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Vol. XII 

JANUARY, 1 9 1 1 

No. 1 

The Meaning of Lancaster County's Two Hundred 
Years of History. 1710-1910 

By H. Frank Eshleman, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Delivered September 8, 1910, at Willow 
Street, Lancaster County, Pa., on the occa- 
sion of observance of the 200th anniversary 
of the first settlement in Lancaster County. 

ANCASTER County was 
conceived i n Godliness 
and honest toil. Her 
foundation was laid upon 
the two great bed-rocks 
of religion and agricul- 
ture. Uppermost in the 
minds of her earliest pio- 
neers were these two noble activities. 
To practice these, they came to the 
virgin forests of the Pequea and of the 
Conestoga 200 years ago'. And these 
virtues are our best possessions today. 
Exponent of free religion and fertile 
farms, this county has remained their 
most vigorous nursery in America, 
ever since — their most thriving center 
through two centuries. 

What has been the religious mean- 
ing of our 200 years? Religious fervor, 
transplanted here, flowered out into 
religious freedom — religious love, ri- 
pened into religious liberty. Bruised by 
the barbarous iron heel of an arrogant 
state church — filled with the horrors of 
religious bigotry — satiate with, and 

stung by the memory of the traditions 
and trials and turmoils and torments 
and the tortures, suffered by them- 
selves and their ancestors for centuries, 
for conscience' sake, these pious pio- 
neers would not deny to any other 
soul, an equal freedom with their own, 
to worship God. And thus all creeds 
took root, at once, and flourished here. 
An English visitor to our country in 
its infancy in 1744 wrote, "The relig- 
ions that pervail here are hardly to "J 
numbered" (An. Susq., p. 344) 

The Mennonites planted their relig- 
ion here in 1710 — the Presbyterians, 
Quakers and Episcopalians theirs in 
17 10 — the Reformed theirs in 1722 at 
Heller's — the Ephrata Dunkers, theirs 
in 1726 — the Amish, theirs in 1733 — 
the Catholics, theirs in 1740 — (9 L., 
213 et. seq.) — the Jews, theirs in 1742, 
(3 L., 165) — the Moravians, theirs the 
same year (9 L., 226) — Dunkards and 
Baptists, theirs equally early as most 
these — the Methodists, theirs some 
time afterwards — the United Brethren, 
the Reformed Mennonites, the Evan- 
gelical, United Evangelical, the Church 
of God, the Swedenborgen, and a score 
of others, theirs in quick succession, 
until in modern times three dozen dif- 


ferent creeds flourish here. And all, 
from the beginning, prospered and 
now prosper in peace and harmony to- 

From first to last, ours have been a 
reverential, religious people. And 
thus today within this county's con- 
fines there is a higher percentage of 
communicants than in any other sec- 
tion of America and a far greater 
number of active religious creeds and 
sects than in any other equal area on 
the face of the earth: While in our 
country as a whole, about one-third of 
the population are churchmen — in this 
county the proportion is nearly half. 
While in all America there are 186 re- 
ligious denominations, Lancaster 
County alone has 35 of them (U. S. 
Bulletin of Religions, 1906). Those 
whose views did not and do not now 
coincide with the creeds of established 
churches quickly and freely invented 
and now invent creeds of their own — 
deeply religious, their religious crav- 
ing must be satisfied. Thus practically 
all here, "belong to church". 

From their earliest days the r e- 
ligious forces of this county have made 
themselves a center of Gospel radia- 
tion to other fields — a motherland of 
church power and influence through- 
out wide regions. The Mennonites 
quickly spread their faith and creed 

foss the Susquehanna into the Cum- 
j ,rland and down the Shenandoah ; 
and before the Revolution established 
the Virginia church. In the early days 
of the nineteenth century, from this 
county they went and planted their 
standard in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois 
and over wide fields in Canada ; and af- 
ter the Civil War, established their 
phase of the doctrine of peace in Kan- 
sas and the West. 

The Presbyterians of Donegal early 
carried the Gospel beyond the Alle- 
ghenies — the Presbyterians of Octo- 
raro planted their banners in Catholic 
Maryland — the Presbyterians of Peq- 
uea flanked out to Leacock and Little 
Britain and became the field where 
Rev. Robert Smith in his 42 years of 

preaching" and teaching became the 
theological giant and the first great 
peer of Presbyterianism in this region 
of America. Through Robert Smith, 
"Old Pequea" sent forth a score of 
Presbyterian preachers, east and west, 
among them Waddell, McMillan and 
the junior Smiths, who also preached 
and taught and developed religious 
schools and laid the foundations of 
Jefferson, Sydney, Union and Prince- 
ton Colleges, (9 L. 252). 

The Reformed and Lutherans, long 
before the Revolution founded differ- 
ent German religious schools, made 
scores of ministers and by that means 
laid the foundation on which to erect, 
at the close of that war, Franklin, and 
later Marshall College, the busy 
breeder of a yearly score or two of 
powerful preachers throughout more 
than a century, bringing the bread of 
life to thousands throughout Eastern 

The Moravians missionized whites 
and Indians alike from the earliest 
days. Other churches also flung out 
their powers far and wide beyond the 
county. Thus through all her history 
Lancaster County has stood in con- 
spicuous pre-eminence for religious 
activity and earnestness — religious ra- 
diation and energy. 

Of religious Lancaster County as a 
whole we may observe that, the great 
body of its Christians were and are to- 
day believers in the literal meaning of 
the Bible ; accept in simplicity its 
humble, homely teachings and give no 
ear to the "new thought", the higher 
criticism or the higher cults and cul- 
ture. They have never tried to explain 
away the Gospel or make a pleasant or 
only probable Hell. 

Again observe that practically the 
whole of our people are still wedded 
to the belief not only that religion is 
part of the common law of the land, 
but that God ought to be in all our 
political constitutions and that belief 
in the Savior ought to be one of the 
qualifications in all who hold public 
office and discharge public trusts as in 


the ancient times of Penn. It is not the 
law today. But Lancaster County 
would vote that it should be the law, 
seeing the onslaught made against the 
Gospel in the schools and the lowering 
by the law of the religious qualifica- 
tions, in those to whom the people 
delgate high trusts. 

And again observe, in all our numer- 
ous religious sects that while Lu- 
therans, Reformed, Catholics, Menno- 
nites were enemies of one another in 
Switzerland and Germany and some of 
them delighted in the blood and tor- 
ture of others there, the moment they 
landed here they all dwelt in. peace and 
ever since have so dwelt. Toleration 
rules on every hand; and its brighten- 
ing dawn, apace is growing toward the 
coming rising sun-burst of a universal 

Then, too, a great tenet of our early 
pioneers was that religion should be 
free from any sort of governmental in- 
terference — that church must be sepa- 
rate from state. So determined were 
they in this that they even held for a 
time that a true churchman may not 
take part in affairs of state. They had 
seen and felt the horrors of the state 
favoring one church and punishing 
another and they would have none 
of it. They would not agree that any 
but God should be obeyed in religious 
affairs. This belief they have held 
through nearly 400 years, from the 
time their remote ancestors in Switzer- 
land in 1532 asserted it against the 
government, 250 years before the doc- 
trine appeared in our Federal and State 
Constitutions. (Ernst Miiller's Bern- 
ischen Taufer, p. 34). 

Finally meditate upon the marvel 
that the despised doctrine of nonresis- 
tance, a corner stone of the belief of 
four great rural Lancaster County 
churches, for centuries thought to be a 
doctrine 100 years behind the times, is 
now recognized as an ideal 50 vears 
ahead of the times and the glorious 
goal toward which all the giant na- 
tions of our world are bending- their 

most conscientious and anxious ener- 
gies today. 

Such is the religious meaning of Lan- 
caster County's history. 

Our country has held on to agricul- 
ture. The first settlers did not take up 
little lots of gardens and cultivate 
them ; they took up great tracts and 
made them huge gardens — a commu- 
nity of them took up whole valleys — 
they made the horizon their boundary 
line. The Swiss and Germans quickly 
took up the good land of Lancaster 
County — the Irish-Scotch were too 
busy holding the frontier and holding 
office. In the first four years 60,000 
acres or nearly 100 square miles of 
land were surveyed for applicants on 
the Pequea and the Conestoga (Tay- 
lor Papers, 3,323) ; and in 1719 before 
the end of ten years the proprietary 
surveyors reported that there was very 
little land left on the Conestoga and 
Pequea (Do. 2,920 and 2,932). Swiss 
and Germans came to Lancaster 
regions thick and fast. By 1724 there 
were over 1,200 in the Conestoga sec- 
tion alone, (9 L.. 151). So many of 
these transforming farmers came here 
that by 1718 the Quaker authorities at 
Philadelphia were jealous and fearful 
of them overwhelming all others and 
carrying the province away from Eng- 
land and putting it under the dominion 
of the German empire (2 V., 217 and 

Our county for about 150 years has 
been known as the garden spot of 
America. Eighty odd years ago a 
careful writer declared that this coun- 
ty was even then "proverbial in Penn- 
svlvania for fertility of soil and excel- 
lence of tillage", (4 H., p. 50). All 
thanks to the careful early German 

Agricultural development by 1781 
had brought the assessed value of Lan- 
caster County about $700,000 (2 H., 
78), to $6,700,000 in 1814, (2 H., 12), 
and to $28,700,000 (Gord. Gaz.) in 1830, 
or double that of Bucks County, more 
than double that of Chester, three times 


that of Montgomery or four times that 
of York at the same time (Do.). It was 
valued that year at one-sixth of all 
Pennsylvania exclusive of Philadel- 
phia, at over one-half of the state west 
of the Susquehanna and was equal to 
all of the state west of that river, ex- 
cepting York, Adams, Huntingdon, 
Fayette, Westmoreland and Washing- 
ton Counties (Do.). And finally in 
1830 Lancaster County having one- 
fiftieth of the area of Pennsylvania, 
and one-sixteenth of the population 
excluding Philadelphia) had one-sixth 
of the wealth of the entire state omit- 
ting Philadelphia (Do.). This wealth 
was largely cultivated land and this is 
largely true today. Therefore, our im- 
perial county, through all this time has 
been supreme mistress of agriculture 
in America, excelling all other counties 
today in that particular. 

In her agricultural c-ops and dairy 
products in our modern day this coun- 
ty holds the banner, standing first in 
amount and variety in all America 
with an annual value of over $17,000,- 
000. of which her tobacco is worth over 
three million dollars, her corn four 
millions and her wheat nearly half as 
much. And this monumental year of 
1910 her crop is nearly $20,000,000 on 
her $73,250,000 rural land and live 
stock valuation ; a gross income of 27 
per cent. (Assessment for iqio). Her 
produce market is the most famous in 
any rural section of our nation and 
has been so since the days of Witham 
Marshe in 1744. Her cattle market 
ranks next only to those of Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, Buffalo and New York 
in all Eastern United States. 

Our county stands for ownership of 
farms as against the tenant system. 
This alone will maintain the dignity of 
farming. Yet that love of the native 
acres of our childhood, that patriot- 
ism for the homestead, has lately suf- 
fered here in common with the general 
trend of agrarian tenancy, so general 
in the South, and so growing in the 
West. We are far behind New Eng- 
land farmeis in their tenacious hold 

and their happy homing upon, and 
their loving hope for the land upon 
which they were born and upon 
whose bosom they expect to die. But 
nowhere, in the New England or any 
other section have we stronger love of 
and fidelity to the ancestral home 
than here on this remarkable ten 
square miles of land making up the 
original settlement, which we cele- 
brate today. And this ancient patri- 
mony of the pioneers belting five 
miles across two townships, sending 
from one side of its civilization a blaz- 
ing beam of advice and example today 
like a mighty search light to us on the 
other side across 200 years of experi- 
ence, of toil and of progress, should re- 
new in us our love and determination 
to hold, possess and pass on to our line 
and kin, the acres that come to us from 
goodly Godly ancestors. 

Three-fifths of our farms in Lancas- 
ter County are yet farmed b T7 the own- 
ers who live on them. This still ranks 
higher than in the central states where 
more than half of the farms are in 
tenants' hands, or in the South where 
less than one-third of them are farmed 
bv owners. When the West and 
South shall be as old as Lancaster 
County, at the rate tenants are now 
taking hold in those states, they will 
not be able to show a record of nearly 
two-thirds of their farms operated by 
the owners as we do now. But while 
our county has a large percentage of 
her farms in tenants' hands, it wisely 
has onl - 12 per cent, rented out to 
tenants for mone v rent, who pay the 
rent and then frequently ruin the farm 
by robbing it ; while the counties of 
Berks and Bucks and Chester and 
Montgomery and Delaware have re- 
spectively 16, 18, 22, 28 and 36 per 
cent, of their farms let out on money 
rent — the system that gives the ten- 
ant no incentive to stay very long on a 
farm and care for it and keep it up ; 
but rather to rob it and go — "to skin 
it and skip". (Census of 1900). 

As to tenant farming our county 
stands for that more provident system 


of tenancies (or in many cases only em- 
ployment of a manager) on shares, 
thus giving the owner voice in the con- 
trol and care of the farm and the ten- 
ant an incentive to remain upon it for 
a term of years and keep or build it up. 
For this our county has stood in 
agriculture. And from the early days of 
the last century until a decade or two 
ago the ideal of the patriarch farmer 
was to secure a farm for each of his 
boys to live and work and spend their 
lives upon ; and marry his daughters to 
sons of other farmers who had the 
same purposes for their boys. 

Lancaster County's patriotism, 
through 200 years can only be under- 
stood, its meaning can only be known 
after thorough study — its quality can 
only be appreciated when the deeper 
springs of human action are explored. 
In the earliest days family was its 
unit — the large family its charm, and 
glory — the home community its ulti- 
mate object. Family love was its cen- 
ter — community love its circumfer- 
ence. The pious pioneer Teutons 
loved the family, the community — 
they loved the land whereon the fam- 
ily, the community dwelt. They would 
not be tenants on that beloved land — 
they would own the land. And thev 
did. Their patriotism was devotion to 
their families, faith and honesty among 
neighbors — duty towards rulers — to 
Caesar what was Caesar s and to God 
what was God's. They believed that 
these ideals sincerely lived were better 
patriotism than wild, extravagant and 
often empty public eulogies on the 
flag, by those who froth and foam and 
shout, but who are not fit for a politi- 
cal trust, who would take advantage of 
a neighbor or cheat the public. And 
they were right. 

National glory did not appeal to our 
pioneers. "Our Country" to them 
"The little world of sights and 

Whose girdle was the parish bounds". 

But they were not disloyal. Not that 
they loved Mother Britain or even 
Pennsylvania less, but Pequea and 
Conestoga more. That was the key- 
note character of their patriotism. 
They did not fight in war; but they 
never shirked a tax. They never 
builded forts nor entered armies^; but 
they furnished the strongest sinews a 
state can use in war — great grarfaries 
of food; and they provided the guaran- 
tees of a peopfe's prosperity in peace — 
bounteous material w e a It h a n d 
strength and resource. And while the 
Swiss and German and Quaker farm- 
ers plowed, the gallant Scotchman 
stood armored on the frontier and pro- 
tected the homes and herds of the val- 
levs. That was his patriotism. 

But neither the German, Swiss, 
Scotch nor English sons of Lancaster 
County were wanting in national spirit 
and patriotism when the needs of the 
English empire, their nation, d e- 
manded it, even though it was only the 
adopted and not the native nation of 
the Swiss and Germans. When Spain 
and France began to war on Mother 
England, the valley of the Conestoga 
was the first spot in the province to 
rouse herself; and in 1744 raise and of- 
ficer a company of soldiers to defend 
against the French. In Earltown, in 
the heart of a German settlement, 
Thomas Edwards this year was cap- 
tain to raise the first company of asso- 
ciators (5th A-1-3). Of the 400 men 
demanded by the king from Pennsyl- 
vania in 1746 to join in reducing the 
French in Canada, Lancaster County 
led all other sections in numbers (Do. 
6 to 16). In the associators of 1748 
when our county had less than 4.000 
men (5 H., 115) two regiments with 
a total of 33 companies organized 
themselves for the defense of home and 
of Britain (5th A-1-22 & 25), a mass 
of perhaps 2,000 associators. In the 
French and Indian wars, beginning in 
1754 'when there were perhaps 4,500 
men in the county (5 PL, 115), she fur- 
nished thirteen companies and their 
company and regimental officers (5th 


A-1-57) ; and also scores of teams and 
hundreds of wagon loads of provisions. 
During the Revolutionary war when 
there were about 5,500 men in the 
county (4 H., 12), there were 30 com- 
panies of soldiers, large numbers of 
whom saw service and most of whom 
volunteered in the beginning of the 
war — about 2,500 men (E. & E, 33-69) ; 
and the first life given in battle for in- 
dependence by Pennsylvania was that 
of William Smith, of Lancaster Coun- 
ty (Do., 40). And in the Civil war this 
county furnished about 12,000 soldiers 
to help to teach the world that a re- 
public cannot be dismembered and 
that a slave was not a chattel, but that 
God also "breathed into his nostrils 
the breath of life and he became a liv- 
ing soul". 

Going back again to the Revolution- 
ary war, no more numerous or enthu- 
siastic meetings were held anywhere 
than in our county, against British 
barbarity, which stirred Lancaster 
County patriotism to its bottom. All 
shades of feeling were represented 
here; the meaning of the Revolution 
was studied by all and in all its 

All must admit that in its character 
and essence the war for Independence 
was insurrection, rebellion, secession ; 
but it was. justified by the abuse and 
tyranny of the British government. 
Thus it was not treason, because Bri- 
tain declared us outlaws and public 
enemies, and herself thereby broke the 
compact which bound us to her as 
part of the nation. This view the lead- 
ers for independence held. But there 
were other views. Independence thus, 
was early, the hope of some, the dream 
of many and the fear and regret of 

Allegiance to government also wore 
a different hue to different elements of 
our county in the time of the Revolu- 
tionary war. Each was attracted by 
his own particular favorite part of the 
spectrum. In that spectrum the im- 
portant tint to one class was the pur- 
ple of royalty and empire — to another 

class, the blue of truth and loyalty to- 
the established government; while to- 
others the warm enthusiastic red of 
freedom and independence appeared. 

The German's sense of duty long 
prevented many of his race from ris- 
ing in rebellion against the established 
government. Though he was not na- 
tive born, but only an adopted son of 
the British empire, he felt that she had 
accepted him on the honor of his 
promised allegiance; and he stood by 
her while her own native Scotch and 
English sons — scions of a race for 
hundreds of years, bred and taught un- 
der her laws, protected by her majes- 
tic arm, bone of her bone and flesh of 
her flesh — were waging a war of rebel- 
lion and secession against her throne. 
The German believed that "the powers 
that be, are ordained of God" (Rom., 
13-1). He knew that in the French 
and Indian war he was fighting his 
government's enemies ; but in the 
Revolutionary war he must fight 
against his own adopted government. 

But we are considering Lancaster 
County's patriotism as a whole. Thus 
considered she did notable and noble 
services in the cause of independence. 
We have stated the number of soldiers 
she lent to the cause. 

One of the first pledges which 
thousands of our county's citizens ap- 
proved and subscribed to, right after 
Lexington was the pledge, "We do 
most solemnly agree and associate un- 
der the deepest sense of our duty to 
God and country, ourselves and our 
posterity — to defend and protect the 
religious and civil rights of this and 
our sister colonies, with our lives and 
our fortunes against any power to de- 
prive us of them". 

Lancaster County companies were 
among the first in the field. They took 
part in the Long Island campaign — in 
New York and in New Jersey and in 
the battles of Brandywine, German- 
town and Monmouth. 

July 11, 1775, our county furnished 
two companies of expert riflemen out 
of nine in the entire province (E. & E. r 


39) and they joined Washington at 
Cambridge. She sent a company up 
the Kennebec to Canada (Do., 40 & 
41) — a company in the Pennsylvania 
line with Wayne to Georgia (Do.) — 
She sent the Lancaster Rifle company 
under Captain Ross to Cambridge — in 
addition to Smith and Ross'companies 
she had Hamilton and Henry Miller's 
companies at Battle of Long Island 
(Do., 47) — she had five companies in 
Colone 1 De Haas' Battalion (Do., 48) 
— she had one company, that of Cap- 
tain Brisbon of Leacock in the second 
battalion under Colonel Arthur St. 
Clair, who saw service at Three 
Rivers, Crown Point and Ticonderoga 
(Do., 49) — she had Captain Hubley's 
company in the Third regiment under 
Col. Shee, who fought in the Battle of 
Long Island and were largely taken 
prisoners at Fort Washington. 

When the "Flying Camp" of 10,000 
men was ordered raised and 13,800 
militia from New York, Pennsylvania 
and Maryland — in a meeting at Lan- 
caster, eleven battalions of associators 
were raised in our county. Our county 
also furnished two companies amount- 
ing to 200 men in Samuel Atlee's 
Musketry battalion (Do., 54). It fur- 
nished Grubb's Lancaster County 
Company of about 100 men in Miles' 
regiment (Do., 54) and many men in 
two more companies of the regiment, 
a fair number of whom were Germans. 
These were in the battles of Marcus 
Hook and Long Island. It furnished 
the Lancaster County Independent 
Company to guard prisoners, (Do., 
56). In the 10th regiment we had 
Captain Weaver's company, (Do., 56). 
In the 12th regiment we had two com- 
panies under Captains Chambers and 
Herbert, (Do., 57). And in the New 
nth regiment Lancaster County had 
one company (Do., 58). This, as we 
have said before, aggregates 30 com- 
panies, making 2,000 to 2,500 men, or 
over one-third of the men of the coun- 
ty at that time. 

In the Civil War not less than 12,000 
Lancaster County men enlisted in the 

cause of preserving the Union and de- 
stroying slavery — and German, Eng- 
lish, Irish, Scotch and all won equal 

But the patriotism of peace is more 
beautiful than the patriotism of war, 
and in this patriotism our county has 
no superior on earth. It is shown in 
its love of the land itself whereon we 
were reared and how we care for and 
cultivate it — how we stick to it and re- 
fuse to roam to other spheres. It is 
shown in the sense of duty to the home 
township and the home county; and 
the willingness to discharge that duty 
faithfully. It is a patriotism bred of 
justice and not of jingoism — animated 
by justice, and fed and nurtured by 


In its infant years this county al- 
ways stood politically with the country 
party of the province and against the 
proprietary or city party. Our earliest 
county politics, too, largely followed 
the cleavage of nationality, the align- 
ment being Germans and Quakers 
against Scotch Irish and English. This 
remained true a hundred years. Scotch 
and English signed the petition for the 
erection of the county and the two pe- 
titions opposing it were, likely, almost 
entirely signed by Germans. 

In the beginning the Germans took 
very little political interest in the 
county affairs. They were not natural- 
ized and at first did not care to be 
naturalized. But a little later they be- 
came very active. In 1732 a body of 
them were charged with disloyalty to 
the county and with a friendliness to- 
ward an invasion by Maryland. 

A few years later no party could 
have been more politically patriotic to 
our county than they. They were a 
power in politics then. 

In 1737 by their help the highest 
successful candidate for the Assembly 
here received 755 votes. (A. W. M., 
October 6, 1737), and in 1738 he re- 
ceived 1,016 votes. (Do., October 5, 
1739). Our Germans joined forces 
with the Quakers about this time (4 


St. L., 471) and stood firmly with them 
for years against the Scotch Irish and 
English. With the Quakers they 
formed the anti-war party against Gov- 
ernor Thomas and they polled a ma- 
jority vote here in 1739 (A. W. M., 
October 4, 1739). In 1742 they threw 
all their strength into the field and 
helped the Quakers to defeat Gover- 
nor Thomas' new war party in this 
county by a vote of 1,480 to 362 
(Penna. Gaz., October 7, 1742). And 
in 1749 the Germans of this county, 
under the leadership of Christian 
Herr, assisted by the Quakers, entire- 
ly controlled the election that fall, (4 
V., 122) ; and they were so zealous in 
exercising the franchise as to succeed 
in getting 2,300 tickets in the ballot 
box, though during the day there were 
not over 1,000 different voters at the 
polls, according to witnesses. This "re- 
peating", however, many witnesses 
also denied. But while they took this 
interest in politics they could not or 
did not desire to hold office themselves 
during some years to come, except 
certain township officers. 

Then came on the Frcneh and In- 
dian wars and party politics was for- 
gotten. When peace was restored 
political feeling against the proprie- 
tary grew stronger in Lancaster 
County. Then came on the Stamp 
Act, the Boston Port Bill and the pre- 
liminaries of the Revolutionary war 
and this again made political partisan 
matters unimportant. 

When party lines re-appeared in 
Lancaster Countv at the close of the 
Revolutionary war, those lately most 
zealous in the war, having extrava- 
gant notions of and hopes for unre- 
strained liberty, and detesting federal 
interference with local or state affairs 
as a tyranny like that of England, 
whose galling bonds they had just 
broken, gradually gathered into one 
political party ; and those who were 
conservative, who feared that the new 
liberty might insidiously lead t o 
license and disintegration, unless re- 
strained by strong central federal 

power, gravitated into an opposite 
party. And these two political views 
were held in our county throughout 
the years of the Confederation during 
the period of adopting the National 
Constitution and during a decade af- 

These reasons have made it a politi- 
cal paradox in our county that the ele- 
ment in it, which today largely take 
no part in politics, one hundred and 
twenty-five years ago, by taking an ac- 
tive part, made the county, first a 
Federal, then an Anti- Masonic, then 
a Whig, and ever since a Republican 
stronghold The same German race in 
Berks County, adhering to opposite 
principles and to a different church, 
made that county Democratic during 
more than a century. Early Lutherans 
and Reformed, took active part in the 
Revolutionary war and opposed the 
Federal Constitution of 1787 because 
they felt it did not give enough of the 
freedom they fought for and would be 
oppressive as British rule had been ; 
while the Mennonites of Lancaster 
County favored a conservative posi- 
tion, did not see nor fear any danger 
of tvranny in the new constitution and 
voted numerously with the Federalists 
to support it. 

Thus Lancaster County remained a 
"Federal" county down to 1800 inclus- 
ive, electing a Federalist congressman 
by 400 majority that autumn, while 
the state electors voted strongly for 
Jefferson for president at the same 
time, and while the state was strongly 
Democratic from the beginning. Only 
from 1 80 1 to 1804, inclusive, when 
the state was from three-fourths to 
nine-tenths Democratic or "Jefferson", 
did Lancaster County yield from 200 
to 600 Democratic majority (Intelli- 
gencer). In 1805 the county went 
back to the Federal, now called locally 
the Federal Constitution party by 
nearly 1,700 majority and remained 
there with two insignificant excep- 
tions in 1810 and 181 1 until the sus- 
pension of the Federalist party in the 
times of anti- Masonry in 1829, vary- 


ing in its Federalist strength from a 
small majority to two-thirds at times, 
while the state was from 60 to 75 per 
cent. Democratic; and in 1811, 1S24 
and 1826 respectively, 93, 90 and 98 
per cent. Democratic (Smull). From 
1828 to 1835 our county was anti-Ma- 
sonic by large majorities ( Intelli- 
gencer and Smull) while the statr, 
except in 1828, remained Democratic. 
The commonwealth remainec! in the 
Democratic column, with the excep- 
tion of the small Whig majorities of 
400 and 1,400 respectively in 40 and 
48, and the large "Know Nothing" 
majority of 12,000 in '55 until the 
slavery agitation in 1838 brought it 
permanently (with exceptions), into 
the Republican ranks. But the county 
in all this time (without exception) re- 
mained the firm opponent of Democ- 
racy, generally by large majorities, 
either under the political party name 
of Federalist, anti-Masonic, Whig or 
Know-Nothing party, where it has 
remained by great majorities invar- 
iably ever since, reaching its high- 
water mark of Republicanism in the 
majorities of 17,000 for McKinley in 
1896 and of 19,000 for Roosevelt in 
1904, the state also being strong Re- 
publican, except in the few modern 
well-known instances of 1862-67-74- 
77-82-90 and 1906. 

As to popular interest in politics 
here at home two observations are per- 
tinent. First, from the beginning until 
now one-fourth of our people never 
have and do not now, exercise the 
right to vote no.r take any other inter- 
est in political concerns. In the early 
days of 1737 and 8, when there were 
about 2,600 men entitled to vote in our 
county (5 H., 115), the successful can- 
didate in the first year received 755 
votes (A. M. W., October 6, 1736 and 
October 5, 1738) and the opposition 
did not poll 400 votes either year, so 
that only about half of the voters 
voted. In 1742 when there were fully 
3,000 voters in Lancaster County, the 
successful candidate received 1,480 
votes and his opponent 362, a total of 

about 1,800 votes or three-fifths, leav- 
ing two-fifths not voting, even though 
that fight was one of the hottest 
known in years (Pa. Gaz. October 7, 
1742). In 1749, while about 2.300 bal- 
lots nvere cast, witnesses affirmed that 
only 1,000 persons voted out of a list 
of 4,600 voters in the county, (4 \ '., 
122 and 126). Even if 2,000 were pres- 
ent at the polls and voted that was 
less than half. In 1795 under the date 
of September 9th, our "Lancaster 
Journal" laments that the people show 
a very little interest in suffrage and 
political affairs generally. And in our 
modern days in only the most strenu- 
ous elections do three-fourths of our 
now 46,000 voters go out and vote. 

Second, from the earliest days to the 
present time our people as a whole 
have been and are inclined to be polit- 
ically very contented and to place 
great faith and confidence in political 
leaders. This is the condition in all 
nationalities represented in our coun- 
ty. It seems also to exist alike in the 
rank and file of both dominant and mi- 
nority political parties locally. There 
is not now and seldom has been much 
questioning and revolting from the 
choice of candidates which such lead- 
ers make, nearly all classes of our peo- 
ple having been and being now willing 
to trust the political fortunes of the 
county to political specialists — a coun- 
ty leader and various local statesmen. 
We are and have been thus a people 
easily managed politically and in this 
are in strong contrast with many coun- 
ties where the plebiscite is suspicious, 
not inclined to accept that in which 
they took no part ; and where the peo- 
ple are more generally given to the 
same independent political thought 
that a sagacious man exercises in 

This is not a truly healthy political 
attitude, and our county has been sur- 
prisingly fortunate in escaping as 
many of the political evils as we have 
escaped which this lethargy freely 
breeds. The local press over one hun- 
dred years ago complained that, "For 



several years an inexcusable neglect to 
vote has been shown and the result 
has been shown that a few have hith- 
erto directed elections and the voice of 
the people is not generally heard" 
(Lancaster Journal, September 9, 


The truth of history compels us to 
state that the non-resistant church- 
men, made up of four distinct sects in 
our county (or some of them) took 
part in politics and in voting in earlier 
times to an extent that surprises us 
today. While from the first the Ger- 
mans took part in politics to the ex- 
tent of voting they did not hold im- 
portant offices until about 1750, when 
Emanuel Zimmerman led off in this 
departure. But since the Germans en- 
tered upon office holding in earnest, af- 
ter the close of the Revolution, they 
have held on to all of them ever since. 
About 1755 the proprietor ordered 
that the Scotch-Irish shall henceforth 
go to the Cumberland and the Ger- 
mans hold forth here (15 H., 71). 

To sum up the political meaning of 
o;ir county in its 200 years we may 
say : our earliest generations of the 
county believed in plain simple agra- 
rian government, of few officers and of 
economical fees and salaries — they 
stood against military exploitation — 
they believed in the principle of laissez 
/aire, and tenaciously hold to it today 
— in the days of the Revolution a cer- 
tain portion of our people believed in 
political preservation as far as consis- 
tent with the gospel of peace — but the 
masses were very zealous for indepen- 
dence — they have believed and voted 
that liberty should be exercised con- 
servatively under a strong federal gov- 
ernment, which individuals and states 
should gladly recognize as supreme as 
the necessary strong protector of all — 
later generations stood consistently for 
stimulation of home industry against 
cheaper foreign labor bv a tariff — and 
in this present day she is still firmly 
anchored to that political principle by 
which she aims to keep her agricul- 
tural wealth the great basis on which 

to develop her industries, by the pro- 
tective tariff. 

Four words sum up our county's in- 
dustrial history — variety, excellent ,, 
energy and honesty. And four words 
also sum up the quality of our finan- 
cial history — conservatve, safe, sane 
and sound. Of the industries, we have 
discussed agriculture, and we now 
turn our thoughts to other branches. 

The earliest manufacture was that 
of meal and flour, Christopher Schlegci 
having a mill on Little Conestoga in 
1714 (12 L., 20). And Atkinson's,. 
Graeff's, Stehman's and Taylor's mills 
quickly followed. Minerals were re- 
ported about Conestoga in 1707 (2 C, 
403 & 5) and John Cartlidge, of that 
place, found iron ore near there also '.1 
1721 (12 L., 20). In 1722 a deposit of 
copper also was said to be found in 
Lancaster County (3 C, 160) the 
nickel mines of the Mine Ridge and 
the silver mines of the Pequea and the 
iron mines in many parts were opened 
before the Revolutionary war. The 
Elizabeth furnace was started in 1750 
by John Huber, a German, the first 
one in Lancaster County (Swank, 
"Iron & Steel" for 1883, p. 23). Martic 
Forge began in 1755 and Windsor 
about the same time. Flax and hemp 
stock and even cordage were manufac- 
tured here as earlv as 1732 and ship- 
ped to Philadelphia (A. W. M.). Glass 
was manufactured by Stiegel and also 
by the American Flint Glass Manufac- 
torv, of Manheim, in this county, in 
1772 and some time before, (Pa. Gaz., 
March 17, 1773). Saddles, pack sad- 
dles and guns were made before 1754 
in Lancaster, which was described by 
a traveler at that time as a town of 500 
houses, 2,000 people, who were mak- 
ing money (6 H., 29). The Octoraro 
was earlv lined with mills, trip ham- 
mer, etc. 

In 1770 and before, an elaborate tex- 
tile manufacture was carried on here 
by our industrious German mothers, 
God bless them. In the year, May 1st, 
1769, to May 1, 1770, cotton, woolen 



and linen goods, consisting of clothing, 
bed clothing, curtains, etc., of thirteen 
varieties, made by the women of Lan- 
caster, reached 28,000 yards reported, 
with materials in the looms for 8,000 
yards more and many yards more not 
reported at all, as the Germans feared 
it was sought for taxation. One good 
mother alone, while at the same time 
she was proprietor of one of the princi- 
pal hotels in the town wove 600 yards 
herself (Pa. Gaz., June 14, 1770). 

And in silk production in 1772 in 
Pennsylvania for the greatest number 
of cocoons and best reeled silk, Lan- 
caster County led the entire state, 

(Philadelphia City included) in quan- 
tities and quality, Widow Stoner her- 
self having raised 72,800 cocoons, Cas- 
par Falkney 22,845 cocoons and Cath- 
arine Steiner 21,800 cocoons, all of 
them Germans living in this county. 
Chester and Philadelphia County and 

City fell far behind (Pa. Gaz., March 

17. 1773). 

In 1780 according to the assessment 
list there were in Lancaster, then a 
town of 3.000 people, 35 different kinds 
of manufactures, including woolen, 
silk, cotton and flax weaving. In the 
Revolutionary war we manufactured 
the most famous and farthest-carrying 
rifles in the world. In 1830, there were 
hundreds of manufactures in the coun- 
tv, among which 7 furnaces, 14 forges, 
183 distilleries, 45 tan yards, t> 2 fulling 
mills, 164 grist mills, 8 hemp mills, 87 
saw mills, 9 breweries, 5 oil mills, 
5 clover mills. 3 cotton factories, 3 
potteries, 6 carding engines, 3 paper 
mills, 1 snuff mill, 7 tilt hammers, 6 
rolling mills and one or more nail fac- 
tories (Gord. Gaz., p. 230). And thus 
it has gone on increasing until a few 
years ago, on the ideal of small factor- 
ies, and many of them in which many 
men of small capital gave employment 
each to a score of his neighbors. 

Small factories until lately were 
humming by the thousands in our 
county and large ones by the score. 
But sad to relate, as to the small in- 

dustries, the relentless hand of giant 
monopolies has crushed and broken 
most of the small concerns to pieces, 
and in their stead has established' 
branches of corporations. This has 
exchanged an independent for a de- 
pendent industrialism in our county. 
Through all its ages and stages of 
manufacture until this last decade, the 
county stood for and splendidly exem- 
plified the small industrial business 
man employing his happy contented 
neighbors, turning out honest home- 
made goods, in which it took an hon- 
est delight and pride. 

Her industries have always been 
steady and stable ; and in prosperity 
and panic she has marched onward 
not flinching before the shock of finan- 
cial disaster, throughout the land that 
in many othcer towns and counties, 
have laid proud industries in the dust. 
Her watches are found throughout all 
the lands — there is not a people who 
do not smoke her cigars and hardly a 
spot on the earth where her umbrellas 
do not protect from storm. Her con- 
fectionery runs annually upward of a 
million dollars in value — her watches 
over a million — her cigars and smok- 
ing and chewing tobacco two millions 
and a half and her umbrellas nearly 
four million dollars a year. Her silk, 
cotton and iron manufactures are vast 
important industries. Our little city 
of 41.000 people ten years ago in- 
creased her industrial strength from 
1890 to 1900, from 599 manufacturing 
plants to 738 — with capital increased 
from $8,000,000 to $10,000,000, wage- 
earners from 7,300 to 9,300 — wages 
paid from $2,000,000 to $3,000,000 and' 
product value from Si 1. 500.000 to $16.- 
500,000.. And in these last ten years 
there has been a corresponding in- 

In commerce as early as 173 1 there 
is mention of a ship from Lancaster 
arriving at New York with goods like- 
lv laboriously taken down Conestoga 
and Susquehanna then loaded on 
ships. (Pa. Gaz., January 5, 1731). Our 



county did her part in 1792 to 1794 in 
building the first turnpike to Philadel- 
phia at a cost of $465,000 (Gordon, p. 
229), the first turnpike in America; 
and from 1775 to i860 she built her 
share of the system of canals and turn- 
pikes that in that day were the best in 
the world. And now she is well in the 
van again with the greatest rural trol- 
ley system in the state. These were 
her efforts in commerce and transpor- 

In finances the progress of her Ger- 
mans and their growing competence 
attracted the jealous English eyes of 
the government at Philadelphia before 
their valleys felt the spell of German 
agriculture a score of vears, (C R. & 
V.). By 1830 when they had brought 
the county's land to be worth $24,,ooo,- 
'ooo this county's citizens had $4,000,- 
000 of money at interest, while Ches- 
ter and Bucks Counties each fifty years 
older had respectively only $400,000 
and $250,000 of money at interest. And 
our county stood as a fair second to 
Philadelphia itself. She had more 
money at interest, even at that early 
date than all the rest of Pennsylvania, 
excepting Philadelphia. 

And best of all every cent of our sav- 
ings was honest ; gotten by honest toil 
■and honest methods in agriculture and 
manufacture and not by speculation in 
false inflated values, spurious stocks, 
representing a plant only on paoer and 
in the imagination of oiW swindlers. 

And again in our present day the fi- 
nancial strength of this county has 
'grown so that there are returned to the 
"assessors $27,000,000 of money at in- 
terest, which omits fully $10,000,000 
more. There are many millions in our 
manufacturing plants. There are 46 
banks and trust companies in operation 
in our county, with assets of over $40,- 
000,000 or perhaps an average of $1,- 
000.000 each. These institutions have 
increased from $29,600,000 to $40,000,- 
'ooo in seven vears, about 33 per cent. 
and the stock of several of them sells 
from 300 to 500 per cent, of par. 

The educational history of our coun- 
ty needs explanation more than de- 
fense. Early English writers were ac- 
customed to criticize our county's edu- 
cation. They forget that in 1734 there 
was a German school in Lancaster ( 5 
H., 22). From 1745 to 1780 there were 
parochial and private schools (Riddle, 
10). In 1746 the Moravian school was 
flourishing (Do., 9).. In 1748 there was 
a large school of English, Irish and 
German pupils here, which continued 
till 1788, (Do,, 10). In 1752 the county 
had the famous Rock Hall school and 
also others of importance (Lane. Gaz., 
June 29, 1752). Robert Smith had his 
Presbyterian school in operation then 
at Pequea and there were similar ones 
in Southern and Western Lancaster 
County The Germans had their church 
schools very early, too, and these pre- 
pared the way for Franklin College, in 
1787 and afterwards Marshall. Then 
too, there was and is Yeates school, 
also started in 1780. About the be- 
ginning of the 19th century came on 
the famous Lancastrian schools, the 
public school system a decade later 
and a very progressive system since. 
There was compulsory public payment 
for the schooling of poor children as 
early as 1819 (4 H., 295), and under 
it (before the days of the regular com- 
mon school system), Lancaster Coun- 
ty paid annually $6,500 as a contribu- 
tion (3 PL, 165). 

One thing is evident : Lancaster 
County from the beginning was con- 
cerned about two qualities in the edu- 
cation it gave to its sons and daugh- 
ters — that it should be practical and 
that it should be moral and indeed re- 
ligious. They were wiser than we. in 
that the moral culture which true edu- 
cation should give, we make inferior 
to the purely intellectual ; and the re- 
ligious we are absolutely afraid of. 

Their education was practical. The 
primary popular end of education as 
we see it today everywhere is to en- 
able the children to succeed well in 
life, to gain a competence, a standing, 



an estate, a large estate, a million, if 
possible. We may boast that modern 
education has aims higher than these 
sordid ones ; but it is not true as a 
practical condition. So too, 150 or 
200 years ago our pioneers gave them- 
selves that kind of education which 
conditions demanded — an education 
that enabled them to succeed. And 
they did succeed. They cleared their 
farms and by 1830 had $4,000,000 at 
interest. None of the older and alleged 
more intellectual counties could show 
more than one-tenth of that result. 
Their education in the country was 
necessarily, a study of the soil and 
how to make it crop well — a study of 
how to turn the crops into the best 
market — the cultivation of strong re- 
liable judgment and how to meet duty 
as it comes to them. In this they had 
the best kind of education. In the 
town the education must be that of 
trade and manufacure and the early 
t<n\n of Lancaster showed marvelous 
results in that line. 

The education of our county's pio- 
neer ancestors was deeply moral and 
religious. They did not try to make 
brilliant scoundrels, but noble men. 
They would have a man that you 
could trust, one who had moral back- 
bone, to stand against the temptation 
of dishonesty and cupidity. They pre- 
ferred to make a man rather than a 
scholar. We make the mistake in 
modern davs of giving the pupil stor- 
age capacity at the sacrifice o f 
strength ; we make the children bins 
instead of bulwarks. Our remote an- 
cestors never made that mistake. They 
saw that children should be taught 
moral back-bone as well as mathemat- 
ics — goodness as well as" geography — 
honor and honesty, as well as history 
and Godliness as well as grammar. 

The two great text books of our 
grandfathers' and our great-grandfa- 
thers' times were the P>ible and the 
newspaper. There is no better source 
in all the universe of an education 
than these. 

Our countv has had about 275 news- 
papers in her time, 175 in the town 
and later citv and about 100 in the 
countrv. This record exceeds any 
similar community of 160,000 people, 
anvwhere in the world. These papers 
began as early as 1743, and they be- 
came numerous at once, and even be- 
fore the year 1800 there were over a 
score of them printed. Who can say 
in the face of this that our county was 
not an early educated county? All 
read the papers and the papers con- 
tained the most practical knowledge 
to be had. It was the education suited 
to their needs and it made our county 
early a great prosperous people. Every 
modern student of the early newspa- 
pers of Colonial time knows they con- 
tained much home and foreign geog- 
raphy, history, finance, philosophy and 
other learning. 

Our forefathers feared not a stern 
morality and rigid rectitude in their 
courses of study. In the schools of 
those days, the Bible was taught as 
one of the text-books. And they 
taught it Gospels and all too. It is 
only lately that Ave found out that 
teaching boys and girls to love the Sa- 
vior of the world is opposed to Amer- 
ican liberty. God bless the brave old 
forefathers. They remembered that it 
was their Christian forefathers who 
colonized America, fought for it and 
handed it down to them. They re- 
membered that Christianity did more 
for America than the Constitution and 
the law ever did. And what men the 
rod and the Bible made in our grand- 
fathers' time! To steal a cent was as 
wicked to them as to steal a hundred 
thousand dollars. You could have put 
anyone of them into a bank as presi- 
dent or cashier and he would never 
have thought of robbing it and going 
to Canada. He would never have 
taken it to gamble in stocks. You 
never would have found one of them 
form monopolies and crush out weaker 
men. Nay, thus strong they stood as 
proof against the waves of the ham- 
mering sea. 



Men gravitated to them with all 
their troubles and had them settled by 
the simple rule of right, from which 
they never appealed. Why was this 
so? Because in their schools the chief 
branch of their curriculum was char- 
acter-building-, and the products of 
their commencements were men rather 
than scholars weak in moral manhood 
and bravery. 

The genius and spirit of a free gov- 
ernment may be against the Bible or 
religious training in schools ; but our 
forefathers did not think so. They 
studied the Bible and in doing so the 
government gained vastly more in 
good, noble patriotic men than it ever 
could have gained by any other means. 

Let us reflect, when we incline to 
ridicule our county's lack of polite edu- 
cation in primitive days, that, taking- 
it all in all their education may have 

been better and truer and of more 
real service to God and man than our 
own. I for one, unalterably stand for 
moral and religious culture in the 
common schools, even at the sacrifice 
of some of the purely intellectual, be- 
cause it is that kind of education that 
will make better heads of families, bet- 
ter neighbors, better citizens. And 
that, in the last analysis, is the su- 
preme object of every state. 


An. Susq. means Annals of the Susquehannocks, etc. 

9 L-. etc., means Vol. 9. Lancaster County Historical 
society Proceedings, etc. 

2 V., means Vol. 2 Votes of Assembly, etc. 

4 H., etc. means Vol. 4. Hazard's Register, etc. 

Gord. Gaz., means Gordon's Gazette of Pennsylvania. 

5th-A-l etc., means 5th series Penna. Archives, Vol. 1, 

E. & E.etc. means Evans & Ellis History of Lancaster 

A. W. M.. means American Weekly Mercury. 

4 St. L.. etc. means Vol. 4, Statutes at Large. 

Smull means Smull's Handbook. 

Pa. Gaz.. means Pennsylvania Gazette. 

2 C etc., means 2 Colonial Records, etc. 

Lane. Gaz., means Lancaster Gazette. 

"As a further illustration of the 
progress of the English language in 
some parts of Pennsylvania thirty 
years ago, as well as of the progress in 
reform, we here give a copy of the 
action adopted at a temperance meet- 
ing held in one of the townships of 
Lancaster County December, 185 1, and 
now on file in the Quarter Session? 
office at Lancaster, Pa. 

"Consiteration of the Neberhood of 

township, Lancaster County. 

December 26th, 1851, about morality 
temberense & Religions, 

"1. Resol'n that made an aplica- 

tion for a publig Hous in our neber- 
hood for instans we have five publig 
housses on our small township an one 
in the neberhood, three on the Swamp 
and travelers is very few of Strengers. 

"2. Resol'n that the aplicand is near 
the church and meting hous and it was 
alrety drunken feller on meetings and 
made Disturbens and the taverns is 
about one meil of. 

"3. Resol'n that aboud eighteen 
years back we hat a publick LIous very 
near by the Ablicand and it was a great 
trubel for the neberhood about trunk- 
ers and Disturbens. 

"4. Resol'n that we understand that 
the Aplicand has a back patition we 
know there is many single men and 
with famiiles in the patition, Some will 
suner go to the tavern as to mill, wife 
and chilter has no bred." 

(From Appel's "The Beginnings of 
the Theological Seminary of the Re- 
formed Church in the LJnited States", 
page yy, 1886.) 


A Study of a Rural Community 

By Charles William Super, Ph. D., LL. D. Athens, Ohio 

NOTE. — The author is Ex-president of the 
Ohio University. Formerly professor of 
Greek and Dean of the College of Liberal 
Arts ibidem. Translator of Weil's Order of 
Words in the Ancient Languages compared 
with the Modern; Author of a History of the 
German Language; Between Heathenism 
and Christianity; Wisdom and Will in Edu- 
cation; A Liberal Education, and numerous 
Monographs on historical and philosophical 

ANY a time and oft" dur- 
ing the latter half of my 
life, when I have listened 
to a pioneer relating some 
of the experiences of his 
early years, I have felt a 
keen regret that he did 
not take the trouble to 
commit them to paper. What a chasm 
lies between us and a hundred, even 
fifty years ago ! This statement is not 
only true of our own country, but of al- 
most every civilized and uncivilized 
land. History is nothing more than 
the intertwined biography of many in- 
dividuals. Hardly any man was so in- 
significant that he did not contribute 
something to the forward movements 
that have distinguished the last two 
generations from all that have pre- 
ceded. What would some of us epigoni 
not give if we could obtain a minute 
record of the conditions out of which 
our remote ancestors migrated in the 
old country and of the immediate 
causes that led them to turn their 
backs forever upon the land that gave 
them birth ! There can not be manv 
of us who are without an eager curios- 
ity to know the particulars- of the 
journey on terra firma on the other 
side and on this; the vexations and 
hardships of the voyage in the slow- 
going sailing vessels ; the feelings of 
the immigrants as they contrasted the 
conditions of a thickly settled and 
highly cultivated country with the re- 
gions in which the inhabitants were 
few and the farm-houses still fewer. 
If they were strangers to the language 

as well as to the people, there is an 
added interest to their thoughts and 
feelings. Such reflections and other 
of a like kind have engendered in me 
the desire to do unto others, in this 
respect, what I earnestly wish they 
had done unto me. As we are all pio- 
neers, in a sense, of those who shall, 
in the course of human vicissitudes, 
come after us, I have endeavored to 
rescue from utter oblivion the men 
and the affairs of a community that I 
learned to know more intimately than 
anv other. While we find here some 
traits that are exhibited in the earliest 
historic records there are other primi- 
tive characters that were almost en- 
tirely obliterated. Perhaps the most 
marked of the latter, to him who com- 
pares the old world with the new was 
the disposition to ignore ancestry and 
nationality. The fusion of races was 
so complete that only once in a while 
one might hear a faint echo of the all- 
pervading primitive belief that a 
man's social status and individual 
merit should be judged by that of his 
father or grandfather. Here were ex- 
cellent opportunities for seeing the pro- 
cess by which the American type has 
been evolved through the commingling 
of many different European nation- 
alities. The young man was most es- 
teemed who had "made good", no mat- 
ter whether his forebears had come 
from Germany, or England, or Ireland, 
or Scotland. During the last three or 
four decades our cities have become 
the principal alembic in which this 
transformation has been wrought. Rut 
up to this period the rural regions 
played no inconspicuous part in the 
process of fusion. I am fully persuaded 
that I have written without prejudice 
for or against any individual, sect or 
party. If T have fallen into minor er- 
rors, it has been because I was not 
able to divest myself of the limitations 
which are the heritage, to a greater or 



less extent, of all who wear the human 
form. So much by way of prelimi- 

There is much good sense in the 
philosophy of a friend who expressed 
himself in this wise : "I have no pride 
of ancestry although I can trace my 
family record back through nearly 
seven generations. And while it con- 
tains no prominent names it is per- 
haps as clear of deeds that I should 
wish to have undone as that of many 
persons who make larger pretensions. 
Why should a man be 'puffed up' 
about a matter over which he has no 
control? If his forebears have been rep- 
utable people and have performed 
their part in life's drama creditably, it 
is all the more reason why he should 
endeavor to surpass them in deserving 
well of his generation. If, on the con- 
trary, they have been nobodies, so 
much the better for him if he succeeds 
in making himself somebody". It de- 
tracts much from the value of a his- 
tory or a biography if it is written un- 
der either a personal or a national 
bias. Albeit, such books are far more 
popular than those written from the 
strictly judicial standpoint. Let every 
man be judged by what he is, not by 
the nation to which he belongs or the 
ancestors from whom he descended. 


If we wish to ascertain the contents 
of a man's mind we must study his 
thoughts as expressed in words and 
actions. If we desire to gain a like 
knowledge of a group of individuals 
we have to examine their modes of 
speech ; their social, political, and re- 
ligious organization. But as every 
group in every civilized country is 
part of a larger whole many of the 
minor-group impulses are not free to 
develop without coming into conflict 
with larger ones. Certain modifica- 
tions of the psyche of these groups 
necessarily take place owing to exter- 
nal pressure so that it is not at liberty 
to pass into tangible results. There is 
hardly a phase of mental activity in 
which this does not occur to a Greater 

or less extent. What we call civiliza- 
tion is an unending series of compro- 
mises. For instance, a law that makes 
education compulsory does not always 
compel; very frequently it does not. 
Similarly a prohibition statute is not 
equally effective over the whole terri- 
tory where it is in force. To say, there- 
fore, that no ardent spirits are drunk 
in a certain community because none 
of its members has a craving for it, 
would in almost all cases be erroneous. 
The historian, the publicist, and even 
the ethnologist, deal with larger 
masses as homogeneous ; the scientist 
who scrutinizes more closely finds a 
good deal of diversity. Where the 
political organization under which a 
community lives is of such a character 
to allow free play among its individ- 
uals and groups constituting it, it fre- 
quentlv happens that several groups 
cooperate at one time for the purpose 
of attaining certain ends, but oppose 
one another at other times when other 
ends are sought. Hence an equally 
powerful psychic force may produce 
important results, or it may produce 
no results.- A psychic like a physical 
energy may augment another or nullify 
it. A history of civilization is there- 
fore nothing more than a setting-forth 
of the results of cooperating and con- 
flicting forces and energies. A com- 
munitv that is not ruled by the pre- 
scriptive tyranny of public opinion 
which enforces uniformity of conduct, 
as is the case with all primitive tribes, 
nor governed by the written law of an 
autocratic ruler, but where the activity 
of the individual is comparatively un- 
trameled, affords an interesting study 
both to the psychologist and the so- 


It was my destiny to spend about a 
score of years in a rural community in 
southcentral Pennsylvania. There was 
no incorporated village within easy 
reach ; and as two country "stores" 
with a post-office attachment supplied 
the local need's in purchasable articles 
as well as furnished' a- medium of com- 



munication with the outside world, the 
town population was something apart. 
Many of my father's neighbors knew 
as little of urban life as if they had 
dwelt in a desert. To live in town 
was., in a sense, to live in another 
sphere of existence, while those whose 
daily avocation was trade were fre- 
quently designated by epithets that 
were neither elegant nor complimen- 
tary. When in later years I set myself 
to analyze the psyche of these people 
in the light of my reminiscences, I 
formed some curious and perhaps not 
uninteresting conclusions. To set 
forth the salient facts in some sort of 
order and to intersperse them with an 
occasional reflection is the purpose of 
the present booklet. 

Similar conditions have within recent 
years been dealt with to a considerable 
extent in works of fiction. Fiction, 
however, in order to be readable, must 
bring upon the stage extremes rather 
than average types. The writer of 
fiction is under constant temptation to 
follow the lead of the imagination into 
paths where fact dare not accompany 
him. Besides the domain of fiction is 
limitless while the realm of fact is 
comparatively circumscribed. A dozen 
writers of fiction, when dealing with 
the same conditions, may represent 
them under a dozen different phases. 
On the other hand, no matter how 
many scientific observers labor in the 
same field their conclusions must be 
reciprocally corroborative, the only 
difference being such as arises from 
the difference in the perspicacity of the 
observers. The principal characters 
of carefully constructed novels are a 
composite of the salient traits of a 
number of different persons. The men 
and women of real life are rarely so 
good or so bad as the dramatic per- 
sonae of fiction. It is the extremes that 
are interesting; to make his work en- 
tertaining and therefore popular is the 
chief aim of the novelist. This state- 
ment holds good not only of novels, 
but of the drama and of poetry. The 
overwhelming majority of mankind 

belong to the commonplace class ; they 
therefore rarely exhibit traits that at- 
tract attention. But the very fact that 
they are so numerous makes them im- 
portant to the student of men as he 
meets them at least three hundred and 
sixty four days in the year. 


In the days of my boyhood I learned 
lttle about the early life of my grand- 
parents although I was with my 
grandfather almost every day for sev- 
eral years. Persons of limited educa- 
tion are never continuously and co- 
herently communicative, and I never 
thought of asking the questions that 
would have given me the information 
I should have welcomed so heartily in 
later years. I was no wiser than my 
age: why should I be? Life with most 
people is a thing of course as well as 
its environment. Few persons except 
the mature student of manners and 
customs give such matters any 
thought. The historian can not offer 
us much light because he can not ob- 
tain the indispensable data. So it 
remains for the writer of fiction to fill 
out as best he may the framework con- 
structed by the historian. The diar» of 
one soldier who spent the gloomy win- 
ter of '77-8 at Valley Forge would give 
us more insight into the prevailing o m- 
ditions, the thoughts and feeling that 
filled the breasts and engaged the at- 
tention of the privates, than all the 
records that have thus far been made 
public. Perhaps it has been because we 
know so little of the common man that 
the world lias hitherto made such slow 
progress, lie is submerged for the rea- 
son that he does not insist in putting 
his head above the current of every- 
day life and making a loud as well as 
a persistent noise. It is a curious and 
paradoxical fact that although all 
civilization rests upon the tiller of the 
soil he is the last to profit thereby and 
irets the smallest part of the gains. Be 
the cause what it may, he is usually 
stolid, indifferent, conservative — what- 
ever you choose to call his most prom- 
inent traits. Nowhere has he elevated 



himself, When his condition has been 
bettered it has been due to pressure or 
encouragement from without. Most of 
my father's neighbors were content if 
at the end of the year they found them- 
selves no worse off than they were at 
the beginning; if it found them materi- 
ally better off they were elated. Yet I 
am sure they got as much out of life — 
and probably a great deal more, sub- 
jectively — than ninety-nine out of a 
hundred of the millionaires which our 
era has produced by thousands. I do 
not recall the names of more than one 
or two men who were chronic pessi- 
mists. A misfortune might now and 
then temporarily depress one here, an- 
other there ; but its effects were gener- 
ally transient. Nor can I recall any old 
person who objected to being reminded 
of the fact. On the contrary, persons 
sometimes spoke of themselves as old, 
who were hardly entitled to the predi- 
cate, for the same reason that the 
"knightly Nestor of Gerenia" was fre- 
quently prompted to remind his hear- 
ers that he had reigned over three gen- 
erations of men, consequently was 
wiser than all of them. It was taken 
for granted that youth was an era of 
indiscretion and, in a sense, of expia- 
tion that must be passed through as a 
sort of earthly purgatory. I never 
heard any one excuse the peccadilloes 
of youth by quoting the maxim that 
"boys will be boys" ; certainly no one 
ever though of saying "girls will be 

My memory has preserved with 
varying distinctness reminiscences of 
three generations : that which was, 
roughly speaking, contemporary with 
my grandfather ; that which was about 
the age of my father; and that which, 
more or less intimately, constituted my 
own associates. I shall designate them 
respectively as One, Two and Three. 
Number One embraced a few pioneers 
born in the eighteenth century, inured 
to the hardships and privations of first 
settlers. They were for the most part 
wholly illiterate, rough in manner and 

coarse in speech, not so much from in- 
nate vulgarity, though some of them 
were vulgar enough, as from igno- 
rance. Not unfrequently their limited 
vocabulary furnished but one name for 
a thing and that was usually the most 
expressive term. They called a spade 
a spade because to call it an agricul- 
tural implement would have been a 
phrase outside of the range of their 
vocabulary; if used by any one now 
and then it led to ambiguity. They 
were for the most part very poor, hav- 
ing managed to gain a bare livelihood. 
Their farms had to be paid for wholly 
or in part by their children with whom 
they passed their declining years. The 
houses they lived in were usually 
rough log structures ; such a thing as 
personal comfort was unknown. It 
needs to be kept in mind, however, that 
"comfort" is both a relative and a 
modern term. Millions of people live 
in comparative comfort under condi- 
tions which to others would be intoler- 
able. The domestic environment of 
Englishmen in the days when their 
country is said to have earned the 
epithet "merry" was of such a charac- 
ter that it would now be considered fit 
only for semi-barbarians. There is hard- 
ly a laboring man in any Germanic 
country today that does not have at 
command more of those things now re- 
garded as indispensable than the noble- 
men of a few centuries ago. When any 
of their number died he was just as 
likely as not to be laid to rest in the cor- 
ner of some field where the plow-share 
or bushes and brambles would before 
many years obliterate all traces of the 
little mound above his remains or the 
perishable mark placed upon it. Much 
of the country was still covered with 
woods while agriculture was carried on 
in a primitive fashion. Nothing was 
grown for sale or indeed could be sold 
save cereals and live stock except on 
special occasions when butter, eggs, 
and perhaps a few other commodities 
might be disposed of at a ridiculously 
low price. Such indispensable articles 
as salt had to be brought a long dis- 



tance. Some of these old-time farmers 
had not even a wheeled conveyance, but 
hauled their grain from the fields on 
sleds. 1 Number Two had not been 
upon the stage of action long before 
considerable improvement was evi- 
dent. They cleared much additional 
land, gradually paid for their farms, 
some of them even accumulating a lit- 
tle money. They were less illiterate, 
most of them being able at least to 
read if not to write. It must be con- 
fessed however that not a few of those 
who could read did not find the printed 
page a source of much enlightenment, 
still less of pleasure. I remember one 
man who was elected to membership 
in a school-board who could not even 
write his name. Yet he was a man of 
a good deal of general information. 

It is probable that his lack of this 
particular qualification was known to 
but few of the voters. With the wom- 
en the case was much worse ; many 
of them were entirely illiterate. Upon 
this generation fell the responsibility 
of administering the public school svs- 
ten which now began to be more 
widely extended. It was however 
done in a perfunctory way with slight 
comprehension of the interests in- 
volved. It was regarded as of more 
importance that the teacher should be 
a stern ruler than an efficient instruc- 
tor. Brawn counted for much more 
than brain. He who "licked" oftenest 
and hardest was accounted as the most 
capable by many of the patrons. I 
should however be unjust to some of 
the young men who taught the schools 
of our neighborhod if I did not declare 
my belief that they were quite the 
ec|nals in attainments and pedagogical 
skill of many who have "in these last 
days" taken the places once ocupied by 
them. There were, moreover, no 
schools in our community that had a 
bad reputation. Children were to be 
kept in the schoolroom six full hours 
each day, a recess being regarded as a 
loss of time, engaged in reading, writ- 
ing, and ciphering. No schoolhouse 
had a playground. Why should it 

have? Children were not sent to 
school to find amusement. Most of 
them fooled away too much time in 
play at home. Although not all par- 
ents were uncompromising believers in 
the necessity of stifling the play-in- 
stincts of children, the suppression- 
ists were considerably in the majority. 

Most of the dwelling-houses were 
erected near a spring, although in some 
cases the water was supplied from a 
well bv means of a pump or windlass 
and bucket. Not a few houses were 
located in the most absurd and out-of- 
the-wav places. They had hardly a 
yard of level ground about them. Their 
inhabitants did not seem to care 
whether they lived or merely existed. 
It has often been remarked that the 
idea of comfort is modern, that we do 
not find it even today in the lower 
strata of civilization anywhere. This 
fact w r as substantiated by many of my 
father's neighbors. The schoolhouses 
were never built with a view to con- 
venience in getting water and were al- 
wavs without any sort of outbuildings. 
However, the pupils were never wor- 
ried about the difficulty of obtaining 
something to drink. The farther they 
had to go for it the better they liked it. 
Most of them seemed to think that all 
the time they could filch from school 
hours and lessons was clear gain.While 
this assertion does not hold good of 
all, it is true of at least five out of six. 
I have not the slightest doubt that all 
the pupils except the very dullest could 
have learned all there was to be learned 
in these country schools between the 
age of six and fourteen, or in about 
thirty-two months; some even in less. 
I have often wondered to what extent, 
if any, most of these people who could 
neither read nor write, or who at least 
lacked the latter accomplishment, 
would have been benefitted by it. It 
would have been a convenience — hard- 
ly more. A majority of those who 
could read had too little general 
knowledge to discriminate between 
what was probable and what was man- 



ifestly false. They were in the same 
condition with the Irishman who de- 
clared that a statement he had just 
made was true because he had seen it 
in print. These illiterates, however, 
like all of their kith that I have since 
met with were generally careful to 
conceal their ignorance ; or they em- 
ployed a sort of euphemism when they 
could not help admitting it. I dis- 
tinctly recall one man who was a tvp- 
ical specimen, about the age of my 
father. Me was a skillful undertaker, 
and a much-sought auctioneer on ac- 
count of his ready wit, shrewdness, 
suave manner, and honesty. After do- 
ing some business with him at differ- 
ent times I went to him for his bill. 
Upon my asking for a receipt he re- 
plied : "You write the receipt. I don't 
sign my name; I just make my mark". 
And he did not live on a farm either. 
If he had said squarely : "I can't write" 
there would not have been any need of 
more words. What the people read 
rarely brought into their lives any 
knowledge that changed their opinions 
in the slightest degree. As to the wom- 
en, few of them felt the necessity of 
writing anything urgently enough to 
overcome the inconvenience to which 
they were almost certain to be put. 
When once in a while a few lines were 
to be written or a signature affixed to 
a document, there was usually a search 
for pen and ink, sometimes also for pa- 
per. "When found, the former was 
scarcely usable and the latter almost 
any color except the desired one. Most 
of the denizens of the region doubtless 
had relations elsewhere, as they were 
not aborigines ; but those who were so 
distant that they could not be visited 
in a day or two were few in number. If 
relatives lived so far away that they 
had to be communicated with by letter 
the ocean might as well have rolled be- 
tween them except for the cost of the 
epistle, as more than one a year rarely 
passed back and forth. The first gen- 
eration and a large proportion of the 
second possessed the virtue of pa- 
tience, if patience be a virtue under all 

circumstances ; if not, that asinine 
quality which we call stolidity. Few 
aspired beyond the sphere of their 
present activities. They sought to bet- 
ter their condition, in a way, but not to- 
move out of their sphere. In summer 
they rose with the birds and retired 
when they retired. As there were no 
birds in winter to set them an example 
their work-day was somewhat ex- 
tended into the darkness of the even- 
ing, but rarely farther than eight 
o'clock. Thus the days and the years 
passed monotonously away until one 
here and another there was laid to his 
final rest. Sometimes his or her place 
remained vacant ; sometimes another 
appeared on the scene who could fill it. 

When I was about ten years old my 
father started me to school in the Fall 
with a Kirkham's Grammar in my 
hands, the study of which he desired 
me to begin. I felt very much embar- 
rassed to be seen with such a book as 
I knew the older boys would make fun 
of me for my presumption. This sub- 
ject was supposed to be proper for ma- 
ture pupils only, although even of 
these a verv small number cared to 
"waste" their time upon it. The event 
proved that my fears were well 
founded : my untimely choice, al- 
though it was not really my choice, 
was the butt of many malicious re- 
marks. Four months of twenty-two 
days constituted the usual winter 
term, school being kept on alternate 
Saturdays. The wages paid, so far as 
I can recollect, was about twenty-five 
dollars per month. This was consider- 
abb- more than the prevailing rate in 
many parts of the State. There were 
more benighted regions than ours. To 
be able to spell well was considered 
the greatest accomplishment. That the 
expert did not know the meaning of 
half the words he could spell correct- 
ly and could not write a grammatical 
sentence except by accident did not de- 
tract from its supposed value. When 
the six directors in couples made their 
usual round of the schools, as they 



generally did once each winter, they 
inspected the copy-books, heard the 
more advanced pupils spell, — voila 
tout. The great winter events of this 
and most other communities in our 
part of the world were the spelling- 
school, except when they were eclipsed 
by an occasional revival. Among other 
things they gave the young people far 
and near an excuse for coming to- 
gether. There could be more social 
intercourse because there was less con- 
straint than at a preaching service. 
What is the psychology of the spell- 
ing-school? There must be some rea- 
son for its existence from its social 
features. Perhaps this is the explana- 
tion. The rural school was assumed to 
stand for intellectual development ; 
but his development was confined 
within very narrow limits. Grammar, 
as I have said, was hardly studied at 
all. Reading and writing were sup- 
posed to be necessary only to a limited 
extent ; the- could moreover be 
acquired in a comparatively short 
time. Besides none of these subjects 
afforded scope for a contest and could 
be judged by experts only. But every 
one knew when a word was correctly 
spelled or could easily find out. So the 
institution was developed as a sort of 
natural outgrowth of existing condi- 
tions, intellectual and social. Skill in 
spelling was taken to be the basis of 
elementary education. As the drill 
was conducted it led to nothing; but 
the exercise had some inherent inter- 
est and so was kept uo. The best spel- 
ler was regarded as the best scholar, 
and vice versa. This was generally the 
case, but not always. Moreover, the 
abilitv to spell was regarded as a gift, 
not something to be gained by indus- 
try or systematic effort. Tt will thus 
be seen if there was any intellectual 
activitv at all it could hardly move any 
other direction than it did. Nobody 
seems to have taken the trouble to con- 
sider whether the game was worth the 
chase, but there was no other game 
within the preserve. As dictionaries 
were virtually unknown, nobodv 

missed them. Then too even a small 
one cost a dollar and its purchase en- 
titled needless expense, or at least ex- 
pense that could be avoided. Accord- 
in^ 11 " - , if a word was not defined in the 
Speller or Reader, no one knew what 
it meant. Once in a while there was 
a little dancing during recess, although 
only in the form of a cotillion. This 
brought down the wrath of the older 
members of the community on the 
teacher who had permitted it. It has 
often struck me as singular that this 
kind of amusement was so vigorously 
and universally condemned. So far as 
I know this attitude is not shared by 
the native Germans. At any rate in 
Germany almost all the young people 
dance and are passionately fond of it. 
Evidently Puritan rigorism had com- 
pletely overslaughed the sentiments 
which the Teutonic immigrants must 
have brought Avith them. Dancing was 
deliberate frivolity, and for this reason 
seems to have been particularly obnox- 
ious. Herein, as also in the keeping of 
the Sabbath, New England influence 
was paramount. No farmer, whatever 
might be his private views, would 
have risked his reputation by doing 
any work on Sunday, even under 
stress of the most pressing necessitv. 
This state of mind was fostered by the 
current devotional literature and by 
the school-books in use although it 
was not generated by them. Xew Eng- 
land Puritanism, perhaps supported 
somewhat by German Pietism, held 
the masterv over men's minds. I do 
not think Quaker influence was felt in 
the slightest degree, although the lo- 
cality is not much more than a hundred 
miles west of Philadelphia. 

"When I began to attend the pub- 
lic school a series of Readers was 
just coming into vogue. Some of the 
elder pupils still read from any volume 
that could be picked up about the 
premises, the New Testament being 
perhaps the most common. In the 
other text-books there was no uniform- 
ity. In arithmetic everv scholar used 



what he had or the teacher could in- 
duce him to borrow or buy. But this 
lack of uniformity made little differ- 
ence. Each individual worked by him- 
self and called upon the "master" to 
aid him in solving such problems as 
were too tough for him. Not a few of 
our neighbors regarded the public 
school as an unnecessary burden. It 
compelled them to pay taxes for some- 
thing they did not want and for which 
they saw no use. Nevertheless, the 
attendance, at least in midwinter, was 
tolerably regular. If, as happened now 
and then, .a school teacher boarded 
with a family he was expected to 
spend his evenings with the rest of the 
household in the general living-room, 
that being usually the only one in 
which there was a fire. He was not 
supposed to have any lessons to pre- 
pare, it being assumed that when he 
received his certificate he had learned 
all that was necessary for him to 
know. In fact he often thought so 
himself. It rarely occurred to any one 
that an ambitious boy might want to 
enlarge his knowledge in order to fit 
himself for some higher vocation than 
his present humble one. Of course, 
the boarder was also expected to take 
his part in the usual platitudes that 
were the order of the evening in such 
a group. I am often amused when I 
think of the importance attached to 
the position of teacher by the com- 
munity in general. That he had fre- 
quently been an older pupil in the 
school he afterward taught did not de- 
tract from his dignity. In truth out- 
siders from a distance were not looked 
upon with much favor. When once 
installed in his office of master he was 
to be implicity obeyed. If he failed to 
assert himself with sufficient vigor he 
might not be employed the following 
winter, but I do not recall that any 
one was dismissed before the end of 
term as was sometimes done in other 
localities. The proverbial English re- 
spect for law was deeply ingrained in 
the mind of our community. As the 
teacher had been hired by the direc- 
tors in virtue of their legal authority, 

he had the law on his side. I should 
also add that I never heard a board of 
directors accused of yielding to im- 
proper influences, especially of a pe- 
cuniary kind. Their judgment was 
sometimes impugned, their honesty 

There are few things upon which 
many members of this community 
placed a lower value than upon a 
book. Even schoolbooks must be kept 
at the lowest numerical limit although 
the cost might be a mere trifle. This 
point of view was well exemplified by 
a remark I once heard a young farmer 
make. Something was said in his 
presence about books. Thereupon he 
exclaimed, half to himself, half to the 
bystanders, that he had read his book 
two or three times and believed he 
would buy another. I was a small boy 
and had no right to ask questions un- 
der such circumstances; but I have of- 
ten wished since that I knew what that 
particular book was. Most of the 
young people, but especially the girls, 
supposed that" their education was 
completed about the time they became 
eighteen or twenty years of age. To 
assume that they still had something 
to learn was a reflection upon them 
that could not be endured and must 
be resented. The round of domestic 
activities had been gone through many 
times ere this age was attained and 
there was neither room for nor need of 
innovations. A young woman had 
made her reputation, good, indiffer- 
ent, or bad, by the time she became of 
age and all desire for progress ceased. 
That a task might be better, or more 
neatly or more expeditiously per- 
formed in some other way than the ac- 
customed routine was not to be admit- 
ted. While the young men were, gener- 
ally speaking, less adverse to new ideas 
and new ways of doing things, many 
did take kindly to them. To make the 
environment conform to its human 
center was too much like trying to 
make one's self grow so as to fit his 
clothes rather than to make the clothes 
fit the wearer. When I consider how 



much the young- people of my times 
were expected to do, and that they nev- 
ertheless managed to find time for what 
to them was recreation, I realize how 
strong is the play-instinct in youth. It 
may be true in a measure that all work 
and no play makes Jack a dull boy; 
the probability is that Jack is naturally 
dull if he does not find time for play. 
We often worked almost "from sun to 
sun" six days in the week, then walked 
two, three, or even five miles, to a Sun- 
day School or a preaching service in 
order to make a break in the monotony 
of our weekday routine. If two or three 
boys got together by accident or design 
there was probably some kind of a ball 
game, or a wrestling match, or some- 
thing of the sort. There was in vogue 
such a variety of ways of playing ball 
that two boys or any larger number 
could get up a game. At spelling- 
school or at a "singing" there was 
usually a recess of an hour, or nearly 
so. Then the company always got 
"mixed". If the night was favorable 
there might be a "tig-ring" out of 
doors. If not, there was usually some 
sort of game indoors in which all could 
take part. I have already mentioned 
that once in a while there might be a 
little dancing and what its effect was 
sure to be. The music was always some 
ditty that was sung, it being assumed 
that if no fiddle was used the harm was 
not quite so serious because the per- 
formance did not show deliberate tres- 
pass and premeditated perversity. Al- 
though the life of the community was 
serious enough, not all the young peo- 
ple took it so at all times. As almost 
the only opportunities for young peo- 
ple of opposite sex to become ac- 
quainted with each other were singing 
and spelling schools or preaching ser- 
vices these gatherings were the chief 
promoters of love-matches. If a young 
man took a fancy to a young lady of 
the neighborhood he usually asked her 
permission to escort her home from 
some evening meeting. If she ac- 
cepted his company two or three times 
in succession he was regarded as her 
"feller". Under such circumstances it 

was held to be no small achievement if 
some other fellow could "cut out" a 
rival, that is, take the accustomed 
place of the party of the first part in 
escorting the fair maiden home. It 
was not regarded as good form for a 
young lady even to receive these slight 
remarks of favor from more than one 
young man at a time. When she with 
her escort arrived at the parental dom- 
icile she was expected to invite him in. 
If she did not, it was to be taken as a 
hint that his future civilities were not 
desired. Sometimes she might refuse in 
in public to receive his attentions, in 
which case the victim was said to "get 
a sack". If a young man's attentions 
to their daughter were agreeable to her 
parents they permitted the young peo- 
ple to have a room to themselves. In 
such cases he might remain until late 
at night, or even until early morning, 
without causing unfavorable comment. 
If a young man visited a young woman 
at stated times, or accompanied her 
both to and from any evening perform- 
ance, it was regarded as an admission 
of an engagement, although engage- 
ments were rarely announced in any 
formal or public manner until the 
wedding day was set. Divorces and 
separations were virtually unknown. 
One married couple that had lived to- 
gether for more than a quarter of a 
century and had brought up a large 
family decided that their incompati- 
bility made it necessary for them to 
separate. My father learned of the criti- 
cal condition of affairs and visited the 
hostile couple. After talking with 
both parties almost an entire day he 
succeeded in persuading them to re- 
consider their decision, secured some 
pledges from each part - " as to the fu- 
ture, and the matter ended. They lived 
together until death parted them. It 
was the only case of the kind that 
came to my notice. 

L Johx) Ridd Bays in Lorna Doone: "I followed the 
tracli Oil the side of the bill, from the farm-yard 
where the sled marks are, for we have no wheels 
upon Exmoor yet. nor ever shall. I Buppose; though 
a dander headed man tried it last winter, and broke 
bis axle piteously, and was nigh to break his neck." 
This was about 1685. 


Traits and Characteristics 

NOTE. — The following extracts constitute 
about one-fourth of the matter in a series of 
papers which appeared in the Germantown 
Independent- Gazette last September and 
October. We regret that lack of space for- 
bids our giving the articles in full. 

We believe, with one of the correspon- 
dents in this issue, that "Affirmation, nega- 
tion, discussion, solution; these are the 
means of gaining or attaining TRUTH." For 
this reason the pages of THE PENNSYL- 
VANIA-GERMAN are open for the frank ex- 
pression of thought by our readers and we 
cheerfully make room for this and similar 
articles, responsibility for contents resting 
on the author and not on the magazine — 

both commendatory and 
condemn atory, has 
greeted a recent article 
on the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man dialect, appearing 
originally in the Book 
News Monthly and then 
reprinted in the Independent-Gazette. 

The article aroused the literary critic 
of the Pennsylvania German, a maga- 
zine published in Lititz. The critic 
declares that the article deals in gen- 
eralities and that the writer doesn't 
know what he is 
words to that effect 

In taking up so comprehensive a 
subject as the Pennsylvania German 
dialect and attempting to cover it in 
about 3000 words, it might be expected 
that the article would be somewhat 
general and would deal with the most 
conspicuous tendencies rather than 
with exceptions to the rule. 

The critic quotes exceptions to dis- 
credit the generalities. This is pain- 
fully apparent, for in nearly every in- 
stance that he attempts to make a cor- 
rection he cites from the history and 
customs of the Schwenkfelders. 
* * * * 
The interest shown in the article on 
the Pennsylvania German dialect leads 
to the belief that it might be worth 
while to write something further in 
this and succeeding issues of the Inde- 

talking about — or 

pendent-Gazette, about the traits and 
peculiarities of this people. They have 
been the subject of some adverse criti- 
cism in recent years. 

-■>,: * * * 

Thrift is the dominating motive of 
life in the land of the Pennsylvania 

It was their thrift that led the Ger- 
man immigrants of the eighteenth 
century to seek out the fertile farm- 
lands of interior Pennsylvania, where 
their descendants have since dwelt. 
Their thrift kept the Pennsylvania- 
Germans isolated from English-speak- 
ing neighbors, resented the introduc- 
tion of innovations that might tend 
toward extravagance, preserved their 
ancient customs and their distinctive 
dialect, made poverty almost impossi- 
ble in their communities and gave them 
a reputation not only for conservatism, 
but also for probity. 

There are few idlers in the land of 
the Pennsylvania Germans. 

The seal of ancient Germantown. the 
first German settlement in America, 
shows a clover leaf on the three lobes 
of which are symbols of three indus- 
tries — a cluster of grapes, a distaff of 
flax and a weaver's reel. The Penn- 
sylvania Germans long ago forsook 
Germantown, but in their settlements 
further up the State they still pay 
homage to- the multiform guiding spirit 
of industry. 

On the farms there is work for every- 
one from sunrise until long after sun- 
set. The men till the fields and care 
for the live stock. The women cook, 
bake, wash and mend, not only for the 
members of the family, but for several 
hired men as well, and they also attend 
to the milking, the care of the poultry 
and the cultivation of a kitchen garden. 

In the small towns a similar un- 
ceasing round of industry prevails. 
Often husband and wife and every 
child old enough to escape the require- 
ment of the compulsory education law, 



are employed in a cigar factory, a silk 
mill or at some other work. 

The proprietor of a big butchering 
establishment in one of the Pennsyl- 
vania German boroughs — burgess of 
the town and a typically "prominent 
citizen" — had a son, an interesting lad 
of 15, who one day was accidentally 
killed by the discharge of a rifle with 
which he was shooting rats in the 
slaughter house. When the coroner 
and th^ newspaper man visited the 
home there were tearful scenes. The 
father, amidst sobs, told how fine a boy 
the lad was. But the feature upon 
which he seemed to lay. most stress 
was this : "Why he was my best sau- 
sage maker. He could turn out more 
sausage than any of the regular butch- 

The tragedy was heartrending, but 
the light in which the father viewed 
the lost son — chiefly as a help in mak- 
ing money — was the saddest part of 
the tragedy. Nevertheless it was 
typical of the Pennsylvania German 
attitude toward children. 
* * # * 

The importance of education as an 
aid to thrift is recognized, and comfort- 
able, well-built school houses are com- 
mon. Good teachers are sought who 
can give an adequate return for the 
salary paid them. The members of the 
school board may not know a Latin 
root from an isosceles triangle, and 
they may conduct their official deliber- 
ations in a dialect which scarcely can 
be written, but they are shrewd enough 
not to permit an incompetent man or 
woman to teach their children. 

Pennsylvania Germans understand 
that educaton has a money value. Dr. 
Nathan C. Schaeffer, State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, and 
himself a Pennsylvania German, fre- 
quently has delivered an address be- 
fore teachers' institutes and at com- 
mencements showing by statistics just 
what an education is worth in dollars 

and cents to a young man starting out 
in life. 

So many a lad from the farms 
•'works his way" through one of the 
colleges of the German counties — 
Muhlenberg, in Allentown ; Ursinus, in 
Collegeville; Franklin and .Marshall, 
in Lancaster; Pennsylvania, in Gettys- 
burg, or Susquehanna, in Selinsgrove. 

* * * * 

In attempting to refute the charge of 
unprogressiveness, the defenders of the 
Pennsylvania Germans are wont to cite 
certain Germans and descendants of 
Germans in Pennsylvania, who at- 
tained distinction in various fields of 
human activity. It has been asserted, 
however, in these controversies that no 
Pennsylvania German ever rose to 
national eminence either in politics, 
science, art or any profession or busi- 
ness. Certainly there is no Pennsyl- 
vania German who can be placed 
alongside of Carl Schurz, the foreign- 
born German. 

If the Pennsylvania Germans of to- 
day could produce a Muhlenberg, a 
Pastorius or a Steuben, doubtless they 
would be less subjected to adverse 


* * * * 

Their predominant trait of thrift is 
strikingly apparent in the church life 
of the Pennsylvania Germans. 

They are religious and few families 
have not at least nominal membership 
in some church. On Sunday the 
churches, particularly in rural parishes, 
are crowded. Yet congregations that 
independently support a minister are 
the exception. Two to six congrega- 
tions constitute the charge of a clergy- 
man, and each has a membership no 
smaller than that of the average -ell- 
sustaining congregation of the cities. 
Orilv when the membership of a rural 
church approaches one thousand in 
numbers is it deemed advisable to con- 
stitute it into an independent parish. 

Morover man}- congregations are un- 
willing to fix a stated salary for their 
pastor. They give him "was fallt" — 



"what falls." That is, collections are 
taken twice or four times during- the 
year for the pastor, and he is expected 
to be content with "what falls". 

Naturally clergymen are reluctant to 
-respond to a call accompanied bv a 
financial arrangement of that kind. A 
Lehigh County Lutheran parish of 
several congregations where the "was 
fallt" rule prevailed had been unable to 
find a pastor for a long time. Finally 
the president of the conference at- 
tended a meeting of the church council 
and urged the members to agree upon 
a salary for the pastor. But the presi- 
dent of the council responded thus in 
German : 

"We think our way is better. When 
the Lord gives us a good harvest, then 
we give a good collection ; and when 
the harvests are poor, then we must 
give less." 

"Yes," responded the conference 
president, "but look how your pastor 
is handicapped. You are dealing with 
the kind Father in heaven, but your 
pastor is dealing with a lot of hard- 
fisted, stingy Pennsylvania Dutch- 

* * * * 

One of the most valued privileges 
connected with church membership is 
that of having the church bell rung at 
death and of obtaining burial in the 
churchyard. In these communities it 
is a disgrace to be buried without the 
tolling of the bell, and the preaching of 
a long discourse in the church. In- 
deed so many persons contribute a dol- 
lar or two to a church yearly just to 
assure themselves of honorable burial 
that the clergymen allude to this class 
of church members as "graveyard 

This privilege is cherished so highly 
that church members moving to the 
large cities where churches have no 
burial grounds are reluctant to connect 
themselves with those churches; and 
even though there be a church of their 
own faith but a few minutes' walk 
from their home they refuse to join it, 
but go yearly forty or fifty miles into 

the country to attend communion ser- 
vices and contribute a small sum to 
maintain membership in the church of 
their childhood. 

Of the thousand members of a Re- 
formed congregation in the Perkiomen 
Valley, one hundred live in Philadel- 
phia, forty-five miles away; and a 
Lutheran congregaton in the same 
region has so many members in Phila- 
delphia that the pastor formerly held 
a special communion annually in the 
city for these long-distance parishion- 

^c ^c ^c Iji 

The funeral is an occasion when the 
Pennsylvania German's thrift is not 
overtly manifested. Indeed sometimes 
it seems as though a lifetime had been 
spent in skimping and saving merely 
for the sake of culminating in a splen- 
did funeral. 

Funerals are the principal social 
events in most of the rural districts. 
They afford the best and often the 
only occasiojn for a reunion of relatives 
widely separated, and they give every- 
one in the community an opportunity 
to become better acquainted with one 
another and to partake of one of those 
feasts for which the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man housewives are famous. 

As soon as the church secton is 
notified of a death he tolls the bell. 
Most churches have a code of bell ring- 
ing whereby the number of strokes in- 
dicates the sex of the person who has 
died. Then the age is tolled. Possessed 
of these facts, the listener, who gen- 
erally knows of everyone in the vicin- 
ity who is sick, is readily able to guess 
for whom the bell is ringing. 

The funeral takes place about a 
week after death, not only that all 
friends living at a distance may ar- 
range to be present, but also because 
it is considered disrespectful to the 
dead to "hurry him underground." 
* * * * 

Traditions and superstition are im- 
portant factors in the life of the people 
of Pennsylvania German communities, 
for both are esteemd to be conducive 



to thrift. Customs that helped the fore- 
fathers to lead happy and contented 
lives it is felt, ought to serve the same 
purpose for their descendants. Super- 
natural powers exercise potent influ- 
ence over the weal and the woe of the 
people; therefore the supernatural 
should be heeded and studied. 

Since the success of the farmer de- 
pends to such a great degree upon the 
weather, much stress is l aid upon 
weather predictions, and curious meth- 
ods of prognostication, coupling keen 
observation of nature with abject 
superstition, have gained acceptance. 
Every community has its weather 
prophet, who is looked upon as an 
oracle and is consulted in regard to the 
planting of crops and the favorable 
dates for holding church festivals, pic- 
nics and country fairs. His only rival 
in foretelling the weather is the alma- 
nac, long accepted as an infallible 
household guide. 

