of time 
some of the negroes died and were buried 
near the Greenlane Hotel. Some of 
them had been natives of Africa. They 
-appear to have been faithful and reliable 
workmen, and to have received the same 
attention and kind treatment which was 



accorded to white servants by their 
masters. 

Owing to its excellent water-power 
and the abundance of wood, which was 
easily converted into charcoal, Green- 
lane had unusual facilities for the op- 
eration of its iron-works. It was wide- 
ly known as the location of a forge whose 
product was equal, if not superior, to any 
other iron in the market. The sound of 
the forge-hammer has long since ceased 
to reverberate among the hills, the build- 
ings have disappeared, and the former 
activities of the village have yielded to 
the changes which time has wrought dur- 
ing the last half century. Instead of the 
many industries formerly located here, 
the banks of the Perkiomen are now dot- 
ted with large ice-houses, from which 
large quantities of the crystal product are 
annually shipped to Philadelphia. 

Friedens Lutheran and Reformed Church. 

In early times the nearest houses of 
worship, in which the Gospel was regu- 
larly preached, were the New Goshen- 
hoppen, the Six-Cornered and the Old 
Goshenhoppen churches. There was, 
however, a plot of ground on the prop- 
erty of Dr. Samuel Solliday and Frederic 
Gilbert which had been used by the fami- 
lies in the neighborhood as a cemetery be- 



56 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



fore the Old Goslienhoppen church was 
built, in 1744. For more than fifty years 
this burial-place has been abandoned and 
neglected. The gravestones, if any exist- 
ed, have been removed,- the ground has 
been under cultivation, and all traces of 
its use as a place of interment have dis- 
appeared. 

To show with what deliberation our 
ancestors sometimes discussed projects 
before they took the necessary steps for 
their accomplishment, it may be stated 
that for a quarter of a century before the 
Friedens Lutheran and Reformed church 



year later the building was dedicated witb 
appropriate ceremonies. The churcb 
stands on high ground overlooking the 
village, and has a seating capacity for 
seven hundred people. The pastors 
who have officiated here were Revs. H^ 
Wendt, A. G. Struntz, E. F. Flecken- 
stein, W. B. Fox and C. F. Dapp, Luth- 
eran ; and Revs. A. L. Dechant and J.. 
L. Roush, on the Reformed side. 
The Sumneytown Schools. 
The lot upon which the present school- 
building stands was presented to the 
community in 1790 by General Daniel 




FRIEDENS LUTHERAN AND REFORMED CHTRCH, SUMNEYTOWN, PA. 



was built, its erection had been contem- 
plated. In 1857 the matter was again 
agitated, and on September 26 of that 
year the residents of the village met in 
the Academy-building to adopt a plan. 
At the meeting the following building- 
committee was elected : 

Lutheran. Reformed. 

John Wampole, John Ruckstuhl, 

Amos Kepner, John Kepp, 

Jacob Jacoby. WilHam D. Rudy. 

During the winter preparations were 
made and on Whitsunday in the following 
spring the cornerstone was laid. One 



Hiester, thereafter a small stone building 
was erected on it and used for school- 
purposes. On March 31, 1806, the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania appointed 
and authorized Philip Gabel, Jr., George 
Hartzell. Lorenz Jacoby, Philip Zepp^. 
Sanr.iel Smith and Philip Hahn, Jr., as 
commissioners to raise a sum of money, 
not exceeding $2000, for the erection of 
a school-building on the above-mentioned 
lot. The money was to be raised by 
means of a lottery. The lottery was ac- 
cordingly instituted and the prizes were 



SUMNEYTOWN AND VICINITY 



57- 



paid to the respectixe winners. The 
most vakiable prize, $1000 in money, was 
drawn by a ticket-holder in Frederick 
township, where a ckib had been formed. 
On the tenth of February, 1817, a supple- 
ment to the above act was passed direct- 
ing that the balance of the funds, remain- 
ing- in the hands of the commissioners, 
should be used to erect a dwelling on 
the school-lot, for the teacher. The act 
further directed that, in the event of the 
commissioners' failure to put up the 
building, Philip Reed and Henry Schnei- 
der should be authorized to take charge 
of the funds. After some delay, the 
money was paid over and made available 
for the erection of a school-building. 

In 1833 a society named "The Sumney- 
town Society for the Promotion of Use- 
ful Knowledge "' was formed, whose ob- 
ject was to erect a spacious building for 
school and other purposes. A suitable 
constitution was adopted, and the follow- 
ing persons were elected as the first of- 
ficers of the society : President, Enos 
Benner ; vice-president, Adam Slemmer ; 
secretary. Daniel G. Kenney ; treasurer, 
Daniel Jacoby ; trustees, Solomon Art- 
man, Daniel Scheid and George Poley. 
In 1 84 1 -2 the present two-story brick 
structure, known as the Academy-build- 
ing, was erected, which since its comple- 
tion has been regularly used for school- 
purposes, ^ilarlborough township was 
among the first to advocate the adoption 
of the common-school system provided 
for by act of the Assembly. Its citizens 
accepted the provisions of the law, re- 
ceived the appropriation, levied the tax 
and put forth efforts to make the sys- 
tem popular. In a few years, however, 
the opposition became so strong that the 
movement was discontinued and subscrip- 
tion-schools were substituted. The dis- 
satisfaction which resulted from this 
backward step made it necessary, in 1843, 
to return to the system of common 
schools, the advantages of which the 
township has enjoyed ever since. 

For a period of twenty-five years or 
more the Sumneytown schools were in 
charge of Henry E. Hartzell, through 
whose superior ability as an instructor, 
the village became favorably known in 
this and adjoining counties as an educa- 



tional center. A large number of those 
who were under his instruction have 
since gained prominence in business and 
the various professions. 

Sumneytown's Printing Office. 

A printing-office was established in 
Sumneytown as early as 1827 by Samuel 
Royer, who, on the twenty-fifth of April 
in that year, issued Dcr Advokat, the 
first (ierman paper. The paper advocated 
Tory principles, and as these were not 
in harmony with the views and feelings: 
of the residents of the community, it 
ceased to be published at the end of six 
months, when the office was removed tO' 
Pottstown. 

On August sixth of the following- 
year the first number of the Baiicrn- 
Frciind was issued by Enos Benner & 
Co. Adam Slemmer, Esq., afterwards a 
resident of Norristown, was then a part- 
ner in the firm. The paper had a small 
beginning, but was gradually enlarged. 
In the fall of the year during whichthe 
paper made its appearance, Andrew 
Jackson was nominated for the Presi- 
dency, and his election was warmly ad- 
vocated. During that same year' Mr. 
Slemmer, having been elected as a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, withdrew from the 
firm, and Mr. Benner continued the pub- 
lication alone until July, 1858, when the 
paper- was sold and" removed to Penns- 
burg. 

Among other publications which came 
from the press of ]\Ir. Benner was a Ger- 
man Hymn book which had been adopt- 
ed by the Synod of the Reformed Church 
and a (ierman Primer that continued to 
be used as a textbook until instruction 
in the German language was finally abol- 
ished in the public schools. 

On December 8, i860, Mr. Benner died. 
Since then the book-and-job printing 
business has been carried on by his son, 
Edwin ]\I. Benner. 

Post Office. 

The first post-oftice in Sunnieytown 
was established in 18 10. Jacob Boyer, 
then proprietor of the Sumneytown 
Hotel, was the first postmaster. There 
was at that time only one postal route with 
which the office was connected, namely, 
the route from Doylestown to Pughtown, 



-58 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




SUMNEYTOWN'S QUAINTEST BRIDGE. 



in Chester county, which was served 
once a week. Opportunities for reading 
in those days were limited, as books and 
papers were not easily obtained. With 
the exception of an occasional copy of 
an English paper, then published in Nor- 
ristown, the Reading Adlcr was the only 
paper that circulated in this community. 
As the flax-seed, used in the manufacture 
of linseed-oil, was raised principally in 
the neighborhood of Reading, teams 
were constantly on the road conveying the 
seed to the mills. With these teams the 



paper was brought to Sumneytown. The 
subscribers, it is said, paid their subscrip- 
tions regularly in advance, sending the 
money to Reading with the teamsters, in 
order that the Adlcr might not be inter- 
rupted in his flight. A little later the 
Alleiitozvn Fricdcnshote and the Unab- 
hdngige RcpiihUkancr, also of Allentown, 
were brought to the village through post- 
riders furnished with bugles, by means of 
which they announced the arrival of the 
papers to their subscribers in the neigh- 
borhood. 



Mrs. Sarah Rider is the oldest woman in 
Montour county. Her age is over loi years. 
She is still well and hearty. She is the mother 
of 15 children, twelve of whom are living. She 
has 100 grandchildren and 95 great-grandchil- 
dren. She was born in Danville on April 
10, 1807. 

The oldest minister in the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium is the Rev. J. C. Schmidt, of Reading. 
He was licensed to preach in 1844 'in^l has 
therefore been a minister of the Gospel for 
nearly 64 years. The Rev. Dr. William Ger- 
hardt, of Martinsburg, West Virginia, who 
stands second on the list, is older in years, 
having passed his 90th birthday, but he was 
not ordained until 1847, and therefore has just 
celebrated his 60th anniversary of his ordina- 
tion. 

Capt. Amos Keiter, of Spring City, Pa., on 
November 28 completed his 99th vear. He was 
born near Parker Ford and spent all his life in 
that neighborhood. He is still well and reads 



without glasses. He cast his first vote for Gen. 
Jackson. 

Samuel Burger, Middleburg, Pa., in a quiet 
way with a few of his children celebrated his 
ninety-ninth birthday on January 10, 1908. Mr. 
Burger is enjoying the best of health, sleeps 
well and eats three meals per day regularly and 
two or three times between meals. He always 
eats before retiring at night, and never fails to 
repeat the prayer taught him in early child- 
hood, "Now I lay me down to sleep," etc. Mr. 
Burger enjoyed an occasional smoke since he 
was eight years of age. He has always pur- 
sued outdoor employment, his occupation being 
that of stock dealing. Although his eyesight 
and hearing are impaired, his health is ex- 
cellent. He was twice married, his first wife 
being Miss Barbara Zeigler, by which union 
there were five children, all of whom are liv- 
ing. His second wife was Miss Jemima Tall- 
helm, and by this union there were eight chil- 
dren, of whom five are living. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE 



5^ 



The Pennsylvania-German in 
The Field of Science 



A Symposium 
Edited by Prof. D. H. Bergey, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Introduction 
By the Special Editor 




HE special editor of the Sym- 
posium contributed a brief 
article which was printed in 
this magazine in July, 1905, 
in which he called attention 
to the work of several prom- 
inent Pennsylvania-Germans in the field 
of science. The limited space allotted to 
that contribution made it impossible to 
write an extended account of the persons 
■engaged in the different fields of science 
or to give a detailed exposition of the na- 
ture and extent of their labors. It was 
felt then that this w-as a subject meriting 
far more pretentious and painstaking 
treatment, and the present symposium is 
the outcome of that conviction. 

The subject is being treated in a com- 
prehensive manner by a number of con- 
tributors, who have consented to write 
upon the work of the Pennsylvania-(jer- 
man scientists as investigators in the dif- 
ferent departments of science ; as teachers 
of science in schools and colleges ; and as 
authors of scientific papers, pamphlets 
and books. The publisher has been most 
fortunate in securing the co-operation of 
persons of recognized authority in the 
various fields of science to write of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans who were or are 
active in each particular field. 

The contributions that have been com- 
'pleted are of a high order of excellence, 
►because the contributors have approached 



their subject in a truly scientific spirit, in 
that they have assumed an analytical and 
critical attitude. These contributions are 
pre-eminently presentations of facts rather 
than the promulgation of arguments to 
uphold conceived theories. 

It is not the purpose of the Symposium 
to praise the work of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans as scientists, but rather to pre- 
sent to the reader a concise statement of 
their achievements and permit others to 
estimate the relative importance and value 
of the work they have accomplished. 
Where the scientific world has given us 
an estimate of the relative importance of 
the work of a scientist, that estimate will 
be given as being authoritative. 

It is the desire of the special editor and 
of the publisher to make this Symposium 
as comprehensive and accurate as pos- 
sible. Every known method has been 
employed to secure the names of all Penn- 
sylvania-Germans who have been or are 
now engaged in any field of science either 
as investigators, teachers or authors. A 
great mass of facts has been gathered, and 
these are now being utilized by the dif- 
ferent contributors to the Symposium. 
Nevertheless it is desired that all scientists 
as well as others interested in the subject 
will forward to the special editor or to 
the publisher the names of such as are 
known to be of Pennsylvania-German de- 
scent, who have been engaged in scien- 



6o 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERAIAN 



tific pursuits or are now engaged in scien- 
tific work. In addition to this it is de- 
sired to secure information regarding all 
the work of the Pennsylvania-Germans in 
the field of science, so that nothing of 
importance may be excluded. By the cor- 
dial co-operation of many contributors we 
may be able to make this Symposium a 
work of great interest and value. 

Neither the special editor nor the in- 
dividual contributors to the Symposium 
regard themselves as infallible, and what- 



ever information may be received, pertain- 
ing to the subject, will be included in 
subsequent articles or in special articles, 
supplementing those that mav have been 
published. It is felt that such a course 
will be justifiable, because, notwithstand- 
ing the great pains taken in collecting all 
known data, the Symposium would be 
held up for a long time if still more ex- 
haustive investigations were to be made, 
and in the end might not be entirely satis- 
factory. 



The Pennsylvania-German as Biologist 

BY H. E. JORDAN, PH. D., CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. 



Editorial Note. — The author of this sketch, 
Prof. H. E. Jordan, Ph.D., born at Coopers- 
burg. Pa., was graduated from the Coopers- 
burg High School, 1896; from the Kutztown 
Normal School, 1897, and from Lehigh Uni- 
versity, 1903. He was assistant in Biology 
at Lehigh University, i903-'04, and assistant 
in Histology and Embryology in the Cornell 
University Medical College, New York City, 
i904-'o6. He has carried on special studies 
at Columbia University, at the United 
States Fish Commission, Woods Holl, 
Mass., Princeton University and the Mar- 
ine Biological Laboratory at Dry Tortugas, 
Florida. He received the degree A.B. from Le- 
high University, 1903 ; A.M. from the same in- 
stitution in 1904, and Ph.D. from Princeton 
University in 1907. He is now Adjunct Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy (having charge of Histology 
and Embryology) at University of Virginia. 

THE final test of a scientist is 
ability to prosecute original 
research. The fruit of re- 
search is addition to the 
fund of human knowledge. 
Each acquisition m cans 



benefit to mankind and marks progress in 
civilization. The ideal scientist is a man 
who can both himself discover the new 
and ins])ire pupils with a desire to search 
for hidden truth. Scientific men who 
can answer to the test of genuine origi- 
nality have at all times been rare. It is 
far easier to imitate and to follow beaten 
tracks than to be a pioneer and to build 
one's own bridges. Men frequently as- 
sume the title "scientific" with no better 
claim than that of having read Aristotle 
and s(Mne of the later text-books of sci- 
ence, and their ability to discourse fluently 
on the various facts they have culled 
and uiKiuestioningly accepted. The real 



scientist, however, leaves books and arm 
chair, rolls up his sleeves and investigates 
for himself. 

The Pennsylvania-German race, in 
spite of unfavorable, even hostile, con- 
ditions, has during its brief history in 
America since the last half of the 
eighteenth century produced a fair quota 
of real scientists. All in various degrees 
qualify in regard to originality and the 
inspiration they have imparted to a host 
of students. 

The unfavorable conditions under 
which scientific men developed among the 
Pennsylvania-Germans were various^ 
The Pennsylvania-Germans were pre- 
eminently a religious people. With a 
library consisting of only Luther's Bible, 
a psalm-book and an almanac, they re- 
mained necessarily very narrow. More- 
over, they were superstitious, intolerant 
and looked askance on general culture^ 
A literal interpretation of the Bible fos- 
tered a hostile attitude to science. Biolo- 
gy, with its theories of development, in- 
heritance and racial evolution, found un- 
congenial reception here. The Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans were furthermore a fru- 
gal, thrifty people. In their eyes a natur- 
alist was a good-for-nothing, perhaps a 
decent sort of vagabond. Even to this- 
day there remains a sentiment among 
some of the Pennsylvania-German fam- 
ilies that learning spoils men for the 
duties of life. A certain writer has said 
of the Pennsylvania-Germans that "they 
were as ignorant of what we call know!- 
eds:e as the cattle in their fields." This 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN AS BIOLOGIST 



6i 



;statement is extreme, but emphasizes the 
serious handicap under whicli bioloi^ical 
science developed among the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans. It is all the more won- 
-<lerful that in the face of such obstacles 
there should have arisen even a few il- 
lustrious Pennsylvania-German biolo- 
gists. That they have appeared under 
such highly adverse conditions of inheri- 
tance and environment gives all the clear- 
er evidence of intellectual strength and 
vigor. 

Louis Agassiz, the great Swiss, natur- 
alist, came to Aiuerica in 1846. Under 
his instruction and inspiration grew up 
such renowned biologists as Brooks, 
Whitman, Jordan and others. Under 
these men studied another generation of 
biologists who are now occupying chairs 
of biology all over the United States. 
To these latter teachers and their imme- 
diate product are now going hosts of 
young Pennsylvania-German students, 
many of whom are giving promise of be- 
coming great biologists. Already some 
•of these are holding responsible positions 
in some of our leading colleges and uni- 
versities, including Harvard, Yale, Michi- 
gan, Pennsylvania, \'irginia and man)' 
smaller institutions. Most of these are 
still unknown to the world at large, due 
to the fact that they have not yet pro- 
<iuced research work of note but much 
may reasonably be expected in the fu- 
ture. It will probably be the lot of many 
of these to spend their best years in the 
recitation room of high school or college 
and on die lecture platform. But their 
enthusiasm and learning is ever attract- 
ing an increasingly larger body of young 
mien to the science, some of whom may 
•eventually become fired wath the spirit 
of original investigation. 

Our most brilliant example of this type 
of biologist is Samuel Schmucker, who 
for many years has contributed informa- 
tion and delight to thousands of young 
people by his superb lectures on biologi- 
cal to])ics in his lecture room at West 
Chester, and his i)opular lectures at 
teachers' institutes and elsewhere. The 
present writer recalls with much pleas- 
ure a lecture delivered by Professor 
Schmucker at a teachers' institute at Al- 
lentown in 1898. The lecture was on the 



development of the grasshopper. Refer- 
ence was made to the theory of evolu- 
tion. The writer had a week previously 
read a sermon by Dr, Talmage in which 
the latter referred to believers in evolu- 
tion as "devils." After the lecture the 
writer spoke to Professor Schmucker and' 
solicited advice as to what opinion one 
should reasonably hold on the subject of 
organic development when reputed au- 
thorities seemed to be at such bitter vari- 
ance. Professor Schmucker advised 
reading Drummond's "Ascent of Man." 
This book was one of the chief and 
earliest factors that led the writer to- 
choose the field of biology as the sphere 
of his life work. From among the 
thousands that Professor Schmucker has 
charmed and inspired by his lectures and 
attracted to biology by his eloquence and 
vivacity, some may ultimately contribute 
a new truth or uncover a hidden fact. 

Contemporaneously with Darwin and 
Agassiz and each successive generation 
of their brilliant students, the Pennsyl- 
vania-German race has been represented 
by at least one scientist, distinguished in 
some line of biological investigation. The 
first and perhaps the greatest of these 
was Samuel Steadman Haldeman. Agas- 
siz in 1853 ii"^ very high terms mentions 
his work on Entomology, and Charles 
Darwin in the preface to his "Origin of 
Species" refers to Haldeman's "able paper 
on species and their distribution." An- 
other writer refers to him as "one of the 
most trustworthy observers . . . one of 
the most accurate naturalists that ever 
lived." 

The Haldemans were a Swiss family 
that emigrated from the Thuner See in 
the Canton Bern to the banks of the 
Susquehanna in the early days of the 
colony.* Samuel Steadman Haldeman 
was born at Locust Grove, Lancaster 
county. Pa., on August 12. 1812. "Here 
he peacefully lived and worked and here 
he peacefully died, alone, in the night, on 
the tenth of September, 1880, without 



*The following facts were gleaned from a Memoir 
of S. S. Haldeman by J. P. Lesley, read before the 
National Academy at Philadelpliia, November i6, 
1881, and published in their "Biographical Memoirs" 
\'ol. II, 1886. For the most part, the substance as 
here presented is merely a transcript of portions of 
this longer work. 



62 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



sickness or suffering, as every man of 
science should die." Young Haldeman 
was alert with ear and eye. He had no 
other teachers of natural history than his 
own senses. ' His father was a lover of 
books and had a considerable library, but 
in the library of fields and waters young 
Samuel chiefly rummaged. He early 
made a collection of fresh-water shells 
from the banks of the river and its 
islands. He boiled out and set up the 
skeletons of rabbits, opossums, muskrats 
and field mice. He subsequently enlarged 
his museum by the addition of birds, 
which an itinerant Methodist minister 
taught him to stuff. At fourteen he was 
sent to a classical school in Harrisburg, 
where he prepared for Dickinson Col- 
lege. But classics were not to his taste ; 
the past had little claims for this student 
of nature. He abandoned college at the 
end of the second year at the age of 
eighteen, and in 1830 began again to oc- 
cupy himself at home wholly with his 
cabinet of minerals, plants, shells and 
insects, and his library of scientific and 
philosophical books. 

But the father, true to his Pennsyl- 
vania-German instinct of industry and 
frugality, insisted that his son must take 
up some business, and so put him to 
running a saw-mill on the Chikiswalungo 
creek, a tributary of the Susquehanna. 
Thus young Haldeman spent five years 
of his life sawing wood when the sun 
shone and studying when it rained. The 
following two years were spent in active 
exploration as a working field geologist. 
From the close of his official career in 
1837 he lived forty-two years at his home 
under Chiquis rock, never leaving it wil- 
lingly or for any very long absence. Hal- 
deman was a tireless worker, it being not 
unusual for him to work sixteen hours 
out of the twenty-four. He was often 
seen at the meetings of the American 
Philosophical Society and the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, and usually had 
some new communication to make, and 
was always ready to participate with live- 
liness and sometimes with vehemence in 
the debates. 

In the years from 1840 to 1845 ^P" 
peared his Monograph of the Fresh-water 
Univalve Mollusca of the United States 



in eight successive numbers. On this 
work, descriptive of the himniadas, his- 
early fame as an able naturalist was estab- 
lished at home and abroad. From i840' 
until 1858, Haldeman published yearly 
several important articles in one or the- 
other of the several scientific journals. 
After 1858 he became greatly devoted to- 
philological studies and speculations, and 
his contributions to the subject of biology^ 
became less frequent. He is the author 
of a "Zoology of the Invertebrate Ani- 
mals" and "Outlines of Entomology." He 
also wrote for the Iconography Encyclo- 
pedia of Science, Literature and Arts, 
published in New York the articles Ar- 
ticulata, Insecta, Entomology, Concholo- 
gy, Radiata and others. 

Another of the earliest Pennsylvania- 
German naturalists was Timothy Conrad.. 
He was born in Philadelphia m 1803, 
and from early youth showed a decided* 
taste for natural history studies, though, 
for a time he followed the calling of his- 
father — that of a publisher and printer. 
Conrad is perhaps best known as a- 
paleontologist, but his frequent writings- 
on conchology are works of great scien- 
tific value, and admit him to a high rank: 
among biologists. He was bitterly op- 
posed to the doctrine of evolution, and 
predicted that Darwin's wild speculation- 
would soon be forgotten. According to 
Conrad, every geological age came to a 
complete close and the life of the suc- 
ceeding one was an entirely new creation. 

It was the writer's pleasant privilege to- 
spend several hours early last April on' 
the old Conrad homestead, near Trenton, 
and walk out through the field overlook- 
ing the beautiful Delaware Valley to the 
rear of the house and listen to a very 
entertaining anecdotal discourse from the 
lips of Dr. Abbott, nephew of Timothy 
Conrad. But interest in the works of the 
dead must give way to greater interest in^ 
the activities of the living. Dr. Charles- 
Conrad Abbott was born in Trenton,. 
N. J., on June 4, 1843. He was gradu- 
ated as a doctor of medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, in 1865, but 
never took up the practice of medicine. 
He is best known as an author and natur- 
alist. He is interested in local zoology,., 
particularly fishes, and has written much/ 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN AS BIOLOGIST 



63: 



on archeological and biological subjects. 
In 1 86 1 he constructed a glass-bottom 
boat and employed it in the study of fishes 
in their natural habitat in the brook be- 
hind his house. He was probably the 
first to discover that fishes have voices, 
and reported the matter in the American 
Naturalist for 1882. He also studied and 
printed reports on the subject of mosquito 
migrations. He demonstrated the exist- 
ence of man in the Delaware River Valley 
during glacial and subsequent prehistoric 
periods. He has contributed numerous 
articles to various scientific publications, 
and is the author of several very enter- 
taining and instructive books, well known 
among which are "A Naturalist's Rambles 
at Home," "Upland and Meadow," 
"Wasteland Wanderings," "Travels in a 
Tree-top," "In Nature's Realm" and 
others. 

Dr. Isaac Ott was born in Easton, Pa., 
in 1847. ^6 was graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania, in 1869, as 
a doctor of medicine. The following 
year he attended lectures at the universi- 
ties of Leipzig and Berlin. In 1877 he 
received the degree of Master of Arts 
from Lafayette College. The next year 
he was appointed a fellow at Johns Hop- 
kins University. Since 1895 Dr. Ott 
has been professor of phvsiology at the 
Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia. 
and is at present serving in the capacity 
of Dean, He is consulting neurologist to 
the Norristown Asylum and a former 
President of the Neurological Society. 
Dr. Ott has made splendid contributions 
to the physiology and pathology of the 
nervous system. Other important 
writings have been on the subjects of 
thermogenic centers ; intestinal peristalsis, 
and the physiological action of drugs. His 
recent text-book of Physiology ranks 
among the best of its kind. 

Professor Edward Tyson Reichert, 
born in Philadelphia in 1855, was gradu- 
ated as a doctor of medicine from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1879. Dur- 
ing the years from 1882 to 1885 he 
studied at Leipzig and Geneva. Since 
1886 he has been professor of Physiology 
at the University of Pennsylvania. He 
had been a regular contributor of many 
medical and other scientific articles as 



the result of brilliant original research. 

John Clement Heisler was born in 
Jersey Shore, Lycoming county. Pa., in 
1862. He was graduated from the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy in 1883, and 
from the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1887. He be- 
gan the practice of medicine that same 
year and has since served successively as 
prosector to the chair of Anatomy at the 
University of Pennsylvania and assistant 
demonstrator of Anatomy and curator of 
the Wistar and Horner Museum at the 
same institution. In 1897 Dr. Heisler 
was appointed Professor of Anatomy at 
the Medico-Chirurgical College of Phila- 
delphia. He is the author of a very good 
text-book of Embryology for medical 
students. The recently revised edition of 
this book has brought it up to an enviable 
rank among the best. 

Amos Arthur Heller was born in Dan- 
ville, Pa. He was graduated from Frank- 
lin and Alarshall College in 1892. In. 

1897 he received the degree of Master of 
Arts from the above institution. From 
1896 to 1898 he held a position at the 
University of Minnesota as instructor in 
Botany. From 1898. to 1899 he was in 
charge of the Vanderbilt Expedition of 
the New York Botanical Garden ta 
Puerto Rico. Since 1905 he has been 
an assistant in the department of Botany 
of the California Academy of Science. 
Mr. Heller has done much good work in. 
systematic botany. He has made a care- 
ful study of the California flora, espe- 
cially the genus Lupinus. He has also- 
been a frequent contributor of splendid 
articles on botanical problems to the Bul- 
letin of the Torrey Botanical Club, and 
is the present editor of Muhlenbergia, a. 
journal of Botany. 

John Kendall Small, a native of Har- 
risburg, was graduated from Franklin 
and Marshall College in 1892. He held 
a fellowship in Botany at Columbia Uni- 
versity from 1892 to 1894, and received 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from. 
that institution in 1895. The ensuing- 
three years he was employed as curator 
of the Herbarium at Columbia. Since 

1898 he has been curator of the Museums 
and Herbarium of the New York Botan- 
ical Garden. His principal contributions 



'64 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



to the science of botany have been on 
various subjects relating to the flora of 
North America, the flora of southeastern 
United States and the flora of Patagonia. 
He has also done excellent work on the 
morphology of the spermatophyta and in 
:the fields of systematic and regional bot- 
any, and has written an excellent text- 
•book of Botany. 

John William Hershberger was born 
.in Philadelphia, attended the city high 
school, took undergraduate courses at 
Harvard and the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and received the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy from the latter in 1893. 
Since then he has traveled and botanized 
•extensively in Europe, Mexico, California, 
Canada and the Eastern States. He is con- 
nected with the University of Pennsyl- 
vania as instructor in Botany and lecturer 
in the department of Philosophy. He is 
"t-he author of a very important work — 
''Maize, a Botanical and Economic 
Study." He was botanical editor of 
Worcester's New English Dictionary, and 
in the last ten years has contributed more 
than a hundred good scientific papers in 
various scientific journals. 

Dr. Herbert Maule Richards was born 
in Philadelphia, educated in the common 
schools of the city and after a course of 
study followed by independent research 
received the degree of Doctor of Science 
from Harvard University in 1895. For 
four years previous to this he held the 
position of assistant in Botany at Har- 
vard/ He became a tutor of Botany at 
Barnard and in 1898 again returned to 
Harvard as an instructor. Hie follow- 
ing year he returned to Barnard, where 
he was appointed adjunct professor in 
1903. He is an associate editor of the 
"American Naturalist," the "Botanische 
Centrallblat" and the "Plant World." He 
has published results of important in- 
vestigations on the structure and develop- 
ment of alg?e and fungi, reactions of 
plants to the stimulus of wounding and 
to chemical stimuli, and on the influence 
•of carbon monoxide upon plants. 

Walter Tennyson Swingle, botanist 
.^nd agriculturalist, was born in Canaan, 
Pa.- He was graduated from the Kansas 
State Agricultural College with the de- 
:gree of Bachelor of Science, in 1890. In 



1896 he was granted the degree of Master 
of Science. In 1891 he was appointed 
special agent of the Division of Vegetable 
Physiology and Pathology of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The 
following four years he spent in investi- 
gating the culture of sub-tropical fruits 
in Florida in the laboratory which was 
established . under his supervision at 
Eustes. Fie visited North Africa, Italy, 
Greece, Asia Minor and the Balkans to 
study agriculture and biology. He intro- 
duced the fig-insect into California, and 
thereby rendered possible the culture of 
Smyrna figs. He was given the charge 
of the introduction into America of the 
date palm, pistoche nut and various other 
useful plants of the Mediterranean region 
as well as various agricultural industries. 
Some of his best publications are "On 
Nuclear and Cell Divisions in the 
Sphacelariacege" (97), "The Grain 
Smuts" (98), "The Date Palm and Its 
Culture" ('01), "The Pistache Nut and 
Its Culture" ("03). 

Henry Calvin Kauffman. of Ann Ar- 
bor, Michigan, was born in Lebanon, Pa. 
He was graduated from Harvard in 
1896 with the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. Subsequently he studied at the 
University of Wisconsin for one year, and 
at Cornell University for two years. 
After serving as principal of the Lebanon 
Preparatory School for one year, teacher 
of Science in the high school of Decatur, 
Illinois, for two years, and at Bushnell, 
111., for another year, he was appointed 
an assistant in Botany at Cornell in 1902. 
Since 1904 he has been an instructor in 
Botany at the LTniversity of Michigan. 
His research work covers a systematic 
study of the Michigan fungi, the biology 
of the saprolegniacese, and various other 
studies in the sphere of mycology. 

Dr. Augustus Henry Roth was born 
in Erie, Pa. He was graduated from 
that institution with the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine, in 1903. That same year he 
was appointed an instructor in Anatomy. 
He has carried on investigations in the 
sphere of Neurology, Anatomy and In- 
ternal Medicine. One of his most im- 
portant original contributions was on th'e 
Influence of X-rays on Leukemia and 
Hodekins' disease. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN AS BIOLOGIST 



65 



Barton A. Bean, assistant curator of 
fishes in the United Stages National 
Museum since 1881, was born at Bain- 
iridge, Pa., in i860. After gracUiating 
from the Millcrsville Normal School, he 
pursued special studies in Ichthyology. 
He has written splendid works on Fishes 
of Indian River, Fla., and various fishes 
of the Bahama Islands. He is the author 
-also of various papers on fishes in the 
Proceedings of the United States Nation- 
al Museum and the Bulletin of the Fish 
"Commission. 

Edgar Nelson Transue, born at Wil- 
liamsport, Pa., was graduated from 
Franklin and Marshall College in 1897. 
He subsequently pursued special courses 
in plant ecology at Chicago University. 
In 1902 he was granted the Ferry Fel- 
lowship in Botany at ^lichigan Univer- 
sity, where he spent two years working on 
"bog plants and received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in 1904. Since 
1897 he has held the position of instructor 
in Natural Sciences in the Williamsport 
High School, instructor in Botany at the 
University High School at Chicago, as- 
sistant in Ecology at the Indiana Uni- 
A^ersity Biological Station, Winona, Ind., 
instructor in Physiography and Botany 
at the New York Chautauqua, instructor 
in Plant Ecology at the University of 
Chicago, instructor in Plant Ecology at 
the Brooklyn Institute Marine Laboratory 
at Cold Spring. L. I., professor of Biolo- 
gy at Alma College, and resident investi- 
gator in the Station for Experimental 
Evolution of the Carnegie Institution at 
Cold Spring Harbor, L. I. Professor 
Transue has just entered upon his new 
<luties as professor of Botany at the 
Eastern Illinois State Normal School at 
Charleston, 111. Professor Transue has 
published various articles on Plant Ecolo- 
gy, and is at present carrying on exten- 
sive investigations in this same line. 

Professor D. S. Hartline received in- 
•spiration to take up biology in the Potts- 
town Fligh School. He was graduated 
"from Lafayette College in 1897, and re- 
■ceived the degree of Master of Arts in 
1899. Mr. Hartline is professor of Biolo- 
gy in the Bloomsburg Normal School, 
and during the summer holds a position 
on the teaching stafif of the Brooklvn 



Institute of Arts and Sciences in their 
Marine Biological Laboratory at Cold 
Spring Harbor. Professor Hartline has 
done research on "The Origin of Adven- 
titious Buds," under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Strasburp^er in the Botanischcr In- 
stitute of the University of Bonn. He 
is the author of various popular articles, 
and a frequent lecturer at teachers' m- 
stitutes. 

Georsfe Harrison Shull was born in 
Ohio, graduated from Antioch College in 
1 90 1, and given the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy in 1904 by the University of 
Chicago for graduate work in Botany 
and Zoology. Since 1904 he has been 
botanist for the Carnegie Institution at 
their Station for Experimental Evolution 
at Cold Spring Harbor, L. I., and is sent 
for several months twice yearly to Cali- 
fornia to interpret the scientific aspects 
of the work of Luther Burbank. He is 
the author of various papers on morphol- 
ogy, variation, inheritance and evolution 
in plants. 

Charles A. Shull also entered Antioch 
College, but left after two years to go to 
the University of Chicago as a student as- 
sistant in the laboratories of Zoology and 
Neurology. In June 1905 he was gradu- 
ated with highest honors with the degree 
of Bachelor of Science. The following 
year he was appointed a fellow in 
Zoology. He was re-appointed in 1906, 
but resigned to take charge of the de- 
partment of Biology of Kentucky Uni- 
versity. Mr. Shull is interested in insect 
embryology and experimental evolution, 
and is at present working on the Cerco- 
pidffi ("spittle insects"). 

Frank Eugene Lutz was born at 
Bloomsburg, Pa. He received his Bach- 
elor of Arts degree from Haverford Col- 
lege in 1900. In 1902 he was given a 
Master of Arts degree from Chicago Uni- 
versity. In 1903 he was a student at 
University College, London, England. 
He is at present a member of the resident 
staff of the Station for Experimental Evo- 
lution of the Carnegie Institution at Cold 
Spring Harbor, L. I. He has in press 
and in process of preparation several 
large works on cross breeding experi- 
ments among insects and on the general 
problems of evolution. 



66 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Pennsylvania-Germans can boast 
also of a woman biologist, Miss Anne M. 
Lutz. She was born in Lafayette, Indi- 
ana, and graduated from Purdue Uni- 
versity, receiving the degree of Master of 
Science two years later. She was for 
three 3'ears connected with the University 
of Michigan and for one year each with 
the University of Chicago and Columbia 
University as histological preparator and 
technician. She is at present cytologist 
at the Station for Experimental Evolu- 
tion of the Carnegie Institution at Cold 
Spring Harbor. Aliss Lutz has in prepar- 
ation the results of extensive investiga- 
tions on Oenothera Lawarkiana ( 
primrose), as well as other researches in 
the field of evolution. 

Professor Beverly Kunkle, born in 
Harrisburg, Pa., is a graduate of Gettys- 
burg College. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy from Yale Uni- 
versity in 1903, and has since been con- 
nected with that institutio nas an in- 
structor in biologv. Mr. Kunkle has 



published several articles on systematic 
zoology and is particularly interested in 
histological problems. 

William Allison Kepner, of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, was born in Fayette- 
ville. Pa. He was graduated from 
Franklin and Marshall College in 1898. 
He spent several years as a teacher in 
the schools of the Philippine Islands. In 
1904 he held a Fellowship in Biology at 
Princeton University, and since that time- 
has been connected with the University 
of Virginia as an instructor in Biology. 
His chief interest centers in the field of 
Protozoology. 

Still younger and an ever increasing 
company of Pennsylvania-German stu- 
dents are entering the sphere of the bio- 
logical sciences, and ensuing centuries 
will doubtless witness still more brilliant 
and more numerous examples of the 
product of Pennsylvania-German grit, in- 
dustry, thrift and skill, even in the realm 
of Biology. 



Is Pennsylvania-German a Dialect? 



BY CHARLES CALVIN ZIEGLER. 




S a Pennsylvania-German I 
cannot sit still when Prof. 
Albert Bushnell Hart calls 
my mother-tongue a "so- 
called language," "a barbar- 
ous compound of German 
English words in German idiom, 
somewhat resembling that mixture of He- 
brew and German called Yiddish," a 
"lingo" and a "jargon." It is evident 
that his knowledge of Pennsylvania Ger- 
man was acquired during an automobile 
ride around Lancaster county, eked out 
by odds and ends fished from Phebe Gib- 
bons' Essay on Pennsylvania Dutch 
(1872) and a few other inconsequential 
sources. He repeats Phebe's "Buggy for- 
ray" — which one expression, so spelled, 
is enough to relegate both her and him to 
the realm of incompetency in treating of 
our dialect. Twenty years did Phebe 
dwell with and among our people and yet 
did not begin to understand our speech, 
and we cannot therefore expect, Albert, 
to do any better with only the experience 



gathered during an automobile tour. 

Professor Hart's article on The Penn- 
sylvania Dutch in the Boston Transcript, 
reprinted in the November number of 
The Pennsylvania-German, is certain- 
ly very interesting, and is, I believe, his- 
torically and ethnologically about correct. 
But he is simply mistaken when he as- 
serts that our speech is a mongrel mixture 
of German and English and not a German 
dialect. The halo of his Harvard profes- 
sorship shall not invest this old error with 
the brightness of truth — not if I can 
help it. 

Why did not the Professor, when he 
snatched "Buggy forray" from Phebe 
Gibbons' book, turn to the appendix, 
where he would have learned something 
of the structure of the dialect as given by 
Prof. Stahr? Does he not know that in 
1872 S. S. Haldeman, then Professor of 
Comparative Philology in the University 
of Pennsylvania, wrote an essay on 
"Pennsylvania Dutch," in which he con- 
clusively proved that our speech was a 



IS PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN A DIALECT? 



67 



true German dialect, different from all 
the rest, but very much resembling the 
Pfalzisch ? Is he ii^norant of the scientific 
treatise on the Pcnnsvlvania-(ierman dia- 
lect (1889) by Prof. :\Iarion Dexter 
Learned, formerly of Johns Hopkins, now 
of the University of Pennsylvania? After 
exhaustive research. Prof. Learned shows 
beyond all cavil that ours is a true Ger- 
man dialect. 

Now I do not for a moment deny that 
the Pennsylvania-("iermans have appropri- 
ated a considerable number of English 
words into their speech. The proportion 
varies according to locality, the individual 
and the particular theme under considera- 
tion. The infusion of English at Mauch 
Chunk is immenselv greater (judging 
from E. H. Rauch's '"Hand-Book") than 
at AUentown. Lancaster and York. Li 
his lexicon Ranch gives the number of 
words in our dialect at about 5,000, of 
which 1,000 are English. But Ranch 
was a law^ver and editor, and hence in- 
cludes a multitude of English law and 
technical words which are not at all in 
general use by our people. Prof. A. R. 
Home (AUentown) on the contrary, gives 
in "Em Home sei Buch" 5.522 words, of 
wdiich only 176 are English. These two 
dictionaries show 20 and 3 per cent, re- 
spectively of English infusion — an aston- 
ishing difference. In Lancaster and York 
counties the English admixture seems to 
be quite small. According to Prof. 
Learned's investigations it is less than one 
per cent ! 

But what I want to emphasize is the 
fact that the Pennsylvania-Germans 
brought their dialect with them when they 
came to Pennsylvania from their native 
homes in the Palatinate and other sec- 
tions of South Germany. The infusion 
of English is accidental, and has not 
changed the essential characteristics of 
the dialect. It is Pennsylvania-(icrman 
not because of the adventitious mixture of 
German and English, but because it al- 
ways was Pennsylvania-German, — was so 
from the first, — from the period when it 
was brought to Pennsylvania by 
thousands of immigrants from South Ger- 
many. (See Rupp's "Thirty Thousand 
Names of German Immigrants in Penn- 
sylvania, from 1727 to T77''»"). 



It seems almost useless now to con- 
tend against the misnomer "Pennsylvania- 
Dutch," as it is so generally used. The 
fact remains, however, that there is really 
no more Dutch in Pennsylvania German 
than in English. Persons who speak with 
a faraway loftiness of the Pennsylvania 
"Dutch" do not seem to realize the fact 
that the great English language is a tree 
whose ramifying branches are grafted on 
the trunk of the Dutch dialect called 
Anglo-Saxon. It is an immense and won- 
derfully compounded pot-pie with Dutch 
for the undercrust. It doesn't take much 
erudition to prove this. From my dic- 
tionaries I gather within a few minutes 
this list of words which might be easily 
extended : 



Ettg. 


Dutch. 


Cer. 


Pa.-Ger. 


calf 


kalf 


kalb 


kalb 


that 


dat 


das 


des 


water 


water 


wasser 


wasser 


land 


land 


land" 


land 


father 


vader 


vater 


vatter, daadi 


mother 


moeder 


mutter 


mutter, mammi 


sister 


zuster 


Schwester 


schweschter 


brother 


breeder 


bruder 


bruder 


house 


huis 


haus 


haus 


what 


wat 


was 


was 


it 


het 


es 


■ es 


hood (hat) 


hoed 


hut 


- hut 


ca-t 


kat 


katze 


katz 


foot 


voet 


fuss 


fuss 


great 


groot 


gross 


gross 


hand 


hand 


hand 


hand 


God 


God 


Gott 


Gott 


ox 


OS 


ochs 


ochs 


sheep 


schaap 


schaf 


schoof 


hound (dog) 


hond 


hurid 


hund 


ground 


grond 


grund 


grund 


wot (know) 


weet 


WTeiss 


weess 


good 


goed 


gut 


gut 


blood 


bloed 


blut 


blut 


plant 


plant 


pflanze 


planz (p-b) 


book 


boek 


lauch 


buch 


sleep 


slaap 


schlaf 


schloof 


week 


week 


woche 


woch 


over 


over 


ueber 


iwwer 


tame 


tarn 


zam 


zaam 


wild 


wild 


wild 


wild 


to prate, 


praten. 


sprechen 


schpreche 


talk 


spreken 


schwetze 


letter 


letter 


buchstaben 


buchschtaawe 


(of alphabet) 








boor 


boer 


bauer 


bauer 



Don't you see the family resemblance 
in these words? All Teutonic. And you 
will notice that the relationship between 
English and Dutch is closer than between 
Dutch and Pennsylvania-German. Prof. 
Ilart surely knows Grimm's law 
of consonantal changes, in accord- 
ance with which Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man is at once seen to belong to 
the das branch and English to the 
dat branch of the Teutonic languages. 
The former is German, the latter Dutch. 

Talk about "barbarous compounds" ! 
What was the English during the 400 



68 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



years after the Norman Conquest, when 
Anglo-Saxon and Norman- French were 
being stirred in the pot and forced to com- 
bine? And consider all the elements that 
have been added to the mixture ever 
since ; why, the combination isn't homo- 
geneous yet. 

"Double, double toil and trouble ; 
Fire, burn; and cauldron, bubble." 

How poor the English would be had 
it not borrowed and incorporated 
thousands and thousands of words from 
every language under the sun ! It is, to 
say the least, not fair to describe a dialect, 
as Prof. Hart has done, by presenting 



its unusual, abnormal elements and thus 
making it appear ludicrous to the unin- 
. formed. Every language has its funny 
aspects, but these are not the language 
itself. A man may make a grimace oc- 
casionally, but that is not his natural ex- 
pression. 

I suppose people will continue to call 
us the Pennsylvania "Dutch" and per- 
petuate the old erroneous idea that our 
speech is only a curious compound of 
High German and English; but when- 
ever I catch anyone doing it — be he pro- 
fessor or clodhopper — I shall take a shot 
at him. 



The Fretz Family 

BY REV. A. J. FRETZ, MILTON, N. J. 



T 



HERE have been many immi- 
grants of the name of Fretz 
into America, at various 
times, that located in Penn- 
sylvania, New York, the 
Western States and Canada. 
However, the earliest pioneers of the 
name are believed to have been John and 
Christian Fretz, who in company with a 
third brother, named Mark (who died on 
the voyage and was buried at sea), left 
their homes in the historic Rhine-land, 
near the city of Manheim, in the grand- 
duchy of Baden, Germany, and sailed for 
America, arriving at Philadelphia prior 
to 1727. The elder brother, John, settled 
in Bedminster, Bucks county, where he 
purchased his property, originally consist- 
ing of 230 acres, in 1737-8, and where 
he died in 1772. 

The homestead proper is now owned 
by Mahlon M. Fretz, and the present 
dwelling, of stone, was erected by the 
pioneer's grandson, Deacon Abraham 
Fretz, in 1821. John Fretz was a weaver 
by trade, and is known as "Weaver 
John." The brother Christian Fretz set- 
tled along the Tinicum Creek, in Tinicum 
township, Bucks county, at the place 
known as Heaney's Mill. The farm orig- 
inally contained 140 acres, and the pres- 
ent dwelling, a substantial stone house, 
was built by the pioneer's son, Christian 
Fretz, Jr., about 115 years ago. It is 



owned and occupied by Joseph M. Hock- 
man, a descendant of the pioneer. 

The earlier descendants of the Fretz 
family were chiefly occupied as farmers, 
millers, weavers and mechanics, but later 
and present generations grace every walk 
in life. The family has been and is nu- 
merously represented in the Gospel minis- 
try, in medicine, law and other profes- 
sions. In religious faith, the family was 
originally Mennonite, and is still very 
largely so, but representatives of the fam- 
ily in large numbers are to be found in 
all the principal denominations in the 
land. The pioneers came by the hand of 
God, as Israel of old, out of the house of 
persecution into the land of peace and 
promise, as humble tillers of the soil to 
found families that would become a mul- 
titude for numbers, and would be scat- 
tered far and wide over the land to bless 
God and the nation. Today their de- 
scendants to the number of over 10,000 
are scattered North and South, East and 
West, throughout the United States and 
Canada. 

John Fretz was twice married, his first 
wife being Barbara, daughter of Pioneer 
Hans Meyer, of Uppr Salford, Mont- 
gomery county. Pa., by whom he had the 
following children — John, Jacob, Chris- 
tian, Abraham and Elizabeth. The chil- 
dren by the second wife were Maria, 
, Mark, Henry and Barbara. 



THE FRETZ FAMILY 



60 




JOHN FRETZ HOMESTEAD. 



John Fretz, Jr., born 1730, married 
Mary Kolb. In 1800 he moved to Can- 
ada, where he died in 1826, aged 96 years. 
He was one of the founders and the first 
deacon of the Mennonite Church in Can- 
ada. His descendants are very numerous 
in Canada and in the Western States. 

Jacob Fretz, born 1732. married Mag- 
dalena, daughter of Pioneer WilHam 
Nash. They hved in Bedminster, Bucks 
county. Prominent among his descend- 
ants are Hon. Oliver P. Fretz (deceased) 
and Hon. Ohver H. Fretz, M.D., of 
Quakertown, Pa., both having served 
terms in the Pennsylvania Legislature. 

Christian Fretz, born 1734, lived on the 
old homestead in Bedminster, and mar- 
ried l>arbara, daughter of Pioneer Martin 
Oberholtzer. It is a very remarkable cir- 
cumstance that at the time of her death 
she was the mother of 12 children and 
had 109 grandchildren and 103 great- 
grandchildren, all born during her life- 
time. Her descendants now number more 
than 2,500 souls. Among the more for- 
tunate descendants of Christian Fretz, 
himself a prosperous and wealthy farmer, 
w^as Ralph Stover Fretz, who emigrated 
to California, was one of the founders of 
a bank at San Francisco, amassed a for- 



tune of half a million dollars, and willed 
$20,000 towards liquidating the national 
debt incurred during the Civil War. 

Abraham Fretz, born 1736, lived in 
Bedminster on a homestead of 226 acres, 
where now reside his descendants. Reed 
Fretz and H. Irvin Fretz. 

Elizabeth Fretz, born 1737, married 
Jacob Kolb, and lived in Hilltown, Bucks 
county, where many of her descendants 
still live. 

Mark Fretz, born 1750, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Rev. Henry Rosenber- 
ger, was a farmer and miller in New Bri- 
tain, Bucks county, and deacon of Men- 
nonite church at Line Lexington. Promi- 
nent among his descendants were the Rev. 
John Geil and the noted traveler and 
evangelist, Rev. William E. Geil. 

Henry Fretz, born 1755, married Bar- 
bara Oberholtzer and lived on what is 
known as the Joseph Wisler farm in Bed- 
minster. 

It is not known whom the pioneer 
Christian Fretz married. His children 
were Daniel, Abraham, Christian, Mark, 
Barbara, Esther. 

Of Daniel Fretz, born 1738, but little 
is known. All of his children except one 
son, Daniel, and one daughter, Eve, 



70 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




CHRISTIAN FRETZ HOMESTEAD. 



moved to Westmoreland county, Pa., in 
1800. 

Abraham Fretz, born about 1740, mar- 
ried Dorothea Kulp. His farm in Bed- 
minster, still in possession of his descend- 
ants, consisted of 224 acres. 

Christian Fretz, Jr., married to Judith 
Kulp, lived on the old homestead, was a 
farmer and miller. 

Mark Fretz married Gertrude Kulp and 
lived on a 200-acre farm on the Durham 
road, in Tinicum. 

Barbara Fretz married Jacob Yoder, of 
New Britain, Bucks county. 

Esther Fretz, born about 1748, mar- 
ried Martin Oberholt, son of Pioneer 
Martin Oberholtzer, of Bedminster, Pa. 
In 1800 they emigrated to Westmoreland 
county, Pa., where he died in 1811. The 
widow and all the family except one 



daughter moved to Tuscarawas county, 
Ohio, where the widow and several of the 
children died 18 13, during an epidemic of 
spotted fever. 

At a time not known, a Jacob Fretz 
emigrated from Switzerland and located 
somewhere in Bucks county. He had only 
one child, a son Jacob Fretz, who was 
born March 15, 1793, and died 1875. He 
was three times married — first to Eliza- 
beth Gehman. Their children were Mary, 
Aaron, David. His second wife was 
Elizabeth Driesbach ; their children were 
James, Catharine, Matilda, Rebecca and 
Amanda. His third wife was Elizabeth 
Keifer, who left no issue. The daughters 
married in their order — Daniel Ritter, 
Jacob Kratzer, Michael Ziegenfuss, 
Henry Kratzer and William Patterson. 

The second son, David Fretz, was born 



THE FRETZ FAMILY 



1825 and died 1883. He was one of the 
best known citizens of the western part of 
Northampton county. He early entered 
the mercantile establishment of Joseph 
and Samuel Laubach, with which he 
passed the greater part of his life. He 
was superintendent of a rolhng mill at 
FuUerton a short time, and for 16 years 
president of the Hokendauqua Bridge 
Company. 

Henry Fretz, born about 1740, evident- 
ly a pioneer emigrant, was either a miller 
or fuller by trade, and owned property 
along one of the streams in cither western 
Bucks or southern Lehigh county. The 
buildings burned down and almost ruined 
him. His children were John, who went 
West; Henry, a preacher; Abraham, a 
shoemaker in Berks county ; Joseph, 
Jacob, Daniel, Mrs. Henry Hunsberger 
and Mrs. Henry Barnett. 

Dr. Abraham N. Fretz, of Fleetwoorl, 
Pa., a grandson of Joseph, graduated at 
University of Pennsylvania in 1863, was 
soon after appointed acting Assistant Sur- 
geon, U. S. A., was Post Surgeon and 
Surgeon in charge of the hospital at New- 
port News, was later President of Regis- 
tration Board for Prince George county, 
Va.. and April, 1869, was elected to the 



Legislature of Virginia, serving until 
January, 1872, when he returned north 
and resumed the practice of medicine at 
Fleetwood, Pa. 

John Philip Fretz emigrated from 
Switzerland in 1752, settled in Lancaster 
county. Pa., and later emigrated with all 
his family to Canada except a son. Rev. 
Daniel Fretz, a prominent Bishop of the 
(ierman Baptist Church, and a daughter, 
] Barbara Longenecker, whose descendants 
still reside in Lancaster and Lebanon 
counties. The family is very numerous 
in Canada. 

Un the second of November, 1867, 
there arrived at New York, from Alsatia, 
Germany, a Mr. Fretz with wife and 
eight children, who settled in Philadel- 
phia. One of the sons is Rev. A. Fretz, 
a prominent priest of the Roman Catholic 
Church, who served as pastor of the Cath- 
olic church at Shenandoah, Pa., and is 
now pastor of the German Catholic 
church at South Bethlehem, Pa. The an- 
cestry of this Fretz family seems to be 
of an old Alsatian stock, still quite numer- 
ous in Gebweiler and JMuehlhausen 
(Upper Alsatia), Germany, and adhere 
to the Catholic Church. 



Henry William Stiegel 



Note by Editor. — The following sketch is 
translated and adapted from the German of 
C. F. riuch, Secretary of the "Deutsche 
Pionier-Verein" of Philadelphia, the sketch 
having appeared in the "Mitteilungen" pub- 
lished by the Society. 

Birth. 

F N R Y W I L L I A M 
STIEGEL, also known as 
Baron Stiegel, is said to 
have been born in or near 
iCyP^^xj ^lannheim, Germany, in the 
llii^iUll year 1730. H he was ac- 
tuahs ot the nobility, he must have 
changed his name, for the name Stiegel 
is not found in registers of the German 
nobility. His true name may have been 
Stengel, as a more recent family by the 
name of Stengel lived in Baden whose 
ancestral home Stengelhof is located near 
Manheim. 




Education and Early Life. 

That Stiegel had received a thorough 
education and was a man of culture and 
fine taste can be inferred from his tech- 
nical knowledge, his mode of living and 
the furnishing of his residence. His 
"nobility" may have been justified there- 
fore, and if he afiirmed it, he had probably 
good grounds for doing so. Possibly he 
was not on good terms with his family, 
for it is not known that he at any time 
revisited his old home, although he made 
several business trips to England. Be- 
sides he is said to have spent some time in 
England before coming to America and 
to have moved in the most select society. 

Stiegel arrived in Philadelphia, August 
31, 175-?, on the ship Nancy from Rot- 
terdam, being then only 20 years old if 



72 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



he was born 1730. He is said to have 
brought good recommendations and much 
money with him, the latter probably over- 
estimated. He signed his name in the 
ship's list of passengers, Henry William 
Stiegel. Of the first six years following 
his arrival nothing is known. It is prob- 
able, however, that he remained for some 
time in Philadelphia and then traveled 
through the counties mainly settled by 
the Germans. As the iron industry was 
being developed and Stiegel apparently 
possessed considerable metallurgical 
knowledge he found in this section a field 
for his enterprising spirit. In Lancaster 
county he became acquainted with Jacob 
Huber, who owned a piece of land in 
Elizabeth township on which he had 
erected about 1750 a furnace at the same 
place where later Elizabeth furnace stood. 
This may have been done with Stiegel's 
assistance who was married to his 
daughter Elizabeth, Nov. 1752. 

Elizabeth Furnace Company. 

In 1757 Stiegel acquired from his 
father-in-law the furnace and land be- 
longing to it and replaced the old with a 
new furnace which he named Elizabeth 
Furnace in honor of his wife. In 1758 
Stiegel bought of the rich English mer- 
chants of Philadelphia, Charles and Alex- 
ander Stedman, a tract of land contain- 
ing 714 acres in Lancaster county. The 
same year a partnership was formed be- 
tween the Stedmans, John Barr and 
Stiegel according to the terms of which 
the firm owned about 2,500 acres of land 
in Elizabeth township with iron works — 
costs, gains and losses were to be shared 
equally and Stiegel became manager, un- 
der certain stipulations and conditions. 
Stiegel seemingly later rented the plant. 

This partnrship seems originally to 
have been known by the name, Elizabeth 
Furnace Company. According to report 
Stiegel induced the Stedmans to become 
partners and to furnish the necessary 
capital. John Barr may have transferred 
land to the partnership and was sold out 
by the sheriff in 1769 when his third part 
of the business passed into the hands of 
Charles Stedman. 

The Elizabeth Furnace lay on the east 



side of the Blue Mountains about \]/^ 
miles northeast from Brickerville. At the 
time of its erection 500 acres of land be- 
longed to it, to which 100 acres were later 
added, acquired of Jacob Huber, lying in. 
Lebanon township and containing iron ore 
mines. The surrounding hills were cov- 
ered with chestnut and oak timber from, 
which charcoal was made and two miles- 
east were rich beds of limestone. The 
company altogether acquired over 11,000 
acres of land besides what Stiegel held 
in his own name. 

Stiegel made the first six-plate wood- 
stoves in Pennsylvania. He also im- 
proved the Benjamin Franklin stove 
which was only an open hearth and made 
it a complete stove. About the year 1760 
the iron works were in a prosperous and 
remunerative condition. About 75 per- 
sons were employed while in the Fall and 
Winter many additional hands found 
work on the hills felling trees and burn- 
ing the charcoal. 

February 17, 1762, Charles and Alex- 
ander Stedman acquired of Isaac Norris 
729 acres of land of which they sold a 
third part the following September \x> 
Stiegel for 50 pounds. He soon laid out 
a town which he named Mannheim for 
his native city in Germany. la 1769 the 
Stedmans sold their share of the property 
to Isaac Cox, of Philadelphia, who resold 
the same to Stiegel the following Febru- 
ary, thus making him the sole proprietor 
of Mannheim excepting the building lots- 
alreadv sold. 



Stiegel's Enterprises. 

Early in 1763, Stiegel began to erect 
for himself at Market Square a magnifi- 
cent dwelling house which his simple 
German neighbors called Stiegel's Castle, 
built in the form of a square, forty feet 
on a side and two and one-half stories 
high. The red bricks were brought by 
his teams from Philadelphia, the inside 
ornamentation was probably imported 
from England. The second story was- 
divided into three parts by means of the 
corridors. The southern half was 
arched and formed the celebrated chapel 
from the pulpit of which Stiegel was. 



HENRY WILLIAM STIEGEL 



7S 




THE STIEGEL MANSION. 

wont to preach and conduct services for 
his neighbors and workmen, some of 
whom came quite a distance. The lower 
story was divided in the same way. The 
furnishing of the building evinced a fine 
taste. 

Some time after the laying out of 
Mannheim Stiegel erected at. the corner 
of Charlotte and Stiegel streets a large 
glass factory. The brick building is said 
to have been large enough to drive a 
four-horse team around in it. This estab- 
lishment known as the American Flint 
Glass Factory was at that time the only 
glass factory in America and manufac- 
tured glass of superior quality by work- 
men brought from Europe. Among their 
products may be mentioned flasks, wine- 
glasses, vases, jugs, bowls and many 
other articles in addition to toys and col- 
ored ware. In 1769, 35 workmen were 
employed. Stiegel's glass, which equalled 
the best imported glass was offered for 
sale in I'hiladelphia and some w'as turned 
into cash by means of a lottery the draw- 
ing for which took place on Pettie's 
Island in the Delaware River, presumably 
to evade or escape the law. 

Late in 1762 or early in the following 
year Stiegel acquiced possession of 
Charming Forge situated along the Tul- 
pehockcn Creek, a few miles north of 
Womelsdorf, originally erected by John 
George Nickoll in 1749 and known as 
Charming Forge. Stiegel sold an undi- 
vided half interest in the property to the 
Stedmans. Additional land was bought 
until by 1770, 3,700 acres belonged to 
the Forge property. 

In the year 1769 Stiegel built a tower 



on a hill near Schaefferstown, known to 
this day as Tower Hill. This building 
was to serve as a place of refuge in times 
of danger as well as a place for the recep- 
tion and entertainment of friends It 
was built of heavy timbers on stone- 
foundations in the form of a pyramid 75 
feet high, 50 feet square at the base and 
10 feet at the top. Within were several 
large halls where the very hospitable 
Baron received his friends and neighbors 
m most excellent style. Nothing of 
_ Stiegel's Folly" as the tower was known 
IS left. 

All existing documents designate Lan- 
caster county as the place of residence of 
Stiegel during the fifties. Here he was 
married, here his first wife died 1758 and 
was buried in the Lutheran cemetery at 
Bnckerville. His second wife, whom he 
married in 1759, being of Philadelphia, he 
seems to have resided there until 1765 
when he moved to Elizabeth Furnace^ 
where he occupied a large sandstone 
house which on account of its appearance 
his neighbors called castle, and in which 
he entertained royally his friends and even. 
George Washington in 1769. 

Stiegel was probablv one of the 
founders of the German Society of Penn- 
sylvania, and his name appears among a 
list of purchasers of the first piece of land 
by the Society upon which they expected 
to build a house. He very Va rely .at- 
tended the quarterly meetings of the So- 
ciety. On February 27, 1770, he was- 
present, however, at a meeting of the offi- 
cers and laid before them a plan for a 
lottery in which he offered to give the 
German Society 100 pounds if they would 
designate some one to attend to the de- 
tails of the lottery. The appointment was. 
made but at the very next meeting of the 
Society preparations were made for a lot- 
tery of their own which netted them 808 
pounds. Stiegel's lotterv was not forgot- 
ten, however, for the' Society bought 
tickets from him. 

Stiegel's Generosity. 

He was a friend of church work, as is 
shown by his conducting services in his 
own house. He was a member of the 



74 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




STIEGEL'S OFFICE. 

constitutional committee of the Bricker- 
ville church and represented the church at 
a meeting- of the ministerium. The Lu- 
theran church at Schaefferstown owed 
him I GO pounds which he remitted, in- 
fluenced by the kindness shown him on 
the occasion of a visit. 

In the year 1772 Stiegel gave the Lu- 
theran church at Manheim a deed for a 
piece of land for the erection of a church 
for which the consideration was stated as 
five shillings besides "an annual . rental 
of one red rose in the month of June, 
when the same shall be legally demand- 
ed." This ground rent was paid twice 
to Stiegel, after which it was not de- 
manded again. In recent times the giv- 
ing- of the red rose has been revived, and 
is celebrated each year in June as a feast 
of roses. 

The following may serve to illustrate 
Stiegel's generosity, piety and care for the 
physical welfare of his workmen. March 
I, 1764, a German named Michael 
Kiintzel indentured himself for three 
years as his servant because H. W. Stiegel 
& Co. had paid 25 pounds for him, and 
Stiegel was to provide his food and cloth- 
ing. In the printed form of indenture are 
found the words "sufficient Meat, Drink, 
Washing and Lodging." The 



blank after the word Drink is not filled 
in, the word Washing is crossed and the 
following in writing is added, "out of the 
wages hereafter at the back of this In- 
denture allowed." On the back of the 
paper are these words in Stiegel's hand- 
writing : "The Condition of the within 
Indenture is that the said master is to al- 
low said Michael Kinsel per month the 
sum of three pounds currency, out of 
which said Michael is to find himself and 
..the rest is to go towards the payment of 



the within sum till fully discharged, then 
the Indenture void. H. W.' Stiegel." It 
would seem that in a three years' service 
the debt could be paid and the servant 
freed but this did not happen. On the 
fourth of June, 1773, Stiegel in writing 
conveyed his servant Michael Kiintzel to 
Paul Zantzinger & Co., and the debt had 
grown to 30 pounds. - . 

Stiegel's Life of Splendor. 

As long as the iron works yielded a 
rich income and his credit was still good, 
Stiegel lived in prodigal splendor, and 
many stories are told concerning him and 
his desire for glory. He was very hos- 
pitable and at his banquets a band of 
music played made up of his own work- 
men. 

To the northeast of the Elizabeth Fur- 
nace there is a hill .about 5oo feet high 
on which a cannon had been placed and 
which is known in consequence as Can- 
non Hill to this day. 

His trips between Philadelphia, ^lann- 
heim and Elizabeth Furnace Stiegel made 
in a statecoach drawn by four fiery 
horses, and when he reached Elizabeth 
Furnace the cannon were fired to an- 
nounce his arrival to his workmen. In 
Mannheim he was also received with 
music and the booming of cannon. His 
reception must have been most brilliant 
when after the acquisition of the whole 
of Mannheim in 1770 he came to take 
possession of his house built five years 
previously. His arrival at any place was 
warmly welcomed by all, for it meant 
payday for his workmen, whom he treat- 
ed most royally. 

Stiegel seems to have reached the 
height of his glory about the year 1769. 
His glass factory and his various iron 
works were in full operation and between 
200 and 300 persons were employed by 
him. He was regarded one of the richest 
and most respectable men of the times — 
although unjustly, so far as his riches 
were concerned, as he was even then 
heavily in debt. 

Early in 1768 he mortgaged his third 
part of the Elizabeth Furnace Company, 
14,078 acres according to Sieling, to Dan- 
iel Benezet, of Philadelphia, for 3,000 
pounds, and in 1770 his Mannheim prop- 



HENRY VVILLrAM STIEGEL 



75 



•erty to Isaac Cox for 2.500 ptiunds. His 
Charming Forge was probal)ly also on- 
•cunibered. 

Stiegel possessed an enterprising spirit, 
good technical knowledge and would 
under other circumstances and a more 
economical mode of living have been suc- 
cessful. His iron works, particularly at 
first, must have earned a rich income, 
since the stoves introduced and improved 
by him found a ready sale. A reduction 
in his income soon took place, however, 
probably due to competition, as other iron 
works were also manufacturing stoves. 
Great sums must have been consumed in 
building operations, particularly in his 
glass factory and his mansion at Alann- 
lieim. The return from his glass factory 
was probably not as large as had been 
expected, judging by the money expend- 
•ed. Philadelphia, New York, Boston and 
other markets were distant and the sales 
of the products of the factory must have 
been limited mainly to the neighborhood. 
The wages at the same time were prob- 
ably relatively high, as skilled workmen 
had to be employed. 

Stiegel's Failure in Business. 

To all the misfortunes that beset him 
were added the troubles and disputes with 
the mother country through which busi- 
ness and trade were ruined and enter- 
prises like Stiegel's were injured. He 
found it difficult to collect his outstand- 
ing claims and could not meet his own 
obligations. His creditors became impa- 
tient and importunate and although for a 
time he could fight ofif a pitiless fate he 
could not prevent the 'crash of all his 
undertakings. Before a forced sale by 
the sheriff took place he tried to sell a 
part of his possessions. Thus a sale was 
announced for June i, 1773, at which 
the half of Charming Forge besides 500 
acres of his own land were to be sold in 
lierks county in addition to a mill at 
Mannheim, building lots and other pieces 
of ground, a house and blacksmith shop. 
About the same time 1,500 acres of land 
in Lancaster county were offered for sale. 
He does not seem to have been success- 
ful in this effort. According to a deed 
executed February 9, 1774, the Sheriff' 
sold Stiegel's half of Charming Forge 




STIEGEL'S TEN PLATE STOVE; 

with 1,291 acres of land to Paul Zant- 
zinger, the merchant of Lancaster, for 
1,660 pounds. Nor did he fare better 
with his share of the Elizabeth Furnace 
Company which he had mortgaged to 
Daniel Benezet, for these were sold by 
the Sheriff to Benezet, September, 1774. 
In two subsequent sales by the Sheriff, 
Benezet secured also the tracts of land 
that had belonged to Stiegel exclusively. 

Stiegel's circumstances became continu- 
ally more desperate. According to let- 
ters written by him there were other 
creditors beside Benezet to be satisfied 
whom seemingly he offered to sell of the 
remaining property without receiving re- 
ply. About this time he recorded on a 
blank page of his hymnbook a prayer in 
which he poured out before God his soul 
anguish. And yet although he struggled 
hard to overcome his difficulties and his 
neighbors sympathized with him and 
would have helped him if they could, his 
rich Philadelphia friends to whom he had 
often shown himself a friend and whom 
he treated most royally, declined to bring 
even the least offering to save his honor. 
A few indeed expended money for him 
but not sufficient to save him from arrest, 
and he had to make his way to prison in 
Philadelphia on account of his debts. 
From there he wrote to his creditors De- 
cember 15, 1774, that he had besought 



76 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



the Legislature to free him, which was 
done December 24 by a special act. He 
probably returned to Lancaster county to 
see his Mannheim properties sold by the 
Sheriff, March 30, 1775. 

In the year 1776 Robert Coleman rent- 
ed the Elizabeth Furnace for seven years 
at an annual rental of 450 pounds, and 
appointed Stiegel foreman. On the 24th 
of January he wrote a letter to Yeates re- 
specting his own situation, and soon 
thereafter the furnace received an order 
for cannon and balls from the govern- 
ment. A large number of Hessian pris- 
oners captured at Trenton were sent there 
who in the winter and spring of 1777 dug 
a trench from the "Sa whole" and Cannon 
Hill to the Furnace Run by which it was 
hoped to secure a greater waterpower. 
Towards the end of 1778 the orders by 
the government came to an end and 
Stiegel lost his position. 

Last Days and Death. 

He was now totally impoverished with 
nothing but his acquirements left. He 
had indeed many outstanding claims, but 
his debtors were themselves poor, as prob- 
ably some of them had lost their property 
through confiscation on the charge of 
being loyalists. Stiegel himself was 
suspected of being a loyalist, although he 
was true to the land of his adoption. His 
attempts to collect his claims were not 
very successful. Shortly before his death 
he wrote from Heidelberg, Berks county, 
respecting certain credits which he wished 
to collect. 

After the loss of his position he brought 
his few personal belongings to the par- 
sonage of the Lutheran church at Bricker- 
ville, where he taught school, surveyed 



land, preached and thus poorly prolonged", 
his meager life. People whom before this- 
he had employed or to whom he had sold 
musical instruments now paid him a small 
weekly tuition fee for the instruction of 
their children, and many who had heard 
his sermons paid out of sympathy. April, 
1780, he left the parsonage to move inta 
the tower at Schaefferstown. He re- 
mained here only a short time, after which 
he moved into a small house where he 
taught school again. From this place he 
went to Charming Forge, upon which he 
taught school in Womelsdorf and later 
probably in his own dwelling near the 
Forge, where he was employed for a time 
as bookkeeper. 

In the year 1782 his wife went to Phila- 
delphia to visit friends and relatives. She 
became sick and died and Stiegel saw 
her no more. This painful loss in connec- 
tion with his other misfortunes bore heav- 
ily upon him. His health failed and he 
died August, 1783, in the mansion at 
Charming Forge and was probably buried 
on the cemetery at Womelsdorf. Ac- 
cording to Sieling, however, he was 
buried in the family lot on the Lutheran 
cemetery at Brickerville. 




ELIZABETH STIEGEL' S TOMBSTONE. 



The Germanistic Society of America has ar- 
ranged a series of ten lectures on the German 
Dramatists of the Nineteenth Century, which 
are being given in German on Thursday af- 
ternoons in Havemeyer Hall, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York. The course extends from 
November 7, 1907, to March 19, 1908, and the 
individual subjects are Kleist, Grillparzer, 
Grabbe, Hebbel, Ludwig, Freytag, Anzen- 
gruber, Sudermann, Fulda and Hauptmann. 
The lecture on Sudemiann will be given by 
Prof. Karl Knortz of North Tarrytown, N. 
Y., on February 20. 



An obelisk sixty feet high, with two figures 
of an American soldier on its base, will be 
erected by the State of Pennsylvania on the 
battlefield of Petersburg, Va., in front of Fort 
Mahone, to commemorate the bravery and 
heroism of the Third division of the Ninth 
army corps, commanded by General Hart- 
ran ft in 1864. The monument was designed 
by F. W. Ruckstuhl, the New York sculptor, 
who designed the Hartranft statue on the 
Capitol grounds in Harrisburg. It will cost 
$15,000. 



THE CHIMES AT ST. PETER'S 



17 



The Chimes at St. Peter's 

BY ELSIE SING MASTER, GETTYSBURG, PA. 

The following story is by permission reprinted from The Youth's 
Companion of Oct. 17. 1907. — Ed. 




T. PETER'S German Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church, set 
in the heart of the thriving 
Pennsylvania city, was re- 
markable for two things — 
its chimes and its conserva- 
tism. The chimes were the gift of St. 
Peter's oldest and wealthiest member, 
Jonas Schneider, who played them him- 
self ; he had made the one trip of his 
-eighty years to New York to learn. The 
conservatism was the inheritance of long- 
past decades. 

The present lofty structure, built in ac- 
cord with ecclesiastical architecture, and 
in calm disregard of danger from fire, 
stood upon the spot which had been 
cleared from virgin forest for a little log 
chapel, the grandfather — if there is a 
genealogical relationship between build- 
ings — of the present edifice. The city 
had grown up about it, office-buildings 
slowly hemmed it in, but it held its clock- 
crowned spire far above them all. 

A few of its children had wandered 
away to set up other altars, still of the 
old faith, but where they worshiped no 
longer in the speech of St. Peter's. Most 
•of them, however, were carried out of its 
wide doors to be buried, as they had been 
■carried in to be christened. It was St. 
Peter's boast that, while they welcomed 
the stranger, they needed none but their 
children and their children's children to 
fill up their ranks. 

Then, about the middle of St. Peter's 
second century, a change began slowly 
to make itself felt in the city. The great 
blast furnaces, springing up throughout 
the county, the manufactories, the silk- 
mills, the foundries, attracted a new class 
of men. who knew no German, and grad- 
iially, but none the less certainly, the 
•city became English-American. 

Then, and not until then, although for 
a century he had made America his home, 



the naturalization of the Pennsylvania- 
German began. 

St. Peter's, however, did not move with 
the tide. Her spiritual children, St. 
James', St. Andrew's, St. Mark's, abol- 
ished all German services ; she herself 
made but one concession in fifty years. 
That was that the evening service might 
be held in English. That German should 
be the language of the morning service 
was as unalterable as the laws of the 
Medes and Persians. 

It was not strange that the audiences 
at the two services should be different. 
The morning service was a gathering of 
old persons, at which one heard not a 
word, but the stately speech, preached in 
comparative purity, but spoken with many 
unwitting concessions to the English 
which the speakers hated. The old chor- 
als swung up to the arched ceiling with 
power and majesty, the greetings were 
grave and contained, the clothing of the 
worshipers somber. 

In the evening all was changed. The 
worshipers were young, they greeted each 
other gaily in a curiously inflected broken 
English, the singing acquired a liveliness 
and speed at which the church fathers 
and mothers, now safely at home, would 
have gravely shaken their heads, and the 
voices were no gayer than the clothes 
in which their owners were clad. 

In the morning the minister preached 
from a text ; in the evening he often yield- 
ed to the temptation to preach from a 
subject. St. Peter's in the morning was 
the fatherland; in the evening it was 
America. 

The young people began to attend other 
churches instead of staying quietly at 
home on Sunday mornings, and several 
families left the church to join English- 
speaking churches. The morning con- 
gregations grew smaller as, one by one, 
the fathers and mothers dropped out, and 



78 



THE PENXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



the next generation, who should have 
taken their place, did not appear. 

"It iss me no more at home in de 
mornings in church," explained Mrs. Sa- 
villa Taylor, whose name had until a 
year before been Schneider. "We can't 
understand de Cherman no more so good. 
De children, dey learn English in de 
school, an' we talk it always at home. 
Everysing iss getting English." 

Her father-in-law, old Jonas Schneider, 
who laid the blame for his son's "toni- 
ness," his translation of his name, and all 
his other foolish notions upon his son's 
wife, raised his hands in horror. "Well, 
St. Peter's don't efer get English, dat I 
can tell you, Safilla Schneider." He took 
great pleasure in reminding her that her 
name was really Schneider. "If it iss any 
folks what want de English, dey can go 
somewheres else. Perhaps dey want yet 
refifals, an' immersings, too. Well, dey 
can hunt for dem." 

Savilla drew herself up, and her brown 
eyes flashed wrath into her father-in- 
law's blue ones. 

"All right," she said. "You chust wait 
once. De Kolbs, dey are soon going 
somewheres else. .It iss dem in. St. Peter's 
too Dutch." 

Old Jonas rose from the rocking-chair 
and pounded his cane angrily. It was an- 
other sign of weakening traditions that 
people should sit on their front porches. 
The back porch and the kitchen porch 
were the places to sit. If people used their 
best all the time, they would soon come 
to ruin. 

"I tell you what, Safilla Schneider," he 
said, loudly, "you may be English when 
you want to, but St. Peter's iss not Eng- 
lish, an' my money iss not English. It iss 
Cherman or Dutch or anysing, but not 
English." Witli which he stamped ofif 
the porch and up the street. 

His son's house was the only one in 
the street which was not like every other. 
They all presented an even wall broken 
only by door-steps and windows. Those 
door-steps had been scrul)lied, the brick 
pavement had been scrubbed, and there 
was not a housewife who did, not regret 
that she could not scrub the street, also. 

Old Jo/.as. liowever, had no eyes now 
for the street or its cleanliness. 



"Schneider-Taylor," he said to himself. 
"It iss a sin. An' Kolb ! Will dey call it 
now Calf? I would sooner be calf in 
Cherman dan English." 

The attitudes of himself and his- 
daughter toward the question which be- 
came every day more insistent were 
typical of the two factions in St. Peter's. 
The conservatives, led by old Jonas, de- 
clined to recognize the other party. 

The young people ■ made at first only 
moderate demands. They asked for Eng- 
lish preaching on one morning service 
each month. 

The pastor at first held wisely aloof. 
He had foreseen the struggle for years, 
and much as he regretted the passing of 
the stately days of the old regime, he 
realized that the old order must change ; 
and when a committee of the younger 
generation waited upon him in his study, 
he immediately laid down with them a 
plan of campaign. 

He would present the question at the 
next meeting of the Kirchcn-Rath 
(Church Council), which was largely 
composed of the older men, and they 
would discuss and vote upon it there. 
Should the council decide against them, 
they could present a petition for a con- 
gregational meeting. ^Meanwhile they 
were to keep their own. counsel and their 
tempers. 

Some one, however, failed to keep the 
first clause of the agreement. When the 
pastor entered the vestry-room the next 
evening, for the monthly council meet- 
ing, he was instantly aware that the air 
was charged with excitement. He heard 
the ominous tap of Jonas Schneider's 
cane before he opened the door. 

"(lOod evening, brethren!" he said, 
with the cheerful smile which won him 
the hearts of the oldest man and the 
youngest child. "Am I the last?" 
The atmosphere cleareci visibly. 
"Gittcn abend. Para!" answered Jonas 
Schneider. "It iss dis efening an im- 
portant meeting. It iss for dat dat every- 
iDody iss so soon here." 

The pastor hung up his overcoat, — it 
was a chill November evening, — and 
stepped to his chair behind the broad 
table, wlitrc la\- the secretary's books. 
The secretar\- himself, who was of the 



THE CHIMES AT ST. PETER'S 



79 



younger generation, shook his head mean- 
ingly as his eyes met the pastor's. 

The meeting was opened with prayer, 
the reading of the minutes, and the roll- 
call. There were no Taylors or Calfs on 
that list. It was headed by Jonas 
Schneider, and below came Heinrich Ru- 
dolf, George Treichier, Abraham Wescoe, 
John Wagner. Adam Knauss, Jacob 
Roth, Samuel Schwartz, Heinrich 
Weber and Peter Yingling, a list which 
but for one or two Anglicized Christian 
names might be found upon the parish 
list of any church in the fatherland, al- 
though the owners were many generations 
removed. 

As he listened, the pastor grew each 
moment more sure that a congregational 
meeting would be called. 

It was not likely that a Rudolf or a 
Schwartz would yield without a bitter 
fight. Yet it seemed strange that they 
should cling so firmly to the German 
preaching, when they had long since put 
by all other signs of their origin. Old 
Schneider himself had gathered his wealth 
by methods which were strictly Ayieri- 
can ; he regarded the customs and habits 
of recently immigrated Germans with ab- 
horrence, the German Emperor with 
scorn which was almost nihilistic, and he 
spoke English after his fashion. 

In spite of it all, however, he would 
have no other than German preaching. 

"I am eferysing for my church," he 
would say, with savage emphasis. "I 
pretty near build dis church. I gif de 
chimes. I play de chimes, I am always 
in de church, and I guess it don't get 
English unless I say so." 

When the roll-call was finished, the 
pastor laid before them the request of 
their own sons and daughters that on one 
Sunday morning of each month there 
should be English preaching. For a mo- 
ment there was silence, while the secre- 
tary diligently took notes. It was not 
long, however. 

Jonas Schneider sprang to his feet, his 
blue eyes blazing. He did not look like 
an old man, in spite of the burden of his 
eighty years. 

"Para!'' he began. The pastor had 
never made any effort to mold this un- 
plastic material into parliamentary form. 



"It iss time dat dis iss settled once for all. 
It iss talking all de time, English, Eng- 
lish. It makes me sick dat dese young 
people go so against der pops' an' moms' 
rclichion." 

"It will not make any difiference in 
their religion. Brother Schneider. It will 
only make them take a deeper interest in 
their church." 

"What !" shouted old Jonas. "Iss it 
dat you, too, want de English, Paraf" 

"No," answered the preach, quietly. 
"For myself I should prefer the German, 
but we must consider the welfare of the 
young people.'' 

"I guess what deir pops an' moms had 
iss good enough for de young ones yet. I 
wass always satisfied wis my pop's re- 
lichion." Old Jonas sat down. 

"Brethren," began the preacher again, 
"you were chosen by this congregation to 
manage its affairs according to the will 
of God, as nearly as we can understand 
it. On whom does the church depend for 
its life if not on the young people ? They 
have asked for English ; they remind us 
that this is America, and not Germany, 
that they learn English in the schools, 
that one hears it more and more con- 
stantly in the stores and on the street, 
that every one in the church is able to 
understand it. The young people are in 
a large majority in the church. I have 
tried to make them see the beauty in keep- 
ing the German, but they are young and 
they do not understand. And — this they 
did not say, but it is none the less true — - 
they will go away."' 

"I'd like to see once any of mine go 
away!" said Jonas Schneider. "I don't 
see anv use talking about it so much. 
Let us make once a wote, an' haf it set- 
tled, so dat dese young ones may know 
what iss what. I make a mofe dat we 
keep sings chust like dey are in St. 
Peter's Church." The motion was im- 
mediately seconded by Abraham Wescoe, 
who with most of the others had taken no 
part in the discussion. The preacher 
knew that they regarded it all as the 
veriest moonshine. 

"It has been moved and seconded that 
the request of the young people be re- 
fused. Are there any remarks?" 

"Question," said the secretary, young: 



:8o 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



John Wagner. 

"All in favor say aye." 

There was a thundering aye, empha- 
sized by the stroke of Jonas Schneider's 
•cane. 

"Opposed, no." 

The pastor started. The no lacked the 
fervor and volume of the affirmative sign, 
to be sure, but its volume was greater 
than that which the voices of the two 
young men, John Wagner and Jacob 
Roth, could produce. 

"Division !" called John Wagner. 

"All those in favor, rise," said the 
pastor. 

"Wh-what !" gasped Jonas. 

Old Abraham Wescoe nudged him 
faintly. "Get up ! Get up !" he said. 

Jonas sprang to his feet and looked 
about him. Abraham Wescoe, Heinrich 
Rudolf and Adam Knauss had risen. The 
others had not moved. 

"Get up !" he said, sharply, to the other 
• older men. "We are on de aye side." 

The old men did not stir. 

"Get up, I tell you," cried Jonas, 
"Treichler an' Schwartz an' Weber. 
What do you den mean ?" 

George Treichler folded his arms grim- 
ly. "My children will go away when 
we don't haf de English." 

"Srash dem!" said Jonas. 

"Yours will go, too." 

"It iss a lie !" thundered Jonas. 
"Schwartz, why don't you get up?" 

"De young ones are more dan we," 
Samuel Schwartz answered. "It will gif 
a fight in de church, and dey will come 
out anyways ahead." 

"Dat iss what I sink," said Heinrich 
Weber. 

Jonas stared at them for an instant. 

"An' you, Peter Yingling, what do you 
sink?" 

"I am for de English," said Peter. 

"I tell you what I will do," he said, 
slowly. "If it iss English in dis church, 
I don't efer come inside again. I don't 
gif one cent. I don't play any more de 
chimes." The men looked at one an- 
other. What would St. Peter's be with- 
out the chimes? But there were other 
jjeople who could play the chimes. 
*'An' " he went on, as if he had read 
•-their thoughts — "I take de chimes back 



again to myself." 

With which, gathering up his hat and 
stick, Jonas Schneider departed from 
the council-chamber. The pastor sprang 
to call him back, but found the door 
closed in his face. 

Part of his threats, at least, Jonas made 
good. The next Sunday morning, for 
the first time in forty years, his pew was 
empty. Only the members of St. Paul's 
knew that. Of his dereliction from his 
other duties, however, the whole city was 
aware. The chimes, which were usually 
rung fifteen minutes before the opening 
of each service, were the signal for Lu- 
therans, Methodists, Evangelicals and 
Baptists alike to start to church. This 
morning Lutherans, Methodists, Evan- 
gelicals and Baptists alike were late. 

At St. Peter's there was great excite- 
ment. The congregation gathered in the 
aisles after the morning service. Greatly 
to the preacher's surprise, his announce- 
ment that the petition of the young people 
was granted was received with general 
although somewhat sad approval. 

"So de old ones must now step down," 
said Uriah Hauseman. "Well, dere iss 
one sing, if dese English young ones do 
not come efery Sunday morning in de 
church, dey will catch it." 

The question of Jonas Schneider and 
the chimes, however, could be dismissed 
with no such sorrowful pleasantry. 

The preacher went to see him, and 
Jonas would not even answer his good 
morning. His old friends and his family 
argued with him, but only made a bad 
matter worse. The preacher discovered 
by accident that Jonas had sought legal 
advice about recovering the chimes, and 
while the first lawyer whom he consulted 
had told him that it was impossible, the 
second, an untrustworthy newcomer, had 
assured Jonas that something could be 
done. "St. Peter's sued for its Chimes !" 
would make a capital head-line for the 
papers. 

The congregation meanwhile grew a 
little impatient. There were other chime- 
ringers to be had. They suddenly re- 
membered old Jonas' tyranny over St. 
Peter's in the past. 

It was not strange that the prepara- 
tions for the Christmas celebration 



THE CHniES AT ST. PETER'S 



8i 



dragged. St. Peter's had always made 
much of Christmas. There was special 
music on the Sunday nearest Christ- 
mas day, and there were two Sunday- 
school festivals, one for the older and 
one for the younger scholars. The exer- 
cises came to a close when, on New 
Year's eve, from nine till twelve, the 
whole congregation watched the old year 
out. 

As the time approached, the pastor half 
regretted that he had not consented to the 
engagement of another chime-ringer. 
The bells were always rung to announce 
all the services, as well as on Christmas 
morning at six o'clock, and at the close of 
the watch-night service. It would not 
seem like New Year's without the chimes. 

To the watch-night service especially 
he looked forward uneasily. Hitherto, 
during all his long pastornate, Jonas had 
sat before him, during the German portion 
of the service, at least, until at five minutes 
of twelve he walked solemnly down the 
aisle, up to the stairway to the gallery, 
then on up to the tower, his footsteps dy- 
ing slowly away, like the tread of the de- 
parting year, until he reached the little 
room far up in the steeple which held the 
manual of the chimes. 

The preacher liked to picture him there 
in the darkness, his hands on the levers, 
waiting till the last stroke of twelve on 
the church clock to peal out "Ein Feste 
Burg." 

As the preacher went up the steps on 
the way to the watch-night service, he 
paused for a moment, bracing himself 
against the wind. He seemed to hear a 
dull musical vibration from the tower 
above. The great bells seemed to mourn 
the departed order of things. 

Then, as a few minutes later he glanced 
down from the pulpit over the great con- 
gregation, his heart warmed. 

At eleven o'clock the service, which 
had opened with English hymns and 
prayers, assumed a more solemn char- 
acter. There appeared more old men 
and old women. The pastor announced a 
German hymn ; then the congregation set- 
tled into greater quiet. There seemed 
to hover in the air a tangible presence ; 
one remembered misspent moments and 



neglected opportunities. The occasional 
whispers ceased, and every eye fixed 
itself upon the pastor's face. 

When the sermon was finished, the pas- 
tor lifted a book which lay beside him 
on the pulpit. Even the mysterious 
whispers up under the great ceiling 
seemed to die away for a moment. 

''According to our usual custom," he 
began, "we will read the list of those 
members of our church who have died 
within the year. 

"On the third of January, Henry 
Wolle, aged eighty-five years, the son of 
Henrich and Margaretta Wolle. On the 
seventeenth of January, Maria Theresa, 
daughter of Hermann and Louisa Ban- 
ner, and wife of Jonas Schneider, aged 
seventy-three years. On — " 

The memory of St. Peter's suddenly 
awoke. How was it that they had for- 
gotten that it was less than a year since 
Maria Schneider had died ? She had 
been one of the few members who un- 
derstood no English. They might have 
waited another year. The heart of youth 
was suddenly smitten with a knowledge 
of the heart of age. 

The pastor read slowly on. The list 
was not so long as in other years, and 
the dead were almost all old men and old 
women, over whose going home one's 
tears are sad, not bitter. Then he closed 
the book, and stood looking down upon 
them. It was five minutes of twelve. 

"We will wait in silence and on bended 
knee the coming of the new year," he 
said slowly. 

Old Jonas Schneider sat at home alone, 
his hands clasped on his cane, his head 
bent upon them, his thoughts across the 
city at St. Peter's, where, for the first 
time in fifty years, they were holding a 
watch-meeting without him. 

It was that which made his heart sore. 
The German Bible class could do without 
his teaching, the church without his ad- 
vice, the German prayer-meeting without 
his prayers. One thought only gave him 
comfort : they could find no one to ring 
the chimes. Mercifully he did not know 
how easy it would be for some one else 
to take his place there, also. 

A sudden fierce longing to ht back in 



82 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



his place assailed him. He could not en- 
dure the loneliness of the house, with its 
haunting presence. Over at St. Peter's 
the preacher would presently read Maria's 
name among those dead. Should Maria's 
watch-night end without the ringing of 
the chimes? 

Forgetting his overcoat, he stepped 
out. The wind caught him and buffeted 
him. but he struggled on through the 
lonely streets in the face of the wind. 
W'hen he reached the church steps he 
paused. From within came faintly the 
sound of the preacher's voice, and from 
above a faint reverberation. 

He closed the door softly behind him, 
then climbed stealthily the gallery stairs. 
There, hidden in the black shadows, he 
looked down. His pew alone in all the 
church was empty. It smote him that 
they had kept it for him. The pastor's 
voice warmed his heart. He saw his 
old friends, with whom he had by turns 
quarreled and made peace since he was 
a boy. 

There was old Abraham Wescoe, who 
had started him in business after the 
panic, and old John Roth, who had been 
his intimate friend since they were boys, 
and whose wife, now dead, had been his 
wife's sister. There was scarcely one of 
them to whom he was not bound by some 
tie. He looked about the church, at 
the huge organ for which he had fought 
against all the council, who thought its 
cost a sin. then up into the dim black 
spaces above, in which his soul delighted. 
He loved every stone in the building, and 
in his own fierce way he loved every man, 
woman and child who owed his church 
allegiance. 

He fell upon his knees when the pastor 
read his wife's name ; then, while the 
congregation knelt, he crossed the gal- 
lery, and opening the door which led into 
the tower, slowly climbed the steps. 

In the little room just underneath the 
bells, where the great keyboard stood, he 
paused. The moonlight, now clear, now 
dimmed by a passing cloud, cast strange 
shadows as it gleamed through the nar- 
row windows. He could feel the steeple 
sway in the wind, and his spirit leaped 
like the spirit of a young man. He would 



be content to die if he could feel once 
more the smooth levers beneath his hands 
and know that the city awoke to listen. 
But he had said that he would never play 
the chimes again, and he never broke his 
word. 

Down in the church the last few min- 
utes of the old year seemed long. Once 
a child stirred uneasily in her sleep, but 
there was no other sound. 

Then, suddenly, even to those who 
awaited them, the first strokes of twelve 
throbbed out. Now far away and sweet 
they sounded, as the wind carried their 
music out over the city, now loud and ex- 
ultant, as if they were the voice of the 
storm. Now the clear tone swept through 
the silence like the wind-swung bell along 
a rocky coast, then died away like the 
Sabbath chime of a village bell. 

The last stroke throbbed more and 
more faintly, and still the congregation 
knelt. Always in other years there had 
been whispered good wishes even before 
the benediction. Now no one moved. 
The blare of horns and mad blowing of 
factory whistles came faintly in. 

Then, high above the tumult without, 
swelled another sound. Loud and clear^ 
shutting out all other sounds, St. Peter's 
chimes sang out, "Eiii Fcstc Burg." 

The preacher stretched out his arms 
as if to gather to his heart all these his 
people. 

"Ich ■cvunsche ciicJi cin gUlckseUges 
ncues Jahr" ("I wish you a happy New 
Year"), he said. 

The strains of the "BatUe Hymn" died 
away, and the congregation started slowly 
down the aisles, with much laughter and 
many handclasps. Jonas Schneider had 
come back. Would any one have the 
heart now to insist upon the English ? 
"Listen!" said some one, sharply. 
The eyes of the people met. The chimes 
still played. Nor was their tune "Nun 
dankct allc Gott," or any of the other 
German chorals of which old Jonas was 
so fond, but the English "Coronation,"' 
with its swinging melody. 

Thus bravely, openly, did old Jonas 
Schneider acknowledge his defeat. The 
old order had passed away. 