Faith in a multitude of weather 
"signs" abides, though often they are 
contradictory. If the breastbone of 
the goose be dark, indicating a severe 
winter, while at the same time angle 
worms remain near the surface of the 
earth, portending a mild winter, a 
charitable excuse is made for one or 
the other; and if the almanac happens 
to miss it occasionally in its "about 
this time" department, the trustful 
ones say, "There are exceptions to all 
rules," and go on believing. 
* * * * 

Pennsylvania Germans demand thrift 
in government. Andrew Jackson is 

their political ideal, and it is an exag- 
geration based on the true feelings of 
the people which asserts that in Berks- 
County many votes are still cast for 
"Old Hickory" at every Presidential 

Their influence in politics was much 
more pronounced early in the nine- 
teenth century than now. At that time 
they elected a succession of Govern- 
ors ; and though Francis Parkman de- 
scribed them as "dull, Dutch Govern- 
ors," they were firm advocates of pub- 
lic education at a time when the estab- 
lishment of common schools was the 
foremost issue. 

;(: ^ >jt :■; 

Through their thrift these sturdy 
Pennsylvania Germans have contrib- 
uted not a little to the material pros- 
perity of the State wherein they live. 
It is not their inclination to bask in 
the glamour of public admiration. On, 
the contrary there is a tendency among 
them to remain secluded in their rural 
communities and to avoid using the 
common speech of the country. 

So long as this propensity dominates 
them, their influence upon the life of 
the world is of little consequence. But 
from their towns and villages many 
boys have gone forth to the large cities ; 
and when contact with varied phases of 
humanity has overcome the ancestral 
clannishness, then the sterling honesty 
■ and the rugged common sense that are 
their heritage have equipped them to 
become leaders in many walks of life.. 


The Pennsylvania Germans Once More 

By E. Schultz Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

1 1 E writer of "A Defiant 
Dialect : Pennsylvania 

German in Fiction", first 
published in "The Book 
News Monthly" and re- 
printed in several other 
publications, took excep- 
tions to the remarks made 
about the article by the present writer 
in the September issup of this maga- 
zine. The writer referred to happens 
to be, so we are told, associate editor of 
the "Independent- Gazette" (Phila.). 
In a series of articles or sketches in this 
"paper about the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans he replies to the criticisms to 
which reference has been made. 

Seemingly he does not refute the 
criticisms made by the reviewer who 
accused him of making unwarranted 
assumptions and sweeping statements 
that are not trne. But he seems to take 
exceptions to the fact that the present 
writer happens to be a Schwenk- 
felder, and that h e quotes from 
Schwenkfeld history and custom, and 
accuses him of basing "his estimate of 
the race upon his own people", which 
•accusation is unwarranted. These 
people were not used to disprove these 
statements because they are Schwenk- 
felders, but because they are Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. 

^ This editor thinks Pennsylvania- 
Germandom is so large that the few 
Schwenkfelders do not count. If that 
is true, then why does he mention 
them at all? But Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mandom is not so large and the 
Schwenkfelders are not so few in num- 
ber that they can be treated as a negli- 
gible quantity. It has been estimated 
that the Pennsylvania Germans com- 
prise only one-third of the State's 
populaton ; if so, then these people are 
not so few that they can needs be 
ignored. And when it comes to prov- 
ing or disproving the truthfulness of 
'general statements, they cannot be 

ignored. AYhat is not true of a part 
cannot be said of the whole. If his 
sweeping statements are disproved by 
quoting Schwenkfeld history and cus- 
tom, they are disproved, and that is all 
there is to it. Instances from other 
sects might be cited were it deemed 
necessary. And when he claims "that 
in taking up so comprehensive a sub- 
ject as the Pennsylvania German dia- 
lect and attempting to cover it in about 
3,000 words it might be expected that 
the article would be somewhat general, 
he begs the question. No logical pro- 
cess is known whereby the truthful- 
ness of the statement made is estab- 
lished by the length of the article. 

But it is not only a matter of prov- 
ing or disproving a statement but of 
saying what is true and what is not 
true. If he has been to the Schwenk- 
felder church services and seemingly 
knows all about them, why does he say 
the dialect is still the prevailing 
speech" in the church service when it 
is not? And there are a great many 
churches regardless of denominations 
where no German is used at all. He 
thinks "in the singing it is apparent 
that in spite of the fact that the con- 
gregation demands German services, 
the number who can read the German 
of the hymnbooks is rather limited"; 
but it is rather a poor criterion that 
would judge a people's attainments by 
their ability to read the words to the 
music they sing. 

We will sav nothing more about the 
schools established by the Schwenk- 
felders or by other denominations : 
but Ave should like to refer the writer 
to the November issue of this maga- 
zine for igio and to the educational 
numbers of 1907. 

The publishing of "A Defiant Dia- 
lect: Pennsylvania German in Fic- 
tion" induced its author to write in 
the "Independent-Gazette" something 
more "about the traits and peculiarities 



of these people. They have been the 
subject of some adverse criticism of 
recent years". True, but what he him- 
self writes about them will hardly 
serve as a vindication. 

In showing- that "thrift is the domi- 
nant motive of the life in the land of 
the Pennsylvania-Germans", he tells 
how on a certain occasion (one still re- 
calls the incident) a butcher's son in 
one of the Pennsylvania German bor- 
oughs shot himself accidentally while 
shooting rats in the slaughter house. 
'We are told that the father's chief la- 
ment was that his boy was "his best 
sausage maker", and that "he could 
turn out more sausages than any of 
the regular butchers". Such a re- 
mark is deplorable, likewise the atti- 
tude that provoked it. But when the 
writer goes on to say that such an at- 
titude is "typical of the Pennsylvania 
German attitude toward children", our 
commiseration turns into uncompro- 
mising resentment. 

In writing about these people this 
writer commits the same unpardonable 
fault that scores of other writers com- 
mit. An example of some question- 
able act or attitude of mind is held up 
before the world as being "typical" of 
these people. Sweeping generalities 
embodying the charge are applied to 
the whole people when there is no 
truth in the matter. We wish to state 
for the benefit of this city editor that 
a wise man said over a hundred years 
ago that he did "not know the method 
of drawing up an indictment against a 
whole people". But he may not be 
aware of that. The fact is that you can 
prowl around in any corner of any 
class of people in any community of 
this big country and find situations, 
traits, types, peculiarities, and customs 
that are just as ludicrous, as eccentric 
and as unpleasant as anything ever 
found among these people. 

And here is a case in point. A few- 
years ago a farmer in Iowa (and he is 
not a Pennsylvania German) came to 
the village bank a few days after he 
had buried his wife. One of the clerks 

(known personally to the writer) 
spoke consolingly to him about his be- 
reavement. "Yes", said the farmer, "I 
would rather have lost my best cow". 
It will of course be said that it is not 
necessary to go to far-off Iowa to find 
a solitary incident to discredit any- 
thing said about the Pennsylvania- 
Germans. But it shows that not all the 
fool things are said and done by these 
people; the incident from Iowa is but 
one of many that could be cited were 
it necessary. And in the second place 
we insist that it would be every bit as 
fair, as just, and as reasonable to say 
that the farmers of Iowa think more of 
their cows than of their wives as it is 
to accuse these people of using and 
treating- their children like chattel, like 
sausage machines because this man 
made such a remark. To say that this 
butcher's remark is "typical" of the 
Pennsylvania German attitude toward 
children is uncalled for and unjust — it 
is an insult. 

If it were universally true, as this 
writer tries to tell, us, that these people 
use their children only as machines, as 
"hewers of wood and drawers of 
water"; that they think of them only in 
mercenary terms, for the money that 
is in them, then why is it that they 
have been foremost in educational af- 
fairs, that they established one of the 
first public school systems, and have 
founded and are maintaining- the va- 
rious educational institutions men- 
tioned in "A Defiant Dialect" ? Thanks 
to these noble-minded people, they do 
not seem as narrow-minded as some of 
the writers who pen some mean and 
"measly" account of them. 

He laments the fact that there are 
no longer men, as he thinks, like Pas- 
torius, Muhlenberg, and Steuben: if 
the Pennsylvania- I rermans of today 
could produce men like these "doubt- 
less they would be less subject to ad- 
verse criticism". Just how and why 
we are not told. 

Have these people ceased to make 
progress because of the lack of men 
like them? As i<>r the military services 



■of the men mentioned and that is what 
has made two of them at least con- 
spicuous, there are a Custer, a Hart- 
ranft, and a Beaver, of these later days 
whose services have been equally val- 
iant, and of whose record the Com- 
monwealth may well be proud. And 
as for Steuben, with due respect and 
appreciation for what he did for the 
American Cause, one can hardly see 
why the Pennsylvania Germans of to- 
day should be pitted against him any 
more than against a thousand other 
Germans in American history. Steuben 
was in no sense a Pennsylvania Ger- 
man and had no affiliations with them. 
The charge is unjust. 

It would be equally fair to accuse 
the Pennsylvania Germans for not 
producing any other notable character 
in history: a Plato, a Caesar, a Na- 
poleon, a Locke or a Newton, or who 
not Why does the writer in the "In- 
dependent-Gazette" not castigate the 
age for not producing more great men? 
In fact where are the great men of the 
day, who stand head and shoulder 
above the common mass? Where are 
the great ppets and men of letters, the 
great philosophers, scientists and 
statesmen, such as graced the closing 
decades of the previous century? If it 
is true, as has been said, that the 
twentieth century has dawned upon a 
mediocre race, then presumably the 
Pennsylvania-German is to blame ! 

Did the Pennsylvania German gov- 
ernors, some of whom were highly 
educated, who were influential in 
bringing the Public School System to a 
successful issue, and who ruled the 
Commonwealth for half a century, not 
accomplish anything? even though 
Parkman calls them the "dull Dutch 
Governors" ? And by the way, it is not 
necessary to try to take a sort of um- 
brage behind New England opinion re- 
garding the Pennsylvania Germans ; 
even New England has a few things to 
learn from the "dumb Dutch". We 
will refer the writer and reader to 
former issues of this magazine for ac- 
counts of scientists and other noted 

men among these people. To come to 
more recent times, do men like Dr. 
Schaeffer, Dr. Brumbaugh, and Rev. 
Dr. Kriebel (if it is permissible to 
mention a Schwenkfelder) stand for 
anything ? 

If this man would look around a lit- 
tle he would find that "Dr. Schaeffer, 
State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction and one time president of 
the National Educational Association, 
has no superior as State Superinten- 
dent, and that he is considered "one of 
the great educators of the world to- 
day". He would find that Dr. Brum- 
baugh stands in the foremost rank as 
City Superintendent ; and that a lead- 
ing County Superintendent has said 
that Dr. Kriebel of Perkiomen Semi- 
nary "has aroused all south-eastern 
Pennsylvania to greater activity in the 
cause of education". Numerous in- 
stances could be cited, but the forego- 
ing is deemed sufficient to correct 
wrong impressions. 

Of course, no one can write about 
the Pennsylvania Germans without 
saying something about superstition, 
witchcraft, pow-wowing, and whatever 
else has to do with the supernatural ; 
Nearly every superstition that is laid 
to the charge of these people can be 
traced to customs in vogue in the old 
country centuries ago ; in fact many 
are embodied in the folklore of the 
Teutonic race and are traceable to the 
Druids of old. They are characteristic 
of the Teutonic race whether English 
or German, and not at all necessarily 
Pennsylvania German. And as to the 
foretelling of the weather, why, the 
world is ' full of "ground hogs" and 
"goose bones", and the number of peo- 
ple who foretell the weather thereby is 
legion. These facts are common prop- 
erty ; it is not necessary to hold these 
people up as a spectacle. 

And as for the pow-wowing, well, 
anything will do for the "Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch" ; otherwise the practice 
is termed Christian Science, this 
sounds bigger. Christian Science! it 
is neither Christian nor scientific. It 



reminds one of Bryce's "Holy Roman 
Empire", which, it has been said, is 
neither holy^ nor Roman, nor an em- 

It seems, however, that this writer 
overreached himself when he writes, 
"Tradition and superstition are impor- 
tant factors in the life of the people of 
Pennsylvania . German communities, 
for both are esteemed to be conductive 
to thrift Supernatural powers ex- 
ercise potent influences over the weal 
and woe of the people; therefore the 
supernatural should be heeded and 
studied"; and "Hex or witch doctors 
and men and women who pow-wow to 
cure various ailments flourish in some 
rural districts and also in the cities, 
though they are not more numerous in 
proportion to the population than for- 
tune tellers and similar charlatans else- 

It was said once before that the 
writer who wrote what is quoted above 
did not know what he was writing 
about ; the charge may stand and the 
reader may form his own conclusions. 
It is the greatest wonder that they 
have not yet been accused of having 
brought about the Salem Witchcraft ! 
From such an account one might form 
the idea that all the credulous and su- 
perstitious people, all the witch doc- 
tors, charlatans, and all those who are 
in league with the Prince of Darkness 
are found among the Pennsylvania 
German people; and that there is not a 
single, clear, clean, hallowed thought 
among them ! 

He has much to say about the thrift- 
iness of the people, and imputes some 
sinister motives *to them because of it. 
Even when mentioning their interest 
in education he is anxious to have it 
understood that it is done chiefly for 
the money that is in it. We are ex- 
pressly informed that Dr. Schaeffer 
"frequently has delivered an address 
before teachers' institutes and at com- 
mencements showing by statistics just 
what an education is worth in dollars 
and cents to a young man starting out 
in life". This may all be true; but it 

need not be dwelt upon what special 
emphasis as being a sort of sinister 
motive. Are these the only people who 
realize the money value of an educa- 
tion that they need to be branded with 
the dollar mark? Is it the only thing 
they see in it, as he would like to have 
it understood? Has he never heard any- 
one but a Pennsylvania German bring 
out the money value of an education? 
Is it not the money value of an educa- 
tion, the bread and butter theory, that 
is foremost everywhere, where even 
the Pennsylvania German is entirely 
unknown? Of course no one sees the 
money value in any project and strives 
for it but the Pennsylvania German ! 
If he tries to save a dollar or to earn 
one he is mean, "close", stingy and 
x sordid! Why may he not be allowed 
to earn a dollar or save one without 
bringing a lot of opprobrious terms 
upon himself? Nothing is said of the 
scheming scoundrel who amasses his 
means by unprincipled methods, who 
robs a bank (politely termed embez- 
zling!) who steals a railroad or a city's 
franchises, and carries the manhood of 
his fellow citizens in his vestpocket. 
This fellow is a privileged character, 
and the state is honored in spending 
some more money on him. 

It might be well if lawless, flippant 
and indifferent young America were 
taught a few things in regard to 
honesty, sobriety, and thrift ; taught 
some respect for the domestic virtues, 
the beauty of family life and hallowed- 
ness of the home, and a reverence for 
things sacred. The Pennsylvania 
German's honesty, frugality and con- 
tentment stand out in noble contrast to 
the social pollution, scandal and dis- 
contentment: just so many sores in the 
life, of the nation. "The State owes 
much", to quote from a different writ- 
er, "to the solid character of this ele- 
ment in her population, who have 

illustrated in their lives the develop- 
ment of an uncommon respect for law, 
the establishment of ideal homes, the 
adornment of ever)' - sphere of private 
and public service, and. . . .the building 



up and perpetuating of a system of 
husbandry that has drawn from the 
depth of earth's mighty productivity a 
steady and luxuriant return that has 
not only enriched the State and pro- 
moted the general welfare, but beauti- 
fied her broad acres until it may be 
said, they blossom as the rose." It is 
worth while for penny-newspaper 
scribblers to sneer at her thrift. 

In speaking of innovations, an inci- 
dent is cited from the Perkiomen Val- 
ley where some members of a congre- 
gation wished to place a bathtub in the 
parsonage during the pastor's absence 
on vacation. The majority of the mem- 
bers objected and the project failed. 
It is given to understand, of course 
that it was because of their thrift 
and unwillingness to incur seemingly 
unnecessary expenses. The cleanliness 
of these people will not permit of im- 
peachment ; and if the writer in the 
"Gazette" will look around he will find 
just as many bathtubs, hot and cold 
water conveniences, and steam and hot 
water heating in the rural communities 
of these people as anywhere else. 

Just what the writer meant by say- 
ing, "Andrew Jackson is their political 
ideal" is not quite certin ; except, prob- 
ably that some Pennsylvania-Germans 
are democratic and that thus their 
political god is Jackson. At any rate 
it is an old historical expression for- 
merly applied to Berks County, but 
now without significance or applica- 
tion. Whoever would wish to know 
why Lancaster County is strongly re- 
publican and Berks County strongly 
democratic, while the Pennsylvania 
German element in each is in the 
majority will do well to read Mr. Esh- 
leman's address at the 200th Anniver- 
sary of the arrival of the Swiss Menno- 
nites in Lancaster County. 

Xor does he convince the reader that 
the Pennsylvania Germans are more 
'indifferent to political matters than 

formerly when he says: "Their influ- 
ence in politics was much more pro- 
nounced early in the. nineteenth cen- 
tury than now. At that time they 
elected a succession of governors." 
They have elected governors since. 
And at the last election they surely 
were alive when they came out for re- 
form with their independent vote, but 
which was snowed under by the politi- 
cal fraud of Philadelphia and Pitts- 

Some of the points taken up by the 
writer in the "Gazette" are almost too 
small to be made a matter of further 
comment, but there has been too much 
of this of late. This sort of thing has 
been growing the last ten or fifteen 
years. Every now and then some 
writer thinks he is acting "smart" if he 
can make these people seem ridiculous. 
More than one writer is "doing" these 
people by exposing their weaknesses 
and peculiarities at the expense of 
their virtues and redeeming qualities, 
and by catering to the morbid curi- 
osity of a spectacular-loving American 
public that delights in over-drawn and 
grotesque scenes, because he knows it 

The statements made by the writer 
in the " Independent- Gazette" are in 
the main true; but they are false, abso- 
lutely false, because of what is left un- 
said. He has not credited these 
people with a single noble commend- 
able trait without besmirching it and 
trailing it in the mud. There is a lack 
of proportion which a fairminded and 
unprejudiced writer would obviate. 
These people have their weaknesses 
and faults : they are not better than 
other people, but they are as good and 
deserve to be treated as such, but 
which treatment was not accorded 
them in the " Independent-Gazette". 
And through it all there is a tendency 
to belittle and everr to. ridicule that is- 
un called for. 


Frederick William Henry Ferdinand von Steuben 

NOTE.— Address of C. J. Hexanier, Ph. D., 
LL. D., President of the National German 
Alliance. Unveiling of the Steuben Statue, 
Washington, D. C, December 7th, 1910. 

HE second half of the eigh- 
teenth century was es- 
pecially significant and 
important in the political 
and cultural development 
of mankind. Its momen- 
tous events occurring in 
rapid succession, its great 
men, its bloody wars, its heroes from 
the Frederick the Great on a throne 
down to the lowest ranks of the com- 
mon people, and its scientists, scholars 
and thinkers of all nationalities formed 
in vast array the advent of a new era. 
The portending signs and events 
found their culmination in the French 
Revolution, that gigantic broom that 
swept the cobwebs from the brains of 
men and removed by one fell stroke 
the accumulated rubbish of many cen- 
turies. The Zeitgeist breathed the 
equality of man, equal rights and 
liberty for all. The seeds of coming 
nations were then sown and a new or- 
der of things was evolved. 

The events leading to the revolution 
of the American Colonies, and finally 
culminating in the founding of our re- 
public were some of the many in- 
fluences which gave rise to the social 
upheaval in Europe. On the other 
hand the excesses of the Reign of Ter- 
ror exerted a beneficient influence in 
moderating opinions in our young re- 
public ; people learned that liberty did 
not mean license and that our consti- 
tution stands for a masterful expres- 
sion of the will of a free people under 
salutary self-control. 

Among the many valuable services 
of Benjamin Franklin and the "Father 
of his Country", must be mentioned 
that they recommended Baron von 
Steuben to Congress. The genius of 
Washington, with his knowledge of 
men and things intuitively grasped the 

true spirit of military discipline, not 
only would it become a great help to 
the army and its officers, and enable 
him to win battles, but also felt that its 
influence would reach far into the fu- 
ture, when, after laying aside their 
arms, soldiers would again go about 
their peaceful pursuit, and the golden 
lessons of fidelity and discipline where 
every part works for the benefit of the 
whole, would finally spread through- 
out the broadest strata of the nation. 
This was achieved, and was due in a 
great measure to "Washington's Right 
Arm", Baron von Steuben. 

Flow deep the sympathies of the best 
of the German people were at the time 
for the American colonists in their 
struggle for freedom, can be gleaned 
from Schiller's newspaper articles, and 
his "Kabale und Liebe" scourges the 
utter rottenness of the system 1 where- 
by German princelings sold their sol- 
diers as mercenaries to England. 

Franklin, when he met Steuben in 
France, immediately recognized that 
he had before him an officer who not 
only followed the struggle of the 
American Colonies with keen interest, 
but who also prayed for their success. 
The best proof of Steuben's sentiments 
is contained in the letter which he ad- 
dressed, from Portsmouth, to the Con- 
gress of the United States, in which he 
states that the only motive bringing 
him to this hemisphere is his desire to 
serve a people making such a noble 
fight for their rights and freedom. He 
does not crave titles nor money. I lis 
only ambition, in entering our ranks as 
a volunteer, is to acquire the confi- 
dence oi" tlie Commanding General of 
our armies and to accompany him 
through all his campaigns, as he did 
the King of Prussia during the Seven- 
Years' War. lie would like to attain 
with his life's blood the honor that at 
some future day his name may be en- 
rolled among the defenders of our 



Though it is to be presumed that 
Steuben's biography is well-known, I 
feel it my duty to limn by a few 
sketches the career of this extraordi- 
nary man. 

Among European officers of our War 
of Independence Frederick William 
Henry Ferdinand von Steuben is un- 
doubtedly the foremost in military 
knowledge. He rendered services to 
our nation which for actual value leave 
those of others far behind, although 

Unveiled Dec. 7, 1910 


some may be better known to our peo- 
ple through the glamour of romance 
and deeds of a more spectacular dis- 

He was born on November 15, 1730, 
at Magdeburg, the son of the Prussian 
Captain von Steuben, a descendant of 
an old and noble family, which for 
generations had produced famous sol- 
diers. He entered the Prussian Army 
at the early age of 14, was wounded at 
the Battle of Prag, serving in the 
Volunteer Battalion of von Mayr. and 

fought throughout the Seven -Years' 
War. At Kunersdorf he was again 
wounded and taken prisoner. He be- 
came adjutant to General von Hiilsen. 
Fighting at one time against the 
French, at another against the Rus- 
sians and Austrians, and so dis- 
tinguished himself that in 1762 he be- 
came captain of the staff and personal 
adjutant of the King. Later he com- 
manded a cavalry regiment. He re- 
signed his commission in 1763. 

After several years of service as 
court marshal to the Prince of Hohen- 
zollern-Hechingen, while a general in 
the army of the Markgrave of Baden, 
he again met, on a visit to Paris, in 
December, 1777 his friend St. Germain, 
French Minister of War. The latter 
advised him to go to America. Benja- 
min Franklin at that time our ambas- 
sador to France, did likewise, and re- 
joiced when he found that it did not 
require much persuasion. Steuben was 
considered an authority on military 
matters. As a member of the staff of 
Frederick the Great he had actively 
and carefully studied the commissary 
departments. He had seen how to. pro- 
vision and keep armies in an efficient 
state of health, and knew how to 
handle large military bodies. In short, 
he was "A past master of all the 
sciences of war, had acquired his 
knowledge at the most famous high 
school of those times, and what was 
more, he had proved himself worthy 
and distinguished". 

He no doubt felt that among the 
American patriots he would find excel- 
lent raw material, "Free men fighting 
for libertv, willing and capable of en- 
during every hardship that would lead 
them to victorv". The masses of re- 
cruits needed vigorous measures to 
make them valuable. And in Steuben 
lived the enthusiasm of the creator, 
the master, whose heart and soul was 
in his work. We can in truth call him 
the "Father of the American Army". 
Like a father he rejoiced in the pro- 
gress of his men. He started his work 
with a number of picked men, and in 



a fortnight his company knew how to 
bear arms and had a miltary air, knew 
how to march, and to form in columns, 
to deploy and execute manoeuvres 
with excellent precision. 

Well could the Secretary of War at 
the time write that all congratulated 
themselves on the arrival of such a 
man, experienced in military matters. 
His services were the more valuable 
because the want of discipline and in- 
ternal order in our army was generally 
felt and greatly regretted. The general 
state of affairs on the arrival of Steu- 
ben can be gleaned from Steuben's 
notes, which are preserved in the 
archives of the Historical Society of 
New York. 

The army was divided into divisions, 
brigades and regiments, commanded 
hv major-generals, brigadier-generals 
and colonels. Congress had stipulated 
the number of soldiers for a regiment 
and a company ; but the constant flood 
and tide of men having enlisted for 6 
or 9 months, made the condition of a 
regiment or a company problematical. 
The words company, regiment, brigade 
or division meant nothing, as thev cer- 
tainly offered no standard for figuring 
the strength of a corps or of the army. 
The number of men in them was so 
changeable that it was impossible to 
arrange a .manoeuvre. Often a regi- 
ment was stronger than a brigade ; 
Steuben saw a regiment of 30 men and 
a company which consisted of a cor- 
poral. Records were badly kept, re- 
liable reports were impossible, and 
conclusive evidence could not be 
gained where the men were and 
whether the money due them had been 
actually paid. Officers employed two 
and some even four soldiers as body 

Military discipline did not exist. 
Regiments were made up at random, 
some had 3 others 5, 8 and 9 sub-divi- 
sions ; the Canadian regiment even had 

Every colonel used the system he 
personally preferred, one used the 
English, another the French, and a 

third the Prussian regulations. Only 
on the march unanimity of system 
reigned : "They all used the single file 
march of the Indians'.' 

Furloughs and discharges were 
granted without the knowledge of 
higher officers. When the troops were 
in camp, the officers did not stay with 
them, but lived apart, sometimes sev- 
eral miles away, and in winter went to 
their homes. Often but four officers 
remained with a regiment. The officers 
thought that their duties consisted in 
attending guard mount and to head 
their troops in battle. 

Soldiers did not know how to use 
their weapons, had no confidence in 
them, and used their bayonets as spits 
to broil their food, when they had any. 
Uniforms could easily be described 
because the troops were almost naked. 
The few officers who had military 
coats at all, had them of any kind, 
color and cut. Steuben states that at 
a "dress parade" he saw officers in 
sleeping gowns, which had been made 
from old woolen blankets and bed- 

Such a thing as the proper adminis- 
tration of a regiment none knew. The 
consequence was that chaotic disorder 
reigned everywhere and the results ob- 
tained were ludicrously inadequate in 
proportion to the sums expended. 

Just as little as the officers knew the 
numbers of men at their command, as 
little did they know about the weap- 
ons, ammunition and equipment of 
their troops. No one kept records or 
accounts, except the army contractors 
who supplied the different articles. 

A terrible scarcity of money reigned 
all over the country. The British had 
put large quantities of counterfeit pa- 
per money in circulation, which 
brought with it an enormous devalua- 
tion ; 400 to 600 dollars were asked for 
a pair of shoes, and it took a "month's 
pay of a common soldier to buy a 
square meal". 

. We must recall these facts in order 
to estimate at its full value Steuben's 
great sacrifice in remaining at his post. 



One not of the moral calibre of Steu- 
ben would have precipitately fled from 
the service, for neither pecuniary nor 
social advantages were to be gained by 
serving: the colonies. 

The horrors of the camp of Valley 
Forge, where he was first sent, are 
known to every school child. Steuben 
showed himself worthy of the trust 
imposed in him. Washington had ap- 
pointed him Inspector General, and 
soon Steuben showed the stuff he was 
made of, bringing order out. of chaos, 
introducing an excellent system of ac- 
counts and strict military discipline. 
He could not speak English well, but 
in spite of this handicap he succeeded 
in the difficult task for a foreigner, of 
making himself beloved with a 1 1 
classes. He introduced like systematic 
regulations, held daily reviews, per- 
sonally inspected everything and made 
himself familiar with every detail. 
Droll incidents, of course, took place, 
the men made mistakes in manoevring, 
the Baron made bad breaks in English, 
his volleys of French and German 
were in vain, and though he swore in 
three languages that did not help mat- 
ters, but soon Steuben's good common 
sense and generous heart would assert 
itself and he would call his adjutant to 
scold these dunces ("Dummkdpfe" ). in 
reality to explain in plain English what 
he wanted the men to do. It was his 
big and generous heart which soon 
made him a universal favorite, for he 
not only enforced strict discipline, but 
he also' scrupulously looked after the 
welfare of every soldier. He investi- 
gated everything, the reports of phy- 
sicians, the condition of the sick, the 
treatment the men received by their 
officers, the quarters and provisions 
given to his men, and finally he was 
always with them. Up at break of day. 
always active, never tiring, he accom- 
panied his men to their marches and 
participated in their hardships and in 
camp he arranged their amusements. 
His tact and sound judgment were ap- 
parent everywhere, the military tactics, 
of the school of Frederick the Great 

were applied to the conditions of the 
American troops and their surround- 
ings. He was not a blind follower of 
mlitary customs and superannuated 
formulas, as one might have easily 
been led to expect. His instructions 
were fitted to local conditions and, 
therefore, were appreciated ; the of- 
ficers strove zealously to emulate his 
example. Soon raw recruits were 
transformed into active and able parts 
of Washington's war machine. 

Thus Steuben in spirit as well as in 
fact became "the drill master of the 
Continental Army", an unselfish and 
faithful helper. Esteemed by Wash- 
ington, who well knew that Steuben 
was worthy the order of merit and 
faithfulness his former master had be- 
stowed upon him. 

Steuben was not a stickler for forms, 
not a mere "drill sergeant", but a 
broad-minded man, head and shoulders 
above most of those of his time who 
had taken up the "art of war" as a pro- 

He possesed the genius of a great 
military organizer, creating armies out 
of nothing, "stamping them out of the 
ground". Thus in Virginia, in the win- 
ter of 1780 and 1781, after the unfortu- 
nate battle of Camden, S. C, Steuben 
was sent with General Greene "to 
create an army". In spite of great dif- 
ficulties, such as demoralization, ignor- 
ance of military discipline and the per- 
vading tendency to "plunder" he suc- 
ceeded so well, that Arnold's maraud- 
ing invasion was halted and Lafayette 
could score successes. With a strong 
hand, by hard personal application, he 
broke the prejudice of officers who 
thought it beneath them to personally 
teach common soldiers. This born 
aristocrat showed his fellow officers 
how democratic he was at heart, work- 
ing to achieve results, and knowing no 
social barriers to accomplish them. His 
example was contagious, and jealous 
opponents were silenced by the excel- 
lent results of Steuben's methods. 

General Steuben wrote to Sullivan 
that Baron Steuben sets all a truly 



noble example. He is a past master in 
everything, from the big manoeuvre 
down to the smallest detail of the ser- 
vice. Officers and soldiers alike admire 
in him a distinguished man who held a 
prominent place under the great Prus- 
sian monarch, and who now, notwith- 
standing this fact, condescends with a 
grace wholly his own, to drill a small 
body of 10 or 12 men as a "drill mas- 
ter". Under his leadership extraordi- 
nary progress had been made towards 
order and discipline within the whole 
army. The great change which be- 
came everywhere apparent, caused 
Washington to report to Congress that 
he would not be doing his duty if he 
should longer keep silent in regard to 
the high merits of Baron von Steuben. 
His ability and knowledge, the never 
tiring zeal with which he labored since 
he entered his office, constituted an 
important gain for the army. 

The results of Steuben's "drilling" 
were forcibly shown at the Battle of 
Monmouth, when Lee's lines, through 
incompetence or treachery, were break- 
ing in confusion and defeat seemed 
certain, then Steuben, by Washing- 
ton's command, brought the impend- 
ing flight to a standstill and led the re- 
united lines against the fire of the 
enemy. A splendid example of disci- 
pline and mutual confidence between 
leader and troops. Alexander Hamil- 
ton, an eye witness, declared that he 
then for the first time became aware 
of the overwhelming importance of 
military training and discipline. Dis- 
cipline and drill had saved the day for 
the cause of liberty and had proved to 
the American army that it was able to 
cope on an ecpial footing with the 
drilled armies of the enemy. 

That Steuben was a master of mili- 
tary science using his own ideas, is 
clearly shown by the rules and regula- 
tions he issued under extraordinary 
difficulties during the winter campaign 
of 1778 and 1779. He was the inventor 
of the formation of light infantry, a 
lesson to be learned even by his former 
master, Frederick the Great, who 

studied the American war closelv and 
adopted the system in his own army, 
then the model of the world, blindly 
followed by all the armies of Europe. 

Steuben's regulations were used for 
generations after his death, until new- 
inventions and conditions made 
changes necessary. 

In Washington's council of war 
Steuben's word was of great influence 
and often heeded. In the archives of 
the Historical Society of New York 
his carefully drawn plans of campaign 
are still to be found. 

At the siege of Yorktown he was 
the only American general who had 
previously participated at sieges, at 
Prag and Schweidnitz, and so it hap- 
pened that he was in command, his 
troops occupying the most advanced 
trenches, when Cornwallis raised the 
white flag of surrender. Washington 
in the army order of the next day 
specially mentions that to brave Steu- 
ben belonged a great part of the credit 
of victory. 

After peace had been declared and 
the army was disbanded, Washington 
commended, in his own handwriting, 
the extraordinary services which Gen- 
eral Steuben had rendered the Amer- 
ican cause. 

Washington was the moving spirit, 
the soul of the great fight for freedom, 
but to Steuben must be awarded the 
credit of having been the power which 
supplied that master spirit with the 
means. Clear-sighted historians do 
not hesitate to designate Steuben as 
the most valuable man Europe gave 
America in our fight for freedom. 

As has been said. "His system of re- 
views, reports and inspections gave ef- 
ficiency to the soldiers, confidence to 
the commander, and saved the treas- 
ury not less than $600,000". 

Congress considered Steuben's ser- 
vices too valuable to discharge him af- 
ter peace was declared, and it was 
Steuben who worked out the plans for 
the establishment of our small stand- 
ing army and the foundation of our 
military academy. In spite of strong 



opposition his recommendations re- 
ceived the support of Washington, and 
Congress adopted them. The military 
academy he suggested is today none 
other than the nation's famous Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point. Steu- 
ben's plans included professorships of 
history, geography, international law, 
oratory, the fine arts, etc. He held that 
an officer should have a liberal educa- 
tion, and the best moral and physical 
training obtainable. 

When in 1784 the place of Secretary 
of War became vacant, Steuben ap- 
plied for it, believing that he could 
serve his country well. Political 
cliques and intrigues shelved his as- 
pirations, the thread-bare excuse for 
the want of a better one, that he was 
a "foreigner" to whom such an impor- 
tant post should not be entrusted, was 
put forward ; such was the gratitude of 
our republic after a great war, in 
which Steuben had so forcibly proved 
his fidelity and force of character. 

He keenly took this disappointment 
to heart, and in March, 1784 tendered 
his resignation. Congress accepted it 
on August 15th, with the resolutions 
that the thanks of the United States be 
expressed to him for the great zeal and 
the efficiency he had displayed in every 
position entrusted to him, and pre- 
sented him with a gold-handled sword, 
as a sign of high appreciation of his 
character and merits. The States of 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania 
and Virginia made him grants of land. 

In trying to procure reimbursements 
for the large sums he had advanced 
during the war he, however, experi- 
enced endless trouble and annoyances. 
Other men had come to the front and 
supported the claims of generals they 
favored. Finally, at a session, when 
some opponents even argued in favor 
of repudiating the contracts made in 
good faith, Representative Page arose 
and told how Steuben had offered us 
his sword under generous terms, and 
had rendered us such essential services 
that one should blush for Congress, if 
the views of certain members were 
adopted. That it was unworthy of 

Congress to split hairs about the 
meaning of the terms of contracts, and 
that he did not weigh them according 
to the amount of money involved, for 
he considered the services of the dis- 
tinguished veteran more valuable 
than the highest sum, which could pos- 
sibly be awarded him. 

Returning into private life Steuben 
became a public-spirited citizen of the 
highest type. He probably gave the 
first impulse to the founding of the 
"Order of the Cincinnati", and was 
one of the original members of this 
patriotic society. He was elected a 
regent of the University of New York, 
and at all times kept in touch with all 
questions, civil or military. The Ger- 
man Society of New York reveres in 
him one of its founders, and he was its 
president until his death. This society 
had been founded in 1784, to aid Ger- 
man immigrants on similar lines as the 
German Society of Pennsylvania 
founded 20 years before. 

Steuben could enjoy but a short time 
the annual pension of $2500, finally 
granted him in 1790, and the land 
grant of the State of New York. He 
had retired to his farm in the summer 
of 1794; as usual he went to spend the 
hot season under the oak trees that 
shaded his simple hut, occupying his, 
time with agricultural pursuits and 
scientific studies, when he was sudden- 
ly stricken. The brave warrior and 
noble citizen was never fully to re- 
cover. He died shortly after his 64th 
birthday, on November 28th, 1794. 

On Oneida's heights, deep within an 
old forest reservation, we find a mas- 
sive monument of gray stones on 
which the mosses and lichens fondly 
cling. Here rest the mortal remains of 
Steuben, the father of the American 

We honor ourselves in honoring the 
memory of our great dead ! 

The great oaks about his grave will 
fall in the course of time, time wiH also 
crumble this statue into dust, but as 
long as the American Nation exists the 
memory of Steuben will endure!. 


Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania 

By Cyrus H. Williston, B. S., Shamokin, Pa. 

HE trail of fire and blood, 
spread by the Delawares 
and other Indians, 
through the fertile valley 
of the Minisink, was the 
direct outcome of fraud 
perpetrated upon them 
by the whites. 

One of the most notorious of these 
frauds was the famous "Walking 
Purchase", which has been referred to 
before in these sketches. It will be 
necessary to refer again briefly to it. 

The treaty upon which this "pur- 
chase" was based, was the so-called 
treaty of 1686. Such a treaty has 
never been found and perhaps never 

The whites however claimed that by 
virtue of such a treaty, they had set- 
tled upon the lands in eastern Penn- 

The famous "walk" had its origin in 
the fact that the boundaries of this 
land had never been determined, and 
at this time they wished to settle this 
much disputed question. 

There had been councils held at 
Durham in 1734; at Pennsbury in 1735 
and at Philadelphia in 1737, at which 
places treaties had been made. 

By these treaties it was agreed that 
the boundaries should be determined 
by white-men, walking a day and a 
half in a northwestern direction, 
starting from a tree in Wright's-town, 
upon the bank of the Delaware River. 

While the negotiations were in 
progress, the Proprietaries were busy 
making a preliminary survey to see 
how far it would be possible to go in 
a day and a half. 

In this experimental "walk" the best 
course was selected and the trees 
blazed, so that no time would be lost 
in seeking a trail. 

Three men noted for their great en- 
durance were .selected ; Edward Mar- 

shall, James Yates, and Solomon Jen- 

The actual walk can best be de- 
scribed in the words of Thomas Fur- 
niss, who was a spectator. 

"When the walkers started I was a 
little behind, but was informed that 
they proceeded from a chestnut tree, 
near the turning out of the road from 
Durham to John Chapman's, and 
being on horseback overtook them be- 
fore they reached Buckingham, and 
kept company for some distance be- 
yond the Blue Mountains, though not 
quite to the end of the journey". 

"Two Indians attended whom I con- 
sidered, as deputies, appointed by the 
Delawares, to see the walk honestly 

"One of them repeatedly expressed 
his dissatisfaction therewith". 

"The first day of the 'walk' before 
we reached Durham Creek where we 
dined with one Wilson a trader, the 
Indian said the 'walk' was to have 
been made up the river, and complain- 
ing of the unfitness of his shoe-packs 
for traveling, said he expected Thomas 
Penn would have made him a present 
of some shoe." 

"After this some of us that had 
horses, and let the Indians ride by 
turn ; yet in the afternoon of the same 
day, and some hours before sunset, the 
Indians left us, after often calling to 
Marshall and forbid him to run." 

"At parting they appeared dissatis- 
fied and said they would go no farther 
with us, for as they saw that the walk- 
ers would pass all the good land, they 
did not care how far they went." 

"It was said we traveled twelve 
hours the first day, and it being in the 
latter end of September, or the begin- 
ning of October, to complete the time, 
were obliged to walk in the twilight." 

"Timothy Smith, then Sheriff o* 
Buck 5 held his watch frit to that 



utes before we stopped, and the walk- 
ers having a piece of the rising- 
ground to ascend, he called out to 
them, and bid them pull up." 

"Immediately upon hearing that the 
time was out Marshall clasped his 
hands about a saplin to support him- 
self. The Sheriff asked him what was 
the matter, and he said, that if he had 
gone a few poles farther, he must have 

"On our return home we were con- 
scious that the Indians were dissatis- 
fied with the walk, a thing which the 
whole company seemed to be sensible 
of and frequently expressed them- 
selves to that purpose. And indeed the 
unfairness practiced in the walk, both 
in regard to the way where, and the 
manner how, it was performed, and 
the dissatisfaction of the Indians con- 
cerning it, were the main topic of con- 
versation in our neighborhood for 
some considerable time after it was 

"At twelve o'clock the second day 
the 'walk' was ended." 

The "walkers" crossed the Lehigh 
River at Jone's Island, a mile below 
Bethlehem, passed the Blue Moun- 
tains at Smith's Gap in Moore Town- 
ship, Northampton County. 

It had been agreed that a line should 
be drawn to the Delaware at the end of 
the "walk". 

The Indians claimed, and justly, 
that it should be drawn to the nearest 
point, which was nearly opposite Bel- 
videre, New Jersey. 

The Proprietaries claimed that the 
line should be drawn at right angles to 
the line of "walk". The whites had 
their way and the boundary reached 
the Delaware River at Port lervis, N 

The end of these affairs was war. 
which ended in the Delawares being- 
driven westward, and they joined the 
French against the English. This and 
other frauds so embittered the Dela- 
wares. that they were eager to take up 
the hatchet against the English. 

Teedyuscong, puffed up b v the 
Adopted."' 1 ] h , avin S the welfare of his 

nation at heart, made them a willing 

After the fall of Braddock the smoul- 
dering wrath of the Indians burst forth 
in all its fury; so bitterly and desper- 
atelv did they fight for their wigwams 
and hunting grounds that it was im- 
possible for the whites to find any one 
to approach them in the capacity of 

Paxinosa, at the instigation of the 
whites, had tried to stem the tide of 
battle ; but in vain. 

The Delawares told him that if he 
tried a^ain to interfere they would 
"knock him on the head", a threat 
which he knew they meant, because he 
sent word to the whites that he could 
do nothing- more to help end the 

The Indians favored the French, 
more than they did the English, prin- 
cipallv, because the French wished 
onl - to trade with them, and to Chris- 
tianize them, while on the other hand, 
the English settlers, built towns ; 
turned the hunting grounds into farms, 
and crowded out the Native hunters. 

Hostilities broke out first in the 
neighborhood of Fort Cumberland, 
where the Delawares and Shawanese 
ravaged both sides of the Potomac. 

At this time several persons were 
murdered and scalped at Mahanoy or 
Perm's Creek. Then the enemy crossed 
the Susquehanna and killed many peo- 
ple from Thomas McKee's down to 
Hunter's Mill. After this, about the 
first week in November Great Cove 
was reduced to ashes and numbers 
murdered or taken prisoners. 

Ravages followed in Northampton 
County, laying waste the country to 
within twenty miles of Easton. 

To meet barbarity with barbarity 
the Lieutenant-Governor obtained an 
offer from Commissioners Fox, Hamil- 
ton, Morgan to offer a reward for the 
scalps of male Indians over ten years 
of age, $130.00, for the scalp of every 
Indian woman $50.00, while for every 
male prisoner $150.00; for every female 
prisoner $130.00. 



Matters had now reached such a 
stage that the whites were willing to 
hold a parley with the red-men, but 
they could find no one willing to act as 

Some one must be found willing to 
risk life itself, that negotiations might 
be begun. 

It is at this point that the name of 
Newcastle appears in history. 

In the memorials of the Moravian 
Church we read of "Kanuksusy a na- 
tive of the Six Nations acting in the 
capacity of messenger to the dissatis- 
fied Indians in the war of 1756. 

"When a child he had been pre- 
sented to William Perm, by his par- 
ents at Newcastle." 

This young Indian boy had been 
educated by Penn, as if he had been his 
own child, and as the sequel will show 
he amply justified the hopes of his 
adopted parents. 

August 1755, Governor Morris pub- 
liclv conferred upon him the name of 
Newcastle addressing him as follows : 
"In token of our affection for your par- 
ents, and in the expectation of your 
being a useful man in these perilous 
times, I do, in the most solemn man- 
ner, adopt you by the name of "New- 
castle", and order you to be hereafter 
called that name". 

In April 14th 1756, Newcastle ac- 
companied by Jagrea, a Mohawk ; Wil- 
liam Laquis, a Delaware, and Augus- 
tus, alias George Rex, a Moravian In- 
dian, undertook an embassy to Wyo- 
ming, bearing these words to the In- 
dians there ; "If you will lay down your 
arms, and come to terms ; we, the Eng- 
lish, will not farther prosecute the 

In June, 1756 Newcastle in company 
with John Pompshire, Thomas Stores, 
and Joseph Michty, was sent by the 
Governor, with an invitation to the 
Delawares, Shawnese, Monseys and 
Mohicans, to meet him in a conference. 

Newcastle and his friends arrived at 
Bethlehem June 12th, where they were 
detained by the news that certain In- 
dians had left New Jersey on a raid. 

This dangerous mission to Diahoga 
(Tioga) was successful, and brought 
about a meeting between the Governor 
and Teedyuscong at Easton, following 

After his return from Diahoga 
(Tioga), Newcastle spoke to the Gov- 
ernor July 18th, 1756, as follows: 
"Brothers, the Governor and Council. 
As I have been entrusted by you, with 
matters of the very highest concern I 
now declare to you, that I have used all 
my abilities in management of them, 
and that, with the greatest cheerful- 
ness. I tell you, in general, matters 
look well. I shall not go into particu- 
lars. Teedyuscong will do this at a 
public meeting, which he hopes will be 

The times are dangerous : numbers 
of enemies are in your borders the 
swords are drawn and glitter all 
around you. 

I beseech you, therefore, not to de- 
lay in this important affair; say where 
the council is to be kindled ; come to a 
conclusion at once ; let us not waste a 
moment, lest what has been done, 
prove ineffectual". 

"Brothers the times are very pre- 
carious, not a moment is to be lost 
without the utmost danger to the good 
cause we are engaged in". 

The Delaware King (Teedyuscong) 
wants to hear from your own mouths 
the assurance of peace and good-will, 
given him, by me in your name; he 
comes well disposed to make you the 
same declarations. The Forks (Eas- 
ton) is supposed to be the place of 
meeting; what need of any alteration? 
Let us tarry not. but hasten to him." 

In reply the Governor thanked him 
for his advice, and assured him that 
they would hasten with all possible 
speed to the Forks, at the same time 
expressing to Newcastle the obliga- 
tions which they felt toward him, on 
account of the delicate mission, which 
had just successfully ended. 

From time to time, in the evolution 
of the human race, great men appear, 
do their work, then depart to that 



"bourne" from which no traveler re- 

The life of Newcastle was such a 
life. When his work as intermediary 
between the blood-thirstyTeedyuscong 
and his white foes, was finished, he 
contracted the small-pox. 

During the council of November 
17th, 1756, the news came that New- 
castle was dead. The man, who by 
his bravery and tact, had stopped the 
ravages of the death-dealing- savages, 
had himself fallen a victim to death. 

The news was received by the coun- 
c i 1 with consternation. Governor 
Denny arose and addressed the mem- 
bers as follows, "Since I set out I 
have heard of the death of several of 
our Indian friends by smallpox, and in 
particular of the death of Captain 
Newcastle. He was very instrumental 
in carrying forward this work for 
peace. an 

"I wipe away your tears; I take the 
grief from your hearts ; I cover the 
graves, eternal rest be with their 

After the condolence made on Cap- 
tain Newcastle's death, Teedyuscong 
made an address, as is usual, to the 
other Indians, on this mounful occa- 
sion ; they continued silent for some 
time, then one of the oldest arose and 
made a funeral oration, after which, 
Teedyuscong expressed to the Gover- 
nor the great satisfaction it gave him, 
at his condoling the death of Captain 
Newcastle, who he said was a good 
man, and had promoted the work of 
peace with great care. His death had 
put him in mind of his own duty, as it 
should all of us. 

The illness of Captain Newcastle 
was of three weeks' duration, he hav- 
ing been taken sick about October 29th 
d died about November 17th, 1756. 

Public Inns and Modern Hotels 

The Gazette, York, Pa., of December 6, 
contained an interesting article by George 
R. Prowell under the above heading from 
which we quote the following: 


The Green Tree, later known as States 
Union, was one of the famous hostelries of 
York during the early days of wagoning to 
the west and south. It stood upon the site 
of the City hotel on West Market street, be- 
tween Newberry and Penn streets. This 
hotel was opened in 1820. The best known 
proprietor was Charles Strine, who con- 
ducted it for many years. On one side of 
the sign, which hung on a post in front of 
the tavern, was the painting of a green tree. 
On the other side was a team of six horses, 
drawing a large Conestoga wagon. Few 
places were better known to wagoners dur- 
ing the first half of the last century than 
this tavern. Farmers from a distance, who 
took their grain and produce to Philadelphia 
and Baltimore, brought with them, on their 
return, goods and merchandise which were 
unloaded and stored in a warehouse adjoin- 
ing this tavern, under the supervision of 
Charles Strine. 

In the yard to the rear of the building, and 
on the street in front, large numbers of 

covered wagons could be seen at the close 
of each day. Some farmers and regular 
teamsters in those days wagoned as a busi- 
ness from Philadelphia to Baltimore to 
Pittsburg, Wheeling and other points along 
the navigable Ohio river. Each wagoner 
had with him his "bunk" on which he slept. 
In winter this was spread out on the floors 
of the hotel, which was then full of lodgers. 
In the summer they slept in their wagons in 
the open air, in the barn or in the house. 
Their horses were tied to the rear or sides 
of the wagon during the night, and ate out 
of the feed box, a necessary appendage to 
every wagon. The teamster had with him 
feed for his horses. All he had to buy was 
what he ate. An economical teamster would 
go from York to Baltimore with a team of 
four horses and return after having spent 
only fifteen shillings or about $2 in Penn- 
sylvania money. He stopped by the way- 
side to ask the time of day, if he wished to 
know it, and used a hickory stick for a 
cane, as he trod beside his faithful horses. 
The scenes and incidents here described 
occurred before the time of railroads, for it 
was then that the Green Tree Inn, under 
Charles Strine, was known far and wide. 
The goods stored in his warehouse were 
loaded on other wagons and conveyed west- 
ward to waitng merchants. 


A Petition by the Moravians During the American 


The following "Petition and Representa- 
tion" was copied from a manuscript found 
in a Schwenkfelder home, in all probability- 
made over a hundred years ago. The fact 
that it was thus preserved shows interest 
in the subject and illustrates the community 
of interest that existed between the 
Schwenkfelders and the' Moravians during 
the Revolutionary War. The following note 
by Mr. A. R. Beck, historian, of Lititz, Pa., 
throws' light on the petition: 

This is a petition presented in 1778 
by Bishop Ettwein to congress in ses- 
sion at York, and to the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, at Lancaster asking to 
have the Moravians excepted from the 
requirements of the Test Act of 1777. 
Perhaps you would like to add the fol- 
lowing extract from the Diary of the 
Lititz Moravian Church? 'December 4th, 
1778; With joy and thankfulness we 
learn from the Philadelphia newspa- 
pers that the severity of the formed 
Test Act has been mitigated, and that 
our memorial has been granted by the 
Assembly; namely, that we need not 
take the Oath, nor pay the penalty of 
non-conforming — but we are denied the 
right of suffrage and cannot hold office 
or serve on a jury — all of which privi- 
leges w e never troubled ourselves 
about.' " 




HAT the United Brethren 
settled in Pennsylvania 
with no other view but to 
propagate the Gospel 
among the Heathen, to 
enjoy full Liberty of 
Conscience, and to lead 
under the mild Laws of 
this Land a qiliet and peaceable Life 
in all Godliness and Honesty. 

When about thirty years ago the 
Brethren Church received several invi- 
tations to settle in some other parts of 

the English domains, narticularly in 
North Carolina, they found it neces- 
sary, to apply by their Deputies to the 
King and Parliament of Great Britain 
to grant unto the Brethren's Church 
the same Privileges in the other Parts 
of the Realm as they enjoyed in Penn- 
sylvania viz., that their Affirmation 
might be taken instead of an Oath, and" 
that they might be free from all per- 
sonal Service in War. After a full and 
strict Enquiry about the Origin, Doc- 
trine and Praxin or Discipline of said 
Church, an Act of Parliament passed 
in the Year 1749, to encourage the 
United Brethren to settle more in 
America, in which both of the said 
Priviledges were under certain Regu- 
lations granted and secured unto them.' 

Encouraged by the Charter of this 
Province & bv said Act of Parliament 
most of the United Brethren now on 
this Continent came from Germany to- 
enjoy these Favours with their Chil- 
dren and Childrens Children consider- 
ing them as a Precious Perl and Inher- 
itance of greater Worth than any other 
Thing or Things they had. 

many of them have suffered Persecu- 
tion in other countries, many have left 
their Houses and Homes, their dear- 
est Relations and many other Bless- 
ings on Account of it ; here they lived 
very quiet and happy in their several 
Settlements under the English Govern- 
ment until the breaking out of trie- 
present unhappy War. 

As they could and would not act 
against their peaceable Principles and 
would not join the Associators in 
learning the Use of Arms, their Peace 
has been quite disturbed, and they 
have been treated very unfriendly, 
being excluded from the Rights of 
Freemen, disqualified for Elections, 
denied Justice against Thieves and' 
Robbers, for no other Reason but for 
insisting, not to give up their Privi- 



ledges or the Exercise of their Liberty 
of Conscience. They were fined and 
fined again, for not exercising- in the 
Use of Arms. They have been en- 
rolled, drafted with the several Classes, 
and in Northampton County exorbi- 
tant Fines exacted from them, and no 
Disability of Estate accepted; The 
Justice of the Peace signed Warrants 
to commit their Bodies to the common 
Gaol if they did not pay the Fines ; 
Tl;eir Houses, Workshops and other 
Property was invaded, and they to 
•their great Loss and Damage turned 
out of their Trades. 

All this and more they bore with Pa- 
tience as a Part of publick Calamity, 
for the sake of Peace, and not to give 
Offense or to make more trouble to the 

_ But as lately a Number of their So- 
ciety have been carried to Prison with- 
out Law and for no other Reason but 
their Unwillingness to take the Test. 
And as bv an Act of Assembly all of 
the Brethren, who conscientiously 
scruple to take the prescribed Oath, 
find themselves subjected to the same 
treatment, and to be dealt with as 
Enemies of the Country; We thought 
it our Duty to break Silence and to 
make a true Representation of our 
Case Praying for Patience and For- 
bearance with us ; as we are not free in 
our Heart and Mind to abjure the 
King, his Heirs & Successors for sev- 
eral weighty Reasons, but particularly 
on Account of our Union and Con- 
nexion with the Brethren's Church and 
her Calling to propagate the Gospel 
among the Heathen; a great many 
of the Brethren don't know how soon 
one or the other may be called into the 
Service of a Mission under the English 
Government, for our Settlements have 
-originally that Destination to be Nur- 
series of Missionaries. 

We have the highest Awe and Ven- 
eration for an Oath or Affirmation be 
Yea what is Yea, and No what is No." 

If our Mouths should say Yea and 
the Heart Nay, we should be Hypo- 
crites and give false Witness. 

And tho' every one of us shall give 
Account of himself to God, and we are 
not to judge one another yet to him 
that esteemeth any Thing to be un- 
clean, to him it is unclean, and Char- 
ity obliges us, not to offend one of our 
Brethren for whom Christ died. 

Now as the greater Part of the 
United Brethren cannot and will not 
take the prescribed Oath, why should 
You denv unto .them Constitutional 
Liberty of Conscience? why should 
the}' be punished for it with Imprison- 
ment, Fines, and Confiscation of" other 
Estates? before you find them guilty 
of treasonable Practices against this or 
the other States : which by the Mercy 
of God will never be the case; for they 
hold themselves in Conscience bound 
to seek the Good of the Land where 
they sojourn, and are willing to do it 
in every honest Way. And none will 
scruple solemnly to promise : "That he 
will not do any Thing injurious to this 
State or the United States of America, 
and that he will not give any Intelli- 
gence, Aid or Assistance to the British 
Officers or Forces as War with this 
and the other States." 

If one singly or several jointly act or 
do anything against this declaration, 
let him be tried and punished as others 
who have taken the Test. 

We will by the Grace of God seek 
the W r ellfare of this Country as long as 
we live in it. 

But it is our humble Request, That 
you may protect our Persons and 
"Property against all Violence and Op- 
pression ; to let us have the Benefit, of 
the Law; to grant us also Relief in Re- 
gard to the Execution of the Militia 
Law, and not to force any of us to act 
against our Conscience and Moral Ob- 

Let us continue quiet and peaceable 
in the Places where Providence has 
placed us, which are dedicated to God 
for the Advancement of Religion and 
Virtue, and which have been such ap- 
proved Testimonies of the Brethrens 
being industrious useful members of 
Society; permit us to serve the Public 



in our useful Callings unmolested. 

If you have your Reasons to exclude 
us from the Rights of Freemen of this 
State, grant us to enjoy a Tolerance as 
peaceable Strangers. 

We have no Arms and will bear 
none against this State or the other 
states ; We desire no Posts of Profit or 
Honour ; we never refused to pay 
Taxes laid upon us. 

If we have no Right, we pray for in- 
dulgence and Mercy. Blessed are the 
Merciful, for they shall receive Mercy. 

But if we are not heard, and any one 
of the United Brethren, by the Opera- 
tion of Your Laws, suffers Imprison- 
ment or the Loss of his Property, we 

declare before God and Men : That we 
do not suffer as headstrong willful or 
disobedient Persons and Evildoers, but 
for Conscience Sake, and must leave 
our Cause to the righteous Judge over 

We the Subscribers, Bishops 
and Elders of the United Brethren 
settled in Pennsylvania beg Leave 
to recommend this Petition and 
Humble Representation unto a. 
kind and serious Consideration, 
and to grant to us and our People 
such Relief as the House finds, 
meet and consistent with Justice 
and Mercy, and your Petitioners- 
will ever pray. 

French Soldiers in Revolutionary War 

The article entitled "French Soldiers 
in Revolutionary W r ar", by "Histori- 
cus", in the December issue of your 
valuable magazine, calls for a correc- 
tion on my part as well as further dis- 
cussion to prevent your readers from 
getting a wrong impression or con- 
ception of the number of French sol- 
diers and sailors who took part in the 
American struggle for freedom from 
the English yoke. 

My inquiry concerning this list was 
based on a newspaper article published 
at about the time of the unveiling of 
the statue of Washington in France in 
the summer of this year (1910). It 
was stated in this article that a copy 
of the list was placed in the plinth of 
the pedestal of this statue. 

When I asked you concerning this 
list I said: "List of 46,000 names of 
French soldiers who came to America 
with Lafayette." I did not intend to 
convey the idea that all of these came 
to America at the same time or in 
company with Lafayette, but meant 
the entire number of French subjects 
who participated in the Revolution. 

If "Historicus" will procure from the 
Superintendent of Documents, "Senate 
Document No. yf, 58th Congress, he 

will revise or change his opinion "that 
it is extremely improbable that such a 
list is in existence". Furthermore, if 
he considers the findings and endorse- 
ment of this list by "such a representa- 
tive and authoritative body as The 
National Society Sons of the American 
Revolution sufficient, he will not con- 
sider this list, which has been re- 
printed by the United States Govern- 
ment, "as fictititous and unreal as the 
feast of the Barmecide", and "so singu- 
lar a piece of misinformation". 

This Society caused to be submitted 
to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs the 
text of the following resolution which 
had been passed at one of its meetings: 

"Whereas in consequence of resolution 
adopted by the National Society Sons of the 
American Revolution at its annual congress 
in New York City on May 1, 1900, on the 
proposition made by the Illinois State- 
society on the initiative of Judge Paul 
Wentworth Linebarger and M. Henri Merou,. 
a report has been made to the general 
board of managers and the executive com- 
mittee of the National Society, which shows 
that an exceedingly advantageous and ef- 
fective work has been accomplished in 
Fiance in ascertaining the names and ser- 
vices of the many thousands of French 
sailors and soldiers who assisted the colo- 
nists in the war of the American Revolution. 
Therefore, be it 



" liesolved, That the national executive 
committee of the Society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution hereby tenders its ap- 
preciative congratulations and warm thanks 
for their untiring efforts in the direction 
stated, to 

STRUCTION of the French Republic; 

'To His Excellency Jules Cambon, ambas- 
sador of the French Republic at Washing- 

'To His Excellency- Gen. Horace Porter, 
ambassador of the United States in Paris; 

'To M. Leon Bourgeois, deputy, former 
premier minister of the French Republic; 

'To the Franco-American Commission, 
Hon. Henri Merou, president, honorary 
member of the Illinois Society Sons of the 
American Revolution, upon whose initiative 
the work was undertaken; 

'Hon. Edward MacLean, United States 
vice-consul in Paris; Col. Chaille-Loug, and 
Major Huntingdon, appointed, on the propo- 
sition of His Excellency General Porter, by 
His Excellency M. Delcasse, minister for 
Foreign affairs of the French Republic; 

'To M. Blade, consul- general of France, 
sous-directeur at the Ministry for Foreign 
affairs at Paris ; 

'To M. F. Clement-Simon, attache at the 
Ministry for Foreign affairs at Paris; 

'To Judge Paul Wentworth Linebarger, 
member of the Illinois Society Sons of the 
American Revolution; 

'To Capt. Samuel Eberly Gross, secretary- 
general of the National Society of the Sons 
of the American Revolution ; 

'To the members of the committee of pub- 
lication, M. Lacour-Gayet, professor of 
history at the Superior School of the Navy 
of Paris, and M. Henri Breal, advocate of the 
court of appeals of Paris, and to all others 
who have co-operated in forwarding the ex- 
cellent work accomplished.' " 

The alphabetical index of names ap- 
pended to this list comprises pp. 361- 
453 of the document, each page aver- 
aging over 500 names, therefore "this 
myth of 40,000 Frenchmen coming to 
this country" becomes a significant 
fact, although, as previously stated, 
they did not all come at the same time 
Lafavette did. 

Even this authentic list of approxi- 
mately 46,000 names is incomplete. In 
the Introduction to this document it is 
stated : 

" * , before placing the work of the com- 
mission under the eyes of readers, it is not 
without utility to remark how incomplete is 
the list. In the first place, all the docu- 

ments which should figure here were not 
found; our lists, those of the fleets, contain 
nearly all the sailors who had effectually 
taken part in that campaign, but those of 
the infantry comprise only about one-half 
of those who actually fought in the United 
States ; the documents about the troops 
garrisoned on each ship notably have not 
been established in an absolute manner and 
are not included in this work, and each ship 
of d'Estaing's fleet, as that of de Grasse, had 
on board 100 to 150 infantry men; also the 
documents concerning the legion Lauzun, 
companies of artillery and engineers, and 
the company of the regiment Grenoble, have 
not been found. 

These researches deal only with the direct 
and official participation of France in the 
American war. On the one side the rolls of 
the French ministerial departments from 
which the lists have been taken exclusively, 
and which will be found in ths volume, give 
no indication of volunteer inscriptions, 
nevertheless numerous, which preceded 
governmental interference; on the other 
hand, it is not only the French fleets which 
have figured in American waters, nor only 
the French armies which fought on Ameri- 
can soil, which have contributed to the en- 
franchisement of America, but all the 
French fleets and armies which struggled 
against England at the same time. The 
exploits of Suffren, for example, in the 
Indian Ocean, contributed, perhaps, as much 
as those of which the Cheasapeake was the 
theater, to achieve the final result. Also, at 
the same time that d'Estaing had set sail 
for America the French fleet sustained on 
the coast of Europe against English fleets 
splendid combats, of which the duel of the 
Belle Ponle and the Aretlmsc and the com- 
bat at Ouessant remain famous episodes, 
and which, in weakening Great Britain, gave 
great aid to the colonies in their efforts for 

In our desire to include in this publica- 
tion only troops which have fought either in 
the waters or on the soil of America, we 
have excluded the fleet of Count de Guichen, 
who fought in the Antilles and was there in 
constant contact with the fleets whose oper- 
ations were being carried on on the other 
side of the Atlantic. The names of all the 
French soldiers and sailors engaged in that 
war would have been given here if we had 
not been obliged to circumscribe the 

And it is to France we are indebted 
for the preservation of documents con- 
taining these names, for it is further 
stated in the Introduction : "A search 
made at the War Department at 
Washington disclosed the fact that 
that Department did not possess any 



document containing any special or in- 
dividual indication concerning the 
French sailors or soldiers who had 
taken part in the war." 

It is also to France that thanks are 
due for our realization of emancipation 
from England's misrule, even though, 
in our present-day strength and "hol- 
ier-than-thou" attitudes, we sometimes 
forget that this was made possible only 
by the help and loyalty of that nation 
and her more than 50,000 liberty-lov- 
ing subjects. 

The raison d'etre for the compilation 
of this list, as well as a concise his- 
torical sketch of France's alliance and 
participation in the war for American 
independence could, I believe, be best 
accomplished and presented to the 
readers of The Pennsylvania-German 
by the reprint, in its entirety, of the 
Introduction to this List ("Les Com- 
battants Francais de la Guerra Ameri- 
caine, 1778-1783"). "Lest we forget", 
I would suggest that, sometime when 

you are "short" on "copy", give us an 
installment of it. I firmly believe that 
a reading of this Introduction would 
bring about in the mind of the reader 
a truer conception and fuller realiza- 
tion of the great debt we owe to 
France in the great stride America 
made toward Liberty, Equality and 
Fraternity when England was con- 
quered, and that it would again revive 
the latent "spirit of '76" in many 
prone to neglect things historical, 
genealogical, etc. in the strife for more 
material matters. 

To "Historicus" I would say that 
this is not written in a controversial 
spirit. I give him due credit for "call- 
ing" me and the Magazine in the in- 
terests of Truth. Men are brought 
together, it is said, first to differ, and 
then to agree. Affirmation, negation, 
discussion, solution ; these are the 
means of gaining or attaining Truth. 
Yours respectfully, 

Wagner's Dogs 

Wagner, the great musical composer, had 
several dog friends. At one time, in Vien- 
na, he had a dog named Pol, and, at anoth- 
er time, one called Leo, whom he had saved 
from starvation. But his greatest dog friend 
was "Peps" who was his companion for 
thirteen years. 

Wagner used to say that Peps helped him 
to compose his famous opera, "Tann- 

He said that while he was at the piano 
singing, Peps, whose place was generally 
at his master's feet, would sometimes spring 
on the table and howl piteously, and then 
the musician would say to him, "What, it 
does not suit you?" and then, shaking the 
dog's paw, he would say, quoting Puck, 
"Well, I will do thy bidding gently". 

If Wagner stayed too long at his work, 
Peps would remind him that it was time for 
a walk. He writes in one of his letters, "I 
am done up, and must get into the open air. 
Peps won't leave me in peace any longer." 

At the time when almost all the musical 
world had turned against him, he would 
sometimes, in his walks with the dog, de- 
claim aloud against his foes. Then the dog 

would rush backwards and forwards, bark- 
ing and snapping as if helping his master to 
defeat his enemies. 

When Wagner returned home from an ex- 
cursion to some other city, Peps would al- 
ways receive a present as well as the other 
members of the family. 

"Peps received me joyfully," he writes to 
a friend, after one of these excursions. 
"But then I have bought him a beautiful 
collar, with his name engraved on it." 

When the time can for the little life to be 
ended, Wagner scarcely left the dying dog's 
side. He even put off two days an impor- 
tant journey, because of Peps' illness and 

He writes afterwards to his friend, Prae- 

"He died in my arms on the night of the 
ninth, passing away without a sound, quiet- 
ly and peacefully. On the morrow we buried 
him in the garden beside the house. I cried 
much, and since then I have felt bitter pain 
and sorrow for the dear friend of the past 
thirteen years, who even worked and walked 
with me — and yet there are those who 
would scoff at our feeling in such a matter." 
— Our Dumb Animals. 


Early Berks County Tombstone Inscriptions 

By Louis Richards, Esq., Reading, Pa. 
Pres. Berks County Historical Society 

Berks County, Pa., settled over two cen- 
turies ago, is one of the oldest counties of 
the state, standing seventh in order of date 
of erection, (1752) and remaining unchanged 
in territory since 1811 when Schuylkill was 
formed out of Berks and Northampton 
counties. Its pioneer families and their 
posterity have played a not unimportant 
part in our country's history, the details of 
which are gradually being brought to light. 
In this study the marriage, the birth and 
death records are of great value, not the 
least of which are the tombstone inscrip- 
tions, supplying data in many cases not 
otherwise obtainable. 

Mr. Richards, beginning the work some 
thirty years ago, rendered an invaluable 
service to the cause of history by transcrib- 
ing, preserving and preparing for the press, 
transcripts of the oldest tombstone inscrip- 
tions of practically all the burying grounds 
of the county. Whilst the list as here pre- 
sented is not exhaustive, but only partial 
without definite circumscribing limits, it 
serves as a unique index to the names of the 
pioneer families of the whole county, by 
preserving many inscriptions that if not 
now will soon be illegible, and becomes for 
the genealogical student a rich mine of 
family history. 

If any of our readers are in position to give 
definite information respecting the bury- 
ing grounds noted in this transcript of in- 
scriptions they will confer a great favor by 
letting us know in what condition these 
grounds are at this time and whether there 
is extant a transcript of all the inscriptions, 
and if so where obtainable. We will also 
be glad to be informed of the location of 
all other burial grounds in the county not 
included in this list. 

We can not forbear quoting here what Mr. 
Richards said in the January 1909 issue of 
"The Pennsylvania- German".. "I have fre- 
quently suggested to our country clergy 
that they would be rendering an important 
service to their people by inducing a few 
young men of their congregations to under- 
take the work of copying the more ancient 
tombstone inscriptions in the church burial 
grounds for the purpose of having them 
transcribed into the church records. Though 
the suggestion was invariably approved, I 
have yet to hear of a single instance in 
which it has been carried into effect." If 
any such transcripts have been made we 
would like to be so informed. — Editor. 


Old Burying Ground near Wessnersville 

Kliek, Johannes, b. 29 Oct 1715; d. 23 
March 1781. Magdalena, wife of, b. 23 April 
1724; d. 23 April 1790. 

Zimmerman, Henry, b. 22 Horning 1722; d. 
14 Dec. 1789. 

Wessner, Johannes, b. 8 May 1723; d. 23 
Aug. 1794. 

Beinhard, Johan, b. 9 April 1719; d. 7 Dec. 
1799; 80 y. 9 m. Magdalena, wife of, b. 13 
May 1723; d. 21 Feb. 1802; 78 y. 9 m. 25 d. 

Ley, Matthias, b. 22 Feb. 1?06; d. 26 Aug. 

1785. Ley, Maria, b. 27 Feb. 1711; d. 14 Dec. 

1786. Leyrin, Susanna Berndheis, d. 25 June 
1774; 10 y. 11 m. 6 d. 

Wasener, Thomas, d. 27 May 1805; 63 y. 
3 m. 2 d. 

Gliiek, Henry, b. 1755; d. 1804. 

Brancher, Christian, b. 1 July 1744; d. 10 
Feb. 1822; 78 y. 7 m. 7 d. 

Kistler, William, b. 30 April 1757; d. 26 
Dec. 1821. Christena, wife of, born Shol- 
lenberger, b. 4 April 1773; d. 16 Dec. 1838. 

Church between Wessnersville and Fetter- 

Steirwald, Andreas, b. in Fleishbach, 
Hanau, 20 Feb. 1766; d. 4 Feb. 1822. 

Fedterolf, Jacob, b. 16 Feb. 1742; d. 6 April 
1823; 81 y. 1 m. 21 d. Catharine, wife of, b. 
12 May, 1760; d. 10 Jan. 1849; 88 y. 7 m. 
28 d. 

Opp, Conrad, b. 2 Feb. 1770; d. 1 Jan. 
1843; 72 y. 10 m. 30 d. 

Brobst, Matthias, b. Mar. 1736; d. Dec. 
1792; 56 y. 8 m. 

Church above Union Iron Works 

Reickelderft'er, Heinrich, b. 26 Oct. 1716; 
d. 10 June 1800; 83 y. 4 m. 2d. 

Beichelderffer, Catharine, b. 1727; d. 1793. 

Reichelderft'er, Michael, b. 13 Hornung 
1749; d. 28 Hornung 1822; 73 y. 13 d. 

Correll, John, b. 1 Nov. 1788; d. 27 March 
1867; 88 y. 3 m. 26 d. 

Petri, Jacob, son of Valentin, b. 28 March 
1754; d. 1 May 1826; 72 y. 1 m. 3 d. 

Kunst, Anna Margaretta, b. 1723; d. 1790. 

Schmidt, Johan Heinrich, b. 1774; d. 1777. 
Anna Maria, b. 1719; d. 1767. Catharine, b. 
1728; d. 1748. 

Bally, David, b. Aug. 1761; d. 11 Aug. 
1828; 67 y. 

Shoemaker, Henry, b. 5 Nov. 1771; d. 5 
March 1822. 

Kreitz, John Adam, b. 13 Sept. 1737; d. 2 
March 1816; 79 y. 7 m. 27 d. 



Schmidt, Jacob; b. 11 Jan. 1741; d. 17 Aug. 

Lenhart, Jacob, b. 1792; d. 1825. 

Schmidt, Michael, b. 29 March 1771; d. 13 
July 1825. 

Correll, Paul, b. in Nov. 1745; d. 19 July 
1825; 80 y. 8 m. 

Bentiel, Samuel, b. 12 Jan. 1742; d. 7 Dec. 
1831; 89 y. 10 m. 25 d. 

Reiuhart, Audreas, b. 18 March 1756 ; d. 10 
May 1837; 81 y. 1 m. 23 d. 

Schmidt, John, b. 27 Feb. 1767; d. 15 Nov. 
1839; 72 y. 8 m. 17 d. 

Reagan, Amelia, wife of George W; b. Jan. 
29, 1840; d. July 11, 1863; 23 y. 5 m. 12 d. 

Kelly, Sarah, d. Nov. 26, 1838; 77 y. 

Reagan, Mary, wife of George W., b. 23 
May 1793; d. 4 Dec. 1864. 

Faust, Rebecca, wife of Isaac, b. 10 Feb. 
1827; d. 17 Sept. 1882; 55 y. 7 m. 7 d. 

Levan, Benjamin, b. Feb. 27, 1813; d. Nov. 
17, 1878; 65 y. 8 m. 21 d. 

Shalters' Church Ground 
Sliilt, Christian, b. 27 Oct. 1779; m. 1803 
Elizabeth Schmehl, d. 2 June 1861; 81 y. 7 
m. 6 d. 

Beittelmau, Dietrich, b. June 1709; d. 16 
Feb. 1793; 83 y. 8 m. 

Speiss' Church 

Hassler, John, d. Jan. 10, 1S26; 41 y. 12 d. 
Susanna Hassler, wife of, b. Oct. 11, 1787; 
d. June 30, 1858; 70 y. 8 m. 19 d. 

Schlinglof, George, b. 29 March 1749; d. 
29 June 1815; 66 y. 3 m. 

Genser, John, b. 27 Dec. 1755; d. 6 March 
1841; 83 y. 2 m. 9 d. 

Kemerer, Ludwig, b. 16 April 1765; d. 16 
March 1824. 

Snyder, Jacob, b. 12 Oct. 1717; d. 17 April 

Babb, George, b. 29 March, 1741; d. 6 April 

Babb, Sophia, b. 9 June 1735; d. 6 Nov. 

Mill, Jolian Jacob, b. 21 May 1750; d. 9 
Feb. 1809; 58 y. 8 m. 19 d. 

Bar, Paul, b. 6 May 1747; d. 4 Dec. 1822; 
75 y. 6 m. 22 d. 

Knabb, Johannes, b. 26 Jan. 1779; d. 29 
Sept 1844; 65 y. 8 m. 3 d. 

Becker, Magdalena, b. 15 Dec. 1750; d. 12 
Nov. 1823; 72 y. 8 m. 27 d. 

Mary, wife of John Dehart, b. 24 Apl. 1778; 
d. 2 Dec. 1859; 81 y. 7 m. 9 d. 

Feger, Theobold, b. 25 Oct. 1769; d. 17 
July 1790. 

Feger, Paul, b. 22 Jan. 1737; d. 6 July 

Maier, Matheus, b. 31 May 1778; d. 23 
April 1867; 88 y. 11 m. 22 d. 

Leinbaeh, Daniel, Sr., b. 19 Jan. 1746; d. 
8 April 1817; 71 y. 2 m. 2w. 5 d. 

Leinbaeh, 3Iaria Magdalena, wife of; b. 
29 Dec. 1769; d. 3 Dec. 1837; 67 y. 11 m. 5 d. 

Hoch, Joseph, b. 24 Sept. 1770; d.6 Sept. 
1835; 64 y. 11 m. 13 d. 

Christian, John, b. 1 Jan. 1730; d. 3 Aug. 

St. Paul's Church Ground ,.\inityville 

Ludwig, Michael, d. 15 March 1806; 61 y. 
1 m. 10 d. Susanna, wife of, d. 5 July 1818; 
67 y. 11 m. 12 d. 

Ludwig, Michael, d. 5 July 1818; 67 y. 11 
m. 12 d. 

Kahn, Ann, wife of Jacob, b. 12 Dec. 
1798; d. 24 Oct. 1866; 67 y. 10 m. 12 d. 

Stepleton, Johannes, b. 29 Sept. 1751; d. 
17 May 1820; 68 y. 7 m. 19 d. 

Kline, Jacob, b. 4 May 1734; d. 29 Dec. 
1814; 80 y. 7 m. 25 d. 

Rhodes, John, d. 19 Oct. 1767. 

Womelsdorf, Daniel, d. 6 Nov. 1759; 58 y. 
6 m. 

Sands, Othniel, d. 2 Sept. 1831; 75 y. 5 m. 
8 d. 

Greiner, Philip, b. 14 Dec. 1754; d. 26 Sept. 
1823; 68 y. 9 m. 12 d. 

Kern, Michael, b. 4 May 1757; d. 11 Feb. 
1850; 92 y. 9 m. 7 d. 

Sarah, George, b. 1745; d. 1 Aug. 1823; 78 

Motzer, Johannes, b. 2 Jan. 1716; d. 27 
June 1793; 77 y. 5 m. 26 d. 

Boyer, Henry, b. 24 Aug. 1791; d. 20 Oct. 
1878; 87 y. 1 m. 26 d. 

Baum, John F., M. D., d. 28 Jan. 1850; 58 
y. 8 m. 17 d. 

Ludwig, Michael, d. Dec. 17S4; 77 v. 4 m. 
21 d. 

Van Bied, Heinrich, b. 10 March 1722; d. 
Oct. 1790; 68 y. 7 m. 16 d. 

Van Beed, Jacob, son of Henry Van Reed, 
b. 15 March 1758; d. Jan. 1839; 80 .y 9 m. 
27 d. 

Lndwig, .Michael, d. March 15. 1806; 61 y. 
1 m. 1 d. Susanna Ludwig, wife of, d. July 
5, 1818; 67 y. 11 m. 12 d. 

Bower John, b. 13 Aug. 1 7 J 7 : d. 21 Jan. 
1777; 49 y. 5 m. 8 d. 

Ann, wife of Jacob Halm. b. 12 Dec. 1798; 
d. Oct. 24, 1866: 67 y. 10 m. 12 .1. 

Stapleton, Johannes, b. 29 Sept. 1751; d. 
17 May 1820; 68 y. 7 in. 19 d. 

Kline, Jacob, b. 4 May 1734; d. 29 Dec. 
1814; 80 y. 7 m. 25 d. 

Rhodes, John, d. 19 Oct. 1767. 

Womelsdorf, Jacob, d. 27 February 1805; 
71 y. S m. 27 d. 

Womelsdorf, Catharine, d. 20 April 1803; 
62 y. 4 in. 23 d. 

Womelsdorf, Daniel, h 6 Nov. 1759; 58 y. 
6 m. 

Siinds, Othniel, d. 2 Sept. 1831; 75 y. 5 m. 
8 d. 

Greiner, Philip, b. 14 Dec. 1754; d. 26 
Sept. 1823; 68 y. 9 m. 12 d. 



Kern, Michael, "Revolutionary patriot", b. 
4 May 1757; d. 11 Feb. 1850; 92 y. 9 m. 7 d. 

I,<> rah. George, Esq., b. 1745; d. 1 Aug. 
1823; 78 y. 

Motzer, Johannes, b. 2 Jan. 1716; d. 27 
June 1793; 77 y. 5m. 3 w. 5 d. 

Boyer, Henry, b. 24 Aug. 1791; d. 20 Oct. 
1878; 87 y. 1 m. 26 d. 

Baum, Dr. John F., d. 28 Jan. 1850; 58 
y. 8 m. 17 d. 

Darrah, Mark, M. D., son of Thomas and 
Eleviah Darrah, d. May 7, 1850; 50 y. 

Morlatton Church Ground, Douglassyille 

llobesou, Andrew, d. 19 Feb. 1719-20; 66. 

Robeson, Moses, d. 19 Oct. 1792; 71 y. 3 
m. 14 d. Christiana Robeson, wife of, d. 5 
March 1800, 73 y. 1 m. 27 d. 

Robeson, Samuel, b. 9 Dec. 1765; d. 11 
Oct. 1821; 55 y. 10 m. 2 d. Hannah Robe- 
son, wife of, b. 8 Oct. 1775; d. 8 March 1824; 
48 y. 5 d. 

Kelso, John, b. in Donegal, Ireland, May 
1779; d. 6 Nov. 1877; in 98 y. Isabella, wife 
of, d. 13 May 1886; 82 y. 2 m. 5 d. 

Kelso, George, d. 19 May 1870; 70 y. 

Jones, Peter, d. 1739; 46 y. 

Hulings, Marcus, d. 2 April 1757 ; 70 y. 

Hulings, Peter, son of Marcus and Mar- 
garetta Hulings; d. 17 Aug. 1739; 18 y. 

Finey, John, d. 3 Sept. 1734; 21 y. 

Finey, Joseph, d. 17 March 1730; 11 y. 

Warren, James, d. 7 April 1776. 

Warren, Hannah, d. 26 Dec. 1782. 

Wamback, Jacob, b. 25 Dec. 1797; d. 27 
Aug. 1859; 61 y. 8 m. 2 d. Hannah, wife of, 
b. 12 Oct. 1794; d. 3 April 1857; 62 y. 5 m. 
21 d. 

Kerlin, William, b. 13 Aug. 1783; d. 27 
Sept. 1868. 

Jones, William, M. D., d. 2 May 1858; 51 
y. 1 m. 22 d. 

Armstrong, Ann, wife of Rev. John Arm- 
strong, d. 12 Oct. 1804; 34 y. 

Kantian, Renjamin, b. 15 March 1770; d. 
Oct. 1816. Sarah Bannan, wife of, b. April 
5, 1762; d. 17 Nov. 1825. 

May, Dr. Thomas, son of James and 
Bridget May, d. 28 Aug. 1829; 42 y. 1 m. 13 d. 

May, Thomas, b. 28 Dec. 1811; d. 10 April 

Jones, Jonas, Jr., d. 23 April 1799 ; 65 y. 

Jones, Jonas, Sr., d. 27 Jan 1777; 77 y. 

Ingles, Joseph, b. 14 Feb. 1767; d. 17 April 
1833; 66 y. 2 m. 3 d. 

Ingles, John, d. 19 Dec. 1803; 85 y. 

Ingles, Elizabeth, d. 21 Sept. 1819. 

Douglass, George, b. 14 Feb. 1767; d. 17 
April 1833; 66 y. 2 m. 3 d. Mary Douglass, 
wife of, b. 25 Dec. 1773; d. 24 Sept. 1848; 74 
y. 8 m. 29 d. 

Douglass, George, b. 25 Feb. 1726; d. 10 
March, 1799; 73 y. 13 d. 

Douglass, Mary B., b. 25 Aug. 1730; d. 12 
Oct. 1798; 68 y. 1 m. 18 d. 

Schunck, Johannes, d. 20 April 1827; 69 y. 
11m. 20 d. Elisabeth Schunck, wife of, d. 28 

March 1826; 66 y. 17 d. (Parents of X5ov. 

Kahn, Jacob, b. 8 Oct. 1790; d. 17 Sept. 
1864; 73 y. 11 m. 9 d. 

Rahn, Jacob, d. 3 Dec. 1823; 59 y. Cath. 
wife of, d. 26 March 1845; 79 y. 7 m. 7 d. 

Yocom, Peter, d. 13 July 1794; 76 y. 

Tea, Richard, b. 1732; d. 1809; 77th y. 

Tea, Ann, d. in 68th y. 

Bird, William, Esq., d. 16 Nov. 1762; 55 y. 

Bird, James, d. 21 Aug. 1780; in 21 y. 

John, Philip, d. 22 Oct. 1741; 38 y. 

Umstead, John, d. Dec. 1815; 85 y. 

Ludwig, Michael, M. D., b. 23 Jan 1793 ; d. 

I June 1857; 64 y. 4 m. 8 d. Mary Ludwig, 
wife of, b. 19 Jan. 1800; d. 31 Aug. 1823; 23 
y. 7 d. 12 m. 

McKenty, Henry, son of Hugh and Ann 
McKenty, b. 24 Oct. 1795; d. 18 June 1868; 
72 y. 7 m. 24 d. Eleanor, wife of Henry 
McKenty, b. 15 Jan. 1801; d. 18 Feb. 1884; 
83 y. 1 m. 13 d. 

McKenty, Jacob Kerlin, son of Henry and 
Eleanor, b. Jan. 19, 1827; d. 3 Jan. 1866. 

West, Ruth, b. Sept. 12, 1786; d. Sept 12, 
1857; 7 y. 

Leaf, George L., b. April 18, 1806; d. Aug. 
19, 1838. 

Douglass, Amelia, wife of, b. Oct. 8, 1804; 
d. 4 June 1888. 

Bell, Hannah, wife of John, b. 29 July 
1794; d. 13 Nov. 1881; 87 y. 3 m. 14 d. 

Walton, Albertson, b. in Byberry Twp., 
Bucks Co., 2 Feb. 1796; d. 24 Jan. 1885; 88 y. 

II m. 2 d. Kate Walton, wife of, d. 17 May 
1794; 89 y. 12 d. 

Unistead, John, b. 16 Nov. 1799; d. 16 
Sept. 1876. Hannah, wife of, d. Oct. 24, 
1871; 61 y. 2 m. 10 d. 

Umstead, John, b. 21 Oct. 1770; d. 2 Oct. 
1826; 55 y. 11 m. 11 d. 

Umstead, Elizabeth, b. 8 Oct. 1773; d. 14 
Oct. 1831; 58 y. 6 d. 

Kerlin, Jacob, b. 10 Jan. 1776; d. 4 Jan. 
1832; 55 y. 11 m. 23 d. Hannah, wife of, b. 
27 March 1776; d. 31 March 1853; 77 y. 4 d. 

Kerlin, John, d. 24 March 1821; 68 y. 2 m. 
29 d. Eleanor, wife of, d. 31 Aug. 1823; 67 
y. 3 m. 15 d. 

Kerlin, John, d. 19 March 1812; abt. 90 y. 
Elizabeth, wife of, d. Oct. 1822 in 94th y. 

Stuard, Daniel, b. 14 April 1794 ; d. 8 April 
1854; 59 y. 11 m. 25 d. 

Stanley, Susannah, b. 8 July 1800; d. 25 
June 1853. 

Russell, Joseph, b. 8 Feb. 1787; d. 7 May 
1862 Elizabeth, wife of, and dau. of 
Peter and Cath. Reifsneider, b. 6 May 1788; 
d. 17 Dec. 1855. 

Tocum, Jonas, b. 15 Oct. 1793; d. 27 Oct. 
1834. Anna, wife of, b. 19 April 1796; d. 17 
March 1881; 85 y. 

Allison, Catharine, b. 1789 ; d. 20 Jan. 1883 
in 94th year. 

Roth, Maria Esther, b. 25 Feb. 1765 ; d. 17 
July 1765; 6 m. 3 w. 2 d. 

Lerergood, John, d. 1 Aug. 1805; 56 y. 



Levergood, Christiana, b. Nov. 18, 1755; d. 
23 Dec. 1832; 77 y. 1 m. 15 d. 

Leopold, Charles, b. 5 Aug. 1801; d. 19 
Dec. 1874. 

Leopold, Lydia, b. 29 March 1806; d. 10 
March 1884. 

Elizabeth, dau. of William and Mary Lake, 
d. 2 March 1788; 20 d. 

Samuel, son of William and Elizabeth 
Lake, d. 18 March 1778; 16 y. 7 m. 

Unistead, John, d. 24 June 1815; 86 y. 
Elizabeth, wife of, d. 6 Sept. 1811; 76 y. 

Kirst, George, b. 24 June 1735; d. 16 Oct. 
1807; 72 y. 3 m. 22 d. Elizabeth, wife of, b. 
7 March 1741; d. 12 Nov. 1809; 68 y. 8 m. 
5 d. 

Kerst, Samuel, son of George and Mary 
Kerst, b. 13 Jan. 1798; d. 8 May, 1859; 61 y. 
3 m. 22 d. 

Kerst, Samuel, d. 11 Dec. 1825; 46 y. 3 m. 

Long, William, d. 7 May 1825 in 47th y. 

Jones, Peter, b. 10 Oct. 1749; d. 24 Nov. 
1809; 60 y. 1 m. 14 d. 

Margaret, wife of Nicholas Bunn, d. 4 
Nov. 1801; 77 y. 

Yocom, John, d. 14 Oct. 1823; 73 y. 19 d. 
Hannah, wife of, d. 1 May 1794; 44 y. 11 m. 

Yocom, Mary, d. 27 Dec. 1794; 75 y. 

Yocom, Peter, d. 13 July 1794; 76 y. 

Yocum, Moses, b. 14 June 1753; d. 12 Feb. 
1824; 71 y. 7 m. 28 d. 

Yocom, Susanna, b. 15 Nov. 1757; d. 15 
Jan. 1833; 76 y. 2 m. 

Yocom, John, b. 6 Aug. 1799; d. 6 May 
1869; 69 y. 9 m. 

Yocom, Elizabeth, b. 5 Feb. 1806; d. 3 
Jan. 1882; 75 y. 10 m. 28 d. 

Jones, Samuel, b. 3 Jan. 1782; d. 26 Sept. 
1864; 82 y. 8 m. 23 d. Elizabeth, wife of, b. 
26 Feb. 1789; d. 19 Jan. 1849; 58 y. 10 m. 
15 d. 

Brower, Abraham, b. 7 May 1783; d. 5 Nov. 
1834; 51 y. 5 m. 28 d. 

Brower, Mary, b. 6 April 1785; d. 30 Oct. 
1834; 49 y. 6 m. 20 d. 

Kerlin, John, b. 23 July 1792; d. 31 May 
1833; 40 y. 10 m. 8 d 

Lear, Henry, d. 17 Oct. 18—; 77 y. 6 m. 
23 d. 

Lear, Catharine, d. 31 July 1807; 73 y. 2 
m. 7 d. 

Bunn, Mary, wife of Jacob, and dau. of 
Henry and Catharine Lear, b. 11 Oct. 1761; 
d. 16 July 1836; 74 y. 9 m. 5 d. 

Jones, Mary, wife of Jonas, d. 11 Sept. 
1772; 68 y. 

Jones, Susannah, d. 20 July 1824; 94 y. 

Jones, Phoebe, d. 27 Oct. 1826; 86 y, 

Jones, Mary, d. 30 Sept. 1805; 78 y. 

Jones, Jonathan, son of Nicholas and 
Rachel, b. 2 March 1778; d. 23 April 1840; 
62 y. 1 m. 21 d. Hannah, wife of, and 
dau. of Peter and Cath. Jones, b. 9 Sept. 
1770; d. 29 Dec. 1851; 81 y. 3 m. 20 d. 

Jones, Nicholas, d. 28 March 1829; 41 y. 

Jones, Nicholas, d. 15 Oct. 1826; 90 y. 

Kirkhon*, Margaret, wife of Jacob H., b. 19 
May 1794; d. 10 June 1885; 91 y. 22 d. 

Lord, Joseph, d. 21 Nov. 1860 in 67th y. 

Lord, Mary, b. 24 March 1783; d. 13 Sept. 
1858; 75 y. 5 m. 19 d. 

Pair, Elizabeth, b. 22 Dec. 1800; d. 25 Aug. 
1878; 71 y. 8 m. 9 d. 

Jones, David, b. 1 March 1786; d. 4 Nov. 

Moser, John, d. 14 Sept. 1822; 52 y. 

Fisher, Nicholas, d. 5 Dec. 1856; 61 y. lid. 

Warren, Eliza beth, wife of Jacob, b. 16 
July 1773; d. 24 Aug. 1855; 82 y. 1 m. 8 d. 

Turner, Peter, b. 18 Aug. 1797; d. 20 May 
1841; 43 y. 9 m. 12 d. 

Jones, Ezekiel, b. 2 April 1792; d. 27 Mav 
1876; 84 y. 1 m. 25 d. 

Jones, Eleanor, b. 5 Sept. 1797; d. 18 June 
1876; 78 y. 9 m. 13 d. 

Kerlin, William, b. 13 Aug. 1783; d. 27 
Sept. 1868. 

Kerlin, Catharine, b. 12 Oct. 1795; d. 4 Oct. 

Krouse, Henry, 1797-1862. Mary, wife of, 
/ Yocom, Samuel, d. 7 Jan. 1885; 81 y. 9 m. 
27 d. Ann Yocom, wife of, d. 20 May 1889; 
84 y. 8 m. 22 d. 

v/Yocom, Daniel, b. 13 May 1795; d. 30 
March 1861; 65 y. 10 m. 13 d. Magdalena 
Yocum, wife of, b. 16 June 1780; d. 26 July 
1856; 76 y. 1 m. 10 d. 

Bern Church Ground 

Hiester, Johau Christian, son of John and 
Catharine, b. 18 Sept. 1798; d. 7 Nov. 1867; 
69 y. 1 m. 19 d. Jost son of same, b. 11 
Dec. 1795; d. 10 Nov. 1871; 75 y. 10 m. 29 d. 

Hiester, Daniel, b. 14 Jan. 1789; d. 27 
March 1862; 73 y. 2 m. 13 d. 

Hiester, Daniel, b. 1 Jan. 1712; d. 7 June 
1795; 82 y. 5 m. 7 d. Catharine, wife of, d. 
17 Aug. 1789; 72 y. 11 m. 7 d. 

Hiester, Jacob Bailsman, son of Gabriel 
and Elizabeth, b. 28 v Nov. 1785; d. 17 May 
1817; 33 y. 6 m. 11 d. 

Hiester, William, Esq., b. 10 June 1757; d. 
13 July 1822; 65 y. 1 m. 3 d. 

Hiester, Anna Maria, wife of, b. 28 Dec. 
1758; d. 4 Oct. 1881; 63 y. 9 m. 6 d. 

Staudt, Abraham, b. 25 Jan. 1737; d. 9 
Oct. 1824. 

Seydel, Michael, b. 28 Oct. 1761; d. 24 
Feb. 1837; 75 y. 3 m. 26 d. 

Stanim, Nicholas, b. 22 April 1752; d. 6 
Oct. 1828. 

Stamm, Frederick, b. 18 Sept. 1759; d. 9 
Dec. 1827. 

Heber, Thomas, b. 1746; d. 27 Aug. 1825; 
77 y. 

KantYman, Jacob, b. 1777; d. 1822. 

Stamm, Werner, b. 172S; d. 4 Oct. 1812; 
84 y. 

Kersebner, Philip, b. 31 Aug. 1766; d. 7 
Dec. 1831. 



AlthOuse, Daniel, b. 25 July 1742; d. 7 Oct. 
1812; 70 y. 14 d. 

Kirschner, Peter, b. 17 April 1747; d. 11 
Sept. 1809; 62 y. 5 m. 

Bentzle, Jolm George, b. 8 Oct. 1740; d. 2 
Jan. 1802. 

Klein, Johannes, b. 16 Jan. 1734; d. 16 Jan. 
1795; 61 y. 

Staudt, Mathias, b. 1772; d. 1802. 

Doudor, Jacob, b. 25 July 1720; d. 12 May 

Gernant, George, b. 10 June 1716; d. 17 
Jan. 1793; 78 y. 5 m. 7 d. 

Ermentrout, Maria Margaretta, b. 1 June 
1744; d. 1 June 1784; 40 .y 

Kieser, Jacob, b. 1755; d. 1815. 

Feieli, Michael, b. 1708; d. 13 June 1812. 

Miesse, John Daniel, b. 28 Jan. 1743; d. 3 
April 1818; 75 y. 2 m. 5 d. 

Eckert, John, b. 27 June 1754; d. 27 Nov. 
1826; 72 y. 5 m. Barbara (born Gernant) 
wife of, b. 26 March 1754; d. 30 Sept. 1S23. 

Hiester, John, b. 23 Sept. 1754; d. 17 Nov. 

Hiester, ('apt. Johann, b. 15 July 17S3; d. 
12 March 1851; 67 y. 7 m. 28 d. 

Schneider, Conrad, b. 22 June 1722; d. 4 
Dec. 1811; 89 y. 10 m. 

Epler's Church Ground 
Kikker, Keinrich, b. 21 May 1722; d. 10 

April 1810: 87 y. 10 m. 21 d. 

Margaretta, wife of (born Steiner) b. 29 
Sept. 1725: d. 29 Oct. 1808. 

Graff, Frederick, b. 30 Dec. 1762; d. 7 
March 1818; 56 y. 2 m. 16 d. 

Kieser, Johannes, b. 27 Feb. 1776; d. 12 
Dec. 1818. 

Althaus, Peter, b. 3 Feb. 1755; d. 23 
March 1839. 

Moser, Weyerle, b. 1731; d. 1810. 

Staudt, Michael, b. 11 Nov. 1742; d. 14 
Aug. 1807. 

Metier, George, b. 3 Feb. 1724; d. 5 Jan. 

Herbein, Peter, b. 1747; d. 1821. 

Emrich, John Leonard, b. 16 June 1751; 
d. 8 May 1816: 64 y. 10 m. 22 d. 

Zacharias, Daniel, b. 24 Feb. 1734; d. 15 
Oct. 1800; 66 v. 9 m. 15 d. 

Hohon, Philip Jacob, b. 6 Sept. 1739; d. 9 
Jan. 1815. 


Klein Family Burying Ground 
Becker, Johannes, b. 4 Oct. 1785; d. 10 
March 1854. Elizabeth, wife of, b. 24 Aug. 
1775; d. 22 Sept. 1838. 

Klein, Abraham, b. 4 March 1783; d. 20>. 
April 1853; 70 y. 1 m. 16 d. Barabara, wife 
of, b. 27 Oct. 1784; d. 22 March 1861; 76 y. 
1 m. 26 d. 

Saint Michael's Church 

Schneiderin, Elizabeth, b. 5 Aug. 1758; d. 
Aug 1766, "durch ein donnerschlag". 

Kelchner, John, b. 25 Nov. 1736; d. 28 Dec. 
1801; 65 y. 1 m. 3 d. 

Faust, Ludnig, b. 12 Jan. 1760; d. 27 April 

Schlappig, Daniel, b. 22 Nov. 1723; d. 29 
June 1794; 70 y. 2 m. 

Schartel, Johann, b. 17 Jan. 1738; d. S 
July 1800; 61 y. 5 m. IS d. 

Henne, Joh. Conrad, b. 10 Oct. 1731; d. 21 
Jan. 1820; 88 y. 3 m. 11 d. 

Kauffman, Adam, b. 1764; d. 1824. 

Wagner, Christoph, b. 1735; d. 1799. 

Althaus, Joseph, b. 1757. 

Bennille Church 

Geis, John A., b. 12 Jan. 1762; d. 18 Dec. 

Adam, George, b. 1725; d. 1784. 

Bros s man, Johan, b. 9 Aug. 1768;-' d. 10 
April 1830. 

Filbert, Johannes, b. 26 April 1781; d. S 
Jan. 1811. 

Winter, Christoph, b. 25 Dec. 1759; d. 2 
Aug. 1808. 

Belleman George, b. 28 Oct. 1739; d. 2 
Feb. 1813. 

Fiegel, Melchoir, b. July 1754; d. 26 July 

Haag, Johan George, b. 9 July 1758; d. 2 
/Jan. 1845; 86 y. 5 m. 23 d. 

Reber, Yalentin, b. Dec. 1742; d. 12 May 

Haas, John Peter, b. 4 March 1750: d. 12 
July 1816. 

Strauss, Albrecht, b. 16 July 1760: d. 7 
April 1832. 


Millersburg Church 

Wagner, John Geo., b. 5 Jan. 1770; d. 5 
Oct. 1833; 63 y. 9 m. 

Cmbenhauer, Frantz, b. 23 Oct. 1751; d. 
31 March 1812. 

Levick, Elizabeth, wife of Samuel, b. 29 
June 1798; d. 7 May 1866. 

Bordner, Jacob, b. 15 Nov. 1754; d. 6 Jan. 

Schuy, Johannes, b. IS Sept. 1760; d. 13: 
Sept. 1835. 




O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb "—A. S. 



(A. C. W.) 
(No. 2) 
Doh bringt noh die Bollie cider, 
Frisch fum Uncle Dilly Schneider; 
Hen 'n g'schmotzt un noh g'drunka, 
Mit 'm mauleck noch g'wunka, 
Noh geht's ob os wie fun forna, 
Butza 's maul un aw die dorna. 
"'Well, ich mehn s'waer ivverdrivva, 
S'macht em nerfich, meiner sivva," 
Mehnt die Leisy ivverm schneida 
Om 'a schtick so alter seida, 
"Alles lawft boll uff d' schtrossa, 
Alta, yunga, klebna, grohsa, 
Dehl die wolla saef ferkawfa, 
Sin schun morgets frieh am lawfa; 
Dehl hen nohdla, patent schnolla, 
Weschbloh, schpella, schwohwafolla, 
Brackets, hofta, schmier, m'nilla, 
Droppa, liniment un pilla, 
Yehders will sich ebbes kriega — 
Glawb bei henk os dehl noch liega, 
Ehns het gaern so 'fancy dishes', 
Ehns 'n rug — ken fiesz-obwisches — 
Des 'n 'lounge' un sel 'n 'rocker', 
S'macht em nerfich, so 'n g'tzocker, 
Denk der Jim muss aw ons lawfa, 
Phosphate udder gips ferkawfa, 
Paris-grie deht aw daich nemma, 
Meiner sex, waer's net fer's schemma 
Gengt ich selwer mohl ans trotta, 
Deht ferleicht doch ebbes botta, 
Kennt sel geld noh tzomma schpaara 
Fer a bissel trolley fahra. 
"Denk mohl drah die Peggy Wisman 
Kummt doh yetz tzum dockt'r Kisman, 
Hut so patent bloschter g'hotta, 
S'war so , waescht, uff muslin-blotta, 
Duht 'on alles, scheh explaina 
Deht sich ehns im rick ferschtraina, 
Wan ehns kalt het uff d' niera, 
Wut's em nargets recht borriera ; 
Rummadis un dicka ohd'ra — 
Yah, g'wiss, es tziegt ken blohd'ra, 
Waescht, m'r waermt's aerscht gut am feier. 
Besser nemmscht dehl, 'skummt net deier." 
""Sapperlott! was mehnscht don, Peggy? 
Bloschter kawfa! Peif'm Jecky!" 
Fongt der dockt'r aw mit lacha, 
""Des sin mohl so weibsleit socha, 
Doh kennts hehsa: Ei, Ken wunner, 
Dockt'r, nemm die schind'l runner, 
Now huscht tzeit die leis tz' scherra 
Won die weibsleit dockt'r werra! 
Well, wie .fiel huscht ausg'peddelt, 
Huscht schun's township ausg'tzettelt?" 

'Neh', sawgt noh die Peggy drivver, 
Schmeist die awga rivver, nivver, 
'Hob ge'mehnt doh aw tz' fonga, 
War net weiters rum noch gonga, 
Deht der dockt'r aw dehl nemma 
Dent's em helfa bei de fremma; 
S'deht em bissel courage gevva 
Fer's tz' recommenda evva! 
Wut m'r's gonsa ding fertzaehla, 
Net'n ehntzich wort ferfaehla 
Kennt m'r aw noch meaner sawga 
Wie sie g'flucht hut — so im mawga — 
Wie der dockt'r nix g'numma 
Un g'lacht hut: Won's yuscht krumma 
Beh un bickel grawd kennt tziega 
Noh war's aw d'wert's tzu kriega'. 
Ivver dem war's middawg warra, 
Yah, un's aergscht is noch, der porra 
War uff b'such ons dockt'rs kumma, 
Hut's gons wehsa eig'numma, 
Hut noch helfa g'schposs tz' macha 
Ivver'm essa fer tz' lacha 
Won'r heem kaemt tzu der alta — 
Meiner sex! ich het die folta 
Aus'm schortz m'r rausg'bissa — 
Well, m'r sut au besser wissa 
Os wie patent bloschter pedd'la, 
Noch bei'm dockt'r, sel dehts settla! 
"Well", mehnt noh die kleh Malinda, 
S'wara ken so grohsa sinda, 
S'kumt druffaw wie's aw tz' fonga 
Wie's on's Ditza leicht is gonga; 
'Cut g'mehnt is net fersindicht, 
Obg'duh net uffg'kindicht'. 
Hen, waescht, kranka kinner g'hotta, 
Elms war nix meh wie so'n schotta, 
Hen g'mehnt es deht'na schterwa 
Wara bang, ferleicht deht's arwa, 
Hen paar weibsleit g'froogt fer Kocha, 
Buhwa b'schtellt far's grawb tz' mocha, 
Notice g'schickt tzum porra Walda 
Fer die leicht am mittwoch holta, 
Noh wert's kind uff ehmol besser, 
Lacht schun wie der lawdamesser 
Kumma is fer noch'm gucka — 
Well, er hut mohl g'schpaut so drucka: 
'Leicht an's Ditza! Leicht an' Ditza! 
Des soil yoh der hund awsch])ritza! 
Dreisich yohr schun leit b'grahwa, 
Muss m'r ebbes so noch glahwa?' 
'Liehwer droscht, wie kom'r's wissa', 
Hut die Alt noh heila missa. 
'Well', mehnt noh der lawdamesser, 
'S'is wie's is, m'r wehs net besser, 
Obg'duh net uffg'kindicht. 

(To be continued) 



NOTE. — The following lines, written by 
L. A. Wollenweber more than forty years 
ago, will serve as a sample of the dialect at 
that time. — Editor. 


Net weit fun Ephrata in Lancaster County 
wo der Weg noch Schonau un Reinholdsville 
zugeht, do wohnt e Bauer, der schun ziem- 
lich viel Johre uf em Buckel hot, der war 
sei lebelang e spassiger Dingerich un hot 
in der Schul schun manch Kepers gamacht. 
Seller Bauer hot in der Nochberschaft die 
Margereth F. gesparkt, un wie er uf Aelt 
war, un die Margereth net lang for's heire 
meh warte wollt, musst der junge Kerl, for 
die Margareth net zu verliere, zum Parre 
Friedrich gehn, un ihn bestelle, dasz er die 
junge Leut zusamme schmied. 

Er war gern noch e Zeitlang ledig ge- 
bliebe, weil er die Margereth in ihrem 
Wesen noch net so recht gekennt hot, ob sie 
a ebbes nutz war, dann er hot immer ge- 
hort, dasz es lange Zeit nemnit, for e Weibs- 
mensch recht kenne zu lerne. Was wollt 
er aber mache, die Margereth hot ebe ihren 
Kopf ufgesetzt un gesagt, "Wann du jetzt 
ke Anstalt machst for zu heire, da magst du 
von mir bleibe". 

Well, sie gehn am e schone Samstag Obed 
zum Parre, der schun for sie prapert (vor- 
bereitet) war, weil er gedenkt hot, do gebt's 
emol ebbes Rechtes, hab so e schlechte Be- 
lohnung for mei viele Muhen, dann in 
manche gegende in Pennsylvanien wore die 
Parre schlecht bezahlt, was egentlich e 
Schand ischt, un do freie sie sich, wenn also 
emol e Hochzeit kummt un e fiinf Daler Not 
fallt. Er hot sei Stub ufgefixt die Biewel un 
die Lithurgie zerrecht gelegt, un war fertig, 
for des Heirathsbisznisz abzumache. Der 
Henn un die Margereth habe a net lang uf 
sich warte losse, sie ware in der rechte 
Zeit do, un der Parre hot gleich angefange 
und sei Sach besser gemacht als sei Lebtag. 

Wie Alles fertig, un der Henn un die Mar- 
gereth Mann un Fra ware, gebt der Henn 
for sei Lohn e fest zusamme gewickeltes 
Papier bedankt sich un sagt dem geistliche 
Herr goodbye. 

Wie die Hochzeitleut fort ware, geht der 
Parre gleich an's ufwickle, er wickelt uf un 
wie er alles ufgewickelt hot, find er in dem 
Bundel e Elfpensstiick un e Zettel, do war 
druf geschriewe: 

"Wann's gut geht koinin ioh s' nachst Jolir 

Dasz der arme Parre, der fiinf Daller 
erwartet hot, unwillig worre ischt, kann sich 
Jeder leicht denken, un er ischt mit schwer- 
em Herze in's Bett. 

Grad war e Johr verfiosse un die sam 
Stund, wo der Henn un die Margereth, ge- 
traut worre sin, do klopts am Parre seiner 
Thiir. Er macht uf un vor ihm steht e junger 
Baure-Kerl mit einem Barl vora beste Lan- 
caster County Mehl. Er sagt: "Guten Abend, 
Herr Parre, do bring ich e Fasz Flour un e 
Brief, goodbye". Der Parre rollt 's Fasz in 
de Hausgang geht an's Licht un macht de 
Brief uf, um zu sehne, wer der gute Christ 
ischt, der ihm das Mehl schickt. Wie er de 
Brief ufmacht, da rollt e 2V 2 Doller Gold- 
stuck heraus, was de arme Mann ganz zit- 
terich gemacht hot. Er hebt's uf es war 
ganz neu, un er hot net gut genug gucke 
kenne, danne e Landparre un en e Gold- 
stuck die komme net oft zusamme. Jetzt 
fangt er aber an zu lese, un in Brief steht: 

"Lieber Parre! 

Do selrick ich Euch e 2% Dollerstiiek un e 
Barl ruin beste Flaur. Mei Margereth ischt 
meh werth wie en Elfpens, un wann se so 
fort macht komm ich 's nachst Johr wieder. 


Wer war froher als der arme Parre Fried- 
rich? Wie in der Welt die Zeit so schnell 
vergeht, war des Johr a bald herum un der 
Parre hot die Zeit gewatscht un ischt der- 
hem gebliebe. Es was grad die Stund, wo 
er die junge Leut getraut, do hert er e 
Fuhrwerk, er machtt's Fenster uf, do steht 
der sam jung Bauer mit dem Mehlbarl un a 
mit dem Brief. Im Brief war desmol a Fiinf 
daler Not un zu lese war: 

"Lieber Parre! 

Ich bin recht zufriede in meiuer Haus- 
haltung, es schafft Alles gut. Do Schick ich 
Euch a Fiinfdaler >'ot, weil mei Fra die 
Margreth viel werth ischt; war sie nixnntzig 
geworde, do wiir des Elfpensstiick zu viel for 
sie gewese, dasz ich Euch in so viel Pa- 
piercher gewickelt, nach der Trauung ge- 
gebe hah." 

Im dritte Johr war's sam Ding, fiinf Daller 
un e Barl Mehl, un der Henn hat fortge- 
macht bis uf de heutige Tag, wann der 
Parre Friedrich net gestorbe war. Der Henn 
ischt jezt ener vun de wohlhabigste Bauern 
in Cocalico: er hot sechs Buwe die sehn als 
wollte sie Bam ausreisze, un sei drei Mad, 
die mache seiner Margereth, die dick un 
fett ischt, viel Fred. 

A Good Record 

Quakertown, Pa., with a population of 
4000 sends fifty young people to a score of 
preparatory, business and Normal Schools, 
Colleges and Universities. A correspondent 
of a local paper says: This "strongly dis- 

proves the statement of certain persons and 
magazines that endeavor to represent the 
Pennsylvania Germans as an ignorant 



By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Ex-Governor Pennypacker has gathered 
nineteen of his historical papers and ad- 
dresses together into one volume, issued by 
William J. Campbell, Philadelphia. Some of 
the addresses are published here for the 
first time, while others were previously 
printed in the Pennsylvania Magazine of 

He is an alert historian, deeply versed in 
the antique lore of his native state; no one 
is better qualified to defend her proud posi- 
tion. No matter what the object may be it 
is always the greatness of the Common- 
wealth that is uppermost in his mind. The 
volume is aptly titled "Pennsylvania in 
American History". 

The addresses on the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans should go far to remove the prejudice 
that has been heaped upon these people and 
should serve as a just vindication of their 
commendable traits. 


George W. Gerwig, Ph. D. Extension 
Lecturer in English Literature, Univer- 
sity of Pittsburg. Cloth; 124 pp. 75c. 
postpaid. Percy Publishing Company, 
North Side, Pittsburg, Pa. 1909. 
A number of books bearing on the short 
story appeared during the last two years, 
and not the least significant among them is 
"The Art of the Short Story". One of its 
commendable traits, and it has many, is its 

The writer traces the beginnings of this 
form of literary art from Boccaccio and 
Chaucer to the present day, as found among 
French, English, and American writers. This 
part of the book may be merely a sketch and 
not an elaborate discussion, but the essen- 
tials are all brought out, and a due sense of 
proportion is maintained. The writer then 
passes on to a discussion of the main ele- 
ments of this modern literary product: plot, 
human interest, character, dramatic inten- 
sity, and theme. The discussion of these 
principles constitutes the main part of the 
book, a chapter being devoted to each one 
of them. He is also the first one to point 
out that these principles were developed in 
an almost chronological order. It is a 
thought-provoking book; it contains the 
writer's own opinions and convictions upon 
literary matters. 

The book is the outcome of a course of 
lectures, but it is not for that reason either 
academic or technical, but rather popular 
and practical ; but it is not popular without 

being scholarly. It is suggestive both to 
the reader and to the writer of short stories. 
It is written in a clear, terse, style. It 
shows a comprehensive understanding of the 
essentials of the short story, and a not com- 
mon quality of discrimination and analysis. 
It closes with an inspired prophecy as to 
the future of the short story in America. 

THE LITTLE KING— A Story of the Child- 
hood of Louis XIV King of France — By 
Charles Major, author of "When Knight- 
hood was in Flower", "Dorothy Ver- 
non", "A Gentle Knight of Old Branden- 
burg", etc. Cloth; illustrated; 249 pp. 
Price $1.50. The Macmillan Company, 
New York. 1910. 
This is a charming story about Louis XIV, 
King of France. It is arranged and written 
for boys and girls, but it has a great deal of 
fascination for "grown-ups", for it tells of 
royalty in the making, and that there is an 
intensely human side to the world's great 
rulers. It also affords an insight into the 
extravagant and luxuriant life at court that 
brought on the "deluge" after the King's 

The boy Louis XIV is the hero of the 
story; the royal lad is observed from all 
sides. Some of the adventures picture him 
as a dignified royal character, and others 
show him as a plain every-day boy without 
his crown and robes of office. The person 
nearest and dearest to him is Sweet Mam'- 
selle, his affectionate nurse. They have 
many a jolly time, and they also have their 
sorrows together. It is when he has laid 
his crown aside and steals out for a romp 
with his nurse that he is at his best. Chil- 
dren who have never seen a king, and many 
never will, may feel decidedly intimate and 
friendly with "Fourteen", as one of the little 
girls in the street called him. There are 
amusing incidents, and others are so pathet- 
ic that they arouse the feelings of the young 
people to a remarkable degree. It is an ad- 
mirable book for boys and girls. 

UNDER THE OPEM SKY— By Samuel Chris- 
tian Schmucker, Ph.D. Professor of 
Biology, Pennsylvania State Normal 
School, West Chester, Author of "A 
Study of Nature". Cloth, gilt top; illus- 
trated; 308 pp. Price $1.50. J. B. Lip- 
pincott Company, Philadelphia, 1909. 
This is a charming book about God's 

great out-of-doors, written by one who 



knows the out-of-doors not from books but 
from observing nature. 

The author divides the subject into 
seasons, and these into the corresponding 
months; and then he describes the thousand 
and one things found 'in forest, field and 
glen. He shows thier purpose in nature, and 
how they happened to be what they are and 
as they are. Some remarkable facts are 
found here: facts which only the keen ob- 
server and interpreter of nature knows — 
why apples have a core; that bees are the 
only insects attracted by blue flowers; how 
the white walnut should be eaten; what is a 
berry? etc. 

There are also a few things which the 
reader may be inclined to question. One of 
them is that squirrels are becoming more 
numerous. This statement will hardly be 
borne out by the reports of gunners, and by 
the fact that the forests are disappearing so 
rapidly. And it is not quite certain whether 
the idea is a mistaken one that claims that 
a person with a sensitive skin need only 
pass to leeward of poisonous ivy wet with 
■dew, or on a foggy, sultry day, in order to 
be poisoned, results obtained from the 
physiological laboratory • notwithstanding. 
Personal experience tells many people dif- 
ferently; but lack of space will not allow 
the giving an account of them here. The 
book is written in a pleasant, fresh style. 
It will be read by both lovers of books and 
lovers of nature. It will be enjoyed in- 
doors as well as out-of-doors by ajl who 
have an interest in things under the open 
sky. It might just as well be termed a 
classic as Burroughs' "Birds and Bees". 

It is illustrated with a number of beauti- 
ful full-page and marginal pictures by the 
wife of the author. The publishing house 
has also shown artistic taste in the make- 
up of the book, especially in presenting the 
open pages as a unit and in binding the 
book in such a fresh-looking cover. 

Knapp, with illustrations in color by 
the Kinneys. Cloth; 307 pp. Price 
$1.50. J. B. Lippincott Company, Phila- 
delphia. 1910. 
Here is a new sort of mystery story, a 
detective novel of a new type. It has for its 
base the "third degree as it is actually 
practiced". It is hoped, however, that the 
instance described in the book is an excep- 
tional one, for it is virtually inconceivable 
that such should be the cruel and corrupt 
practice in police courts everywhere. It is 
only fair to say that the great majority of 
policemen are brave and honest fellows; 
they are kind and considerate enough when 
they start in on the work, but it tends to 
make them hard and brutal. 

It is also strange that the law and the 
pclice force should work with a different 
object in view. The law presumes a crimi- 
nal innocent until he is proved guilty, 
while the police presume he is guilty until 
he is proved innocent. And the latter in 
order to bring about his admission of guilt 
through confession will resoi't to all sorts of 
torture to extort a confession; hence the so- 
called "third degree". 

The evil practices resulting from this 
"sweating" an accused person have brought 
this method into disrepute. A Senate com- 
mittee was appointed to investigate it. 
Some of the states have passed bills to 
abolish it; and the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science has undertaken 
to probe it. The police departments of the 
cities deny the existence of such a process. 
The police commissioner cf a large city says 
"this third degree system is an imaginary 
something derived from the brain of some 

bright news writer there is absolutely 

no torture nor punishment, physical or men- 
tal, and nothing except clever arguments 
and the presentation of facts or correct im- 
pressions". And yet there are men who 
have passed through the degree that say 
that they would rather hang than pass 
through again. If the book presents the 
"system" as it actually exists then there is 
reason for doubting the remarks of the com- 
missioner quoted above. And again, the 
book seems to show that the provision of 
the law which states that the accused cannot 
be compelled to testify against himself is a 
dead letter in many police courts. 

The story is one of thrilling mystery and 
increditable brutality. The mystery, the 
killing of Harteley, is well sustained until 
the end. The reader is not only surprised 
but even shocked to find that Kern, the 
hero, a reporter of fine journalistic abili- 
ties through whose efforts the doomed man 
is acquitted, is himself the slayer of Harte- 
ley for vengeance sake because he ruined 
his (Kern's) father. At first this seems to 
mar the artistic treatment of the story, and 
yet it may be in keeping with the ltle: 
"The Scales of Justice", which are not al- 
ways balanced, in police courts or else- 

Mr. Knapp is a newspaper man from Den- 
ver; he has written his story in the unaf- 
fected vernacular of the prairie newspaper. 
He holds his pen well in restraint and fre- 
quently spares the feelings of the reader. 
There is a cleverness and snap to the style 
that distinguishes the experienced journal- 
ist. The book should go far in winning re- 
cruits to a movement for abolishing the 
"third degree". 




NOTE.— This Department should have 
notes from the various "Historical Socie- 
ties" in Pennsylvania. Will not our readers 
who are members of such societies see to it 
that news items are sent us regularly of 
their stated meetings, etc. 

"Stories of Old Stumpstown" 

This is the title of a book of 152 pages by 
Dr. E. Grumbine, the Persident of the Leba- 
non County Historical Society, which has 
just been issued from the press. It was 
originally written for the Society, but the 
writer has had a limited number of copies 
printed as an Author's Edition, which con- 
tain besides the historical portions, a 
"Story of the Early Settlers of Monroe 
Valley", a letter descriptive of his visit to 
Strassburg and Paris, and also some poetry 
in both the English language and the Penn- 
sylvania German vernacular. 

The little volume is finely embellished 
with pictures of places, preachers, school- 
masters and others, who had part in the life 
of the village of Fredericksburg in the 
"olden time". 

A kind reviewer has spoken of the book 
in the following language: "It certainly is 
a mine of information and a treasure-house 
of entertainment for all who have, or have 
had, any interest in Fredericksburg. It is 
beautifully written, and the illustrations are 
not the least valuable feature of the 

Any person desiring a copy will have it 
send postpaid by remitting One Dollar and 
a quarter ($1.25) to 


Mt. Zion, Pa. 

The Steamboat "Wyoming'' on the Upper 

NOTE— The AVyalusing Rocket of Oct. 26, 
1910, contained an article by Edward 
Welles, Esq., on Isaac Dewel, "a picturesque 
character, a gentle and conscientious, but 
somewhat crack-brained tinker", from 
which we quote the following: 

"Some of your readers may remember the 
famous steamboat "Wyoming", built at 
Tunkhannock somewhere in the early fifties, 
and commanded by Captain Converse, for 
the navigation of the upper Susquebanna. 
Now the steamer was all right, and the cap- 
tain the right man to pilot her where there 
was any moisture; but good mother Nature, 
her right intent being conceded, had made 
the grand mistake of omitting the water, 

where she had made the waterway. Genera- 
tions of men, from Richard Caton of Balti- 
more at the end of the eighteenth century, 
ill) or down to Colonel Wright, the Luzerne 
congressman, in the last quarter of the 
nineteenth, had determined that the Sus- 
quehanna was and should be, a navigable 
stream. The one had lands upon her banks 
that he wished to sell; the other had con- 
stituents whose votes were desirable. And 
so, on paper, the river became a navigable 
waterway; and Congress paid the bills. 

But in the case of the steamer "Wyoming" 
it was found, greatly to the surprise — not to 
say chagrin — of her sanguine projectors, 
that she obstinately declined to sail up the 
rapids, where the bed-gravel was dry. Here 
was Isaac's opportunity. Captain Converse 
was in his eyes a hero, a man of exalted 
position; nevertheless he resolved to beard 
the lion in his den; but to do it with due 
reverence, and the greater safety to himself, 
he committed his thoughts carefully to 
paper, and the United States mails. Did the 
Captain think that the mere lack of water 
in a riffle should be allowed to put a check 
upon the majestic up-stream progress of 
the great stern-wheeler WYOMING, able to 
stem the tide with a cargo of no less than 
fifty tons? Let the poor inventor give the 
great navigator a quiet hint. Simply length- 
en the radial arms of the great paddle-wheel 
by a matter of six or eight inches beyond 
the blades, and there you are! When the 
water in the riffles is too shallow, or too 
rapid, the projecting arms will take claw- 
hold of the gravel as the wheel revolves, 
and up she goes, let the channel be wet or 
dry! How very simple a matter, when you 
are brought to think of it! 

Isaac's letter was well indicted and well- 
written; for he was not illiterate, and wrote 
a fair hand. He showed me his letter and 
the Captain's reply. This was carefuly and 
considerately framed to avoid injury to the 
inventor's feelings. But of course he could 
give the absurd scheme no encouragement; 
and so poor Isaac lost one of his few life- 
chances for gathering fame." 

Mixed Blood 

A. E. Bachert, Tyrone, Pa., has in his 
veins Danish, French, Swiss, German, 
Scotch and American Indian blood, all of 
which he shows in his bookplate, a singular 
combination of heraldic devices designed by 
himself and reproduced with description in 
the >evv England Craftsman of December, 




Conducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited. Address, The Penna. German, Lititz, Pa. 


Family of Jacob Kline 

Jacob Klein, living near Lincoln, Lancas- 
ter County, Pa., died about 1813 or 1815 
leaving several children. The undersigned 
would like to know place of burial and get 
data about the wife and descendants of said 

R. D. 4 Hamburg, Pa. 


Where Did Henry Weidner Live? 

Henry Weidner, born 1717, the founder of 
the Penna. -German settlement on the South 
Fork Valley, N. C, lived for a time in either 
Berks or Lancaster County. He was mar- 
ried to Mary Mull who had brothers named 
John, Peter and Abram, the last of whom 
married Mary Paff. The undersigned is de- 
sirous of learning Weidner's place of resi- 
dence in Pennsylvania. 


Hickory, N. C. 

Eight Generations of Flnke-Fluck Family 

One of our readers, Lee M. Fluck, stands 
fifth in the following line of Flucks of Hill- 
town, Bucks County, Pa. Johann Fluke 
(migrated from the Palatinate 1730), Fred- 
erick, John (Fluck) Tobias, Lee M., Hiram 
M., Henry, Norman. Who can give us a 
list of nine or ten American generations of 
a German immigrant? 

(In answer to Queries in December num- 

Kline Family 

Recorder's Office, Lancaster, Book X, p. 

Doorthea Kline, executrix of Michael 
Kline of Warwick Township. Deed signed 
by her and 

George, wife of Christiana. 

Leonard, wife of Barbara. 

Frenia, wife of Michael Quigell. 

Catharine, wife of Geo. Will. 

Magdalena, wife of Adam Reist. 
Margaret, wife of George Bowman. 
Dorothea, wife of John Bowman. 
Susanna, wife of John Brown. 
Barbara, wife of Geo. Giger. 
Nicholas, David, Michael, Jacob. 
Land granted by Patent Nov. 14, 1753. 
Recorded Nov. 16, 1781. 

P. 235. Will of Michael Kline of Lancas- 

Wife, Mary. 


Mary, wife of John Landis. 

George, Jacob, Henry, Charles. 

Elizabeth, wife of Robert McClure. 

Margaret, deceased wife of John Leonard. 

Michael, deceased, one daughter, Mary 

Will signed Aug. 1, 1827. 

Proved Sept. 2, 1828. 

Roth Family 

Will of Philip Roth. Book G, page 227, of 
Earl Township. 

Wife, Maria Margaretha. 

Children : 

John, Jacob, Philip, Henry, George. 

Catharine, wife of David Ream. 


Susanna, wife of Martin Bowman. 

Will signed July 3, 1785. 

Proved Feb. 5, 1797. 

Will of George Roth. J, p. 218. 

Wife, Thoratea. 


Daniel, Jacob, Margratha, Mary, Sara, Fri- 
drig, Lodwig. 

Dated May 21, 1782. 

Not signed. Offered for probate Aug. 16, 

Recorder's Office. Q. 3, page 746. 

George Roth and Susanna his wife of 
Lancaster sell a house in the borough 
March 17, 1804. 


Among the few Indian relics in Pennsyl- 
vania was a large flat stone on a farm in 
Washington County, upon which had been 
carved various curious Indian hieroglyphics 
that had attracted wide attention from Revo- 
lutionary times. This stone was blown re- 

cently with dynamite by the owner of the 
farm to rid himself of the annoyance caused 
by so many visitors to tre stone. With the 
fragments he built a smoke house. 
— From Swank's Progressive Pennsylvania. 



The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 


MEANING of names 

By Leoulmrd Felix Fuld, LL.M., Ph.D. 

EDITORIAL NOTE.— Dr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the der- 
ivation and meaning of the surname of any 
reader who sends twenty-five cents to the 
Editor for that purpose. 

The original English surname was SUM- 
MONER, which was applied to the Sheriff 
or other county officer who summoned the 
posse, the jurymen, etc. This name was 
corrupted in speech and in spelling to SUM- 
NER and this was modified to SUMNEY by 
the use of the genitive ending to denote the 

64. BEST 
BEST is one of the comparatively few 
complimentary English surnames. It was 
applied to him who was considered in every 
respect best. Its etymology is interesting. 
Derived from the verb BEAT it was origi- 
nally spelled BEATEST and indicated the 
man who could beat all others. The best 
fighter was at that time considered the best 
man but later the surname was given a 
wider connotation. 

EVERLY is believed to be a corruption of 
EVER and LICH. LICH means like and 
EVER is derived from the Latin of VERRES 
meaning a pig. The primary meaning of 
EVERLY was undoubtedly somewhat com- 
plimentary. "Strong as a boar pig." Later 
however it was also applied as a nickname 
meaning a man who is like a swine. 


We have the honor to acknowledge receipt 
from a Tennessee correspondent of two 
copyrighted cards gotten up by the 
"King's Daughters of Memphis". The one 
booms Memphis; the other notes the his- 
toric fact that Dan Emmet's "Dixie" was 
made famous by Herman F. Arnold, living 
in Memphis today, who on the suggestion of 
his wife orchestrated it for a band to be 
played at the inauguration of Jefferson 
Davis. The latter card gives pictures of 
Mr. and Mrs. Arnold in 1859 and today, of 
Jefferson Davis and of the original manu- 
script of "Dixie". Address will be fur- 
nished on application. 

Making Drafts, Fascinating 

M. A. Gruber, Washington, D. C, is de- 
voting his spare time to "the preparation of 
a draft of the original tracts of land taken 
up by the first settlers in the townships of 
Heidelberg and North Heidelberg, Berks 
County, Pa. and of adjoining properties". 
He says, "It is an extremely fascinating oc- 
cupation for those interested in genealogy 
and local history". 

Magazine Exchange 

For ten cents each per issue we will in- 
sert under this head notices by subscribers- 
respecting back numbers of The Pennsyl- 
vania- German under "Wanted" and "For 
Sale". In answering state price and condi- 
tion of copies. 

WANTED — Vol. I, No. 3 and 4. Nathan 
Stein, Alameda, California. 

Vol. I and Vol. VI. W. J. Dietrich, Allen- 
town, Pa., 534 N. 7. 

Value of the Dialect 

One of our subscribers who came as a 
stranger on business into a Penna.-German 
community writes as follows about his ex- 
perience : 

"After my first 'Volley' of 'Penna. -Dutch' 
my reputation was made among them and I 
was met with handshakes, kindly invitations 
and expressions, such as, 'Mere wissa does 
du all recht bischt, weil du schwedscht und 
huscht actions geraud wie unser leit', etc.,. 
etc., I surely 'felt at home' among them." 

A Rare Relic 

W. H. Calhoun, a Sunbury jeweler, has on 
exhibition in his window one of the finest 
relics of the Susquehanna valley. The relic 
is a necklace of two strands of opalescent 
beads and a bronze medallion and is the 
property of Rev. E. M. Gearhart. 

The necklace was dug up on Blue Hill, 
opposite Sunbury, and corresponds exactly 
to the description of one of the treaty neck- 
laces given by the British to Chief Shikel- 
limy. The owner however does not claim 
this to be the necklace in question in as 
much as Shikellimy's visiting card does not 
accompany the relic, but authorities both of 
state and national reputation who have ex- 
amined the necklace and medallion are of 
the unbiased opinion that this is in reality 
the necklace of which British history tells. 
— Middleburg Post. 



The German in Evidence 

Leslie's Weekly of November 17 made ref- 
erence to the following — Chicago's Tribute 
to a German Poet, the superb monument of 
Goethe; the Isthmian Commission: Lieut. 
Col. W. L. Sibert, Col. G. W. Goethals, Col. 
W. C. Gorgas; Prof. Reinhard A. Wetzel of 
the College of the City of New York who 
weighed the world and wants to weigh a 
sunbeam; Rear Admiral Schley; Stellan 
Hammerstein: Judge Peter S. Grosscup; 
General Zollikoffer; John S. Huyler; the 
Baron Steuben Monument. 

be looked for as last winter, with the excep- 
tion that the cold will not be so prolonged 
into the late spring. — Hanover Record- 

An Old Subscriber Writes 

"I wish I could send you some subscrib- 
ers for your very good magazine, but in 
this country that is almost impossible. I 
enclose a few names— the best that I know 
' — but even these will not likely take your 
paper. They have been weaned away from 
the old state with its language and cus- 

Query. Who has been doing the wean- 
ing? Should not an effort be made to win 
"back in affection — if not in body — our sons 
and daughters? 

A Subscribers Poetic Testimonial 
The Pennsylvania-German 

Is the magazine I read. 

I close scan its pages 

Relating many a heroic deed, 

Of the early German fathers 

Who struggled and who toiled, 

To make a home for those they loved; 

Whose aim could not be foiled. 

The Irish, Scotch and English 

Despised the thrifty race, 

Who made their acres blossom 

Supported by God's grace. 


The "Caterpillar" Prophet 

Henry Hershey, of near Spring Grove, 
predicts that the people can look for a cold 
spell of weather, with much snow and ice 
'from now until the latter part of February. 
After that a mild condition will prevail all 
through March and the forepart of April, 
and then another short snap of cold weather 
before summer opens. 

He bases his calculations on the large 
gray, woolly caterpillars, which can be seen 
crawling in the late fall along public roads 
and railroad tracks, and says that their 
condition in color is an almost infallible 
sign. This year the caterpillars are black 
from the head beyond the middle, then they 
are light in color for a short distance and 
end with a black spot over the tail. Last 
year the black spot over the tail was much 
larger, and a similar weather condition may 

Last of Historic Toll Road 

At a stockholders' meeting held at the 
offices of the Lehigh Valley Transit Com- 
pany, in Allentown it was unanimously 
voted to dissolve the famous old Chestnut 
Hill & Spring House Road Company. This 
company, chartered by a special act of the 
Legislature in 1804, thus died a natural and 
unregretted death, its disease being modern 
progress. It extends through Springfield 
and White Marsh townships, this county, 
and had rights of way through Ambler, 
Flourtown and Fort Washington. 

In looking over the old records it was 
found that the road had originally been 
chartered to be 60 feet wide and was bound 
to have 32 feet of macadam. Even as far 
back as 1804 the cost of construction was 
$71,000, and a glance at the minutes showed 
that during the 106 years of its existence 
upward of $525,000 had been expended in 
maintenance. — Register. 

No Race Suicide 

Recently there were laid to rest near 
Macungie, Pa., the remains of Catharine, 
widow of Enoch Rohrbach, aged 97 years, 2 
months and 10 days. Deceased was a 
daughter of Martin Miller and his wife 
Elizabeth, and was born in Berks County. 
Five children preceded her in death. There 
survive the following: Seven children — 
Sophia Kemerer, of Powder Valley ; Eliza- 
beth Eschbach, of Dale; Mary Ann Nuss, of 
Sigmund; Jeremiah, of Griesemersville; 
James, of Sigmund; George, of Macungie; 
Alfred, of Sigmund; — besides the 12 children 
she had 78 grandchildren, 155 great-grand- 
children and 17 great-great-grandchildren, 
or 259 descendants. 

The greatest mother in the world, per- 
haps, is Mrs. Jane Morris, 86 years old, re- 
siding in Jackson County, near the foothills 
of the Cumberland mountains, in Kentucky. 

Mrs. Morris was born and reared in the 
mountains, has little education and, until a 
few years ago, had never been outside of 
her immediate vicinity, there being up to 
that time no railroad in Jackson County. 

Mrs. Morris' claim to greatness lies in the 
fact that she can boast of a total of 518 
descendants, nearly all of whom are living 
and none of whom ever has been accused of 

Aunt Jane, as she is called, is now very 
feeble. — Baltimore Sun. 



The Kaiser in the Making 

The German "gymnasium" is not very un- 
like the ordinary type of public schools in 
America and Scotland, so writes Mr. Sydney 
Brooks in McClure's Magazine. In the gym- 
nasium at Cassel the German Kaiser spent 
three years of his boyhood, a diligent but 
not a brilliant pupil, ranking tenth among 
seventeen candidates for the university. 

Many tales are told of this period of his 
life, and one of them, at least, is illuminat- 

A professor, it is said, wishing to curry 
favor with his royal pupil, informed him 
overnight of the chapter in Xenophon that 
was to be made the subject of the next 
day's lesson. 

The young prince did what many boys 
would not have done. As soon as the class- 
room was opened on the following morn- 
ing, he entered and wrote conspicuously on 
the blackboard the information that had 
been given him. 

One many say unhesitatingly that a boy 
capable of such an action has the root of a 
fine character in him, possesses that chival- 
rous sense of fair play which is the nearest 
thing to a religion that may be looked for 
at that age, hates meanness and favoritism, 
and will, wherever possible, expose them. 
There is in him a fundamental bent toward 
what is clean, manly and aboveboard. 

Boyhood Dreams of Judge Grosscup 

Mark Twain is authority for the state- 
ment that you cannot tell how far a frog 
can jump by looking at him. 

Neither can you forecast the future of a 
boy by his appearance. 

A biographer of Judge Peter Grosscup, 
the distinguished federal judge of Chicago, 
tells some interesting things concerning the 
life of the judge. 

His parents were primitive Germans and 
members of the religious sect known as- 
Amish. They were poor, too poor to send 
their five children to school. Both the moth- 
er and the girls worked in the fields, and 
Peter alone got some schooling. 

Peter was a tall, awkward youth, with a 
mop of black hair, untrimmed, after the 
Amish fashion; a protuberant nose and 
thick lips. 

Even today Judge Grosscup is not a hand- 
some man, though distinguished looking. 

Moreover, Peter would not work. He was 
a dreamer of dreams that nobody under- 
stood. But his mother said: 

"If the Lord doesn't feel to make Peter 
work I don't feel to do it." 

Which argued rare philosophy in the 
mother, who, with a mother's insight, saw 
something unusual in her awkward son. 

Peter disappeared from the neighborhood, 
and the next that was heard from him he 
had graduated at college with honors and 
was studying law. 

Somewhere within the uncouth Amish lad 
was a divine yeast that caused him to rise 
in the world. 

It is good to add that when the judge be- 
came prosperous he took very good care of 
his people. 

There is this to be said: 

If you aspire to a prophet's reputation 
be not swift to predict the future of a 
freckle faced country youth. 

There may be a Lincoln inside of him! 

And further- — ■ 

With the career of Judge Grosscup before 
him, the poor boy who aspires to distinction 
may well take hope. 

And further still — 

It is your business and mine to see that 
the door of opportunity remain wide open 
to the poor and ambitious youth. — Exchange. 

Wild pigeons were very numerous 
when Penn first visited his province. 
Janney quotes the following' account of 
them : "The wild pigeons came in such 
numbers that the air was sometimes 
darkened by their flight, and flying low 
those that had no other means to take 
them sometimes supplied themselves 
by throwing at them as they flew and 
salting up what they could not eat ; 
they served them for bread and meat 
in one. They were thus supplied, at 
times, for the first two or three years, 
by which time they had raised suf- 
ficient out of the ground by their own 

labor." Proud says that the wild 
pigeons were knocked down with long 
poles in the hands of men and boys. 
Wollenweber gives a humorous ac- 
count of the commotion caused in 
Berks County about the middle of the 
last century by an immense flock of 
wild pigeons. The pigeons created "a 
dreadful noise" just before daylight 
which greatly excited the fears of the 
superstitious, who believed that a great 
calamity was impending. 

— From Swank's Progressive Penn- 


(Founded by Rev. Dr. P. C. Croll, 1900.) 

H. W. KRIEBEL, Editor and Publisher 


Editor of Review Department, Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Advisory Editorial Board:— I. H. Betz, M. D, York, Pa. ; Lucy Forney Bittinger, Sewickley, 
Pa.; A. Y. Casanova. Washington, D. C. ; Rev. P. C. Croll, D. D., Beardstown, 111.; Prof. 
G. T. Ettinger, Allentown, Pa.; Prof. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown. Conn.; Daniel Miller, 
Reading, Pa.; Gen. John E. Roller, Harrisonburg, Va. ; Prof. L. S. Shimmel, Harrisburg, 
Pa. ; Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Paulding, Ohio. 

The Pennsylvania-German is the only, popular, illustrated, monthly magazine of biography, genealogy, 
man and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and otherhistory, folklore, literature, devoted to the early Ger 
states and their descendants. It encourages a restudy of the history of the Germans in America ; it res- 
cues from oblivion the record of the deeds of those gone before; it unearths, formulates and disseminates 
a wealth of historic material of great moment in the right interpretation of our American life; it meets 
the necessity of having a repository for historical contributons and a medium for the expression of opin- 
ion on current questions pertaining to its field. It aims to develop a proper regard for ancestry, to 
create interest in family history, to promote research along genealogical lines, to unite descendants where- 
ever found, to facilitate a scientific, philological study of its dialect; it makes generally accessble to the 
future historian the precious incidents of German life and achievements in America, and incidentally be- 
comes an eloquent, imperishable monument to a very important element of the citizenship of the United 

PRICE. Single Copies 20 cents; per year $2.00 
payable in advance. Foreign Postage, Extra : to 
Canada, 24 cents: to Germany, 36 cents. 

SPECIAL RATES to clubs, to canvassers, on long 
-term subscriptions and on back numbers. Ask for 

REMITTANCES will be acknowledged through the 
magazine; receipts will be sent only on request. 

ADVERTISING RATES will be furnished on ap- 

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of address the old and new addresses should be given. 

SI DIGESTIONS AND PLANS on how to extend 
the sale and influence, of the magazine are invited 
and, if on trial found to be of value, will be suitably 
rewarded. „ 

■confer a great favor by reporting important imd 
significant biographical, bibliographical, genealogical, 
social, industrial items appearing in books and cur- 
rent literature that relate to our magazine field. 

HINTS TO AUTHORS. Condense closely. AYrite 
plainly on one side only of uniform paper. Do not 
cram, interline, scrawl, abbreviate (except words to 
be abbreviated), roll manuscript, or send incomplete 
copy. Spell, capitalize, punctuate and paragraph 
carefully and uniformly. Verify quotations, refer- 
ences, dates, proper names, foreign words and techni- 
cal terms. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. Articles on topics connected 
with our field are always welcome. Readers of the 
magazine are invited to contribute items of interest 
and thus help to enhance the value of its pages. Re- 
sponsibility for contents of articles is assumed by 
contributors. It is taken for granted that names of 
contributors may be given in connection with articles 
when withholding is not requested. MSS. etc. will 
be returned only on request, accompanied by stamps 
to pay postage. Corrections of misstatements of facts 
are welcomed; these will be printed and at the end 
of the year indexed. 

Volume Twelve 
The current issue marks the begin- 
ning of Volume Twelve of the maga- 
zine. We count ourselves fortunate in 
being able to give our readers such 
good things as a first course. We hope 
to make all the following courses 
equally rich. 

The Special Dialect Department 

Our "Announcement for 191 1" calls 
for a special "Dialect Department" 
•edited by Prof. E. M. Fogel of the 

University of Pennsylvania in which 
the dialect will be treated scientifically 
from a literary and historic standpoint, 
and a phonetic notation will be used. 
The following lines from Professor 
Fogel account for the non-appearance 
of the initial article of the department 
in the January number. We anticipate 
interesting and valuable discussions. y 
"I shall have to prepare a paper for 
the annual meeting of the Modern 
Language Association, to be held in 
December in my city and another for 
the annual meeting - of the American 



Folk Lore Society two days later in 
Providence, R. I., so that I shall have 
no time before Jan. I to write anything 
definite for the P.-G. 1 hope after that 
to be able to have a little more time 
and thus do something for you. It 
will do no harm to delay a month or 
so, will it? I am going to take up the 
phonetic notation again, during the 
Xmas holidays." , 



Variations in Use of Dialect 

It is very desirable to record in The 
Pennsylvania-German dialect varia- 
tions coming to the notice of our 
readers. To facilitate such work it is 
respectfully suggested that all who 
can, make note of the differences ob- 
served by them in the dialect articles 
appearing in this department and sub- 
mit the results for compilation. That 
such variations exist becomes very 
evident to those who change their 
place of residence as the Editor did. 
If all who are interested in the history 
of the dialect will act on this sug- 
gestion interesting and valuable results 
can be secured. Those who do so will 
confer a favor by notifying us. 

Our Mail Bag 

Our mail bag has been particularly 
interesting of late — checks, greetings, 
manuscripts, exchanges, discontinu- 
ance notices being our daily fare. Our 
list of "subscriptions received" indi- 
cates in part how widely scattered our 
family is. A fellow editor expresses 
his feelings about the magazine in 
these words : 

"I enjoy every number of your val- 
uable publication. It is full of interest 
to me, valuable and meaty." 

A genealogist and warm friend of 
the magazine gives utterance to her 
good wishes in words of cheer — 

"I send you the season's greetings 
and the best of wishes for the coming 
year to the magazine and to you. 
Here's health and happiness, comfort 

and peace, success and usefulness in 
full measure and running over." 
A prominent lawyer writes : 
"I have been a subscriber for your 
magazine for some time and have en- 
joyed it very much." 

Words like these are a great reward 
and inspiration to contributors and 
friends who help so nobly in the up- 
building of the magazine. They 
should incite all to do still better work 
this year. 

Sinking into Oblivion 

According to newspaper report the 
worthy Superintendent of Public In- 
struction of Pennsylvania, Nathan C. 
Schaeffer, said at a teachers' institute : 

"Roosevelt, in a recent work, said 
that the Pennsylvania Germans during 
the Revolutionary period who forged 
to the front dropped their dialect. 
Those who retained it sank into ob- 

We are unable to verify the state- 
ment at present, but it is so wide of 
the mark that we can not believe that 
the language has been reported cor- 
rectly. Oblivion is the state of being 
blotted out from memory. To main- 
tain that all the Pennsylvania German 
families of the Revolutionary period 
who did not drop their dialect have 
been blotted out from memory is so 
perposterous-, unfounded and manifest- 
ly unjust to a large class of prominent 
citizens of our country that a refuta- 
tion becomes unnecessary. The state- 
ment, like an empty bag, can not stand 
on its own base and we are not ready 
to believe that our own President 
would attempt to bolster it up. Sin mid 
we call a roll of worthies of. our Nation 
of the past fifty years we would doubt- 
less find a goodly number of "im- 
mortals" who themselves or whose 
parents and grandparents spoke the 
dialect. As we write, the names of 
Governors. Ministers, Professors, Mis- 
sionaries, Physicians, Judges, School 
Superintendents. Principals and Presi- 
dents of Educational Institutions come 
to mind. Perikomen Seminary may be 



cited as an example in this connection. 
It is located in a Pennsylvania German 
community, was founded by men who 
spoke the dialect, is presided over by a 
Board of Trustees who can use the 
dialect, has always had teachers and 
pupils conversant with the dialect. The 
work done there, as in many other edu- 

cational institutions in Eastern Penn- 
sylvania, will save the names of many 
of its participants for centuries from 
oblivion. Our ex-President probably 
did not say what is attributed to him ; 
if he did he should not have done so, 
and should either prove the statement 
or withdraw it. 

the year given— "12— 10" signifying December, 1910 


Louisa Miller — 8 — 15 
Elmer Bitting — 12 — 11 
Charles Wagner — 12 — 11 
Marv E. Kerschner — 12 — 11 
Mrs." C. S. Mohr — 12 — 11 

D. N. Schaeffer — 12 — 11 
H. C. Desh — 12 — 11 

J. D. Geiger — 12—11 

A. A. Schlegel — 12 — 14 

J. M. Lamberton — 12 — 11 

J. I. Lenhart — 12 — 11 

J. G. Rosengarten — 12 — 11 

H. M. M. Richards — 12 — 11 

O. F. Reinhard — 12 — 11 

F. P. Krebs — 12 — 11 

Pa. State Lib. — 12 — 11 

Phila. Free Lib. — 12 — 11 

P'b'g Carnegie Lib. — 12 — 11 

N. Y. Public Lib. — 12 — 11 

C. F. King — 12 — 11 

Asa K. Mcllhaney — 12 — 11 

H. K. Heebner — 12 — 11 

C. F. Huch — 12 — 11 

A. M. Treffinger — 12 — 11 

M. G. Brumbaugh — 12 — 14 

T. J. B. Rhoads — 12 — 11 

Theodore Diller — 12 — 11 

A. D. Glenn — 12 — 11 

Miss E. E. Ellmaker — 12 — 11 

Lottie Bausman — 12 — 11 

Rev. J. J. Reitz — 4 — 11 

H. S. Brinser — 12 — 11 

C. S. Wieand — 12 — 11 

W. A. Schall — 12—11 

J. B. Scheetz — 12 — 11 

T. H. Krick — 12 — 14 

H. K. Kriebel — 12 — 11 

E. A. Weaver — 12 — 11 
W. H. Wotring — 12 — 11 
J. R. Hoffman — 12 — 11 
C. B. Laux — 12 — 11 

C. Elder — 12 — 11 

A. Stapleton — 12 — 11 

F. D. Bittner — 12 — 11 
W. B. Beyer — 12 — 11 
A. J. Croman — 12 — 11 
E. A. Jacobv — 6 — 14 
A. B. Wagner — 12 — 11 

C. Penrose Shirk — 12 — 11 
N. C. Schaeffer — 12 — 11 
H. W. Rupp — 12 — 11 
W. E. Rex — 12—11 
L. G. Heilman — 12 — 11 
W. Feglev — 12 — 11 
W. C. Armor — 12—11 
J. H. DeLong — 6 — 15 
E. W. Miller— 12 — 11 
A. R. Brubaker — 12 — 11 
J. W. Ellmaker — 12 — 11 
E. K. Schultz — 12 — 11 
J. K. Schultz — 2 — 12 
J. H. Werner — 12 — 11 
H. H. Shipe — 12 — 11 
J. F. Kocher — 12 — 11 
H. K. Deischer — 12 — 11 
J. W. Polster — 12 — 11 
W. Brower — 12 — 11 

F. Xeimever — 12 — 12 

E. L. Klopp — 12 — 14 

C. Moser 4 — 15 

J. Frank Sallade — 8 — 11 

G. R. Oberholtzer — 12 — 11 
Mrs. J. L. Mover — 12 — 11 
Rev. O. E. Pflueger — 12 — 11 
Mrs. E. S. Anders — 12 — 11 
H. E. Gerhard — 6 — 11 

L. S. Lonkert — 12 — 11 
Lee M. Fluck — 6 — 11 
Albright College — 12 — 11 
W. K. Kistler — 12 — 11 
Mrs. M. Chidsev — 12 — 11 
J. G. Zern — 12 — 11 
E . R. Deatrick — 12 — 14 

F. A. Muschlitz — 12 — 11 
T. A. J. Schadt — 12 — 11 
W. M. Kopenhaver — 12 — 14 
A. S. Klein — 8 — 11 

H. E. Kram — 12 — 11 

D. Nothstein— 12 — 11 
Mrs. M. Saul — 3 — 11 
Elmer Stauffer — 6 — 11 
X. W. Reichard — 6 — 11 
I. Z. Backnstose — 6 — 11 
P. Hermany — 6 — 11 
Jennie Kline — 12 — 10 

S. E. Wertman — 12 — 11 
M. \. . Mervine — 8 — 15 
S. T. Bleam — 12 — 11 
W. E. Zerbe — 12 — 11 
T. P. Wenner — 12 — 11 

F. E. Reichard — 12 — 11 
A. R. Beck — 12 — 11 

A. Loucks — 12 — 11 
Laura Heckert — 12 — 11 

D. B. Missemer — 12 — 11 

G. E. Brownback — 8 — 12 
F. M. Hartman — 12 — 11 
J. K. Schultz — 12 — 11 

J. A. Beaver — 12 — 14 
J. R. Porter— 12 — 11 
Ida P. Boyer — 6 — 11 
J. H. Miller — 6 — 15 
J. H. Snvder, Jr. — 12 — 11 

E. Bertolet — 12 — 11 
M. B. Smover — 12 — 14 
George Kriebel, Jr. — 12 — 11 
W. Scheirer — 12 — 14 
Rebecca Miller — 12 — 11 

A. E. Burkholder — 12 — 11 
H. L. Haldeman — 12 — 14 
J. J. Hauser — 3 — 12 
O. F. Ettwein — 4 — 10 
A. F. Hostetter — 12 — 11 
John H. Boltz — 12 — 11 
W. M. Zechman — 12 — 11 
X. L. Getz — 12 — 11 

E. M. Herbst — 12 — 11 
C J. Bloss — 8 — 15 
W. H. Ebright — 12 — 14 


State Lib. — 12 — 11 

M. B. Lambert — 12 — 11 

F. R. Getz — 12 — 11 

E. K. Martin — 12 — 11 
D. W. Nead — 1 — 12 

named, to and including month of 


S. P. Bowman — 12—11 

C. S. Eichelberger — 12 — 11 

Nathan Stein — 12 — 11 

C. B. Taylor — 12 — 11 


E. E. Shott — 12 — 11 

G. M. Brumbaugh — 12 — 11 

W. H. Beck — 12 — 11 

C. C. Curry — 12 — 11 


G. K. Leonard — 12 — 11 
Sarah D. Young — 12 — 11 
C. Benninghofen — 12 — 11 
W. S. Gottschall — 12 — 11 

C. E. Metzler — 12 — 11 
A. F. Sickman — 12 — 11 
Worcester Pub. Lib. — 12 — 1 


Louisa G. Miller — 12 — 11 

Mrs. D. P. Miller— 12— 11 


C. A. Lightner — 12 — 11 
J. F. Schaeberle — 12 — 11 


D. B. Hoover — 12 — 11 


Menn. Sanitarium — 12 — 11 


G. C. Jones — 12 — 11 


H. C. Mohr — 12 — 11 


Emma Rittenhouse — 12 — 11 


R. R. Drummond — 12 — 11 

Minn. Hist. Soc- 

-12 — 11 


Mrs. A. S. Tibbets — 10- 


J. P. Wies — 12 — 11 

G. C. Roth — 12 — 11 

F. R. Yoder — 8 — 11 


W. H. Kromer — 12 — 11 

C. C. Hillegass — 12 — 11 


John E. Roller — 12 — 11 


Hist. Lib.— 12— 11 

To Dec. 31, 1910. 


Vol. XII 

A Study of a Rural Community 

By Charles William Super, Ph. D., LL. D. Athens, Ohio 

No. 2 



H. MEYER tells us in his 
Deutsche Volkskunde 
that in Germany the lot 
of the aged who are no 
longer able to render any 
service is often a hard 
one and that they some- 
times take the harsh 
treatment they receive at the hands of 
their children as perfectly natural, 
since one who can not work is of no 
use. I never saw any ill-feeling of 
this kind. If parents were regarded 
as burdensome and vexatious by their 
children the circumstance was care- 
fully concealed or only manifested it- 
self on occasions of extreme provoca- 
tion. The aged were almost without 
exception treated with kindness and 
consideration. The young and middle 
aged seemed to realize unconsciously 
that the same fate was in store for 
many of them and that in treating 
those far advanced in life considerately 
they were doing as they would be done 
by. It was one of the amiable traits 
of these people and one in which there 
was no difference in nationality. So 
generally was the claim of a parent to 
just treatment recognized that if a 
suspicion arose that there was an ex- 
ception, it soon became the talk of the 

neighborhood and the adverse com- 
ments were always severe. Nor did it 
make any difference whether the 
parents left any property to their 
children or not. In the case of renters, 
or even of those who owned small 
farms the unavoidable mode of living 
from hand to mouth made it impossi- 
ble to accumulate anything worth 
while for old age. Sometimes parents 
made advance provision for their un- 
productive years by assigning all or 
most of their property to one of their 
children with the proviso that they 
were to be supported as long as they 

While thus portraying number Two 
I have unavoidably invaded the realm 
of number Three. I therefore go back 
a generation again. It is somewhat 
curious that several score of families 
holding such diverse opinions on many 
things cooperated harmoniously in 
political administration. They pos- 
sessed in a high degree the instinct 
for government. Bitterly as the war 
between the States was opposed 
by about half the people I heard 
really treasonable sentiments ex- 
pressed by one young man only. He 
declared that if he were drafted into* 
the army he would not go; that the 



South could never be conquered, and 
therefore he might as well be killed at 
home. 2 Some members of number 
Two could not speak English, while to 
some German was an unknown tongue. 
The ethnology of this region was char- 
acterized by a commingling of Penn- 
sylvania Germans and Scotch-Irish in 
nearly equal numbers, the- former 
slightly predominating. There were 
a few families of native Germans, but 
I believe no native Scotch or Irish. 
Although in politics the Democrats 
were the most numerous there were a 
good many Whigs and later more Re- 
publicans. Fremont had some adher- 
ents. Knownothingism made some 
stir and had a few friends but more 
enemies. It was not simply the 
younger men who were attracted by 
the new political doctrines, but some 
who were no longer young. It would 
be interesting to know what motives 
led to the acceptance of the new ideas 
that were in a sense in the air. It was 
certainly no mercenary one, for the 
last thing everybody thought of was to 
make profit out of his political opin- 
ions. That the adherents of the vari- 
ous factions and parties were very 
hostile towards each other goes with- 
out saying. When two men holding 
opposing views came together the 
subject that was uppermost in each 
one's mind was generally not men- 
tioned. Every man read only what 
favored his own views : to put into his 
hands arguments from the other side 
was tantamount to a direct insult. 
When the war of secession was im- 
pending, petty acts of violence were 
here and there committed as the result 
of conflicting opinions. To some the 
war meant the forcible deprivation of 
the South of its slaves to which the 
people of that region had as good a 
right as those of the North had to 
their horses. Does not the constitution 
of the United States affrm and confirm 
this fact? But it was in matters of re- 
ligious belief that the greatest diver- 
sity obtained. There were some so- 
called Seceders who, though compara- 
tively few in numbers, were somewhat 

important on account of their social 
standing and their comparative intelli- 
gence. They had no church edifice 
within the region 1 now have in my 
mind's eye. When there was occasional 
preaching in one several miles distant 
none of the faithful were absent 
though they might have a long journey 
to make. Sometimes they held services 
in a schoolhouse. In fact these build- 
ings were called into requisition for 
many different purposes, and were 
freely opened to any one who wanted 
to use them. No member of this de- 
nomination would listen to a sermon 
by a preacher of any other. If any of 
them attended the funeral of a neigh- 
bor he remained outside of the house, 
no matter how inclement the weather, 
while the preaching was in progress, 
if there was any. At their services 
only versified psalms were sung while 
both their sermons and their prayers 
were inordinately long. Yet the hearts 
of these stern sectarians were more 
tender than their heads ; their practice 
was kindlier than their creed. They 
were good neighbors, always ready to 
help those in distress without regard 
to religious belief. It remains to be 
said that their church has long since 
gone to ruin, nothing now being left 
except the stone walls. I doubt 
whether one member remains in the 
community. Then there were Luth- 
erans of the Old School and Lutherans 
of the New who disliked each other as 
much as they disliked outsiders. The 
former, as well as those known by the 
name of Reformed, were likewise ex- 
clusive in their church attendance. 
When a preacher of the New School 
conducted revival services after the 
fashion of the Methodists he was bit- 
terly denounced by his older corelig- 
ionists. It was almost an unheard of 
event for a member of the Old School 
Lutherans or of the Reformed denomi- 
nation to enter a building where any 
other preacher than one of their own 
was holding forth. Albeit, not one of 
their number probably, could have 
given a reason for the exclusiveness. 
In this respect the Seceders were 



somewhat better informed. But these 
conditions too passed gradually away. 
The emotional side of religion was 
represented by the United Brethren 
and the Evangelical Association, the 
latter having a church edifice near my 
home, although subsequently the 
Lutherans erected one still nearer; it 
•was however intended to be somewhat 
of a union affair. They emphasized 
instantaneous conversion which they 
held to be the only condition for en- 
trance into the kingdom of grace. By 
means of their fervent appeals they 
not unfrequently received accession 
from the younger members of families 
that were very hostile to their methods 
of procedure. Both these organiza- 
tions, for the most part, derided an 
educated ministry, holding that the 
sole requisite was a "call". I remem- 
ber however one man who began to 
preach in response to what he believed 
to be a divine inspiration. He did not 
continue long, although he had for 
some time a considerable number of 
adherents. Some of his irreverent 
neighbors declared that he must have 
answered a call intended for some one 
else. There were persons, on the 
other hand, who could not see why a 
young man should seek an education 
unless he purposed to enter the min- 
istry. The immersionists were rep- 
resented by the Dunkers and the 
Winebrennerians. Neither saw any 
merit in an educated ministry. In fact 
the preachers of the former were all 
farmers. They built no churches and 
held their services in schoolhouses and 
barns. I recall one minister who 
boasted of his lack of education. He 
told his auditors, among other things, 
that he never studied a sermon ; that 
the Lord directed him what to say 
upon any text he might happen to 
select. Religious services were gen- 
erally well attended, notwithstanding 
the exclusiveness of some of the farm- 
ers and the indifference of others. It 
was an occasion on which the older 
people could meet together and ex- 
change views with one another. If 
the services were held in the evening 

or in a grove, the young people had a 
particular incentive for attending. 
Once in a while in winter there were 
long continued revival services. The 
occasion when people could meet each 
other besides preaching and prayer- 
meetings in private houses, were the 
not unfrequent raising of a dwelling 
house or barn, the repairing of roads, 
and for the women a "quilting". Per- 
haps the fact that in this community 
the nationalities as well as the creeds 
were so much mixed had the effect of 
toning down the salient features of 
each whether for good or evil. 

Many of the farmers of German ex- 
traction were incredibly superstitious. 
Thev believed in omens and charms; 
they saw nightly visions, "spooks" as 
they called them. They heard mys- 
terous voices. They would neither 
plow, nor reap, nor plant, nor sow, nor 
cut down a tree, nor even build a pig- 
sty when the moon was unpropitious. 
Friday was especially tabooed ; in that 
day nothing must be done that could 
be left undone; above all, no new work 
or enterprise must be entered upon. 
They beheld men without heads and 
dogs that were headless. They be- 
lieved in amulets and other prophylac- 
tics against ill-luck. When their cattle 
fell sick some one who could "pow- 
wow" was usually the first person sent 
for. If one killed a cat it meant the 
death of a cow. They believed in 
witchcraft although I do not recall any 
person who had the reputation of be- 
ing a confirmed, or professional witch 
or wizard. Perhaps every one was 
credited with the ability to practice the 
malign art when so disposed. I ought 
to add that I never heard a man ex- 
press a belief in witchcraft and only a 
few Aery ignorant women. Even with 
these it was rather the faint echo of an 
old-time tradition than a firmly held 
creed./ That this represented a stage 
of progress beyond that reached by the 
old world and portions of the new is 
evident when we recall that in 1793 a 
woman was executed in Posen for be- 



ing a witch and that so late as 1836 a 
reputed witch was drowned near 
Dantzic. In Mexico a witch was 
burned in i860 and another in 1873, 
probably the last victim in the whole 
world. It is however well known that 
the peasants of continental Europe 
have not quite shaken off the belief in 
the malevolent influence and diabolical 
power of some old women. They re- 
fused absolutely to bring" any of their 
beliefs and superstitions to the test of 
experiment or to submit their theories 
to investigation. "What my father be- 
lieved I believe" always put an end to 
the discussion. I remember that one 
woman in particular w r as reputed to be 
potential in powwowing" for "wild fire" 
(ervsipelas). I do not know whether 
she ever cured a patient, but it was be- 
lieved she could do so. Doubtless if 
the remedy failed to produce the de- 
sired effect it was owing to some 
counter charm that nullified it like the 
one mentioned in Erckmann-Chatrian's 
Waterloo. When Joseph Bertha was 
summoned to report for the draft, aunt 
Gredel clandestinely slipped a piece of 
cord into his pocket. When in spite of 
it he drew a fatal number she declared 
that his enemy Pinacle was responsible 
for the failure of the spell to work. 
Perhaps the most terrifying omen was 
the howl of a dog at night without any 
apparent cause. It was supposed to 
be an infallible portent of a death in 
the family. The stoutest heart was 
not altogether proof against an un- 
canny feeling. 3 

The source of this blind credulity is 
not far to seek. These conservatives 
were simply a relic of the Middle Ages 
transferred to the nineteenth century. 
They read no books even if they could 
read, except once in a while a manual 
of devotion or an almanac. They 
knew very little English and were thus 
cut off from all sources of knowledge 
through that medium. In this respect 
as in many others their knowledge was 
scarcely distinguishable from ignor- 
ance. They could only half under- 
stand a sermon when preached by an 
educated German. They had not the 

slightest desire to learn English be- 
yond the merest smattering because it 
served no particular purpose, entailed 
unnnecessary exertion and brought in 
no money. They went to preaching to 
listen if not to understand. If any one 
in their presence broached a subject 
that might be called scientific they 
turned away as if insulted. Almost the 
only American ideas they had imbibed 
were political ; but how they came by 
them they could not tell unless it was 
by inheritance. A question was usually 
disposed of by reference to a few catch 
phrases that meant nothing when 
taken out of their connection. To 
change an opinion once entertained 
was a crime of which few cared to be 
guilty. Ears had they but they heard 
not ; eyes had they but they saw not. 
To affirm that the world is a sphere 
was to fly in the face of the evidence 
of one's senses. Lightning rods must 
not be placed upon buildings since if 
God wished to send a bolt of destruc- 
tion his will must not be thwarted. Life 
insurance was for the same reason not 
to be thought of. It was even a ques- 
tion whether it was not sacrilege to 
insure a house or a barn. It should be 
added however that these ideas were 
held by comparatively few persons. 
Furthermore, a careful study of the 
conditions prevailing in parts of the 
Keystone State nearer the eastern 
boundary than the region 1 am now 
considering has convinced me that the 
people were a good deal more be- 
nighted, or at least that there were 
more people of the benighted class. If 
the data were not easily accessible to 
substantiate the fact one would be 
prompted to declare that it would be 
impossible for the inhabitants of one 
of the most fertile regions of the earth 
to remain stationary intellectually for 
almost one hundred and fifty years. I 
doubt whether one can find such con- 
servatism, to us a mild term, anywhere 
else in a region surrounded by an active 
commercial and business life and on a 
fertile soil. The French Canadians 
are somewhat akin ; but they have long 



been almost shut off from the rest of 
the world, live on a comparatively bar- 
ren soil and have against them a rigor- 
ous climate. With most of these people 
to be economical was the one essential 
of life. The Will to save was as strong" 
a psychic force as the Will to live. 
With increasing prosperity they might 
build a better house or a more com- 
modious barn ; but it never entered into 
their heads that the things of the mind 
had any claims upon them. The im- 
pulse to save dominated all their 
actions; what they were saving for did 
not for the most part, influence their 
conduct, if indeed it ever occupied their 
thoughts. Very few of them had any 
object in life except to acquire as much 
as possible and to spend less. They 
had no philosophy of life, nor any con- 
ception of duty toward themselves as 
rational beings. While their gains 
were relatively small, the amount 
made no difference. They saw no use 
in reading a newspaper or a book once 
in a while, if they could read at all. 
The idea of self-development never 
entered their heads. If they bu ikied a 
larger barn it was a matter of profit 
since their cattle and the necessary 
provender could be better cared for. 
The farmers almost without exception 
treated their livestock well especially 
their horses. When they did otherwise 
it was due to scarcity of provender 
caused by drouth. There was only one. 
farmer in our community who mal- 
treated his horses by overworking and 
underfeeding them. At that time no 
law existed against such acts or it 
would probably have been invoked 
against him. In the olden time the 
horned cattle with a few sheep that 
browsed with them, were often turned 
loose in summer to shift for them- 
selves. Sometimes they strayed so far 
into the woods that they failed to re- 
turn in the evening; then some boy 
about the premises was dispatched to 
hunt them up. If they could leave a 
little more property to their children 
than they themselves started with in 
the world they believed their duty 

done. If some of the rising generation 
aspired to sufficient education to en- 
able them to teach a country school 
the ambition was to be commended, 
yet for no other reason than because it 
brought in a little ready money. 


The social organization of the com- 
munity was thoroughly democratic. If 
some of the younger members of the 
family, whether male or female, could 
not be profitably employed at home 
they solicited or accepted employment 
with a neighboring farmer who needed 
their help. They usually dressed as 
well and were just as intelligent as 
their new environment. Not unfre- 
quently a young farmer married a 
"hired girl"; and while parents who 
were somewhat better supplied with 
this world's goods might not exactly 
like such a choice they usually made 
no serious objections. If a young 
woman had the reputation of being a 
good housekeeper it covered a multi- 
tude of sins both of omission and com- 
mission, except a bad character. Acer- 
bity of disposition and uncertainty of 
temper were secondary considerations. 
If on the other hand, she was reputed 
to be a "slomp", untidy in person and 
menage, she was considered an all- 
round failure. No looks however at- 
tractive and no disposition however 
vivacious could atone for shii'tlessness. 
The ability and the will to make a dime 
go farther than anybody else was the 
largest mantle of charity that was 
known in the neighborhood. There 
was usually one room in the dwelling- 
house that was regarded as a sort of 
holy of holies. Almost the only out- 
sider admitted was the preacher when 
he happened to make an occasional 
visit. But he did not visit all the fami- 
lies. No ray of sunshine must be let 
in, and woe to the inconsiderate fly 
that found its erratic way into it. Yet 
this chamber was as regularly cleaned 
and dusted as if it were occupied by 
the entire family day in and day out : 
that was at least twice a year; The 



toilet-room was usually an outer 
kitchen or annex. Family and visitors 
alike were provided with a tin basin 
and directed to this annex or an open 
porch where they could make their 
toilet undisturbed, provided no one 
else wanted the place or the movable 
property. If there was a pump, water 
could be had on the coldest day in 
which there was no ice. But as wood 
was the only fuel used, the fires all 
went out during the night, if indeed 
there was more than one, and in cold 
weather all the water in the house 
froze. Thus it was often necessary to 
break the ice in order to get at the 
liquid underneath. Any one who 
hesitated to apply this frosty element 
was ridiculed as effeminate, without 
regard to sex. The family towel was 
at everybody's disposal ; sometimes the 
family comb as well. Men, women and 
children were all treated alike. The 
regular occupants of the house having 
been accustomed to this method of 
procedure from infancy made no objec- 
tions ; the occasional visitor from town 
sometimes found the situation a little 
too refreshing. It must be said, how- 
ever, that no one was ever known to 
be the worse for performing his ablu- 
tions in ice-water, or from never hav- 
ing worn under-clothing, or from hav- 
ing got out of bed into a heavy sprink- 
ling of snow that had fallen in the 
night and been blown through the 
chinks in the roof or walls. Men do 
not miss what they never possessed, or 
envy those living under conditions of 
which they know nothing. 


One of the institutions much in 
vogue with number Two was the sing- 
ing-school. Young men and maidens 
with a sprinkling of old men and chil- 
dren met once a week in the winter for 
the purpose of practising psalmody. 
This was eventually superseded by the 
spelling-school, although both flour- 
ished together for a while. As few 
could spell well and almost everybody 
could sing a little or thought he could, 
the opportunity to do so was eagerly 

welcomed. A very small number could 
sing independently; the rest followed 
as best they might. Besides, the abil- 
ity to sing lent interest to the church 
services. Few even of the best quali- 
fied were competent to read a tune at 
sight with the notes before them. To 
render the task easier and to preclude 
the necessity of too much mental exer- 
tion the so-called buckwheat notes 
were for the most part used. That so 
many devices were invented for the 
purpose of enabling singers to avoid 
the necessity of learning the oval notes 
is evidence that this accomplishment 
was generally considered a difficult 
one. One innovator introduced a sys- 
tem in which the tones of the scale 
were represented by Arabic numerals 
strung along a horizontal line. Another 
taught political geography by singing. 
In the buckwheat system each of the 
seven tones of the scale was designated 
by a peculiar character to indicate its 
pitch and thus to make it easier to- 
read. This system had displaced an 
older in which there were only four 
different characters, the first and the 
fourth, the second and the fifth, the 
third and the sixth tones of the scale 
being indicated by the same sign. 
The seventh was not duplicated. There 
lies before me as I write a small 
volume entitled The Social Lyrist in 
which but four musical characters 
were employed. It was published in 
Harrisburg. I have never seen an- 
other copy. A person who could sing 
the oval or round notes, as they were 
called, was regarded as something out 
of the ordinary. Although there was 
a good deal of singing musical knowl- 
edge was confined within very narrow 
limits. Not a hymn-book with tunes 
was used in our neighborhood by any 
member of number One or Two. A 
new melody was introduced once in a 
while at a revival service, but it was 
learned by rote. The use of the 
"round" notes came in mainly with 
melodeons and cabinet organs. I well 
remember when a farmer living near 
us purchased the first instrument of 



this class in our neighborhood. This 
epoch-making event took place early 
in the "fifties". Several persons played 
one or more smaller instruments, 
especially the "fiddle", but it was 
generally by sound. I recall that a 
young fellow once asked me whether 
I supposed the angel Gabriel played by 

Although the Protestants were 
greatly at variance with one another, 
the bete noir to all of them was a Ro- 
man Catholic. As no Catholic service 
has been held in the county to this day, 
so far as I know, and as few of the 
natives had ever seen a member of that 
denomination, they would probably 
have been surprised to discover, if the 
opportunity had occurred, that he had 
neither horns nor cloven feet, and was 
in all respects like other human beings. 
When this religion was mentioned in 
a Sunday School book, it was always 
in terms of the deepest abhorrence ; 
those who did not read got their prej- 
udices where they got the rest of their 
opinions. After the winter term of 
the public school closed, a Sunday 
School was usually begun in the 
school houses. A number of the farm- 
ers met, elected the necessary officers 
who selected the teachers. A few dol- 
lars were subscribed with which to 
purchase the indispensable books and 
a modicum of other supplies; then the 
enterprise was ready to be set in mo- 
tion. The conservatives opposed this 
institution also, partly because it cost 
a little money, partly because their 
fathers did not have Sunday Schools. 
Almost the only instruction book used 
was the Bible which was read Contin- 
uously beginning with the first chap- 
ter of Genesis. Of course not even the 
Pentateuch could be completed before 
the season was over ; so the next year 
a fresh start would be miade. Re- 
wards were offered to the pupils who 
learned by heart the greatest number 
of verses from any part of the Sacred 
Book. As these had to be consecutive, 
diligent search was made for the 

chapters that had the largest number 
of short verses. This memorizing 
would be condemned by modern peda- 
gogy. Albeit, we gained a valuable 
possession that we could not have got 
in any other way and did it with little 
effort. I doubt whether modern Sun- 
day School methods do as much. It 
is true, however, that only a small sec- 
tion of the scholars took the trouble 
to learn verses. ' The recitation pre- 
ceded the regular reading and with one 
or more classes took up a large part of 
the hour. Even within this little realm 
there was some rivalry, or at least 
emulation : the citizen who was elected 
superintendent felt duly honored. Here 
too fame was the last infirmity of 
noble minds, or of some other kind. 
The most devout Roman Catholic 
could not have believed more firmly 
that outside the pale of his church 
there is no salvation than some of these 
most devoted Christians believed that 
the man who had not been miracu- 
lously converted, who had not re- 
ceived the internal evidence of his con- 
version, that is the witness of the 
spirit, was doomed to be lost. Yet 
these same people whatever might be 
their creed, for the most part lived to- 
gether amicably at least as amicably 
as if no gulf of religious difference 
separated them. After all there are 
very few people who are not more 
seriously concerned about their own 
salvation than that of their fellow men, 
even of their nearest friends. Not 
many men are able to realize that the 
peril which threatens the soul is as 
much to be feared and provided against 
as that which threatens the life. The 
mediaeval idea that it is often an act 
of mercy to take a man's life even with 
excruciating torments, had no place in 
the thoughts of the most sanguinary 
or the most merciful sectary of the 
nineteenth century. To some of these 
people the unpardonable sin was pride, 
or rather what they called by this 
name. One of my father's nearest 
neighbors withdrew entirely from ac- 
tive participation in church affairs al- 



though he professed to be deeply re- 
ligious, for the alleged reason that 
members were becoming too proud. 
One could hardly discuss a sermon 
with him for five minutes that he did 
not add: "But the preacher did not say 
anything against pride." If a man 
had attended a religious service bare- 
foot and wearing a ten cent hat this 
man would have regarded it as a sign 
of humility. If he had worn patent 
leather shoes, a silk hat and gloves this 
censor would have considered him as 
a candidate marked for perdition. 
While others were less outspoken they 
were hardly less severe in their de- 
nunciations. What such men would 
have said if they had looked upon a 
fashionable congregation addressed by 
a minister in broadcloth, served by a 
choir and an organ can easily be 
imagined. No doubt would have en- 
tered their minds that the whole 
company was "hovering on the brink 
of everlasting woe". On the other 
hand, I remember to have listened 
more than once to discussions on this 
fertile theme in which some of the par- 
ticipants maintained that to wear good 
clothes was not necessarily a sign of a 
proud disposition, and that a man 
might be just as ostentatious in rags 
as with the finest "toggery''. 