SPINNING IN THE OLDTIME WINTER-NIGHTS 



83 



Spinning in the Oldtime Winter Nights 

EXTRACT FROM DR. \V. A. HELFFRICH'S AUTOBIOGRAPH V^ TRANSLATED BY REV. W. U. HELFFRICH, BATH, PA. 




Y manner of living this win- 
ter (i84i-'42) differed ma- 
terially from that of former 
days. Instead of sitting in 
the Kneipc (home study) 
of an evening, as formerly, 
and passing the time in conversation with 
our tutor or with one another or in read- 
ing, with Griebler's explanations, from 
the German classics, I spent the evenings 
with the family in the sitting-room. My 
father, who had often visited us in the 
Kneipc, also joined the family-circle and 
passed the time by reading. Thus we all 
sat together. The beautiful ideal exist- 
ence over in the study had passed away 
and the change was most prosaic. 
Mother sewed or knitted. Old Freny 
sat behind her spinning-wheel, spinning 
away monotonously, and when the bear- 
ings got dry, as they often did, her 
wheel droned the bass to an often too 
pronounced prosaic stillness. 

Spinning was still the custom in those 
days. Everybody spun and had all their 
white and colored linen stuffs, Schcm- 
pcrin'^ and flannels woven to order. Every 
fourth or fifth house had its loom. In 
many a house a half dozen spinning- 
wheels w^ere kept buzzing. The daughters 
spun their own marriage dower. There 
was plenty of noise when half a dozen 
wheels w-ere hvunming and droning, and 
plenty of dust too, especially when flax 



•This was the dialect term applied to a stoutly 
■woven fabric much used for trousers. We have 
often heard the word in our youth, but have not 
been able to trace its origin quite satisfactorily, 
and shall be obliged to any reader who will do so. 
Perhaps it was derived from the Old "French 
janibidres, stout leggings worn by huntsmen and others. 
—Ed. 



was being spun. This was usually spun 
first from the distaff, before the skeins 
of finely hatcheled flax ; finally came the 
wool. 

A farmer's spinning-room in those 
days presented a strange sight. The boys 
sat or lay on the wood-chest behind the 
stove. In the center of the room, sus- 
pended from the ceiling, hung a wooden 
contrivance to which was fastened the 
old-fashioned fat-lamp, about which the 
mother, daughters and hired girls, clad 
in homespun, home-made, tight-fitting 
dresses, often so covered with dust as 
to be unrecognizable, sat at their wheels 
night after night, spinning and talking. 
The father, usually idle at this time, sat 
in the arm-chair before the stove, resting 
comfortably ; only on Sunday, when all 
was quiet about him, he would read his 
newspaper. 

This, to be sure, was not the custom in 
our home. Old Freny alone did the 
spinning, and she was not allowed to 
cover too much space with her wheel, if 
she wished to avoid being called to order, 
or. as occasionally happened, when she 
fell asleep, having the almost empty 
distaff roguishly set on fire by some one 
to awaken her. 

Everything has its day, even spinning, 
and to the great delight of the farmers' 
daughters there came a time when spin- 
ning ceased. All kinds of cloth could be 
purchased cheaper than they could be 
spun and woven by hand. Thus spinning 
passed quickly out of fashion. In about 
eight years after the time of which we 
write, one could hardly find a spinning- 
wheel in use anvwhere. 



The German-American Historical Society 
celebrated its sixth anniversary on Monday 
evening, January 6, with a banquet at the hall 
of the German Society, Marshall and Spring 
Garden streets , Philadelphia, Pa. 

The following toasts were responded to: 
"Germans in Pennsylvania," Samuel W. Penny- 
packer ; "The Study of German-American His- 



tory," Doctor C. J. Hexamer ; "Germans in In- 
ternational Commerce," Rudolph Blankenburg; 
"German-American Historical Society," Arno 
Leonhardt ; "The German Language in Amer- 
ica," Professor M. D. Learned; "The German- 
American Student," Dr. Carl Beck, of New 
York ; "The German Press in America," Henry 
Detreux. 



84 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Descendants of Martin Luther 




Note. — 'The following, quoted from Tlic 
Lutheran of November 28, 1907, will interest 
our readers. Descendants of Paul Gerhardt, 
the hymn-writer, live in Berks county today. 
Who can locate descendants of other church 
fathers ? 

T may be of interest to our 
Church to add the following 
to the glad news that we 
may soon expect Pastor 
Eilif Theodore Wagner and 
his wife, accompanied by 
his brother-in-law, Theo. Cona. Appel, 
and his wife, at our Theological Semi- 
nary. 

The Wagner family originates with Dr. 
Martin Luther on the maternal side 
through his daughter Margaret, who mar- 
ried W. Kiihlheim. Through their chil- 
dren on the maternal side, comes the 
founder of the Wagner branch, Tobias, 
whose occupation was that of copper- 
smith and engraver in Nordlingen. A 
son of his became senator in Heidenheim. 
His son, Tobias Wagner, was pastor, pro- 
fessor, chancellor and dean in Tiibingen. 
died 1680. He again had two sons, one 
of whom became the progenitor of the 
Danish branch. His son's name 
was George Wagner and George's 
son was John, who became sur- 
veyor in Heidenheim. John's son, John 
Ludwig, died 1792, was agent in Konigs- 
bronn. His son, Frederick Carl von 
Wagner (died July 5, 1847,), enlisted as 
he thought, in the Prussian army, but by 
mistake it happened to be in the Danish 
army, and he died in the capacity 
of Danish colonel. His son. Moritz 
Carl Frederick August von Wag- 
ner, became likewise Danish colonel and 
died as such in the year 1849. ^^is son 
is the present dean Ludwig Carl Moritz 
Wagner in Saskjobing. His sister was 
the late lamented Lady Schraeder, and it 
is the dean's son whose coming we look 
forward to with pleasure. 

Reverend and Chancellor Tobias Wag- 
ner's second son became the progenitor of 
the American branch. His son became 
minister in Hausen, near Tuttlingen. He 
too had a son, Tobias by name, who be- 



came minister in Heilbronn, where he re- 
mained until June 13, 1742, when he re- 
ceived a call as chaplain for Gen. S. 
Walter, Colony at the Brodd and Mus- 
congus rivers in [Massachusetts and 
Maine. Coming to America with wife 
and five children, three more children 
were born to him here. He left the col- 
ony in 1743 and became pastor in Tulpe- 
hocken, Pa. It was he who joined in 
matrimony the Rev. Dr. H. M. Muhlen- 
berg to Anna Maria Weiser. He sought 
to organize an orthodox Lutheran confer- 
ence in contrast to jMuhlenberg and the 
other ministers from Halle who were of 
the pietistic order. He had a somewhat 
polemic disposition. He returned to Ger- 
many in the year 1759 while all his chil- 
dren remained in America and submitted 
to reordination by the bishop of London. 
He later became minister in the mar- 
graviate of Brandenburg, and died in 
1775 as pastor in Wurtenberg. His 
daughter, Catharine Elizabeth Wagner, 
married to G. Heinzelmann, of Lancaster, 
became the mother of General Major S. 
P. Heinzelmann, who died May i, 1880, 
in Washington. One of the sons, John 
Christian Wagner, was father to Mary 
Wagner, who on December 19, 181 1, was 
married to a descendant of the old Swed- 
ish colonv, John Stille. She became the 
mother of six children, among whom was 
Dr. Alfred J. Stille, of Phila'delphia, and 
Professor Dr. Chas. Stille. dean at the 
University of Pennsylvania. We here 
have a somewhat widely branched famil}'- 
tree originating with Pastor Tobias Wag- 
ner, the son of Luther's daughter Mar- 
garet. How many, or whether any of the 
numerous ministers in this country by 
the name of Wagner belong to the same 
family it is impossible for me to say just 
now. For further information consult 
my History of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church in America from 1620 to 1820, 
page' 394 fif. The Rev. Mr. Wagner has 
thus a number of American relatives, and 
we hope that he will find himself thor- 
oughly at home among us and at our 
school. 
Rev. R.\smus Andersen, Brooklyn. 



IS THE DIALECT DYING OUT? 



85 



Is the Dialect Dying Out? 

BY F. A. LONG, M.D. 




a recent number of your 
magazine, the question was 
asked, "Is the use of the 
Pennsylvania-German dia- 
lect dying out"? Prelim- 
inary to what I wish to say 
I may state that my wife and I have lived 
in Nebraska for thirty years and that 
we left the Lehigh A^alley when in our 
"teens. We have made two visits to Penn- 
sylvania in these years. — the first 14 years 
ago and the last in June of the present 
year. We were at Lancaster and at all 
the important places in the Lehigh Valley 
from Easton to Mauch Chunk, and at 
some places in the country in Lehigh and 
Northampton counties. 

We were thoroughly impressed with 
the idea that the people, young and old, 
talk a much better English than they did 
on the occasion of our first visit 14 years 
ago. We were also impressed with the 
idea that if the Pennsylvania-German dia- 
lect is dying out the process is so slow as 
to be almost imperceptible. Returning 
to the scenes of one's childhood after 
manv vears and hearing the dialect talked 



by street car employees among them- 
selves, by the conductors and brakesmen 
and engineers on the railroad, by the 
ticket agents, by the policemen on the 
streets, by old and young over the coun- 
ters of the stores, and on the streets, gives 
one the impression that the dialect is still 
very healthy and far from decadent. In 
Lancaster we heard it on the public 
square, and on the street cars and in the 
parks, and from lips other than Menno- 
nites and Dunkards; in Mauch Chunk a 
clerk talked it to a patron at the post- 
ofifice, and we heard it at the depot and 
on top of the mountain point known as 
Flagstaff. And these two places have 
never, I believe, been known as thorough- 
ly German commuities. What then shall 
one say of a community like Allentown? 
In discussing the future of the dialect 
with relatives in Allentown, it was sug- 
gested that in ten or twenty years the 
Pennsylvania-German dialect would have 
died out. I said "Not in a hundred 
years !" And I thoroughly believe it. 
And why should it die out? 



Few meetings of the Lancaster County His- 
torical Society have been more interesting than 
that held on the evening of December 6, in the 
Society's room, in the A. Herr Smith Library 
building, on North Duke street. It was the 
regular monthly meeting of the local historians, 
a large number of whom were present, and, 
besides a considerable amount of business, the 
members listened to an unusually entertaining 
paper. 

Under the new constitution, the December 
meeting was the time for the nomination of 
officers. All the old officers, with one or two 
exceptions, were nominated for the new year, 
as follows : President. Mr. George Steinman ; 
Vice-Presidents, Rev. Dr. Jos. H. Dubbs and 
Samuel Evans. Esq., of Columbia; Secretary, 
A. K. Hostetter; Corresponding Secretary, 
Miss Martha B. Clark; Librarian, Samuel M. 
Sener, Esq. ; Treasurer, Dr. J. W. Houston ; 
Executive Committee, F. R. Diffenderflfer, 
Chairman ; H. Frank Eshleman, Esq., R. M. 
Reilly, Esq., Hon. W. U. Hensel, George F. 
K. Erisman. Monroe B. Hirsh, D. B. Landis, 
Chas. T. Steigerwrlt, Philip A. Metzger and 
Mrs. Sarah B. Carpenter. 

The paper of the evening was prepared and 
read by Mrs. Jai.ies D. Landis, her subject 
being. "Who Was Who in Lancaster One 
Hundred Years Ago." It was based on the 



original constitution and by-laws of the Female 
Benevolent Society of Lancaster, which were 
found some time ago while the old home of 
the late Amos Slaymaker, on East Orange 
street, was being remodeled. The paper is in 
an excellent state of preservation, and is now 
the property of the Historical Society. The 
paper dealt with the members of this noble 
band of women who nearly a century ago dis- 
pensed sweet charity among the poor of the 
town of Lancaster. The authoress took up 
the names of the fifty-three women who were 
the signers and subscribers to the society, and 
gave in detail a sketch of each one, with many 
interesting and amusing anecdotes in their 
lives. A number of new facts about Lancas- 
ter social life a century ago were brought 
out. The paper was introduced with an ac- 
count of the principal charitable institutions and 
organizations in this community at the present 
time prepared by F. R. Diffenderflfer. 

Mrs. Landis' paper, which was one of the 
most voluminous ever prepared for the So- 
ciety, was remarkable not alone from its en- 
tertaining character, but from the wonderful 
amount of research it entailed. Church, ceme- 
tery, family and Court House records, with 
files of early Lancaster papers, were industri- 
ously scanned. 



85 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Home 

This departm;nt is in c'larse of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of t>prini,'to wn. P<i. to wh )m all communicaiions for it 
should be addressed. Contributions relatintr to domesti<i matters— cookiuK. baking, house-work, gardening, 
flower culture, oldtime customs and ways of living, etc., etc.— are respectfully solicited Our lady readers are 
specially requested to aid in making thi.s department generally iaterosd g. 

' Revival of The Patch-Work Quik 



BY THE HOME EDITOR. 



The revival of the old-fashioned bright col- 
ored patch-work quilt recalls many pleasant 
little incidents and memories of the past to 
those who spent the long winter evenings in 
framing together patches, often as a house- 
hold necessity but oftener as a labor of love 
for those near and dear to them. It was the 
sentiment of grandmother's day that the boys 
must have several pieced quilts when they 
leave home, and the girls must see that they 
have their own pieced. 

This old-time handicraft, which had almost 
become a lost art, is becoming very popular 
again, and the handsome coverlets stored in 
the chest on the attic for years, as loving re- 
membrances of by-gone days, can now again 
be brought forth to be of useful service 
and to replace the more modern successor, 
the machine-made spread which has held sway 
for many years. 

When we see the artistic designs and har- 
monious color blending that some of these 
spreads contain we look with admiration and 
often a little envy thereon, and realize that in 
spite of the advanced ideas of the present gen- 
eration, the old folks did know a thing or 
two in their day, and we must confess that 
grandmother's patchwork quilt is as pretty and 
acceptable to us today as it was to her several 
decades ago. 

While it was one of her occupations thro' 
the long winter evenings, it was also a pastime 
for any idle hours of the day, and if there 
was a neighbor's call to be made she was likely 
to have a dozen or more of carefully cut 
patches tucked under her arm which she took 
along to sew on while indulging in a little 
social chat. Not always was she alone engaged 
in piecing, but very often the little seven-year- 
old tot, at her grandmother's knee, would take 



her first lesson at the same time. With needle 
and thread she would sit for hours — often a 
burdensome occupation for the child — and sew 
the square blocks that grandmother had so 
neatly cut, pinning seam upon seam, which the 
little fingers would first have to underhand, 
then sew with a back stitch so as to make the 
sewing firm, while grandmother was piecing 
some more intricate designs. 

While most of the designs were original and 
many were handed down from generation to 
generation, new ones were created by the ex- 
pert, some of which were very difficult to ar- 
range and often quite confusing to a looker on. 
If it was to be an every day spread that was 
wanted, and time was an object, the patches 
were usually cut in square blocks, diamonds 
or narrow strips in short lengths, but if it 
was to be a select spread to be kept as a keep- 
sake, the piecing was often quite tedious and 
tiresome. Some were in tiny patches, only half 
an inch square, which necessitated a great deal 
of labor, the sewing all being done by hand 
and with exceedingly fine stitches. It often 
took several winters to get a quilt pieced be- 
fore it was ready for the quilting frame. 

A few of the most popular designs that are 
being copied today are the rainbow, star, log- 
cabin, the rising sun, vei"y popular, made of 
eleven hundred and fifty-two pieces, and Jacob's 
ladder prettiest of them all. Many new de- 
signs, which are an improvement in our own 
estimation, have been accepted, as for instance 
the crazy patchwork which we are familiar 
with and a sample of which can be found in 
nearly every home. Quite often the piecing 
is now done by the aid of the sewing machine, 
which makes it an entirely different occupation, 
the result being the same but the sentiment 
that went with the handmade quilt is missing. 



At a meeting of the executive committee oi 
the Board of Foreign Missions, held in Lan- 
caster, Pa., on January 8, Miss Alice E. Traub, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., was elected as a mis- 
sionary nurse for the Yochow City Hospital, 
in China. She is a member of St. John's 
church, and has been in training as a nurse 
for a number of years. The board is deli'^hted 
in finding so capable a person for this iin- 
portant position. Miss Traub expects to sail 
for China about the middle of March. 



The Rev. Calvin £. Kuder sailed for India 
on the steamship "Adriatic," of the "White 
Star Line," on New Year's Day. He goes 
via Naples. Pa.stor Kuder in returning to 
India not only gives up a large and prosperous 
charge here in Pennsylvania, but because of 
the ages of his children must leave his family 
behind him. Such is the spirit of sacrifice 
when a man's heart is in a work. 



LITERARY GEMS 



87 



Literary Gems 

ES FEIAR UN BOYERTOWN 

BY "SOLLY HULSBUCK." 

Note — "The old mill at the Swamp (("lilbertsville), a village near here, was closed today for the first 
■week-day in years. The home of the miller, Robert Taggart. showed no signs of life. His buxom wife 
failed to hail the farmers as they passed along the road. People bringing grist to the mill called and 
pounded in vain and drove away again. Robert Taggart and his wife and their daughter, teachc of the 
nearbj school, came into town Monday night to attend the sho»v. ihey have not been heard of since." — 
From a rei)ort of the Hoyertown (Pa.) Opera House fire, where 171 persons burned to death and scores 
more were injured, laken from the Philadelphia Record of Wednesday, Jaa •jth, 1908. 



Es ravvd shdad siulil, de mcl is zu, 

's is gor nix lawend do ; 
Es shein'd mer frem, 's is cbes lets, 

Par's wor ne' fordem so. 
Shun lift wor Ich do in da niel. 

For nioncha longa yor, 
Und im"r wilkum g'funna do, 

Ov'r 's is net we dafor. 

Es is mer shoor iinfreindlicli nou, 

Der milar kumt net bei, 
Duch wor ar un seim puslula do, 

Im'r fleisich und gatrei ; 
Und dort um hous, uft hut mer g'hard 

En leb old ledli g'sunga, 
Ov'r heit is oles shdil, mer man'd 

Der Dod hut's iv'r g'numa. 

Der Dod? Sel kon net meglich sei, 

Es war duch eb'r do, 
Ov'r nemond kumt, Ich har ken sound, 

Dos mi hartz klupa so ; 
Besides, se wora g'sunda leit, 

Der milar und sei fraw, 
Labhoft und wol in ola .shdond, 

So wor de duchd'r aw. 

Ich was um beshd is laweszeit 

En korts und mislich ding, 
Der Dod kumt monchmol shnel und nemt 

Es beshd dos ar do fint. 
Yushd geshd'r is der milar fort, 

Ar is g'wis net weid. 
Kent's meglich sei ar g'shdricha war 

In dara kortsa zeit ! 

Yaw, geshd'r is der milar fort, 

We lond'sleit ols'mol gan, 
De fraw und duchd'r mit. 

So kumt ar awich nima ham. 
Der mashd'r kumt ne' un de mcl, 

Des is en drourich bild, 
Es ledli dos mer g'hard hut dort 

Um hous is awich g'shdild. 

Se wora yushd noch Royertown, 

Der wag wor gor net weid, 
Ov'r duch far se wor sel der wag 

Noch era awichkeid. 



Bei hun'rts nuchber'sleit dort rum, 

Mit leichtem hartz und frad, 
Sel'r owet roof'd der Dod se aw 

Una zeit far fel gaba'd. 

Sei odem wor en feiarbrond, 

Arshreklich, sund'rbawr, 
Und bledslich dort im Opera House 

Wor'n Dod's-bed uf em flor. 
Yaw, moncha fod'r, mud'r, kind, 

Brud'r, shweshd'r, freind. 
Sin esh zu esh, hiltlos, f'rbrent, 

Galida und gapein'd. 

O, wun mer denkt we shouderhoft 

Is so en dod we sel, 
Dut's hartz em sheer farshmelza nou, 

Ous mitleid, far en shpell ! 
Mer wissa unser end mawg sei 

So 'shreklich und so shnel, 
Duch gaid mer fort im olda grawd, 

Und denkt net un de hel. 

De guta leit fun Boyertown 

Wu umkuma sin um sho, 
Bareit und in da awichkeid, 

Sin bes'r ob we do. 
Duch brecht's em's hartz sheer wun mer denkt 

Wos alend des awshtel'd, 
Und ola leit hen mitgafel 

In ola eck de weld. 

Es shein'd em frem, ''s is net we's wor, 

Der milar kumt net bei ; 
Es rawd shdad shdil, de mel is zu, 

Ar gaid aw nima nei ! 
Yushd geshd'r sin se fralich do 

F"im era hamet fort, 
Und fralich'r nou sing'd de fraw 

In selra Hamet dort ! 

Yaw, des wor'n shlim und iv'le soch, 

Un's kumt em gor naksht ham, 
Mer was net was es neksht sei kent, 

Ov'r des is numa plain — 
Dos yaders recht nochdenka set, 

Und im'r 'redi sei, 
Far unglik bringt em nix zu-recht, 

Ov'r wos mer larn'd dabei. 



88 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



SIX LOVE LYRICS OF ST. VALENTINE 

BY FREDERICK YEAKEL, DENVER, COL. 

BELLS. NANNIE GRIMES. 



Sweet as a bell with most musical strokes, 
Most charming and dear is sweet Belle Stokes. 

Clear as a bell doth the meadow-lark sing, 
More clear yet an.d sweet, Belle's laughter doth 
ring. 

ANNA 

Anna, thou blithesome wood-sprite, 
Thy hair, wind toss'd and wayward, 
Now gleameth, 
Meseemeth, 
As the soft dull sheen of ancient gold 

That films the brown of the sere oak-leaf 
That dances the drifts in the wintry wold 
Or flirts with pale sunbeams at noontide brief. 

Rudely yet coyly the wind caresses 

Not the oak-left only or the whispering pine. 

But in riotous glee puffs the fairy tresses 
'Neath the elfin hood of my Valentine. 

MY NUT-BROWN NYMPH. 

Ah, Lucia ! 

What limpid, kindling rays, 
From deep, dark star-lit eyes, 

Thy dulcet name 
To me now signifies. 
Since thine entrancing gaze 
My heart now so absorbs, 

Nor wealth, nor fame. 
Lure me as lure thine orbs. 

My Lucia ! 

TO J. N. G. 

The soul of the strains that nestle in 
The graceful curves of the violin 
Thy skilful hands have fashioned here, 
Creates in me a tuneful cheer ; 
Beguiles full many a sorrowing mood 
To yield to sweet chords from the carved wood. 
But a song now rings in my own heart, 
'Tis a silvery song with a golden part, 
Crescendos rich, that fain would thrill 
Your own harmonious soul, and fill 
Your life and mine as never will 
The lark's clear song, or the wood bird's trill; 
Love's silvery song I'd here enshrine, 
In the golden heart of my Valentine. 



Part I. 
Fair Nannie Grimes, — ■ 

I'm pond'ring tonight o'er the olden times ; 
For visions most fond, entrancing and rare 
As the fragrance of flowers, on bright sun-lit 

air, 
Come into my dreams of thee. 
Dear love of old days, — 

We're strolling once more 'neath the silent 

rays 
Of yon moon so calm, while brilliantly clear 
Twinkle vigilant stars, as if they would hear 
Mine accents of love to thee. 
Part II. 
In all my fairest fireside dreams, 

Of faces sweet, 
That pass me by in fitful gleams, 

With smiles replete; 
I've still thy love-illumined face, 

Dear Nannie, dear. 
Thy form petite, thy winsome grace. 

My days to cheer. 
Still jdelds my heart to each behest 

Of thine, my light; 
That I can nought but love thee best. 

Thou vision bright, 
My constant thoughts to thee incline. 
Thou fairy-love, — 'My Valentine ! 

CLEORA. 

From day to day. 

Through year to year, 
In every way, 

Or joy, or fear, 
I know whose smile 

Doth welcome home, 
I know whose lips 

Shall press mine own, 
I know whose heart 

Doth constant keep, 
Though sad my faults 

That I might weep. 
Though poor my gifts 

My follies great, F 
Her love withal 

Doth not abate. 
My wife, in truth 

On her depend 
My life's best hopes. 

She's my best friend — 
Mv Valentine. 



The West Swamp Mennonite church has 
elected Rev. E. S. Shelly, of Pennsburg, Pa., 
assistant to its pastor. Rev. A. B. Shelly, the 
oldest Mennonite pastor of the Eastern Dis- 
trict. Rev. Mr. Shelly is manager oi the 
Pennsburg Telephone Exchange, and in spite 
of the fact that his eyesight has failed so that 
he is almost totally blind, he has taken a course 
of theological instruction and has been preach- 
ing in the churches of the above vicinity for 
some time. 



Chicago claims the distinction of having the 
largest Lutheran congregation in America. It 
numbers 5,000 baptized members. In the 6a 
years since the church gained a foothold it has 
grown three times as rapidly aS the population 
of the city. In proportion to population, it is 
the most Lutheran among the large cities of 
our Union. 



LITERARY GEMS 



89 



'M DINKEY SEI KNECHT 

BY KKV. A. C. WUCHTER, GILBERT, PA. 



Dart drunna an der Weidakrick, 

Im schcena Liliadal, 
Hot niol vor langa Johr zurick — 

Wie vicl hot jcdcrs Wahl — 
En reicher Bauersmann gewuhnt, 

Als Knecht un Maad gedingt. 
Er hot sei Leit net 'bartig g'schunt, 

Wie's Knechtlied immer singt. 

Un doch, an's Yori Dinkey's het 

Schier eenig ebber g'schafift. 
Druf nei gerast, sel hen sic net, 

Mit Hand un Fiess gerafft, 
Wie's efters gcht so do un dart, 

Wu Knecht un Maad zuhaus : 
Wu's heesst, wann ebber's Maul ufschperrt : 

"Dart kummt die Faulheet raus !" 

Wann ewa net des Schaffa war, 

Wie het mer's noh so gut! 
Noh war em's Herz net gans so schwer, 

So voll vun schwitzig Blut. 
Wann alles selwer wachsa deet, 

Dann war der Bauer froh; 
Er deet aus lauter Luscht un Freed 

Sich rolla uf em Schtroh. 

Noh kennt des Maad un Knechtgeding 

Zum Bocksloch-Granny geh. 
For Leit zu dinga, 's is en G'schpring; 

's will niemand schaffa meh, 
Except mer gabt die Bauerei 

Un noch die Frah dazu. 
Noh misst mer noch so newabei 

Die Erwet selwer duh. 

Ja, wann des ewig Schaffa mol 

Der Schtickfluss kriega deet, 
Dann war net immer des Gejohl, 

Wann's net der Gollop geht. 
Ja, war's net for des narrish Geld 

Un's daglich Butterbrot, 
Ei, 's war ken Knecht mef uf em Feld, 

Lewendig odder doot! 

Ja, ja ! der Bauer hot sei Klag 

Un brummelt in die Fauscht ; 
Der Knecht hot ah sei Regadag, 

Wann's Grummelwasser rauscht. 
Die Frah die krigt die Ungeduld, 

Wann's Wergelholz net sohafft ; 
Die Maad — die gebt der Katz die Schuld 

Wann als der Rover blafft. 



Well, ennihau, der Yori hot 

Sich widder "n Knecht gedingt. 
Sic hen so rum g'schafft uf der Lot — 

Die junga Sei geringt, 
Die G'scherra g'schmiert, die Fenza g'fiickt. 

Hen Schtroh un Mischt uf's Land, 1 
Un g'schafft so wie sich's ewa schickt 

Bei'm liewa Bauraschtand. 

"Wie gleichscht du dann dei neier Knecht?" 

Frogt mol der Npchber John. 
"Ei," sagt der Yori, "gut un schlecht; 

's kummt ah uf zvie un vuann. 
Ich war do jetz mol noch der Mihl, 

Noh haw ich g'saat : "Nau, Joe, 
Die Schtee fahrscht weg, lad net zu viel; 

Bin zeitlich widder do.' 

Mer hen die Fuhr noh ufgerickt 

Un ab, ich un die Frah. 
Noh hot er dann der Schubkarch krigt, 

Geht eifrig druf un dra. 
's nemmt immer langer as mer meant, 

Noch Schtohr un Mihl zu geh; 
Die Weibsleit hen sich so verwehnt, 

Mer gingt als besser allee. 

Mer sin die Lane so langsam nuf; 

Der Schubkarch hot gegrahnt. 
Noh lacht die Betz : 'Sag, bass mol uft 

Weescht wie mich sel gemahnt? 
"Der Dinkey kummt noch la-ang net. 

Er kummt noch .net, rah — ie — ! 
Der Dinkey kummt noch net, I bet, 

Er kummt net, sweet Marie !" ' 

Er hot uns iwerdem erblickt. 

Noh hot die Betz gelacht : 
'Guck, was der Joe net Eifer krigt! 

Heerscht wie der Schubkarch macht? 
"Der Dinkey kummt ! der Dinkey kummt ! 

Ta-rie ! ta-rie ! ta-rie ! 
Der Dinkey kummt, 'r 'ummt, 'r 'ummt! 

Hurrah for Tschin'rel Lee!"'" 

Der John hot sich schier doot gelacht 

Un uf die Knie gekloppt : 
"Ich sag der, Yori, wie's mer macht; 

Sel Lied is handig g'schtoppt. 
Do schickt mei;, dascht sei, Frah un Knecht, 

Der bisness noh zu geh. 
Noh schmiert mer sich der Schubkarch recht 

Un fahrt dann selwer Schtee." 



According to their Church Almanac the Luth- 
erans in the United States have 8052 Ministers, 
13,142 Congregations, 2,012,536 Communicant 
Members, 4700 Parochial Schools, 6578 Sunday 
Schools, 24 Theological Seminaries, 39 Col- 
leges, 42 Academies, 7 Female Colleges, 28 Hos- 
pitals, 40 Orphans' Homes 24 Homes for Aged, 
and Deaconess Institutions. 



Lebanon Valley College, at Annville, is ta 
have a theological seminary, which is to be 
opened next fall. The United Brethren denom- 
ination has no institution for the training of 
students for the ministry in the East. The 
nearest institution of the kind is Union Biblical 
Seminary, located at Dayton, Ohio. 



■90 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



Editor and Publisher 

H. \V KRIEBEL. 

Ea t Greenville. Pa. 

The Pennsylvania-German is an illustrated monthly 
magazine devoted to the biography, history, genealogy, 
folklore, literature and general interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other States, 
and of their descendants. 

Price, per year, $1.50, in advance; single copies, 
15 cents. Foreign postage, 25 cents a year extra. 
Club-rates furnished on application. Payments 
credited by mail. 

Discontinuance. — The magazine will be sent until 
order to discontinue is received. This is done to 
accommodate the majority of subscribers, who do 
not wish to have their files broken. 

Notice of Expiration of subscription is given by 



A.ssociate Editors 
Mrs. H, H. FUNK. Springtown, Pa 
E. S. GERHARD. A. M.. Trenton. N. J 
using red ink in addressing the wrapper of the 
magazine. 

Contributions. — Carefully prepared articles bearing 
on our field are invited and should be accompanied 
with illustrations when possible. No attention will 
be given to unsigned articles, nor will we be re- 
sponsible for the statements and opinions of con- 
tributors. Unavailable manuscripts will not be re- 
turned unless stamps are sent to prepay postage. 
Contributions intended for any particular number 
should be in the editor's hands by the twenty-fifth of 
the second preceding month. 

Advertising R.\tes will be furnished by the pub- 
lisher upon request. 



Death of the Editor. 



< DITOR SCHULER is no 

Emore. Cruel, relentless 
death, sparing none, knocked 
at his chamber door, Thurs- 
day, January 9, and bade 

him prepare for the last, 

lone journey to the Great Beyond. He 
was a sick man. A physician was called 
who found him suffering with a severe 
attack of pneumonia in its second stage. 
Hoping against hope he at once sent him 
to bed and through loving hands began 
to apply all that medical skill could do for 
him but the contest was an unequal one 
from the start. The doctor's fears of the 
first day became by Monday a moral cer- 
tainty that there was no hope for his re- 
covery. He quietly and peacefully fell 
asleep and passed away to his eternal 
home and reward on Tuesday morning- 
January 14, at one o'clock. 

The somewhat narrow circle of his 
close personal friends, the community at 
large, the literary world, the publisher and 
readers of this magazine have in his 
death suffered a distinct loss, a loss which 
to the publisher is irreparable. While all 
rejoice that he could enter into his eternal 
rest and reward and none would call him 
back if he could, his sudden taking away 
in the midst of his labors and in the full 
possession of his strength and vigor is 
deeply mourned. 

A Great Loss. 
The death of the editor so sudden and 
-so unexpected, brought the publisher face 
.to face with a very practical, pertinent. 



personal question, What now ? Editorial 
work on the January number was un- 
completed through no fault of either pub- 
lisher or editor, no copy for the Febru- 
ary number had been forwarded to the 
printer, with many details of editorial pro- 
cedure the publisher was unacquainted, 
no time was to be lost, an enviable repu- 
tation for editorial accuracy was to be 
maintained. The only logical answer 
seemed to be to go ahead in the ftill be- 
lief that in some way a path would open 
itself or cotild be opened, and this we 
shall do. While the services of the editor 
on the magazine were beginning to bear 
continually more abimdant fruit and his 
loss is irreparable, we feel that the work 
must not be allowed to stop, or suffer loss, 
or lag. 

The publisher pledges himself to do all 
in his might to make the magazine of in- 
creasing valtie and interest to its friends, 
and can only ask subscribers and con- 
tributors to stand by it loyally and give it 
their unstinted support in extending its 
circle of infiuence and usefulness. Its 
cause is much wider than its editor and 
publisher. It had been a matter of con- 
cern to both editor and publisher how 
best to place the work on such a footing 
that it could go on even if the workers 
should be called away. The change 
brought about so unexpectedly brings the 
matter still nearer home and makes the 
solution still more desirable and pressing. 
Suggestions along this line are welcome. 

We shall have more to say about our 
departed friend in a subsequent issue. 
We believe that our readers will be glad 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



91 



to know more of the life and character- 
istics of him who the past two years has 
labored so unselfishly for the upbuilding 
of this magazine. Peace to his ashes, 
the rich blessings of heaven to his soul. 

A Few Words of Commendation. 



The heart of our himontcd editor was cheered 
by many kind words wliich reached us through 
the reguhir course of business. Our readers 
will pardon us if we quote a few as a tribute 
to a faithful and conscientious worker, while 
at the same time we heartily thank the writers 
thereof. From far-away Alaska came these 
words : 

Being a Pennsylvania-German by birth 

and certainly by inclination, 1 admire the 

work you have undertaken, and wish you 

ever}' success. 

From the Buckeye State came the following 

cheering lines : 

I wish to congratulate you on the im- 
provement that has been made in the 
magazine. While it must always have a 
limited circulation among the particular 
class of people, it is, nevertheless, a very 
important contribution to the history of this 
thrift}' people and will no doubt furnish 
the basis for future historians when they 
come to write. 

I wish to thank you for this improve- 
ment in the better selection of articles and 
specimens of the vernacular, and also the 
improvement in the editorial work. 

1 was especially interested in your pub- 
lication of the ceremonies in regard to the 
New Year several numbers ago. I re- 
member hearing my grandfather recite 
snatches of this rude poetry, and it was 
very interesting to me, and enabled me 
to spend a very pleasant evening with my 
mother by way of reminiscence. 
A reader in Missouri expressed appreciation 
by saying : 

I note with pleasure the article on "The 
Buchtel Family"' by my old teacher, Henry 
Meyer, of Rebersburg, in the December 
number. This and all the other features 
make it intenselv interesting to me. 



Philadelphia, Pa., the City of Brotherly Love, 
gave a helping hand in words like the follow- 
ing : 

The enclosed is in response to your offer. 
Kindly .send the numbers as they appear, 
and 1 will try to induce the recipients to 
become subscribers after the time expires. 
Your plan is a very good one. and 1 hope 
it will be the means of enlarging the 
subscription list. Probably it would be 
wise to tell the friends whose names I am 
sending that I am exceedingly anxious to 
have them become regular subscribers, for 
I believe it to be their duty to do all in 
their power to make the magazine a suc- 
cess. It is an enterprise that can not help 
but arrest the attention of a good many 
people who are still laboring under the 
delusion that the Pennsylvania-Germans 
are far in the rear of intellectual progress, 
and every descendant should feel only too 
anxious to show the public's error. The 
expense is not only trifling, but one that 
is frequently indulged in without anything 
like the reward that must follow the regu- 
lar perusal of a journal so full of history 
and general information on a subject in 
which every son and daughter of Pennsyl- 
vania-German origin is more or less in- 
terested. 

The Pennsylv.'\nia-German is a good, 
bright magazine, and is doing a good work 
in showing the frugality, integrity and 
influence of the German forefathers in the 
early settlement of Pennsylvania as well 
as many other States. 

P-S. — The magazine which you publish 
is of such an mteresting nature that I 
think if the attention of the Pennsylvania- 
German people is called to it the majority 
of them interested in historical facts Will 
greatly appreciate your efforts. For my- 
self I can say that I do not receive a 
magazine (and I receive quite a number 
at my home) which gives me more pleas- 
ure and interest than your publication. 
Hope you will be able to keep on with the 
good work and do a power of good, not 
only to the Pennsylvania-German people, 
but to everyone who reads same. 

Send me the January issue of The 
Penn.sylv.\nia-German as usual. I will 
discontinue all my other papers. 



The KutztOwn Patriot of December 28, 1907, 
incidentally brought evidence that the Penn- 
sylvania-Germans lind their way out into the 
wide world when it gave in a column of 
Personals the names and addresses of the fol- 
lowing who had returned to Kutztown as their 
native town to spend Christmas : 

Solon A. Reinhard Cincinnati, O. 

Prof. G. A. Kramlich Galveston, Tex. 

Lieut. R. J. Herman West Point, N. Y. 

B. S. Schmeuhl Philadelphia, Pa. 



Dr. H. J. Rhode Reading, Pa. 

Mrs. B. E. Moritz Denver.Colorado. 

Jesse Wanner Baltimore, Md. 

Solomon Rhode Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. R. Wanner Washington, D. C. 

Ralph Scheidt Lake Odessa, Mich. 

Jacob Fisher Fort Riley, U. S. A. 

Prof. C. A. Smith Yonkers, N. Y. 

These all fill responsible positions and are 
but a few of the many who have gone forth 
from the old town to win their wav in the world. 



92 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Clippings from Current News 



Oswald Family Organization. 

At a meeting of some of the descendants of 
Henry Oswald held at the Hotel Allen, Allen- 
town, on January 4 for the purpose of effect- 
ing a temporary family organization, the fol- 
lowing oiticers were elected : President, Rev. 
Charles Everett Oswald, New York City; 
Vice-Presidents, Lewis H. Oswald, Emerald ; 
Amandus Oswald, Freeland ; James A. Os- 
wald, New Tripoli; John S. Oswald, Nazareth; 
Amandus C. Oswald, Coplay ; Henry E. Os- 
wald, Binghamton, N. Y. ; Treasurer, Chas. E. 
Oswald, Best, Pa. ; Secretary Guy E. Oswald, 
Hokendauqua ; Executive Committee, the offi- 
cers. 

Henr}' Oswald, the progenitor, leaving his 
native home, Alsace, near the Swiss border, 
arrived in America in 1735, and became one of 
the pioneer settlers of "Allemangel," what is 
now Lynn township, Lehigh county. 

A branch of the family established itself in 
the early part of the last century in north- 
eastern Ohio, and from here, in southern 
Michigan and Indiana, where in certain locali- 
ties the descendants are among the most sub- 
stantial and honored citizens. What is prac- 
tically a complete genealogy of the family has 
been compiled by the Rev. C. E. Oswald, of 
New York City, with the help of James A. 
Oswald, which was recently printed in book 
form. 

Tablet Unveiled. 

A tablet to the memory of the Rev. Dr. 
Joseph A. Seiss was unveiled in the Church 
of the Holy Communion, Rev. E. Pfatteicher, 
Ph.D., pastor. Doctor Seiss was pastor of St. 
John's Church, on Race street, in 1870, when 
the congregation of the Holy Commjinion was 
organized, and he became pastor when the 
church at Broad and Arch streets was dedi- 
cated, on February 17, 1875. The congregation 
left the Broad street church in 1902 and after 
worshiping a year in Witherspoon Hall, moved 
into their present building. The Rev. Dr. 
Samuel A. Laird, who delivered the address, 
declared that "no more useful life has been 
spent in the interests of the Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church." The tablet reads : "To the 
glory of God and in loving memorv of the 
Rev. Joseph A. Seiss, D.D., LL.D. Born 1823— 
Died 1904. Author and Preacher. First pastor 
of this congregation, and its faithful minister 
for 29 years." The pastor conducted the serv- 
ice. 

Removal of German Baptist Home. 

The trustees of the German Baptist Home 
for the aged and Infirm, at Manheim, have 
decided to remove that institution to Elizabeth- 
town, where a $20,000 building is to be erect- 
ed in the center of a ten acre field, close to the 
Elizabethtown College. 



Hillegass Marker. 

Through the efforts of the members of the 
Hillegass family of East Greenville and vicin- 
ity, a granite marker has been placed at the 
graves of the progenitors of the family in 
America, who lie buried in the cemeterv of the 
New Goshenhoppen Reformed Church. 

The stone is four feet wide at the base and 
nearly two feet thick. Its height is three feet. 
On the top is the following inscription : 

"Pioneer Settlers — 1727. John Frederick 
Hillegass, November 24, 1685-January 6, 
1765. Elizabeth Barbara Hillegass, died 
March 4, 1769." 

The front of the stone bears the following: 
"John Frederick Hillegass, the progenitor 
of the Montgomery County branch of the 
Hillegass family, now distributed over the 
United States, was born in Alsace, Ger- 
many. With his wife, Elizabeth, Barbara 
and younger children, he sailed from Rot- 
terdam to America with the company in- 
cluding the Rev. George Michael Weiss, 
a Reformed minister. They arrived at 
Philadelphia September 18, 1727, and set- 
tled in this region, then known as Goshen- 
hoppen. Erected by his descendants, 
1907." 

Church Dedicated. 

St. John's Reformed Church, Nazareth, Pa., 
organized in 1855 with yi members, worshiped 
in a Union Church building till May, 1905, when 
they sold their half share in the property to the 
Lutherans for $5000. They began building 
operations the following September on a new 
church that cost about $55,000 which was dedi- 
cated, December, 1907. When the present pas- 
tor took charge in 1891, there were 175 mem- 
bers ; now there are about 800, with an 
equal number in the Sunday-school. 

Printer Retires. 

April 6, 1859, Daniel Miller entered a print- 
ing office at Lebanon as apprentice. Since 
that date to the present time he has been con- 
nected with the printing business, and has 
never been away from the business any length 
of time, except in the year 1863, when he spent 
two months in the army during the Confed- 
erate invasion of Pennsylvania and the battle 
of Gettysburg. Ten years were spent in the 
printing office of John Young at Lebanon. On 
January i, 1869, he came to Reading and en- 
gaged in the printing and publishing business, 
and has been engaged ever since in this way. 
His first enterprise was the "Republikaner von 
Berks," a German weekly which he edited and 
published more than thirty years. During a 
similar period he served as publishing agent of 
the "Reformirte Hausfreund," whose editor 
and proprietor was Dr. Bausman. On April 



CLIPPINGS FROM CURRENT NEWS 



93 



I, 1888, about twenty years ago, the "Re- 
formed Church Record" was started, which 
he edited ever since. At the same time he 
was engaged in the job printing and book pub- 
Hshing business. A number of volumes were 
published which found an extensive sale. He 
recently sought and secured relief by selling 
out to Rev. I. j\I. Beaver. 

OBITUARIES. 

Mrs. Cathrine Tool died in Ackley, Iowa, 
December 3. She was born in Lehigh county. 
Pa., in 1814, her maiden name being Cathrine 
Bear. About the year 1863 the family moved 
to Springfield, Illinois, whence they moved to 
Ackley in 1867. Five children were born to 
them, three of whom — Eugene, of Murdock, 
Nebraska; J\lrs. Nicklas, of Omaha, and Reed, 
of this city, — are living. Two sons, Albert and 
Henry, preceded her in death. There are 
twenty-two grandchildren and thirty-five 
great-grandchildren living; also two sisters, 
Mrs. Henry Reifinger, Niles, Ohio, and INIrs. 
John Jacoby, of Emaus, Pa. 

Dr. Edward Brobst died at West Leesport 
a few hours before the old year expired. He 
was a son of Valentine Brobst, who died at 
Rehrersburg, at the age of eighty-eight years. 
Dr. Brobst was born at that place, September 
I5> 1833. He attended day schools until the 
age of twelve years, when he became a stu- 
dent at the Orwigsburg Academy, where he 
remained four years. He then entered the 
medical department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, from which place be graduated in 
1853. He read medicine with the long-de- 
ceased Dr. Adam Schoener, of Rehrersburg. 

Shortly after leaving college, he located at 
Danville. Several years later, friends urged 
him to locate at Leesport. In his younger 
days he made nearly all his visits on horse- 
back. 

Dr. Frank R. Brunner, one of the vic- 
tims of the Boyertown catastrophe, lived in 
Esbach, Berks county, and was widely known 
for his exceptional ability as a general prac- 
titioner, a surgeon and a writer on medical 
subjects. He was also well known politically, 
having for several terms represented the 
Democratic party of the countv in the House 
of Representatives. Recently he was invited 
to become a candidate for renomination at 
the next primary election. He was also in- 
terested in educational matters, having for 
many years served on the school board. He 
was 72) years old, but in spite of his age at- 
tended daily to the details of his large prac- 
tice and found time also to write for medical 
journals and other periodicals. 

William F. Moser, aged 72, years, one of 
the wealthiest men in Eastern Pennsylvania, 
died at his home in Allentown. He was at 
the head of the firm of Wm. F. Moser & Co., 
cement machine manufacturers. Practically 
all the machines in the Lhiited States used to 
manufacture cement were the product of this 
firm. 



Nathaniel N. Hensel, one of the best 
known men of Lancaster county, died at Fair- 
field, aged 80 years. He was prominent in 
Republican affairs for many years, He came 
of_ German stock, his great-grandfather, Fred- 
erick Hensel, being one of the earliest settlers 
of Northampton county. A son of this emi- 
grant, William, served in the Revolutionary 
War, and was one of Washington's army at 
Valley Forge. The father of Nathaniel was 
also a William Hensel, and a soldier of the 
War of 1812. Ex-Attorney Gfneral W. U. 
Hensel is a nephew of the deceased. 

Mrs. Ellmaker^ one of the prominent mem- 
bers, for many years, of Trinity Lutheran 
church, who died on December 24th, was one 
of the chief ornaments of the city of Lan- 
caster. Born February 27, 1825, the daughter 
of Christopher and Catharine Sehner Hager, 
she lived to the ripe old age of nearly 83 
years. She was the widow of Nathaniel Ell- 
maker, Esq., for years one of the leaders of 
the Lancaster bar, who died in 1898, and was 
the last surviving member of her immediate 
family. The Lancaster New Era says of her: 

"On the eve of the New Year this commun- 
ity mourns the loss of a rarely lovely woman, 
one whose long and useful life has been identi- 
fied with the best interests of Lancaster. Cul- 
tured, broad-minded, generous, and with the 
highest ideals, her beautiful character influ- 
enced for good all those who came in contact 
with her." 

Mr. Thomas H. Lane, of Pittsburg, passed 
away December 31st, at the age of seventy- 
nine years. He was a member of the First 
Lutheran church, on Grant street, and an of- 
ficer in it for many years, besides being the 
superintendent of the Sunday-school for nearly 
half of his life-time. He was a supporter of 
the American Bible Society, and was among 
the earliest officers of the Pittsburg Y. M. 
C. A., filling, also, for some time, the office of 
director of the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb 
in Western Pennsylvania. 

Dr. John Peter Keller, last surviving 
charter member of the local Young Men's 
Christian Association, and charter member and 
president of the Dauphin County Historical 
Society, died recently, after a lingering illness, 
aged 76 years. He was the descendant of one 
of the oldest families of Harrisburg. Mr. 
Keller, besides being a member of the above 
mentioned societies, was a prominent member 
of the Sons of Revolution, the Knights of 
Honor, and a lifelong member of Zion Luther- 
an church, in which he held every office at 
different times. Dr. Keller was born Febru- 
ary 20, 1831, in the house where his death 
occurred, and grew up with the city. His 
parents were John Peter and Lydia (Kunkel) 
Keller, and both of his grandfathers came 
to Harrisburg when it was a Colonial vil- 
lage and were among the first settlers here. 

Rev. Dr. J. H. Weber, pastor of Zion's 
church, Sunbury, Pa., died at Clifton Springs, 
New York, Jan. Q, 1908. 



94^ 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Chat with Correspondents 



Words Defined. 

The query in the December issue respecting 
the strange terms in the account of sale of a 
farmer's property in 1757 elicited a number of 
interesting replies from which we quote the 
following : 

Brust Lapen — Vest or Chest protector. 

Cabuts Rock — Hood with mantle at- 
tached, like Red Riding Hood is pictured 
with. 

Camasol — Knitted jacket. 

Hauben — Knitted cap. 

leil Tuch— Oil cloth. 

Schreibtaffel — Writing desk or black- 
board. 

Statwagen — Fancy carriage of that 
period, the best they had. 

Stick barchet — Piece ticking. 

Boll, I think was a large wooden bowl 
used in working butter. I have seen them 
as large as small tubs. The one I saw 
used was as large around as a good-sized 
tub. 

Cabuts Rock was a plain coat with no 
collar, buttoned up to the throat and a 
narrow band around the neck. English 
people called them hunting jackets. 

Icil Tuch was oil cloth. 

Stat IVagoii was the market wagon used 
at that time to haul produce to Philadel- 
phia. 

Stiller was a distillery used on most 
farms at that time to make rye and apple 
jack. 

Stipfcl was a pair of boots. 

Waga ]Vinn was a wagon jack. 

Zeug Rock was an overcoat. 

5o//— Velvet. 

Brust lappcn — Kerchief. 

Cabutz Rock — Coat or cloak with a hood 
to cover head. 

Camasol — Vest or waistcoat. 

Hauben — Lace caps. 

Krapen? — Krappe, a gun lock. 

Tcil tuch — Oil cloth. 

Kumcth — Harness. 

Sclircib tofcl — Slate. 

Stat zvagoi — Carriage. 

Stick Barchet — Piece fustian. 

IVagcit Win — Jack to raise axle of 
wagon. 

Zeug Rock — Coat or dress of dress stuff. 

A boll is a dippper; a brust-lapen (lap- 
pen) is a gentleman's vest; a cabuts rock 
is a coat with a capuchin cowl or hood at 
the top; a camasol (kamisol) is a doublet 
or roundabout — a jacket; a haube is a 
woman's hood or cap ; a list kumeth is a 
kind of horse collar, — a fals collar ; screib- 
taffel is undoubtedly a writing-tablet 
whether of slate or not, but why not of 
slate? A statwagen is a pleasure carriage, 
whether it means a wagon in which to 



ride to the city (stadt) or a wagon of state 
( staat meaning style, display, as staat- 
machen means to make a display). Stick 
Barchet is a piece (Stiick) fustian. A 
wagon win is a wagon-jack, a lifting ap- 
paratus, a windlass, or a winch. Zeug. 
Rock is a cloth coat, a stuf dres, or petty- 
coat. 

The following are rather surmises: 
Kraoen may be a each or tumbler as a. 
part of the make-up of a gun. Stiller is- 
probably what we would call a stil or per- 
haps more likely an apparatus used to stiL 
a child. 

Note. — The author of these lines, a well known, 
educator, is an advocate of spelling reform. 

Boll— PBolle m., bull. 

? Bolle f., bulb, onion ; poplar ; po- 
tato ; watch. 
Brust — Breast. 
Lapen — ? Lapin, rabbit. 

? Lappen, rag; sail; thin part of 
sides of a butchered animal. 
Cabuts — For Kapuga ? — cowl ; hood ; golf- 
cape. 
Rock — Coat, skirt. 

Rocken — distaff. 
Camasol — For Kamisol ? — Jacket, under- 

waistcoat. 
Hauben — ? Hauben, pi. of Haube — woman's- 

cap. 
Krapen — ? for Krappen — doughnut, fritter. 
? for Krappe, pi. Krappen — ^catch. 
of a gun. 
leil — ? for Teil — part. 
Tuch — Cloth, stuff, material. 
Statwagen — ? Stadtwagen — wagon for the 

city, used in the city. 
Stiller — Appeaser. 

Stipffel — ? for Stipsel — bit, small piece. 
? for Stiefel — boot. 
? Stopfel — cork, stopper. 
Stick — ? Stiick, piece. t 

Barchet — ? Barchent, fustian. 
Wagen — ? Wagon. 
Win — ? uein, wine. 
Zeug — Cloth, stuff. 
Where doctors disagree, who shall decide?' 
The reader will notice that these replies agree- 
on some points and disagree on others. Who- 
can give more light on the subject? 

" Himmels Breef " Wanted. 

A valued reader and contributor writes : 
Do you know of any firm publishing 
or selling copies of the so-called "Himmel's- 
Breef at this time? I would like to pro- 
cure a copy. 
We refer this query to our readers, believ- 
ing that some one can supply the desired in- 
formation. As some of our subscribers- 
would probably like to know more of the 
Himmel's Breef we would be pleased to print 
a short paper on the subject. 



OUR BOOK TABLE 



95 



Our Book-Table 



Any book or pamphlet reviewed in this magazine will be sent to any address by the publisher of The 
Pennsylvania-Gkrman on receipt of the published price. Postage must be added when mentioned sep- 
arately. Any other book wanted by our readers may be ordered thro' us at the publisher's price. Inquiries 
relating to such books will be promptly and cheerfully answered. 



Luther's Catechetical Writings, Vol. I. By 
Prof. John Nicholas Lenke, D.D. The 
Luther Press, MinneapoHs, Minn. 1907. 
384 p. Price, $2.25. 
This is Vohinie 24 of the "Standard Edition 
' of Luther's Works in English," and is devoted 
to Christian Education, a most opportune 
theme at the present day, when we seem to be 
drifting towards a Godless and Christless 
theory and system of education. The follow- 
ing works by Luther are contained in the vol- 
ume : The Small Catechism, A New Trans- 
lation of Luther's Large Catechism and the 
best writings of Luther on the five parts of 
the Catechism. Prof. G. H. Schodde, Ph.D., 
Prof. A. G. Voigt, D.D., and Rev. C. B. 
Gohdes rendered valuable assistance as trans- 
lators. The volume is dedicated "to parents 
and teachers, pastors and authors, Sunday- 
schools and Young People's Societies and all 
Protestants interested in developing a better 
system of Christian instruction, supplementary 
to that of the public schools." The Foreword 
of 15 pages gives interesting data respecting 
the Catechisms. The editor offers the work 
"as a humble contributor to the meager 
Christian pedagogical and catechetical litera- 
ture in the English language." 

Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society. 
Published by the Society under the editor- 
ship of Louis F. Benson, D.D., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 
The December number contains an interest- 
ing article by Prof. W. J. Hinke, Ph.D., on 
The Early German Hymn Books of the Re- 
formed Church in the United States. 

Journal of the Military Service Institution. 

Edited by Brig. Gen. Theo. F. Roden- 

bough, U. S. A., Governor's Island, N. Y. 

The January-February number discusses : 

Public Opinion and Army, Conduct of War, 



Art in Army, Cavalry in Late War, Accuracy 
Life of Rifle, Military Bands, etc. 

DeutscJi-AnierikaniscJic Gcschichts-bldtter. Pub- 
lished by the German-American Historical 
Society of Illinois, Chicago, 111. 
The January number of this interesting quar- 
terly has articles on The Earliest German Set- 
tlers in Indiana to the Year 1850, The German 
Settlements of the Seida Valley, On Old Ger- 
man Tracks (in Virginia), The Germans in 
Kentucky, Conclusion of Sketch of Life of 
Political Fugitive of 1848, History of the Ger- 
mans in Quincy, The Americanization of the 
Germans in the United States (reprinted from 
Deutsche Erde). 

The Montgomery Transcript, Skippack, Pa.^ 
recently reprinted an interesting paper by Hon. 
S. W. Pennypacker, LL.D., on Bebber's Town- 
ship and the Dutch Patroons of Pennsylvania. 

Woman's Home Companion begins Vol. 
XXXV in the January number with 50 pages- 
devoted to Editorials, Fiction, Special Articles,. 
Household, Fashions, Art, Verse, Music, Spe- 
cial Departments for young and old. This 
monthly is a good forger, forging right ahead 
and to the front ranks in its special field. 

The Hartford Courant of January 16 had 
a very appreciative editorial on the Germans 
based on the address by Herman Riddle de- 
livered before the German Friendly Society of 
Charleston, S. C. 

The Travel Magazine, New York. 

The January number of- this interesting and 
fully illustrated popular periodical takes the 
reader to North Carolina, Germany, Japan,. 
Switzerland. Mexico, Africa, Colorado, Cali- 
fornia. The February issue gives a glimpse of 
Valley Forge as it is today. 



Literary Notes 



BY PROF. E. S. GERHARD, TRENTON, N. J. 



John Luther Long. 

John Luther Long, a Pennsylvanian by birth, 
and by profession an attorney-at-law in Phila- 
delphia, is one of the regular contributors to 
The Fortnightly. This is a newniagazine just 
started in Philadelphia. It ought to receive 
the support of all the loyal citizens of the 
State, who take an interest in music, literature 
and the stage. Mr. Long contributed to the 



first issue (Oct. 19) an interesting article in 
the form of a review of the stage. In addi- 
tion to his law practice Mr. Long devotes con- 
siderable time to authorship. He has become a 
writer of some repute; among his novels are 
"Madame Butterfly," "The Fox Woman,'' etc. 
His latest novel is "The Gulf" He has also- 
written some good stories in the Pennsylvania- 
German dialect. 



^ 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Reginald Wright Kauffman. 

Reginald Wright Kauffman was born in 
Columbia, Pa. Since 1898 he has been con- 
nected with the Philadelphia Press and Satur- 
day Evening Post. With his journalism he has 
also united the efforts of authorship. Among 
his writings are "Jarvis of Harvard" and "The 
Things That are Caesar's." His latest book is 
"The Bachelor's Guide to ^Matrimony." It is 
epigrammatic in style ; the" epigrams are brief 
in form, bright in expression, and disclose the 
social philosophy of newspaper humor. 

^Ir. Kauffman's article in the December issue 
of The Smart Set is entitled "The Women 
You Have Loved." The Stuart Set considers 
itself a magazine of cleverness, and rightly so. 
And Mr. Kauffman's article is readily entitled 
to the terms clever and smart. It is a piece of 
-clever writing. The writer elicits an honest 
confession from every man that has ever felt 
the "grand passion." By saying serious things 
in jest and by pointing out our foibles and 
weaknesses and catering to them, he reminds 
one of Charles Lamb. He also makes a fellow 
think over, once more, some of the "long, 
long thoughts of youth" — and of yesterday. 

Helen Riemensnyder Martin. 

Helen Martin Riemensnyder was born and 
raised in the city of Lancaster, Pa. Her middle 
name may well suggest her ancestry. 

His Courtship. By Helen Riemensnyder 
Martin. New York: McClure Phillips & Co. 

The Betrothal of Elypholate (and other 
Stories of the Pennsylvania-Dutch). Bv Helen 
Riemensnyder Martin. New York: The Cen- 
tury Co. 

The latter book is comprised of stories that 
have been collected from "The Cosmopolitan," 
""Frank Leslie's" and "McClure's." Both 
books are handsomely bound and artistically 
illustrated. 

When you have read one of these books you 
have read them all. The self-same type of 
Pennsylvania-German is found in everyone of 
them. Her characters are as similar as the 
palings on a fence; in fact, one wonders 
whether they are real persons or whether they 
are simply the impersonation of some unde- 
sirable trait falsely attributed to the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans. And as for Eunice in "His 
Courtship," one may well question the possibil- 
ity of such a character at all. , 

Every scene is placed on a farm as though 
all _ the Pennsylvania-Germans were farmers. 
This idea leaves a false impression ; they are 
not all farmers, many of them make an honest 
living as business and professional men, as 
mechanics and merchants. In nearly every 
story a boarder is introduced from afar, as 
though these people were in the habit of keep- 
ing boarders, or some one's sweetheart is 
hrought into the family in order to heighten 
the contrast. We are informed repeatedly that 
all Pennsylvania-German kitchens are living 
rooms as well. This is a general statement 



that will not hold true for two families out of 
every three. Ever> farmer's wife is described 
as stout, corpulent and awkward, as though 
they were all of that build. Unfortunately 
Mrs. Martin has not seen c.-"ough of them to 
know that her description is Jt from being 
accurate. 

Every farmer is depicted as mean, sordid 
and "close," whether he be Mr. Getz in "Tillie," 
or Mr. Morningstar in "His Courtship," or 
Mr. Lapp in "Reforming a Bridegroom." If a 
farmer tries to earn a dollar or save one, he is 
sneered at. Why may he not earn and save 
wherever he can as well as other people with- 
out bringing upon himself a lot of opprobrious 
terms? Of a lazy, scheming scoundrel, who 
lives not by honest toil, but by polite, open 
theft, nothing is said. Many of these families, 
like the Morningstars, have a daughter whom 
they are anxious to have well established by 
marrying money. Of course nobody else ever 
marries for money. 

The fact that the children of these people are 
reared in implicit obedience to paternal author- 
ity is brought to our notice several times in 
somewhat slighting terms. It might be well 
if lawless Young America were held more in 
submission to such authority and be taught 
to reverence authority and superiority more, 
both paternal and otherwise. 

The Pennsylvania-Germans have their idio- 
syncracies and weaknesses, their shortcomings 
and failings, like all other people. But people 
can be found anywhere, everywhere, that are 
just as peculiar as they are. Just why their 
undesirable traits should be flashed before the 
world is not very clear. One hopes, however, 
that it is not done for the purpose of catering 
to the morbid curiosity of the spectacular- 
loving American public, which seems to take 
delight in these over-drawn, grotesque scenes. 
And to take these same traits, characteristic of 
one small section of the country, and to brand 
them upon the whole of Pennsylvania-German- 
doni is uncalled foj and unjust. 

She has not described one single noble trait 
or admirable characteristic of these people. 
But she has gone to the other extreme ; she 
accuses them of having "struck a bargain with 
the Almighty" in their religious life; Dr. Kin- 
ross is made to say that he never encountered 
a more cow-like herd of people than the 
Morningstars ; and the Pennsylvania-German 
farmer is accused of having integrity only be- 
cause he fears hell ! These are statements that 
need to be resented in the strongest terms. To 
sa\^ that these people have no virtues and noble 
traits and charities is false on the face of it. 
She gives this, however, as a reason for not 
being able to idealize these people. But might 
not the fault lie with the artist ? 

Mrs. Martin is a successful writer ; her books 
are exceedingly interesting from beginning to 
end, and consequently they have gained a wide 
popularity. It is to be hoped that she will some 
day, by exercising broader observation and 
more sympathetic and artistic treatment depict 
the Pennsylvania-German, not as he is found 
in Lancaster county, but in Pennsylvania. 







Henry A. Schuler. 

Born, July 12, 1850. 
Died, Jan. 14, 1908. 



I 






Vol. IX MARCH, 1908 

Henry A. Schuler 

BY THE PUBLISHER 
FroDiispiece by courtesy of TOWN AND COUNTRY, Pennsburg. Pa. 



No. 3 




ENRY ADDISON 
SCHULER "walked with 
God, and he was not, for 
God took him." The gentle, 
humble, tenderhearted stu- 
dent, poet, linguist, editor. 
Christian has entered the larger' world 
of progress unlimited of which he himself 
in 1 88 1 wrote these words : 

I believe the spirits of the good will rise 
higher and higher from one stage of intelli- 
gence and happiness to another through all the 
ages of eternity. I believe they will be angels 
and become more ^nd more like the Divine 
Being Himself, but I do not believe, I can 
not, that the end of it all will be annihilation, 
non-existence or a state of utter inactivity which 
will be one of consummate bliss. There is no 
bliss in inaction, no life in death, no happiness 
in a state which leaves nothing to do, nothing 
to hope, nothing to wish. Our destiny is in- 
finite, our life immortal, our rise and progress 
unlimited forever. 

Through the kindness of his executor, 
Mr. Henry S. Mover, it has become 
possible to draw aside at places the curtain 
of privacy screening the activities of the 
deceased and to let others see a glimpse 
of a sweet hidden life. Should any excuse 
other than a desire and a feeling of duty 
in the matter be sought for inflicting this 
sketch on our readers we would quote 
the words of a warm friend of the 
deceased, Rev. Dr. P. C. Croll, of Leba- 
non, Pa. 

I was greatly shocked some time ago to note 
the death of our mutual friend, Mr. Schuler, 
and felt like writing to you as nearest asso- 
ciated with him Let me assure you 

that I mourn his demise and sympathize with 
you in the trials it may bring to your life and 
business relations. ... I hope, too, to see in 
an early number a fitting sketch of his life, 
with a portrait, if possible. 



What follows is not worthy . of the 
dignity implied in the term, a fitting 
sketch. Let the words rather be regarded^ 
as a few inadequate kaleidoscopic views 
of a noble Christian, to know whom was 
to love him, to associate with whom an 
honor, an inspiration, an intellectual treat.' 

H. A., the only child of Thomas and 
Elizabeth {nee Kemmerer) Schuler, was 
born, July I2, 1850, in Upper Milford 
township, Lehigh county, not far from 
Treichlersville, (Hereford Post Office,) 
Berks county, Pennsylvania. The fol- 
lowing spring, the family moved into a 
lowly loghouse, replaced in 1855 by a 
stone dwelling house, on a small farm of 
21 acres across the county line in Berks 
county where the subject of our sketch 
spent his early life. 

He became a public school teacher in 
the year 1870 and pursued the profession 
of teaching in Lehigh and Berks counties 
until 1 88 1 when after having taught ten 
terms he entered the editorial sanctum of 
the German newspapers, the "Boten," 
published in Allentown, Pa. 

On the fifth of October, 1881 he was 
married to Sarah A., daughter of Gabriel 
and Rachel Griesemer, a neighboring 
family, with whom he lived as a dutiful 
and exemplary husband to her death, 
July 3, 1901, after having endured many 
years of cruel suffering. 

His editorial labors brought to an end 
for a season in 1903, were resumed in 
1906, when as editor he took charge of 
this magazine. The Pennsylvania-Ger- 
MAN, a position he held at the time of 
his death. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



He was taken sick with a severe attack 
of pneumonia, January 9, and Tuesday, 
January 14, i A. M., peacefully passed 
away to his reward. His remains were 
laid to rest January 17, by the side of 
the graves of his wife and parents in the 
Zionsville Lutheran Cemetery. 

Distinctive Characteristic. 

The distinctive characteristic, the 
controlling master-passion of Mr. Schuler, 
was undoubtedly what he himself termed 
an "irrepressible desire for self improve- 
ment." This affected and shaped his 
plans, his activities at every period of his 
life. It is impossible accurately to analyze 
and w^eigh the various forces that helped 
to arouse this career. Mr. Schuler, un- 
• able to do this himself in discussing the 
occupations of his childhood, expressed 
his own view thus : 

These were not wholly the result of m}- soli- 
tary condition, but they were in a great meas- 
ure. How and by whom the mipulses were 
given that have shaped and moulded my whole 
future life it is hard even for me to tell. This 
love of knowledge and letters can not be in- 
nate since neither of my parents ever mani- 
fested it, nor was it owing to their counsel 
and direction, for though they laid the founda- 
tion of my knowledge and were pleased to see 
me become studious and fond of books, they 
gave me but little advice and encouragement 
afterwards. I can explain this peculiarity of 
my intellect only by asserting that it was the 
will of Providence that it should be so. 

Under God's Providence his life and 
attainments were in great measure deter- 
mined by the following factors, of relative 
importance in the order named — heredity, 
environment, deliberate choice and res- 
olute unyielding determination. His 
parents were quite, humble, pious, unas- 
suming people, living in a secluded spot 
along a hillside facing the North and 
West, close by primeval forests and re- 
moved from the many distractions against 
which the youth of the town and city so 
often fight without success. Being an 
only child he was not called upon to 
share with others the parents' nurture, love 
and care. Nor were daily bread and 
clothing and shelter the only questions 
to be considered around the peaceful 
hearth, llis books were limited in num- 
bers, his companions but few, the 
temptations to dissipation not numerous. 
Situated thus he might apply himself to 



his books, drinking deep at the Pierian 
spring or hie himself to his forest haunts 
to think, to commune with nature and 
thus quietly, unwittingly perhaps, to lay 
the foundations of a stately mansion for 
his soul while others of his age, having 
better advantages, wasted their possibili- 
ties in ease, pleasure and caring for the 
things of time and flesh. The limited 
irieans at his disposal seemingly did not 
warrant his undertaking a college course 
by residence, thus depriving him of many 
privileges, saving him from many pitfalls 
and necessitating a methodic husbanding 
of time, means and effort to attain as 
nearly as possible his heart's desires. 
He made stepping stones instead of 
stumbling blocks of the privations fate 
had decreed for him. 

His Boyhood. 

It will be both interesting and instruc- 
tive to linger around his boyhood home 
and haunts and to note a few of his 
varied lines of activity. The beginning 
of his literally career he describes as fol" 
lows : 

It was during this time while we had our 
abode in the old shop (1855) that my father 
bought for me the first German primer and 
gave nie the rudiments of my literary knowl- 
edge bv teaching me to know letters and to 
read. I have a faint remembrance that one 
morning I was called out of bed with the an- 
nouncement that now ''the A B C-Buch" was 
at hand and I must learn my letters, and that 
I was really afraid at first and altogether • 
unwilling to have anything to do with it. The 
sign of a blockhead, however, soon passed 
away, and probably it did not take me long 
to know the alphabet, for the next remem- 
brance I have of this matter is of myself read- 
ing in the old Biblical story book under the 
direction of my father, stopping only at the 
longer words, mistaking "Jesus" for "Johan- 
nes" and the like, and of printing upon slate 
and paper the letters of the English and Ger- 
man alpha]>cts. From the time of my learning 
to read through the remainder of this period 
as well as through my whole after life my 
history is mainly that of my literary pastimes 
and pursuits. Whence I got thp first impulse 
to printing I can not tell, but I know that as 
soon as I could rcad a little, which was in 
a short time, I began to draw letters in print 
form and ore long this practice became such 
a favorite that 1 spent hours and days in 
copying from the books at my command. 

The books which Mr. Schuler first 
learned to use were an old Biblical story 
book, the Piible, his mother's old Lutheran 



IlKXRY A. 'SCIll'Ll'-R 



"f=pfi'" 'yff~^^ "W^ 



■mi^ 







■THEOLDHOME •■ OF H. A. SCHULEIR. 



hymnbook, a story book, an English 
primer and an English-German Diction- 
ary. By the aid of the latter he trans- 
lated his German primer into English, 
his toil often doomed to disappointment 
as he failed to find English equivalents to 
the German monosyllabic words. Soon 
after he tried to produce fac-similes of 
his mother's mutilated hymnbook. He 
attempted prose composition before he 
was seven and before he was nine he made 
a poem, probably his first effort in original 
verse, in which he ])redicted in strongest 
terms the defeat and punishment of a 
workman with whom he was quarreling 
nearly all the time. 

He soon learned to read the Biblical 
stories, the Bible and the Friedensbote, 
a family paper, and found pleasure in 
reading to visitors. 

He was taught to believe in bugbears, 
monsters and nonentities of all sorts. 
His exceedingly active imagination fed 
by these stories and the pictures he saw 
produced dreams by night which he 
termed "absolutely terrific." 

He had his day dreams as well. At 
seven he was Xebuchadnezzar a mighty 
king, commanding a great body of war- 
riors. At nine he had reared in imagina- 
tion a Macedonian emi)ire with himself 



the king and historian of a noble band of 
warriors. Soon he and his comrades 
would be Mountain Rangers roaming 
over the wooded hills east of his home. 

His love of instrumental music he 
traced to an uncle working with and for 
his father who with violin and flute gave 
young Henry many a pleasant hour. 
One of his first school teachers made his 
pupils sing eight times a day and thus 
probably was awakened a love for vocal 
music. 

The great event of this early life was 
the finding of several bundles of stray 
leaves of books, a considerable number 
altogether, rolled up and stuck under the 
rafters of the old loghouse which his 
father used as a workshop. He was soon 
busy reading and translating the pages 
of an encyclopaedia for such was the new 
treasure he had found. The leaves in 
spite of his fondness and efforts to re- 
produce were one by one lost until at 
last only a few remained. 

When young Henry at the age of nine 
for the first time entered a school house 
as a pupil he was able to take up as one 
of his studies, Sanders' Second Reader, 
thanks to the careful teaching by a loving 
father. When he returned from school in 
the evening his mother asked him what his 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



impressions had been at school to which 
he replied that he had had all kinds of 
thoughts. 

As a boy of ten he spelled down all 
his opponents at the first spelling bee he 
ever attended. But neither of these items 
afiford a true estimate of his accomplish- 
ments at the time. There is still extant 
a small blank book of his in which at the 
age of nine he copied expressions in 
German, English. Latin, Greek, Hebrew 
and French, besides the names of planets 
and stars. In addition he adorned the 
pages with drawings of faces etc. 

Speaking of this early period Mr. 
Schuler wrote : 

A strange child, indeed, I must have seemed 
to others, and many were the expressions of 
surprise and compHments bestowed by those 
who came to observe me. . . . Though this 
work was my delight, I could not do without 
some recreation, and when too long continued 
application had wearied me even of my favor- 
ite "printing," I would wander abroad in the 
fields, invent some new plan and earnestly dis- 
cussing what I had done or would do next. 

Time and space will not allow a 
consideration of how the man and scholar 
grew out of this precocious boy. Data 
are at hand to trace with considerable 
accuracy his intellectual progress from 
this time forward. 

Physical Toil. 

Lest the unwarranted inference be 
drawn that the subject of our sketch failed 
to learn by experience what physical toil 
meant it may be in place to note that he 
aided his father in the tillage of his acres, 
he served as a daylaborer on farms in the 
community and cast his lot for a time 
with the workmen in the ore mines near 
Minesite, Lehigh county. As a boy he 
with book in hand would keep watch over 
the cows grazing by the roadside ; his 
thoughts would wander, so would the 
cows. For a time he had an ambition to 
own and work with horses as the farmers' 
boys of the community. When he was 
eighteen his father wanted to make a 
carpenter of him but a week's experience 
was sufficient to settle the matter and the 
project was dropped. The son recalled 
the experience in these words : 

I felt just as if going into slavery; my whole 
soul rebelled against the work thus forced 
upon me. The work of the fields was a de- 



light to me. but this was a drudgery I hated, 
not so much for itself but on account of the 
condition of bondage which an apprenticeship 
seemed to my free spirit. 

A Self-Made Man. 

Mr. Schuler was a self-made man if 
such a term is predicable of any one. 
His advantages in public school were, 
according to his own estimate, far inferior 
to those the present generation enjoys even 
in the remotest rural district. He attended 
the Normal School at Alillersville a few 
weeks in 1874 and a Spring term in 1875. 
He spent a few weeks in both the Fall and 
Spring terms of 1876-77 at the Normal 
School at Kutztown where he passed the 
final examinations for a Diploma and 
graduated in the Elementary Course in 
June 1877. 

Mr. Schuler early formed habits and 
began to follow set rules that he followed 
ever thereafter. The result was that he 
became a methodic man with a place for 
everything and everything in its place. 
Death found his will, his papers, all his 
affairs in order as if prepared with the 
knowledge that his end was at hand. His 
Daily Records, his Memoranda ("Mem- 
oranda Armenionis, the Thottght-Records 
of a Thoughtful Mind"), his Financial 
Records were begun before he was 21 
years of age. It was for many years his 
unfailing custom to read his Bible alter- 
nately in English. German, Latin, Greek, 
French, Spanish and Italian. As addi- 
tional means of self-improvement em- 
ployed by him may be mentioned the 
study of words, study of shorthand, a 
wide course of general reading, systematic 
clipping of papers, keeping an accurate 
record of his correspondence, the writing 
of essays, the translation of choice litera- 
ture from one language into another. 

Such a course rigorously followed 
throttgh years mtist.have resulted in rich 
fruitage, and is the best kind of evidence 
that, as he said, he regarded knowledge 
and culture, as next to virtue, man's liigh- 
est good. 

Method of Work Illustrated. 

His Daily Records show an observing 
mind, a careful attention 'to detail, a warm 
interest in diverse matters. They helped 
to keep the past fresh in mind and became 



HENRY A. SCHULER 



103 



a means of self-study. We quote his 
notes for the first Tuesday and Sundav 
of May, 1883. 

T. I. — Toilet. Clouded. Worked in sanc- 
tum, funeral of Amarynthia: services in 
Salem Church; good sermon. Many friends 
here; saw 11. S. walk with J. II. M.; talk on 
Luther. Mr. M. Calling in office, call of real 
estate agent. Five nieces waiting. Talk and 
walk with A. ; friend suffering with tooth- 
ache. Coll. 

S. 6. — Up at six. Toilet. Greek lesson 
(John VU). Attended worship in Reformed 
church. Discourse on the 1 ioly Spirit. Read 
"Aion — Aionios." Examined gifts and letters 
•of love; one letter missing. Music. Walk to 
the southeast end; beautiful landscape; fine 
houses. Attended worship in Ebenezer Evan- 
gelical church; the perfect law of God; not 
kneeling. Song. 

Mr. Schuler kept a very full and ac- 
curate account of his Income and Expen- 
ditures. His first finished "Book of Ac- 
counts," covering the period 1871-1891, 
begun in 1889, interrupted by his wife's 
sickness and finally completed in 1903, a 
model of neatness, accuracy, attention and 
painstaking labor, shows his daily finan- 
cial transactions to a cent, both as to 
earnings and expenditures, with monthly, 
annual and decennial summaries. We 
quote the following penned in 1903: 

This first Book of Accounts is really the first 
of all my private records that is brought to a 
finish, within and without, as originally 
planned ; it will likely remain the only one so 
finished. Is it worth the pains bestowed there- 
on? For my own needs surely a much less ele- 
gant record of finances would serve ; and whose 
this shall be after me, I know not yet, but if 
he or she into whose hands it may fall be led 
thereby to see and supply the need of an ac- 
curate account of financial afifairs, if it teach 
him or her to be more saving with a smaller 
income and more generous with a larger one ; 
if it serve to imbue him or her with the spirit 
that moved a sage of old to pray : Give me 
neither poverty nor riches — the labor it has cost 
will not have been in vain. 

In illustration of the subject matter of 
the musings in his Memoranda begun in 
1869, we quote some of the headings in 
the volume for 1881, the year of his mar- 
riage, his entrance upon his editorial 
labors and his giving up the vocation of 
teaching: Zum Neuen Jahr Zehnt. Hope 
Brightened, Mv School, A Message at 
Hand, Hope Fulfilled, A Difficult Deliv- 
erance, Eine Ofifene Wahl, Awaiting a 
Successor, Noch Nicht Ersetzt, Entre 
Deux Candidats, Austritt, Forest Mus- 
ings, Two Weeks in Journalism. These 



musings were written in English, German, 
Latin and French. 

Becomes a Journalist. 

^ The year 1881 was in the life of Mr. 
Schuler a most eventful one. It meant 
the final giving up of the profession of 
teaching, of which he was thoroughly sick 
and tired, the non-acceptance of a desir- 
able position as teacher in a private 
school, the taking up of journalism as a 
profession, the entrance into the married 
state, a step long looked forward -to and 
made possible by his more steady and 
satisfactory remuneration, the final defi- 
nite relinquishment of a long cherished 
plan of some day graduating in a literary 
course at a university. In June he attend- 
ed the commencement exercises of Lehigh 
University. In a subsequent musing he 
wrote the following: 

What might have been? What might have 
become of me, if so many years ago, when for 
the first time I came and dared not enter the 
forbidden grounds, when again I came a sultry 
summer day and dared not apply, when I came 
a third time vi^ith a friend and accomplished 
so much, when I saw and heard and went 
away with such enthusiasm swelling within me 
— what might have been, if then I had possessed 
courage to try, energy to continue and perse- 
verance to finish what was for the time the 
most fondly-cherished purpose of my ambitious 
soul ? 

Schuler's attainments recommended 
him to the proprietors of the "Boten" 
newspapers. These were made manifest 
in contributions sent and in work done at 
the ofiice during 1880. The matter as- 
sumed a tangible form early in 1881, and 
by March 15 he entered upon his duties. 
Many applications from literary men had 
been received from different quarters — 
able men — but Schuler was preferred. He 
was editor of the Friedensbote from 1882 
to 1893, when he assumed editorial charge 
of the Weltbote, a position he held un- 
til he retired from his position as editor 
in 1903. Serving over 20 years as editor 
meant a great deal of work belonging to 
the commonplace, but even here he was 
careful and conscientious, making an en- 
viable record for clear and distinct liter- 
ary style and painstaking work as an edi- 
tor. 

A Lover of Nature. 

Mr. Schuler's writings abound with 



104 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



evidences showing that he was a true 
lover of Nature, and that he could not 
forget the impressions made in his boy- 
hood days. After having been employed 
about ten weeks as an editor he wrote : 

The fair Sabbath morning finds me here in 
my favored spot in the dear old forest among 
m}' childhood's haunts which I shall love as a 
man as long as Earth is my abode. Welcome 
this shady place, welcome the trees and the 
fields, and every object so familiar, doubly 
welcome for having been missed so long. 

Out in the forest again, 

Away from the busy haunts of men ! 

How sweet, from the town, with its bustle 
and noise. 
To come and spend the day of rest 
In the place of all I still love best 

O, dearest by far are my home-made joys 
How glad in my favored solitude, to nurse 

awhile my pensive mood. 
To be in my loved Wyoming again ! 
Scope of Literary Activity. 
The following, taken from Mr. 
Schuler's papers, indicates the scope of 
his litera'ry activity. 

OPERA H. A. s. 
Scripta Privata : 
Memoranda Armenionis. 
Correspondence of H. A. S. 
Book of Accounts. 
Scripta Publicata seu Publicanda : 
Poems. 

Essays and Addresses. 
Tales and Sketches. 
Journalistische Arbeiten. 
Miscellaneous Writings. 
Opera Latina. 
Oeuvres. 
Compilations : 

Scrap Books of Poetry, History, Religion and 
Philosophy, Geography and Ethnology, In- 
dustry and Arts. Fiction, Philosophy, Curiosi- 
ties, Music and Song, Pictures, Wit and 
Humor, Biography and Anecdotes, Natural 
Science, Physiology, Psychology and Hy- 
giene, Mythology and Folklore, Farm, Shop 
and Household, Politics and Sociology, 
Morals and Manners. Antiquities (Anthrop- 
ology), Miscellaneous Matters. 
Thesaurus Collectanearum. 
Tresor. 

Reisebriefe und Skizzen B. F. T. 
Gedichte von Louis Storck. 
Exercises in Pronunciation and Reading. 
History of the H. L. S. (Hereford Literary 
Society). 

As a writer Mr. Schuler was noted for 
his limpid style, characterized by an apt 
use of words and formation of sentences, 
a studied simplicity and accuracy of ex- 
pression, a nobility, breadth and purity 
of thought. 

As an editor he worked methodically, 



studiously, avoided giving needless of- 
fence, diligently revised all manuscripts 
where necessary, furnished a clean, cor- 
rect copy for printers, read proof care- 
fully and expeditiously and manifested a 
rare good judgment respecting the gen- 
eral makeup of a periodical. In this re- 
spect the issues of The Pennsylvania- 
C^ERMAN during 1906 and 1907 will be his 
lasting moninnent. 

Traits of Character. 

As a husband Mr. Schuler was ex- 
emplary, kind-hearted, true in the days 
of joy as in the days of distress and pain 
which latter were indeed many. At the 
time of their marriage he v/rote these 
words referring to his wife : 

Shall she be as too many wives are, a mere 
house-servant, cooking my food, setting the 
table, washing and mending my clothes and 
ministering to my material wants in return for 
food and lodging. Shall she be this only, or 
rather my partner, my companion not only in 
every day matters but as far as able in the 
matter of knowledge in the pleasures of art? 

And thus as companions they lived to- 
gether in sweet peace and harmony. When 
her days of bodily ailments came and she 
could no longer enjoy pleasant strolls with 
him or attend intellectual feasts, he would 
go by himself, and returning relate to her 
what he saw and heard, thus sharing 
with her to the end the pleasures of mind 
that came to him as he had resolved. It 
was the heart of a grief-stricken, loving 
husband that wrote the words : 

O, hard through the thickening gloom 
Has been thy way to the tomb. ^, 

Full of anguish by night and day 
Struggled thy spirit so long 
With the demon doubly strong 

Ere from its chains it could break away. 
But the end has come at last. 
All thy sufferings are past — 

No more groans and cries and tears! 
Full was thy measure of woe 
On earth : be thy happiness so 

All through heaven's numberless years. 

It may be in place to make a note re- 
specting his religious life. In his infancy 
he was baptized, but he was not received 
into full membership of any church. But 
thoueh he was not directly identified with 
a ny Christian organization, hisintellectual- 
ity did not destroy his spirituality. Broad- 
minded, liberal and charitable, he was 
willing to learn from the preached word 
by whatever church proclaimed. He 



HENRY A. SCnULER 



105 



meditated on spiritual things : he read 
his l)ible every Sunday. The Internation- 
al Sunday School Lessons were studied 
regularly. Even on the bed of his final 
sickness, when he was not able himself 
to read the lesson, he asked a friend to 
read it for him. Of the fortv-four essays 
in a single volume of his Alemoranda all 
but one end with a prayer to God. In 
one of his liibles this note was found in 
his own handwriting: 

Requirements for Prevailiwg Prayer. 

If yc abide in mc and my words abide in 
you. — John 15:7. 

If we keep his commandments and do these 
things that are pleasing in his sight. — i John 
3 :22. 

If we ask anything according to his wmII. — 
I John 5:14. 

His whole life, thought and action was 
distinctly Christian. 

The translation of Zufriedenheit found 
on another page of this issue was prob- 
ably one of his last literary products. The 
humble quiet, peace and content which 
the words picture was his, and as such 
was the fruit of many years of life spent 
under the guidance of the Divine Spirit. 

An unselfish Christian manifests itself 
in his last will and testament. Forgetful 
of self, he cared for those who minister 
to and alleviate the pains of others. 

Mr. Schuler had his limitations, his 
weaknesses, his shortcomings. On ac- 
count of the privations of his early life 
he failed to develop the qualities, the bent 
of mind that fit one for success in the 
fashionable social circle. As a teacher he 
was not a successful disciplinarian. This 
lack grew out of his nature and was in 
part a matter of choice. He was not of 
the t} pe of men who either find a way or 
make one. Lacking in the gift of ini- 
tiative, he was not fitted to be a leader 
of men, to move forward in faith towards 
the realization of great and problematic 
ends. Nor was he ready to put himself 
forward or seek to make himself promi- 
nent. He was not officious or obtrusive. 
Many editorial rooms would have been 
glad to have the benefit of his linguistic 
attainments, had they been fully known. 
But through his modesty he failed where 
others w'ith less fitness easily won. 

He had his constitutional peculiarities, 
his idiosyncrasies. But many worse things 



than this may be true of a man — not the 
least of which is to have no peculiarities, 
to have no individuality, to be the easy- 
going non-offensive, general purpose man, 
a kind of lifeless desert without change 
in landscape, or variety of product to re- 
lieve the monotony. 

He was introspective, re-reading and 
re-writing his records, his memoranda and 
forest musings. He was thus continually 
calling up his past hopes and fears, his 
triumphs and failures, his joys and 
griefs. He was a lover of the true, the 
beautiful, the good wherever found. He 
enjoyed nature, took delight in vocal and 
instrumental music, adorned the walls of 
his quiet home with choice, chaste pic- 
tures, and fed his soul on the best 
thoughts of the authors whose children 
of the brain will never die. 

He was not brilliant, and fell short in 
the things that men are at present apt to 
look upon as evidences of greatness. But 
if it is still true that he that ruleth his 
own spirit is better than he that taketh a 
city, he, though living a secluded life, 
was greater than many whose names are 
today household words. He alone knew 
the inward struggles endured, the ambi- 
tions sacrificed, the victories won, the 
temptations resisted, the peace and quiet 
that came after years of unrest, stress 
and struggle. 

Though the world today calls for the 
most varied equipment and accomplish- 
ments to fill its unnumbered places of 
honor, trust and leadership in Church, 
State and Society, many of which Mr. 
Schuler could not and would not have 
filled, society would be infinitely better 
off were all to live as he did in view of 
eternity, in self-culture of the spiritual 
life within, in seeking conformity to the 
true Christian ideal as found in his 
Savior. 

Dort werd' ich sein ein Engel 

In jenen Engelsland, 
Ein' Krone auf der Stirne, 

Ein Palmzweig in der Hand. 
Dort vor dem lieben Heiland 

In himmlisch schoener Pracht 
Werd' Ich mit suesz'ten Liedern 

Ihn preisen Tag und Nacht. 

Translation by H. A. fc^CBUlfR 



:io6 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

Old Time Battalion Drills 

(B'dolya) 

BY ASHERL. HESS, PHILADELPHIA PA. 




OME years ago before the 
Civil War, many of the 
larger townships were rep- 
resented by a company of 
militia, either infantry or 

ligbt horse cavalry, and once 

a \ear each company with a sufficient 
number of companies from nearby points, 
to form what is known as a Battalion 
(500 or more men) would meet and en- 
gage in Battalion Drill. 

This occasion was anxiously looked 
forward to by both old and young, and 
the entire country roundabout usually 
turned out to pay homage to the citizen 
soldiery ; in short, the day was observed 
as a general holiday by everybody. The 
day was usually ushered in by a number 
of salutes fired from a cannon stationed 
along the hillside, which echoed and re- 
echoed among the surrounding hills. The 
music of the fife and drum early in the 
day was the signal for mobilizing of the 
troops, which thrilled and filled the young 
hearts brimful of patriotism, and when 
the popular old California Band arrived 
rendering the sweet strains of Washing- 
ton's March, young America's joy knew 
no bounds. Under the command of a 
Major, the Battalion went through vari- 
ous field maneuvers, the manual of arms, 
and dress parade, winding up with a 
street parade, which was the crowning 
feature of the day. 

Amusements. 

On these gala days the street was lined 
with venders of refreshments, — peanuts 
and small beer being the most popular. 
The little stoop-shouldered, red-faced, 
freckled, good-natured "Huckster" 
named Moll, so widely known, was ever 
present with hi'' refreshment stand on 
such occasio:is. Everybody appeared to 
enjoy '"n eyshtcr soup am Moll sci 
Huckshter-disch," — and some, who were 
so inclined, enjoyed his sherry wine even 
a little too much sometimes. A side- 
;5how in some near-by field was usually 



an intei-esting feature, gathering in the 
"fips" and the "levies,"- — popular coins in 
those days, the former six and one-quar- 
ter cents, and the latter twelve and one- 
half cents. 

The Ambrotype Photographer with his 
travelling "studio on wheels" was gener- 
ally there doing a thriving business. The 
most unique attraction, however, was the 
"Flying Coach" or "Flying Circus," 
known today as the merry-go-round. It 
was not propelled by an engine, nor was 
the music furnished by an orchestrion, 
but it was propelled by a horse going 
round and round near the centre, and a 
fiddler sitting on a perch furnished the 
music. It was a crude, home-made af- 
fair under a soiled canvas tent, the 
coaches (painted a common blue mostly 
all worn ofif), having the appearance of 
old sleigh bodies without the runners, 
were suspended with iron rods from 
wooden arms extending out from a heavy 
pole in the centre around which the horse 
travelled, and the apparatus likewise re- 
volved. The charge was three cents a 
ride. The jingle of a tiny bell was the 
signal to stop, when the ring-master and 
the horse alike would hold back with all 
their strength to bring the coaches to a 
stop. This "show" as some called it was 
well patronized ; the lads with their lasses 
apparently enjoying the novel rides. 

A dance at the village tavern in the 
evening generally ended the festivities of 
the day ; whoever took part in the dance 
was obliged to "pay the fiddler." Johnny 
Seifert and Mich Keefer usually claimed 
that honor. 

"Nigger Shows" were frequently held 
in another part of the premises at the 
same time. "Old Lindsey," the well 
known and popular minstrel, frequently 
made his appearance on these occasions, 
and was well patronized. 

The company also engaged in target 
practice at stated intervals, the prize for 
hitting the "bull's eye" being a silver 
r.iedal, which Dr. Bryan presented to the 



OLD-TIME BATTALION DRILLS 



107 





KROFT FISHER JOHN W. CYPHERT 

TWO OF THE PIONEERS 
Original Ambrotvpe picture furnished ilirou^h the 
courtesy of Hon. H. S. Funk. Springtown, Pa. 



'Company at its organization. The mem- 
"bers eagerly vied with each other to gain 
■possession of the coveted medal, the win- 
ner being privileged to carry it when in 
uniform suspended to a ribbon on his 
breast until the following contest. Order- 
ly Sergeant William W. Strock won the 
medal on tzvo occasions, and was the only 
one bearing the distinction of earning it 
twice. 

After the company was disbanded the 
medal by some one's carelessness fell into 
the hands of boys, who, not knowing its 
value, disposed of it for a mere song to 
a Jew peddler, and thus unfortunately 
losing a valuable as well as an interest- 
ing relic. 

Companies Disbanded. 

Those good old days are past and gone ; 
picnics and excursions have superseded 
old-time festivities ; soldiering for sport is 
no more ; since with the organization of 
the National Guard it has become a stern 
reality. At the beginning of the war in 
1861, most of the rural militia companies 
disbanded. In the larger towns, some 
companies responded to the President's 
call for troops. At that time the village 
of Springtown could boast of a company 
•of infantry, commanded by Captain Ed- 
ward T. Hess, afterwards Lieut. -Colonel 
of the 174th Regiment Penna. Volun- 



teers in the Civil War. The movement 
to organize a company was inaugurated 
by Dr. Newton M. Bryan, resident phy- 
sician, brother of John S. Bryan, Doyles- 
town. Pa., who was Brigadier General of 
Bucks County Militia at that time. Short- 
ly after its organization. Dr. Bryan pre- 
sented the village with a mounted cannon 
for the use of the company. The cannon 
was housed in a little wooden hut erected 
especially for that purpose, stationed at 
the edge of the woods along the hillside 
immediately north of the Bryan resi- 
dence; from this point the salutes were 
usually fired. A number of years after- 
wards the cannon was taken to Heller- 
town without permission, where in firing 
a salute it exploded without doing any 
further damage. Following is the muster- 
roll from the time the company w^as or- 
ganized until it was disbanded. Most of 
the members have answered the final roll- 
call, reminding us of Theo. O'Hara's 
beautiful poem entitled "The Bivouac of 
the Dead." 



The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 

The soldier's last tattoo: 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

That brave and fallen few. 
On fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread. 
And Glory guards, with solemn round, 

The bivouac of 'the dead. 



io8 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




CAPTAIN EDWARD T. HESS. 

MEMBERS 

OF THE 

SPRINGFIELD PIONEERS 

Organized Aug. i6, 1856. 

Captain — Edward T. Hess.* 

First Lieutenant — Lycurgus S. Bodder. 

Second Lieutenant — Tilghman Barron. 

Orderly Sergeant — William R. Laudenberger. 

Second Sergeant — ■ 

Drummer — David W. Seifert.* 

■Drummer — Samuel Reichard. 

Bass Drummer — George W. Seifert. 

Bass Drummer — A. Jackson Strock. 

Fifer — Jacob Reichard. 

Pioneer — John W. Cyphert. 

Pioneer — J. Kroft Eisher. 



William Sterner, 
William Barron, 
Jacob Troch, 
Thomas W. Ochs, 
Edward Barral, 
John Keyscr, 
John Clarke, 
Thomas Weaver,* 
Samuel Guth, 
Jacob Fabian, 
Jesse Bucher, 
William Richard, 



Privates. 

Michael Keefer, 
Jonas Grube, 
Aaron Seifert, 
Jacob Shc'llenberger, 
Lsaac Erankenfield,* 
Aaron Amcy, 
John J. Iroch,* 
William Heller, 
John Funk,* 
David Gamber, 
Levi Reichard, 
Barney Wetzel, 



Edward A. Campbell, 
Jacob Strouse, 
Henry S. Funk, 
Harrison Campbell,* 
Edwin Kiser, 
John Loudenstine, 
David Funk,* 
Josiah Christine, 
LTriah Eichelberger, 
Samuel Wolfinger, 
Tilghman Steidinger, 
William H. Diehl, 
John William Hess, 
Henry Woolbach, 
Edwin Hemmerly, 
1 liomas Fry, 
James A. Fluck, 
Charles Cyphert,* 
Frank Sloyer, 
Charles R. Kindig, 
George Wallas, 
William Emerv,* 
David L. Fluck, 
Francis G. Hess,* 
Allen Moore,* 
William Freiind, 
John Shively,* 
Theo. Eichelberger, 
John W. Weaver,* 
John Ohl,* 
Philip Reichard. 



Francis A. Fluck, 
Charles W. Flecken- 

stine, 
Levi Longanauer,* 
Alexander Bleyler, 
Levi Christine, 
John K. Troch, 
Levi Shellenberger,* 
Jacob A. Campbell, 
Reed Keeler, 
Jacob Sassaman, 
William F. Sassaman, 
1 lenr\- Strock,* 
William Ziegenfuss, 
Augustus Buck,* 
Albert M. Rise,* 
I'eter L. Fluck,* 
lulwin Sterner,* 
William Strock, 
Alexander Rath, 
Benjamin Brunner, 
John G. Bcidelman, 
Ik-njamin Sterner, 
lohn R. Bitts, 
William ^L Heft, 
William H. Rees, 
h^ranklin Sloyer, 
John R. Beidelman, 
Owen B. Hess, 
Peter Deemer. 
John Deemer, 
K. B. Trauger, 

Those marked (*) served in the Civil War. 

J. Kraft Fisher, one of the Pioneers, re- 
signed and went to Ohio. W^m. Emery suc- 
ceeded him. 

Wm. R. Laudenberger, Orderly Sergeant,, 
resigned, and was succeeded by Wm. H. 
Strock. 

Wm. H. Diehl and John William Hess were 
small boys who carried lances. 

CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

OF THE 

SPRINGFIELD PIONEERS 

OF THE 

COUNTY OF BUCKS 

FOR THEIR 

REGULATION AND DISCIPLINE 

Organized August i6th, 1856. 

CONSTITUTION. 

Article i. We the undersigned have asso- 
ciated ourselves together to organize a Military 
Company to be called the Springfield Pioneers^ 
and hereby agree to be held responsible for all 
loss and damage incurred by the said Com- 
pany. 

Article 2. The Uniform shall be a Sky- 
blue Round-about with Red and Yellow trim- 
mings at the collar, and regulation brass but- 
tons. The Pants of same material with a Red 
stripe and Yellow border. The Regulation 
Cap with Red Pompom, brass plate and Eagle. 
White Cotton Gloves. 

Article 3. Any one wishing to become a 
member of this Company must first sign the 
Constitution of said Company. 

Article 4. The Military Laws of Penn- 



OLD-TIME BATTALION DRILLS 



109 



sylvania shall form part of the Bv-Laws. 

Article 5-. Fines shall be imposed on any 
member for the following offenses, viz : 

1st. Absence from Spring Training and 
visits, or Special Training and Target Firing, — 
Members, One Dollar. 

2nd. All other Trainings, Seventy-five cents. 
3rd. Absence from Business Meetings, 
Twenty-five cents. 

4th. Absence from Roll-call, Twelve and 
one-half cents. 

Article 6. Commissioned and Non-Com- 
missioned Officers' Fines shall be as follows: 
1st. Captain on Battalion, — Three Dollars. 
2nd. First Lieut, on Battalion, — Two Dol- 
lars. 

3rd. Second Lieut, on Battalion, — One and 
one-half Dollars. 

4th. Orderly Sergt. on all Parades, — One 
Dollar. 

5th. Orderly Sergt. neglecting to send his 
books of office when absent himself, — Fifty 
cents. 

6th. Fines shall all be equal on meetings 
of Business. 

7th. Musicians on all Parades, — ^One Dol- 
lar. 

Section ist. The specified time and place 
of Parades and meetings shall be decided by 
vote of the Company. 

Sec. 2nd. At a meeting of Business, five 
Jiiembers shall constitute a quorum. The 
Senior Officer shall preside, who shall, in 
the absence of the Secretary, appoint some one 
to act in his place. 

Sec. 3rd. Commissioned Officers shall be 
chosen by ballot. Non-Commissioned Officers 
shall be appointed by the Captain. 

Sec. 4th. The Treasurer shall keep a strict 
account of all moneys he may receive on ac- 
count of the Company, and pay no bills ex- 
cept on an order signed by the commanding 
officers or officer presiding at the meetings. 

Sec. 5th. When funds of the Company 
are deficient, contributions from any source 
may be received for paying expenses. 

Sec. 6th. A Court of Appeal composed of 
three men, one of whom must be an officer, 
shall be held invariably the first Training after 
the Spring Battalion. The Orderly Sergeant 
shall present a complete list of every member 
absent. Any member indebted, wishing to 
contest his dues, must show cause, which 
if found perfectly satisfactory to the Court, 
the claims against him may in whole or in 
part be remitted ; but upon refusal of any 
member to pay his dues and those having been 
confirmed by the Court, the Commanding Of- 
ficer shall issue his warrant according to the 
Military Laws of the State. 

Sec. 7th. Officers of every Court of Ap- 
peal with the Secretary shall make a state- 
ment signed by the same, showing the actual 
condition of the Funds, and present it tt) the 
next appeal. 

Sec. 8th. No member shall use his arms 
in an offensive manner, or even an insult, 
while attending a meeting or parades ; and for 
any such offence, or for intoxication, or any 



disorderly manner or behaviour, he shall be 
reprimanded by the commanding officer and 
fined Five Dollars, which shall be collected 
on the sDOt. For the second offence he shall 
be expelled. 

Sec. 9th. The commanding officer shall or- 
der an inspection of Equipments of the Mem- 
bers at regular intervals. 

Sicc. loth. Every new member shall equip 
himself within six months from the time of 
his becoming a member. 

Sec. nth. Temporary devic.tions as regards 
to the uniform or equipments may be made, 
but must be authorized by the commanding- 
officer, and agreed to l)y the majority of the 
Company. 

Skc. 12th. Regulations or Sections may be 
passed by a majority of the Company. 

Sec. i3tli. The Commanding Officer can 
call out a Parade or Meeting on special oc- 
casions by giving six hours noti'ce before 
the time of meeting, and he must first serve 
notice to the Lieutenants and Non-Commis- 
sioned Officers, and they in turn must notify 
verbally the members when and where to 
meet. 

Sec. 14th. The Armorer for neglecting to 
bring the Arms in clean order to the place of 
Training, shall be fined no less than Five 
Dollars on the four principal days of Parade, 
and on other occasions no less than Three 
Dollars. 




Kemuining Accociitreuienl^ of Llie SpiinKfield Pioneers 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Gunmakers of Old Northampton 

Address of William J. Heller, of Easton, Pa., at Meeting of Pennsyl- 
vania German Society at Allentown, Pa., on November 2, 1906. 




^ T is the usual thing for history 
to deal exclusively with 
great events. The conduct 
of armies, the description of 
battles and a record of mat- 
ters involving the interest of 
the many, are the topics which absorb 
the attention of the historian while the 
individual experiences in the every day 
life of the common people are lost sight 
of altogether. The knowledge that a bat- 
tle was fought is of less value than a 
knowledge of the causes that led to it and 
the issues resulting from it. How can one 
understand the causes except he enter into 
sympathy with the masses involved? Or, 
how can he sympathize with their individ- 
ual sufferings and with their manner of 
life and mode of thinking? We know 
that a battle was fought ; the number and 
disposition of the contending forces ; at 
what time and by whom the charges were 
made ; the repulses, and all the details of 
the action are matters of record. But the 
individual experiences and home life of 
the sterling patriots in the lower ranks 
which participated in the fight are topics 
yet undeveloped. 

The Riflemen. 
George Washington takes command of 
the army then forming at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. Troops from the South- 
west are on the march. Every day we 
see them arriving at headquarters, receiv- 
ing the glad welcome of their new com- 
mander. Up out of Winchester town 
comes Daniel Morgan, a Scotch-Irish 
Pennsylvania-German lad of the Lehigh 
hills, gathering as he goes from the Shen- 
andoah to the Lehigh, more than six hun- 
dred Pennsylvania rifiemen, following 
close on the heels of the three hundred 
more from the Forks of the Delaware, on 
through the Minnesinks to the siege of 
Boston. The British army, for the first 
time, now faces the new Swiss invention, 
the rifle, and this new weapon of warfare 
in the hands of nearly two thousand 
sharpshooters from Pennsylvania. The 



British commander feared more these 
Pennsylvania riflemen than all the rest of 
Washington's vmtrained soldiery. To 
Daniel Morgan and these two thousand 
Pennsylvania riflemen, much of the credit 
is due for the evacuation of Boston. One 
of these Pennsylvania boys and his 
famous rifle were captured by the British 
and sent to England, where he was ex- 
hibited as a curiosity. If the New Eng- 
landers overlooked this fact, not so the 
British army, for when they again met in 
battle at Long Island, there was ven- 
geance in die air. The British com- 
mander points to a distant wooded hil- 
lock, where fluttered the crimson banner 
bearing the legend "St. Tammany." 
"There you will find the dread green- 
coated riflemen of Pennsylvania," and 
they found them, and history tells us that 
nearly half of these brave sons of Penn- 
sylvania never lived to recross the Dela- 
ware river. 

The grand Republican army is daily 
diminishing while that of the Royalists 
has been increased by reinforcements of 
five thousand Hessians and Waldeckers^ 
hired by the British ministry to assist in 
subduing the posterity of Britons. Wash- 
ington passes his army over into New 
Jersey, leaving the Royalists entire mas- 
ters in New York. Terror and dismay 
overspread the whole land. The Tories 
every day grow more bold and insolent ; 
the Whigs begin to despair of their cause ; 
the neutrals turn partisans against their 
country and the British general becomes 
arrogant with success. 

New Jersey, which soon afterward 
witnessed and shared in his triumphs, 
now sees him avoiding and baffling, with 
matchless dexterity and caution, a super- 
ior force, with which it would be madness 
to contend. To add to his difficulties, dis- 
affection begins to rear its head among 
those who hitherto remained quiet, and 
the Royalists of the county of Monmouth,, 
encouraged by the aspect of affairs, pre- 
pare to rise in behalf of the invader. 



THE GUNMAKERS OF OLD NORTHAMPTON 



iir 



Washington's Appeal. 

He urges Congress, he urges the gover- 
nors of the different States, by every mo- 
tive of patriotism, to take measures for 
the safety of the country and the success 
of its cause. His appeal to the New Eng- 
land colonies is ignored. Its citizens, for- 
getting their patriotism of the early days 
of the struggle, are now gathering within 
the folds of the British flag. Congress 
delays, the resources of the Committee 
of Safety are exhausted, they, a few 
months previous, sanctioning the sale to 
the colony of Virginia of one thousand 
stand of arms from the Forks of the 
Delaware. Washington appeals directly 
to the German yeomen of Pennsylvania ; 
he looks imploringly to the blue hills 
which fringe the western horizon. His 
last appeal meets with success. The re- 
sponse from old Northampton is spon- 
taneous. From the Lackawaxen, from 
the Susquehanna, from the Lackawanna, 
from the Wyalusing and the great valleys 
of the Lehigh are gathering the hosts that 
cause the British army to halt in its on- 
ward progress. 

Northampton's Response. 

The Committee of Safety for the Coun- 
ty of Northampton now passes its famous 
resolution which debars from participa- 
tion in these armed forces now gather- 
ing, all persons possessing a knowledge 
of the manufacture of firearms. Among 
the Swiss and Palatine population of the 
vast territory then known as Northamp- 
ton county were a great many who were 
gunsmiths and armorers, some of whom 
were descendants of the ancient armorers 
of the feudal period of Central Europe. 
These people brought with them to Penn- 
sylvania the rifle, forty years or more be- 
fore the Revolution and improved upon 
this German model with such ingenuity 
that up to within a few years of this im- 
portant event, they had produced a new 
type of firearm, superior to any other in 
the world — the American backwoods 
rifle. It is these artisans of the back- 
woods -who, being denied the anticipated 
pleasure of entering into the conflict, now 
return to their workshop, to their homes, 
knowing full well that their efforts at their 
vocation will be of more importance than 
would be their services in the ranks. Soon 



every blacksmith is seen forging gun bar- 
rels, every cabinet maker shapmg gun 
stocks, every gunsmith rifling gun bar- 
rels ; not only they but their wives and 
children and the wives and children of 
their neighbors who have gone to the 
front, now lend a helping hand, cleaning,, 
polishing, burnishing and putting the fin- 
ishing touches to this new weapon of war- 
fare. All the backwoodsmen of Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, Virginia and the 
Carolinas were familiar with the rifle, and 
all were in readiness for war long before 
the battle of Bunker Hill. For years they 
had been equipping themselves with the- 
Pennsylvania rifle in place of the old mus- 
ket, which was yet being used by the 
more eastern colonies. 

The Gunmakers. 

It is to be regretted that so few of the 
names of these tillers of the virgin soil 
of Penn's colony who possessed the abil- 
ity to produce a better weapon of war- 
fare than was used by any of the armies 
of the world has been handed down to 
posterity. All honor to John Tyler, 
George Layendecker, John Moll, Jacobs 
Newhardt, Ebenezer Cowell, Mathias 
Miller, Peter Newhardt, Daniel Kleist, 
John Young, Stephen Horn, Henry 
Young, Abraham Berlin, Adam Foulke, 
Anthony Smith, Isaac Berlin, Andrew 
Shorer, William Henry, John Golcher,. 
Henry Derringer, Johnston Smith. These 
are names of principals only. The names 
of subordinates, probably, will never be 
known. William Henry had fourteen em- 
ployes while in Lancaster, six of whom 
he brought with him to Nazareth, but so 
far it has been impossible to discover the 
names of these six. 

The Council of Safety of Pennsylvania 
had established a gun factory at Phila- 
delphia and employed Golcher to instruct 
in the art of boring and grinding gun bar- 
rels. This state factory was later moved 
to AUentown, Golcher returning to 
Easton, where he began manufacturing- 
fancy guns, the principal one being the 
double-barreled revolving rifle with one 
hammer. Not many of these were made 
on account of the high cost of produc- 
tion, and now are very rare. 

Henry Derringer had settled very early 
in Easton and raised a large familv, one 



112 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



of his sons being the inventor of the 
famous Derringer pistol, which is still 
used the world over where dueling is 
practiced. 

John Tyler was in charge of the gun- 
factory at Allentown and at one time had 
sixteen men in his employ. Daniel Kleist 
had his gun shop in Bethlehem township, 
and made the rifles for the Moravian store 
at Bethlehem. This store furnished a 
great many rifles to the companies passing 
through Bethlehem on their way to" the 
seat of war. Daniel Morgan stopped here 
several days to have every man's rifle ex- 
amined and put in order before proceed- 
ing. 

Abraham Berlin had taken up the voca- 
tion of blacksmithing in Easton, but was 
a gunsmith during the entire period of 
the Revolution, after which he again re- 
sumed blacksmithing. Stephen Horn 
lived at Easton, put in several years at 
gun work and then took up that of 
powder making. Isaac Berlin and John 
Young, both from the upper end of the 
county, took up their residence in Easton 
about the time of agitation. Berlin's spe- 
cialty was sword making. John Young 
was an armorer and an engraver or dec- 
orator. The decorations on Berlin's 
swords and on his own rifles were very 
artistic. He also decorated the guns for 
his brother Henry. Henry Young did a 
large business, and his neatly engraved 
rifles became very popular. His factory 
is, probably, the only one that is stand- 
ing today. It is a one-story stone building 
near where the road crosses the northern 
boundary of the city of Easton going over 
Chestnut Hill. John Young's store at 
Easton was a place of importance, and 
he became generally known not only in 
Pennsylvania, but throughout the other 
colonies. During the month of February 
he had received from the colony of Vir- 
ginia a request for one thousand rifles. 
The Council of Safety at Philadelphia im- 
mediately gave permission to him to de- 
liver to Virginia one thousand rifles pro- 
vided he could deliver them before May 
I, which he did. This was in the year 
1776. Johnston Smith was a partner in 
this transaction, and it was his part to 
gather the rifles from the dififerent 
makers. The Council of Safet}-, during 



the month of March, had been forming 
several companies in Philadelphia, in an- 
ticipation of the coming conflict. John 
Young furnished the council with one 
hundred and thirty rifles in April. Adam 
Foulk was a partner in this transaction. 
He, apparently, was of a migratory turn, 
as we find him in business in Easton, Al- 
lentown and Philadelphia. 

Little is known of Anthony Smith and 
Andrew Shorer, both of Bethlehem town- 
ship. Probably they made guns for the 
Bethlehem store, as considerable business 
was done there. Peter Newhardt was 
from Whitehall township. Jacob New- 
hardt, John Moll and George Layendeck- 
er were from Allentown. They at differ- 
ent times worked in the State factory 
there and were in business for themselvei 
when the State removed its factory t-"i 
Philadelphia after the British evacuated 
that place. Mathias Miller was a de- 
scendant of the ancient German armorers 
and had taken up locksmithing in Easton. 
His guns were remarkable by reason of 
their exquisite firelocks. Ebenezer Co- 
well came to Allentown along with the 
state gun factory and remained there after 
its removal again to Philadelphia. George 
Taylor and Richard Backhouse, both of 
whom resided in Easton, while not makers 
of rifles or small arms, nevertheless can be 
classed among these gun makers by rea- 
son of their connection with the Durham 
iron works, in which they made cannon 
and considerable experimental work with 
the gun barrels. We find George Taylor 
asking- the committee for powder for the 
purpose of testing gun locks. Taylor 
early in 1776 made a number of small 
brass swivel cannon. Both Taylor and 
Backhouse furnished great quantities of 
cannon balls during the entire war. As 
they were makers of bar iron, it is safe 
to presume that they also made bar steel 
for gun barrels. 

The vast benefit these gunmakers were 
to th^ cause of American liberty has been 
overshadowed by the deeds of valor of 
their brothers at the front. 
Deeds of Valor. 

When Massachusetts makes her famous 
appeal to the sister colonies for support, 
Congress, then in session in the city of 
Philadelphia, and not positive of its own 



THE GUNxMAKERS OF OLD NORTHAMPTON 



113 



unity, the colonies still separated by petty 
jealousies and local pride, Cavalier mock- 
ing the Puritan, Knickerbocker mistrust- 
ing both, appeals to the twelve colonies 
that they observe a common fast day in 
recognition of King George III as their 
rightful sovereign, and enjoining them to 
look to God for reconciliation with the 
parent state. Two days later, finding 
itself facing actual war, Congress makes 
its first call for troops to form a national 
army. This was on June 14, 1775, when 
it passed the resolution "That six com- 
panies of expert riliemen be immediately 
raised in Pennsylvania, two in Alaryland 
and two in \"irginia, that each company 
as soon as complettd, march and join the 
army near Boston, and be there employed 
as light infantry." These riflemen were 
the first troops ever levied on this con- 
tinent by authority of a central representa- 
tive government. On the following day 
George Washington was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief. Congress did not ask 
New England, New York or New Jersey 
for troops, neither did it look to the Caro- 
linas. They knew full well the sentiment 
of the people throughout these sections ; 
they were not prepared to enter a con- 
flict. Time w'hich should have been spent 
in preparation had been wasted in dis- 
cussion or devoted to fasting or prayer. 
Eut the men of the Alleghenies were al- 
ways ready. Over every cabin door hung 
a well made rifle, correctly sighted, and 
bright within from frequent wiping and 
oiling. Beside it w^ere tomahawk and 
knife, a horn of good powder, and a 
pouch containing bullets, patches, spare 
flints, steel, tinder, whetstone, oil and tow 
for cleaning" the rifle. A hunting shirt, 
moccasins and a blanket were near at 
hand. In case of alarm the backwoodsman 
seized these things, put a few pounds of 
rockahominy and jerked venison into his 
wallet, and in five minutes was ready. It 
mattered not whether two men or two 
thousand were needed for war, they could 
assemble in a night, armed, accoutred, and 
provisioned for a campaign. 

Incessant war with the Indians taught 
him to be his own general, to be ever on 
the alert, to keep his head and shoot 
straight under fire. Pitted against an 
«nemy who gave no quarter, he became 



himself a man of iron nerve. It was the 
pick of these for which Congress asked. 

The assignment for the companies to be 
raised in Pennsylvania was one for each 
county with the exception . of Lancaster 
and Cumberland, which, owing to their 
extensiveness, were assigned two compa- 
nies each. Old Northampton trebled its 
quota and followed it shortly afterwards 
with more. When the tocsin of war was 
sounded through the great Kittatinny val- 
ley there was an uprising not onl}- of eight 
hundred and ten of these American rifle- 
men, bu upwards of two thousand of them 
rushed on to Cambridge, some of them 
covering the distance of more than seven 
hundred miles in twenty-one days, all 
equipped with the product of these gun 
makers of old Northampton. The unruly 
mob that had already assembled around 
Cambridge and which our New Eng- 
landers delight to call an army, minute- 
men, armed with pitchforks and ancient 
firelocks, looked on this avalanche of res- 
cue with astonishment. They, however, 
were accorded the greatest respect. No 
personal consideration bound these back- 
woodsmen to the men of New England. 
Little indeed it mattered to them whether 
tea was a shilling a pound or a guinea a 
pound — they never drank it. American 
manhood was insulted, and they were 
there to resent it. All without a farthing 
being advanced by the Continental treas- 
ury. 

To while away the time at the siege 
of Boston daring feats of marksmanship 
were indulged in to restrain the New 
Englanders. An instance of the accur- 
acy of these famous rifles in the hands of 
an expert is fully illustrated, in one of 
the exploits at Cambridge. An officer de- 
siring to form a company of fifty men, 
and having between sixty and seventy ap- 
plicants, and being unwilling to ofi'end 
any, hit upon a clever expedient. Taking 
a piece of chalk he drew upon a black- 
board the figure of a man's nose, and 
placing this at such a distance that none 
but experts could hope to hit it with a 
bullet, he declared that he would enlist 
only those who shot nearest to the mark. 
Every man hit the nose. 

Other stories are told. One of two 
brothers took a piece of board, only five 



114 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



inches broad and seven inches long, while 
a similar piece of paper centered on it 
for a bull's eye, and held the board in 
his hand while the other brother shot 
through the paper. Positions were then 
reversed and the second brother held the 
board. He then placed the board be- 
tween his thighs, supporting it thus, stood 
smilingly erect while his brother shot 
eight bullets successively through the 
board. Bystanders were assured that 
more than fifty men in one company could 
perform the same feat and that there was 
not one but could "plug nineteen bullets 
out of twenty within an inch of a ten 
penny nail." 

Superiority of American Rifle. 
The superiority of this American back- 
woods rifle over that of the European 
counterpart, the original invention, is ful- 
ly illustrated in the story told by one of 
two English officers, both expert shots 
with the rifle. They had learned the use 
of this weapon while serving in the Ger- 
man Seven Years war. Both commanded 
riflemen in the Revolution and met our 
frontiersmen in battle. He says the best 
shots among the American backwoods- 
men, shooting in good light when there 
was no wind blowing to deflect the bullet, 
could hit a man's head at two hundred 
yards, or his body at three hundred yards, 
with great certainty. As foreign rifles at 
that period could not be relied upon for 
accuracy at such distances, he goes into 
great detail explaining the reasons for the 
American rifle's superiority, showing that 



he was a comoetent judge and a trust- 
worthy witness. He tells how once, whea 
he and General Tarleton were making a 
reconnoissance, an American rifleman got 
in position fully four hundred yards from- 
them and fired two deliberate shots at 
them. He and the general were side by 
side on horseback, their knees almost 
touching, and a mounted orderly was di- 
rectly in their rear. The first shot passed 
between the two officers and the second 
killed the orderly's horse. The other 
British rifleman was the inventor of a 
breechloading rifle with which some o£ 
his men were armed. He commanded the 
British forces late in the Revolution, at 
King's Mountain, where he was opposed 
by the backwoodsmen. This was the 
first pitched battle in civhized war in 
which rifles were exclusively used by the 
contesting armies. The British loss was 
three hundred and ninety killed against 
the American loss of twenty-eight. 

Too much credit cannot be given to 
these noble Pennsylvania-German gun- 
smiths for the successes and achievements 
of the American backoods riflemen. 
Working on regardless of the overtures of 
the British emissaries, whose endeavors 
to entice them to the interest of the British 
crown were unsuccessful, ignormg all 
flattering inducements, ever firm in the 
cause of liberty. When we sing the songs 
of Long Island, when we revel in the 
glories of Bunker Hill, it behooves us 
not to forget the gun makers of old- 
Northampton. 



Witchcraft 



UV WILLIAM W. NEIFERT, HARTFORD, CONN. 




N the United States the belief 
in witchcraft is popularly as- 
sociated with New England, 
and it is now more than two 
centuries since the abnormal 
and monstrous belief and de- 
lusion was supposedly stampt out. It is 
surprising to learn that at this age of ad- 
vancement and scientific culture, no race 
or nation is yet exempt from the belief in 
the magical art, and that charms, oracles, 
amulets, fortune telling and sympathetic 
cures are practiced as zealously as they 
were by the Indians, the Puritans, or our 



ancestors from the Faderland. Because 
certain forms of the sorcery are no longer 
found amoung the educated classes, peo- 
ple think that the superstition no longer 
exists, and altho we no longer destroy 
poor unfortunate women for the impos- 
sible crime of witchcraft, it is a fact never- 
theless that with very few exceptions the 
belief is far more widely and deeply ex- 
tended today than any cultivated person 
dreams, and instead of yielding to the ad- 
vances of science and culture, it seems to- 
actually advance with them. There is- 
abundant evidence that gypsies have done- 



WITCHCRAFT 



115 



more than any race or class of people to 
* disseminate these behefs, and there are al- 
so good reasons for believing that the 
greatest portion of this magical lore was 
brought by gypsy women from that 
'Fadcrland of Divination and Enchant- 
ment' — India. These women have pre- 
tended to possess occult power since pre- 
liistoric times, (they surely had 'snakes' 
in some form, either in their minds or as 
charms), and so great has been their in- 
fluence, that today there are thousands of 
minds who while professing a higher and 
purer doctrine, cling to these madness 
savoring forms and essentials, but by be- 
lieving that because they know it under 
different names it is in no respect the same 
thing. 

Belief Widespread. 
The farming districts of the eastern 
Pennsylvania counties, where our Penn- 
sylvania German people predominate, is a 
fruitful field for studying a large num- 
ber of the old time superstitions. Their 
belief in this magic is no new^ thing but is 
the common heritage of humanity. Their 
ancestors brought it from Germany, be- 
sides those from the British Isles who 
were contemporaneous immigrants with 
the German brought their contribution, so 
that in the not distant past every village 
and town among these cjuiet Pennsylvania 
hills had its witch, wntch-doctor, pow- 
wower and wursht frau. The Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans, how^ever, are by no 
means the onl}- believers in the wiles of 
witchcraft today, for it is safe to say 
that there is not a city in the world in 
which these superstitions and practices 
do not exist, but they are carried on with 
a secrecy, the success of which is itself a 
miracle. Take the associations and feel- 
ings which we form for familiar objects. 
A coin, a penknife, a jewel, or a pebble, 
which has long been carried in the pocket 
or worn by any one, seems to become im- 
bued W'ith his or her personality, and is 
really one kind of fairy-lore or supersti- 
tions. Then there is a symbolism of a 
higher, more patriotic or sacred impulse, 
and perhaps the full value of which we do 
not understand. Many a woman looks at 
a pair of shoes, many a man looks at a 
little ring which to her, to him. are signs 
and symbols of things too sacred for 



speech. They were worn by the first 
born, and which has gone to the Great 
Beyond. Many a man looks at a piece 
of white cloth, on which have been paint- 
ed some red stripes and a blue canton, it 
is nailed to a pole, but yet for it he stands 
ready to give if need be his life and hun- 
dreds of men have given their lives. No 
man insults that cloth flag but millions of 
men stand ready to avenge the insult and 
to pour out untold treasure in its defense. 
(And right here let it be truly said that 
the Pennsylvania German has shown on 
many a field of battle that he is qualified 
to stand on a level with men of any other 
blood). Why? Because that flag is the 
symbol of the nation's greatness, its 
schools, its churches, the State. It is the 
ensign of the people. Our steady- 
going and God-fearing ancestors lived 
mostly in the backwoods-the frontier- 
miles from a regular physician, so there 
was some excuse for the practice of this 
mysterious divination among them, I be- 
lieve which is easily explained by the fact 
that as a 'drowning man grasps at a 
straw' so will the person in pain resort 
for relief and cure to agencies which are 
nothing more than nonsense or humbug. 
Of course, they possessed the hereditary 
gift of faith, and there is no doubt where 
faith is very strong and imagination 
lively^ cures which seem to border on the 
miraculous are often effected — and this 
is, indeed, the basis of all miracle as ap- 
plied to relieving bodily afflictions. But 
no sound system of cure can be founded 
on faith, because there is never any cer- 
tainty, especially for difficult and serious 
disorders, that they can be healed twice 
in succession. • 

The writer is a native of one of those 
rural Pennsylvania townships with its 
spacious old red barns and peculiarly 
painted gables, and after an absence of a 
score of years recently made a visit to the 
dreamy hamlet. He was amazed to find 
this fetish delusion still firmly intrenched 
upon the minds of his "cousins" and that 
the practician still flourishes and includes 
among his clientele, not only the ignorant 
and illiterate, but also some of the sup- 
posedly educated and enlightened people 
— tho it is encouraging to note also that 
the good work of exposure begun by the 



ii6 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



saintly Luther is being steadily carried 
forward by the ministers of the Lutheran 
and Reformed churches, as well as those 
of other denominations, and with knowl- 
edge and light these beliefs cannot fail 
to disappear as "dew before the morning 
sun," so it is hoped that within the next 
decade or two the folk-lorist will be the 
only repository for these old beliefs and 
superstitions. 

Belief Hard to' Destroy. 
It is, however, a fact that whole com- 
munities still believe in the reality of 
"hexing," and protect themselves from 
its influence by the charms and incanta- 
tions of the hex doctor and the pow 
wower, and to destroy their belief in them 
would be almost as difficult as to shake 
their faith in the Bible itself. Fancy loves 
to dwell on the mystical and the shadowy, 
and sorcery is far more entertaining than 
religion, besides it has the charm of se- 
crecy, and the prehistoric part of our 
make-up evidently prefers the former. 
Furthermore, we have abundant traces 
that the primeval religious beliefs gravely 
attributed every disease to be the machina- 
tions of the devil, instead of the unavoid- 
able antagonisms of nature, and that the 
negative or cure was holiness in some 
form. Also, the witch doctor will argue 
that the Bible tells us that "Charms cast 
out evil spirits." If we believe the Bible 
we must believe that, and why should not 
such spirits exist now as well as then? 
The mention of witches and evil working 
spirits in the Bible, tho relatively few, 
gave a warrant for the beliefs which pious 
men could not deny, tho the absurd be- 
liefs about sexual relations between the 
devil and the witches, or about witches 
riding thru the air on broom sticks, and 
changing themselves into animals were 
folk-lore and have no backing in the 
Bible. Our Pennsylvania witches when 
attending the midnight conventions of the 
weird sisterhood, it was supposed, jour- 
neyed on the bare backs and necks of 
unbridled horses, and if a farmer found 
his horse in a wretched condition: — 
trembling, enfeebled — and with mane 
tangled and knotted in the morning, he 
was certain that the horse had been ridden 
by some old crone the night before, and 
that the knotted mane served as stirrups 



for her feet, and straightway some poor 
woman of eccentric habits and repellant 
appearance who had unfortunately in- 
curred the dislike of the neighborhood, 
fell a victim to suspicion as having famil- 
iarity with Satan, and was accordingly 
branded as a witch. There were witches 
who went on foot wearing the guise of 
friendship, so the farmer could avoid 
some trouble by keeping his children at 
home on moonlight nights, for }-oung 
children were the special object of a 
witch's uncharitableness. In order to 
counteract this influence the mother, be- 
fore the babe was three days old, was 
required to walk three times around the 
hous^ and return to bed. 

It was supposed that the meetings of 
the witches were held on moonlight nights 
in an open field, or clearing, and the spot 
could be detected for some years by an 
ever widening circle devoid of vegetation, 
and it was known as a "hexa-donz." 
These barren spots have also been called 
"fairy rings," but scientists have demon- 
strated that they are caused by a 
growth which exhausts all the plant food 
from the soil. Whenever a witch died 
her mantle descended to her daughter, 
and likewise the wiles of the witch doctors 
who were supposed to be capable of com- 
batting their maligned influence were 
usually handed dowm from father to son. 
It was contended that a witch could be 
disabled by securing a hair of her head, 
wrapping it in a piece of paper and 
placing it against a tree as a target into 
which a silver bullet was to be fired from 
a rifle. 

Exposures. 

Comparatively recent exposures in this 
state of the wide extent of witch doctor- 
ing are due to the Berks County ^Medical 
Society, and particularly to a prominent 
physician of Reading, Dr. John M. 
Bertelot. Dr. Bertelot frequently detetted 
evidences of the witch doctor in the 
course of his practice, which he collected 
and used as the basis of an interesting 
article that he prepared and which was 
published in the Philadelphia iMonthly 
Medical Journal for December, 1899. 
This article awakened considerable in- 
terest, and several months later corres- 
pondents of the Xew York Herald and 



/ 



WITCHCRAFT 



117 



the North American collected information 
concerninp^ the practices which was piib- 
lisht by those papers. The article in the 
last named paper was later used as a basis 
for bringing- a suit for libel against that 
publishing company, by one of the best 
known 'hex-doctors' of Reading. There 
was much evidence consisting of charms 
which had been taken from the persons 
of patients that regular physicians had 
been called to attend, besides the state- 
ments of others who had employed the 
witch-doctor. Dr. Bertelot is credited 
with the statement that at one time he was 
hastily sent for to see a woman, and while 
making an examination of her chest found 
something under her garment and asking 
what it was, was told that a witch doctor 
placed it there to drive away all her ail- 
ments into the body of him or her who 
was haunting her. 

The patient was horrified to see the doc- 
tor remove the charm, and cautioned him 
not to carry it, because it might bring the 
spell on him. She seemed much worried 
as to his welfare, regardless of the fact 
that he assured her that there was abso- 
lutely nothing to be feared from such 
nonsense. The lady was suffering from 
some internal trouble which was entirely 
cured by an operation for lacerated 
cervix. He has also related his experi- 
ence with a yovmg man who seemed to 
be upon the verge of becoming a maniac 
under the most peculiar circumstances. 
This party had some insignificant ailment 
and consulted a female witch doctor, who 
told him that his trouble was due to a 
young woman who held a penny in her 
mouth upon a certain occasion when he 
visited her, and that as a result he was 
doomed to pass into consumption and to 
die within a few months. This alarming 
statement threw the young man into a 
condition of acute melancholia which seri- 
ously affected his health. He consulted 
another well known witch doctor, who 
confirmed his fears by assuring him that 
he was bewitched and would give him a 
charm to break the spell. The witch 
doctor placed a small muslin bag on his 
chest suspended by a piece of white tape 
around his neck. The doctor removed it. 
and upon examination found that it con- 
tained assafoetida and a lot of curious 



looking material, which the young man 
had been told would drive away his 
trouble and afflict her who gave it to him. 
The doctor found his lungs in a sound 
condition, and advised him to visit some 
relatives in the country, where, under the 
influence of the change of scene, he for- 
got his afflictions and soon regained his 
health. Another story is told of a pious 
little German woman living in the witch 
belt of Berks county whose child was 
"fur-hexed" by its step-grandmother. The 
old lady did not believe in witchcraft, and 
laughed at witches and witch doctors, and 
that is what made suspicion to point 
towards her. The baby was taken sick 
very suddenly — the step-grandmother had 
been rocking it, and called a regular phy- 
sician, who said the baby had colic from 
taking sour milk. He gave it a little 
medicine, ordered it bandaged in flannel 
and kept very warm, and said it would be 
all right again by the next morning. But 
the mother knew better, didn't the 
baby wake up and cry that night after 
she had given it the doctor's medicine? 
Didn't it cry worse than ever when its 
step-grandmother leaned over the cradle 
and lookt into its little face, and laid her 
hand over its heart? The mother knew 
and waited until the old lady had gone to 
bed and then she snatcht the baby from 
its cradle and wrapt it in her shawl and 
ran out of the house with it thru the rain 
to a witch doctor. The witch doctor 
lookt at the baby and shook his head. 
He said he was afraid it was too late, the 
spell had been on it too long, the mother 
ought to have come to him in the first 
place, still he would do what he could. 
He took off the flannel bandages the 
doctor had ordered on, and blew his 
breath on the baby's body and hung a 
prayer charm, sewed up in a piece of 
linen, over its heart. He charged the 
mother the usual fee of $5.00 and told 
her when she got home not to go into the 
house until she had walked three times 
around it with the baby in her arms 
to frighten away the powers of evil, sin, 
darkness and death. This the little 
mother did faithfully and heaven only 
knows what might have happened if she 
had not. The child all but died before 
morning. The wicked ( ?) step-grand- 



ii8 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



mother flung herself out of the house 
in a rage when she heard what ihad 
happened in the night, but she came back 
directly and brought the doctor with her. 
But of course the mother very well knew 
they could do little to hurt the child for it 
wore the charm about its heart and she 
muttered her witch prayers over it un- 
ceasingly. The step-grandmother went 
away directly she saw the child was get- 
ting better which proved, the mother con- 
tended, how angry she was because she 
had not "hexed" it to its death. The 
little woman's husband-honest, hard 
working, and home loving-tells the story 
of this same old lady who had "marrit" 
his father, and how she had "hexed" 
the old gentleman, so that he was sick 
for eight years. He became weaker, and 
weaker, and did not know anybody, and 
he just died and would not speak to any 
of his children. The step-mother nursed 
him always herself and would not employ 
a pow-wower or a witch-doctor for him. 
After his death she told his children to 
take the farm, because her work there 
was finisht and that she wanted nothing. 
But they claimed that they were too smart 
for her, because she had some "hex" on 
the farm and let her keep it, and they 
went away. The children married but 
none of them would harbor the old lady, 
for if they did, trouble was sure to follow, 
as in the case of his own little girl. The 
writer cannot vouch for the foundation of 
this story, he merely tells the tale as it was 
told to him. However it demonstrates the 
unholy influence the witch-doctor has 
over his gullible patients. 
Charms. 
The charms vary greatly but the fol- 
lowing description will serve as an ex- 
ample. It is usually a small coarse linen, 
or canvas bag about four inches long and 
two inches wide and is pinned to the 
under garment with safety pins or hung 
about the neck with a white string. On 
this bag are usually printed by hand in 
red ink the initials INRI and below each 
letter is the sign of the cross, thus 
INRI 
t t t t 
and underneath the crosses appears the 
name of the patient. Inside there is a paper 
on which are written the "blessings and 
forbiddings" made up, as many of the 



formulas of the witch-doctors are, from 
a curious book which many of them 
possess and which is called the Seventh 
Book of Moses. The formula is usually 
written in German, with every alternate 
line written backwards, and which rough- 
ly translated is as follows : 

"Jesus of Nazareth, a King of the Jews : 
The victorious title of Jesus be between me 
(here is inserted the patient's name) and all 
my enemies, visible or invisible, that they can 
neither approach, nor do any harm to my 
body nor to my soul : Amen. Thou mysterious 
evil spirit, thou hast attacked this child, and 
it shall now fall from her (or him) in thy 
marrow and bone, in this manner it is paid back 
to thee again. I command thee by the five 
wounds of Jesus in thy flesh, marrow and 
bone. I command thee by the five wounds of 
Jesus at this hour let her get well again. In 
the name of God the Father, God the Son, and 
God tlie Holy Ghost : Amen. In the name 
of God the Holy Trinity, I forbid thee my 
bedstead, my house and yard, my flesh and 
blood, my body and soul. I forbid you every 
nail hole in my house and yard until you climb 
every little tree, wade through every little 
stream, count all the little stars in the skies, 
until the beautiful day shall bring forth her 
seasons. In the name of God the Father, God 
the Son, and God the Holy Ghost : Amen." 

The following cabalistic order of letters 
is widely employed by witch-doctors as a 
charm to drive away malaria, and in fact 
it is asserted to be a panacea for almost 
all ills. The letters are written on a scrap 
of paper and sewed into a piece of cloth, 
and then worn about the neck until the 
disease leaves. 

AbaxaCatabax 

AbaxaCatabax 

AbaxaCataba 

AbaxaCatab 

AbaxaCata 

AbaxaCat 

A b a x a C a '• 

A b a X a C 

A b a X a 

A b a X 

Aba 

A b 

A 
To quench a fire without water the fol- 
lowing square of letters was written on 
the side of a plate, which was then thrown 
into the fire: 

S A T O R 

A R E P O 

TENET 

OPERA 

ROTAS 

This bosh is all the witch-doctor needs 

in his so-called profession, and this is all 

the gullible patient gets for the hard 



WITCHCRAFT 



rig 



earned money that is paid the witch-doc- 
tor, and this is what has hurried some of 
the sick and ignorant people to an un- 
timely grave. Let some Pennsylvania- 
German reader buy one — they are only 
:$5.oo — and wear it pinned on his garment 
next to the skin and he may be sure that 
no witch abroad on her broomstick will 
■"hex" him, besides it is warranted to cure 
every ill of body or mind, and it is the 
witch-doctor's theory that disease is only 
witch-craft and suffering under a spell. 
The power that the witch-doctor is likely 
to wield over his credulous patients 
coupled with his general uncouth person- 
ality and small intellectual capacity is 
hkely to make him a dangerous person in 
the community, while on the other hand 
the "pow-wower" or "wursht frau" is 
usually some elderly person who has 
picked up some charms or formulas and 
practices them upon friends or relatives 
without charge, or at most perhaps for 
some simple gift or tip that the patient 
may see fit to make. They often pre- 
scribe some simple herb remedies or other 
preparations of their own which are 
usually,' tho not always harmless. 
Pow Wowing. 
The art of "pow-wowing" was prac- 
ticed by the Indian medicine men, and fre- 
quent references to the "pow-wow," not 
only as a healer but also as a priest, may 
be found in the Indian history of the 
colonies. The word is from the Indian, 
but how it was brought into use among 
ovu' people the writer will not explain at 
this time. In the Pennsylvania German 
the pow-wow is called a "Braucher" and 
practices what is termed "Brauche." The 
woi-d is a corruption of "brauchen" which 
in the German signifies "to use" and the 
and the "braucher" is the would-be 
healer who aims to effect a cure by 
""'using words" that is to say, using them 
as a ritual in the working of a charm or 
an incantation. In such formularies the 
words of greatest potency are those which 
are termed the "three highest," and they 
are the sacred names of the Holy Trinity 
with whose aid invoked by the recital of 
the ritual and a few passes of the hands, 
"He moveth thus mysteriously His won- 
ders to perform." Many marvelous in- 
.stances are recalled bv the writer where. 



in cases of a severe cut by a knife or other 
sharp instrument, the flow of blood was 
stoppt, or in cases of severe scalds or 
burns where the injured person labored 
under intense pain, which was stopt, ap- 
parently the instant the "pow-wow" said 
the ritual and made the passes. Tnese 
charms among the Pennsylvania-Germans 
were highly valued and were not to be 
lightly dealt with. Generally each person 
cured one spell distinctly, keeping the 
method of treatment a profound secret. 
It was held that this art of conjuration 
could be taught and its occult secrets 
transmitted only to a person of the oppo- 
site sex, but in 1820 there appeared a 
German book on the subject, which 
taught any one, male or female, who 
bought it. It was called "Holman's 
Branch Bichly," and was several times 
reprinted, and in 1840 under the title of 
"Der Lang Verborgne Freund" (The 
Long Hidden Friend). It has been 
translated into English and contains many 
curious remedies for the relief of the ills 
that flesh — man or beast — is heir to, as 
well as pious prayers and weird incanta- 
tions for the recovery of stolen goods and 
the finding of hidden treasures. The 
foundation for the magical artifices which 
the witch doctors and pow-wows practice 
on the ignorant and credulous is, broadly 
speaking, undoubtedly Holman's book. 
The sixth and seventh books of Moses 
are said to treat on these occult sciences, 
and were held in respect and awe, not 
only by the illiterate, but also by some 
educated and enlightened people. Stu- 
dents of folklore have collected in numer- 
ous localities beyond the borders of the 
Keystone State many specimens of the 
blind ignorance and credulity contained in 
the former publication. A few excerpts 
follow : 

To cure toothache : Take a needle and stab 
the aching tooth with it till you bring blood, 
take vinegar and meal, mix, then put them in 
a patch of cloth, wrap it around the root of an 
apple tree, wind the thread around it very fast 
and cover the root well with earth. 

To check a hemorrhage : Begin at 50 and 
count backwards to 3, when you get to 3 you 
are done; (2) This is the day the wound was 
made, O Blood ! thou shalt stoo and be still 
until the Virgin Mary will bear another son. 

"To cure a cold : This must be strictly at- 
tended to every evening — that is, whenever you 
remove your shoes and stockings, run a finger 



120 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



in between all the toes and smell it. This will 
surely effect a cure. 

To cure a headache: Tame thou flesh and 
bone, like Christ in Paradise, and who will 
assist thee, this I tell thee (name) for your 
repentance sake. This must be said three tunes, 
each time pausing for three minutes, and the 
pain will soon cease. If, however, the head- 
ache is caused by strong drink, it is not so 
likely to go away, and these words must be re- 
peated every minute. 

To cure snake bites: God has created all 
things, and thev were good. Thou only serpent 
are damned. 'Cursed be thou and thy sting, 
Zing, Zing, Zing. ^ . , 

To prevent accidents : Carry with you, sewed 
to your right sleeve, the right eye of a wolf. 

Security against mad dogs: Dog, hold thy 
nose to the ground, God has made me and 
thee, hound. 

To banish the whooping cough: Let the child 
drink out of a blue glass tumbler. (This disease 
was known as the "blue cough," and on the 
principle of "like cures like," the child drinks 
from a "blue glass" to be cured of a "blue 
cough"). 

To cure a baldness : Rub the scalp with the 
hemispheres of a divided onion. (This was a 
strong charm if the vegetable was fresh.) 

To cure fits: Take off the child's- shirt, turn- 
ing it inside out while doing so, and then burn 
the garment. 

To destroy warts : Stick a pin thru the wart, 
and give away the pin, when the warts will 
follow the pin. 

Mumps were cured by rubbing the swelling 
against a pig's trough. If the patient was too 
ill to be taken to the pig stj'e, then a chip taken 
from the trough and carried to the house was 
rubbed on the swollen gland. 

To make the best cider vinegar : After the 
cider is put into the cask, call up the names of 
three of the crossest and most sour tempered 
old w^omen in the communit}-, and in a loud 
voice utter their names into the bung hole, 
and immediately cork it up, and you will have 
the best and strongest vinegar in the neighbor- 
hood. 

A remedy against slander : If you are calum- 
niated or slandered to your very skin, to your 
very flesh, to your very bones, cast it back upon 
the false tongues. Take off your shirt, and 
turn it inside out, and then run your two 
thumbs along your body under the ribs, start- 
ing at the pit of the heart, thence down to the 
thighs. 

An apple held by a dying person till life is 
gone, and then eaten by a habitual drunkard 
cured him of the craving for liquor. Another 
remedy for this vice is to draw a live eel thru 
a glass of whisky and let the person to be 
cured drink the liquor, when his appetite for 
alcoholics will leave him. (This seems to be 
a kill-or-cure remedy, for if the liquor kills the 
eel, it may also kill the drunkard.) 

A stiff joint incased with the di.sembowelled 
body of a recently killed dog and while still 
warm will regain its former usefulness. 

To bring a thief to confession and make him 



restore stolen property : From the door sill 
over which the thief bas passed take three 
splinters in the name of the Trinity. Fasten 
them to a w^agon wheel removed from the 
spindle, and thru the box or hub pronounce- 
the following prayer : "I pray thee. Thou Holy 
Trinity, to constrain the thief who has stolen 
my (name of the article stolen) to be stung by 
remorse and return it to its rightful owner."" 
This done, the wheel is to be replaced by 
fastening it to the wagon, when it was given 
three revolutions, and then the stolen goods 
were expected to be returned. 

Erysipelas was very mtich more com- 
mon in the early days than now, and came 
perhaps from eating too much salt meat. 
Everybody had the erysipelas then like 
the appendicitis now ; diseases, like the 
fashions, have their day. 

"It was known as "wildt fire," and 
was cured by throwing three shovelsful 
of live coal over the patient, at the same 
time whispering, "Wildt fire, Ich yawg 
dich, wdldt fire, pock dich, Im namen des 
Vaters, etc." Others took a fire brand 
and waved it three times across the af- 
flicted person. 

Dr. (jrumbine relates that this incanta- 
tion was practiced some years ago by a 
certain Eastern Pennsylvania veterinary 
who had been robbed of some money, 
. His son assisted him by turning the 
wheel, but without results. The son must 
have laughed in his sleeve while going 
thru the performance, for he himself was 
the thief. 

The fact that a publishing house at this 
day and tinie, in a State that prides itself 
on the intelligence of its inhabitants, finds 
it a paying enterprise to print such non- 
sense is not very flattering, nor would it 
seem very creditable to the educational 
system of people who are pointed out as 
models in citizenship. It is, however, true 
that "The world moves and civilization 
progresses, but the old superstitions re- 
main the same. The rusty horse shoe 
found on the road is still prized as a 
lucky token, and will doubtless continue 
to be so prized, for human nature does 
not change, and superstition is a part of 
human nature." 

John George Holman. 

The following is an extract from the 
Journal of American Folk-Lore concern- 
ing the personal history of the author of 
Holman's book : 

John George Holman, his wife Catharine, 



WITCHCRAFT 



and their son Caspar, were German Redemp- 
tioners, who reached Philadelphia some time in 
1799. Their time was purchased by a farmer 
named Frctz, who conveyed them in his market 
wagon to his home in Bedminster township. 
Hohnan was a poet and a ready writer, and 
had a knowledge of drawing and water color 
painting, which he learned in early life in 
Germany. After working for about two years 
he conceived the idea of making "taufscheins" 
(baptismal certificates) and to peddle them 
over the country. His specimens were drawn 
on paper about 12 by 16 inches. In the center 
was a heart in outline of five inches in diameter, 
surrounded by representations of birds, flowers 
and angels, in rather gaudy colors and with 
religious verses of four or eight lines each 
between the objects. He would make up 50 or 
100 of these "taufscheins," when he would set 
off on his pedestrian peddling tour selling them 
among the German settlers and farmers. The 
space within the heart was left blank to be 
afterwards filled up to suit the wishes of his 
patrons, for which there was an additional 
charge. His success was such in selling these 
certificates that within ten months from starting 
in the business he realized sufficient to not only 
purchase his own, but also his wife's freedom. 
In about 16 years he realized enough from 
this source to purchase himself a snug house - 
and several acres of ground near Reading, Pa. 



Here himself and wife attained to a good old 
age thru the comfortable provision he made 
by" his industry. Whether he further added 
to his modest income by engaging in the pro- 
fessional practice of the charms which he 
publisht in his book, we cannot say. The 
list of testimonials would point in this direc- 
tion. On the other hand, it would seem that 
if he engaged in the practice of these charms 
he would have regarded it as poor financial 
policy to publish them broadcast. At all events, 
he was not a shrewd quack who was striving 
to enrich himself by cultivating the super- 
stitions of the ignorant, but an honest man who 
himself thoroly believed in the value of the 
charms which he had collected in the pages 
of his book. Furthermore, his j'outh and early 
manhood had been spent in the Faderland, 
where he had been educated in the customs 
and superstitions of the peasantry. In all these 
ways he was well qualified to serve as a 
rnedium for the transmission of genuine tra- 
ditional folk-lore. 

Note. — In the preparation of this article the 
writer consulted the following publications, and 
acknowledgment is hereby accordingly made, 
\ viz : New York Herald, January 14, 1900 ; 
'North American, Alay 22, 1900; Journal '/{ 
American Folk-lore, No. LXV, April-June, 
1904; Grumbine's Folk-lore and Superstitions 
of Lebanon Co. 



The Pennsylvania-German in 
The Field of Science 



A Symposium 

Edited by Prof. D. H. Bergey, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pennsylvania-Germans as Teachers of Science 
in Colleges and Universities 

BY PROF. OSCAR KUHNS, MIDDLETOWN. CONN. 




O trdat this subject as it 
deserves to be treated would 
demand long, patient investi- 
gation, and practically a 
whole volume by itself. All 
that can be done in this brief 
sketch is to give a bare outline of the 
subject. 

From the earliest times the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans have taken a prominent 
part in the work of science, both as 
teachers and investigators ; although the 
fact remains that it is chiefly in recent 
times that we find them scattered 
throughout all our colleges and univer- 



sities. This is largely due, on the one 
hand, to the fact that science itself has 
made extraordinary progress during the 
last fifty years or so, and has only 
recently become a dominating factor in 
the school and college curriculum ; and on 
the other hand it is only the last genera- 
tion or two of Pennsylvania Germans who 
have become completely Americanized, 
giving up their own dialect, and to all 
practical purposes indistinguishable from 
their fellow-countrymen of English or 
Scotch-Irish origin. 

Away back in the eighteenth centur\' 
we find Pennsylvania Germans who were 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



teachers in our colleges and universities. 
Perhaps the most distinguished of these 
pioneer teachers is that David Rittenhouse 
(1732-1789.) who from 1779 to 1782 was 
Professor of Astronomy in the University 
of Pennsylvania. He was the great 
grand-son of the first Mennonite minister 
tn Pennsylvania. Born on a farm, he 
educated himself, became a maker of 
clocks and mathematical instruments, 
studied Astronomy and Surveying, in 
both of which he made a distinguished 
success. In 1763, he was called upon to 
settle the most difficult part of the bound- 
ary line between Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, and when soon after the official 
surveyors, Charles Mason and Jonathan 
Dixon, examined his work, they found 
nothing to change. An orrery which 
Rittenhouse made ill 1770 was regarded 
by John Adams as a "most beautiful 
machine," and was sold to Princeton 
Universitv for three hundred pounds. 
Later he made another of the same kind 
for the University of Pennsylvania. His 
achievements in astronomy may be in- 
ferred from the words of praise given 
him by Thomas Jeflferson who said. 
"We have supposed Mr. Rittenhouse 
second to no astronomer living; that in 
genius he must be the first because he was 
self-taught." Rittenhouse was the recip- 
ient of many honors in his life. He was 
.a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, of which he became president at 
the death of Benjamin Franklin. He was 
also a member of the American Academy 
of Arts, and an honorary Fellow, of the 
Royal Society of London. He took a 
lively interest in contemporary politics, 
was a member of the Convention which 
drafted the first constitution for the State 
of Pennsylvania (1776), and became 
Treasurer of the State. Beside being a 
professor at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, he was also a trustee and vice-pro- 
vost. In 1789 he received the degree of 
LL.D., from Princeton. 

Another of these early Pennsylvania- 
German professors of science was Caspar 
Wistar (1761-1819), grandson of Caspar 
Wistar, who was born in Hilspach, near 
Lleidelberg, in 1696, and came to America 
in 1 7 17. It is said that this first Caspar 
Wistar started the first glass works in 



this country. Dr. Wistar was a distin- 
guished physician as well as a teacher. 
In 1789, he was appointed professor of 
Chemistry in the College of Philadelphia; 
when this college became merged into 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1792, 
he became adjunct professor of Anatomy 
and Surgery, and in 1801, full professor 
of Anatomy. His name will go down 
the centuries in connection with the beau- 
tiful flowering and climbing plant known 
as 'Wistaria." 

Dr. Wistar became president of the 
American Philosophical Society in 181 5 
(at the death of Thomas Jefferson). He 
opened his house once a week in the win- 
ter, and gathered around him a group of 
students, citizens, scientists and travelers, 
reminding us of the famous "salons" of 
Paris. These reunions, known as "Wistar 
parties," were continued after his death 
by others. 

The early teaching of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans centered around Franklin and 
Marshall College and the University of 
Pennsylvania. In connection with the 
former several names suggest themselves. 
One was Frederick Valentine Melsheimer 
(1749-1814), who, although titular pro- 
fessor of Latin, Greek and German at 
Franklin College, was also a distinguished 
scientist. He has been called the father 
of entomology in America. His Insects 
of Pennsylvania, published in 1806, was 
the first work of its kind in this country. 
In 1 8 10, he published a still larger work, 
"American Entomology, or Description 
of the Insects of North America." His 
collection of insects now forms part of the 
collection at Harvard. 

Other members of the faculty of Frank- 
lin and Marshall we may mention here 
were William Reichenbach, first professor 
of Mathematics, and Thomas C. Porter. 
The latter who was proud of his descent 
from John Conrad Bucher was originally 
professor of Natural Science in Marshall 
College, and when this was merged with 
Franklin College, he too left Mercersburg 
for Lancaster. He remained here till 
1866 when he went to Lafayette college. 
Although by profession he was a teacher 
of science, Professor Porter was also 
interested in literature, and his name has 
become connected with a famous literary 



PENNSYLVANIA-GERMANS AS TEACFiERS OF SCIENCE 



123 



•controversy. In 1855, Longfellow pub- 
lished his "Hiawatha," which was 
ummediately hailed as the great American 
•epic. One day, while browsing around 
the library of a colleague, Professor 
Koeppen, he found a German translation 
■of the Finnish Epic Kalevala, and was 
immediatel}- struck with the resemblance 
"between it and Hiawatha. The articles 
"he published in the Mercersburg Review 
in 1856 stirred up a tremendous contro- 
A^ersy, especially in the Boston papers. 

Naturally enough, by far the larger 
number of Pennsylvania-German teach- 
«ers of science were connected with the 
University of Pennsylvania. Among them 
we may mention Dr. William Pepper, 
professor in the medical department from 
1860-64, and his still more distinguished 
son, of the same name, who also was pro- 
fessor at the University till 1881, when 
lie became provost. 

One name well known to all students 
of the history of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans is that of Samuel S. Haldeman 
{1812-1880), who combined science and 
philosophy in his teaching, and became a 
distinguished investigator in both. From 
185 1 to 1855, he was professor of Natural 
Science, and from 1869 to 1880, profes- 
sor of Comparative Philology in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. Among his pub- 
lications are "Frcslnvatcr Univalrc Mol- 
iusca of the United States," "The Ele- 
ments of Latin Pronunciation," and his 
well known book on the Pennsylvania- 
Dutch dialect. Professor Haldeman was 
a member of many learned societies, and 
the founder and president of the Philo- 
logical Society. 

Equally well known is Dr. Joseph Leidy 
(1823-1891), who was professor of 
Anatomy in the University of Pennsyl- 
•vania, and at the same time, after 187 1, 
professor of Natural History at Swarth- 
more College. He published many im- 
portant papers, over eight hundred in all. 
One of these, entiled "Description of 
Vertebrate Remains, Chieyy from the 
Phosphate Beds of South Carolina," was 
awarded the Walker prize by the Boston 
Society of Natural History. The amount, 
■usually five hundred dollars, was doubled, 
on account of the extraordinary re- 
searches embodied in the paper. On the 



establishment of the Department of Biolo- 
gy at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. 
Leidy became its director. He was mem- 
. ber of many societies, and in 1886 was 
honored by the title of LL.D. from Har- 
vard. 

Another name which cannot be omit- 
ted from any discussion of Pennsylvania- 
German activities is that of Spencer F. 
Baird, one time professor of Natural Sci- 
ence at Dickinson, but later Director of 
the Smithsonian Institution in Washing- 
ton, and United States Commissioner of 
Fish and Fisheries. His English name 
should not deter us from giving him a 
place here, for he was partly of Penn- 
sylvania-German descent. 

In any discussion of this kind, much of 
the material is lost because of the difficulty 
in deciding as to who is of Pennsylvania- 
German descent. A large number of our 
teachers of science have English names, 
and are either Pesssylvania-Germans with 
anglicized names or are of German de- 
scest on the mother's side. An interesting 
illustratios of this is given in a recent his*^ 
tory of the University of Michigan, where 
biographical and genealogical details are 
given of the members of the facultv. Thus 
P. C. Freer, professor of Chemistrv, says 
his mother was of German descent! J. J. 
Abel, later, professor in Johns Hopkins* 
was of German descent on both sides; 
M. S. Hoff, professor of Dentistry, Ger- 
man descent on father's side; A. S. 
Warthin, professor in Medical Depart- 
ment, Pennsylvania-German descent on 
the mother's side. The mother of W. L. 
Miggett, professor of Engineering, was a 
Pemisylvania-German. 

In the following list of teachers of 
Science in colleges and universities at the 
present time, it will be seen that all the 
names are typical Pennsvlvania-German. 
I have omitted those that are modern 
German, and especially doubtful names, 
such as Miller, Fisher, etc.. which may 
be either German or English. Hence the 
list here given is far more modest than 
the facts would warrant did we know 
them. 

James M. Anders, M.D., Ph.D.. LL.D., 
professor of Medicine and Clinical Medi- 
cme since 1893. in the Medico-Chirurgical 
College of Philadelphia. 



124 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Howard S. Anders, AM., M.D., Aledi- 
co-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia. 

David H. Bergey, A.M., M.D., assist- 
ant professor of Bacteriology in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, since 1903. 

Charles P. Berkey, Ph.D., tutor in 
Geology in Columbia University, New 
York, N.Y., since 1903. 

Abram A. Brenneman, B.S., professor 
of Industrial Chemistry in Cornell Uni- 
versity from 1879 to 1882; chemical ex- 
pert since 1882. 

Martin G. Brumbaugh, Ph.D., presi- 
dent of Juniata College since 1895 ; pro- 
fessor of Pedagogy in the University of 
Pennsylvania from 1895 to 1906; U. S. 
Commissioner of Education for Porto 
Rico from 1900 to 1902 ; Superintendent 
of the Schools of the City of Philadelphia 
since 1906. 

Lawrence Bruner, B.S., professor of 
Entomology and Ornithology in the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska since 1895. 

John 'E. Bucher, Ph.D., professor of 
Chemistry in Brown University since 
1901. 

William E. Byerly, Ph.D., professor of 
Mathematics in Harvard University since 
1881. 

Horace G. Byers, Ph.D., professor of 
Chemistry in Washington State Univer- 
sity since 1899. 

Arthur B. Coble, Ph.D., instructor in 
Mathematics in Johns Hopkins University 
since 1904. 

H. M. Derr, Ph.D., professor of 
Mathematics in South Dakota State Col- 
lege since 1907. 

J. S. Diller, B.S., geologist of the U. 
S. Geological Survey since 1883. 

George Dock, M.D., Sc.D., professor 
of Medicine in the University of Michigan 
since 1891. 

William C. Ebaugh, Ph.D., director of 
the Department of Chemistry of the Uni- 
versity of Utah since 1903. 

William S. Eichelberger, Ph.D., profes- 
sor of Mathematics, U. S. Naval Ob- 
servatory since 1900. 

L. P. Eisenhart, Ph.D., instructor in 
Mathematics in Princeton University 
since 1900. 

John Eyerman, lecturer on determina- 
tive mineralogy, Lafayette College, 1887- 
1892 ; expert mineralogist. 



J. B. Faught, Ph.D., professor of 
jMathematics in Northern State Normal 
School, Alichigan, since 1900. 

E. L. Fulmer, M.S., professor of Nat- 
ural Science in Baldwin L^niversity since 
1903. 

George D. Gable, Ph.D., professor of 
Mathematics and secretary of the Fac- 
ulty in Parsons College since 1895. 

John F. Garber, Ph.D., teacher of bot- 
any in Yeatman High School, St. Louis, 
Mo., since 1905. 

J. L Hamaker, Ph.D., professor of 
Biology in Randolph-Macon College 
since 1904. 

J. C. Hartzell, Ph.D., professor of 
Geology in the University of the Pacific 
since 1904. 

Lewis M. Haupt, Ph.D., Sc.D., profes- 
sor of Civil Engineering in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania from 1875 to 1892; 
consulting engineer. 

John C. Heisler, M.D., professor of 
Anatomy in the Medico-Chirurgical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia since 1897. 

Oscar H. Hershey, formerly field as- 
sistant U. S. Geological Survey. Exam- 
ining Mines, Nevada, since 1904. 

P. R. Heyl, Ph.D., professor of Physics 
in the Boys' Central High School of 
Philadelphia since 1902. 

C. F. Himes, Ph.D., LL.D., professor 
of Chemistry and Physics in Dickinson 
College from 1865 to 1884, and professor 
of Physics from 1884 to 1896. 

C. H. Kauffman, Ph.D., instructor in 
Botany in the LTniversity of Michigan 
since 1904. 

E. H. Reiser, Ph.D., professor of 
Chemistry in Washington University (St. 
Louis) since 1899. 

E. B. Rnerr, Sc.D., assistant city chem- 
ist of Ransas City, Mo., since 1905. 

E. P. Rohler, Ph.D., professor of 
Chemistry in Bryn Mawr College since 
1900. 

Flenry Rraemer, Ph.G., Ph.D., profes- 
sor of Botany in the Philadelphia Ccll<;ge 
of Pharmacy since 1897; editor of the 
American Journal of Pharmacy since 
1898. 

D. A. Rreider, Ph.D., assistant profes- 
sor of physics in Yale University since 
1902. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS IN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 



125 



William W. Landis, A.M., professor 
of Mathematics and Astronomy in Dick- 
inson College since 1895. 

C. E. Leinbarger, A.B., teacher in Lake 
View High School, Chicago, since 1896. 

J. L. Alarkley, Ph.D., jmiior professor 
of Mathematics in University of Michi- 
o^an since 1904. 

J. H. Musser, M.D., professor of Clin- 
ical Medicine in the University of Penn- 
sylvania since 1899. President of the 
American Medical Association in 1905. 

A. G. Rail, AI.S., superntendent of the 
Moravian Parochial Schools, Bethlehem, 
Pa., since 1892. 

Jacob E. Reighard, Ph.B., professor 
of Zoology in the University of ^lichigan 
since 1895. 

A. H.'^Roth, M.D., first assistant in 
Ephtholmology, University of Micliigan, 
since 1905. 



J. T. Rorer, Ph.D., professor of Math- 
ematics in the Boys Central High School, 
Philadelphia, since 1895. 

J. T. Rothrock, M.D., professor of Bot- 
any in the University of Pennsylvania 
since 1879. Commissioner of Forestry of 
Pennsylvania from 1893 to 1904. 

R. L. Slagle, Ph.D.. professor of Chem- 
istry, South Dakota State College, 1895- 
'97; president South Dakota School of 
Mines, 1897-1906; president South Da- 
kota State College since 1906. 

C. W. Waidner, Ph.D., associate 
physicist. Bureau of Standards, Washing- 
ton, D. C., since 1904. 

Lightner Witmer, Ph.D., professor of 
Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 
since 1904. 

L. A. Youtz, Ph.D., professor of Chem- 
istry in Lawrence University since 1902. 



The Pennsylvania Germans in Loudoun 
County, Virginia 




HE first white people to locate 
in Loudoun county. \ ir- 
ginia, as actual settlers came 
in 1732. The honor seems 
about equally divided be- 
tween the English who 
came up from Jamestown and located at 
Leesburg; the Germans, who came from 
Pennsylvania and established the German 
settlement, and the Quakers, who also 
came from Pennsylvania and located at 
Waterford. At that early period it was a 
part of Prince William county. In 1742 
Fairfax county was created and named 
after Lord Fairfax, the sixth Baron of 
Cameron. In 1757 Fairfax county was 
divided and Loudoun county was cre- 
ated and named after Lord Loudoun, a 
prominent officer in King George's army, 
and afterwards commander-in-chief of 
the British forces in the American colo- 
nies, and Colonial Governor of \'irginia 
from 1758 to 1762. 

That portion of Loudoun county, \*ir- 
ginia, bounded on the east by the Catoctin 
]\Iountains, on the west by the Short Hill 



Mountains, on the north by the Potomac 
River and on the south by the village of 
Morrisonville, is known far and wide as 
the German settlement. The Germans 
who located in Loudoun county, Virginia, 
belonged to that mighty host who were in 
the front rank of the battle against tyr- 
anny and superstition that had devastated 
some of the fairest portions of Germany 
and that finally culminated in the Ref- 
ormation that liberated men's souls as well 
as their bodies. 

The Germans did not come to America 
for worldly gain, but for a home, where 
they could dwell under their own vine and 
fig-tree, with none to molest or make them 
afraid. Probably no nationality gets as 
much comfort out of the home as the 
Germans do. To them the home was the 
nucleus around which grcAV the state that 
later developed and broadened into the 
Nation ; hence the Germans were nation- 
builders as well. 

Whence Came the Pioneers? 
This liberty-loving people who located 



126 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



in Loudoun county, Virginia, had proba- 
bly sojourned in Pennsylvania for a few- 
years, or they may perhaps have come 
direct from Germany with the determina- 
tion to locate in Virginia. It has been 
claimed by some that the Germans of Lou- 
doun county came from Fanquier county, 
Virginia, and originally belonged to that 
ill-fated band of German pilgrims who 
came over with DeGrafifenried in 1710 
and located in New Berne, North Caro- 
lina, where the treacherous Tuscarora In- 
dians, who were totally ignorant of the 
peaceful habits of the Germans, fell upon 
them and massacred men, women and 
children. Those that escaped became dis- 
heartened, sailed north, and a remnant 
after various misfortunes established Ger- 
mantown in Fauquier county, Va., where 
they built a church in 17 18, with Henry 
Haeger as pastor. Some of their de- 
scendants are to be found there to this 
day. The claim that some of them went 
north and established the German settle- 
ment of Loudoun county, Virginia, has 
some adherents, but it is not regarded by 
historians as reliable. Germantown in 
Fauquier county is about forty miles from 
the German settlement in Loudoun coun- 
ty ; the methods of farming differ widely 
in each locality ; besides, there is no sim- 
ilarity in names. 

There has also been a tradition that the 
German Hessians who came over during 
the Revolutionary War established the 
German settlement of Loudoun county, 
but it is impossible to reconcile history 
with tradition, as the settlement was es- 
tablished nearly fify years before that 
period. 

The only record of any Revolutionary 
Hessians in Loudoun county was a very 
few prisoners guarded at Nowlands 
Ferry in 1780. 

That the Germans of Loudoun county 
came from Pennsylvania can not be 
doubted. In the first place, many of the 
names in Berks and York counties, Penn- 
sylvania, are the same as those in Lan- 
doun county, Virginia. 

There is a perfect chain of German 
settlements from Philadelphia, Pennsylva- 
nia, to Loudoun county, Virginia. The 
methods of farming and the old style log- 
houses are to be found in both sections. 



and a line of communication has ahvays- 
been kept up between the German settle- 
ment and Berks and York counties, Penn- 
sylvania, by way of the old Alonocacy^ 
road. 

The Hon. Yardley Taylor, a Quaker, 
who ranked high as an educator and a. 
civil engineer, who represented Landoun 
county in the Legislature of Virginia, who 
served the county as surveyor 1850 to 
1857, and w^ho compiled and published- 
the only history and map of Loudoun 
county that was ever prepared, spent 
much time in the German settlement, and 
talked with many whose parents were- 
born in Germany and Pennsylvania, get- 
ting positive information in regard to- 
their early history and the causes that 
induced them to locate in Virginia. 

It was a substantial compliment and a 
recognition of the value and accuracy of 
the Taylor map, that when the Union 
forces under General Geary crossed the 
Potomac River into Virginia in 1861, the 
General secured a copy of this map and 
closely consulted it in his movements of 
the army, and filed the same with the War 
Department as part of his report. After 
the war, when the official records were 
printed and an atlas of the operations of 
the army made, this map became a part 
of the official records, and was published 
as plate VTI of the War Atlas. 

The emigration of the Germans froni 
Pennsylvania to Virginia was hastened by 
the Indian raids in the Colebrook Valley 
and the attacks in Falkner's Swamp and 
other settlements, the burning of cabins 
and grain, the driving oft' of stock and 
the murdering of the settlers being un- 
bearable. Governor Gordon had prom- 
ised protection to the settlers, but was not 
provided with means to successfully put 
down these Indian raids, which continued 
at intervals for over two years. In the 
meantime, glowing accounts had come 
from the Shenandoah and Loudoun Val- 
leys of Virginia, setting forth the fertility 
of the soil, and as a result about one hun- 
dred German families left Pennsylvania 
and located in Virginia. 

Names of Early Settlers. 

It is impossible to give a correct list of 
the early settlers, but the following names 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS IN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 



127 



are believed to represent all the German 
families : Abel, Arnold, Armes, Axaline, 
Arment, Baker, Bartlett, Beatty, Beamer, 
Brown, Best, liolin. IJoycr, Booth, Beck, 
Cooper, Camphcr. Crim, Cruze, Cordell, 
Clapham, Ciitshaw, Conrad, Cole, Cogsil, 
Cams. Crumbakcr. Davis, Darr, Dill, 
English, Evcrhart, Eamich, Ery, Fry, 
Fawley, Frazier, Filler, Gabpur, George, 
Goodhart, Grubb, Garrett, Gatewood, 
Green, Heater, Hickman, Householder, 
Houck, Hoy, Houser, Hefner, Jacobs, 
Kemp, Kern, Kuntz, Kalb, Lovett, Len- 
hart. Long, Lov, Miles, Mann, Magaha, 
Martin, Mock, 'Mull, Mill, Myers, Nice- 
warner, Owens, Parmer, Potterfield, Pax- 
son, Prinz. Potts, Ramey, Ropp, Roller, 
Ruse, Robinson, Ridgeway, Rust, Rhod- 
erick, Rodifer, Roule, Ritchie, Sando, 
Spring, Shutt, Slater, Stoneburner, 
Snoots, Stone, Seitz, Shipman,' Schneider, 
Souer, Shawen, Stocks, Stouts, Swank, 
Sanbower, Stoutsenberger, Shry, Stream, 
Sander, Swope, Shomaker, Taylor, Trita- 
poe, Titus, Thrasher, Virts, Vickers, Vin- 
cel, Williams. Wenner, Whitmore, Weiss, 
Wire. Wine. Wired, Walkman, Wilt, 
Working, Wunder, Wolford, Yeakey. 

Practically all branches of industry 
were represented, thus giving the enter- 
prise a permanence that guaranteed suc- 
cess. There were carpenters, blacksmiths, 
wagonmakers, shoemakers, tanners, fur 
dressers, weavers, loommakers, millers, 
clockmakers, silversmiths, kettlemakers, 
cabinetmakers. hatters, tailors, boatmakers, 
chairmakers. distillers and preachers. The 
forest was rapidly cleared, log houses 
were erected and a system of small farm- 
ing inaugurated. The first sheep in the 
county were brought by the Germans. 
Early Industries. 

Machinery was limited to the hand 
loom and spinning-wheel. The fair 
daughters were experts at spinning, and 
supplied yarn for stockings and wove 
blankets for bedding and woolens for win- 
ter clothing. ]\Iany specimens of their 
handiwork are still to be found amongst 
the oldest settlers. Probably the most 
artistic and durable is the counterpane or 
coverlet. Many of these, which were 
woven at least seventy-five years ago, are 
still to be found on their beds. Of course, 
few of these are produced in recent years. 





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TAYLORTOWN MILL ON CATOCTIX CREEK. 
Erecied in 1800. 

as the hand loom is rapidly disappearing. 

The blacksmith was an important per- 
sonage in those days, the hardware store 
being a dream of the future. He made 
by hand all building nails, hinges, knives 
and forks, spoons, axes, hatchets, hoes, 
shovels, fish-hooks and knitting needles. 
All cooking was done in the fireplace, and 
the blacksmith was called upon to make 
those long-handled frying pans with 
handle about four feet long, to- keep the 
housewife from being cremated while pre- 
paring breakfast. In addition to his im- 
portant duties as blacksmith, he was also 
the neighborhood dentist. When he fast- 
ened his Herculean grip on a tooth, he 
always brought it out, a piece of the jaw- 
bone sometimes coming with it. 

The schoolmaster was a man of im- 
portance in those primitive days. In the 
absence of the minister he would generally 
fill the pulpit by reading sermons or ex- 
horting. He was a good woodchopper, 
and was given ample encouragement at 
the neighboring woodpile. He was sel- 
dom accused of sparing the rod to spoil 
the child. His usefulness as a teacher 
was largely measured by his ability to 
sharpen a goose quill pen, steel pens not 
being invented until years after the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

When the Germans came to Loudoun 
county in an organized capacity as actual 
settlers, it was a vast unbroken forest,, 
but there was substantial evidence that 
explorers had penetrated the wilderness 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




(.KKMAX J<KL-uKi\JED CHURCH. 
Lovettsville, Va. Erected in 1819. 

many years earlier. As early as 1667, 
Captain Henry Bath, a German explorer 
and Indian trader, had traveled from the 
tidewater on the Potomac River crossing 
the Allegheny Mountains to the Ohio 
River, and passing through this section. 
At that period \'irginia was rich in furs, 
and attracted the trappers and traders. 
Catoctin Creek, the largest stream in the 
county, was the home of the beaver. A 
few adventurous spirits, Germans, who 
followed trapping for a living made their 
abode on that creek and reaped a rich 
harvest. 

By rigid economy, characteristic of the 
Germans, the settlers soon became pros- 
perous, their wants being few and easily 
supplied. Corn and wdieat yielded well, 
and stock multiplied rapidly. The forest 
was filled with game, and the streams 
fairly swarmed with fish. The forest was 
filled with grapes, berries and nuts, liter- 
ally the land flowed with milk and honey. 
Tobacco was also a staple crop. The 
land, new and rich, yielded a superior 
article that could be marketed more easily 
than grain, and served two purposes — as 
a crop and as a. currency. A goodly 
portion of grain and fruits was made into 
spirituous liquors, more from necessitv 
than preference, as it was more easily 
marketed than grain. Hie festive revenue 
officer was yet unborn. There were eight 
stills in the German settlement, and all 
did a good business ; yet, habitual drunk- 
enness was unknown. 



The Potomac River, forming the north- 
ern border of the German settlement, fur- 
nished an outlet for the surplus products 
of the soil by boat to Alexandria, one of 
the earliest ports in the American Colo- 
nies, at whose wharves could be seen the 
sailing vessels of many countries. 

Rumsey's Steamboat. 

It was on the Potomac River, at Shep- 
ardstown, that James Rumsey, a Bohem- 
ian German, invented and built the first 
steamboat, and in the fall of 1783 demon- 
strated that fact to the world by a trial 
trip in presence of many invited friends. 

James Rumsey afterwards visited Lon- 
don to perfect his invention, where, while 
engaged in building a new steamboat, in 
1786, he was stricken with fever and died. 

Rumsey's trial trip, performed two 
years before Fitch's maiden effort in 
steamboats, and eighteen years before 
Fulton launched his craft on the Hudson, 
was witnessed by George Washington, 
who gave the following testimonial : 

I have seen the model of Mr. Rumsey's boat 
constructed to work against the stream, ex- 
amined the powers upon which it acts, been eye- 
witness to an actual experiment in running 
water of some rapidity, and give it as my 
opinion (although I had little faith before) 
that he has discovered the art of working 
boats by mechanism and small manual assist- 
ance against rapid currents, that the discovery 
is of vast importance, may be of greatest use- 
fulness in our inland navigation, and if it suc- 
ceeds (of whicli I have no doubt), that the 
value of it is greatly enhanced by the sim- 
plicity of the works, which, when seen and ex- 
plained, may be executed by the most com- 
mon mechanic. 

Given under my band at the town of 
Bath, County of Berkley, in the State of 
Virginia, this 7th day of September, 1784. 
Go. Washington. 

Surrounding Conditions. 

While the success of the German settle- 
ment, of course, was due to the untiring 
industry of the people, yet that success 
was materially aided by surrounding con- 
ditions. 

The first arsenal in the United States 
was established in the year 1790, at Har- 
per's Ferry, six miles from the settlement. 
The supplies being drawn from the coun- 
try around, a splendid market was cre- 
ated for everything imaginable, — flotir, 
meal, corn, beef, bacon, butter, eggs. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS IN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 



129 



poultry, I'eather, lumber and other articles ; 
and the Germans were not slow in pro- 
ducing that which sold best. Labor also 
commanded good wages, and many of the 
German mechanics secured employment 
there, and one of them invented the ma- 
chine to turn the crooked gun-stock or 
any other crooked piece of wood, such as 
axe handles. 

The building of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal was another enterprise that 
created an additional market. This water- 
way traversed the northern border Of tlu 
German settlement for about ten mik'<. 
A little later the Baltimore & Ohio Rail 
road, one of the first railroads in the 
United States, paralleled the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal along the border of the 
settlement, and' proved a lasting blessing" 
to the people. On the fourth of July, 
1828, ground was first broken on the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal by Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, Maryland, and on 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad by John 
Ouincy Adams, then President of the 
United States. 

These public improvements not only 
brought a market to the very doors of the 
German settlement, but created a new de- 
mand for land. Before, land could be 
bought at from ten to twenty dollars per 
acre, but after the canal and railroad had 
been completed the same land brought 
from twenty to fifty dollars per acre. 

There was great excitement about the 
year 1800 over the discovery of gold 
along a stream emptying into the Potomac 
River about one mile above the Bruns- 
wick bridge. There is an old tradition 
that copper tools were unearthed at these 
mines, by the early settlers, that were sup- 
posed to have belonged to a pre-historic 
race. 

There is also an old marble quarry on 
the Ca;octin Creek near Taylortown. 
There ir; practically no timber in the set- 
tlement, the land having been cleared for 
cultivati Dn years ago, and being a rolling 
surface vith but few rocks, almost every 
acre is susceptible of cultivation. The 
settlemer t is particularly noted for numer- 
ous publ'c roads, running almost around 
-each farm. Probably no section in the 
United Spates has such a network of 
bighwavo. 




TANKERVILLE CHURCH. KKFX'TED IN 180.5. 

As early as 1766 there was a thickly- 
settled community around Thrasher's 
store. In 18 16 a postoffice was estab- 
lished, with Elias Thrasher as postmaster. 
By 1824 quite a village had grown up, 
which was renamed Newtown, changed 
to Lovettsville in 1840, which name has 
been retained since. 

The settlement has had rather a slow 
growth for the last fifty years, the popu- 
lation in i8co having been almost as large 
as it is at present. As in all rural sections, 
the young people have been attracted to 
the cities. The settlement lost heavily also 
in population from 1830 to the War of 
the Rebellion, on account of the cheaper 
lands in the West, especially Ohio. The 
farms in the settlement are nearly all 
small, averaging perhaps one hundred 
and twenty-five acres. It is doubtful if 
there is a single farm containing five 
hundred acres. 

Loyalty of the Germans. 

The Germans of Loudoun county, like 
all other Germans in the American colo- 
nies, were intensely loyal to the cause of 
liberty, and did not hesitate to show their 
faith by their works. Armend's legion 
(German), recruited by authority of Con- 
gress in the summer of 1777. and com- 
posed of those who could not speak Eng- 
lish, contained many (jcrmans from Lou- 
doun county. 

That the Germans of Loudoun county 
were opposed to slavery was evidenced 
both by precept and example. Probably 



130 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



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SHINAR CHURCH. ERECTED IN 1895. 

not more than one dozen slaves were 
owned in the settlement ; nor were they 
politicians, and comparatively few of 
them ever held office, but they seldom 
failed to vote, and to this day a larger 
vote is cast in the German settlement (ac- 
cording to population) than in other por- 
tions of the county, and while they gen- 
erally vote the Republican ticket, their 
love for liberty is too strong to be par- 
tisan. 

When the question of secession con- 
fronted them in i86i, they were emphatic 
in their opposition to the movement, and 
later when compelled to take sides you 
could count upon the fingers of your left 
hand those who entered the Rebel army, 
while many of them followed the flag of 
the Union — the Stars and Stripes. 

In September, 1862, when the Confed- 
erates for the first time invaded Mary- 
land, they supposed the Marylanders 
were eager to rally to their standard, and 
it has always surprised them that they 
did not, but the explanation is easv. Gen- 
eral Lee, the Rebel commander, entered 
Frederick, the Germany of Maryland, and 
issued that famous proclamation declar- 
ing that he had brought liberty and pro- 
tection to their homes — while his soldiers 
were busy in plundering their storehouses 
and driving off their stock. His call on 
the Marylanders to enlist und'er the ban- 
ner of the Rebellion fell upon deaf ears, 
the German love for liberty being too 



strong to be so easily deceived. There 
were too many Barbara Fritchies in Fred- 
erick. Probably not more than a baker's 
dozen of the Germans responded, while 
fully ten thousand of them enlisted under 
the Union banner. 

Perhaps one of the most impressive and 
patriotic exercises in the German settle- 
ment is their observance of Memorial 
Day. From all over the settlement people 
come to Lovettsville with wagonloads of 
choicest flowers and well-filled baskets of 
provisions to take part in this sacred serv- 
ice, which is held in the New Jerusalem 
Lutheran church cemetery. Probably in 
no other place in the United States is the 
day so universally celebrated. The Ger- 
man Reformed and Lutheran churches vie 
with each other in the proper observance 
of the day, making it truly a Memorial 
Day. After strewing nature's choicest 
flowers on the graves of their sacred dead, 
they gather around the rostrum and listen 
to prayer, song and appropriate address 
by their pastors and other distinguished 
speakers, and all join in singing: 

"My Country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty. 
Of thee we sing." 

Prominent "Sons." 

Several }-oung men who belonged to 
the German colony of Loudoun went 
West to "grow up with the comitry," and 
have exerted more than a passing influ- 
ence in the States of their adoption : W. 
E. Shutt, late U. S. Attorney, Southern 
District of Illinois ; Mr. Wolford, who 
was a member of Congress from Ken- 
tucky ; Attorney General Axalim of Ohio ; 
Emerson Haugh, the novelist, "jMississip- 
pi Bubble" being his masterpiece ; Robert 
A. Fry, of Paris, portrait painter, who 
died several years ago. 

The Lutheran Church. 

It is a historical fact that wherever the 
Germans located a settlement thr church 
and schoolhouse followed rapidly the fam- 
ily dwellings. While the first authentic 
record of the organization of vhe New 
Jerusalem Lutheran church is dated 1765, 
it is quite probable that the church was 
organized earlier. 



THE PEXXSVLVAXIA GERMANS IN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 



131 



The Rev. John Casper Stover, one of 
the earlier missionaries of the Lutheran 
Church in America, and in 1735 pastor 
of Hebron church in Madison county, 
Virginia, in his ''Lutheran Church in \^ir- 
ginia." pubhshed in Hanover, Germany, 
in 1737, states that he visited the congre- 
gations in the German settlements in 
Prince William • county (as it was then 
called), Winchester, Woodstock, Stras- 
burg and Fredericksburg. Of course, his 
visit to Loudoun county was in the in- 
terest of the Lutheran Church, although 
nothing is said about organizing a con- 
gregation, but the fact that he visited the 
German settlement is evidence that a nu- 
cleus was found there which later crystal- 
lized into the New Jerusalem church. 

But little progress seems to have been 
made with the Lutheran Church in Lou- 
doun county until about 1765. when, un- 
der the pastorate of Rev. Schwerdfeger, 
a log church and school house were erect- 
ed on the ground now occupied by the 
New Jerusalem church and cemetery, the 
land originally donated by Lord Fairfax. 
This seems to have been the beginning of 
regtilar church services by stated pastors, 
and continued ever since. This church 
had brief pastorates of Rev. Hartwick and 
Rev. Sartorius. 

The Rev. John Andreas Krug was the 
pastor at Frederick, Md., and supplied 
the church in the German settlement. A 
pious, popular preacher of most excellent 
qualities, he was the first pastor who really 
put the church on a solid basis, serving 
it faithfully for over twenty years. He 
was succeeded by Rev. J. G. Graeber, an 
elderly man, who soon relinquished the 
charge. In 1800 the old log house was 
found to be too small for the rapidly in- 
creasing congregation, and a stone struc- 
ture, 40 X 60 ft., was erected — a grand 
church for that day, with arched ceiling, 
a gallery on each side, and aisles paved 
with dressed stone. Above the door was 
the inscription "Dei Gloria 1802." In 
1805 Rev. F. W. Jasensky was called, 
who remained only one year. Rev. Dan- 
iel F. Schaefifer, D.D., was called in 1807, 
who also remained but one year, and was 
succeeded by Rev. John Martin Sackman. 

Many of the young people left the 
church during his pastorate on account of 




T^OVETTSVILLE LUTHEKAN CHURCH. 

German preaching. Finally the pastor 
resigned, in 1830, giving away to English 
preaching. 

Following him the congregation was 
served since 1830 successively by Rev. 
Abraham Reck, to 1832; Rev. M. Blum- 
enthal, dismissed the same year ; Rev. 
Daniel J. Hauer, to 1847; Rev. P. Wil- 
lard, to 1849 ; Rev. C. Stortzman, to 1853 ; 
Rev. Wm. Jenkins, to 1857; Rev. J. B. 
Anthony, 1858; Rev. Richardson, from 
i860 to 1873 ; Rev. A. J. Buhrman, to 
1876; Rev. P. H. Miller, to 1888; Rev. 
Daniel Schindler, to 1890; Rev. McLinn, 
to 1896; Rev.. Luther Hess Waring, to 
1899; Rev. Dr. Asa Richard, to the pres- 
ent. Rev. Hauer was a strong and ag- 
gressive preacher, a strict disciplinarian 
and an untiring worker. During Rich- 
ardson's pastorate the church was decor- 
ated and the seats were arranged in cir- 
cles, an innovation to which protests were 
raised, on the charge that it made the 
church look too much like a theatre. 
Space does not permit reference to many 
interesting details in the life of this 
church. 

This church has been one of great in- 
fluence in the settlement. From the very 



132 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



beginning it has always been a beacon 
light to this part of the State. In 1840 
there were over four hundred members ; 
in 1870, five hundred ; the communicants 
on the rolls of the church now number 
over six hundred. It is exceedingly doubt- 
ful if there is as large a membership in 
any rural church in the United States.* 
The influence of this church is not con- 
fined to Virginia alone, but permeates 
portions of West Virginia and Maryland. 
The membership extends from one to ten 
miles of the church. Should the pastor 
get into his buggy and start to visit his 
congregation, traveling ten miles a day 
'and visiting ten persons a day, it would 
take him more than two months to visit 
his people, and he would have traveled 
over six hundred miles. 

Dr. Richard very kindly placed at the 
disposal of the writer copies of early 
church records which materially lessened 
his labors and largely contributed to the 
value of this sketch of the New Jerusalem 
church. 

The Reformed Church. 

A history of the churches of the Ger- 
man settlement is simply a history of the 
people themselves. The church was prob- 
ably organized the first few years after 
settlement, being conducted at first with 
but little organization, preaching services 
being held at the homes of the first settlers 
and later at he school houses. In fact, 
the school houses were also churches or 
rather meeting houses. Many old deeds 
read to liave and to hold for school and 
preaching services. The first house erect- 
ed for this purpose, about 1775, stood 
where the ice house now stands, on the 
parsonage ground adjoining the Re- 
formed church cemetery. The date of 
the organization of this church is un- 
known, but there was a nucleus around 
which the early ministers rallied long be- 
fore the church was erected. The earliest 
records, like those of the Lutheran 
church, were destroyed by fire. 

One of the early founders of the Re- 
formed Church in America, the Rev. 
Michael Schlatter, visited the ( iernian set- 

*We wonder whether tlie author is mistaken in 
this estimate. We should like to hear from our 
readers. Where is the largest rural church in the 
United States? — Ed. 









im 


m ■'■"" m^ 





LOVETTSVILLE REFORMED CHURCH. 

tlement and preached to the congregation 
May 14, 1748. This pioneer left German- 
town, Pennsylvania, May 3, on horse- 
back, traveling by way of Lancaster and 
York, Pennsylvania, and Frederick, 
Maryland, crossing the Potomac River 
below Shepardstown into Virginia. He 
visited Winchester, Strasburg, Wood- 
stock and New Germantown in Rocking- 
ham county, preaching to congregations 
doubtlessly previously organized, and re- 
turning crossed the Blue Ridge at Snick- 
ers Gap, arriving at the German settle- 
ment and preaching May 14, 1748, and 
resting for the night with Mr. Wenner, 
the grandfather of the venerable W. W. 
Wenner, where a marriage was solemn- 
ized between a Mr. Wenner and a Miss 
Shoemaker, probably by Rev. Schlatter. 
It has been claimed that the first school 
teacher in the settlement was a Wenner. 
The first established Reformed preacher 
was Rev. Charles Lange, stationed at 
Frederick and supplying the church at 
Lovettsville. On his first visit, in August, 
T767, he was entertained by Deacon 
Shoemaker, one of the early pillars of the 
cliurch. Rev. Lange's pastorate closed 
in May, 1768. Thirty-five persons were 
confiriued during that period. There was 



THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS IN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 



133 



no church building, services being held 
at the residence of Deacon Shoemaker. 

After Lange. the following Reformed 
ministers preached at Lovettsville : Rev. 

Fred. L. K , to 1784; Rev. Henry 

(iiesv. to 1796; Rev. Jacob Schneider, 

: Rev. Dan AX'a^ner, from 1804 to 

1 8 10; Rev. Jonathan Helfenstein, to 1829. 
For a few years the charge was irregu- 
larlv supplied. Rev. Steven Staley, from 
1833 to 1840; Rev. G. W. Willard, 1840 
to ?; Rev. George Henry Martin, 1849 
to 1865: Rev. Henry Nissler, 1865 to 
1873: Rev. Henry St. John Rinker, 1873 
to 1890; Rev. T. K. Cromer, 1891 to 
1895; Rev. Lewis T. Lampe, 1896; Rev. 
James R. Lewis, the present pastor, since 
1906. 

Their old church building being deemed 
unsafe, the congregation recently decided 
to build in the village of Lovettsville, and 
through the untiring efiforts of Dr. Lewis 
a new brick church was erected. While 
it is not a large church, it is finely ar- 
ranged and quite attractive in appearance. 