There is little occasion for wonder 
that almost all of these farmers were 
fundamentally religious, however in- 
different they might be to the doc- 
trines of the churches. Religion is 
after all a mental attitude toward those 
mysterious forces that surround us on 
every side rather than a formulated be- 
lief. The dweller in the country being 
in almost constant contact with what 
it usually called nature is compelled to 
think along certain lines whether he 
will or not. Some of these lines con- 
cern his very existence, others his 
prosperity. Having little conception 
of what to the scientist are physical 
and psyhic forces he perceives God 
everywhere.. Forest and stream, val- 
ley and hill and mountain, but above 

all the phenomena of the heavens, fill 
him with wonder. The nightly sky 
impresses him most deeply. Although 
he has no conception of time and 
space, the thought sometimes enters 
his mind that the celestial bodies 
moved across the firmament long be- 
fore he was born and will continue so 
to move after he has departed from 
earth. It is however in the presence 
of the tempest that he feels his weak- 
ness most keenly, or at least has the 
most practical realization of it. Al- 
though a house or a barn is rarely 
struck by lightning, the solitary tree is 
not so fortunate. There is hardly a 
farm on which there is not at least one 
such mute monument of the lightning's 
power to blast. Not unfrequently hail 
or a downpour partly destroys his 
crop or ruins his garden. Yet he can 
only stand and look on in dismay. An 
unseasonable drouth may discount his 
ho^es of a bountiful harvest ; an un- 
timelv spell of wet weather may almost 
at the last moment diminsh the value 
of his grain. To the educated man the 
sun is the profundest mysterv of the 
heavens. Not so to the rustic. He 
sees it only in the davtime when other 
objects engross his attention and di- 
vert his thoughts from this inscrutable 
source of light and life. Unlike the 
dweller in city and town, he has con- 
stantly before him the miracle of 
growth and decaying vegetation, of 
blossom and fruit and falling leaves. 
They remind him day by day that he 
too is subject to the same vicissitudes 
of growth, of maturity and of decay. 
The intense stillness of the solitary 
farm-house at night has about it some- 
thing uncanny.That it is occasionally 
in summer broken by the bark of a 
dog, or the noise of some animal in the 
barn, or the hoot of an owl, or the 
peculiar note of the whippoorwill, only 
makes the solitude more impressive. In 
the winter when the snow is falling or 
the cold intense the silence is like that 
of the grave. The denizen of the most 
out-of-the-way farmhouse is however 
rarely quite alone ; there are almost 



always about him the members of his 
own family. But the nightly wayfarer 
over held, or through woods, or even 
along the public highway has not even 
this company. It is then that he feels 
himself alone with his Maker, or it 
may be with incorporeal beings that 
are more likely to harm than to help 
him. Boys are said sometimes to 
whistle to keep their courage up. 1 
never heard a boy or a man resort to 
this stimulus in the late hours of the 
night. The rustic is usually so still 
that the breaking of a twig under his 
footsteps may give him a momentary 
start. In such circumstances it is no 
wonder that this tense imagination 
sometimes sees 'objects that do not 
exist except in the realm where they 
are created. While it should not be 
said that these farmers were by 
temperament gloomy or morose, they 
were almost without exception serious- 
minded. As they never came together 
except for some useful purpose there 
was little time for merry-making ex- 
cept chaff and frivolous conversation. 
The employers of the older generation 
generally passed the bottle to their 
laborers who were also their neigh- 
"bors. On such occasion a man of 
bibulous proclivities occasionally "put 
himself outside" of more fire-water 
than was conducive to clearness of 
vision or steadiness of gait. But 
shortly after the middle of the century 
the custom had passed into desuetude 
and almost everybody had become 
thoroughly sober. After young people 
had married they were expected to 
settle down at once with their minds 
made up to face the practical realities 
of life. Their religion too had a somber 
cast. That the goodness of God called 
men to repentance was a theme rarely 
dealt with or dwelt upon by preachers. 
Almost without exception they warned 
the people to flee from the wrath to 
come. A few trusted in the good 
providence of God and a still smaller 
number occasionally became "shouting 
happy". With the progress of intelli- 
gence such violent demonstrations be- 

came fewer and eventually died out 
almost entirely. 


So far as I had the means of know- 
ing, the men of German ancestry were 
rather loth to admit it. Probably 
many of them were the descendants of 
redemptioners and dim tradition of 
their lowly origin almost unconscious- 
ly led them to wish to forget it. 4 The 
semi-bondmen who came to this coun- 
try had slender reason for remember- 
ing the fact ; they certainly could not 
do so with feeling of satisfaction. Yet 
it is to their credit that they took the 
only, although desperate, means to free 
themselves from the shackles of a g< »v- 
ernment that were almost unendurable. 
"Dutchman" was generally used as a 
term of disparagement. In this case 
neither poverty nor riches was the de- 
termining factor, for on the whole the 
Teutonic element was fully as well-to- 
do as any other. I do not recall a 
Pennsylvania German who boasted of 
his nationality. I remember, on the 
other hand, that one of our neighbors 
was proud of being a "raw Irishman", 
although he was not raw. In view of 
the circumstance that the English 
language furnished a bond however 
slight with the British Isles while the 
German was no bond with anywhere it 
is no wonder that to the Teuton "Ger- 
many" hardly meant more than did 
Mexico or Cuba. Albeit, nobody had 
a good word to say for the British and 
many had a large allowance of bad 
ones. The proverbial "honest Dutch- 
man" was not ahvavs in evidence even 
among his own. While not a few of 
the Pennsylvania Germans were thor- 
oughlv trustworthy and reliable, there 
were others who needed watching. 
Thev Avere as ready and as eager to 
drive sharp bargains as anybody, the 
despised trade Jew for example. Some 
were radically dishonest and would 
take advantage in a business transac- 
tion by understatement or overstate- 
ment. Deliberate lies were not un- 
heard of. They carried bad eggs to 
market; once in a while put a stone in 



the butter ; made false returns to the 
assessor (where isn't this done?) and 
did other things of the sort. Common 
rumor accurately represented the pub- 
lic diagnosis in the current sayings : 
"A is honest and l'> is dishonest", or at 
least "needs watching". These winged 
words had no connection with race or 
language, and were no respecter of 
persons. I do not recall ever to have 
seen or heard, among these third or 
fourth remove Germans, anything that 
might be called sentiment. It is well 
known that the German peasant in his 
native soil, possesses a wealth of 
nursery rimes, and even lyric poems 
of high merit. My father's neighbor 
had lost all nnection with the father- 
land in this regard as in every other. 
The young people sang their ditties in 
their games and amusements ; they 
recited verses of unknown provenience 
which sometimes made sense and 
sometimes nonsense ; but they were all 
English. When we reflect that at the 
utmost not more than four generations 
lay between the dates when the an- 
cestors of these Germans were still on 
the other side of the Atlantic, and note 
that their speech was to all intents 
and purposes German, mutilated and 
limited in vocabulary as it was. it 
seems incredible that all traditions had 
completely perished. In some respects 
they were less matter-of-fact and less 
plain spoken than the German peasant 
of today in his habitat. I suppose they 
would not have presented a young 
couple, on their wedding day, with 
articles for the nursery, as is often 
done beyond-sea ; but in almost every 
other respect they kept close to the 
firm ground of reality. 5 

I believe it to be no exaggeration to 
say that the most conspicuous char- 
acteristic of the members of this com- 
munity was stoicism. It seems to 
have been tacitly although uncon- 
sciously regarded as a sign of weak- 
ness, especially in a man, to exhibit 
any feelings, either of affection or 
grief. With the older women the case 

was not widely different. This is not 
a Teutonic trait ; it may be the trait of 
a peasant. The Germans in their native 
land exhibit a good deal of vivacity 
and no small degree of affection for 
the members of their own family 
whether they feel it or not. The 
Puritan was the proverbial stoic, as we 
may learn not only from hundreds of 
biographies but from thousands of 
novels dealing with them. The typical 
Englishman is almost as imperturbable 
as a statue. He possesses a good deal 
of the ancient Roman gravitas and 
seldom loses control of himself. It 
would seem, therefore, that the cir- 
cumstances we have been considering 
transferred or extended this trait from 
the English and Scotch settlers to the 
whole community. Take what comes 
and make the best of it. Never let any 
person suspect that you have feelings, 
at least feelings of the finer sort. Don't 
care. You cay be expected, of course, 
to get angry sometimes and to give 
utterance to your emotions ; but that is 
another matter ; somebody has ill 
treated or cheated you or taken ad- 
vantage of you in some way. You 
might have done the same thing under 
similar circumstances. That is how- 
ever no reason why you should be 
slack in resenting it. This appears to 
have been the unconsciously formed 
rule of life according to which most of 
them lived and died. An aged woman 
once said to me : 'When people are 
dead I think they ought to be buried 
and forgotten". "Never forget that it 
is possible to be at the same time a 
divine man, and a man unknown to all 
the world", wrote the Stoic Seneca. 

The amount of labor performed by 
the average housewife was prodigious. 
With or without help she had the care 
of the dwelling from cellar to garret. 
She superintended all the marketing. 
She milked the cows twice a day; no 
member of the male sex ever per- 
formed this ceremony since it was re- 
garded as essentially woman's work. 
She made her own, her husband's and 



her children's clothing until the latter 
were grown up. She managed the 
garden, and in harvest time occasion- 
ally assisted in the fields. She did all 
the cooking, which though generally 
plain was usually well done. She saw 
to it that the tahle was liberally sup- 
plied with staple food. She did the 
washing and ironing. Besides these 
things there were every day a great 
many other things that did not fall 
under the usual routine but which 
nevertheless required her attention. 
Although Sunday was generally ob- 
served as a day of rest it was not al- 
ways one for her ; a neighboring family 
might chance to make her a visit, then 
there was extra cooking to do. A well 
set table, which was rarely lacking, 
was an index of the cordiality of the 
welcome. Yet those women, fully as 
often as those who have an easier time, 
lived to a good old age, in the enjoy- 
ment of a fair degree of health through 
life. The doctor was so rare a visitor 
that when he passed along the road in 
his sulky everybody wondered where 
he was going. He was never sent for 
except in cases of extreme necessity. 
Although very few of these farmers 
were sufficiently well-to-do to provide 
for themselves even minor luxuries, no 
one found the burden of life so heavy 
as to be unbearable. Many years be- 
fore my time a man hanged himself in 
a deep wood a few miles from my 
home. Nobody could give me any 
light on the cause. The spot was re- 
puted to be haunted. Although I 
crossed over it at all hours of the night 
I never heard or saw anything excep- 
tional. It is true once when in deep 
darkness I was passing near the place 
a dead twig struck me on the mouth 
and gave me a momentary fright. In 
an instant however I recognized the 
cause of the mishap and my fright left 
me almost as quickly as it came. A 
man about my father's age who lived 
several miles from us committed sui- 
cide or at least was reported to have 
done so. Whether the deed of self- 
destruction was clearlv established I 

do not known as I never learned much 
about the case. Some years after I 
had left the locality a former school- 
mate hanged himself in his barn in a 
fit of mental aberration, but not owing 
to world-weariness. People do not 
become tired of life because of what 
they do not possess but because of 
what they want in vain. I believe it is 
a truth of universal validity that sui- 
cide is rare among the dwellers in the ■ 
country, so greatly is rural life con- 
ducive to vigorous physical if not to 
vigorous intellectual life. Another fact 
of general import is that people who- 
live in comparative isolation and in 
constant contact with mother earth are 
less emotional than dwellers in cities. 
The stir and bustle and noise, the fierce 
struggle of every one with every one 
else, have a tendency to make the 
nerves unduly sensitive. The early 
history of Rome proves this. Her 
citizens were essentially agricultural. 
The same is true of Sparta. Gravitas 
was a peculiarly Roman trait which 
later developed into philosophical Sto- 
icism. The Ionians, on the -other hand, 
who were chiefly dwellers in cities 
were more irritable, more sensitive to 
external influences and to internal 

2 In I860 Lincoln had a majority in the count} over 
all his opponents, but in irtiu McClellan carried it 
by a majority of about a hundred. 

' ? It may be remarked here that this superstition, 
like mam- others, seems to be as widespread and as 
old as the human race. Sir Richard Burton found 
it in Central Arabia, a region that had not been 
visited by half a dozen Europeans before him. Be says : 
■Most people believe that when an animal howls with- 
out apparent cause in the neighborhood of a house, 
it forebodes the death of one of the inmates: for the 
dog, they say, can distinguish the awful form of 
Azrail, the Angel of Death, hovering over the doomed 
abode, Whereas man's spiritual sight is dull and dim 
by reason of his sins." 

*My own observations were curiously confirmed by 

the testimony of a friend a short time ago. He said: 
"My stepmother is a Pennsylvanian. One daj she 
asked me whether l could detect any trace of German 
in her speech. I said I could. She has not yel for 
given me although the conversation occurred more 
than a dozen yeaTS agO." 

BSince the above was written T have come across 

tile following passage in Reich's Success among 
Nations. Since it is in exact accord with my own 

observations I transcribe it. "The German 

has retained much of the poetry of the olden days; 
he has clung tenaciously to a thousand quaint cus- 
toms, and has still that wealth of fantastic and 

i Heal imagination which has left so profound a 

mark on German literature; he is still the repository 

of stories, legends and fairy tales, which he has 
refused to forget under the grindstone of a matter- 
of fact, prosaic age." 


Fort Augusta 

By Cyrus H. Williston, B. S., Shamokin, Pa. 

XE of the strongest and 
most important of the 
fortifications, of the per- 
iod, bordering on the 
French and Indian war, 
was Fort Augusta, at 
Shamokin, (now Sun- 
bury) Pa. 
The following description accom- 
panies a copy of the original drawing 
deposited in the Geographical and 
Topographical collection in the British 
Museum : 

"Fort Augusta stands at about forty yards 
•distance from the river (Susquehanna), on 
a bank twenty-four feet high. On the side 
which fronts the river, is a strong pallisado, 
the bases of the logs being sunk four feet 
into the earth; the tops holed and spiked 
into strong ribbands which run transverse- 
ly, and are morticed into several logs, at a 
distance of twelve feet from each other, 
which are longer and higher than the rest. 
The joints between each pallisado broke 
with firm logs well fitted on the inside, and 
supported by the platform. The three sides 
are formed of logs laid horizontally, neatly 
done, dove-tailed and trunnelled down. They 
are squared, some of the lower ends being 
"five feet in diameter; the least from two 
and one-half to one and one-half feet thick, 
and mostly of white oak. There are six 
four inch cannon mounted. The woods are 
cleared a distance of three hundred yards, 
and some progress made in cutting the bank 
of the river into a glacis." 

This is the only trustworthy account 
we have of the fort as it stood, com- 

The causes which led to the build- 
ing of a fort at Shamokin, were the 
defeat of Braddock and the massacre 
of the Penn Creek settlers. 

The French and Indian war now be- 
ing in full swing, the Provincial 
Government perceived that some steps 
would have to be taken to protect the 
frontier from the ravages of the savage 

It was brought to their attention 
that in the latter part of October, 1756, 
a body of 1,500 French and Indians 
had left the Ohio, of whom forty were 
to be sent against Shamokin, for the 

purpose of seizing it and building a 
fort there. 

At a conference held Feb. 22, 1756, 
the friendly Indians expressed them- 
selves as follows to Governor Morris: 
"We strongly advise you to build a 
fort at Shamokin, and we entreat you 
not to delay in so doing. It will 
strengthen your interests very much to 
have a strong house there." 

At a conference held in Philadephia, 
April 8th, the Governor informed the 
Indians: "Agreeable to your request I 
am going to build a fort at Shamokin." 

In spite of his promise to the Indians 
the Governor took no further steps to 
build the fort. 

Again April 10th, 1756, another 
petition was presented by the Indians, 
asking for a fort. 

The chief objection to the building 
of the fort seems to have been the 
difficulty of making arrangements, 
fear of the enemy, and want of consent 
on the part of the commissioners. 

It was not until the 16th of April, 
1756, that the Governor directed 
Colonel Willian Clapham to rendez- 
vous his regiment near Hunter's mill, 
where a number of canoes were to col- 
lect and be fitted to transport stores to 

The Governor himself went to Har- 
ris' Ferry to aid in forwarding the 

All at last being in readiness, in- 
structions were sent to Colonel Clap- 
ham. These instructions included two 
plans for the proposed fort; directions 
to build it on the east side of the Sus- 
quehanna; also directions for clearing 
the ground around the fort, and mak- 
ing openings to the river. Log houses 
were to be built outside the fort for 
the friendly Indians. 

The march to Shamokin began in 
July, 1756. After a hard march in 
which the command was exposed to 
the danger from lurking savages, the 



men to the number of four hundred 
reached their destination. 

It was indeed a beautiful and rugged 
spot. Blue Hill from its majestic 
heights, looked down, as if in pity, 
upon the puny band of men, who had 
braved the terrors of the wilderness, 
to establish what in the future became 
a city. 

Beneath their feet the great Susque- 
hanna rolled silently toward the sea. 
In the shadow of the forest, savage 
men, watched their every move, for 
sign of weakness. 

Once on the ground Colonel Clap- 
ham ordered earth-works to be thrown 
up, and preparations were made to 
erect the fort. Sad to relate, however, 
much dissatisfaction existed among 
the men. on account of back pay, and 
a desire on their part to return home. 
This state of affairs reached a climax 
July 13th, when the men called a 
council to consider what should be 

James Young who seems to have 
been a pay-master in the service of the 
Provincial government, reached Sha- 
mokin about this time and found even 
the officers on the verge of mutiny. On 
the 18th of July 1756, Young wrote to 
Governor Morris, giving him a graphic 
account of existing affairs, and states 
that he "doubts the wisdom of building 
a fort at this place". 

At this period, money and provisions 
were scarce. This is no doubt the 
reason the Governor turned a deaf ear 
to the complaints from Fort Augusta. 
In spite of his opposition from the 
Indians and discouragement from the 
Provincial authorities, the work of 
building the fort continued. 

On the 14th of August, Colonel 
Clapham writes to Governor Morris, 
that his wants were still unsupplied, 
and powder was scarce. He also states 
that Lieutenant Plunkett has been put 
under arrest for mutiny. 

On September seventh the Colonel 
recommended that the fort be made 
cannon proof by doubling it with an- 
other case of log's. 

On September 14th, Peter Bard noti- 
fied the governor that "the fort is al- 
most finished and a fine one it is". 

Colonel Clapham, himself, wrote to 
Benjamin Franklin, that in his opinion, 
the fort was of the utmost importance 
to the province. 

The first report of Commissary Peter 
Bard, made September 1756, shows the 
supplies of the fort to have been as 
follows : 

46 lbs. beef and pork, 9 lbs. flour, 5 lbs. 
pears, 1 bullock, 1 cwt. powder, 6 cwt. lead, 
92 pr. shoes, 1 stock lock, 27 bags flour, 12 
carpenter's compasses, 4 quires cartridge 
paper, some match rope (poor), 4 lanthorns, 
1301 grape shot, 46 hand grenades, 53 can- 
non-balls, 50 blankets, 4 brass kettles, 6 
falling axes, 11 frying pans, 1 lump chalk, 
4 iron squares, 1 ream writing paper, 33 
head cattle. 

The fort was built under great dif- 
ficulties; not only were the supplies 
meagre, but Indians lurked in every 
thicket, constantly watching for an op- 
portunity to cut off the unwary strag- 
gler. On August 23rd an express car- 
rier, on his way up the river from 
Harris' Ferry, was killed and scalped 
and the soldiers themselves were not 
immune as the following incident will 

In the summer of 1750, Colonel Mills 
was nearly taken prisoner by the In- 
dians. At a distance of about half a 
mile from the fort stood a plum tree 
that bore excellent fruit. This tree 
stood in an open circle of ground, near 
what is now called Bloody Spring. 
Lieutenant Atlee and Colonel Mills 
while walking near this tree were 
ambushed by a party of Indians who 
lav a short distance from them, con- 
cealed in a thicket. The Indians had 
nearly succeeded in getting between 
them and the fort, when a soldier be- 
longing to the bullock guard, came to 
the spring to drink. The Indians were 
thereby in danger of being discovered, 
consequently they fired upon and killed 
the soldier; Colonel Mills and Lieu- 
tenant Atlee escaping to the fort. 

A party of soldiers immediately sal- 
lied from the fort, but the Indians 
after scalping the soldier escaped. 



On August 20th, 1756, Colonel 
Clapham wrote a congratulatory note 
from Fort Augusta to Governor Denny 
who had succeeded Governor Morris. 
From Harris' Ferry Oct. 13, 1756, he 
wrote again, informing the Governor 
of the condition of the fort. 

On the 1 8th of October, a conference 
was held at Fort Augusta with the 
friendly Indians, who informed the of- 
ficers .that a large body of French and 
Indians were on their way from 
Duquesne to attack the fort. On re- 
ceiving this news the garrison was re- 
inforced by 59 men, the whole number 
being 306. 

November 8th, 1756, Colonel Clap- 
ham informed Governor Denny, that 
fifty miles up the West branch, was 
located an Indian town, containing ten 
families whence marauding parties 
came to pick off sentinels and kill and 
scalp stragglers. Captain John Ham- 
bright was sent on a secret expedition 
against this village, but we have no 
record of the result. 

Near the close of the year, 1756, 
Colonel Clapham was relieved from 
duty at Fort Augusta. 

He was not by any means a popular 
commander, and many harsh criticisms 
have been made of the way in which he 
filled his office. It is true that he had 
many undesirable traits in his charac- 
ter ; yet to him and his untiring energy 
we owe much. Many a frontier family 
was saved from death and worse, by 
this man who afterward fell a victim 
to the very foes he had labored so hard 
to defeat. He was killed by the Wolf 
Kikyuscung and two other Indians, at 
Swickley Creek, near where West 
Newton now stands, on the 28th of 
May, 1763, about 3 p. m. 

He was followed in command by 
Colonel James Burd, who held com- 
mand until he departed to join the 
Bouquet expedition, in October 1757. 
His journal may be found in the Penn- 
sylvania Archives, Vol. 2 — 745-820. 

On the 6th of May, 1758. Captain 
Gordon, an engineer, recommended 
that a magazine be constructed in the 
South Bastion, 12x20 feet, in the clear. 

This magazine was built according to 
his suggestion, and today is in a good 
state of preservation, being the only 
evidence left of the existence of the 
fort. A small mound of earth sur- 
mounted by a monument, erected by 
Mrs. Amelia Hancock Gross, marks 
the historic spot. 

Access to the magazine is made by 
twelve four-inch steps, leading down. 
The ground space is 10x12 feet. It is 
8 feet from the floor to the apex of the 
arched ceiling. The arch is of brick, 
made in England. They Avere trans- 
ported from Philadelphia to Harris' 
Ferry and then up the river by bat- 
teau. It has been stated that there was 
an underground passage leading from 
the magazine to the river, but the evi- 
dence favoring such a view is nega- 
tive. To suppose that the inhabitants 
of the fort would construct a passage 
way to the river which would be the 
side from which the Indians could 
most easily approach, is about as 
reasonable as the man would be, who 
would lock all the doors on the upper 
floor of his house, to keep thieves out 
of the lower floor. 

On June 2nd, 1758, Colonel Lewis 
Trump took command. He reported 
189 men in the garrison. That year 
and the following one, 1759, was a 
quiet one at the fort, owing to the oper- 
ations of the provincial forces on the 
western frontier. 

At a visit of Colonel Burd in 1760 we 
find Lieutenant Graydon in command, 
with a garrison of 36 men, and few 
stores and tools, everything much out 
of order. 

About this time the question of 
abandoning the fort was brought up. 
The people of the Susquehanna valley, 
however, opposed this step. They 
still had a lively remembrance of In- 
dian sorties in the past and feared a 
duplication of them if the fort was dis- 

The party surrounding the Governor 
finally prevailing, on the 30th of March 
1765 the Assembly resolved to evacu- 
ate Fort Augusta. The final evacua- 
tion however was delaved, and after 



the Revolution began the fort became 
the headquarters of what might be 
called, The Department of the Upper 
Susquehanna. Colonel Hunter was ap- 
pointed County Lieutenant and had 
control until after the war. Colonel 
Hartley was stationed here for a time 
during 1777-8. 

On the outbreak of the Indians, 
those settlements which had furnished 
the main body of men bearing arms in 
the Continental Army, cried loudly for 
aid. After the battle of the Brandy- 
wine, General Washington consoli- 
dated the Twelfth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment with the Third and Sixth ; 
mustered out the officers, and sent 
them home to help the people organize 
for defense, Capt. John Brady; Capt. 
Hawkins Boone and Capt. Samuel 
Daugherty being among the number. 
A system of forts was decided upon to 
cover the settlements. 

A few of these were .fortified in the 
spring of 1777 and some in 1778. 

The Massacre of Wyoming deluged 
Fort Augusta with the destitute and 
distressed ; already overloaded, they 
were now overwhelmed. The most of 
•these poor people soon passed on down 
the river, and most of- the garrison at 
Fort Augusta was withdrawn, but un- 
til the end of the war, the West Branch 
of the Susquehanna presented a pitiful 
spectacle ; destitute families on every 
side, many of them without father or 
brother to minister to their wants. The 
"God of War" had stalked like a pesti- 
lence through the land and left noth- 
ing but misery in his train. 

It has been claimed by some that at 
the time of the "Big Runaway'' 
Colonel Hunter lost his head and pre- 
cipitated matters by withdrawing the 
garrisons of the forts on the West 
Branch. Such however was not the 
case. He could not very well do other- 
wise. Without means of defence : 
menaced by a powerful foe ; his only 
course was an honorable retreat. The 
interests of the people were his own. 
He had spent twenty years of his life 
among them, and in their service. In 
1784 he died and was buried by the 

side of the fort he had so nobly and 
ably defended, among the people 
whom he had loved so ardently. 

The general work of dismantling the 
fort was continued in 1780, and the 
ground on which it stood, passed into 
the hands of Mrs. Elizabeth Billington 
and Miss Mary Hunter, two sisters. 
about 1855-56 (it being a part of the 
Hunter estate, received by grant). It 
was purchased by Benjamin Hen- 
dricks, who sold the property to 
Joseph Cake in 1865-66. Joseph Cake 
cut his purchase up into town lots, a 
parcel of which was bought by Mrs. 
Amelia Lucas Hancock Gross, in May 
1895 at a Sheriff's sale, the present 
owner of Fort Augusta, who was born 
April 11, 1849, at Balzey, Cornwall, 

To the energy and patriotism of this 
remarkable woman we owe the fact 
that today Fort Augusta is not a mass 
of crumbling ruins. On the apex of 
the mound marking the site of the 
magazine, she caused to be erected a 
monument of concrete. A concrete 
Avail, four by thirty-two feet, facing the 
river, on which in raised letters is the 
following inscription : 

"Fort Augusta, 1756" 

has also been built by this energetic 

Today in the great Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, one of the most im- 
portant forts in its early history is 
owned by a subject of King George of 
England. Is this as it should be? I 
leave it to posterity to answer. 

( )n the side of the fort fronting the 
river, is a boulder, surmounted by a 
granite slab on which the following in- 
scription is found : 

"Site of Fort Augusta, built 1756. 
This boulder and tablet was erected 
by the Sunburv Chapter of the D. A. 
R., 1906." 

Of the cannon which once frowned 
from the walls of this old fort, only 
one is known to be in existence. This 
relic is owned by Fire Engine House 
No. 1, of Sunburv. It is securely 
fastened and carefully guarded. It is 



supposed that it was thrown into the 
river at the time of the "Great Runa- 
way", of 1778 after being' spiked. In 
1798 it was reclaimed from its watery 
grave, by George and Jacob Shoop. 
After they had heated it by burning 
several cords of wood, they succeeded 
in drilling out the spiked hole. It has 
had quite a checkered career, being 
stolen from one place to another, to 
serve different political parties ; be- 
tween times being hidden in conveni- 
ent places. In 1834 Dr. R. H. Awl and 
ten young men of Sunbury made a 
raid on Selinsgrove at night, securing 
the coveted relic. Sunbury has re- 
tained it ever since. The cannon is of 
English make, weighs about one 
thousand pounds, and had a three and 
one-half inch bore. A drunken negro 
sledged off the ring on the muzzle, in 
1838. At the height of its power. Fort 
Augusta was armed with twelve can- 
non and two swivels. 

In John Blair Linn's Annals of the 
Buffalo Valley, we find mention of two 
brothers of the present owner of the 
fort who enlisted and fought under 
Beach C. Amnions, Co. E Fifty Third 
Regiment, Richard and William Han- 

The principal facts regarding Fort 
Augusta having -been given, the old 
Indian Burying Ground deserves a 
passing mention, especially so, when 
the statement that it was the burying 
place of the noble Shikellemy, has been 
disputed. In the light of this dispute 
it may be interesting to know what 
history records about the subject. It 
has been claimed that Shikellemy was 
buried near Lewisburg, Pa., probably 
at Shikellemy's old town which was 
located on the farm of the Hon. George 
Miller, at the mouth of Sinking Run, 
at the old ferry, one mile below Milton, 
on the Union County side. 

In the annals of the Buffalo Valley 
we find the following account of the 
death of Shikellemy : 'Shikellemy after 
Conrad Weiser's visit, removed to 
Sunbury (Shamokin) as a more con- 
venient place for intercourse with the 
proprietarv governors." 

On the 9th of October 1747, Conrad 
Weiser relates that he was at 
Shamokin and that "Shikellemy was 
sick with fever. He was hardly able 
to stretch for his hand." 

Loskiel writes as follows : "After 
the return of Shikellemy to Shamokin 
the grace of God was made manifest 
and bestowed on him. In this state 
of mind he was taken ill, was attended 
by brother Zeisberger, and in his 
presence fell asleep in the Lord, in the 
full assurance of obtaining eternal life, 
through the merits of Christ Jesus." 
(All this occurred at Shamokin.) 

In the Journal of Cammerhoff and 
Joseph Powell is stated the following : 
"A short time before Shikellemy died 
he turned to Zeisberger and looked 
him beseechingly, in the face, and 
signified as though he would speak to 
him, but could not. He reached out 
his hand and made another effort, but 
without avail, and as a bright smile 
illuminated his countenance, his spirit 
quietly took its flight. Zeisberger and 
Henrv Fry made him a coffin which 
was carried to the grave by three Mo- 
ravians, (Post, Loesch and Schmidt) 
and a young Indian." 

The Indian Burying Ground asso- 
ciated with Fort Augusta, lies about 
midway between the bridge, across to 
Packar's island, and the south point 
of the island. The evidence as it stands 
is all in favor of Shamokin (Sunbury) 
being the last resting place of the 
famous Shikellemy. In the words of 
Dr. J. J. John, of Shamokin, "there is 
no doubt but this is the resting place 
of Shikellemy." 


Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. 2, 1, 3. 

Colonial Records, Vol. 6, 7. 

Wm. Meginness's History of the West 

Egle's History of Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania Colonial and Federal — 

Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. 

I wish to express my thanks to Dr. J. J. 
John of Shamokin, Mr. M. L. Hendricks and 
Mrs. Amelia Gross of Sunbury for assistance 
given in securing the facts regarding Fort 


Ethnical Origin of the Pennsylvania Germans 

By Prof. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown, Conn. 

Read at the celebration of the 200th 
Anniversary of First Permanent White Set- 
tlement in Lancaster County, Sept. 8, 1910. 

T IS strange how little the 
Pennsylvania Germans 
know about their own 
origin. They know, in 
general, that for about 
two hundred, years they 
and their ancestors have 
lived in America, that 
they have taken their share in the de- 
velopment of the country, have shed 
their blood during the Revolution and 
the Civil War, and that in every 
respect they are true born Americans, 
in blood, in spirit and in truth. Yet 
the only thing they know about their 
ancestors is that they came from Ger- 
many and Switzerland. This is not so 
with the other ethnical elements of the 
American people. The English have 
practically monopolized the whole 
field, and we hear Americans called on 
general terms xA.nglo-Saxons. This 
term designates exacty the racial ante- 
cedents of the English people, and 
refers to those two branches of the 
great Teutonic race that, fifteen hun- 
dred years ago, overran and conquered 
Great Britain, the Angles and the 
Saxons. So, too, the expression "Dutch 
of New York" suggests at once the 
Holland people, who are the de- 
scendants of another Low German, 
race, or, rather, mixture, for the Hoi-, 
landers are racially a mingling of Low 
Frankish with Saxon and Frisian 

It is not our place here to speak of 

race. This race was once supposed to 
have its original seat in India, and to 
have gradually spread east and west; 
although it is not certain now where 
the original seat was. The race in- 
cluded, however, the Persians and 
Hindus in the east, and in the west, 
or Europe, the various branches of 
Greeks and Romans, Celts, Slavs and 
Germans. The Germans were divided 
originally into the following groups : 
The East German groups (including 
Goths, Burgundians and Vandals) ; the 
North German group (including 
Danes, Swedes and Norwegians) ; the 
West German group (including the 
Belgians, Frisians and Franks). In 
addition to these there were two other 
groups, one having its seat about the 
mouth of the Elbe, and consisting 
largely of Saxons, Angles and Cimbri. 
The last group, and the one of the 
most importance for us, is the Central 
or Swabian group. In this are included 
the Semnones, the Alemanni and the 
Suevi, and their various subdivisions. 
One of these subdivisions is that of the 
Marcomanni, who having settled in 
the territory once occupied by the Boii, 
a Slavic race, having since been called 
Bavarian. Another division is that of 
the Lombards, who settled south of 
the Alps, and from whom have come 
the inhabitants of Italian Switzerland 
and Northern Italy (Lombardy). 

Everybody knows how the modern 
nations have come into existence; how 
the Roman Empire gradually fell be- 
fore the repeated assaults of the 
Northern Barbarians, as the old Ger- 
mans were called by the Romans ; how 

the other elements of the American 

nation, the Scotch-Irish and the French < early in the fifth century after Christ 

Huguenots. It is of interest, however,- the frontiers of the empire were broken 

to inquire into the question, just what 
racial elements the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man belongs to. To discuss this fully 
we must go back to the beginning of 

The Pennsylvania Germans belong 
to the great Aryan or Indo-European 

down ; how the Visigoths and Suevi 
conquered Spain and formed the basis 
of the Spanish and Portuguese of to- 
dav ; how the Franks overran the 
Roman province of Gaul, and formed 
the French nation of today; how the 
Angles and Saxons conquered Great 



Britain and formed the English nation ; 
how the Scandinavians laid the foun- 
dation of Sweden, Denmark and Nor- 
way; how the Saxons grew to a great 
people, now the kingdom of Saxony. 
Thus the great territory of Germany, 
as we have seen, was composed of a 
number of these ethnical elements, the 
Saxons, the Swabians, the Bavarians, 
the Prussians (a later term), the Hes- 
sians, and to the west the Frisians and 
Holland Dutch. 

It is time now for us to investigate 
the question, which of these elements 
have formed the origin of the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans? 

If we read the story of the early 
German immigration to Pennsylvania, 
we shall see at once that almost entire- 
ly they came from South Germany, 
especially from the banks of the Rhine 
and from Switzerland. Hardly any of 
the north German people came over 
then. This is due to historical causes 
which we have not time to discuss 
here. Enough to say that the Penn- 
sylvania Germans came almost entirely 
from South Germany and Switzerland. 
The largest number came from the so- 
called Palatinate, lying on the banks of 
the Rhine ; so that, indeed, the generic 
name of the German immigrants in the 
early eighteenth century was "Pala- 
tines". Hence, if we are to trace the 
ethnical origin of the Pennsylvania 
Germans back to the sources we must 
find out what races founded the Palati- 
nate in Switzerland. This is a very 
simple matter, for it is a well-known 
fact that the German-Swiss are of the 
purest Alemannic blood, 1 while the 
Palatines are a mixture of Alemannic 
and Frankish blood. Whence, then, 
were the Alemanni, and who were the 
Franks? We have already seen that 
the Alemanni belonged to the group of 
the Suevi. The name Alemanni 2 is 
given to a number of lesser tribes 
which gathered around the Semnones, 
and thus formed a new and important 
nation. Their earliest seat was near 
the middle region of the river Elbe. 
From here they spread south and west, 
broke through the Roman limes (wall) 

and took possession of the fine lands 
between the Upper Rhine and the 
Danube. As early as the third century 
after Christ, we hear of their wars with 
the Romans. In 357 A. D., the Em- 
peror Julian fought a terrible battle 
against them, near Strasbourg. From 
260 to 369 A. D., the Emperor Valen- 
tinian I. carried on war against them. 
The result of these wars, as we have 
seen,, was the final victory of the Ale- 
manni and their possession of the 
lands across the Rhine. This brings 
us to the fifth century, and to the 
epoch-making contest between the 
Franks and the Alemanni. 

As we have seen, the Franks be- 
longed to the West German group. 
The name is of later origin, and indi- 
cates that they were "free-men". They 
spread over France, and form the basic 
element of the French people of today. 
But they were not content to remain 
on the banks of the Lower Rhine and 
in France, but sought for universal 
conquest. Spreading along the banks 
of the Upper Rhine, they came in 
conflict with the Alemanni, and a 
world-shaking contest for supremacy 
arose between these two mighty 
peoples. At that time Clovis was king 
of the Franks. His wife was a Chris- 
tian, but he was not. He made an 
oath that if the God of his wife would 
give him the victory over the Aleman- 
ni, he would become a Christian. A 
terrible battle took place at Tolbiac, 
near Cologne, in 496, in which Clovis 
came off victor. He was baptized on 
Christmas Day at Rheims, and from 
that time on the Franks were Chris- 

The result was the swallowing up of 
the Alemanni by the Franks. Those 
who would not yield retired beyond 
the Alps and formed the modern 
Swiss nation. Those who remained on 
the Rhine were under Frankish rule, 
and gradually the two people mingled 
together, the places left by the Ale- 
manni who fled to Switzerland being 
taken by Frankish colonists. 

Thus we see that the two elements 
that make up the Pennsylvania Ger- 



mans belong to the most famous 
branches of the Teutonic race; and we 
have as much reason to be proud of 
our Frankish-Alemannic blood as the 
English of their much-boasted Anglo- 
Saxon blood. We are told that the 
ancient Alemanni were independent, 
and insisted on being no man's under- 
ling; and the motto of the whole race 
might have been that of the Swiss 
Paracelsus (whom Browning made the 
subject of one of his noblest poems) : 

Ernes andern Knecht soil niemand sein, 
Der fur sich selbst kann bleiben allein. 

We are told that the Alemanni held 
their women and the family life far 
higher than their neighbors ; that they 
loved their homes and yet at the same 
time were wanderlustig; that they had 
a deep inner life, and were intensely 
religious — a fact that explains the 
number of sects, not only in Switzer- 
land, but in Pennsylvania itself, and 
has brought it about that it was among 
the modern Alemanni that Pietism had 
its root, whence came the recently- 
formed denominations of the Metho- 
dists and the United Brethren. 

And yet, at the same time, the Ale- 
manni have always had a tendency to 
cheerful company, and were marked 
by native wit and a tendency to gentle 
humor. The Franks added to this an 
element of quickness, readiness, skill 
in art, and all those qualities which 
mark the French today. 

Both Franks and Alemanni were in- 
dustrious and hard-working. The task 
before them fifteen hundred years ago 
was not unlike that of our ancestors 
two hundred years ago. They entered 
into a wild, unbroken wilderness. They 
had to root out great forests, make the 
ground fruitful, and to this day place 
or family names ending in Ruti, Brand 
and Schwand (i. e., land cleared by 
fire) show the work they had to do. 
It was the Franks, however, that 
possessed the greatest skill and talent 
in agriculture, as can be seen when we 
compare Switzerland with the Palati- 
nate (or, indeed, France) in this re- 
spect. They have made the Palatinate 
the Garden of Germany. As Riehl 

says : "The Franks have made the 
ground on the banks of the Middle and 
Lower Rhine and in the Palatinate 
more fruitful than anv other German 

There is a strange resemblance in 
this respect between the farmers of 
Lancaster County and the Palatinate. 
Both have made their farms the finest 
in their respective countries; both are 
rich and flourishing; both grow even 
the same crops, for tobacco is today 
the chief element of wealth in the 
Palatinate as well as in Lancaster 
County. Nay, both are alike in that 
the richest farms belong to the Men- 
nonites ; as Riehl says of the Palati- 
nate, so we can say of Pennsylvania, 
"Wo der Pflug durch Goldene Auen 
geht, da schlagt auch der Mennonit 
sein Bethaus auf." So much for the 
ethnical elements of the Pennsylvania 
Germans in general. And now a clos- 
ing word concerning that branch of 
them who first came to Lancaster 

We have met today to celebrate the 
coming of our ancestors from Switzer- 
land to this country, two hundred 
years ago. Let every man who is de- 
scended from these ancient Swiss be 
proud of his ancestral fatherland. 
What more beautiful country can you 
find in the world than this land of 
fredom and of beauty, with its snow- 
covered Alps piercing the blue sky; 
with its rivers of ice and it vast fields 
of snow? 

Where the white mists forever 

Are spread and upfurled, 
In the stir of the forces 
Whence issued the world. 

What lover of freedom is there 
whose heart does not thrill at the name 
of Arnold Winkelried and William 
Tell? They are long since dead, but 
their memory remains a treasure and 
an inspiration in the hearts of their 
countrymen today. As the poet sings : 

The patriot Three that met of yore 

Beneath the midnight sky, 
And leagued their hearts on the Griitli 

In the name of liberty! 



How silently they sleep 

Amidst the hills they freed. 
But their rest is only deep, 

Till their country's hour of need, 
For the Kuhreihen's notes must never sound 

In a land that wears the chain, 
And the vines on Freedom's holy ground 

Untrampled must remain! 
And the yellow harvests wave 

For no stranger's hand to reap, 
While within their silent cave 

The men of Griitli sleep. 

And shall we not keep in like grate- 
fnl remembrance those lovers of re- 
ligions liberty, who rather than give 
tip their freedom of conscience left the 
hills and valleys of their native Switz- 
erland, and, crossing the ocean, settled 
in this place two hundred years ago? 
What sternness of conscience, what 
courage and strength it required to do 
this, is hard for us to understand. To 
leave the lovely valley of the Emmen- 
thal, with its green fields and flourish- 
ing hamlets, or the shores of Lake 
Zurich, stretching like a continuous 
garden on both sides of the lake, to go 
to an unknown land, a wilderness un- 
broken, whose only inhabitants were 
the savage men ; what can you and 1 
know of such courage as this? Many 
a time as I have walked through the 
Emmenthal, or sailed along the shores 
of Lake Zurich, I have thought to my- 
self, "how could these ancestors of 
mine leave these wonderful scenes for 
the dangers and uncertainties of the 
new world !" 

Yes, let us glory in our ancestral 
fatherland ; let us glory in such men as 
Tell and Winkelried; but let us still 
more glory in our ancestors, the Herrs, 
the Kendigs, the Groffs and all the 
rest, who gave up all for freedom to 
serve God in their own way, and ac- 
cording to their own conscience. 

Not as the conqueror comes, 

They, the true-hearted, came; 
Not with the roll of stirring drums, 

And the trumpet that sings of fame; 

Not as the flying come, 

In silence, and in fear; 
They shook the depth of the desert 

With hymns of lofty cheer. 


Amidst the storm they sang; 

Till the stars heard, and the sea; 
And the sounding aisles of the dim wood 

To the anthem of the free. 

There were men with hoary hair 

Amidst that pilgrim band; 
Why had they come to wither there, 

Away from childhood's land? 

There was woman's fearless eye, 

Lit by her deep love's truth; 
There was manhood's brow serenelv high, 

And the fiery heart of youth. 

What sought they thus afar? 

Bright jewels of the mine? 
The wealth of seas? The spoils of war? 

No — 'twas a faith's pure shrine. 

Yes, call that holy ground, 

Which first their brave feet trod! 

They left unstained what here they found, — 
Freedom to worship God. 


A Recent Visit to Kriegsheim 

By Ralph Haswell Lutz, Ph. D., Seattle, Wash. 



F the numerous villages of 
the Palatinate, none is 
more closely connected 
with the early history of 
German emigration to 
Pennsylv ariia than 
Kriegsheim on the Pfrim, 
where the Mennonite 
movement acquired prominence early 
in the seventeenth century. Ten miles 
westward from the ancient city of 
Worms lies the large village of Mons- 
heim and just a mile to the northeast 
on the north bank of the Pfrim, a small 
stream which flows eastward into the 
Rhine, is Kriegsheim. Clustered at 
the foot of one of the small hills, which 
here border the western plain of the 
Rhine, the venerable village still pre- 
serves much of its mediaeval appear- 
ance and has probably changed but 
little since Penn first visited it in 1761. 
To reach the village, one crosses an old 
stone bridge near a mill race and en- 
ters the principal street, which runs 
east and west. The low-lying white- 
washed houses with their ancient 
yards and high stone walls form a 
striking contrast with the modern 
shops and inns near the town hall. On 
the hill to the northeast of the village 
stands the Evangelical Church, whose 
severe stonework is quite in harmony 
with the weathered gravestones in the 
surrounding churchyard. Farther to 
the west and higher up on the slope of 
the hill is the more modern Catholic 
Church, which is erected over the an- 
cient Mennonite graveyard. 

Kriegsheim was one of the first es- 
tates of the cathedral chapter o f 
Worms. In the chronicles of that 
cathedral it is mentioned that Buggo 
IT., bishop of Worms, enfeoffed his 
chapter with the estate of Crigisheim 
for the betterment of its prebends. Lit- 
tle more is known however of the early 
history of the village. Even the name 
seems to have varied. Kreiensheim 
and Kreiktisheim were both used at 

different periods. On an ancient court 
seal, the name Geriesheim occurs. As 
is the case with most villages of the 
Palatinate the early church records 
have been lost. Those of Kriegsheim 
only go back to 1748. 

'1 he first record of the Mennonites of 
Kriegsheim is found in the Chronik 
des Ortes Kriegsheim. An official re- 
port to the government of the Palati- 
nate, dated February 14, 1608, states : 
"The village officers of Wolfsheim sur- 
prised the Anabaptists the thirteenth 
of August between eleven and twelve 
o'clock at night and took the three 
elders to the magistracy of Alzei". The 
report further suggests that according 
to paragraph ten of the Landesord- 
nung the estates of the Anabaptists 
should be confiscated and their sup- 
plies employed in pios usus. 

The dreaded word of Anabaptist was 
sufficient to cause Frederick IV. of the 
Palatinate to order a closer investiga- 
tion of the religious disturbances near 
Kriegsheim. It was during the minor- 
ity of this Prince that the Palatinate 
had changed from Lutheranism to the 
Reformed faith. The ambition of 
Frederick's life was to form a union of 
all the Protestant Princes of Germany, 
which he finally accomplished May 14. 
1608. In view of this policy it is not 
surprising that his government should 
have been strongly opposed to the 
growth of any radical sects within the 

The second reoort to the electrical 
prince stated: "In accordance with the 
enclosed Actis Decretum No. 10, we 
have summoned the pastor of Kriegs- 
heim, Nicolaus Maurer, before us and 
asked him why he still, ex curiositate 
and in spite of the decrees, visits with 
his confederate, the schoolmaster, the 
nightly conventici of the Anabaptists; 
whereupon he gave answer that 
neither he nor the schoolmaster had 
visited them but the fourteen or fifteen 
vear old son of the schoolmaster." The 



report denounced the Anabaptists for 
despising all government and the 
exercitio militari; as well as for allow- 
ing nnbaptized children to attend their 
meetings. The village pastor, having 
been cleared of the charge of visiting 
the Anabaptists, sent the following list 
of members of the sect in Kriegsheim 
to the government: 

"Leonhard Stroh; his wife Katharina. He 
is their Elder and a gluer. A clever 
and sarcastic man. Three children of 
the father's sort. 

Hanns Zunich; his wife Maria. He is now 
an architect in the community. Six 

Hanns Moroldt; his wife Margaretha; no 

Hanns Meyer; his wife Ottilie. Architect; 
no children with them. 

Hanns Schmidt; his wife Elisabeth, daugh- 
ter of the above named (Meyer). Three 

Nicolaus Tabach; his wife Anna, daughter 
of the above named architect. One 
young child. 

Phillip Scherer; is still single; went over 
with Tabach 1606; a linen-weaver. His 
father has an anabaptistic maid. Com- 
mon rumor has it, that he is accus- 
tomed to come to her nocturna con- 

Hanns Bidinger; a glazier; his wife Bar- 
bara. Four children and an anabap- 
tistical maid. 

Hanns Herstein ; a cobbler, a wicked 
scoffer; his wife Sara, a bad woman. 
He has four sons and one daughter. 

Georg Beckher; his wife Margaretha. He 
has seven children and is a wine mer- 

Feliz Metzger; his wife Ottilie. They have 
no children. 

Maria Hanns Brohams; Gemeinsmaun; his 
wife an Anabaptist. 

Paul Bischoff; his wife Dorothea. He is a 
field-guard. Two children by his first 

"These are now the anabaptistic brethren 
with us, stiff-necked, enthusiastic, despisers 
of God and the Holy Sacraments; they 
revile since they know nothing, and the 
government they scorn. Of them one may 
well sing with Luther: 

Sie sagen schlect es sei nit recht 
Und haben's nie gelesen. 

Dated Kriegsheim, August 23, 1608. 
pastor ibidem.'' 

Later in the year Frederick IV. 
wrote to his dear faithful people of 
Kriegsheim that he had been fully in- 
formed concerning the Anabaptists of 
Kriegsheim through the report of the 
burgrave and that he had ordered the 
punishment i n specie o f Phillip 
Scherer's father. The latter was very 
probably the only one of the Menno- 
nites who were imprisoned. 

During the seventeenth century the 
Mennonite church in Kriegsheim con- 
tinued to increase. In 1655 William 
Ames established a Quaker community 
there. When Penn visited Kriegsheim 
in 1677, he found Peter Schumacher, 
Friedrich Cassel and others who lived 
according to Quaker ideas. Accord- 
ing to a report sent to Heidelberg, June 
21, 1683, there were eighty Anabap- 
tists and Quakers in Kriegsheim. 

The tradition of Penn's visit has 
been kept alive in the little village. 
Several of the old people are still 
familiar with the story as it was related 
to them when they were children. The 
present Mennonite church is not in 
Kriegsheim but is located about a mile 
away near the larger village of Mons- 
heim. There are at present three 
hundred and ten members in the con- 


Johnny Appleseed 

NOTE. — The following sketch of one of 
the most conspicuous among the early set- 
tlers of Ashland County, Ohio, was collated 
from Knapp's "History of Ashland County" 
(Lippincott 1863), by J. B. Haag, Lititz, Pa. 

MONG those whose names 
stand conspicuous in the 
memorials of the early- 
settlers in A s h 1 a n d 
County, Ohio, is that of 
Jonathan Chapman, but 
more usually known as 
Johnny Appleseed. Few 
were more widely known or more ex- 
tensively useful to the pioneers than 
this blameless and benevolent man. 
The evil that he did, if any, appears 
not to have been known ; the good that 
he accomplished was not "interred 
with his bones", but "lives after him", 
and bears its annual fruit over a sur- 
face of over a hundred thousand 
square miles — extending from the 
Ohio River to the Northern chain of 
the great lakes. Few men, as unpre- 
tending, have been more useful to their 
race in their day and generation. Many 
of the best orchards now in Ashland 
County are of trees which had their 
first growth in his forest environed 
nurseries. He had one where Lei-digh's 
Mill now stands, from which the early 
fruit growers of Orange, Montgomery, 
and Clearfield obtained their principal 
supply of trees. The orchards of Mr. 
Ekey and of Mr. Aton, in Clearcreek, 
one mile and a quarter east of Ashland, 
were from seed planted by him in the 
nursery above mentioned. He also 
had a nursery between the present 
town of Perrysville and the old Indian 
Green Town ; another between Charles' 
mill, in Mifflin Township, and Mans- 
field ; and another on the farm owned 
by the late John Oliver in Green 
Township, northwest of Loudonville, 
on the Perrysville road, and, another 
in Mansfield. He doubtless had other 
nurseries besides those mentioned. 

A letter from Hon. John H. James, 
of Urbana, Ohio, dated June II, 1862, 
says : "The account of Johnny Apple- 

seed, about which you inquire, is con- 
tained in a series of letters addressed 
to the Cincinnati Horticultural Society 
at their request, on 'Early Gardening 
in the West'. These letters have been 
usually printed in the Cincinnati daily 
papers, as a part of the Society pro- 
ceedings. That letter was republished 
in the Logan Gazette, of which I am 
able to send you a copy this mail." 

The following is a part of the com- 
munication referred to by Mr. James : 

"The growing of apple trees from 
seeds gave employment to a man who 
came hither before this was a State. I 
first saw him in 1826, and have since 
learned something of his history. He 
came to my office in Urbana, bearing a 
letter from the late Alexander Kim- 
mont. The letter spoke of him as a 
man generally known by the name of 
Johnny Appleseed, and that he might 
desire some counsel about a nursery 
he had in Champaign County. His 
case was this : Some years before, he 
had planted a nursery on the land of 
a person who gave him leave to do so, 
and-he was told that the land had been 
sold, and Avas now in other hands, and 
that the present owner might not 
recognize his right to the trees. He 
did not seem very anxious about it, 
and continued walking to and fro as he 
talked, and at the same time continued 
eating nuts. Having advised him to 
go and see the person, and that on 
stating his case he might have no dif- 
ficulty, the conversation turned. I 
asked him about his nursery, and 
whether the trees were grafted. He 
answered no, rather decidedly, and 
said that the proper and natural mode 
was to raise fruit from the seed. 

"He seemed to know much about 
my wife's family, and whence they 
came, and this was on account of their 
church. He did not ask to see them, 
and on being asked whether he would 
like to do so, he declined, referring to 
his dress, that he was not fit, and he 
must yet go some miles on his way. 



He was of moderate height, very 
•coarsely clad, and his costume was 
carelessly worn. His name, as 1 after- 
ward learned was Jonathan Chapman. 

"In 1801 he came into the territory 
with a horse load of apple seeds, 
gathered from the cider presses in 
Western Pennsylvania. The seeds 
were contained in leather hags, which 
were better suited to his journey than 
linen sacks,- and, besides, linen could 
not be spared for such a purpose. He 
came first to Licking- County, and se- 
lected a fertile spot on the bank of 
Licking Creek, where he planted his 
seeds. I am able to say that it was on 
the farm of Isaac Stadden. In this in- 
stance, as in others afterward, he 
would clear a spot for his purpose, and 
make some slight inclosure about his 
plantation — only a slight one was 
needed, for there were no cattle roam- 
ing about to disturb it. He would then 
return for more seeds, and select 
other sites for new nurseries. When 
the trees were ready for sale, he left 
them in charge of some one to sell for 
him, at a low price, which was seldom 
or never paid in monev, for that was a 
thing the settler rarely possessed. If 
people were too poor to purchase trees, 
they got them without pay. He was at 
a little expense, for he was ever wel- 
come at the settlers' houses. 

"In the use of food he was very ab- 
stemious, and one of my informants 
thinks that he used only vegetable diet. 
At night he slept, of choice, in some 
adioining grove. 

"He was a zealous propagator of 
the doctrines of Emanuel Swedenborg, 
and he possessed some very old and 
much-worn copies of his works, which 
he continually lent where he could 
find persons to read them. It is said 
that he even divided some of his books 
into nieces of a few sheets each, and 
would leave fragments at different 
places in succession, and would dili- 
gentlv supnly the parts, as if his books 
were in serial numbers. 

"Nearly all the early orchards in 
Licking County were planted from his 
nursery. He also had nurseries in 

Knox, in Richland, and in Wayne 
counties. As new counties opened, he 
moved westward, and he was seen in 
Crawford County in 1832, after which 
I traced him no further, until I learned 
of his death, at Fort Wayne. The 
physician who attended him in his last 
illness, and was present at his death, 
was heard to inquire what was Johnny 
Appleseed's religion — he would like to 
know, for he had never seen a man in 
so placid a state at the approach of 
death, and so readv to go into another 

T h e accomplished pen of Miss 
Rosella Rice contributes the following 
agreeable sketch of the old man : 

"He was born in P>oston, Mas- 
sachusetts, in the year 1775. No one 
knows why Johnny was so eccentric. 
Some people thought he had been 
crossed in love, and others, that his 
passion for growing fruit trees and 
planting orchards in those early peril- 
ous times had absorbed all tender and 
domestic natural to mankind. An old 
uncle of ours tells us, the first time he 
ever saw Johnny was in 1806, in Jef- 
ferson County, Ohio. He had two 
canoes lashed together, and was tak- 
ing a lot of apple seeds down the Ohio 
River. About that time he planted 
sixteen bushels of Seeds on one acre of 
that grand old farm on the Walhon- 
ding River, known as the Butler farm. 

"All up and down the Ohio and 
Muskingum, and their wild and pretty 
tributaries, did poor Johnny glide 
along, alone, with his rich freight of 
seeds, stopping here and there to plant 
nurseries. He always selected rich, 
secluded spots of ground. One of them 
we remember now, and even still it is 
picturesque and beautiful and primal. 
He cleared the ground himself, a quiet 
nook over which the tall sycamores 
reached out their bony arms as if in 
protection. Those who are nursery- 
men now, should compare their facili- 
ties with those of poor Johnny, going 
about with a load in a canoe, and, 
when occasion demanded, a great load 
on his back. To those who could af- 



ford to buy, he always sold on very 
fair terms; to those who couldn't, he 
always gave or made some accom- 
modating trade, or took a note payable 
— sometime — and rarely did that time- 
ever come. 

"Among his many eccentricities was 
one of bearing pain like an undaunted 
Indian warrior. He gloried in suffer- 

"Very often he would thrust pins 
and needles into his flesh without a 
tremor or a quiver; and if he had a cut 
or a sore, the first thing he did was to 
scar it with a red hot iron, and treat it 
as a burn. 

"lie hardly ever wore shoes, except 
in winter; but, if traveling in the sum- 
mer time, and the rough roads hurt his 
feet, he would wear sandals, and a big 
hat that he made himself, out of paste- 
board, with one side very large and 
wide, and bent down to keep the heat 
from his face. 

"No matter how oddly he was 
dressed or how funny he looked, we 
children never laughed at him, because 
our parents all loved and revered him 
as a good old man, a friend, and a 

"Almost the first thing he would do 
when he entered a house, and was 
weary, was to lie down on the floor, 
with his knapsack for a pillow, and his 
head toward the light of a door or win- 
dow, when he would say, 'Will you 
have some fresh news right from 
Heaven'? and carefully take out his 
worn old books, a testament, and two 
or three others, the exponents of the 
beautiful religion that Johnny so zeal- 
ously lived out — the Swedenborgian 

"We can hear him read now, just as 
he did that summer day when we were 
quite busy quilting up stairs, and he 
lay near the door, his voice rising de- 
nunciatory and thrilling — strong and 
loud as the roar of waves and winds, 
then soft and soothing as the balmy 
airs that stirred and quivered the 
morning-glory leaves about his gray 

"His was a strange, deep eloquence 
at times. His language was good and 
well chosen, and he was undoubtedly 
a man of genius. 

"Sometimes in speaking of fruit, his 
eyes would sparkle, and his counte- 
nance grow animated and really beau- 
tiful, and if he was at table his knife 
and fork would be forgotten. In de- 
scribing apples, we could see them just 
as he, the word-painter, pictured 
them — large, lush, creamy-tinted ones, 
or rich, fragrant, and yellow, with a 
peachy tint on the sunshiny side, or 
crimson red, with the cool juice ready 
to burst through the tender rind. 

"Johnny had one sister, Persis 
Broom, of Indiana. She was not at all 
like him ; a very ordinary woman, talk- 
ative, and free in her frequent, 'says 
she's' and 'says IV. 

"He died near Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
in 1846 or 1848, a stranger among 
strangers, who kindly cared for him. 
He died the death of the righteous, 
calmly and peacefully, and with little 
suffering or pain. 

"So long as his memory lives will a 
grateful people say: 'He went about 

doing good.' ' 

In the "Ohio Historical Collections'', 
by Henry Howe, p. 432, occurs the fol- 
lowing notice of Johnny Appleseed, 
which generally confirms the state- 
ments from other sources : 

"He had imbibed a remarkable pas- 
sion for the rearing and cultivation of 
apple-trees from the seed. He first 
made his appearance in Western Penn- 
sylvania, and from thence made his 
way into Ohio, keeping on the outskirts 
of the settlements, and following his 
favorite pursuit. He was accustomed 
to clear spots in the loamy lands on the 
banks of the streams, plant his seeds, 
inclose the ground, and then leave the 
, lace until the trees had in a measure 
grown. When the settlers began to 
flock in and open their 'clearings', 
Johnny was ready for them with his 
young trees, which he either gave 
away or sold for some trifle, as an old 
coat, or any article of which he could 
make use. Thus he proceeded for many 



years, until the whole country was, in 
a measure, settled and supplied with 
-apple-trees, deriving self-satisfaction 
amounting to almost delight, in the in- 
dulgence of his engrossing passion. 
About twenty years since he removed 
to the far West, there to enact over 
.again the same career of humble use- 

"His personal appearance was as 
singular as his character. He was a 
small 'chunked' man, quick and rest- 
less in his motions and .conversation ; 
liis beard, though not long, was un- 
shaven, and his hair was long and 
dark, and his eye black and sparkling. 
He lived the roughest life, and often 
slept in the woods. His clothing was 
mostly old, being generally given to 
liim in exchange for apple-trees. He 
went bare-footed, and often traveled 
miles through snow in that way. In 
doctrine he was a follower of Sweden- 
f>org, leading a moral, blameless life, 
likening himself to the primitive 
Christian, literally taking no thought 
for the morrow. Wherever he went he 
circulated Swedenborgian works, and 
if short of them, would tear a book in 
two and give each part to different 
persons. He was careful not to injure 
any animal, and thought hunting 
morally wrong. He was welcome 
everywhere among the settlers, and 
treated with great kindness, even by 
the Indians. We give a few anecdotes, 
illustrative of his character and eccen- 

"One cool autumnal night, while ly- 
ing by his camp-fire in the woods, he 
observed mosquitoes flew in the blaze 
and were burned. Johnny, who wore 
on his head a tin utensil which an- 
swered both as a cap and a mush pot, 
filled it with water and quenched the 
fire, and afterward remarked, 'God for- 
bid that I should build a fire for my 
comfort, that should be the means of 
destroying any of his creatures.' An- 
other time he made his camp-fire at 
the end of a hollow log in which he in- 
tended to pass the night, but finding it 
occupied by a bear and her cubs, he re- 
moved his fire to the other end, and 

slept on the snow in the open air, 
rather than to disturb the bear. He 
was one morning in a prairie, and was 
bitten by a rattlesnake. Sometime af- 
ter, a friend inquired of him about the 
matter. He drew a long sigh and re- 
plied, 'Poor fellow ! he only touched 
me, when I, in an ungodly passion, put 
the heel of my scythe on him and went 
home. Some time after I went there 
for my scythe, and there lay the poor 
fellow dead'. He bought a coffee bag, 
made a hole in the bottom, through 
which he thrust his head and wore it 
as a cloak, saying it was as good as 
anything. An itinerant preacher was 
holding forth on the public square in 
Mansfield, and exclaimed, 'Where is 
the bare-footed Christian traveling- to 
heaven?' Johnny, who was lying on 
his back on some timber, taking the 
question in its literal sense, raised his 
bare feet in the air, and vociferated 
'Here he is!' " 

In a November month, and when 
the weather was unusually rigorous. 
Chapman was in Ashland, wearing a 
pair of shoes so dilapidated that they 
afforded no protection against the 
snow and mud. The late Elias Slocum, 
having a pair of shoes that he could 
not wear, and that were suitable to the 
feet of Mr. Chapman, presented them 
to the latter, A few days after this oc- 
currence, Air. Slocum met the old man 
in Mansfield, walking the snow-cov- 
ered streets in bare feet. In reply to 
the inquiry as to the reason he did not 
wear his shoes, Chapman replied that 
he had found a poor, bare-footed fam- 
ily moving westward, who were in 
much greater need of clothing than 
himself, and that he had made the man 
a present of them. 

He declined repeatedly, invitations 
to take food with the elder members of 
the family at the first table, — and it 
was not until he became fully assured 
that there would be an abundant sup- 
ply of food for the children who had 
remained waiting, that he would par- 
take of the proffered hospitality. 

He was never known to have slept 
in a bed — his habit being either to 



"camp out" in the woods, or, if sleep- 
ing in a house, to occupy the floor. He 
placed very little value upon money. 
His cash receipts from sales of fruit 
trees were invested in objects of char- 
ity, or in the purchase of books illus- 
trating his peculiar religious faith. On 
a morning after he had slept on Mr. 
Slocum's floor, Mr. Slocum found a 
five-dollar bank-note in the room near 
the place where Chapman had passed 
the night. Being well persuaded on the 
point of ownership, he left his house in 
search of Mr. Chapman, and as he 'was 
yet in town, soon came up with him 
and inquired whether he had not lost 
a five-dollar note. Upon examination 
of his pockets, Mr. Chapman con- 
cluded he had, and receiving the note, 
remonstrated with Mr. Slocum against 
incurring so much trouble on his ac- 

Willard Hickox, of Mansfield, whose 
boyhood was passed in Green and 
Hanover townships, and who well re- 
members Chapman, relates an inci- 
dent illustrating a trait of character 
which could be cultivated with profit 
by the "fast people" of this day. Call- 
ing at the cabin of a farmer, Chapman 
discovered near the doorway a bucket 
of "slops" which the housewife had 
probably designed for the pigs, and 
upon the surface of which were float- 
ing some fragments of bread. He at 
once employed himself in removing 
these pieces from the bucket, and while 
thus engaged, the woman of the house 
appeared. He greeted her with a gentle 

rebuke of her extravagance — urging 
upon her the sinfulness of waste — and 
that it was wickedness, and an abuse 
of the gifts of a merciful God, to suffer 
the smallest quantity of anything 
which was designated to minister to 
the wants of mankind to be diverted 
from its purpose. 

He never purchased covering for 
his feet. When he used anything in 
the form of boots or shoes, they were 
cast-off things, or generally unmated, 
which he would gather up, however 
dilapidated they might appear — al- 
ways insisting that it was a sin to 
throw aside a bpot or a shoe until it 
had become so thoroughly worn out as 
to be unable to adhere to a human foot. 

His Swedenborgian books were as 
before stated, ever-present compan- 
ions. Mr. Josiah Thomas inquired of 
Johnny whether, in traveling on bare 
feet through forests abounding in 
venomous snakes, he did not entertain 
fears of being bitten. "This book", re- 
plied the old man, "is an infallible pro- 
tection against all danger, here and 

AYe have thus given such incidents 
as are deemed from authentic 
sources, designed to impress upon the 
mind of the reader the characteristics 
of this eccentric and remarkable man. 
whose simple habits, unostentatious 
charities, and life of self-denial, conse- 
crated to the relief of suffering human- 
ity and the amelioration of all God's 
creatures, are embalmed in the mem- 
ory of all the early settlers. 

It is a striking fact that New Eng- 
land has been one of the most prolific 
fields for the cultivation of metaphysi- 
cal, social and sexual fads. Papers in 
Boston have more advertisements of 
mysterious powers than in any other 
city of similar size in the country. 
Witchcraft flourished there in the early 
days as nowhere else in the United 
States except among the Indians and 
Negroes. Millerism ran through New 

England like a fire in 1843, and later in 
1854. Spiritualism. Shakerism and 
Quakerism in an almost crazy form 
had a long run. The "free love" aspect 
of Spirtualism took root there in many 
places; and "Mother" Eddy found a 
genial soil in and about Boston. Mor- 
monism also caught a large number of 
people in its drag net. — The Christian 


Traits and Characteristics of Pennsylvania Germans 

By J. H. A. Lacher, Waukesha, Wis. 

LTHO not of Pennsylvania 
German stock, I am 
greatly interested in the 
discussion in your valued 
magazine of the traits 
— ^^U|| and characteristics o f 
^^ \\ that element o'f our popu- 
lation. Born and reared in 
the Middle West, common report cur- 
rent in my youth led me to regard the 
Pennsylvania Dutch as the embodi- 
ment of ignorance, -suoerstition and 
non - progressiveness. Observation of 
Pennsylvania Germans, settled in the 
West, whon I met in the course of 
years, together with an awakened in- 
terest in the history of the German 
element in the United States, m idified 
this opinion materially. Miss Bitting- 
er's and Prof. Kuhn's books, especially, 
enlightened me and raised my opinion 
of the Pennsylvania Germans. Yet 
even then I did not know a tithe of 
their worth. Not until six years ago, 
when I had occasion to travel all over 
the Keystone State, did I learn fully to 
appreciate the sterling virtues of the 
Pennsylvania Germans. I had seen 
fine farms in the West, but when I 
viewed the country from Harrisburg 
to Allentown, to Lancaster, and the 
famous Cumberland Valley, I could 
understand why John Fiske called 
them the best farmers in America. 
The weedless, well-tilled farms, the 
massive barns, the neat, substantial 
houses, the pretty gardens enclosed by 
white fences, everything for miles and 
miles in spick and span condition, at- 
test the thrift, thoroughness and good 
sense of the inhabitants. 

Whie at Orwigsburg T saw the 
school children at play and was struck 
by the fact that every single child was 
well and neatly dressed, without a 
rent, patch, dirty face or soiled gar- 
ment in evidence anywhere. Kutztown 
aopeared so tidy and clean, with its 
streets, side-walks, houses, out-build- 
ings, walls, everything, in perfect re- 

pair, and looking as if freshly scrubbed 
or painted, that I dubbed it "Spotless 
Town", when visiting my friends in 
the West. I mention these incidents 
not because they were isolated obser- 
vations, but because they are typical of 
the entire region. Schools and churches 
I saw everywhere ; evidences of pov- 
erty and inefficiency, nowhere. Sure- 
ly these are not the signs of niggardli- 
ness, the stigma cast upon the Penn- 
sylvania Germans by Mr. Hocker. 

Fifteen millions of white Americans, 
not many of them Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans, wear amulets of some kind ; Fri- 
day and number thirteen are regarded 
as unlucky almost universally, and the 
majority of people are influenced more 
or less by superstition ; hence it hard- 
ly behooves anybody to cast the first 
stone when it comes to charging any 
particular national element with being 

In my travels of 500,000 miles I have 
covered the entire country and no- 
where have I found hotels so uniform- 
ly clean, and the food so nourishing 
and palatable, as in southeastern 
Pennsylvania. If churches, schools, 
thrift, cleanliness, abundance of good 
food, neat, sensible dress, tidiness, sub- 
stantiality, industry, integrity, general 
prosperity and absence of poverty, 
make for civilization, then the Penn- 
svlvania Germans will take high rank. 
What they have wrought speaks 
louder than words of mine. 

The incident of the butcher's excla- 
mation on the 'occasion of his son's ac- 
cidental death is misinterpreted by the 
critic. We are generous to the dead, 
and love or respect recalls and empha- 
sizes their predominant merits or 
achievements. Had the boy been dis- 
tinguished for musical talent, instead 
of adeptness at sausage making, the 
father would, undoubtedly, have re- 
ferred to that. 

Political prominence is not neces- 
sarily a mark of true greatness or 



merit, the influence wielded by a 
Wanamaker or a Studebaker being of- 
ten more beneficial to the country than 
that of many a politician who may 
have caught the passing fancy of the 
public ; nevertheless there have been 
men holding high office in the nation, 
who were of Pennsylvania German 
stock and few knew it. Who, for ex- 
ample, knows that Senator Borah of 
Idaho is of Pennsylvania German an- 
cestry, or that Congressman Tawney, 
chairman of the great Committee of 
Appropriations, is of pure Pennsyl- 
vania German stock. Yet, I have their 
word for it that such is the case. 

Wherever I have seen districts set- 
tled by descendants of Pennsylvania 
Germans, I have found evidence of the 
same sterling qualities that character- 
ize their brethren of the mother state. 
The fairest, thriftiest sections of the 
South are those settled by descendants 
of Pennsylvania Germans. Notable 
among these are northern and' south- 
western Virginia, the Piedmont re- 
gion of North Carolina and the Blue 
Grass region of Kentucky. 

About thirty years ago many farm- 
ers of southern Minnesota abandoned 
their deteriorated farms for the virgin 
soil of Dakota, attributing their failure 
to raise good crops of grain to an al- 
leged change in climate. After some 
years one of these emigrants, while on 
a visit to his former home, was told in 
my presence that his German succes- 
sor had been quite successful. "Oh", 
said he, "A Dutchman will make a liv- 
ing where a white man will starve". 
Curious to know why the German had 
succeeded where the other had failed, 
I learned by inquiry that he had spent 
all his spare time hauling manure from 
the neighboring village to his farm, in 
this manner reclaiming it. His prede- 
cessor had never done such menial la- 

bor, but had leisurely spent most of 
his time in the village telling folks 
how to run the government. 

The disparaging remark, quoted 
above, was formerly almost proverbial 
among a certain class of natives ; hence 
one is apt to suspect that much of the 
criticism of the Pennsvlvania Ger- 
mans is due to envy, for anybody ac- 
quainted with them knows tha t they 
live better, if not so wastefully, than 
their detractors. To concede the su- 
periority of the Pennsvlvania German 
stock and thereby admit their own in- 
feriority could hardly be expected of 
them. It is also true that the persis- 
tence of foreign speech and customs, 
aloofness, the broken vernacular, were 
strange differentiations, which made 
them seem inferior to their English- 
speaking neighbors of narrow horizon. 
For this reason must we regard with 
some charity, even today, all this de- 
famation of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans. They have their faults, but 
these are exaggerated to give sem- 
blance to the charges preferred against 
them. The Pennsylvania Germans, 
the German stock in general, must as- 
sert themselves by giving a wide pub- 
licity to their preeminence in many 
spheres and the prominent part they 
have played in the making of our coun- 
try. Their indifference, or modesty, 
has obscured their merits, giving color 
to the animadversions of their critics, 
and being the cause that many of their 
descendants deny their German an- 
cestry. Your magazine is on the right 
track and is deserving of a hundred 
thousand subscribers. 

My travels in Pennsylvania are 
among my pleasantest recollections, 
therefore I gladly pay this tribute to 
a people whose achievements made 
my sojourn among them a delightful 


Pennsylvania German Plant Names 

By Wilbur L. King, Allentown, Pa. 

HE Pennsylvania German 
housewife, as a rule, is a 
lover of flowers. The 
sunny window in her 
home is frequently a min- 
iature greenhouse and 
the winter she 
with great care, 
In the summer 


her potted plants, 
she has her flower bed as well as her 
vegetable garden and it is with pride 
that the delightful "old fashioned" 
flowers — the fuchsias, begonias, petu- 
nias, bachelor buttons and old maids — 
are shown to her visitors and a few 
slips of her choice geranium or some 
other plant is given to be planted for 
the winter garden. 

The husbandman, too, loves plants, 
else he would not have secured his 
well deserved reputation as a success- 
ful agriculturist. He has acquainted 
himself not only with the plants he 
cultivates but with those of the forest 
as well. For the plants he raised from 
seed which, with care, the Pennsylva- 
nia German immigrant brought from 
the land of his nativity he also brought 
the name, as well as for those which 
came with him, unbidden, — our weeds. 
But many plants previously unknown 
to him and natives of the new world 
alone were forced to his attention and 
for these he had to adopt a name. 
Through association, plant character- 
istic or sometimes through the adop- 
tion of the English name wth the Ger- 
man brogue added, he named them. 

Some of the old Pennsylvania Ger- 
man names are now seldom heard as 
the younger generations are using the 
English names. That some are decid- 

edly expressive is evident; others per- 
petuate tradition and of a number the 
names indicate the human ailments 
they were supposed to cure. 

In collecting these names care must 
be taken that the High German names, 
such as the preacher or doctor might 
use, are not mistaken for Pennsylvania 
German names. The names for hops 
in High German is "hopfen" but the 
Pennsylvania German calls it "huba". 
On the other hand a partly anglicised 
form cannot properly be recorded as a 
Pennsylvania German name, hence our 
cinquefoil is not 5-fingergrout but 
rather "finfHnger-grout". 

A number of the plants have several 
names in Pennsylvania German and a 
few of the names are applied indis- 
criminately to various species of plants 
but this is easily explained by the fact 
that persons not having made a study 
of botany are not certain to recognize 
a difference between closely related or 
similar plants. The Pennsylvania Ger- 
man name for ferns is "fawron" and 
although at least fifteen species of 
ferns are found in this locality this 
name alone is applied to all of these 
plants. In the accompanying list the 
plant common to the locality has been 
given the Pennsylvania German name 
which is used indiscriminately for 
several species in the family. For 
instance, all the high bush blackberries 
are known as "blakbera" but in the list 
the name is shown but once and then 
in connection with a plant of very 
common occurence. 

The names recorded have been 
gathered principally in Lehigh and 
Northampton counties and from the 
mouths of numerous persons. Dr. A, 
R. Home's Pennsylvania German 
Manual has also been freely consulted. 





Peiiiia. German 

1 Harshtsung 

2 Weis beind 

3 Gal beind 

4 Hemlock 

5 Weis Zadar 

6 Wochular 

7 Rod Zadar 

8 Kotzashwons or 
Licht kolva 

9 Hinklefus gros 

10 Kitsal gros 

11 Harsh gros 

12 Demadi 

13 Kweka 

14 How'r 

15 Drefts 

16 Wadsa 

17 Korn 

18 Garshd 

19 Welshkorn 

20 Uxa gros 

21 Binsa 

22 Bucksbort 

23 Inshing zwiw'l or 

24 Biskotsagrout 

25 Kolmus 

26 Hechtgrout 

27 Shnitloch 

28 Wilder knuwluch 

29 Zwiw'l 

30 Shdarnblum 

31 Weibud'la 

32 Shlis'lblum 

33 Shbaragros 

34 Moiblum 

35 Oshterblum 

36 Shwartli 



Hart's tongue 


White pine 
Yellow pine 

Arbor vitae 

Red cedar 

Broad-leaved cat-tail 


Finger grass 

Witch grass 

Yellow foxtail 


Kentucky blue grass 






Slender cyperus 
Great bulrush 
Stellate sedge 



Skunk cabbage 
Sweet flag 





Wild garlic 



Grape hyacinth 






Larger blue flag 


Scolopendrium Scolopendrium (L) Karst. 

Pinus Strobus L. 

Pinus echinata Mill. 

Tsuga Canadensis (L) Carr. 

Thuja occidentalis L. 

Juniperus communis L. 

Juniperus Virginiana L. 

Typha latifolia L. 

Syntherisma sanguinalis (L) Nash 

Panicum capillare L. 

Ixophorus glaucus (L) Nash 

Phleum pratense L. 

Poa pratensis L. 

Avena sativa L. 

Bromus secalinus L. 

Triticum sativum Lam. 

Secale cereale L. 

Hordeum sativum Jessen 

Zea Mays L. 

Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. 

Scirpus lacustris L. 

Carex rosea Schk. 

Arisaema triphyllum (L) Torr 

Spathyema foetida (L) Raf. 
Acorus Calamus L. 

Pontederia cordata L. 

Allium Schoenoprasum L. 

Allium vineale L. 

Allium Cepa L. 

Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 

Muscari botryoides (L) Mill. 

Hyacinthus orientalis L. 

Asparagus officinalis L. 
Convallaria majalis L. 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus L. 

Iris versicolor L. 



37 Wolnus 

38 Weiswolnus 

39 Hikarnus 

40 Sei hikarnus 

41 Hulsfawron 

42 Bob'l 

43 Weis bob'l 

44 Oshba 

45 Weida 

46 Henkweida 

47 Korbweida 

48 Hos'lnus 

49 Sesbarka 

50 Wos'r barka 

51 Bucha 

52 Keshda 

53 Rod acha 

54 Schworts acha 

55 Grund acha 

56 Weis acha 

57 Keshda acha 

58 Rusha 

59 Rudshuls 

60 Schworts moulber 

61 Weis moulber 

62 Huba 

63 Hontt 

64 Brenas'l 

65 Eisgrout 

66 Hoi worz'l 

67 Hos'l worz'l 

68 Glana shlongaworz'l 

69 Boigiout 

70 Souromb'l 

71 Holwargoul 

72 Buchwadsa 

73 Flagrout 

74 Wagdrad'r 

75 Rodreb 

76 Warmgrout 

77 Melda 

78 Shbinawd 


Black walnut 



Pig-nut hickory 

Sweet fern 


White poplar 

American aspen 
Black willow 

Weeping willow 
Osier willow 


Black birch 
River birch 


American beech 

American chestnut 

Red oak 

Black oak 

Scrub oak 

White oak 

Chestnut oak 


American elm 
Slippery elm 


Red mulberry 

White mulberry 




Stinging nettle 



Wild ginger 

Virginia snakeroot 



Sheep sorrel 

Curled dock 


Penna Persicaria 







Juglans nigra L. 

Juglans cinerea L. 

Hicoria ovata (Mill) Britt. 

Hicoria glabra (Mill) Britt. 

Comptonia peregina (L) Coult. 

Populus dilatata 

Populus alba L. 

Populus tremuloides Michx 

Salix nigra Marsh. 

Salix Babylonica L. 

Salix viminalis L. 

Corylus Americana Walt. 
Betula lenta L. 
Betula nigra L. 

Fagus Americana' Sweet. 

Castanea dentata (Marsh) Bork. 

Quercus rubra L. 

Quercus velutina Lam. 

Quercus nana (Marsh) Sarg. 

Quercus alba L. 

Quercus Prinus L. 

Ulmus Americana L. 
Ulmus fulva Michx. 

Morus rubra L. 

Moms alba L. 

Humulus Lupulus L. 

Cannabis sativa L. 

Urtica diocia L. 
Adicea pumila (L) Raf. 

Aristolochia Clematitis L. 

Asarum Canadense L. 

Aristolochia Serpentaria L. 

Rheum Rhaponticum L. 

Rumex Acetosella L. 

Rumex crispus L. 

Fagopyrum Fagopyrum (L) Karst. 

Polygonum Pennsylvanicum L. 

Polygonum aviculare L. 

Beta vulgaris L. 

Chenopodium anthelminticum L. 

Atriplex hortense L. 

Spinacia oleraceae Mill. 



79 Hawnakora 

80 Pokbera 
•81 Seibarz'l 

82 Rawta 

83 Hind'ldorm 

84 Woss'r lila 

85 Houswox 

86 Meisora 

87 Krishtworz'l 

88 Goldworz'l 

89 Shworts shlongaworz'l 

90 Glukablum 

91 Rit'rshbora 

92 Windrosa 

93 Hawnafus 

94 Bud'rblum 

95 Gicht rosa 

96 Moiob'l 

•97 Olakur 

98 Sosafros 

99 Pef rhuls 

100 Mawg 

101 Rodworz'l 

102 Shelagrout 

103 Spechtabilla 

104 Doubakrupff 

105 Mustard 

106 Reb 

107 Grout 

108 Redich 

109 Brunagress 

110 Maretich 

111 Desh'lgrout 

112 Dod'r 

113 Grus'lber 

114 Shworts konstrouwa 

115 Rod konstrouwa 

Red amaranth 





Corn cockle 
Common ehickweed 


Pond lily 


Early saxifrage 


Christmas rose 


Black snakeroot 

Wild columbine 



Kidney-leaved crowfoot 

Meadow buttercup 



May apple 


Canada moonseed 




Garden poppy 


Bleeding hearts 



Hedge mustard 






Shepherd's purse 

False flax 


Garden gooseberry 
Black currant 
Red currant 

Amaranthus paniculatus L. 

Phytolacca decandra L. 

Portulaca oleracea L. 

Agrostemma Githago L. 
Alsine media L. 

Castalia odorata (Dry) W & W 

Sempervivum tectorum 

Saxifraga Virginiensis Michx 

Helleborus niger L 

Coptis trifolia (L) Salisb 

Cimicifuga racemosa (L) Nutt 

Aquilegia Canadensis L. 

Delphinium Ajacis L. 

Anemone quinquefolia L. 

Ranunculus abortivus L. 

Ranunculus acris L. 

Paeonia officinales Retz 

Podophyllum peltatum L. 

Menispermum Canadensis L. 

Sassafras Sassafras (L) Karst 
Benzoin Benzoin (L) Coulter 

Papaver somniferum L. 

Sanguinaria Canadensis L. 

Chelidonium majus L. 

Dicentra spectabilis DC. 

Fumaria officinalis L. 

Sismybrium officinale (L) Scop. 

Brassica campestris L. 

Brassica oleracea L. 

Raphanus sativus L. 

Roripa Nasturtium (L) Rusby 

Roripa Amoracia (L) A. S. H. 

Bursa Bursa-pastorius (L) Brit. 

Camelina sativa (L) Crantz 

Ribes Uva-crispa L. 

Ribes floridum L'Her. 

Ribes rubrum L. 



116 Shworts hember 

117 Rod hember 

118 Blakber 

119 Nider Blakber 

120 Arber 

121 Finf fing'rgrout 

122 Od'rmencha 

123 Nog'lgrout 

124 Wild'r rosa 

125 Ber 

126 Ob'l 

127 Weisdorn 

128 Kwit 

129 Bloum 

130 Obrigosa 

131 Kash 

132 Wild kash 

133 Parshing 

134 Mikagrout 

135 Hawsagla 

136 Rodgla 

137 Weisgla 

138 Locus 

139 Arbs 

140 Grundnus 

141 Bona 

142 Indianischer Kress 

143 Hawsagla 

144 Floks 

145 Routa 

146 Shlongaworz'l 

147 Buksbawm 

148 Moulwurf grout 

149 Esich huls 

150 Mabla or Ahorn 

151 Zuk'r mabla 

152 Arlahek 

153 Geilskeshta 

154 Glawsgrout 


Black raspberry 

Red raspberry 

High bush blackberry 




Tall hairy agrimony 

Salad burnet 

Pasture rose 









Wild black cherry 



Wild indigo 

Rabbitt-foot clover 

Red clover 

White clover 






Indian Cress 

Yellow wood-sorrel 




Common rue 


Seneca snake-root 


Box tree 
Cypress spurge 


Scarlet sumac 


Red maple 


Box elder 

Horse chestnut 



Rubus occidentalis L. 

Rubus strigosus Michx 

Rubus villosus Ait. 

Rubus Canadensis L. 

Fragaria Virginiana Duch. 

Potentilla Canadensis L. 