D>octor Lewis is popular both in his 
church and as a citizen. The German 
Reformed church has exerted an influ- 
ence throutrhout the settlement that has 



been shared by all and has joined most 
heartily with other churches for the ad- 
vancement of a better Christian life 
amongst all classes and conditions of men. 

The writer is under many obligations 
to Dr. Lewis for so kindly allowing him 
access to old church records for valuable 
material relating to the history of the 
Reformed church in Lovettsville. 

The Methodists and Presbyterians also 
have churches in Lovettsville. 

This article deals largely with the past, 
but the Germans of Loudoun county live 
in the present. The records' of their early 
churches were all written in German, and 
that tongue was taught in their schools; 
in fact, they all spoke German. It is 
doubtful if there is a person in the settle- 
ment today that can speak the mother 
tongue, and nothing would be as unpopu- 
lar as an effort to have German taught 
in the public school. The hand loom 
and spinning wheel are stored in the 
garret ; the old German Bible of their 
grandfather's day has been closed many 
years, and the American Revised edi- 
tion is used instead, and everything that 
pertains to a progressive Christian civil- 
ization is apparent on every hand. 



The eighth annual meeting of the Bucks 
Count}' Historical Society was held Jan. 21, in 
the handsome new building of the society, which 
was dedicated last summer. There was a large 
audience present from all parts of Bucks and 
adjoining counties, and many from Philadelphia 
and New Jersey, whose ancestors were Bucks 
Countians. Reports of officers showed the 
society to be in good financial condition, with 
a membership of 770. 

The officers elected were : 

President — General W. W. H. Davis, Doyles- 
town. 

Vice presidents — Henry C. Mercer, Doyles- 
town ; John S. Williams, Solebury. 

Secretary and treasurer — C. D. Hotchkiss. 

Librarian — Warren S. EI3', Doylestown. 

Trustees — General W. W. H. Davis, Captain 
William Wynkoop. Newtown, and Miss Mary 
L. Dulx)is, Doylestown. 

Captain William Wynkoop read a paper on 
"Bucks County in Our Nation's Historj'." 
Former Judge Harman Yerkes, gave some 
"Historical Reminiscences," which dwelt on 
pro-slavery days. He introduced an aged 
woman named Giles, of Buckingham, who gave 
an account of "Big Ben" Jones, a giant negro, 



who escaped from his master and after a bold 
struggle was returned to his slave State. He 
was purchased by a popular contribution of 
$600 and returned to this county, where he 
afterwards resided. 

Henry G. Bryant, a member of the Phila- 
delphia Geographical Society, delivered an 
address on his experiences in exploring inteioir 
Labrador and his discovery of the grand falls 
of that country, which are twice the heiglit of 
Niagara Falls. 

"Survivals of Ancient Pottery" was the 
subject of an address bj^ Henry C. Merger. 



The Annual Meeting ai the Lehigh County 
Historical Society, was held on Friday Evening, 
February 7, 1908. 

After the election of officers, biographical 
sketches of the following deceased members 
were read : F. W. Koch, A. S. Shimer, Mrs. 
Robert Iredell, Jr., Prof. H. A. Kline, Rev. 
F. J. F. Schantz, D. D., and H. A. Schuler. 

Rev. Dr. J. A. W. Haas, President o,f 
Muhlenberg College, addressed the Society on 
"What Local History Contributes to General 
Historv." 



134 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

The Home 



This department is in charge of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of Springtown, Pa. to whom all communications for it 
should be addressed. Contributions relating to domestic matters— cooking, baking, house-work, gardening, 
flower culture, oldtime customs and ways of living, etc., etc.— are respectfully solicited Our lady readers are 
specially requested to aid in making this department generally interesiiog. 



" Pennsylvania-Dutch " Recipes. 

Pennsylvania Dutch Recipes is the name of 
a booklet isstied by The Dutch Recipe Co., 
Easton, Pa. (Price, 20 cents.) The follow- 
ing is the foreword : 

This book is a collection of plain recipes 
for cooking and baking, selected from reci- 
pes in dail}- use among the housewives of 
the Pennsylvania-Dutch settlements. These 
women are renowned for their good cook- 
ing and economical household management. 
Many of these recipes have been in use for 
years, so to those who live where this book 
is published it contains nothing now. It 
is to carry the blessings of good, wholesome 
and cheap cooking to other parts that this 
book has been printed ; and that it may 
fulfil its mission, is the earnest hope of 
The Publishers. 
We take pleasure in quoting a few of these 
recipes. If the good cooks and bakers in our 
large family wish to make use of other recipes 
given in the booklet equally as good as those 
quoted, they will do well to send twenty cents 
to the publishers for a copy of the book itself, 
containing 65 recipes. 

Dutch Cake. — One cup sugar, one-half cup 
equal parts butter and lard, one cup milk, one 
egg, two teaspoonfuls baking powder four cups 
flour ; place in pie tins, indent top with finger, 
place butter, cinnamon and sugar in holes and 
bake till brown. Oven not too hot. 

Quick LigJit Cake. — Three cups flour, three 
teaspolonfuls baking powder, one teaspoonful 
salt, butter size of an egg, one cup brown 
sugar ; rub well together like pie dough and 
add one cup milk. Bake in hot oven. This 
recipe is excellent. Try it when you are in a 
hurry. 

Buterniiiich Cooka. — Ten cups flour, six cups 
sugar, six eggs, pinch of salt, two teaspoonfuls 
of soda, two cups buttermilk, one cup butter, 
one cup lard. Bake in moderate oven. These 
should become brown on top. 

Soft Ginger Bread. — One-half cup sugar, one 
cup molasses, one-half cup butter, one teasopon- 
ful each of ginger, cloves and cinnamon, add 
flour to stiffen, and bake in moderate oven. 
Try with straw before taking out of oven. 

Apeas. — Three cups sugar, one cup butter, 
one cup milk, two eggs, three cups flour, two 
teaspoonfuls l)aking powder. Roll thin, cut 
into shapes and bake in hot oven. 

Parker House Rolls. — Boil one pint milk, 
when luke warm add one-half cup sugar, one- 
half teaspoonful salt, one cup yeast. Mix one- 
half cup butter with two quarts of flour, add to 



above. Knead at night, let rise till morning, 
then form into rolls and bake when light. 

Eyelet Embroidery. 

Eyelet embroidery, the favorite needlework of 
our ancestors, which came back to us several 
seasons ago, still holds first place and undoubt- 
edly will not soon again "go out." The fact 
that the work is pretty, wears well and comes 
from the laundry as beautiful a piece of work 
as it was when first made, convinces us that 
it will be popular for generations to come. 

If we look thro grandmother's linen chest 
we'll be sure to find some fragment of this 
self-same eyelet work, and we are simply adapt- 
ing old ideas to new uses. Then it was mostly 
applied to lingerie garments, perhaps a narrow 
strip of insertion or a two-inch flounce at a 
petticoat or a scallop with an inch or two-inch 
design on a spare set of pillow bowlsters. The 
consideration for this kind of work being an 
average of 25 cents a yard, which was con- 
sidered a fair price. 

The designs were few and mostly original, the 
accomplishment of the most talented artist in 
the neighborhood. They were copied and then 
passed on from friend to friend. 

Now the designs are many and selecting 
them is entirely diliferent. We go to an art 
store and choose any design we want or call 
for an original design which is generally traced, 
or buy the material ready stamped, and are 
well paid for the work if done neatly. We do 
not only embroider lingerie garments, but the 
most elaborate dresses have eyelet embroidery 
for the only trimming; then we have eyelet 
hats, eyelet parasols, eyelet doilies, centerpieces, 
etc., so that the work has become so popular 
that in most every home some article of eyelet 
embroidery can be found. For any child tbat 
can sew can learn to do this kind of needle- 
work, only let it be remembered .that the value 
and quality of the work depend entirely upon 
the neatness of the stitches. 

To do this work a stiletto is necessary. It 
is used to punch holes in a round dot or circle. 
The oblong leaves or petals should be slit down 
their centers, from tip to base. This method 
is also employed for the narrow leaves and 
petals. 

When the figures are large it may be neces- 
sary to cut a small piece out of the center 
of the leaf or petal. 

When this is the case, fold the leaf down 
the center, from tip to the base, and clip out 
a piece of the material on the fold. Do not 
cut quite to the end of the tip of the figure. 



LITERARY GEMS 



135 



Literary Gems 



Note.— The following- lines on Contentment were found in a collection of papers and 
i',lippini>-s that our late editor had made for use in tlie paj^-es of this maj^'azine. Seeminf,'-ly 
the translation had been made shortly before his death. Thou<jh the orij^-inal words may 
not be his, -they express a liappy state of mind and soul which Mr. bchuler enjoved which 
Earth can neither give nor take. 



Zufriedenheit. 

Treund, ich bin zufrieden, gch' es wie es will! 
Unter meincm Dache Icb' ich froh und still. 
Mancher Thor hat alles, was sein Herz 

begchrt ; 
Doch ich leb' zufrieden — das ist Goldes wert. 

Leuchten keine Kerzen mir beim Abendmahl, 
Blinken keine Weine mir in dem Pokal : 
Hab' ich, was ich brauche, nur zur Zeit der 

Not, 
Siisser schmcckt im Schweissc mir mein taglich 

Bret. 

■Gcben auch Palriste mir mein Obdach nicht, 
Auch in mciner Hiitte scheint das Sonnenlicht. 
Wo der Frieda wohnet, schlaft man frisch und 

froh, 
Sei's auf Federbetten oder auf dem Stroh. 

Schallet auch mein Name nicht ins feme Land, 
Zieret mich kein Titel, Stern und Ordensband : 
Nur ein Herz, das edel, sei die grosste Lust ; 
Nur zum Gliick des Bruders atme meine Brust. 

Keine Pyramiden zieren einst mein Grab, 
Und auf meinem Sarge prangt kein Marschall- 

stab. 
"VVo der Friede wohnet auf dem Leichentuch, 
Ein paar Freunde weinen — o, das ist genug! 



Contentment. 

TRANSLATION BY H. A. S. 

Friend, I am contented, whatsoe'er befall! 
I in humble cottage live at peace with all. 
Many a fool has all his heart desires, but I 
Have content— a blessing gold can never buy. 

At my supper-table tapers do not shine. 
Nor in silver goblet sparkles ruddy wine. 
Give me but what's needful ; simple fare with 

health 
Sweeter tastes than all the dainty bits of wealth. 

The' in lordly palace I may never dwell. 
Sunshine Hoods my lowly cabin just as well. 
Where peace lingers, softly rest.s the weary 

head, 
Be of eiderdown or simple straw the bed. 

Tho' my name resound not into lands afar, 
Tho' I bear no title, wear no belt nor star : 
Be a noble manhood e'er my greatest joy, 
To promote my brother's w^eal my chief em- 
ploy. 

Tho' no shaft of marble rise upon my grave, 
Nor above my coffin martial banners "wave : 
Let sweet peace within my simple shroud abide, 
Friends, a few, stand weeping — I am satisfied! 



"WIE DE LEUT DES DUHNE. 



BY GOTHE VON BERKS. 



Ich hab vergange Owets g'hockt, 
Un hab mei Kupp' well g'henkt, 

Un hab die Welt en Stund betracht, 
Un an die Lent gedenkt. 

Do laafe Mensche uf die Strosse, 

All priichtig a' geduh ; 
Sie trage vun de Schenste Kleeder 

Un von de feinste Schuh. 

Die Manner drinke ihr Bier 

Un schmoke viel Cigars, 
Die Weibsleut esse ihr Eis Cream, 

Un rcide in die Cars. 

Viel vun die Manner schaffe net, 

Vediene wenig Geld ; 
Sie lewe juscht wie annere Leut 

In unscr reiche Welt. 

Nau ich schaff fleiszig alle Dag 

Un krieg en guter Loh, 
3ch trag kens vun die feinste Kleeder 

Un nix wie commene Schuh. 



Ich hab mei Schulde all bezahlt 

Un hab noch Geld danewe, 
Doch kann ich net so viel verspende, 

Un so groszartig lewe. 

No hab ich zu mir heemlich g'saat, 
Fer was muss ich so spare? 

Warum kann ich net ah so lewe 
Un Dag und Nacht rumfahre? 

No bin in en Schuh Store gauge 

Do ware deire Schuh ; 
Ihr misst, hab ich zum Schuhmann g'sagt, 

En grosse Bisznes duh. 

Ja! sagt er 's kumme Viel do rei, 

Un Wenig duhne bleiwe. 
Sie wolle vun de Schonste Schuh, 

No solle mir's ufschreiwe. 

Sie sage wohl: am nachst Piih-Dag 

Bezahle mir's im Stohr, 
Es is verleicht ah wohr, fer Viel 

Hen ken Pah-Dag im Johr. 



136 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



No bin ich uf die Strosse geloffe 

Zu em hertschaff'ge Mann, 
Der is mir schnell engege kumme 

Mit seiner ^lillich Kann. 

Well, John, wie geht's den scheene Morge? 

Hab ich zum Bauer g'sagt, 
Die Kann is ja wahrhaftig voll, 

Du hoscht en schwere Load. 

Ich ! sagt der John, die Kann is all 

Voll gute siesze Millich, 
Es sin viel Weibsleit an die Haiiser, 

Fer kaafe sin sie willich. 

Die Manner hen ket Erwet nau, 

Sie sin im grosze Streik, 
Un ihre Buwe reide rum 

Uf ihrem Tandem Beik. 

Die Weibsleit wolle Millich hawe, 

Sie stehne hie un bettle, 
Sie sage wann der Streik verbei is, 

Dann wolle sie's Bill settle. 

Ja ! sagt der John, no ziege sie 

Fort in en annere Blatz. 
No kann ich gucke fer mei Geld, 

Un bin juscht so viel kerz. 

Ich bin no am a Haus vorbei, 

Do is en Mann raus kumme ; 
Der hot sei Maul gebutzt un g'sagt, 

Er het en paar genumme. 



No hat er mir eweil geklagt 

Sei Loll war ganz zu klee, 
Die Koschte ware viel zu grosz, 

Er kennt's schier net aussteh. 

Der letscht Mann, dasz ich g'sehne hab, 

Het gern en Office g'hat ; 
Er hot g'sagt dasz er het viel g' spent 

LTn's het ihn nix gebat. 

Ich hab ihm sterr in's G'sicht geguckt, 
Un hab ihm grad dert g'sagt 

Heescht du dich en Republiken 
Oder en Demokrat? 

Er sagt er war schon oft geloffe, 
Viel fer die Party g'schpent, 

Un war des County oft getrawelt 
Von Anfang bis zu End. 

Des County is mir'n Offis schuldig. 

En gutes Amt, gewiss, 
Es macht mir ah net juscht viel aus 

Von weller Party 's is. 

Nau wann ich's Amt fer drei Johr het. 
No debt ich mei Geld sewe : 

Die Hiilft dervun bezahlt mei Schulde, 
Vom iwrig kann ich lewe. 

Nau sehn ich wie die Leut des duhne, 
Ich branch nau nimme denke : 

Unnothige Bills bezahle sie. 
Die nothige bleiwe henke. 



DER HEXEDOKTOR. 

BY CHARLES C. MORE^ PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



Beim Sollv Schtrunk oder "Schtruwel" 
Schtrunk, wie die Leit ihn drowa in Grebsdahl 
gheese hen, hots gar nimmi recht geh welle. 
Sei gleene Bauerei, wo friiher ihn un sei Frau 
so schee erniihrt hot, is ufen ort wie ausge- 
backt un hinnerschich gauge. Es is ihm nix 
meh druf gewachse, as wie Ungraut un 
Schulde. 

Es is, wie gsat, alles letz gauge beim Solly. 
Sei Fenze hen norjets meh schteh wolle, un 
hen sich hiegelegt, un die Bord an der Gebeier 
hen sich obgschalt un sin runner-komme for 
der Fenze Kumpanie zu halte. Die eenzigscht 
Kuh. as er noch ghat hot, hot die menscht zeit 
uf der Schtrose gelege, weils Falder es 
glenscht Loch in der Fenz war, un weils kee 
weed meh uf der Felder gewe hot. Uni sei 
Druwel noch greeser zu mache, hot's der Solly 
mit em Glage iwer Gnocheweh griet un do hot 
er dann of course alsemol un all Gebot widder 
en Schmaler drinke misse, for sich zu kure un 
sich "couragement" zu gewe, wie er als gsat 
hot. 

Die Leit meege now juscht grad iwers Drinke 
.sage was sie welle, awer wann mer's mol so 
recht in de Gnoche hot un mcr fiehlt as wie 
wann mer so ufen ort wie Zahweh im Greiz 
het, do geht juscht nix iver so'u guter Gargel- 
wischer, abordich wann mer "Couragement" 
brauch, Ei, die Doktere gewe's em jo, un den- 



noh Tcharge sie em noch en Dahler for's em 
zu verrote. Frieher hen als der Solly un sei 
Mary gut minanner schteiere kenne ; se ware 
allebeet fleizig un die alt hot net meh mit ihm 
gscholte, as wie's bei eener Frau nothwennig 
is, wo die Hosse in der Haushalting abbehalte 
will. Awer zitter as der Solly agfange hot iwer, 
Gnocheweh zu glage un sich "couragement" im 
Uerthshaus zu hole, do hot ewa der Grieg so 
zu sage immer reddy bei ihm am Feierherd 
g'hockt. Sei Frau hot mit im gezankt wonn 
ihr die Arwet net recht geh hot welle, un alles 
im Haus verhuddelt war, un er hot mit ihr 
gezankt wonn ihm die Arwet zu viel zu schaffe 
gemacht hot. So hen sie nanner die Schuld 
an allem Elend gewa un hen mit nanner rum 
g'fochte, for sich, mit sich selwer zu fridener 
zu mache. Im Zanke war awer der Solly sei 
Lebdog kee match gewest for sei Mary, un de 
meh as sie mit nanner gezankt hen, de 
schlechter hot der Solly ausgemacht. "Soen 
scharfe Weiwerzung," hot er als gsat, "is about 
es eenzigscht Ding, as scharfer werd, demeh 
as se geust werd." Het er awer alsemol bei 
so'me Rally der Frau recht lang wedderbart 
ghalte, anschtatt glei nunner zu backe, hets 
viele meh bei ihr gebat; do het sie gemeent, 
sie het mol widder en grosr Battel gwonne un 
war denno viel zufridener un mit meh Muth an 
die Arwet gauge. Awer der Solly is for com- 



LITERARY GEMS 



137 



nion wie so'n gcgcrbder Hund abgschliche un 
is naus in die Scheier ufs Ewerden, wo er iwer 
sei Druwel un sci Gnocheweh nohdenke hot 
kenne, ohnc wciter von seiner Frau geboddert 
zu sei as vvit- ihre zornige Worde zu here, die 
vtie beese llunimele um die Scheier rum gfloge 
sin. 

Weil die I'Vau denno nieniand nieh ghat hot 
for mit zu zanke, un sie all die scheene Worde 
as sie als for ihn eigschtudirt hot, net abringe 
hot kenne, hot sie ewa ah der muth verlore un 
is nuf uf der Schpeicher for iwer ihrer Druwel 
zu kunsiddere Es gebt now doch nix uf der 
Welt ivers Hiehocke un Kunsiddere, wann mer 
Druwel un Sorge hot. Es helft juscht about 
arrig meh Druwel un Sorge zumache. De 
mehner Druwel as mer hot de meh vergeszt 
mer doch der alt. Es is juschtement as wie 
wann mer em Gaul noch en Sockvoll Korn uf 
der Buckel legt, so as er die annere Seek net 
so schpiert. Odder, mer welle sage, es is die 
gut alt hamebadische Kur — Gift gege Gift, 
juscht ufen annere weg. Beim Solly un seiner 
Frau hots nei Gift wohl nets alte Gift ver- 
driwe — es hots zugedeckt grad wie so en dinne 
Haut uf em Gschware awer der Gschwiire war 
doch noch dort un hot helfe der alt Druwel 
graser zu mache, weil es ihm die Graft un der 
wille genomme hot, ihn drunne zu halte. Er 
is dann ah ufkomme wies Unkraut in ihrem 
Garte un so war's of course ah kee wunner, as 
alles, wie mer so sagt, zum Deiwel gange is. 

So hot dann der Solly sei Friede uf em 
Ewerden gsucht, wo er seim Gnocheweh besser 
abworte hot kenne, un wo er nau schon sei 
"Couragement"' imm Demijohn ghalte hot weil 
es ihm zu viel Druwel war, so oft noch em 
Wertshaus zueeh. Un sei Frau hot sich mit 
Schelte mied gemacht un mit kunsidere ab- 
gschafft un alle beed hen uf ihre Weg Schtarig 
un Kraft gsucht — for nix zu duh. Unner so 
Umstande wares dann of course ah kee Wun- 
ner, as bei ihm der Karrich im Dreck schtecke 
is blieve. Ihr Kuh is annere Leit in der 
Schade gange un hot Fechterei gemacht ; ihre 
Hinkel hen nimmi gelegt un alle gebot is ihm 
en Sau verreckt un des bissel milch as sie griet 
hen, war die menscht Ziet bitter, un forn 
wecksel hot die Kuh drucke gschtanne. 

All die Sache sin em Solly un seiner Frau 
lang ordlich vorkomme. Sie hen nimmi driwe 
noh gedenkt was for Druwel sie ghot hen, awer 
wo er all her komme kennt. Bei dem viele 
kunsidere sin sie ee dag uf der sam gedanke 
kumme — der erscht uf den sie in finf johr mit 
nanner eenig ware. Sie ware verhext, grad 
fair play verhext. 

Anschtatt sich awer nau neier Druwel dat 
druf hie zu mache, hen sie sich arrig gfreet, as 
sie endlich mol hinner all die Ursach von ihrem 
alte Druwel komme sin. Well en Freed wars 
juscht ah net, es war about die seem sort satis- 
faction, as en mensch fiehlt, wo sich von eem 
bar seeft un denno em anner in die Klubbe 
schpringt. 

War der Solly allec verhext gewest, hat sei 
Frau sich eens in die Fauscht gelacht un hets 
ihm allee gebot unner de nas gerieve ; war die 



Frau allee verhext gewest, do war ewa der 
Solly mit seim Druwel un seim Gnocheweh nuf 
ufs Ewerden un het gedenkt, sie mecht's 
juscht allee ausfechte. Awer sie ware allebeed 
verhext un do hen sie of course schon mit nan- 
ner Friede shliese mise, for sich gege der 
gcmeinsamc Feind zu brotekte. Der Mensch is 
ewa nau mol so; er is glei ready en deel von 
seim Druwel auf anner Schultere abzulade, 
awer sei Pureed will er for sich alee. 

Du Liver Himmel, was is do net alles geduh 
warre, for selli Hex auszufinne! Die halft zeit 
hot der Besem iwer zwerrich vor* der Kiche- 
diehr gelege. En Hex kann net iwer en Besem 
schritte un wann ebber ins Haus kommt un 
der Besem ufliebt, dan is sei die Hex. Dann 
hen sie gliedige Kohle ins wasser gschmisse un 
hen dennoh die nachbore gewatscht for sehne 
wer verbrennte Finger odr wehe Lefts het. 
Dann is ah der Solly mit me Holzschlegel un 
Keitel rum gelufe un hot Schtumpe un Poschte 
ufgsucht for den Keitel mit drei schtreech nei 
zu schlage. Hot er so eener gfunne, dennoh 
hot er gewort for sehne wer in der nachbar- 
schaft bletzHch gschtarwe is. Oder er hot ale 
nagel aus em Kerrich-hof dohr gezoge un hot 
sie geboge un urns Haus rum gelegt, awer sis 
neimand in der nachbarschaft lahm gange. 

All die Wohrheetsager un Hexedoktor in 
der ganze Gegend hen sie besu«ht un aus- 
gfrogt un hen sich Mittel gewa losse, awer es 
hot -alles nix gebot. Die Sei sin ewa dod gange 
wie friher ; die Kuh hot als noch die same 
Capers gemacht un in Schpeit von all die 
Greize am Butterfas is der Butter entweder 
gar net zamme gange oder war schlecht. Es 
war nau about die zahscht Hex as sei lebdag 
uf der Welt war! 

Ee Marje is der Solly in die Scheier kumme 
un do hot die Kuh mit de Hinnere bee im 
Fudderdrog gschtanne un hot sei beschter Rock, 
wo noch oweds dervor im Hof uf der Lein 
ghanke hot, uf der Herner ghat. Sei hots 
gsettelt. • Er war nau gebaund, selle Hex aus- 
zuUnne un wans sei ganze Bauerei koschte deet. 
Er hot vome Wohretsager oder Gedankeleser 
m der Schtadt ghert ghat as me gebottener 
Kandidat sei Gedanke noch der Lekschen ge- 
lese hawe soil. Vom Nachbar hot er en Fuhr- 
werk geiehnt un mit zwanzig Dahler im Sack, 
about all's Geld as er noch ghat hot, is er mit 
semer Frau nach der Schtadt gfahre for seller 
Brofesser von der He.xedoktorie zo sehne. Ihr 
het sell Paar sehne selle, wie es darrich die 
Schtadt gange is. Der Solly is forneher un sei 
Frau about zwanzig Schritt hinnenoh. 

Awer sie ware jo ah net noch der Schtadt 
komme for sich zu weise. Sie hen Bisness 
ghat. 

An een Schtrose eck hen zwee junge Man- 
ner gschtanne, denne mers shone uf en hunnert 
Schritt ahgsehne hot, os sie Gnep hinnich de 
Ohre ghot hen. Uf die is der Solly zu, un 
hot sie gfrogt, wo seller arrig Gedankeleser 
un Wohretsager Avohne deet. 

Eens von der Kerls hot weil gekunsiddert un 
denno gfrogt, was er mit ihm wot. Der Solly 
(Conclusion in April Number) 



-T38 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



Editor and Pulilisher 

H. W. KRIEBEL. 

Ea^t Greenville, Pa. 

The Pexnsylvania-German is an illustrated monthly 
■magazine devoted to the biography, history, genealogy, 
folklore, literature and general interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other States, 
and of their descendants. 

Price, per year, $1.50, in advance; single copies, 
15 cents. Foreign postage, 25 cents a year extra. 
Club-rates furnished on application. Payments 
credited by mail. 

Discontinuance. — The magazine will be sent until 
order to discontinue is received. This is done to 
accommodate the majority of subscribers, who do 
not wish to have their files broken. 

Notice of Expiration of subscription is given by 



As.'iociate Editors 
Mrs. H. H. FUNK, Springtown, Pa 
E. S. GERHAKD, A. M.. Trenton. N. J 
using red ink in addressing the wrapper of the 
magazine. _ ' 

Contributions. — Carefully prepared articles bearing 
on our field are invited and should be accompanied 
with illustrations when possible. No attention will 
be given to unsigned articles, nor will we be re- 
sponsible for the statements and opinions of con- 
tributors. Unavailable manuscripts will not be re- 
turned unless stamps are sent to prepay postage. 
Contributions intended for any particular number 
should be in the editor's hands by the twenty-fifth of 
the second preceding month. 

Advertising Rates will be furnished by the pub- 
lisher _upon request. 




A Fitting Monument. 

S stated elsewhere, we regard 
the issues of this magazine 
pubhshed during the years 
1906 and 1907 as a fitting 
monument to our departed 
and lamented editor, Henry 
A. Schuler. He was the prime mover in 
the purchase of the magazine from its 
founder and former publisher. Rev. Dr. 
P. C. Croll. He gave material aid in 
making it what it is at present. This 
means that he gave unselfishly to the 
cause, his time, some cash, the benefit of 
his long editorial experience and literary 
training. His heart was in the work, and 
there is every reason to believe that our 
readers would still enjoy the benefits of 
his connection with the magazine had his 
life been spared. We both felt that our 
prospects were more favorable than at any 
previous time, and were looking forward 
hopefully to a prosperous year when 
death so suddenly and unselfishly snatched 
him from the side of his associate. 

We feel that we can best honor the 
memory of Mr. Schuler as editor by car- 
rying forward with all the strength and 
means at our command the work he so 
unselfishly helped to extend and carry 
forward. We shall regard it a personal 
favor if all will stand firmly by the maga- 
zine and give it their moral and financial 
support. We may say in passing that the 
many encouraging letters received give 
strong hope that we may count on re- 
ceiving such help. By a united and 
■ ceaseless efifort the magazine can be built 



up and be made an honor to the people 
whose name it bears, a benefit to its sup- 
porters, a service to coming generations 
and thus an honor to him who gave so 
much for it. 

New Subscribers. 

The life of most periodicals depends on 
the number of copies regularly paid for. 
To build up the circulation is therefore 
one of the best ways of aiding a magazine, 
and right here is where each can help 
the good cause along. Not all can be 
contributors, but all can be workers when 
it comes to the question of winning new 
friends. Some have responded nobly to 
our former appeals ; many not. It would 
be a great help if each one would make 
it his business to secure at least one new 
subscriber before long. Were each read- 
er to get but two new subscribers a year, 
the next half decade, the magazine would 
experience a wonderful forward stride. 
It could be made much larger, much better 
and thus more valuable, and hence much 
cheaper at the existing rates. 
Correspondence Invited. 

We desire to repeat here also what has 
been said before, that we welcome cor- 
respondence and criticism. We are far 
from posing as infallible or omniscent. 
From the very nature of the case one man 
as editor can not have the knowledge or 
have access to the sources of knowledge 
possessed by a wide circle of intelligent 
readers nor can he by unconscious cere- 
bration or psychic telepathy determine 
what a friend a hundred or a thousand 
miles awav is thinking. If vou notice 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



139 



or think of anything we ouj^ht to know — 
misstatements, omissions, poor workman- 
ship, sources of information, possible 
new subscribers or whatnot — sit right 
<lovvn and drop us a few lines. 
A Joke Book Suggested. 
In his address before the Lehigh Coun- 
ty Historical Society, President Haas, of 
Muhlenberg College suggested that the 
society issue a joke book, giving a col- 
lection of witty sayings, jokes, puns, etc., 
-current in the community. We believe the 



suggestion a good one, and hope the 
members of the society will begin to make 
record of expressions they hear to be 
submitted later to a compiler. Why not? 
Other societies could with profit take up 
such work. Such collections would be a 
valuable contribution to folklore. While 
these collections are forming we welcome 
contributions along this line. H you hear 
a good characteristic Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man joke, let us have it, and we will pass 
it along to our readers. 



Clippings from Current News 



Rev. Thos. C. Leinbach, one of the most 
Avidely known Reformed ministers in Berks 
<count\-, Pennsylvania, has roimded out a pas- 
torate of nearly 47 years. During this pastor- 
ate he confirmed 850 people, baptized 826 per- 
sons, conducted 435 funerals and officiated at 
more than 200 weddings. He is the father of 
four sons, three of whom are Reformed min- 
isters. 

During a fourteen year pastorate of a charge, 
•comprising the Mt. Joy and Harney churches,, 
near Hanover, Pa., Rev. Mr. Minnick delivered 
2,281 sermons and addresses, baptized 326 in- 
fants, officiated at 127 funerals and married 
140 couples and received 455 persons into the 
•church. A remarkatle feature of his long min- 
istry is that 'he never missed a single service 
on account of illness. 

Nearly a score of years ago, Mr. Knaub 
•was a prominent contractor and builder and 
also conducted a box factory at Yoe, York 
•county. Pa. He became involved in financial 
difficulties and failed in business. Becoming 
discouraged, he left Iiis wife and several chil- 
dren and started out a poor man to make his 
way abroad. He located near Pittsburg and 
then he left that section and his relatives did 
not hear from him until shortly after last New 
Year's day, when his brother, Henry Knaub, 
was surprised to receive a long letter from 
liim. In this letter he states that he is located 
in Los Angeles. Cal., and that he has amassed 
a big fortune and that in a year or two he ex- 
pects to return to York county, fix up his finan- 
cial matters and live a retired life. He says he 
is interested in a score or so of gold, copper and 
lead mines in California, Utah and Mexico, and 
that he has property and cash to the extent of 
one and one-half million dollars. 

The annual statement of the Sinking Fund of 
Pennsylvania shows that at the close of the 
fiscal year 1906 the net State debt was 
$78,14.6.28 and the gross debt $3,346,167.02, 
whereas at the close of the recent fiscal year the 
net debt was $102,318.14, but the gross debt had 
heen reduced to $2,727,817.02, or nearly 
$1,000,000 less. The total assets held by the 
-commissioners are $2,625,298.88. 



The Schiller statue which the German 
citizens of Cleveland will erect in that city, has 
been completed in Berlin. The bronze figure 
is a little over seven feet high. It shows the 
poet seated in an arm chair. Speaking of the 
work, a Berlin paper says: "The new Schiller 
statue for the United States does much credit 
to the sculptor, Herman Matzen, and its crea- 
tion gives us in the fatherland renewed proof — 
although that was never required — of the 
loyalty of our American brothers to the 
literature of Germany. The German who gO€s 
to America becomes an American in all that 
the word implies, but even unto the third gene- 
ration he is usually loyal to German poetry 
and German song." 

A Science Hall Building at North Western 
College, Naperville, Illinois, has been made a 
reality and is nearing completion by the 
handsome donation of $25,000 by Dr. Goldspohn, 
an alumnus. The building when completed 
will cost $30,000. The furnishing of the 
buildhig will probably cost an additional amount 
of $8,000. Not -enough but a considerable sum 
has been secured for this purpose, bv contri- 
butions from Young People's Alliances and 
by private gifts. Dr. Goldspohn is a highly 
respected physician in Chicago. 

Tilghman Stattler, the oldest Odd Fellow 
m the Lehigh Valley, who has been a member 
of Lehigh Lodge, No. 83, of Allentown. for 
nearly sixtj'-five years and never drew a dollar 
in sick benefits, celebrated his 90th birthday 
anniversary recently with a family reunion. 
He is the pioneer carriage builder of Allentown. 

At the annual meeting of the Engineers' 
Club of Philadelphia, in Januarv, Professor H. 
W. Spangler, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, was chosen President, at the recent 
opening of their new club house and the cele- 
bration of the thirtieth anniversary of the origin 
of the club. 

More than seven hundred men were present 
which was the largest social event in the history 
of the club. Those present included five hun- 
dred and fifty engineers and members of the 
club, the balance being invited guests. 



140 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Organized in 1887 by a few local engineers, 
the club now has a membership of 590, includ- 
ing some of the most famous engineers and 
scientists in America. There are only four 
men wiio have so far gained the distinction of 
being elected as honorary members. These 
are: Rear Admiral George W. Melville, U. S. 
N. (retired) ; William Price Craighill, U. S. A. 
(retired) ; Benjamin F. Isherwood, U. S. N. 
(retired) ; J. Fritz, mechanical engineer 
(retired). 

With a two-day celebration which ended 
January 26, the Lehigh Saengerbund observed 
its 50th anniversary in Allentown, Pa. The 
jubilee began with a reception to the Junger 
Mannerchoir, of Philadelphia, fo'llowed in the 
evening by a banquet at the Hotel Allen. The 
following afternoon 2,000 people attended a 
concert at the Lyric Theatre in which the 
Saengerbund was assisted by the Junger 
Maennerchor, the Easton Concordia, the 
Lehighton Germania and the Lincoln Solo 
Quartet, of New York. 

Ira D. Shaw, in charge of the industrial 
educational work of the Kensington Y. M. 
C. A., has called a meeting of mill owners at 
the Manufacturers' Club, Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, for ^March 16, to discuss the question 
whether the present apprentice system produces 
executives. He holds to the contrary, saying 
that it does not turn out a well-rounded 
mechanic, but a specialist in a particular branch. 
He says : "At the present time Germany is 
producing the best workmen, and o^wners of our 
mills are beginning 4o employ them as_ superin- 
tendents, managers and foremen. This is due 
to the general all round efficiency of the Ger- 
man workman, who has an industrial equipment 
which our native workman does not have on 
account of the specialization in work here. As 
a consequence the German takes the advanced 
positions, although the native ability of our 
men is superior. This same general efficiency 
has forced the German product to the first place 
in foreign countries, notably in South America, 
and if we wish to secure the suoremacy or a 
substantial foothold in this foreign trade we 
must begin to compete." 

Mrs. Christian Schaeffer, of Yoe, York 
County. Pa., recently celebrated her ninety- 
fourth birthday. She came to America from 
Germany, when three years old, being brought 
over by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
Spayd, who arrived at Baltimore. Later she 
came to York county, and has lived in this 
vicinity all her life, most of it being spent in 
and around Muddy Creek Forks. Fluency of 
speech, retentive memory, good health and the 
ability to eat and sleep well are some of the 
blessings which characterize Mrs. Schaeffer's 
old age. Her eye-sight, too, is remarkably 
good, the use of glasses in sewing or reading 
being unnecessary. 

Mrs. Schaeffer has carefully preserved her 
wedding bonnet, which she keeps in one of 
the old time boxes. This bonnet was made fifty 
years ago. 



Mrs. Schaefi'er recalls the little schoohng- 
she was able to get, being compelled, along- 
with other members of the family, to work 
on the farm. She spent many days in the 
harvest field, cutting grain with a sickle. 

By the will of Mathias N. Forney of New 
York city, his estate estimated to be -worth 
about $300,000 is left in charge of a large 
trust company. 

]\Ir. Forney, who was a native of Hanover, 
Pa., accumulated this through his inventions, 
and by investment in real estate in the city of 
New York. He was the inventor of what is 
known as the Forney locomotive, which was 
in use almost exclusively on the elevated lines 
in New York city and Chicago, from 1875 to 
1900, until the electric engines were substituted 
for the steam locomotive. 

W. B. K. Johnson, one of the leading nursery 
men of Pennsylvania, died in Allento)vvn, Jan. 
22, aged 70 years. He made his fortune in the 
early 70s, when he made trips to Cuba and 
South America, importing ship loads of parrots 
to the United States and selling them at great 
profit. He was an authority on fruit growing, 
and was long on the staff of both the Penn- 
sylvania and National Agricultural Departments. 
In his large nurseries, near Allentow-n, he had 
more than a million trees. 

Abrah.\m Shimer Knecht, for over half a 
century a practitioner of law in Northampton 
county, and at the time of his death the oldest 
members of the Northampton bar, died Jan. 28. 

Ex-Judge William J. Baer, aged 82, died 
Jan. 28th. He was a son of the late Solomon 
Baer and was born in Berlin, Somerset 
county, January 28, 1826, and admitted to the 
Somerset bar in 1849. He is survived by his 
wife, Elizabeth Baer, and four daughters. 

His brother is George F. Baer, presiden tof 
the Reading companies. In his prime. Judge 
Baer was one of the leading lawyers of the 
State, and a younger contemporary of Judges 
Jeremiah S. Black and F. ]\I. Kimmell. His 
services in the constitutional convention of 1872 
gave him a State-wide reputation. He defeated 
John Cessna in the fight of 1881 in the strong 
Republican Bedford-Somerset district. Judge 
Baer was the pioneer developer of the Somerset 
coal region, and the first president of the Somer- 
set and Cambria Railroad, a subsidiar}' corpora- 
tion of the Baltimore and Ohio, which com- 
paratively is the largest soft coal carrying road 
in the United States. He owned 80,000 acres of 
land, and founded the town of Ursinia. 

Charles Buffington Fager, Sr., M. D., 
died at Harrisburg, Pa., on January 17, 1908 
Doctor Fager was 66 years old: he was born at 
Harrisburg, March 31, 1841. He was graduated 
from the Sfedical Department of the LIniversity 
of Pennsylvania in 1864. He had a large 
practice at Harrisburg, where he was a school 
director for many years and was president of 
the board for several terms. Doctor Fager 
always took an active interest in the school! 
work' of the city and even after he left the 



CLIPPINGS FROM CURRENT NEWS 



141 



hoard he visited the schools to watch the pitpils 
at their work. He was a member of the 
Dauphin County Historical Society, of the 
Pennsylvania German Society, a director in the 
Harrisburg National Bank and a director in 
the West llarrisburg Market House Company. 

Dr. Andrew Boelus Brumbaugh of Hunt- 
ingdon. Pa., died at the hospital of Dr. Price 
in Philadelphia where he underwent an opera- 
tion for appendicitis, aged 71 yrs., 5 mos. and 
17 days. Dr. Brumbaugh was the son of Jacob 
and Rachel Brumbaugh and is survived by a 
son Gains, ]\Iarcus, of Washington, D. C, and 
a daughter, Mrs. Cora Silverthorne, of Coal- 
port, Pa. 

Graduating from the U. of P. in 18O6 the 
young doctor returned to Huntingdon where 
he practiced for more than 40 years. He was 
one of the founders of Juniata College and 
a member of many medical boards and learned 
societies. 

Charles Hermaxv, a native of Lynn town- 
ship, Lehigh count}-, a Past President of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers and a 
number of engineering clubs, died at Louisville, 
Ky., at the age of jS years. Mr. Hermany 
was the typical example of the progressive 
Pennsylvania German boy, who by presistent 
determination as a poor farmer's son, climbed 
from the foot of the ladder to become one of 



the formost civil engineers in this country, and 
was honored by his professional brethren by 
making him president of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers. 

Born in Lynn township, October 9, 1830, Mr. 
Hermany was the son of Samuel and Salome 
(Wannemacher) Hermany. His father and 
mother were of French, German and English 
extraction, whose ancestors came to Lehigh 
county in 1720 and 1740. He attended the dis- 
trict school and attended two terms at 
Minerva Seminary, Easton, when his finances 
became exhausted and he returned to 'his 
father's farm, where he worked in the summer 
time and taught school during the winter for a 
period of three years. While employed on the 
farm <it odd times, he practiced civil engineer- 
ing in his father's fields and studied persistently 
his favorite subject at every possible oppor- 
tunity. 

In May. 1853, he determined to go West, 
and located at Cleveland, O., where, in a 
year's time, he became first assistant to the City 
Engineer. Hearing of an opening at the works 
of the Louisville Water Company, he went to 
that place in 1857 and became first assistant 
to T. R. Scowden, the chief engineer of the 
works. January i, 1861, Mr. Hermany be- 
came the chief engineer and superintendent of 
the works, a position which he held until the 
time of his death, a period of 47 years. 



Chat with Correspondents 



Words Well Deserved. 

Our lamented editor was accustomed to hold 
'friendly chats with his correspondents in this 
<:olumn. It may not be out o.f place to record 
here a few estimates of the man coming from 
friends, some of whom knew him only through 
this magazine. 

I was sorr\- to see the announcement of 
death of Editor Henry A. Schuler. Just 
as he had reached the age when there are 
given glimpses of the results of life, he 
was called into "The Undiscovered Coun- 
try'," "where lie those happier hills and 
meadows low," and where, no doubt, he 
"Schwebt im Wink durch tausend Sonnen- 
fernen." 

Am exceedingly sorrj- to hear of the 
death of ^Nlr. H. A. Schuler. His editorial 
work will be a lasting monument to him. 
I have learned to like the man though I 
have never seen the man. 

Have just read with the deepest regret 
an account of the death of Mr. Schuler in 
a paper now lying before me. 

I herewith express m}- heartfelt sym- 
pathy with you because of the death of 
our mutual friend Editor Henry A. Schuler, 
and especially because you were so unex- 
pectedly deprived of your competent and 
faithful co-laborer in a noble cause. He 
was a most modest, unassuming brother, 
but able and efficient in his line of work. 
He was a good true man. 



I was greatly shocked some time ago 
to note the death of our mutual friend, 
Mr. Schuler. Let me assure you that I 
mourn his demise and sympathize with you 
in the trials it may bring to your life and 
business relations. 

The sad intelligence of the untimely and 
unexpected passing away of our mutual 
friend, Henry A. Schuler, reached us on 
Wednesday, and we were greatly shocked 
to learn of his sudden death. It came to 
us like a thunderbolt from a clear sky, as 
we had no intimation whatever of his brief 
but fatal illness. It seems hard to realize 
that our old and valued friend, quiet, un- 
assuming, somewhat reserved, but always 
ready with a kind word or friendly act to 
help and cheer his less fortunate fellow 
travelers along life's great highway is no 
longer with us, will never greet us here 
again. I sincerey mourn his untimely 
death as a personal loss, while to the great 
cause of The Pennsylvania-German his 
death leaves a vacancv not easilv to be 
filled. 

The First White Man in the State. 
A clipping appeared under the above heading 
in our January issue which has called forth 
the correspondence given herewith. The first 
letter was received from the librarian of a pub- 
lic library; the reply is from Mr. C. F. Heverly, 
Editor and Publisher of the Bradford Star, 
Towanda, Pa. If any reader can disprove the 
position taken by Mr. Heverly, we shall be 



142 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



pleased to supplement this note in a subsequent 
issue. 

I notice in the January (1908) issue of 
The Pennsylvania-German under "Clip- 
pings from Current News," the statement 
that at a meeting of the Bradford County 
Historical Society a Mr. Heverly "made 
the startling" statement that according to 
reliable information recently unearthed by 
himself, the first white man to set foot in 
the State of Pennsylvania was Stephen 
Brule. . . Hitherto it was supposed that 
Conrad Weiscer had been the first white 
man to visit Bradford County." 

I recollect seeing some such item in the 
local papers, but considered that it was 
owing to carelessness on the part of the 
editor that such a statement was reprinted. 

Etienne Brule's journey in Pennsylvania 
is known, I believe, by most school boys, 
and accounts of it appear in the most ordi- 
nary books, like Jenkins' "Pennsylvania — 
Colonial and Federal" (1903) ; Meginness' 
"Otzinachson" (1889); "History of the 
Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys" (1884), 
etc., etc. 

It is possible that Mr. Heverly may have 
come across some additional details of 
Brule's expedition, but I cannot refrain 
from calling your attention to the absurdity 
of the statement as printed ; because such 
ridiculous claims of historical research 
should not be perpetuated by being reprint- 
ed in magazines avowedly devoted to his- 
tory. 

Such exhibitions discredit the work of 
County Historical Societies as truly as they 
themselves are lamentable; and at this 
time, when Pennsylvania is making an ef- 
fort to perpetuate her history through the 
medium of various societies, it is. I think, 
important to take a very firm stand against 
such canards as the one to which you have 
given wide publicity under the title "The 
First White Man in the State." I can 
hardly refrain from adding that Conrad 
Weiser was born in 1696, and that even 
if Brule was left out, the fact still remains 
that Cornelis Hendrickson astended the 
Delaware up to the Schuvlkill river in 
1616. 

I have vour verv kind letter of the 6th 



inst., also copy of The Pennsylvania- 
German, for which please accept my sin- 
cere thanks. The matter to which you calB 
my attention I see is an extract from, 
newspaper comment on an address ("Ad- 
vent of the White Man into Bradford- 
Count") delivered by me before the Brad- 
ford County Historical Society, on Nov. 
23. I am not responsible for the comment,, 
but in my remarks I did say that "the first 
white man to visit what is now Bradford 
County was Stephen Brule in 1615, who, it 
is believed, was the first white man to set 
foot upon the soil of Pennsylvania." And 
I stand by my declaration until proofs have 
been furnished to the contrary. I am 
aware that fanciful stories have been writ- 
ten about Spanish Hill, in this county, and 
other points in Pennsylvania, which, if we 
were to accept without historic investiga- 
tion, would bring the white man into 
Bradford county five hundred years before 
Brule came. I have read a number of 
these, among them the capture of the three 
Dutch traders by the Carantouannais while 
on the warpath against the Mohawks in 
1614.. Some writers have tried to make it 
appear that these Dutchmen were brought 
to Carantouan (the Indian village on the 
upper border of Bradford county). Butter- 
field in his work on "Brule's Discoveries 
and Explorations," and other recent writers 
disprove such theory, and assert "these 
Dutchmen never saw any part of Penn- 
sylvania." But even were it true (although 
no proofs have been furnished) that the 
Dutchmen were brought to Carantouan, it 
would be a mere trifling circumstance of 
no historic value, as the Dutchmen were 
captives in an unknown country against 
their will. In the case of Brule it was 
different. He had a purpose in coming 
into this territory and proved himself a 
genius and intrepid explorer. 

I am not informed as to the wise critic,, 
given as "the librarian of a public library." 
His sermon would have more weight, had 
he imparted some of his superior knowl- 
edg-e in informing the public what white 
man visited Pennsylvania prior to 1615, and 
furnished the proofs thereto. 



Genealogical Notes and Queries 



The Nationality of Daniel Boone. 

ANSWER TO QUERY XXXVI. 
In answer to our query respecting the an- 
cestry of- Daniel Boone, published in the Janu- 
ary issue, the following replies were received : 
I see in The Pennsylvania-German 
that you make inquiry about the Boone 
famil}'. The early Boones were English. 
Some of the first here intermarried with 
the Lincolns. But at the present day those 
in Berks might be classed as Pennsylvania- 
German. Manv of them arc three-fourths 



Pennsylvania-German blood now. One of 
the amusing features of their history is 
that because Daniel Boone's father's name 
was Squire, he is often confounded with his 
brother George Boon,e Esq.. or Squire- 
Boone as he is called. 

In your January number you desired to 
have information relating to Daniel Boone. 

Daniel Boone, the Kentucky pioneer, the 
fourth and sixth child of Squire and Sarah. 
(Morgan) Boone, born, October 22, I734^ 
in Exeter township, Berks county. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 



143 



Squire Boon, son of George Boon, of 
Philadelphia county, married Sarah Mor- 
gan, July 23, 1720. George Boone the 
father came from Brandvvinch, near Exeter, 
in Devonshire, ahout 1717. 

The minutes of the Gwynedd Friends 
Monthly Meeting, dated 31st of loth month 
(December) 1717, refers as follows: 

"George Boone, senior, produced a cer- 
tificate of his Good Life and Conversation 
from the Monthly (Meeting) att Callump- 
ton,' in Great Brittain, wh was read & well 
rec'd." 

He died in Berks county, February 2, 
1740, aged 78 years. His wife, Mary, died 
aged 72 years. Both are buried at Oley. 

Schwartz Descendants. 

In answer to Query XXXIII (see Nov., 
1907, issue) the following data are gleaned 
from a ^letter written by Dr. J. C. Shuman, 
Akron, Ohio, to Prof. Oscar L. Schwartz : 

All the Swartzes living in and about 
Troxelville, Snyder county, are descend- 
ants of Henry Swartz, who came to the 
vicinity from Berks county, 1800-1810. He 
owned a tract of land east of the village 
and donated three acres or sold the same 
to the Lutheran and Reformed congrega- 
tions for a consideration of 67 cents (?) — 
the land to be used for church and burial 
services exclusively and none but the Ger- 
man language to be used in preaching. 
The old church building is gone, but the 
burial ground is still used, being about half 
filled with graves. The church was named 
"St. Heinrich's Kirch." 

Henry Swartz had four sons and three 
daughters : 

1. Daniel — Died 1852-8-24, aged 63 yrs., 

9 mos., 24 days. Married to Eve , 

who died 1875-7-13, aged 80 yrs., i mo., 

10 days. 

2. George (well known as "Squire" 



Swartz) — Died 1873-2-17, aged T] yrs., 2 
mos., 24 days. 

3. Thomas — Who is supposed to have 
died in Ohio. 

4. John — Who is supposed to have died 
in Ohio. 

5. Elizabeth (single) — Died 1S47-5-15 
aged 40 yrs., 11 mos., 18 days. 

6. Catherine (wife of Andrew Fetter- 
olf) — Died 1869-6-15, aged 71 yrs., 5 mos., 
7 days. 

7. Sarah (wife of Peter Fetterolf, 
brother of Andrew) — Died 1874-3-18, aged. 
74 yrs., 5 mos., 21 days. 

Montgomery's History of Berks County gives 
the following data : 

In 1759 George Swartz paid tax in 
Roscomb-Mano township. 

In 1759 Nicholas Swartz paid tax in 
Longswamp township. 

In 1759 Daniel Swartz paid tax in Long- 
swamp township. 

In 1759 Ludwig Schwartz paid tax in 
Tulpehocken township. 

In 1759 Henry Schwartz paid tax in 
Heidelberg township. 

In 1758 Frederick Schwartz paid tax in 
Heidelberg township. 

In 1759 Leonard Swartz paid tax in 
Bethel township. 

In 1808 Adam Swartz was assessed in 
Mahantongo township. 

In 1808 Ludwig Swartz was assessed in 
Mahantongo township. 

In 1765 Leonard Swartz bought 271 
acres of land in Bethel township. 

In 1748 Nicholas Schwartz contributed 
toward the erection of a church in Long- 
swamp township. 

In 1761 Nicholaus Schwartz signed a 
petition for the erection of Longswamp 
as a township. 

It was supposed that "St" Henry had 
one brother who stayed in Berks county 
when Henry left. 



Reviews and Notes 

BY PROF. E. S. GERHARD, TRENTON. N. J. 



Corpus Schwenckfeldianorum. Vol. I. Dr. 
Chester D. Hartranft, Hartford Theologi- 
cal Seminary, Editor-in-Chief; Otto Bern- 
hard Schlutter, Hartford Theological Semi- 
nary : Rev. E. E. S. Johnson, Hartford 
Theological Seminary Associate Editors. 
LXX, 661 pp.; half calf. Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Leipzig, 1907. 
This is the long expected first volume of a 
forthcoming complete edition of the writings 
of Caspar Schwenckfeld, the publication of 
which has been undertaken by the Schwenck- 
f elders in America. The project to gather and 
publish Schwenckfeld's scattered writings, 
many of which were well-nigh inaccessible, be- 
gan almost a quarter of a century ago. It was 
at the Memorial Day services in 1884, which 
year, by the way. marked the 150th anniver- 



sary of the landing of the Schwenckfelders in 
America, that Dr. Hartranft himself suggested 
the advisability of such an undertaking. The 
prime movers of this project are Pennsylvania- 
Germans; and all things considered the project 
is probably without parallel in American his- 
tory. 

Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig was a 
Silesian nobleman, and was born in 1490. He 
studied at several of the leading German uni- 
versities of his day, and acquired an educa- 
tion which surpassed by far that possessed by 
many noblemen of that time. After leaving 
the university he entered the service of some 
of the minor courts of Silesia, and finally he en- 
tered the service of the Duke of Liegnitz. 
While at this court he joined in an active 
propaganda of the principles of the Reforma- 



144 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



tion. His views of the Sacraments soon in- 
curred for him the displeasure of the other 
reformers, especially of Luther. Finding that 
his letters and writings contained strong anti- 
Lutheran "heresies," both Catholics and Luther- 
ans urged the Duke to dismiss him from the 
court. 

In order not to bring those into danger who 
had befriended him. chief of whom was Fred- 
erick II, Schwenckfeld in 1529 went into volun- 
tary exile for the rest of his life. He took up 
his abode in many of the foremost and most . 
historic cities of South Germany, but persecu- 
tion followed him wherever he went. He was 
exiled from no less than a half a dozen cities; 
and after having dragged out the life of an 
exile for thirty years he died at Ulm, 1561. 

At his death his 4,000 adherents were found 
scattered throughout Germany. In 1720 a com- 
mission of Jesuits was sent among them to 
convert them by force. The sufferings they 
■endured can only be imagined, recorded they 
can never be. Many of them fled to Saxony, 
then to America. Those who fled to America 
settled in Berks and Montgomery counties, 
Pa. Here their followers, numbering not a 
thousand members, have resided to this day. 

If the first volume is to indicate the general 
tenor and scope of the work in its entirety, 
then one may well rest assured that it will be 
marked by analytical outline, exhaustive treat- 
ment, and consummate scholarship. A con- 
templation of the first volume leaves the re- 
gret that the entire work is not completed. 
It has already won the favorable opinion of the 
learned in Germany, who have watched the 
project with an eye and mind noted for keen- 
ness. 

The Advertisement and Introduction are fol- 
lowed by Schwenckfeld's earliest letters, ar- 
ranged in chronological order and discussed 
under the captions of Bibliography. Text, 
Translation, Language, History, Theology. The 
Introduction sets forth Schwenckfeld's position 
as a Reformer, together with the main tenets 
of his system of theology. It may not be ex- 
haustive, but it is extremely interesting and 
suggestive. One could wish sometimes for a 
fuller explanation and statement of the Ref- 
ormation by the Middle Way ; but a discus- 
sion of this phase of history, we believe, is 
to appear in a later volume, together with a 
biography of Schwenckfeld. 

This Introduction does more to place 
Schwenckfeld in, the true historical light and 
perspective than anything that has been done 
for him through the centuries. It is not only 
the most interesting part of the volume, but 
it is also the most important. Man\' of the 
principles for which Schwenckfeld stood now 
seem so simple and self-evident that one 
thinks that the world could never have existed 
without them ; but things were vastly different 
in an age in which a man was ])randcd a heretic 
and was outlawed for maintaining them. The 
Introduction also shows a most fundamental 
grasp of Reformation history. 

A great deal of credit has always bi-'cn justly 
.given to Luther for his influence in giving 



form to Modern High German. It has become 
evident of late, however, that Schwenckfeld did 
equally as much in forming and developing 
the language. This is just another instance 
wherein Schwenckfeld's work and infltience 
have been ignored and credit due him given 
to others. To substantiate this claim one finds 
a treatise on the language of each document, 
and also a vocabulary. All this shows scholarly 
work of the most painstaking kind. One might 
be inclined to think, however, that one treatise 
on the language and a vocabulary at the end 
of the volume mig'ht have been sufficient. The 
manv repetitions that naturally occur make for 
bulk, hardly for information and distinction. 
Neither is one edified very much by such a 
notice in the vocabulary: "gemaciit. see sub 
macheii." 

One can hardly refrain from saying a few 
words about the technique of paragraph 
structure. The paragraphs in the Introduction 
and in the various discussions are of an inordi- 
nate length. It is not difficult to find para- 
graphs four pages long, and the pages are not 
small, either. One knows no parallel in the 
history of modern writing. To read page 
after page unbroken by paragraphs is like trav- 
eling a long road that has no turn ; either 
process is tiresome. This peculiarity may be 
explained by saying that the editor wrote out 
of the fullness of his heart and in his en- 
thusiasm forgot some of the technique of para- 
graphing. It might be said of him what has 
been said of Milton : that his periods are 
pages long, and that he only stops when he is 
out of breath. 

It seems almost crtiel to speak of the marks 
of imperfection in so admirable a piece of 
work. One should appreciate the difficulty the 
editors undoubtedly had in getting the German 
printers to read and understand an English 
proof-sheet. However, one is in doubt some- 
times whether to attribtite an error like "syl- 
labation" to typography, misspelling or to the 
desire or need for coining a new word. "Im- 
panational" is manifestly a new word, coined 
because it was needed. Errors found in words 
and phrases like "compent" and "a set of men 
were" must be shared by printer and writer 
alike. 

Dr. Hartranft writes out of a profound 
knowledge of his subject. It is no exaggera- 
tion to say that there is today no one in Europe 
or America who knows as much about 
Schwenckfeld as he does. His interesting his- 
torical style is accompanied by an uncommon 
breadth of view, which will enable him to se- 
cure eventually for Schwenkfeld the place he 
deserves both in History and in Theology. It 
has been surmised that the publication of the 
Corpus will cause a re-adjustment of things 
historical and theological. 

It is hoped that through this undertaking 
the great Silesian Reformer, who was out- 
rageously vilified in his own age, unmerci- 
fully ignored in succeeding ages, and woe- 
fully unknown to the present, may yet receive 
the justice that has been due him for three 
hundred vears. 







Vol. IX APRIL, 1908 No. 4 

The Mayors of a Typical Pennsylvania 
German City 

(Allentown, Pa.) 

RV WILLIAM L. IIARTMAX, ALLENTOWX, I'A. 





SAMUEL McEOSE. 

ITH Allentown. Pa., as the 
city in question, "The 
Mayors of a Typical Penn- 
sylvania-German City"" have 
proven an interestino- and 
profitable study. Allentown 
was created a city by Act of the State 
Legislature, approved by Governor John 
W. Geary, on March 12. 1867. In the 
forty-one years since elapsed, sixteen men 
have sat in the ]\Iayor"s chair. They were 
nearly evenly divided as to politics. Seven 
were Republicans and nine Democrats. 
Five were business-men, and as many 
were doctors. Three were lawyers and 
one each a banker, hotelkeeper and civil 
engineer. The men whom they defeated 
for election were nine business-men. two 
lawyers, two doctors, a hotelkeeper, a 
banker, and a veterinarv surgeon. 




COL. T.L .HM.\X 11. OOOIJ. 

Eighteen elections for 3>Iayor have been 
held in Allentown. Republicans have 
served eight terms and a fraction and 
Democrats eleven terms and a fraction. 
Two mayors died in office. 

One mayor was five times a candidate 
for the office and was successful three 
times. Two men tried three times and 
were each elected twice. Two other men 
served each two full terms. One man 
filled the chair only three months, becom- 
ing mayor c.v officio on the death of the 
elected incumbent, he having been presi- 
dent of Select Council at the time. This 
same man was defeated twice at the polls. 
One mayor was defeated once before 
being elected. 

The first mayor of Allentown was 
Samuel McHose, elected on the third Fri- 
day of March. 1867, over Robert E. 



148 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




THEODOKK r. YEAGER, M. D 

Wright, Sr., lawyer, by a vote of 974 to 
881. Mr. McHose was of Scotch-Irish 
descent on his father's side and of Ger- 
man origin in the distaff Hne. He was 
born on Febrnary 15. 1816, and died 
April 21, 1893. Air. AIcHose was a 
mason and contractor. He built nearly 
every blast-furnace and rolling-mill in the 
Lehigh Valley, and later engaged in the 
fire-brick business. He . was a national 
delegate to the Lincoln and Grant Conven- 
tions and served in Councils 1858-59, 
1865-66 and 1884-86, being president of 
the last two. 

Col. Tilghman H. Good was elected 
mayor in 1869, 1871 and 1874, and was 
defeated in 1873 and 1876. He \yas of 
Swiss ancestry, born in South Whitehall, 
Lehigh county, Oct. 6, 1830. He died at 
Reading. July 18, 18S7. Col. Good was 





COL. EnWAKI) I!. VOUNO. 



HERMAN SCHUMAN 

a shoemaker, hotelkeeper, banker and 
soldier. He was landlord of the Allen, 
the American and the Fountain House in 
Allentown, and of the Grand Central at 
Reading. He captained the "Allen Rifles" 
before and after the Civil War, and com- 
manded the Forty-seventh Regiment, P. 
v., from 1861 to 1864 in the Carolinas, 
at Key West, in the Red River campaign 
and in the Shenandoah Valley. After the 
war he rose to the command of the Fourth 
Regiment, N. G. P., and was in command 
at the Reading riots of July, 1877. In 
1858 he served in the State Legislature. 

Theodore Conrad Yeager, M.D., born 
April I, 1828, was elected mayor over 
Col. Good in 1873, ^^d died in office Jan- 
uary 14, 1874. He was of German de- 
scent, a grandson of Rev. Johann Conrad 
Yeager. and son of Rev. Joshua Yeager, 
pioneer Lutheran pastors in Lehigh coun- 
ty, who together served a number of con- 
gregations in and about Allentown for 
ninety-two years. Dr. Yeager was a 
jeweler , attained to his profession in i860, 
was medical inspector of Lehigh county 
in i860; assistant surgeon of the Fifty- 
first regiment, P. V., in 1863 ; professor 
of chemistry and botany at Muhlenberg 
College, and deputy collector of revenue 
in Grant's administration. 

When Dr. Yeager died in office Herman 
Schuon. president of Select Council, be- 
came mayor c.v officio, and served until 
March following, when Col. Good was 
elected again. Mr. Schuon was born in 
Wiirttemberg. Germany. February 22, 
■ 1835, and is still living, though feeble 



THE MAYORS OF ALLENTOWN 



149 




ALFUEDJ. MARTIN, M. D. 

with rlieuniatism. He came to America 
in 1854, soon settled in Allentown as bar- 
tender for John G. Schimpf. whom he 
succeeded in business. He kept the Le- 
high and the Jordan Hotels and a grocery- 
store. He served once in Common Coun- 
cil and twice in Select Council. Mr. 
Schuon was one of the founders of the 
Lehigh Sangerbund fifty years ago, and 
was one of the committee to buy the Allen 
Fire Company's Amoskey fire-engine. 

Col. Edward B. Young was the Cen- 
tennial Mayor of Allentown. filling the 
oflice from 1876 to 1878. He was a 
Pennsylvania-German, and on his 
mother's side was a great-grandson of 
Rev. Abraham Blumer, who while pastor 
of Zion Reformed church in 1777 had the 
Liberty and Christ Church bells concealed 
under the chancel, to save them from fall- 
ing into the hands of Lord Howe's British 
forces when they occupied Philadelphia. 
Born September 6, 1836, Col. Young died 
December 30, 1879. He was a hardware- 
dealer, served in Select Council, was a 
lieutenant in the Civil War, served on 
the staffs of Governors Hartranft and 
Hoyt. was a delegate to the Hayes conven- 
tion in 1876, and helped to organize the 
Grand Army Post that perpetuates his 
name. 

The city's sixth mayor was Alfred j. 
Martin, M. D., a Pennsylvania-German 
by descent, scion of a large and widely 
known family of physicians, descended 
from Dr. Christian Frederic Martin, who 
came to America with the Lutheran patri- 
arch Muhlenberg, and settled at the 




ED ,VIN O MARTIN. M. D. 

Trappe. Dr. Martin was born March 23, 
1837, and died December 8, 1896. He 
was graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1857. became prison- 
physician, coroner's physician, a director 
of the Allentown National Bank, a trustee 
of St. Luke's Hospital at South Bethle- 
hem, a founder of tlie Livingston Club, 
candidate for presidential elector in i88o[ 
and a member of the County, Valley and 
State Medical Societies. 

Edwin G. Martin, lALD., cousin of the 
above, served two terms, from 1880 to 
1884. He was born October 3, 1836, was 
graduated from the University of Penn- 
• sylvania in 1856, and died August 30, 
1893. Dr. Martin was coroner from i860 
to 1862. He was surgeon of the twentv- 
seventh regiment in 1863 and of the 
Fourth regiment, N. G. P. He was ac- 




EDWARD s. e:eii,:er. 



150 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 





WERNER KNAUSS RUHE. 

tively identified with local business-inter- 
ests.' He was the first president of the 
Lehigh A'alley Trust and Safe Deposit 
(Company, president of the Board of 
Trade, a trustee of Muhlenberg College, 
the AUentown College for Women and 
the Norristown Insane Asylum, a prison- 
inspector, a founder of the Livingston 
Club and the only Allentonian who be- 
came Grand Commander of the Knights 
Templar of Pennsylvania. 

Edward S. Shinier was Allentown's 
eighth Mayor, serving from 1884 to 1886. 
He was a Pennsylvania-German, descend- 
ed in the sixth generation from Daniel 
Scheimer. Two villages in adjoining- 
counties, Lehigh and Northampton, bear 
the family-name. He was born July 13, 
1832, and died ]\Iarch 13, 1902. [Nlr. 




COT.. SAMUEL V. LEHR. 



HENRY \V. ALLISON. 

Shimer was a merchant and later a real- 
estate and insurance agent. He was a 
director of the Millerstown Bank, the Mil- 
lerstown Iron Company and the Allen 
Fire Insurance Company, and one of the 
original trustees of Muhlenberg College. 
In 1894 ^^^- Shimer tried unsuccessfully 
for the State Senatorship, and in 1897 
for Alderman of the Fifth \\'ard in a 
triangular contest. 

\\'erner Knauss Ruhe, another Penn- 
sylvania-German, was elected Mayor in 
1886. Born in 1842. he became a printer 
on the AUentown Democrat under his 
father in 1859. He became part pro- 
prietor of The Daily City Item in 1865, 
and was later at the head of the Allen- 
town Hardware Works. He helped to 
buy the Columbia fire-engine, was elected 
chief engineer of the Fire Department 
in 1872, was a dirctor of the AUentown 
National Bank and the Allen Fire Insur- 
ance Company, and served twice as a sol- 
dier in Civil War emergencies. IMr. Ruhe 
died February 6, 1904. 

Henry W. Allison served AUentown 
twice as Mayor, from 1888 to 1890 and 
from 1893 to 1896, and was unsuccessful 
in 1899. He was born July 8. 1846, at 
Catlettsburg, Ky., and is still actively in 
business as general manager of the Allen 
town Rolling Mills, with which he has 
been connected since coming to Allen- 
town in 1875. Mr. Allison started m 
the iron-business in his native state in 
1861, and in 1866 went to Hazleton, 
where for nine \ears prior to coming to 
AUentown he was with A. Pardee & Co., 



THE MAYORS OF ALLENTOWN 



ISI 




FREDE. LEWIS. 




coal operators. He was the first presi- 
'clent of the Livingston Ckib. 

x^nother Pennsylvania-German became 
Allentown's eleventh IMayor in the person 
■of Col. Samuel D. Lehr, who was elected 
in 1890. Born May 30. 1838, Col. Lehr is 
•still actively engaged as a civil engineer, 
which profession he learned in his boy- 
hood, spending four years on the engineer- 
corps of the Allentown and Auburn R. R. 
For twenty years succeeding 18O9 he was 
City Engineer, and he served in Coinicils 
from 1897 to 1901. He is also president 
of the Pennsylvania Loan and Building 
Association. In 1862-63 he served in 
South Carolina as captain of Co. B, 176th 
Regt., P. V. and was later recruiting- 
agent. In 1869, he organized the Allen 
Continentals, later Co. B, Fourth Regt., 
N. G. Pa., and rose to the colonelcy of 
the regiment 1885 to 1890. 

The people of Allentown took Fred E. 
Lewis twice as their Mayor, from 1896 to 
1899 and again from 1902 to 1905. He 
is of the Lewis family so long identified 
with the iron-industry in Allentown. his 
grandfather having been one of its 
pioneers. Mr. Lewis was born Feb. 6, 
1864. He was admitted to the bar Feb. 
8. 1888. Mr. Lewis has been president of 
the Merchants National Bank since its 
inception in 1903. was an organizer of the 
Lehigh Telephone Company and the 
-■Mlentnwn and South .Allentown Bridge 
Company, [he \\cyM(<uv Cement Block 
Compau}-. and the Allcnlcjwn Sand and 
■Coal Company. 1 !e lias l)cen president of 



CAPTAIN JAMES L. SCHA ADT. 

the Board of Trade and has been active 
as a volunteer fireman. ^Ir. Lewis as- 
pired twice without avail to the Republi- 
can nomination for Lieutenant Governor 
of the State. 

Captain James L. Schaadt. of Penn- 
s\ Ivania-German lineage, was Mayor dur- 
ing the busy days of 1899 to 1902. He 
was born in North Whitehall, Lehigh 
comity. Dec. 21. 1856, was graduated 
from Muhlenberg College in 1874 and was 
admitted to the bar in 1878. Mr. Schaadt 
was county solicitor from 1888 to 1891, 
district attorney from 1892 to 1895, and 
Democratic county chairman three years. 
He entered die National Guards as a 
private in 1878. rose through the several 




ALFKEI) J. YOST. M. D. 



152 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




C. D. SCHAEFFER, M. D. 

grades to regimental quartermaster and 
was captain of Co. B, Fourth Regiment, 
from 1890 for five years, commanding his 
company at the Homestead riots in 1892. 

Alfred J. Yost, M. D. was elected 
Mayor in 1905. Like most of his pre- 
decessors, Dr. Yost was a Pennsylvania- 
German. Born Aug. 13, 1870, he fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of his father, Dr. 
Martin L. Yost, and after graduating 
from Muhlenberg College in 1890, won 
his diploma in the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1893. He served two terms as 
coroner from 1893 to 1899. Dr. Yost was 
a son-in-law of a former Mayor, W. K. 
Ruhe. During his incumbency, Dr. 
Yost's health failed and he was advised 
to go to Denver, Col., which he did in 
September, 1905, returning to Allentown 
March 11, 1907. The change of climate 
effected no permanent benefit and he 
passed away April 16, 1907. Dr. Yost 
was a Director of the Citizens Deposit and 
Trust Co., of Allentown. 

During the period of Mayor Yost's 
absence from Allentown, City Councils 
elected that other sturdy scion of Penn- 
sylvania-Germandom, Charles David 
Schaefifer, M. D., acting Mayor. Dr. 
Schaefifer was born in Berks county, Nov. 
4, 1864, was graduated from the Kutz- 
town Normal School, from Franklin and 
Marshall College in 1886, and from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1889. He 
has served as president of the Board of 
Health and is a director of the Allentown 
National Bank. Dr. Schaeffer has been 
with the Allentown Hospital since its be- 




HARRY GIBSON STILES. 

ginning in 1898 as a trustee and as sur- 
geon-in-chief. He is an active member of 
local and general medical societies, and is 
widely known as a skilled and successful 
physician and surgeon. April 22, 1907, 
City Councils unanimously elected Dr. 
Schaefifer as Mayor for Dr. Yost's un- 
expired term. 

Harry Gibons Stiles, AUentown's new- 
est Mayor, assumed his office on the first 
Monday of April in this year. He won 
out at the Democratic Primaries, Janu- 
ary 25th, over four competitors by a 
plurality of 120, and was successful at the 
election, February i8th, by a plurality of 
778 over former Mayor Fred E. Lewis. 
Mr. Stiles is a son of the late John D. 
Stiles, who was a leading lawyer of the 
Lehigh County Bar. and who served 
thrice in Congress. Born in Allentown, 
December 16, 1856, Mr. Stiles was gradu- 
ated from the local High School, June 30, 
1874, studied at Muhlenberg College and 
at Harvard Law School. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar April 14, 1879. In 1884 
he was nominated a Presidential Elector. 
He served as District Attorney of Lehigh 
County during the three years following 
1889. In 1894 he was elected to the State 
Senate and was re-elected four years later. 
He is an active member of the Rescue 
Hook and Ladder Company No. 8. 

It will thus be seen that Allentown has 
been signally fortunate in its mayors. All 
have been conspicuous and prominent 
men, and have contributed to the success, 
growth and prosperity of one of the most 
progressive cities of Pennsylvania. 



REV. REVERE FRANKLIN WEIDNER, D.D.. LL.D. 



1 53 



Rev. Revere Franklin Weidner, D. D., LL. D. 



EV K. 



(See Frontispiece Portrait; 




\ the front rank of the schol- 
ars and hterary men who 
hail from Lehigh County, 
Pennsylvania, stands Revere 
Franklin Weidner, son of 
William P. Weidner and his 
wile Eliza A., iicc Blank, who was born 
at Center X'alley, November 22nd, 185 1. 
At the age of six he was sent to Dr. Gre- 
gory's Academy at Allentown, Pa., where 
he studied for five years, rapidly acquiring 
the common branches of education and 
making" remarkable progress for one so 
young in the Classical Languages and 
Mathematics. 

At the end of this period the Academy 
passed into the charge of the Rev. W. R. 
Hufford and was afterward merged into 
a military school under the Rev. M. L. 
Hufford. This military school was suc- 
ceeded by Muhlenberg College. Through 
all these changes the subject of this sketch 
continued in attendance and made remark- 
able progress, astonishing his teachers 
by the thoroughness and the encyclopedic 
character of his studies. 

When ^Muhlenberg College was opened 
he entered as a Junior and was graduated 
at the head .of his class in 1869. During 
his Senior year he was employed as tutor 
by the college authorities and faithfully 
attended to his duties of this office in con- 
nection with his regular studies. 

After completing his studies at Muhlen- 
berg College, he entered the Theological 
Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church at Philadelphia, Pa., from which 
he was graduated in 1873. During his 
Seminary course his indefatigable energy 
did not exhaust itself on the prescribed 
Theological course alone, although it was 
prosecuted with conscientious fidelity and 
devotion, but opportunity was found for 
extensive reading and private tutoring in 
his favorite branches. Mathematics and 
the Classical Languages. 

In the autuhin of the year of his gradu- 
ation from the Seminary, Doctor Weidner 



was called to the pastorate of the English 
Evangelical Lutheran Church at Phillips- 
burg, N. J., which he faithfully served as 
pastor until 1877. In the year 1875 ^i^ 
was elected Professor at Muhlenberg Col- 
lege and until the end of his pastorate at 
Phillipsburg in 1877 he carried the work 
of a full professorship in addition to the 
arduous labors of a growing parish. Dur- 
ing this period, impressed with the needs 
of his German brethren. Doctor Weidner 
established the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Congregation of Phillipsburg, 
and served it in connection with his own 
parish until they were able to call a pastor 
of their own. 

The hand of Providence is plainly 
evident in the men under whose potent in- 
fluence Doctor Weidner fell In the most 
formative period of his life. During his 
college course he was greatly impressed 
by that prince of Greek professors. Dr. 
Muhlenberg, and by his beloved professor 
of Mathematics, the Rev. E. L. Kuhns. 
During his seminary course he basked in 
the genial presence of the great theologian 
and philosopher, Doctor Krauth. In 1877 
he was called as an assistant of Doctor 
Seiss. of Philadelphia, one of the foremost 
pulpit orators of his time and one of the 
most prolific theological writers America 
ever produced. For two years Dr. Weid- 
ner served as Doctor Seiss's assistant and 
experienced to the full the privileges and 
the blessings which proximity to an ex- 
alted character always brings. 

In 1879 Dr. Weidner accepted a call to 
the young St. Luke's English Evangelical 
Lutheran Church of Philadelphia and laid 
the foundations wide and deep upon which 
has risen one of the strongest and most 
aggressive congregations in the city of 
Philadelphia. 

By his indefatigable activity in every 
department of work he undertook, by the 
variety and the extent of his theological 
studies, by the conscientious thoroughness 
manifest in all his work, as a writer for 



154 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Lutheran, by the pubUcation of a 
commentary on St. Mark, and by his 
abihty as a teacher and preacher. Dr. 
Weidner by this time gave unmistakable 
evidence of possessing an internal call to 
.a theological professorship. The validity 
of this call was publicly recognized when, 
in 1881, he was called as professor of 
Hebrew and Biblical Exegesis of the Old 
and the New Testaments in the Augustana 
Swedish-English Theological Seminary at 
Rock Island, Illinois. 

When, in 1891, the Theological Semi- 
nary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
at Chicago, Illinois, was established by the 
sainted Dr. Passavant, Dr. Weidner was 
unanimously called to be its President and 
first professor, and until 1894 he carried 
the work of his professorships both at 
Chicago and at Rock Island and served as 
l)astor of a thriving mission in Chicago. 
During the period of his professorship at 
Rock Island and for several years at 
Chicago, he was associated with the late 
President W. R. Harper and D wight L. 
Moody in Chautauqua work during the 
summer vacations. For eight years he 
was associated with Dr. Harper and lec- 
tured at Chautauqua, N. Y., and else- 
where on Advanced Hebrew, Beginners 
Greek, Advanced Greek and English 
Bible. He helped to organize and set in 
successful operation summer schools at 
Mt. Gretna, Pa.; Glen Park, Col; 
Boulder, Cal., and elsewhere. For a num- 
ber of years he gave lectures on the Eng- 
lish Bible in the Moody Institute at Chi- 
cago, and at Northfield, Mass. 

Since 1894, when Doctor Weidner laid 
down his work at Rock Island, he has 
given his undivided attention to the Semi- 
nary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
at Chicago. This institution is unique 
among the theological seminaries of the 
land in that it was established without the 
promise of financial support on the part 
of any individual or Synod. This Semi- 
nary has never known what it means to 
rely upon material support in the way 
of an endowment fund. Under the clear 
and positive conviction that a School of 
the Prophets was needed in the Metropolis^ 
of the West, Dr. Passavant followed the' 
clear indications of Providence and 
n])cned the school looking to the great 



Head of the Church to supply the men 
and the means. In the same spirit this 
work has been carried on with increasing 
success until now there are more students 
in attendance at this Seminary than at any 
other English Seminary in the Lutheran 
Church ; and the influence of this institu- 
tion is making itself felt in its graduates 
and by its spirit and methods, from ocean 
to ocean. 

To this Seminary Doctor Weidner has 
given the best years of his life. Not only 
has he carried the full work of a Presi- 
dent and Professor, but he has also been 
compelled to devote much precious time* 
and energy "to serve tables." The money 
needed to carry on the work of the insti- 
tution has largely come through his influ- 
ence and by his solicitation. These ardu- 
ous labors and multitudinous anxieties 
finally undermined his magnificent physi- 
cal constitution and brought on attacks of 
paralysis in the summers of 1903 and 
1904. However, this affliction could not 
quench his ardor for work, and when 
others would have given up in despair, the 
subject of our sketch seemed to be spurred 
on to greater efforts and to the accom- 
plishment of tasks supposed to demand the 
vitality of the robust. In spite of his ill- 
ness, he has regularly attended to his 
duties in the class room, he has almost 
uninteruptedly continued his literary 
work, and has made such encouraging 
progress in his fight for health as to en- 
courage his friends in the hope of many 
more years of usefulness on his part. 

Doctor Weidner has been elected to the 
membership of many of the learned socie- 
ties of Europe and xA.merica and received 
the title of S.T.D. from Carthage Col- 
lege, Illinois, in 1888; D.D. from Muhlen- 
berg College in 1894, and LL.D. from 
Augustana College in the same year. 

Not only is Doctor Weidner known as a 
scholar, Seminary President and Instruc- 
tor of the first order, but also as a most 
prolific writer of theological works, coA^er- 
ing both the Old and the New Testaments 
and representing almost every great de- 
partment oi theology. These works are 
partly original and partly translated and 
adaptations of the best works of European 
scholars so as to make available for the 
use of the American Eiii^lish Lutheran 



REV. REVERE FRANKLIN WEIDNER, D.D., LL.D. 



155 



Theologian the treasure of German theol- 
ogy. By his literary activity alone Doctor 
Weidner has accomplished a work for 
which the American Lutheran Church 
owes him a standing debt of gratitude. 
When we contemplate the stupendous 
literary work this eminent servant of the 
Church has still under way, and the other 
tasks of like character which he has laid 
out for himself, sentiments of unbounded 
admiration make themselves felt, and the 
sincere hope spontaneously arises that he 
may live to see the accomplishment of his 
cherished desires. 

='=When Dr. W. was at college, 1^67-70, 
he was a book-devourer, and during the 
summer vacations he would lug home 
Latin books to dig through. He was at 
chat time a big, rosy-cheeked, country- 
looking boy, who took his turn at baseball, 
but was more useful than ornamental on 
occond base. 

It is not just to speak of his career as 
a "struggle" in one sense, because his 
justly proud and loving farmer- father 
kept him in funds. But Revere, as I call 
him, had to do his own studying. He 
read widely and talked and wrote of what 
he read, thus turning to cash all his liter- 
ary investments. His rule has been to 
study the literature of every subject ex- 
haustively, to buy lavishly all the books in 
the second-hand stores in the large cities, 
through New York importers, or directly 
from Germany. Hence he is always im- 
porting such new, up-to-date books as he 
needs, regardless of cost. Then to suck 
them dry! Then to write and print (in 
recent years) his own text-books! And 
then to cart the authorities that he does 
not need to the second-hand dealers, 
where he always gets the highest and pays 
the lowest prices, — for he thoroughly un- 
derstands book-values and buying ! Thus 
some thousands of books have passed 
through his hands. 

He wrote well in his college days, but. 
shortly after that, improved his style by 
his English studies under Dr. March, his. 
teaching of English literature at Muhlen- 
berg and his great care in composition- 
writing and re- writing. His -written style 
is very good, clear, choice, rich. As a 

*The followine very excellent poitiaituie was made 
by Rev. W. K. Frick, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



speaker he is all animation — a regular 
steam-engine in trousers, as was Joseph 
Cook, whom Weidner resembles in build, 
appearance of his bushy head and beard, 
and in influence. 

Among theological professors in Chi- 
cago, few have greater influence. He is 
a leader of the orthodox, the watch-dog of 
orthodoxy. He keeps an eye on the 
"Higher Criticism" fellows out here, and 
in his Institute and Chautauqua lectures, 
etc., hits them right and left. 

He is a reservoir of learning. Really, 
the fellow seems to be without limit in 
his knowledge of details and systems. A 
few years ago he could give you the vari- 
ous readings in the Greek New Testa- 
ment and the authority for each. 

He is an enthusiastic drill-master in the 
class-room, and on the lecture-platform 
everybody knows he knows it all — not, of 
course, from original reflection, though 
his powers of philosophizing are of high 
order, but knows it all in the sense of 
knowing what everybody of note, from 
creation down to last evening's last mail 
has held and argued on any point under 
discussion — a real, up-to-date encyclo- 
pedia. 

Then, he is systematic in the marshaling 
of facts — as systematic as the Dewey 
classification of libraries. x\nd he knows 
where to condense, how to select, what 
to illumine and illustrate, how to state the 
error strongly, how to overturn it fairly. 
His class-room sees a running fire of 
questions, answers. Scripture texts — -he 
must have several thousands at his 
tongue's end — and all the while the pro- 
fessor keeps his good humor and his ani- 
mated air. 



His lecturing is inspiring, and he can 
get more hard work out of men than 
three ordinary men. Mark you — hard 
work ! He works and he makes them 
want to work. And the way he drags 
them through Scripture ! Imagme a field 
that is plowed u]) and down, crosswise 
and from corner to corner, and then sub- 
soiled ; that is his way of teaching. It 
leads men to "cultivate" the Bible. 

He is a splendid host, if he doesn't know 
music, excepting two tunes, one of which 
is America and the other isn't — he is not 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



quite certain which isn't. Well, he k;io\vs 
men. He can talk of books in all tongues — 
his fad is Ruskin — and of the sciences, 
and joke now as he couldn't at college, 
and get out of men all that is in them, and 
make every student believe he is his best 
uncle or even his own father, and draw 
the people of lowly mind, like in his 
Chicago parish, and hobnob w^ith the 
spectacled D.D.'s and LL.D.'s, the chaps 
in clean, hammer coats with big check- 
books. He is the man to endow our Semi- 
nary and he is at it ; as prolific of plans as 
a railroad president, and as bland as an 
insurance agent. 

At the Theological Seminary he was 
the best man in our class of ^y^)- Finding 
too little for him to do at the Seminary, he 
tutored two or three rich young sprigs 
and thus kept his hand in teaching, and 
yet read more books than half the rest put 
together. He was "A No. i'' in Hebrew. 

I do not recall that he was especially 
illustrious in dogmatics, but when he got 
to Phillipsburg he took to studying exe- 
getical commentaries and when he came to 
Philadelphia in '78, he had a habit in that 
line and a stock of knowledge in technical 
criticism that commanded the respect of 
Drs. Krauth, Mann, Spaeth, and Seiss, 
with whom he associated on terms of 



scholarly friendship — I almost said 
equality. 

He has done more tlian any of our 
Philadelphia Seminary men to popularize 
knowledge and yet he has learning suffi- 
cient to admit him to universities. I know 
that Ire has withstood the earnest solicita- 
tions of his friend, Dr. Harper, of the 
Chicago University, to accept one of the 
$5.cx)0 chairs at that institution. 

Does he betra}' an}' Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man characteristics? Well, he is not slow, 
not even on a bicycle. He seems to want 
the earth, for his journeys have been wei:t 
to Denver, and east to Leipzig. His books 
sell all over the country and he has offers 
from London Houses. 

Does his speech betray him? Yes and 
no. He is too scholarly to be tripped up 
on mispronounciations, but ; there is a 
suggestion of something Pennsylvanian in 
his inflections when he becomes animated. 

Paint him with red cheeks and great 
black beard creeping up to his eyes, and 
black, lively, sympathetic eyes, and a body 
of large proportions. Paint him as very 
friendly, and a worker who can teach 
eight hours a day, write letters eight 
hours, talk to students eight hours, work 
on books eight hours and yet go to bed at 
10.30 and get up at 6.00! 



Rev. Elmer Frederick Krauss, D. D. 

BY REV. OSWIN F. WAAGE, PEXXSBURG, PA. 
(See Frontispiece Portrait) 




HE world needs and is inter- 
ested in strong men — strong 
physically, financially, polit- 
ically, morally and educa- 
tionally, — men of power in 
every sphere of life. The 
world admires and almost deifies human 
greatness. The men who have compelled 
the world's attention have Ijeen men of 
mental and moral muscle. A man's value 
to the world and to himself depends on 
the cultivation of his intellect. There is 
the world's false estimate of greatness, 
and there is God's estimate. Great means 
"great in the sight of the Lord." That 
is gold that will stand the test. No man 
is regarded great who spells "God" with 



a litde "g," or "myself" with a big "M." 
True greatness is moral goodness. 
Greatness can be expressed iji terms of 
character only. The true standard by 
which human achievements are gauged, 
is Christian character, faith, purity and 
trust in God. Strong men are made by 
the education they receive, by their les- 
sons in abstinence and self-denial. A 
strong man is characterized by two 
diings chiefly. — by the purpose of his life 
and the strength he brings to bear upon 
it. True greatness, likewise, consists in 
laying all that we are and possess at the 
feet -of Jesus, and devoting all to His 
service an glory. 

The Rev. Professor Elmer F. Krauss, 



REV. ELMER FREDERICK KRAUSS, D.D. 



157 



D.D., was born in Kraussdale, Lehig-h 
county, Pa., Sept. 7, 1862. His parents, 
both living-, are Mr. Isaac V. Krauss and 
wife, Theodora R.. daughter of Rev. 
Frederick and Angeline W'aage. On his 
father's side he is descended from the 
Schvvenkfeldians, who came to America 
early in the eighteenth century and settled 
in eastern Pennsylvania, a people charac- 
terized by their evangelical mysticism, 
their genuine piety, and their ardent love 
for learning. His maternal grandfather 
was the Rev, Frederick W'aage, who en- 
joyed the instruction of Claus Harms in 
the University of Kiel, Denmark, and 
who came to America in 18 19, studied 
theology under the Rev. Dr. F. W. Geis- 
senhainer, and served pastorates in Penn- 
sylvania successfully for fifty years. 

It is a very valuable privilege to be 
closely descended from families distin- 
guished for intelligence, faith and piety. 

Prof. Krauss early realized that a hu- 
man soul without education is like marble 
in a quarry, which shows none of its 
inherent beauties until the skill of the 
polisher brings out the colors, makes the 
surface shihe, and discovers every orna- 
mental vein that runs through the body 
of it. Aristotle tells us that a statue lies 
hid in a block of marble. What sculpture 
is to the marble, education is to a human 
soul. Education brings out the statue. 

God blessed Mr. Krauss with fine men- 
tal gifts and talents. "To whom much 
is given, of him doth God require the 
more." He did not permit these powers 
of mind to slumber, but by hard study 
and application he trained and disciplined 
his intellectual faculties for useful work 
in the Church. After sharpening and 
polishing his tools he put them to a proper 
use also. All these he consecrated and 
dedicated to the service and praise of 
God in His Church, and thus he proves 
himself to be a profound student, a clas- 
sical thinker, a brilliant scholar, and an 
enthusiastic churchman. God opened for 
him a field of usefulness so as to apply 
the given talents and endowments to the 
glory of God and the good of men. He 
reached the prominent positions he at 
present occupies not through favors and 
influences of friends, but on account of 
his unusual gifts and attainments. These 



that are most un\vorth_\-'of honor are hot- 
test in the chase of it ; whilst the con- 
sciousness of better deserts bids men sit 
still and stay to be importuned. God 
chooses whom He wills, and raises from 
the dust him whom the people will place 
at their head. 

Until twelve years of age, Prof. Krauss 
attended the public schools of Krauss- 
dale, his home. At this age he entered 
Perkiomen Seminary of Pennsburg, Pa., 
then already a good school, and at pres- 
ent one of the best institutions in the 
State. In this institution, and in the 
Normal and Academic Department of 
Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pa., con- 
ducted by the Rev. A. R. Home, D.D., he 
prepared for College. After teaching pub- 
lic schools for two years, from 1877 to 
1 879, he entered the Freshman Class of 
Muhlenberg College, and was graduated 
in 1884 with first honors and the valedic- 
tory. He also received the first German 
prize offered to the Senior Class. 

In the summer of 1884 he entered the 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., graduating from this Insti- 
tution in 1887. 

In June of this year he was ordained 
to the oflfice of the holy ministry of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, by the 
Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania. 

In the summer of 1885, he attended the 
Hebrew Summer School, conducted by 
Prof. William R. Harper at West Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

The long vacation of 1886 was spent 
in St. Paul, Minnesota, where, under the 
direction of the Rev. A. J. D. Haupt, 
Prof. Krauss served the newly-organized 
Trinity Alission in West St. Paul. This 
experience opened his eyes to the vast 
territory of his beloved Zion in the West, 
and infused into him the spirit of this 
rapidly expanding empire, with all its 
spiritual needs and latent possibilities for 
the Kingdom of God. 

Homestead, Pa., was Prof. Krauss' 
first regular field of labor in the min- 
istry of the Lutheran Church. He en- 
tered upon this work in July, 1887, and 
served this parish to the year 1893. In 
connection with this parish he also served 
the newlv-organized Missions of the 



IS8 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Pittsburg Synod at Braddock and Mc- 
Keesport. 

In 1893 he accepted a call to the St. 
John's English Evangelical Lutheran 
church at Minneapolis, Alinnesota. In 
the year 1894, owing to illness in his fam- 
ily on account of the rigid climate, he was 
compelled' to give up his work in the 
Northwest when it was most promising, 
and yielded to the summons of the First 
Evangelical Lutheran church at Leech- 
burg, Pa., which congregation he served 
for five years and five months. 

During his college course Dr. Krauss 
distinguished himself in mathematics and 
the classical languages. During the thir- 
teen years of his pastoral life he did not 
neglect his Greek New Testament. He 
was one of the first to avail himself of 
the advantages of the correspondence 
courses offered by the Seminary, and 
amid the distracting cares and duties of 
a large parish, he persisted in doing sys- 
tematic work in his favorite branches. 

In June, 1903, his Alma Mater, 
Muhlenberg College of Allentown, Pa., 
bestowed upon him the degree of Doc- 
tor of Divinity. This is an honor both 
to Mr. Krauss and the College. During 
his college course he had received the 
Degrees in Course of A.B. and A.M. 

In pursuance of a unanimous call by 
the Board of Directors of the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary of Chicago, 111., 
Prof. Krauss entered upon his duties as 
Professor of New Testament Exegesis, 
May I, 1900, where up to the present time 
he has proved himeslf to be the right man 
in the right place. He is master of his 



department, and fulfills the duties of his- 
professorship with enthusiasm and en- 
ergy, and impresses upon his students his 
two great characteristics of precision and 
tlwroiigJuwss. 

In his family life Dr. Krauss has ex- 
perienced the usual lot — sunshine and 
shadow. On Oct. 2y, 1887, he married 
Miss Irene Hartzell, of Allentown, Pa.,, 
daughter of Mr. George Hartzell. For 
more than fifteen years they lived hap- 
pily together in wedlock. Five children 
were born to them, three sons and two 
daughters, of whom one son, Winfred, 
eight years old, departed to the better 
world. Shortly after this first family 
sorrow, the mother was taken, who de- 
parted this life January 7, 1903, leaving 
the husband and father wath four small 
children. 

On.. Sept. 20, 1904, he married Miss 
Emma A. King, of Pittsburg, who is now 
sharing w^ith him the weal and woe of 
family life. 

Dr. Krauss is now in the prime of life, 
doing excellent work for God in His 
Church. The past is the promise of the 
future. If God spares his life and health, 
greater things may be expected. Blest of 
God with brilliant talents consecrated to 
the service of Jesus Christ and His 
Church, what may not the coming years 
have in store for him ! May God's bene- 
diction rest upon him and his labors in 
the past and in the future ; and may he in 
the end receive the well-earned and well- 
deservd laudation — "Well done, thou 
Sfood and faithful servant." 



Lynn Township and Its Professional Men 

I'.V F. C. SICU'-ERLING, M.l)., ALLENTOWN, PA. 



YXX township is situated in 
the extreme northwestern 
part of Lehigh county, 
I'ennsylvania. Its natural 
northern boundary is the 
Blue mountains, with the 
well known "Bock Effcl" and "Bora 
Felsa" looming up prominently on the 
horizon and separating it from Carbon 
and Schuylkill counties. Along the east 
and south it is touched bv the sister town- 




ships — Heidelberg, Lowhill and Weisen- 
berg. Berks county forms part of the' 
southern and also the western boundary. 
The township is divided by a moun- 
tainous ridge known as the Schochary, a 
name supposed to be of Indian origin. 
This ridge extends its whole length from 
east to west, terminating in the "Donat's 
Kopf." And surely it looks a well kept 
"Kopf." with its broad tilled fields reach- 
ing to the verv summit. This ridge also. 



LYNN TOWNSHIP 



159 



divides the townsliiji politically, the north- 
ern section with the villai;:;es of Tripoli, 
Mossersville, Lynnport, Jacksonville, 
Wanamakers. New Slatedale and 
Steinsville ■ the southern with Lynnville 
and Stines Corner, and known as the 
Lynnville district. 

The township is well drained — on the 
east by the Jordan creek trowing into 
the Lehigh river, and on the west by 
the Ontelaunee creek passing on into the 
Schuylkill river. These two streams take 
their origin each from a separate sand 
spring near the foot of the Blue moun- 
tains on a parallel line about one mile 
apart. 

The soil in the northern section is of 
slate formation, and the rest sandstone 
or gravel. Along the Ontelaunee and 
the valleys it is foimd to be particularly 
fertile, while with the skillful use of lime 
and other fertilizers most of the land has 
reached a high state of cultivation. 

Scenery. 

In 1844 the first slate quarry was 
opened and operated in the northern sec- 
tion, near Lynnport. Since then a profita- 
ble number of quarries have been in 
operation. From this time dates the be- 
ginning of real activity and money-mak- 
ing in the entire township. The Berks 
and Lehigh railroad, built in the early 
seventies, runs through the whole length 
of this section. Here also are located 
many very fine farms. There is an espe- 
cially beautiful stretch of land lying along 
the foot of the mountain between Lynn- 
port and Steinsville. The characteristic 
features of the Lynnville district, which 
is entirely a farming community, may be 
said to be its two beautiful valleys. The 
"Bachmaii's Dalil." (Valley) formerly 
called ''Miller's Dalil" extending east 
from Lynnville for three miles to the 
foot of the Schochary, and the "Kistler's 
Dahl/' due west for about six miles, each 
accompaniel by its winding stream of 
crystal waters zig-zagging through the 
green meadows, with roads seemingly as 
solid as a pike, though much softer to 
the tread of the horses' hoofs. The roads 
may be somewhat narrow at many places, 
but that onlv brings the breath of the 




DONATS KOPP. 

many wild flowers nearer to the passer- 
by. A stranger going the way for the 
first time remarked, "Surely this is the 
roadster's paradise." On either side you 
see the substantial large stone houses, 
built after the German style of archi- 
tecture, with large gardens usually hav- 
ing ornamental box paths running- 
through them, the whole surrounded by 
a white-washed paling fence. Close by 
are the immense Swiss barns generally 
painted red, with the straw stack in the 
center of the barn-yard — so high as to 
almost hide the ' strangely artistic stars 
painted on the front of the big barn. At 
the foot of the stack the herd of 
sleek cattle, for which Lynn township is 
noted among the cattlemen, restfully 
chew the cud. 

Drive on towards the setting sun, with 
the "Donaf's Kopf" to your right, the 
broad flat P'innacle, in front of you, and 
the "Spifca Berg" to your left without 
smoke stacks or deafening city noises, 
and no stranger's praises seem too good 
for your native soil. Or take the ride by 
way of the "Rhode Shtross" beyond 
Stines Corner. Woods are on both sides 
and berries galore, making better pies 
than berries grown anywhere else. Wait 
until April to drive out along the 
Schochary Road to Aaron Kistler's ! 
There the shy little arbutus becomes so 
friendly that it spreads itself over the soft 
moss in regular sheets and the trees on 
either side bend towards each other 
across the road, forming a continuous 



i6o 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




DANIEL KISTLER FA RM. 

green canopy under which you pass. The 
hill at the end of the woods is very steep ; 
better turn and go back the same way — 
unless your horse is a good climber and 
you are anxious for a refreshing drink. 
There is a long moss-covered watering 
trough at the foot of the hill, with fresh 
spring water gushing into it. If the glass 
or shining tin cup is not in sight, take 
the cocoanut shell. A draught of that 
water well pays all the effort made to 
get it. 

Inhabitants. 

Lynn township was confirmed in the 
courts of Lehigh county in 1735. It 
contains about 24,200 acres of land of 
which 17,157 acres are under cultivation, 
6,230 acres are unseated and 872 remain 
timber land. The assessed valuation of 
real estate is $1,081,596. The amount of 
money on interest, $180,859, with 875 
taxable inhabitants. 

The first settlers were mostly Swab- 
ians and Palatinates. The present gener- 
ation is all native born, and as pure and 
typical a Pennsylvania-German type as 
may be found. It is interesting to note 
how the "Dahls" (Valleys) have re- 
ceived their names from the fact of cer- 
tain families having resided there. For 
instance, the "Kistler's Dahl" has kept 
its name from 1735 to tne present time 
— every farm for a stretch of about three 
miles having been owned and occupied 
by a Kistler and being handed down from 
father to son from one generation to an- 
other. 

The inhabitants number between 2,400 



and 2,500, of which 554 are school chil- 
dren. Twenty schools are provided for 
these children, paying their teachers an 
average salary of $38.95 (1906). Lynn 
township claims the reputation of pre- 
senting fewer bills of indictment before 
the court and of applying for less poor 
county. Its people have always been 
honest, law-abiding and God-fearing. 
They multiplied, grew strong, and the 
Lord blessed them. They adhered to the 
Reformed and Lutheran faiths and 
worshiped in three union churches, 
located at Jacksonville, New Tripoli and 
Lynnville. served faithfully on the Re- 
formed side for 27 years by the late Rev. 
J. N. Bachman and on the Lutheran side 
for 37 years by the late Rev. H. S. 
Fegley. These two men also took a great 
interest in the educational welfare of the 
community. Much credit is due them 
for their active interest, advice and kind 
encouragement in all matters pertaining 
to the welfare of the community. In two 
of these churches the old custom of sep- 
arate sittings is still observed. As you 
enter you find the lower compartment or 
church proper divided into five sections. 
The young married women occupy the 
center pews, the elderly ladies the right, 
the young women and girls the left. The 
officers of the church are seated to the 
left of the pulpit and the old men to the 
right. On the three galleries you will 
see the young men and boys to the right, 
the married men to the left, and the choir 
in the rear facing the pulpit. At funerals 
the family always sit together, and all 
the men keep on their hats during the 
entire service. The sharp lines drawn by 
these customs are fast disappearing, and 
it will not be long before they will be a 
thing of the past. 

The old time custom of feasting at 
funerals still kept up in some sections of 
Lynn is being criticised. At the recent 
funeral of the oldest member of the Lynn- 
ville congregation, 225 persons took din- 
ner at the village hotel. This was largely 
due to the fact that the present genera- 
tion is all native-born, and through inter- 
marriage all are related. 

Industries. 
Of late years the raising of potatoes 



LYNN TOWNSHIP 



i6r 



forms the largest source of income — the 
soil being speciallx" a(lai)te(l to this crop ; 
ooo bushels. 

In the early years before the soil had 
reached the present state of high cultiva- 
tion, the principal source of income was 
from apple whiskey, better known as 
apple jack. Xearly every other farm 
"had its own distillery in which the apples 
raised on the farm were distilled into 
whiskey. This contained intoxicating 
properties to which many of the older 
people can well testify. 

Twice a year, in the spring and fall, 
the farmers took this product to the 
Philadelphia and Baltimore markets in 
their large white covered wagons drawn 
by two or four sturdy horses, with the 
teamster sitting on the sadel gliaiil 
(saddle horse), with the /^-h/> //;/t^ (jerk 
line) in his hand. 

Very often from ten to twenty teams 
would be in line. To go on such a trip 
required a ftill week and often marked an 
epoch in many a life. The writer well 
remembers as a boy going with his father 
on one of his semi-annual trips to Phila- 
delphia, with a load of country store pro- 
duce to exchange for general merchan- 
dise. Prominent stopping places for the 
night were Sunneytown and Flourtown. 
Here the farmers stopped each one hav- 
ing a "zivcrcJi sock" (saddlebag) well 
filled with victuals for the trip. At bed- 
time those not so fortunate as to procure 
a bed, brought in their feed sacks for a 
head rest and slept on the bar-room floor. 
Early in the morning they were all up 
and a jolly set they were. Do zvar ein 
;grossc HcrUchkcit. (Here there was 
high glee.) The first thing was a morn- 
ing bitters, an apple-jack, at a cost of 
three cents, with a common cigar thrown 
in. This was all the revenue the land- 
lord received from many of his guests. 

On the return trips the farmer would 
bring house-hold necessaries, including 
salt. To go on horseback to Baltimore 
for salt only was not unusual. Indeed, 
the older people used to tell of a farmer 
walking to Baltimore for a peck of salt. 
In spring many teams would go to Havre 
de Grace and bring back a load of shad to 
distribute amongst their neighbors. 

Previous to a trip of this kind, a good 




JONAS BACHMAN FARM. 

honest farmer once went to a neighbor- 
ing distillery for his four barrels of 
whiskey to take to market. He went 
awa}' early in the morning and was long 
in coming home. His good spouse 
Maricha became uneasy, thinking he 
might have had an accident. He finally 
came in at high noon. Maricha met him 
in the yard and said: "Well, Haniics, du 
zvarst aver long." (Well, John, you 
stayed long.) When he stepped from 
the wagon he staggered and fell. Maricha 
came to his aid and said, "Nil, Hannes, 
wasisdann? Bist diikrank"? "Achneh, 
Maricha, sei net bang, es is net schlini. 
Des is en diinners ding. Ich hab den 
ganza zveg do ruff iif deiii Spiuide kockt 
iin des Jiot mich schzvindlich gcniacht. 
'Maricha^, geschzvind Jieb die Gheil, es 
geht alles in grin gel nun." (What is 
wrong, John, are you sick? Oh, no, 
Maricha, do not be alarmed ; my condi- 
tion is not serious. This is a d thing. 

I sat all the way on the bung and became 
dizzy. Maricha, be quick and hold the 
horses, things are going around in a 
circle.) 

Early Schools. 

Prior to 1813, the children received 
their meager education in the "Kirche 
Shoola" or "Gamcinda Shoola" (church 
schools), with the German Psalter as the 
main text-book. The Testament was also 
used. Reading, writing and arithmetic 
was about all the curriculum comprised, 
and the boys were expected to apply 
themselves more diligentlv to their studies 



l62 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



than their sisters. Distance was also a 
great obstacle to the girl's education. 
Her chief accomplishment was to make' 
the spinning-wheel hum and have a chest 
full of tine household linens, marked with 
her initials. 

Sometimes an English newspaper 
would appear in the hands of a grown 
pupil, and be used for the reading lesson. 
That was quite a special branch, and 
not many would attempt to study it. To 
procure teachers for the schools in those 
days was a difficult matter. Sometimes 
the first German who came along and 
could read was induced to stay. He 
would have a real good time boarding 
around and enjoying the apple jack at 
every opportunity. 

In 1795 the Tripoli church had an 
able teacher in Mr. Jacob Salem. This 
school was also taught successfully for 
many years by the church organist, Mr. 
Friederich Schmidt. In 181 3 the first 
English school in the upper end of the 
county was opened at New Tripoli. It 
was organized and incorporated as the 
Saegersville English School Society, so 
called because Mr. Saeger had donated 
the land for church and school purposes. 
On the 27th of March, 1812, Mr. David 
Mosser and IMr. Daniel Saeger were ap- 
pointed a committee on resolutions. In 
April, 1813, David Mosser, George Sitt- 
ler, John Sittler, George Tryne and 
Henry Mantz were elected trustees. 
Stocks were issued and sold at ten dol- 
lars per share. In the constitution was 
the following clause : "Resolved, that as 
long as timber grows and water flows no 
German shall be taught in this house." 

.\ stone house wa? built and school 
opened on the first of December, 1813. 
The length of term was three months 
from the first of December to the first of 
March. 

The first teacher was an Englishman 
who had an iron-clad rule that all con- 
versation in and around the school 
grounds must be strictly English, and 
that all scholars must say "Good-night" 
when the school was dismissed for the 
day. The oldest, tallest and best English 
scholar one evening, on leaving, said at 
the door : "Good night, shool master, to- 
morrow I coulds not come. I must help 



drash, but the other week I come widder 
and bring two of my bruder's peoples 
mit." 

This school was well patronized, and 
scholars came from long distances. My 
father, Joshua Seiberling, and Peter 
Miller, both of Lynnville, attended the 
school for three successive winters, with- 
out missing a day, walking six miles 
daily. 

The school was kept up every winter 
until 1838, when the present public school 
system was adopted and schools were es- 
tablished. A teacher who taught in and 
around Tripoli used to give the following 
.story. All classes came out and formed 
in a line to recite their lessons. In the 
ABC class the pupils, each having a 
whalebone pointer in his hand, named 
one letter at a time in rotation. In a 
certain class the O came to the tallest boy, 
who had boots on, which was considered 
a great luxury at that time. He got 
stuck, and the teacher said, "next." The 
"next" pupil happened to be the smallest 
boy in the class. He sized up the large 
boy from head to foot and said : "So en 
grosser karl, schun stivvel azu iind kann 
der O noch net. Do deht ich niich azver 
scheinma." (Such a big fellow. Boots 
on, and don't know the O. I'd be 
ashamed of myself.) 

Recent Schools. 




LYNNVILLK SCHOOLHOUSE 

Early in the seventies the real intellec- 
tual era of Lynn commenced. Parents 
began to realize the importance and ne- 



LYNN TOWNSHIP 



163 



cessity of i:;iviiii^ their sons ami daughters 
a liberal education. They were convinced 
that an intelligent mind ; a faithful, sym- 
pathetic heart; a healthy body, and self- 
respect were the best "crbsclwff" (herit- 
age) they could give them. In the fall 
of 1875. teachers were scarce. At the 
suggestion of 'Sir. J. U. Knauss, at that 
time the efficient superintendent of the 
Lehigh County Public Schools, the writer 
went to the Keystone State Normal 
School at Kutztown to secure a teacher. 
On inquiring for a Mr. Wilder, a young 
man rather shabbily dressed limped into 
the principal's office. He was a native of 
Sumpter, South Carolina, where he had 
enlisted in a confederate regiment in 
1 86 1, at the age of 16 years. After the 
battle of Gettysburg he deserted, with a 
Union bullet in his right hip joint as a 
trophy. On the offer of additional salary 
and free board as an inducement, he 
agreed to teach the Lynnville school for 
the winter term of live months. His first 
term being a marked success, he opened, 
in the spring, a select school for a nine 
weeks' term, with fifty-two scholars en- 
rolled. The school was called the Young 
Lynnville Normal. The scholars were 
mostly young men who had taught dur- 
ing the winter, and others who wished to 
prepare for teaching. A debating so- 
ciety was organized which met every Fri- 
day evening. This was well attended and 
very popular. The boys made strenuous 
efforts at oratory. To "murder and kill" 
a historical character during the debate 
was only the beginning of the attack ; not 
to be prepared to act as judge for the 
debate, was an excuse given with all due 
seriousness. 

At the end of each term a grand en- 
tertainment was given. If the school- 
house was too small, the exercises were 
held in the church. On these occasions 
Superintendent Knauss and Reverends 
Bachman and Fegley always took an 
active part. Mr. Wilder taught this 
school for four years, in the meantime 
reading law. He passed a satisfactory 
examination, was admitted to the bar, and 
finally drifted to his native state. 

In 1878 the Miller's \^alley district se- 
cured the services of Mr. Alvin Rupp, 
the present superintendent of the Lehigh 




LYNNVILI.K HOTEL. 

County Public Schools. Mr. Rupp 
taught the regular school and select terms 
for a number of years with great success. 
The healthy stimulus for education ere-, 
ated at that time has been far-reaching 
in its results. 

There was a time when the parents did 
not hesitate to send the sons to school. 
But with the daughters it was different. 
The progressive mother of a large fam- 
ily, on being approached to send her 
daughters to school, said: "Ich zceJis 
zvas sel mchnt. JJ'anii die Mad in de 
Shoot geh solle iiii summer dann is die 
zvoll net gespunna un die strimp net ge- 
strickt bis der zciiiter bei kumpt." (I 
know what that means. If the girls go 
to school in sinnmer, the wool will not 
be spun and the stockings will not be knit 
when winter comes.) Since that time a 
granddaughter has received a Normal 
Diploma and is now preparing to enter a 
college. During this intellectual awaken- 
ing, many of the old customs and ideas 
changed. The family doctor found thie 
broom-stick laid across the door less fre- 
quently by the superstitious. Hexcri, 
spookeri, braucheri, Welsch korn metcha, 
ladicerg-porties, bhmisock spiele (witch- 
craft, spooks, powwowing, corn husking 
matches, applebutter parties and games) 
and the like were less and less frequently 
heard of. Instead, books appeared and 
musical instruments were introduced into 
many homes, thereby reviving the natural 
musical instinct native to the German. 
Sewing machines also appeared in the 
early seventies, and with the introduc- 



l64 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



tion of these accomplishments, the cuUi- 
vation of flax ceased. 

The first graded school of the township 
was opened atiNew Tripoli, in 1882; Lynn- 
port, Steinsville and Lynnville soon fol- 
lowing. Against building the New 
Tripoli schoolhouse there was, unfortu- 
nately, a strong opposition party. They 
prosecuted the school board; a law suit 
followed, which as a consequence created 
a good deal of ill-feeling for the time 
being. The court decided in favor of 
the school-board, and gave them authorit}- 
to build. 

The voung men who taught at L}-nn- 
ville after Mr. Wilder were A. C. Wuch- 
ter, Chas. C. Boyer, H. M. Fusselman, 
Wm. Werner, Wm. Mosser, Gill, Gable, 
C. E. and W. U. Kistler. About this 
time a general school enthusiasm sprang 
up through the whole township, and se- 
lect schools were conducted at Tripoli, 
Lynnport and Steinsville. Among the 
teachers at those schools were W. H. 
Ranch, J. F. Moyer, J. J. Reitz, C." B. 
Schneder, A. M. Meerschaum, J. G. 
Schucker, John Waidlich, Geo. M. Lutz, 
C. E. Creitz, Irvin Bachman, Preston 
Bahler and others. 

Many of the boys prepared in these 
schools to enter the Freshman and Sopho- 
more classes in the different colleges 
which they later attended. For the last 
thirty-seven years the public schools of 
Lynn were taught exclusively by their 
own people, one-third of the teachers 
being ladies. 

Professional Men. 

The result of this educational energy 
credits Lynn township with having raised 
more professional men within the last 
35 years than any other township in the 
county, and a great number of successful 
business men scattered all over the LTnited 
States. The following are the names of 
the boys from the different districts, and 
the places where they are now located : 
Tripoli District — 

Rev. O. P. Smith, Pottstown, Pa. 

Lawyer John Ulrich, Tamauqua, Pa. 

Dr. Nelson Kistler, Allentown, Pa. 

Rev. Albert Ebert, Tripoli, Pa. 

Rev. Wm. Mosser, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Dr. Geo. Krauss, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Wm. Reimert, Missionary in China. 

Lawyer Francis Gildner, Allentown, Pa. 



Teacher Augustus Oswald. Hokendauqua, 
Pa. 

Ralph I\liller, with the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. O. Fenstermaker, V. S., Michigan. 

Lynnport District — 

Dr. D. W. Fohveiler, Lynnport, Pa. 
Rev. C. E. Creitz, Reading. 
Rev. J. J. Reitz, Cherryville, Pa. 
Rev. Irvin Bachman, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 
Dr. Robt. E. Fohveiler, Allentown, Pa. 
Dr. Milton Hartman, Fleetwood, Pa. 
Dr. C. O. Henry, Allentown, Pa. 
Prof. L. H. Sheetz, Weissport, Pa. 

Steinsville District — 

Rev. John Waidelich, Sellersville, Pa. 

Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Gilberts, Pa. 

Dr. Phaon Hermany, Mahanoy City, Pa. 

Rev. Donat, 

Dr. Jas. Long, Royersford, Pa. 

Dr. Jacob Klingeman, Nebraska. 

Lawyer Howard Greenawald, Reading, Pa. 

Lawyer Geo. M. Lutz, Allentown, Pa. 

Rev. Geo. Lutz, Pennsburg, Pa. 

Dr. Jas. Fetherolf, Stockerton, Pa. 

Dr. Geo. Fetherolf, V. S., Reading, Pa. 

Dr. Chester Kistler, Reading, Pa. 

Dr. Wm. Fetherolf, Steinsville, Pa. 

Dr. O. K. Hoppes, Dentist, Tamauqua, Pa. 

Lynnville District — 

Dr. M. J. Holben, Slatington, Pa. 
Dr. A. P. Fetherolf, Allentown, Pa. 
Dr. P. O. Bleiler, Allentown, Pa. 
Dr. A. O. Bleiler, Frackyille, Pa. 
Dr. W. K. Kistler, Lehighton, Pa. 
Dr. W. P. Kistler, Allentown, Pa. 
Dr. John Kistler, Shenandoah, Pa. 
Dr. Douglas Kistler, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Dr. Jacob Kistler, Lehighton (deceased). 
Dr. Jas. Kistler, Kansas City, Mo. 
Dr. Edwin Eshelman, Parryville, Pa. 
Dr. J. A. Kressly, Tripoli, Pa. 
Dr. Geo. F. Seiberling, Allentown, Pa. 
Dr. Jesse Kistler, Germansville, Pa. 
Dr. Francis Brobst, Reading, Pa. 
Dr. Daniel Brobst, Reading, Pa. 
Dr. Emanuel Howeter, deceased. 
Prof. Geo. Miller, Stanford University, Cal. 
Lawyer Edwin Mosser, Chicago, 111. 
Rev. Jas. M. Bachman, Lynnport, Pa. 
Rev. Peter Bachman, Allentown, Pa. 
Rev. Adam Bachman, Sdiaefiferstown, Pa. 
Rev. O. P. Shelhammer, York, Pa. 
Rev. W. U. Kistler, Pennsburg, Pa. 
Rev. C. E. Kistler, Reading, Pa. 
Dr. Allen Kistler, Lehighton, Pa. 
Dr. Wm. Howeter, Stroudsburg, Pa. 
Dr. Wm. Howeter, V. S., Reading, Pa. 
Druggist John Krause, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lawyer Wilson Wert, Allentown, Pa. 
Dr. C. A. Bachman, dentist, Emaus, Pa. 
Rev. Geo. Greenawald, Sellersville, Pa. 
Dr. Owen Snyder, V. S., Lehighton, Pa. 
Dr. Elias Snyder, V. S., Orwigsburg, Pa. 
Dr. Edwin Wissner, Mantzville, Pa. 
Rev. Jonas Henry, Topton, Pa. 



LYNN TOWNSHIP 



165 



Home Life. 

To keep up this educational pace the 
township high school should appear. The 
physical features of the township seem to 
be the principal cause of delay in estab- 
lishing these. Daily mails were estab- 
lished, through the influence of the late 
W. H. Sowden, during his second term 
in Congress, in 1886. Rural Free De- 
livery Routes arc also established in the 
township. These increased mail facilities 
distribute about four hundred daily 
papers through the township every 
morning, many reaching the people be- 
fore breakfast. The people of Lynn are 
well posted on the domestic and general 
markets, and are in close touch with the 
current events of. the day. They discuss 
the doings and undoings of the last State 
Legislature; of the ''Capitol Graft;'' the 
amazing appropriations, and the Execu- 
tive, Legislative and Judicial salary in- 
creases. The farmers debate and ask the 
question : Where does our increase come 
in? Their only answer is on increased 
taxation on everything they own and on 
everything they buy. 

The Pennsylvania-Germans are noted 
for their thrift and frugality; their Ger- 
man dialect is called "vicious Dutch," 
and their distinctive modes and customs 
are considered odd, but let the stranger 
amongst them need aid or one of their 



own people become afflicted or distressed, 
and the true humane disposition of these 
people will be manifested by their deeds 
in a quiet, eiTectual way. 

There are in Lynn township all kinds 
of people, as everywhere else, but to hive 
entered for 40 years the majority of those 
homes, with their white-washed walls and 
spotless rag-carpet brightened by gay 
colored woolen stripes and fragrant with 
the sweetest of perfume that of cleanli- 
ness, to have mingled with so many of 
almost saint-like disposition, and to have 
accepted their hospitality, which knows 
no bounds, is ground for holding the 
people in the highest esteem. 




BOILING APPL'i] BUTTER. 



Elizabeth's Mad Ride 

BY MRS. ELLA ZERBEY ELLIOTT, POTTSVILLE, PA. 



"Old Schuylkill Tales.' 




HE Pennsylvania -Germans, 
whose ancestors were exiled 
from their homes in the 
beautiful valley of the Rhine 
and Neckar by furious 
religious and political perse- 
cution, did not find life in their adopted 
home one on a bed of roses. The Miller 
and the Stout families originatd in Alsace 
and Loraine. During the many fierce 
wars, in which these provinces were made 
a mere football by the contending forces 
of the Romans, Gauls and Germans, they 
migrated farther north to the Rhine 



Palatinate, which was then one of two 
divisions of an independent State of 
Germany. x\gain they migrated from the 
region of the Schwalm River to Switzer- 
land from where they embarked for the 
United States of America in 1754. 

The story of the Rhine Pfalz is one of 
great interest. There is no region or 
country on the globe that has witnessed 
so many bloody conflicts as the Palatinate 
on the Rhine. The Romans struggled 
for more than five centuries to subdue the 
Germans only to leave them unconquered 
and when the Romans withdrew, the rich 



i66 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



vallev was coveted by European nations. 
The 'crimes committed in the Palatinate 
fanaticism and political persecution are 
unparalleled in the history of human 
savagery. And this region continued to 
be the theatre of conflict after the great 
exodus of the German Palatines, which 
took place in the last half of the eighteenth 
century. 

The German emigrants to New lork 
who had sufl:ered untold miseries with 
internal difficulties in the Schoharie 
Vallev, with regard to the settlement of 
their 'lands and the titles to them, had 
again taken wing; and many of them 
turned under the leadership of John 
Conrad Weiser and his son, Conrad, to 
Pennsylvania. It was about 1754-1/56 
when the large influx of the Pfalzisch 
Germans came to Pennsylvania and set- 
tled in Berks County, which has since 
been subdivided into Berks, Dauphin, 
Lebanon, Schuylkill and parts of other 
counties. 

The Millers and the Stouts came over 
with the great exodus. The lands in the 
vicinitv of the sites of Womelsdorf, Read- 
ing, Bernville. Tulpehocken and along the 
fertile Schuylkill Valley were soon taken 
up bv the settlers. The families settled 
first 'near Tulpehocken, where both An- 
drew Miller and EHzabeth Stout were 
born, the former in 1756. The Stouts 
were represented in the five full com- 
panies that enlisted from the German 
settlers for immediate service after the 
adoption of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, in 1776, and the Millers, too, had 
sons that took the field and rendered 
conspicuous aid during the early part of 
the war, at the close of which the two 
families with several others removed to 
Bear Creek, east of what is now Auburn, 
between the Blue Mountain and the Sum- 
mer Berg. 

John Lesher. brother-in-law of John 
Wilhelm Pott, operated a forge and small 
furnace on Pine Creek and there was 
another near the site of Auburn ; and here 
the men of the Miller and Stout families 
worked when not employed on their farms. 
The women occupied themselves with 
the milking of the cows, churning and 
making butter and raising the hemp from 
which was spun the flax that afterward 



made the coarse, soft linen that formed 
the bed sheets, towels and linen underwear 
of the families, some of which is still 
cherished among their descendants as the 
most precious of heirlooms. They also 
manufactured on rude looms the coarse 
homespun cloths, dyed them with home- 
made colors and fashioned them into the 
clothes their families wore. Those were 
busy times, but not unhappy ones. 

No more beautiful country exists any- 
where than that included in the tract from 
Bear Ridge and the Summer Berg to the 
Old Red Church below Orwigsburg. All 
aroiuid were primeval forests. The 
silvery Schuylkill uncontaminated b}' 
coal washings glistened in the distance. 
The roads through the forests were mere 
bridal paths and the first slow, gradual 
taming of the wilderness, the rolling hills 
to the edges of the Blue Mountain, the 
advance from the low log cabins, the 
scattered, scratch-farms to the first dwell- 
ings and farms of greater pretentions as 
the rich country grew in wealth and ambi- 
tion, made a picture that excites the live- 
liest imagination. 

It was past the noon mark on the sun- 
dial at the little low farm house on Bear 
Ridge, when Elizabeth Stout completed 
the chores for the morning. The milk in 
the spring-house was all skimmed, the 
low floor and huge hearth swept up with 
the birch broom, the linen bleaching on 
the meadow had been turned and wet 
anew, the blue delf china after the noon- 
ing was washed and spread on the great 
mahogany dresser. Elizabeth's deft 
fingers soon bound up her abundant 
brown hair with the snood that confined 
it ; she slipped into her short bright brown 
cloth skirt, red pointed bodice with sur- 
plice of bright green, a concoction of 
colors she had made with home-made 
d\'es and fashioned and copied the dress 
from the picture of a grand dame she 
had once seen. 

Her sleeves just reached the elbow, 
disclosing a pair of plump and shapely 
arms that would have been the envy of 
anv city belle. Her stockings were bright 
red, knitted by her own nimble fingers. 
Her feet were encased in a pair of heavy 
shoes, for she must save the pretty low 
slippers adorned with the huge buckles 



ELIZABETH'S MAD RIDE 



167 



that had remained among the few reHcs 
of the struggle under General Washing- 
Ion at X'alley Forge, and which were 
^iven her by her fatiier. She had worn 
.the buckles at various times on her bodice, 
.at her waist, and now on her slippers, 
which were safely encased in the saddle 
"bags, together with a new cream cheese 
and some brodwurst tied firmly in snowy 
cloths and destined for a gift to the 
mother of the friend Elizabeth was about 
io visit. 

She knotted a gay-colored "kerchief 
.about her bare neck and tied with its 
.single plain black ribbon over her hair the 
white turned back half hood and half sun- 
"bonnet or Normandy cap she wore; and 
adding the snowy white linen spencer for 
evening wear on her bosom and a few 
trinkets and necessaries to the little stock 
of clothing in the saddle bags, her prepar- 
ations were complete. The black mare 
whinnied when she saw her approach with 
riding paraphernalia in hand, and per- 
mitted herself to be caught without any 
.remonstrance. 

What a picture Elizabeth was ! One 
that Joshua Reynolds would not have dis- 
dained to copy. Just eighteen and above 
medium height, well-developed and yet 
with not an ounce of superfluous flesh on 
her lithe form, well-rounded limbs and 
well-knit body. Large soft brown eyes, 
rosy cheeks,. pearly teeth, smooth skin that 
the bright green and red in her raiment 
lighted brilliantly and harmonized with. 

She was soon in the saddle and can- 
tered off, waving her hand to her mother 
who sat at her spindle in a little building 
near the farm house, where the maid of 
all work was busily engaged in paring and 
stringing apples for drying, and a little 
farther on her father, with such scanty 
help as he could gather, was with the 
yokels engaged in shocking the late corn. 

A few miles of swift riding along the 
ledge brought her to the river, which was 
soon forded. There were no wandering 
nomads to disturb the peacefifl soliloquy 
of the traveler. The Indians were quieted 
down, at least for a time, and Fort Leba- 
non, the old log fortress of defense 
against the red-skinned marauders, looked 
<leserted as she cantered by. 

Xature was lavish to that vallev. The 



huge mountains were dim with the fall 
haze, and looked blue and golden and red- 
tinted in the bright rays of the sun. The 
early sumacs had turned blood red and 
the golden maples painted the landscape 
with their dying beauty and brilliant 
splendor. The horse sped easily along 
the path, and Elizabeth, aroused by the 
beauty of the scene, broke into the well- 
known Lutheran hymn, "Ein feste Burg 
ist Unser Gott," and sang the words to 
the close, the mountains re-echoing the 
song of praise of the German nut-brown 
maid. Then she dismounted and bathed 
her face in a running mountain stream. 
Shaping a cup from a huge wild grape 
leaf, she drank and gave the mare a loose 
rein that she, too, might slake her thirst. 
Drawing a small porcelain picture, that 
hung suspended about her neck by a nar- 
row black velvet ribbon, from her bosom, 
she adjusted her white Normandy cap, 
and taking a sly peep at herself in the 
limpid water, she kissed the picture and 
mounted the mare, who neighed with de- 
light at the prospect of once more start- 
ing toward the bag of oats she knew 
awaited her. The picture was that of 
Andrew Miller, and they were betrothed. 

The sun was already hanging low in 
the horizon when they entered the heart 
of the forest through which their path 
lay. The great oaks cast gigantic shad- 
ows over the entrance, but the fragrant 
pines were well-blazed and the pathway 
plain, and Elizabeth was a brave girl and 
there was nothing to fear ; but she well 
knew that they must make haste if they 
would make the clearing near the mill be- 
low the Red Church before dark, where 
her friend Polly Orwig lived, and where 
the corn husking would take place that 
evening. And where she expected to see 
her affianced, Andrew Miller, who had 
assisted at the raising of the new barn as 
was the custom in those days, and the 
husking was given in honor of the new 
building. 

Elizabeth kept the mare at as brisk a 
pace as she could through the tangled 
luiderbrush and morass. She thought of 
Andrew, how sturdy he was : surely of 
all the suitors for her hand she had the 
finest, the best looking man and the best 
informed'. Thev had been lovers from 



i68 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



their childhood, companions always, but 
this brotherly affection had deepened into 
something more intense, something that 
fairly frightened her when she recalled 
how he had looked when he told her of 
all the girls around and about the country 
she was the handsomest. Bot her mother 
had told her, "it was a sin to think of 
one's looks," and had prompdy removed 
the high stool from in front of the 
dresser, in the top of which was a huge 
looking glass, when Elizabeth attempted 
to see for herself if there was any truth 
m the assertion. 

The shadows grew^ longer, the squirrels 
and rabbits scampered hurriedly across 
the path, the late birds had sought tlicir 
nests, and the occasional screech of the 
panthers and other wild animals added 
not a little to her apprehensions about 
the lateness of the hour, and the little 
mare seemed, too, to be disquieted r..nd 
nervous. The superstitions of the coun- 
try arose in her mind and she knew that 
they were nearing a little clea'ing in the 
forest where lived a German refugee who 
was accused of witchcraft and who was 
said to have the power of turning himself 
into a white cat and at times the wood 
was filled with a gathering of the felines, 
who would fill the air with tiieir snarling 
and screeching. 

Hark! there was the sor.nd slie had 
often heard described but bad forgotten 
about. A frightful yell. Surely the man 
would not hurt her. Had not her father 
carried him food in the ox sled in the dead 
of winter that he might not starve and 
had he not always been kind to her when 
he came to borrow the few necessary 
things for his existence, which he never 
returned. 

There it was again. Yes ! and on that 
tree a white object with fiery green eyes. 
It was the witch ! She dared not look 
again ! There was a scream, a dull thud ; 
she looked over her shoulder and saw a 
white cat perched on the haunches of the 
mare. Trembling with fear that each 
moment would be her last, Elizabeth gave 
the mare the rein and leaning forward 
clasped her arms about her neck, knov.ing 
full well that the little beast would do her 
best — she needed no urging; and then 



she closed her eyes and prayed and prayed 
and waited. 

On and on they sped. The soft green 
moss yielded to the hoofs of the mare and 
made the riding heavy. But Black Bess 
went as she never did before, as if know- 
ing her pretty mistress' life was the stake 
for which she was fleeing. From her 
nostrils came huge flecks of foam, her fet- 
locks and sides, were wet wdth sweat, and 
from her haunches dripped drops of livid 
red blood from the clawing of the white 
cat on her' back. 

Elizabeth could feel the hot breath of 
the creature, but beyond an occasional un- 
earthly yell and fresh clawing of the mare 
it made no effort to harm her. What a 
mad ride it was ! Tam O'Shanter's was 
a mild one in comparison to it. Would 
the clearing never be reached ? It seemed 
ages to the trembling girl, and again she 
closed her eyes and prayed and feebly 
stroked the mare's ears. At length she 
heard a soft snort in response. The clear- 
ing was in sight, like a silvery rift in 
the clouds, a light in the gathering dark- 
ness. The Old Red Church would soon 
be arrived at, and the witches hated 

churches and perhaps . 

Just then a dark figure loomed up as 
they emerged from the wood. It was 
her betrothed, Andrew Miller, who came 
out to meet her. He caught the bridle of 
the exhausted and panting mare, the 
white cat gave a parting screech and 
disappeared in the wood, and Elizabeth 
fell fainting into his arms. When she re- 
covered he hinted at wild cats, but the 
trembling Elizabeth would hear nothing 
of them. "Who ever heard of a wild cat 
acting that way?" said she. But being a 
sensible girl she consented to keep her 
adventure a secret until the morrow, for 
well she knew that the story of a witch 
so near would mar all the pleasure of the 
merry party. 

The husking was a great event in a 
country bereft almost of entertainment for 
the younger people, and it was the first 
one of its kind held in that part of the 
State. The trick of finding a red ear and 
then exacting a kiss from your partner 
was new to her, and from the frequency 
with which Andrew exacted the forfeit 
she suspected him of having secreted some 



ELIZABETH'S MAD RTDE 



i6g 



of the tell-tale Indian cereal on his person, 
but he gave no sign. And the supper, 
how good it was, and how hungry they 
all were and how they enjoyed it! 

Elizabeth left for home in the bright 
sunlight on the morrow, accompanied by 
Andrew, who walked all the way by her 
side. But not without Elizabeth's having 
first confided to Polly the story of her ad- 
venture with the white cat. Polly, too, 
decided it was a witch, but thought the 
witch meant her no harm, but good luck, 
as the wedding was to take place at 
Christmas. And a witch the white cat has 
remained through successive generations 
as each in turn hands the narrative to the 
next. 

XoTK. — Andrew Miller and Elizabeth 
Stout were married December 25th, 1786. 



They raised a large family of boys and 
girls, among whom was a daughter, Han- 
nah, who was married to Andrew 
Schwalm in 18 19, at Orwigsburg, and 
from whom are descended a large line 
of that name and other leading families 
residing in Old Schuylkill, Pottsville and 
elsewhere throughout the country. The 
John and Joseph Schwalm, Wm. E. 
Boyer, Frederick Haeseler and Wm. M. 
Zerby families, are descendants of An- 
drew Schwalm and Hannah Miller. 
Elizabeth Stout was the great-great- 
grandmother of the children of the pres- 
ent generation of the above mentioned. In 
the list of taxables, returned, Reading, 
Berks county, about 1780, occurs the 
name of Andrew Schwalm, Tulpehocken. 



German Surnames 



BY LEONHARD FELIX FULD, M.A., LL.M., COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK CITY. 




Chapter VI. 
WING considered the first 
great class of family names, 
— those which express the 
trade or office of their pos- 
sessor, — we shall now turn 
our attention to the second 
great class of family names, — those" ex- 
pressing personal characteristics. We 
know that this method of designating men 
and women is an old and ancient custom, 
not only from our consideration of the 
ancient Latin names (z'ide supra) but also 
from such characters in German history 
as Karl dcr Dickc, Karl dcr Kahle, Otto 
dcr Rofhc, and the four Henrys — Hein- 
rich der Hciligc, Hcinrich der Stolze, 
Hcinrich dcr ScJnvarae and Hcinrich dcr 
Ziinkcr. We know furthermore that 
these names were not always compliment- 
ary, for Kaiser IVensel was called Der 
Faille, Landgraf Lttdwig von Thilringcn, 
Der Unartige, and Eberhard von Wur- 
tcniburg, Der Greiner (Handelsucher). 
^loreover. similar names were applied to 
the inhabitants of dififerent localities. In 
Alsace the people of Illzach were called 
Mondfdnger. those dwelling along the 
banks of the Rhine RJicinscJinakcn, and 
those of Silesia E'Selsfrcsser. As we can 



see from the examples given above, there 
are two principal ways in which these 
family names expressing personal char- 
acteristics arise. The most natural method 
of expressing a personal characteristic is 
by adding an adjective and an article to 
the Christian name, as Otto der Rothe. 
These phrases then gradually became 
fixed, and the fact that sons often inherit 
personal characteristics from their fathers 
helped in this process. Gradually the 
article was discarded and the adjective 
either in an inflected or an uninflected 
form remained as the family name. It 
was thus that we got the two forms of 
the adjective as family names, — Weisse 
and Weiss, Grothe (Grosse) and Groth 
{Gross), Krause and Kraiis, Lange and 
Lang. Yet the number of names belong- 
ing to this class is smaller than might ap- 
pear upon first examination. For many 
names that seem to belong to this group 
are Old High German names and so 
really belong to another class. Examples 
of such names are Guth (Old High Ger- 
man Good) and Jung (Old High German 
Jungo). Similarly, the name Voll does 
not mean "one who is full," but is de- 
rived from the Old High German Fulko. 
Whether the name Rohde owes its orisrin 



170 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



to the fact that its possessor had red hair 
or whether it is derived from the Old 
High German Hrodo, is a matter which 
is still disputed among philologists. Of 
names derived from compound adjectives 
we may mention the flattering names 
Gottegetred, Unverzagt and W oho gen 
(Wohler::ogen), and the censuring names 
Tollkiilin, Umschcidcn (Unbescheiden) 
and Uiigcfug. 

The second way in which these family 
names denoting personal characteristics 
were formed was by calling the person by 
the name of his principal characteristic. 
These names are therefore substantives. 
We may mention the following names as 
belonging to this class, — Fras (Frcsser), 
Schad (Rdnbcr), Slcvcre {Schldfer), 
Mancsse ( Mensch cnfrcsscr ) , Boncce 
{Bohnenfresser), FlciscJifrcsscr, Holt- 
freter {Hohfresser) and Spcckdter 
(Speckcsser). To this group belong also 
the compounds of Mann, Biedennann and 
Grossman, the abstract names Frischninfh 
and Sanftleben and the prepositional com- 
pounds Ohncsorge (Ansorgc) and 
Woltcuiate {JVoJd ::u Mass). Closely 
analogous to the above names are the 
names of animals, given to men because 
their friends thought that they possessed 
the predominant characterisitcs of those 
animals. We may mention the names 
Heinrich der Lozve and Albrecht dcr Bar. 
The article was gradually discarded in 
these names as in the case of the names 
mentioned above. 

Of the names denoting personal char- 
acteristics of which we have thus far 
made mention, some express corporeal 
characteristics and others incorporeal 
characteristics. It is but natural that 

BY BRISCOE GOODHART, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

many of those expressing corporeal char- 
acteristics should be derived from the 
common nouns denoting the various parts 
of the human body. Yet it must be ap- 
parent to the reader that a simple common 
noun such as mnnd or haar cannot readily 
be used as a personal name, because it 
does not serve to distinguish one person 
from another. Hence we must find an- 
other derivation for these two German 
names. The surname Mnnd does not 
mean "month," but "protection," since it 
is derived from the Old Higli German 



Munto (cf. Vornmnd), and the name 
Haar is derived from the Old High Ger- 
man Haro, meaning Hccr. On the other 
hand, compound words, one element of 
which is the name of a part of the body, 
do serve very w^ell to distinguish men 
from each other, and we therefore find a 
very large number of these surnames. The 
following are a few of those worthy of 
mention in this connection : 

Compounds of Haupt (head), Breit- 
haupt, RanchJiant (Rauh), Wollenhaupt. 

Compounds of Kopf (head), Gross- 
kopf, Rothkopf, JVittkopf. 

Compounds of Haar (hair), Flachs- 
haar, Gcelhaar (Gelb). 

Compounds of Bart (beard), Rothbart, 
Spitzbart, Weissbart. 

Compounds of Bein (leg), Einbein, 
Krnnimbcin, Langbein. 

Compounds of Fnss (foot), Lcichtfnss, 
Schnialfuss, Stollcrfoth. 

We know how natural it is to give men 
these names, because we still employ such 
nicknames as Flachskopf, Rothkopf, 
Grossniaul (of a woman) and Stele fnss 
(of an invalid). 

This group of names shows a striking 
parallelism between the German names 
and the Latin names : 

Longius — Lange. 

Crisp us — Kranse. 

Pauilns — Klein. 

Plautns— Plat:; fnss ( Piatt) . 

Niger — Schzvarc. 

Capita — Grosskopf. 

Yet the German names never reached 
such a low plane as the Latin names, part- 
ly because the German language contains 
so many "Satznamen." The tendency to 
form long compound words from which 
these Satznamen are derived is peculiarly 
German. The following are some very 
early Satznamen Habedanc (Danksag- 
luig — Thanksgiving), Rumelaut (Out- 
law), Vergissnieinnit. Denekaninicli, 
Fiilldenmag (a glutton). Hebdeninann. 
'Jagdcntenffel, Reckdendegen, Strdchden- 
bart, Ble'hebauch, Rnerdendreek, Beiss- 
hart, Lnginsloch, SpahrkriUnlein, Merk- 
enauzve (Merk genau) and Pluckebudle 
(Robber). These names, which belong to 
the Middle High German period, have 
been taken from the works of Klara Hatz- 
erlin, Sebastian IJrant and Feschart. The 



GERMAN SURNAMES 



number of these Satznamen was greatly 
increased in the New High German 
period, and indeed it is being increased 
among the lower classes of the people at 
the present day. Among the New High 
German Satznamen are the following : 
Mabeivichts, Storenfricd, IVagchals, 
Tluniichfgitt, Lcbczi'olil. StcUdichcin, Vcr- 
^issuicinnicJit, Gcdcnkcmcin, Trostein- 
jamkeit, TnitziiachtigaU, IVciidunmntJi. 
Most of these Satznamen are family 
jiames only, yet the four which follow are 
personal names, — Lehcrecht, Trangott, 
Fi'irclitegott and Krcuzivendedich. The 
last of these names was generally given 
.to a child when several of his brothers and 
sisters had died. 

Considering next the Satznamen which 
are family names we find that they origi- 
nated generally among soldiers, robbers 
and other convivial persons, and we must 
therefore not be surprised to find many 
names in this class which seem coarse to 
us today. These Satznamen may be di- 
vided into three classes: (a) Those com- 
pounded of two words (verb and adjec- 
tive, or verb and preposition), such as 
Bleihtreu and Trinkaus. (b) Those com- 
pounded of three words (verb, article and 
object substantive), such as Hassdciipfliig, 



Jagdcntcufel and IVagcnhals. (^c) Those 
compounded of four words, as Haltauf- 
dcrhcide {Highwayman) , Springs f eld and 
Blcibimhaus. Some of these Satznamen 
express good qualities, but most of them, 
as may be seen from the above examples, 
express weaknesses and vices. Among 
those that denote bravery or an excess 
of bravery are Hancnschild, Klubcschedcl, 
Schiitlcspcr (English, Shakespeare), 
Ziickseisen, and the many compounds 
with Teufel, — Fressenteiifcl, lagctcufel, 
Schlagenteiifel, and the Low German 
Bitdcndihvcl (Beisse den Teufel). The 
three names Raufsciscn, Haberccht and 
Hcbcnstrcit also belong to this group. Of 
the vices expressed by these Satznamen 
the one most often mentioned and referred 
to is that of drunkenness. Kehrein, Such- 
enii'irth, Findekeller, Schmeckebicr and 
Schluckbier are all very expressive in 
their meaning. The name Hasscnknig 
stands peculiarly isolated in this group. 
This class of names, expressing personal 
characteristics, is beyond doubt the most 
interesting of all. In them we see the joy- 
ful and brotherly spirit of the German 
people, and this always arouses our sym- 
pathy and our interest. 



Pennsylvania German Folklore 

BY LUCY FORNEY BITTENGER, SEWICKLEY, PA. 




ECENTLY I have been in- 
vited to give lectures on the 
history and characteristics of 
the Pennsylvania-Germans 
befort two organizations of 
women : Tlic Tzvcntictli 
Century Club of Pittsburg and The 
Woman's Club of Sewickley, which invi- 
tation has given me the opportunity of 
saying many things about the German 
settlers of Pennsylvania unknown to most 
of my hearers, l3Ut which would not be 
new to the readers of this magazine. 

In speaking of Pennsylvania-German 
characteristics, I laid stress on their kind- 
liness whic hso often leads to acts of 
helpfulness toward a sick or suffering 
neighbor ; upon tlieir honesty, which 
makes the word of many a Dunker or 
Mennonite as good as his bond and leads 



bankers to inquire of the church connec- 
tion of such a one, knowing that if he is 
unable to meet his obligations, the breth- 
ren will do it for him; and their polite- 
ness-— not formal courtesy indeed, but the 
civility which springs from real warmth 
of heart, such as is evinced by the pleasant 
fashion of saying "Good morning" on 
entering a store before beginning to trans- 
act business, or greeting the people on 
passing upon the road. 

Regarding their folk-lore, the church 
year, tho' not observed by all German 
sects, yet affords a thread upon which to 
hang the following observations, made 
chiefly in York and Adams counties, 
Pennsylvania. I should be glad to have 
them corrected, confirmed or supple- 
mented by observers in other parts of the 
countrv. 



w 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



In the Advent season, ghosts are be- 
lieved to be especially abundant, contrary 
to the description in Hamlet : 

"Some say, tliat over "gainst that season comes 
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, 
The bird of dawning singeth all night long; 
And then, they say, no spirit dare stir abroad :_ 
... So hallowed and so gracious is the time." 

A child born on Christmas Day can 
see ghosts — a belief which "George 
Schock" has made use of in one of her 
delightful tales, "The Christmas Child." 

One day's observation of this festival 
does not satisfy the Pennsylvania-German 
heart; there must be "Second Christmas" 
also. It used to be the custom for small 
boys to go about as Belsiiicklcs during 
the week preceding the festival — ^masked 
and begging for cakes and nuts, but this 
seems to have died out, and the children 
wdio used to come on Christmas Day and 
Second Christmas for a gift of cakes and 
oranges, have also diminished in num- 
bers. The gracious custom of offering 
cakes and wine to all callers at the holi- 
dav time is less observed, I think. 

St. Matthias' Day (Feb. 24) has a 
weather proverb attached to it which has 
been quoted in your pages ; as I have 
heard it, it runs: 

"Matheis bricht Eis ; findt er keins, so macht 
er eins." 

(When he finds ice, he breaks it; when he 
finds none, he makes it.) 

For Candlemas the hymn is : 

"Lichtmess, spinn vergess." 

On Fastnacht (Shrove Tuesday) the 
proper thing is to eat doughnuts, v^hich 
obtain thence their "Dutch'' name of Past- 
nacht Kuche or more commonly just 
fastnachts. 

Good Friday is believed to be always 
rainy. "Today the Lord died, so for 
common it rains," said old Mommy S — 
to me, and this simple way of speaking 
is very usual. I have heard thaf when 
the news of President Lincoln's death v.'as 
received in a York county village on the 
Saturday preceding Easter (Stille Sams- 
tag), a man who was laying pavement, 
when told that all business was to be 
suspended, said: "Yesterday the Lord 



Jesus Christ died, and nobody stopped 
work : today the president is dead, ana we 
shall all quit work. I ain't a-going to 
do it." And he laid pavement all day 
as a protest against this superior honor to 
the memory of a mere earthly ruler. \^ery 
few of the older Pennsylvania-Germans 
will eat meat that day ; tliis is just as true 
of Protestants as Catholics. 

The Easter observance of giving col- 
ored eggs, and the childish fable of the 
Easter rabbit who lays the brightly-dyed 
eggs have passed into English communi- 
ties. The egg-picking, when the boys try 
the relative hardness of their eggshells 
(and to the victor belongs the spoil) is 
confined to German parts of the country. 
Easter Monday used to be a great holi- 
day which the country people mainly ob- 
served, as once described to me, by 
"sweethearts walking the streets hand-in- 
hand and eating ginger-cakes" ; it is now 
less honored, for country people take 
more holidays than formerly, even among 
the hardworking Pennsylvania-"Dutch." 

The belief that Ascension Day will be 
particularly fair seems to rest upon the 
conviction that Christ kissed the clouds 
which received him, and is the converse 
of the Good Friday superstition ; these 
ideas are very often correct — that is, as 
to the weather upon these days and on 
"Alattheis." 

Another superstition is that any one 
who sews on Ascension Day will have 
her sacrilegious industry punished by 
being struck by lightning within the year. 
I wonder if this is not a relic of the old 
Teutonic mythology in which Thursday 
(the day of the week upon which the 
feast of the Ascension must fall)' is dedi- 
cated to Thor, the god of thunder and 
lightning, wdio might thus appropriately 
punish the non-observance of his day. 

The practice of "branching," or "pow- 
wowing," has not received much investi- 
gation at the hands of scientific folk- 
lorists ; I believe it well merits it. From 
the little which I can collect about it, the 
practice belongs to the category of the 
so-called white magic — the benevolent 
kind. It is often used by very pious 
people who regard it strictly as a Divine 
gift — like the charism of healing in the 
early Church. The formulas are texts 



PEXXSYLVAXIA GERMAN FOLKLORE 



173 



of Scripture, such as Jas. 5:14,15, and 
the Gloria Patri ; no money should be 
taken for practicing" the art, tho' a pres- 
ent may be given after relief by the grate- 
ful patient. It can only be taught "cross- 
ways," as I have heard it expressed — 
that is, by a man teaching a woman, or a 
woman a man ; neither can instruct one 
of the same sex. " Branching, " or in 
English "conjuring," for a sickness is also 
practiced among persons of German de- 
scent in North Carolina ; it is not peculiar 
to the Pennsylvania-Germans. And it 
is always made a mystery of, and not 
spoken about willingly. Most of its prac- 
titioners are specialists, only "using" for 
some one trouble : thus one person can 
cure "Wildfeuer" (erysipelas) j another, 
diseases of the eyes, and so on. 

The influence of the moon's phases and 
the zodiacal si^ns is still regarded : thus. 



shingles will curl and fences tumble down 
if not made "in the dark of the moon" — 
or the light — I forget which. Students 
of the Wissahickon Hermit community 
will remember how these learned men 
cast horoscopes for the new-born children 
of their Germantown neighbors. And 
there used to be in the possession of a 
relative an old "hunnert-johrige kalenner," 
which set forth the characteristics and 
fate of children born throughout the 19th 
century under the various signs of the 
zodiac. It also told of the favorable and 
unfavorable aspect of the planets as to 
kingdoms and rulers, but as it continued 
to prophesy regarding the Holy Roman 
Empire, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
and other defunct realms during the en- 
tire century, one's confidence in its occult 
knowledge was somewhat shaken. 



Hanjoerg Kistler and His Descendants 



BV REV. JOHX KISTLER. CARLISLE, PA. 



^^■■^X the excellent history of the 
^1 I Kistler family, by Rev. 

^1 X Charles E. Kistler. of Read- 
^Jmi^^ ing. Pa., which appeared in 
the j\Iay, 1906, issue of The 
Pexxsvlvania-G e r m a X, 
the author states that Abraham Kistler, 
born December 20th, 1761, was the son 
of John Kistler, one of the oldest sons of 
John George Kistler, who was the pro- 
genitor of the Kistler family in the United 
States. 

The above named Al^raham Kistler 
moved to Cumberland (now Perry) 
county, Pennsylvania, before 1793. In 
1814 we find that he owned four hundred 
acres of land near Elliottsburg, Perry 
county. His wife's name was Mary Loy, 
daughter of ]\Iichael Loy. Their children 
were Jacob. Abraham. John, William, 
Samuel and Susan, born in the order as 
given. 

I. Jacob Kistler. who was born ]\Iarch 
II, 1 79 1, married Catherine Brickley, 
born in 1795. They removed to Seneca 
county. New York, in the year 1820. 
Here they became possessors of a very 
beautiful farm near Seneca Lake. Here 



the wife died December 30. 18 14, and the 
husband Jacob died September 11, 1867. 
To them were born seven children — Anna 
Maria and Susanna, both of whom were 
unmarried, and died at the ages of 31 and 
^^ respectively of typhoid fever. Mar- 
garet became the wife of Jonathan J. 
Alleman, a farmer ; and Sarah married 
Melancdion B. Chamberlain, a farmer. 
Elizabeth became the wife of Jeremiah 
Odell, a Methodist minister. Caroline 
was married to Charles D. Chamberlain, 
a farmer. Catherine became the wife of 
Ambrose M. Lester, cashier of the First 
National Bank of Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

II. Abraham Kistler was married to 
Christiana Stambaugh, a sister of Daniel 
Stambaugh who was the first sheriff of 
Perry county. Their children were 
Mary, married to Reuben Jacoby ; Wil- 
liam, married to Elizabeth Smith ; Eliza- 
beth, married to John Kell ; Susanna, mar- 
ried to Robert VVillis ; Catherine, married 
to James G. Messimer ; Jacob, married to 
Lydia Kell ; John, married to Anna 
Wertz ; Abraham, married to Adeline 
Wetzel ; and Emma, married to Henry 
Snvder. 



174 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



III. John Kistler was born January 14, 
1800. He was married to Salome Tress- 
ler (originally spelled Dressier), who was 
a sister of Colonel John Tressler. Salome 
Tressler was born Alay 2^^, 1798, and lived 
to the ripe age of 84. John Kistler died 
at the age of 86. Both are buried at Loys- 
ville, Pennsylvania, in the Lutheran 
church-yard. They were blessed with ten 
children as follows: Mary who married 
W. W. Snyder, a miller and farmer, to 
whom were born seven children — Cather- 
ine, who was married to John Minnick. 
To them w^ere born ten children — Eliza- 
beth, married to Daniel Garland, who was 
a school teacher and farmer and who 
served three years in the Seventh Penna. 
cavalry during the Civil War : To them 
were born five children — John Kistler 
Garland, who is a druggist in Harrisburg, 
Pa. Samuel Luther a school teacher and 
a prosperous farmer until his accidental 
death on his farm in Kansas, in 1902. 
Sarah Ida, wife of John Wertz, who died 
in 1889, at her home in Alanitou Springs, 
Colorado. Rev. Daniel Frank Garland, D. 
D. graduate of Pennsylvania College and 
Seminary, and pastor of the First Luther- 
an Church, Dayton, Ohio, and Anna 
Salome, who died at the age of six years. 

David Kistler, the fourth child of John 
and Salome, was married to Susanna Rice. 
They had seven children, Loyd, George 
and William, all prosperous farmers near 
Waterville, Kansas; Rev. John Luther, 
graduate of Pennsylvania College, Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew and Exegesis, in the 
Hartwick Seminary, New York, for the 
past twenty-eight years ; David Alban, 
graduate of Carthage College, and a suc- 
cessful real estate broker in New York 
City ; Susan Rice Chester, a missionary to 
India, for sixteen years, the wife of Rev. 
Dr. Chester, who died in India, and Sarah, 
the wife of Mr. Fulton, a farmer of 
western Kansas. 

David Kistler, was married a second 
time, his second wife's name being Maria 
Anderson. To this union there were ten 
children, all of whom died early in life, 
except Lincoln, a successful contractor 
living in Kansas ; Rebecca, now Mrs. 
Dobbs, of Williamsport, Pa. ; Mary, 
Howard and Blanche, living at home. 
Samuel Kistler, the fifth child of John 



and Salome, was married to Margaret 
Weibley and resides in Hastings, Ne- 
braska. They have three sons. Sarah., 
became the wife of Rev. George Rea, a. 
Presbyterian minister, to whom were 
born five children — George, a business 
man in Denver, Colorado ; Dr. James L., a 
prominent physician of Scranton, Pa. ; 
Carrie married to Mr. Barbour, of St. 
Louis, who died in Denver, Colorado, some 
years since ; Kate, married to John Rob- 
erts, an artist of Harrisburg, Pa., who died 
early in her married life ; and Sara, the 
wife of J. H. Ambruster, district passen- 
ger agent of the Lehigh A'allev R. R.,. 
Roselle, N. J. 

Rev. John Kistler was born at Loys- 
ville. Perry County, Pa., November 12^ 
1834. He was educated at the Loysville 
Academy and at Pennsylvania College, 
Gettysburg, Pa., and Susquehanna Uni- 
versity. From the latter place he was 
graduated in 1862. During that same 
year he was united in marriage with Miss 
Catherine McCoy, of Duncannon, Pa., to 
whom was born one son, Harry Luther, 
who is now living in Pueblo, Colorado. 
In May, 1863, he went to Muhlenberg 
Lutheran Mission, Liberia, Africa. His 
wife followed in 1864, where she died in 
1866. Ill health compelled him to return 
from Africa in 1867 and for two years 
thereafter he had charge of the Soldiers 
Orphans' Home at Loysville, Pa. He 
organized the Lutheran Churches in the 
years following at Tyrone, Pa., and at 
Bellwood. Pa., where he preached for 
eight years. From 1877 to 1883 he served 
the Upper Strasburg charge in Franklin 
county. In 1884, he removed to Carlisle 
and served a charge near that city for a 
number of years. In 1895 he organized 
the church at Lemoyne, Pa., and served 
this congregation for three years, since 
which time he has lived a retired life in 
Carlisle. December 19, 1871 he was mar- 
ried to Miss Sarah Swoyer, of Newville, 
Pa., to whom were born three children — 
Sara W., Fredericka S., and Charles 
Reucl. All have been educated in the 
schools of Carlisle, Irving and Dickinson 
Colleges. Sara was married to Prof. 
Glenn V. Brown, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and resides in Philadelphia. 
Andrew Tressler Kistler, born in Janu- 



HANJOERG KISTLER AND HIS DESCENDANTS 



175" 



ary 26. 1837, giadnated from Pennsyl- 
vania Collei^e and Gettysburg Seminary, 
and for a time he taught school. For a 
number of years he has lived a retired 
life at liis home in Perry county. He was 
a meml)er of Co. B, 77th regiment, Penna. 
A'ol. He is unmarried. 

William died in childhood. 

Rebecca married Rev. George M. 
S«ttlemyer, a Lutheran minister.. Their 
home has been for many years in Des 
Moines, Iowa. Their children are Mary, 
a physician, who is also married to a 
physician and lives at LaCrosse, Wis. ; 
Samuel, a stock farmer ; William, a mail 
carrier ; Emma, formerly a missionary of 
the Presbyterian Church to Japan ; George, 
a machinist ; Charles, a missionary of the 
Disciple Church at Nanking, China ; Anna, 
now married and living in Des Moines 
and Alice, at home. These children were 
all educated at Drake University, Des 
Moines. 

I\'. W^illiam Kistler, a farmer, lived at 
Elliottsburg, Perry county. Pa., and was 
married to Mary Fusselman. They were 
blessed with eight children — Abraham, 
married to Elizabeth Smith; John, mar- 
ried to ]\Iary Gray ; Alary, married to 
John Smith : Jacob, married to Ellen 
Rheem : ^^'illiam. married to Elizabeth 



Davis ; Susanna, married to Samuel 
Rheem ; David, married to Mary Bistline, 
and Joseph, married to Mary Richard. 

V. Samuel Kistler was married to 
Miss Kline. They had seven chil- 
dren — four boys and three girls. Their 
oldest son, William, lived in Philadelphia 
for a number of years, and was a soldier 
in the Civil War. One of his sons is a 
physician in Johnstown, Pa. Their sec- 
ond son, John, lived at Blain, Pa. One 
of his sons, Milton S., a graduate of Dick- 
inson College, and formerly a teacher, is 
now engaged in real estate business in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Their other children 
were Jacob, Abraham, Mary, Carrie and 
Margaret. 

There are a number of Kistlers in 
North Carolina, evidently the descendants 
of John, son of John George, as my father 
often told me his father had a brother 
who emigrated to North Carolina before 
1800. In their early history the Kistlers 
were generally tillers of the soil, but many 
of their posterity have turned to the pro- 
fessions and to business engagements. 
Among the Kistler descendants there are 
many doctors, lawyers, professors and 
ministers. As a class they are thrifty, 
energetic, progressive and upright in their 
lives. 



The Lutheran Congregation of Heidelberg 



BY AI. A. GRUBER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 




HE Lutheran congregation in 
Heidelberg township, Berks 
county. Pa., named St. 
Daniel's church, and locally 
known as "Corner Church" 
or "Eck Kirch," was 
level. This ridge extends in a winding or 
zigzag course from Womelsdorf east- 
ward to Spring Creek and skirts th? 
northern side of the depression of land 
through which runs the Berks and Dau- 
phin Pike, the longest slope of the ridge 
toward the pike being about a mile. The 
church is several feet lower than any mid- 
way between the eastern and western 
limits of the church land, which limits are 
among the highest of the ridge. 

At the time of the founding of the 
church, I'lerks countv had not been or- 



ganized, and Heidelberg, which included 
the later subdivisions of North and Low- 
er Heidelberg and which had no all 
around definite boundaries, was a part of 
Lancaster county. 

The church received the name Saint 
Daniel at the laying of the corner-stone of 
the second building in 1814. The des- 
ignation "Corner" or "Eck" is said to 
have originated not so much from the 
location of tiie building as from the fact 
that the corners of a number of farms 
center about the church. 

On May 30, 1751, the congregation 
came in possession of three adjoining 
tracts of land — Yz acre from John Artz, 
Yz acre from Michael Schauer (Shower), 
and ^ acre from Abraham Lauck. This- 
land was received in trust for the con- 



^76 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




ST. DANIEL'S CHURCH. 

gregation by John Beyer and Frederick 
Weiser, five shiUings being paid for each 
tract, the payments being, .no doubt, re- 
quired to render the transaction valid. 
The deeds for these tracts were acknowl- 
edged June 8, 175 1, before Conrad 
Weiser, one of the Justices of the Peace, 
of Lancaster county, who on December 
10, 1 75 1, gave a receipt in full for three 
pounds for executing six deeds in con- 
nection with the church land. , 

The declaration of Trust, in case of the 
half acre received from John Artz, shows 
that the land was "to be for the Benefit, 
Use, and Behoof of the poor of the said 
Dutch Lutheran Congregation at Heidel- 
berg afored forever, and for a place to 
erect a house of religious worship for 
the use and service of said congregation 
and if occasion shall require, for a place 
to bury their dead." 

The rent to the Lord of the fee for that 
half acre was the proportionate part of 
three bushels of good winter wheat, this 
"being the rent prescribed for 193 acres of 
which the half acre had been a part and 
which was granted by indenture of Nov. 
30, 1747, to John Artz, by William Allen, 
and Margaret, his wife. 

Other tracts of land were acquired by 
the congregation as follows: August 21, 
1773, 53 perches from George Lauck for 
40 shillings, Ludwig Fisher and Henry 
Fidler, acting as trustees; May 20, 1813, 
150 perches from Ludwig Fisher, for 5 
shillings, Leonard Stub. Matthias Wen- 
rich, Matthias Miller, and John Ernst, 
"being the elders of the church : April 2, 



1847, one acre and 96 perches from John 
L. Fisher, the trustees being Daniel Wen- 
rich and Henry Fidler; August 27, 1866, 
one acre from Joseph Wenrich, the trus- 
tees being Daniel Moyer and William 
Stump; April 7, 1880, four acres from 
Adam S. Valentine, part of the former 
estate of David Bechtel, the trustees being 
John B. Stump, Israel S. Gruber, and 
Adam Briegel; and April i, 1901, seven 
acres from Mary E. Brown, the trustees 
being Adam G. Stump, Nathan R. Wen- 
rich, and G. Frank Roether. 

These 9 tracts form one piece of land 
consisting of almost 17 acres. On the 
Artz tract appears to have been erected 
the first church building, the greater part 
of the old graveyard being also located 
thereon. The second and present edifice 
is principally on the Ludwig Fisher tract, 
while a second graveyard occupies part 
of the John L. Fisher and Wenrich tracts. 
The Valentine tract contains the ceme- 
tery. 

On May 24, 1751, a contract was made 
by John Beyer and Michael Schauer, 
members of the congregation, with 
Andrew Dietz and John Michael Dietz, 
masons of Lancaster county, for the 
mason work of the first church building, 
the walls thereof to have dimensions as 
follows : Length 40 feet, breadth 36 feet, 
height 20 feet. One shilling 6 pence, 
Pennsylvania currency, was to be paid 
for each perch of masonry, and double 
pay allowed for the foundation. Andrew 
Rieger and John Ermendraudt, were the 
witnesses to this contract. The first 
church edifice was, therefore, a stone 
structure and not a wooden or log build- 
ing as has been commonly supposed. 

A simple agreement was also made on 
June 29, 1 75 1, by the same two church 
members, with Frederick Kobel, who was 
to make the door frames, eight window 
frames, and a gallery of two pews deep 
on the long side and of three pews deep 
on the short side of the church ; also to 
erect a stairway, set the purlins for the 
rafters, and construct a vestibule on the 
outside of the door. For this work he 
was to receive 1 1 pounds Pennsylvania 
currency. The witnesses to this agree- 
ment were Henrv Baier (Bover) and 
Carl Pisch(?). 



THE LUTHERAN CONGREGATION OF HEIDELBERG 



177 



Another contract was made on June 18, 
1753, for whatever carpenter work was to 
" be done in the church, with Christian 
Betz, master joiner, who was to receive 
24 pounds Pennsylvania currency, also 
the nails and glue needed. The contract- 
ing party consisted of the members of the 
congregation, whose names are given as 
follows : Simon Binetsch, Johann Georg 
Lauck, Michael Schauer, Johannes Artz, 
Matthias Wenrich, Jacob Mauntz, 
Henrich Fiedler, Adam Schauer, 
Johannes Beyer, Johannes Beyer, Jr., 
Henry Beyer, Phillipp Ermentraud, Peter 
Feg, Leonhard Peg, Henrich Gruber, and 
Jost Hetterich — 16 members — the first 
eight of whom signed the contract. 

Another similarly worded contract is 
signed by Christian Betz, and attested by 
John Nicholas Kurtz, the pastor at that 
time. 

The corner-stone, of this, the first, 
building was laid in 1751. 

The second building, which is also the 
present edifice, is a stone structure, 52 
feet long and 46 feet wide, and was built 
during 1814 to 181 7, the corner-stone 
having been laid J\Iay i, 1814, on which 
occasion the church received the name 
Saint Daniel. The building committee 
consisted of 8 members, the names being 
given as follows : Heinrich Bennetsch, 
Heinrich Gruber, Georg Gruber, Johan- 
nis Ernst, Peter Spang, Johannis Palm, 
Wilhelm Roether and Jonathan Minnig. 

In 1849, this edifice was remodeled at 
an expense of $1,342.59, the building 
committee for the purpose having been 
John L. Fisher, David Wenrich and 
David Kehl. 

Until August 5, 1876, the Lutherans 
had entire control of the church, but on 
that date "permission was given to a Re- 
formed congregation, by the St. Daniel's 
Lutheran congregation of Heidelberg 
township, in consideration of the sum of 
one dollar per annum to have a right to 
worship and hold religious services in the 
building the same as the Lutheran con- 
gregation now does." 

The Reformed held the first services in 
the church on Dec. 25, 1876, and con- 
tinued worshipping therein for 28 years ; 
but having erected a fine and suitable 
house of worshio of their own in Robe- 



sonia, their last services in St. Daniel's 
church occurred on February 19, 1905, 
since which time the church is again 
entirely Lutheran. Rev. Thomas Calvin 
Leinbach was the Reformed- pastor dur- 
ing that time. 

The Lutheran ministers that served the 
church since its organization are as fol- 
lows : 

(i) Rev. John Nicholas Kurtz, born 
in October, 1722, in Germany, and died 
May 12, 1794, in Baltimore, Md., where 
he is also buried. He landed at I'hiladel- 
phia January 15, 1745, was ordained at 
Philadelphia, Aug. 14, 1748, at the first 
meeting of the Pennsylvania Synod, and 
was the first minister ordained by that 
body. He had, however, been preaching 
as a licentiate from the time of his arrival 
in America. From December, 1746, to 
April, 1770, he served the congregations 
of the Tulpehocken district, to which St. 
Daniel's church, was added at its organ- 
ization. 

From Tulpehocken he went to York, 
Pa., where he labored until Oct. 6, 1789, 
when he removed to his son. Rev. John 
Daniel Kurtz in Baltimore. 

He was married Dec. 9, 1747, to Anna 
Elizabeth Seidel, of New Hanover, Pa., 
by Rev. Henry jMelchior ]\Iuhlenberg. 
They had nine sons and three daughters. 

He was a remarkably earnest preacher 
and denounced infidelity and wickedness 
in tones and language that were truly ap- 
palling, on which account he was some- 
times styled "a son of thunder" and 
"Preacher of the Law." Som.e authori- 
ties declare him to have been the most 
learned and best practical preacher of 
his day. 

(2) Rev. Christopher Emanud Schulze, 
born Dec. 25, 1740, in Germany, and died 
March 11, 1809, at the parsonage of the 
Tulpehocken (Christ) church, above 
Stouchsburg, Pa., in the graveyard of 
which church he and his wife lie buried. 
He was the son of John Andrew Schulze 
and wife Amelia. Rev. Schulze arrived 
at Philadelphia, Oct. 24, 1765, having 
been ordained as minister just before his 
departure for America. 

For the first five years he labored in 
Philadelphia. He then received and ac- 
cepted a call from the Tulpehocken 



1/8 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




CEMETERY, ST. DANIEL' S CHURCH. 

charge, to which place he removed in 
February, 1771, where he lived and la- 
bored for 38 years, St. Daniel's church 
having been part of that charge. 

He was married in 1766 to Eva Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Rev. Henry Melchior 
Muhlenberg. They had 9 children, four 
surviving the father. One of them was 
John Andrew Alelchior Schulze (July 19, 
1775-Nov. 18, 1852), who was ordained 
as a Lutheran minister, June 9, 1800, and 
assisted his father, but on account of a 
rheumatic affection left the ministry in 
1802. This son was elected Governor of 
Pennsylvania in 1823. and in 1826 re- 
elected by a vote of 72,000 to his oppo- 
nent's 1,000. 

(3) Rev. Daniel Ulrich, born Aug. 10, 
1789, near Annville, Lebanon county, Pa., 
and died June 2, 1855. at Pittsburg, Pa., 
while on a visit out there. He and his 
wife are buried in the graveyard at the 
Lutheran ( Christ ) church above Stouchs- 
burg, Pa. He was licensed to preach in 
1809, made a deacon May 24. 181 5. and 
ordained June 12, 1816. From 1809 to 
181 1 he had charge of the Lykens Valley, 
Pa., field, but during the latter year be 
accepted a call to the Tulpehocken 
charge, where he had been elected after 
a struggle of some time. 

At the close of 1851, he gave up all 
his congregations excepting St. Daniel's 
church and Xewmanstown, serving St. 
Daniel's from 181 1 to Sept. 25, 1853, a 
period of 42 years. 

Jie married Elizabeth, daughter of 



John Weidman, Esq., and had two sons-, 
and one daughter. 

(4) Rev. Thomas TheopJiiliis Jaeger,. 
born Aug. 29, 1826, in Greenwich town- 
ship, Berks county. Pa., and died May 
13, 1888, being buried in Charles Evans 
Cemetery, Reading, Pa. He was the son. 
of Rev. Gottlieb F. J. Jaeger and wife,. 
Mary Jane. 

Rev. T. T. Jaeger received a regular 
candidate's license June 21, 1848, and was 
ordained Alay 29, 1850. At one time or 
another during the 40 years of his min- 
istry, he was the pastor or regular supply 
of some 30 congregations, 24 or 25 of 
which were in Berks county. Pa., the- 
more noted of the latter being Rehrers- 
burg (Union), Alleghany, Plow (or 
Forest), Womelsdorf, iMillersburg, Sink- 
ing Spring, North Heidelberg, Bern, 
Reed's, St. Daniel's, Shoemakersville, . 
Belleman's, xA.lsace, St. Michael's, Oley, 
Spiess's, Zion in Perry, Hamburg, Kis- 
singer's, and Shaker's. 

He served St. Daniel's church from 
Nov. 12, 1853, the date of his election, 
to January 17, 1864, when he delivered 
his farewell sermon. 

On Dec. 4, 1849, ^^e was married to 
Aliss Mary Palsgrove, of Mercersburg, 
Pa., and had 10 children, 7 of whom died 
in infancy. 

(5) Rev. Henry Seipel Miller, born 
Oct. 30, 1801, near Allentown, Pa., and 
died Aug. 29, 1887, at Phoenixville, Pa., 
being buried at Norristown, Pa. He was 
the son of Peter Miller and wife (a 
daughter of Conrad Seipel). Rev. Miller 
was licensed in 1823 and ordained in 
1829. His first charge was in Bucks 
county, Pa., where he remained 15 years; 
he then served at the Trappe and con- 
nected congregations for 14 years, at 
Norristown almost 2 years, and at Leba- 
non 9 years. Then, from January to 
July, 1864 (one-half year), he had charge 
of St. Daniel's. Geigertown and Plow (or 
Forest). After that he preached in 
Chester county. Pa., until 1875. He was 
active as a pastor 52 years and was in the 
ministry 64 years, the length of his min- 
istry, in the Lutheran church, being ex- 
ceeded only by the 65 years of Rev. God- 
frey Dreyer and the 72 years of Rev,- 



THE LUTHERAN CONGREGATION OF HEIDELBERG 



179 



John Daniel Kurtz, son of Rev. John 
Nicholas Kurtz. 

Rev. Miller married ( i ) Aliss 

Camilla Clemens on March 28, 1823, with 
whom he had two- sons and two 
daughters, one of the sons being a 
preacher and each of the daughters a 
wife of a preacher; and (2) Miss Eliza 
Davis, of Easton, Pa., on Januarv 3, 

(6) Rcz\ Aaron Fuifrock became pas- 
tor of St. Daniel's church in the summer 
or fall of 1864 and served it and the con- 
nected congregations until the close of 
1891, a period of 27 years, when he re- 
tired from active work in the ministry. 

He was the son of Peter Finfrock and 
wife (nee Meckley) ; and according to a 
certificate of baptism which came to light 
since Rev. Finf rock's death, he was born 
Aug. I, 1825, in Pintram Hundred, Fred- 
erick county, Alaryland, and was bap- 
tized by Rev. ^lelsheimer, although it 
was generally supposed that the year of 
his birth was 1829, and appears as such 
on the tombstone that marks his grave 
in Charles Evans cemetery, Reading, Pa. 
He died Oct. 29, 1902, in Reading, to 
which city he removed in 1896, having 
lived in Womelsdorf, Pa., since 1865. 
He was licensed in the fall of 1858 by 
the Synod of Maryland, and on Sept. 5, 
1859, was ordained by the West Penn- 
sylvania Synod, he having been called in 
May of that year to the Dillsburg, Pa., 
charge, which he served until 1864, when 
he removed to Berks county. Pa. 

He was very conscientious in his work, 
and detested all forms of hypocrisy and 
crying evils, frequently evincing surprise 
at their existence in the "enlightened nine- 
teenth century." 

He was never married. 

(7) Rev. William Wilherforce Kraiii- 
lich, born January 22, 1866, at Kutz- 
town, Pa., the oldest son of Rev. Benja- 
min E. Kramlich and wife, Sophia 
(Bieber). He was ordained May 26, 

1891, and assisted his father during the 
remainder of that year. He was then 
called to the Womelsdorf parish, which 
included St. Daniel's church, where he 
preached his first sermon January 31, 

1892, and served until Oct. 27, 1901, the 
date of his last sermon. 



(8) Rc:\ Oscar Erzi'in Pflucgcr, born 
March 11, 1861, in Allen township, 
Northampton county, Pa., son of James 
Levin Pflueger and wife Elizabeth 
(Keim). He was ordained June 7, 1887; 
was pastor of the Beavertown parish in 
Snyder county. Pa., 1887-89; of Lykens 
Valley parish, 1889-1902; and in Novem- 
ber, 1902, became the pastor of the Wom- 
elsdorf parish, which comprises Zion's 
(Womelsdorf), St. Daniel's (Fleidel- 
berg), St. John's (Host), and Zion's 
(Womelsdorf), St. Daniel's (Heidel- 
berg), St. John's (Host), and Zion's 
(Strausstown, known also as Blue 
]\Iountain Church), and which he is still 
serving. He preached his first sermon 
at St. Daniel's church November 9, 1902. 
He married June 14, 1887. Ella C, 
daughter of Rev. Owen Leopold. 

During the interim of one year be- 
tween Revs. Kramlich and Pflueger, St, 
Daniel's church was supplied by Rev. 
John William Early, of Reading, Pa., an 
authority on local church history, the 
author of "Lutheran Ministers of Berks 
County, Pa." and a willing help and refer- 
ence in matters of all local history and 
genealogy. 

During the interim of several months 
in 1770 between Revs. Kurtz and 
Schulze, ministers of other congrega- 
tions preached occasional sermons at St. 
Daniel's church, as is shown by entries 
in the church record as follows (transla- 
tions) : 

(i) "On June 16, 1770. there was paid 
7s. 6d. to Rev. Hellmuth, of Lancaster, 
who preached here." This must have 
been Rev. Justus Henry Christian Hel- 
muth, born in Germany, ]\Iay 16, 1745, 
and died at Philadelphia, Feb. 5, 1833, 
who was pastor at Lancaster, Pa., from 
1769 to 1779. 

(2) "On July II, 1770, there was paid 
5s. to Rev. Krug. who preached here." 
This was, no doubt. Rev. John Andrew 
Krug, born in Saxony, ^larch 19. 173'^ 
and died at Frederick, ]Md., ]^larch 30, 
1796, who was pastor of Trinity church, 
Reading, Pa., and connected congrega- 
tions from April 22, 1764. to Easter, 

1771- 

(3) "On Aug. 24, 1770, there was 
paid 7s. 6d. to Rev. Schmit, who preached 



i8o 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



here." This might have been Rev. John 
Frederick Schmidt, born in Germany, 
January 9, 1746, and died May 16, 181:2, 
who was pastor at Germantown, Pa., 
from 1769 to 1785. 

Nothing has been found of record as 
to who supphed St. Daniel's church from 
1809 to 181 1, between Revs. Schulze and 
Ulrich ; but it is supposed that Rev. Wil- 
liam Beates (written also Betis and Petis) 
acted as supply for at least pari of the 
time, as he was pastor for several years, 
from the summer of 1810, of th« War- 
wick (Brickerville) parish, which in- 
cluded Womelsdorf and was part of the 
large charge that had been served by 
Rev. Schulze. 

Of the eight regular pastors of the 
Lutheran congregation of Heidelberg, 
during a period of 157 years, the first 
three round out a full century; while the 
four of longest service cover all but 30 
years. 



From a beginning of a few members, 
shown as 16 male members in 1753, the 
congregation has increased to almost 800 
of both sexes ; and the dozen surnames 
of the earliest members have multiplied 
to more than 12 dozen — about one sur- 
name for ever year of the congregation's 
existence. Those first dozen surnames are 
still borne by persons living in the coun- 
ty, but only half of them appear among 
the names of the present members of the 
church. 

Possibly three-fourths of the member- 
ship can trace in their veins the blood of 
persons who were members of that 
church prior to the Revolutionary War ; 
and fully one-half of those who belong to 
the church today are included under three 
dozen surnames, all of them known to 
Tulpehocken, Heidelberg or Bern 120 
years ago. 



The Germans 

FROM THE HARTFORD COURANT OF JANUARY l6, I908. 




iERMAN RIDDER'S address 
last evening in Charleston, 
S. C., brought out the Ger- 
man relations to this country 
with vivid force. The occa- 
sion itself was inspiring for 
a master of historical detail. It was the 
142nd anniversary dinner of the German 
Friendly Society, and thus Mr. Ridder's 
thoughts naturally turned back to 1766. 
At that date "The Courant" was only two 
years old, but already there was for those 
times what Mr. Ridder describes as "d. 
large German population" in Charleston. 
This is clear enough, for there must be 
German people before there can be Ger- 
man societies ; but Mr. Ridder gives the 
dates. Michael Kalteisen, the founder and 
first president of this Friendly Society, 
was born in Wachtelsheim, in Wiirttem- 
berg, in 1729, and by 1762 he was estab- 
lished in business in Charleston. Four 
years later he and fifteen of his country- 
men organized the society ; and this society 
grew so that it had one hundred members 
at the time of the American Revolution 
and was financially able to advance two 



thousand pounds as an aid in the common 
proceedings against the English crown. 
Mr. Kalteisen did more than this. He 
was influential in organizing the German 
Fusiliers on July 12, 1775, w^hich Mr. 
Ridder with proper pride declares to be 
"the oldest military organization in this 
country," and served as second lieutenant 
of the company. In 1779 the German 
Fusiliers took part in the siege of Savan- 
nah, their captain being killed in the same 
assault in which Pulaski fell. Kalteisen in 
English would be Coldiron ; and the name 
was well deserved by a man who founded 
two organizations to serve the purposes of 
his time — one social, and one military — 
both of which have turned out to be in- 
stitutions by lasting until this day. 

We are not going any further into Mr. 
Ridder's historical matter, interesting as it 
all is, except to say that the first German 
arrived in what is now South Carolina 
nearly a hundred years before Michael 
Kalteisen got in his fine organizing work. 
Mr. Ridder says that Johann Lederer, 
who was a scholar as well as explorer 
was "the first white man who set foot on 



THE GERMANS 



i8i 



the soil of South Carohna." During 1669 
and 1670 he made three exploring tours 
from Virginia into the Carolinas, penetrat- 
ing as far as tlie Santee River. It was 
only ten years later — 1680 — when "the 
tide of German emigration to America 
commenced its flow." 

After a lapse of two centuries and a 
quarter we still say "Germans" and 
"Americans" and "German-Americans." 
It is the persistence of historical tradition, 
we fancy — supported, however, by that 
difference of language which turns men of 
the same race and blood into different 
peoples. Mr. Ridder is the accomplished 
editor of the "New York Staats-Zeitung," 
an old and influential newspaper which 
is printed in the German language. Mr. 
Ridder is also one of our most capable 
American citizens. In both capacities 
he is a foremost man of the United States, 
and no doubt he is equally proud, and very 
likely equally tenacious, of both relations. 
Yet the Germans as Germans were here 
before this land became a political country^, 
and their hand was steady and unfailing 
in all those efforts, whether of the council 
chamber or of the battlefield, that trans- 
formed us all from colonials into citizens 
of a free and sovereign nation. Baron 
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, the great 
inspector general of the Revolution who 
drilled and disciplined the brave-liearted 
but unsoldierly men of Valley Forge into 
a fighting army, could say to Washington, 
as Washington in a more responsible field 
could say to him, with reference to the 
makings of this sovereign land, "we did 
it." The German did not come late or 
casually ; he was here with the first, 
and he has been here all along, doing 
exactly the same work and of the same 
fine quality as the most capable of those 



who acknowledge no other name than that 
of American. It is the slip of a cog in the 
historical nomenclature that has not per- 
petuated his work in its truly independent 
and masterly light. It was probably while 
thinking of all this that Mr. Ridder was 
led to say : 

Comparatively few Americans realize how 
large a place numerically the German element 
holds among the American' people. But when 
it is recalled that the United States census 
shows that more than 50 per cent, of the in- 
habitants of the United States have Gennan 
blood in their veins it is easy to see how much 
reason we have to be proud of America's 
achievements, for we have had a conspicuous 
share in them. Briefly I have called attention 
to some of the things Germans have done for 
this country, from its very earliest days. The 
sturdy German immigrant fought nobly for 
liberty in the Revolutionary War. He helped 
lay the foundation for our great country of 
today. It is a regrettable fact though that 
very few Americans are aware of these things. 
I am sure that the historical facts I have in- 
corporated in this address will be new to most 
Americans. Why is this? Simply because 
American historians have failed to give to the 
German element the credit that is their due for 
establishing and developing this country. If 
we are to have an honest and thorough record 
of American achievement from the early days 
to the present time the history of the United 
States must be rewritten, so that credit shall be 
given to the German element for their part. 
In this connection I want to emphasize the 
fact that it is absolutely necessary that our 
school books should be revised so that the 
youth of the land, so many of whom are of 
our own blood, may not grow up wholly ignor- 
ant of what German-Ameripans have done to 
upbuild this nation. 

Mr. Ridder has reason for his sug- 
gestion ; but he also should have the satis- 
faction of knowing that he himself is 
taking no uninfluential part in correcting 
that common point of view whose histori- 
cal narrowness he deplores as a true 
American of the German stock. 



l82 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Home Department 

This department is in charge of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of bprinstown. Pa. to whom all communications for it 
should be addressed. Contributions relating to domestic matters— cookli.g. baking, house-woik. gardening, 
flower culture, oldtime customs and ways of living, etc., etc.— are respectfully solicited Our lady readers are 
pecially requested to aid in making this department generally intercstiag. 



Easter Customs. 

Many of the ancient customs of Easter were 
curious and are amusing to the present genera- 
tion, though many add beauty and solemnity to 
the occasion. Flowers cultivated as the Easter 
lily or hyacinth as well as the crocus and 
tulip which spring forth into beauteous bloom 
to welcome the day of a resurrected Christ 
are a fitting emblem of the everlasting life. In 
some parts of Germany the Easter tree repeat- 
ing the Christmas tree is in favor but the Penn- 
sylvania Germans have not accepted it but have 
instead the Easter egg and "Oster Haas" which 
have been handed down to the present time. 
The Easter trees in Germany were decorated 
with eggs of every bright hue that were blown 
clear then filled with dainties, sometimes gilded 
and suspended by narrow ribbons. 

In England there was an ancient custom of 
dividing two great cakes in the church upon 
Easter Day among the young people, but it was 
looked upon as a superstitious relic, and Parlia- 
ment ordered in 1645 that the parishioners 
should abandon that custom, and with the 
money formerly spent that way buy bread for 
the poor of the parish. 

Among the modern Greeks, a small bier 
prettily decked with orange and citron buds, 
jasmine flowers and bows, was placed in the 
church, with a Christ crucified rudely painted 
on board for the body. The people in the 
evening, and before daybreak were suddenly 
awakened by the blaze and crackling of a large 
bonfire, with singing and shouting in honor 
of the Resurrection. 

Easter Day is set apart for visiting in Russia. 
The men go to each other's houses in the morn- 
ing and introduce themselves by saying, 
"Jesus Christ is risen." The answer is, "Yes, 
He is risen." The people then embrace, give 
each other eggs, and drink a great deal. They 
present a colored red egg to the priest of the 
parish on Easter morning. The common people 
carry one of these red eggs in their hands upon 
Easter Day, and three or four days after. They 
use it in token of the Resurrection, whereof 
they rejoice. 

The use of eggs on Easter Day, sometimes 
called Pasche, or paste eggs, has come down to 
the present time. Eggs were held by the 
Egyptians as a sacred emblem of the renovation 
of mankind after the Deluge. The Jews 
adopted them to suit the circumstances of their 
hi.story as a type of their departure from the 
land of Egypt ; they were also used in the feast 
of the Passover. 

Hyde, in his description of Oriental sports, 
tells of one with eggs among the Christians of 
Mesopotamia on Easter Day, and forty days 
afterward: "The sport consists in striking their 
eggs one against another, and the egg that first 



breaks is won by the owner of the one that 
struck it. Immediately another egg is pitted 
against the winning eg?' and so on till the last 
egg wins all the others, which their respective 
owr::rs shall before have won." 

In Germany, sometimes instead of eggs at 
Easter, an emblematical print is occasionally 
presented. One of these is preserved in the 
print-room of the British ^Museum. Three hens 
are represented as upholding a basket, in which 
are placed three eggs ornamented with repre- 
sentations illustrative of the Resurrection ; over 
the center egg the "Agntis Dei," with a chalice 
representing faith ; the other egg bearing the 
emblems of charity and hope. 

Easter Day has always been considered by 
the church as a season of great festivity. 

While many Easter novelties spring up from 
year to year, colored eggs are with us still, 
"dyed with onion skins, manufactured dyes or 
various other preparations. We used to color 
eggs with calico of fast colors by tying them in 
the print and boiling them. 

The calico would come out of the ordeal pure 
and spotless, and the egg would be a thing of 
beauty in dots and leaves and twigs. 

Apple Dumplings. 

In response to the request of an interested 
Hartford, Connecticut reader we give the fol- 
lowing receipt for apple dumplings. 

Steamed Dumplings. 

^lix up a dough with i quart flour, i quart 
sour cream, i teaspoonful soda and a pinch of 
salt ; or, make a baking powder biscuit dotigh — 

1 quart of flour, into which a lump of butter 
the size of an egg is worked, pinch of salt 

2 level teaspoonfuls of baking powder, milk 
enough to make a stiff batter. Peel and cut in 
halves sour apples, remove the cores and fill 
with sugar and a small lump of butter ; place 
the halves together again. Roll the dough thin 
and cut in pieces large enough to wrap around 
each apple, pressing the ends firmly together. 
If boiled have water boiling and kept boiling 
while dumplings are in, covered with a tight 
cover and they will be ready to serve in 15 
minutes if steamed. They must remain in the 
steamer at least 30 minutes, when done the 
dough will be raised and spongy, and they are 
ready to serve with cream and sugar. 

Baked Dumplings. 

Prepare apples the same: use baking powder 
biscuit dough or a rich pie pastry, bake in a 
greased dish slowly and when nicely browned 
they are ready for the table. 

If any of our readers have any favored 
receipts for this standard German dish other 
than the above we will be pleased to hear from 
them. 



LITERARY GEMS 



183 



Literary Gems 

DIE MUTTERSCHPROCH 

BV REV. A. C. WUCHTEK, GILBERT, PA. 



Die Mutterscliprocli ! die Muttcrschproch ! 

Wie scheh un tzart sie is ; 
Wer net fcrwildert, ausg'art, 

Dor liebt sie, j-ah g'wiss ! 
S'kunit net ufF land un farwa aw, 

D'heem. dert ivver'm saeh ; 
Hut's Kind die Mutter um d'hals — 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 

Dert wuh die palma dufticli sin, 

Wuh's imnier summer is ; 
Dert sin aw menscha, grawd wie doh, 

Mit hertz un seel, g'wiss. 
Sie hen aw ihra mutterschproch 

Kan's nimmond schunscht ferschteh, 
Ach ! wan sie schwetza, glawbscht du's net, 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 

* Dert wuh nix is wie ice un schnee, 

Ini land wuh's nordlicht schpielt — • 
Dert hut's aw leit os menscha sin 

Un's hertz fer on'ra fiehlt. 
Sic bob'la, ach ! so'n schproch wie sel — 

Sie kenna's gute ferschteh ; 
Sie lacha, heila — s'is wie's is. 

Die ^Mutterschproch is scheh. 