Agrimonia hirsuta (Muhl) Bick. 

Sanguisorba Sanguisorba (L) Brit 

Rosa humilis Marsh. 

Pyrus communis L. 

Malus Malus (L) Britt. 

Crataegus Oxyacantha L. 

Pyrus Cydonia L. 

Prunus domesticus L. 

Prunus Armeniaca L. 

Prunus Avium L. 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 

Amygdalus Persica L. 

Baptisia tinctoria (L) R. Br. 

Trifolium arvense L. 

Trifolium pratense L. 

Trifolium repens L. 

Robinia Pseudacacia L. 

Pisum sativum L. 

Apios apios (L) MacM. 

Phaseolus vulgaris L. 

Tropaeolum majus L. 

Oxalis stricta L. 

Linum usilatissimum L. 

Ruta graveolens L. 

Polygala Senega L. 

Buxus sempervirens L. 
Euphorbia Cyparissias L. 

Rhus glabra L. 

Acer rubrum L. 

Acer Saccharum Marsh. 

Acer Negundo L„ 

AEsculus Hippocastanum 

Impatiens aurea MuhL 




155 Shbekdroub 

156 Reifdroub 

157 Lina 

158 Holsrosa 

159 Kasbobla 

160 Bud'rmudel 

161 Bawwul 

162 Yohonsgrout 


Fox grape 
Chicken grape 


American linden 



Low mallow 

Velvet leaf 



Common St. John's-wort 


163 Veilchen 

164 Gal veilchen 

165 Jonijumbub 

Meadow violet 

Yellow violet 




166 Kevich 



167 Galreb 

168 Koriond'r 

169 Boshdnawd 

170 Fenchel 

171 Karnligrout 

172 Padarli 

173 Selarich 

174 Kim'l 

175 Lebshdek'l 

176 Attig 

Wild carrot 




Smooth sweet cicely 





Dwarf elder 


177 Hunshuls 

178 Guma 

Flowering dogwood 
Sour gum 


179 Rumadisgrout 

180 Wintergreen 

Spotted wintergreen 
Princes pine 


181 Ardshdreiss 

182 Brusht-ta 

Trailing arbutus 


183 Rod'r hink'ldorm 

Red pimpernel 


184 Mishbla 



185 Pingshdablum 

186 Esh 


White ash 


187 Dousendgildagrout 


188 Milchgrout 


Vitis Labrusca L. 
Vitis cordifolia Michx. 

Tilia Americana L. 

Althaea rosea Cav. 

Malva rotundifolia L. 

Abutilon Abutilon (L) Rusby 

Gossyprium herbaceum L. 

Hypericum perforatum L. 

Viola obliqua Hill. 

Viola pubescens Ait. 

Viola tricolor L. 

Onagra biennis (L) Scop. 

Daucus Carota L. 

Coriandrum sativa L. 

Pastinaca sativa L. 

Foeniculum Foeniculum (L) Karst 

Washingtonia longistyllis (Tor) Brit 

Apium Petroselinum L. 

Apium graveolens L. 

Carum Carui L. 

Levisticum officinale Koch. 

AEgopodium Podagraria L. 

Cornus florida L. 
Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 

Chimaphila maculata (L) Pursh. 
Chimaphila umbellata (L) Nutt 

Epigaea repens L. 
Gaultheria procumbens L. 

Anagallis arvensis L. 
Diospyros Virginiana L. 

Syringa vulgaris L. 
Fraxinus Americana L. 

Sabbatia angularis (L) Pursh. 
Asclepias tuberosa L. 




189 Ses grumber 

Sweet potato 

190 Drechd'rblum 


191 Wina 



192 Flokseida 



193 Shoflous 

Hound's tongue 

194 Sbwortsworz'l 


195 Borretscb 


196 Uxatsung 

Small Bugloss 


197 Gamander 

American germander 

198 Adorn 

White hoarhound 

199 Prunelgrout or 


Wild'r huba 

200 Kotsagrout 


201 Hind'ldorm 



202 Eisenkraut 

Blue vervain 

203 Solwei 


204 Mud'rgrout 

Oswego tea 

205 Grudabolsom 

American Pennyroyal 

206 Bonagrait'l 


207 Eisup 


208 Wulgamud 

Wild majoram 

209 Mawron 

Sweet majoram 

210 Kwend'l 

Creeping thyme 

211 Bush-ta 

American dittany 

212 Bolsom 

Spear mint 

213 Mawga bolsom 


214 Tilesworz'l 



215 Yudakarsh 

Ground cherry 

216 Nochshoda 

Black nightshade 

217 Grumber 


218 T'mats 


219 Hexakim'l 

Thorn apple 

220 Duwok 


221 Wulashdeng'l 

222 Hunsblum 

223 Brounworz'l 

224 Ar'npreis 

225 Seiorabled'r 

226 Shbitsawegrich 

227 Hul'rber 

228 Shofbera 

229 Shofknut'l 

230 Hunichsuk'l 

231 Kordadish'l 


Mullen dock 


Maryland figwort 

Common speedwell 


Common plantain 


Sweet elder 

Black haw 


Common teasel 

Ipomoea Batatas Lam. 

Ipomoea purpurea (L) Roth. 

Convolvulus repens L. 

Cuscuta Gronovii Wild. 

Cynoglossum officinale L. 

Symphytum officinale L. 

Borago officinalis L. 

Lycopsis arvensis L. 

Teucrium Canadense L. 

Marrubium vulgare L. 

Prunella vulgaris L. 

Nepta Cataria L. 
Lamium amplexicaule L. 

Verbena hastata L. 

Salvia officinale L. 

Monarda didyma L. 

Hedeoma pulegioides (L) Pers. 

Satureia hortensis L. 

Hyssopus officinalis L. 

Origanum vulgare L. 

Origanum Majorana L. 

Thymus serpyllum L. 

Cunila origanoides (L) Brit. 

Mentha spicata L. 

Mentha piperita L. 

Collinsonia Canadensis L. 

Physalis Philadelphica Lam 

Solanum nigrum L. 

Solanum tuberosum L. 

Lycopersicon Lycopersicon (L) Karst 

Datura Stramonium L. 

Nicotiana Tobacum L. 

Verbascum Thapsus L. 

Linaria Linaria (L) Karst. 

Scrophularia Marylandica L. 

Veronica officinalis L. 

Plantago major L. 
Plantago lanceolata L. 

Sambucus Canadensis L. 

Viburnum Lentago L. 

Lonicera Japonica Thumb. 

Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. 

Viburnum prunifolium L. 



232 Karbs 

233 Wos'rmelon 

234 Gum'r 

235 Kolbosht 

236 lushing duwok 

237 Ondefi 

238 Pisabed or 
Bid'r solad 

239 Bul'ryuk'l or 


240 Hunstsung 

241 Dorchwox 

242 Wundgrout 

243 Reinblum 

244 Sotsblum 

245 Olonsworz'l 

246 Sunablum 

247 Ardob'l 

248 Dalya 

249 Bubeleis 

250 Madeleis 

251 Neragrout 

252 Shofriba 

253 Wild'r komila 

254 Komila 

255 Gensblum 

256 Maderla 

257 Kebiders 

258 Warmut 

259 Alter mon 

260 Alter frau 

261 Grud'lrawa 

262 Gleda 

263 Dishd'l 

264 Marien Dishd'l 

265 Soffron 






Indian tobacco 







Field golden-rod 

Pearly everlasting 

«, inged cudweed 


Common sunflower 

Jerusalem artichoke 



Spanish needles 

Common yarrow 

Garden camomile 

Oxeye daisy 

Common feverfew 


Common wormwood 


Common mugwort 

Common groundsel 


Field thistle 

Virgin Mary's thistle 


Cucurbita Pepo L. 

Citrullus Citrullus (L) Karst. 

Cucumis sativus L. 

Lagenaria vulgaris Ger. 

Lobelia inflata L. 

Cichorium Endivia L. 
Taraxacum Taraxacum (L) Karst. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolla L. 
Hieracium venosum L. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 

Solidago nemoralis (L) B & H 

Anaphalis margaretacea (L) B & H 

Gnaphalium decurrens Ives 

Inula Helenium L. 

Helianthus annuus L. 

Helianthus tuberosus L. 

Dahlia variabilis Desf. 

Bidens frondosa L. 

Bidens bipinnate L. 

Achillea Ptarmica L. 

Achillea Millefolium L. 

Anthemis Cotula L. 

Anthemis nobilis L. 

Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum L. 

Chrysanthemum Parthenium (L) Pers. 

Tanacetum vulgare L. 

Artemisia Absinthium L. 

Artemisia Abrotanum L. 

Artemisia vulgaris L. 

Senecio vulgaris L. 

Arctium Lappa L. 

Cardial? discolor (Muhl) Nutt 

Mariana Mariana (L) Hill. 

Carthamus tinctorius L. 

Saur's "Kleines Krauterbuch" 

In the " Hoch - Deutsch American- 

ischc Calender" for 1762, Christopher 
Saur began a series of lessons in 
botany which were introduced by the 
following- words, set in large type : 

"Dem gemeinen Mann zum Dienst will 
man die | Tugenden und Wiirckungen der 
vornehmsten | Krater und Wurtzeln be- 
schreiben: wann nun einer die | Calender 
zusammen halt, so bekommt er endlich ein 
kleines | Krauter-Buch vor geringen Kosten 
und mache den | Aufang mit der Aland 

These lessons appeared annually 
until 1778 and must have proved of 
great value to the users of the almanac. 
We have before ns a collection of these 
lessons, formed by stitching together 
the successive issues until a book of 
more than 125 pages was formed prov- 
ing a v e r i t a ble "kurtzgefasseten 
Krauterbuch" (Compact Herbal). 

In the first installment of the lessons 
only the German name of the plant 



was given ; in the others the English, 
German and Latin names appeared. 

In each lesson the name of the plant 
was given first; a description of its 
general properties followed and the 
method of application to the particular 
sickness and ailments formed the con- 
clusion. By way of illustration of the 
description of the general properties of 
the plant we quote the following: 

"Der gute Heinrich ist temperirter Natur, 
hat viel wasserigen Safts -benebst ein wenig 
fliichtig, salpeterischen Salz un etwas 
ohligen Theilen bey sich, und daher die 
Eigenschaft zu erdunnern, Schmerzen zu 
stillen, zu heilen und ein gutes Gebliit zu 

In a few cases only the physical 
properties of plants are described, e. g. 
Eyebright (Augentrost) is said to be 
a beautiful little plant growing a span 
high, with white flowers, blue with 
yellow dots, growing between stem 
and leaf. The leaves are dark green, 
small, serrated and somewhat astrin- 
gent and bitter. It grows in meadows 
and blossoms in early Fall. Growing 
on hills it usually has only one stem, 
but in moist places it has a number of 

Want of space does not permit us to 
attempt an enumeration of the virtues 
of the different plants as given, nor 
have we the technical knowledge to 
pass judgment on the merits of the 
various remedies. YVe will content 
ourselves by noting a few of the minor 
characteristics of the treatise itself. 

The author dwells at some lengtn 
on the virtues of a salve having Liver- 
wort as a constituent part. He relates 
hi >\v a Doctor Wolfius received from 
Prince Ludwig of Hesse a fatted ox 
each year for the recipe and then adds 
in parenthesis : "Und ich schreibe es so 
wohlfeil in dem Calendar". (And I give 
it out so cheap in the Almanac.) 

The rubbing of the hand of a dead 
child over certain parts of the body is 
said to have curative power. 

The following lines would probably 
not be endorsed by present-day prac- 

Der beruhmte Wundartzt Feliz Wurtz 
schreibt: Wenn man die Liebstockel- Wiirtzel 

grabe, wann die Sonne in dem Widder 
gehet, un.d sie anhanget, seye es ein be- 
wahrtes Mittel wider Schwinden und ab- 
nehinen der Glieder. 

The author was not averse to quot- 
ing poetry if it served his purpose as 
for example : 

"Fur die Geilheit wildes Rasen 
Halte Camffer an die Nasen." 

"Berthream in dem Mund zerbiszen, 
Reinigt das Gehirn von Fliissen." 

"Der Fenchel und das Eisenkraut, 

Die Roos, das Schellkraut und die Raut, 

Sind dienlich dem Gesicht, 

Das Dunkelheit anficbt; 

Hieraus ein Wasser zubereit, 

Das bringt den Augen Heiterkeit." 

One might almost feel like suspect- 
ing the author of currying favor with 
the young ladies when he tells how a 
certain plant if used in washing one- 
self makes the "Angeischt zart, weisz 
und schon". 

Old King Mithridates is given as 
authority for saying that the use of a 
preparation of rue is a preventive of 
evil effects from the use of any poison. 

To cure toothache the author advises 
applying a certain plant to the cheek 
until it becomes warm and then bury- 
ing it in a manure pile. The toothache 
is sure to cease as the plant begins to 

In describing the merits of Cats- 
Mint, the author relates the story of a 
Swiss executioner who had such a 
sympathetic heart that he could not 
enforce the laws. He used to chew 
this plant and keep it under his tongue 
and this made him so revengeful and 
bloodthirsty that he could perform his 
duty. The author adds in parenthesis 
in German: "Would that there were a 
root that would make the unmerciful 

As a method of stopping nose bleed- 
ing the reader is told that the placing 
of the plant Shepherds-Purse in the 
hand of the patient is efficacious. 

Figs are said to be quite nourishing 
and serviceable therefore in cases of 
famine "wann man sie hat" (if one has 
them). The free use of dried figs is 
said to breed lice. 



The author dwells on the evil effects 
of using too much sugar and adds that 
this, although the plain truth : 

"Wird bey denen verzukerten Weibsleuten 
schlechten Eingang finden, weil sie wenig 
darauf sehen, ob etwas gesund ist, wann es 
nur susz uud wohl schmeckt." 

A little farther on, in condemning 
the misuse of sugar, the author says : 

"Zumalen auch die heutige Welt, und 
sonderlich das candirte Frauenzimmer, also 
verschleckt und delicate, dasz man ihuen 
bald keine Arzney mehr einschwatzen kan 
sie seye dann zu grossem Naclitheil ihrer 
Gesundbeit verzuckert." 

The following is a list of the names 
of the plants mentioned in the Alma- 
nac. The numbers placed after the 
names indicate that the plants are 
probably identical with those of like 
number in Mr. King's list preceding 
this article. If additional identifica- 
tions are established by our readers 
we shall be pleased to receive and 
print supplementary lists. The spelling 
in the Almanac has been followed. 
Words in italics were supplied by the 

Anise — Anis — Anisum. 

Angelica — Angelicka — Angelica. 

Agrimony, Water Hemp — -Odermenig — Agri- 

monia. 122 
Apples — Aepfel — Malum. 126 
Almonds — Mandeln — Amydalarum. 
Allgood — Guter Henrich— Bonus Henricus. 
Apricocks — Apricosen, Marillen — Malus. 130 
Asparagus — Spargen — Asparagi Ameniaca. 

Ash Tree — Eschbaum — Fraximus. 186 
Garden Araches — Zahme Melden — Atriplex 

Hortensis. 77 
Burdock— Kletten— Bardena. 262 
Bugle — Brunella Kraut — Brunella. 199 
Brooklime — Bachbungen — Baccabunga. 
Basil — Basilien — Ocimum. 
Burnet — Bibernell — Pimpinella. 
Batony — Betonien — Betonica. 
Birthwort — Holwurzel — Aristalachia. 66 
Borage — Burretsch — Barrage 195 
Blackberry — Brombeer — Rubus. 118 
Bayberries — Lorbeeren — Bacca Laura. 
Beets — Marigold — Beta. 75 
Buglosse — Ochsenzunge — Buglassum. 196 ? 
Bryony — Stickwurtz — Bryonia. 
Barley — Stickwurtz — Hardeum. 18 
Balsam-Apple — Apfel Balsam — Balsamita 

Rotundi folia. 
Barberries— Sauerling — Berberis. 
Beans — Bohnen — Faba. 141 
Cinque/oil — Fiinffinger Kraut. 121 

Wild Carrot— Wilde Mohren— Wilde Gelb- 
riiben — Carata Sylvatica. 167 

Calamus — Kalmus — Acorum. 25. 

Camphire — Campffer — Campbora. 

Coriander — Coriander — Coriandrum. 168 

Cresses— Gartenkresse — Nasturtium. 109 

Columbine — Agley — Aquilegia. 90 

Colewort — Kohl — Brassica. 

Cabbage — Kappes — Brassica Capitata. 107 

Colocynth — Coloquinten — Colocynthis. 

Coffee— Coffee— Caff ea. 

Croefoot — Hahnenfusz — Ranunculus. 93 

Chickweed — Hiinerdarm — Alsine. 83 

Cummin — Kiimmel — Cyminum. 174 

Celandine — Schellkraut — Chelidanium. 102 

Comfrey — Schwartzwurtz — Symphytum. 194 

Centaury — Tausendgulden kraut — Centauri- 
um. 187 ? 

Chervell — Karfel — Cerefolium. 

Cloves — Kramer — Nelcken — Caryophyllum. 

Cotton Weed— Rhein Blumen — Stolchas— 

Cherries — Kirschen — Cerasarum. 131 

Cinnamon — Zimmet — Cinamomi. 

Clary — Scharlach kraut — Horminum. 

Cats Mint — Katzen Miintze — Nepeta. (200) 

Clover— Gemeiner Klee — Trifolium prae- 
tense. 136 

Citrons — Citronen — Malus Citreum. 

Crowesfoot — Krabenfusz — Coranopus. 

Currants — St. Johannes Beer — Ribes Vul- 

Ciche — Ziser Erbsen — Cicora. 

Cardamoms — Cardamomlein — Cardamomi. 

Glove — Gilliflowers — Garten Nagelger — 
Caryophile Domestice. 

Coco— Cocus — Cacao. 

Casia— Casia — Casia. 

Cumerick — Gelb Wurz — Curcuma. 

Camillen . 

Cardobendicten . 

Dill— Dillkraut— Anethrum. 170 

Daisy — Maszlieben Gansbliimlein — Bellis. 

Dittanus— Dictam — Dictamnus. 
Dragonwort — Drachen Wurz — Dracuncubus. 
Dittander — Pfeffer Kraut — Lepidium. 
Dock — Grundwurzel — Oxilapathum. 71 ? 

Elecampene — Aland Wurtzel . 245 

Eyebright — Augentrost — Euphrasia. 

Endive — Endive — Endiva. 237 

Elder Tree — Holder, Holunder — Sambucus. 

Elm Tree — Rusten, Ulmen Baum — Ulmus. 


Ehrenpreysz . 58, 59 

Dwarf Eder — Entzian Attig — Ebulua. 176 

Feamebreak — Fahrenkraut — Felii. 

Folefoot (Wild Ginger-root) Haselwurtzel — 

Asarum. 67 
Fumitory — Faubenkropff — Fumaria. 104 
Fennel — Fenchel — Foeniculum. 170 
Foenugreck — Bockshorn — Foenugraecum. 
Flax — Flacbs — Linum. 144 
Feverfew — Mutterkraut — Matricaria. 256 ? 
Figs — Feigen — Ficus. 
Flaxweed — Sophien Kraut — Herba Sophia. 



-Fiinffinger Kraut- 


Flower de Luce — Veil Wurzel — Iris. 36 

Wild Ginger root — Haselwurzel — Asarum. 

Galanga- — Galgand Wurtzel — Galanga. 

Gold of Measure — Leindotter — Myagrum. 

Groundsel — Creutz-Wurz — Senecia. 261 

•Germander — G'amanderlein — Chamoldrvs. 

Garlic — Knoblauch — Alium. 2S 

Water Germander — Wasser Bathenig — Lach- 
en Knoblauch Knoblauch — Scordium. 


Goldenrod — Heidnisch Wundkraut — Virgae 
Aurea. 242 

Gourd, Pumpkins — Kiirbse — Cucurbiata. 232 

Horehound — Weisser. Andorn — Marrubium 
Album. 198 

Housleak (Stone crop) — Hauszwurtz — Sem- 
per viva. 85 

Hysop — Isop — Hyssopus. 207 

Horse Radish — Meer Rettig — Raphanus Syl- 
vestris. 110 

Henbane — Bilsen kraut — Hyascymus. 

Harts Tongue — Hirschzunge — Scolopendria. 

Hops — Hopfen — Lupulus. 62 

Horsetail — Schafftheu — Equisetum. 

Hurtleberries — Heydelbeeren — Myrtillus. 

Hemlock — Wiitrich — Citata. 4 

Black Hellebor — Schwartze Niesz Wurz — 
Helleborus Niger. 

White Hellebor — Weisze Niesz Wurz — Hel- 
leborus Albus. 

Honeysuckle — Stern Leberkraut — Hepatica 

Climbing Ivy — Flpheu, Eppich — Hedera. 

Jalep — Jalapa — Jalapium. 

Jack by the Hedge — Knoblauch Kraut— Al- 

Juniper — Wachholder- — Juniperus. 6 

Indian Kresse — Indianischer Kresse — Nas- 
turtium Indicum. 142 

Kingspear — Alsodillwurz — Aphodelus. 

Tiirkischer Kresse — Draba Vulgaris. 

Loffel Kraut . 

Lime Linden Tree — Linden Baum — Tilia. 

Limes — Lemonen — Lemonia. 

Lovage — Liebstockel — Levisticum. 175 

White Lillies — Weisse Lilien — Lilium Album 

Larkspur — Ritterspohren — Consolida Rega- 
lis. 91 

Linewort — Lein Kraut — Osyris. 

Lignum Vitae — Frauzosen Holz, Lebens 
Holz — Lignum Guajacum. 5 ? 

Golden Longwort — Buchkohl — Pulmonaria 

Liquor ise — Siiszholtz — Liquiritia. 

Liverwort— Leber Kraut — Hepatica. 

Lavender — Lavendel — Lavendula. 

Lung Wort — Lungenkraut — Pulmonaria. 

Marigold — Ringel Blume — Calendula. 

Melilot — Stein Klee — Melilatus. 

Moss — Baum Moss — Muscus Arboreus. 

Marsh Mallow — Eibish — Althae. 

May Flowers — Mayenbliimlein — Lilium Con- 
valium. 34 

Mulberry — Maulbeeren — Marus. 60, 61 

Wild Mint — Bach Miinze, Krauser Balsam — 

Mint — Balsam Miinze — Mentha, Mintha. 212, 

Mugwort, Motherwort — Beyfusz — Artemisia. 

Marjoram — Majoram — Marjorana. 209 

French Mercury — Bingel Kraut — Mercurialis 

Manna — Manna — Manna. 

Water Millions — Wasser Melonen — Mela. 233 

Millet — Hirse— Milium. 

Milfoile — Garbenkraut Schaffribben — Mille- 
folium. 252 

Mustard — Senf — Sinapi. 

Mouse Ear — Mauszohrlein — Pilasella. 86 

Masterwort — Meister Wurtz — Imperatoria. 

Mallows — Kasz Pappeln — Malva. 159 

Myrrhe — Myrrhen — Myrrha. 

Nettle — Nesseln, Brenneseln — Urtica. 64 

Nuts — Niisse — Nux Inglans. 

Nutmegs — Muscatniisse — Nux Maschata. 

Nightshade — Nachtschatten — Salani. 216 

Bird's Nest — Vogelnest — Carat Sylvatica. 167 

Onions — Zwiebeln — Cepa. 29 

Oak Tree — Eichenbaum — Quercus. 53 to 57 

Olive Tree — Oelbaum — Olea Domestica. 

Oakferne — Engelsusz — Polipodum. 

Origane — Dosten — Origanum. 207, 208 

Oats — Haber — Avena. 14 

Bastard Pellitory — Berthram — Pyrethrum. 

Pears — Birn — Pyrum. 125 

Plaintain — Wegerich — Plantago. 226 

Purslain — Burtzel, Burgel — Portulaca. 81 

Parsley— Petersilien — Pitrasilinum. 172 

Pennyroyal — Poley — Pulegium. 205 

Piony — Gichtrosen — Poeonia. 95 

Polypody Oak feme — Engelsusz — Polypodi- 


Pilewort — Feigwartzen Kraut — Chelidom- 

Pine Tree — Fiechten Baum — Pinus Sativa. 

2, 3 
Pepper — Pfeffer — Piper vulgare. 
Pease — Erbsen — Pisa. 139 
Water Parsnep — Wasser Mark — Sium. 
Pompkins — Kiirbse — Cucurbita. 232 
Peach — Pfirsching— Malus Persea. 133 
Plums — Pflaumen — Prunum. 129 
Pruans — Zwetschken — Prunum. 
Pappies — Magsamen — Papaver. 100 
Primrose Schliisselblumen — Primula Ve- 

Wild Poppy — Korn Rose — Papaver Eraticum. 
Palm of Christ — Wunderbaum — Ricinus. 
Water Pepper — Flohkraut — Persicaria. 73 
Parsnip — Pastinachen — Pastinaca. 169 
Quinces — Quitten — Cydonia. 128 
Rampions — Rapunzeln — Rapunculus. 
Rosemary — Roszmarin — Rosmarimus. 
Rhubarb — Rhebarbara — Rhabarbarum. 69 
Rye — Rocken — Secula. 17 
Red Beeds — Rothe Rube — Carat Rubra. 75. 
Ragwort — Stendelwurz — Orchis. 
Rice — Reis — Oryza. 
Monk's Rhubarb — Mundis Rhabarbara — Hip- 




Raspberry — Himbeeren — Rubus Indolus. 116, 

Radish — Rettig — Raphanus. 108 
Rue — Raute — Ruta Hortensis. 145 ? 
Strawberry bush — Erdbeerenkraut — Fraga- 

ria. 120 
Saffron — Safran — Crucus. 265 
Sassafras — Sassafras — Sassafras. 98 
Sena — Sene Blatter — Sena. 
Southernwood — Stabwurz — Abratanum. 259 
Spicknard — Spicknard — Spica Domestica. 
Sugar — Zncker — Saecharum. 
Servis — Sperwei;, Speyerling — Sarbus. 
Sowthistle — Haasen Kohl — Sangus Asper. 
Sorrel — Sauerampfel — Acetasa. 70 
Sanikle — Sanickel — Sanicula. 
Savory — Saturey, Bohnen Kraut — Satureia. 

Succory — Wegwarten — Cichorium. 
Sea Holly — Mannstreu — Eringium. 
Savin — Sevenbaum — Sabina. 6 
Scabious — Scabiosen — Scabiasoe. 
Syves — Schnittlauch — Parrum Sectile. 27 
Squillis — Meer Zweiben — Scilla. 
Swallow Wort — Schwalbenwurtz — Hirundi- 

Sow Bread — Schweinbrod — Cyclaminus. 
Septfoil — Tormentill — Tormentilla. 
Silverweed — Genserich — Anserina. 
Saxifrage- — Steinbruch — Saxifraga. 86 
Spinage — Spinat — Spinachia. 78 
Sloes — Schlehen — Acatia Germanica. 
Sumach — Shumack, Gerber Baum — Rhus. 

Snakeweed — Ratterwurz — Bistorta. 68, 89, 

Stonecrop — Hauszwurtz — Semper viva. 85 
Speedivell — Ehrenpreysz . 224 

St. Johns Wort — St. Johannis Kraut .. 

Wood Soot — Schornstein Rusz — Puligo. 
Shepherds Purse — Taschelkraut — Bursa 

Pastoris. Ill 
Golden Stoechas — Stochas Kraut — Stoechas 

Our Lady Thistle — Marien Distel — Cardu- 

us. Mariae. 264 
Carline Thistle — Weisse Eberwurtz — Cha- 

Tansey — Reinfahren — Tanocetum. 257 
Thorow Wort — Durchwachs — Perfoliatae. 241 
Thym — Thymiankraut — Thymus. 210 
Turpentine — Terpentin — Terebinthae. 
Turnips — Ruben — Rapum. 106 
Wild Thyme — Quendel — Serpillus. 210 
Tea— Thee— Thea. 

Wild Tansey — Genserich — Anserina. 257 
Fuller's Thistel — Karten Disteln — Dipsacus 

Sativus. 231 
Tamarind — Tamarinden — Tamarindus. 
Tormentil — Tormentilla — Tormentilla. 
Valerian — Baldrian — Valeriana. 
Dames Violet — Abend Viole — Hiperis. 163, 

Vervain — Eisenkraut — Verbena. 202 
Viper Grass — Haberwurtz — Scorzanera His- 

Violets— Violen— Viola. 163, 164 
Vodsower — Sauerklee — Trifolium acetosum. 
Weak Robin Cucumpint— Indian Turnips — 

Aron — Arum. 23 
Woodbine — Waldmeister — Hepatica Stellata. 

Wormwood — Wermuth . 258 

Winter-Gren — Wintergriin— Pyrola. 180 
Wheat — Weitzen — Triticum. 16 
Zedoary — Zitwer — Zedoaria. 

Hamburg Children 

A curious and pretty custom is ob- 
served every year in the city of Ham- 
burg to celebrate a famous victory 
which was won by little children more 
than four hundred years ago. In one 
of the numerous sieges. Hamburg was 
reduced to the last extremity, when it 
was suggested that all the children 
should be sent out unprotected into the 
camp of the besiegers as the mute 
appeal for mercy of the helpless and 
innocent. This was done. The rough 
soldiery of the investing army saw 
with amazement, and then with pity, 

a long procession of little ones, clad in 
white, come out of the city and march 
boldly into their camp. 

The sight melted their hearts. They 
threw down their arms and, plucking 
branches of fruit from the neighboring 
orchards, they gave them to the chil- 
dren to take back to the city as a token 
of peace. This was a great victory, 
which has ever since been com- 
memorated at Hamburg by a proces- 
sion of boys and girls dressed in white 
and carrying branches of the cherry 
tree in their hands. — Selected. 


The Big Runaway 

As professor C. H. Williston in his 
article on Fort Augusta (p. 79) refers 
to "The Big Runaway", we quote the 
following lines from the "History of 
the West Branch Valley" by Meginnes. 
He tells the story of the Indian Mas- 
sacre in the neighborhood where 
Williamsport is located, June 10, 1778, 
and continues as follows : 

"On the intelligence of these murders 
reaching. Colonel Hunter a t Fort 
Augusta, he became alarmed for the 
safety of those that remained above 
Fort Muncy, and sent word to Colonel 
Hepburn to order them to abandon the 
country and retire below. He was 
obliged to do this, as there was not a 
sufficiency of troops to guard the whole 
frontier, and Congress had taken no 
action to supply him with men and 
supplies. Colonel Hepburn had some 
trouble to get a messenger to carry 
the order up to Colonel Antes, so panic 
stricken were the people on account of 
the ravages of the Indians. At length 
Robert Covenden, and a young wheel- 
wright in the employ of Andrew Cul- 
bertson, volunteered their services and 
started on the dangerous mission. 
They crossed the river and ascended 
Bald Eagle mountain and kept along 
the summit, till they came to the gap 
opposite Ante's fort. They cautiouslv 
descended at the head of Nippenose 
Bottom, and proceeded to the fort. It 
was in the evening, and as they neared 
the fort, the report of a rifle rang upon 
their ears. A girl had gone outside to 
milk a cow, and an Indian being in 
ambush, fired upon her. The ball, for- 
tunately, passed through her clothes, 
and she escaped unharmed. The word 
was passed on up to Horn's fort, and 
preparations were made for the flight. 
Great excitement prevailed. Canoes 

were collected, rafts hastily con- 
structed, and every available craft that 
would float, pressed into service ; and 
the goods and also the wives and chil- 
dren of the settlers placed on board. 
The men, armed with their trusty 
rifles, marched down on each side of 
the river to guard the convoy. It was 
indeed a sudden, as well as melancholy 
flight. They were leaving their homes, 
their cattle, and their crops, to the 
mercy of the enemy, and fleeing for 
their lives. Nothing occurred worthy 
of note, during the passage to Sunbury, 
as the Indians did not venture to attack 
the armed force that marched on shore. 
It is said that whenever any of their 
crafts would ground on a bar, the 
women would jump out, and putting 
their shoulders against it, launch it 
into deep water. 

The settlements above Muncy were 
all abandoned, and the Indians had full 
possession of the country once more. 
Companies came up as soon as possible 
to secure and drive away the cattle. 
They found the Indians burning and 
destroying. At Antes' Fort they found 
the mill containing a quantity of wheat 
and the surrounding buildings, reduced 
to ashes. As the smouldering embers 
were not yet extinct the air for some 
distance around, was tainted with the 
odor of roasted wheat. They gathered 
up what cattle they could as soon as 
possible, and drove them from the 
scene of desolation. 

Fort Muncy, Freeland's Fort and all 
the intermediate points were aban- 
doned about the same time. Thus was 
the Valley of the West Branch evacu- 
ated. The flight was called by the 
people of that period the Big Runa- 
way, a name which it bears to this 


A Suplee Line of Descent 

By J. O. K. Robarts, Phoenixville, Pa. 

NOTE. — This record gives account of a 
line of nine generations including the im- 
migrant pioneer. Can any one give us 
record of ten generations. — Editor. 

genitor of the Suplee 
family upon this conti- 
nent, was born a Hugue- 
not in France, in the year 
1634, of patrician blood. 
He became an officer in 
his country's army, but, 
religious persecution caused him to 
migrate to Germany, where he married 
Gertrude Stiessinger. Learning of this 
land of promised freedom, this couple 
landed in Philadelphia early in 1684, 
became acquainted with Governor 
Penn, and soon afterward settled in 
Germantown, where they prospered. 
In the year 1691 Andris Souplis was 
Sheriff of the Corporation of German- 
town. He died at the age of 92 years 
in 1726, on his plantation in Kings- 
essing, Philadelphia County, his wife 
surviving several years. Five children 
were born to this couple : Margaret, 
Ann, Bartholomew, Andrew and Jacob, 
In the will of Mr. Souplis, dated March 
25, 1724, and probated March 20, 1726, 
he referred to his great age, claimed he 
was of sound mind and in good health, 
and that he was then residing on his 
plantation in the township of Kings- 
essing, Philadelphia County, Province 
of Pennsylvania. 

Andrew Supplee 2 (Andris Souplis 1 ). 
the second son of his parents, was 
born in Germantown, in the year 1688. 
He was evidently the favorite of his 
father, who named him executor of his 
will. Andrew was twice married, first 
to Miss Anna Stackhouse, and second 
to Miss Deborah Thomas. There was 
one child, a son named Hance, by the 
first wife, and four by the second wife, 
namely, Jonas, Andrew, John and 
Sarah. Andrew Supplee purchased a 
plantation in Upper Merion, Mont- 
gomery County, near the village of 

Matsunk, where he continued to reside 
the remainder of his life. He died in 
the year 1747, aged 59 years. His re- 
mains are in a vault in Norris City 
Cemetery, near Norristown. 

Hance Suplee" (Andrew-, Andris 
Souplis 1 ), was born in Upper Merion, 
aforesaid on July 14th, 1714. His wife, 
Miss Madeline Deborah De Haven, 
was born November 25th, 1716. They 
were married in the First Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia, August 5th, 
1736. Miss De Haven's forbears were 

Hance Suplee and wife resided in 
Upper Merion until about the year 
1745, when they purchased a large 
plantation in Worcester Township, 
now Montgomery County, and moved 
to it. In 1747 they erected a substan- 
tial and commodious mansion which 
still exists in good condition, the prop- 
erty of Mr. and Mrs. James H. Cassell. 
The family product was fourteen chil- 
dren as follows : Andrew, Elizabeth. 
Sarah, Deborah, Cathar.ine, Peter 
(Revolutionary soldier). Abraham, Re- 
becca, Hannah, Rachel, Isaac, Jacob 
and John (both Revolutionary sol- 
diers), and Mary. 

In the year 1770 Mr. Hance Suplee 
and wife donated a portion of their 
land for burial purposes, and also for 
the erection of a meeting house. 
Strange to say he was first to be buried 
therein, and his tombstone shows that 
he died December 16th, 1779, aged 56 
years, 5 months and 5 days. His 
widow, Magdalene, continued to re- 
side in the homestead until her death, 
which occurred at the age of 85 years, 
October 5th, 1801. The land donated 
for a meeting house is now the site of 
the Bethel M. E. Church. 

Peter Suplee 4 , (Hance 1 . Andrew-', 
Andris Souplis 1 ), a Revolutionary sol- 
dier, was born in the Suplee home- 
stead. Upper Merion, September 2, 
1745: his wife Susanna Wagoner, was 



born in the year 1750; they were mar- 
ried in 1774, and two children fol- 
lowed, to wit: Rachel, born January 
18, 1775. and son Peter, February 
8, 1778, fifteen days after the death of 
his father, in camp, a soldier, at Val- 
ley Forge. 

After the death of his father, Hance 
Suplee, Peter became the owner of the 
Worcester homestead, and Peter and 
his wife were living there when Wash- 
ington and the Continental army were 
facing the British forces under Lord 
Howe in Chester County. The battle 
of Brandywine was fought on the nth 
day of September, 1777, and on the 
12th of that month Peter Suplee en- 
listed, a volunteer in the Revolution- 
ary army, as per the following testi- 
m< »ny : 

May 1st, 1901 
To whom it may concern: 

I hereby certify to the following Revolu- 
tionary services of 

Peter Suplee, 
of Worcester township, Philadelphia county, 
who was a private in Captain Charles Wil- 
son Peale's Company of Philadelphia Militia. 
Volunteered September 12th, 1777. For this 
reference see Pennsylvania Manuscript 

Very truly yours, 

State Librarian and 
Editor Penna. Archives. 

Beyond question, Peter Suplee was 
attached to the Revolutionary army 
when it marched from Pennypacker's 
Mills to fight the battle of German- 
town, said army having encamped up- 
on his plantation going to and return- 
ing from that fray, while his home was 
also occupied by General Washington 
and his officers. On the 19th of De- 
cember, 1777. the American army en- 
camped at Valley Forge, and on the 
24th of January following Peter Suplee 
died there, and his remains were con- 
veyed to the Worcester burial ground 
and there interred. 

About the year 1785, the widow of 
Peter Suplee, soldier, migrated to the 
state of New York, settling near Penn 
Yann. Rachel married, in due time, 
one Morris Shepherd, and bore him 
two sons, Charles and George, the de- 

scendants of whom possibly are to be 
found yet in that section of country. 

On the 3d day of September, 1904, 
a reunion of the Suplee family was 
held at Bethel M. E. Church, in honor 
of that Revolutionary hero, and also 
for their participation in the exercises 
of unveiling a handsome granite monu- 
ment suitably worded to perpetuate 
his fame. 

Peter Suplee , (Peter 4 , Hance 3 , An- 
drew-, Andris Souplis 1 ), was born on 
the ancestral plantation, February 8, 
1778, and lived there to manhood, a 
comfort no doubt to his mother; with- 
out gaining possession of the family 

In the year 1799 he married Miss 
Hannah Eastburn of Upper Merion, 
whose age then was seventeen years ; 
and, in that year also he purchased 
from the estate of James Anderson, 
who was the first white settler north 
of the Valley Hill, 300 acres of land 
(then in Charlestown township, since 
1828 in Schuylkill township) and 
there this happy couple lived engaged 
in the farming industry, until old age 
creeping on they retired. For some 
years they lived at Suplee's Corners, 
and finally moved to Norristown, 
where Peter Suplee died in 1859 aged 
81 years, his "wife, Hannah Eastburn, 
following him in 1874 at the ripe age 
of 92 years. 

To this family eleven children were 
born, viz : Rachel, Samuel, Cadwalder, 
Benjamin, Horatio, Margaret, Silas, 
Susan, Peter, Hannah and Abigail 

Cadwalader Evans Suplee' 5 , (Peter 5 , 
Peter 4 , Hance 3 , Andrew 2 , Andris 
Souplis 1 ), was born July 30, 1804, on 
the Schuylkill township homestead, 
where he was reared. At the proper 
age he learned the trade of blacksmith. 
He found his wife in Lower Merion, in 
the person of Miss Catharine Jones, 
whose ancestor came over the ocean in 
1682 on the good ship Welcome, with 
William Penn, one of her ancestors 
commanding that vessel. Finding em- 
ployment at Newtown Square, with his 
young wife he settled there for a brief 



perior, and while there was born to 
them a son Edwin Moore Suplee. The 
parents later moved back to Schuyl- 
kill, became possessed of a portion of 
the husband's parents' holdings, and 
followed farming' until his death, which 
took place February 21, 1882. Seven 
children were born to this union, two 
sons and five daughters. Of these E. 
M. Suplee,, .Mrs. Mary Jones Stephens 
and Miss Sarah J. Suplee, of Suplee's 
Corners and Mrs. Adaline Rebecca 
Del]), of Bridgeport, Montgomery 
County are the survivors. The dead 
are B. Franklin, Hannah C. and Esther 

Edwin Moore Suplee 7 , (Cadwal- 
lader Evans 6 , Peter 5 , Peter, 4 , Hance 3 , 
Andrew-, Andris Souplis 1 ), was born 

at Newtown Square, Delaware 
County, November 15, 1832. His 
wife, a native of Schuylkill township, 
was Elizabeth B rower Pennypacker, 
who became the mother of twins, Isaac 
Wayne and Benjamin Franklin Suplee, 
born December 6, 1861. At the age of 
two months the latter died. 

Isaac Wayne Suplee\ (Edwin 
Moore 7 , Cadwallader Evans", Peter 5 , 
Peter 4 , Hance 3 , Andrew-, Andris 
Souplis 1 ), was born December 6, 1861, 
in Schuylkill township, Chester 
County, Penna., and was educated in 
the schools of this section. He married 
Miss Anna Adams, of Philadelphia, by 
whom are two children a son, Frank 
Leach, and daughter. Miss Edith May 

A story is told in Milwaukee con- 
cerning an elderly German who con- 
ducted a good sized manufacturing 
plant on the south side. He had an 
engineer at his factory who had been 
with him for fifteen years and the old 
gentlemen had implicit confidence in 
him- It was with a profound shock 
that he discovered finally that the 
trusted engineer was "grafting" most 

The proprietor thought it all over for 
a long while and then sent for the en- 
gineer. When that functionary arrived 
the following dialogue took place : 

"Ah, John ! Good morning, John- 
How long haf you been vorking by this 

"Fifteen years'" 

"Ach, so. And vot are your wages?" 

"Twenty-five dollars a week" 

"M-m-n. Veil, after today it vill be 
$5 a veek more." 

The engineer thanked his employer 
profusely and withdrew- A week later 
the old gentleman sent for him again 
and the same conversation ensued, 

ending with another $5 a week raise. 
The third Saturday he sent for the 
engineer again, and after the same 
questions and answers he raised his 
salary another $5 a week. 

On the fourth Saturday the engineer 
was again summoned before the boss. 

"How long have you been vorking 
here, John?" asked the proprietor. 

"Fifteen years," replied the engineer, 
who by this time had grown to expect 
the weekly question and salary raise 
as a regular thing- 

"And how much vages are you get- 

"Forty dollars a week." 

"Ach, so? Veil, you are fired." 

"Fired!" exclaimed the engineer, al- 
most fainting. "Why, you have been 
raising my salary $5 at a clip for the 
last three weeks." 

"Sure 1 have," roared the Teutonic 
boss, all his indignation flaring out at 
once- "And the reason that I did it 
vas that it shall make it harder for 
you lor vhen I fire yon. you loafer!" 
— Milwaukee Wisconsin. 


Swabian Proverbs and Idioms 

The following Proverbs appeared in 
"Zeitschrift fur Deutsche Mundarten" 1906, 
Berlin, Germany. They were collected by 
Wilhelm Unseld at the places indicated by 
the letters S., T., U.. B.,— S, signifying 
Stuttgart; T, Tubingen; U, Ulm; B, Blau- 

Readers will confer a great favor, if they 
will send us a list of the same or similar 
proverbs in use in their neighborhood re- 
ferring to this list by number whenever 

i. Loible, du muascht Riebale 
hoisza, Riebale, du muascht g'fressa 
sei! U. 

2. D'r Ebe, und d'r U'ebe hant mit- 
einand'r des loible g'fressa. U. 

3. Frisz Drag, nay wird d'r's Maul 
net feadrig! U. 

4. Dear sauft net no, dear friszt au' 
d'zua. U. 

5. Dear tuat, wia wenn's oin fressa 
wott. U. 

6. Gib'm oi's aufs Dach ! U. 

7. I be' koi' Schlecker, aber was i 
net mak, des lasz i schtanda. U. 

8. Dau isch brodtrocka. U. 

9. I hau' g'fressa, dasz m'r's als waih 
tuat. U. 

10. Jetzt hau'-n-i aber g'fressa, dasz 
i nemme ka'. U. 

it. I hau g'fressa, bis i g'fol't hau', 
i miiasz verschnella. U. 

12. Dear friszt en Ochsa bis zum 
Schwa'z. U. 

13. Dear friszt a Kalb auf emaul. U. 

14. Dear friszt, wia a Scheck. U. 
(Scheckige Kuh.) 

15. Dear ka' fressa, des ischt nemme 
schea'. U. 

16. Dear schpeit, was'r scho' vor 
acht Tag g'fressa hat. U. 

17. D'r Mensch muasz im jauhr 
sieba Pfu'd Drag fressa, ob'r will oder 
net. U. 

18. Des Maul gat 's urn da Kopf. U. 

19. Dear hat nex z'naget und nex 
z'beiszet. U. 

20. Dia fresset und saufet allaweil 
geftirnei'. U. (Auf Pump). 

21. Essa und Trinka halt Leib und 
Seel z'sama. U. 

22. Narr, dear friszt di' auf ema 
Schuble Kraut. U. 

23. De guate Brockala mag dear 

selb'r. U. 

24. Nex Schlecht's mag dear net. U. 

25. Dear woiszt scho' was guat 
ischt. U. 

26. Ma ka' net maih tua, also gnuag 
essa und trinka. U. 

2j. Dau muasz d' Koche verliabt 
sei', dui Supp ischt versalza. V . 

28. Auf deare Supp ka' ma d' Auga 
zahla. U. (Die Fettaugen.) 

29. Des langt net's Salz an d' Sup- 
pa. U. 

30. Dear ka' au' maih als Brod 
essa. U. 

31. Dear schlacht au' koi* schleachta 
Kling. U. 

32. Dear ischt au' bei koim Pfuscher 
in d' Lehr ganga. U. ( Ein starker 

33. Bei deam hoiszt's allaweil no, 
Mau was witt? U. 

34. Dear denkt da ganza Tag an 
nex, wia an's Fressa und Saufa. U. 

35. Bei deam hoiszt 's au' : Mit d'r 
Gab'l isch e'n-Aihr, und mit 'n Loff'l 
kriagt ma maih. U. 

36. Dia hant au' noh koin Scheff'l 
Salz miteinand'r g'fressa. U. 

37. 's friszt koi Bau'r u'g'salza, 'r 
keit 's Sach z'airscht in Drag. U. 

(Wenn jemand Brot o. drgl. auf den 
Boden fallt.) 

38. Drag macht foist, wear's net 
woiszt. U. 

39. Salz und Brod macht Wanga 
rot. T. S. U. B. 

40. Wes Brod ich esz, des Lied ich 
sing. T. U. 

41. G'schenkt Brod schmeckt wohl. 
T. U. 

42. Beim Essa und Trinka ischt 
dear net links. T. U. 

43. Beim Essa und Trinka schtellt 
dear sein Ma'. U. 

44. Dear kriagt Schtroich schtatt'm 
Essa. U. 

45. Dear friszt wia a Hamscht'r. T. 

46. Der will nex weder Brotes und 
Baches. S. 



47. Dear mampft, dasz'r nemme 
Papp saga ka'. U. 

48. Dear wurd rumg'aszt. U. 

49. I mag net no Briiah, i will au' 
Brocka. U. 

50. Dear friszt alles mit Schtump 
und Schtiel. U. 

51. Dear hat alles g'fressa mit Rum- 
pes und Schtumpes. U. 

52. Wia frisz oin gauh' no net voll ! 
U. (Wenn man angeschnantzt wird.) 

53. Deam sott ma Hieb gea' schatt'm 
Fressa. U. 

54. Dea' friszt d'r A'rg'r noh. T. U. 

55. Dear friszt en Loib Brod auf 
emaul, und gucket nach noh maih. U. 

56. Des ischt a leisa Supp. U. 

57. Des iseht a g'loibt'r Kaffee. U. 
(Aufgewarmter Kaffee.) 

58. Wear Wittfraua heiratet, und 
Kuttelfleck friszt, dear darf net lang 
froga, was drinn g'wesa-n-ischt. S. 

59. Dear ischt rauhg'frasz. U. 

60. Dear jammeret mit 'm volla 
Bauch. U. 

61. Diar muasz ma d' Zung schaba, 
wenn da des net magscht. U. 

62. Sei no net so schlauchtig. U. 
(Gierig beim Essen.) 

64. Dear ka' schoppa. U. 

65. 's Schumpfa geit koi Loch im 
Kopf. U. 

66. Dear hot a Bauranatur, dear ka' 
da Schpeck ohne Brod essa. B. 

67. Des ischt a reacht'r Suppa-Lalle. 

68. Der hat se guat rausg'fuaderet. 

69. Was hascht denn fiir a Geworgs, 
isch net guat? U. 

70. Was du iszt, des gat in en hohla 
Zah'. U. 

71. Dear darf desmaul d' Supp aus- 
fressa. U. (Bei Streitigkeiten.) 

72. Wenn oim no's Essa und's 
Trinka schmeckt. U. 

73. Di' ka' ma ja mit Oichala fiiat- 
tera, wia d' San. U. 

74. Aus isch, und gar isch, und schad 
isch, dasz 's far ischt. U. (Nach einem 
guten Essen.) 

75. Wenn du net warscht, und \s 
taglich Brod, no miiszt m'r d' Suppa 

trinka. T. (Wenn einer iibergescheit 
sein will.) 

76. Dea' schticht d'r Haber. U. 

yy. 's ischt net iille Tag Bachtag. U. 

78. Wear net kommt zur reachta 
Zeit, dear muasz essa, was iibrig 
bleibt, moara kochet ma wieder. U. 

79. Dear muasz schwitza wia a 
Magischt'r, Magischt'r, nex ischt'r, 
essa inag'r, nex ka'-ne-'r. T. 

80. Dear moi't "r hab alia Witz alloi 
g'fressa. S. 

81. Dear ka' an' laih als Brod essa. 
U. (Mehr als andere Leute.) 

82. Du darscht no Tell'r saga, nau 
leit glei' a Wu'scht drauf. U. 

83. Bei deam isch fiber da-n' Appe- 
tit num. U. 

84. Dear friszt 'm Au'sl. U. (Au's'l- 

85. Di' ko't i vor Liabe fressa. U. 

86. Dia hant anenand'r a'g'fressa. 
U. (Bei Eheleuten.) 

87. 1 hau' me ganz a'gessa. U. 

88. Des ischt a Brockafress'r. U. 
(Lateinische Brocken, Lateinschiiler.) 

89. Des hau'-n-i dick, wia mit loff'l 
g'fressa. U. 

90. Dui vermag oft's Salz an d' Supp 
net. U. (1st unsagbar arm.) 

91. I hau' Hunger, wia a Wolf. U. 

92. I hau' Hunger, dasz i nex maih 
sieh. U. 

94. I hau' scho' en Gaulshung'r. U. 

95. Deam schtecket no allaweil 's 
Fressa im Gre't. U. (Im Kopf.) 

96. De sischt fiir dea'a Fressa. U. 
(Ein gutes Geschaft.) 

97. Der hot en Narra an deam 
g'fressa. S. 

98. Dear schtohf guat in Fuatt'r. S. 

99. Dear ischt net von Schleckhausa. 

100. Dan tua ma nex wie Kiiachla 
und Bacha. V. 

101. Dear friszt di' mit llaut und 
Hoor. S. 

102. Jetzt frisz oin no net vollends. 

103. I hau jetzt auguschponna. U. 
1 auguschpi inna-Hunger haben.) 

104. Glucklich ischt, wear friszt, was 
net zum versaufa-n-ischt. U. 



105. Des ischt de rei'scht Kloschter- 
supp. U. (Wenn nicht recht erkennbar 
ist, welche Suppe man iszt.) 

106. Was knaschteret denn dear? U. 

107. Dear hat an deam en Affa 
g'fressa. U. (Sieht keine Fehler an 

108. Dear schmazget, wia d' San. U. 

109. Der soil a Floischbriiah . sei ? 
Des ischt 's hell Schpiialwasser ! U. 

no. Dear friszt se noh z'taud. U. 
11. Dear hot dea' wiiascht augusch- 
peist. S. 

112. Dear friszt, wia a Dresch'r. U. 

113. Dan ischt Schmalhans Koch. U. 

114. Dear ischt mit m'r verwandt, 
von sieba Suppa a Schnittle U. 

115. Was hat denn dear fur a Ge- 
ma'sch? U. (Gema'sch-Manger.) 

116. So, schnib 'm 's no voll' hinta 
nei. U. 

117. Miar isch ganz schwabbelig. S. 
( Magenschwach. ) 

118. Miar fallt fascht d'r Mag aweg. 
U. ( Vo'r Hunger. ) 

119. Dear schwatzt aus'm hohla 
Bauch. U. 

120. Dear hamschteret net sclecht. 

121. Dear hot deam d' Snpp versalza. 

122. Des ischt a reacht'r mopfs- 
kopf. U. 

123. Des ischt a reacht'r Freszode. 

124. Des ischt a reacht'r Freszsack. 

125. Des ischt a reacht'r Woidfres- 
ser. U. 

126. Diar kochet ma a b'sonders 
Miiasle. U. (Wenn einer stets etwas 
anderes haben will als andere haben.) 

127. Jetzt hau'-n-i's aber maih wia 
satt. U. 

128. Deam gucket d'r Hunger zua de 
Auga raus. U. 

129. D'r We'd o'm koin so en Ranza 
na'. U. 

130. Vom Netessa und Nettrinka 
kriagt ma koin so en Ranza. U. 

131. Kinder, wenn 'r brav sind, no 
iszt ma heu't im Pfarrahaus z' Nacht. 

132. Des ischt de rei'scht Schpittel- 
supp. U. (magere Suppe.) 

133. Dear ischt kra'k auf d'r Fresz- 
ba'k. T. 

134. Des hoiszt ma 's Maul fur Narra 
halta. U. 

135. Des ischt d'r Pegerling auf alle 
Suppa. U. 

136. Du bischt a reachta Brutt'lsupp. 
U. (Einer der stets fort schimpft.) 

137. Des schmeckt nach no maih. U. 

138. Dear hat d' Weischeit mit Loff'l 
g'fressa. U. 

139. Du schuibscht ja 's Sach unter 
d'r Nas nei'. U. 

140. I mnasz ebas Warm's im Maga 
ban ! U. 

141. I ban' en ganz blaida Maga. 11. 

142. Dan ka'scht en langa Maga 
kriaga. U. 

143. Dear hat en Bettziachamaga. L T . 

144. Des ischt scho' a ganzer Sau- 
mag. U. 

145. Des ischt oi's, 's kommt alles 
in oin Maga. U. 

146. Des ischt a gnat's Maga- 
pflascht'r. U. ■ 

147. Du darscht no saga. Maul was- 
witt? U. 

148. Miar isch ganz schlappab. U. 

149. Mit ema volla Wampa isch net 
guat gampa. U. 

150. Dear hat dea' net schleacht 
auguschpeist. U. (Abgewiesen.) 

151. Hascht Hunger, nan schlupf in 
a Gugumer, hascht Du'scht. nau 
schlupf in a \\ u'scht ! U. 

152. Leis eine, laut ausze! U. Beim 
Linsen essen. ) 

153. Dau hoiszt's an: Vog'l frisz 
oder schtirb. U. 

154. Fremd Brod schmeckt wohl. U. 

155. Dear friszt da Aerg'r in se nei'. 

156. Von deam nimmt au' koi' Hu'd 
a Schtuckle Brod. U. 

157. Des schmeckt zingerlacht. U. 

158. Dear hat en reachta Blockles- 
gret'l. U. 

159. A Riiahle gat fiber a Brueahle. 

160. Dear wird net fett, und wenn 
ma'n in en Schmalzhafa schteckt. U. 


A Towamencin Tax List 

"A Tax 

of one penny half penny on the Pound and Four shillings and six pence 
per head laid on the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the City and County of 
Philadelphia. To pay the Quotas due to the Loan office and for destroying 
of Wolves, Foxes and Crows and defraying other expenses of the County 
the onsuing year. Assessed the 21st day of January 1733. 

Towamencin, Jacob Fry, Collector 

Joseph Morgans 
John Roberts 
James Wells 
John Morgan 
Daniel Morgan 
Daniel Williams 
John Edwards 
Joseph Lukin 
Jacob Hill 
Hugh Evans 
Cadwalador Evans 
•Christian Weaver 
Nicholas Lesher 
Paul Hendricks 
Jacob Fry 
Peter Weaver 
Peter Tyson 
Christian Brinaman 
Lawrence Hendrick 
Garrat Schragor 
Leonard Hendrick 

£ £ 

















per head 










































Henry Hendrick 




Harman Gottschalk 




John Gottschalk 



Gottschalk Gottschalk 




Abraham Lukins 




Francis Griffith 




William Xash 1 

2 per 



Henry Fry, per head M 

ary d 14 



Iety Iety 




Felty Bavenhusen 




William Tennis 




Peter Wence 




Peter Hendrick per 




William Williams per 




Approved 19th February 

Rec'd the full contents of the within 
Duplicate this 26th of April 1734 
Mary Leich" 

Xote. — The above copy I made from 
the original which came to my hands 
a few months ago. N. B. Grubb. 
10 — 17 — 1910. 

"It Is Easter Day 

On the frontier of Austria, on a lit- 
tle stream called the 111, is the town of 
Fieldkirch. In 1799, when Napoleon 
"was sweeping over the continent, Mas- 
■sena, one of his generals, suddenly ap- 
peared on the heights above the town 
at the head of eighteen thousand men. 
It was Easter Day, and the sun as it 
rose glittered on the weapons of the 
French at the top of the range of hills. 
The council assembled to see what was 
to be done. Defense was impossible, 
and caoitulation was talked of. Then 
the old dean of the church stood up. 
"It is Easter Day", he said. "We 
have been reckoning on our own 

strength, and that fails. It is the day 
of the Lord's resurrection. Let us 
ring the bell, and have service as 
usual, and leave the matter in God's 
hands. We know only <>nr weak- 
nesses, and not the power ol God". 
The French heard with surprise the 
sudden clangor of the bells! and con- 
cluding that the Austrian army had ar- 
rived in the night to relieve the place. 
Massena suddenly broke up his camp, 
and before the bells had ceased ringing 
not a Frenchman was to be seen. Faith 
in God had saved the little town and 
all its people. — From the Christian 
Herald, by Dr. McLaren. 





O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb " — A. S. 



(A. C. W.) 
(No. 3) 

Ivverdem war's essa reddy, 

Hen yon g'shofft so schmart un schteddy, 

Hen g'rippt, g'trennt un g'schnitta 

Bis die finger noth g'litta, 

Kennie lusst sich tzweh mohl hehsa, 

Wop! dert leit des lumpa wehsa. 

Yehdrie schtreckt sich aerscht a'biss'l, 

Noh gehts noch der grohsa schiss'l. 

Lumpa party un ken essa! 
Ebbes so wert net fergessa, 
Net on's Yockel's, schreib sel onna, 
Sel war gute g'nunk ferschtonna. 
Now look out fer guta socha 
Won die weibsleit parties macha. 
Doh wert g'schofft, g'rischt, g'bocka, 
Kucha, pie un deitscha wacka', 
Werscht un hink'l, — nix fun porra 
Brauch m'r doh fer's gravy schtorra, 
Kaes un latwerg, butter, jelly, — 
Sivva arta, grawd wie sellie 
Wuh sich so mit band ferwick'lt, 
Hut g'guckt wie'n deppich g'schtick'lt — 
Doughnuts, pudding, rice un erbsa, 
Tzelrich, chow-chow, tzucker-Kerbsa, 
Grumbier mush un saura buhna — 
Hoi's der Gucku! will eich schuhna, 
S'is yoh grawd wie immer evva 
Won die weibsleit parties gevva. 

Wunner yuscht wer's aus hut g'funna, 
Wunner yuscht wer's aus hut g'sunna, 
So fiel schehna, guta socha 
Os die weibsleit immer macha 
Wan sie wolla; weis der frieda! 
Duhn's ferleicht fer nonner bieda, 
Sel, of course, duht nimmond schawda 
Duht m'r sich net ivverlawda, 
Yuscht s'is immer biss'I g'faehrlich 
Is m'r noch a'biss'l ehrlich. 

Sawg der ovver des is gonga, 
So fiel meiler, so fiel wonga, 
Aryer noch wie all die schehra, 
Konnscht cloi aiga wort net hehra, 
Achtzeh wara's, doh konnscht denka, 
Konnscht fer sel aw nimmond henka, 
Hen g'lacht, g'plaudert, gessa, 
Hen sich's maul am schortz g'messa, 
Ehnie hut mohl huschta missa, 
Hut ihr soch net recht g'bissa 
Hut ken tzeit g'hot ivver'm lacha, 
Happent evva, was wit macha! 
Waer's net fer des happ'na evva 
Het's ken hohr im butter gevva. 
S'geht wie mit der Fibby Suss'l, 
War so ebbes fum'a schuss'l, 

War aerscht dreitzeh, war schun g'heiert, 

Hut die yugend frieh obg'feiert, 

Guckt noch's schenscht in kortza frocka, 

Geht uff b'such ons Brunnahocka, 

Wert noh g'froagt noch dem un sellem, 

Wie sie awkaemt— Gricks der Schellem! 

Was sie net schun aerschter Kumma, 

Het ken gonsie woch g'numma, 

Was sie duh wut — s'naeha lerna? 

"Neh ich tzieg on's Bohli Kerna 

Won der Joe" — "Was! dausich bedd'l! 

"Bischt net g'heiert? So'n yung maed'l!" 

"Yah, g'wiss, schun wie fiel wocha — " 

"Liehwer droscht! Konnscht wescha, 

Geh m'r week, was huts' don gevva?" 
Nix obbard'ich, s'happent evva." 

Well, dert hen sie g'huckt un gessa, 
All so hungrich wie die Hessa 
Wuh der George for'm brekfescht g'fonga 
Wie die hink'l uff de schtonga; 
Hen don gessa, s'war ken biedes, 
S'gebt so tzeita nix fun miedes' 
Hut's yoh all fersucha missa 
Het yoh schunscht ken gute g'wissa 
Os m'r's all fersucht het g'hotta, 
Was deht noh so'n party botta? 
Besser gute un kreftich gessa 
Os yuscht biss'I g'schtorrt am essar 
Wom'r's belt au rum muss schnolla 
Duht's de koch am beschta g'folla. 
Was waer's lehwa uhna's essa? 
Besser lengscht im grawb fergessa! 
Gute g'kocht un gute g'bocka, 
Noh kan elms die riehwa hocka. 

Alles hut'n schtick'l g'schloga, 
Ebbes brecht am beschta waga, 
Kummt'n tzeit die eppel folia, 
Kummt'n tzeit die erbsa knolla, 
Kummt'n tzeit — waer's yuscht net's essa — 
Dorscht un hunger is fergessa. 

Fertich gessa, g'schwetzt, g'plaudert, 
Wert net lang doh rum g'maudert, 
Derf net bord'ich tzeit ferliehra, 
Missa heem so um die fiehra, 
Schoffa bis die monsleit kumma, 
Hen so'n fashion, duhn gaern brumma, 
Won net alles scheh am pletz'l 
Wie die katz bei'm yunga kaetz'l. 
Bauers-weibsleit sin so evva, 
Die duhn nix urn's schoffa gevva, 
Hen ken tzeit fer naps' tz' nemma, 
Dehta sich wahrhaftich schemma, 
All die tzeit is uff g'numma, 
Kan net uff der schtrose rum bumma, 
Halwa dawg am schpieg'l henka, 
Nix wie on der hochmut denka, 
Uffg'dresst im town rum lawfa 



Choclat-drops un ice cream kawfa, 
Noch der letschta fashion gucka, 
Rechts un links d' kop tz' nucka, 
Un ferleicht doch alles schuldich 
Won credit un schrief g'duldich. 


By Frank R. Brunner, M. D. 

NOTE. — The following was contributed 
and accepted for publication only a few 
weeks before the death of the lamented 
author in the Boyertown Theatre catas- 
trophe, January 14, 1908. 

Fer Sechzig Johr, En lange tzeit, 

Wars net wie alleweil; 
Zu selre zeit sin oft die Leit, 

Gefahre mit de Gaul. 
Und oxe ah, zuweil im joch, 
Hen g'schaft im Plug — Ich wess sel noch. 

Im Kerich hen sie ah guth g'schaft, 

Bei zwe und ah bei Fier; 
So schnel das wie der Fuhrman laaft, 

Sin sie ferd mit blessier. 
En Fifty-six hangt an Ihrm Halsz; 
Sie waare als emol ah falsch. 

Und fiel Familie hen en Kuh, 

Fer milich, wie Ich wees. 
Die Mam hot die als uf gedu, 

Fer Butter, Rahm und Kase. 
Und Milich Riwel Sup, gar guth; 
Brod Brockle ah, wans juscht so suit. 

Und appel Dumplings, dick wie Fauscht, 

Noh Siise Milich druf; 
Mer war so froh das mer recht grauscht, 

Sin all an der Disch nuf. 
Die Milich war siis, Frisch und Guth, 
Sie halt uns g'sund und schterk im Bluth. 

Der Butter kumt oft net gros raus, 
Die Kuh hen ken Frucht grickt; 

Summers schickt mer sie ins Feld naus, 
Dert hen sie Gras gepickt. 

Noh hot mer plenti Milich kat, 

Die Kuh die waare Oweds sadt. 

Winters do wars en anre sach, 

Do fuder mer juscht Hoy; 
Die Milich war als bloh und schwach, 

Sie dreciit gewis ken oy. 
Mir waare froh fer wos mer hot. 
Hen net gemeent das mer meh wod. 

Mir hen en Schwartze Kuh mol kat, 

Wan die alt-melkig war, 
Hot es Rahm drehe nix gebat; 

Der Butter drin war rahr. 
En Bauer hot sie uns ahkenkt; 
Es hot der Pap gar oft gekrenkt. 

Wan Ich ans Butter drehe denk. 

Und wie lang das es nemt; 
Mir hen gedreet an sell're Krank, 

Das mer sich oftmols schemt. 
Gar oft hen mir ins Fas geguckt; 
Gewunnerd ob es net drin schpuckt. 

Fun Morgens friih bis oweds schpot, 

Wars Butter Fas im gang; 
Zu Esse zeit hot es geschtopt, 

Sel war net arg lang. 
Noh geet es wider — Flip, Flap, Flap, 
Bis bedzeit; Sel war als en Tschob. 

Und endlich, wan er zammer geet, 

Dan war der klumpe kleh: 
Hot net bezahlt fer zeit und muh, 

Und Weis war Er wie Schnee. 
Nau grickt mer nix meh so ins Haus, 
Guth fiid're bringt der Butter raus. 

Deel Leit hen g'sagt das "unser Kuh, 

Die weere schur Ferhext; 
Seent juscht mol hie wie derr sin Sie, 

Heert wie die Schwartz dert Krext. 
Es hot fer alters Hexe kat, 
Und hot ah noch; Sie schwatze Klat." 

Anre hen g'sagt — "Es is im Rahm, 

Gewis net in de Kuh; 
En alte Fran, Krumbucklich, lahm, 

Die laaft do und dert hie. 
Sie hot en Buch, sie hots gelernd, 
Und sel is was uns so fergernd." 

"Nau folgt mir juscht und nemt en Pan, 
Und doth fun dem Rahm nei. — 

Und schtellt sie uf es Feuer, dan 
Werd sie gezegeld sei, 

Es is gewis en grose schand 

Das Weibsleit hexe in dem Land." 

Der Pap hot g'sagt — "Nau dreet juscht ferd, 

Es sin ken Hexe drin; 
Ich wees, es drehe geet euch herd, 

Es schelde is en sin. 
Frucht fiidere dreibt die Hexe naus, 
Und bringt bal Butter zum Fas raus." 

Ich wunner ob es alleweil, 

Noch Deitsche Leit so hot; 
Die glaawe mer kent Leit, Fun, Gaul, 

Ferhexa wan mer wod? 
Wans hut dan los sie denke dra, 
Das sie sie sin, ken alte Fran. 

Es is gewis bedauerlich, 

Das es Heit noch Leit hot, 
Die so dum Schwatze; Schauderlich, 

Und glaawe doch an Gott. 
Ihr Christenheit is arg klee, 
Und sie zu Blind sie zu ferschtee. 



By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Reginald Wright Kaufmann, author of 
"What is Socialism?"; "The House of 
Bondage"; etc. is on a lecture tour of the 
country in which he will discuss various 
economic subjects. , 

JAWCOB STRAUSS and Other Poems — 

By Charles Follen Adams, illustrated by 
"Boz". Cloth; illustrated with text and 
full page illustrations; 311 pp. Price, 
net, $1.00; postpaid $1.10. Lothrop. 
Lee & Shepherd, Boston. 1910. 
The title of the volume is taken from the 
first poem, and probably the best known of 
the author's poems: "Yawcob Strauss", that 
funny "Leedle Poy"; and through the popu- 
larity of this poem the author, Mr. Adams, 
is frequently called "Yawcob Strauss" by 
his admiring friends. The poem was first 
published with a few others, in 1878; it 
was really this poem that gave the author 
a start. 

Mr. Adams has been known these thirty 
odd years as a clever versifier in the Ger- 
man-American dialect, especially such as is 
of a humorous nature. He possesses some 
poetic power and feeling. Some of the 
poems in this complete collection of his 
works have a decided merit. One could 
wish, however, that he himself had win- 
nowed the chaff from the wheat instead of 
leaving that task to the reader, as stated in 
the Preface. The best poems are in the 
German-American dialect — "Leedle Yawcob 
Straus"; "Mine Modder-in-Law"; "Der Oak 
und der Vine", which poem is a true pic- 
ture of the existing conditions of many a 
household where the wife is "der shturdy 
oak". And lastly comes "Der Long Handled 
Dipper, dot hangs py der Sink"; this is 
written in imitation of "The Old Oaken 
Bucket" and is really one of the best in the 
volume. Other good dialect poems are 
"The Puzzled Dutchman", who does not 
know whether he is "Hans vot's lifting, or 
Yawcob vot is tead!" And "Der Spider und 
der Fly"; and "Der Vater Mill" (The mill 
will never grind with the water that has 

Those written entirely in English have 
little poetic merit and are rather common- 
place. "John Barely-Corn, My Foe" (Tem- 
perance) is probably one of the best; 
equallv good may be the "Sequel to the 
'One-Horse Shay' ". We believe, however, 
that the author would have done better if 
he had issued a selection of his poems in- 
stead of collection. 

OPAL— By Bessie R. Hoover; Author of "Pa 
Flickenger's Folks"; Cloth; illustrated; 
329 pp. Price $1.20 net. Harper and 
Brothers, New York, 1910. 
Here is something real; it is a love-story 
true to life. Here is human nature, with- 
out pretence, conventionality, and sophisti- 
cation; but with its humor, laughter, and 
tears. It is the tale of an humble folk as 
they live in their quiet and unconcerned 

The scene is that of a village where every- 
body knows everybody else, and where gos- 
sip is rife and busy. The story is virtually 
a continuation of the author's "Pa Flick- 
enger's Folks", the readers of which will be 
glad to meet their old acquaintances again. 
The characters are all out of the ordinary, 
and use expressions that are quaint and 
original. In the background of the story is 
the earnest and yet futile attempt of Opal, 
the heroine, to introduce some polish and 
refinement into the household in order to re- 
lieve the drugery and humdrum of every- 
day life; but it is of no avail. Nor can the 
parents see that times have changed, and 
that their children have changed and grown 

There are several moments of suspense; 
one is founded on the occasion when Opal 
has permission from her mother, after much 
ado, to go to the picnic with Sefton Woods; 
but after all the flurry and excitement inci- 
dent to the getting ready he does not come: 
the misunderstanding is explained later. C|ie 
may think the incident a cruel and disap- 
pointing one, but it is human nature, these 
are not the first lovers that had a quarrel, 
and Sefton is not the only "feller" to take 
the "other girl" to the picnic. 

It is very enjoyable reading, and not un- 
likely many young people will try to repress 
a sympathetic tear while reading the story 
of this humble folk. 


We are pleased to acknowledge receipt 
from C. L. Martzolff, Alumni Sec. Ohio 
University, Athens, Ohio, of his "History of 
Perry County .Ohio" and his "Archaeological, 
Historical and Geological Map of Perry 
County" both published in 1902. The book 
is full of good things of which we hope in 
due time to give our readers a taste. It will 
enable us to trace the footsteps of some 
"Pennsylvania Germans." 



— D 




German Society of Maryland 

The German Society of Maryland held its 
Annual Meeting January 9, 1911, the veteran 
President, L. P. Hennighausen, Esq., oc- 
cupying the chair. The Treasurer's report 
showed a gross income of $6,620.10 for the 
past year. The society gave $3,808.75 dur- 
ing the year to needy families, orphans, the 
aged, the sick, the oppressed. The neces- 
sity of having their own building is deeply 
felt by the society. 

Death of Noted Historian 

General William Watts Hart Davis, a 
veteran of the Mexican and civil wars died 
in Doylestown, Pa., December 27. General 
Davis was 90 years old, and for more than 
half a centm-y had been not only a conspic- 
uous figure in Pennsylvania, but in na- 
tional affairs as well. He was not only a 
distinguished soldier, but a veteran news- 
paper man and an author of considerable 

It was way back in 1846 that General 
Davis first entered the service of his coun- 
try. He was then studying law at Harvard 
University, but left that institution to en- 
list in a Massachusetts regiment recruited 
for service in the Mexican war. He was 
mustered out at the close of the war as cap- 

The great southwest appealed to young 
Captain Davis and he decided to locate 
there. First practicing law, he later served 
in succession as United States district at- 
torney, attorney general, secretary of the 
territory, acting governor, superintendent of 
public buildings. It was in New Mexico 
that Davis first engaged in journalism. For 
a number of years he was publisher of the 
Santa Fe Gazette, a newspaper published in 
both the English and Spanish language. 

After his experience in the newspaper 
field in New Mexico, Captain Davis decided 
to return to his home at Doylestown, where 
he became editor of the Doylestown Demo- 
crat. When the call for soldiers was sent 
out by President Lincoln in 1861, Captain 
Davis organized the one hundred and fourth 
regiment Pennsylvania volunteers and also 
Darnell's battery. At the close of the war 
he was made a brevet brigadier general for 
meritorious service. 

General Davis, besides being a member 
of the order of the Loyal Legion, was a 
member of the Bucks County Historical So- 
ciety, Aztec Club, Society of the Army of 
the Potomac, the Society of Foreign Wars 
and the Sons of the Revolution. 

Since the civil war General Davis had 
written and published the following works: 
"History of the One Hundred and Fourth 
Pennsylvania Regiment," "History of the 
Hart Family," "Life of General John 
Lacey." "History of Bucks County" (a work 
of 10 years), "Life of General John Davis." 
"The History of the Doylestown Guards" 
and "The Fries Rebellion." 

The Kittochthray Historical Society 

This society has issued a new volume 
(Vol. VI) giving the papers read before the 
society February 1908 to February 1910. 
The following is the table of contents: 

Officers of the Society. 


In Memoriam. 

Benedict Arnold, Patriot and Traitor. 
By Hon. Chas. H. Smiley, New 
Bloomfield, Pa. 

The Seventh Day Baptist of Snow Hill. 
By Chas. W. Cremer, Esq., Waynes- 
boro, Pa. 

Summer Vacation Assembly at "Ragged 
Edge". Guests of Mr. M. C. Ken- 

James McLene, of The Cumberland 
Valley, in Pennsylvania, a States- 
man of his Times. By Benjamin 
Matthias Nead, of Harrisburg. 

The Episcopal Church in the Cumber- 
land Valley. By Rev. E. V. Collins. 

Mount .Delight. By John M. McDowell, 

Two Famous Military Roads of Penn- 
sylvania. By Hon. George E. Mapes, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Old Fort Loudon and its Associations. 
No. 1. By Geo. O. Seilhamer, Esq. 

Old Fort Loudon and its Associations. 
No. II. By Geo. O. Seilhamer, Esq. 

The Condogwinet Creek. No. 3 (Early 
Highways.) By John G. Orr, Esq. 

Unveiling of Dr. Agnew Portrait Guests 
of Dr. Irvine.Mercersburg Academy. 

Vacation Assembly at Summer Home of 
.Mr. M. G. Kennedy. 

The Dedication of the Capt. E. Cook 
Marker. Address by Benjamin 
Matthias Need, Esq., Harrisburg, 

Regular Meeting of Society at "Elders- 
lie". Biographical Sketch of Josiah 
Culbertson. Read by J. S. Mcll- 

A Day in the Courts. A. J. White Hut- 
ton, Esq. 



A Lawyer's Nosegay. By Linn Har- 

baugh, Esq. 
A Franklin County Cousin of Robert 

Burns. By C. W. Crenier, Esq., 

Waynesboro, Pa. 

Pennsylvania Federation of Historical 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Histori- 
cal Societies held its Sixth Annual Meeting 
in the rooms of the Historical Society of 
Dauphin County, Thursday, January 5, 1911, 
one o'clock P. M., with an attendance of 
representatives from 18 of the 32 societies in 
the Federation. 

In his address the President, F. R. Diffen- 
derffer, Litt. D., set forth in a very practi- 
cal way some of the things the Federation 
has under way and is assured of accom- 
plishing good results ultimately, not failing 
however, also to show in what way the as- 
sociation "has not quite measured up to the 
standard expected of it". The address 
throughout was suggestive and encourag- 
ing, as one would expect from a veteran in 
the service like Dr. Diffenderffer. 

Amongst the matters presented in the 
Secretary's report was the impressive fact 
that the 32 societies in the Federation have 
a membership of over 10,000 Pennsylvanians 
engaged in historical activity, that during 
the year 1910 these societies issued publica- 
tions, papers, and addresses on historical 
topics to the number of about 195 titles, an 
exhibit of historical activity throughout our 
state during the short space of a year that 
is surprising for its quantity, high quality 
and diversity of matter treated, these titles 
now made of knowledge accessible far and 
wide by means of the Federation's medium 
as the assembler and publisher. 

By means of the Federation the histori- 
cal societies in the state are now becoming 
known to one another, their work and pro- 
ductions are annually tabulated in a form 
for general distribution and common infor- 
mation tending in many ways to stimulate 
to still larger historical activity, and to 
start activity in territory not yet organized 
to do historical work. The Federation's an- 
nual report is more largely and more wide- 
ly asked for every year by distant societies 
and libraries. 

Allusion was made to the death on De- 
cember 27, 1910, in his 90th year of Gen. W. 
W. H. Davis, President of the Bucks County 
Historical Society, a man distinguished for 
his many and valuable services to the State, 
and as a voluminous writer on historical 

The two financial reports, one by the 
Treasurer of the Federation, and the other 
by the State Librarian, as custodian and dis- 
tributor of the money appropriated to the 

association by the State in 1907, showed the 
Federation to be in possession of a good 
working balance. 

Of the six Standing Committees three re- 
ported having been active during the year, 
1910; that on Bibliography as having se- 
cured the manuscript of a bibliography of 
Lancaster County and the same as nearly 
ready for publication, and of Chester Coun- 
ty's bibliography being in an advanced state. 
It was also reported at the meeting that the 
Franklin County's Historical Society — the 
Kittochtinny — has a bibliography of that 
county in advanced preparation. 

The report of the Committee on the Pres- 
ervation of Manuscript Records, read by 
Prof. Herman Ames, chairman of that Com- 
mittee, and Chairman of the Public Archives 
Commission of the American Historical As- 
sociation, was an admirable paper in many 
ways, thorough in study, instructive in its 
generalizations, and comprehensive in eluci- 
dating detail. As a beginning, and for a 
working basis, this Committee had issued 
during the year a blank form containing 29 
questions as to the nature and condition of 
the County Archives in the counties of the 
state to the commissioners of which a blank 
was sent for replies to said questions. Al- 
though started late in the year, 22 counties 
had been heard from at the time of the read- 
ing of the Committee's report. The same 
form of interrogatories was sent to local 
historical societies for their assistance in 
the work. The Committee was continued 
and the association was encouraged to feel 
that with this Committee's further activity 
together with the proffered assistance on 
the part of the State Librarian in doing 
archive work and the cooperation of local 
historical or society effort, there will be 
brought about a greatly improved condition 
as to the care and preservation and acces- 
sibility of written and printed records, 
State, County, and minor territorial divis- 
ions, records so essential in the elucidation 
of the history of said named division, State, 
County, and so on. 

This valuable report will appear along 
with other matter named or not named here, 
in the forthcoming published "Acts and 
Proceedings of the Federation". 

The officers elected for 1911 are: Gilbert 
Cope, West Chester, President; Herman V. 
Ames, Ph.D., Philadelphia; First Vice Presi- 
dent, Hon. Geo. Moscrip, Towanda; Second 
ViCe President, George Steinman, Lancas- 
ter; Third Vice President; S. P. Heilman, M. 
D., Heilmandale, Secretary; Hon. Thos. L. 
Montgomery, State Librarian, Harrisburg, 
Treasurer; and Chas. Roberts. Allentown, 
and Luther R. Kelker, Custodian of State 
Archives, Harrisburg, in places on the Ex- 
ecutive Committee made vacant by expira- 
tion in 1910 of terms of two members of that 




Conducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited. Address, The Penna. German, Lititz, Pa. 



Answer to Query No. 3 

The Blauch family migrated 1750 and can 
richly count seven and eight generations, as 
records show. The family is thus 20 years 
ahead of the Fluke family, showing eight 
generations in 160, instead of 180 years. So 
much for the old Switzer stock. 
Johnstown, Pa. D. D. BLAUCH. 

Sheirer- Shire y Family 

Walter R. Scheirer, Nazareth, Pa., wishes 
to correspond with parties able to give in- 
formation respecting Adam Scheirer who 
lived in Southampton 1826 and Joseph 
Scheirer (Shirey), a saddler, who lived and 
died at Reading, Pa., 1843-46 (circa). 

Boone Data 

From William R. Boone, Jalapa.Veracruz, 
Mexico, comes the following call for infor- 
mation. We hope some of our readers will 
be able to send us data of the families con- 

"I take the liberty of addressing you 
for assistance in trying to trace my an- 
cestors in Penna. Am attaching a list 
that I am trying to extend back but I 
have been rather unsuccessful so far, 
clue to the fact that the family has been 
so busy pioneering that it has far out- 
stripped its records." 
The list referred to is as follows: 

William K. Boone (1834 — ), son of 
William Boone (1792-1892) and Rebecca 
Pursil (1798 — ) was married to Mary 
E. Heffelfinger, daughter of William 
Heffelfinger (1808-1850) and Margaret 
Marks (1808-1893). William Boone was 
the son of Hezekiah Boone and Hannah 
Lincoln. Rebecca Pursil was the daugh- 
ter of Jacob Pursil (1775-1857) and Jane 
Irwin (1776-1855). William Heffelfinger 
was the son of Thomas Heffelfinger 
(1780-1866) and Eve Weaver. Margaret 
Marks was the daughter of John Marks 
( — 1861) and Margaret Bollinger; the 

former, the son of — — Marks and 

Meyers, the latter the daughter of John 
Bollinger and — Diller. 

Blough-PIough Family 

John Blough died in 1765, leaving a wife 
Anna and 7 children: John, Cathrine, Anna, 
Daniel Barbara, Freena, Christian. 

Christian Plough of Lebanon township, 
Lancaster County, Pa., died July 1786, leav- 
ing a wife Rosanna, and 11 children: John, 
Abram, Henry, Anna Barbara, Elizabeth 
(married to Christian Berkey), Cathrine 
(married to John Schneider), Freenie, 
Christiana, Magdalena, Christian. Who can 
give me any information? 

D. D. BLAUCH. ■ 

A Berks County "Dutchman" in California 

C. B. Taylor, Stockton, California, a Berks 
Countian of the old Keystone State, writes: 
"I would like to find out the old fam- 
ilies of Taylors, Boones, Hultz, alias 
Woods, Douglass — all Old timers and 
relatives of mine. Taylors and Hultzes 
settled near Philadelphia, the others in 
Oley, Berks, and Montgomery Counties. 
Who will give the brother light on his 
family history. 

There was a Schneider, (not of Berks 
County) who had changed his name to Tay- 
lor who one day in showing his live stock 
said of shoats: "I pulled up these walkers 
on playwater." Was hut er gemeent? 

Emfoick and Clinesmith Families 

Among the early Pennsylvania- Germans 
who became pioneers in the settlement and 
development of western Maryland was 
Matthias Nead (Niedt) who came to Penn- 
sylvania from Alsace, in 1753, settling in 
Lancaster County and shortly afterwards 
going to Maryland, where he settled near 
the Conococheague, in the Sharpsburg dis- 
trict. He died in 1789, leaving two sons, 
Daniel and Jacob, and three daughters, 
Barbara, Charlotte and Juliana. Daniel 
married Ann Maria, daughter of Peter Hef- 
leigh (Hoeflich) ; Juliana married Philip 
Empeigh (Enibick) and Barbara a man 
named Clinesmith or Kleinsmith. The com- 
plete genealogical record of the descendants 
of Daniel Nead has been made, but very lit- 
tle has been discovered as to the Embick 
branch and nothing concerning the Cline- 
smith branch. Information is sought con- 
cerning these two branches, and it is hoped 
that some of the readers of THE PENNSYL- 
VANIA-GERMAN may be able to furnish 
some clues in this direction. 

1221 Seneca St., Buffalo, N. Y. 





The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 


Penna.-German, Vol. VI, No. 1, Louisa 
Miller, Blairsville, Pa. 

Vol. I, No. 3 and 4; Vol. 2 complete; Vol. 
3, No. 1 ; Vol. 6 No. 1 and 4. John G. Bech- 
told, 2121 S. 2nd street, Steelton, Pa. 

Vol. 2 and Vol. 6; J. B. L. 152 W. 131 St., 
New York. 

Vol. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, J. C. R. care of Penna.- 
German, Lititz, Pa. 

By Leouliard Felix Fuld, LL. M., Ph. I). 

EDITORIAL NOTE.— Dr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and meaning of the surname of 
any reader who sends twenty-five cents to 
the editor for that purpose. 


LENHART is a variant of LEONHARD. 
LEINHARD is a compound of LEIN which 
is of Latin origin and means a lion, and 
HART which is Germanic and means 
brave. LENHART accordingly means brave 
as a lion. 

67. ROTH 

ROTH was originally applied to a child or 
a man who was particularly healthy in ap- 
pearance. It is German and means red, 
ruddy, healthy. It is similar to the English 
girl's name RISE and the English boy's 
nickname RUDDY. In later years ROTH 
has also been used as a nickname in the 
case of a man who drinks to excess. In the 
sense it is used either alone or in combina- 
tions such as ROTNASE, etc. 


A Conundrum 

A subscriber in renewing his subscrip- 
tion expressed himself as follows. Who can 
guess in what county the subscriber lives? 
Mine groser frind Kriebel: 

Dei stcidung date ich lewer lasa 
Als we my brote un broteworsht esa 
Drum shick ich dier stwa grosa daler 
No ishs a yohr uns stwa feel woler. 


The Various German Dialects 

Rev. D. E. Schoedler of Allentown, Pa., 
has promised to give us during the year 
"specimens of poems written in the various 
German dialects, showing what few changes 

are required to turn them into pure Penn- 
sylvania German". Our readers can count 
on receiving a rich treat in these specimens. 
If any ether readers are preparing contri- 
butions for the dialect department they 
will confer a favor by notifying us. 

What Does It Mean 

A Connecticut reader writes: "Recently I 
attended a funeral of a German friend here. 
In the house I found the morrors turned to 
wall. This brought to mind a custom in my 
Pennsylvania heme, where on such occa- 
sions both mirrors and pictures were 
turned to face the wall. What does it 
mean? I have forgotten. It mgiht be a 
good query for THE PENNSYLVANIA-GER- 
MAN if space will permit." 

"Dry .Goods and Notions in Penna. German" 

From a business house on Third Avenue, 
New York City, comes this query: "Can you 
furnish us with a book called "Dry Goods 
and Notions in Pennsylvania German?" We 
know of no book in the dialect by this 
name. Possibly some one has issued a joke 
book stuffed with "chestnuts" under this 
name. Who can give us any information on 
the subject? 

Correction of Error 

January issue, page 36 column 2, second 
line from bottom, General Steuben should 
be General Scammel. 

January issue, page 15, column 2, line 17 
reads characteristics for characters. 

Page 49 column 1, line 14, reads Amelia 
H., for Amelia. 

Page 49 column 1, line 16 from bottom 
reads Bar for Bar. 

Page 49 column 2, line 10 reads 1 d. for 
10 d. 

Page 49 column 

Page 49 column 2 line 6 
read Daniel, d. for Daniel b. 

Page 51 column 2, line 4 
transpose Stamm, Werner. 

Page 52, column 2, line 7 
read Hohn for Hohon. 

line 29 read Lorah for 
from bottom, 
from bottom 
from bottom 

The Passing of the German 

The following is one of many signs show- 
ing that English is gradually displacing 
German in old German communities. The 
letter was written November 1910, by the 



Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the 
Deep Run Meunonite Church, Bucks Co., 
Pa., to their pastor, Rev. Allen M. Fretz. 
Dear Pastor: 

One of the most important matters 
that concerned you directly acted upon 
at the annual meeting was the matter of 
German services. It was the opinion of 
all the trustees (and they were all 
present) that the time has come to have 
all English services. A motion to that 
effect, with the proviso, however, that 
should there be such in the services, 
that you know prefer the German, to 
have some German on the occasion, but 
that no German services be regularly 
scheduled, was adopted unanimously. It 
will be optional with you as to how 
much German there shall be on the 
specified days. We hope this will meet 
your approval. 

colony and their illustrious descendants. 
We hope his prosperity will not prevent his 
preparing the contemplated paper. 

Pioneer Germans at Germanna, Va. 

Dandrige Spotswood, Consulting Engineer. 
Petersburg, Va., and New York City, a 
descendant of. the celebrated Governor Alex- 
ander Spotswood writes under date of 
January 9, 1911 : 

If it were not for the fact that I am 
rushed with business matters I would 
send you a sketch of the early German 
Colony who were brought over here by 
my family to operate their iron mines. 
I have the basis of an interesting article 
and will when the weather clears up 
journey to Spotsylvania County and get 
some views that will be of advantage in 
the article. * * * * Some of the mem- 
bers of this colony have made highly 
esteemed names for themselves and 
have produced descendants of great 
value to the country. There still lin- 
gers a bond of attachment of many to 
the old country and its people. * * * I 
am going to see if later I cannot contri- 
bute an article embodying some facts of 
Our readers will be very glad to read Mr. 
Spotswood's article on this noted historic 

Pennsylvanians on the "Canal Zone'' 

The following self-explanatory letter is a 
new illustration of the ubiquity of the 
Penna. Germans. 

Canal Zone, Panama, Jan. 2, 1911. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, Editor, 
Lititz, Pa., U. S. A., 

Your letter of the 9th ult., is before 
me, as well as the magazine. Being a 
Pennsylvania German, I find the paper 
as well as the enclosures with your let- 
ter of interest. There are a great many 
Pennsylvanians on the Isthmus, en- 
gaged in the construction of the Canal, 
and among them I find quite a number 
who really speak the "lingo". There 
are at least a dozen Penna. boys right 
here in Cristobal who can speak it, and 
we have called a first meeting to form 
a Club. The former General Manager 
of the Panama Railroad 1907 to 1909 
was a Penna. German from somewhere 
near Allentown, — Slifer by name. The 
present General Superintendent of the 
Panama Railroad is from Littletown, 
Pa., also a Penna. German. I under- 
stand he was at one time telegraph 
operator or Station Agent at Slatington. 
Pa. Colonel Sibert, who is in charge of 
the construction, of the famous Gatun 
Dam and Locks is from Pittsburg, Pa. 
Major Butler, who is in charge of the 
Marines at Camp Elliott is a son of 
Senator Butler of Penna. 

So you see there is material here (as 
everywhere) for a good article on 
Pennsylvanians, and I intend to write 
up such an article for your paper in the 
near future, to be accompanied with il- 
lustrations of the work they are en- 
gaged in. 

Sincerely yours, 


In one of the Philadelphia public 
schools is a girl whose forebears held 
that the principal aim of the life of a 
woman is marriage. This little girl is 
well up in most of her studies, except 
geography. The other day her teacher 
sent to her mother to see that the girl 
studied her lesson. The next few days 
showed no improvement, and the 

teacher asked whether she had deliv- 
ered the note. 

"Yes, ma'am," was the reply. 
"What did your mother say?" 
"She said that she didn't know geo- 
graphy an" she got married, an' my 
aunt didn't know geography and she 
got married, an' you know geography 
and you haven't got married." 

— November Lippincott's. 


©Ije Jfemtstjluama-O^rmatt 

(Founded by Rev. Dr. P. C. Croll, 1900.) 

H. W. KRIEBEL, Editor and Publisher 


Editor of Review Department, Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Advisory Editorial Board : — I. H. Betz, M. D, York, Pa. : Lucy Forney Bittinger, Sewiekley, 
Pa.; A. Y. Casanova, Washington, D. C. ; Rev. P. C. Croll, D. D., Beardstown, 111.; Prof. 
G. T. Ettinger, Allentown, Pa.; Prof. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown, Conn.; Daniee Miller, 
Reading, Pa.; Gen. John E. Roller, Harrisonburg, Ya. ; Prof. L. S. Shimmel, Harrisburg, 
Pa. ; Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Paulding, Ohio. 

The Pennsylvania-German is the only, popular, illustrated, monthly magazine of biography, genealogy, 
history, folklore, literature, devoted to the early German and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
states and their descendants. It encourages a restudy of the history of the Germans in America; it res- 
cues from oblhion the record of the deeds of those gone before; it unearths, formulates and disseminates 
a wealth of historic material of great moment in the right interpretation of our American life ; it meets 
the necessity of having a repository for historical contributions and a medium for the expression of opin- 
ion on current questions pertaining to its field. It aims to develop a proper regard for ancestry, to 
create interest in family history, to promote research along genealogical lines, to unite descendants when- 
ever found, to facilitate a scientific, philological study of its dialect; it makes generally accessble to the 
future historian the precious incidents of German life and achievements in America, and incidentally be- 
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Sinking into Oblivion 
Under this heading we called atten- 
tion in our January issue to a news- 
paper report, attributing a certain 
statement to Roosevelt. In explanation 
of said report we quote the following 
letter from Dr. Schaeffer, Superintend- 
•ent of Public Instruction. 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
Department of Public Instruction 

Harrisburg, Pa., Jan. 7, 1911. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 

Dear Sir: I have been away from home 
lor a month and could not work in my 

study. I enclose the extract from Roose- 
velt's "True Americanism". I do not have 
his little book on this topic, and must send 
you what I have in my note book. He 
thinks that in order to become truly Amer- 
icanized one must learn the English lan- 
guage. In my opinion he is right. I see 
no reason for perpetuating the dialect of 
my boyhood in the speech of my children, 
but I am very anxious that they shall learn 
High German and become saturated with 
its literature and with the best which Ger- 
man literature embodies. But one can not 
get a newspaper to say this because it does 
not serve to make a sensational newspaper 

Yours truly, 




"So it is with the Pennsylvania Germans. 
Those of them who became Americanized 
have furnished to our history a multitude 
of honorable names from the days of the 
Muhlenbergs onward; but those of them 
who did not become Americanized form to 
the present day an unimportant body of 
no significance in American life." 

Theo. Roosevelt in True Americanism. 

A few questions suggest themselves : 
when may a Pennsylvania German 
said to be Americanized ; when may 
we say of American citizens they are 
of "no significance in American life"? 
Are the hands of the town clock, seen 
by everybody, of more significance 
than the pinions, screws, weights, 
framework, etc., back of the face, 
grimy, dusty and never looked at? 
Who are our "significant" citizens? 

A Word About Our Editorial Policy 

An esteemed subscriber wrote re- 
cently in answer to a letter inviting 
criticism : 

"Die Muttersproch": what you usually 
admit as such, is — well I have yet to meet 
the person who knows what it is, except 
that it is not Pennsylvania German. The 
reason for its uselessness to a philologist I 
gave you on former occasions. 'The Forum.' 
Prof. E. S. Gerhard's laudable efforts in the 
interest of Justice for Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans will forever fall flat if you ever stoop 
low enuf to mention a Judge Peter Gross- 
cup again. Write to the Appeal to Reason, 
Girard, Kansas, and learn who Grosscup is 
and correct yourself." 

To these words we replied : 

"Your words as to what is admitted under 
'Muttersproch' are not definite enough to 
enable me to locate the offending contribu- 
tions. So far as the spelling of the dialect 
is concerned I believe I can better serve 
the cause of phonetic spelling by pursuing 
my present course than by insisting on 
uniformity. I doubt very seriously whether 
we are far enough advanced to adopt an 
ironbound orthography. 

So far as Judge Grosscup is concerned, I 
see the 'Appeal to Reason' each week. The 
pages of the magazine are open to you for a 
frank expression of opinion in criticism of 
any affirmation of fact made by any con- 
tributor to the magazine. You surely recog- 
nize the inadvisability of my making 'The 
Pennsylvania-German' a propagandist organ 
for any ism or ologry, however good, laud- 
able or popular." 

We may say in addition to what we 
wrote to our critic that in spite of 

Harbangh, llaldeman. Home, E. II. 
Ranch, Grumbine, all of sainted 
memory, or the action of the 1'enna. 
German Society , living writers like 
Daniel Miller, T. II. Harter, Dr. E. 
Grumbine, II. M. Miller, Rev. A. C. 
Wuchter, Rev. I. S. Stahr, J. \\ . Seip, 
M. D., Rev. Adam Stump, Henry 
Meyer, Louisa A. Weitzel, and others 
have not yet seen their way clear to 
adopt uniform spelling. Nor is it in 
our province to assume the "dog in the 
manger" policy and insist on all dialect 
writers spelling and capitalizing as we 
tell them. We are as anxious as any 
one to see our contributors adopt a 
uniform standard and hope eventually 
to bring this about. But before this 
can be accomplished we must have 
some frank discussions on the subject. 
The matter can not be settled in a day 
or by the fiat of any individual, but the 
day and possibilities for settlement are 
at hand. We hope to hear from our 
readers on the subject. 

The Pennsylvania-German is not 
prepared to enter the arena to argue 
Socialism pro or con — or to become 
the mouthpiece of any church. 

Penna. -German "Parlors" 

On page 69, Dr. Super calls attention 
to the proverbial parlor of Penna. I Ger- 
man families. This is one of the 
favorite subjects on which to say 
derogatory things about this class of 
people. But men rarely give full credit 
to all the impelling motives prompting 
the setting aside of the "parlor". 
May the act not grow out of a feeling 
of reverence for things sacred, un- 
common : a desire to cultivate a taste 
for the artistic and beautiful — a doing 
in a small scale what the rich do in 
building their art galleries? A rever- 
ence for the Bible, an honoring of 
fathers and mothers, a love for the 
artistic is thus cultivated which can 
not be accomplished in the rush and 
bustle, dust and din of modern indus- 
trial life. Are we past the necessity 



of cultivating these things today? May 
not the parlor have been an important 
element in the development of the 
Penna. -German character? At any 
rate, why not say the good things 
about this room, rather than the 

Use of the word "Pennsylvania 

An official of a prominent historical 
society recently called the attention of 
the editor to the careless use of the 
term "Pennsylvania German" as ap- 
plied to a class of people. This maga- 
zine aims to devote itself to 18th cen- 
tury immigrants and their descendants. 
The name of the magazine is not of 
sufficiently wide scope to cover this 
field fully, but it seems inadvisable to 
make a change. We believe, how- 

ever, that by definition we make the 
name distinctive and definite enough. 

Shall Pat Schmidt be called an 
Irishman or a Dutchman, if his father 
was of Penna. -German stock and his 
mother of Irish blood? Is John Jones 
a Pennsylvania-German providing he 
uses the dialect correctly in spite of 
the Welsh ancestry of his parents? 
An octoroon is classed as a negro ; may 
not a citizen with a like strain of 
Penna. -German blood b e classed 
among the Pennsylvania-Germans? 
Years ago there lived in Dauphin 
County a man descended from Indian 
and Xegro who spoke the lingo as if 
of the purest Penna. -German stock. 
Was he a Pennsylvania German? Does 
language or ancestry, or place of resi- 
dence, or physique, or lack of educa- 
tion constitute the mark of the Penna. 

the year given — "12—10" signifying December, 1910 

D H Landis — 12 — 11 
C A Groman — 12 — 11 
Isaae S Gerhard — 12 — 11 


J A Bender — 12 — 10 

H S Heilman — 12 — 11 

E M Hartman — 12 — 12 

G W Resxler— 12—11 

Anna C Murty — 12 — 11 

E D Bright — 12 — 11 

C D Deppen — 12 — 11 

A S Urffer — 12 — 11 

S A Seaher — 4 — 11 

W P Beck — 12 — 11 

M B Schmover — 12 — 11 

I! K Gerhard — 12 — 11 

W H Limbert — 12 — 11 

W Riddle— 12 — 11 

Thomas J Mays — 12 — 11 

C B Sehneder — 12 — 11 

Mrs S A Weir— 2 — 12 

I S Stahr — 12—11 

J H Klase — 12 — 11 

Miss A M Longenecker — 1 — 12 

Preston Miller — 12 — 11 

Daniel Kendig — 12 — 11 

Miss E H Evans— 12 — 11 

F P Albright — 1,2 — 10 

C J Cooper — 12 — 11 

F G Seiler — 12 — 11 

A E Heimbach — 12 — 11 

J J Rothrock — 12 — 11 

Jacob Naschold — 4 — 11 

I A Bachman — 2 — 13 

H D Hevdt — 12 — 11 

J O Ulrich — 12 — 11 

N H Kevser — 12 — 11 

E R Artman — 12 — 11 

C Y Schellv — 12 — 11 

Mrs S R Bartholomew — 12 — 11 

D E Schoedler — 12 — 11 

W M Gehman — 8 — 11 

D D Fisher — 12 — 11 

W Ktearlv — 12 — 11 

E H Kistler — 12 — 11 

E Brubaker — 12 — 11 

C W Rank — 12 — 11 

J S Krieble— 12 — 11 

J L Schaadt — 12—11 

G A Schneebeli — 4 — 12 

E Noll — 12 — 11 

H A Weller — 12 — 11 

W S M Kuser — 12 — 11 

M O Rath — 12 — 11 

.1 W Behm — 12 — 11 

S D Gettig — 12 — 11 

J B Reefer — 12 — 11 

A F Derr — 12 — 11 

J Irwin Yost — 12 — 11 

F W Bover — 12 — 11 

M J Shinier — 12 — 11 

J A Ruth — 12 — 11 

Alvin B inner — 12 — 11 

F Beehm — 9 — 10 

J Becker — 12 — 10 

Moravian Archives — 12 — 11 

J A Siegfried — 1 — 11 

F J Sassaman — 12 — 11 

S J Hartman — 12 — 11 

C L DeTurk — 12 — 11 

J F Mentzer — 12 — 11 

J L Glase — 12 — 11 

H W Feglev — 3 — 12 

Rev I W Klick — 12 — 14 

W J Rutter, Jr. — 12 — 11 

W H Sallade — 1 — 12 

F R Diffenderffer — 12 — 11 

G W Wertz — 12 — 11 

G A Gorgas— 12 — 11 

H O M Dubbs — 12—11 

A M Fretz — 12 — 11 

Hist. Soc. of Pa. — 12 — 11 

T C Billheimer — 12 — 11 

[saac Satzin — 12 — 11 

Bernville High School — 12— 

Ella K Heebner — 2 — 11 

B Bertolet — 12 — 11 

C W Shive — 1 — 11 

W F Bond — 12 — 11 

A S Brendle — 12 — 11 

J L Roush — 12—11 

W H Welfley — 12 — 11 

S Gordon Smvth — Iz — 11 

J W Seip — 6 — 11 

A P Fogelman — 12 — 11 

L Webster Fox — 4 — 12 

Mrs C B North — 12 — 12 

N B Grubb — 6 — 12 

named, to and including month of 

Isaac Kreider — 12 — 11 
Adam Stump — 2 — 12 
Kelley Sta. — 12 — 11 
M Reed Minnich — 1 — 12 
J E Smith — 12 — 11 


A C Wuchter — 12 — 14 
B F Prince — 12 — 11 
C W Super— 12— 11 
Mrs. S Stevens — 12 — 11 
C Krichbaum — 12 — 11 
J A Griffith — 12— .14 


C H Vinton — 12 — 11 

J R Shimer — 12 — 11 

T O'Conor Sloane — 12 — 11 

Sarah E Seigler — 12 — 11 


F O Hanbuer — 12—11 

R B Reitz — 12 — 11 

S B Heckman — 12 — 11 


Nat, Luth. Home — 12 — 11 

F B Smith — 6 — 11 

E M Eshleman — 12 — 11 


Katherine E Beard — 12 — 11 

J S Shipton — 12 — 11 


S G Stein — 12 — 11 

Mrs W W Witmer — 12 — 11 


M J Bieber — 12 — 14 


II G Meserole— 12 — 11 


C H Smith — 12 — 10 


Steiner Schley — 12 — 11 


W S Youngman — 12 — 11 


W O Eiehelberger — 1 — 12 

To Feb. 1, 1911. 

Vol. XII 

MARCH, 191 

No. 3 

A Study of a Rural Community 

By Charles William Super, Ph. D., LL. D. Athens, Ohio 

(continued from February issue) 

LTHOUGH this part of 
the Keystone State might 
be called new, the soil in 
places was so exhausted 
that nothing °rew upon 
it except scrub pines. 
These at the time of my 
earliest recollection were 
from ten to fifteen feet high and in 
spots stood so close together, sending 
out their stiff lower branches almost 
horizontally, that it was next to im- 
possible to pass between them. The 
ground was thickly covered with pine 
needles amid which johnny jumpups 
often sprang up so thickly as to con- 
ceal everything under them. It was a 
favorite amusement of children to 
hook together the bent stems and pull 
until one or the other broke. In this 
way two antagonists would soon ac- 
cumulate a pile of broken stems and 
blossoms. Sometimes one stem proved 
strong enough to pull the head from 
several others ; but its victorious 
career seldom went further. Re- 
garded from the esthetic point of view 
there was a considerable difference 
between the tastes of the denizens of 
this region. There were houses older 
than my recollection that were sub- 
stantial and commodious while some 

of the newer ones were set in a patch 
of woodland with no open space 
around them. The best that could be 
said in favor of such sites was that 
they were always protected by shade. 
But as others were erected in the open 
field the prospect of shade can not have 
been a determining factor. Sometimes 
the dwelling house with a few of the 
outbuildings had been set on one side 
of the road and the barn on the other. 
Thus the public thoroughfare could be 
used as a passage-way from one to the 
other. When all the buildings were on 
the same side of the highway and close 
to it the same statement is true. In 
either case no cultivable land was lost, 
although there could be no courtyard 
about the domicile. In front of some 
of the older houses a few evergreens 
had been planted. Lombardy poplars 
were somewhat in vogue, and in this 
latitude they were long-lived, But .in 
almost every location the useful was 
preferred before the ornamental. One 
might suppose that the fear of vicious 
tramps would constrain the farmers to 
locate their dwellings within calling 
distance of one another. There were 
tramps, it is true, and other homeless 
wanderers ; but I never heard of any 
one being molested by them. Very 
few of the original buildings, perhaps 



none at all, were still in use toward the 
close of the nineteenth century. One 
after another they were torn down to 
make way for greater or used for 
store-houses. They were abandoned, 
not to make room for larger families, 
but because smaller families, which 
were the rule, wanted more room for 
each member. In a few instances the 
original house was retained, but so en- 
larged and transformed as to be no 
longer recognizable. 


In the fall of the year after the win- 
ter wheat and sometimes a few acres 
of rye had been put into the ground, 
the corn-husking began. The jovial 
occasions about which the poets have 
written when an entire neighborhood 
came together were not much in vogue 
in my time, in our part of the "Lord's 
moral vineyard". I do not recall hav- 
ing been present at more than one or 
two. The performance was decidedly 
prosy, especially in cold weather. Af- 
ter the corn and its fodder had been 
disposed of, the latter in the barn, the 
former in the crib, some of the farmers 
laid in their stock of fuel for the win- 
ter. It was no trivial matter to provide 
fuel for two or three fires for several 
months, as no one used coal. A few of 
the farms became, in the course of time, 
entirely denuded of timber; so the win- 
ter's wood had to be hauled several 
miles from a hill on which some of the 
citizens owned or leased land solely for 
this purpose. More than half the farm- 
ers provided fire-wood as it was 
needed, and sometimes not quite that. 
Another fall and winter occupation 
was treading out the wheat. The 
sheaves were laid on the barn-floor; 
then a boy astride of a horse and lead- 
ing one or two others, went round 
and round upon them until all the 
grains were trodden out. Next the 
straw was removed, the wheat scraped 
to one side, and the same circular per- 
formance repeated. Threshing rye 
with .flails was more interesting if 
more laborious, especially when three 
or more performers engaged in it. But 

they had need to be very careful to 
keep correct time or the end of the im- 
plement would hit one or another on 
the head. The rhythm of several flails 
made a sort of rude music. The straw 
was chiefly used in making chop feed 
for horses. However, beginning with 
the second half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury threshing - machines gradually 
came into use with other agricultural 
implements. The flail, the scythe and 
the grain-cradle were rarely called into 
service. Although there were no 
Yankees in the neighborhood and 
therefore no historic whittlers, whit- 
tling was a sort of universal subordi- 
nate pastime. Little boys and big 
boys, young men and men of middle 
age, sometimes even old men whittled. 
It was however not usually engaged 
in as a soiltary game. If two persons 
of the male sex happened to meet on 
the road, or in the field, or about the 
premises of one or the other, the 
pocket knife was generally called into 
service, barring, of course, some press- 
ing labor. It was used on a fence rail, 
or on a bit of board, or on a stick that 
happened to lie near, or on the smooth 
bark of a tree, or on something less 
common. I have not now in mind the 
frequent use made of the pocket knife 
to carve some figure, or inscription on 
the school desks : that is a universal 
penchant among boys and is usually 
yielded to whenever opportunity of- 
fers. The whittling I am now thinking 
of was much more extensively prac- 
ticed : it was far from being confined 
within the narrow walls of a school 
building and a few months of the 
year when there was opportunity for 
the employment of this ubiquitous lit- 
tle tool in that particular place. The 
first article a boy sought to make his 
own property was a pocket knife, and 
among the serious mishaps that occa- 
sionally befell him, to lose or to break 
it was far to the fore. For the poorer 
boys the oldfashioned "Barlow" that 
had but a single blade was the first 
piece of pocket cutlery. In the nature 
of the case trading knives was a well 
established form of juvenile business. 



And a foolish one it was. The fellow 
who had a knife to barter assuredly 
expected to better himself by the deal 
at the expense of the party of the sec- 
ond part. This was all the more cer- 
tain if he refused to show his stock in 
trade in its entirety. Yet many an ex- 
change was consummated, "unsight, 
unseen", apparently for the mere pur- 
pose of promoting internal commerce. 
The bitten party generally expected to 
recoup himself tor his loss on some one 
else. Perhaps too the mere love of ex- 
citement was an unconscious attrac- 
tion to those who had so few things to 
vary the monotony of their lives. It 
may be said also that the innate im- 
pulse for gambling, which has such a 
fascination for men everywhere, began 
to show its germ in these unsophisti- 
cated youths ; for the deal might turn 
upon a slate pencil, or on some object 
of even less value. One of the strong 
motives that impelled every young 
man who purposed to make farming 
his vocation was the ambition to pos- 
sess a good horse and buggy. Gener- 
ally one of the colts that trom time to 
time made their appearance about the 
premises was put in charge of the son 
by the sire. He thenceforth had the 
care of it until it was ready for service 
and entire possession of the beast af- 
terwards. A buggy was not so easily 
provided ; but it was usually done 
eventually if the horse was on hand. A 
riding horse might supply the needs of 
one person in a majority of cases; not 
so well, of two. The chief use of the 
vehicle made by its fortunate possessor 
was driving his dulcinea to campmeet- 
ings and other places that might prove 
sufficiently attractive. The fortunate 
possessor was often regarded with 
envy by those rustic swains who pre- 
ferred to save for other purposes what 
little money they might get into their 
possession. Sometimes it required no 
small measure of self-denial to choose 
wisely between the allurements of 
present pleasure in the guise of fre- 
quent drives by the side of a charming 
maid and the more distant prospect of 
a larger sphere of usefulness. The 

young lady who was so lucky as to 
have an admirer who was the fortunate 
possessor of a turnout was the envy of 
her less favored peers. Sometimes this 
piece of property gave the decision be- 
tween two claimants who were other- 
wise on an equal footing. The pleas- 
ures of hope were overborne by the 
satisfaction of immediate possession. 
A bird in hand was rightly held to be 
of more value than a dozen that might 
still be disporting themselves among 
the leafy branches. 


To not a few of these people supe- 
rior knowledge had about it something 
uncanny when it led to doubts upon 
the literal inspiration of the Scrip- 
tures, or of the commonly received 
doctrines of the church. Here were 
still to be found lingering vestiges of 
the mediaeval spirit that led to so much 
bitter persecution. The tree of knowl- 
edge bore forbidden fruit and it could 
be said of those who had eaten thereof 
what Festus said to Paul: "Much 
learning hath made thee mad". No 
matter how upright a man might be in 
his dealings with his neighbors, if he 
was not orthodox, the saving trait of 
his character was wanting. So long 
and in so far as extensive information 
increased a man's power as a defender 
of the faith once delivered to the saints 
it was supposed to enlarge his useful- 
ness ; otherwise it made him only the 
more to be feared, the more dangerous 
to his fellow men. The Bible, or the 
dogmas of the church, might be inter- 
preted in a number of different ways 
without doing material harm, but to 
deny them was the most damnable 
heresy. Hell-fire and a personal devil 
were a stern reality. Albeit, some of 
the most steadfast believers were not 
members of any church while of those 
who were not all were greatly con- 
cerned to practice its moral precepts. 
Some consoled themselves with the be- 
lief that if they were members of the 
church they were "all right" ; others 
held that mere church-membership 
without "conversion" and a "change of 



heart" had no merit whatever. There 
did not exist here the primitive notion 
that any departure from use would 
bring" material disaster upon the tribe ; 
the innovator was to be shunned as 
one who was certain to bring destruc- 
tion upon his own soul and upon all 
who shared his doubts. In short, here 
were to be found minds that were at 
the farthest possible remove from the 
typical scientist. Many of these people 
had inherited from their remote ances- 
tors the • primitive incapacity or un- 
willingness to trace, effects to their 
causes. A conclusion was usually 
jumped at which a little reflection 
would have shown to be unfounded. 
That phenomena were often worrh 
careful study was an idea that never 
entered their heads. Effects were at- 
tributed to some magical or occult 
cause that had no existence outside of 
their imagination. If the hens did not 
lay they were bewitched. If some ob- 
ject was lost and could not readily be 
found the devil was concerned in it in 
some way. If bulbs did not come up 
as expected, it was due to their having 
been planted in the wrong sign of the 
moon. If a boy was drowned on Sun- 
day it was owing to his going into the 
water on the Lord's dav ; but' if a simi- 
lar accident occurred during the week 
it was caused by cramps. If a house 
creaked from the frost entering the 
ground or from a thaw it portended 
the death of an inmate almost as cer- 
tainlv as the howl of a dog. If a horse 
shied at night it saw a "spook". In 
fact night was so much dreaded by a 
part of the female population that they 
would hardly pass over the threshold 
after dark. I can recall very few of 
the omens and superstitions and never 
knew many. My father paid no atten- 
tion to them and mother thought it 
wicked to give them any countenance. 
What sort of imaginary objects could 
terrorize an entire neighborhood is "for- 
cibly illustrated by an anecdote I 
heard my father relate more than 
once. In his boyhood it was current- 
ly reported that in a large tract of 
woodland a headless man mishit be 

seen at night with extended arms cov- 
ered with a coating of fire. Being, late 
one evening, several miles distant he 
started for home, and before he be- 
thought himself was heading straight 
for the dreaded object. Although not 
superstitious his fears for the moment 
get the better of him ; but recollecting 
that he had an ax, he grasped it firm- 
ly with both hands, mustered up his 
courage and proceeded. Soon he came 
in sight of the uncanny thing. Upon 
approaching it closely he found it to 
be the tall stump of a tree from which 
projected almost at right angles two 
dead branches. It was partly covered 
with a species of fungus, which, in the 
dark, gave to it somewhat the appear- 
ance of being on fire. With a few 
blows of his ax he felled it to the 
ground. Henceforth the man without 
a head was seen no more. There were 
a few freethinkers in the community. 
One of these, a tailor with his son 
worked at his trade some years in a 
hamlet not far from us. The young 
man was fluent in handling the usual 
arguments against all forms of super- 
naturalism. I was too young to be 
able to enter into the spirit of his doc- 
trines and recall hardly any of his 
specific arguments. I do not know 
what eventually became of the pair. 
By far the best informed man in the 
community and a fine mathematician 
had read parts of Voltaire's Philo- 
sophical Dictionary, Paine's Age of 
Reason, d'Holbach's Svstem of Nature, 
Taylor's Diagesis, and other similar 
writings. These were not kept with 
the rest of his books, so that it was by 
a mere chance that I got a glimpse of 
them. Although I remembered the 
titles I did not know in what spirit 
they were written until many years 
afterwards. Most of them I have not 
seen since. I never heard this man re- 
fer to his liberal views and learned in- 
cidentally from others what they were. 
As might be expected he did not stand 
well in the community although his 
probity was unquestioned. Notwith- 
standing his intelligence he would not 
have been allowed to teach a country 



school if he had offered to do so for 
nothing. He came to this country 
when a mere lad, but had none of the 
characteristics of the Pennsylvania 
German and spoke the language rather 
poorly, probably owing to his having 
spent most of his early life in an Eng- 
lish family. 

Although the community was in 
general orderly, there were two occa- 
sions on which there was sometimes a 
performance that bordered on disorder. 
The teachers in the schools were ex- 
pected to "treat" the pupils on Christ- 
mas day. If they failed to give notice 
that such was their intention they 
sometimes found themselves "barred 
out"' on the morning of said day. Once 
in a while there was a long and strenu- 
ous contest between the outsider who 
was trying to enter and some enter- 
prising boys on the inside where they 
had fortified themselves during the 
night endeavoring to prevent his doing 
so. The other was a wedding. Occa- 
sionally the "weddiners" were sere- 
naded by a callithumpian orchestra 
the various instruments of which were 
played neither in time nor in tune. The 
music was notable for its quantity, not 
for its quality, and the players for their 
zeal rather than their artistic qualifica- 
tions. Usually the victims took it 
good-naturedly, but occasionally they 
manifested their disapproval in such a 
way as to make the performers as un- 
comfortable as possible. However, 
only a small proportion of the boys 
and young men of our community took 
part in these noisy demonstrations, 
which were moreover not often in- 
dulged in unless the parties in-doors 
were more or less akin to the sere- 
naders in manners and customs. 

Generation number Three broke 
away almost entirely from the tradi- 
tions of the elders. They married 
heretics and unbelievers. They made 
a liberal use of agricultural imple- 
ments. They subscribed for and read 
agricultural papers, which probably no 
member of number Two had clone. 

Some of them moved into town. Sev- 
eral of the younger members attended 
academies, normal schools, and col- 
leges. They read a few books and 
newspapers. They patronized tailors 
and occasionally a dress-maker, while 
all that was worn by number Two 
except hats and shoes for both sexes 
was made in the family, unless the 
man of the house once in a while 
bought a ready-made suit of clothes ; 
if it did not fit that made no difference. 
They were not content to do as their 
fathers had done. The exodus was so 
great that in the latter decades of the 
nineteenth century the township had 
decreased in population. Whether the 
twentieth century with its improved 
roads, its rural mail delivery, and other 
ameliorations of country life is effect- 
ing a reversal of the movement I do 
not know. Several cases have come to 
my knowledge where young men who 
had for some time lived in town re- 
turned to the cultivation of the soil. 
We may trace the intellectual growth 
of the community as exhibited in the 
history of certain families that began 
their career in this region. One of 
these I had the opportunity of tracing 
through three cis-Atlantic generations. 
A German immigrant came into the 
neighborhood early in the nineteenth 
century, bringing with him three or 
four children. This number was in- 
creased by several born on American 
soil. He was very poor, although not 
a redemptioner, consequently his en- 
tire family of boys and girls had to 
work at whatever they could find to 
do. He bought a farm of perhaps a 
hundred acres but not enough could be 
raised on it and sold to provide suf- 
ficient ready monev for the purchase of 
those indispensables that could not be 
produced in the household. Then 
there were also payments to make on 
the property. His wife was a woman 
of much more than average intelli- 
gence. Several of her children de- 
veloped into diligent readers both in 
English and German, by which means 
they became well informed. None of 
them however received any systematic 



education and only a few months 
schooling- at most. Of the children of 
the first generation two graduated 
from a reputable college and supple- 
mented the attainments thus acquired 
by subsequent study in Europe. A few 
more took partial courses. Of the third 
American generation at least eight are 
college or university graduates, to 
which number should be addel several 
who graduated from high schools. The 
first members who made their way 
through college were dependent entire- 
ly upon their own efforts ; for while 
they can not be said to have worked 
their way, they earned the necessary 
money at whatever employment that 
presented itself. On the other hand, 
of those who graduated after 1900 not 
one was dependent upon his own re- 
sources for his education. 


A primitive trait of these people was 
hospitality. The casual visitor, wheth- 
er neighbor or friend, always had the 
best the house afforded set before him. 
If it was not the fatted calf it was the 
well fed pullet, or a pair of them, that 
was the piece de resistance of the meal 
or the meals. But if the visitor tarried 
too long or came on any other day 
than Sunday his welcome, with most 
families, was apt to lack somewhat in 
heartiness, unless he could make him- 
self useful by rendering some service 
in the way of manual labor. A typical 
anecdote is related of a farmer whose 
brother whom he had not seen for 
thirty years came to pay him a visit.. 
As the prospective host happened to be 
at work in the cornfield when the new- 
comer arrived on the premises he di- 
rected his steps thither. After the 
former had utterel some words of sur- 
prise and expressed his pleasure at the 
unexpected meeting he remarked : 
"Now if you only had a hoe, what a 
nice time we could have together!" It 
was at funerals that this hospitality 
was most in evidence. When a mem- 
ber of the community had answered the 
final summons his body was prepared 
for the coffin and laid upon a board by 

some of his neighbors. Others were 
dispatched to dig his grave. A man 
who had taken the measure of the 
corpse was sent for an undertaker who 
came on the day of the burial with a 
casket of the proper size in which the 
body was placed. If some minister of 
the Gospel of the denomination to 
which the deceased had belonged or 
with which he was affiliated was with- 
in reach he was usually summoned to 
take charge of the burial services. If 
he had no ecclesiastical connection re- 
ligious services were occasionally 
dispensed with. Once in a while a lay 
member of the community conducted 
a simple service, for the most irrelig- 
ious people were averse from putting 
out of sight any member of the family 
without some sort of religious cere- 
mony, if it consisted of but a hymn or 
two and a brief prayer. Usually the 
messenger dispatched for the under- 
taker also called the designated preach- 
er. The funeral cortege was made up 
of neighbors who came in their own 
conveyances, or if the distance was not 
too great, on foot. It was understood 
that after the deceased member of a 
family had been borne to his final rest- 
ing-place all who had formed the 
escort to the grave were to consider 
themselves invited to return to his late 
residence there to partake of a sumptu- 
ous repast. I should add that this in- 
vitation was generally accepted in the 
spirit in which it was given, each one 
apparently thinking that his turn 
might come next. Sometimes an inter- 
loper or two. attracted by the prospect 
of more toothsome viands than he was 
accustomed to at home, might be found 
among those who had a just claim to 
a seat at the friendly board ; but 
generally the expressed or implied in- 
vitation was not abused. It is worth 
while to remark that this custom is as 
old as the recorded history of the 
human race. In some form it was in 
vogue among the ancient Greeks anl 
Romans beginning with the Homeric 
age. In later times we find it obtain- 
ing all over Europe. The explanation 
seems to be this; death, although of 



common occurrence, is nevertheess one 
of the most important events in the life 
of the community; consequently it had 
a special claim to recognition in some 
unusual way. Nothing occupied the 
thought of the primitive social organi- 
zation so much as food and drink be- 
cause of the precarious supply of the 
former. Therefore occasions that were 
not of routine happening were re- 
garded as having a special claim to 
recognition by feasting. It was the 
last tribute of affection that could be 
paid to the departed. Like many other 
customs this one has endured in the 
rural districts long after their observ- 
ance in town and cities has been dis- 
continued. A "wake" was always kept 
over the dead through the one night 
they lay in their late residence, usually 
by young people. A few instances of 
rowdyism were reported to me as hav- 
ing taken place at these wakes, al- 
though not within the territory under 
review. It should be added that these 
unseemly performances were not the 
acts of Irishmen or of their American 
descendants, but of Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans. Instances of drunkenness were 
extremely rare in our neighborhood, 
although generation number One con- 
sumed a good deal of ardent spirits, 
for instance at a house-raising or at a 
muster, or in the harvest field. Number 
Two was even more abstemious, not 
over two persons in our community 
allowing - themselves to °"et the worse 
for strong drink once in a while. Gen- 
eration number Three had become en- 
tirely sober by a sort of social evolution 
as the cause of total abstinence was not 
much talked about. Statutory prohibi- 
tion has probably made less progress 
in the Keystone State than in any 
other. It does not follow necessarily 
that drunkenness is more common. As 
there were no rich people in this com- 
munity although some were fairly well 
off, so there were also no very poor. I 
recall but a single family that once, or 
twice asked and received help in time 
of sickness, from their neighbors in 
clothing and provisions. In this case 
the want was due to the shiftlessness 

of the housewife. She was constitu- 
tionally unable to see that it was her 
duty to provide against unforeseen 
contingencies. Although the county 
had its "poor-house" I never knew any 
one to be placed in it. Its few inmates 
were recruited from other regions. The 
conditions of life were so simple that it 
was easy for any one to grow sufficient 
grain and vegetables on a small patch 
of ground to supply a family; and 
while wages were low, every one who 
wished to do so could earn enough 
money to buy what could not other- 
wise be obtained. It will be evident 
from what I have already written that 
although our community represented, 
every phase of religious and unreligr 
ious belief from extreme orthodoxy to 
extreme rationalism there were other 
persons who refused to be confined 
within its narrow intellectual bounda- 
ries or to let their neighbors do their 
thinking for them. Some of the 
younger generation were in a different 
way dissatisfied with existing condi- 
tions and conformed to local usages 
only in so far as this was unavoidable. 
I was recently permitted to look into 
the diary of a youth of fifteen or six- 
teen in which, among other things, he 
bitterly laments his untoward fate. 
The English is fairly good, the spelling 
correct, but the rhetoric and the punc- 
tuation were very faulty. The diarist 
expresses his sorrow that the few 
books he could obtain only served to 
show him how little he knew and to 
sharpen his appetite for knowledge 
that he could not appease. He laments 
not only the lack of reading matter, 
but the want of time and above all the 
lack of sympathy in his struggles 
against well nigh insurmountable ob- 
stacles. He can not understand why 
so few people are interested in knowl- 
edge for the mere sake of knowing. 
This boy was evidently not endowed 
with the stoutness of heart and the 
vigor of determination which carried 
men like Franklin and Burns and 
Bloomfield and Lincoln, with not a few 
others, to success or eminence although 
their early years were passed among 



even more unpropitious surroundings. 
The obstacles loomed so large before 
his inward vision that he could not see 
the rewards to be reaped by those who 
overcome, He was one of the "mute, 
inglorious Miltons" whose "lot for- 
bade" their rising above the lowly sta- 
tion in which they were born. The 
chief interest to me in this document 
lay in the evidence it furnished that 
there is probably not a community in 
the country that does not embrace 
some persons whose life is not a mere 
vegetative process and who might, 
with the slightest encouragement, rise 
to a fair degree of prominence in some 
sphere of activity. 


Although the temper of the com- 
munity was on the whole sedate there 
was no lack of occasions for merry- 
making; nor was the joviality of the 
kind that is generated by the flowing- 
bowl. Without any philosophical 
maxims to guide them they uncon- 
sciously regulated their wants, to a 
large extent, by the means of supplying 
them within their reach. If they had 
enough to eat and drink and a little, a 
very little, ready money to spend now 
and then they were measurably satis- 
fied. When several men were together 
much good-natured chaff was bandied 
back and forth. A good deal of homely 
wit was engendered in the crania of 
both sexes that flashed forth in 
scintillations which set free many a 
hearty laugh on the part of the com- 
pany. There often come to my mind 
amusing retorts that I heard more 
than half a century ago. Sometimes 
there were sleighing parties, but more 
frequently a sled crowded with young 
men and women — the more crowded 
the better — visited some distant neigh- 
bor or attended some meeting when 
there would be no lack of fun going 
and coming. Winter was the time, 
par excellence, for enjoyment; the rest 
of the year was fully occupied with 
more or less strenuous labor. Men do 
not miss what they never have had and 
have no expectation of getting. The 

children grow up into the conditions 
to which their parents had become ac- 
customed; it seemed a necessity of 
their existence. Far different is the 
state of mind of the denizen of the city. 
The poor man has always before his 
eyes those who are better off than him- 
self. He is excited to envy, or is 
aroused to exertion, or to destruction, 
if there is no hope. In mixed company 
the conversation was usually chaste 
to prudishness. There were likewise a 
considerable number of men who never 
let fall a word that would be out of 
place anywhere. This is not true of 
others, but especially of bovs and 
young men. I have often wondered 
how and where some of the stories 
originated and by what means they 
were transmitted that were told once 
in a while. They exhibited a degree 
of ingenuity in the realm of the un- 
mentionable and, I might say, of the 
inconceivable, that would have done 
credit to Aristophanes or Suetonius. 
Some of these "fables" were in versi- 
fied form. They were certainly not the 
invention of the tellers. But where did 
they come from ? for they assuredly 
never appeared in print. Most of these 
obscene words and phrases are now 
accessible in dialect dictionaries ; but 
these compilations are of recent date, 
and do not contain the lubricious anec- 
dotes. Although some boys were ex- 
tremely foulmouthed their foulness 
ended in words. It was not translated 
into action. Their lewd thoughts all 
found vent in lewd language. After 
being thrown in contact with these 
bovs I was wholly ignorant of matters 
afterward revealed to me by the hired 
man. I have heard similar testimony 
from others. The hired man was in- 
structor in vices to which country boys 
were for the most part strangers. 
Themselves corrupt they seemed to 
take pleasure in corrupting the young- 
er generation. My early experiences 
gave the lie to the answer that Socrates 
made to his accusers when they 
charged him with corrupting the vouth. 
He found it unreasonable that any one 
should prefer to live with vile associ- 



.ates rather than with such as had been 
uncontaminated. The general experi- 
ence seems to be that the vicious con- 
sider it a gain when they have made 
others like unto themselves, since it is 
easier than to rid themselves of their 
own evil dispositions. Although the 
men and women who spoke German 
only were for the most part very illit- 
erate, especially the latter, their speech 
did not diverge farther from the printed 
page than did the speech of their con- 
temporaries in the Fatherland. On the 
other hand, the English of those who 
did not know German and in some 
cases of those who did, was much 
nearer that of books than the English 
of the rural regions of Great Britain. 
An Englishman who had been brought 
up in what is called good society 
would have had no difficulty in compre- 
hending it, which can not be said of 
the rustic speech of his own country. 
The disappearance of the German dur- 
ing the nineteenth century was rapid. 
During my father's earlier years some 
ministers of the Gospel preached in 
German only. By the middle of the 
century there was no demand for a 
German preacher unless he could also 
serve the younger members of his 
church in English. I do not believe a 
sermon was delivered in German in our 
neighborhood as late as 1865. The few 
persons who can "in a pinch" use the 
Pennsylvania German are very few. 
My recollection is that the Old School 
Lutherans and the German Reformed 
were the only church members who 
insisted on German preaching, altho 
most of the Evangelicals and United 
"Brethren were Pennsylvania Germans. 

in the vocabulary of those persons 
who spoke German only no abstract 
terms had a place. What was intangi- 
ble was likewise inconceivable. The 
nearest approach to metaphysical 
phraseology occurred when they ven- 
tured on a quotation from the Bible or 
endeavored to express themselves in 
the language of Luther's translation. 
In the religions or semi-religious do- 
main they sometimes strayed beyond 
the bounds of their limited phraseology 
but not elsewhere. A few volumes of 
verse have been printed the authors of 
which profess to portray the feelings 
and aspirations of the Pennsylvania 
farmer. They are full of errors both as 
to matters of fact and to the use of 
words. When the rustic German does 
not contain the terms the author needs 
he simply has recourse to the High 
German. He employs words that 
would never have come into the minds 
of the men and women whose termi- 
nology he professes to reproduce. 
Nevertheless, most of those verses are 
probably as true todife as the majority 
of creations of the imagination. 

*A striking confirmation of this statement is found 
in an anecdote related by George Eliot in her essay 
on RiehTs Natural History of German life. "Any- 
thing is easier for the peasant than to move out of 
his habitual course, and he is attached even to his 
privations. Some years ago a peasant youth, out of 
the poorest and remotest region of the Westerwald, 
was enlisted as a recruit, at Weilburg in Nassau. 
The lad having never slept in a bed, when he had to 
get into one for the first time, began to cry like s 
child : and lie deserted twice because he could not 
rconcile himself to sleeping in a bed, and to the 'fine 
life' of the barracks: lie was homesick at the thought 
of his accustomed poverty and his thatched hut." A 
similar anecdote is toll in the ErekmannChatrian 
novel Waterloo, where it is related that a recruit 
from the Vosges was so elated with the provisions 
he received as a soldier that he wantel to send at 
once for his brother. As he had before eaten hardly 
anything but potatoes he could scarcely realize that 
people lived so well as his comrades. 


Government Weather Forecasts versus Fake Forecasts 

and Almanacs 

By a "Pennsylvania Dutchman" 

ROB ABLY the almanac 
has received wider distri- 
bution and has been more 
greatly cherished by the 
people of all nationalities, 
than any other publica- 
tion next to the Bible. In 
manuscript form it was 
known centuries before the invention 
of printing, and all countries have had 
their almanacs, but they were particu- 
larly popular in England and Ger- 
many. It is not strange that there 
should be great demand for the alma- 
nac for it is in a certain sense to the 
days of the year what the clock is to 
the hours of the day. Almanacs were 
among the first productions of the 
printing presses in the American col- 
onies, and preceding as they did by 
fifty years, the newspapers and prim- 
ers they were for a long time the only 
secular current publications found in 
a large number of Pennsylvania 

Cambridge, Mass., was the cradle of 
the almanac in America. Here the first 
printing press was located under the 
supervision of Harvard College, and 
the first matter printed was the Free- 
man's Oath. Then came the almanac, 
which was compiled for the year 1639 
by William Peirce, a mariner, and who 
was the master of the "Mayflower" in 
1629. The printer was Stephen Daye 
who came to the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony with the printing plant. This 
production was called "An Almanack 
for New England, for 1639", but no 
copv has come down to us. The earliest 
Pennsylvania almanac was printed by 
William Bradford 1 at Philadelphia, in 
December, 1685. "Being an Almanack 
for the year of Grace, 1686" by Samuel 
Atkins 2 . It was known as "Kalendar- 
ium Pennsilvaniense, or America's 
Messenger", and consisted of 20 un- 
paged leaves. 

Mr. C. R. Hildeburn in "A Century 
of Printing" in this connection writes 
as follows : 

"But 2 copies are known to exist. One 
of these formerly belonged to Mr, Brinley 
of Hartford, Conn., at whose sale it realized 
$55.00. The other was sold at the disper- 
sion of Dr. King's (Newport, R. I.) library 
for $520.00, and is now in the collection of 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
Fragments of 2 copies are also known, one 
of which belongs to the society just named, 
and the other to Mr. S. Gratz". 

Another issue of the utmost rarity is 
the one by Daniel Leeds 3 , beginning 
with the year 1687 and ended with 
1693. It also was printed by William 
Bradford, at Philadelphia. The first 
Connecticut almanac was compiled by 
John Tulley 4 for the year 1687. There 
being no printing presses in the state 
the almanac was printed at Boston. In 
this issue a few "weather prognos- 
ticks" are found and were perhaps the 
earliest printed. He evidently gained 
courage for by 1692 he had extended 
his forecasts to nearly every day of the 
year, and concluded that year with the 
following vague and wholly condi- 
tional guess : 

"December 26-31, Perhaps more wet 
weather, after which cold winds and frosty 
weather may conclude the year". 

It is interesting to note that Tulley 
recognized the historical method of 
reckoning time, and began the year, as 
now, on January 1. More than half a 
century before the legal change was 
made from the old to the new style — 
and he was among the earliest, if not 
the earliest, to adopt the custom in this 
country. 5 . In other almanacs prior to 
1752 the ecclesiastical or old style of 
reckoning was, as a matter of course, 
observed ; the years beginning with the 
Spring equinox, or March 25 to be 
exact. March appeared first in the ar- 
rangement of months, while January 
and Februarv concluded the vear. 



Headquarters building, U. S. Weather Bureau, 
Washington, D. C. (Photo by H. E. Hobbs.) 

From a literary point of view per- 
haps the most important of the early 
Pennsvlvania almanacs was the "Poor 
Richard's" issued by Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Esq. in 1752 and for the 25 years 
following. The publication was in 
great demand and brought him much 
profit. In New England "Thomas' 
Old Farmer's Almanac" has been 
widely read and its weather forecasts 
generally credited since 1793. 

The first German almanac published 
in America was "Der Teutsche Pil- 
grim, auf das jahr MDCCXXXI, zu 
Philadelphia, Gedruckt bei Andreas 
Bradford" but its life was short — 3 
years — and no copy has been pre- 
served. The next and best known, 
was "Der Hoch Deutsch American- 
ische Calendar, auf das jahr 1739, Ge- 
druckt und zu finden bey Christoph 
Saur" Germantown, August, 1738. Of 
the first issue no perfect copy is 

known to exist 7 . An intensely inter- 
esting article on this publication, by 
Mr. A. II. Cassel, may be found in the 
Pennsylvania Magazine of Historv and 
Biography, (Vol. 6 pages 58-68) from 
which I quote : 

"It consisted of 3 sheets — 12 leaves each 
— without outside title leaf or cover. In 
external aspect it is similar to the 4to 
almanacs of the present lay. The calcula- 
tions or months followed in close succession 
on both sides of the page without any in- 
termediate reading matter. The phases of 
the moon, etc., were at the bottom of the 
pages, and the conjectures of the weather 
were interspersed throughout the calcula- 
tions. The succeeding copies were similar 
in their outward construction until 1743 
when he enlarged it to 4 sheets or 16 leaves, 
and designed and engraved a highly em- 
blematical plate for the outside or cover. As 
it is a first attempt at engraving the execu- 
tion thereof was (as might be expected) 
coarse and rough, although well designed. 
Saur's almanac had an unprecedented sale 
and being for many years the only one in 
the German language he was frequently 
obliged to enlarge his editions and yet then 
fell short in the demand. The last issue by 
him was in 1778 when the Revolution broke 
up his establishment and disposed of all his 
apparatus. The publication was however 
resumed in Philadelphia and continued by 
several others printers until about 1835." 3 

The next in succession was the 
"Neu - Eigerichteter Americanische 
Geschichts - Kalendar, auf das jahr 
1747", a 4to published at Philadelphia 
by Benjamin Franklin, Esq., although 
it did not succeed. He was busy with 
his English editions, and was suc- 
ceeded by Armbruester, who continued 
the series until 1768. Then came "Der 
Neueste, Verbessert, und Zuver- 

Exhibit of standard meteorological instruments, U. S. Weather Bureau pattern. 
(Photo by W. G. Dudley.) 



lassige Americanische Calendar, auf 
das 1763 ste jahr Christi, zum erstemal 
heratis gegeben, Philadelphia. Ge- 
druckt and zn finden bey 1 feinrich Mil- 
ler in der Zweyten Strasse." 10 This 
publication ceased in 1780. Next we 
find Francis Bailey, at Lancaster. 
printing from 1776 to 1787. "Der Gantz 
Nene Yerbesserte Nord-Americanische 
Calendar, V o n Anthony Sharp 
(Philo)". The volume for 1779 con- 
tains curious cuts of General Washing- 
ton, etc., entitled "Das Landes Vater 
Washington", and is the first time that 
he was publicly called "The Father 
of his Country". 11 

town, and Reading, that hung in the 
accustomed place beside the living 
room clock in all my early years, and 
the childish glee and interest with 
which my companions and myself ex- 
amined the title page with its conven- 
tional disemboweled figure of man's 
body as governed by the twelve Con- 
stellations ; the pictures depicting rural 
scenes at the top of the pages of the 
monthly calendar; and the varied his- 
torical notes printed opposite dates 
throughout the entire year. Then 
there were always humorous stories, 
problems in arithmetic, puzzles, and 
charades, to be "answered in our 


Automatic river-stage register, with glass cover raised. 

In operation on Connecticut River at Hartford, Conn. 

(Photo by W. G. Dudley.) 

If you love to delve into the past you 
cannot get a more vivid impression of 
the "gute alte Zeit" than by going over 
a file of our childhood's friend^The 
Old Almanac. Frequently you will 
find the leaves yellow and dirty. Hang- 
ing as many of them did over the chim- 
ney mantle exposed to the smoke and 
fumes of the fire-place, they may 
affect the sense of smell, as well as de- 
pict the changes that have taken place 
in laws, manners, and customs during 
the past two centuries. How well do I 
remember certain German and Eng- 
lish editions from Lancaster, Allen- 

next". As soon as a new almanac was 
received our parents would at once 
look to see which was the "ruling plan- 
et" for the year and contemplate as to 
what the coming year had in store for 
them. Our German ancestors laid 
much stress on the "ruling planet" for 
these plants not only determined the 
character of the weather for their re- 
spective years, but the fruitfulness of 
the harvest, the health of the commun- 
ity, and the disposition of children 
born under their influence. There they 
also learned the time of sunrise and 
sunset ; the moon's phases ; the evening 



and morning- stars ; eclipses ; dates of 
elections and hdidavs ; postal regula- 
tions ; distances ; dates of holding state 
and federal courts; and weather pre- 
dictions, especially for the spring 
months, and for haying and harvest- 
ting. Sometimes they were inter- 
leaved with blank pages on which vital 
statistics were entered, or perhaps ex- 
tended notes on important happenings, 
or unusual weather conditions. 

The weather prognostications of the 
old almanacs known to our ancestors 
were often startling, and a few of the 
more curious are here repeated. 

"The weather grows more unsettled. 
The clouds denote wind and rain. 
Pleasant sun. 
Perhaps smoky air. 
Looks likely for rain but there will 

probably be none. 
It may thunder in some places. 
Now comes rain. 

A pretty warm day (February 15). 
It may gather up for a storm. 
A sudden combustion after a long calm 12 ". 

In an old issue was published a hu- 
morous prediction which was no doubt 
repeated by farmers to lazy boys : 

"This year the sun will repeatedly rise 
before many people leave their beds and set 
before they have done a day's work". 

There was always a poem or two of 
"solemn meter" in each issue. One 
commences thus, 

"Begin the year with solemn thought, 
How many the last to the grave were 

Thy turn may come thou knowest not 

Be sure thou are prepared then". 

The early numbers were not lacking 
in respect to General Washington : in 
a copy for 1796 may be found the fol- 
lowing epigram addressed to those 
farmers who allowed needless anxiety 
for state affairs to interfere with their 
more immediate concerns: 

"Advice. To Country Politicians". 
"Go weed your corn, and plow your land, 
And by Columbia's interest stand, 
Cast prejudice away: 
To able heads leave state affairs, 
Give raling o'er, and say your prayers, 
For stores of corn and hay. 
With politics ne'er break your sleep 
But ring your hog and shear your sheep, 

And rear your lambs and calves: 
And WASHINGTIN will take due care 
That Briton never more shall dare 
Attempt to make you slaves". 

This article will discuss but one of 
these numerous subjects, namely: 
"weather forecasts" and particularly 
that brand of fake long range fore- 
casts published in certain almanacs of 
current issue. At the suggestion of 
the Editor of this magazine I will en- 
deavor to explain some of the methods- 
and theories by which these fakirs 
operate, hoping thereby to help in 
counteracting the influence of these 
absurd predictions. The weather, since- 
the Creator's decree after the deluge 
that, "while the earth remaineth, the 
seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, 
summer and winter, and day and night 
shall not cease" has been a subject of 
perpetual interest, and it will ever re- 
main so, for no factor among the forces 
of nature influences man's temporal 
well-being more than weather and 
climate. In our temperate zone at 
least, the entire daily affairs of the 
human race are so materially affected 
by the constantly varying weather,, 
that its changes have been studied 
from the earliest times and attempts 
made to account for the underlying 
causes, and thus to be able to foresee 
them. The appearances which were 
found to precede weather changes 
have been noted from time to time. 
These have given rise to many weather 
proverbs that are the result of close 
observation and study by those com- 
pelled to be on the alert, and are there- 
fore based in part upon true atmos- 
pheric conditions. 

In the lookout for weather signs it 
was but natural that men should have 
scanned the heavens, and have asso- 
ciated the celestial bodies with changes 
in the weather, often erroneously how- 
ever, as to causation. Thus in the 
popular mind astronomy has been 
closely associated with meteorology, 
and perhaps accounts for the ease with 
which so many people can be deceived 
by weather predictions pretendedly 
based upon planetary influence. The 



moon for a long- time held a wide and 
•deep hold in popular belief as the great 
weather breeder, and was the basis for 
nearly all the weather forecasts found 
in the almanacs, but in recent years the 
lunar idea of weather control has been 
largelv abandoned. The moon's appear- 
ance to us depends on the relative posi- 
tion of the moon and sun in regard to 
the observer's horizon, hence it is im- 
possible to see from an astronomical 
analysis how the varying positions 
of the lunar cups could in any wa i; be 
connected with the character of the 
weather. The belief can therefore be 
considered nothing more than supersti- 

Landing a Kite, Mt. Weather, Va. 
(Photo by B. J. Sherry) 

tion, and of no value whatever in 
weather forecasting. The moon theory 
probably grew out of the naturally fre- 
quent coincidence between certain 
weather changes and selected moon 
phases. The moon enters a new quar- 
ter about every seventh day, and the 
weather in this latitude changes on the 
average of one or two times in every 
week : hence there must be a great 
many accidental coincidences. 

As to seasonal predictions based up- 
on the behavior and conditions of ani- 
mals it is clear that the physical con- 
dition of the animal depends upon past 
weather conditions anl upon the food 

supply which these conditions have 
furnished, rather than upon future 
weather conditions. There is also a 
perverted argument which predicts a 
hard winter because berries or nuts 
are plentiful. The people who hold 
this belief — and many do — forget that 
the abundance is not the forerunner of 
frost, but an evidence of past mildness 
ami normal weather conditions. The 
goose-bone prophecy did not emanate 
among the Pennsylvania German 
farmers, but it is nevertheless a com- 
mon superstition, and has been for 
centuries among the Germans. Tins 
and many other harmless credulities 
were brought from the Faderland by 
the German pioneers. 

The old fashioned almanac was 
pushed aside by the more eager adver- 
tising almanac whose reason for being 
was to make known the matchless vir- 
tues of somebody's bitters or pills. This 
in turn has been superseded by the 
ever present calendar which now greets 
the eye with the unequaled advantages 
of some life or fire insurance com- 
pany, and we may safely say that the 
Weather Bureau has by this time de- 
prived this old time compendium of 
whatever authority it once had. How- 
ever in memory of old times the 
weather signs are still strung down the 
monthly calendar in a carefully am- 
biguous manner. For example, "About 
this-time-expect-showers" these five 
words being so printed that they ap- 
ply to a week or ten days of time. 
They cannot be held to apply to any 
particular day for rain or snow, or fair 
or foul, or hot or cold, or to any par- 
ticular locality. It is pretty safe to 
say. that it will be hot with showers 
in July, and cold with snow in Jan- 

From ancient times it has been 
the custom to make local weather fore- 
casts for the morrow from the aspects 
of the sky today, but the later phase 
of the question, the prediction of 
weather for a distant locality, is of 
modern development. Much has been 
learned of legitimate forecasting, but 
the progress has been slow and even 



today the work is yet in an empirical 
state, with plenty of work ahead for 
the honest and capable investigator. 
By onr extensive system of daily ob- 
servations we are certainly now laying 
the foundation of a great system 
which will adorn the civilization of 
future centuries. When the future 
scientist shall have discovered the 
fundamental principles underlying 
weather changes such as will make it 

of the birth of William Penn. One 
hundred years later Benjamin Frank- 
lin, the celebrated patriot and diplo- 
mat, gave to the world his philosophy 
of storms. But storms move with such 
rapidity that no practical use could be 
made of the discovery in warning the 
people to the eastward of the approach 
of the storm, until a very rapid means 
of communication was established be- 
tween the west and the east. During 


Weather Map, 7 a. m. January 9, 1886. Showing a southern storm of great vigor operating 
along the Atlantic coast, and a cold wave of great severity over the northwest. Isobars, or solid 
lines, pass through equal points of equal pressure. Isotherms, or broken lines, pass through 
points of equal temperature. Symbols indicate state of weather, o clear; 3 partly cloudy ; • 
cloudy ; R rain ; S snow. See Moore's Descriptive Meteorology , pages 223-232. 

possible to foretell the character of the 
coming seasons, it will doubtless be 
accomplished as the result of a com- 
prehensive study of meteorological 
data for long periods of time covering 
some great geographical area like the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

The discovery of the principle of the 
barometer for measuring the air pres- 
sure, and of the thermometer for air 
tempeature, was but a little in advance 

the first half of the 19th century a 
number of American scientists gath- 
ered by mail the data of storms after 
their passage ; then by displaving 
these data on a map, and indicating 
by means of lines of equal air pres- 
sures and temperatures laid bare the 
structure of our extended storms, and 
demonstrated their principal motions 
as governed by Nature's laws, to be 
exactly as Franklin had supposed. 



Moreover by drawing" such maps for 
successive days the path of the storm 
could be accurately traced, and the, 
gradual changes followed out. The in- 
vention and application of the tele- 
graph however finally made it possible 
to transmit data at once from the var- 
ious observing stations to a central 
point, where weather maps could be 
made while the storm was still in 
progress. Then not only could the 
track already passed over by a storm 
be traced, but judging from the pre- 
vious courses of such storms the 
probable future direction and inten- 
sity could be pointed out. In 1855, 
Prof. Joseph Henry, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, constructed 
a daily weather map from observa- 
tions collected by telegraph and nearly 
simultaneous. He used his map — 
without publishing any forecasts — to 
demonstrate the .feasibility of organ- 
izing a Government weather service. 
But it was not until February 1870, af- 
ter the country had settled down to 
peaceful pursuits after the Civil War, 
that .Congress enacted laws for the es- 
tablishment of the National service. 
During the first twenty years of its de- 
velopment the work was conducted by 
the Army Signal Corps, but the de- 
mand for a strictly scientific bureau, 
unhampered by regulations of a mili- 
tary character, resulted in a reorgani- 
zation of the service in 1891, when the 
present Weather Bureau was estab- 
lished as a branch of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

In a service of this character the 
real value of the observations and 
records must largely depend upon the 
instruments ; and the accuracy of the 
meteorological data obtained can 
therefore be no greater than the ac- 
curacy and reliability of the instru- 
ments themselves. Unfortunately the 
general public does not yet recognize 
this truth, and the average individual 
will, for example, still swear to the ac- 
curacy of his old, cheap, tin-back, 
thermometer, while, in reality it may 
be several degrees in error. It was, 
therefore, necessarv at the very be- 

ginning of our National Meteorologi- 
cal Service, to secure certain standards 
and see that every instrument was 
compared therewith, so that all obser- 
vations and records could be reduced 
to one harmonious svstem. The crude 
and defective instruments and appara- 
tus of fifty years ago, in the hands of 
the various mechanical experts having 
charge of this part of the work at 
Washington, have been constantly 
improved and standardized. By 1876 
electricity had opened the door to a 
wide field of self-recording instru- 
ments, and has ever since made our 
American meteorological apparatus 
practically the standard of the world. 
New demands necessitate new inven- 
tions, and Yankee ingenuity is ever on 
the alert with genuine improvements 
and invaluable discoveries to make it 
possible for the United States to lead 
the world in practical meteorology as 
it does now, and has done for 25 years 
past. Its forecasts and storm warn- 
ings are the deductions and opinions 
of able scientists and meteorologists, 
and based as they are on semi-daily 
observations of the various elements 
that make up our weather and climate 
are therefore the best obtainable. 
While the forecasts are far from per- 
fect and leave much to be desired, 
they are however sufficiently accurate 
to be of incalculable value. Our pres- 
ent knowledge of meteorology will not 
permit forecasts of greater periods 
than 2 or 3 days, or under favorable 
conditions for a week at the most. 
However great the demand for fore- 
casts covering a month or a season, 
the science is not sufficiently de- 
veloped to render them possible. Not- 
withstanding these facts there are per- 
sons who, realizing the urgent need of 
forecasts for an extended period, and 
appreciating the fact that the Ameri- 
can people can be humbugged, take 
advantage of the same, and frequently 
receive pay for it. It is not uncommon 
to read in some newspapers, from 
time to time, forecasts of a great storm 
for a month in advance and for the 
weather conditions for a comino- sea- 



son, or an entire year. Next to the 
gold brick and green goods artist, the 
long range weather forecaster is the 
biggest fakir on the market. There is 
not a man living today who can give 
the slightest clue as to whether next 
July will be wet or dry, abnormally 
hot or unusually cold, and whoever 
attempts to do so is simply playing on 
the credulity of the public. The 
average fakir's long range forecast con- 
sists of a series of violent storms, tor- 
nadoes, hot waves, cold spells and hail 
storms, seismic disturbances or tidal 
waves, so vaguely worded that they 
can not be applied to any locality or 
any date. 

None of the long range prophets will 
explain to the scientific world the basis 
upon which he makes his forecasts, 
and this should justify the charge of 
fraud and chicanery if there were no 
other things against it. Predictions of 
any sort, scientific or otherwise, seem 
to have a strange influence upon us 
mortals, therefore the promulgation of 
false prophecies of any kind is an in- 
jury, simply because there are always 
many to believe and take fright at any 
prediction of danger, however baseless 
such prediction may be. Surely then 
the dissemination of predictions pre- 
tending to foretell future atmospheric 
conditions, such as severe storms, 
droughts or floods, when based on er- 
ror and superstition is injurious to 
public interest. In order to give a 
scientific coloring to the nefarious 
game astronomical facts are frequent- 
ly appended to the long range predic- 
tions, as if the position of the stars 
and planets were causes of certain co- 
incidental disturbances. The changes 
in the position of the moon and planets 
are like clock work therefore it does 
not seem possible that reasonable peo- 
ple will believe that the erratic occur- 
rences of storms, and weather changes, 
are governed by the regularly chang- 
ing phases of the planets and moon. 
Within the radius of the Keystone 
state there may be, and frequently are, 
man-- varieties of weather in progress 
at the same time, whereas all of this 

area has about the same relative posi- 
tion to these celestial bodies ; there- 
fore, if the position of the planets or 
the moon, influenced the weather, all 
of such an area should have similar 
meteorological conditions at the same 
time. With regard to the accuracy of 
these long range forecasts. Prof. Wil- 
lis L. Moore, Chief of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau, lias stated: 

"As a result of my personal verification 
of the work of the long range weather fore- 
casters, some of whom have so far gained 
the confidence of the rural press as to re- 
ceive liberal compensation for their pre- 
dictions, I am led to the conclusion that 
these forecasters knowingly perpetrate 
fraud and do positive injury to the public at 

Interior of Kite House, showing kite reel. 
Mt. Weather, Va. (Bulletin, Mt. Weather 
Observatory, Vol. 1.) 

The Weather Bureau has taken and 
ever stands read - " to take the best that 
scientific minds, training, and re- 
search, are able to produce. There is 
no secret or magic about its system of 
simultaneous observations, telegraphic 
reports, charts, and maps. The best 
scientific thought and the life work of 
some of the brightest scientific minds, 
together with the long experience of 
the forecaster, are used in the discus- 
sion of these observations and charts 
in predetermining the weather ele- 
ments for several days in advance. 

After living the names of some of 
the most persistent advertising fake 



forecasters in the United States and 
Europe, Prof. Cleveland Abbe, the 
dean of the scientific corps of the 
United States weather service, and an 
accepted authority the world over in 
matters pertaining' to the science of 
meteorolop'v, while writing on this 
subject, several years ago expressed 
himself as follows : 

"The community does not allow either 
druggists or physicians to operate without 
first giving satisfactory evidence that they 
are competent drugs that they deal in. 
Every state has its laws relative to the 
licensing of steam engineers, since a steam 
engine in incompetent hands would be a 
menace to the lives of many. Whenever the 
life and property of the citizens are at 
stake, the Government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people, must necessarily 
look after their interests, and the time 
must soon come when a general law shall 
forbid the publication of weather predic- 
tions and storm warnings, especially of a 
sensational character, by others than prop- 
erly licensed persons". 

Here in Connecticut we have one of 
these long' range "prophets who in a , 
vague forecast in connection with the 
big 1888 blizzard, suddenly became 
famous as a weather sharp. Me con- 
tinues his folderol to this day, but it 
is regarded as nothing more than a 
joke, although he has reached the 
point where he has become almost 
monomaniacal on the subject and will 
not see his mistakes. His forecasts 
are couched in terms so vague, and 
the district forecasted for so unlimited 
in territory, that it would take the 
proverbial "Philadelphia Lawyer" to 
gather the meaning and make the ap- 
plication, let alone the simple mortal 
man who spends but a glance and a 
single thought and will, in his sim- 
plicity say, "Yes he hits the weather 
everv time, I know because I read it". 
If every one were to keep a daily re- 
cord of the weather conditions, the 
absurdities would be more appreciated. 
His forecasts were recently compared 
with actual conditions, period b - " per- 
iod, for a year with the result that 
nearly all of his prognostications were 
found false. He has no more data to 
build his forecasts on than any other 
private citizen, and no more know- 

lelge, and when his forecasts are dis- 
sected, the planetary (real or imagi- 
nary) theory will soon be apparent, al- 
though he stoutly maintains that he 
uses some intricate "mathematical 
calculation '. Such forecasts should 
be classed with fortune telling and 
pow-w -owing, and it is largely because 
their announcements are not compared 
with the facts that anybody places any 
reliance upon them. 

The Editor has handed me for com- 
parison weather forecasts for the 
month of November, 1910, as issued by 
Rev. I. L. Hicks, and published in an 
Eastern Pennsylvania newspaper. To 
show the readers of THE PENNSYL- 
VANIA-GERMAN the utter worth- 
lessness of such material, I had pre- 
pared by a valued co-worker, Mr. 
George S. Bliss, the Official in Charge 
of the Local Weather Bureau office at 
Philadelphia, a statement showing the 
actual conditions observed at that 
point during November last. I have 
selected this station because it is the 
nearest regular observation station to 
the place where the newspaper was 
published. As the article is quite 
lengthy I will not reproduce it in full 
but confine myself to exact quotations 
from the salient features : 

From the 1st to the 5th inclusive, he 
makes no forecast. The conditions observed 
show that the heaviest storm of the month 
occurred on the 3rd and 4th, causing a large 
excess in moisture. Highest wind velocity 
for the month was registered on the 3rd- 
forty miles per hour from the north. 

Hicks' forecast, 6th to 11th incl. "A regu- 
lar storm period is central the 8th, dis- 
turbing from the 6th to the 11th. Storms of 
rain, snow, sleet, and wind, and very cold 
for the season". Conditions: Mildest and 
best weather during the month. Mean tem- 
perature averaged slightly below normal. 
No precipitation except 0.01 of an inch on 
the 10th. 

Forecast, 13th to 16th: A reactionary 
storm period covers the 13th to 16th. The 
facts that the moon is on the celestial equa- 
tor on the 13th and both full and in perigee 
on the 16th inlicate that decided storm con- 
ditions will begin at the beginning and con- 
tinue to the end of the period. Thunder, 
wind, and rain. Possibly a November bliz- 
zard will set in on the 16th. All coast re- 
gions and cities especially exposed to high 
tides, or tidal waves, should be reminded of 



Kiosk. (U. S. Weather Bureau Park Instru- 
ment Shelter) in operation on City Hall Square, 
Hartford, Conn. (Photo by J. F. Duune. ) 

possible danger. It is also the center of 
the most decided seismic period of the year, 
extending 3 to 4 days before and after the 
16th. On that date falls the full moon at 
an eclipse node, causing a total eclipse of 
the moon, and hence bringing earth, moon, 
and sun, on a direct line with each other, 
Earth, air and seas, will undergo an astro- 
nomic strain that will be heard from at 
this time". Conditions: "Nothing doing". 
Temperature below normal, and there was 
light rain on the 14th and 15th. 

Forecast, 17th and 22nd: "A regular 
storm period is central on the 19th cover- 
ing from the 17th to the 22nd. A prolonged 
spell of threatening weather, increasing in- 
to renewed storms of rain and snow on and 
touching the 19th, 20th, and 21st, changing 
to much colder with high northwest gales". 
Conditions: Taking the state as a whole it 
was the best weather of the month ; cool at 
night, but seasonable. No precipitation at 
Philadelphia, and none of any consequence 
in the entire state. 

Forecast, 23rd to 26th. "A reactionary 
storm period is central on the 23rd to 26th. 
Higher temperature with possible lightning, 
thunder and very little rain on the 24th and 
2. j th. 

No forecast, 27th to 29th. Conditions: 
Moderate rain on the 28th and light rain on 
the 29th. 

Forecast 30th to Dec. 1: "The month 
goes out at the on-coming of a regular 
storm period. Increasing cloudiness will 
appear by 30th, bringing rain or snow by 
Dec. 1". Conditions: No rain on 30th; on 
Dec. 1 there was light snow — just barely 
enough to measure. 

General forecast: "The 8th to the 30th are 
in a seismic period". Conditions: There 
was no record of any earthquake, nor was 
there any thunder during the entire month. 

These forecasts like those of the 
Connecticut Oracle can hardly be said 
to be less absurd, or to possess more 
value than those given in Tulley's 
almanac over two centuries ago. This 
statement is made without regard as 
to whether or not any of the storms 
passing across the United States dur- 
ing November happened to agree in 
some part of the country with the 
storm periods mentioned in the "Word 
and Works". As storms of more or 
less intensity pass over large portions 
of our country every few days during 
the greater portion of the year, and it 
is seldom that the weather chart does 
not show one or more storms as oper- 
ating somewhere within our broad do- 
main, it would be strange indeed if 
some of these storms did not agree 
with the long range forecast periods. 

Believing that the further develop- 
ment of our knowledge of storms and 
of weather generally depends in large 
measure upon a better understanding 
of the sun and its relation to the me- 
teorology of the earth. Congress sev- 
eral years ago, on the recommendation 
of Professor Moore, the progressive 
weather chief, appropriated a sum of 
money to found a meteorological solar 
and research observatory. The site 
chosen was a peak about 1700 feet 
above sea-level, since named Mount 
Weather, in the Blue Ridge, 65 miles 
west of Washington. Here explora- 
tions of the upper levels of the atmos- 
phere are being made daily by means 
of kites and balloons. Substantial 



buildings have been erected, equipped 
with special apparatus, magnetic in- 
struments, pyrheliometers, and every, 
appliance man's brain has yet devised 
to catch the secrets of the sun. With- 
out question the Mt. Weather Obser- 
vatory is the most important step ever 
undertaken for the advancement of 
meteorological science and in this 
connection. Mr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, 
in an article in the Century Magazine, 
several years ago, truly said : 

"Here the meteorologist will study the 
sun and try to find out how it governs our 
rain and sunshine. The sun holds the key 
to the weather. The Weather Bureau will 
seaich for the kev, and with it, hopes to 
unlock the mysteries of cyclones, o f 
droughts, and of torrential floods, and thus 
foreteli the years of plenty and of famine". 

Among the numerous projects be- 
fore our country today, none is receiv- 
ing greater attention than the conser- 
vation of natural resources, especially 
the relation between precipitation and 
stream flow, and the influence of for- 
ests on climate and on floods. This 
particular branch of work is ably con- 
ducted in the Weather Service, under 
the supervision of the Chief of Bureau. 
bv a Pennsylvania German, Dr. Harry 
C. Frankenfield, of Easton. There are 
also many others of Pennsylvania 

German blood filling important places 
in the service. We might even say 
that the head of the Weather Bureau, 
Dr. Moore himself, is a "near Pennsyl- 
vania German", being a native of 
Scranton, with a strain of German on 
his mother's side. 

1 William Bradford and William Penn were inti- 
mate friends. Bradford was born in England in 
1063 : came to America in 1685, and introduced the 
art of printing into the Middle Colonies. He was 
the first to follow his calling on the American con- 
tinent south of Mass. and north of Mexico. In 1690 
he, in conjunction with the Rittenhouses, established 
near Wissahickon the first paper mill in America. 
He died at New York in 1752. (Pa. Mag. of His. 
& Biog. Vol. 10, page 15). 

2 Penna. Mag. of His. & Biog. Vol. 10. page 83. 

"Leeds was a Quaker and joined the Church of 
England. He then filled his publications with scur- 
rilous attacks on the Quakers. 

4 Tulley was an Englishman, and lived at Saybrook 
Point, Conn. ; a man of superior educaton and for 
many years town clerk of Saybrook. He tried his 
hand at almanac making as early as 1677: a manu- 
script almanac for that year being still preserved. In 
1687 his first almanac appeared and the series con- 
tinued until 1702; the last being a pasthumous issue, 
published wih a mournful border around the title 
page. He 'dyed as he was finishing this almanack: 
so leaves it as his last legacy to his countrymen". 
(Albert C. Bates Sec. Conn. His. Sob. in Connecticut 
Quarterly, vol. 4, page 408.) 

5 H. A. Morrison, compiler of "Morrison's Prelimi- 
nary Check List of American Almanacs". Library 
of Congress. 

"Seidensticker's 'Frst Century of German Print- 
ing in America', and Morrison's list. 


s The Library of Congress has a memorandum 
made by the late Librarian Spofford, to the effect 
that this almanac was published last for 1877, but 
makes no explanation for the missing dates. 

•'Morrison's List. 

'"Hildeburn and Morrison's lists. 


1:: Conn. Quarterly. Vol. 4. 

The pack-horse required the use of 
a pack-saddle. It is thus described by 
a writer in a Pittsburg newspaper on 
early transportation in Western Penn- 
sylvania: "It was made of four pieces 
of wood, two being notched, the 
notches fitting along the horse's back, 
with the front part resting upon the 
animal's withers. The other two were 
flat pieces about • the length and 
breadth of a lap shingle, perhaps 
eighteen inches by five inches. They 
extended along the sides and were 
fastened to the ends of the notched 
pieces. Upon these saddles were 

placed all kinds of merchandise. Bars 
of iron were bent in the middle and 
hung across ; large creels pf wicker- 
work, containing babies, bed-clothing, 
and farm implements, as well as kegs 
of powder, caddies of spice, bags of 
salt, sacks of charcoal, and boxes of 
glass, were thus carried over the 
mountains. Shopkeepers from Pitts- 
burg went to Philadelphia in squads 
of eight or ten to lay in their yearly 
supply of goods and brought them to 
this city in this manner." — From 
Swank's Progressive Pennsylvania. 


The Allen Infantry in 1861 

By James L. Schaadt, Esq., Allentown, Pa. 

N the 13th of April, 1861, 
being - the day following 
the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter, and two days 
previous t o President 
Lincoln's call for 75,000 
volunteers, the citizens of 
Northampton and Lehigh 
counties called and held a public 
meeting- in the Square at Easton, "to 
consider the posture of affairs and to 
take measures for the support of the 
National Government". Eloquent and 
patriotic speeches were made and the 
First Regiment of Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers was formed, a.s the result of 
the meeting. There were then in exis- 
tence three military companies at Al- 
lentown : The Jordan Artillerists, com- 
manded by Captain (later Major) W. 
H. Gausler; the Allen Rifles, organ- 
ized in 1849 an d commanded by Cap- 
tain (later Colonel) T. H. Good; and 
the Allen Infantry, organized about 
1859 and commanded by Caotain (later 
Major) Thomas Yeager. The Artiller- 
ists and the Rifles consolidated and be- 
came Company I of the First Regi- 
ment, and with the other companies of 
the regiment, were mustered in on 
April 20, 1 86 1, Captain Good, having 
f)een chosen lieutenant colonel of the 
regiment. Captain Gausler was se- 
lected to command Company I. 

No sooner had the news of the at- 
tack on Fort Sumter come to Allen- 
town than Captain Yeager of the Allen 
Infantry hurried to Harrisburg and 
tendered the services of himself and 
"his commanl to Governor Curtin. He 
received one of the first, if not the first, 
captain's commission issued for the 
Civil War, and with it in his pocket 
Tiurried back to Allentown and called 
upon his company for volunteers to de- 
fend the National Capitol, then threat- 
ened by the Secessionists. 

The company had been organized in 
1859, held regular drills, and had ar- 
rived at a fair stage of efficiency in 

Scott's Tactis. The uniform was of 
gray cloth with black and gold bullion 
trimmings. The company paraded for 
the first time in the new uniform on 
Washington's birthday, 1861, at Phila- 
delphia, on the occasion of the raising 
of the Flag over Indepenlence Mall by 
President Lincoln, and with the Allen 
Rifles and the Jordan Artillerists ac- 

Thoinas Yeager. First Defender. Captain 
Allen Infantry April 18th, 1861, Captain Allen 
Infantry 1859-1861. Major 53d Penna. Volun- 
teer Infantry, Nov. 7, 1861. Killed in battle at 
Fair Oaks, Va., June 1, 1862. 

companied the President to Harris- 
burg. The men of the Allen Infantry 
carried old-fashioned flint-lock guns 
with bayonets. The guns were gener- 
ally ineffective and unreliable. "They 
kicked and spit in our faces," as one of 
the survivors says. The company was 
not otherwise equipped for the field, 
the men having neither great-coats nor 
blankets, knapsacks or canteens. The 
meeting and drill room was in an up- 
per story of what is now No. 716 Ham- 
ilton Street, Allentown. 



James L. Schaadt. Allentown, Pa. Historian of the Allen 
Infantry. Sergeant Co. D, 4th Regt., Penna. National Guard, 
1878. Private Co. B, 4th Regt., Penna. National Guard, 1884. 
Corporal Co. B, 4th Regt., Penna. National Guard, 1887. 
First Lieutenant and Quartermaster 4th Regt., Penna. Na- 
tional Guard, 1889 Captain Co. B, 4th Regt., Penna. Na- 
tional Guard, 1891-1896. 

On coming back from Harrisburg on 
the evening of the i6th of April. Cap- 
tain Yeager opened the list for volun- 
teers in the company's armory and 
called upon the members of his com- 
mand to enlist for the service of the 
United States. Men, especially young 
men, left furrow and work-shop and of- 
fice in obedience to the call, and by 
noon of the next day 47 had signed the 
roll. The excited populace crowded 
the armory and the streets ; but Cap- 
tain Yeager determined to go that af- 
ternoon without waiting for more sign- 
ers. The citizens packed a box with 
necessary articles of clothing, charged 
themselves with the care and support 
of the, families of the departing men, 

and prepared a farewell dinner at the 
Eagle Hotel, Market (now Monu- 
ment) Square, placing under each 
plate a five-dollar note, contributed by 
citizens. Unfortunately, these notes 
being issued by local state banks, had 
no purchasing power when afterwards 
presented in Washington. 

What with excitement, what with 
tears of parting, the dinner stood itn- 
tasted, and at 4 o'clock on the after- 
noon of the 17th of April the gallant 
band of volunteers, headed by Captain 
Yeager and surrounded and followed 
by a shouting, cheering, crying crowd 
of citizens, marched down Hamilton 
Street, lightly covered with snow, to 
the East Penn Junction and took train 



to Harrisburg. Most of the volunteers 
then regarded the journey as a pleas- 
ant change from daily occupations, a 
picnic and agreeable visit to the Na- 
tional Capitol ; a very few, more ser- 
ious, realized it was the beginning of 
war, with its horrors, cruelties and pri- 

Those who had signed the list on 
that memorable day in April were : 

1. John E. Webster. 

2. William Kress. 

3. Solomon Goeble. 

4. Joseph T. Wilt. 

5. Jonathan W. Reber. 

6. Samuel Schneck. 

7. William Ruhe. 

8. Henry Storch. 

9. Daniel Kramer. 

10. Charles A. Schaffer. 

11. John Hook. 

12. David Jacobs. 

13. Nathaniel Hillegas. 

14. M. W. Leisenring. 

15. Edwin Gross. 

16. George S. Keiper. 

17. Franklin Leh. 
IS. Charles Dietrich. 

19. James Geidner. 

20. Ernst Rottman. 

21. M. R. Fuller. 

22. Gideon Frederick. 

23. Allen Wetherhold. 

24. Edwin H. Miller. 

25. Norman H. Cole. 

26. George W. Hhoads. 

27. Benheville Wieand. 

28. William Early. 

29. M. H. Sigman. 

30. Darius Weiss. 

31. George Hoxworth. 

32. William Wagner. 

33. John Romig. 

34. Charles A. Pfeiffer. 

35. William Wolf. 

36. Ignatz Gresser. 

37. James Wilson. 

38. Lewis Seip. 

39. Milton Dunlap. 

40. William G. Frame. 

41. Edwin Hittle. 

42. Wilson H. Derr. 

43. Josph Hettinger. 

44. William Scott Davis. 

45. Joseph Weiss. 

46. George F. Henry. 

47. Conrad Shalatterdach. 

At Reading, Adolphus and Enville 
Schadler, and at Lebanon, John E. Uh- 
ler, joined the company. They did not 
sign the list, but their names appear 
on Bates' Official Roll. 

At Harrisburg, Captain Yeager, 
strict disciplinarian that he was, ex- 
pelled one of his men for disobedience. 
"1 stripped him myself in the middle of 
the street, taking the whole uniform 
from him and left him naked except 
pantaloons, stockings and shirt, and 
took all his money that he received at 
Allentown except ten cents". So wrote 
Captain Yeager about this two days 
later. The total number of men who 

Ignatz Gresser. First Defender. Private 
Allen Infantry, April 18,, 1861. Wounded by 
cobblestone-attack of rebel mob, Baltimore, 
April 18, 1861. Corporal Co. D, 128th Penna. 
Volunteer Infantry, August 13, 1862. Medal 
of honor-battle of Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. 
Vice President First Defenders' Association, 
1909-1910. 1910-1911. 

marched on April 18 with Captain 
Yeager through Baltimore was 49. 

The railroad journey from Allen- 
town to Harrisburg was marked by no 
incident, except the gathering of 
crowds at the different stations along 
the road, and their cheering. The com- 
pany arrived at Harrisburg about 8 p. 
m., and bivouacked at the Old Penn- 
svlvania Depot with the Ringgold 
Light Artillen- of Reading, the Logan 
Guards of Lewistown, the Washing! >n 



Artillery and the National Light In- 
fantry of Pottsville. At i o'clock in 
the morning of Thursday, April 18, 
General ECeim ordered Captain Yeager 
to go on immediately to Washington 
with loaded guns. Upon the captain's 
objection that the guns were not in 
proper condition, had no locks and no 
Hints, the general remarked that they 
would be good for clubs. 