\\'an aw die welt so'n Babel is, 

Untzaehlich menscha drin, 
S'kumt net uff land un schprocha aw, 

S'is doch eh hertz un sinn. 
S'is wunnerbar, die menschaschproch, 

Des nonner recht ferschteh ; 
Soil's recht in's hertz un lehwa nei — 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 



Es hawpt am mensch is doch der mensch, 

S'is net die schproch, net's geld. 
Is leib un seel g'trennt, was bleibt 

Wie biss'l schtawb uff's feld? 
Wer laebt un liebt hut pflicht erfillt, 

Kan's hertz aerscht recht ferschteh; 
Druni is 's wohr, wohrhaftich wohr, 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 

Der Pennsylvanie Deitsch hut aw 

Sei platz un Gottesrecht, 
Wan aw der Yankee lacht un schpott, 

D' hals sich schier ferbrecht. 
Wer reita will uff dohta geil, 

So'n narr, den lusst m'r geh; 
Ich schteh d'bei, ich schwaer d'bei, 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 

S'hnt freilich dehl die schemma sich 

Wan ebber "Dutchy" sawgt; 
Ich gaebt ken lew}', hie un har, 

Fer den wuh schpott, wuh klawgt. 
Wie's haest: Wan's mohl an's schterwva geht, 

Kennscht alia schproch ferschteh, 
Bei'm letschta seiftzer — Gott, sei dank! 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 

Drum tzwischa Gott un tzwischa mensch 

Was hut die schproch tz' duh? 
Grick ehner'n schenner pletz'l dert 

Geht's in die ewich ruh? 
Kumt alles aw uff Shibboleth 

Bei'm Jordan ivvergeh? 
Week mit so dummhait, ewich week — 

Die Mutterschproch is scheh. 



THE HEART 

The following poem is in Upper Austrian dialect by Frederick Kaiser. The translation is by Col. T. C. 
Zimmerman, editor of the Reading Times: 



BV FREDERICK KAISER. 

's Herz is a g'spassigs Ding, 

Oft gar so schwar, oft gring, 

Oft is so miiuserlstill. 

Oft hammert's wie a Miihl — 

Oft thut's am wohl, oft wieder schmerzen : 

Drum glaub' i in mein' Sinn, 

's sitzt was Lebendig's drin 

Ganz tief im Herzen. 

's kann sogar dischkaricrn, 

Mit an a dischbadiern ; 

I bans oft gar nit g'fragt 

Und 's hat mir do was g'sagt. 

Das thut am kruseln so und schlagen. 

's sein kani Worter zwar, 

's redt aber deutli klar, 

's thut am Alles sagen, 

Und nur durch's Schlagen. 



BY T. C. ZIMMER.MAX. 

The heart is a curious thing. 

Oft sad, oft light of wing, 

Oft, mouselike, 'tis so still, 

Oft hammers like a mill — 

Oft pleasure gives, with pain returning; 

Therefore do I believe, 

Something in it doth live — 

So deep its yearning. 

Discourse it e'en can do. 

Dispute with oneself, too ; 

Oft have I nothing sought. 

Yet me its answer brought. 

Inspired it was with fear, and beating; 

No words employed to teach. 

And yet how clear its speech; 

It tells one everything 

Only by beating. 



l84 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Jetzt ^lancher sagt : O mein ! 

Wie kann das mogli sein? 

Der plauscht sich selber an,' 

A bissel g'spiirt er's schon. 

Er mag sich d' Wahrheit selbst nit sagen, 

Do hilfts nit g'schamig sein, 

Der droben schaut hinein, 

Dos thul; dos Schlagen 

Am Jeden sagen. 

's gibt Viel, dos gar nit hor'n, 

Wann d' Schliig rebellisch wern. 

Bei do is Herz ganz weg, 

Is nit am rechten Fleck. 

Und erst ganz spat in alten Tagen 

Dan gspiirn sie's zentnerschwar 

Was friiher war ganz laar — 

In alten Tagen 

Thut's well dos Schlagen. 

Woher dos Schlagen kiimmt, 

Das wass ma halt mit b'stimmt. 

I man und bild mir ein, 

's wird unser Schutzgeist sein, 

Der thut nit seinen Fliigerln schlagen, 

Und wann ma genga drauf, 

Tragt er die Seel hinaiif, 

Thut fiir an Jeden 

Da drobnet reden. 



Now, many a one will cry, 

How can this be? — Oh my! 

Deceive himself may he, 

And quickly felt 'twill be ; 

F"rom himself may he the truth be keeping,. 

Ashamed, no help 'twill be, 

Within the heart sees He ; 

This does the beating, 

To each one speaking. 

There are some who fail to hear 
When the beats rebellious are ; 
With such the heart's quite gone. 
At th' right place there is none. 
And not till late in life, that's fleeting, 
They feel a weight so sore 
Where naught had been before; 
As age is fleeting 
It pains, this beating. 

From whence these beatings come 

Exactly knows no one ; 

It must, I think, you'll see. 

Our guardian-angel be. 

That with his snow-white wings is beating; 

And when life's end we mourn, 

The soul's by him upborne. 

For each good's seeking 

Above he's pleading. 



EIN FRUHLINGSLIED VON DR. M. LUTHER 



Die beste Zeit im Yohr ist mein, 
Do singen alle Vogelein ; 
Himmel und Erden ist der voll; 
Viel gut Gesang da lautet wohl ! 

Voran die liebe Nachtigall 
Macht Alles frohlich iiberall 
Mit ihrem lieblichen Gesang', 
Desz musz sie immer haben Dank. 



Vielmehr der liebe Herre Gott, 
Der sie also erschaffen hat, 
Zu seim die rechte Sangerin, 
Der Musicer ein' Meisterin. 

Dem singt und springt sie Tag und Nacht,! 
Sein's Lobes sie nicht miide macht; 
Den ehrt und lobt auch mein Gesang, 
Und sagt ihm einen eVv'gen Dank. 



DER HEXEDOKTOR. 

BY CHARLES C. MORE, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Concluded from the March Number.] 



hot ihm denno sei Druwel geglagt un sei Frau 
hot alsemol Paar wart neigschmisse, wo sie 
gemeent hot er deets net recht verzehle. _ 

Do druf hen die zwee manner weil mitnan- 
ner gepischpert un denno hot eener gsat, er 
war da verry Kerl as der Solly suche deet, un 
er set mit ihm kumme. Die kerls hen ihm un 
sei Frau in en Schtub gfiehrt un dert hot eener 
gsat, es deet awer finf Dahler koschte, for aus- 
zufinne wie em Solly sei Feind heese deet. 

Der Solly hots Geld bezahlt un der Wohret- 
sager hot sich uf en Sofa glegt un sei Freind 
hot ihn eischlofe mache. So'n Wahrhetsager 
schlafe mache is net so'n leichte Arwet wie 
mer denkt. 

Wos hot nau net seller Kerl gschtrambelt bis 
er ein gschlafe war ! Wie er awer wider wacker 
worre is, hot er gsat, er het em Solly sei Feind 
gsehne; er deet "John" heese. Der Solly hot 



denno ah wisse welle, wie er mit em Zuname 
heese deet, awer der Kerl hot do gemeent, ja 
wann er ah noch sell wisse wet mist er ewa 
noch finf Dahler bezahle, weil er net afforde 
kennt zwee mol die Wohrhet sage for finf 
Dahler ; sell deet ihn zu arrig schtreene. Der 
Solly hots Geld bezahlt un der Kerl is wider 
an die Arwet. We er uf gschtanne is, hot er 
gemeent, des war en arrige Sach ! er kennt 
net do alles raus sage ; er wet liewer der Name 
uf en Babier schreiwe un des Babier derft der 
Solly erscht der heem lese. Er hot ah dennoli 
der Solly ihm in die Hand nei verschpreche 
mache as er gar nix meh zu duh hawe wet mit 
dem Kerl im Babier un sei hot der Solly of 
course ah gern geduh. Dennoh hot die Frau 
ah wisse welle was ihr die ganz zeit die milich 
gerinne un der Butter so schlecht mache deet. 
Der Wohretsager hot awer gemeent for all 



DER HEXEDOKTOR 



i8s 



sell zu verrote mist cr awer zchn Dahlc hawc. 
Er hots Geld gried iin is zum dritte mol ei- 
gschlofe. Wie er ufgschtanne is, hot er ge- 
meent er mist cs Mittel for selle Hex aus der 
Abodek hole ; nn is nans gange. Wie er zurick 
is komme, hot er ebbcs ins Rabier gevvickelt 
ghat : des hot er der Fran hiegreecht un hot 
gsat sie mist davon recht flcisig mit hees was- 
ser brauche. Sie set ihr Butter fas inwennich 
un auswcnnich demit recht wiische wie ah ihre 
milch heffe, dann set sie ihre Glecder un dann's 
ganze Haus von Owe bis unne damit aus- 
wjische un wan sie sel geduh het wet er in- 
schure, as sie kcc Druwcl mit der milich oder 
der Hex het. Seller Biindel derft sie awer ah 
erscht dehecm uf mache. Dann hot er sie wider 
naus uf die Schtros gfiehrt. 

Uf em Heemweg hot der Solly iwer all die 
name in der Nachbarschaft noh gsimilirt, awer 
er hot net uf en John komme kenne im er hot 
schiergor net warte kenne bis er deheem war. 
Wie die leit hccm kumme sin hen sie ihre 
Babiere mit nanner uf-gemacht. En Fluch as 
bald es ganze Haus zamme gschittelt hut is 
em Solly ausgeglitscht wie er in seim Babier 
gleese hot, "Dei greeschter Feind heest Demi- 
john"! Un sei Frau is schier onmachtig vom 
Schtuhl gsunke wie en Handbarscht un paar 
shtick Seef aus ihrem Bundel uf der Boden 
gerollt sin, mit me Zittel mit de warde, "Recht 
fleisig brauche." Ei so'n Rascal vome Hexe- 
doktor ! Leit so zu insulte un denno noch 
Geld davor abzunemme ! Die Frau hots of 
course em Solly gegunt, as ihm mols Heffel, 
wege seim Saufe vome annere Mann uf ge- 
deckd is warre ; un er hot sich heemlich gfreet, 
as sie mol, wege ihre Schlappigkeet en Hack 
griet hot, awer so ebbes von sich selwer zu 
here, sel hot gar deivelisch weh geduh ! 

Die Frau het net viel um ihre zehn Dahler 
gewe, awer do vor ihrem ]\Iann so nunner ge- 
duh zu sei. sell hot sie gar schterns wiedig ge- 
macht. Sie hot now wohl eigsehne, as ihr 
Herrschaft im Haus in Gfahr war un das ebbes 
geduh werre mist, weil der Solly nau eenige 
Zeit komme kennt un so recht heemdickish 
frage : "Wie war nau sel mit sellere Hand- 
barscht?" wann sie mol so bissel basse wet. 
So Manner is ennihau net am beschte zu draue, 
geh mer juscht eweg! 

Vor der Sake von ihrem eegne Friede hot 
sie dann ah grad Schtreit mit em Solly ah- 
gfange. Der Battel hot awer ah desmol net 
lang ahghalte, weil der Solly, wie immer, nun- 
ner gebiickt un is naus ufs Ewerden for iwer 
den neie Druwel nohzudenke. 

Er hot nau gfiehlt as er's ganz un gor verlore 
ghat hot. Ei ! die Mary kennt ihm nau seller 
verdollt Demi John eenige zeit unnich die Nas 
reiwe so gschwind as er sei Maul im Haus uf 
mache deet. So Weiwer hen ewe kee ver- 
schtand ! Wann sie mol ebbes vome Kerl 
wisse dann .sarge sie devor as er's net vergesst. 

Sei Frau is uf der Schpeicher nuf for iwer 
ihre Sorge un der Insult vom Hexedoktor zu 
kunsidere. 

In jedem mensch wohnt was mer heest en 
Koboldche oder schelmischer Geescht der nix 



dhut as die Leit vexe un for Narre halte. Er 
hot ebbes uf en ort wien forbiges Glas, un 
demno wie cr en mensch fichle mache will hebt 
er ihm sell Glas vor die Augc. Soil cr draurig, 
verschtimt un nider gschlage fiehle, so lost er 
ihn darichs schwarze Glas gucke; soil er 
schtreitig, zornig un heroisch sei, hebt er ihm 
es rote Glas vor. Soil er awer herrlic'h, lusch- 
tig, zufride un froh sei, so lost er ihn darichs 
blaue Glas gucke. So macht er ihm nidcr- 
gschlage, herrlich, freindlich, schtreitig, zu- 
draulig, mistrauisch oder eenige weg fiehle wie 
er will, un der Mensch bild sich ei, es war alles 
werklich grad so, wie er's darrich sel Glas ali- 
guckt. Deelmos geht awer ah der glee 
Schluri dra un last der mensch darrich zwee 
Farwe uf eemol gucke un denno wees er gor net 
recht wie er fiehlt. Dann geht der glee Deihenker 
awer ah dra un macht der Mensch arrig oft 
ganz annersch fiehla, wie er gern fiehla deel, 
Mecht er mol so recht luschtig sei, losat er ihm 
sei Freed darches schwarze Glas ahgucke, is 
er mol so recht draurig do hebt er hns bloe 
Glas vor die Aage un der arm Deiwel musz 
denno zu all seim Fiend lache un freelich sei. 

Well wie der Solly drowe uf dem Ewerden 
un sie Frau drowe uf em Schpeicher ghockt 
hen vor iwer ihre Druwel noihzudenka un 
gebrowirt hen so rec'ht arrig nidergeschlage 
Geesichter ihne es schwarz Glas von die Aage 
gerisse un hen ihms blaue Glas hie ghowe so 
as der liewe bloue Himmel ihm recht luschtig 
grad ins Herz nei gelacht hot. Oh, ihr gleene 
Deiwel ihr ! 

Mer breiche net zu wisse was die Leit alles 
gedenkt hen, awer ihre gschichter hen lang 
net so bees geguckt wie schunst als bei so 
gelegenheite. Uf eemol is awer der Solly uf 
gschtanne, hot die Fauscht niwer noch em 
Haus gschittelt un hot gsat : 

"Wart du juscht, ich will dir schon weise 
as ich eenige Dag noch meh vome Mann bin 
as du sei Lebdags werscht!" 

Mit sellem is er von Ewerdenn runner mit 
em Demijohn in der Hand; er war nau ge- 
baund, kee schritt meh weiter zu saufe for sei 
Gnocheweh un sei Couragement ufzuhalte, ne 
net wann er grad uf em Blacke schterwe mist!" 
Im Keehschtall hot er der demijohn wedder die 
Mauer gschmisse as die Scherwe un der Whiskey 
in der Luft rum gfloge sin. 

Drowe uf em Speicher is about es sam Ding 
vor ganga, juscht uf en annere Weg. Die Frau 
hot sich nau vorgenomme zu schaffe uns Haus 
sauwer zu halte grad for ihr ]Mann zu schpeite. 
Er derf ihr net nosage as sie dreckig un 
schlappig war un wann's alle Hexedokter un 
alle Deiwel in der Welt behaupte deete. 

"Wart juscht," hot sie gsat un hot ihre 
Fauscht niwer noch der Schweier gschittelt 
"du kannst nau alt un grau werre, bis ich mich 
wieder hiehock un mich wege deiner Fauliieet 
un Sauferei druwel : die Leit solle nau sehne 
as ich ah noch schaffe kann wie ich frieher 
gschafft hab, awer merke lass ich's dich net ; nee 
un wann ich uf der Nas lei." 

So hen sie alle beed sich vorgenomme nau 
for Schpeit recht zu schaffe, grad wie sie so- 



^86 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



lang for schpeit nix geduh hen awer jo nix 
nanner merke lasse. . , ^ , w^^^ 

Seller owed sin sie ni's Bett ohne en Wort 
mit aanner zu schwatze. Am nachste Morge sin 
sie vor Dag ufgschtanne un hen sich an die 
aVwet gemacht, awer hen so geduh as vvann sie 
go^mx^m Sinn hetten. Mit seller Handberscht 
un Seef is dee Frau erscht mol an s Haus- 
butze gange un der Solly hot die Bord am 
Haus un an der Scheier ahgenagelt, denno hot 
er sich an die Fensze gemacht un eb zwei 
Woche rum ware, hen all die Poschte wider 
crrad gschtanne un die Kuh 'hot sich abgeblogt 
for naus zu kumme as sie schier gar narnsch 

^ Die ganz Zeit hen sie awer so geduh as wann 
gar nix abardiches vorgeh deet un wann sie 
|ar nix von nix wisse deeten. Wann als der 
Solly ins Haus komme is, dann hot die JMary s 
cror net gsehne, wie er umhergeguckt un so 
recht zufridde gschmunzelt hot weil a les so 
schee un sauwer war. Un die Mary is als naus 
un juscht vor der Scheir ebbes uf die Fenz 
ghenkt, so as sie sehne hot kenne wie der Solly 
mit seinere Erwet ausmacht un der Solly hot 
als gpiffe un weit iwer's Land geguckt as wie 
wann er's gar net wisse deet as die Mary hm- 
nich ihm schteh deet. . 

So sin noch und noch arrig ordliche Sache 
ghappent; die Kuh is als Morgets un owets 
lemolke warre, un die Mary hot gar net denke 
kenne wer's geduh hot; war nau des net ord- 
lich? Un em Solly sei Gleeder hen sich ge- 
butzt un Lecher dra sin zuganga un Gneb sin 
dra gwachsa un er hot sie doch iver en Schtuhl 
g'henkt ghat wie er ins Bett is— sell war nau 
noch ordlicher! 

So hot nau eens ebbes geduh for s anner zu 
bliese un jedes hot gebrowirt net zu schtreite— 
sell war nau's ordlichst von all! Of course der 
Solly hot jusht seinere Frau weise welle as er 
■en j\Lnnn sei kann wann's sei muss; un die 
Mary hut ihm juscht weise welle, as er sie 
juscht so wennig biete kennt im verschtenmg 
sei as wie im Schtreite— sell war all. 

Ee Marge— es war en herrlicher Pingscht 
merge, is Sollv frie uf gschtonne— er hot sich 
vorgenomme ghat an sellen jMarge recht ufzu- 
macha mit der Marv wie es sei sett zwischig 
gheirte Leit. Sie sin am e Pingscht Marge 
getraut warre, un hen ihre Hochzig reid noch 
der Schtadt gemacht, un er hot gfiehld us wie 
wann er widder die Hochzig iwer feiere wet, 
weil es doch gar zu schee war widder so im 
Friede zu lewe wie selle mols. Awer er hot 
net recht gewisst wie er afange sett un is naus 
an die Scheier vor en recht scheeni Spiech eizu- 
schtudirc vor der Mary zu sage, wie es ihm 
um's Hcrz war. Es hot ihn bissel lang ge- 
nomme vor die rechte Worte zsamme zu henke, 
awer er hot alles fei drunner ghat, wie er ins 
Haus zurick is. 

In der Kich hot er die Mary erwischt \yie 
sie vorm Schpiegel gschtanne hot un hot sich 
en rotes Band um der Hals gebunne : sie hut 
sich ah en frisch geweschener Frack ageduh 
ghat un Bkimme— Pingschtblumc, Dulleblume, 
Ycilche un grad so was zu finne war, uf der 



Disch gschtellt ghat weil sie such vorgenomme 
hot ghat der Solly froge ihr zu verzeihe vor all 
der Druwel as sie ihm gemacht hot — an dem 
Pfingscht marge wo sie gheirt hen, wot sie wid- 
der des rechte Ding zum Solly duh, un ihre 
Bocke ware aus excitement rot wie's band um 
ihre Hals un ihre Aage hen geleicht wie juscht 
enere Frau die Aaage leichte kenne, as sie 
recht Glick im Herz hot. Grad so hot sie ge- 
guckt wie der Solly sie als sehne is kumme, 
un wie der Solly in die kich kumme 
is und hot sie so do schte sehne war's ihm 
grad as wie wann er widder uf die Freierei 
komme deet un sei scheeni spiech iver die er 
sich so abgeplogt ghat hot is dort hie gfloge wo 
die Dischtle wachse — er hot ken wort raus ge- 
braclit un wann er ghenkt warre wer davor, 
er hot juscht die Arm ufgemacht un gsat 
"Mary?" 
"Solly!" 

Sell war about alles as die Mary sage hot 
kenne, denno hen sie sich in de arm gelege un 
hen sich enanner gebusst as es en rechte Schand 
war — Annihau so hot die Mammi Schofleichter 
gsat as grad am Fenster vorbeigange is un dem 
Dreiwe a weil zugschene hot. "As die Leit sich 
net schemme" hot sie gsat "so verdollt keesich 
zu sei." Awver dabei hot sie die Lefts g'schleckt 
as wie wann sie selwer net juscht so arrig viel 
dagege het ahmol so keesich zu sei un net juscht 
die Schofleichtern alle, nee, eenig ebber as 
gsehne hot wie glicklich un herrlich die Leut 
iwer ihre zwette Hochzich ware, der het ah 
gern en Hand in so'me Bosse mitgeschpielt, ja 
un wann's der Parre selwer geweest wer, uf 
em Weg noch der Kerrich vor sei Pingscht- 
breddig zu halte. 

Un denno erscht's Brekfescht ! Es war wul 
juscht Brot un Wasser un Schmierkees un 
Kaffe, awer was war brot un was war Butter 
un Schmierkees ! Un wie hot sich der Solly 
neigelosst, un wie hot ihm die j\Iary Brot 
gschmiert un wie hot er gesse ! un wie Jiot er 
als mit der Faust uf der Disch geglopt un be- 
haupt, er het die bescht glee Frau uf weit un 
breet un so Butter un Brot kennt juscht kenn 
anneri Frau im ganze County mache un sie 
mecht grad her kumme wu sie wet. Lhi wie hot 
die Mary ihm als es Maul zughove un ge- 
bluscht un gemeent er deet sie noch ganz ei- 
bildisch mache mit so'me Geschwetz un wie hot 
sie ihm denno allmol en Buss gewa as er's 
gsat hot un grad weil er's gsat hot ! 

Un die gleene Koboltche hen sich die far- 
wige Glesser in der Sack geschteckt un die 
Leit ufgschdift in ihren Herz drin zu singe : 
Drucke Brod in Friede gesse, 
Schmackt viel besser as en Schmaus 
Von em allcbeschte Esse, 
Wann der Schtreit is Gast im Haus. 
Es sin nau etliche Johre vergange zitter sel- 
1cm schene Pins-sciitdag un em Solh' sei 
Baucrei blieht widder wie devor. Er hot wid- 
der finf Kieh un zwee Geul, un en Mad weil 
sei Frau die Erwet nimmie allee duh kann. Er 
geht mit Gardesach un Butter un so sach eemol 
die Woch noch der Schtadt un koinnu widder 
gut vorra. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



i87 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Editor :xnd Publisher 

H. W. KRIEI3EL, 
East Greenville, Pa. 

The Pennsylvania-German is an illustrated monthly 
nnagazine devoted to the biography, history, genealogy, 
■folklore, literature ami general interests of German 
^nd Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other States, 
and of their descendants. 

Price, per year, $1.50, in advance; single copies, 
15 cents. Foreign postage, 25 cents a year extra. 
"Club-rates furnished on application. Payments 
credited by mail. 

Discontinuance. — The magazine will be sent until 
order to discontinvie is received. This is done to 
accommodate the majority of subscribers, who do 
iiot wish to have their files broken. 

Notice of Expiration of subscription is given by 



Associate Editors 
Mrs. H. H. FUNK, Springtown, Pa 
E. S GERHARD, A. IVI., Trenton. N. J 

using red ink in addressing the wrapper of the 
magazine. 

Contributions. — Carefully prepared articles bearing 
on our field are invited and should be accompanied 
with illustrations when possible. No attention will 
be given to unsigned articles, nor will we be re- 
sponsible for the statements and opinions of con- 
tributors. Unavailable manuscripts will not be re- 
turned unless stamps are sent to prepay postage. 
Contributions intended for any particular number 
should be in the editor's hands by the twenty-fifth of 
the second preceding month. 

Advertising Rates will be furnished by the pub- 
lisher upon request. 



A "Credit." 

For many of the cuts in "Mayors of 
Allentown" we are indebted to H. H. 
Xnerr, Printer, Allentown, Pa. 

A Request. 

As a reminder it may be in place to re- 
peat the words used by Prof. D. H. 
Bergey, M.D., special editor in intro- 
•ducing our symposium on "The Pennsyl- 
•vania-German in the Field of Science". 
He said among other things : 

It .s the desire of the special editor and of 
the publisher to make this sj-mposium as 
comprehensive and accurate as possible. . . . 
It is desired that all scientists as well as others 
interested in the subject will forward to the 
special editor or to the publisher the names 
-of such as are known to be of Pennsylvania- 
German descent, who have been engaged in 
scientific pursuits or are now engaged in 
scientific work. 

Look over the articles in the February 
and ]\Iarch issues, and. if you notice the 
■omission of any names that should be 
mentioned, kindly report the same at once. 

A Few Corrections. 

In the January number p. 38 Hurrah 
for der Winter is credited to "E. D."' Rev. 
A. C. Wuchter claims it as one of his 
pieces and we believe our good brother. 
How the change in credit was made we 
are unable to tell, as our late editor Mr. 
Schuler prepared the "copy" for the Janu- 
ary issue and we do not know where he 
got the selection. 

Another item in the same issue respect- 
ing "The First \\'hite Man in the State," 



of the history of which we can not give 
definite information, led to an exchange 
of letters which will presumably close it- 
self in the following communication : 
The James V. Brown Library 

Willi AM SPORT, Pa., March 11, 1908. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 

Editor "The Pciuisylvania-Gcrman," 
East Greenville, Penna. : 

Dear Sir — As I am "the librarian of a 
public library" referred to in your March, 
1908, "Chat wit*h correspondents," I trust you 
will be kind enough to print this letter in your 
next issue over my signature. 

First — I did net criticise the statement that 
Etienne Brule was the first white man to enter 
Pennsylvania. It is correct, or at least cannot 
successfully be refuted with the evidence at 
present at our command. Personally I am 
inclined to think it never will be refuted. 

Second — I did object to the statement, that 
Mr. Heverly "made the startling statement that 
according to reliable information recently un- 
earthed by Jiimself, the first white man to set 
foot in the State of Pennsylvania was Stephen 
Brule. . . . Hitherto it zvas supposed that 
Conrad JVeiser had been the first white man 
to I'^isit Bradford County." (The italics are 
mine.) 

Apparently, from Mr. Heverly's letter, he 
did not make such a statement, contenting 
himself with a simple statement of the priority 
of Mr. Brule's visit, so that an apology- is due 
Mr. Heverly from the newspaper which in- 
correctly reported his remark — a report which, 
owing to the death of the late Mr. Schuler, 
was copied imedited in your journal. 

1 can lay claim to no "superior knowledge," 
but as anonymity, like Carlyle's patriotism, "is 
tlie last refuge of scoundrels," I dislike to have 
its shadow thrown over me. I regret exceed- 
ingly that Mr. Heverly should have misun- 
derstood my letter and still more that he 
should have been misrepresented in the press. 
\'ery truly yours, 

O. R. Howard Thomson. 



i88 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Clippings from Current News 



—Prof. H. E. Jacobs, D. D., of Mt. Airy 
Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
been elected president of the American Society 
of Church Histor3^ 

— The superintendents' department of the 
State Educational Association at its conference 
in February elected the following officers : 

President, E. AI. Rapp, Berks county; first 
vice-president, Mattie i\I. Collins, Cameron 
county; second vice-president, Charles W. 
Stine, York county; secretary, J. H. Landis, 
Montgomery county. 

— A granite monument is being erected for 
Garret E. Brownback, the creameryman of 
Lintield, to mark the last resting place of the 
progenitors of the Brownback tamily in Am- 
erica. The stone will bear the names of the 
members of the Brownback family, in all be- 
tween 1700 and 1800 names. It weighs eight 
tons, and will stand about seven feet above the 
level of the ground. In 1683 Garret Brown- 
back and his wife, Mary, came to America from 
Germany. They settled in Chester county, 
near Parkersford. The monument will be plac- 
ed in the old part of the burying ground at 
Brownback's Church, near Parkerstord. 

—Initial steps were taken February 17 toward 
the establishment of a Valley Forge Museum 
of American History, at Washington Merhorial 
Chapel, Valley Forge, when the Daughters of 
the American Revolution opened an exhibit of 
the relics of American wars in the parish house 
of All Saints' Episcopal Church, Norristown, 
Pa. 

— Judge Schwartz, of the Montgomery 
County Court, was recently one of the busiest, 
hardest workers at a bread and cake sale given 
by the Ladies' Aid Society of his church. He 
is superintendent of the Sunday school, and 
his wife is president of the Ladies' Aid So- 
ciet}', and thus it came to pass that the judge 
walked the streets of Norristown with a mar- 
ket basket on his arm gathering bread, cake 
and candy for the entertainment. 

—J. O. K. Robarts, of Phoenixville, Pa., 
calls attention to the indisputable fact that 
historic Paoli Field is in a most deplorable 
condition, resulting from gross neglect. Fences 
have disappeared, rotting trunks and branches 
of trees lie around, people drive across the 
ground, buildings are dilapidated and rusty- 
looking, altogether a positive reflection upon 
the idea of patriotism and an object of re- 
proach. 

— Baron speck von Sternberg, the Kaiser's 
Ambassador to the United States at the laying 
of the corner stone of the new club house of 
the German Society of Tampa, Florida, recently 
took occasion to refer to the lasting friendship 
which has existed between his nation and this 
since the days of Frederic the Great, and to en- 
large upon the great parts played by natives of 
the Fatherland and their descendants in the 
formation of American history. 

— About 400 of Washington's representative 



German citizens assembled at the Germar^ 
Orphan Asylum, near Anacostia, a few weeks- 
ago to participate in the annual mctzcl suppc. 

The Dictcci suppc was one of the celebrations 
of the early German settlers, when the pork 
for winter consumption was killed and the 
villagers gathered for a feast and merrymaking. 
These events are commemorated by the Ger- 
mans of Washington by meeting at the 
orphanage once a year, when the inmates and 
guests are served an old-fashioned dinner, such 
as was -the custom in the Fatherland. 

The right of teachers to wear Dunkers' 
garb in the school room will be tested in the 
courts. Several of the public school teachers 
of Mt. Joy district (.Lancaster county) are 
members of the Dunker religious faith and 
wear dress indicating that fact. A resident of 
the township named Stager objected on the 
ground that the teachers violated an act of 
Assembly of 1895, prohibiting the wearing 
of any dress, emblem or mark to designate 
membership in a religious sect. Notice was 
served on the directors to suspend the offend- 
ing teachers, but the board refused to act, and 
they have now been prosecuted by Stager, the 
case being brought before Justice of the Peace 
J. H. Epler, of Elizabethtown. The justice has 
returned the case to court. 

— One of the proudest mothers in the Key- 
stone State is Mrs. Sarah Dierolf, of Gilberts- 
ville, because of her family of nine sons and 
daughters, who have been termed born agricul- 
turists of the Keystone State. 

Mrs. Dierolf is 75 years old. The progeny 
of the live sons and four daughters are so 
widely scattered that there are farmers either 
by name Dierolf or descendants of Dierolf all 
over the Eastern part of the State as each of 
the sons and the daughters is the parent of 
large families with one or two exceptions. 

Every one of them was raised on a farm and 
being true to their early training they remained 
agriculturists. Now they own their own farm 
and make a success of farming. The mother, 
though 75 years old worked daily in the corn- 
field the past" season, husking corn just as she 
used to do when the boys were in knee pants 
and the girls in short dresses. 

— N. A. Gobrecht, Altoona, Pa., has in his 
possession a German Bible, printed at Zurich, 
Switzerland, by Emanuel and Johann Rudolff, 
printers, 1729. It was brought over by John 
Christopher Gobrecht the ancestor, born Octo- 
ber, 1733, at Angerstein, Hanover, Germany; 
landed, September ii, 1753, at Philadelphia 
from the ship "Queen of Denmark," Geo. 
Parish, captain; settled in Bucks county; 
studied theolog^' under Rev. John George 
Alsentz, and wis licensed 1764 as the first 
' Reformed student under the care of Coetus 
in Pennsylvania; died at Hanover in 1815. He 
has also another German Bible printed by Chris- 
topher Sauer, Germantown, Pa., 1763, having 
family record of John Beecher and Elizabeth 



CLIPPINGS FROM CURRENT NEWS 



189 



Keplinger, the ancestors of the numerous 
Beecher families in Adams and York counties, 
Pa. John Beecher was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, died in his 90th year, August 1838, and 
was buried at Arendtsville, Pa. This Bible 
comes to N. A. Gobrecht by his wife who is a 
Beecher descendant of the third generation. 
Both German Bibles are in good condition and 
are in the hands of a worthy member of the 
Pennsylvania-lGerman Society of Pennsylvania, 
and are cherished by him as family heirlooms. 
— Owen Wister ought to take to heart the 
fallowing editorial note taken from an exchange. 
Does he blame the "Pa. Dutch" for what Boston 
is doing? 

Boston, that city of austere men and 
spectacled women, has the unique distinc- 
tion of deliberately choosing one of its 
officials from the very cell in which he was 
undergoing imprisonment for crime. At 
the municipal election in that city, James M. 
Curley, who was serving a two months' 
sentence in the county jail for conspiracy 
against the United States, was triumphantly 
re-elected an alderman from the seven- 
teenth ward ; the convict conducted his 
campaign from his cell. The crime for 
which Curley was committed, was falsely 
personating a friend, in a civil service ex- 
amination. It seems that the gratitude of 
the alderman's constituents must have been 
greater than their moral discrimination. 
But in other sections of the country, there 
are men holding public office who, in the 
opinion of many people, ought to be occupy- 
ing prison cells ; but, before this Boston 
episode, it was not supposed that there 
were many people who believed the con- 
verse of the proposition to be true. 
— Dr. H. A. Klock, of ^lahanoy city, died 
February 3. 



— David B. Bechtel, a portrait painter, died 
at his home, at 1033 Cooper street, Camden, 
New Jersey, on Sunday, February 2, aged 75 
years. He was born in Bethlehem, this State. 

— Mrs. Susan H., wife of Prof. David S. 
Keck, of Normal Hill, adjoining Kutztown, 
died on Monday afternoon, February 3. 

Deceased with her husband spent two years 
at Albuquerque, New Mexico, where they 
taught school on an Indian reservation. Mrs. 
Keck was a well educated woman, an able 
instructor and highly esteemed by everybody 
that knew her. 

— The Rev. John Kring Seyfirt, a leader in 
the United Evangelical Church and licensed 
preacher since 1866, fell over dead in his home, 
Allentown Pa. He was 70 years old. In his 
career he served fully 40 congregations in 
Eastern Pennsylvania, and was one of the most 
widely known clergymen. During the last ten 
years he suspended active preaching work and 
became a real estate operator in this city. 

— William A. Kelker, of Harrisburg, his- 
torian collector of Indian relics, amateur weather 
observer, died suddenly of heart failure Satur- 
day February 15. He was a son of the late 
Rev. F. F. Kelker, and a brother of State 
Archivist Luther R. Kelker. He was a member 
of the Dauphin county Historical Society and 
of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

— Mrs. Amelia Sheatz von Steuben, mother 
of State Treasurer-elect John O. Sheatz, died 
at her home, Allentown, Pa., February 27, from 
heart disease and dropsy, in her 82d year. She 
had been in ill health the last 11 years. She 
survived both her husbands — Mr. Sheatz's 
father, who was a blacksmith at Mechanics- 
ville, Lehigh' county, and Augustus von 
Steuben. 



Chat with Correspondents 



A Little Pleasantry. 

The "Dutch" like fun. They say : 
"A wenig g'schpas dann un wann 
Werd geliebt vun jederman." 
or, 

"A little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the best of men." 
We feel sure the kindliest feelings actuated 
our correspondent in preparing the following 
and believe that Professor Hart will enjoy the 
same as much as any one. 

One Albert B. Hart, Ph.D., 
Lately roasted the Dutch to a T ; 

On his "off" 'he came down 

To old Lancaster town. 
And, of course, knew it all, don't you C? 

'N Professor 'gnennt Albert B. Hart, 
Hut mol g'sagt 's die "Dutch" sin nix wart. 

D'r M. A. Gruber derno 

Gebt 'r 'n gut Knock out blow 
^I'r haert nimme meh von d'r Yankee so smart. 



aiTTci^ LET 

Al.ttKT 




Dialect Publications. 

A correspondent says : 

I suppose there is no Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man journal published which is written 
entirely in the Pennsylvania-German lan- 
guage ? 

No. We are not aware that a periodical 



I go 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



has been or is being issued, written entirel}' in 
the dialect. If any one knows of such a pub- 
lication we shall be thankful for a statement 
of the facts. A considerable number of local 
papers contain about a column each issue in 
the dialect, some of them plate matter. Do 
you know of such papers. If you do, will 
you let me know ? We hope some day to pre- 
pare an article on this subject. 

The "Himmelsbrief." 

The note respecting the "Himmelsbrief" 
brought a number of communications. If you 
have any of these interesting prints, kindly 
give us a chance to examine them. If you can 
furnish facts about them, so much the better. 
We e.xpect to prepare an article on the sub- 
ject, hence this request. 

Canvassers Suggested. 

The following words from subscribers need 
no explanation. I want each and every reader 
to regard himself an appointed canvasser. Put 
the blue offer slips in circulation and talk mag- 
azine in season and out of season : 

Your favor to hand, and I am greatly 
obliged to you for your kind offer, and 
accept it vvith many thanks. I am in- 
interested in your enterprise, and hope 
you may have great success. If each one 
interested would speak a good word for 
your magazine, it would soon flourish as 
it deserves to do. 

I saw a number of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans at the banquet last night to whom 
I talked magazine, and I hope to be able 
to persuade at least some of then.) to take 
it. I am really surprised to find how 
many intelligent Pennsylvania-iGermans, 
who are lovers of magazine literature, are 
still ignorant of the existence of your 
periodical, and do believe that if they 
were properly approached would not hesi- 
tate to give you their names. Why not 
send out canvassers and thoroughly ex- 
plore the field in order to acquaint more 
people with the work you are doing to 
preserve the folk-lore and history of our 
people? 

The Wasser Shditz. 

The following question and description re- 
mind the editor of his boyhood, barefoot ex- 
periences in stubble fields as a v.'asscr trdger 
(water carrier). The Shditz we lugged around 
ten-acre fields had a lid, and no cock. For 
the sake of the history we hope readers will 
give us the English term and a description of 
the vessel used. 

May I ask your readers the English 
term for U'asscr-shditc' 

This is a vessel used when I was a boy 
on the farm in Bucks countv to supply 
water to the field laborers. It is carved 
out of a solid log of sassafras wood, meas- 
uring about 12 to 14 inches in heighth, 
7 or 8 inches across the bottom, tapering 



to the top, which measures about 6^/2 inches- 
across, having a wire bail attached similar 
to a wooden bucket. In the centre of the 
top is a tin spout, an inch in diameter,. 

closed with a cork. 

The "Sale List" Again. 

We are pleased to make room for this be- 
lated explanation of a number of terms in use- 
150 years ago, notes on the same subject having 
appeared in the February issue. Thanks,. 
Brother Grubb. 

Bnist happen or Brust Lappz. is a ves't. 
My grandfather Bertolet always wore 
double-breasted vests, and I never heard 
him call them anything but Brust Lappa. 

Camasol, usually called a Jl'amuius is 
a short sack-coat reaching about to the 
hips, straight front, buttoned tight to the 
neck, with either a band or a narrow 
stand-up collar — usually the former. 

leil Tuck is oil cloth. The body was 
made of flaxen cloth — Grob Werk. This 
was usually tacked up to some smooth sur- 
face, the barn door or the side of the 
threshing floor, and was painted or covered. 
with paint and coat after coat of paint 
being added until the desired thickness was 
obtained. After being sufficiently hardened 
it was laid as a floor covering and was 
called Ochl Tuck. Usually the paint was- 
all of one color and that a sort of drab. 
Sometimes it was painted in squares. 

Statzvagcn — Stadt JVaga, is the wagon 
used to take marketing to the city market. 
It was called the huckster or Markt Waga. 

Boll, is fla.x before it was braked. The 
tow of first hackling was called Bol-iverk. 
Bol-mehl was what is now called middlings 
only that it was re-bolted and often used 
for baking. In the early days of ni}^ boy- 
hood my mother used this Bol-nichl or 
Grob-mchl as we used to call it sometimes,, 
to bake Blatta-Kucha. 

Cabuts-rock, was frequently called a 
Kntt. This was a coat made like a ladies' 
waist with a band around the neck and a 
wide belt at the waist with a skirt from^ 
the belt to about half way to the knees. 

Stipfcl — Stifcl — Sticfel — Stivel are boots. 
In Montgomery county it was Stivel. In 
Lebanon and surrounding counties it was 
Stieifcl. 

. JVaga — Winn, is a screw jack a heavy 
piece of wood or block with a screw and a 
cog-wheel inside and turned with a crank to 
lift the wagon from the ground sufiiciently 
high to remove the wheel for greasing. All 
teamsters and hucksters carried one of 
these with them for use on the road. They 
were also made with a block on the ground 
on which rested a post with a lever. This 
■ was more convenient but too unhandy to- 
carry and was always found in the wagon- 
shed ready for use. 

Kninniet is a horse collar to which were- 
fastened the hames of the harness. 

N. B. Grubb.. 



PENNSYLVANIA HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



191 



Pennsylvania Historical Societies 



The Wyoming Society. 

— Wilkcs-Barrc was in gala attire Februarj- 
II and 12, in celebration of the one hundredth 
anniversary of the first use of anthracite coal 
commercially. On February 11, 1808, Judge 
Jesse Fell, a pioneer in the Wyoming Valley, 
successfully burned anthracite or "stone coal," 
as it was then disdainfully called, in an open 
grate and thus proved its value for commer- 
cial purposes. Fifty years to a day after 
Judge Fell's discovery, the Wyoming Historical 
Society was organized in the tavern where 
Judge Fell's experiments were tried. That so- 
ciety has been in continuous existence since 
its organization, and had charge of the com- 
memorative exercises. 

A meeting of the society was held in the His- 
torical Society's rooms in the afternoon of Feb- 
ruary II, at which the election of officers was 
held and the secretary reported that the en- 
dowment fund had reached the sum of $40,000. 

The Schuylkill County Society. 

The Historical Society of Schuylkill county 
recently suffered .the loss by death of its presi- 
dent and founder, the Hon. D. C. Henning. 
The exceptional progress which this society 
has made in the few years since its organiza- 
tion was in large measure due to his executive 
ability and his enthusiasm in the work. 

Judge Henning's interest in local history ex- 
tended beyond the limits of his own county. It 
was his firm conviction that the importance of 
the border warfare, during the French and 
Indian War, all alone the range of the Blue 
Mountains, and the part borne by the German 
settlers in that warfare, has not been generally 
understood or recognized. He wrote a number 
of articles on the subject and had planned 
others. He also had hoped to see the sites of 
the frontier Indian forts suitably marked by 
the State, believing this to be a long step 
toward giving a proper idea of the significance 
of those forts in their day. 

The newly-elected president of the society 
is Mr. William H. Newell, who has been one 
of its most active members from the begin- 
ning. With him are associated most of the 
former officers, so that the work is expected to 
be continued without any serious break. 

This society has issued some valuable pub- 
lications. In its last number the principal 
article was on The Fossil Flora of the South- 
ern Anthracite Coal Field, prepared by Mr. 
Claude Unger, of Pottsville, and approved by 
Prof. White, of the Smithsonian Institution. 
The society has under consideration publishing 
in permanent form in the near future some of 
the Blue Mountain Tales written some years 
ago by its former president and published in 
one of the Pottsville newspapers. 

In its membership and in its finances thsi so- 
ciety is in a flourishing condition, and as it 
has a large field of local hstory heretofore 



almost neglected, there is no reason why good 
results should not be realized. 

The York County Society. 

Ac the annual meeting of the York County 
Historical Society the old officers were re- 
electecT, as follows : President, Robert C. Bair ; 
Vice-President, Capt. W. H. Lanius ; Treas- 
urer, Prof. A. Wanner ; Secretary, Charles A. 
Hawkins; Corresponding Secretary, ]\Iiss Lena 
T. Root; Trustees, Dr. E. F. Jefifers, George 
P. Smyser and J. A. Dempwolf. 

On suggestion of the curator, a committee, 
consisting of Rev. C. E. Walter, D.D., Prof. 
C. M. Ehrenfeld and Capt. J. C. Hoffman, was 
named to arrange a program and select persons 
to prepare special papers to be read at future 
meetings. 

Papers were read and discussions participated 
in. It was stated that there are many who are 
able to reveal a rich store of hitherto unpub- 
lished historical facts, and that it would be 
well to delve into the humor and poetry of 
this community of the days of long ago. 

The Montgomery County Society. 

The Historical Society of Montgomery 
County, Pa., held its twentj'-seventh annual 
meeting, in the society's rooms, Norristown, 
Pa., February 22, 1908, with President Joseph 
Fornance in the chair. The meeting was well 
attended, and a lively interest manifested in 
the business before the meeting. The Librarian, 
Wm. Summers, reported a number of dona- 
tions to the library, and the purchase- of the 
first three volumes of the First Census of the 
United States. 

The report of the Treasurer, recording scien- 
tific observations made by Peter Legaux of 
Montgomery county, and published in an agri- 
cultural journal 1815, was presented by I. C. 
Williams, Esq. 

An interesting paper was read by Mr. John 
C. MacNeilis, of Norristown, on "Lieutenant 
Charles Franklin Rand, M.D., Volunteer No. i, 
in an army consisting of 2,777,304 men." 

A paper' on '"^Nlatson's Ford," the first of a 
series on the Fords of the Schuylkill, was 
given by Mr. S. Gordon Smythe, of West 
Conshoh'ocken. Mr. Smythe's paper was a 
valuable contribution to the local history of 
Conshohocken and nearby vicinity. 

The following officers were elected to serve 
the ensuing year : President, Joseph For- 
nance; Vice-Presidents, Rev. A. A. Marple, 
Henry W. Kratz, Rev. Thomas R. Beeber; 
Recording Secretary, Frances Fox; Corre- 
sponding Secretary.' ^Irs. A. Conrad Jones; 
Treasurer, Willoughby H. Reed ; Librarian, 
William Summers; Library Committee, I. P. 
Knipe, S. Gordon Smvth. Katharine Geiger, 
M. L. ]\Iarch, Irvin C. Williams; Trustees, 
Samuel Jarrett, Ashlev P. Hunter, Mrs. Tacy 
Cresson, William W. Potts, W. H. Weber. 



392 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Reviews and Notes 



BY PROF. E. S. GERHARD, TRENTON, N. J. 



— Mr. Reginald Wright Kaufifman has a few- 
lines of epigrams in the February issue of 
The Smart Set, entitled, "From a Man's Note 
Book." These epigrams are pointed, and 
sparkle with practical philosophy like those in 
his "Bachelor's Guide to ^Matrimony." 



,£/ 



jS/ 



— Miss Selina S. Gerhard was born and 
raised in Montgomery county. Pa. She had 
an interesting article in the January issue of 
The S chzvcnckf eldxan , the official organ of the 
Schwenckfelder Church in America. The 
article is entitled, "The History of the Erlau- 
terung," this is a vindication for Schwenckfeld. 

Caspar Schwenckfeld was a Silessian noble- 
man ; he was born in 1489 and died in 1561. 
He was a reformer, and he was also a contem- 
porary of Luther. His followers, who were in 
1734 driven to America by religious persecu- 
tion, are known as Schwenckfelders. His views 
of the Sacraments soon brought upon him the 
displeasure of the other reformers, and of these 
Luther was the most annoying and abusive. 

Schwenckfeld has been iTiisrepresented and 
ignored by theologians and historians alike e\'er 
since the days of the Reformation. And over 
one-hundred years ago his adherents in America 
•decided to do something to defend his name and 
fame and to make known to the world his doc- 
trine and their own history. The same was 
published in a book entitled, "Erlauterung fiir 
Caspar Sshwenckfeld ;" or, "A Vindication for 
Caspar Schwenckfeld." 

The article in question recounts the difficul- 
ties encountered in the publication of this book, 
written by Christopher Schultz, the most noted 
and learned Schwenckfeld scholar of his day. 
Carl Ehrerfried Heintze, of Germany, super- 
vised the printing of the book in Germany, 
in the year 1771. The correspondence that took 
place between these men is still extant in manu- 
script form. The aspiring author may have his 
troubles with an unsympathetic publisher and 
■with a still more unsympathetic public, but he 
experiences very few of the troubles and dis- 
appointments that cluster around the making 
-of this book. 

— James M. Swank, General Manager of 
the American Iron and Steel Association, con- 
nected with the association since 1873, must 
dream of numbers and see columns of figures 
in 'his waking hours. His Annual Statistical 
Reports, a copy of which reached us through 
his courtesy, contain statistics galore of the 
iron and steel industries of the United States, 
Canada, Great Britain and some other coun- 
tries, and statistics also of the coal, coke and 
.shipbuilding industries of the United States. 



To embody and clothe an almost endless ar- 
ray of figures in smooth-flowing English sen- 
tences, page after page, requires literary skill, 
though the product would not be classified as 
belonging to Belles Lettres. Mr. Swank is an 
honor to his Pennsylvania-German ancestry, 
and is proud of it. Why not? 
.^ ^^ 
— Mr. John Luther Long's world famous 
story, "Madame Butterfly," has been dramatized 
by David Pelasco, and has been played very 
successfully at the Lyric theater in Philadel- 
phia. It contains some beautiful scenes of 
Japanese life, and also scenes that demand a 
thorough knowledge of temperamental emotion 
and of the expression of it. 

— Mr. J. G. Rosengarten, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., read a paper on "German Archives as 
Sources of German-American History" before 
the Pennsylvania-German Society, October, 
1907, which later appeared in German-American 
Annals. We have before us a reprint. The 
paper points out many unexplored sources of 
historjr in England and Germany bearing on 
what the early Germans did for our country. 
The author says : "United effort cannot fail 
to open archives hitherto closed, and to obtain 
from public and private sources much of value 
and interest for a better knowledge of our 
German settlers and immigrants and their 
homes and ancestors and local surroundings." 



jS/ 



je/ 



— A paper was read by Captain J. H. Bassler, 
of Myerstown, Pa., before the Lebanon County 
Historical Society, October, 1907, entitled, "The 
Color Episode of the 149th Regiment, P. V., in 
the First Dav's Fight at Gettysburg, July i, 
1863." 

The paper, issued in pamphlet form, has the 
following introductory words : 

"This paper is dedicated to the memory of 
Henry G. Brehm, Color Sergeant of the 149th 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, who in the 
first day's fight, at Gettysburg, was detached 
with his colors to deceive the enemy and draw 
away from the regiment a destructive, enfilad- 
ing battery fire. He was never recalled; and 
his heroic efforts to save his colors against 
hopeless odds, after the brigade was flanked 
out of its position, and his escape practically 
cut off, stands unparalleled in the histor\' of 
that great battle. 

"The color sergeant, Brehm, and his guards 
— Friddell, Lehman, Spayd, Hummel and Hoff- 
man, all Lebanon county boys, have been placed 
in a false light, and their captain aims to see 
to it that 'his 'men are not robbed of their 
well-earned laurels by antagonistic claims un- 
supported by evidence.' " 





REV. DR. ABRAM R. HORNE 
(See page 195) 



PROF. AAROX S. CHRISTINE 
(See page 200 





DAVID W.HESS 
(.See page !.'0l) 



PROF. HENRY SYLVESTER JACOBY, C. E. 

(See page 22-2) 



Vol. IX MAY, 1908 No. 5 

Picturesque and Historic Durham Valley 



nV ASIIER L. HESS, PHILADELPHIA. 




OCATED in the extreme 
northern part of Ikicks 
county, in Springfield and 
Durham townships, watered 
by Cook's creek and several 
branches, this valley is sup- 
posed by scientists to have been the bed 
of a river before the Glacial Period. The 
Alluvial deposits existing' in many places, 
— vast accumulations of various sized 
boulders, ridges of gravel and sand, de- 
posits of drift, — would prove the correct- 
ness of this theory. The valley extends 
into New Jersey, continuing as far as 
Raritan, and deposits of a similar charac- 
'ter may be traced the entire distance. 

Rev. Dr. Abram R. Home. 

(S e Fi'onlispiece P rr.il) 

The creek originally called Schook's 
or "Squook'' creek, also known as Dur- 
ham creek, was noted for its abundance 
of speckled trout, — the Fisher's paradise. 
Its principal source is in the Rocky Val- 
ley, a district in the west end of Spring- 
field township, Bucks county, near the 
village of Fairmount (Passer P. O.), 
where innumerable mammoth rocks of 
the Trap species abound, used extensive- 
ly in the manufacture of Belgian blocks 
for street-paving purposes. Taking an 
easterly course, the creek traverses a rich 
and beautiful valley, full of historic in- 
terest. Its w^ater furnishes power for a 
number of mills scattered along its course. 
Within two miles from its source we 
come across an old-fashioned wooden 
bridge on the road leading from Pleasant 
Valley to Quakertown. near which, 



standing back from the road, is an old 
stone house, which is "said to be the oldest 
house now standing in the township, 
erected in the year 1736, as indicated by 
the inscription on a stone in the west 
gable-end. The arched segments over 
the door and window-frames indicate an- 
tiquity, as does the front door, which is 
in two parts, upper and lower, similar to 
stable doors in large barns. This house 
was the birthplace of the late Rev. Dr. 
Abram R. Home, of Allentown, Pa., born 
March 24, 1834, whose name and face 
was familiar in his day to every Penn- 
sylvania-German in eastern Pennsylvania ; 
famous as a lecturer, teacher and preach- 
er, — a born orator. He began his career 
by teaching public school from 1850 to 
1854, when he began to study for the 
ministry, entering the Lutheran Seminary 
at Gettysburg, graduating from that in- 
stitution in 1858. The same year he estab- 
lished the Bucks County Normal and 
Classical School at Quakertown, Pa., 
which he conducted for about five years. 
Some time afterwards he became princi- 
pal of an academy at McEwensville, Pa. 
He was pastor of St. Mark's Lutheran 
church, in Williamsport, from 1865 to 
1872, and during four years of that period 
he also served as superintendent of public 
schools of the same city. He was prin- 
cipal of Kutztown State Normal School 
from 1872 to 1877; also principal of the 
Academic department of Muhlenberg 
College at Allentown, Pa., from 1877 to • 
1882. He was also the author of several 
books in the Pennsylvania-German dia- 
lect, and was editor of the National Edu- 
cator from the time he established it, in 



196 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




B R THPL CK OF REV. DR. A \ RAM K. HORNE. 



i860, until his death, which occurred De- 
cember 23, 1902, at the age of 68 years, 
after an exceptionally brilliant and useful 
career. His memory lives and is cher- 
ished in the hearts of all those who 
knew him. His body rests in Fairyiew 
Cemetery, Allentown, Pa. 

Soldiers of the Revolution. 

About one-half mile down the valley 
from the Home homestead may be traced 
the banks of an old mill-race, leading to 
an old stone building, formerly a wool- 
carding (fulling) mill, erected some time 
prior to the Revolutionary War by Wil- 
liam Bryan, whose son, John S. Bryan, 
was Brigadier General of Bucks County 
Militia, and also served as Associate Judge 
of the county for one term. He was born 
August I2th, 1814, and died June 30th. 
1863. Josiah Bryan, an ancestor, was 
Captain of 6th Company, 3rd Battalion, 
Pennsylvania Militia, of sixty men from 
Springfield township in the Revolutionary 
War, mustered into service May 6th, 
1777. Following is the muster-roll as it 
appears in the Pennsylvania Archives, 
containing many familiar names whose 
•descendants still reside in the district : 

First Lieut., Chris. Wagoner; Second Lieut., 
Adam Beidelman ; Ensign, Michael Ruth ; 
Privates, Michael Fackenthal, Philip Hess, 
George Buntin, Chris. Mench, Philip Correll, 
Daniel Deal, Michael Deal, Martin Brown, 



Peter Hedrick, George Weber, Peter Gruber, 
Elias Shwarz, Peter Ziegler, David Gary, Jacob 
Erdman, Cassmir Henys, John Mench. Ru- 
dolph Kroman, Wollery Lutz, John Moyer, 
John Folk, Nicholas Buck, Tensis Hartzel, 
Adam Mench, John Metzgar, Fred. Kirch, 
Adam Shoog, Philip Mann, John Young, Adam 
Frankenfitld, Peter Ruth, Matt. Reinhart, 
George Ruth (Jr.), Henry Huber, Philip 
Trevy, Moses Buntin, Chas. Eichlin, John 
Folmer, Sebastian Horn, Casper Metzgar, John 
Woolslager, Isaac Wirebach, John Mann, Jacob 
Baron, Yest Smith, Daniel Wignere, Henry 
Aflerbache, Peter Shoog, Andrew Sigafoos, 
John Esterle, Benedict Strome, Francis Smith, 
Chas. Diel, Fred Konig. 

Captain Samuel Dean also served in 
the Continental Army during the Revo- 
lutionary War, enlisting as a private in 
Captain Abraham Miller's Company, re- 
cruited at Mount Bethel, Northampton 
county, in 1775. The following year he 
was appointed Lieutenant of Col. Hart's 
Battalion Flying Camp, and on April 9, 
1777, was promoted to Captain. He died 
September 12th, 1817, aged 69 years, and 
his body rests in the old part of the Evan- 
gelical burying ground at Springtown. 
His descendants, some of them bearing 
the same name, lived in Springtown for 
many years after his death. 

Pleasant Valley. 

Continuing our journey northward, be- 
fore reaching Pleasant Valley, casting the 
eye in a northwesterly direction, distant 
about one-half mile or more, in a little 



PICTL'RESQU1<: AND HISTORIC DURHAM VALLFA' 



197 




.I'KiN'GFiEM) Mt::cTiXc; H )rsi:: 



grove. (leli;i"ht fully located on hi^h 
,e:round, may be seen a low stone build- 
ini^. — the old Mennonite meeting-house, 
the first one in the township, erected in 
1780. This locality was the battleground 
where the Anglo-Saxons, who were the 
earliest settlers, and the Germans who 
arrived at a later period, had a peaceful 
contest for the mastery. The former 
cafne up the Delaware and Durham val- 
leys, while the latter followed the valley 
of the Perkiomen, and here they met, each 
colony striving for supremacy. The Ger- 
mans finally proved to be the masters, for 
today very few of the English descendants 
are to be found in the township, while 
thrift, industry and frugality, the charac- 
teristic traits of the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans, made this little valley one of the 
most fertile and productive in this part of 
the state. 

At Pleasant \'alley, the creek intersects 
with the old I'hiladelphia and Bethlehem 
"Great Road," and is crossed by a pic- 
turesque stone arch bridge, erected in 
1797. The road was completed north to 
Iron Hill, a point two miles beyond Hel- 
Icrtown in 1738. and was continued to 
I'ethlehem and Nazareth in 1745. In 
1763 a weekly stage line was established 
by one George Klein, between IJethlehem 
and Philadlphia, leavin-:^ Sun Inn at the 



former place every Monday morning, and 
"King of Prussia" Inn, Race street, near 
Third, Philadelphia, every Thursday 
morning. At Pleasant Valley is located 
an old, well-preserved stone mansion, used 
during Revolutionary days as a hotel. In 
it. General LaFayette was entertained 
when on his way to the army hospital at 
Bethlehem in September, 1777, after the 
Battle of Brandywine, where he had been 
wounded. Tradition has it, that Gen. 
Washington had also been a guest in this 
house on one occasion. Nearby is located 
Apple's mill, erected about the year 1805 
by Paul Apple, who was born Sept. 13th, 
1759. and died Nov. 25th, 1827. His 
father, John Apple, was born in Ger- 
many, May i8th, 1726, and was. one of 
the early settlers in Springfield township, 
where he died September ist, 1805. His 
remains lie buried in "Apple's Church" 
burying ground (land which he originally 
owner), at Lcithsville, Pa. His youngest 
son. Andreas Apple, born Dec. 9th, 1791, 
was Associate Judge of Bucks County for 
two terms. He was also First Lieutenant 
in Captain Samuel Flack's company of 
Militia of 100 men from Springfield town- 
ship in the "War of 1812," stationed at 
Marcus Hook, Pa., mustered into service 
October loth, 1814. The muster-roll also 
contains manv familiar names. Andreas 



198 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Apple was also Captain of a company of 
home militia for some years afterwards. 
He died Nov. 20th, 1875, and was buried 
at Springfield church. 

Springfield Church. 
One mile northward along the "Old 
Road" is located historic "Springfield 
church." The present building, which is 
the third of stone, was erected in 1872 ; 
the previous one in 1816; and the first 
one in 1763. The old corner-stone, meas- 



The ground was purchased from 
Christian Schug, who came from Ger- 
many in 1739, and the place was first 
known as "das Schuggen-haiis." The 
church was founded in 1745. The build- 
ing used for worship, from that time to 
1763 was said to be of logs with a brick 
floor which w'ere made in Europe. Rev. 
J. C. Wirz became the first Reformed 
pastor in 1745. Rev. Johann Michael 
Enderlein was the first Lutheran pastor 




SPRINGFIELD CHUKCH. 



urmg 

walled 

quaint 



115^2x18 inches, which has been 
in the present structure, bears this 
inscription of initials and date : 



c iTaa X 







D 




B 



installed in 1763. Springfield church 
bears the distinction of being the "mother" 
church of the surrounding county. From 
it, sprang at least six of the neighboring 
church organizations. There is an exten- 
sive grave-yard attached, wherein a great 
many of the earliest settlers lie buried ; — ■ 
the inscriptions on the tomb-stones in 
many cases have been almost entirely ob- 
literated. 

Church discipline in those early days 
was rather lax as compared with the 
present age. One of the preachers named 
Eyerman who became the pastor in 1771, 
had aciuired a taste for the inebriating 
cup and became slightly intoxicated occa- 



PICTURESQUE AND HISTORIC DURHAM VALLEY 



199 



sionally. The official board finally de- 
cided to recjuest from him his resignation. 
When he preached his farewell sermon, 
he had prepared a list of names of diose 
members who had presented him with 
provisions or gifts of any kind during 
his pastorate. This he read in a very 
sneering and sarcastic tone, that before he 
concluded the reading of the names, he 
suddenly stepped down from the sugar- 
bowl pulpit on account of the commotion, 
and was in the act of leaving the church, 
when on his way out one member whose 
name he had just mentioned as having 
given him ")iitr cin lialvcr loeb brod" 
(only half a loaf of bread), repUed "Un 
dcs zvar tsu fid fur dich schbaits buh" 
(and this was too much for you, you 
rogue), and catching hold of his coat tail, 
ripped it off completely. Before reaching 
the door the reverend gentleman turned 
saying, — "£/zr vii'ist niir incin yahr's loh' 
aber dock batsalcn, fi'ir ich haba cs papier 
in mcin tasha" (you must pay my year's 
salary for I have the paper in my pocket), 
smiting his breast pocket. Some time 
afterwards he met several of the mem- 
bers at the hotel, it is said, who, over- 
powering him, threw him down upon the 
floor, took the document (a contract) 
from his pocket, and thrust it into the 
stove, and there the matter ended. 

Another very ludicrous incident oc- 
curred some time afterwards. Ludwig 
Nuspeckel, born in Germany, April 14, 
1730, came to America in 1752 and set- 
tled in Springfield township, and was 
well-to-do, but he had a son, Philip, who 
became wayward, and in his latter days 
roamed about from place to place, sort 
of a harmless, good-natured fellow, 
spending his time in idleness and became 
addicted to drinking. He was a member 
of Springfield church, and whenever at- 
tending services invariably took the same 
seat, and in case the church was crowded 
and his favorite seat occupied, he would 
sit in the lap of the occupant and spit 
tobacco juice until the holder of the seat 
would gladly vacate it. On one occasion 
he went to church intoxicated and becom- 
ing tired of the sermon, he broke out in a 
loud guttural voice, "A-a-hcm! Halt dei 
maul init dcim gablabblc, mcr zvella eimol 
singa" (A-a-hcm! Shut up with youi" 



babbling, let us sing), and immediately 
commenced one of his favorite songs. 
Th€ preacher requested the deacons and 
elders to remove him from the church. 
When they got him to the door, looking 
back he continued by saying, "Ich wer 
dcr azv nirnmc nei kuiiiina" (I am not 
going in there again). The matter was 
overlooked, and no action was ever taken 
against him for disturbing religious serv- 
ices, while the utterances have been used 
as by-words in the community for many 
years. 

Old Mills. 

Follow^ing the creek eastward, about 
one-half mile from Pleasant Valley, we 
find Hawk's Mill, formerly known as 
Sam Mann's Mill. The first building 
which was mill and dwelling combined 
under one roof, and is said to be part of 
the present structure, was erected by Elias 
Beidelman. in 1759, who was born in Ger- 
many, Sept. 27th, 1707. He came to 
America in 1730, and died Oct. 28th, 
1781. 

Cressman's Mill, a mile further east, is 
also an old landmark, having the water- 
wheel on the outside, which was custom- 
ary in olden times, erected no doubt over 
a hundred years ago. 

Springtown. 

Nearing this point the valley becomes 
picturesque ; Rocky Ridge looms up close 
by ; near the top of which, a little to the 
left of the road at this point, is a mass of 
rocks of immense size, piled on top of 
each other to a height of about forty 
feet, as if placed there by human hands. 
From the top a magnificent view of the 
valley may be obtained. From the east 
side, the top stones resemble a human face 
somewhat; from the north side a human 
skull. The village of Springtown nestled 
at the foot of a range of hills may be 
seen in the distance. This is the oldest, 
as well as the largest, village in the town- 
ship. One authority claims that the post- 
office was established in 1806; another 
authority has it 1819. It was so named 
on account of the numerous springs 
found within its li:nits. Here we find 
traces of the redmen. Tradition has it, 
that an Indian village existed here, and 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




SKUl.L HO(_K 

also a burying ground along the little 
run near the schoolhouse. Many speci- 
mens of arrow-heads and other of their 
implements have been picked up in this 
vicinity. 

The "Walking Purchase." 
Two of the famous "walkers," Mar- 
shall and Yates, of the historic "Indian 
Walk" or "Walking Purchase," passed 
through here on the afternoon of Sep- 
tember 19th, 1737, and shared hospitali- 
ties with one George Wilson, an Indian 
trader, who located here in 1728 and 
opened a store, and who was the first and 
only white settler at the place at that 
time. The "walkers," three in number, 
with their attendants on horse-back 
started from Wrightstown, Bucks county, 
at sunrise ; one of them, Jennings by 
name, dropped out before the noon hour 
of the first day, his health prematurely 
shattered. Yates was overcome with 
fatigue early on the second day, stumbled 
and fell into a creek, and when rescued 
was entirely blind ; he died three days 
later from the awful strain. Marshall, 
an experienced hunter and trapper, con- 
tinued on with the aid of his compass, 
until he was called to "halt" by his at- 
tendants, after reaching a point near 
where the town of Mauch Chunk now 
stands, havig covered a distance of 86 
miles in one and one-half days (eighteen 
hours). The Indians were very much 
displeased, and declared that it was a 



''rtni" instead of a '■'iralk,^* 
as agreed upon, saying. — "No 
sit down smoke, — no stop 
shoot squirrel, but lun, luiv 
all tlayl" Marshall never 
received'the promised reward, 
five pounds of m.oney and 500 
acres of land, from, the "land 
grabbers," John and Thomas 
Penn, and the injustice of the 
deal caused blood-shed from 
that time forth. The mas- 
sacres at Gnadenhutten (now 
Lehighton) and \\'yoming 
were the direct results of this 
disgraceful transaction. Mar- 
shall died in 1779, aged about 
So years and his body rests in 
a private burying-ground in 
Tinicum town ship,, Bucks coun- 
ty, near Erwinna. The year following 
"the walk" (1738) Stephen Twining pur- 
chased a tract of land from Casper 
Wistar, a land speculator of Philadelphia, 
who was the first land-holder in what is 
now Springtown, and erected a grist-mill, 
which was the first one in the township. 
It occupied the same site where Funk's 
mill now stands. ^On ]\Iay 2"/, 1763, 
Twining sold 500 acres, including the 
mill, to Abraham Funk for ^1570 lawful 
money of Pennsylvania. The mill, with 
part of the tract, has remained in posses- 
sion of the Funk family ever since. 

Prof. Aaron S. Christine. 

(See Frontispiece Poriiait) 

A branch valley, about three miles long, 
extending eastward from a gap in the 
hills at Leithsville, Saucon township, 
joins Durham valley at this place, where 
also a strong tributary, fed by numer- 
ous springs, empties into the creek, from 
whence its course is due east, parallel with 
a range of hills immediately north, known 
as the south spur of the Lehigh moun- 
tains, called "Schzvoiva Bcrig." The 
southern slope of the hill is gracefully 
dotted with farmhouses. Among them, 
about a mile distant from Springtown, is 
a small low stone house which was the 
birthplace of the late Prof. Aaron S. 
Christine, born October 28th, 1833, who 
was one of the foremost and ablest teach- 
ers of his time ; the result of his labors 
were visible on every hand for many 



PICTURESQUE AND HISTORIC DURHAM VALLEY 



years after his death. He was a graduate 
of JMillcrsvillc State Normal School, and 
became Instructor of Penmanship in 
Prof. A. R. Home's Classical School at 
Ouakertovvn, in 1858. Resigninj^ that 
position, he began teaching public and 
private schools at Springtown and vicin- 
ity for some years, during which period 
lie also established and conducted a large 
Sunday School. In 1864 he became prin- 
cipal of Carbon Academy at Lehighton, 
Pa., serving in that capacity until his 
death, which occurred !May 31st, 1868, 
while yet in the prime of his life, leaving 
a name and memory that will only be for- 
gotten when those who received instruc- 
tion under his tutorship s'.iall have passed 
awav. 



time of the transfer, another Ziegenfuss 
erected a mill on the north side of the 
creek, nearly opposite, but owing to a dis- 
pute arising about the use of the water 
which was decided in favor of Mr. Houpt, 
this mill fell into disuse. Later on Mr. 
Houpt erected the ])resent building, which 
has not been operated, however, for a 
number of years. His son, John Houpt 
Jr., born July 25, 1795, was a machinist 
and an inventor. He invented a number 
of improvements in steam engines, some 
of which are in use at the present time. 
A condenser for marine steam-engines, 
also improvements in steam-generators, 
and improvements, in steam condensers 
are some of his principal achievements. 
He died October 31, 1885, aged 90 years. 




HOUPFS Or>D MILL 



Houpt's Old Mill. 

A short distance further on in the val- 
ley, we find Houpt's old abandoned mill, 
all moss-covered, nestling beside a lime- 
stone bluff, forming a very pleasing pic- 
ture. The first mill was erected by An- 
drew Ziegenfuss. who came from Ger- 
many with his father, Hans Jacob Ziegen- 
fuss. in 1738, when only 15 years of age. 
Finding the capacity of the mill inade- 
quate, he erected the second mill of stone 
a few rods further east, which he sold 
about 1790 or '95 to John Houpt, Sr., 
who was born in the township June 12, 
1767, and died Aug. 25, 1851. About the 



David W. Hess. 

(See Fronlispieee Portrait) 

Residing near by, and a close friend of 
Mr. Houpt, was the late David W. Hess, 
who was born at Springtown, September 
i8th. 1820, and died March ist 1905. 
He devoted almost his entire life to ed- 
ucational work, and was altogether a 
self-made man, and a model instructor. 
He loved books, and "burned the mid- 
night oil," thereby gaining an education 
far beyond the average student. In his 
younger days he taught public school, and 
singing school. In 1864 he opened a 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



private school, which he conducted for 
about five years, principally for such who 
wished to acquire a higher education 
with a view of becoming teachers ; very 
many following that vocation became 
proficient through his instruction. He 
was by profession a surveyor and con- 
veyancer, and a magnificient penman ;- 
documents executed by his hand had the 
appearance of print, and were admired by 
all who saw them. His fame as a mathe- 
matician, botanist and mineralogist was 
widely known, and for a number of years 
he gave private instructions to many 
young people in these branches. Being a 
close Bible student he also furnished much 
Scriptural knowledge by distributing 
home-written instructions, but in his latter 
years, failing eyesight forced him to 
abandon these pursuits. Many of our 
prominent people received their early 
training at his hands, and the work of 
this plain unassuming man lives after 
him. 

" Buckwampum." 

"Buckwampum," so named by the 
Indians, signifying "a swamp on a hill," 
a peak about a mile or so south of this 
point, rearing its conical shaped head 
high above the surrounding hills, was an 
Indian retreat, and so charmed and at- 
tracted were they by the abundance of 
wild fruit, berries, game and numerous 
springs of pure water, that they were loath 
to leave the spot, and continued to abide 
there until shortly before the beginning 
of the Revolutionary War. The old- 
fashioned bread-baskets made from twist- 
ed rye straw and oak splints were made 
in the neighborhood by an Indian named 
Tuckemony. He and his family resided 
in Haycock tomnship about one-half mile 
east of Stony Garden. He is described as 
having been a tall, erect Indian, well 
domesticated, and deserves to be remem- 
bered as the last one of his tribe living in 
. this region. 

Durham Township. 

Leaving Springfield Township which 
was organized in 1743, tlte valley extends 
into Durham Township which was not 



organized until 1775, although settlers 
had taken up their abode in the district 
more than fifty years previous. In the 
valley of Durham stood one of the first 
Iron Furnaces in Pennsylvania. "Cole- 
brookdale" furnace near Pottstown erect- 
ed in 1720 antedates it several years. 
Durham Furnace was put in blast in 1727, 
and was owned by Richard Backhouse. 
From 1774 to 1779 it was operated by 
George Taylor, a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and one of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. He 
lived at Easton where he died in 1781 and 
his body rests in the Lutheran Grave-yard 
at that place. The Furnace stood on the 
same spot that the Durham Flour Mill 
now occupies. From old records we learn 
that the amount of iron produced in 
twenty-four hours averaged about three 
tons. The blast was produced by a huge 
leather bellows, operated by water power. 
The course of the race can still be easily 
traced a considerable distance up the 
creek. In constructing the bellows it re- 
quired 12 sheets of thin sheet-iron, 24 
alum-dressed sheepskins, and 15 pounds 
of glue, as shown by old records. Most 
of the cannon-balls and camp-kettles used 
by the Continental Army were cast at this 
furnace. Also the great chain that was 
stretched across the Hudson River at 
West Point during the Revolution as a 
blockade against the British Fleet. The 
links weighed 250 pounds each. The 
chain was fastened on huge blocks at 
each end and was buoyed up in the stream 
by huge logs pointed at the ends to lessen 
the weight at the fastenings. The British 
succeeded in breaking the chain, and it 
was never replaced. About one-half mile 
further east along the creek are the ruins 
of an old forge and bloomary, which was 
known as the second furnace. The third 
furnace stood on the same site that the 
present furnace occupies, it being the 
fourth, located in a ravine just beyond a 
sharp bend, forming a striking picture. 
The old Philadelphia and Easton road, 
known at present as the Durham Road, 
was begun in 1693, and opened north- 
ward from Philadelphia in sections at 
various intervals, was completed to Dur- 
ham village in 1745, and extended to 
Easton in 1755. About the year 1745 the 



PICTURESQUE AND HISTORIC DURHAM VALLEY 



203 




nURHAM FQKN'ACE. 



road leading" from Durham Furnace west- 
ward through the valley was built to a 
point about a mile beyond Springtown 
where it intersects with the Philadelphia 
and Bethlehem Road. 

General Daniel Morgan. 

About a mile east of the village of Dur- 
ham along the creek on the site of 
Laubach's lime-kilns, once stood a stone- 
house which was the birth-place of Gen- 
eral Daniel Morgan, of Revolutionary 
fame, — the hero of the Cowpens, South 
Carolina on January 17th 1781. He was 
also a participant at the age of 19 in 
General Braddock's expedition against 
the French and Indians at Fort Duquesne 
on July 9th 1755 resulting in disastrous 
defeat, where Braddock fell mortally 
wounded. Morgan emigrated to Virginia 
early in life, taking up his residence in 
Charleston, from where he entered upon 
his military career. He served one term 
in the Continental Congress from the 
state of Virginia. He died July 6 1802 
and his remains lie buried at Winchester, 
Virginia. His father James Morgan was 
a laborer at the Durham Furnace for 
many years, and about the year 1780 be- 
came Iron Master, or Superintendent. 

A natural feature of interest in Durham 
is the Cave, vulgarly called ''Deivel's 
Loch," near where the creek empties into 
the Delaware River ; a large and wonder- 



ful cavern, originally about 150 feet long, 
about 15 feet high and 30 to 40 feet wide. 
It was discovered in a lime-stone quarry 
many years ago, and has been visited by 
thousands of tourists and relic collectors, 
so that the original beauty of the stalag- 
mites suspended from the top of the in- 
terior has all been destroyed. The cave 
slopes from the entrance towards the rear 
end where may be seen a pool of clear 
water evidently a spring, having a sub- 
terranean outlet no doubt into the creek or 
Delaware River, and where frequently 
during the hot months, both man and 
beast go to slake their thirst, and find a 
cool retreat. 

The Delaware River. 

"Rattlesnake" Hill, so called, is an emi- 
nence on the south side of the valley, 
facing Delaware River, abounding in vast 
quantities of rich iron ore, with which the 
furnace is partly supplied. On the South- 
eastern slope of the hill, about one-half 
mile or so distant from the furnace are 
located the ruins, or remnants of the 
famous Jasper Quarries, at one time 
operated by the Shawnee Indians in the 
manufacture of implements for their 
general use. Traces of the site of their 
workshop near-by are still plainly visible, 
while to this day at every plowing, some 
of t'.u'ir imp'cmenls are turned up. The 



204 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 




DEr>AWARE NORROWS 



Indian village occupied the flat immedi- 
ately north of Durham Cave along the 
.river shore, including the town-site of 
Riegelsville. Leaving the cave and follow- 
ing the road southward a short distance, a 
very pleasing picture presents itself to 
view. — "the first glimpse of the Dela- 
ware," causing one to stop and allow the 
eye to feast for a few moments. Looking 
southward in the distance a little to the 
left, may be seen what appears to be the 
top of a range of hills; these are the 
"Delaware Narrows." or the Palisades of 
the Delaware. — a short distance from 
Kintnersville. At this point the Delaware 



makes an abrupt turn eastward, and the 
formation of the ledge of rock strata 
rising perpendicular, perhaps 300 feet or 
more compose the Narrows, which were 
evidently worn by the action of the water, 
causing the river to make the bend re- 
ferred to, the process of which no doubt 
consumed long periods of time. The 
sight is so picturesque that it is well worth 
a visit. The Doylestown & Easton Trol- 
ley cars pass through Kintnersville, the 
nearest point of access. The same line of 
cars, and also the Ouakertown & Eastern 
R. R. from Ouakertown pass within fifty 
vards of Durham Cave. 



The leading agricultural county in the 
United States, as gauged by the value of 
the products of its farms, is Lancaster 
county, Pa., the value of the farm pro- 
ducts of this county exceeding $10,000,- 
000 each year. There are but thirty-four 



counties in the United States which pro- 
duce more than $5,000,000 per annum 
in farm products and of these thirty- 
four counties more than one-sixth — 
Berks, Chester, Lancaster, Montgomery 
and York — are in Pennsylvania. 



PEi\NSYLVANLVS PART IN THE WINNING OF THE WEST 



205 



Pennsylvania's Part in the Winning 
• of the West 




Note. — We reprint on request tlie following 
extracts from an address delivered before the 
Pennsylvania Society of St. Louis, Mo., De- 
cember I2th. 1901, by Horace Kephart. Li- 
brarian of the St. Louis Mercantile Library. 

The Wedge of Civilization. 

MKRICAX -settlement ad- 
vanced toward the Miss- 
issippi in the shape of a 
wedge, of which the enter- 
ing edge was first Reading, 
in Pennsylvania, then Lan- 
caster, then the Slienandoah X'alley, then 
Louisville, and finally St. Louis. When 
the second census of the L'nited States 
was taken, in 1800. nearly all the white 
inhabitants of our country lived in a tri- 
angle formed by a diagonal southwest- 
ward from Portland, Maine, to the mouth 
of the Tennessee river, here meeting an- 
other diagonal running northwestward 
from Savannah, with tJie Atlantic for a 
base. Central and western New York, 
northern Pennsylvania, and all the terri- 
tory north of the Ohio river, save in its 
immediate vicinity, were almost uninhab- 
ited by whites, and so were Georgia, Ala- 
bama and Mississippi. Yet the state of 
Kentucky had half as many people as 
Massachusetts, and Tennessee had al- 
ready been admitted into the L'nion. 

The Hardest Way West. 

As a rule, geographical expansion pro- 
ceeds along the lines of least resistance, 
following the natural highways afforded 
by navigable rivers and open plains. It 
is easily turned aside by mountain chains, 
dense forests, and hostile natives. Espe- 
cially was this true in the days before 
railroads. Rut the development of our 
oldei west shows a striking exception to 
this rule ; for the entering wedge was 
actual}' driven through one of the most 
rugged, difficult and inhospitable regions 
to be 1 lund along the whole frontier of 
the British possessions. 



This fact is strange enough to fix our 
attention ; but it is doubly strange when 
we consider that there was no climatic, 
political nor economic necessity for such 
defiance of nature's laws. We can see 
why the Mississippi should have been ex- 
plored from the north, rather than from 
its mouth, because Canada was settled 
before Louisiana, and it is easier to float 
downstream than to pole or cordelle 
against the current. But why was not 
the west entered and settled through the 
obviously easy course of the Mohawk 
valley ? 

New York's Opportunity. 

Beyond this valley were gentle slopes, 
and many a route practicable for settlers 
into the rich country of Ohio. The cen- 
tral trail of the Iroquois, beaten smoother 
than a wagon-road, ran straight west 
from Albany, through the fairest portion 
of New York, to the present site of Buf- 
falo, and thence followed trie southern 
shore of Lake Erie into Ohio. Where it 
crossed the Genesee, the old war-trail of 
the Senecas branched off to the south, 
passing behind the furthermost ramparts 
of the x\lleghanies, to the forks of the 
Ohio. Moccasined feet traveling over 
these trails for centuries had worn them 
from three to twelve inches into the 
ground, so that they were easy to follow 
Oil the darkest night. These were only 
two of several well-marked routes from 
ancient Albany to the new west. It was 
to this easy communication with the coun- 
try beyond the Appalachians that the Iro- 
quois owed their commanding position on 
the continent. 

Pennsylvania's Difficulties. 

On the other hand. Pennsylvania and 
the southern colonies had no easy access 
to the west. Nature herself had bidden 
these people to rest content In their tide- 
water regions, and frowned upon any 



206 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



westward expansion by interposing the 
mighty barriers of the Blue Ridge and 
the xMleghanies. rising tier beyond tier 
in parallel chains from northern Penn- 
sylvania to Alabama. Few trails crossed 
these mountains. From base to summit 
they were clad in dense forest, matted 
into jungle by luxuriant undergrowth. 
No one knew what lay beyond them, nor 
how far through this "forest savage, 
harsh, impregnable," a traveller must bore 
until he reached land fit for settlement. 
It was well known, however, that the 
.trans-Alleghany region, whatever might 
be its economic features, was dangerous 
ground. The Indians themselves could 
not occupy it, for it had been for ages 
the common battle-ground of opposing 
tribes. Any savage met within its con- 
fines wr.s sure to be upon the warpath 
against any and all comers. Kentucky 
was indeed "the dark and bloody 
ground," and he who entered took his life 
in his hand, be he white or red. 

Thus the chances of success in anv 
westward movement were in favor of 
New York and New England, and 
against Pennsylvania. Yet it was the lat- 
ter that did the work. Central and west- 
ern New York remained a wilderness un- 
til Missouri was settling with Americans. 
New England took little or no part in 
western affairs until after the revolution, 
when, the west having been won, ]\Iassa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, calmly over- 
stepping New York and Pennsylvania, 
laid thrifty hand upon the public domain 
north of Pittsburg and west to the Miss- 
issippi. 

How the West was Entered. 

We have seen that the west was actu- 
ally entered by the most difficult and hos- 
tile route, and this in spite of political 
and economic reasons for choosing a 
more northerly and easier line of advance. 
I do not remember that this has ever be- 
fore been pointed out ; but it is a fact of 
deep significance, for it determined what 
should be the temper of the great west, 
and what should be its course of develop- 
ment. 

The wedge of settlement was driven 
through the heart of the Alleghanies be- 
cause there dwelt at the foot of the moun- 
tains a people more aggressive, more dar- 



ing, and more independent than the tide- 
water stock. This people acted on its own 
initiative, not only without government 
aid, but sometimes in defiance of govern- 
ment. It won to the American flag not 
only the central west, but the northwest 
and southwest as well ; and it was, for the 
most part, the lineal descendants of these 
men who first, of Americans, explored the 
far west, and subdued it for future settle- 
ment. 

This explains why Missouri, rather than 
the northern tier of new states, became in 
its turn the vanguard and outpost of civil- 
ization, as Kentucky and Tennessee had 
been before her, and Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania before them. It explains why, 
when mountain and forest barriers had 
been left behind, and the vast western 
plain offered cottntless parallel routes of 
travel to the Rockies, such routes were 
not itsed, but all the great trans-continental 
trails, whether to Santa Fe, California, or 
Ore2:on, focussed for half a century at St, 
Louis or Independence. It explains why 
the majority of our famous scouts and 
explorers and Indian fighters were men 
whose strain went back to the Shenan- 
doah valley or the Yadkin, and why most 
of them cottid trace their descent still 
further back to Pennsylvania, mother of 
western pioneers. 

The First Pioraeers. 

In his fascinating histor\- of "The 
\\'inning of the West," Theodore Roose- 
velt says that "The two facts of most im- 
portance to remember in dealing with our 
pioneer history are, first, that the western 
portions of Virginia and the Carolinas 
were peopled by an entirely different 
stock from that which had long existed 
'a the tidewater regions of those colonies ; 
and secondly, that except for those in the 
Carolinas who came from Charleston 
j comparatively few], the immigrants of 
this stock were mostly from the north, 
from their great breeding-ground and 
nursery in western Pennsylvania." 

We find here an interesting problem. 
How came it to pass that a community 
of Quakers, non-resisting, intensely do- 
mestic, circumspect, loathing everything 
that smacked of adventure, should have 
formed the "breeding-ground and nursery"' 
of as warlike, and restless, and desper- 



PEXXSYLVANLVS PART IN THE WINNING OF THE WEST 



207 



ately venturesome a race as this world 
has seen ? 

We have a favorite saying that 
"America is an asylum for the oppressed 
of all nations." But America was not 
always so. Scarcely had the Puritans 
landed at Plymouth before they began 
seeking heretics. The Cavaliers of the 
south, more tolerant of venial sins, ad- 
mitted other sects to their Canaan, but 
on condition that they pay tithes to sup- 
port an episcopal clergy. In most of the 
colonies a Catholic was little better than 
a witch, and likely to be attainted with 
treason as well. If to a heretical creed the 
unlucky immigrant added a foreign 
tongue, this stamped him as a boor, and 
his case was hard indeed. But the Quak- 
ers "unlike many other martyrs, did not 
become persecutors in turn." Pennsyl- 
vania was an asylum for the oppressed. 

The Pennsylvania-Germans. 

And in Europe there w^ere many op- 
pressed. .About the time that the Quakers 
began to settle Pennsylvania — say in 1682 
or 16S3 — an immigration of Germans set 
into this region from the Rhine valley 
and the high-lands of south Germany and 
Switzerland. These were the fore-run- 
ners of an immense tide of persecuted 
Germans which soon swept into the 
Quaker territory, by invitation of Penn, 
and established a new ethnic division of 
our people, to be known thenceforth as 
Pennsylvania-Dutch. They were not 
Dutch, and repudiated the name ; but it is 
now as well Americanized as "corn" for 
maize, or "buffalo" for bison, and is not 
without justification on linguistic and 
ethnological grounds. 

These Germans were the very type 
and pattern of husbandmen. Shrewdly 
picking out the fertile limestone valleys 
at the foot of the Alleghanies they soon 
monopolized the whole farming region 
from Easton on the Delaware, past Allen- 
town. Reading, Lebanon, Lancaster, and 
York. This crescent formed at the time 
the western frontier of Pennsylvania. It 
was the Quakers' buffer against the 
Indians. It w^as the westernmost settle- 
ment of British subjects in America. 
These "Dutchmen" were not mere In- 
dian traders. They had come" to stay: 
and thev did stav, stanch possessors 01 



the soil, and founders of a new father- 
land. 

But there was another reason than 
limestone soil why the early Germans pre- 
ferred the frontier. The society of our 
seaboard was aristocratic, no less in New 
England than in Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia. The Pennsylvania-Dutch were 
nothing if- not Democratic, in a social 
sense; so they tarried not on the seacoast. 

Some of them had at first settled in 
New York, but they soon became dis- 
contented with the treatment they re- 
ceived from aristocratic proprietors and 
officials, who regarded them as mere 
beasts of burden, and they mo-\^ed in a 
body into Pennsylvania. 

The Scotch-Irish. 

Shortly after this tide of German im- 
migration set into Pennsylvania, another 
and very different class of foreigners be- 
gan to arrive. These were the Scotch- 
Irish, or Ulstermen of Ireland. When 
James I., in 1607, confiscated the estates 
of the Irish in six counties of Ulster, he 
turned them over on long leases to a 
body of Scotch and English Presby- 
terians. The career of these immigrants 
was at first prosperous, though neces- 
sarily turbulent. But as their leases be- 
gan to expire, persecutions followed that 
proved unbearable, and the Scotch-Irish 
began emigrating to America. As 
Froude says, "In the two yeavs that fol- 
lowed the Antrim evictions, thirty thou- 
sand Protestants left Ulster for a land 
where there was no legal robbery, and 
where those who sowed the seed could 
reap the harvest." 

The early Scotch-Irish were a brave 
but hot-headed race, as might be ex- 
pected of a people who for a century h'ad 
been planted amid hostile Irish, and lat- 
terly had suft'ered the persecutions of 
Charles I. Justin Winsor describes them 
as having "all that excitable character 
which goes with a keen-minded ad- 
herence to original sin, total depravity, 
predestination, and election," and as see- 
ing "no use in an Indian but to be a tar- 
get for their bullets." On one occasion 
they even took up arms against the Quak- 
ers, and marched to chastise them in Phil- 
adelphia. "The Quakers," says Fisher, 
"were readv for them, and had no hesi- 



^c^ 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



tation in fortifying Philadelphia; for the 
chance of a shot at a Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terian was too much for their scruples 
of religion." 

Neither did the Scotch-Irish at first 
assimilate with the Germans. The latter, 
wherever colonized by themselves, were a 
plodding, undemonstrative, rather thick- 
witted folk, close-fisted, and taking little 
interest in public affairs that did not con- 
cern either their church or their pocket- 
t)Ooks. They were slow to anger, and 
would take a good deal of abuse, but 
tenacious of their rights, and could fight 
like bulldogs when aroused. The Scotch- 
Irish were quick-witted and quick- 
tempered, rather visionary, imperious and 
aggressive. I mention these traits of the 
early immigrants because they had much 
to do with the events that followed. And 
I do not wish it to be thought that we are 
gathered merely to sing the praise of our 
ancestors. Mutual-admiration societies 
are a nuisance and a bore. If we are to 
get any good out of history, we must face 
the truth in all its phases, whether it be 
complimentary to ourselves or not. 

The Scotch-Irish being by tradition and 
habit a border people, puslied to the ex- 
treme western fringe of settlement. They 
were not over-solicitous about the quality 
■of soil. When Arthur Lee, of Virginia, 
was telling Doctor Samuel Johnson of a 
colony of Scotch who had settled upon a 
particularly sterile tract in western Vir- 
ginia, and had expressed his wonder that 
they should do so, Johnson replied. "Why. 
sir, all barrenness is comparative ; the 
Scotch wall never know that it is barren." 

So it was that these people became, in 
turn, our frontiersmen. Immediately they 
began to clash with the Indians, and there 
followed a long series of border wars, 
waged with extreme ferocity, in which it 
is sometimes hard to say which race was 
most to blame. One thing, however, is 
certain ; if any race was ordained to ex- 
terminate the Indians, that race was the 
Scotch-Irish. 

Pennsylvania's March Southwestward. 

When the land west of Susquehanna 
was first opened for settlement, the Ger- 
mans did not fancy it, because the soil 
was rocky and poor. The Scotch-Irish 
entered the mountains, but even thev were 



not attracted in large numbers by such 
rugged country. The chief overflow of 
Pennsylvania emigrants passed south- 
westward into western Maryland and the 
Shenandoah valley. Fertile bottom-lands 
lay in this direction, and the Germans 
were not slow to find them. The first 
house in western Virginia was erected by 
the Pennsylvania-German Joist Hite, 
who established a colony of his people 
near the future site of Winchester. A 
majority of those settled in the eastern 
part of the Shenandoah valley were Penn- 
sylvania-Germans. "So completely did 
they occupy the country along the north 
and south branches of that river," says a 
local historian, "that the few stray 
English, Irish, or Scotch settlers among 
them did not sensibly affect the homo- 
geneousness of the population." Here, as 
in Pennsylvania, the Germans sought out 
the rich bottom-lands and settled on them 
for good, while the Scotch-Irish pushed 
a little to the west of them and occupied 
more exposed positions. There were rep- 
resentatives of other races along the 
frontier, English, Huguenots. Irish — even 
some Quakers were among them ; but the 
Germans and Scotch-Irish predominated. 
Among those who made this long 
"trek" from Pennsylvania southwestward 
were the ancestors of David Crockett, 
Samuel Houston, John C. Calhoun, 
"Stonewall" Jackson, and Abraham Lin- 
coln. 

Settlement of Western Carolina. 

As the Germans were prolific, liked 
large farms, and were steadily recruited 
from the old country, they were always 
furnishing a surplus of young men and 
new-comers to people the west. They 
were not so much given to individual en- 
terprise as the Scotch, but it was not un- 
usual for them to form a colony and flit 
to some distant Eden, setting upon it like 
a swarm of bees. In this manner there 
went on a gradual but sure progress of 
northern peoples across the Potomac, up 
the Shenandoah, across the Staunton, the 
Dan, and the Yadkin, even to Savannah. 
The proportion of Pennsylvania-Dutch in 
this migration is commonly underestimat- 
ed. The archivist of North Carolina, the 
late Wilham L. Saunders. Secretary of 
State, says that "to Lancaster and York 



PENNSYLVANIA'S PART IN THE WINNING OF THE WEST 



20g 



counties, in Pennsylvania, North Carolina 
owes more of her population than to any 
other known part of the world," and he 
adds, "never were there better citizens, 
and certainly never better soldiers." He 
calls attention to the interesting^ fact that 
wlien the \orth Carolina boys of Scotch- 
Irish and PVnnsylvania-Dutch descent 
followed Lee into Pennsylvania in the 
Gettysburg campaign, they were return- 
ing to the homes of their ancestors, by 
precisely the same route that those an- 
cestors had taken in going south. 

A Distinct People. 

I dwell somewhat upon the manner 
in which the western part of the southern 
colonies was peopled, because it was from 
this region that the trans-AUeghany move- 
ment began, and from which came the 
great majority of our pioneers. Ken- 
tucky was settled from Virginia, and 
Tennessee from Virginia and Carolina ; 
but these settlers were mostly of Pennsyl- 
vania origin. So when we speak of the 
\'irginians who settled Kentucky, or the 
Carolinians who founded Tennessee, or of 
Morgan's \'irginia riflemen in the revolu- 
tion, we should not confound them with 
the typical Virginians or Carolinians of 
the coast. They were neither Cavaliers nor 
Poor Whites, but a radically distinct and 
even antagonistic people, who are appro- 
priately called the Roundheads of the 
South. Aristocracv was their bugbear. 

The Far West. 

They had little or nothing to do with 
slavery, detested the state church, loathed 
tithes, and distrusted all authority save 
that of conspicuous merit and natural 
justice. "There is but one thing I fear on 
earth," remarked one of them to the 
French traveller Collot, "and that is what 
men call their laws and their justice." 
The intense individualism of our pioneers 
was the first distinctive characteristic that 
they developed. It entered their blood 
the very moment they landed on American 
soil. 

The Man of the West. 

Both the Scotch-Irish and the Germans 
were clannish people so long as they re- 
mained in compact settlements of their 
own. They merely perpetuated each its 
Own type. But when the more adventur- 



ous spirits of both races struck out for 
themselves and became pioneers in nev^^ 
lands, they were forced to amalgamate. 
In the extreme frontier settlements there 
was more intermarrying- than historians 
have credited. That it produced a better 
type than either forebear is plain enough 
to those who study family records. These 
two human ores were picked from far 
distant mines. The one was hard and 
the other tough. Fate cast them together 
into the glowing crucible of wilderness 
life, and they fused, and ran together, and 
were cast into a new form of manhood. 

Even where blood was not crossed, a 
generation of frontier life changed 
Scotchman and German, Englishman and 
Huguenot, alike into a new and distinct 
character — the Man of the West. The 
romantic and hazardous career of the 
backwoodsmen bred in them a peculiar 
combination of daring and shiftiness, ac- 
tivity and cool endurance. Theirs was 
the satisfaction of overcoming trial and 
peril, and it made them a masterful, self- 
confident people. They had a scorn of 
conventions and of restraint. Law, to 
them, \v<xs no law unless it was based 
upon tlie pnmal rights of man. 

And the wilderness itself reacted upon 
these men and stamped upon them some- 
thing of its own openness, naturalness, 
simplicity. As the pelage and habits of 
animals vary with the climate, and new 
traits of character arise from change of 
environment, so the child of civilization 
turned out upon the wilderness to fight 
singly against strange odds, develops 
qualities unknown among those who lead 
a tamer existence. Pioneers, at the start, 
are made of no common clay. The weak- 
lings of society are eliminated from 
frontier life. None but bold and san- 
guine spirits dare embark in such adven- 
ture ; none but the hardy and self-reliant 
can endure its vicissitudes. The faint- 
hearted and irresolute, the torpid and ef- 
feminate, must seek quieter asylums. We 
have, then, at first muster a picked class 
of men, active, self-centered, buoyant, 
plucky to the backbone, whipped on by 
hazard and spurred by the explorer's 
zeal. The utter freedom and loneliness of 
forest life then tend to accentuate person- 
alities that the friction of cities might 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



abrade to a level sameness. The abrupt 
change of habits, the recovery of lost arts 
of wildcraft. the invention of fresh ex- 
pedients, the imperative call upon dormant 
faculties that civilized man is unconscious 
of possessing, bring out new character- 
istics, as muscles commonly unused be- 
come conspicuous in a Sandow. 

It was thus that the Man of the West 
was born and nurtured in the Appalachian 
valleys. And to this wild life of the 
border, more, perhaps, than to any other 
feature in our history, may be traced those 
traits of sleepless vigilance and restless 
energy that are the most distinctive traits 
of American character today. Wherever 
you meet an American, whether on land 
or sea, in the arctics or the tropics, he is 
marked from all other races by his cease- 
less activity. "To the true American," 
says Sargeant, "repose is stagnation and 
rest a bore. His nature demands occupa- 
tion of an exciting kind. The man who 
loafs, the tramp and the flaneur, who is 
the fashionable variety of the species, are 
all anomalies in our civilization ; they 
exist, but under protest ; they are freaks, 
not types ; sports, and not the natural 
growth of our soil." 

Pennsylvanians in Kentucky. 

Boone was not, as many believe, the 
first white man to enter Kentucky. He 
was not even the first Pennsylvanian to 
do so. About I'^e year 1738 a German 
from western Vir i.iia, John Peter Sail- 
ing, was captured by Indians and carried 
through Kentucky and Illinois to Kas- 
kaskia. He returned to become one of the 
founders of a new commonwealth. Doc- 
tor Thomas Walker and companions from 
Virginia explored a part of Kentucky in 
1748. In 1 75 1, Boone's neighbor on the 
Yadkin, Christopher Gist, made a more 
thorough exploration of this region. Gist 
was soon to become the pioneer of ex- 
treme western Pennsylvania, and from 
there to serve as guide for young George 
Washington on his perilous mid-winter 
march to Ohio. His brother was grand- 
father of Frank P. Blair of Missouri. 

^^ 1 755' ^ woman of Pennsylvania 
birth, Mary Draper Ingles, whose father 
had established the first settlement west of 
the Alleghany divide, and who was her- 
self the first American bride west of the 



mountains, was captured by the Indians 
and carried within the future bounds of 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. She was 
the first white woman known to have seen 
that region. She finally escaped, after 
suffering extraordinary hardships. 

Two years before Boone entered Ken- 
tucky, two hunters from Pittsburg, who 
had been in the Illinois country, came as 
far south as where Nashville now stands. 
These were James Harrod, who, on June 
16, 1774, made the first settlement in Ken- 
tucky, and Michael Steiner (Stoner), a 
Pennsylvania-Dutchman who soon be- 
came famous in frontier annals as a 
scout and Indian fighter. Another great 
scout of the same race, Kasper Mansker 
or Mansco, came with the Long Hunters 
to Kentucky in 1769; as an Indian fighter 
he soon won laurels second only to those 
of Simon Kenton. Kenton, who was a 
Scotch-Irishman from western Virginia, 
went to Fort Pitt down the Ohio river 
and into Kentucky in 1771. He became a 
comrade of Boone, and proved one of the 
most reckless dare-devils on the border, 
but a matchless scout, and gave valuable 
service to the infant commonwealth. 

Boone first visited Kentucky on a hunt- 
ing expedition in 1769, accompanied by a 
few neighbors from Carolina. After en- 
joying six months of incomparable hunt- 
ing, they were scattered by Indians, Boone 
and his brother alone remaining. After a 
year of this life, the brother started home- 
ward to procure supplies, and Boone spent 
the next three months alone in the wilder- 
ness, with neither salt, sugar, nor flour, 
and without daring to light a campfire at 
night. 

In 1773, acting as the agent of a land- 
speculator named Henderson, he attempt- 
ed to found a colony in Kentucky ; but hi* 
party was routed by the Indians, and his 
eldest son was slain. In the following- 
year occurred the Indian outbreak known 
as Lord Dunmore's war, in which the 
great chiefs Cornstalk of the Shawnees 
:md Logan of the Iroquois were pitted 
against such frontiersmen as Boone 
and Kenton, Robertson, Sevier. Shelby,. 
Cresap, and George Rogers Clark. It 
was at the conclusion of this war that 
Logan delivered, extemporaneously, that 
eloquent speech that has been admired 



FENNSYLVANIA'S PART IN THE WINNING OF THE WEST 



w-th shamed face by t^enerations of 
Americans. 

The Founding of Transylvania. 

It was not until 1775 tliat Boone suc- 
ceeded in colonizinf;^ Kentucky. His sec- 
ond movenient was made in flat defiance 
of the British government. The royal 
governor of North Carolina, hearing of 
the project, issued a proclamation de- 
nouncing it as "a lawless undertaking," 
"an infraction of the royal prerogative," 
and as sure to incur "His Majesty's dis- 
pleasure, and the most rigorous penalties 
of the law." This menace was soon re- 
peated by Lord Dunmore of Virginia. 

Boone and his associates calmly ignored 
both the governors and their king, and 
straightway proceeded about their busi- 
ness. Collecting his axemen at the 
Watauga settlement, Boone started to 
hew through trackless forests and cane- 
brakes that Wilderness Road to the Ken- 
tucky river that for many years was to be 
the chief highway of western immigration. 
Working shoulder-to-shoulder with him 
was his old Yadkin neighbor. Col. Richard 
Callaway, the veteran Indian fighter who 
was ere long to be killed and scalped at 
Boonesborough, but whose sons, inter- 
marrying with the Boones, were, with 
them, to be the first American settlers of 
western Missouri. Boone was soon to be 
joined by the fathers of two other famous 
Missourians, Doniphan of the Mexican 
war, and Thomas H. Benton, and by a 
man who ere long should, leave a deeper 
impress upon western history than Boone 
himself, that great Virginian of Cavalier 
blood but backwoods training, George 
Rogers Clark. 

Fighting the Indians as they went, and 
losing several of their party, the axemen 
chopped their way to the Kentucky river. 
Here, three days after the battle of Lex- 
ington, the fort of Boonesborough, capi- 
tal of the colony of Transylvania,- was be- 
gun. It was not until the following Au- 
gust that these "rebels of Kentuck" heard 
of the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and celebrated it with shrill 
warwhoops around a bonfire in the center 
of their stockade. 

It is worthy of note that the first two 
settlements in Kentucky, those of Harrod 
at Harrodsburg. and Boone at Boones- 



borough, were made by Pennsylvanians, 
and that the third, at St. Asaph's was 
made by a man of Pennsylvania descent. 
Gen. Benjamin Logan. 

The Easy Way West. 

I have remarked that New England 
took no interest in the west until afler the 
revolution. In fact, her attitude toward 
the trans-Alleghany people was coldly 
critical, and at times even hostile. When 
Kentucky and Tennessee began to grow 
with unprecedented vigor, and were look- 
ing to the Mississippi as the natural out- 
let for their commerce, the commercial 
element of New England began to talk of 
shutting them off from the Mississippi 
and compelling them to market their pro- 
ducts in the east — thus doing unto the 
west precisely w^hat England had done 
ainto them. 

But there were some shrewd Yankees 
who saw signs of promise in the west. 
Among them were Rufus Putnam and 
Benjamin Tucker. The latter had been ap- 
pointed surveyor-general under the federal 
geographer, and was assigned to duty in 
the Ohio country. He went as far west 
as Pittsburg, but found the Indians 
troublesome, and, having no taste for 
personal adventures among them, returned 
for reinforcements. While in Pittsburg 
he heard much about the salubrity and 
natural resources of Ohio, and without 
seeing the country for himself, went back 
to New England full of a project to 
colonize Ohio with Yankee farmers. He 
revealed the scheme to Putnam, who 
heartily fell into it, and the two then 
started' what would now be called a 
"boom."* 

The Far West. 

If the Marietta venture w^as our first 
great land- job, it was not the last. The 
heroic age of the central west soon passed 
awav. Men were no longer wanted to 
assert their independence of kings and 
castes, nor to hew their own way into the 
wilderness and make laws for themselves. 

Those in whom the old pioneer spirit 
survived were "crowded out." First 
among the Kentuckians to leave were 



•The author here describes how the Ohio Company 
of New England was formed and "perpetrated what 
McMaster calls 'the first great land-job of the re- 
public' This was the easiest way west." 



^12 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Boone and his sons, the Callaways, the 
Coopers, and others of the old stock 
around Boonesborough who were to 
Americanize the frontier of Missouri. 
After Boone went Henry Von Phul, and 
other Kentuckians of Pennsylvania stock 
who were among the first American resi- 
dents of St. Louis. After him went also 
the father of Kit Carson, — and Kit him- 
self was accompanied by many another 
youngster who in later times was to leave 
his name on some peak or pass or valley 
of the far-distant Rockies. Indeed, if we 
call the roll of American scouts, explor- 
ers, trappers, Indian fighters of the far 
west — of the men like John Colter, Robert 
McClellan, John Day, the Sublettes, Jim 
Bridger, I3ill Williams, Joe Meek, Kit 
Carson, and their ilk, who trapped and 
fought over nearly every nook and cran- 
ny of the far west, from the Canadian 
divide to the "starving Gila" — we shall 
find that most of them were of the old 
Shenandoah-Kentucky stock that made 
its first trail from Pennsylvania across 
the Appalachians. 

A Tribute to the Pioneers. 

"The country beyond the Alleghanies," 
says the historian, "was first won and 
settled by the backwoodsmen themselves, 
acting under their own leaders, obeying 
their own desires, and following their own 
methods. They were a marked and pe- 
culiar people. The good and evil traits 
in their character were such as naturally 
belonged to a strong, harsh and homely 
race, which, with all its shortcomings, 
was nevertheless bringing a tremendous 
work to a triumphant conclusion. The 
backwoodsmen were above all things 
characteristically American ; and it is fit- 
ting that the two greatest and most typical 
•of all Americans should have been re- 
spectively a sharer and an outcome of 
their work. Washington himself passed 
the most important years of his life head- 
ing the westward movement of his people. 



Clad in the traditional dress of the back- 
woodsmen, in tasselled hunting-shirt and 
fringed leggings, he led them to battle 
against the French and Indians, and 
helped to clear the way for the American 
advance. The only other man who in the 
American roll of honor stands by the side 
of Washington, was born when the dis- 
tinctive work of the pioneers had ended ; 
and yet he was bone of their bone and 
flesh of their flesh ; for from the loins of 
this gaunt frontier folk sprang mighty 
Abraham Lincoln." 

It is more than a coincidence that this 
tribute to the Man of the West should 
have come from one who himself is pass- 
ing through the gamut of American pos- 
sibilities ; from one who, clad in buckskin 
and with rifle in hand, has known the stir- 
ring life of a western frontiersman, and 
who today leads the nation to new and 
wider destinies ; from that most American 
of present-day Americans, Theodore 
Roosevelt. 

We have seen that it took a peculiar 
people to win the west ; that their chief 
peculiarity was a passion for independ- 
ence ; that they went west to realize it, 
where old laws and customs had not been 
established ; that they chose the hardest 
and most perilous route ; and that they did 
so because easier trails could be entered 
by first bowing to aristocracy and accept- 
ing servile positions. 

In the old days Pennsylvania fostered 
man's high desire for independence until 
it grew strong enough to overturn the 
ancient order and dared make a new and 
better one. But she did more than this. 
Into the worn-out body of society she 
breathed the new spirit of justice toward 
all and of malice toward none. She first 
made it tolerable for men of all creeds 
and conditions to dwell peaceably to- 
gether. And not the west only, but all 
the world, owes to our mother-state this 
pioneer example of mutual forbearance 
and brotherly love. 



FREDERICK VALENTINE MELSIIEIMER 



213 



Frederick Valentine Melsheimer 



I'.Y GF.ORC.K K. PROWKLL, YORK, PA. 



( ) record the achievements of 

Tan early investigator in the 
field of science is always an 
interesting task. It is my 
province to narrate in this 
paper, in a brief way, all that 
I could learn of a pioneer student of 
American entomology, who resided nearly 
a quarter of a century in Hanover. York 
county, Pa., where he was also a success- 
ful clergyman and author. 

His Early Life in Germany. 

Frederick Valentine Melsheimer was 
born at Regenborn in the Dukedom of 
Brunswick, Germany, Sept. 25, 1749. 
John Sebastian Melsheimer, his father, 
was well versed in natural history, and 
during the thirty years that he served as 
superintendent of forestry for the Duke 
of Brunswick, was a student of botany, 
and the medicinal virtues of the herbs, 
plants and trees of his native country. 

Among the books of his library was the 
exhaustive work written by Dr. Leonard 
Fox. the renowned physician of 
Tuebingen, ancf printed at Basle, in 1543. 

It was through the inspiration derived 
from his surroundings in early boyhood 
that Frederick Valentine Melsheimer be- 
came interested in the study of natural 
science. His father placed him in a school 
at Holzminden in 1756, at the age of 
seven. Here he remained several years, 
acquiring the rudiments of his education. 
When he returned to his home, among 
the native groves and forests of the Duke, 
he met another young man of studious 
habits who afterward won distinction in 
the field of science. This v^as A. W. 
Knoch. with whom Melsheimer kept up 
friendly relations the remainder of his 
life. Together they studied the elements 
of botany and the birds and insects, so 
abundant around the picturesque home of 
Melsheimer's parents. 

In 1769. at the age of 20. young Alels- 
heimer entered the University of Helm- 
staedt. where he continued his scientific 
studies and obtained a classical education. 



He also prepared for the ministry, and 
in 1775 was ordained a clergyman in the 
Lutheran Church. The following year he 
was appointed chaplain of the Brunswick 
Dragoons, auxiliary troops, and came 
with them to Quebec. Alelsheimer wrote 
a diary of this journey across the ocean, 
from the time of leaving Wolfenbiittel, 
in his native country, until his arrival at 
Quebec, July i, 1776. This journal was 
published during the latter part of that 
year by Justus Heinrich Koeber. at Min- 
den, Germany. 

Begins the Study of American Entomology. 

Soon after his arival in Canada, Mel- 
sheimer left the military service, and 
migrated through the northern frontier, 
to the Moravian settlement at Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, where he met some friends 
who had lately emigrated from Germany. 
On June 3, 1779, he was married to Mary 
Agnes Mann, of Bethlehem, by whom he 
had eleven children. The same year he 
became pastor of five Lutheran churches 
in the region now embraced in Dauphin 
county. Pennsylvania. He moved to 
Manheim, Lancaster county, and in 1785 
to New Holland, in the same county, 
meantime serving as pastor of several 
churches in the northern part of Lan- 
caster county. During this period he be- 
gan the study of American entomology. 
His devotion to this line of original work 
amused rather than interested some of his 
parishioners when they observed him 
coming to their place of worship, with 
some new species of bug. beetle or butter- 
fly that he had found on his way to this 
country church. But it was a pleasant 
pastime to "Prediger" Melsheimer, as well 
as a profitable occupation for his leisure 
hours. Some of these newly found speci- 
mens, unknown in his Fatherland, he sent 
across the ocean to his friend. Dr. Knoch, 
in Germany. 

His RelaticLis to Franklin College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

In early colonial days the German set- 
tlers who wanted to educate their sons for 



214 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



the learned professions, sent them to 
European institutions. Benjamin Frank- 
lin, who had always been a friend of the 
German settlers in this country, secured 
a charter from the authorities of Pennsyl- 
vania for the establishment of a college 
for their benefit. This charter was ob- 
tained March ii, 1787, and the college 
was to be founded at Lancaster. Ten 
thousand acres of land in the mountain 
districts of Pennsylvania were granted by 
the legislature as part of an endowment 
for this institution. The corner stone for 
the college was laid at Lancaster, June 16, 
1787, with imposing ceremonies. Among 
the trustees were General Thomas Mifflin, 
Justice Thomas McKean, Dr. Benjamin 
Rush and Robert Morris. The college as 
then originated had an English and a 
German department. Rev. Henry Ernst 
Muhlenburg, then the most learned 
botanist in America, was chosen president 
of the college. Frederick Valentine 
Melsheimer, was called from his pastorate 
at New Holland to take charge of the 
German department of the institution. 
One-third of the trustees were Lutherans, 
one-third German Reformed, and the 
other third represented other religious 
denominations. The faculty worked with 
zeal and earnestness in order to build up 
an institution for the benefit of the Ger- 
mans in this country. Benjamin Franklin, 
after whom the college was named, was 
then in the declining years of his remark- 
able career. The lands given to the col- 
lege by the State Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania did not yield any revenue. This 
was an obstacle in the way of success. 
Muhlenberg retired from the presidency 
and Melsheimer was chosen the second 
president. He earnestly appealed to his 
German friends to contribute to its finan- 
cial support, and was an able instructor. 
At one time he reported an attendance 
of one hundred and twenty students. On 
account of a lack of funds the institution 
never prospered as a college, and after- 
ward became P'ranklin Academy, which 
eventually under a new charter was in- 
corporated as Franklin college until 1853, 
when Marshall college at Mercersburg, 
fovmded in 1836 by the German Reformed 
church, was removed to Lancaster and 



the new institution became Franklin and 
Marshall college. 

Becomes the Pastor of St. Matthew's 
Church, Hanover, Pa. 

August 19, 1789, Rev. Melsheimer was 
called to the pastorate of St. Matthew's 
church at Hanover, Pa., founded in 1740 
and the second Lutheran congregation 
west of the Susquehanna river. He con- 
tinued in this position until his death. 

It was during his ministerial labors at 
Hanover that Frederick Valentine 
Melsheimer won distinction in the field of 
science. On January 16, 1795, he was 
elected a member of the American Philo- 
sophical Society at Philadelphia, the fore- 
most scientific body of that time in this 
country. He enlarged his collection of 
American insects, classified, arranged and 
mounted them, and exchanged specimens 
with his scientific correspondents in 
Europe. 

Prof. A. W. Knoch, the eminent en- 
tomologist of Germany, in a book dedi- 
cated to Melsheimer and published in 
1 80 1, acknowledged the receipt of 700 
specimens of American insects from 
Melsheimer. A copy of this book is now 
in the museum at Harvard University. 

Published the First Book on American 
Entomology. 

It was in 1806 that Melsheimer wrote 
a book on entomology. The title page of 
this volume reads as follows : 

"A Catalogue of Insects of Pennsyl- 
vania, by Fred. Val. Melsheimer, Minister 
of the Gospel, Hanover, York county, 
Pa., printed for the author by W. D. 
Lepper, 1806." 

The preface reads thus : 

"I hereby offer to the Friends of Natural 
History a Catalogue of Insects, in the Collec- 
tion of which I have spent my Hours of Re- 
creation for some Years past. To the best 
of my Knowledge I have but few Pre- 
decessors in the United States in this Under- 
taking. For this Reason I may calculate 
the Indulgence of the experienced Naturalist, 
in case some slight Errors should be found in 
it. It is an undeniable fact that Entomology 
has been considerably extended by Americin 
Insects; but there are many non-descript 
Genera and species, to be met with lij' an ob- 
servant Naturalist, which fully repay the 
Trouble of his Exertions. Hence arise the 
urgent Requests, and Invitations of European 
Naturalists ; hence the ardent Desire to possess 
American Insects, and this is likewise the . 



FREDERICK VALENTINE MELSHEIMER 



215 



strongest Inducement for American Entomo- 
logists to make themselvvs more intimately ac- 
quainted with the Production of their Country. 
Should the present Undertaking meet the 
Approbation of tlie PViends of Natural History 
in t'he United States, then this Catalogue will 
be continued from 1 ime to Time. 

"The Subscriber at the same time is willing, 
if approved of, to exchange such insects, as he 
possesses in duplo, for others which are want- 
ing in his Collection. Should there be any 
Friends of Natural History, who wish for a 
Collection of Insects, I am inclined to supply 
them with one Subject of each Species at the 
Rate of Five Dollars per Hundred. 

"In the Classification of my Collection I have 
followed the System of Fabricius ; although I 
wish it to be known, that I am much indebted 
for the Arrangement relative to Classification 
to the Instructions of Professor Knoch in 
Brunswick in Germany, with whom I have 
corresponded for many years past. With 
Pleasure I should have made some Observa- 
tions on, and given a short Descrip'tion of some 
of the most important Subjects, if Time and 
other Occupations had permitted. Probably it 
may be done in a Supplement to the Catalogue 
now contemplated to be published. 

"Hanover, York County, State of Pennsyl- 
vania, August, 1806. 

"FRED. VAL. MELSHEIMER, 
"Minister of the Gospel." 

This little book, of sixty pages, was the 
pioneer work on the science of Ento- 
mology in this country, and gave occasion 
for the renowned scientist, Thomas Say, 
one of the founders of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences at Philadelphia and the 
author of the work on "American Ento- 
mology" published in 1824, to designate 
Melsheimer the "Father of American En- 
tomology." 

The Contents of This 'Rare Book. 

Dr. E. A. Swartz, of the Bureau of 
Entomology at Washington, D. C, in 
1895 wrote an extended review, showing 
the position of this work and its import- 
ance to natural science. He says : 

"This book was intended to contain a cata- 
logue of the insects of North American which 
were then known to the science of entomology. 
It has been frequently referred to in both 
European and American scientific literature. 
It contains a classification of 1363 species of 
American insects and many points of interest 
that deserve to be rescued from oblivion. Dr. 
Hagen says that of the 1363 species only 205 
are now surely known, hut from the copy of 
the catalogue before me I find that more than 
twice tiiat number can be identified. This copy 
kindly presented to me by Mr. B. P. Mann is 
that used by F. V. Melsheimer, and contains 
numerous manuscript corrections and additions, 
partly made by the author and partly made In 



his eldest son, the Rev. J. F. Melsheimer, the 
correspondent of Thomas Say. The latest of 
these additions dates from the year 1825. A 
few notes and an index, written previously to 
1834, are from the hand, writing of Dr. F. E. 
Melsheimer. 

"Melsheimer was not only a collector of 
specimens, but paid considerable attention to 
food habits and modes of occurrence. He sent 
many of his American specimens to corres- 
pondents in Europe, especially to Prof. A. W. 
Knoch, of Brunswick, Germany. These speci- 
rnens were accompanied by notes of explana- 
tion. A few of these notes, but certainly not 
the most interesting ones, were published by 
Knoch in his 'Neue Beytraege' referred to by 
Illiger. In Melsheimer's catalogue are found 
many names of coleoptera derived from those 
of the food plants and it is to be regretted 
that only a few of them could have been re- 
tained. 

"Not the least interesting feature of the cata- 
logue are Melsheimer's references to economic 
entomology. As a matter of course the list 
of injurious coleoptera was not as formidable at 
the beginning of this century as it is now. 
Some of the most destructive species had not 
yet been brought over from Europe at that 
time, and many of our native species were not 
so injurious then as they are now. They are 
simply enumerated in the catalogue, and some 
of them are not mentioned at all ; or, at least, 
they cannot be recognized among the manu- 
script names. The scientific names of those 
species which Melsheimer considered as espe- 
cially injurious are accompanied by the popu- 
lar names, while footnotes refer to the nature 
of the damage, or even, in two instances, rec- 
ommend remedial measure." 

Dr. Carl Zimmerman, the distinguished 
scientist, in order to find out all that 
could be learned of F. V. Melsheimer, 
visited Hanover before railroads were 
extended to that town. From his manu- 
script diary I have taken the following: 
_ "From York, Pennsylvania, I walked 
eighteen miles southwest to Hanover, where I 
arrived January 7, 1834. Introduced to Mr. 
Lange, the editor of the Hanover Gazette, 
I was informed by him that the elder Mels- 
heimer had died twenty years before. Mr. 
Lange had been well acquainted with him, and 
the widow and several children are still liv- 
ing in the town." 

Two Sous Become Entomologists. 

Rev. John F. Melsheimer, who suc- 
ceeded his father as pastor of St. Mat- 
thew's Lutheran church, had died Feb. 
14, 1829, or five years before Zimmer- 
man's arrival at Hanover. Rev. Mels- 
heimer had been prepared for the min- 
istry under the instruction of his father. 
He was an eloquent preacher in the Eng- 
lish and German languages. He took up 



2l6 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



the study of entomology witli liis father, 
and continued it during tlie remainder of 
his life, keeping up a continuous corre- 
spondence with Thomas Say, of Phila- 
delphia, whom he had frequently met. 
Many of the letters written by Say to 
Rev. John F. Melsheimer and his father 
were afterwards presented by Frederick 
Ernst Melsheimer to the Academy of 
Natural Science at Philadelphia. They 
had recently been published by Mr. Wil- 
liam J. Fox, the entomologist of that in- 
stitution. They relate to species of in- 
sects, newly discovered by these ento- 
mologists. 

After the death of John F. Melsheimer, 
the collection of insects, made by him- 
self and his father, came into the posses- 
sion of his brother, Frederick Ernst Mels- 
heimer, who had studied medicine and 
was graduated from the University of 
Maryland. He engaged in the practice 
of medicine at Davidsburg, in York 
county. 

When Dr. Zimmerman heard of this 
he drove to Dover township to visit Dr. 
Melsheimer. He found that he lived in 
a plain home in the center of a grove of 
native trees and, in his diary, Zimmer- 
man savs : 

"I found his wife at the spinning wheel. The 
reception was indeed a cordial one, and when 
he heard that his father's book was well known, 
and was mentioned in German, English and 
French works, which he never dreamed of, he 
became animated and talked with great inter- 
est on entomological matters and books." 

Zimmerman wondered at this, and soon 
found that Dr. Melsheimer himself was 
a devotee of the science, as well as his 
deceased father and brother. They 
looked over the collection of specimens 
which were kept in good order, and all 
the labels of his father's hand-writing 
were correctly attached. 

Twice more, in 1839, Dr. Zimmerman 
visited IMelsheimer, in company with 
Rev. D. Ziegler, of York, who then began 
to turn his attention to entomology. 

The Melsheimer Collection. 

It was in i860 that Dr. Melsheimer 
came into correspondence with Prof. 
Louis Agassiz, the great naturalist and 
founder of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard University. This 
correspondence led to a description of the 



Melsheimer collection of insects, which 
induced Agassiz to visit Davidsburg, and 
in 1864 he sent a representative to Mels- 
heimer and purchased the entire collec- 
tion and immediately sent it to his 
museum at Harvard. 

In his annual report to the trustees of 
the museum at Harvard for the year 1864, 
Prof. Agassiz says : 

"The museum has obtained, with the Gray- 
Fund, the extensive type collections of insects 
from Dr. F. E. Melsheimer and Rev. Daniel 
Ziegler, of York county, Pennsylvania. The 
former of these was the first considerable col- 
lection ever brought together in the United 
States, and was commenced more than 80 
years ago by Frederick V. Melsheimer. Most 
of the oldest of these specimens, notwithstand- 
ing their age, are in a fine state of preserva- 
tion." 

Prof. H. A. Hagen, who succeeded 
Agassiz as the curator of the museum, 
describes the IMelsheimer collection re- 
ceived at Harvard as follows : 

"The Melsheimer collections when pur- 
chased filled 41 wooden boxes lO^ x 14 inches 
and 2 inches high, each one lined inside with 
Helianthus pith. It contained, netto, 5,302 spe- 
cies, with 14,774 specimens. Of this number, 
2,200 species belonged to the United States ; 
1,894 species from Europe; 422 from Brazil; 
8 from Mexico; 9 from West Indies; 4 from 
Siberia ; China, 74 ; Java, 8 ; Africa, 39 ; 
Australia, 14. The other insects were 
Hymenoptera, 148 species; Hemniptera, 28; 
European Deptera, 90; Lepidoptera, none. 

"The collection shows that the Alelsheimtrs 
in their investigations corresponded with scien- 
tists in foreign countries and exchanged speci- 
mens. 

"The collection mentioned above as procured 
by Agassiz was made by the elder Melsheimer 
and his son, John F. Melsheimer. A few, 
however, were added by Dr. Melsheimer." 

I saw this collection at Harvard in 
1886 when Prof. Hagen was in charge 
of the musetim. He was then engaged in 
taking the s])ecimens out of the original 
boxes in which the Melsheimers had 
placed them, and putting them with other 
entomological specimens in the museum. 
This work was afterward completed by 
his successor. Prof. Henshaw, who 
showed me the entire collection in 1898. 
Every speciiuen is labeled in the hand- 
writing of the elder Melsheimer and his 
son, John F. Melsheimer, so as to dis- 
tinguish the identity of the person who 
made the collection. 

Dr. Frederick Ernst Melsheimer was 
president of the American Entomological 



FRF.DERICK VALENTINE MPZLSHEIMER 



217 



Society in 1853. The object of this so- 
ciety was to publish the known coleoptera 
of the United States. Rev. Daniel Zieg- 
ler and Dr. Melshcimer were co-laborers 
in this important work, and the book was 
soon after published and is now very 
valuable in scientific circles. This work 
was revised h\ the late I'rof. S. S. Halde- 
man and- J. L. LeConle in 1853, ^"<^1 pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington. 

Dr. Frederick Ernst Melsheimer was 
the third of the name who acquired fame 
in the science of entomology. He was 
also interested in the science of astrono- 
my, having a mounted telescope in front 
of his house with which he entertained 
his visitors looking through it at the sun, 
moon and stars. He died at Davidsburg, 
March 10, 1873. ^t the age of 91 years. 
He was succeeded in the practice of medi- 
cine by his son, Dr. Edward Melsheimer, 
who died at Davidsburg a few years ago. 

Frederick Valentine Melsheimer, the 
founder of the family in America, ob- 
tained a liberal education, and was a man 
of scholarly attainments. He published 
his first book in America at Hanover, 
Pa., in 1797. This work is an account 
of a theological controversy which he 
had with Rev. Father Brosius, pastor of 
the Church of the Sacred Heart, situ- 
ated on the Conewago creek, near Han- 
over. He wrote and published, at Han- 
over, in 1809, a work on "Christian 
Worship and the Beauty of Holiness," 



and "The Truth of the Christian Re- 
ligion," published at l^rederick. Maryland^ 
in 1811. 

Melsheimer as a Scholar. 

The clear and forcible statement in the 
preface of Melsheimer's work on ento- 
mology shows that its author was well 
versed in the English language. His 
other books were all printed in German,, 
in which he excelled, both as a scholar 
and a rhetorician. He obtained a thor- 
ough education in the institutions of his 
native land, and was a student of science 
and theology during his entire profes- 
sional career. In polemical literature he 
excelled, because he wrote in calm de- 
liberation, and with an intelligent com- 
prehension of the meaning of the words 
he used to express his thoughts. This 
faculty made him strong in debate, and 
forceful in argument. His published con- 
troversy with Rev. Brosius is a model 
of its kind of literature. In his last work, 
"The Occupation of the Heart with God,"" 
^Melsheimer writes with rhythmic beauty 
of language, and with a fervency of tone 
and spirit that evinces a character of 
loftiest devotion and the deepest rever- 
ence. A lingering sickness prevented him 
from completing the second part of his 
work on entomology. He was one of the 
ablest of the early Lutheran clergymen 
in America, and an intimate friend of 
the Muhlenbergs, who controlled a large 
and beneficial influence among the Ger- 
man settlers of Pennsvlvania. 



Himmelsbrief 




X the February issue of The 
Pennsylvania-German, a 
correspondent asked for a 
"Hinimclsbricf." This re- 
quest called forth a number 
of letters to the editor, the 
gist of which is submitted herewith. 

Copies of "Himmelsbrief" were re- 
ceived from Philadelphia and from Le- 
high, Berks, Montgomery, Carbon and 
Lebanon counties, representing at least 
ten different editions. Prof. Fogel's com- 
munication shows that the letters are also 
procurable in York and Lancaster. 



The copies that came under our observ- 
ation may be classified as 

A — The Meckelburg Letter. 

This letter — a broadside ii>2 by 8 
inches, with border, was printed by Hein- 
rich Kapp in the year 1725, in "Kollen." 
We give a copy of the letter at the end 
of this article. 

B The St. Germain Letter. 

CJf this letter three different editions of 
the same text came to our hand. These 
are broadsides measuring respectively 14 
by 18, ioy2 by 15^ and 12 by 18 inches. 
Each is surrounded bv an ornamental 



2l8 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



border. The "letter" is followed by 88 
lines of exhortative and devotional poetry. 
A translation of the letter will be found at 
the end of this article. 
C — The Magdeburg Letter. 

Of this, copies of three German editions 
were received containing the same text 
which is quoted by Prof. Fogel. The 
oldest of these is a broadside seemingly 
without border, of which the print meas- 
ures 6/4 by Gy? inches. 

The most elaborate edition is a cloth- 
mounted broadside 14^ by 19 inches, 
lithographed by A. KoUner, Philadelphia. 
The border and some of the words are 
printed in blue and gold. As ornaments, 
two flying angels, a standing Christ and 
two eyes with balances are used. Prof. 
Fogel quotes this letter in his communi- 
cation. 
D — The Holsteiner Letter. 

The copy submitted, an English trans- 
lation entitled "House and Charm 
Writing," is a recent print, judged by 
paper and type. The text varies widely 
from that given by Prof. Fogel. Some 
of the variations affect only the phrase- 
ology, others the idea conveyed; of the 
latter the following is an illustration. The 
sentence in the letter quoted by Prof. 
Fogel : "Who does not believe in it may 
copy it and tie it to the neck of a dog and 
shoot at him, he will see this is true," is 
in the place of the following in the other 
letter: "Who will not believe this take 
note of him and hang him for a day 
and shoot him so that he will learn that 
it is true" (a rather severe and drastic 
method of argument). 

E — Himmelsbrief of 1815. 

The Pennsylvania Historical Society li- 
brary has in its collection of broadsides, 
one published in 1815 measuring 13^ by 
153^ inches, and opening wii-h these 
words : "HIMMELS-BRIEF nach 
■welchcn sick jedcr khigc Haus-Vater mit 
seiner Familie rich ten soil nni einsf an 
den art cu konunen I'on ivoher dicser 
Brief an alle niensch:n. wes sfandes sie 
sind gercdet ist, nemlich in den Him- 
inel." A section of 33 lines follows, be- 
ginning with the words. "Also gebietet 
der Hrrr des Hininicls nnd der Erde." 
'"Ein Schon Gcbct" takes up 18 lines. 



Four stanzas of 8 Hues each end the "let- 
ter." 

A lack of space does not permit a fuller 
discussion of these letters. We have only 
referred to those that came under our im- 
mediate observation. But even these are 
evidence that there has been a widespread 
circulation of these broadsides. We must 
not forget, however, in passing that the 
fads and fancies, the isms and ologies, the 
superstitions, rampant today are not con- 
fined to the "Dutch" nor to Pennsylvania. 

We give herewith several communica- 
tions bearing on the subject. The first 
of these is by Prof. E. M. Fogel, Ph.D., 
of the University of Pennsylvania, who 
is thoroughly versed on this and kindred 
subjects. 

THE "HIMMELSBRIEF." 

E. M. FOGEL,_PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

The "Himmelsbrief," or "letter of Jesus 
Christ," as it is sometimes called, purports to 
have been written by Christ himself or by the 
archangel Michael. It is an earnest admoni- 
tion to sinful man to repent — and it is in this 
very admonition that we can see strong traces 
of the primitive "heidcntum" (heathenism) of 
the Germans under the garb of Christianity, 
for the spirit throughout the entire "letter" is 
not that of love, but has much of the martial 
setting of the Old Saxon Heiland. This is 
particularly the case with the "letter sent to 
Mechelburg in the country of Brittania." 

I am firmly of the opinion that we have in 
all of the "letters" a strong Christian setting 
to an old heathen Zauher- or Scgens-formel 
(powwowing formula). For we know that 
many of the powwowing formulas still extant 
among the Pennsylvania-Germans can be traced 
back to their originals in the manuscripts of 
the Middle Ages found in the old German 
cloisters. But what has the powwowing form- 
ula to do with the "Himmelsbrief"? It shows 
that the Himmelsbrief is closely related to 
the powwowing formula, and the powwowing 
formula is easily traced back to the ninth and 
tenth centuries. Among these may be men- 
tioned the Merseburger Zaubcrspri'ichc, the 
Lorscher Bienenscgcn of the ninth century and 
the Wiener Hundscgen of the tenth century, 
and on English soil the Anglo-Saxon Sprucii 
gegen Hcxenschuss* 

The essential difference between the "Him- 
melsbrief" and the powwowing formula is that 
the former is used to ward off hell, disease 
and disaster, while the latter is used principally 
in either curing disease or effecting a charm. 
The former, moreover, is to be circulated as 
much as possible, but the latter loses its charm 
unless communicated by and to persons of 
opposite sex, and usually in a whisper. 

Both of these are also closely related to 
such books as: Sixth and ScvcntJi Books of 
*Cf. Kogel, Litteratur Geschiclite i. i. p. 93. 



HIMMELSBRIEF 



219 



Mvscs; Eighth and Ninth Books of Moses; 
Albert us Magnus; Hohmann's Long Lost 
Friend, etc., etc. 

There are many versions of the Himmcls- 
brief, among them being: the Magdeburger, 
the Holsteiner, the Neu-Ruppiner, the Meckel- 
Tjurger, the St. Germainer and others. The 
Magdeburger is probably the commonest 
throughout the Pennsylvania-German district, 
altho the Holsteiner can be bought, t'. g., in 
Allentown, Reading, Lancaster and York. 

To give the reader some idea of the "letter" 
I shall here give only several specimens, for 
want of space. The English version given be- 
low is a very poor translation, the German 
version being the Magdeburger. 

EIN BRIEF 

so VON 

GOTT 

selbsten geschrieben und zu Magdeburg 
niedergelassen worden ist. 

Er war mit goldenen Buchstaben ge- 
schrieben und von Gott durch einen Engel 
gesandt worden ; wer ihn abschreiben will 
den soil man ihn geben, wer ihn verachtet, 
von dem weichet DER HERR. 

Wer am Sonntag arbeitet, der ist ver- 
flucht. Dennoch gebiete ich, dasz ihr am 
Sonntag nicht arbeitet, sondern andachtig 
in die Kirche gehet, aber euer Angesicht 
nicht schmiicket ; ihr soUt nicht fremdes 
Haar tragen, und sollt nicht Hoffart 
treiben : von eurem Reichthum sollt ihr 
den Armen geben, reichlich mittheilen und 
glauben dasz dieser Brief mit meiner 
eigenen Hand geschrieben und von Christo 
selbsten ausgesandt sey, und dasz ihr nicht 
thut wie das unverniinftige Vieh ; ihr habt 
sechs Tage in der Woche, darinnen sollt 
ihr cure Arbeit verrichten, aber den sieben- 
ten (namlich den Sonntag) sollt ihr heil- 
igen : werdet ihr das nicht thun, so will 
ich Krieg, Hunger, Pestilenz und Theur- 
ung unter euch schicken und euch, einem 
jeden, er sey wer er wolle, Jung und Alt, 
Klein und Grosz, dasz ihr am Samstag nie 
spat arbeitet, sondern ihr sollt cure Siinden 
bereuen, auf dasz sie euch mogen vergeben 
werden. Begehret auch nicht Silber und 
Gold, treibet nicht Fleischeslust und Be- 
gierden ; denket dasz ich euch gemacht 
habe und wicder zernichten kann. 

Freuet euch nicht. wenn euer Nachbar 
arm ist. habt vielmehr mitleiden mit ihm, 
so wird es euch wohl gehen. 

Ihr Kinder! ehret Vater und Mutter, so 
wird es euch wohl gehen auf Erden. Wer 
dies nicht glaubt und halt, der ist ver- 
dammt und verloren. Ich, Jesus, habe 
dieses selbsten mit meiner eigenen Hand 
•geschrieben. wer es widerspricht. und 
lastert. derselbe Mensch soli keine Hiilfe 
von mir zu erwarten haben, wer den Brief 
hat und ihn nicht offenbaret, der ist ver- 
rtucht von der christlichen Kirche, und 
wenn eure Siinden noch so grosz wiiren, 



sollen sie euch, wo ihr herzlich Reue und 
Leid habt, vergeben werden. 

Wer es nicht glaubet, der soil sterben 
und in der Holle gepeinigt werden, auch 
ich werde am jiingsten '1 age fragen um 
eurer Siinden willen, da ihr mir dann ant- 
worten miisset. 

Und derjenige Mensch, so diesen Brief 
bei sich tragt, oder in seuiem Hause hat, 
dem wird kein Donnerwetter Schaden zu- 
fiigen, er wird fijr Feuer und Wasser 
sicher sem und wer ihr. otfenbaret vor den 
menschen kindern der wird seinen Lohn 
haben und frohliches Abscheiden aus dieser 
Welt empfangen. 

Haltet meinen Befehl, den ich euch 
durch meinen Engel gesandt habe. Ich 
wahrer Gott vom Himmelsthron, Gottes 
und Maria Sohn. Amen. 

Dies ist geschehen zu Magdeburg im 
Jahre 1783. 

In the name of the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost, as Christ stopped at the 
Mount, sword or guns, shall stop whoever 
carries this letter with him! He shall not 
be damaged through the enemies' guns or 
weapons, God will give strength ! that he 
may not fear robbers or murderers and 
guns, pistols, sword and musket shall not 
be hurt through by the cannon of angel 
Michael. In the name of the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. God be with 
you and whosoever carries this letter with 
him shall be protected against all danger, 
and who does not believe in it may copy 
it and tie it to the neck of a dog and shoot 
at him he will see this is true. Whosoever 
has this letter shall not be taken prisoner 
nor wounded by the enemy. Amen. As 
true as it is that Jesus Christ died and 
ascended to heaven and suffered on earth 
by the living God, the Father, the Son, 
the Holy Ghost, I pray in the name of 
Christ's blood, that no ball shall hit me, 
be it of gold, silver, lead or metal. God 
in Heaven may deliver me of all sins in 
the name of Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost. 

This letter was found in Holstein, 1724, 
where it fell from heaven; it was written 
with Golden letters and moved over the 
Baptism of Madagmery and when they 
tried to seize it, it disappeared until 1791. 
That everybody may copy it and communi- 
cate it to the world then it is further writ- 
ten, whoever works on Sunday he shall be 
condemned ; neither shall you not work 
on Sunday but go to cluirch and give the 
poor of your wealth for vou shall not like 
the reasonless animal. I command you si.\ 
days you shall work and on the seventh 
day you shall listen to the holy word of 
God, if you do not do so I will punish you 
with hard times, epidemics and war. I 
command you that you shall not w(5rk too 
late on Saturday. Let you be rich or poor, 
you shall pray for your sirs that they 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



may be forgiven. Do not swear by his 
name, do not desire gold or silver, do not 
fear the intrigues of men, and be sure as 
fast as I can crush you. Also be not false 
with your tongue, respect father and 
mother, do not bear false witness against 
your neighbor, and I will give you good 
health and peace, but he who does not will 
not believe in it he shall not have happi- 
ness or blessing. If you do not convert 
yourself you certainly will be punished at 
the day of judgment when you cannot ac- 
count for your sins. Whoever has this 
letter in his house no lightning shall strike 
it and whosoever carries this letter shall 
bring forward fruits, keep my command- 
ments which I have sent to you through 
my angels in the name of my son Jesus 
Christ. Amen. 



The followinjT^ lines come from a well 
and favorably known editor and pub- 
lisher : 

In response to a request in the February 
number of The Pennsylvania-German I wish 
to state that I am familiar with the document 
which has been employed extensively to fool 
and rob overcredulous and superstitious people. 
I have been in possession of a copy of the 
"Letters from Heaven" for many years, and 
have seen it in numerous families in eastern 
Pennsylvania. 

This letter claims to have been written by 
the Lord Himself in heaven with golden let- 
ters, and let down from heaven in the city of 
Magdeburg, Germany, in the year 1783. As a 
matter of course it was at first printed in 
German, but is now also printed in English 
and peddled through the country and sold to 
foolish people. I will not mention any of 
the several firms which now publish this docu- 
ment, or that would be calculated to advertise 
a humbug. But it is said that publishers lend 
themselves to encourage a fraud, and all for 
the love of money. I presume they do this 
upon the principle that business is business 
and that in business anything is legitimate 
which makes money. I know that some 
of those engaged in this traffic are church 
members. 

The writer has known people who lield this 
letter in the highest veneration or as a com- 
munication coming directly from God. In 
the beginning it is stated that whoever dis- 
regards the letter will be forsaken of t-he 
Lord. The contents bear the strongest evi- 
dence of fraud. The admonitions are crude 
and in some instances ridiculous. The lan- 
guage is very simple, such as the most com- 
mon people employ in speaking to their chil- 
dren. 

In the beginning it is stated that the letter 
was written by God; in the body Jesus is made 
to say'that He wrote it with His own hand. 
Then follows the warning that whoever con- 
tradicts or blasphemes it will be condemned 
by the Christian Church. Whoever doubts 



this shall die and be tortured in hell. A large 
part of the Letter is taken up with the admoni- 
tion to observe the Sabbath, as if there were 
no other commandments. People are admon- 
ished never to work late on Saturday. 

Finally, the Letter states that whoever car- 
ries it with him or keeps it in his house shall 
sustain no damage from lightning, and will be 
free from fire and water ; and whoever will 
reveal the Letter to the people will have his 
reward and shall depart from the world with 
joy. The last sentence is: "This was done 
at Magdeburg in the year 1783." 

Such, in short, are the contents of this won- 
derful Letter from Heaven. That many 
eagerly buy it and value it highly is only evi- 
dence of ignorance and superstition among our 
people. 



A widely known physician of Lebanon 
county forwarded these lines : 

Editor Pennsylvania-German : When 1 
saw your "want" in the February number of 
The Pennsylvania-German, I at once pro- 
cured the loan of two copies of the Himmels- 
Brief, which I found within a stone's throw 
of my house, and I inclose a translation of 
both. The one is much older than the other, 
which was "let down at Magdeburg," and be- 
sids the "letter" proper it contains a "prayer" 
and a lengthy poem which I have not trans- 
lated. I have quite often seen framed copies 
hanging on the walls of the living rooms and 
sleeping apartments of my patients, and when- 
ever I spoke scoffingly of them, my jests were 
received by the owners with a reproving cold- 
ness of manner ! 

Where the letter is printed I am not able 
to say, though I presume it can be bought at 
any bookstore where German religious litera- 
ture is sold. 

The copies which I have seen were bought 
from peddlers or tramps, and were presumably 
made "to sell." 



The following is the St. Germain letter 
as translated by our Lebanon correspon- 
dent. 

A LETTER FROM HEAVEN 

Which was written in golden letters, and 
which is to be seen in St. Michael's Church 
at St. Germain, where it hovers over the bap- 
tismal font. When one tries to grasp the 
letter it moves away, but when one wishes to 
copy the same it approaches and spreads itself 
out. In this wise it has fceen distributed all 
over the world. 

Teach me that I keep ni}- commandments. 
Give to me, my son, thy heart. 

Thus I command you. that on Sunday ye 
do no work on your estate nor any other 
work, but that ye diligently go to churcli and 
pray devoutly. Ye shall not curl your hair 
nor practice the vanities of the world, and of 
your wealth ye shall give to the poor. And 



HIMMELSBRIEP 



ye shall believe that this letter through my 
divine hand has been sent out by Jesus Christ ; 
and ye shall not act like irrational beasts. I 
have given you six days in which to perform 
your work, and on Sunday ye shall early 
proceed to church to hear the holv sermon and 
listen to God's word. If ye will not do this 
1 will punish ye with Pestilence, War and 
Hard Times. 1 command you that on Satur- 
days ye labor not late, and that on Sundays 
ye go to church early with others, young and 
old, and there devoutly ask and pray that your 
sins be forgiven you. Swear not in anger by 
my name, covet not silver and gold, and yearn 
not after HesJily lusts and desires. As easily 
as I created you, so suddenly can I destroy 
you. No one shall kill another, and with 
your tongues be not false to your neighbors 
behind their backs. Rejoice not in your riches. 
Honor your father and mother ; speak not with 
false witness against your neighbors and I will 
^ive you health and peace. Whoe\~er believeth 
not this letter and regulateth not his conduct 
by it, shall have neither luck nor blessing. 

This letter shall be copied by one for an- 
other, and if you do this, be your sins as mani- 
fold as the sands on the seashore, as numer- 
ous as the leaves of the forest, or the stars 
in the heavens, they shall be forgiven you. 

Believe wholly what this letter says and 
teaches you, for whoever doth not believe it 
shall die. Repent of your sins or else ye 
will be eternally tormented, and I shall ask 
ye on the Judgment Day concerning your sins 
and you will have to answer. Whoever has 
this letter in his house or whoever carries it 
•on his person, shall not suffer damage by 
lightning, and it will protect him from fire and 
water. The married woman who carries this 
letter with her shall bear happy and handsome 
children. Keep my commandments which I 
have sent to you through niv angel Gabriel. 

A beautiful Christian Prayer to be used at 
all hours : 

O, Father, Son and Spirit, in essence One 

Three-fold in name, to thee, and thee alone. 

My heart in love and adoration swells, 

O God, whose joy above in heaven dwells. 



The following is a copy of the Mechel- 
Ijurg letter : 

Dast ist die Copey der griindlichen Ab- 
.schrift des 

HEILIGEN ERZ-EXGELS SANCT 
MICHAELS BRIEF. 

Ich wahres Jesus Gottes Sohn Amen. Hier 
hebet sich an das Gebeth, welches Gott selbst 
geschrieben hat und dem der heilige Engel 
St. Michael gesendet hat zu Mechelburg in 
dem Land Brittania. Dieser Brief hanget vor 
St. Michaels Bild, und niemand weisz woran 
•er hanget, er ist mit GiJldenen Buchstaben 
.geschrieben, und wer ihn angreifen will dem 
weichet er, wer ihn aber abscheiben will, zu 
dem neight er sich und thut sich selber gegen 
ihn auf. 



Dieweil Gott die Welt also geliebt hat, 
dasz er seines eingebohrnen Sohns nicht 
verschont hat, wilHglich dargeben in den 
bittern Todt. dardtirch das menschliche 
Geschlecht zu erlosen. 

Titul unsers einigen lirlosers und Selig- 
machers, der Allmachtige Jesu Christi, 
allerweisester, allerweiseste, aller durchlauch- 
tigste und uniiber-windlichste, Fiirst und Herr 
Jesus Christus, wahrer Gott von Ewigkeit, 
gekronter Kaiser der himmlischcn Herr- 
scharen, erwahlter Konig zu Sion uhd' des 
ganzen Erbodens, zu aller Zeit Mehrer der 
heiligen Christi. KLrchen. einiger Hoher 
Priester und Erzherzog der Ehren, Her- 
zog des Leben, Margraf zu Jerusalem, Land- 
graf in Judaa, Burggraf in Galiaa, Fiirst des 
Friedens, Graf zu Bethlehem, P'reyherr von 
Nazareth, Obrister Kriegsheld seiner streiten- 
den Kirchen, Ruter der hollischen Pforten, 
Triumphier-Herr, Sieg herr und Ueber- 
winder der Tods Siinden und des Teufels; 
Herr der Herrlichkeit und Gerechtigkeit, 
Pfleger der Witwen und Waisen, Trost der 
Armen und Verriibten, Richter der Lebendi- 
gen und der Todten und des Himml. Vaters 
geheimster und vertrautester Rath. Unser 
allergnadigster Herr, Herzallerliebster und ge- 
treuer Gott und Herr. Titul und Namen der 
allerseligsten Jungfrau Maria und Mutter 
Gottes. Der allheiligsten groszmachtigsten 
und iiberwindlichsten turstin und Frau Jung- 
frau Maria. Eine gekronte Kaiserin des him- 
mlischen Reichs, Groszherscherin der englisch- 
en Herrscharen, gebohrne Konigin in Jerusa- 
lem Israel, Churfiirstin des gelobten heil. 
Landes, Herzogin aus Judaa, Grafin zu Loretto, 
Freyfrau zu Bethlehem, triumphirte Zerknir- 
scherin der alten Schlangen, gewaltige Ueber- 
winderin der Heiden, siegreiche Verwiisterin 
der gan.Tcn Welt. Jungfrauliche Gespons und 
Mutter des Allerhochten, unser nach Gott aller- 
gnadigste Kaiserin und Frau. 

Gedruckt zu Kollen bey Heinrich Kapp, im 
Jahr Christi, 1725. 



Note. — The foregoirg section beginning with "Titul" 
is set in two half-measure paragraphs, between which 
is placed a cross with wording as follows: 



Jesu 

* * # 



Sohn 



Christi 



Gottes 



MERKE AN, DAS IST. DAS IST 
DAS GEBOT, DAS GOTT SELBST 
GESAGT UND GEOFFENBARET 
HAT. 

Wer am Sonntag arbeitet, der ist meinem 
Geboth ein Abtretter, ihr soUt zur Kirche 
gehen und mit Andacht bethen, auch sollt ihr 



Ty 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



verbringen gute Werke und was ihr die ganze 
Woche versaumt habt, sollt ihr am Sonntag 
biissen und Gott um Gnad bitten, ihr sollt 
am Sonntag keine Hoflfart der Welt treiben, 
am Sonntag sollt ihr arme Lent Wittwen und 
Waisen oder reisende Leute soeisen und 
tranken und ihr sollt glauben, dasz ich Jesus 
Christus diesen Brief selber mit meiner eigener 
Hand geschrieben und euch gesandt habe, dasz 
ihr nicht thun sollt wie die unverniinftige 
Thier. Ich hab euch in der Wochen sechs 
Tag zu arbeiten und den Sabbath zu Feyern 
gegeben, auch sollt ihr am Sonntag friih zur 
Kirchen gehen, Gottesdienst und Predigt zu 
horen, sonsten werd ich euch strafen. Ihr sollt 
am Samstag nach Bethzeit nimmer arbeiten 
wegen meiner Mutter Maria, ihr sollt am 
Sonntage friih zur Kirchen gehen, ihr seyd 
gleich jung oder alt und mit Andacht beten 
fiir cure Siinden, damit sie euch vergeben wer- 
den, schwore nicht bey meinem Namen oder 
meinem Blut, auch sollt ihr euern Nachsten 
nicht verachten und sonst keine falshce Kund- 
schaft geben, ihr sollt nicht todten weder mit 
dem Schwert noch mit der Zungen, hinterrucks 
begehret nicht Silber oder Gold mit Ungerech- 
tigkeit, freuet euch nicht iiber euer Giiter oder 
Reichtum, verachtet nicht die armen Leut, 
liebet euern Nachsten als euch selbsten, Ehre 
Vater und Mutter, so giebt euch Gott die 
Gesundheit Frieden und langes Leben auf 
Erden und wer das nicht recht glaubt, der 
wird verlohren und verfiucht und ich sage 
euch durch meinen Mund dasz ich diesen Brief 
selber mit meine;i eigenen Hiinden geschrieben 



hab und wer es nicht glauben will und wider- 
sprichts der wird von der Christlichen Kirchen 
verlassen und nimmer keine Hiilf von mir 
haben. Dieser Brief soil auch von einem Haus 
zu dem anddern abgeschrieben werden und 
wenn der so viel Simden gethan hiitte, so \'4el 
als Sand am Meer liegt, so viel as Sterne am 
Himmel sind, so viel Laub und Gras auf 
Erden steht, beichtet er es und thut Busz, hat 
Reu und Leid ijber seine Siinden und 
Missethaten, so werden sie ihm vergeben, wer 
mein Geboth verachtet und das nicht glauben 
will, der wird eines bosen und jahen Todes 
sterben. Bekehret euch vor dem Bosen, sonst 
werdet ihr gepeinigt in der Hollen, ich werde 
euch fragen am jiingsten Gericht von wegen 
euren groszen Siinden und ihr werdet keine 
Antwort geben konnen, darum haltet mein 
Geboth, die ich euch gesagt hab durch meinen 
heiligen Engel St. Michael und wer diesen 
Brief in sein Haus hat, dem kann der bose 
F"eind kein Schaden zufiigen, der ist versichert 
vom Blitz, Donner, Hagel, Wasser und Feuers- 
Nothe, vor alien bosen, sichtbaren und unsicht- 
baren Feinden. Der ist behiitet und bewahret 
vor allem Uebel des Leibes und der Seelen,. 
und wann eine schwangere Frau diesen Brief 
bey sich hat, deren kann nicht mislingen in 
der Geburt, sie kann leicht gebahren und. 
bringt eine liebliche Frucht auf der Welt, das 
Kind wird lieb gehalten von alien Leuten, 
darum gebiethe ich euch, dasz ihr mein Gebot 
haltet, die ich wahrer Jesus Christus Gottes 
Sohn selber geschrieben hab. 



Henry Sylvester Jacoby 

(See Froniispiece Portniii) 




HE subject of this sketch is 
of Pennsylvania-German de- 
scent. He is a son of Peter 
L. and Barbara Jacoby, 
both of German descent, and 
was born on April 8, 1857, 
in Springfield township. Bucks county. 
Pa. His paternal ancestor emigrated to 
Pennsylvania from Germany prior to 
1750. Comparatively little is known of 
him. His wife. Elizabeth, survived him. 
Henry Sylvester Jacoby was reared on 
the farm. He attended public school dur- 
ing the winter sessions and during the 
summer months attended the private 
school of David \V. Hess for eight years. 
He was also a student in the Excelsior 
Normal Institute at Carversville. Bucks 
county, during the terms of 1870-72. and 
in the preparatory department of Lehigh 
University during 1872-73. He entered 



Lehigh University in 1873, and, after 
completing a four years' course in civil 
engineering, was graduated in 1877 with; 
the degree C. E. During 1878 he was 
stadia rodman on the Lehigh Topograph- 
ical Corps of the Second Geological Sur- 
vey of Pennsylvania. From November, 
1878, to November. 1879, '"^^ was engaged 
on surveys of the Red River, Louisiana, 
with the United States Army corps of 
Engineers under Major W. H. H. Ben- 
yaurd. From November, 1879, to March, 
1885, he served as chief draughtsman in 
the United States Engineer's office at 
Memphis. Tenn. From May, 1885, tO' 
August, 1886. he was book-keeper and 
cashier for G. W. Jones & Co., whole- 
sale druggists in Memphis. From Sep- 
tember, 1886. to June, 1890, Prof. H. S, 
Jacoby was instructor in Civil Engineer- 
ing in his alma mater, Lehigh University. 



HENRY SYLVESTER JACOBY 



225 



In September, 1890, he was elected as- 
sistant professor of Bridge Engineering 
and Graphics at Cornell University, and 
was promoted to an associate professor- 
ship in the same department in 1894. He 
was made full professor of Bridge En- 
gineering in Cornell in 1900, and has 
since filled that position. 

Prof. Jacoby is also a member of a 
number of scientific organizations. In 
August, 1887, he was admitted a mem- 
ber of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and was made 
a fellow of this organization in 1894; he 
was elected secretary of Section "D" in 
1895 and vice-president and chairman of 
Section "D" (Mechanical Science and 
Engineering), in 1901. He became an 
associate of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers on November 5, 1890, and in 
August, 1894, a member of the Society 
for the Promotion of Engineering Edu- 
cation, of which body he was secretary 
;from 1900 to 1902. He is chairman 
of the Standing Committee on Wooden 
Bridges and Trestles of the American 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance of 
Way Association. This is an association 
of important railway officers connected 
with engineering and maintenance of way 
and structures, and professors who in- 
vestigate these subjects theoretically. 



Prof. Jacoby has contributed numer- 
ous articles on Engineering and kindred 
subjects for periodicals devoted to that 
science. He is the author of the follow- 
ing publications: "Notes and Problems 
in Descriptive Geometry" (1892) ; "Out- 
lines of Descriptive Geometry" (Part i,. 
1895; Part II, 1896; Part III, 1897);. 
"A Text Book on Plain Lettering" 
(1897). He is joint author with Prof. 
Mansfield Merriman of Lehigh Uni- 
versity of a "Text Book in Roofs and 
Bridges" in four volumes (1890- 1898),. 
embracing the following branches : Part 
I, "Stresses in Simple Trusses" (1888), 
entirely rewritten in 1904; Part II,. 
"Graphic Statics" (1890), enlarged in 
1897; Part III, "Bridge Design" (1894), 
rewritten in 1902 ; Part IV, "Higher 
Structures" (1898). Prof. Jacoby served 

as editor' of the Journal of the Engineer- 
ing Society of Lehigh University from 
1 887- 1 890. 

Prof. Jacoby was married ^on May 18, 
1880, to Laura Louise Saylor, daughter 
of Thos. S. and Emma A. Saylor, of 
Bethlehem, Pa. They are the parents of 
three children, John Vincent, Hurlbut 
Smith and Freeman Steel, all of whom- 
reside with their parents in Ithaca, N. Y. 



The Squire and Katrina 



BY MRS. ELLA ZERBLY ELLIOTT, POTTSVILLE, PA. 



OLD SCHUYLKILL TALES." 




free. 



HE 'Squire had quite a his- 
tory. He was born in Ger- 
many and was the last to 
come over and join the 
family, who had all pre- 
ceded him to the land of the 
and settled at Orwigsburg. The 



old father and mother, two daughters and 
three sons. One of the daughters married 
a German Evangelical minister, the other 
a farmer, and settled in Illinois. One of 
the sons was a well-known Orwigsburg 
doctor, the other a leading Pottsville 



practitioner. The family seemed to lean 
toward the practice of medicine and 
among the descendants of the next gene- 
ration, four followed in the footsteps of 
their sires and were doctors. Of the 
present generation, at least two have flung 
out their shingles with more yet to be 
heard from. 

Military conscription into the German 
army was the cause of their immigration 
to America. The sons had no inclination; 
for military life and they fled the country. 
The 'Squire, however, was 28 years old 



^24 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



when he came. He hked his native 
country and would not have migrated to 
America, but for the importunities of his 
family. 

He was educated in Hanover, Prussia, 
where he went to the common schools, 
where school opened at seven o'clock in 
the morning and continued until seven at 
night, the children taking their luncheons 
with them. He often related having seen 
Princess Victoria, niece of William IV, 
and afterward Queen of Great Britain, 
going to and fro, from the same school 
building. Victoria was the daughter of 
Edward. Duke of Kent, the fourth son 
of George the Third, and was born in the 
Kensington palace. Her education was 
superintended by the Duchess of Kent. 
The Guelphs were of the Hanoverian 
order of Knighthood, founded in 1815, 
by George IV, and the orphan princess 
was very strictly raised. She came in a 
plain carriage daily to the school house, 
attended by a servant in plain livery. 
After entering the building by a private 
■entrance, she remained until her recita- 
tions were made and then retired. The 
'Squire was wont to say that, the royal 
scholar was very ordinary looking and 
very modest and unpretentious in her 
manner. She wore her thick dark hair in 
the "Gretchen" plaits common to the 
school girls of her age, and there was 
nothing to distinguish her from any other 
German school girl, except her method of 
coming to the school. 

Mechanism and electricity in telegraphy 
were experimented upon from the time 
of the ancient Greeks and Romans, down. 
One Ersted, in 1819, discovered that a 
delicately suspended magnetic needle has 
a tendency to place itself at right angles 
to a conductor, through which a current 
Steinhill in his experiments, as a helper, 
ofvoltaic electricity is passing. Ampere 
needles, as many as there were letters in 
the alphbet, came next in 1820. Then 
Gaus and Weber, at Gottingen perfected 
the invention. But it remained for Stein- 
hil to make the first perfect instrument, 
July, 1837. It operated for 12 miles and 
had three stations. 

The 'Squire was a young man, not 
much more than a boy, and he assisted 
Steinhill in his experiments, as a helper, 



and in the outcome of which he was most 
intensely interested. The 'Squire had 
been educated by the Government for its 
clerical service, and had passed the rig- 
orous examination. He had a foothold 
among the clerical force at the lower 
roi'.nd of the ladder, but promotion would 
follow through civil service rules and a 
pension would come at the end of a long 
and faithful service. His life was mapped 
out for him, and yet the 'Squire aban- 
doned it all, and settled in West Bruns- 
wick township, below Orwigsburg. 

Homer called beauty a glorious gift of 
nature, Ovid said it was a favorite be- 
stowed by the Gods, but x\ristotle affirmed 
that beauty was bette*- than all the letters 
of recommendation in the world ; and cer- 
tain it was that Katrina's beauty was her 
recommendation in the eyes of the 'Squire. 
He had no thought of marrying, but here 
he was in a new world, all his old hopes 
and ambitions cast aside, and nothing to 
take their places ; he was lonely and 
needed a tonic to brace him up. He 
found it. He fell in love with Katrina. 

He was twenty-eight and she seventeen, 
and it was no luke-warm attachment, but 
a genuine love affair. The Germans as a 
rule are a sentimental, warm-hearted, 
romantic race, and the attachment inspired 
was one that lasted a lifetime, and many 
are the stories told of it in the family. 

The 'Squire tilled his broad acres after 
a fashion, but he was no farmer, and 
never could take kindly to tilling the 
ground. He had a fulling mill, a clover 
mill, acted as Justice of the Peace for the 
township, school director, tax collector 
and was a general factjtum for the public 
business of the vicinity. He was surveyor 
of the roads, laid out fields, and did much 
writing of deeds and abstracts, for those 
were the days when there were no printed 
legal forms and everything was written. 

In everything he undertook, Katrina 
was his encouragement. She attended to 
all the business about the homestead and 
managed the hands about the farm. After 
twenty- seven years of hard and unrequited 
labor, the family removed to Pottsville, 
where a fortunate investment in property 
gilded the golden years of their old age 
with the crowning success which the re- 



THE SQUIRE AND KATRINA 



225 



suits of their hard and incessant labor had 
refused to yield. 

What a pleasure it was to visit that old 
farm. Favored nephews and nieces (the 
former some of the leading professional 
and business men of Pottsville) recall 
with pleasure the memory of their ex- 
perience there. When the 'Squire met 
them and after the German fashion kissed 
them he told them they were welcome, and 
they were. What fishing and boating on 
the mill-dam and creeks followed. The 
haying, cheei^ying and berrying. The 
table in harvest, when helpers, children 
and all sat down, some twenty persons 
together, and the plenty and home-cooking 
served on that table. The singing school, 
the Sunday School entertainment at the 
Red Church, where the boys went upon 
one occasion. 

It was on the picnic style and served 
on tables in the church. They called it a 
"feast," and bread, butter, ham, pickles, 
•cheese. sausage,cakes and lemonade were 
served as a sort of a reward of merit in 
attendance. The boys were hungry and 
ate only as hungry boys can. They were 
helped and helped, and still they ate, when 
one of the church wardens took them by 
the shoulders, and said : 

'T guess you have eaten enough, boys. 
Get away now and leave something for 
some of the rest ;" and they obeyed. 

There was the red ear at the husking 
bee, the apple-butter stirrings, the candy 
puUings, skating and sledding during the 
winter and the game of "shinny" on 
skates, on the ice. Is it any wonder that 
the girls and boys of the olden days say, 
"there are no times like the old times." 

Katrina, too,, was an original character, 
and the best of entertainers. No visitor 
was allowed to go away hungry. Her 
chicken and waffles, fried oysters and 
cooking were noted, and nothing delighted 
her more than when visitors showed their 
appreciation of them by eating heartily. 
(The maid of all work was known as 
■"Long Ann." Her name was Ann 
Long.) When she reached her eightieth 
milestone, her granddaughters tendered 



her a birthday reception. Always hand- 
some, she looked regal at that age as she 
sat in a high-backed chair, clad in a heavy 
black satin gown and surrounded by palms 
and growing tlowers, the gifts of her 
children and friends. She received her 
guests of the various branches of the 
family, a hundred or more in number 
(whilst her granddaughters poured tea 
into the small lacquered china cups, and 
served tiny wafers) with the same calm 
dignity that always characterized her 
actions. Approached by a nephew, a 
well-known physician, he said : 

"Well, Aunt K , how are you en- 
joying it all?" 

"Not at all," she answered. "I am 
ashamed of such poor stuff. If they 
would only have left me, I would gladly 
have roasted a turkey and fried oysters, 
so that you would have had something 
good to eat." 

Once upon talking to a favorite niece, 
whilst they lived in the country, she 
descanted upon "how much better the 
'Squire would have it had he remained in 
Germany. He would not have had to 
work so hard." 

"But think of it, Aunt K " said 

the niece, "then you would never have 
seen him." 

Nothing non-plussed, she answered: 
"Well, it would not have mattered, if it 
would have been for his good. I would 
have been willing." 

All things, even the ideal married life 
must have an end. One day the 'Squire 
came home, complained of a cold and not 
feeling well. Nothing serious was thought 
of it. After several days about the house, 
he asked for a dish of oysters. He could 
eat not more than one or two. He beck- 
oned to his faithful wife to remove the 
dish. When she drew near he placed his 
arms around her neck, and whispered : 

"Have we not loved each other always 
and to the end?" She said "Yes." 

Trying to disengage herself from his 
embrace, he fell back on the pillow, limp 
and insert. The Darby and Joan attach- 
ment was dissolved, the 'Squire was dead. 



226 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Maternal Grandmother of George 
Washington 

BY JOHN STOTSENUURG NEW ALBANY, IND. 




LL the writers and historians 
who undertake to give us a 
list of the ancestors of Geo. 
Washington, dwell at length 
upon the paternal side ; and 
they even trace or attempt 
to trace the long line of the Washingtons 
back to Odin, the founder of Scandinavia, 
B. C. 70, involving a period of eighteen 
centuries and including fifty-five genera- 
tions. They all overlook or else discard 
the fact that on the maternal side, the 
Washington genealogy is sufifered to re- 
main in obscurity. 

The people of the United States are 
much more interested to know that all 
the virtue, wisdom, sagacity and good 
qualities becoming to a woman, were not 
only inherited from but instilled into the 
heart and mind of Mary Ball, the mother 
of Washington, by her mother, until the 
year 1721 when that mother died after 
first committing her to the care and tute- 
lage of Major George Eskridge, a capable 
and trustworthy guardian. 

If I were to ask the general reader and 
especially the A'-^'pia reader who was 
George Washingt )n's grandmother, on 
the mother's side and what become of her 
after Colonel Ball's death, and whether 
she was buried on the soil of the Old 
Dominion and if so in what county, and 
whether her grave is marked by any 
monument, I doubt if any of them could 
answer these questions correctly. Even 
Washington himself in a letter to Sir 
Isaac Head stated that he had never paid 
any attention to the subject of his an- 
cestry. 

Hayden in his book on Virginia geneal- 
ogies, a recognized authority, writing of 
Joseph Ball, the grandfather of George 
Washington says : 

''Of Colonel Ball, very little is known. He 
was a man of prominence in his county and 
parish, a lieutenant colonel and a vestryman. 
But his name has become interesting to Ameri- 
cans as that of the grandfather of General 
Washington. It is proven that he was twice 



married and that the mother of Washington 
was his only child b}- his second marriage; 
but the history of his first and second wife 
is more or less traditional." 

While Hayden's statement may be true 
as to the first wife, the facts as brought 
to light by the Rev. George W. Beale, of 
Heathsville, Virginia, show that tradition 
has been at fault as to the second wife. 

By the first wife, Elizabeth Rogers, 
Colonel Ball had five children — Hannah, 
married to Raleigh Travers ; Elizabeth, 
married to the Rev. John Carnegie ; 
Esther, married to Raleigh Chinn ; Anna, 
married to Colonel Edwin Conway, and 
Joseph, who married Frances Ravens- 
croft. This son and all the sons-in-law 
were prominent and influential men in 
the colony of \'irginia, and their de- 
scendants have been distinguished lead- 
ers in public affairs, especially in the 
States of \"irginia and Kentucky. There 
was living in Lancaster county, Virginia,, 
at the time of the death of the first wife, 
Elizabeth Ball, which occurred prior to 
the year 1707, a widow named Mary- 
Johnson, an emigrant from England. 
Mrs. Johnson had two children to sup- 
port and care for — John and Elizabeth 
Johnson. After the death of his wife, 
according to Moncure Conway, in his; 
"Washington and Mount Vernon," Col- 
onel Ball employed Mrs. Johnson as his 
housekeeper. But whether that relation 
existed or not, she was married to Colonel 
Ball in the year 1706, and then and there- 
after until her husband's death, she pre- 
sided as the wifely housekeeper at Epping 
Forest, the name of Colonel Ball's planta- 
tion in Lancaster county, until his death, 
which occurred in June, 171 1. The only 
issue of this marriage was Mary Ball, 
born in the year 1707, who became the 
wife of Augustine Washington, and the 
mother of the pater patriae. 

Vp to the time of Mr. Beale's discov- 
ery of the acttial facts, the tradition in 
X-'irginia was that Mary Johnson Ball, 
the second wife, went back to England 



THE MATERNAL GRANDMOTHER OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 



227 



with her daug'hter. Elizabeth Johnson, 
and the further tradition was that her 
maiden nan/e was Montague, because, as 
one historian asserts, some of the tomb- 
stones in the White Chapel churchyard, 
an old colonial church in I.ancaster coun- 
ty, Virginia, show the intermarriage of 
Montagues and Balls. 

But unfortunately for these traditions, 
in only one short year after Colonel Ball's 
death. Washington's grandmother was 
again married, to Captain Richard Hewe, 
who had been her former husband's busi- 
ness manager. Accompanied by her chil- 
dren, Elizabeth Johnson and little Mary 
Ball, she removed from the Epping For- 
est mansion to the Hewes plantation in 
St. Stephen's parish in Northumberland 
county. Virginia. This change of resi- 
dence occurred in the year 1712, when 
Washington's mother was about four 
years old. Captain Hewes died in the 
year 171 3, as is shown by the inventory 
of his estate filed in the Northumberland 
County Court by his widow Mary Hewes. 
The mother of Washington resided with 
her widowed mother on the Northumber- 
land fami until the death of Mrs. Hewes 
in the year 1721. Elizabeth Johnson, 
Mary's half-sister, also resided there until 
her marriage with Samuel Bonum, of 
Cople parish, Westmoreland county, Vir- 
ginia, the owner of a large plantation on 
Bonum's creek, an estuary of the 
Potomac river. 

That Mary Hewes was very fond of 
her daughter, and that Mary Ball's train- 
ing and womanly qualities as displayed in 
after life were mainly due to her mother's 
care and affection : and that the facts 
above related are founded upon the rock 
of truth and not upon unstable and illu- 
sory tradition will appear from a perusal 
of the mother.'s will as probated in West- 
moreland county, on July 28th, 1721. 

In the will she specifically bequeaths to 
her daughter, Mary Ball, a number of 
articles of personal property, with a re- 
mainder in all the real estate of the tes- 
tatrix. 

Mary Ball's half-brother, John John- 
son, named with Major Eskridge as a 
joint executor of his mother's will, by 
his own will also probated in Westmore- 
land county, likewise indicated his great 



regard and esteem for Washington's 
mother by the following item in his own 
will : 

"Imprimis. I give and bequeath unto my 
sister Mary Ball, all my land in Stafford which 
my father-in-law Richard Hewe gave me, to 
the said Mary Ball and her heirs lawfully to 
be begotten of her body forever." 

The affectionate regard for Washing- 
ton's mother evinced by her mother and 
her half-brother John Johnson was also 
shared by Samuel Bonum, the husband 
of Mary Ball's half-sister Elizabeth 
Bonum, for in his last will probated in 
Westmoreland county, February 22nd, 
1726, occurs the following bequest : 

"I give to my sister-in-law, Mary Ball, my 
young dapple gray riding horse." 

Where the remains of Mary Hewes 
and of her daughter Elizabeth Bonum 
rest no one in Virginia seems to know. 

The burial place of Mildred Warner 
Washington, the paternal grandmother 
of George Washington, has been traced, 
but no attention has been paid by any of 
the patriotic Washington associations 
formed in America to the finding and 
preservation of the tombs of the ma- 
ternal grandmother of Washington and 
her half-sister Elizabeth Bonum. In- 
deed, what became of Elizabeth Bonum, 
no one seems to know. 

And yet to the maternal solicitude of 
Mary Hewes and training by her of 
Mary Ball as well as the sisterly regard 
of Elizabeth Bonum, the republic is main- 
ly indebted for the strength of charac- 
ter, the sweetness of disposition and cor- 
rectness of deportment which ennobled 
Mary Ball. We magnify and extol the 
deeds of our statesmen and mighty men 
of valor and we give them grand funer- 
als, eloquent eulogies and towering monu- 
ments, but nevertheless, as George Elliot 
says 

"the growing good of the world is partly de- 
pendent on unhistoric acts; and that things are 
not so ill with you and me as they might have 
been is half owing to the number who lived 
faithfully a hidden life and rest in unvisited 
tombs." 

Perhaps the awakened zeal of the 
Colonial dames of Virginia and the ener- 
gies of the Mount Vernon Regents may 
cause the burial places of these noble 
women to be found and appropriate hon- 
ors paid to their tnemory. 



228 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Home Department 

This department is in charge of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of Springtown, Pa. to whom all communications for it 
should be addressed. Contributions relating to domestic matters— cooking, baking, house-work, gardening, 
flower culture, oldtime customs and ways of living, etc., etc.— are respectfully solicited Our lady readers are 
specially requested to aid in making this department generally interesting. 

Cake Receipts 

The following- receipts printed in Germam were submitted to this department. I have 
endeavored to translate them correctly, but further than thislcan assume no responsibility. 
These i-eceipts are printed in German on a single sheet and, as I understand, can be pur- 
chased in this form from A. F. Christ, Kutztown, Pa. — Editor, Home Department. 



Gold Cake. 

One and one-half cups sugar, Yz cup butter, 
the yelk of seven eggs, i cup of sour cream, 
Yi teaspoon baking soda; flavor to suit the 
taste. 

White Cake. 

One pound white sugar, i pound flour, lo 
oz. good butter, J^, teaspoon cream of tartar, 
I teaspoon soda. 

Soda Cake. 

One cup butter, 4 cups flour, i cup milk, i 
pound sugar, i teaspoon soda, 2 teaspoons 
cream of tartar. 

Lemon Custard. 

One cup white sugar, i cup water, i table- 
spoon flour, I lemon, 3 eggs, i tablespoon but- 
ter. 

Nothing Cake. 

One and one-half cups flour, ^ cup milk, i 
cup white sugar, i tablespoon butter, i egg, Yz 
teaspoon soda, i teaspoon cream of tartar 
mixed in flour. 

French Loaf. 

One lb. white sugar, i lb. flour, Y2 lb. 
raisins, 8 eggs, Y2 lemon or nutmeg. 
Lemon Pie. 

One-half cup butter, i cup white sugar, 4 
eggs, 2 small crackers, 2 lemons, Y2. cup milk; 
beat batter to a cream adding sugar last; mix 
well and beat thoroly. 

Notation Cake. 

One cup butter, 2 cups white sugar, 2Y2 cups 
flour, 5 eggs. 

Loaf Jumbles. 
Two cups white sugar, i cup butter, i cup 
tnilk, Y2/ teaspoon soda, 4 eggs well beaten ; 
flour enough to make a stiff'er batter than for 
a pound cake. 

Marble Cake. 
The white of four eggs, i cup white sugar, 
Yi cup butter, Y2 cup sour milk, Yz teaspoon 
soda, 2 cups flour. 

Sponge Cake. 
Five eggs, 1X2 cups flour, i cud white sugar; 
beat sugar and eggs well, and add the rest. 
Shwenkfelder Cake. 

One pint milk, i pint yeast, i pound white 
sugar, 6 eggs, i pint lard. 

Apiece Cakes. 

One lb. white sugar, Yi- lb- butter, i cup 



cream or milk, 4 eggs, i teaspoon soda and a 
fkinch of nutmeg. 

Cocoanut Jumbles. 

One egg, 3 cups white sugar, i cup butter, 
I cup cream, i teaspoon soda, i cocoanut 
grated, 5 cups flour; roll the jumbles in sugar. 
Jumbles. 
One lb. white sugar, 3 eggs, i cup good sour 
cream, i small teaspoon soda, flavor to taste ; 
the batter must not too stiff. 

Railroad Cake. 

One-half cup butter, 3 cups white sugar, 
4 cups flour, 3 eggs, i^. teaspoons baking 
powder. 

Lady Cake. 

One-half lb. butter, 6 eggs, i cup milk, i cup 
flour, I teaspoon soda mixed in milk, i 
teaspoon cream of tartar in flour, i pack corn- 
starch ; mix butter and sugar to a cream, add 
eggs well beaten and stir batter well. (Quan- 
tity of sugar lacking in original). 
Composition Cake. 

One lb. loaf sugar, i lb. butter, 7 eggs, Y2. pt. 
sour cream, i teaspoon soda, raisins to one's 
judgment. 

Dark Paste. 

The yelk of four eggs, i cup brown sugar, 
Y2 cup molasses, Y2 cup butter, Y2 teaspoon 
soda, Y2 teaspoon cream of tartar, 2 cups 
flour. 

Cocoanut Cake. 

One cup butter 51/2 cups flour, 3 eggs, : 
teaspoon soda, i lb. pulverized sugar. 
Eimsdale Cake. 
Six cups sugar, 3 cups butter, 2 cups butter- 
milk, 10 cups flour,. 7 eggs, i teaspoon soda, 
nutmeg and raisins to one's judgment; cream 
the butter and sugar together then add butter- 
milk and eggs and lastly the soda. 
Measure Cake. 
One cup, sugar, 3 eggs, i^ teaspoon soda, 8 
cups flour, I teaspoon cream of tartar. 
Perkins Cake. 
One cup sugar, i cup milk, i pt. flour, i egg, 

1 teaspoon cream of tartar, Y2\ teaspoon soda, 

2 oz. butter. 

Spice Cakes. 
One qt. molasses, i pound sugar, ^ pound 
lard, and spices to suit the taste. (Quantity 
of flour and soda lacking). 



LITERARY GEMS 



229 



Literary Gems 



The Editor: 

Enclosed herewith you will find a translation of "Asleep in Jesus" which I offer for publication in the 
"Penn^ylvaiiia-C^icrman" at your discretion. 

The translation was undertaken in response to a suggestion of one of your ministerial readers who ex- 
pressed a strong desire to have it for use as a German funeral hymn. 

With very best wishes, I am, Yours truly, 

W. F. MORE, 
Bethany Orphans' Home, VVomelsdorf, Pa., Feb. 5, 1908. 



SCHLAFEND IN JESU. 

Schlafend in Jcsu I Sel'gcr Schlaf: 
Niemals zum Weinen wacht man auf: 
Die Ruh die still und ungestort 
Der letzte Feind nicht brechen wird. 

Schlafend in Jesu ! Es sei mein 
Fiir solchen Schlaf bereit zu sein : 
Zu singen froh, mit Zuversicht, 
Der Tod nun stachellos mir ist. 

Schlafend in Jesu ! Frieden's Nacht 
Nach der man wonnevoll erwacht : 
Kein Furcht und Weh betriibt die Stund 
Die meines Heiland's Kraft madht kund. 

Schlafend in Jesu! Es sei hier 
Solch' wonnevolle Zufiucht mir: 
Dann bin ich sicherlich bewahrt 
Bis Gott mich ruft zur Himmelfahrt. 

Schlafend in Jesu ! Wenn auch weic 
Verwandten Graber sind zertreu't, 
So ist doch Dir's ein sel'ger Schlaf 
Aus dem Du wach'st mit Freuden auf. 



ASLEEP IN JESUS. 

Asleep in Jesus! blessed sleep! 
From which none ever wakes to weep ; 
A calm and undisturbed repose, 
Unbroken by the last of foes. 

Asleep in Jesus! O how sweet 
To be for such a slumber meet; 
With holy confidence to sing, 
That death hath lost bis renowned sting. 

Asleep in Jesus! peaceful rest, 
Whose waking is supremely blest; 
No fear, no woe, shall dim the hour 
Which manifests the Saviour's power. 

Asleep in Jesus! O, for me 

May such a blissful refuge be; 

Securely shall my ashes lie. 

And wait the summons from on high. 

Asleep in Jesus! far from Thee 
Thy kindred and their graves may be ; 
But thine is still a blessed sleep, 
From which none ever wakes to weep. 



DIE MAMI SCHLOFT. 

BY REV. ADAM STUMP, YORK, PA. 



Die Nacht is doh, die Drauer-nacht : 
Es haengt en Flor uf meinra Dhier: 

Die mami schloft ! Der Welt ihr Pracht 
Is ganz vergange, sag ich dir! 

Ihr Aug hot mich es erst erschaut, 
Erst haw' ich ihra Stimm erhoert; 

Uff sie haw' ich die Welt gebaut, 
Ihr Lewe war mir alles wert. 

Die welt scheint lehr un' ohne Lust, 
Wann m'r amohl die Mamm verliert ; 

Des Kindheits-kisse ufif ihra Brust 
Werd uns dann nimme meh verziert! 

Was Weh gedu, an jener Zeit, 
Hot sie jo immer gut gemacht : 

Mir sin verbei an an'ra Leit, 
Bis sie gekisst un' driwwer g'lacht. 

Die Draehne hot sie abgewischt: 
Des Weihne war uns glei verbei; 

Die Sonn hot g'scheint in ihrem G'schicht- 
Ach, jetz kann es net meh so sei! 

Die Wolke mache 'n dunkle Nacht, 
-Der Mond verstect sich im Verdries. 



Oh, sei doch still, mach gar ke Yacht, 
Die Mami schloft, sie schloft so siess! 

Der Dag war lang, die Arwet schwer. 
Die Pilger-reis war hart un' weit, 

So mied war sie, un' matt, so sehr. 
Die Ruh is siess in Ewigkeit! 

Des Scheide awwer duht uns weh, 
Es fehlt doh eens, es fehlt so viel! 

M'r seht es net, m'r heert's net meh — 
Des Hertz hot Schmertz ! Des Grab is kiel! 

Doch, Feierowet is jo doh, 

Die Mami leid in ihrem Bett, 
Im Kaemmerli schloft sie recht froh, 

Dann week sie net, oh week sie net! 

M'r sagt's net gem : m'r muss es du ; 

Des Herz, es haengt an seinem Gut — 
M'r gukt noch ee' Mohl — Jetz mach zu! 

Die Draehne nemme mir den Muth ! 

Ihr Aug is zu, ihr Mund schweigt still, 

Un' kalt is ihra Herzens-quell. 
Dann, gute Nacht! Mach's wie m'r will — 

Doh muss m'r saga — "Ferrawell" ! 



230 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



EM SAM SEI KINNER. 

BY HOWARD S. PAULES, 'o8, MUHLENBERG COLLEGE, ALLENTOWN, PA. 



Sam is my nama, weescht du's net, 

Ich hab drei grossa Meed. 
My Sohn der John gate in die College, 

Sel is was mich so freht. 

EHe Betzy, eens vun meina Meed 

Die halt sich recht gut drah, 
Am Rev. Letz hot sie so freht, 

Sie gebt an Parras-Frah. 

Da Lizzie gehts noch zimlich schlecht, 

Sie bringt feel sotta bei, 
Shier anich ebbes is ihra recht, 

Dehl zeita hot sie drei. 

Die bescht, die liebscht un ah de sc'hancht 
Vun meina Meed heest Hannah. . 

Of course, sie is wol ah die glenscht, 
Wit du sie lerna kenna? 

Es kumma so feel Buva bei, 

Deel grossa un deel gleena. 
Ich denk es kann net onersht sei 

Sie weila my Meed seena. 

Die Mammie sagt es waer net so, 

Sie kamta for zam John. 
Doch si., deel shiergar immer do, 

Sie kumma net for fun. 

Ich geb die Hannah nat garn har, 
Sie kennt noch schenner warra. 

Doch liebt sie now der Dr. Brow, 
Ich wot sie grecht an Parra. 

My Frah meent ah es waer recht schee 

Wann yeders vun da Meed — 
Die Gross so well as we die Klee — 

An Parra heira daht. 

Now hav ich gschwetzt vun mina Meed, 

Ich bin an schlimmer Mon. 
Doch is mer's alls noch net ferlade, 

Eich sag ich vun meim John. 

Ich denk es kent bout finf yahr sei — 

Yah es is sure net may — 
Do kummts em John uf a mol ei 

For noch der College geh. 



Of course ich hab der John no gfroght, 
Was wit du don mol warra? 

Es hot ihn no so shier gabloght. 
No secht er, "Ei an Parra." 

Der John is noch da College fart, 

Now wees er feel, feel sacha. 
Er sacht deel Dings waer deivalish hart 

So hen sie'n lerna mocha. 

Ferzela dut er mir vun Greece, 
Vun Rome un vun Deitschland. 

Er secht die Weibsleit warra siess 
Un maant es waer ken shandt. 

Now waas er alles vun da Zeit 

Shiergar vun fonna ah. 
Er kennt so shiergar alia Leit, 

Un winscht er het an Frah. 

Der John gteicht now die Lizzie Blose, 
Sie weert an grummie Brill. 

Of course, die Welt is arrick gross, 
Er kon hie ga woo er will. 

Die Betzy, Lizzie un die Hannah, 

Die sin now nimmie my. 
Du datscht sie now shier gar nat kenna, 

Sie gooka all so fei. 

Da Mammie ihra Wunch is war, 

Dass het ich net gedenkt. 
Un yeders now vun mina Meed 

Die hot'en Parra falengt. 

Mir sin of course now kristlich warra, 

Un lava errick schee. 
Es hut yeders vun da Meed an Parra. 

Ich winsch mir yoh nat may. 

Die Lizzie Blose is now em John, 

Sie helft ihm venich liega. 
Er secht es predlicha ware fun, 

Doch kent er sich badricha. 

Doch wella mir mit nonner hoffa 

Mer greea bol feel Geld. 
Un das y«ders in der Himmel kommt 

Am end vun dara Welt. 



EPPES UEBER PENNSYLVANISCH-DEUTSCH. 



Note. — The following was written by Prof. I. D. 
Rupp, and appeared in "Der Deutsche Pionier" in 
1870. Our dialect students will be interested in the 
various renderings given of part of the story of 
the Prodigal Son. 

Ich hab gedenkt, es mocht angenehm sei, 
Eppes wege des deutschc Dialect oder Mundart 
zu schreiwe in Pennsylvanisch-Deutsch. En 
Deutscher Professor hot g'sat : 

"Es ist erstaunlich, -wie man sich so hiiufig 
iiber die Composition der deutsch-ipennsylvan- 
ischen Mundart den Kopf zerbrechen mag. 



Das Deutsch-Penn.sylvanische ist die Mundart 
der deutschen Volksstamme, welche sicli in 
Pennsylvanien awsiedelten, nichts Anderes." 

Das pennsylvanisch-deutsch, is e sort von 
Mixture aus de verschiedene Mundarte, was 
die erstc deutsche Settlers g'schwjitzt hen. E 
^eder hot e Zeitlang sei eegene Dialect 
g'schwatzt, noch'er is e gemixte Sproch daraus 
worre ; appartig wo sie unner enanner g'settelt 
hen. Die erste Einwanner ware von ver- 
schiedene Lanner von drausze — sie sin komme 



LITERARY GEMS 



231 



aus Wertemherg, Baiern, Bade, Westphalen, 
jElsas, Schwobeland, Pfaltz, Crisheim, Crefeldt, 
aus der Schweitz, von Bern, Zurich, Basel, 
Uri, Freiburg, Thurgau, u. s. f. Um zu weise, 
wie uf die Art, e sort vonere neue Dialect vvorre 
is, will ich de G'schicht von verlorne Soh, wie 
en jeder sie verzehlt hot, bevor die Dialects 
sin gemixt worre, un das Pennsylvanisch-< 
Deutsch d'raus worre is. Noch un noch hen 
sie a noch englische Worter mit nei gemixt, 
wie mirs bis nau noch kann sehe. 

Der Schwob, daheini und wie er erst ins 
Land komme is, hot die Geschicht so verzehlt : 
A Mann hat zwee-on Siihn g'hott, und der 
yiing'r unter ihnen hiit zunim Vater g'sot; 
gieb ni'r Vater de-an Thail d'r Giiter de-an mier 
a Mai trifft. Un d'r Vater hat 'ni's Orbthail 
g' gc-an. Und nach we-anig Tage hat d'r 
jitng'r Alls z'samed g'nommen, und ischt inn 
•a Land zohn des weitweg ischt, und dot hat 
a sein Vermogen durchbroc'ht mit wohlliistig'm 
Lebe. Wie a aber als d's Sein hat verthann 
g'hott, ischt a gro-asse Hungers-noath im se-ale 
Land entschtande un hat ang'hobt z" 
horget, u. f. w. 