No one in the company except Cap- 
tain Yeager anticipated the startling 
experience they were to pass through 

A V: 

'/ *?'•/ 

":*:.;* % A • :■ A 


Henry Wilson Derr. First Defender. Pri- 
vate Allen Infantry, April 18th, 1861 Wound- 
ed by rebel mob in march through Baltimore, 
April 18, 1861. Private Co. E, 202d Penna. 
Volunteer Infantry, Aug 30, 1864. Mustered 
out with company at end of war, August3d, 1865. 

that day. Earl}- the same morning, af- 
ter breakfast furnished through the 
generosity of Rev. Jeremiah Schindel, 
senator from Lehigh, the five compan- 
ies were mustered into the service of 
the United States by Captain Seneca 
G. Simmons, /th Infantry, and with a 
detachment of 50 men of Company H, 
5th Artillery, under command of Lien- 
tenant Pemberton, later the General 
Commandinp- at Vicksburg, and after 
the war sometime a resident of Allen- 

town, embarked at 8.10 a. m. on two 
Northern Central trains of 21 cars, for 
Baltimore, where they arrived at 2 p. 
m., again without incident, except that 
the loyal cheers which greeted the 
train were more frequently mixed with 
unfriendly greetings from the believers 
in the doctrine of state's rights, who 
resented the passage of an armed force 
without permission, as an invasion of 
their beloved State of Maryland. But 
the train arrived near the city without 
any overt acts of hostility beyond the 
waving of Rebel flags at a college for 

Information of the leaving of the 
troop train had been telegraphed from 
Harrisburg to Baltimore, and when 
the news became generally known. 
large crowds assembled on the streets, 
and the greatest excitement prevailed. 
The crowds spent the hours of waiting 
for the arrival of the train in singing 
"Dixie" and noisily cheering for the 
Confederacy. At 9 o'clock a meeting of 
the military organization known as the 
Maryland National Volunteers was 
held and inflammatory speeches made. 
Sentiment in Baltimore was divided ; 
there were Union men, and there were 
Southern sympathizers. All were, how- 
ever, equally infuriated by the an- 
nouncement that Northern troops were 
actually invading "The sacred soil of 
Maryland". The mayor of Baltimore 
at the time was George W. Brown, and 
the marshal of police, George B. Kane, 
both men of determined courage and 
inflexible honesty, and to them, not- 
withstanding their strong Southern 
sympathies, and to the police depart- 
ment, must be awarded the credit of 
safely conducting the five companies 
without loss of life, from one depot to 
the other, a distance of between two 
and three miles, through the streets of 
the city filled with an excited mob. 

Arriving at Canton, a suburb of Bal- 
timore, the regulars and the volunteers 
disembarked. The workmen from a 
foundry in the neighborhood and a 
crowd of about a thousand collected in 
the twinkling of an eye. and cries of 
"Fieht! Fight!" drew the attention of 



our volunteers, who were still of the 
opinion that they were on a pleasure 
trip; and, bent on enjoying ever" sen- 
sation of the journey, eagerly looked 
for the fight which they supposed was 
going on in the crowd. But Captain 
McKnight of the Ringgold Artillery, a 
veteran of the Mexican War, at once 
recognized the animus of the crowd to 
be directed against the new arrivals, 
and he ordered the soldiers back into 
their cars, the regulars alone remain- 
ing on their ground. In a very short 
time, Marshal Kane appeared with a 
large force of city police, to escort the 
soldiers to Bolton Station. 

The devoted band, now first realiz- 
ing that their trip was not going to be 
altogether a picnic, formed in close 
column of two, with the regulars at the 
head. According to Bates, the Allen 
Infantry held the center of the column ; 
.according" to their survivors, they were 
the rear company. Captain Yeager 
was without lieutenants and he de- 
tailed Privates William Kress and 
William Rube, two of the tallest men, 
to protect the rear of the company. 
The mob, on seeing the formation of 
the column the march begun, were 
driven into a frency. At every step 
its numbers increased; and when 
Lieutenant Pemberton and his regu- 
lars left the head of the column and 
filed off towards Fort McHenry, the 
mob lashed itself into a perfect fury. 
Roughs and toughs, longshoremen, 
gamblers, floaters, idlers, red-hot seces- 
sionists, as well as men ordinarily 
sober and steady, crowded upon, 
pushed and hustled the little band and 
made every effort to break the thin 
line. Some, mounted upon horses, 
were prevented with difficulty by the 
policemen from riding down the volun- 

The mob heaped insults upon the 
men, taunted them, cursed them ; 
called to them "Let the police go and 
we will lick you :" "You will never get 
back to Pennsylvania :" "Abolition- 
itsts, convicts, stone them, kill them :" 
"What muskets; no locks, no powder;" 
"Abe Lincoln's militia; see their left 

feet;" "Hurrah for Jeff Davis;" "Hur- 
rah for South Carolina." 

Bolder ones among the rioters got 
some of the soldiers by the coat tails 
and jerked them about; hissed at them, 
spit upon them, and even struck them 
with their fists. No picnic now any 
more. It was a severe trial for the 
volunteers with not a charge of ball or 
powder in their pouches; a fortunate 
circumstance, as it proved in the end, 
for a single shot would have roused the 
twenty thousand rioters into uncon- 
trollable fury, and in spite of police 
protection, not one of the 530 volun- 
teers would have escaped with his life. 
They pushed steadily forward, with 

James Wilson. First Defender. First Lieu- 
tenant Allen Infantry, April 18th, 1361. 

the useless fire arms at the support, 
anl, obedient to the command of their 
officers, answered not a word to the 
galling insults. The policemen, flank- 
ing the column, held the mob in check 
and saved several of the soldiers from 
becoming its victims. 

As the column neared its destination, 
the rioters fired bricks and stones, 
brandished knives and pistols, and it 
required all the efforts of the policemen 
to keep them in check. The painful 
march finally came to an end, wonder- 
ful to relate, without any fatalities, al- 
though numbers of the men bore 
bruises on their limbs and bodies. Pri- 



vates Hittle and Gresser were serious- 
ly lamed. Private Jacobs while going 
into the car was struck upon the mouth 
with a brick and lost his teeth, and, 
falling unconscious, fractured his left 
wrist. Private Derr was struck on the 
ear with a brick and is deaf to this day 
from the blow. lie. however, returned 
the compliment to his assailant by 
striking 1 at him with the butt end of his 

Powder hal been sprinkled by the mob 
on the floor of the cars in the hope that 
a soldier carelessly striking 1 a match in 
the darkened interior of the freight car 
might blow himself and his compan- 
ions to perdition. They escaped also 
this danger; and finally, after a conflict 
between the engineer and some of the 
rioters, the train moved off, passed 
over the Pratt Street bridge, which had 

Joseph T. Wilt. First Defender. Private Allen Infantry 
April 18th, 1861. First Lieutenant Allen Infantry. Commis- 
sion April 18, 1861. First Lieutenant Co. B, 153d Penna. Vol. 
Infantry, Oct. 8th, 1862. Mustered out with Co. B, Julv 
24th, 1863. 

gun or lock, which tore off the latter's 
ear. Fortunately, the cars into which 
the infantry clambered were box or 
freight cars not furnished with seats, 
but wdiose wooden roof and sides pro- 
tected the volunteers from the shower 
of cobbles and bricks now rained upon 
them by the rioters, more than ever in- 
furiated at seeing their prey escape. 

been set on fire, and at 7 o'clock in the 
evening landed the Allen Infantry with 
the other four companies at Washing- 
ton, to the great joy and relief of the 
President and all loyal men. 

For, although the five companies 
numbered but 530 men, the morning 
newspapers of Washington by the dex- 
terous use of an additional cipher, 



made the number 5300, sufficient to de- 
ter the Rebel soldiers, drilling on the 
opposite bank of the Potomac, in their 
design to seige Washington and the 
Capitol building; and by the time 
Rebel spies and sympathizers in the 
city communicated the real number of 
the Capitol's defenders, other volun- 
teers, notably the Sixth Massachusetts 
and the Seventh New York, arrived in 
sufficient numbers to prevent the cap- 
ture of the city. 

The five companies were quartered 
in the Capitol, the Allen Infantry 
being assigned to Vice President 
Ereckenridge's room, leading off from 
the Senate Chamber. The buildings 
were at once barricaded on the inside 
with 30,000 barrels of flour, contra- 
band of war, seized by order of the 
President, which was piled at doors 
and windows ; on the outside, with 
barrels of cement, iron pipes and boiler 
plate. Two entrances were left open. 

The Pennsylvanians were at once 
visited by Speaker Galusha A. Grow, 
Secretary of War Simon Cameron, 
Colonel John W. Forney, Hon. James 
Campbell of Pottsville, and other 
Pennsylvanians living in the city, all 
of whom were proud that the soldiers 
of the Keystone State were the first to 
arrive for the defense of the National 

On April 19th, the men of the Allen 
Infantry were provided with miriie 
muskets from Harper's Ferry Arsenal 
and ball ammunition, and were visited 
the same day by President Lincoln, 
who shook hands with every man, and 
Secretary of State Steward. The 
President personally directed an army 
surgeon to attend to Privates Jacobs, 
Gresser and the other injured men and 
requested them to go to a hospital, but 
they all refused, preferring to stay 
with their company. Washington 
doctors and a Miss Bache gave them 
attention and medical supplies. At 
first provisions were short, but Senator 
Schindel of Lehigh County came to 
their relief. The men were also with- 
out underclothing, the box containing 
the necessary things which had been 

purchased for them at home at Ren- 
ninger's store by citizens having been 
stolen at Baltimore by the mob. 

The ladies of Allentown learning of 
their need in this respect shipped a 
large box of shirts, underclothing and 
socks to the company during the next 
10 days. The men settled down and 
prepared to make themselves as com- 
fortable as possible in their quarters in 
the Capitol building. Two large bake 
ovens were erected in the basement 
and 10,000 loaves of bread baked every 

David Jacobs. First Defender. Private Allen 
Infantry, April 18th, 1861. Wounded by rebel 
mob in march through Baltimore, April 18, 1861. 
Private Co. 1, (77th Regt.) 4th Indiana Vol. 
Cav., Aug. 16, 1862. Mustered out May 30th, 

other day. But in the 12 days they oc- 
cupied the Capitol, the men of the in- 
fantry never lived quite comfortablv. 
Provisions were scarce, meals meagre; 
fresh meat and vegetables were want- 
ing; the pork furnished was green and 
unpalatable. All the more welcome, 
therefore, were the supplies which 
came from home, according to letters 
from the soldiers, as the apples and the 
fresh country eggs sent them (among 



others) by George Roth, grandfather 
of ( ieorge R. Rotli of The Leader, a 
fanner and ardent Union man of North 
\\ hitehall Township. Water connec- 
tions were made with the river ami 
water works. They stayed in these 

George Hoxworth. First Defender. Private 
Allen Infantrv, April ISth, 1861. Corporal Co. 
D, 128th Peun'a. Vol. Infantry, Aug. 13, .1862. 
Mustered out with company, May 19th, 1863. 

quarters until the ist of May, drilling- 
daily, guarding the Capitol, and pre- 
paring for the siege, daily expected to 
be begun by the Rebels: 

Within a few days after their arri- 
val at the Capitol the organization of 
the company was completed by the 
election of James M. Wilson as first 
lieutenant and First Sergeant Joseph 
T. Wilt as second lieutenant, and the 
appointment of Privates Solomon 
Goebel as second sergeant,. Wm. Wolf 
as first corporal. John E. Webster as 
second corporal, Ignatz Gresser as 
third Corporal and Daniel Kramer as 
fonrth corporal. On April 30, Lieuten- 
ant Wilson went back to the ranks and 
Lieutenant Wilt was elected first lieu- 
tenant, and Sergeant Goebel, second 
lieutenant. Corporal Webster then be- 

came first sergeant and served until 
June 25. when he was discharged by 
order of the War Department, and 
Private Charles W. Abbott wa.^ ap 
pointed first sergeant in his place. 
George F. Henry was the musician. 
Stephen Schwartz and George Junker 
came from Allentown and joined the 
company during the first week it was 
in Washington. The latter, while go- 
ing through Baltimore, was arrested, 
and secured his release by pretending 
to be a deserter from Camp Curtin, at 
rlarrisburg, on his way to join the 
Rebel army. Twenty-eight members 
Of Small's Philadelphia Brigade, who 
made their way through Baltimore 
with the Sixth Massachusetts, when 
their brigade turned back from Balti- 
more, were by order of the War De- 
partment assigned to and mustered in- 

George W. Keiper. First Defender. Private 
Allen Infantry, April 18th. 1861. 

to the Allen Infantry. Charles W. Ab- 
bott was mustered in May 9. During 
the first week, also while the company 
was quartered in the Capitol, Henry 
McAnnulty joined the company. He 
was a quiet, reserved and reticent man 



who made no friends. No one knew 
where he came from. Some of the men 
suspected him of having come from the 
Rebel ranks on the other side of the 
Potomac and that he was no better 
than a spv. He disappeared on the 
28th of April, just as quietly and mys- 
teriously as he had come 

No battalion or regimental organiza- 
tion of the five original companies was 
made until the end of April or begin- 
ning of May, and the denomination of 
First Regiment which justly belonged 
to them, was given to other companies. 
The proper numerical designation be- 
ing impossible, the companies were 
called at times the Advance Regiment, 
at other times the Cameron Regiment. 
Out of the Ringgold Artillery and the 
Pottsville Light Infantry a new com- 
pany was formed and out of the Wash- 
ington Artillery at Pottsville and 
Logan Guards another company was 
formed. To the five original compan- 
ies, thus increased to seven, three com- 
panies were added, recruited at Harris- 
burg, Doylestown and Carbondale. 
These 10 companies became the 25th 
Regiment, of which Lieutenant Henry 
L. Cake of Pottsville was elected the 
colonel, Captain John V. Selheimer of 
Lewistown lieutenant colonel, and 
Hon. James H. Campbell of Pottsville 
major. The Allen Infantry became 
Company G of the regiment. The lieu- 
tenant colonelcy of the regiment had 
been offered to Captain Yeager, but he 
declined, having promised his men to 
remain with them. The Ringgold 
Band of Reading was mustered in as 
the Regimental Band. 

On the first day of May, the com- 
pany was transferred with Captain 
McDonald's Pottsville Light Infantry, 
Company D, Captain McCormick's 
Company F, Captain Davis' Company 
I, and Captain Dart's Company K to 
the United States Arsenal, two miles 
south of the city, opposite Alexandria, 
on the Potomac, for the purpose of 
guarding the large quantity of valu- 
able war materials, including 70,000 
stand of arms and heavy guns with 
powder and ammunition, there stored. 

The company (Allen Infantry) was 
quartered at first on the second story 
of the penitentiary, which formed a 
part of the Arsenal, and later in rooms 
in the Arsenal. Here they were later 
formed into a battalion and the Ring- 
gold Artillery, Company A and Cap- 
tain Nagle's Company C, and under 
Major Ramsay, commandant at the- 
Arsenal, were regularly drilled i n 
Hardee's Tactics, and instructed in 
target practice and skirmish drill by 
Lieutenant Mears of the U. S. Army. 
The dailv routine consisted of reveille- 

Charles M. Dietrich: First Defender, 
vate Allen Infantry, April 18th, 1861. 


at 5 A. M., drill at 6, breakfast at 7, 
guard mounting at 8, dinner at 12, drill 
at 5, followed by dress parade, supper 
at 7. tatoo at 9, and taps at 9.45.. 
Army rations were served. On May 10 
regular army uniforms were issued to 
the men, consisting of blue pantaloons 
and frock coat, fatigue coat, forage cap, 
great coat, blue or red woolen shirt, 
two pairs of cotton stockings, two 
pairs cotton drawers, two pairs shoes, 
knapsack, haversack and canteen. 
These were the first uniforms issued 



to exchange them for the gray uni- 
forms they had been wearing, to which 
they tOok a dislike because of its re- 
semblance to the Confederate gray. 
During this tour of duty, the Allen In- 
fantry and Captain McKnight's Ring- 
gold Artillery were detailed on June 8 
to cross the Long Bridge and to un- 
load fnun the boats some 30 large and 
heavy cannon, and mount them on 
their carriages in the intrenchments at 
Arlington Heights. 

On the 29th of June, the Allen In- 
fantry, Captain Yeager, with the com- 


Samuel H. Scbenck. First Defender. Pri- 
vate Allen Infantry, April 18th, 1861. Cor- 
poral Co. A, 9th Penna. Veteran Volunteer 
Cavalry. Lochiel Cavalry (92d Regt. in line), 
Oct. 3, 1861. First Sergeant Co. A, 92d Regt., 
May 20th, 1865. Mustered out, July 18th, 1865. 

panies of Captains McDonald, McCor- 
mick, Davis and Dart, marched under 
Lieutenant Colonel Selheimer to Rock- 
ville, which they reached the next day, 
where they slept in the Fair building, 
but because of the heavy rain did not 
go any farther that day. They were 
provided with tents. ambulances, 
transportation wagons and all neces- 
sary camp equipage. Colonel Cake as- 
sumed charge. The next day, Monday 

morning, the battalion marched to 
Poolesvillej reporting to Colonel Stone 
in charge of the Rockville expedition; 
then marched to Point Rocks. Sandy 
Hook, Harpers Ferry, where on the 
4th of July some skirmishing took 
place with the Rebels, then occupying 
it. It was expected that an assault 
would be made on the morning" of the 
6th, but other orders being received, 
the command marched to Williams- 
port and across the Potomac to Mar- 
tinsburg, where it went into camp. 

( >n the 15th the brigade marched to 
Bunker Hill and encamped there. 
Here again it was expected that a gen- 
eral engagement would take place, but 
on the morning of the 17th the brigade 
moved to Charlestown, the Allen In- 
fantry camping in the same field where 
John Brown and his comrades had 
been hanged. The next day the bat- 
talion moved to Harpers Ferry and 
camped there. The terms of enlist- 
ment having expired, General Patter- 
son thanked them and directed them 
to move by way of Baltimore to Ilar- 
risburg, where the entire regiment as- 
sembled on the 20th day of July, and 
was mustered out on the 23rd. 

On the next day, July 24. Captain 
Yeager and the Infantry were received 
at home by the entire populace of Al- 
lentown, with bands of music and an 
address by Hon. Robert E. Wright, 
and were escorted into the town amid 
the ringing of bells and shouts of joy. 
A banquet again awaited them at 
Schneck's Eagle Hotel ; but this did 
not remain untasted like the parting- 
dinner, three months before. Captain 
Yeager on the 27th of July delivered 
the discharge to his men, dated Har- 
risburg, July 23. The muster-out-roll 
contains the following 78 names with 
the ages of the men : 

Thomas Yeager, Captain, 35. 
Joseph T. Wilt, First Lieutenant, 21. 
Solomon Goebel, 2nd Lieutenant, 29. 
John E. Webster, First Sergeant, 38. 
John A. Winne, Second Sergeant, 22. 
William Wagner, Third Sergeant, 21. 
Henry W. Sawyer, 4th Sergeant, 26. 
George Junker, Fifth Sergeant, 26. 
Wm. Wolf, First Corporal, 23. 
William Kress, Second Corporal, 24. 



Ignatz Gresser, Third Corporal, 25. 
Daniel Kramer, Fourth Corporal, 25. 
Geo. F. Henry, Drummer, 32. 


Charles W. Abbott, 27. 

Theodore Anderson, 31. 

Francis Bach, 23. 

Henry Cake, 24. 

Norman H. Cole, 18. 

Charles Dietrich, IS. 

Wilson Henry Derr, 18. 

Milton H. Dunlap, 18. 

Ephraim C. Dore, 28. 

William Early, 22. 

William T. Frame, 28. 

Matthew I. Fuller, 34. 

Gideon Frederick, 42. 

Charles Clayton Frazer, 25. 

Edwin Gross, 25. 

James Geidner, 44. 

Otto P. Greipp, 21. 

John Hawk, 33. 

Nathaniel Hillegass, 31. 

George Hoxworth, 30. 

Joseph Hettinger, 22. 

Edwin M. Hittle, 19. 

John F. Hoffman, 25. 

Joseph Hauser, 58. . 

David Jacobs, 22. 

George Keiper, 18. 

Alexander Kercher, 19. 

Isaac Lapp, 19. 

Maximilian Lakemeyer, 21. 

Paul Lieberman, 34. 

Martin Leisenring, 18. 
Franklin Leh, 19. 

Edwin Miller, 28. 

Theodore Mink, 28. 

Thomas McAllister, 21. 
Henry McNulty, 24. 
Charles Orban, 37. 
Samuel Garner, 33. 
Charles A. Pfeiffer, 18. 
William S. Ruhe, 51. 
John Romig, 28. : 
Ernest Rottman, 44. 
George W. Rhoads, 29. 
Jonathan Reber, 27. 
Lewis G. Seip, 26. 
Henry Storch, 19. 
Marcus Sigman, 21. 
Charles A. Schiffert, 18. 
Samuel Schneck, 20. 
Stephen Schwartz, 21. 
Adolph Schneider, 23. 
Ermill Schneider, 18. 
Francis Schaffer, 24. 
Charles Spring, 28. 
Charles Schwartz, 19. 
Adolph Stefast, 35. 
John Uhler, 19. 
Martin Veith, 23. 
John Weber, 26. 
Darius Weiss, 18. 
Benneville Wieand, 18. 
Allen Wetherhold, 18. 

Joseph Weiss, 26. 
James M. Wilson, 44. 
Frederick Zuck, 22. 

Private Benneville Wieand is car- 
ried on the roll as captain's servant. 
The following are marked discharged 
or dropped: Daniel Kramer, May 27, 
1861 ; L. G. Seip, May 25, 1861, on sur- 
geon's certificate, approved by Briga- 
dier General Mansfield ; Henry Mc- 
Annulty, April 28, 1861 ; Franklin Leh 
and William Scott Davis, May 9, 1861 ; 
John E. Webster, June 25, 1861 ; Nor- 
man H. Cole, Milton H. Dunlap and 

William Kress. First Defender. Private Allen 
Infantry, April 18th, 1861. 

Charles A. Pfeiffer on May 31, 1861, 
by order of the War Department. 
Pfeiffer afterwards enlisted in Com- 
pany 8 of the 47th P. V., was wounded 
at Winchester and was honorably dis- 
charged December 25, 1865. Dunlap 
enlisted in the Regular Army, and has 
never been heard of since. The men 
were paid on July 31, by Major A. M. 
Sallade, Paymaster U. S. A. Each pri- 
vate received $37.36 in gold. Many of 
them re-enlisted in other commands, 
especially the 47th, 53rd and 128th P. 
V., and attained distinction. Serjeant 



Charles W. Abbott became lieutenant 
colonel of the 47th P. V. Sergeant 
George Junker commanded Company 
K of the same regiment and died ( )ct. 
2'. 1862, of wounds received in the 
Battle of Pocotaligo. Private Nathan- 
iel llillegass enlisted in Company EC, 
54th P. V., and died of wounds re- 
ceived at Winchester. Harry \Y. Saw- 

of the 53rd Regiment P. V., and gave 
his life for the Flag he loved at the 
hattle of Fair ( )aks on the 1st of June, 
[862. Mis remains were recovered 
about four weeks after the hattle and 
repose in I nion Cemetery, Allentown. 
The sword he wore on the march 
through Baltimore is now in posses- 
sion of the family of Corporal William 

Charles W. Abbott. First Defender. Private Allen Infan- 
try, May 4, 1861. First Sergeant Allen Infantry, Co G, 25th 
Penna. Volunteer Infantry, June 25th, 1861. First Lieute- 
nant Co. K, 47th Penna. Volunteer Infantry, Sept. 7, 1861. 
Captain Co. K, 47th Penna. Volunteer Infantry, Sept. 22, I862. 
Lieutenant Colonel 47th Penna. Volunteer Infantry, Jan. 3, 

yer hecame a captain in a New Jersey 
cavalry regiment, was taken prisoner, 
but escaped just as he was about to be 
hanged by the Rebels in retaliation. 
The gallant Captain Yeager was pre- 
sented by his men with a fine and cost- 
ly sword in token of the love and re- 
spect they bore him. He became major 

Wolf. Yeager Post No. 13, G. A. R. T 
was named after him. 

Major Yeager was a brave, impetu- 
ous soldier. With him to think was to 
act. With clear vision he saw the im- 
measurable advantage the Secession- 
ists would gain by seizing Washing- 
ton and the public buildings, and judg- 



ing them by his own methods he ex- 
pected they would at once take the 
defenseless city. Not a moment must 
be lost ; patriots must at once rush to 
the defense of their Capitol. So with 
all the men he could hastily assemble, 
unprepared as the}' were, he hurried to 
the point of the expected attack. Two 
davs after arriving at Washington he 
writes : 

discipline their raw troops, and, whenever 
ready, go and demand of Baltimore the right 
of transit to the Capitol of the country; if 
refused, lay Baltimore and Annapolis in 
ashes. That is the only plan. Then Wash- 
ington can get as many Northern troops as 
they want." 

A rare and indomitable spirit this ! 

No more ardent patriot lives in this 
country than the phlegmatic Pennsyl- 
vania German. It fills the cup of bit- 

William Wolf. First Defender. Corporal Allen Infantry, 
April 18th, 1861. In uniform of Allen Infantrv, April 18th, 

"If the Northern men take the stand in 
this matter that I did we will between now 
and three months march back to our native 
firesides with the minies on our shoulders, 
drums beating, trumpets sounding and play- 
ing 'Hail Columbia,' and the Stars and 
Stripes in our hands. But this stand our 
people of the free states must take imme- 
diately. Let them come in citizen's dress 
as passengers; they can be organized here. 
* * * * The only way is for the North 
to concentrate their troops in divisions and 
encamp on the Pennsylvania state line and 

terness to the brim for Massachusetts 
to realize that the First Defenders of 
the National Capitol came from that 
section of Pennsylvania, upon whose 
inhabitants the descendants of Puritan 
New England have always looked as 
slow, and stupid, and "illiterate." The 
men of Massachusetts are no less pa- 
triotic than those of Pennsylvania ; but 
the fact remains that five organized, 



uniformed and equipped companies of 
Pennsylvania militia, located in four 
towns separated at some distance from 
each other, not members of one bat- 
talion or regiment, were, however, 
actuated about the same early moment 
by a like patriotic impulse to rush to 
the defense of their country imperiled 
by traitors. The Pennsylvania com- 
panies arrived at Washington at 7 P. 
M., April 18, 1861 ; the Massachusetts 
Sixth arrived there 24 hours later, on 
the 19th. 

The merit of greater promptness be- 
longs to the Pennsylvania soldiers. 
And so it was understood at the time. 
The thanks of the country were ten- 
dered by the Congress of the United 
States on the 22nd of July, 1861, to the 
five companies, as the Capital's First 
Defenders, and on the 4th of July, 
1866, Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary 
of War in 1861, wrote: "I certify that 
the Pottsville National Light Infantrv 
was the first company of volunteers 
whose services were offered for the de- 
fense of the Capital. A telegram 
reached the War Department on the 
13th making the tender — it was imme- 
diately accepted. The company 
reached Washington on the 18th of 
April, 1861, with four additional com- 
panies from Pennsylvania, and these 
were the first troops to reach the seat 
of government at the beginning of the 
War of the Rebellion." 

No one, at this date, will dispute 
that the five companies of Pennsyl- 
vania deserve the honor, the glory, and 
the credit of having been the first to 
defend the National Capital. While 
their service was bloodless, yet they 
were prepared and ready at all times 

to shed their blood in that defense ; 
and no one can deny that their prompt 
appearance in Washington preserved 
the public buildings, the public re- 
cords, and the government, to the Un- 
ion ; nor can any one deny that the re- 
sult of the war would in all probabil- 
ity have been entirely different if the 
.Secessionist forces had first occupied 
and taken them. The march of the 530 
Pennsylvanians, insufficiently armed 
and supported only by patriotic fervor, 
through hostile Baltimore, and their 
prompt occupation of the halls of Con- 
gress in Rebel-infested Washington, 
will rank them in history with the 300 
who defended the pass of Thermopy- 
lae, and the 600 who charged at Balak- 

All honor, then, in all time to come, 
to Captain Yeager and his Pennsyl- 
vania German fellow-citizens of the 
Allen Infantry for the part they took 
in this glorious achievement. Their 
action will ever be a matter of pride 
and the source of patriotic inspiration 
in our community. So it has proven 
alreadv ; for in the late Spanish-Amer- 
ican trouble, it was the writer's old 
command, Company B of the Fourth 
Regiment, National Guard of Pennsyl- 
vania, under Captain James A. Med- 
lar, which first entered the service of 
the United States, followed closely by 
the Reading and Pottsville companies 
of the same regiment. 

Anl so, in all time to come, the ex- 
ample of the First Defenders will re- 
main, an inspiration to patriotism 
whenever our Flag and our country 
ap-ain need prompt, ready and unhesi- 
tating defenders. 


Early Berks County Tombstone Inscriptions 

By Louis Richards, Esq., Reading, Pa. 
Pres. Berks County Historical Society 


St. Daniel's (Corner) Church 

Fischbach, John Yost, b. 1734 ; d. 1804. 

Wirheim, George, b. 27 Sept. 1742; d. 12 
Feb. 1825; 82 y. 4 m. 15 d. 

Sohl, Johannes, b. 11 Jan. 1767; d. 22 Aug. 
1837; 70 y. 7 m. 11 d. 

Gerharit, Elizabeth, b. 7 May 1752; d. 25 
April 1824; 71 y. 11 m. 16 d. 

Klopp, John Peter, b. 11 Sept. 1775; d. 13 
March 1853; 77 y. 6 m. 2 d. 

Seibert, Christian, b. 22 June 1773; d. 28 
Aug. 1855; 82 y. 2 m 6 d. 

Fidler, Henry, b. 11 Nov. 1779; d. 24 Sept. 
1860; 80 y. 9 m. 11 d. 

Stupp, John, b. 6 Sept. 1794; d. 20 March 
1877; 82 y. 5 m. 14 d 

Miller, Matthias, b. 14 Jan. 1762; d. 13 
Nov. 1848; 86 y. 9 m. 19 d. 

Gmber, Adam, b. 24 Dec. 1735; d. 6 
March 1807; 71 y. 2 m. 15 d. 

Wether, Wilhelm, b. 23 Dec. 1761; d. 15 
June 1849; 87 y. 5 m. 23 d. 

Wenrich, Matthew, b. 1735; d. 1808; 73 y. 

Gerhart, Jacob, b. 1752; d. 1824; 72 y. 

Schardoner, Joel, b 1743; d. 1807; 64 y. 

Fidler, Heinrich, b. 1759; d. 1831; 72 y. 

Schaeffer, Johannes, b. 20 Feb. 1735; d. 
17 Nov. ISO'.; 69 y. 

Fisher, Catherine, b. 1737; d. 1795; 58 y. 

Schaplcr, Justina, b. 1739; d. 1817; 78 y. 

Sohl, Eva, b 1766; d. 1837; 71 y. 

Schauer, Heinrich, b. 1750; d. 1818; 68 y. 

Schauer, Barbara, b. 1750; d. 1818; 68 y. 

Stub, Leohnard, b. 1756; d. 1827; 73 y. 

Leininger, Peter, b. 1755; d. 1835; 80 y. 

Schucker, Carl, b. 1743 ; d. 1807. 

Eckert, John D., b. 8 Dec. 1799; d. 22 Jan. 

Hain's Church Ground 

Stein, Casper, b. 1735; d. 3 Jan. 1788; 53 y. 

Michael, Elizabeth, wife of John Michael, 
b Steiner; b. 6 Dec. 1758; d. 9 Jan. 1797. 

Rbscher, Johannes, b. April 1733; d. 12 
March 1798. 

Ruth, Jacob, b. Sept. 1726; d. 24 Sept. 

Eckert, Conrad, b 6 Feb. 1741; d. 25 July 
1791; 50 y. 5 m. 3 w. 

Fischer, Eliza Gertrant, wife of Nicholas, 
b. 1711; d. 4 Jan. 1768. 

Fischer, William, b. 1706; d. 1766. 

Hain, Johannes, b. 21 Jan. 1741; d. 21 
Nov 1800. 

Schaeffer, Nicholas, b. 14 Oct. 1723; d. 3 
Nov. 1780. 

Fischer, Peter, b. 8 Sept. 1735; d. 23 Nov. 

Hohu, Casper, b. 1724; d. 2 Oct. 1762. 

Elizabeth, wife of same, b. 20 Oct. 1727; 
81 y. 11 m. 

Elizabeth, wife of Conrad Eckert, b. 26 
May 1750; d. 29 Sept. 1808; 58 y. 4m. 3 d. 

Hohu, Peter, b. 27 Jan. 1761; d. 16 Nov. 

Holm, Frederick, son of Casper, b. 28 Jan. 
1756; d. 23 Feb. 1812. 

Catharine, b. Haakin, wife of same, b. 
1754; d. 1815. 

Hohuer, Magdaleua, b. Oct 1723 ; d. 9 May 

Fischer, William, b. 20 June 1773; d. 20 
June 1847; 74 y. 

Fischer, Margaret, wife of same, b. 29 
Sept. 1770; d. 5 Dec. 1846; 76 y. 2 m. 6 d. 

Hohn, Margaret, b 1708; d. 1777. 

Fischer, Philip, b. 11 Sept. 1777; d. 18 
April 1816. 

Klop, Merriua, b. Becker, b. 24 June 1713; 
d. 30 Nov. 1792. 

Klop, Peter, b. 22 May 1719; d. 22 May 
1794; 75 y. 

Fischer, Philip, b. 25 Sept. 1736; d. 14 
Aug. 1803. 

Miller, John William, b. in 1731; d. 6 Jan. 

Werner, William, b. 16 July 1796; d. 7 Nov. 

Miller, John, b. 18 March 1757; d. 16 Jan. 

Gerhard, Peter, b. 1 Sept. 1744; d 22 Jan. 

Lasch, Christian, b. 17 July 1740; d. 25 
Oct. 1811. 

Susanna, b. Bauer, wife of same, b. 4 June 
1742; d. 13 Jan. 1809. 

Bollman, Johannes, b. 17 May 1728; d. 12 
Nov. 1803. 

Barbara, b. Scherman, wife of same; b. 
25 Feb. 1735; d. 10 July 1813. 

Ruth, Michael, b. 1 Dec. 1735; d. 21 Oct. 

Hohn, George, b. 19 May 1746; d. 31 Dec. 

Magdaleua, dau. of Christian and Barbara 
Ruth, wife of same, b. 3 Jan. 1764; d. 14 
May 1845. 

Ruth, Adam, b. 1753; d. 1821. 

Spohn, John, Ph., b. 24 Sept. 1737; d. 13 
Sept. 1807. 

Lerch, John Yost, b. 30 Jan. 1752; d. 8 
Dec. 1805. 

Rosina, b. Hohn, wife of same, b. 14 Aug. 
1762; d. 21 Nov. 1823. 



Bittchart, Johan, b. 29 March 1753; d. 3 
June 1808. 

Beclitel, Frederick, b. 1746; d. 10 July 

Klop, Jacob, b. 18 July 1756; d. 2 Feb. 

Hiiricli, George, b. 10 Jan. 1740; d. 15 Oct. 

Guldin, Abraham, b. 4 March 1776; d. 5 
June 1S3S; 62 y. 3 m. 1 d. 

Goekley, Dieterich, b. 5 June 1777; d. 7 
Aug. 1845; 68 y. 2 m. 2 d. 

Mohr, Eva ('., wife of same, b. 9 Oct. 1784; 
d. 26 Sept. 1851. 

North Heidelberg Church 

Conrad, Joseph, b. 6 Jan. 1759; d. 4 Oct. 

Gerhart, Frederick, b. in Germany, 26 
March 1715: d. 30 Nov. 1779. 

Beckel, Johan Tobias, b. 6 Dec. 1754 ; d. 24 
Dec. 1814. 

Conrad, Jacob, b. in Muntesheim, in 
Hanauschen 3 Feb. 1717; d. 5 Sept. 1798. 

Bickel, Anthony, b IS Aug. 1797; d. 2 Nov. 

Private Burial Ground near Hun's Church 

Bechtel, Gerhart, d. 4 June 1791. 

Rosina, wife of do., b. Feb. 1747; d. 16 
Nov. 1806. 

Huff, Johannes Frederick, b. 1734; d. 1816; 
82 y. 

Susannah, wife of do. and dau. of Johann 
and Mary Eliz. Keim., b. 25 Dec. 1739; d. 12 
May 1809; 69 y. 4 m. 18 d. 

Bechtel, Jacob, b. 30 Aug. 1779; d. 30 Oct. 

Bechtel, Susanna, b. 30 April 1786; d. 14 
Nov. 1800. 

Bechtel, Isaac, b. 2 May 1778; d. 9 Nov. 

Bechtel, Eva, b. 19 March 1778; d. 9 Nov. 

Huff's Church 

Thompson, John, Esq., b. in Chester Co. 
28 Oct. 1764; d. at Dale Forge 23 March 
1816 in 52 y. 

Schall, Baud, 1). 25 May 1801; d. 22 Jan. 
1877; 75 y. 28 d. 

Schall, Catharine, b. Endy, wife of do., b. 
9 March 1805; d. 24 Aug. 1873; 68 y. 5 m. 

15 d. 


Lutheran and Reformed Church Ground 

Scharer, Michael, b. 4 May 1747; d. 21 
June 1828; 81 y. 1 m. 17 d. 

Bieber, John Devvald, son of Theobold and 
Sibilla, b. 21 Sept. 1758; d. 14 Sept. 1827; 
68 y. 11 m. 23 d. 

Bieber, Johan, son of Johan and Margaret, 
b. 1 May 1748; d. 17 April 1844; 95 y. 11 m. 

16 d. 

Elizabeth, born Schaeffer, wife of same, 
b. 4 June 1752. 

Kutz, Anna Eliz., b. Kemp, wife of Jacob 
Kutz, b. 3 May 1720; d. 25 May 1805; 85 y. 
22 d. 

Kutz, Margaret, b. Bieber, wife of George 
Kutz, b. 1730; d. 1796. 

Schweitzer, Peter, b. 1748; d. 1828. 

Ernst, Johan N., son of Peter and Eliza- 
beth, b. 8 Feb. 1756; d. 29 Sept. 1825. 

Biehl, Johan Gin., b. 17 June 1763; d. 20 
Dec. 1813; 50 y. 5 m. 18 d. 

Biehl, Abraham, b. 19 Nov. 1754; d. 20 
March 1848; 63 y. 4 m. 1 d. 

Wanner, Peter, b. 15 Oct. 1739; d. 21 July 
1831; 91 y. 9m. 8 d. 

Breifog-el, George, b. 4 Feb. 1747 ; d. 6 Oct. 

Kutz, Jacob, b. 13 May 1741; d. 23 Dec. 
1821; 80 y. 7 m. 10 d. 

Wink, Jacob, b. 30 Oct. 1758; d. 7 Nov. 
1842; 84 y. 7 d. 

Hoch, David, b. 30 Dec. 1765; d. 17 Aug. 
1831; 65 y. 7m. 17 d. 

Merkel, Daniel, b. 18 Nov. 1767; d. 24 
April 1S52 ; 84 y. 5 m. 6d. 

Old, Gabriel, b. 4 March 1779; d. 5 April 
1860; 81 y. 1 m. 1 d. 

Catharine, wife of same, b. 5 March 1776; 
d. 24 Oct. 1857; 81 y. 7 m. 19 d. 
'"•Zimmerman, Isaac, b. 10 Feb. 1769; d. S 
April 1853; 84 y. 1 m. 28 d. 

Kutz, Peter, b. 9 May 1763; d. 20 Feb. 

EsSer, Jacob, b. 29 Nov. 1758; d. 24 Aug. 
1845; 86 v. 8 m. 26 d. 

Oberbeek, Henry, b. 12 July 1764; d. 30 
April 1S2S; 61 y. 9 m. 18 d. 

Standi, Jacob, b. 12 Nov. 1738; d. 20 Jan. 
1802; 63 y. 2 m. 8 d. 

Bieber, Devvald, b. 16 Oct. 1729; d. 26 Jan. 

GlJiser, Anna Maria, wife of Michael, b. 
Mohn, b. in Europe 1 Jan. 1735; had 154 de- 
scendants; d. 7 Sept. 1831; 96 y. 8 m. 6 d. 

Schweitzer, Peter, b. 1748; d. 1828. 

Fairvievv Cemetery 

Matthias, Jacob, b. 23 Dec. 1793; d. 20 Nov. 
1833; 39 v. 10 m. 28 d. 

Ely, Solomon, b. Jan. 18 1783; d. 27 Sept. 
1865; 82 y. 8 m. 9 d. 

Weiser, William, b. 24 Sept. 1782; d. 12 
April 1861; 78 v. 6 m. 18 d. 

Lobach, William, b. 7 Sept. 1793; d. 17 
Dec. 1851; 58 y. 3 m. 19 d. 

Gerash, Dr. Charles A., b. in Frankfort, 
Prussia, 17 Oct. 1798; d. 22 July 1876; 77 y. 
9 m. 5 d. 

Longsvvamp Church 

Ginking-er, John, b. 2 Feb. 178S; d. 30 
Sept. 1861. 

Klein, Peter, b. 1731; d. 1813. 

Danner, Jacob, d. 17 May 1771; 78 y. 

Sands, Samuel, b. 28 April 1782; d. 24 
Feb. 1833. 

Catharine, wife of same, b. 6 May 1797; 
d. 2 Feb. 1827. 



Lescher, Catharine, wife of Jacob Lescher, 
and dau. of Jacob Lebenguth, b. 12 Sept. 
1737; d. 21 Dec. 1809. 

Fensterinacher, Elizabeth, b. 1725. 

Butzin, Barbara, b. 26 Nov. 1718; d. 6 
March 1795. 

Butz, Peter, b. 19 June 1718. 

Lutheran Church, Mertztown 
Trexler, Keuhen, b. 22 Nov. 1781; d. 29 

April 1846. 

Ann, wife of same, and dau. of Jacob 

Lesher, b. 30 Nov. 1791; d. 12 May 1848; 56 

y. 5 m. 22 d. 

Private Ground near Mertztown 

Trexler, Johan Peter, b. 15 Aug. 1748; d. 
13 March 1828; 79 y. 6 m. 28 d. 

Catharina, born Grim, wife of same, b. 30 
June 1757; d. 7 July 1828; 71 y. 7 d. 

Trexler, Daniel, son of foregoing, b. 1 
Nov. 1799; d. 15 Sept. 1832. 

Trexler, Jonas, b. 26 June 1789; d. 28 Dec. 

Dreseher, Philip, b. 17 June 1785; d. 9 
Jan. 1818. 

Zion Lutheran, (Reed's) Church 

Rieth, Christian, b. 11 April 1777; d. 22 
April 1847; 70 y. 11 d. 

Forrer, George, b. 5 May 1785; d. 18 Nov. 

Peift'er, George, b. 31 Oct. 1794; d. 13 Nov. 

IVuman, Walter, b. 1723; d. 1744. 

Graf, Johan Michael, b. 1716; d. 1761 (?) 
son of George and Mary Graf. 

Rith, Johan Leonard, b. 1691; d. 1747; had 
by wife Ann Eliza Catharine 8 children, 6 
sons and 2 daughters. 

Reiser, George, b. 1762; d. 19 Nov. 1839; 
77 y. 7 m. 5 d. 

Braun, Daniel, b. 16 July 1768; d. 5 Feb. 
1822; 53 y. 6 m. 16 d. 

Elizabeth, born Rieth, wife of same, b. 
April 1766; d. 22 Sept. 1830. 

Borekholder, Peter, b. 29 April 1769; d. 5 
Sept 1821; 52 y. 4 m. 13 d. 

Rieth, Valentin, b. 8 Sept. 1749; d. 6 May 
1825; 75 y. 7 m. 28 d. 

Eva Catharine, born Seltzer, wife of same, 
b. 1 Jan. 1759; d. 5 Aug. 1828. 

Weiser, Philip, b. 1722; 17 Sept; d. 27 
March 1761; 38 y. 5 m. 4 d. 

Seibert, John, son of Michael and Cath- 
arine, b. 1 July 1766; d. Feb. 1822; 55 y. 7 

Maria Barbara, wife of Nicholas Rieth. 
dau. of Christopher and Hannah Seibert, b. 
18 May 1722; d. 14 Oct 1807; 85 y. 4 m. 3 w. 
6 d. 

Fohrer, Michael, b. 8 May 1732; d. 5 Nov. 
1798; 66 v. 6 m. less 3 d. 

Rieth, Daniel, b. 25 Feb. 1735; d. 14 June 

Slichter, Barbara, b. Schumaker, b. 25 
Nov. 1728; d. 8 Oct. 1790; 62 y. 10 m. 13 d. 

Rieth, Maria Elizabeth, b. 18 Dec. 1725; d. 
30 Aug. 1728; 2 y. 2 m. 14 d. 

Rieth, Johan Frederick, b. 15 March 1718; 
d. 24 Dec. 1794; 76 y. 8 m. 22 d. 

Rieth, Johann, b. 17 Dec. 1758; d. 17 Sept. 

Rieth, Leonard, b. in Schochern 10 Sept. 
1723; d. 28 April 1803; 79 y. 7 m. 17 d. 

Rieth, Johannes, 1). 4 June 1716; d. 7 Jan. 
1788; 71 y. 7 m. 3 d. 

Rieth, Johann Adam, b. 1756; d. 17 July 
1815; 59 y. 

Juliana, b. Braun, wife of same, b. 12 Nov. 
1766; d. 9 Sept. 1826. 

Rieth, John Geo., b. 4 June 1714; d. 23 
June 1791 ; 77 y. 2 w 5 d. 

Rieth, Jacob, b. June 1746; d. 28 March 
1821; 74 y. 9 m. 

Christ Lutheran Church (above Stouchs- 

Seharf, Apolonia Elizabeth, b. 1762; d. 

Becker, Maria Catarina, b. 1706; d. 1745. 

Auspach, Johann Peter, b. 11 Feb. 1715; 
d. 25 May 1797; 82 y. 3 m. 16 d. 

Magdalena, wife of same, d. 10 Sept. 1785; 
65 y. 6 d. 

Leehner, Christian, b. 29 Nov. 1738; d. 26 
Oct. 1785. 

Weiser, Jacob, son of Christopher, b. in 
N. Jersey 22 Sept. 1736; d. 1 Jan. 1808; 71 
y. 3 m. 8 d. 

Anna Elizabeth, wife of same, b. 5 June 
1740; d. 1 Oct. 1805; 65 y. 4 m. 

Weiser, Jacob,, b. in Tulpehocken twp. 5 
Sept 1774; d. 30 June 1793; 18 y. 9 m. 3 w. 

Auspach, Johannes, b. 13 Oct. 1750; d. 23 
Sept. 1794; 44 y. 11 m. 3 w. 

Weygant, Johan Adam, b. 8 Feb. 1768; d. 
5 Dec. 1794; 26 y. 10 m. 

Groff, Andreas, b. 25 May 1750; d. 19 June 
1817; 67 y. 2 m. 24 d. 

Maria Elizabeth, wife of same, b. 26 May 
1764; d. 20 April 1839. 

Groff, Catharine, b. Seybert, wife of same, 
b. 1757; d. 1792. 

Spiicker, Elizabeth, dau of Henry Spiick- 
er, b. 1788; d. 1790. 

Stein, Peter, b. 1729; d. 1799. 

Brua, Peter, b. 2 Feb. 1729; d. 1 Oct. 1808; 
79 y. 8 m. 

Maria, wife of same, b. 1731; d. 13 Feb. 
1804; 73 y. 6 m. 

Anna Elizabeth, b. Teison, wife of Johan- 
nes Lauer; m. 2d. Heinrich Spang; b. 1 Dec. 
1753; d. 15 Sept. 1786. 

Ege, Elizabeth, dau of Michael and Mar- 
garetta Ege, b. 1797; d. 1800. 

Schultze, Catharine Henrietta, dau. of 
Rev. Andreas Schultze and wife Susanna, b. 
26 Dec. 1803; d. 5 Sept. 1807; 3 y. 8 m. 1 w. 
3 d. 

Leehner, Frederich, b. 15 May 1770; d. 17 
Oct 1806. 

Barbara, wife of Adam Kehl, b. 18 April 
1777; d. 3 May 1826. 


Pioneers of Ashland County, Ohio 

The following data, gleaned from 
"Knapp's History of Ashland County" Ohio, 
(1863), illustrate the mixed constituency of 
the population on the Ohio frontier almost 
a century ago. It shows from what States 
and counties the original settlers of Ash- 
land County came, in what year they came 
and in what township they settled. 


Bradford Sturtwant — 1816 — Ruggles 
Solomon Weston — 1828 — Ruggles. 


James Boots — 1828 — Clearcreek. 


Thomas Newman — 1810 — Mohican. 


James Gregg — 1820 — Clearcreek. 

John Finger — 1829 — Orange. 
John Hough — 1823 — Clearcreek. 
John Neptune — 1824 — Green. 
Elijah Oram— 1811— Lake. 
George W. Basford— 1824— Mohican. 
Joshua R. Glenn — 1818— Perry. 
Richard Wingbigler — 1818 — Mohican. 
Joseph Chandler — 1814 — Perry. 
Jonas H. Gierhart — 1817 — Jackson. 
Michael Sprenkle — 1828 — Jackson. 


Allen Oliver — 1811 — Green. 
Sameuel Garret — 1825 — Hanover. 


Samuel Graham — 1821 — Green. 
Ebenezer Rice — 1811 — Green. 
Major Tyler — 1814 — Mohican. 
Aldrich Carver — 1825 — Ruggles. 
Benjamin Moore — 1833 — Troy. 


John McMurray — 1816 — Clearcreek. 


Robert Culbertson — 1825 — Orange. 

Andrew Humphrey — 1824 — Green. 

Peter Kinney — 1810 — Green. 
John Krebs — 1829 — Orange. 
Martin Mason — 1815 — Montgomery. 
James Andrews — 1816 — Milton. 

Josiah Lee — 1819 — Jackson. 

Luke Ingmand — 1816 — Mohican. 
Peter Bryan — 1824 — Jackson. 
Thomas Cole — 1819 — Jackson. 

John Cuppy — 1819 — Clearcreek. 
Elias Ford— 1819 — Clearcreek. 
Elias Slocum — 1817 — Clearcreek. 
William Harper — 1815 — Vermilion. 
Richard Jackman — 1823 — Vermilion. 
William Karnaham — 1815 — Vermilion. 
Jonathan Palmer — 1810 — Vermilion. 

Joseph Strickline Vermilion. 

James Gladden — 1826 — Green. 
William Wallace— 1824— Green. 
James Allison — 1818 — Perry. 
Richard Smalley — 1815 — Perry. 
John Stull — 1820— Montgomery. 

Alexander Finley — 1809 — Mohican. 

William Irvin— 1816— Green. 

Charles Hoy — 1817— Jackson. 
James Medowell — 1823 — Montgomery. 

Harvey Sackett — 1825 — Ruggles. 


Stephen Smith Vermilion. 

Jesse Matthews — 1818 — Jackson. 

George Snyder— 1818 — Hanover. 


John Aton — 1821 — Clearcreek. 
James Gribben — 1825— Clearcreek. 

Hugh B. McKibben— 1828— Clearcreek. 
Thomas Sprott — 1823— Clearcreek. 
Jonathan Coulter — 1816 — Green. 
Isaac Wolf— 1819— Green. 
William Lockhart— 1818— Milton. 


William Ryland — 1815 — Vermilion. 
William Ewing — 1814 — Mohican. 
Philp Fluke— 1816— Orange. 

Jacob Klngaman — 1817 — Perry. 

William Taylor — 1821 — Green. 

Daniel Carter — 1812 — Clearcreek. 
Frederick A. Hine — 1829 — Jackson. 

John Hilman— 1818— Perry. 
Adam Reichard — 1829 — Perry. 
Frederick Wise— 1823— Perry. 
Henry Zimmerman — 1S23 — Perry. 
John Keen — 1828 — Jackson. 

Isaac Harvuot — 1819 — Clearcreek. 

William Smith— 1824— Jackson. 



James Burgan — 1826 — Clearcreek. 
David Burns — 1815 — Clearcreek. 

SamuelBurns Clearcreek. 

John Fry— 1824— Perry. 

Jacob Hiffner, Jr.— 1817— Orange. 

Jacob Myers — 1829 — Clearcreek. 

Cornelius Dorland Mohican. 

William Fast — 1814 — Orange. 
Jacob Fast — 1817 — Orange. 
James Copus— 1809 — Mifflin. 

Daniel Summers — 1817 — Montgomery. 

John McMaull — 1815— Clearcreek. 
Amos Morris — 1810 — Montgomery. 
Benjamin Hershey — 1825 — Mifflin. 
Jacob Staman — 1825— Mifflin. 
Rudolph Kauffman— 1822— Perry. 
Matthias Dickel- — 1818 — Jackson. 
John Swarts — 1813 — Perry. 

Leonard Croninger — 1815 — Mifflin. 

Nicholas Masters — 1830 — Clearcreek. 
Joseph Markley — 1815 — Clearcreek. 
Rev. John Cox — 1823 — Vermilion. 
Henry Grindle — 1825 — Perry. 
Philip Mang— 1816— Perry. 
Michael Rickel— 1817— Jackson. 
Jacob H. Grubb— 1823— Clearcreek. 
Henry Maize — 1823 — Clearcreek. 

John Cook— 1822— Clearcreek. 
Patrick Elliott— 1817— Clearcreek. 
John Freeborn — 1814 — Clearcreek. 
Richard Freeborn — 1814 — Clearcreek. 
James Byers — 1821 — Green. 
Edward Haley — 1810 — Green. 
John Coulter— 1810— Green. 
George Marks — 1819 — Green. 
Nathan Daly — 1817— Mohican. 
John Carr — 1814 — Perry. 
Arthur Campbell — 1815 — Perry. 
Aaron Carey — 1817 — Perry. 
William Hamilton — 1820 — Perry. 
Jacob Lash — 1824 — Perry. 
Robert Smilie — 1829 — Jackson. 
Henry Shissler — 1829 — Jackson. 
James Clark — 1818 — Orange. 
William Patterson — 1815 — Montgomery. 
Christopher Richert — 1822 — Montgomery. 
Ephraim Welch — 1828 — Montgomery. 
David Braden — 1815— Mifflin. 
Arthur Campbell, Sr. — 1817 — Mohican. 
John Tilton— 1812 — Montgomery. 

Abel Bailey— 1816 — Clearcreek. 
John Bryte — 1819 — Clearcreek. 
Henry Andress — 1826 — Vermilion. 

William Reed— 1814 — Vermilion. 
William Hunter — 1818— Green. 
William Reed— 1829— Green. 
Dr. Abraham Ecker— 1818— Perry. 

James A. Dinsmore— 1814— Jackson. 


Jacob McLain— 1822— Clearcreek. 
Jared M. Slonaker— 1824— Clearcreek. 
James Kuydendell— 1815— Clearcreek. 
Christian Miller— 1829— Clearcreek. 
Michael Springer— 1815— Clearcreek. 
George Thomas— 1815 — Clearcreek. 
Alanson Walker — 1822 — Clearcreek. 
George Marshall —1822— Vermilion. 
Michael Sigler— 1820— Vermilion. 
Conrad Castor — 1817— Green. 
Thomas Johnston — 1828 — Green. 
John White— 1823— Green. 
James Loudan Priert— 1810— Hanover. 
John Ewalt— 1820— Lake. 
John Wetherbee— 1817— Lake. 
Richard Hargrave— 1818— Mohican. 
Richard Rhamy, Sr.— 1813— Mohican. 
John Allison— 1823— Perry. 
James Dickason — 1817 — Perry. 
Conrad Fridline — 1821 — Perry. 
John Kraemer — 1829 — Perry. 
John Maurer— 1825 — Perry. 
John Shissler— 1823— Perry. 
John Tanyer— 1824— Perry. 
Henry Worst — 1814 — Perry. 
Jacob Berry — 1819— Jaackson. 
Michael Keplinger — 1823 — Jackson. 
Michael Fast — 1815— Orange. 
James McLaughlin — 1816— Montgomery. 
Alexander Reed— 1814 — Milton. 
John Woodburn— 1825— Milton. 


William Lemon — 1818 — Vermilion. 

Calvin Hill— 1811— Green. 

James Chamberlain— 1823— Clearcreek. 
Daniel Huffman— 1819— Clearcreek. 
Abraham Huffman— 1815— Clearcreek. 
Thomas Green— 1813 — Mohican. 
John Shinabarger— 1810 — Mohican. 
Philip Biddinger— 1823— Orange. 
Daniel Harlan, Sr.— 1815— Mifflin. 
Abraham Doty— 1816— Milton. 


Thomas C. Cook — 1822— Clearcreek. 
Peter Van Nostrand — 1815 — Clearcreek. 
Henry Baughman — 1814 — Clearcreek. 
Henry Gamble — 1815 — Clearcreek. 
Sage Kellogg— 1818— Clearcreek. 
Christopher Mykrants — 1823 — Clearcreek. 
Andrew Proudfit, Sr. — 1813 — Clearcreek. 
Michael Riddle — 1819 — Clearcreek. 
Samuel Roland — 1819— Clearcreek. 
Joseph Sheets — 1817 — Clearcreek. 
William Skilling — 1817 — Clearcreek. 
Peter Swineford— 1819— Clearcreek. 



Daniel Vantilburg — 1816 — Cleacreek. 
Sterling G. Bushnell — 1821 — Vermilion 
Joseph Duncan — 1824 — Vermilion. 
John Farver — 1817 — Vermilion. 
Robert Finley — 1811 — Vermilion. 
Andrew Newman — 1825 — Vei milion. 
Gilbert Purdy — 1S17 — Vermilion. 
John Scott — 1819 — Vermilion. 
Moses Jones — 1815 — Green. 
William McMaull— 1828— Green. 
Nathaniel Haskell— 1826— Hanover. 
Mark Mapes — 1822 — Hanover. 
John Hilderbrand — 1823 — Hanover. 
George Bender — 1828 — Lake. 
Jacob Emrick — 1822 — Lake. 
John Cooper — 1822 — Mohican. 
Thomas Eagle— 1809 — Mohican. 
Edmund Ingmand — 1816 — Mohican. 
William Newbrough — 1819 — Mohican. 
Nicholas Wireman — 1833 — Mohican. 

Henry Buffamyer Perry. 

Benjamin Emmons — 1810 — Perry. 
Thomas Johnson — 1814 — Perry. 
Peter Lash— 1823— Perry. 
James Scott — 1816 — Perry. 
John Smalley — 1818 — Jackson. 
Hansom Hamilton — 1815 — Jackson. 
John Davoult — 1816 — Jackson. 

John Bishop — 1819 — Orange. 
James Campbell— Orange. 
Edward Muray — 1 820 — Montgomery. 
Solomon Uric — 1815 — Montgomery. 
Samuel Uric — 1815 — Montgomery. 
Jacob Young — 1814 — Montgomery. 
Michael Culler— 1816— Mifflin. 
Daniel Beach — 1823 — Ruggles. 
Norman Carter — 1824 — Ruggles. 
James Poag — 1S25 — Ruggles. 
Nathaniel Clark— 1834— Troy. 
Joseph S. Parker-s-1832— Troy. 
Francis Graham — 1821 — Clearcreek. 
George Eckley — 1811 — Vermilion. 
Simon Rowland — several years after 1812- 

John McConnell Montgomery. 

Jacob Young — 1814 — Montgomery. 
Thomas Selby— 1813— Mifflin. 

Peter Brubaker Mifflin. 

Joseph Bechtel Mifflin. 

Joseph Charles Mifflin. 

John Clay Mifflin. 

John Hazlett Mifflin. 

Henry Keever Mifflin. 

John Neal Mifflin. 

Michael Seltzer Mifflin. 

"Oh Say" and "Oh Said" 

There once lived in Carson City, Nevada, 
a teamster known to the oldl community as 
"Oh Say." He was not a Chinaman, as one 
might think, but a German, and secured his 
name from ejaculating "Oh Say" whenever 
he spoke to a person. 

When the mines of the Comstock lode 
were opened, "Oh Say" drove a mule team 
from the shaft down to the crushing mill, 
and later on his mules were bought by the 
owners of the mine, and used for some years 

"Oh Say" got other mules, but always had 
deep regard for the first mules he ever 
owned, which went down into that mine to 
drag cars from the facing. 

They were named "Oh Say" and "Oh 
Said," and for forty years they dragged ore 
on the lower level of Comstock mine, never 
coming to the surface, nor issuing in the 
open air. 

But every holiday "Oh Say," the man, 
went through the Sutro tunnel to visit his 
old mules in the bowels of the earth. 

He carried them carrots and other deli- 
cacies for a mule's palate, and returned with 
curious stories of their affectionate recog- 

In the long interval the teamster had be- 
come a freighter, and from that had drifted 
into the most important business of the 
state. Only his intimate friends recalled 
him as "Oh Say," but others spoke of him 
as the "Hon. William Keyser," and Mr. Key- 
ser never forgot his mules down on the last 

level of the Comstock mine, where they 
dragged ore through the long, dripping 
covert, called "Sutro tunnel." The mangers 
of Comstock mine finally introduced ma- 
chinery to haul out to the dumps, and the 
twenty or thirty mules were out of the job. 

Then Hon. Wm. Keyser promptly bought 
his mules, "Oh Say" and "Oh Said,'' and 
brought them to the surface of the earth, 
where they met the sunlight for the first 
time in nearly half a century. He turned 
them into the rich pasturage which formed 
the lawn about his fine home in Carson 

There they lived in clover the short period 
of two weeks, and there they were both 
found dead one morning, cradled in the al- 
falfa, which had at once been a great joy to 
them, but from eating too much had caused 
their death. 

The Hon. William Keyser buried them 
where they died, and reared over their tomb 
a carved stone which bears this inscription: 

"OH SAY" and "OH SAID" 
Two Mules Who Contributed More to the 
Prosperity of Nevada Than the Silver King. 

They worked in the Comstock for forty 
years. They never took a dollar out of the 
state, but they moved millions of the values 
of its treasures. This stone is raised by 
their old friend, who seeks no higher re- 
ward than to rest beside them. 

— Our Dumb Animals. 


Indian Relics of Lehigh County, Pa. 

By D. N. Kern, Allentown, Pa. 

Y first exploring trip for 
Indian relics was made 
October 25, 1899, to the 
farm of Robert Ritter 
near Wannersville about 
four miles west of Allen- 
town. Around a fine large 
spring on this farm the 
Indians had a village, and a short dis- 
tance away, toward the north along a 
slope they had a workshop where they 
made arrow points, spears, knives and 
drills out of yellow jasper and quartz- 
ite. The quartzite they secured at the 
Lehigh or South Mountain which is 
about five miles to the south ; the jas- 
per was brought from the Macungie 
quarries. At this place I found in two 
hours 39 specimens. Since that time 
I have visited this farm about three 
times each year and have secured one 
thousand specimens. The next im- 
portant place I visited was one mile 
north of Allentown at Helfrich spring. 
Here is one of the largest and finest 
springs in Lehigh County, Pa., also a 
large cave, a piece of woodland con- 
taining about four acres is left. In the 
middle of this tract, the Mincie tribe 
had a dancing circle, of about one hun- 
dred and fifty feet in diameter, a piece 
of ground on which no tree or shrub 
has grown to this time. A short dis- 
tance to the east they had a workshop 
where they made many different kinds 
of stone implements out of different 
■colored jasper, quartzite hornstone. 
Around this village site a great num- 
ber of grooved axes were found. I my- 
self found a ax here that is sharp 
enough to chop wood. All the arrows, 
knives, rubbing stones, hammer stones, 
war clubs and scrapers I found here, 
are of the very finest workmanship. 
The large cave gave them good shel- 
ter during very cold and bad weather. 
The big pond around the spring was 
always one of the biggest fishing 
places for trout along the Jordan 
creek. Before the Lehigh and Dela- 

ware rivers were obstructed by dams 
the shad would come up to this place 
to spawn and it was a great harvest 
for the Indians to catch this fine large 
fish. When they wanted to raise large 
corn they would put a fish in the bot- 
tom of a foot deep hole, put well pul- 
verized soil on top of the fish and plant 
therein a few grains of corn and then 
keep the soil well stirred around the 
plants with their large stone blades or 
hoes of which I have many in my 
possession. In that way they raised 
larger ears of corn than many farmers 
do at the present time. 

My third place of investigation was 
at the jasper quarries at Vera Cruz, 
Upper Milford Township, Lehigh 
County, Pennsylvania. Through my 
uncle, Mr. George Neimyer, I learned 
a great deal while I was quite a little 
boy. He had shafts sunk, thirty to 
forty feet deep. In some of the largest 
and deepest holes that the Indians had 
dug, perhaps two hundred years be- 
fore, he found round pieces of wood 
two and three inches in diameter, that 
were always pointed and charred. 
Occasionally he found large thin blades 
of jasper or argillite. Out of the sixty 
pits they must have taken great 
quantities of red, brown, yellow and 
mottled jasper. Their workshop cov- 
ered about fifty acres. Here one can 
find chips by the hundred thousand. 
On this piece of ground I found several 
hundred of their hammers, some 
weighing only three ounces, others 
several pounds. I found one yellow 
jasper sledge hammer weighing 
twenty-seven pounds, I also found a 
great many turtle-backs and axes. 

My fourth place of investigation was 
the jasper quarries, a little south of 
the village of Macungie. Here they 
had one hundred and thirty-eight pits. 
about one-half of them are in Upper 
Milford Township and the others in 
Lower Macungie Township. At this 
place most of the jasper was yellow. 



Their mode of work was about the 
same as at Vera Cruz. Their main 
workshop covered about forty acres 
but from one- fourth to half a mile 
away they had smaller work shops, 
several covering only half an acre or 
less. These were always near a good 
spring. Evidences can still be seen 
that cooking was done here by the 
Indians. In these places I could al- 
ways find knives, drills, scrapers, 
axes, celts, spears, pestles, beads, rub- 
bing stones and broken pottery. 

A fifth place to make investigations 
was in the Saucon Valley near the vil- 
lage of Limeport in Lower Milford, 
and Saucon Townships. Around the 
pits in Lower Milford I found many 
knives and fine blades. Around the 
pits in Saucon I found more arrows 
and axes. These pits were on the trail 
which they passed every year, starting 
at the Delaware river passing up the 
Saucon Valley to the Perkiomen creek 
and following that stream down to the 
Schuylkill river into Montgomery 
County, Pennsylvania. Towards fall 
they returned through Montgomery 
and Bucks counties over to the Dela- 
ware river again. Along this refute 
thev halted at different places to 
make arrows, spears, and knives. Over 
this route they found plenty of game 
and fish. Wild fruits were also plenti- 

After I had studied up these places 
quite well I began to trace up smaller 
village sites and small work shops. 
Some of the finest and rarest things I 
found were on the trail leading from 
the northern part of Lower Macungie 
near Trexertown through Upper Ma- 
cungie, Weisenburg and Lynn town- 
ships, then across the Blue Mountain 
into Schuylkill County. In Upper 
Macungie there was a great Bear 
swamp and at the edge of this swamp 
I found twenty-five large knives, 
several axes, some spears, and many 

arrows. I came to the conclusion that 
here Indians had a great fight with an 
old bear. Macungie meant in the In- 
dian language Bear swamp. On the 
large farm that belongs to the State of 
Pennsylvania now, near Rittersville, 
where the State Hospital for the In- 
sane is located I found a work-shop 
where the Indians worked the follow- 
ing named stones : yellow and black 
jasper, quartzite, hornstone, argillite 
and slate. On Kline's Island a little 
east of Allentown I found many fine 
relics, and a workshop. where they had 
worked up the jasper that was mined 
in the Saucon Valley. Many fine 
grooved axes have been found on the 
island. During the time they were 
washing sand for building purposes 
arrows were found by the hundred and 
of the very finest workmanship. The 
Indians had brought to this island 
soapstone, quartzite, hornstone, black, 
brown, and yellow jasper. The quartz- 
ite was the only stone found near the 
island, the nearest hornstone and 
jasper were from six to ten miles 
away. The soapstone they had to get 
above Easton, a distance of eighteen 
miles. Only a short distance from 
where the Jordan creek and the little 
Lehigh empty into the Lehigh river 
was one of the best places to find dif- 
ferent kinds of relics. Many axes, and 
ceremonial stones were found. 

About two miles farther east is the 
Geissinger farm, the farm that Jen- 
nings got for his service in the 
"Walking Purchase", the original 
tract having contained five hundred 
acres. On this tract the Indians had 
a great village site and several work- 
shops. Thousands of specimens have 
been picked up here, especially grooved 
axes of all sizes and shapes. The speci- 
mens I collected here are of the very 
best workmanship. Lehigh University 
at South Bethlehem has a large collec- 
tion from this farm. 


The Early Pennsylvania German as Musician 

By R. R. Drummond, Ph. D., Orono, Maine 

N looking back over the 
centuries, the Pennsyl- 
vania German will find 
much, of which to be 

S^" proud. The pioneers of 

«k£ Pennsylvania were, in 
great part, Germans, and 
as the state grew they 
grew with it, and occupied some of the 
most important positions, that the 
state and later the nation could offer. 
They were not only good farmers and 
good merchants, but also good teach- 
ers, good soldiers, good statesmen and 
good musicians. 

• Phils df-jphj-a for a time at least, was 
the great centre from which the early 
settlers were distributed to other parts 
of the country, and it is here we should 
expect to find the highest develop- 
ment of the German settlers in all 
lines. However not only in Philadel- 
phia but in settlements like those of 
Lititz, Nazareth, Bethlehem, Ephrata, 
Lancaster, etc., music — especially 
church music — was early developed, 
and formed an important element in 
the life of the people. 

In the peculiar religious settlement 
at Ephrata music early held a promi- 
nent place, and to Conrad Beissel one 
of its leaders is assigned the ■honor of 
being the first composer of music in 
America. The Moravians, too, held 
music in high esteem and in addition to 
the organ they used flutes, violins, 
oboes, clarinets, trombones, trumpets, 
drums, etc., in accompanying their 
hymns. Practically every religious 
sect from Germanv. which was found 
in Pennsylvania, had hymn-writers. 

Some of the Germans in this coun- 
try were also musical-instrument mak- 
ers. Of course in the early period or- 
gans were most desired to aid the 
church service. In the fifth decade of 
the eighteenth century there are two 
German organ - builders — John G. 
Klemm and David Tannenberger — the 
latter especially famous. It is known 

that Tannenberger made at least four- 
teen organs, including some for Lan- 
caster, Nazareth, and Lititz, in which 
town he lived for some time. Another 
organ-builder of renown was Philip 
Feyring, who built an organ for St. 
Paul's Church in Philadelphia in 1762. 
Later in the century other organ- 
builders appear, of whom the Krauss 
family, of Palm, Montgomery County, 
were especially skillful. 

In Philadelphia, at least, German 
music teacriers and dealers were few. * 
Of the former John Stadler, Peter 
Kalckoffer, and George Isenberg 
taught the German flute, John M. 
Kramer, the violin, and Mr. Victor, 
the harpsichord, violin, and German 
flute. Of the music-dealers Michael 
Hillegas, first treasurer of the United- 
States, was the most prominent. 

Before the close of the Revolution- 
ary War there were very few concerts 
given, but from 1783 on this form of 
entertainment was especially frequent 
in Philadelphia and evidently appre- 
ciated. As representative of the Ger- 
man element, Alexander Reinagle, 
one of the managers of the "City Con- 
certs" in Philadelphia stands forth. He 
was an excellent musician, a fine com- 
poser, as well as director and per- 
former, and was well known to the 
best musicians of Europe. It was un- 
doubtedly owing to him that so much 
excellent music by German composers 
was played at these concerts. Two 
other eminent musicians were Philip, 
Phile and Philip, whose names occa- 
sionally appear on the concert pro- 
grams. It is probable that one of these 
men wrote the music to "Hail Colum- 

There can be no question that the 
musical life in Philadelphia was great- 
ly stimulated by German musicians, 
and it is likely that in other parts of the 
state the German element was still 
more prominent in musical affairs, and 
we may be sure that there were bands 



and orchestras composed largely of 
Germans. At the fourth of July cele- 
bration at Easton 1798 a German 
translation of "Hail Columbia" was 
sung. "Vocal and instrumental music 
bv a band from Bethlehem and Naz- 

An investigation of local records in 
different parts of the state would with- 
out doubt reveal the fact that the 

Pennsylvania Germans were much 
more prominent in musical circles 
than is shown above. Such an investi- 
gation would add greatly to our know- 
ledge of the Pennsylvania German, as 
well as being an important contribu- 
tion to the musical history of America. 

NOTE. — For further information concern- 
ing music in Philadelphia, see my book, 
Early German Music in Philadelphia, pub- 
lished by Appleton & Co., N. Y. 


My Dear Mr. Kriebel : I beg to of- 
fer to the readers of THE PENN- 
ment to the "amendment" on page 315 
(May 1910) by giving the poem as it 
appeared in a book which my father 
carried to singing school. It was called 
the "Union Choral Harmony" pub- 
lished in 1845 by Henry C. Eyer at 
Selingsgrove, Pa., and contained 192 
pages of hymns and songs in German 
and English. The music was printed 
in what has been called "shaped 
notes" of oval, square and triangular 
forms. The last page in the volume 
contains the poem from which are in- 
correctly quoted on pages 250 and 315 
some of its lines. The name of the 
exquisite letter poem is 


Freund! Ich bin zufrieden, 
Geh es wie es will! 
Unter meinen Dache 
Leb ich froh und still. 
Mancher Thor hat alles 
Was sein Herz begehrt; 
Doch bin ich zufrieden, 
Das ist auch Gold werth. 
Leuchten keine Kertzen 
Mir beim Abendmahl: 
Blinken keine Weine 
Mir in dem Pokal: 

Hab ich was ich brauche 
Nur zur Zeit der Noth, 
Siisser schmeckt im Schweise 
Mir mein Stick'chen Brod. 

Schallet auch mein Name 
Nicht im fernen Land, 
Schmiicken mich nicht Titel, 
Stern und Ordensband, 
Nur des Herzens Adel 
Sey mein hochste Lust, 
Und zum Gliick der Briider 
Athme meine Brust. 

Geben auch Palaste 
Mir ein Obdach nicht; 
Auch in meiner Hiitte 
Scheint der Sonne Licht. 
Wo die Liebe wohnet 
Lebt und schlaft man froh, 
Ob auf Eiderdunen 
Oder auf dem Stroh. 

Gonnt mir meine Ruhe, 
Herrscher dieser Welt! 
Schlichtet Krieg und Frieden 
Wie es euch gefallt! 
In dem engen Raume 
Leb ich meiner Pflicht,— 
Wiinsche eure Freuden, 
Eure Sorgen nicht. 

Keine Pyramiden 
Zieren einst mein Grab, 
Und auf meinem Sorge 
Prangt kein Marschalls Stab; 
Aber Friede wohnet 
Um mein Leichtentuch, 
Ein Paar Freunde weinen, 
Und das ist genug. 



A Sundayj among the Seventh Day Baptists of 

Snow Hill 


d a 

n n n 

AVE part with me in one 
of the meetings o f 
twenty-five years ago. 
Early on Saturday morn- 
ing team-loads of people 
begin arriving on the 
grounds. It is a topo- 
graphical fact that all 
roads in that section of the county 
lead to the Nunnery and all roads hold 
an almost unbroken stream of vehicles. 
Before the sun is well above the high 
hills to the east of the buildings, the 
roads close by begin to be congested 
and soon one side of each highway is 
converted into a hitching place. Teams 
are tied to the fences for many rods in 
every direction. All the country side 
is here or arriving and with them visit- 
ing brethren of the faith from the con- 
gregation in Morrison Cove, Bedford 
County, and many who are attracted 
by curiosity from their homes thirty 
and fifty miles away. 

It is an animated and oddly con- 
trasted scene. In their plain garments 
come members of the Seventh Day 
Baptist Church and older members 
greet each other with a kiss— «-men so 
saluting each other and women ex- 
tending the same custom to the 
women. In gayer clothes come the 
curious. It is the great clearing house 
of mild religious disputation, of crop 
prospects, of family prosperity and 
family misfortune, of the neighbors' 
goings, of the tittle-tattle that brings 
a smile or sends away an enemy. 

Over all the grounds, over all the 
roads they spread. All peer into the 
monastery and at the church but not 
many go into the sanctuary. Only the 
plainly-clad members of the denomina- 
tion gather there It is theirs and they 
are at home there. They stand in 
groups under its shadow while all 
around them flit the curious-minded, 
many of them pretending to nothing 
much but a display of the gay gowns 

and brilliant neckties provided for this 

Along the roads for a quarter mile 
in all directions are the stands of 
lunch venders, who have brought 
sandwiches and cakes and candy and 
lemonade and colored water for the re- 
freshment of those who purpose 
spending the day there. 

Around the bend in the road comes 
a young man driving a pair of hand- 
some horses with heads high and 
manes tossed by their speed and the 
slight breeze. Everybody gives way 
before him. He is the son of a well- 
to-do farmer of the neighborhood and 
this is a show day for him. 

Almost his buggy pole is driven into 
the curtains of the plain carriage of a 
somberly garbed man who is letting 
his sedate old beast pull him and his 
family slowlv to the church. This 
team load is come for worship. 

These are some of the contrasts that 
are so many here on this day and that 
with every minute make a new picture 
for the onlooker. 

But you have another purpose in 
coming to the grounds and about ten 
o'clock you follow the men and women 
of the congregation into their church 
edifice — plain, white, without attempt 
at decoration. 

Soon the services are begun. Rev. 
John A. Pentz is in charge. There is 
singing of tunes that are probably 
somewhat familiar in their theme. 
There are fervent prayers and there 
are sermons. On this particular day 
it is your privilege to hear Rev. John 
Walk, a minister of the Snow Hill con- 
gregation, preach, and Rev. Jacob 
Diamond, of Morrison's Cove branch. 

They impress you with their earnest- 
ness and their sincerity. They ex- 
pound the Scriptures, which they hold 
to be the only rule of life ; they put 
their own interpretation upon them 
and they proclaim some doctrines to 



which you may not be willing to sub- 
scribe but which you know will lead 
men along right lines. 

They do not preach from a pulpit or 
even from a platform but take their 
place behind a good-sized table and 
there, on an equality with the lay 
membership, they deliver the message 
of the Bible. It is a very close- listen- 
ing congregation which they address 
and one that shows its great interest. 

About noon the first service is over. 
Everybody leaves the meeting house, 
except the committee for the occasion 
and its helpers. These people quickly 
convert the church into a dining hall, 
fill it with tables and then in a remark- 
ably short time invite the members of 
the congregation and the visitors back 
to partake of a lunch. Of course, you 
go, if room can be found for you. 

In each table are big platters of ap- 
plebutter and plates of butter and soon 
men come through the aisles carrying 
armsful of bread — white as snow, cut 
in thick slices and very appetizing — 
and serve a slice to each person. After 
them come men and women with 
steaming, fragrant coffee that has been 
boiled in the big boiler in the kitchen 
attached to the meeting house. 

To each person is given a knife and 
he cuts his share of the butter from the 
plate and dips out from the platter a 
portion of the applebutter for his 
hread. Long in the afternoon the 
feeding of the visitors is continued. 

Before it is over yon may go to the 
stream of water at the west end of the 
church grounds, where a pool has been 
dug out of the sand, and observe the 
minister baptize new members. Their 
baptism is by trine immersion, the 
hodv being inclined forward and the 
face going into the water first. 

When the last of the converts has 
been immersed there is a swaying of 
the crowds back and forward for a last 
look at all the important places of in- 
terest, for the last word with some old 

or new friend, if he can be found, and 
then a scattering along the road to 
find the carriages and start the home- 
ward journey. 

By the time the sun has gone down 
back of the mountains far off on the 
other side of the valley, few are left 
except members of the denomination. 
There remain for them two important 
services. The first begins at early 
candle light. The first double method 
is practised here. Beissel instituted 
this method for the church. Two 
persons go together in administration 
of the rite. One washes the feet and 
the other dries them and the work is 
generally divided so that each pair 
serves only four or half-a-dozen people. 

Then follows the Communion, at 
which bread and wine are used. 

One of the older members will tell 
you that more than a half century ago 
there was observed the eating of the 
Lord's Supper between the feet-wash- 
ing and the Communion. This was in 
perpetuation of the supper "in the 
upper room". The supper consisted of 
mutton broth and mutton and bread. 
For half a century this has not been 

With the last solemn service of the 
Communion the annual meeting comes 
to a close. The members from Morri- 
son's Cove and elsewhere, who wish 
to do so, retire to the nunnery, to 
occupy the rooms and the beds once 
used by the monastical brothers and 

The night closes in on them. The 
sounds of the day's activity are gone. 
A cricket nearby chirps. It seems an 
echo — a faint one — of the day full of 
life and busy scenes. 

The >day and night tell the story of 
the Snow Hill monastery. 

C. W. Cremer, Esq., Waynesboro, 
Pa., in "Papers Read before the Kit- 
tochtinny Historical Society, Vol. VI, 
p. 10. 


Celia of Bernville 

By Louis Reigner, Wyomissing, Pa. 

HEN the old church at 
Bernville was razed and 
the red bricks were built 
into the new edifice, the 
church yard with its 
ruined wall and its 
crumbling neglected head- 
stones, was left intact; 
that is, intact as time allows. Over 
the dim mounds or broken squares of 
sandstone and marble the long grass 
grows and dies and grows again, and 
every year sees the obliteration of 
faint letters and the history of a for- 
gotten people sinking down into the 
earth. On a rounded sandstone, with 
a grotesque carved face and a long 
neck with a pair of handlike wings, is 
graven in better skill than the rude 
decoration : 

geb. 6 November, 1756, s. 3 Juli 1776. 
Ach Gott" and the rest is undecipher- 
able. Why that despairing cry to the 
Almighty for her who saw but 20 

Lieutenant Granville Pencoyd, of his 
Majesty's Fortieth Regiment of Horse, 
in colonial service, was bitter against 
the fate that led him along the muddy 
Bernville trail in May, 1776. The driv- 
ing rain beat upon his long greac coat 
and revealed a bit of scarlet coat and 
white breeches spattered with mud. 
At each lurch of his horse he bewailed 
anew the orders which sent him to 
"this Godforsaken country" to learn 
the "sentiment" of the settlers toward 
that monarch who was fast getting 
himself into difficulties with his larg- 
est possession. Behind him dragged 
two troopers, leading a pack horse 
with, two heavy portmanteau, for an 
officer of George III and the younger 
son of Sir Henry Pencoyd of Pencoyd 
Hall must travel in state. A glance at 
the pack horse now and then reminded 
Granville of the dances and teas he 
was leaving at Reading and increased 
bis prospect of being bored in a back- 

w r oods settlement with people whose 
language he only half understood. 
Thus it was that when they pulled up 
at the tavern at Bernville, the suspi- 
cious looks of the natives depressed 
him all the more. His majesty's sov- 
ereigns, however, opened the larders 
not the hearts of the settlers, and the 
detail of the Fortieth found shelter 
and stables. The troopers, one of 
whom, Hollingford, spoke German, 
gradually reached sort of a friendship 
with the Pennsylvania Germans. Pen- 
coyd, left to himself, spent the time 
wandering along the Tulpehocken. 

One of these rambles the officer hap- 
pened upon a girl, whose slender 
figure quite discounted the buxom 
tendencies of many of the women of 
the settlement. At this venture, "I 
beg your pardon: Do I intrude?" he 
was surprised to hear in perfect Eng- 
lish, "Not unless you prefer a lonely 
walk." And the next day she came 
again, and the days that followed were 
Elysian. His majesty's lieutenant was 
learning the sentiment of the section. 
The girl's explanation was simple. 
Maximilian Zorndorf, her father, had 
been at Heidelberg University and had 
served under Frederick the Great. It 
was he who had taught Celia the lan- 

Granville's friendship with the 
head of the community evoked unfa- 
vorable comment ; comment which 
prew in intensity as neither of the two 
apparently noticed it. The crux of 
this feeling broke out in a yokel, Bauer 
Loomp, a farm hand in the employ of 
Zorndorf, and to the latter he blurted 
out, "Di madel geht mid der booma- 
laddie" — "Hal dei maul !" snapped the 
old soldier. Loomp "held his mouth" 
before Zorndorf but in the hearing of 
Pencoyd he mumbled a slighting re- 
mark about the girl and the lieutenant 
knocked him down. 

Smarting under the blow, Loomp 
threatened to "lay the Britisher cold", 



and other ''young sports" egged him 

Pencoyd and the girl stood at the 
end of a footbridge across a wooded 
ravine which separated the farm of 
the Zorndorfs from the village. In the 
meadow the hay lay in rows, for July 
3 saw a late harvest and the crops not 
yet housed. Across the field the first 
light twinkled in the farm house, 
though the sun was just setting. From 
the edge of the clearing a whippoor- 
will sounded his triple call and a stray 
breeze stirred the leaves. 

The quiet was undisturbed till Pen- 
coyd. with words that stumbled into 
his throat, whispered, "Cele-I-can't go 
back to England-alone-I" his arm 
swept around her neck and her head 
rested against his shoulder. Pier hair 
disengaged itself and a loop of velvet 
fibbon twined itself in Granville's 
fingers. "Cele", he said, and she 
turned her face up to his, "I — love—" 

Crack! "Granville"! she shrieked, 
and her arms about his neck tightened 
and relaxed and dropped. There was 
a scurrying in the bushes. Pencoyd 
lowered" the girl little by little, till her 
body lay quite still on the ground. 
Then he rose and brushed his eyes in 
a vague sort of way. The sun had 
gone down. He looked curiously at 
the ribbon in his hand, and then stuffed 
it mechanically into his pocket. * * 
Dorndorf was silent in his grief, and 
his family busied with the three days 
of preparation for the funeral feast, 
went about their duties sadly. Loomp 
left the settlement without any adieux, 
and the natives were divided o n 
whether he had been a fool or a bad 
marksman. Pencoyd was dazed. 

On the day appointed, the old 
church was crowded to the doors. 
Granville, obeying only instinct, en- 
tered the church with his men, and sul- 
lenly the natives made standing room 
for them in the rear. The Reverend 
Kasper Stober mounted the pulpit, and 
after a long harangue in German, he 

continued: "It is better that this girl 
had died than that she go on her sinful 
way. Perhaps a worse fate was in 
store for her at the hands of — " 

Zorndorf half rose in his seat but 
the fear of Lord's anointed was strong 
upon him and he subsided and bowed 
his head. Hollingford wdiispered 
rapidly to Pencoyd and the latter 
quietly unbuckled his sword and 
handed it to the trooper. Then he 
walked carefully up the aisle. The min- 
ister and the people stared in amaze- 
ment. Up the spiral staircase he 
moved and steadying himself by the 
pupit rail he swung round and slap- 
ped the preacher's mouth. Then with 
tears in his eves he descended and left 
the church. 

At the gate a courier met the officer 
and handed him a packet, adding in 
the hearing of the crowd, for the ser- 
vice had broken up : "These rebels 
have decided to run this colony them- 
selves ; met in Philadelphia and de- 
clared war against King George." 
Such of the natives as paid attention 
said merely: "Yes, well, I knew it 
would go that away." In response to 
the orders for mobilization, Lieuten- 
ant Pencoyd left Bernville within an- 
hour and the red coats of the British 
Army gleamed for the last time among 
the trees along the Tulpehocken. Pen- 
coyd did not open his lips till Reading. 
The third of July at Pencoyd Hall 
was an ever increasing cause of anxiety 
to Lady Constance, for on that day 
her brother's lonely bachelorhood and 
his 75 years became buried in the deep- 
est depression. Accustomed as she 
was to his solitary habits and his dis- 
like for interruptions of his retirement 
Lady Constance ventured to enter the 
library about evening. He sat by the 
west window. "Granville", she whis- 
pered softly. "Granville"! she called. 
She threw her arms about his neck. 
"Granville"! she shrieked. But the 
sun had gone dowm forever. In his 
hand was twined a bit of velvet ribbon. 


A "Wheat Market" of Colonial Days 

By Clara A. Beck' Centre Square, Pa. 