Der aus Eichstadt, in Baiern, uf die Art : 
Oina zwoy Sehn g'hat, un da Kloin hiit zum 
Bota gesagt : gib mir Doll da Giieta de-a mi 
a. mal trifft. Da Bota hat Zoch ansananda 
g'macht. Iz hat da Kloin alles z'Geld 
g'macht, isz in d' Welt nausganga, un hat 
Sach alles vathun. Wi-a mit farti is g'wesen, 
isz in den Land an grasze komnia un ear hat 
gar nicks g'hatt. 

Der aus Paderborn, Westphalien : N' Minsch 
hadde tween Siinne, un de jiingeste unner enen 
sprak tom Vaer : Chiff mi Vaer, dat Deil von 
den Chodern, dat mi gehored, un he chaff em 
dat Chod. Un nich lange dernach snorde de 
jungeste Sunn Alles to sammen, un trop fern 
over Land, un dafiilvest brochte sin Chod 
dorch met Prassen. As 'he nu all dat Sine ver- 
tehrt hadde, keim 'ne chranti Diirung doreh 
datsiilvige chanze Land, un et fenk em an to 
darwen. 

Der Wiirzburger : A gwissar Mo hot zwu 
Sughotta ; dar Jiin'gera vun ihna hot zu'm g'sogt : 
Vottar, gatt mer mei Dee! unsarsch Varmuga's. 
Un za hot ar hartersch mit ihna g'deelt. Noch 
a por Doga hot dar jungara Su olles ziisanmia 
g'packt, is in a weits Land gareest, unn hot 
durch a ludarli's Laba sei Varmiiga olles 
durgabracht. Do ar un farti war, is im namliga 
selbar hot og'fanga bittara Mangel za leidan. 

Ich konnt noch me Exempel gewe. Zum 
Schlusz will noch hinzusetzen, dasz wo mei 
Groszvater sich erst g'settelt hat, do ware die 
Deutsch und Schweitzer aus verschiedene Ge- 
gende draus. Schon im Johr 1728, sin viele 
aus Straszburg in Pennsylvania kommen, un 
hen sich um was jetzt Lebanon g'settelt. Pred- 
iger un Schulmeister hen sie mitgebrocht. Der 
Prediger war der Johann Caspar Stover, ge- 
bore in Straszburg urns Johr 1700 — er g'storl>e 
den i.^ten May, 1799. Im Johr 1726 sin anner 



aus der Pfaltz komme, un urns Johr 1743, sin 
e grosze Zahl aus der Schweitz komme, un 
hen sich dort g'settelt. Die erste Settler hen a 
enjeder sei particulare Dialect g'schwatzt. 

Der Straszburger hat gesagt : A Mann hett 
zwey Sohn g'hett, un d'r Junge dervon hatt 
zum Vatter g'sait : Gib mir den Theil der 
Gieter, der mir mit der Zit zufalle ; und er 
hat ihm ihm's Guet getheilt. Nit lang derno 
hat er sijn Vermoge im Lumpelebe v'rputzt. 
Wie er nix mehr g'hatt, isch e Hungersnoth in 
dem ganze Land gewese, un er hiitt aug'fange 
Noth ze lijde. 

Der aus der Ober-Pfaltz: A mal hot oana 
zwei Sii g'hat, und da Jingst davo hot zo san 
Vodan g'sagt : Vota, gi ma man Irbthol. Eiz 
hot as Vonmongunta si Jisdolt. Und etiichi 
Teg dano-u is da jingst Su mit Sack und Pack 
weit wak in a fremds Land zong, und hot durt 
mit lata Liederlikeit sa ganz Voumong vouth- 
uo-un. Eiz wei a-r-alles voulumpt, g'hat hot, 
is m .selln Land a gfo-ussi Hungas-no-uth a 
g'riss'n, und do-u ist 'n ano-adi ganga. 

Der Schweitzer au'sm Canto Uri : Es het a 
Maa zwee Buoba ghah. Der Jinger het zum 
Dadi gseit : Gib mer d's Bitzli was kehrt. Und 
er bed nes beeda theilt. Eiswegs het der 
Jinger d' Saachli zemma gpackt, isch dermit 
i d'Freudi g'reest und hets lah aagah. Wo 
ar hetalls verputzt, ischt i selbes Land a Theiri 
choh und ar het seilber niid meh ghah. Der 
Schweitzer aus'm Canton Zug : E Man 'htt 
zwee Siih ghah. De Jimger unterne het zum 
Vater gseit : Vater, gimmer der Theil vom 
Vermoga, wat mer breicht. Und er het's Ver- 
moge unterne vertheilt. I wenig Tage dernoch 
lies d'r jnger Suhn alls zsamme-gnoh und 
ischt furtzogen ine witi Landschaft; dert her 
sis Vermoge dureputzt und es liederlis Lebe 
gfiiohrt. Woner alls verthoh gha ghed se-n- 
ischt im selbe Land e griiiiszligi Thiiiire et- 
stande, und er het aagfange Noth lide. 

Der Schweitzer aus'm Unterland im Canton 
Freiburg: As escht a Maa gsi, er hat zwee 
Sohn ghabe. Der Jongera derva sect zum 
Atto : Atto ! gob mer doch mi Theel Guet 
unsa I Druuf theelt ne d'r Att d'Erbschaft us. 
Na wenige Tage packt der Jonger Sohn alls 
zsiimme^ reesst e-n-as fremds Lann o verbotzt 
sis Mettele dorch as liederlichs Lebe. Da 
wener alls hatt verhodlet ghabe, escht a grosLC 
Hungersnoth em selbe Lann astande, dasz er 
schier hatt miisse va Monger sterbe. 

Schier e jeder kann vorstelle dasz noch und 
noch, wo die Einwanner unner enander ge- 
settelt war, das jetzige pennsylvanische 
Deutsch, uf so enne Art erstanne is: un wo 
Englische unner ihne g'wohiit hen, a noch un 
noch engliche Worter sin eing-mixt worre. Der 
Prediger Miililenberg hot schon in Johr 1745 
an Halle g'schriewe : "Die Teutsche, welche 
meistens in Chester Grasschaft, sind, und bei 
den Englischen wohnen, reden halb-Teutsch, 
und halb-Englisch." 



232 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Editor and Piiblisher 

H. W. KRIEBEL, 
East Greenville, Pa. 



Associate Editors 
Mrs. H. H. FUNK, Springtown, Pa. 
E, S GERHARD, A. M., Trenton, N. J. 



The Pennsylvania-Ger.man is an illustrated monthly 
magazine devoted to the biography, history, genealogy, 
folklore, literature and general interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other States, 
and of their descendants. 

Price, per year, $1.50, in advance; single copies, 
15 cents. Foreign postage, 25 cents a year extra. 
Club-rates furnished on application. Payments 
credited by mail. 

Discontinuance. — The magazire will be sent until 
order to discontinue is received. This is done to 
accommodate the majority of subscribers, who do 
not wish to have their files broken. 

Notice of Expiration of subscription is given by 



using red ink in addressing the wrapper of the 
magazine. 

Contributions. — Carefully prepared articles bearing 
on our field are invited and should be accompanied 
with illustrations when possible. No attention will 
be given to unsigned articles, ror will we be re- 
sponsible for the statements and opinions of con- 
tributors. Unavailable manuscripts will not be re- 
turned unless stamps are sent to prepay postage. 
Contributions intended for any particular number 
should be in the editor's hands by the twenty-fifth of 
the second preceding month. 

Advertising Rates will be furnished by the pub- 
lisher upon request. 




Tombstone Inscriptions. 

E hope to be in position be- 
fore long to begin the pub- 
Hcation of original docu- 
ments and records as called 
for by a correspondent on 
another page. Saying this, 
we are not unmindful of the fact that his 
■proposition is accompanied by practical 
difficulties with regard to expense, avail- 
able space in the magazine, abundance of 
material, various family lines represented 
among our readers, etc. In view of these, 
limiting conditions must be strictly ad- 
hered to in the undertaking if confusion 
and a deluge of material are to be avoided. 

Scheme Proposed. 

We, therefone, submit for friendly criti- 
cism, in a preliminary way, the following 
scheme for the publication of "tombstone 
inscriptions" as one of the lines of original 
records. We invite suggestions as to de- 
sirable changes of the scheme as here 
outlined. 

A — We offer to print in separate lists tomb- 
stone inscriptions of persons who died 

1 Prior to 1800, and 

2 Between 1800 and 1850, the former being 
given preference, without regard to geo- 
graphical location or church connection. 

B — In each list will be given briefly — ' 
I Location and hi.story of cemetery, 



2 Condition of cemeterj-, 

3 Condition of graves and stones (number 
of marked and unmarked graves and of 
illegible inscriptions). 

C — For the '"inscriptions" we will adopt, as far 
as possible, essentially the scheme indi- 
cated by the following model (using type 
of the same size) : 

Smith, Sarah, w. of John, dau. of 
Peter and Susan Klotz, b. 1731-4-12, m. 
1760-2-8, d, 1 790-9-6 ; aged — y. — m, 
— d. (Noteworthy data, e. g., "born in," 

"died of .,'" "a first settler of ," 

etc. 

A Suggestion. 

We shall be pleased to receive com- 
munications from our subscribers on the 
subject. 

A — Stating what changes, if any, are 
desirable in the scheme as given. 

B — Giving name and location of ceme- 
teries the inscriptions of which you wish 
to see in print, and the name and address 
of the proper party with whom to corre- 
spond on the subject. 

C — Submitting for publication tran- 
scripts of whatever available material may 
be in hands of subscribers. 

The publisher realizes that single- 
handed he can not accomplish very much 
in the field, and that by the help of sub- 
scribers the "tombstone inscriptions" can 
be made a valuable feature of the maga- 
zine. We look to you for direction and 
assistance in the undertaking. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 



235 



Genealogical Notes and Queries 



Ancestors of Daniel Boone. 

Answer to Query No. XXXVl, January 1908. 

The immediate ancestors of Daniel Boone 
formed a small settlement near Exeter, Eng- 
land, where they nearh' all followed a pastoral 
life. George Hoone emigrated to America with 
his wife, Marv, in 1717, bringing with them 
eleven children, but few other goods, for the 
family were extremely poor. Of the nine sons 
in this family, the names of only three are pre- 
served in history, viz. : James, John and Squire, 
the latter being the father of Daniel Boone 
(the hero of Kentucky in after years). George 
Boone settled in Berks countj'. Pa., where he 
obtained a tract of land and founded a small 
settlement which in honor of his birthplace he 
called, Exeter. It is also related, though with 
no better authority than tradition, that he also 
pre-empted the ground on which Georgetown, 
in the District of Columbia, is situated, that he 
located the town and gave to it his name. This, 
of course, is tradition. 

Squire Boone married in Pennsylvania, Mary 



Morgan about year 1732, and resided at Exe- 
ter, Berks county. Pa., on the original home 
of his father. They had seven sons and four 
daughters, as follows : Daniel, James, Squire, 
Edward, Jonathan, George and Samuel, Mary, 
Sarah, Hannah,' Elizabeth. Daniel's Uncle 
James, a schoolmaster, left a memorandum in 
a book to the efifect that Daniel Boone was 
born July 14, 1734; about 1750 or 1751 his 
father moved from Exeter to a spot on the 
Yadkin River 10 miles from what is now 
known as Wilkesboro, Wilkes county, North. 
Carolina. 

Daniel Boone married Rebecca Bryan, a 
neighbor's daughter, and had nine children — 
James (born 1756), Israel, Nathan, Daniel, 
Jesse, Rebecca, Susan, Lavina and Jemima. 
Eive years after his marriage, Daniel was still 
living on the Yadkin, following the same pur- 
suits as his father — hunting, trapping and cul- 
tivating a garden patch. Daniel Boone died 
September, 1820, and w^as buried at Frankfort, 
Ky., aged 86 years. 



Clippings from Current News 



— Miss Susie Stoneseifer, of Hanover, Pa., 
recently finished a patchwork quilt after 50 
years of sewing. This now famous quilt 
is a nine-square design, 6 by 7 feet in size, 
and contains patches of fabrics made scores 
of years ago. A remarkable feature of her 
accomplishment is that she did the sewing 
with the same needle and in the same house, 
a quaint one-and-one-half-story structure, built 
by her father, and which is familiar to all 
visitors to Hanover. 

— After much searching and many vicissi- 
tudes, the Pennsylvania Society of the Colonial 
Dames has managed to recover and replace 
all the old milestones along the Lancaster 
pike — At the late annual meeting of the society, 
held in the banquet room of Indeoendence 
Hall, -Mrs. Francis B. Gummere, historian, 
reported that the old landmarks had been 
returned to their original positions, through 
the efforts of the society. 

— William P. Schell, of Bedford, who was 
Speaker of the House at Harrisburg in 1853 
and Auditor General of Pennsylvania from 
1878 to 1881, celebrated his eighty-sixth 
birthday recently. Though long past the period 
when men cease to be active in affairs, Mr. 
Schell's life is a contradiction on that score. 
He still gives council to his clients, writes for 
the newspapers, takes an active part in 
municipal affairs, and does his work so well 
that men hunt him up and keep him busy, 
so that he hasn't time to think of the fact that 
he is a mighty old man. 

— An accidental examination of records of 
admissions to the York County Almshouse 
reveals the fact that Miss Mena Miller, an 
inmate, familiarly known as "Old Meeny," 



is probably the oldest person in Pennsylvania. 
Her age, computed from the records, is 130 
years. She is very much wrinkled and bent, 
but still retains sufficient activity to attend 
church services every Sunday. Until two years 
ago she walked to Baltimore almost every 
spring. 

It has been generally accepted that "Old 
Meeny" was the most aged inmate of the in- 
stitution, but no one ever before took the 
trouble to verify conjectures regarding her age> 
The record book of admission, examined lately, 
shows her to have been 82 years old when she 
entered the institution, in i860. At that time 
her mind was quite clear, and it is believed 
the information she gave was correct. 

The woman was born in some part of Ger- 
many, and the record shows that she was. 
about 2"] years old when she came to America.. 
She landed at New York and lived for years 
as a servant with families in West Chester, 
Pa., and about Philadelphia. She had been 
in this county 44 years when admitted to *the 
York county almshouse. 

— ^In Ephrata township, Lancaster county. 
Pa., live Mr. and Mrs. Michael Keller, who 
have enjoyed the blessings of wedded life 68 
years. 

Mr. Keller is 88 years old and Mrs. Keller 
86. Both were born and reared in this town- 
ship. In 1840 they were married, and they 
have lived around this section ever since. To 
them were born twelve children, and five sons 
and five daughters are still living, scattered 
from their home i.ooo miles beyond the Miss- 
issippi River. Besides the ten surviving chil- 
dren there are 70 grandchildren, 95 great- 
grandchildren and a number of great-great- 
grandchildren. 



234 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Up to within a few years ago Mr. and Mrs. 
Keller led a life of active farming, which ac- 
counts for their good health up to this time. 
They are prominent in the Baptist Brethren 
church, and, regardless of their age, are still 
most active members. Both retain good sight, 
and it is nothing unusual to see Mrs. Keller 
using the finest cambric needle. 

— Despite the handicap of a hundred years 
and the fact that he has steadfastly refused 
to take medicine. David Deatrick, of Elizabeth, 
Ind., who last June celebrated his looth birth- 
day anniversary, is a remarkably well-preserved 
man for his years. With the exception of his 
defective hearing, he retains all of his faculties, 
and has been able to walk about the house, and 
occasionally to the home of his son, half a 
mile away. Twenty years ago he received his 
second sight, and is able to read the finest 
print without the aid of glasses. 

— At the annual meeting of the Ohio State 
Archaeological and Historical Society, held at 
Columbu.s, O., Wednesday, February 26th, 
1908, Rev. Wm. H. Rice, D.D., of Gnaden- 
huetten, was elected one of five Trustees of 
the Association. Dr. Rice was elected a Life 
Member of the Association in February, 1899, 
at the first annual meeting immediately after 
the celebration in the fall of 1898 of the 
-Gnadenhuetten Centennial. The proceedings 
at the Centennial, including Dr. Rice's histori- 
cal oration on the life and work of the Rev. 
John Heckewelder, were printed in full in the 
Society's Magazine. 

—During many years the erection of a monu- 
ment to the memory of Col. Conrad Weiser 
has been agitated in Berks county. He was 
Juried in an old orchard upon his farm near 
Womelsdorf. There is no enclosure, and cattle 
have often roamed over his grave. Only an 
ordinary tombstone marks his place of burial. 

The Patriotic Sons of America have recently 
undertaken to erect a Weiser monument in the 
town of Womelsdorf. The sum of $500 is 
already pledged. Increased interest in Conrad 
Weiser has been manifested during the past 
few years. 

— Rev. Dr. Daniel Eberly, of Hanover, Pa., 
who was recently reappointed chaplain, with 
the rank of captain, of the Eighth Regiment, 
Third Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylva- 
nia, by Governor Stuart, is the senior ranking 
chaplain in the State Guard, his services cov- 
ering a continuous period of thirty-two years. 

The venerable chaplain has been on duty 
at all the great strikes in Pennsylvania, and is 
one of the best-known men in the Guard. He 
served in the Civil War and is a member of 
Major Jenkins Post, No. 99, Grand Army of 
the Republic, of Hanover. 

Rev. Dr. Eberly is a retired clergyman of 
the United Brethren Church. He is a gradu- 
ate of Brown University and a classmate of 
the late Secretary of State John Hay. 

— At the thirty-eighth meeting of the School 
Directors' Association of Montgomery count}-, 
at Lansdale, Pa., former Governor Pcnny- 
pickcr, in .^pi-aking alxjut education, said : 



We are losing sight of many of the old 
standards which used to guide our lives 
and those of our forefathers. Women of 
today forget a great many of the arts of 
their mothers and grandmothers. Few of 
the girls nowadays care to know how to 
boil a ham. Every household or home in 
the old days was the foundation of all 
that was good and useful in life. People 
nowadays want to live in cities, and when 
they get there want to put up in apart- 
ment houses. They don't want the labor 
or trouble of keeping their own homes. 
Among the people nowadays the men all 
want to go to Pittsburg and raise big for- 
tunes. Then they want to buy yachts and 
many things much worse than yachts, and 
then to have a good time. It is, therefore, 
very difficult to tell the improvements by 
the effects of education. « 

— The Reformed church building at Fifteenth 
and Race streets, Philadelphia, was formally 
dedicated Friday afternoon, March 20. Rev. 
James Crawford presided at the services in 
Christ Reformed church. Green 'street above 
Fifteenth street, at 2 o'clock. Rev. Wilson F. 
More, superintendent of the Bethany Orphans' 
Home, made the invocation, and Rev. J. H. 
Bomberger, of Cleveland, offered the prayer. 
Addresses were made by Rev. Dr. Edmund 
R. Eschbach, president of the Board of Home 
Missions; Rev. Albert E. Truxal, of the Pub- 
lication Board; Rev. James I. Good, of the 
Board of Foreign Missions ; the Rev. Rufus 
W. Miller, secretary of the Sunday School 
Board. 

At 4 o'clock services were held in the new 
building, at which Rey. Conrad Clever pre- 
-^ided. The principal addresses were delivered 
by Rev. John S. Stahr, Rev. A. E. Dahlman, 
of Buffalo; Rev. Charles G. McCauiey, Rev. 
Mr. Miller and Rev. J. Philip btem. i^etters 
trom President Roosevelt and Governor ^jtuart 
were reafl. 

The new building is a seven-story brick and 
steel structure erected at a cost of $130,000. 

— The dense ignorance making possible news 
items like the three which we quote herewith 
is in itself a sufficient reason for the existence 
of this magazine, and ought to spur on "Dutch- 
men" to collect and publish the data showing 
that i^ood has come out of despised Pennsyl- 
vania-'Germany, and thus disproving the flip- 
pant sneers of those who ought to know 
better. 

Berks county scrapple has been given a boom 
by an inquiry .sent to Luther R. Seiders, a 
Civil War veteran, of Reading, by Editor 
McElroy, of the National Tribune, Washing- 
ton, asking for a recipe how to make it. It 
was referred to Congressman Rothermel, who 
says that .scrapple is an unknown quantity on 
Washington breakfast tables. — Kutztown Pa- 
triot. 

Once more the quiet, staid Penn.sylvania- 
Gcrmans have demonstrated that it is difficult 
to get ahead of them in the matter of agri- 
cultural and household economy. The United 
States Consul at Bordeau, France, sent an 



CLIPPINGS FROM CURRENT NEWS 



235 



•elaborate report to the State Department in 
Washington, telling of the discovery in Italy 
•of a method of preserving eggs indefinitely by 
•covering them with a thin coat of lard. The 
report was published by the Government, with 
the announcement that it "is regarded as im- 
portant, as it is asserted that 100 eggs can 
thus be preserved with four cents' worth of 
lard and an hour of time." Immediately the 
information came from Lancaster that this 
method of preserving eggs had been in use for 
generations among the Pennsylvania-Germans. 
— Town and Country. 

Since its establishment the Department of 
Agriculture has cost Uncle Sam more than 
$200,000,000. It has given employment at dif- 
ferent times to 57,500 .separate and distinct ex- 
perts, professors and muckrakers, and has is- 
sued 17,675 pubhcations, varying in size from 
elegant three-volume, half-levant, hand-tooled 
treatises on the boll weevil to puny six-page 
pamphlets on sheep ticks, barbed wire and 
horse-radish. And yet in all these busy years 
and with all this lavish expenditure, it has 
done nothing whatever to investigate or im- 
prove the queen regnant of delicatessen — sauer- 
kraut. In all its multitude of publications, in- 
deed, there appears but one lonesome reference 
to the gentle herb, and that consists of an 
obscure footnote, couched in the following lan- 
guage, to wit : "Sauerkraut made of purple 
cabbage is said to be good for the complexion." 
— Baltimore Sun. 

— Mr. Allen H. Gangewer, a well known 
lawyer, died Alarch i, in Philadelphia. Mr. 
Gangewer was born in Allentown, Pa., Sept. 
3, 1849. His paternal great-grandfather was 
a Revolutionary soldier, and his father, Henry 
W., was a conveyancer and justice of the peace 
and one of the earliest Republicans in Allen- 
town and Northampton county. Pa. Mr. 
Gangewer was educated at Mount Bethel, Pa., 



under Jonathan Moore, and in various private 
schools there and in Allentown. He also at- 
tended Columbian College at Wa.shington, 
D. C, for a time, and was graduated from 
the law department of that institution and 
admitted to the bar as attorney and counselor 
in the District of Columbia in 1870. Sooh 
afterward he went to Florida, was admitted 
to practice in that State on certificate, and 
became a law partner of Judge Alva A. Knight, 
of Jacksonville. 

While there he was ofifered, at the hands of 
the Governor, the position of judge of the 
courts of Jackson county, but declined the 
honor. Returning to Washington in the fall 
of 1871, he resumed practice there, and the 
next year removed to Philadelphia, Pa., where 
he was soon admitted to the bar of that city 
and also to the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

—The Rev. Dr. Luther E. Albert, for 53 
years pastor of Trinity Lutheran church, Ger- 
mantown, died March 6. The aged pastor was 
one of the most prominent men in the Gen- 
eral Synod of the Lutheran church, and had 
been treasurer of the Pastors' Fund for 30 
years. Trinity church was his first and only 
charge. Three years ago he retired from active 
pastoral duties, becoming pastor emeritus of 
the congregation. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Dr. Luther De Yoe. 

Dr. Albert was born in Manchester, in 1828, 
the son of the Rev. John Jacob Albert, also a 
Lutheran minister. During his long career he 
held many important positions in the Church, 
becoming a member of the Lutheran Board of 
Publication, of the college board of Pennsyl- 
vania College, Gettysburg, and of the board of 
directors of the Gettysburg Thelogical Semi- 
nary. He was also a member of the Pennsyl- 
vania Bible Society. 



Chat with Correspondents 



We take pleasure in submitting to our 
readers the following letters received from 
highly esteemed subscribers. Letters like 
these are always welcomed and will be 
inserted in the magazine if space permits. 
Comment on the contents of the letters is 
not necessary. 

Allentown, Pa., March 6, 1908. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 

East Greenville, Pa. : 

Dear Sir — -Allow me please to say a few 
words in reference to that distinguished and 
learned Pennsylvania-German, Prof. Samuel 
Steadman Haldenian. Dr. Jordan has given 
the readers of The Pennsylvania-German 
a very interesting sketch of this gentle and 
kindly man whom the writer of this had the 
pleasure of per.sonally knowing ; but he has 
failed to tell us of his standing as an 
archaeologist. As brilliant as he was in 



biological science and natural history, so also 
did he stand in the front rank as an exponent 
of the fascinating science of archaeology. His 
numerous papers attest this fact. 

The magnificent collection of prehistoric ob- 
jects gathered by him in his lifetime can be 
seen in the Academy of Natural Sciences, at 
Philadelphia, where they will remain for all 
time. Very respectfully, 

A. F. Berlin. 

Washington, D. C, March 21, 1908. 
H. W. Kriebel, Esq., 

East Greenville, Pa. : 
As a man sincerely interested in these people 
(the Pennsylvania-Germans), and anxious 
that their true character be known, I am very 
desirous that so)nc one of them -write a story 
exemplifying their characteristics in the proper 
light, so as to vindicate them from the slander- 
ous and. in many instances, unwarranted rep- 
resentations shown in Mrs. Martin's "Tillie, 



236 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



the Mennonite Maid." I admit there are traits 
of character, peculiar to the average man, in 
their modes of Hving, etc., but where is there 
a people free from such? And is it proper 
to parade such seeming defects before the pub- 
lic as the rule and not the exception in the 
Pennsylvania-Germans? I, for one, want to 
enter my protest against such action. 

While no doubt Mrs. Martin meant well in 
her story- and many of her articles are indeed 
true to life, and the novelist too has the liberty 
to exaggerate or even produce entirely ficti- 
tious characters.- yet insofar as this is done, 
the true object of fiction is lost. We need only 
to turn to the greatest of all fiction writers, 
Dickens, when he says the highest praise he 
ever received was when certain schoolmasters 
threatened to prosecute him for slander in de- 
picting so truthfully their doings in "Nicholas 
Nickelby." Now. Air. Kriebel, don"t you think 
something could be produced to set us right 
in the eyes of the people? We certainly are 
not lacking in all the requisites that go to 
make us reputable, progressive, loyal and 
worthy citizens of this grand country. 

I am not drawing on a vivid imagination in 
writing this, but an experience of ten years in 
the public schools of Lebanon and Lancaster 
counties, observation extending from "ante 
bellum daA's" and a residence in this city for 
a quarter century, should certainly not be void 
of some facts in regard to this matter. Pardon 
this long letter. 

Very sincerely, 

(Dr.) H. H. Seltzer. 

Fort Wm. McKinley, 
Philippines, Jan. 26, 1908. 

Friend Kriebel. — Can you find room for a 
little gossip in yotir magazine? I am sending 
you a renewal of subscription, and want to 
tell you a little of what the arrival of The 
Pennsylvania-German means to me, many 
thousand miles away from the home-land and 
the mother-tongue. It brings back to me 
memories of many years ago in Pennsylvania- 
German land. In nearly every issue there is 
some reference to incidents that takes me 
back in spirit to the places that have become 
dear to every true Pennsylvania-German. How 
many of your readers remember the "Eiile- 
Hof," that rocky patch of .sterile ground, 
strewn with huge boulders that remain as 
souvenirs of a geological period ages ago? 
The road from Sellersville to East Greenville 
passes through this region which at twilight 
used to have for me all the weirdness of the 
rnost celebrated haunted spots in European 
history. 

Along i\\t"Berg-Stros" (Ridge Road) were 
the famous "Tausend Aker" — monument of the 
attempt of some misguided German from the 
old country to found a colony. 

The "Schmtz Dcrr" (Nace's place) was 
not far from here, called so because of the 
flat roof which in those days departed so much 
from custom in the matter of roof as to call 
for special comment. 



How many times have I heard my father say 
as we approached Sumnevtown : 

"O Sumneytown, du arme stadt, 
Hust nix als butter-brod, und des net satt!" 

In after years, 1880, I lived for some months 
in Sumneytown preparing for my entrance ex- 
amination to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, and we surely had much 
more than bread and butter, but the old rhyme 
clings to my memory. 

If Mr. Hartzell. under whom I then studied, 
is still in the land of the living, I hope this 
may reach him and convey a testimonial of 
regard to a veteran educator of Pennsylvania- 
German land from one of his old pupils. 

While stationed at Fort Niagara, New York, 
in 1897, I noticed among the graves of soldiers 
of the war of 1812 the following inscription: 

"Here lies poor Snow, 

Full six feet deep. 
Whose heart would melt 

When caused to weep. 
Though winter's blast 

May chill his frame. 
Yet death's cold grasp 

Can't dim his fame." 

It is an old tradition in our family that a 
man by the name of Snow went as substitute 
in 1812 for my great-grandfather, Nicholas 
Steier (who lies in the old "Sechs-eckig" 
church (St. Paul's) cemetery near Penns- 
burg. 

It was said that one morning after a light 
fall of snow this recruit, Snow, went to the 
first sergeant of the company and told him he 
was going back to Pennsylvania-German land, 
as he had enough of soldiering. 

The first sergeant reported the fact to the 
captain in the following terms: "Der Schiiee 
geht!" The captain, who supposed the ser- 
geant was making unnecessary conversation 
^out the rapidly melting snow, said : "Ei^ 
du Narr, lasz ihn gch." Snow, therefore, was 
not prosecuted for desertion, and evidently 
lived to receive a flattering eoitaph for more 
glorious deeds. 

In closing, for fear I may take too much 
space, I wish to add my mite in favor of not 
forgetting our mother-tongue. 

Some of the young people seem to be in the 
same fix as the young girl who after two 
weeks of English in a city came back and said 
to her mother : 

"I can not speak this dutch no more, 
This English always stost mir vor." 

I have met her kind in my travels. 

I care not w-hat its value may be intrinsically 
as a language or mundart, it is the tongue in 
which our mothers soothed our childish fears ; 
in which we said otir first prayer, and in 
which many of us received the last message 
from the mothers now gone to their rest. 



CHAT WITH CORRESPONDENTS 



^2,7 



With best wishes for continued success, 
I am, Very sincerely. 

Hknry D. Styer, Major, U. S. Army. 

An esteemed subscriber sends the following 
from Arkansas : 

I also hope to see Thk Pknnsylvania- 
German spread out some — in the line of 
genealogy particularly — giving more of old 
town records, vital statistics, tombstone in- 
scriptions, etc.. translated. Its value as a 
reference will increase greatly, and bound 
volumes will be more eagerly sought. 
Such a departure ought to cost but little. 
Merely an individual suggestion, Mr. 
Editor, but perhaps worth your consider- 
ation. 
Thanks for the suggestion. We wish and 
hope to do more in the line suggested by you. 
Just now we feel like the overgrown youth 
whose garments fail to grow as his body grows. 
Our ideas and field of vision have grown, but 
we feel too poor to cut our garments accord- 
ingly. With all the departments of the maga- 
zine going, we feel crowded, but like the father 
of a large family have no children to spare. 
Our hope is to add more pages to the maga- 
zine, get more help to push our work and 
make the magazine in reality as in dream as 
broad as the activities of our noble German 
forbears and brothers , gathering the data p'Jge 
t)y page from which historians coming after 
us will glean for their masterpieces and thus 
collecting the materials for a monument to a 
people of whom their sons and daughters need 
not be ashamed. To use a slang phrase, we 
must "get a move on" and build up the sub- 
scription list. If all who read the magazine 
would do what some have done, secure half a 
■dozen new subscribers, fnany improvements 
could and would be made, and the e.Kpansion 



to which our brother refers would naturally 
follow. 

The following jokes are submitted for the 
Pennsylvania-German "Joke Book." We hope 
to recei\'e many others. 

We have all of us read of "tongue 
twisters"— Mother Goose's "Peter Piper," 
"She sells sea shells," etc. It is related 
of old "Henner" that on the departure of a 
Reading, Pa., that on the departure of a 
number of his friends after a pleasant 
evening spent at his 'hospitable home, he, 
wishing to extend an invitation to them to 
call occasionally with the familiar ex- 
pression, "Kuinm olle gebut," unwittingly 
got his tongue tzmsted and called out, to 
their intense amusement, "Kumm olle — 
Bc'Gut." The same slip happened to a 
farmer of Montgomery county, who called 
on his neighbor and asked him to mend his 
fences, for, said he. "Die Ki'ih kumme alle 
Bcgut (alle gebut) in >nei Fcldcr." 

A physician brought up in an English 
community and practicing his profession 
in a German section, having occasion to 
ask a patient for a pin, said, "Geb mer 
}iiol en Stii'cl." On another occasion, 
wanting to examine a patient's tongue, he 
said, ''Streck mol del Deicksel raus." 

The minister of a certain church be- 
fore entering his pulpit made it a custom 
to stand before the chancel a moment in 
silent prayer, and thus incidentally turned 
his face towards a livery stable back of 
the church building. One of the deacons 
of the church being asked by a member of 
another church why the pastor always 
turned around to face mules in praying, 
replied, "Your minister need not turn 
around." 



Pennsylvania Historical Societies 



Historical Society of Frankford. 

The stated meeting of the Historical Society 
of Frankford, Philadelphia, was held Tuesday 
evening, March 17, 1908. After the transac- 
tion of routine business, papers were presented 
and read on the following subjects: 

A paper on the history of an old ante-Revo- 
lutionary mansion in our neighborhood known 
as Port Royal. It was built by Edward Stites, 
a shipping merchant, who came from Ber- 
inuda to Philadelphia about 1760, and named 
the place after his native town in Bermuda. 

A paper on the old-fashioned flower gardens 
of Frankford, which have passed away. 

A paper on the history of an old building 
known as the Academy, which a hundred 
^fears ago was used as a town hall, a school, 
3.S a place of worship on Sunday, and as a 



common meeting place of the people, the cellar 
of which served for many years as a jail. The 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania met in it in 
1799, during the prevalence of yellow fever in 
the city. 

Also a paper containing a complete history 
of the old Swedes Mill in Frankford, with a 
brief of title, from the time of its purchase by 
William Penn from the Swedes in 1686 to the 
present time. This was the mill to which 
Lydia Darrah caine for flour, during the Revo- 
lution, and here found means to apprise Wash- 
ington at Valley Forge of the intended attack 
of Lord Howe, which she discovered by over- 
hearing a conversation in her house, in which 
Lord Howe was quartered. 

These were all the papers presented. _ 

The Society has issued a 42-page pamphlet, 



238 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Vol. I, No. 5, of papers read before the society, 
entitled : "Frankford Soldiers Who Enlisted 
in the Civil War."" 

The Lebanon County Historical Society 

Was organized January 14, 1898, for "the dis- 
covery, collection, preservation and publication 
of the history, historical records and data rela- 
tive to Lebanon County, the collection and 
preservation of books, newspapers, maps, 
genealogies, portraits, paintings, relics, en- 
gravings, manuscripts, letters, journals and 
any and all material which may establish or 
illustrate such history ; the collection of data 
relative to the growth and progress of popu- 
lation, wealth, education, agriculture, arts, 
manufactures and commerce of the county, and 
in addition thereto, the compilation of the tra- 
ditions and folklore of the county, and the 
acquisition by donation, purchase, or loan, of 
tools, appliances and objects of antiquarian 
interest." 

It holds stated meetings bi-monthly, viz: 
on the third Friday of February, April, June, 
August, October and December, in its rooms 
in the Court House, Lebanon, at 2 o'clock, 
P. M., where it has also established a Li- 
brary and Museum for its collection of Books, 
Relics, Curios and Antiques. 

It has published three volumes of papers, 
comprising ^i titles, and aggregating 1303 
pages. 

For the accoinmodation of matter for which 
no room could be found in its regular proceed- 
ings, the society has provided for a series of 
"Notes and Queries," covering documents, 
records, facts, incidents, data, etc., of a local 
and general character, hitherto unpublished 
and worthy of permanent record, to aid the 
historian, genealogist and biographer. 

The members of the Society, as well as 
others, are invited to contribute to this de- 
partment, and no one need be deterred from 
doing so under the idea that what may be 
offered is unimportant or of trifling value. 

Submission of questions at the regular meet- 
ings, or during the intervals, is invited, and if 
not answerable on the spot will be assigned to 
members for reply. 

Matter intended' for these Notes and Queries 
should be sent to the Secretary of the Society. 

The Kittochtinny Historical Society. 

The birth of this Society is due to Rev. 
Samuel A. Martin, D.D., president of Wilson 
Female College at that . time, and now Presi- 
dent of the Shippensburg State Normal School. 
In response to his invitation, a number oS 
gentlemen assembled at his residence in the 
college grounds on the evening of February 3, 
1898, to consider the question of organizing 
a Society for the purpose of securing, collating 
and preserving the historical incidents, legends 
and traditions of the Cumberland Valley from 
its first settlement. Such an organization was 
effected, and the name, "The Kittochtinny His- 
torical Society," adopted, and the Society 



launched. The first meeting was held Feb- 
ruary 24, 1898. the Society being entertained 
by Dr. S. A. Martin, Philadelphia avenue. A 
paper was read by B. L. Maurer, Esq., oa 
"The Old Churchyard," the burial ground of 
the Falling Spring Presbyterian church, in this- 
place, and which was part of an ancient Indian 
burial ground. The Society held its meetings 
monthly, except for the months of June, July 
and August. At the fifth meeting, on Septem- 
ber 22, 1898, an interesting paper was read by 
the Hon. M. A. Foltz, on "The German In- 
fluence in Pennsylvania, with special reference 
to Franklin County." This paper, as well as- 
all the others that preceded it, were very en- 
tertaining and instructive — as are those that 
followed. 

The first officers of the Society were : Presi- 
dent, Hon. Judge Jno. Stewart; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Rev. S. A. Martin, D.D., Hon. M. A. 
Foltz; Secretary, B. L. Maurer (deceased); 
Treasurer, H. A. Riddle; Executive Commit- 
tee, Major Chauncy Ives, John G. Orr, Dr. 
Johnston McLanahan, Col. James R. Gilmore 
and Wm. Alexander, Esq. ; Original Members,. 
Prof. M. R. Alexander, Wm. Alexander, Esq.,. 
James W. Cree (deceased), Rev. T. A. Craw- 
ford, D.D., Hon. M. A. Foltz, Col. James R. 
Gilmore, D. O. Gehr, Esq., Major Chamicey 
Ives, Rev. James Kennedy, D.D., Thomas B. 
Kennedy, Esq., Morehead C. Kennedy, B. L. 
Maurer, Rev. S. A. Martin, D.D., Johnston 
McLanahan, AI.D., John M. McDowell, Esq.,. 
Jno. S. Mcllvaine, Capt. W. N. N. Mackey, 
Frank MeHaffey, Esq., John G. Orr, Hon. A. 
Nevin Pomeroy, Dr. (^eo. F. Piatt, H. A, 
Riddle, Hon. John Stewart, Joshua W. 
Sharpe, Esq., Edward B. Weistling. 

Elected 1898-99— Rev. J. F. Boyd (deceased),. 
T. J. Brereton, Hon. W. Rush Gillan, Wm. S. 
Hoerner, Esq., John Montgomerv, M.D.,. 
Charles F. Palmer, M.D., R. W. Ramsey, M.D.^ 
Hon. D. Watson Rowe, F. H. Shumaker (de- 
ceased), John O. Skinner, M.D. 

Non-Resident Members — Capt. John H. 
'Walker, Fannettsburg, Pa.; Benjamin F. Nead,. 
Esq., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Honorary Members — Geo. O. Seelhamer,, 
Esq.; John M. Cooper, Esq. (deceased). 

There have been many accessions to the 
Society since the first year of its existence, 
and a number of removals by death. The 
papers read before the Society for the year 
ending March i, 1899, have been published 
in book form, and also from March, 1901, to 
February 1905, likewise -from February 1899, 
to February, 1901. The papers read since 
February 1903, are now in press. As yet the 
Society has no pemianent home, the meet- 
ings are held at the homes of its members. 
An effort is on foot to secure a room for the 
depository of maps, charts, books etc., now in 
possession of the Society. 

The tenth anniversary celebration of the 
Society, held February 25 1908, was attended 
by the wives, daughters and sweethearts of 
the members and over one hundred invited 
guests. There was no set program of exercises 
but a general social good time. In an address 



PEI^NSYLVAxNIA HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



239 



on "The Work of the Society." Hon. M. A. 
Foltz, an ex-president of the Society showed 
that during the ten years' existence of the 
Society papers had been read on the following 
subjects : 

The Red Man and Colonial Period, 6 
papers. 

The Early Highways, 2 papers. 

The Barrens, 2 papers. 

Our Mineral Wealth, 2 papers. 

Early School Days, Etc., 3 papers. 

The Scotch-Irish, 10 papers. 

The Germans, 4 papers. 

Chambersburg and Its Founders 2 papers. 



The Revolutionary W'ar, 2 papers. 
The Whiskey Insurrection, 2 papers. 
Traditions of an Early Day, 5 papers. 
One Hundred Years Ago, 3 papers. 
Statesmen, Soldiers, Theologians, 8 papers. 
Old F"amilies, 2 papers. 
Relating to Insurrections, 3 papers. 
Editors and Publishers, 2 papers. 
Some of Our Poets, 2 papers. 
Village and Township Sketches, 2 papers. 
Other Local Subjects, 15 papers. 
In all about 80 papers have been prepared 
and read by 34 writers. 



Reviews and Notes 

BY PROF. E. S. GERHARD, TRENTON. N. J. 



Elsie Singmaster. Miss Singmaster was 
born and raised in Macungie, Pa., but of late 
years she has made her home in Gettysburg, 
Pa. 

She very frequently contributes short stories 
to many of the first class magazines. "The 
Unconquerable Hope," in the Atlantic Monthly, 
is her latest contribution at this writing. It 
is a story of the missionary field. We believe 
that she has written stories that are just a 
little clearer in outline and a little stronger in 
characterization. The reader may at times be 
a little perplexed in his efforts to know who is 
missionary, who is not, and who is going to 
be. Nevertheless, the story is interesting; it 
is animated with the hope that alone will 
work for good in the missionary field, where 
Hope, as in Pandora's jar of old, is often the 
only thing left. 

The Board of Trade of Worcester, Mass., 
issues a monthly magazine that began its 
eleventh volume with the issue for January, 
1908. The following announcements are made 
in the prospectus : 

In beginning Volume XI of the Worcester 
Magazine it will be seen that the size and 
make-up are entirely changed. It is the 
purpose of the Committee on Publication 
of the Board of Trade to include in the 
magazine a review of local current events ; 
to present each month an article treating 
in an exhaustive manner the various phases 
of Worcester's civic development. It is 
also planned to present each month an 
article on some academic question by an 
able writer. Special numbers will be issued 
during the year devoted to seasonable sub- 
jects, in which will be exploited certain 
phases of Worcester institutions. In the 
line of illustrations, Worcester people in 
the public eye, new manufacturing plants, 
new manufacturing plants, new tools and 
machine devices, invented by Worcester 
genius, important current events, prominent 
residences, business blocks and public 
buildings will be included, and in amateur 
■ photography the field will be developed. 
Paragraphs of industrial notes and gen- 



eral items of interest from manufacturers 
and builders, relating to their business, 
which is of general importance, are so- 
licited. A list of members of Worcester 
Board of Trade and their business connec- 
tions will be published, and also a list of 
things made in Worcester will be tabu- 
lated, all of which will give the outside 
world a much more definite idea of the 
importance of Worcester as a manufactur- 
ing center. 

The following is self-explanatory : 

Dear Sir — Noting a short biography in- 
December Pennsylvania-German of W. 
J. Hoffman. M.D., I submit his contribu- 
tions to the magazines relative to the 
Pennsylvania-Germans : 

''Gshicht fun da alia Tsaitd in Pensil- 
fani." (In Proceedings American 
Philosophical Soc., Vol. 32.) 
"Grammatic Notes and Vocabulary,"' 
"Folk-Medicine." (In Proceedings- 
Soc, Vol. 26.) 
"Folk-Lore;' Pages 125-135, Vol. i ; 
"Folk-Lore," Pages 23-35, Vol. 2; 
"Tales and Proverbs," Pages 191-203,. 
Vol. 2. ■ (In Journal of American 
Folk-Lore.) 

Yours, _ E. M. E. . 

Physical Diagnosis According to the Induc- 
tive Method. By Dr. Howard S. Anders. 
445 pp. D. Appleton & Co., New York and 
London, 1908. 
Dr. Anders is one of the prominent young 
physicians of Philadelphia, Pa. In addition to 
attending to a large practice he is connected 
with several hospitals and with Medico-^^ 
Chirurgical College. 

He has the distinction of having given out 

the first original treatise that has ever been 

published. It is the first time that a scientific 

treatise has been given out that treats of the 

inductive method in detecting diseases. It is 

a contribution to medical science. 

History of Old Germantown. By Dr. N. H.. 

Keyser, C. Henry Kain. and others.. 

Horace F. McCann. Germantown, Pa.,. 

1908. 



240 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



This is a meritorious historical work; it 
may well be greeted by e\^ry friend of Ger- 
man-American historical investigation. Vari- 
ous writers have written on this subject; but 
the present ones seem to have had access to 
rich and original material. Historical reminis- 
censes of the keenest interest are found, and 
with them are united fine biographical sketches. 

Das Buch Des Lebens von Karl Knortz. 
Cloth. 311 pp. Klinkhardt & Bierman, 
Leipzig, 1908. 

Prof. Karl Knortz is one of the best known 
of German Americans. He is a champion of 
German nationality in this country. As a 
writer he is well known by his Studies in 
Literature, and History of American Litera- 
ture (both in German). He has translated 
Longfellow's Evangeline, Hiawatha, and Miles 
Standish; Whittier's Snowbound, and Whit- 
man's Leaves of Grass. He has taught school 
in Detroit, Cincinnati, and in New York. 

The contents of this book have been collected 
from all the literatures of the world. Prof. 
Knortz searched among all philosophers and 
poets of ancient and modern times for answers 
to the great questions of life, questions which 
arise in the innermost soul of every person in 
his quiet moments of sober reflection. Con- 
sequently the book is not so much a collection 
of ma.xims as an actual book of life; it has 
something to give to each one, whatever his 
comprehension of things may be, who has ar- 
rived at some mental ripeness and who has 
made his way to a higher observation of life. 

The book is divided into three main parts: 
Guiding Principles; Many Gifts and one 
Spirit; From the Seat of the Scorner. The 
book is indeed rich in its contents both in 
quantity and in quality. 

Justice to the Jew. By Rev. Madison C. 

Peters. Revised edition. Cloth ; 244 pp. 

Price, 75c. The McClure Company, New 

York, 1^08. 
Rev. Madison C. Peters was born in Lehigh 
•county. Pa. He graduated from Muhlenberg 
College, and also from fVanklin and Alarshall 
College ; and later from Heidelberg Theological 
Seminary. He was for eleven years pastor of 
a Reformed church in New York. Then he 
resigned to become a Baptist clergyman in 
Brooklyn and later in Baltimore. Recently he 
Jias started a mission in New York City by 
holding services in a theater or tabernacle, 
thinking that in this way he can reach the 
people better. 

He is the author of a number of books, 
among which are The Jew as Patriot; Empty 
Peivs; The Great Hereafter; Will Our Re- 
public Livef The first edition of "Justice to 
the Jew" was published in 1899. The book 
met with great success, despite some of its im- 
perfections. At that time the material neces- 
sary to write such a book was not as plentiful 
as now. The desire to correct the imperfec- 
tions of the first edition and to avail himself 
of this new material prompted the author 



to bring forth this new edition. There is an 
interesting Introduction to it written by Oscar 
S. Strauss, Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 
Mr. Strauss is the first Jew to become a 
member of the Cabinet. Some of the chap- 
ters have very significant titles, '"Jews, not 
Jewels, in the Discovery of America;" "Money 
and the Jews ;" etc. 

Those who have heard Rev. Peters in the 
pulpit will find the same fearlessness of ex- 
pression in the book. The style is impassioned, 
the author hesitates not to express his convic- 
tions with a feeling of indignation at the in- 
justice done to the Jew. There are frequent 
outbursts of oratory; the following may well 
be taken as the finest piece of writing in the 
book : 

"They were lusty and vigorous before 
Babylon or Nineveh reared their temples 
to the sky ; they were learned before 
Rameses I cut his hieroglyphics on the 
obelisks of EgA'pt ; they were skilled archi- 
tects before the Pharaohs dreamt of laying 
the first stones of the pyramids ; they were 
warriors skilled in arms before the Grecian 
hosts swooped down on the plains of Troy ; 
they had cities before Romulus and 
Remus traced the walls of imperial Rome ; 
and they had poets, bards, philosophers 
and scholars before the blind beggar-man 
of Scios lisped his numbers in the myrtle 
groves of Greese. They have seen As- 
syria, Carthage, Babylonia, Greece, and 
Rome sink under the ruins of their own 
magnifience ; they have witnessed the 
ascent of the Crescent and looked on the 
rise of the Cross, and through all they 
have kept their eyes calmly, steadil}' on 
the Star of Israel, whose light burns as 
bright today as when it first rose over the 
Eastern hills and shone down on the 
Shepherd Kings of Chaldea, and though 
they have lost their country they still look 
to the Star of Jacob to guide them back 
to the inheritance that should be theirs." 
And this is fine writing. 

The book is not supposed to be exhaustive 
in its treatment, but it is highly interesting 
and suggestive. It is full of seed for thought ; 
many startling facts are disclosed; volumes 
could be written on these alone. And although 
the book is not exhaustive one does yet expect 
a somewhat fuller discussion of the Dreyfus 
affair, an incident which aroused the indignation 
of the civilized world, and which was one 
of the most strongly marked of anti-semitic 
feelings of recent years. 

The book is handsomely gotten-up, is 
reasonable in price and attractive in title. 
These characteristics should command the at- 
tention of every person who in his prejudice 
and bigotry is blind to the virtues and com- 
mendable traits of a despised and hounded 
race. His frugality commends itself to the 
extravagant and riotous living of America of 
today ; and his humility, industry, and tenacity 
commend themselves to her irreverence, 
fickleness, and contemptible indiffereno :. 




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Vol. IX JUNE, 1908 No. 

Literary Opportunities in Pennsylvania- 
Germany 




WELL known writer on 
American literature once 
crystallized the thonjht that 
Seems to be animatin'^ a 
great many men of letters of 
today, in these words : "With 
Mary E. Wilkins and Sarah Orne Jewett 
exploring the nooks and corners of Xew 
England, with James Lane Allen inter- 
preting the life of Kentucky, and Thomas 
Nelson Page that of Virginia, with ]\Iary 
Alurfree revealing the secrets of the Ten- 
nessee mountains, with Hamlin Garland 
doing angry honor to the western farmers' 
toil, with Mary Halleck Foote portraying 
that wild mining life whose prose epic 
was begun by Bret Harte in 'The Luck of 
Roaring Camp.' the length and breadth of 
the land are finding speech." And in 
saying that. Katherine Lee Bates does 
just what almost every other literary man 
or woman has done in all times — forgets 
or ignores the fact that such a place as 
Pennsylvania and such a people as the 
Pennsylvania-Germans are in existence 
and worth serious or sensible considera- 
tion. 

Perhaps we should not be surprised 
that the richness of tradition, sentiment 
and romance, which is being so conspicu- 
ously overlooked, has not inspired some 
modern "wizard of the pen" when we are 
gravely- informerl by- a certain professor 
of literature that the Pennsylvania-(ier- 
mans were non-literary — and that. too. in 
the face of the late Dr. Seidensticker's 
classification of thousands of titleg. wdiich 
emanated from American printing offices 
alone during the first century of (German 
})rinting. not to speak of the books im- 
])orte(l by the early Germans and their 
descendants ; or when, by some mischance 
a character from Pennsylvania (iermanv 



has been clumsily introduced into a story, 
he is made to create the impression that 
he is a boor aixl that he lacks all those 
lofty qualities and all that keen sense of 
humor, sometimes rather grim, with 
which, for instance. Maclaren has en- 
dowed and glorified the hard headed 
denizens of his Drumtochty. George W. 
Cable. F. Hopkinson Smith. Ruth Mc- 
Enery Stuart and others have many a. 
cheery word to say of those elusive things- 
called types of this or that people or com- 
munity ; the Creole, the plantation negro^ 
the Virginian, the Yankee, the Scotch- 
Irishman, and even the Chinese-American, 
all have their loving friends to advertise- 
them in the world of letters, and when 
otherwise intelligent and fair-minded 
people get to telling and believing the 
truth about the Pennsylvania-German and 
his picturesque language and customs,, 
there will be a wonderfully rich addition 
to our literature. 

Superficially, perhaps, the Pennsyl- 
vania-German would hardly strike one as 
being a particularly romantic character ; 
on slight acquaintance it would seem that 
he was of the clay that could be used to 
the best advantage in the manufacture of 
pie plates or applebutter crocks, or some 
other unattractive ware — and that is the 
allegorical association in which he is 
usually presented. That some delicate 
creation whose color, symmetry and deco- 
ration at once arrest attention and demand 
admiration can be fashioned from such 
plastic, is almost entirely unthought of. 
Ihtt modern idealism and realism have 
shown us that much can be done with clay, 
even if it be common, as intelligent read- 
ers of Hall Caine's most successful books 
will readily recognize, and so we may con- 
h lentlv look forward to the not far dis- 



244 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



tant day when our own every day heroes 
of Soudieastern Pennsylvania will be tak- 
ing the same proud place in current lit- 
erature that many of their neighbors have 
filled in the political and military history 
■of the country. With one quiet little vil- 
lage in Pennsylvania-Germany alone, pro- 
ducing the president of the first American 
congress under the constitution, a major- 
general in the Revolutionary army and a 
United States senator, the foremost 
American botanist and an eminent littera- 
teur, a governor and an auditor-general 
of the State, a member of Congress and a 
treasurer of the city of Philadelphia — to 
say nothing of others in the public service 
Avho were identified with the immediate 
vicinity of the village — it is not reasonable 
to believe that the conditions under which 
they developed would be entirely barren 
of themes for very pretentious literary 
effort. 

Some day when the Maclaren of Penn- 
sylvania-Germany comes to translate its 
life into English for us, the hearts of the 
people will be touched by stories of in- 
finitely greater tenderness and pathos and 
human sympathy than those in the Bonnie 
Briar Bush and Auld Lang Syne collec- 
tions, and those who live in the land or 
who have heard of it will wonder why its 
literary value was not appreciated long 
ago. The rugged characters with which 
Dr. Watson has populated his thinly dis- 
guised Drumtochty are not comparable 
with those real men and women of a 
particular locality which anyone, without 
the aid of the glasses of an enthusiast, 
could readily identify in the Perkiomen 
region. 

It is only about thirty miles from Phila- 
delphia to this "Glen" — to appropriate 
Maclaren's place name — and what a view 
of it one gets as he climbs the hill which 
bounds it on the south ! A picture of 
surpassing loveliness is spread out on 
gigantic canvas, the panorama stretching 
away up to and beyond the Blue Moun- 
tains, while the horizon on either hand is 
gradually lost in the distance. Down in- 
to the valley that opens up almost at one's 
feet, leads the road, past a great house on 
the right which sheltered the ancestors of 
a long line of illustrious men, one of them 
a colonel in the Revolution, another a 




DOORWAY TO FARM HOUSE. 

brigadier-general and another a major, 
wdiile many illustrious folk of later times 
are proud to trace their origin to the 
sturdy old pioneer and his wife who 
kindled a hearth fire there nearly a cen- 
tury and a half ago. 

Down the hill a little further the road 
crosses a bridge which a headless woman 
haunts at midnight. On an eminence to 
the left is the village church, the God's 
acre surrounding it whitened with the 
memorials of many a former generation. 
The village itself, a real Pennsylvania- 
German Drumtochty, is just ahead — and 
the visitor can be left there in good com- 
pany to work out his own comparisons 
and his own satisfaction with a most fas- 
cinating neighborhood. 

When the romancer of the future comes 
to idealize the characters ot our Glen — 
for such the Perkiomen region in general 
may be appropriately designated — what 
sublime figures he will make of those 
pioneer ministers who came to a wilder- 
ness to break the bread of life to their 
congregations, and whose daily devotion 
and work suggests a strong dash of the 
martyr spirit in the men. History is silent 
on many points in the career of a certain 



LITERARY OPPORTUNITIES 



245" 



Youn^^ theologian who came to this sec- 
tion in 1793, but there is more than 
enough known to frame a hero upon, at 
any rate. The story of "His Mother's Ser- 
mon" lacks some of the beauty and ro- 
mance that might be introckiced into our 
counterpart of it, were the right man to 
tell it. Our John Carmichael was a Uni- 
versity graduate, his course of study 
having led him through Giessen and 
Gottingen. after which he engaged in 
teaching ; later he took charge of a couple 
of village churches in Germany. 

Hearing of the death of his mother and 
finding it impossible to return to his home 
on account of the wars and rumors of war 
which were then distracting Germany, he 
decided, in his grief, to abandon his pros- 
pects for advancement in the Fatherland, 
and go to x\merica. He landed in Phila- 
delphia, from Rotterdam, in the fall of 
1793. In Philadelphia he was directed by 
ecclesiastical brethren to go to a church 
in our Glen that was in need of a pastor. 
He went there and when he appeared be- 
fore them the exacting Germans who 
composed the flock murmured. "What 
does that youth know ; what can he teach 
us," they said. But the stripling could 
teach them something, for his first sermon 
electrified them, and he became their pastor 
without further objection. There was no 
parsonage for the young minister so the 
householders drew lots to decide where he 
should live. The man who drew the long- 
est straw got the minister — and a son-in- 
law ; for the farmer had a comely daugh- 
ter and she married the young parson. 
The names of their children and their 
children's children to-day have high and 
honored places in the religious, civil and 
political annals of the country. 

In 1807. the minister heard from a Jew- 
peddler who came from his native place 
that the mother whom he mourned was 
still alive and well ; it was an aunt by the 
same name who had died, not the mother. 
He made arrangements at once for her 
coming to this country and after a separa- 
tion of fifteen years the mother who had 
given so good a man to this country was 
greeted by the son as one risen from the 
dead. The labors of that minister's life 
broadened the domain of the "Kingdom" 
in this countrv, and the whole story, which 



is entirely a true one, is a most strikin,^ 
exemplification of the words, "God moves 
in a mysterious way his wonders to per- 
form." And the scene of the young min- 
ister's trial, his romance, his life's great 
happiness, is in the peaceful valley that is 
still musical with "the Perkiomen, singing 
all the day." 

And another striking parallel between 
the history of those clerical heroes of 
Alaclaren's fancy and those of its counter- 
part near us is to be found in the record 
of two ministers, father and son. whose 
combined pastorates in the service of the 
same church extends over a range of 
seventy years — from 1829 until the pres- 
ent. Going back to the early days of the 
father's ministry, some of the difficulties 
of his parish work can hardly be appre- 
ciated ; and considering, too, the critical 
audiences to which he had to preacli. his 
devotion to his charge under all circum- 
stances, makes his life appear as a very 
clear exposition of the word consecration. 
Those who knew the father tell enough 
of the details of his earnest and noble life 
to lead one to think there will be little 
need of idealizing it ; the plain truth will 
be sufficiently absorbing. 

But apart from its many analogies, our 
"Glen" has a charm that is not dilated 
upon in the stories of the place across the 
seas. For instance, it was one of the first 
homes in America of those thousands of 
sectarians from the Rhine country, who, 
oppressed with varying degrees of bitter- 
ness in their native land, gladly accepted 
the invitation of Penn and the glittering- 
prospects of religious freedom in his 
"Elysium." Their early ancestors in the 
Netherlands had been relentlessly perse- 
cuted ; indeed, one writer has said that 
even the sufferings of the primitive 
Christians did not compare with the name- 
less horrors to which these Mennonite 
martyrs submitted. Among the methods 
by wiiich many of them met death calmly 
and unflinchingly it is recorded that some 
were buried alive ; others were burned ; 
some were torn on the rack ; others were 
hung. But still the survivors clung- 
tenaciously to their own interpretations 
of the Scriptures and these they carried 
with them into new homes in the Palati- 
nate — where, as just observed, they were 



246 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



not left undisturbed in their enjoyment of 
religious life — and thence to the new- 
world. 

A substantial stone farm house and an 
ancient mill along the banks of a small 
tributary to the Perkiomen are two of the 
tangible relics "stranded upon this dis- 
tant shore of time" that still remind us of 
a most distinguished exponent of the faith 
of Menno Simons who came to the Glen 
in 1 7 19, and who gave up the wonderfully 
busy life he led in it in 1760, when his 
neighbors carried his body out of his old 
home and buried it in a quiet spot be- 
neath the trees somewhere on the broad 
acres he had reclaimed from the wilder- 
ness. A reference to what was accom- 
plished by this great man — for so he will 



cation of that "noblest specimen of 
colonial bibliography." the so-called Mar- 
tvr Book printed at the Ephrata cloister 
in 1748. Any one of his occupations 
would probably be considered fairly good 
employment for the average man of this 
generation, and to say that the world was 
the better for Henry Funk's having lived 
in it, is simply a very mild way of stating 
a plain truth for all people. 

The peculiar views of those primitive 
sectarians — of whom the various divisions 
of the ]\Iennonites or Mennists, the 
Dunkers and the Schwenkfelders are the 
most familiar examples to-day — yet thrive 
in Pennsylvania Germany, for their ex- 
ponents still possess the fundamental and 
cardinal virtue of attending largely to 




HISTORIC FLOURING MILL. 



be considered when people commence to 
read and weigh history aright — will be of 
interest ; he was a deep scholar ; he was a 
preacher in the Mennonite church and for 
some years a bishop in that organization ; 
he was a miller; he looked after a large 
farm; he was the author of two books, 
one of which was published in 1744. and 
ran through at least five editions, while the 
other one, published three years after his 
death, was meritorious enough to run 
through three editions, being reprinted 
in Switzerland in 1844, and again in 
Pennsylvania (Lancaster) in 1862; and 
he was the leading spirit in the translation 
from Dutch into German, and the publi- 



their own affairs. It is this aloofness 
from the rest of the world that is respon- 
sible to a very great degree for the com- 
parative lack of popular knowledge of 
and sympathy for their beliefs. A 
Dunker — a man well known for his strict 
business integrity and entire freedom from 
cant and hypocrisy — was asked once if 
he intended going to the World's Fair at 
Chicago. "World's Fair!" he repeated, 
with particular emphasis on the first word; 
"World's Fair! Would people go to a 
Christian's Fair?" Even the denomina- 
tion of the great enterprise was enough 
to condemn it in his judgment, as it was 
apparently linked in his mind with the 



LITKRARY OPPORTUXITIES 



247 



other two elements of that well known 
trio, the world, the tiesh and the devil. 
That was enough to raise a doubt as to 
its morality and so he stayed at home and 
got no sympathy for his conscientious 
antagonism — from the gentiles, at least, 
who laughed at his novel arraignment of 
the Exposition. 

When the story of Harra Jake ^loyer's 
public confession for the sin of having 
knelt in prayer with strangers to his ow^n 
faith became noised abroad, it was told 
with many an embellishment by those who 
could not or would not understand that a 
IMennist's religion and principles are only 
covered by his plain garl) — thev are 



lUit apart from these, our (ilen has an 
abiding interest. Here are vales thronged 
with ghosts ; here "spooks" hold high car- 
nival in dismantled powder mills and 
abandoned houses and barns ; here live 
princes of story tellers who can spin yarns 
about the shadowy denizens in a st}-le that 
will almost curdle the blood ; here still 
lingers a belief in charms, one of wdiich, 
from the "seventh" book of Moses, when 
rightly employed will make the user of the 
incantation invisible to his pursuer and 
invulnerable to the bullets from his 
enemy's gun. An old man who lived 
long beyond the allotted three score and 
ten tried and proved its efficacy many 




AN OLD MILL 



planted very deeply in his breast. We read 
the pathetic account of Lachlan Campbell 
and his erring daughter, and in spite of 
ourselves we admire the superhuman 
courage of the old man as he puts his duty 
to the Kirk above all fatherly affection for 
the girl. Yet the incident has been 
matched and surpassed over and over 
again in the annals of our own Drum- 
tochty. Many an unrepentant sinner 
there, unheedful of the warnings of his 
brethren, has felt the heavy hand of the 
"ban" laid upon him ; the members of his 
own family, his companions, his old asso- 
ciates in the meeting, have avoided him 
until in his terrible isolation he has been 
. brought to a sincere sorrow for his sin 
and he has made full atonement for it. 



a time in his checkered career as bandit, 
bounty jumper and in other capacities 
that encouraged him to keep as remote 
from the public eye as possible. Failure 
to grasp the gravity of a situation and to 
promptly call the abracadabra to his aid 
once resulted in his disappearance from 
society for a dozen years while he kept an 
engagement with a state official. One of 
his strong points was his adroitness in 
evading definite mention of the profession 
that made his name a household terror in 
days gone by. 

It does not require any amount of 
mental gymnastics to get one's self in 
sympathy with the manifold delights and 
peculiarities of nature and character in the 
Perkiomen region. C)ne needs but to find 



248 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



that comfortable seat on the long "hoh- 
kist" (wood chest) at the side of the great 
fireplace ; in the opposite corner of the 
kitchen is an eight-day clock that has 
ticked away time for four generations of 
the family ; in another corner is a triangu- 
lar cupboard and on its shelves is an ex- 
quisitely patterned tea-set which, with the 
clock, has been the wedding portion of 
great-grandmother, grandmother, mother 
and — the daughter is still young, buxom 
and unmarried. The fire roars up the 
chimney ; the logs crackle and sparkle as 
if to add to the heat of the controversv 
— such as most of these Pennsylvania- 
Germans are always willing to engage 
m — which rages over the property of a 
snaven face and a "wordly" dress. There 
in the Old Testament of the Bible which 
an ancestor brought from Nuremberg 
many generations ago, the argumentative 
Dunker points out the incontrovertible 
lojric which tears the useless buttons from 



coat sleeves, and makes a shame of fancy 
necktie patterns and other such frivolities. 
But, as has been suggested before all 
these incidents and phases of a wonder- 
fully quaint life and times need but the 
few touches of an artist to give thenx 
perspective, to make them finished pic- 
tures ; all the ready-made plots which 
abound there need but the casting of a. 
master to make them into most captivating; 
comedies or tragedies as the case may be. 
And until the artist or the master takes 
full cognizance of Pennsylvania-Germany^ 
the length and breadth of the land are not 
finding speech — although it is refreshing 
to note that such writers as Nelson Lloyd 
and other contributors to our current 
magazine literature are making highly 
appreciated additions to its vocabulary. 
Let us hope that the Washington Irving 
of Pennsylvania-Germany will soon come 
to the life and character of our neighbors 
in their real proportions ! 



The Conway Cabal at York, Pennsylvania, 

1777-1778 



BY DR. I. H. BKTZ. YORK. PA. 




VERY school history used by 
American school boys makes 
mention of the Conway 
Cabal the headquarters of 
whose intrigues was in a 
house in York which is still 

standing and is in an excellent state of 

preservation. How all this occurred 

forms an intereseting story. 

The brilliant showing at Lexington and 

Concord : 

"Where the embattled farmers stood 
Who fired the shot heard 'round the world." 

was followed by Bunker Hill which was 
really a victory in disguise. This cul- 
minated in the famous siege of Boston 
the outcome of which convinced the 
Crown that the Americans would fight. 
But the British army sought a new 
point — New York and forced the Ameri- 
can army to retreat across New Jeresy. 
Philadelphia the seat of government was 
now the objective point of the British. 
The bold attack made by Washington 



on Trenton and the battle at Princeton 
for a time frustrated this intention. But 
the British after a time sought a new 
point of approach by way of Chesapeake 
Bay — the Delaware being obstructed — 
and then marched overland through 
southeastern Pennsylvania. In trying 
to impede their advance the battle of the 
Brandywine occurred which led the way 
to the British occupation of Philadelphia 
shortly afterwards. Washington in en- 
deavoring to retrieve his fortune, made a 
well planned attack on the British at 
Germantown which must have succeeded 
but for strange luiforeseen circumstances. 

Congress left Philadelphia shortly after 
the battle of Pirandywine and after passing 
through several places it assembled in 
Lancaster for a single day but retired 
to York where it remained till the evacua- 
tion of Philadelphia the following June 
1778. 

The loss of New York and Philadel- 
phia, the depreciation of the currency and 
the sufferings at Valley Forge furnished 



THE CONWAY CABAL 



2^C> 



material for criticism which was laid at 
the door of the Commander-in-Chief, 
George Washington. On the other hand 
the success of our arms at Saratoga af- 
forded some relief but it was interrupted 
by a strong opposition wholly to the dis- 
advantage of Washington. 

The origin, growth and history of the 
Cabal is shrouded in much obscurity as 
regards its details — and it also contains 
many missing links. Had the project 
succeeded or been successful in its out- 
come w-e would then probably have come 
in full possession of its minutest details. 
When the project failed its memory be- 
came unpopular and the lips of those who 
could have spoken at first hand became 
sealed. Those who had reduced their 
knowledge to writing destroyed their 
papers and journals largely, or they were 
destroyed by their descendants by express 
directions it is believed. None had a 
direct full knowledge excepting those who 
were involved in the conspiracy. Those 
who were unfriendly to its aims were not 
admitted to its councils. Those who were 
in partial sympathy with its intentions 
were pretty well known. Some were 
probably only partially involved, if that 
expression is allowed. Had the con- 
spiracy not collapsed so suddenly their 
attitude would probably have been more 
pronounced. 

The first Board of War was or- 
ganized June 1 2th, 1776. Its head 
was John Adams, its secretary was 
Richard Peters. Its other members 
were Roger Sherman, Benjamin Har- 
rison, James Wilson and Edward Rut- 
ledge. This board occupied the lower 
story of James Smith's law office in 
York. Smith was also a member of the 
Congress. 

Later, Nov., 1777, a new board was ap- 
pointed with General Horatio Gates as 
its head, who requested that James Wil- 
kinson should be made its Secretary. He 
was notified by President Laurens 
to come to York, but owing to subsequent 
developments he did not serve in this 
capacity except for a brief time after his 
averted duel at York with Gates, after 
which he resigned. The members ap- 
pointed by the new board were Thomas 
^lifflin, Timothy Pickering, Col. Robert B. 



Harrison, Francis Dana, Jonathan Bay- 
ard Smith, Joseph Trumbull and Richard 
Peters. General Gates came to York 
January 19th, 1778. The members were 
not to be taken from the list of the Con- 
gressmen. The board as now constituted 
was opposed to Washington, after the 
resignation of several of its members. 
General Gates now rented the house on 
Market street east of Water. He occu- 
pied the house with his family and made 
this dwelling the office of the Board of 
War. Mrs. Gates being a woman of 
wealth and prestige made their brief sta^ 
in York a social success. 

While the different elements which 
formed the Cabal were somewhat diverse 
in character subjectively, yet objectively 
their aims were directed towards one per- 
son — Washington. He it was who stood 
in the way of those who had special ob- 
jects in view. A positive character who 
sees his duty and performs it without fear 
or favor is sure to arouse a host oi warm 
friends as well as a swarm of bitter ene- 
mies. The council and assembly of Penn- 
sylvania renewed to Congress their wish 
that Philadelphia might be taken and the 
British army driven away. To this 
project Congress lent a favorable ear. 
Other projects of activity were proposed,, 
but came to nothing. Individuals here 
and there may be quoted whose opinions 
and attitude to Washington reflect any- 
thing but credit upon themselves in the 
light of subsequent events. 

The question arises — Why should this 
secret intrigue be termed the "Conway 
Cabal"? 

The three men who aspired to succeed 
Washington as commander-in-chief of 
the army were Thomas Conway, Horatio 
Gates and Charles Lee. All were of for- 
eign birth and all had seen service in 
other lands. All three presumed to re- 
gard Washington as deficient in mili- 
tary talents and ability. 

Conway, who was of Irish birth, had 
served for years in the armies of France. 

Our representatives in that country ex- 
tended great encouragement to such for- 
eigners as were willing to enter our serv- 
ice. Probably none came wath greater 
expectations than Conway. He aspired 
to high rank at the beginning, and it is 



250 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



believed that he already had in view the 
highest command in the army. He 
sought Washington very early at JNIor- 
ristown. and by his manner and matter 
impressed him very unfavorably. 

Instead of receiving the commission of 
major general at the 'hands of Congress 
he first only had the degree of brigadier 
general conferred upon him. Washing- 
ton took occasion to comment upon his 
e.xpectations and aspirations very unfav- 
orably which incurred the malignant 
enmity of Conway. Still he made friends 
of a large number of army officers, Con- 
gressmen and individuals in private life. 
Coming at a period which had been fol- 
lowed by disaster which had called forth 
the unsparing criticism of men in public 
life he was an enemy not to be despised. 

Gates had been an officer Avith W^ash- 
ington in the ill-fated Braddock expedi- 
tion in 1755. For some years he and 
Charles Lee had been neighbors in 
Berkeley county. Virginia. 

Undoubtedly Gates was a less daring 
and open schemer than Conway. For a 
time at least the three aspirants were in- 
dependent in their hopes and aims. Of 
Gates it may be said that he accompanied 
\\"ashington to Boston and was appointed 
adjutant with the rank of brigadier gen- 
eral. He professed great devotion to 
\\'ashington, yet he early suggested to 
Congress that "a committee be appointed 
to watch him." He was appointed to the 
command of the Northern army the fol- 
lowing year. By a strange course of 
fortuitous circumstances he received all 
the credit for the result of this campaign, 
for which he also received great adula- 
tion for the moment, which served to 
impress him with self-importance. 
Charles Lee proved himself a true 
prophet when he said to him after his 
appointment to the Southern army, which 
was defeated so disastrously at Camden: 
"Take care that you do not exchange 
Northern laurels for Southern icillozi's:" 

Of Lee it may be said that he was sec- 
ond in command of the Army. First he 
also revered and praised Washington. 
Four months later he lamented his "fatal 
indecision" and called him a blunderer. 
In another month he wrote: "A certain 
great man is most damnablv deficient." 



Lee now was captured. It is said that 
while a prisoner he drew up a plan for 
the English general showing how 
America could be conquered. His ad- 
vance and retreat at Monmouth and the 
burning indignation of Washington need 
not be enlarged upon. Others of his acts 
are open to a greater charge than ineffi- 
ciency. Like Conway he would gladly 
have succeeded \\'ashington. 

Conway was guilty of speaking disre- 
spectfully of W^ashington face to face by 
maintaining the facts set forth in his letter 
to Gates. The latter was not so frank, 
but hedged and equivocated, and thus 
aroused the animus of Wilkinson, a mem- 
ber of his staff, who later called him to 
account by challenging him to mortal 
combat. 

Wilkinson was a private in the first 
company of riflemen which left York 
July I, and reached Boston July 25, 1775. 
This was the first company to reach that 
place from west or south of the Hudson 
river. 

Singularly, all three of these aspirants 
to the highest honor took part in duels : 
Conway with Cadwallader ; Gates with 
Wilkinson and Lee with Col. John 
Laurens. 

Two of them. Gates and Conway, 
wrote contrite letters to Washington. Lee 
passed the remainder of his life in ob« 
scurity. It may be remarked that Con- 
way, Gates and Lee would not have 
been fitting successors to Washington. 
They lacked judgment and moral prin- 
ciple. Lacking caution and discretion 
they would have speedily wrecked the 
fortune of the Colonies. 

These were the men who were inter- 
ested in the success of the Cabal directly. 
Conway being the boldest and most out- 
spoken, was naturally assigned to the 
leadership, although in its later stages 
Gates became the standard-bearer of the 
Cabal. 

Of the members of Congress who fav- 
ored the Cabal, the most active and out- 
spoken, though far from being the ablest, 
may be mentioned James Lovell, of 
Massachusetts. Already as early as 
Nov. 17th, 1777, he wrote to Gates, 
threatening Washington "with the 
mighty torrent of public clamor and ven- 



THE CONWAY CABAL 



251 



geance," and adding "How different your 
conduct and your fortune ; this army will 
be totally lost unless you come down and 
collect the virtuous band who wish to 
fight under your banner." After Gates 
was appointed president of Board of 
War, Lovell wrote: "We want you in 
dift'erent places ; we want you most near 
Germantown. Good God. what a situa- 
tion we are in ! How different from what 
might have been justly expected!" This 
is a specimen of some of the correspond- 
ence which remains of that stormy period, 
to which may be added extracts from 
others. 

While John Adams was not a member 
of the Cabal, yet his opinion of Wash- 
ington's ability could not have been any- 
thing but very moderate in the light of 
such queries as : "Would Washington 
ever have been commander of the revo- 
lutionary army or president of the United 
States if he had not married the rich 
widow Custis ?" The most he could say 
for him to Knox was that he was an 
"amiable gentleman." He also expressed 
himself as "sick of Fabian systems." 

In writing of the thanksgiving for the 
Saratoga Convention, he said : "One 
cause of it ought to be that the glory of 
turning the tide of arms is not imme- 
diately due to the commander-in-chief. If 
it had been, idolatry and adulation would 
have been unbounded." 

William Williams, of Connecticut, 
agreed with Jonathan Trumbull that the 
time had come when "a much exalted 
character should make way for a general," 
and suggested if this was not done "vol- 
untarily," those to whom the public 
looked should "see to it." 

Abram Clark, of New Jersey, thought . 
"We may talk of the enemy's cruelty as 
•we will, but we have no greater cruelty to 
complain of than the management of oui 
army." 

Jonathan D. Sargent asserted that "we 
want a general; thousands of lives and 
millions of property are yearly sacrificed 
to the insufficiency of our commander- 
in-chief." 

Richard Henry Lee agreed with Gen- 
eral Mifflin that Gates was needed "to 
procure the indispensable changes in our 
army." 



Other Congressmen inimical to Wash- 
ington were Samuel Adams, William 
Ellery, Eliphalet Dyer, Roger Sherman, 
Samuel Chars, Francis Lightfoot Lee, 
Elll)ridge Gerry and Henry Marchant. 

P)Ut no one, not even Conway, exceeded 
Benjamin Rush in virulent opposition to 
Washington. He had been a member of 
the previous Congress, and a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. Rush, 
it is maintained, had tried to remove Dr. 
Shippen from the directorship in his own 
favor. Washington stigmatized the 
prosecution as one originating in bad mo- 
tives. Rush became his bitter enemy as 
long as he lived. 

He wrote anonymous letters, one to the 
governor of \'irginia, with request that 
the letter be burnt. Instead, Patrick 
Henry sent it to Washington, who recog- 
nized the handwriting, remarking that 
"we have caught the sly old fox at last." 
Another was written to the president of 
the Congress, Henry Laurens. The son 
of the latter. Col. John Laurens, was a 
most devoted friend of Washington, and 
belonged to his military family. He 
wrote letters to his father, and also came 
to York and laid the true state of affairs 
before him, and convinced him accord- 
ingly. 

Rush tried hard in ^Marshall's Life of 
Washington to prevent his name as ap- 
pearing among his enemies. 

Mifflin had been the first man appointed 
on Washington's staff and was promoted 
by him to be quartermaster general. 
Patrick Henry said that Mifflin bore sec- 
ond part in the Cabal. It is claimed he 
had neglected his duties as quartermaster 
general, but was elected to office in the 
newly-appointed Board of War. 

In the army Sullivan, who was second 
in command, expressed himself heartily 
in Conway's favor, and pronounced him 
the best officer in its ranks. This he did 
in the face of Washington and his 
brother officers who were faithful to him. 

At the same time, Wayne expressed his 
purpose "to follow the line pointed out by 
the conduct of Lee. Gates and Mifflin." 

Conway had the audacity, on foreseeing 
that Gates was to preside at the Board of 
War, to offer to form a plan for him 
for the instruction of the armv. 



252 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



But if Washin^on had his enemies, 
he also had his friends. Among those 
who stood by him were such Congress- 
men as Laurens, Harrison. Robert Mor- 
ris, Dr. Joseph Jones, Charles Carroll, 
Gouverneur Morris, Rudedge and others. 
In the army were Greene, Knox, Alex- 
ander Hamilton, LaFayette and John 
Laurens. Joseph Reed, who was one of 
his aids, it is claimed was two-faced. It 
is claimed that Gouverneur Morris gave 
the casting vote in the Congress which 
saved Washington from being arrested 
at Valley Forge. It is related that Wil- 
liam Duer, of New York, was on a bed 
of sickness when this vote was to be 
taken, and a litter had been prepared to 
take him to the Congress by his physician 
at his earnest request, even though the 
event would prove fatal to him later. 
Happily, the arrival of Morris obviated 
this necessity, but the fact shows how 
closely the lines were drawn. It is also 
related that the re-election of Richard 
Henry Lee and Samuel Adams was at- 
tended with great doubt, owing to the 
part they took in the matter in question. 

This event and the incident which oc- 
curred at the famous banquet in the old 
house on Market near Water street, at 
which Conway, Gates and Lafayette were 
present, had great influence upon the for- 
tunes of the Cabal. When the wine be- 
gan to work and the toasts were all ut- 
tered, Lafayette proposed a toast which 
had not yet been given — one to the com- 
mander-in-chief ! 

The confusion which it produced in 
the ranks of the conspirators served to 
impress Lafayette that his surmises as to 
the intrigue were well founded. Not- 
vvidistanding he was appointed as the head 
of a northern expedition to Canada, he 
stipulated that DeKalb should be second 
in command instead of Conway, and that 
he himself should be subject to the com- 
mander-in-chief. How this project came 
to naught owing to lack of men and 
means to be provided for the expedition 
by Congress is a matter of history. 

But nothing tended so directly and 
speedily to the downfall of the Cabal as 
the difficulity that began between Wil- 
kinson and (iates soon after the surren- 
der of Burgoyne. Instead of communi- 



cating the report to Washington, who was 
entitled to receive it. Gates despatched 
his aid Wilkinson to York to report to 
the Congress. He was a young man of 
twenty years of age. 

He left Albany Oct. 20th, and reached 
Easton Oct. 24th, where he stopped one 
day. The following day he proceeded 
towards Reading, which he reached on 
the evenmg of October 27th. 

At Reading he dined with Lord Stirl- 
ing, who had been wounded at Brandy- 
wine. One of the guests at dinner was 
James Monroe, future President of the 
United States. 

Wilkinson here inadvertently revealed 
the plot to remove Washington from the 
head of the army. He then proceeded 
to Reading and dined with Mifflin. Here 
he met several members of Congress from 
New England. He was delayed here sev- 
eral days by swollen rivers. He arrived 
at York, Oct. 31st. The news of the sur- 
render had preceded him for some days. 
Still it was proposed by Congress to pre- 
sent Wilkinson with a sword. W'ither- 
spoon, in his broad Scotch, dryly re- 
marked : "I think ye'd better give the lad 
a pair of spurs." 

Another delegate responded : "And a 
whip, so that he may bring official news 
more promptly another time." 

Wilkinson remained in York till Nov. 
9th. He was made a brigadier general 
by brevet. He returned, going by way 
of Washington's headquarters. Washing- 
ton sent a letter of congratulation to 
Gates for the success of our arms, but 
remarked that he was sorry that he re- 
ceived the information indirectly, thus ad- 
ministering a well-merited rebuke to 
Gates. 

But the bombshell thrown in the camp 
of the conspirators was that when Wilkin- 
son revealed the secrets of the Cabal he 
communicated the contents of a letter re- 
ceived by Gates from Conway. Lord 
Stirling informed Washington of the cir- 
cumstance. Washington sent a letter to 
Conway which read : 

"Sir : A letter I received last night con- 
tained the following paragraph: 'In a letter 
from General Conway to General Gates he 
says', "Heaven has determined to save your 
country or a weak general and bad counsellor 
would have ruined it." 



THE CONWAY CABAL 



253 



"I am Sir. vour Humble Servant, 

"GEORGE WASHINGTON." 

Conway did not know what to make of 
this startling' note. He, however, went 
toldly to Washington face to face and 
stood by his letter, and boasted of it after- 
wards to Mifflin. 

The latter wrote to Gates, warning him 
that an extract from one of his letters 
had fallen into the hands of Washington. 

(Jates replied to Mifflin that he exer- 
-cised the greatest care in the security of 
his correspondence. He blamed Alex- 
ander Hamilton, a friend of Washington, 
who had visited him for abstracting it. 

He then sent a copy of the letter to 
Congress, so that body might assist in 
finding the culprit, which in reality was 
to arouse still greater prejudices against 
Washington. The latter discerned the 
purpose and wrote to Gates : 

"Your letter came to my hands a few days 
ago, and to my surprise informed me that a 
copy of it had been sent to Congress, for what 
reason I find myself unable to account, but as 
some end was doubtless intended to be assured 
ly it I am led under the disagreeable necessity 
of returning my answer through the same 
channel, lest any member of that honorable 
hody should harbor an unfavorable suspicion 
of having practiced some indirect means to 
come at the contents of the confidential letters 
l)etween you and General Conway." 

In this letter he further detailed how 
Wilkinson had talked at Reading when 
imder the influence of wine, and that he 
had written the before mentioned letter 
to Conway, to let him know his attitude 
"was known. Much more to the same 
€fifect was mentioned in the letter. The 
revelations to both parties was a complete 
surprise. 

Gates had a ray of hope that Washing- 
Ion had no information excepting that em- 
"braced in the extract of the letter written 
iy Conway. 

Gates now attempted to make Wilkin- 
son the scape-goat, and wrote again to 
Washington, denying his intimacy with 
Conway, and declared he had secured but 
a single letter from him. 

He declared that the letter contained 
no such paragraphs as that which Wash- 
ington had been informed. The informa- 
tion that Wilkinson revealed he declared 
'was a villainous slander and falsehood. 

In a previous letter Gates had admitted 



the existence of several letters which he 
had received from Conway. 

But Washington sent a stirring reply 
which put Gates in a very unconlfortabfe 
position from which he could not extri- 
cate himself. 

Wilkinson now heard of the matter, and 
was filled with rage that his own honor 
should be impugned. Some time had 
elapsed before he became cognizant of 
the foregoing facts. Having been noti- 
fied by President Laurens to come to 
York to assume his duties as secretary of 
Board of War, he came from the Hudson 
in February in a sleigh to Reading, and 
from thence to Lancaster on horseback. 

At Reading he became acquainted with 
the facts as detailed. He sent a messen- 
ger on ahead with a letter to Gates. He 
said : 

"What motive, Sir, could induce me to in- 
jure you or General Conway — you my boasted 
patron, friend and benefactor, he a' stranger 
of whom I entertained favorable sentiments?" 

Gates replied offensively, and intimated 
Wilkinson could have any satisfaction he 
desired. Wilkinson, in his memoirs, says 
he repaired to York, arriving by twi- 
light, February 23rd. He at once went to 
a friend to deliver a challenge to Gates. 
The latter entreated him not to enter 
upon this sure road to destruction. An- 
other friend to whom he turned was more 
willing. He carried the challenge to 
Gates' house. He was met at the door- 
way by Gates. The latter said: 

"All right. Sir. We will meet tomorrow 
morning at 8 A. M. at the rear of the Episcopal 
church." 

They met at the time appointed, but 
through the interposition of mutual 
friends the duel was averted. The prin- 
cipals shook hands, and it was agreed 
that Wilkinson should assume his duties 
as secretary next day. He found Gates 
barely civil. The other members of the 
board were agreeable. He resigned a few 
days afterwards, and w^ent to \'alley 
Forge, where he met Lord Stirling and 
Washington, and recounted to them his 
difficulties with Gates. 

Wilkinson returned to the Northern, 
army. Gates was also ordered to return 
to the North in April. The army was 
near Kingston on the Hudson. Wilkin- 
son decided to meet his opponent again 



254 



THE PENXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



and challenged hini. The duel took place 
near St. Clair's headquarters on the Hud- 
son. September 4th. 1778. Captain John 
Carter, of Virginia, acted as second to 
Wilkinson, and Thaddeus Kosciusko, the 
Polish nobleman, was second to Gates. 
In the duel tlint-lock pistols were used. 

At the first shot Wilkinson fired in the 
air, while Gates' pistol flashed fire in 
the pan and did not discharge. 

They charged their pistols again, and 
when the order was given Wilkinson fired 
but missed his aim. Gates refused to fire. 
When the order was given the third time, 
Wilkinson fired but missed, and the flint- 
lock of Gates again flashed. The seconds 
now interposed, and the principals shook 
hands. After the duel Gates signed a 
certificate that Wilkinson behaved like a 
gentleman in the encounter at York. 
Upon request. Wilkinson refused to sign 
a similar certificate concerning the con- 
duct of Gates at York. Wilkinson then 
challenged Gates to another duel, but 
Gates refused, and the two men never 
again became friends. 

While the Cabal at times gave evidence 
of its existence as late as 1779, its back- 
bone was broken. Gates retired from the 
army in 1778. June 13th, 1780, he was 
called by Congress to take command of 
the army of the South, in which com- 
mand he was routed at the battle of Cam- 
den. He was succeeded by Greene, and 
suspended from duty. His only son died 
about this time. His wite, too, lost her 
large fortune. He returned to Virginia, 
but in 1790 came to Xew York, where 
he died in 1806, at the age of 78 years. 



Wilkinson became commander-in-ichief 
of the army in 1796-98, and again 1800- 
I 2. 

Wayne had an honorable career, and 
rendered important services later. ]\Iiftlin 
held many important offices later, and 
served as Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Conway returned to Europe and died 
some years later in obscurity in London. 

Undoubtedly many of the public men 
who took part against Washington did 
so from honest motives. As the result 
showed, they were mistaken. 

vGates and others later endeavored to 
show that the Cabal had only an imag- 
inary existence, but the evidence at hand 
shows that it was a reality. 

As an episode in our history, it is in- 
teresting, and could its full details be 
traced, it would form a most fascinating 
chapter in the history of the country dur- 
ing its gravest peril. 

Boston, Philadelphia and York are 
three localities in which the most interest- 
ing and important events relating to the 
Revolution occurred. Boston has its 
Faneuil Hall, where Liberty was cradled ; 
Philadelphia has its Independence Hall, 
where Independence was declared, but 
York at this time has no reminder in the 
way of a public building, save the head- 
quarters of the Conway Cabal, where Lib- 
erty was imperiled in the darkest and 
most trying period of the Revolution. 
Happily, the danger passed by. Had it 
been otherwise, York would have had 
the unenviable notoriety of having been 
the spot where Liberty was sacrificed and 
defeated bv machination and self-interest. 



HISTORY OF ST. LUKE'S REFORMED CHURCH, TRAPPE, PA. 

History of St. Luke's Reformed Church, 

Trappe, Pa. 

nv Rl-:\". S. L. MESSINGEK, S.T.D., TK.MTli, i'A. 




Early Local Records. 

X account of iIil' lack of early 
local records, it has been im- 
possible, until within recent 
years, to write a correct 
history of the older Re- 
formed churches in this 
country. This church has one very old 
book, the first pa:ies of which contain 
statements of monies received and paid 
out. beginning;' with the month of June, 
1755, and ending with June, 1838. This 
book contains, also, records of baptisms, 
marriages and deaths from 1760 to 1826. 
()n a page near the middle of the book 
are recorded the names of the members 
of the class confirmed by Dr. Guldin in 
May, 1826. Finally, near the end of the 
book are lists of members, made for the 
years 1813, 181 7 and t8i8. All writings 
are in the German language until the 
year 1826, when the English language be- 
gan to be used. These are all^ the early 
local records of the church in existence. 

Fortunately, however, we are now no 
longer dependent upon these meager 
statements for information concerning the 
beginnings of this church. There have, 
at last, been made accessible facts which 
are of inestimable value to those desiring 
the possession of a history of their church 
which may be as correct and full as it is 
possible to have it. For this information 
we are indebted chiefly to the historical 
researches made bv Prof. James I. Good, 
D.D.. Prof. Wm.' J. Hinke, D.D.; and 
Mr. Henry S. Dotterer. 

In the preface to the minutes of 
Coetus (the name by which the organiza- 
tion of the Reformed Church in Penn- 
sylvania was known for forty-five years 
in the eighteenth century), published by 
the authority of the Eastern Synod in 
1903, Prof. Hinke says: 

"The Coetus stood in clo.-e.st connection with 
the Reformed Church of Holland. To the un- 
selfish liberality of the Holland Church, the 
Reformed Church of Pennsylvania owes not 
only its existence, l)-.it also the preservation of 



its official records. In return for the manv 
acts of kindness received from Holland, the 
Coetus of Pennsylvania was expected to send 
yearly reports of the meetings and of the prog- 
ress of its work to Holland." [These records 
were most carefully preserved in the archives 
of the Church of the mother country.] "The 
gathering of so many documents, from such 
widely-separated sources, has 'been attended 
wiih mucn expenditure of money and labor. 
It was only made possible by the liberality and 
zeal of Dr. J. I. Good, who deserves the grati- 
tude of the church for his unselfish labor." 

Dr. Good, himself, says : 

"For nearly twenty years I had been ransack- 
ing Germany and Switzerland to find materials 
for the basis of the history of our Church in 
America. But the missing Coetus minutes, 
eluded me. Finally I learned that there were 
some records about Pennsylvania at Amster- 
dam. In July, 1895, I visited Amsterdam and. 
arranged to have the portfolio of Pennsylva- 
nia papers copied. But when they came to 
me the next winter I was greatly disappointed, 
because of the many missing Coetus minutes — 
only two came to hand. In the meantime, Mr.. 
Henry S. Dotterer, of Philadelphia, had gone 
abroad for researches connected with the 
■Perkiomen Region.' He wrote to me that at. 
The Hague, in the archives of the General 
Synod, I might find many interesting docu- 
ments, as he had gone over them cursorily in 
his work. I visited The Hague in the summer 
oi 1896, when the courteous keeper of the 
archives laid before me the books and the 
bundles of the Pennsylvania correspondence. 
There, at last, were the long-sought Coetus 
Minutes. I was dazed. It was the embarrass- 
ment of historical riches. What Mayer and 
Harbaugh and other historians of our Church 
had long sought for, but never found, I was 
permitted to be the first of her ministers to see." 

Dr. Good then, in 1897, sent Prof. 
Hinke to Holland to copy them, himself 
going in 1898; and by 1899 the}- had 
copied virtually the whole of the Holland 
records, making about 4,000 pages. The 
total expense of copying, translating, etc.^ 
amounted to about $4,000, "which, how- 
ever," says Dr. Good, "I cheerfully paid 
if thereby I could serve our Church, that 
her early history might be cleared of mis- 
takes, false traditions, and mere surmises, 
and be placed on the solid basis of fact."" 

When and by Whom Organized. 

]^^-om these Minutes of the Coetus, and'. 



256 



THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GHRMAN 



from Dr. Good's ''History of 
the Reformed Church in the 
TJiiited States," I have gath- 
ered much information for this 
■sketch. In these are published 
the facts discovored in the 
archives of Holland. Until 
these facts were published, it 
had not been known when 
and by whom the Refornied 
■Congregation in Providence 
township (now St. Luke's, 
Trappe,) was organized. It 
had been supposed that the 
■date of its founding was Oct.