ORE than a century ago, 
Malthus, the great Eng- 
lish economist declared 
that: "The increase in the 
world's population, would 
be halted by lack of food." 
In contradiction of this 
dismal prophecy, comes 
recently announced fact, that 

"Winnipeg has taken from Minneapo- 
lis, its long' held position, as the larg- 
est receiving point of wheat in Amer- 
ica, and ranks next to Chicago, as a 
market for this grain". This means, 
that a vast grain farming territory, of 
more than three million acres under 
cultivation, promises to supply the 
whole world with food, and involves 
methods of finance, in the disposal of 
it, such as our fathers never dreamed 

It seems "a far cry back" to the days 
of the Malthus prophecy, and the 
wheat market of a period which 
seemed to justify it. Modern progress 
is so rapidly wiping out historic land- 
marks, or changing them beyond the 
possibility of recognition, that it was 
with pleasure we agreed to resurrect 
the history of one of these "centers of 
commerce", which had its beginning 
in Colonial days. 

Facing the historic Skippack Road, 
at Centre Square, Whitpain Township, 
Montgomery Co., Pa., stands an old 
mansion, now the private residence of 
Mr. John Morris. 1 The ground on 
which it is built, is part of a tract of 
4500 acres, which in 1682, William 
Penn "released" to Samuel Fox, 
Charles Marshall, and James Clay- 
pole. These men were not able to meet 
their financial obligations, and subse- 
quently the whole tract "became 
seized in fee", and passed into the 
hands of Richard Whitpain", a citizen, 

and butcher of London." Whitpain, 
after wrom the tract was named, died 
in 1689, and five of his creditors be- 
came the owners. In 1731, William 
Aubrey, "of the town of London", sold 
it to Anthony Morris, "a malster, of 
Philadelphia", and Thomas Rees, of 
Merion. These men, disposed of it to 
John Johnson, a money lender, who in 
1759 transferred no acres to Abraham 
Wentz. His descendents held it more 
than a hundred years, and made it a 

1 By a curious circumstance, we have just learned, 
that Anthony Morris, who in 1731, is mentioned as 
part owner of the tract of land on which "The 
Wheat Market" stands, was a great uncle to Mr. 
John Morris, the present owner of the property. 

The ' ' Wheat Market ' ' ; Old Tombstones ; 
vStump of the "Freak of Nature." 

point of historic interest, and the pio- 
neer of a great industry. 

Abraham Wentz, died the same year 
in which he puchased it, and his grand- 
son, Colonel John Wentz, inherited 
the property. In 1762 he built a large 
mansion, and had it licensed as, "A 
Public House." It had for its sign a 
"Rising Sun", and was known far, and 
near, as "The Wheat Market." 

This house, practically unaltered, 
seems to have escaped the ravages of 
time. It is built of brick, red, and 
black, alternately. The red brick was 



burnt on the place, and the black, 
which is shiny, like glass, was im- 
ported at great cost from England. 
The floors are of oak, and the joists of 
hewn timber, and although the interior 
has been somewhat changed, the place 
still boasts two open fire places, one 
with swinging cranes, the other with 
brick tiling. In the days when these 
shed their light, and warmth, over a 
generation long since called to rest, the 
men who kept public houses, were 
mostly men of note and prominence ; 
The first landlord of "The Wheat 
Market", was no exception to this rule. 
The Supreme Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania, honored him by ap- 
pointing him Cornet of the Troop of 
Light Horse, in the Militia. For twen- 
ty years he was Justice of the Peace. 
In 1804 he was elected County Treas- 
urer. At the close of the War of 1812, 
the Government constituted him Col- 
lector of Internal Revenue Tax, and 
later he became the Principal Assessor 
of the 4th District of Pennsylvania. 
Added to this he made his house a 
famous "Commercial center." 

In those days the farmer was still a 
pioneer, with much to learn regarding 
soil, and climatic conditions. A "win- 
ter wheat", which could be scientific- 
ally nurtured, and successfully grown, 
was unknown to him. Indeed wheat 
did not even ripen well, and much of 
the bread was made of "rye-an-injun", 
half rye, half corn meal. 

Most of the wheat came from the 
then, upper counties. Among these, the 
Conestoga Valley district, near Lan- 
caster, — called "The Garden of Penn- 
sylvania", — seemed especially favored. 
It was of course necessary to get the 
crops to market. There were no 
railroad, nor shipping facilities. The 
pack horse, and bridle path period, was 
just passing, but a bright inspiration 
had evolved, and brought into exis- 
tence, the Conestoga wagon, and this 
became the vehicle of transportation. 
In it, the careless observer saw only, a 
large canvas covered wagon, but the 
man of enterprise, "the promoter" of 
that day, saw its vast possibilities. 

Gen. Braddock, made it famous in his- 
tory, by cutting the first trail across 
the Alleghenies. Hovenden, immortal- 
ized it in Art, by his "Westward Ho!" 
And indeed, for ingenuity of construc- 
tion, the Conestoga has known no 
rival. These wagons had large boat- 
shaped bodies, with curved canoe bot- 
toms, which made it possible for them 
to carry freight safely, at whatever 
angle the body might be. The rear 
ends could be lifted from sockets, and 
on these, were placed feed troughs for 
the horses. On one side of the wagon 
was a tool chest, and under the rear 
axle tree hung tar buckets, and water 
pails, made of tree trunks, hollowed 
out. The wheel tires were nearly a 
foot wide, and some times a "lazy 
seat" was attached to the side of the 
wagon, for the driver who grew tired 
of walking. The covers of these wagons 
were of pure white woven hemp, tight- 
ly corded down to arched bows. Each 
wagon had a carrying capacity of from 
four to six tons, or a ton to each horse. 
Of course these horses were large, and 
of the Conestoga breed. 

In describing market days to the 
writer of this article, the late Abraham 
Wentz,— grandson of Col. John Wentz 
said: "When farmers came from the 
upper counties to market their wheat, 
it was a sight worth seeing. As a boy 
I was impressed by the long proces- 
sion of heavily laden Conestogas, each 
drawn by a team of horses, wearing 
fine harness, gaily decorated with 
housings of scarlet fringe, worsted 
rosettes, and bells. T he farmers 
traveled together, because the roads 
were bad, and they could be mutually 
helpful. The procession grew, as 
farmer after farmer along the route 
joined it, and by the time they reached 
the "Wheat Market", there were near- 
ly a hundred in line. We had stabling 
for sixty horses, and as each man had 
from four, to six or seven, many had to 
be turned out. Every farmer was his 
own hostler, and carried feed for his 
horses. As he also carried his. own 
"grub", coffee, "flip", and drinks gen- 
erally, were the only things bought 



from the landlord. At night the team- 
sters brought blankets, and narrow 
mattresses, from their wagons, and 
spreading them out on the bar room 
floor, slept there. 

Next morning early, the millers from 
Philadelphia, and the surrounding 
country, came to the "Wheat Market." 
Then there was a lively time bargain- 
ing, disputing, and settling prices. As 

Earl C. Wentz, Great Grandson of Col. John 
Wentz, founder of the Colonial Wheat Market. 
(Photo by Bussa.) 

much of the flour in those days was 
shipped to England, of course these 
transactions were carefully managed. 
After a day spent in this way, the buy- 
ers returned home, and the farmers 
spent a second night at the "Wheat 
Market", leaving early the next morn- 
ing to deliver the wheat to the millers. 
This trip, and the trip back to Centre 
Square, was made in one day. After a 

third night, spent at the "Market", the 
farmers rolled up their blankets, ate 
breakfast, took a last drink together, 
and with their wagons packed with 
necessary produce, bought in Philadel- 
phia, returned home. This is how wheat 
was marketed for many years, at 
Wentz's tavern." 

Connected with the history of the 
"Wheat Market", yet having no bear- 
ing on the subject under consideration, 
is a curious story. In those early days 
it was decided to build a church on 
this tract of ground. Preparatory to 
the carrying out of this plan, a grave- 
yard was staked off, and a number of 
people lie buried here, in unmarked 
graves. Two stones only, have stood 
the test of storm, and time. One 
marks the last resting place of Bar- 
bara Kress, who died in 1757, the 
other that of Charles Kress, who "fell 
asleep", in 1766. Both graves are sur- 
rounded by thin timber, and under- 
brush, and were under the shadow of 
a great tree, which, accounted a freak 
of nature, was blown down by a recent 
storm. Tradition says, that over a 
century ago, when John Vanderslice 
was buried here, a person in at- 
tendance, stuck his cane in the ground 
to mark the grave. As the wood was 
fresh and green, it sprouted into a 
great maple, but being reversed in the 
planting, all the lower limbs crooked 

Here, in the silence of a summer's 
day, undisturbed by the noise, and 
bustle of the busy world, we have 
stood and listened to the sweet melody 
of song birds, and wondered, what 
stories of enterprise, romance, and ad- 
venture, could have been told by these 
men and women, who so silently rest, 
near the once famous "Wheat Market 
of Colonial Days." 

NOTE. — The writer of this article, wishes 
to acknowledge the kindness of Mrs. Elvie 
McCann, daughter of the late Hon. Jones 
Detweiler, (Archivest), for the privilege of 
referring to records in her possession. 


Merryall Settlement, Bradford Co., Pa. 

By G. M. Brumbaugh, M.D., Washington, D V C. 

The following quotations are taken 
[nun statements of Justus Lewis, late 
of Wyalusing, published in History of 
Bradford County, Pa., Craft 1878 p. 

"On the 13th day of July 1788 Thomas 
Lewis and family moved from the river on 
to a place now called 'Merryall' (after 
Merryall in Connecticut — G. M. B.). The 
year before they came from Conn, and 
made a temporary residence at the mouth 
of the creek, and on that day they settled 
in a log cabin in a wild dreary wilderness, 
four miles from a neighbor on one side and 
forty on the other. The prospect was 
dreary enough, but they persevered, and 
helped others to come in and settle around 

"In 1794 Joseph Elliott, Amasa Wells, & 
Guy Wells moved into the neighborhood. 
Joseph Elliott to where the family now live, 
Amasa Wells where Elijah Camp (lately) 
resided. In 1795 the mother of Amasa & 
Guy Wells (Hannah Loomis, widow of 
Lieut. James Wells) died, and while she 
lay a corpse, the neighbors cleared off a 
place for the grave, where the present 
Merryall burying ground is. She was the 
first corpse buried there. In the meantime 
the settlers began locating along up the 
creek. James Ingham & family came in 
1795 William Dalton settled on the west 
side of the creek opposite the meeting 
house" etc. 

Rev. Milton Lewis Cook, 1 pastor of 
the Merryall Church, resides in the old 
ancestral parsonage near the old bury- 
ing ground, and opposite the site of the 
old Merryall Meeting House, (prac- 
tically every vestige of which has dis- 
appeared) and carefully preserves the 
old church records (made by his grand- 
father Rev. Justus Cook, pastor) which 
are replete with interesting entries and 
should be published so as to become 
accessible for all who are interested in 
the early settlement of that section of 
Pennsylvania. The new church was 
erected several miles distant. 

Older Inscriptions from Merryall 
Burying Ground. Literally repro- 
duced as transcribed by the writer in 
the summer of 1910: 

Hannah Loomis Wells 1725-1795; w. of 
Lieut. Jas Wells who was killed in the bat- 
tle of Wyiming July 3, 1778. (First inter- 

Sacred to the Memory of Hannah the wife 
of Dr. Ebenezer Beeman who Died Jan 7th 
AD 1823 In the 46th yr of her age 

Sacred to the Memory of EBENEAZEr 
BEEMAN who Died Feb 9th 1840 in the 82d 
Year of his Age. (Revolutionary soldier). 

Joseph Black born June 24, 1762 died 
Nov. 20, 1834 

Alice Wells Black born Nov. 30, 1772, 
died July 8, 1842 

Israel Buck "died" Aug 8, 1858 AE 72Yrs 
lm & 4d 

Our Mother Eliza (Wells) Buck Died Jan 
2, 1867 Aged 75yrs 

Elijah Camp Died Dec. 17, 1873 Aged 8& 
Years 21 Days . 

Sally Wife of Elijah Camp Died July 27,. 
1849 Aged 58yrs & 4ms 

Israel Camp Died Dec 27, 1868 Aged 74 
yrs 6 ms 

Mary his Wife, (Wells), Died Apr. 16, 
1880, aged 83 Yrs 7Ms. Asleep in Jesus. 

Here lies Job Camp Died Jan 17th 1822 
AE 75 yrs (Revolutionary soldier). 

1832 AGEB 59 YEARS 1 MONTH AND 14 

Here lies Henry Elliott Died Deer. 21st. 
1S09 AE 97 y & Mary his wife died Deer. 1 
1806 AE 91 y (Revolutionary soldier). 

John Elliott Died Feb 19, 1876 AE 84 Yrs 
9 Ms 

Marietta Wife of John Elliott Died Oct 
13, 1864 In the 74th Year of her age 

Joseph Elliott Died Mch 31, 1849 Aged 92 
ys 5 mos & 21 ds. He served his country In 
the Revolution, Lived a Patriott, And has 
gone to his reward. 

1 Address, Wyalusing, Bradford Co., Pa. 

Deborah (Lewis) w. of Joseph Elliott died 
Feb 24, 1840 AE 69 yrs 4 m & 27 ds. 

Wrapped in the shades of death No more 
that friendly face I see. Empty, ah empty,. 
every place Once filled so well by thee 



Wm Goodwin Died June 19, 1873 Aged 78 
years & 4 ms 

Polly wife of William Goodwin Died Apr 
25, 1863 Aged 66 years 

Ebenezer Lewis Died July 17, 1857 Aged 
65 yrs 11 m's & 17 ds 

Julia A. his wife died Mar. 16, 1847 Aged 
53 yrs 10 ms & 13 ds 

Justus Lewis died May 10, 1874 aged 
yrs 9 months 

Polly (Keeler) Wife of Justus Lewis Died 
April 20, 1857 AE 63 yrs 5 ms. 'Asleep in 
Jesus" She hath done what she could 

Lucy dau of Justus & Polly died Mar 12, 
1837 AE 18 yrs & 11 months 

Mary (Terrell) w. of Thos. Lewis b at 
New Milford Conn Mch 1, 1748 d Jan 21, 

Here Lies Thomas Lewis Died Feb 7, A D 
1810 AEt 64yrs & Mary his Wife Died Jan 
21 AD 1813 Aet 64 yrs 10 mos & 12 ds 

(Two coffins follow beneath upon the 

(Thos. Lewis b New London, Conn. May 
11, 1745— d Feb. 7, 1810; Revolutionary sol- 

Hannah wife of Asahel Southwell 
Died Mar 22 1845 Aged 80 Years 


Mary Wife of Asahel Southwell Jr. Died 
Sep 10, 1846 aged 50 yrs 2 months & 10 dys 

In memory of Guy Wells Esq. who died 
Nov. 8, 1828 AE 62 yrs Elizabeth his wife 
died July 23, 1856 aged 86 yrs. 2 mos & 14 

The AE and AD are digraphs, most- 
ly carved so as to use the last part of 
the former letter as the first part of the 
latter. The cemetery is well sustained 
— a few of the oldest stones lack in- 
scriptions, or contain merely initials. 
Washington, D. C, Feb., 191 1. 

Luther the German Master Singer 

Luther's reforms of public worship 
were not at all hasty, but extremely 
moderate. Vestments, candles, cruci- 
fixes and pictures, if not undue atten- 
tion was given to them, he regarded as 
indifferent, and every congregation 
preserved full liberty of keeping or 
rejecting them. 

Until then all singing, with the 
exception of some German hymns, had 
been Latin. Luther now planned a 
full German liturgical service (i. e. 
singing of the congregation, the choir 
and the minister at the altar. Two 
musicians, John Walter and Conrad 
Kupf, rendered him valuable assistance 
for the musical part. He paraphrased 
(put in rime) Is. 6:14, some Psalms, 
the Ten Commandments, the Creed, 
translated and improved some Latin 
hymns and the Litany, adding : "In all 

time of our tribulation, in all time of 
our prosperity, help us, good Lord." 
(See Sunday School Hymnal, small ed. 
pt. 1, p. 125.) 

Luther's hymns produced a great 
revival of sacred song throughout 
Germany, and were sung everywhere, 
in the streets, fields, workshops, pal- 
aces, church, "by the children in the 
cottage and by the martyrs on the 
scaffold." The hymn, A Dear Chris- 
tians, One and All Rejoice, is said to 
have converted many, and by it a con- 
gregation once silenced a Roman 
Catholic priest in the cathedral at 

Luther spent many a happy hour in 
singing with his children and accom- 
panying their son with his lute. Next 
to theology he prised the art of music 
as the highest gift of God. — Bruegge- 
mann's Life of Luther. 




O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb " — A. S. 


Ou Der Lumpa Party 

(A. C. W.) 
(No. 3) 

"Yah, ihr weibsleit", sawgt die Billa, 

"Arwet hut's wuh'n guter willa, 

Ehnie fertich, kloppt die onner, 

Yah, m'r mehnt sie winka nonner 

Wie's dert war an's Dilly Gruhwa 

Mit'm b'such, paar nochber's buhwa; 

S'war uff Sundawg, derf s net lohwa, — 

Was wit macha mit so schwohwa? 

Gehn dorch alles fun g'beier, 

Sei-schtall, wagaschop un scheier, 

Hen die nahs in alia ecka 

Wie der schrief an's Davy Flecka; 

Endlich hen sie alles g'sehna, 

Anyhow m'r sut so mehna, 

Kumma noh mohl noch'm offa, 

Hen's aw werklich gute g'druffa, 

Hickerniss un walniss kloppa, 

Kerna schtorra, adler ruppa — 

Sawg der kan die tzeit ferdreiwa 

G'schwinder wie der dreck obreihwa; 

Glebra ivverdem die ponna; 

'Kummt'n buhwa, setzt eich onna,' 

Hen sich aw net schtompa lussa, 

Draga lengscht schun langa hussa, 

Schmockt'ne wie de Neiyohrschitza, 

Mehnt g'wiss sie misste schwitza. 

Wara in de rechta yohra 

Wuh's em schmockt un nix ferlohra, 

Wuh's als hehst: 'Tzum miller gonga, 

Brauscht ken dokt'r obtz'fonga', 

Hen don gessa un g'drunka 

Bis der George 'm Dave g'wunka: 

"Well, ich denk m'r missa schtoppa, 

Gehn daich widder frisch an's kloppa." 

"Yah, so gehts de weibsleit immer, 

Rascht un ruh is nie un nimnier, 

Morgets frieh gehts schun an's wev'ra, 

Dawg un nacht bol rumtz'schtevra, 

Schteckt in arwet, kop un ohra, 

Deht schier noth m'r graicht sich schpohra, 

Kocha, bocka, wescha, flicka, 

Reihwa, butza, naeha, schtricka, 

Schoffa, macha, gropscha, sam'la, 

Muss sich aw noch gons ferhamla 

Draus im garta, an der scheier — 

So gehts fert, die ewich leier." 

Gehn don widder frischt an's schoffa, 

Guckt net gute so rum tz' goffa, 

Xix wie plaudra, nix wie lacha 

Wan die nochbra parties macha; 

Geht aw net yuscht grawd fer's essa, 

Hehst als glei: 'S'is yuscht urn's fressa!' 

Hut so leit die schwetza immer, 

Macha alles dreimohl schlimmer, 

Muss sich watscha, muss sich hieta, 
Schunscht duht's alia deivel bieta. 

Gehn die schehra glitchie-wippa, 
Dehl am trenna, dehl am rippa, 
Nimmond hut 'n wort tz' sawga, 
Kent'n meis'l hera nawga, 
Geht fun selwer — 'Ouch! tzum henker!' 
Schtecht'n weschp die Mollie Schenker, 
War dert in d' lumpa g'schtocka, 
Im'a schtrump — so'n alter socka, 
Hen sie noh g'tzerrt s'waer evva 
Net profitlich weschpa hehwa, 
Hetscht sie biss'l bonna solla 
Wie der Bensch an's Gied's hut wolla — 
Mach sie doht! Sie schtecht dich widder! 
'Deitschland! in der offa mit d'r!' 
Hut sie dert in's feier g'schmissa, 
Hut d' schortz noch schier ferrissa, 
Hen noh besser schnaufa kenna; 
Duht elms ovver weschpa nenna 
Duhn sie schun gons tzommafahra, 
Gucka rum — wuh kennie wara; 
Lacha noh un schmunsla drivver 
Won die angscht un f'rcht ferivver. 
"Week mit weschpa!" sawgt die Leisy, 
"Week fum leib un wae'r'm weisie; 
Ovver so gehts efters evva — 
S'muss doch biss'l lehwa gevva, 
Quakermeeting woll m'r kennie." 
"Neh, g'wiss net," sawgt die Jennie r 
"Hen g'nunk d'heem tz' brutza, 
Triebsal blohsa, rotz t' butza; 
S'maul tz' henka, s'ehlend klawga 
Hengt m'r besser an d' schtawga, 
Brauchs'm township net fermocha r 
Hut g'nunk os huschta, lacha, 
Kumma mit paar Hiobsdroppa, 
Duhn em uff die axel kloppa, 
Guta freind — doch hinner'm buck'I 
Is's yuscht so'n daumagsuck'l." 

Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star 

Finkel, Finkel, klehne Schtern, 
Wolt ich wisse, O, so gem, 
Wass du Funke maeschte sei, 
Juscht wie 'n Daemond in de Skei. 

Wann die Sunn als nunner sinkt, 
Un die Nacht der Dau haer bringt, 
Weiss mer noh dei klehnes Licht, 
Finkel, Finkel, mer in's G'sicht. 

Vun deim dunkle Himmels Ort, 
Seest du mich bal immerfort, 
Dorch mei Fenschter in de Nacht, 
Dis die Sunn dich weiche macht. 



Schpote Trav'lers uf ihr Reise, 
Bitte dich der Weg zu weisse, 
Wees net wass du bischt, so fern — 
Finkel, finkel, doch du Schtern. 

Little Drops of Water 

Klehne Droppe Wasser, 
Klehne Kernne Sand, 
Mache der mechtig Sae, 
Un des herrlich Land. 

Maenutte, juscht so kleh, 
Sie werre net bei Leit 
Beacht, doch mache sie 
Die lange Ewigkeit. 

Unser klehn' mistritte, 
Sie feere uns aweck 
Vum graate, saefe Weg 
Dief in den Sinden Dreck. 

Unser milde Dahte, 
Die Lieb in unser Werte, 
Mache schun 'n Himmel do 
Uf derre scheene Erde. 

Mary Had a Little Lamb 

Die Mary hot en Lamm gehatt, 

Mit Woll so weiss wie Schnee; 
Un's Lamm war reddie immerfort, 

Mit rum spaziere geh. 

Es war eh Dag mit in de Schul, — 

Un kaepert uf em Floor; 
Der Maeschter sagt: " 'Sis geg' de Ruhl," 

Un feert es naus am Ohr. 

Sie hen all g'lacht iwers kleh Schoff, — 

So'n G'spass war ken defore. 
Un's hot getrei gewart im Hoff, 

Bis dann die Schul aus war. 

Noh kummt's Lamm hie mit schneller Gang 

In d' Mary ihre Aerm. 
Un scheint zu sage; "Ich net bang, 

Du halst mich jo vun Haerm." 

"Wass macht des Lamm die Mary liewe?" 
War, g'frogt der Maeschter, glei; 

Er sagt; "Die Mary duht browere 
Zum Lamm recht gut zu sei." 

Translation by H. M., Rebersburg, Pa. 


When beef goes so high and it's up in the 

Und da ist gar nichts zu thun 
Kartoffel salad is not very bad, 
When der cow jumps over der moon. 

Wir essen und beiszen die feineste speisen 
Als immer wir haben der Preis; 
Wir alle gesund mt den Arbeiter bund 
Und wir leben so gut und so nice. 

Mit limburger cheese; it's go as you please, 

Pumpernickel is not very dear; 

Wir haben so viel and we're not going to 

Mit das Kraut and das gut lagerbier. 


Bay City, Mich. 

Mary's Lamm 

Goethe von Berks. 

Die Mary hot en Lammel ghat, 

Sei Woll war weiss wie Schnee, 
Un wu die Mary hi' gange is, 

Des Lamm war schur zu geh. 
Es ist emol mit noch der Schul, 

Sei Kepers dort zu mache, 
Noh hen die Kinner in der Schul. 

A' gfange laut zu lache. 

Die Meeschtern hot sich noh verzernt, 

Un hot ihr Stecke krikt 
Un hot die Dier weit uf gemacht 

Un hot's Lamm naus gekickt. 
Sie hot zu ihre Schiler gsaat: 

"Un ihr verbrecht mei Ruhl, 
Ich hab schun zu viel junge Schof 

In meiner kleene Schul." 

Des Lamm is noh urn's Haus rum gsprunge, 

Hot sich im Gras verweilt. 
Die Mary hot im Schulhaus ghockt 

Un hot en paar Stun gheilt. 
Noh wie die Schul ausgange war, 

Is sie grad uf un fart 
Un hot ihr Lamm mit heem genumme 

Un hot noch sel'm eigsperrt. 

Sie hot's gut gfietert alle Dag, 

Sei Trog war alfart voll; 
Es is noh starrik ufgewachse 

Mit scheener, weiser Woll. 
Die Mary hot ihr Scheer noh g'sucht — 

Sie hot sie als verlore — 
Us hot des Lamm uf Riegel gschnallt 

Un hot sei Woll abgschore. 

Sie hot noh gschafft an ihre Woll, 

En Woch schier Dag un Nacht, 
Un hot sich vun der schenschte Woll 

En neier Frack gemacht. 
Un wie der Frack recht fertig war, 

Hot sie sich Nodle krigt, 
Un mit der Woll, wu iwrig war, 

Hot sie sich Strimplen gstrickt. 

Wie's Lamm noch jung war, war's so schee 

Wie'n schener Blumestock, 
Wie's awer ufgewachse war, 

Noh war's en wieschter Bock. 
Die Mary hot inn noh verkaaft 

Zum alte Butscher Kamm; 
Der hot ihn gschlacht un des, ihr Leit, 

War's letscht vun Mary's Lamm. 




By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

The Century Company, New York, has 
among its spring announcements "When 
Half Gods Go" by Helen R. Martin, author 
of "The Crossways". 

Miss Katherine Riegel Loose ("Georg 
Schock") author of "Hearts Contending", 
spent the winter at her home in Reading, 
Pa. She is at work on a novel in which she 
will make use of familiar scenes around her. 

The Mercantile Library of Philadelphia 
has barred Reginald Wright Kauffman's 
latest book, "The House of Bondage", from 
its shelves. In consequence of this the 
author of the book wrote to the Library as 
follows: "I am told that your politicians call 
Philadelphia 'The Cradle of Liberty'; I as- 
sume that this is because, in Philadelphia, 
Liberty has never developed beyond its 
infancy." This seems but a fitting rebuke 
to the prudery and assumed modesty that 
would keep the lid on the pit of social cor- 

GERMAN STYLE— By Ludwig Lewisohn, A. 
M., Instructor in the University of Wis- 
consin. Cloth; 215 pp. 16 mo. 75c. 
Henry Holt & Company, New York, 1910. 

This is a collection of extracts, or speci- 
mens, from some of the masters of German 
prose; they are chosen for their literary 

The writer of this book works in a fair 
and large field or virgin soil; for German 
prose, as far as its formal beauty is con- 
cerned, has scarcely been touched in a 
technical manner. For, as the writer says, 
many German writers on style desert the 
treatment of form for that of substance, and 
even standard histories of German litera- 
ture say very little on the subject. The 
book is a study of the formal beauty of 
German prose; and it is not a treatise on 
its historical development. 

Formal German prose as a conscious art- 
form is only a century and a half old; it is 
thus antedated by English prose by a cen- 

The writer's method of procedure and 
treatment is rather new; it seems, neverthe- 
less, reasonable and acceptable. He subjects 
the prose of the several writers to the 
principle of structure; and orderly building 
of paragraph and division of thought; to the 
principle of diction; the filling up of choice 
words discriminately selected for their sig- 
nificance and beauty; and lastly to rhythm; 

the harmonious arrangement of the diction. 
In this manner he takes up the prose style 
of Luther, Lessing, Goethe, Heine, and 
Nietzsche. Inasmuch as the book has to 
do with the prose style of only some of the 
German writers, one is not permitted to 
make any remarks about the omission of 
some conspicious writers. 

The book is scholarly and highly analyti- 
cal ; it is a serviceable work on the 
technique of German prose. It is adapted 
only for advanced study. 

Introduction by Camillo Von Klenze, 
Ph. D., Professor of German in Brown 
University. Second edition; revised. 
Cloth; illustrated 332 pp. Henry Holt 
& Company, New York, 1911. 

Here is a second and revised edition of a 
favorite collection of German poems. It first 
appeared in 1894. It contains the most 
characteristic German literary ballads and 
lyrics since the beginning of the classical 
period. The editor has wisely omitted speci- 
mens of popular poetry (Volkslieder), as 
there are a number of such collections, but 
he has included some typical German stu- 
dent songs. A few new poems have been 
added from such noted writers as Hebble, 
Storm and others; and several poems of 
the first editions have been omitted. The 
book does not include the lyrical expression 
of the last two decades; this leaves the 
field open for the editing of recent lyrical 
poetry for use in colleges. 

The introduction gives a scholarly and 
comprehensive view of German literary his- 
tory of the period from which the selections 
have been taken. 

The concise biographical notices and 
critical estimates of the writers concerned 
form an admirable feature of the notes. 
The notes, furthermore, clear up a number 
of linguistic difficulties, and questions re- 
garding literary and historical interest. 

The editor has grouped the authors in a 
way to show the evolution of Germany's 
literary life for the last two centuries. An 
effort has been made to arrange a writer's 
poems so as to reflect the growth of his 
literary personality. 

Taste differs, and the old maxim says 
there is no disputing about it. A poem 
that appeals to one person will not appeal 
to another person; and so there is no use in 
saying that this or that poem should have 
been included or omitted. The selections 



in this book should meet with the approval 
of all lovers of German poetry. 


B. Lambert, Author of "Alltagliches"; 
Richmond Hill High School, New York 
City. Cloth; 100 pp. 40c. Henry Holt 
& Company, New York. 1910. 

These two thousand of the commoner 
idioms and phrases have been compiled 
from the Muret-Sanders "Encyklopadisches 
Worterbuch", from the Flugel-Schmidt- 
Tanger "Worterbuch der Englischen und 
Deutschen Sprache", and from Hetzel's "Wie 
der Deutsche spricht". 

Some of the idioms have more than one 
English meaning, but only one is given; 
for it is natural that the connotation 
should differ as the purpose differs for 
which the idiom is used. The book contains 
very few proverbs and "stock" expressions; 
these have been wisely eliminated, for the 
book aims to afford the pupil exercises in 
practical conversation, and these proverbial 
expressions would hardly tend to do that. 

As a means of ready reference, presum- 
ably, the idioms have been arranged alpha- 
betically according to some key word which 
is printed in black-faced type. 

The book seems to be another evidence 
, of the fact that the trend both in English 
and German is more and more away from 
the letter and the word and more towards 
the sentence as the unit of expression. It 
is a workable book; the numerous exercises 
at the end make it available for frequent 
class drill in composition and conversation. 


For two brochures, bearing these titles 
and reprinted from the "Ohio Archaeologi- 
cal and Historical Quarterly" we are in- 
debted to Clement L. Martzolff, Alumni Sec- 
retary, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. Caleb 
Atwater was Ohio's first historian, .but had 
he never written his History of Ohio his 
efforts to provide an educational system 
for the state and the record he made in 
Archaeology might in themselves be suf- 
ficient reason for placing his name in 
"Ohio's Hall of Fame". He was a "versatile, 
peculiar, eccentric and visionary individual" 
....a minister, lawyer, educator, legislator, 
author and antiquarian". "Yet when he 
died the local paper barely mentioned the 

"The Historic College of the Northwest" 
gives an interesting account of the rise and 

growth of Ohio University, situated at the 
little city "which according to Theodore 
Roosevelt 'with queer poverty of imagina- 
tion and fatuous absence of humor has been 
given the name of Athens'." This historic 
old school has had an interesting and 
checkered career and rejoices in a splendid 
list of Alumni, a flourishing present and a 
promising future. 

Our esteemed friend William Riddle, of 
Lancaster, Pa., has issued Cherished Memo- 
ries of Old Lancaster — Town and Shire, a 

book that has well earned the many flatter- 
ing reviews it has received. We quote the 
following from the "Lancaster Intelli- 

There is so much of interest to quote that 
the temptation must, in fairness to the book, 
be resisted. The volume is, in fact, a mine 
of the sort that great historians long for 
when seeking to reproduce for us the spirit 
and life of an era; but it gives us the daily 
life and spirit of our own times not long 
gone, and it leads us, by pleasant and dis- 
cursive ways, to that point of vantage held 
by a man who is old enough to remember 
quaint folk and who is not yet too old to 
appreciate the men and things of today. Mr. 
Riddle has supplied a valuable and enter- 
taining contribution to local history. 

The author informs us that he has only a 
few copies left. (Price $1.50.) 

The book is very fascinating, weaving 
fact and fancy so closely together that one 
is perplexed at times because he can not 
tell the one from the other. Personally we 
prefer to be saved the sifting process. 

Acknowledgment — Books Received 

Burning of Chambersburg, (1879), a poem 
of 300 lines writtes by Samuel R. Fisher, 
D. D., who was a citizen of the place for a 
period of twenty-five years prior to the 
burning of the place and was an eye witness 
of the scenes. 

Proceedings of The Pennsylvania-German 
Society, Vol. XIX. 

A Drama of Ambition and Other Pieces 
of Verse. Benjamin F. Meyers (1901), a 
limited edition "published for distribution 
among the relatives and friends of the 
author". The contents of the volume merit 
a much wider circulation. We shall quote 
from the volume in a later magazine. 

Report of the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction of Pennsylvania 1910. 


n — 



The German-American Historical Society of 

held its Twelfth Annual Meeting, Monday, 
Feb. 13, 1911, on which occasion Prof. Dr. 
Julius Goebel, of the University of Illinois, 
gave the address on "The German Origin of 
the American Liberty Sentiment". 

Historical Society of Montgomery County 

The annual meeting of the Historical 
Society of Montgomery County, Pa., was 
held in the Society's rooms, Penn street, 
opposite Court House, Norristown, Pa., on 
Wednesday, February 22, at 2 p. m. 

The business included reports of officers 
and standing committees, and the election 
of officers for the ensuing year. 

Program: "The Influence of History on 
Patriotism," Rev. Charles H. Rorer, D. D. ; 
paper, "Since Hancock's Death," Mr. Edward 
L. Hocker. Testimonial to General W. W. 
H. Davis by Mr. S. Gordon Smythe. 

Lancaster County Historical Society 

The following are the officers of this 
society for the present year: Pres., George 
Steinman; Vice President, F. R. Diffenderf- 
fer, Litt. D.; W. U. Hensel, Esq.; Record- 
ing Secretary, Charles B. Hollinger; Cor- 
responding Secretary, Miss Martha B. 
Clark; Treasurer, A. K. Hostetter; Libra- 
rian, Charles T. Steigerwalt; Executive 
Committee, D. F. Magee, Esq., G. F. K. Eris- 
man, D. B. Landis, H. Frank Eshleman, 
Esq., Mrs. Sarah B. Carpenter, Monroe B. 
Hirsh, Miss Lottie M. Bailsman, John L. 
Summy, L. B. Herr, Mrs. Mary N. Robinson. 

Hamilton Library Association 

This Association has issued in pamphlet 
form the Annual Report of its President for 
the year ending Dec. 31, 1910, containing 
an excellent "cut" of the president and 6 
pages of print. The report breathes a hope- 
ful air. One of the most interesting items 
tells of the bequest of $2500 by Charles 
Lyte Lamberton of New York City, a de- 
scendant of one of the old and prominent 
families of Carlisle, the income from which 
is to be paid in prizes to the two pupils of 
the pubic schools for the best essays upon 
the early local history of the Cumberland 
Valley and its people. Such prizes must 
prove a great stimulus to the pupils of the 
public schools to study the history of their 

Northampton County Historical Society 

At the annual meeting of this society, 
Jan. 1911, the following officers were elected 
for the ensuing year: President, Dr. Charles 
Mclntire; Vice Presidents, Dr. B. Rush 
Field and Dr. G. T. Fox, of Bath; Secretary, 
David M. Bachman; Treasurer, V. H. Ever- 
hart; Librarian, H. F. Marx; Executive 
Committee, Charles Stewart, J. V. Bull, F. 
S. Bixler, Prof. J. F. L. Raschen, W. J. 
Heller and Dr. J. C. Clyde. 

W. J. Heller made the following statement: 

"On Thursday, April 18, 1861, there was 
gathered on South Third street, from the 
Square to the Lehigh bridge, the largest 
concourse of people ever assembled on that 
thoroughfare before or since. This vast 
multitude here congregated, consisted not 
only of our own enthusiastic citizens, but 
of those of the regions 'round-about and 
many thousands also lined the hillsides to 
witness the departure, southward, under the 
noon-day sun of that memorable day, North- 
ampton County's First Defenders. 

"President Lincoln's call for volunteers 
was received and read at a public meeting 
in the court house on Monday evening, April 
15. Recruiting began on Tuesday, the 16th; 
two companies went forward Thursday, the 
18th, two more Saturday, the 20th, and one 
departed the following Monday, the 22nd. 
It is particularly gratifying to note that the 
quick response of these five companies 
enabled them to reach Harrisburg in time 
to be incorporated in the First Regiment of 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. They are re- 
corded as companies B, C, D, H and G, a 
total of 390 men, out of which there is liv- 
ing today less than 50. 

"Tuesday, April 18th, next, will mark the 
lapse of a half century since that famous 
exodus began. It is entirely proper for us, 
as a historical society, to emphasize the 
importance of a public recognition of that 
event. I would therefore make a motion 
that our secretary communicate with the 
Easton Board of Trade requesting a fitting 
observance of this fiftieth anniversary." 

This suggestion was adopted. 

Dr. Charles Mclntire then read a most in- 
teresting paper upon "A Century of Presby- 
terianism in Easton". 

The Historical Society of Schuylkill County 

The Society has had a prosperous year; 
its membership has increased to nearly two 
hundred, but a few faithful members died 
within the year. The library is slowly in- 
creasing, among the most important addi- 



tions was a full set of The Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History. 

Owing to a lock-out in the local printing 
offices the Society issued only one publica- 
tion, thus completing its second volume. 
The principal articles were: 

The History of the Henry Clay Monument, 
by Miss Ermina Elssler. 

Reminiscences of Schuylkill Haven in the 
Civil War, by Mr. Isaac Paxson. 

Address delivered at the Sesqui-Centen- 
nial of the Red Church, by the Hon. D. C. 

Schuylkill Chronicles for 1827-1828, Col- 
lected from the "Berks at Schuylkill Jour- 
nal", by Dr. H. J. Herbein. 

The Schuylkill Navigation, by Edwin F. 
Smith, General Manager. 

The Center Turnpike Road, by Dr. J. J. 

A separate volume, which is now in press, 
is to be composed of "The Blue Mountain 
Tales", with in some years ago by the late 
Judge D. C. Henning. 

At the annual meeting held Jan. 30, all 
the officers were re-elected, excepting the 
vice presidents: President, Wm. H. Newell, 
Vice Presidents, Jos. F. Patterson, Mrs. 
Louisa Hausa and Geo. W. Gensemer; Re- 
cording Secretary, D. G. Lubold; Treasurer, 
J. W. Fox; Librarian, Dr. H. J. Herbein; 
Assistant Librarian, Claude G. Unger; 
Trustees, Dr. H. J. Herbein, A. A. Hesser. 


Conducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited. Address, The Penna. German, Lititz, Pa. 


Kloss Family Information Wanted 

Johann Klass or Klose landed Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Nov. 22, 1752, in the ship "Phonix" 
from Roterdam and Cowes. He located 
within two miles of Bethlehem, Pa., where, 
in 1768, he had according to the township 
tax list 362 acres of land. He had 9 chil- 
dren as follows: "Phillip, Jacob, Michal, 
Johannas, Jr., Valentine, Cathren, Elizabeth, 
Annamaria, Christian." The writer desires 
information about the descendants of Phil- 
lip, Michal, Johannas, Jr., and Christian. 
The name is spelled Klase, Kloss, Klose, 
Glase. I want to gather all the information 
I can for the next Family Reunion to be 
held the second Wednesday of August, 1911, 
at Rolling Green Park, Sunbury, Pa. 

J. H. KLASE, Snydertown, Pa. 
Sec. Klase Family Reunion. 

Seiler Family Data 

Dr. J. H. Seiler, Akron, Ohio, writes: 
"I am trying to get track of my Great 
Grandfather Seiler who came to this country 
from Germany with his family and two 
brothers, late in 1790 or about 1800. He 
settled in Penna. and was a school teacher. 
That is all we know of him. One of his 
brothers settled in New England and the 
other in the South." 

Can any of our readers give information 
respecting the family? 

Hessian Soldiers 

In a former issue of The Pennsylvania- 
German a subscriber asked for names of, 
and information about the Hessian soldiers. 
After the war, those who remained in 
Pennsylvania, as a rule, sought the hilly 
sections of our eastern counties of the 

In the western part of Schuylkill County 
settled, among others, the following Hes- 
sians who reared families: Johannes 
Schwalm, Conrad Dietz (1752-1812), Andraes 

Schmeltz, Peter (?) Stein, Yund(en) 

Johannes Stang (1761-1855). Tradition 
states he was a mere lad when he came to 
America, that he often spoke about the war 
and New Jersey. All above named pioneers 
are buried at Klinger's Church. 

The lower end of the Mahantango Valley 
embraced in lower Mahanoy Township. 
Northumberland County was another settle- 
ment of these worthy but much abused 
pioneers. Among the numbere were: 
Johannes Biagaman — who had sons Adam 
and Nicholas, and they have a large de- 
scendancy in Northumberland County, 
many live about Dalmatia. They are known 
even to this day as the "Hessians" — or the 
"Black Hessians". The ancestor was of 
dark complexion, and had a rather irritable 
disposition of mind, and often was called 
"Der base Johanny Hess". He was pros- 
perous, and one of his grandsons who bore 
his name was the largest real estate owner 
and leading business man of Georgetown 
(Dalmatia) a nice town along the east bank 
of the Susquehanna river. Nicholas Bohner 
(1754-1837) was another Hessian who- 



founded a large family. Three of his de- 
scendants are ministers of the Evangelical 
Church, and the family are one of the most 
prosperous and esteemed people in that 
section of the county. They are most 
numerous. The ancestor is buried at Zion's 
Union Church in Stone Valley, where many 
Hessian pioneers are buried, as well as of 
their descendants. Among other Hessians 
buried there are Kepners, Dockeys, Sess- 
mans, Allemans, Ossmans, Bachmans, Hoff- 
mans, Gessners. 

The full names so far as I could obtain 

and verify were as follows: Hepner, 

John Adam Dockey, Johan Lessman, Jacob 

Alleman, Ossman, George Hensyl 

(Located in Little Mahanoy Township. A 
great grandson is an Evangelical minister, 
another a doctor located at Rebuck, Pa.). 
Daniel Dornsife (His son Daniel located in 
Little Mahanoy Township and had a brother 
by name Henry who lived in Cameron 
Township. They were known as the "Po- 
tato Hess".) 

In Snyder County, across the Susquehan- 
na river from Dalmatia, in Northumberland 
County, was another settlement of these 
people. Among them were the Kreitzers, 
Shatzbergers, and Wolfs. 

In Earl Township, in Berks County, many 
Hessian soldiers settled after the close of 
the War for Independence. These were of 
the number who were confined in Hessian 
Camp, on Mount Penn, Reading. Among 
the number were: Caspar Spohn (He would 
become so angry when called "A Hess". 
Tradition), Aumans, - — Boyer. 

In Rockland Township George Gabel 
settled. He too was a Hessian and had 9 
children. His will is on record at Reading. 
His family genealogy appears in Berks 
County History. 

In Alsace Township settled Christian 
Schaffer, who was 15 years old when he 

came to America, Bower, Godleib 

Moyer, who had a son George, and others. 

In the South Mountains in Berks and 
Lancaster Counties was another settlement 
of these people. It was there that Peter 
Texter made his home, also Fredrick Moyer 
and others. 

Other Hessians in Berks County were: 
Seidel, Althouse, Benver, Hoyer, Rissmiller, 
Conrad Shepp m. Christina Close, Bergman, 




The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 



For Sale 

Pa.-German Vols. I and II. Thos. S. 
Stein, Annville, Pa. 

By Leonhard Felix Fuld, LL.M., Ph.D. 

EDITORIAL NOTE.— Dr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and meaning of the surname of 
any reader who sends twenty-five cents to 
the editor for that purpose. 

68. MELL 
The surname MELL is derived from MAL- 
LET and was used derisively to mean a 
head or a person. The mallet was a heavy 
wooden hammer used by a carpenter anl the 
name MELL was also a surname of occupa- 
tion indicating a carpenter. The surname 
was also written MALL. The Middle Eng- 
lish was MALLE, the Old French MAUL, 
the French MAIL, the Italian MAGLIO and 
the Latin MALLEUS. The mallet was also 
used as a war hammer and the name came 
to indicate a good fighter. 

From the French and the Spanish MIEL 
the surname MELL was used for honey and 
its maker and from the Old French verb 
MELLER meaning to mix it meant some- 
times one who meddles or quarrels. 

The surname MELL was also sometimes 
given to a man having many children or a 
man of bad moral habits. 

Where Was or Is Morea? 

Charles Spaeth, 61 La Salle St., Chicago, 
of the "German Society of Chicago", wishes 
to know " if there ever was a town in 
Pennsylvania by the name of Morea and 
where it is or was located". Parties able 
to give the desired information are re- 
quested to write to Mr. Spaeth or answer 
through the "Forum". 

Reputation for Hospitality 

A subscriber of Washington, D. C, in 
sending in a new subscription says: Ich 
habe gewohnt bei Hanover und da sagen sie 
— 'Selle weg must du noch Honover ge' 



(York Co.) 'un hust du schon dei mittag 
esse gehat?' 'Ne?' 'Dann hock dich zu tisch 
anne un es.' Un die fra hot mer geve 
Flasch, un Krumbere, Pai un Hokelberre 
scrnitz un Wei und hot gesaad, 'es dich yust 

A Bare Old Book 

Rev. A. M. Fretz, Souderton, Pa., owns a 
book bound in heavy boards, covered with 
leather, size 11 by 16 inches, printed at 
Noriberge, Germany 1599 by Elias Hutteri 
containing the Four Gospels and the Acts 
of the Apostles in twelve languages ar- 
ranged in parallel columns, named on the 
title page: Siriace, Bbraice, Graece, Latine, 
Germanice, Bohemice, Italice, Hispanice, 
Gallice, Anglice, Danice, Polonice. Interested 
parties can address him for additional in- 

The "Good Old Times" in Massachusetts 

We find interesting accounts of some 
customs of Dunstable (Mass.) at that time. 
Dancing at weddings was forbidden. In 
1666 William Walker was imprisoned a 
month "for courting a maid without the 
leave of her parents". In 1675 "there is 
manifest pride appearing in our streets" and 
also "superstitious ribbands used to tie up 
and decorate the hair". These things were 
forbidden under severe penalites ; the men 
were forbidden "to keep Christmas" because 
it was a "Popish custom". — Annals of Iowa, 
1610, p. 501. 

Death of Rev. William Henry Rice 

Rev. William Henry Rice died suddenly 
January 11, 1911, at South Bethlehem, Pa.. 
aged 70 years. During a 50 years' ministry 
he served as pastor of Moravian congrega- 
tions, New Haven, Conn.; York, Pa.; Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. ; Philadelphia, Pa.; New York 
City, New Dorp, N. Y. ; Gnadenhiitten, Ohio, 
and South Bethlehem, Pa. He was a very 
prominent members of the Moravian Church, 
senior minister in active service, a devoted 
son of the church, proud of its history, loyal 
to its spirit and cardinal principles and un- 
tiring in its service. 

Records of Groundhog's Veracity 

William Gehman, one of our subscribers, 
of Macungie, has given the groundhog's 
veracity as a reliable weather prognostica- 
tor a severe blow. 

Since 1864 Mr. Gehman has kept a diary 
in which he noted carefully each year what 
the weather was for the six weeks following- 
each annual Candlemas or the day on which 
the groundhog either returns to his burrow 
or remains outside to frisk and bask in the 

Since 1864 the groundhog has made good 
about once every ten years. The average 
is entirely too low, and to regain former 
status and re-establish a record of credulity 
the ground hog will have to do much better. 

Hatred of Hessians 

When the captured Hessians of the Revo- 
lution were paroled many of them decided 
to stay in the new country and a number 
found their way into the Cumberland Val- 
ley. In this out-of-the-way valley several 
made their new homes. Hessian was a term 
of much opprobrium for more than a cen- 
tury after the revolution, and the descen- 
dants of Hessians were looked on with 
suspicion if nothing more. But that feeling 
is passing and their descendants are good, 
trusty American citizens. — Papers Read be- 
fore the Kittochtinny Historical Society, 
Vol. VI, 170. 

A Gaelic Dictionary 

Mr. Edward Dwelly (Ewen Macdonald) of 
London, England, after many years of con- 
tinuous application will soon isseu the first 
complete Gaelic Dictionary, containng 80,000 
Gaelic words. He has compiled the words, 
set the type, prepared the illustrations, 
stereotyped the matter, raised the funds and 
performed practically all the work single- 
handed. At seventeen he did not know a 
word of Gaelic. Twelve years have been 
spent on the printing alone. Would that we 
had a score of enthusiasts to take up and 
work out phases of the history of the Ger- 
mans in America! 

A IVew Departure in a Branch of the Men- 
nonite Church 

On Sunday, January 15, 1911, Miss Annie 
J. Allebach was ordained to the Gospel min- 
istry in the First Mennonite Church of 
Philadelphia, Pa., the first occasion of the 
kind in the history of this denomination. 
Born in Greenlane, Pa., Miss Allebach 
studied at Ursinus College, taught in public 
schools, took a course in Elocution and 
Oratory in Philadelphia, taught at Perkio- 
men Seminary and at Darlington Seminary, 
became Principal of the East Orange Col- 
legiate and began to study at Columbia and 
New York Universities taking up the sub- 
ject of Pedagogy and Philosophy. 

She has been engaged as a church worker 
in one of the chapels of Trinity Parish in 
New Tork City where she established an 
extensive employment bureau, a sten- 
ography class, a clothes bureau, a large 
Kindergarden, Mother's Society, a church 
Monthly, and was assistan treasurer of the 
church and taught a large young Men's 
Bible Class. 



Miss Allebach holds the degree of B. E., 
M. E., A. B., and is studying for the Master's 
and Doctor's degree in Pedagogy. She has 
lectured on "The Speech Arts in Education" 
and is President of the New York University 
Philosophical Society and Vice President of 
the 23rd Assembly District Club of Woman's 
Suffrage in New York City. Her thesis "My 
Life's Philosophy" is held to be a good 
working Christian Philosophy of life. 

is a stream of the Cumberland Valley one, 
hundred and eight miles in length flowing 
into the Susquehanna). — Papers Read be- 
fore the Kittochtinny Historical Society, 
Vol. VI, p. 171. 

Ten Generations: Who Can Beat This? 

My dear Brother H. W. Kriebel: 

By the way that was an interesting sketch 
in the P.-G. of the Supplees in the Feb. 
number. It gave I believe nine genera- 
tions. You ask who can give ten genera- 
tions. Well, I can do even one better. In 
my own family I can give you eleven gen- 
erations in straight goods as follows: 

Rosier Levering born about 1600 whose 
two sons Gerhard and Wichard came to 
Germantown in 1685 leaving nineteen brotr- 
ers in Germany, so tradition tells us. So 
here is brief of sketch: 
I Rosier Levering born about 1600. 

II. Wichard Levering born 1648. 

III. Catharine Levering, born 1673. Mar- 

ried Henry Frey 1692. 

IV. William Frey born 1693. 

V. Elizabeth Frey born 1734. Married 

Abraham Grubb son of Pioneer 
Henry Grubb who emigrated to 
America in 1717. 

VI. David Grubb born 1768. 

VII. Jacob Grubb born 1793. 

VIII. Silas Grubb born 1819. 

IX. N. B. Grubb born 1850. 

X. Silas M. Grubb born 1873. 

XL Robert Rothe Grubb born 1900. 


Industries of the Past 

There have been ninety-one industries on 
the Conodogwinet and its tributaries making 
use of their various water powers. Of these, 
twenty-one were grist mills, twenty-nine 
saw mills, four chopping mills, four oil 
mills, five fulling mills, two forges, two fur- 
naces, one lath mill, one stave mill, two 
axe factories, four clover mills, one carding 
mill, four stills, two sumac mills five distil- 
leries, one cider mill, one buckwheat mill, 
one overall factory. Of these the Conodog- 
winet had eight grist mills, two chopping 
mills, seventeen saw mills, two oil mills, 
three fulling mills, one forge furnace, one 
lath mill, one stave mill, one axe factory, 
one overall factory, one distillery, one still, 
one cider mill, one buckwheat mill, three 
clover mills, two sumac mills; in all forty- 
seven. Of these industries run by water 
power four grist mills, five saw mills, one 
cider mill, one buckwheat mill, one chop- 
ping mill and one overall factory, thirteen, 
continue in operation. (The Conodogwinet 

The Remarkable Reeord of Pennsylvania 

The President of Pennsylvania College at 
Gettysburg, the oldest Lutheran college in 
America, has issued a call for a $300,000 ad- 
ditional endowment in which he gives the 
following account of the careers of former 
students of the college. He says about the 
list: "What an amazing record * * * From 
top to bottom the list is a most remarkable 
one, and no institution known to me can 
show an alumni record that equals this 
along lines of the highest type of leader- 

Ministers 655 

Presidents of Theological Seminaries.... 10 
Professors in Theological Seminaries... 26 

Presidents of General Synod 13 

Presidents of General Coumcil 2 

Bishops of the Episcopal Church 1 

Secretaries of General Mission Boards. . 9 
Internatonal Secretary of Y. M. C. A. . . 1 

State Secretary of Y. M. C. A 3 

College Presidents 32 

College Professors 107 

Heads of Departments in Universities... 4 
Provost of University of Pennsylvania. . . 1 
Vice-Provost of University of Pennsyl- 
vania 2 

Lawyers 196 

Justices of the State Supreme Courts... 2 
Chief Justice Supreme Court of District 

of Columbia 1 

Judges of District Court 14 

Physicians 112 

Journalists 87 

Editors of Papers or Journals 43 

State Governors 1 

Members of Congress 9 

State Senators 10 

Members of State Legislatures 29 

Bank Presidents 7 

Other Bank Officials 48 

Railroad Presidents 2 

Death of Mrs. Sarah Dechert Young- 
Mrs. Sarah Dechert Young, widow of Ed- 
mond Stafford Young, one of the oldest 
members of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, died January 9 in Dayton, Ohio, 
aged 86 years. 

Mrs. Young's maiden name was Sarah B. 
Dechert, and she was the daughter of Elijah 
Dechert, a leading lawyer of Reading, Pa., 
who was a son of Captain Peter Dechert, an 
officer in the Revolutionary War. Mrs. 
Young's mother, Mary Porter Dechert was 
a daughter of Judge Robert Porter, also of 
Reading, Pa., who sat for more than twenty 



years on the bench in that city. The 
Porter family descended from Robert Por- 
ter, a native of Ireland, who emigrated to 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, and after- 
ward removed to Montgomery Co., Pa. The 
most prominent and successful son of Ro- 
bert Porter was General Andrew Porter, the 
great-great-grandfather of Mrs. Young. He 
was a prominent Revolutionary officer, and 
a close personal friend and associate of 
Washington, and after the close of the war 
was commissioned major-general of militia 
of Pennsylvania. Later he was tendered the 
position of secretary of war by President 
Madison but declined the honor. Both 
General Andrew Porter and his son, Judge 
Robert Porter, were members of the order 
of the Cincinnati, an honor which has 
passed to their descendants. Mrs. Young's 
uncle, David R. Porter, was at one time 
governor of Pennsylvania, and another 
uncle, George B. Porter, was governor of 
Michigan. General Horace Porter, recent- 
ly minister to France, was a cousin to Mrs. 
Young, and Henry M. Dechert, the promi- 
nent lawyer, of Philadelphia, Pa., was a 
brother. George R. and William H. Young, 
sons, of Dayton, Ohio, are the only surviv- 
ing members of her immediate family. 

Unusual Records of a Justice and Constable 

During his two terms, a period of almost 
ten years, 'Squire Bartenschlager, of Dallas- 
town, Pa., has not had a suit from his 
hands to pass before the grand jury and 
hundreds of cases have been disposed of. 
Mr. Jackson, his constable, has yet to have 
a bill of costs taxed by the county solicitor 
and approved by the county commissioners 
though an officer for almost three years. 
The only money received by the constable 
from the county was for his quarterly re- 
turn to the court, which must be made. 

Squire Bartenschlager and his constable 
believe in the settlement of all cases in an 
amicable manner and the saving to the 
parties interested, as well as the county and 
taxpayers, considerable expense which law- 
suits invariably entail. At the same time 
they endeavor to shield the parties from 
humiliation and disgrace where it is pos- 
sible. While this procedure has been disad- 
vantageous to both financially, they look at 

it from a humanitarian standpoint and are 
satisfied with being able to keep many 
homes intact and persuade the majority to 
lead a better life. 

"When persons come to me with a com- 
plaint," said Squire Bartenschlager to The 
Gazette, "and desire to enter suit against 
some one else, I secure the facts as near as 
possible. If the matter is trivial I try to 
dissuade them. If not successful, I tell 
them to come back at a certain time and I 
will have the other party present. I serve 
no warrant, but make it plain to the ac- 
cused that they must be here at the proper 
time or I'll send for them. I then explain 
what a suit means — cost of a warrant, serv- 
ing same, fees of lawyers, witness fees, 
court costs, etc., and ask them if they have 
that much money to throw away. It opens 
their eyes and an amicable settlement 
generally results. Of course there are some 
who will not heed my advice and they go 
elsewhere to their sorrow as they have 
afterwards told me." — Gazette, York, Pa. 

"P.-G." English "As She Is Spoke" 
Editor Pennsylvania German : 

Dear Sir: Answering "Query No. 7" 
under "Genealogical Notes" in your Febru- 
ary number, I would say that Mr. Taylor, 
(Schneider) when he spoke of his shoats 
and said, "I pulled up these walkers on 
playwater," meant to say, I raised these 
shoats on dishwater. He translated ver- 
batim from the German, "aufgezogen", "la' 
fer" and "Spiel-Wasser." 

In his mother tongue he would have said, 
"Ich hab diese la'fer 'ufgezoge 'uf Spiel- 
wasser." — I have a few almost as good. A 
certain boy in Lebanon County in answer 
to an inquiry as to the condition of his sick 
sister, said, "She is not yed better; she still 
breaks herself!" He meant to say, "She is 
on better, she still vomits." Here is 
another: In ordering her young son not to 
climb up a dangerous place a mother called 
out to him: "Cheremiah, if you craddle up 
dere again I'll take de bakin-sheider and I'll 
beat you swartz and blee!" What did she 

Mt. Zion, Pa. 


(Founded by Rev. Dr. P. C. Croll, 1900.) 

H. W. KRIEBEL, Editor and Publisher 


Editor of Review Department, Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Advisory Editorial Board : — I. H. Betz, M. D, York, Pa. : Lucy Forney Bittinger, Sewickley, 
Pa. : A. Y. Casanova, Washington, D. C. ; Rev. P. C. Croll, D. D., Beardstown, 111. ; Prof. 
G. T. Ettinger, Allentown, Pa.; Prof. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown, Conn.; Daniel Miller, 
Reading, Pa.; Gen. John E. Roller, Harrisonburg, Va. ; Prof. L. S. Shimmel, Harrisburg, 
Pa. ; Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Paulding, Ohio. 

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SUBSCRIPTIONS HAVE BEEN PAID by the persons named, to and including month of 
the year given— "12— 10"signifying December, 1910 


W H Miller — 12 — 11 

D P Witmver — 12 — 11 

H N Wolf — 12 — 11 

J H Behler — 12 — 11/ 

W J Punk — 12 — 11 

D G Lubold — 12 — 11 

Schl'k'l Co Hist Soc — 12 — 1 

I S Huber — 2 — 10 

J G Dubbs— 12— 11 

Milton Wolf— 12— 11 

A B Bechtel — 12 — 11 

P H Knabb — 12 — 11 

A P Lee — 12 — 11 

H S Gottschall — 12 — 11 

D W Miller — 1 — 12 

T C Atherholt — 12 — 11 

Mrs Sarah Kistler — 12 — 11 

James M Landis — 12 — 11 

A F Spangler — 12 — 11 

C W Shive — 12 — 11 

B F Mevers — 12 — 11 

T S Stein — 12 — 11 

Morgan Hartman — 12 — 11 

J L Lemberger — 12 — 11 

Converse Cleaves — 12 — 11 

J W Rothenberger — 12 — 11 

C M Christman — 4 — 12 

R D Wenrich — 2 — 12 

H F Lutz — 6 — 12 

W C Hever — 12 — 11 

J T Krum — 9 — 11 

W U Hensel — 12 — 11 

W T Rummers — 12 — 11 

Mont Co Hist Soc — 12 — 11 

A B Schelbv — 12 — 11 

J A Zehner — 12 — 11 

Daniel S. Schultz— 12— 11 

J G Romich — 12—11 

C M Brownmiller — 12 — 11 

W H Kern— 12— 11 

A J Kern — 12 — 11 

M H Walters— 12 — 11 

Sallie Faust — 3 — 11 

S P Light — 12 — 11 

J M Grimlev — 12 — 11 

G W Shoemaker — 12 — 11 

E H Smoll — 2 — 12 

Henry Houck — 12 — 11 

M L Weidman — 12 — 11 

W F H Wentzel — 12 — 11 

A O Gehman — 12 — 11 

J W Kennel — 12 — 11 

Mary E Kriebel — 12 — 11 

Dimner Becker — 12 — 11 

A H Fetterolf — 12 — 11 

Harry C Trexler — 12 — 11 

Granville Henry — 12 — 11 

A S Schropp — 1 — 12 

W G Murdook — 12 — 11 

Mrs C N Saeger — 12 — 11 

Annie E Leisenring — 12 — 11 

H C Snavely — 12 — 11 

Josephus Gerhard — 12 — 11 

Emma Line — 3 — 12 

W M Benner — 6 — 11 

J H Longeneeker — 12 — 11 

. ranios Miller — 12 — 11 

Hamilton Lib Assn — 12 — 11 

Chas Heber Clark — 2 — 12 

J A Singmaster — 12 — 11 

A J Gavman — 12 — 11 

M Stipp — 12 — 11 

A N Brensinger — 12 — 11 

J C Bechtel — 12 — 11 

J A Miller — 12 — 11 

C J Custer — 12 — 11 

W D Weikel — 12 — 11 

H Landis — 12 — 11 
Edgar F Smith — 12 — 11 
J M Swank — 12 — 11 
Reuben Kolb — 12 — 11 
G W Hoover — 12 — 11 
M W Scharff — 12 — 11 
A H Reider — 12 — 11 
G R Seiffert — 12 — 11 
F B Wonsetler — 12 — 11 
W L Meckstroth — 12 — 11 


E C Quiggle — 6—11 

E M Huntsinger — 2 — 12 


Henrv S Jacobv — 12 — 11 
F K Walter — 12 — 11 
O P Wasser — 12 — 11 


A F Hershey — 12 — 11 


Charles Spaeth — 12 — 11 


Floride Kistler Sprague — 

S B Stupp — 12 — 11 

C E Muhlenberg — 12 — 11 


Robert Morgeneier- 

12 — 11 

-12 — 11 

C H Wertman — 12 — 11 


E E S Johnson — 4 — 12 

C D Hartranft — 4 — 12 

To March 1, 1911. 

Vol. XII 

APRIL, 1911 

No. 4 

A Study of a Rural Community 

By Charles William Super, Ph. D., LL. D. Athens, Ohio 

(concluded from March issue) 

a fii 


HAVE already stated that 
most of these people were 
profoundly religious with- 
out intending to say that 
ii II 11 1 they were Christians, but 
Mffe/ only that they had an 

S II ever-present sense of a su- 
pernatural power that pre- 
sides over the destinies of men. No mat- 
ter how profane a man might be he 
would not use an oath in the presence of 
death or a thunderstorm. Most of the 
younger generation felt the need of con- 
version and admitted its reality even 
when they hesitated "to go forward." I 
have often pondered the peculiar state 
of mind and heart that was so much in 
evidence in matters of religion. Gener- 
ally the German is rather phlegmatic ; in 
fact he has the reputation of being more 
so than he is. Nevertheless these Teu- 
tons of the third and fourth generations 
were frequently surprisingly emotional. 
Often during "protracted" meetings, and 
not infrequently during the regular ser- 
vices they gave vent to their feelings, not 
only in words but in actions. These dem- 
onstrations were not confined to the 
younger folks ; in fact they were as a 
rule less impulsive and less demonstra- 
tive than those in middle life and be- 
yond. I recall a few men who never at- 

tended a prayer-meeting or a preaching 
service without being taken possession 
of by the "spirit" to such an extent that 
they shouted and made more or less vio- 
lent physical exhibitions. These secta- 
ries stoutly maintained that a man can 
not be saved by good works without the 
internal witness of the spirit. A merely 
moral man was held by them to be in 
greater danger of damnation than one 
who was merely unconverted, because 
the moralist was so self-righteous that 
the spirit of God could not or would not 
enter his heart. On the other hand, the 
wicked man might repent and obtain 
forgiveness any time before the breath 
of life had left his body. Postponement 
was nevertheless dangerous. Many 
"hurch members regarded such a belief 
as the crassest foolishness, although they 
did not deny the efficacy of the ordi- 
nances of the church. What rationalists 
thought is well enough known. I have 
often said one could tell from the coun- 
tenances of the auditors under the au- 
spices of what denomination a religious 
service was being held. The older ones 
that originated in Germany seemed to 
impress upon the countenance a look of 
indifference; nor did they hesitate to 
talk about secular matters while the ser- 
vices were not actually in progress. One 
was tempted to believe that to them re- 



ligion meant what it meant to the an- 
cient Romans : certain rites to be per- 
formed at stated intervals and on par- 
ticular occasions in a well established 
manner, but not something that need ex- 
ercise any influence on the daily life of 
the votary. Those that professed the 
Presbyterian creed kept solemn faces, 
and on the Sabbath day devoted them- 
selves to religious affairs and medita- 
tions exclusively whether at church ser- 
vices or at home. Apropos of this os- 
tensible attitude of mind an acquaint- 
ance of mine once told me that a neigh- 
bor of his recalled to him a Scotchman 
who met another riding a fine horse. Ob- 
serving this he remarked that if it were 
not the Sabbath day he would felicitate 
him on his purchase and ask him how 
much he had paid for the beast. The re- 
play was that if it were not the Sabbath 
he would answer twenty pounds. And 
so with proviso after proviso the con- 
versation went on until one man had 
asked and the other answered all the 
questions that came to the fore. He 
quoted also the following doggerel the 
origin of which I do not know although 
it sounds Hudibrastic: 

"From Roxbury came I, a profane one, 
And there I saw a Puritane one 
A hanging of his cat on Monday 
For killing of a mouse on Sunday." 

Those who professed the Methodist 
creeds were wont to express their ap- 
proval of sentiments voiced in the ser- 
mon or in prayer by such ejaculations as 
"Amen" ; "Do Lord" ; "Bless the Lord", 
and more of the same sort. The Sab- 
bath was decorously observed by almost 
every one. I do not recall having heard 
any one argue that the Puritan Sunday 
was not that of the New Testament, or 
that the command given to the ancient 
Jews to keep it holy had been unwitting- 
ly transferred into the New Dispensa- 
tion. There was, of course, no ban on 
talk. It might range over subjects pro- 
fane as well as religious ; in fact the 
former had much the larger share, as re- 
ligion was not a frequent topic of dis- 
cussion, except among a few zealots. 
Although but little was known about the 
affairs of the "wide, wide world" there 

was never any lack of matter for con- 
versation when two or three were gath- 
ered together. The topics discussed were 
quite as important as those which en- 
gage the attention of fashionable society, 
and the number of lies told far less. 
The women had their affairs to recapit- 
ulate, the men theirs. When the com- 
pany was mixed there was an inter- 
change of views on a larger number of 
themes. As every-day matters varied 
with the seasons and the weather, the 
same could be gone over every twelve- 
month. Once in a while an occurrence a 
little out of the ordinary gave variety to 
the conversation. There was so far as 
I had the means of knowing, very little 
malicious gossip indulged in except by a 
very small number of persons. There 
were other less frequent occasions when 
people met together besides those al- 
ready mentioned. The elections once a 
year or oftener brought to the township 
polls a proportion of men according to 
the supposed importance of the issue 
involved. The Evangelical Association 
held a camp-meeting in the vicinity al- 
most every year. It was usually well 
attended on Sunday by the people of 
our neighborhood. In August there was 
often a Sunday school. picnic or Harvest 
Home for which two or more Sunday 
Schools joined forces. On such occa- 
sions there was an abundance of good 
cheer and a speech or two. I recall that 
when I was a very small boy my father, 
along with the rest of the able-bodied 
men of the township of military age, at- 
tended the annual muster. Those who 
had no muskets made canes and sticks 
do duty for the lacking firearms. I re- 
call too that the commanding officer, the 
fifer, and one or two of the prospective 
warriors never failed to get drunk ; and 
that the fifer who was somewhat of a 
local celebrity, bore the name of Kirk- 
patrick. It used to be said of him that he 
never missed a note although he might 
be so maudlin that he could scarcely 
walk while his instrument would some- 
times be six inches from his lips. The 
fire-water was carried to the grounds 
for consumption as there was no estab- 
lished place for its sale, for as I have 



before stated, there was no incorporated 
village within the region. Once in a 
while a "woods-meeting" under the 
auspices of one of the minor denomina- 
tions was held. 


Number Three however contained 
some survivals of an earlier, perhaps of 
a geological age. One family which 
contained representatives of this class I 
knew well and can therefore portray 
accurately. The father although with- 
out systematic education, had picked up 
a good deal of miscellaneous knowledge. 
He understood the government of the 
United States and of his own State in 
all its details. He bought a book now 
and then and read it ; perhaps a History 
of the Union, the biography of some dis- 
tinguished American, or a volume of 
popular lectures on some practical sub- 
ject. He subscribed for two or three 
newspapers and read them, at least in 
the winter. His oldest son took enough 
interest in the systematic acquisition of 
knowledge to prepare himself for a Civil 
Service examination and passed it suc- 
cessfully. The mother, on the other 
hand, manifested no interest in anything 
except in what pertained to her every 
day duties. She rarely opened a book or 
looked into a periodical. Although she 
could read she probably could not do so 
with any degree of satisfaction when 
the matter dealt with what fell outside 
the narrow range of her experience. 
She was not particularly industrious and 
would sit for hours, especially on Sun- 
days, gazing into vacancy. The only la- 
bor she performed that was not strictly 
practical was to care for some flowers in 
spring and summer. All her conversa- 
tion was about domestic affairs or the 
farm. I doubt whether she added a 
word to her vocabulary after she became 
of age. She did not care enough about 
her neighbors to take part in gossip, al- 
though she never refused or withheld 
aid when called upon. She seemed to 
be without any curiosity whatever and 
frowned upon it when exhibited by chil- 
dren. To be "good" meant to her to be 
indifferent to everything in which she 

took no interest. Her whole being was 
absorbed in the daily routine of her un- 
eventful life. She never showed the 
least desire to go a dozen miles from the 
spot where she was born. It was next 
to impossible to interest her in anything 
barring domestic matters. Her daugh- 
ter was constructed mentally like her 
mother, as was also one son. 

The two former had all the character- 
istics of Turkish women in their atti- 
tude towards knowledge. They exhibited 
no more vivacity than a statue and about 
as much animation as an Amerind. We 
may call this philosophical composure or 
designate it as that quality against 
which, according to Schiller, the very 
gods contend in vain. She seemed to 
take a certain pleasure in doing kindness 
to others, and was not ungrateful when 
she received similar favors from others ; 
yet one could hardly infer her feelings 
from her words. As for sentiment, she 
was as devoid of it as an Eskimo. 
Every part of her psyche that approxi- 
mated thereto was atrophied. I have 
asked myself a good many times how it 
was possible for a human being between 
the ages of forty and fifty to have so 
completely forgotten the days of her 
youth. I suppose the frog no longer re- 
members that it was once a tadpole ; but 
one doesn't expect much of a frog, one 
expects a good deal of a person living 
towards the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Although she sometimes spoke 
of the past it did not furnish her mind 
with materials for reflection or compari- 
son. She was not ill-natured, perhaps 
chiefly for the reason that in her later 
vears she had become so apathetic that 
she was not moved by anything. As her 
vocabulary was virtually completed be- 
fore she was out of her 'teens she re- 
peated the same round of words and 
phrases over and over again ; not, of 
course, in the same order in all cases. 
That a statement might be made with 
greater accuracy than in the phraseology 
to which she had become accustomed 
never entered her mind. She did not 
have the mastery of her speech ; it 
should rather be said that speech was 
her master She never noticed that per- 



sons sometimes used the English lan- 
guage differently from herself, although 
she did not understand German. Her 
psyche appeared to differ but little in 
some of its aspects from that of a care- 
fully trained brute. It is assumed that 
man is a reasonable and reasoning being ; 
experience proves that the assumption 
is well founded only within very narrow 
limits. Often and often as my mind 
turns back over the past have I won- 
dered how it was possible for persons 
who had any intellect at all to be so com- 
pletely under the sway of prepossession 
and prejudice. The most cogent argu- 
ments had no more effect upon their 
m.inds than a handful of pebbles upon 
the back of an alligator. Sometimes the 
very man who endeavored to convince 
others by an appeal to their person were 
themselves as prejudiced in other mat- 
ters, and as hard to convince as those 
whom they plied with their arguments. 
How hard it is to see ourselves as others 
see us, or to translate into action the in- 
junction: "Put yourself in his place!" 
"I am open to conviction but I should 
like to see the man who could convince 

The following trivial incidents are so 
characteristic that I must not omit to 
mention them in this connection since 
they illustrate so clearly the mental hori- 
zon of some of my father's neighbors. 
One day after taking my seat in a rail- 
way car, I noticed that the two men who 
sat next to me were talking German. 
One of them was a Pennsylvanian, the 
other a foreigner, who, as I learned af- 
terwards, was on bis way to visit his na- 
tive land. The former, who was evi- 
dently a farmer of some means was 
neatly clad, and had an agreeable, kind- 
h countenance. In the course of the 
conversation the German mentioned 
several countries he had visited naming 
among others Italy. To this his inter- 
locutor remarked : "There is one coun- 
try I should like to see, that is the Holy 
Land. Is it in Italy also, or is it a coun- 
try by itself?" The speaker had evi- 
dently heard of the Holy Land in church 
or had read about it in the Bible — prob- 

ably both ; yet it had never occurred to 
him that he ought to look it up in an 
atlas even if he had one within reach as 
he surely must have had at some time in 
his life. All he knew about Palestine 
was so vague that it can hardly be called 
knowledge at all. But the fact had been 
impressed upon his mind that it was the 
country in which most of the events 
narrated in the Bible had taken place. I 
am sure that many, perhaps, most of the 
older people had never looked at a map ; 
if they had, their general knowledge 
was so meager that it would not have 
conveyed to them information of any 
value whatever. As a small boy I was 
once at a neighbor's when the conversa- 
tion turned upon the Atlantic telegraph 
cable, which was just then attracting a 
good deal of attention. One of the 
company "remarked jocosely that the 
men engaged in laying it upon the bot- 
tom of the ocean must have a wet time. 
Thereupon the hostess gave utterance 
to this query: "I wonder how they get 
down to do it?" I once heard a man 
who was perhaps sixty years of age say 
that he never rode in a railway train and 
had no wish to do so, as railroads were 
the work of the devil. Such must have 
been the mortals felicitated by Pope in 
the oft-quoted lines : 

"Happy the man whose wish and care 
A few paternal acres bound ; 
Content to breathe his native air 
On his own ground." 

In my later years I have often reflected 
upon the complete blindness of my 
early associates, including myself also,. 
to the beauties of nature that sur- 
rounded us on every side. It is often 
said that line natural scenery arouses 
the imagination to express itself in 
poetry. I doubt it. Most people culti- 
vated a few flowers, but it was a rare 
thing for any one to plant a tree except 
for its prospective fruit. The scenery 
of this region like that of many other 
parts of Pennsylvania i s unusually 
varied. From the tops of countless hills 
that were cultivated to the summit, the 
spectator might view long lines of moun- 
tains extending westward until they 
faded in the distance. To the east 



Round Top is a conspicuous object. 
Within the hundreds of square miles 
over which, from many elevated points, 
the eye could range, lay woodland and 
■clearings, farmhouses and barns with 
the necessary outbuildings, furnishing 
scenes of intermingled natural and arti- 
ficial beauty that it would seem every 
one must admire. But as it was in the 
olden time, we having these things al- 
ways with us were not aware of their 
existence ; only later the eye had been 
trained by travel, or the enjoyment of 
them sharpened by the privations of city 
life, did we come to comprehend how 
much we had missed. 


Although this little volume is designed 
to be descriptive and neither philosophi- 
cal nor speculative the question suggests 
itself whether anyone would deliberate- 
ly prefer Arcadian simplicity to the 
push and jostle, the hurry and flurry of 
urban life. As indicated above, a few- 
persons have answered this question in 
the affirmative. There is a certain at- 
traction in social condition where locks 
on doors and granaries are almost un- 
known ; where banks do not exist be- 
cause no one has money to deposit ; 
where the visual method of trade is the 
exchange of commodities or labor ; 
where it was not always easy to find a 
man for Justice of the Peace because 
the cost of the indispensable law books 
and his commission would likely exceed 
the emoluments of the office ; and where 
the Common Pleas Court was occasion- 
ally heard of but can hardly be said to 
have been known since a law-suit was 
the one thing above all others to be 
avoided. Perhaps the greatest reproach 
was brought upon the community by a 
few persons who were guilty of sexual 
immorality. The question asked above 
has been answered in the negative by 
many of those best able to pass judg- 
ment upon the conditions. They yielded 
to stronger attractions elsewhere and 
only tbe less energetic, with some excep- 
tions, remained behind. It needs to be 
repeated here that most of these people 
felt less poor than they seemed. Those 

who had virtually no money spent 
none ; those who had a little hoarded it 
and were therefore equally close-listed. 
It was an accepted axiom that cash is to 
be saved, not to be spent. Hardly any 
one was so poor that he had not now and 
then at least part of a dollar to give for 
something that he might have done 
without, to attend a circus, for instance. 
or for tobacco, or for sweetmeats. 
Riches are not a matter of possession, 
but of the absence of wants. 

As I look back upon the lives of these 
people, and view it across the space of 
forty and fifty years and judge it then 
in the light of a fairly wide intervening 
exDerience I find myself prone to call it 
dull and monotonous. But calmer reflec- 
tion presents another aspect of their 
condition. It was not meaningless or 
tiresome to them. There was always 
something to do. The time never hung 
heavily on their hands. When they 
were not at work as on Sundays they 
were enjoying a grateful rest. They 
were never at a loss for some diversion 
with which to kill the slow moving min- 
utes and dragging hours. Their enjoy- 
ments and their conversation were more 
rational than those of people who knew 
far mere than they knew. They seldom 
talked for the mere purpose of hearing 
themselves talk or whiling away the 
time. Then too they were producers of 
something that benefitted the world, al- 
beit in a material way and to a limited 
extent. If they did not much add to the 
world's store they took nothing from 
those who had earned the right to live 
decently, if not a little more. I have 
since heard teachers in city and town 
bewail their fate far more bitterly than 
I ever heard a farmer boy or girl be- 
wail theirs. When we wish to judge the 
attitude of a class toward life we must 
regard it from within and by its own 
standard, not from without and by an 
alien standard, or our judgment will be 
unfair and unjust. If we measure the 
life of the tiller of the soil we must ad- 
mit that it is capable of improvement 
from the same standpoint ; it therefore 
differs radically from that of the sav- 
age which must be totally reconstructed 



before it can be made of any value to 
himself or to the world. 

I have often pondered over the pos- 
sible destiny of a few men in our neigh- 
borhood had their circumstances been 
more propitious. I am sure they would 
not have been "village Hamptons" or 
"mute inglorious Miltons", in any case. 
But, although "Knowledge to their eyes 
unrolled her ample page", Penury re- 
pressed their noble rage and froze the 
genial current of their souls. "Their 
lot forbade." Not only had they to sup- 
port themselves; they had also to assist 
in supporting their relatives. Figura- 
tively speaking, their hands were tied; 
literally, the sphere of their activities 
was narrowly circumscribed. Had they 
been blessed with exceptional energy, or 
endowed with extraordinary abilities 
they might have triumphed over all ob- 
stacles and have at last "commanded the 
applause of listening senates". Yet be- 
cause they lacked the "one thing need- 
ful", it may be said of them that 

"Far from the maddening crowd's ignoble 

Their sober wishes never learned to stray; 
Along the cool sequestered vale of life 
They kept the noiseless tenor of their way." 

I know they felt that by necesssity they 
had missed their calling; but I am 
equally certain that this circumstance 
did not embitter, as it certainly did not 
abridge, their lives. 

Although the farmers for the most 
part lacked initiative and were content 
to do as their fathers had done before 
them they took good care to preserve 
what they had. Their hay and grain 
were carefully stored in barns where 
they were in the dry. The same must 
be said of their farming utensils. I have 
frequently noticed the difference fifty 
years later in southeastern Ohio. Reap- 
ers, mowers, and other appurtenances 
are left in the rain and sun where they 
rapidly deteriorate. And the same class 
was in no better condition to bear the 
loss in the latter region than in the for- 
mer. I have observed a similar differ- 
ence in morals. A number of cases of 
frightful immorality of a kind I never 

heard of in my youth have, in my later 
vears, been brought to my attention. In 
this respect also my later observations 
have led me to believe that my earlier 
experiences indicated a higher civic and 
moral responsibility than that which pre- 
vailed in a region that ought to have 
represented fifty years further progress. 
And it was not foreigners but native 
Americans that stood on the lower level. 

As my mind travels back over the 
vista of the four or five decades lying 
between the then and the now and I try 
to form a just estimate of the moral 
qualities of my father's neighbors com- 
pared with the men I have known more 
or less intimately since, I find myself 
forced to the conclusion that they gain, 
more than they lose by the comparison. 
The testimony which I have been able to 
obtain from persons who have had a 
wider experience than mine is conflict- 
ing ; but in the main the verdict accords 
with my judgment. I am led to con- 
clude that the proportion of honest men 
among these farmers was somewhat 
larger than I have found it in other 
spheres of life. Almost all were what 
would be called close-fisted and bent on 
small gains. They could hardly help 
being so. But I doubt whether any one 
■vould have taken advantage of a bank- 
rupt act. if he had known that he could 
do so. The large class proverbially 
known as "sharpers" and "dead-beats", 
men who make no more than a shallow 
pretense of giving an equivalent for 
what they get, are not residents of the 
country districts. Persons who have a 
fixed abode, who can always be found 
when wanted, are more likely to deal 
"on the square" than those who shift 
their quarters to suit the exigencies of 
their occupation. Few persons are 
aware how much influence the desire to 
stand well with their neighbors and 
acquaintances has in the formation and 
support of morality and integrity of 
conduct. A well known writer has truly 
said : "A young man is not far from 
ruin when he can say, T do not care 
what other people think of me.' ' : 

I am furthermore inclined to believe 
that their strong aversion to politics, or 



rather to the politics of that day, was 
largely owing to the unreliability, the 
dishonesty, and the bibulous practices of 
those who engaged in it. 


It is not my purpose here to furnish 
the reader with a list of the peculiarities 
of speech that were more or less of a lo- 
cal character. I merely note a few that 
have occurred to me from time to time. 
Some of these are used in other parts of 
the Union whither they had been trans- 
planted directly from New England; 
others have been carried westward by 
Pennsylvanians. While the Pennsyl- 
vania German is somewhat of a mixture 
of different dialects brought from their 
native land by immigrants, the largest 
contingent of words came from the 
Palatinate. A similarity of pronuncia- 
tion and intonation has persisted to the 
present day. Words designating objects 
not known beyond the sea, or that had no 
existence before the beginning of the 
nineteenth century were for the most 
part called by their American names 
even by those who spoke no English. To 
the first class belong such as fence, 
creek, mush, cider, and so forth. To the 
second belong railroad, cars, steamboat, 
and others. One might also hear such 
expressions as "bat loke" (bad luck), 
"ope shtairs", "boy" (pie), and many 
more. I do not recall hearing any one 
use the German word for skates and 
skating; "skeets" and "skeeting" did 
duty both in English and German. 
Proper names were no criterion of na- 
tionality. If a family bore the name of 
Smith, or Lyons, or Brown, or Cook, 
one could not decide whether it was a 
transfer or a translation. Most of those 
who bore them had a very hazy notion 
of their origin, and no curiosity to make 
inquiry. Once in a while a farmer got 
it into his head that a fortune was 
awaiting him in the "old country", but 
I never heard of any one who took the 
trouble to ^verify the rumor. In our 
community no one talked or acted like 
the characters in Tillie, a Mennonite 

All, or all any more. Consumed, used 
up. When we find Goethe's Egmont 
beginning with, "Nun schieszt Inn 
dass es alle zvird" we are inclined to 
attribute it to a German origin. Albe- 
it, the schoolboys' rhyme: "Peter said 
unto Paul, My tobacco is all", seems 
to show that it is an abbreviated 

Allow. Believe, think. Used only by 
certain families. The frequency of 
this word in the South as well as in 
New England proves that it is an im- 
migrant from the British Isles. 

Brauchen. A German word meaning to 
use incantations for the cure of dis- 

Bullyrag. Revile, vilipend. 

Bunty. A genus of short-tailed hens. 
The Encyclopedic Dictionary says it 
means in Scotch, "hen without a 

Catawampus. Awry, unsymmetrical, 
out of proper shape. 

Chunhen. Pieces of wood about a foot 
in length wedged between the logs of 
houses. It is evidently connected 
, with chinking, and may be a corrup- 
tion of this word. The process is 
called to chunk. A large piece of any- 
thing is also called a chunk. 

Dinge. To make an indention on a 
hard surface, or the impression itself. 

Dumm, meaning stupid is one of the 
most frequently used words of re- 
proach. As most of the German im- 
migrants belonged to the peasant 
class who were dull of apprehension 
like all of their kind, it is probable 
that the epithet was frequently ap- 
plied among themselves to one an- 
other. Its appropriateness soon be- 
came evident to those who spoke Eng- 
lish ; they accordingly transferred the 
epithet instead of translating it. It has 
become so general that it is often em- 
ployed by persons of fair education. 
It would however be unjust to sup- 
pose that the inhabitants of southeast- 
ern Pennsylvania have been burdened 
with an unusual amount of the qual- 
ity which it designates. Yet there is 
no doubt tha t the German peasant 
had through centuries of oppression 



in his native land, become mentally 
more obtuse than his fellow in the 
British Isles. 

Dominicky. A species of domestic fowl 
with regularly speckled gray and 
white feathers. 

Dipper. A tin cup with a long handle. 
The Immersionists were also called 
Dippers, a term that did not neces- 
sarily convey any reproach. Two con- 
stellations in the northern sky were 
likewise called Dippers. Dip was the 
usual designation of meat-gravy. 

Fer was used both in place of far and 
for, just as furder was employed to 
designate time and space. "What 
fer?" "How fer?" "I aint goin' no 
furder" ; "I can't sing any furder". 

Faze or phaze. To produce an impres- 
sion ; generally said of hard objects. 

Footy. Insignificantly small. 

Galluses. Suspenders. 

Gathering. A swelling; also called a 

Jerks. The St. Vitus dance. 

Juke or Jouk. To lower the head quick- 
ly ; to dodge. The word occurs in 
both Scott and Burns. 

Juggles. Large chips from logs in 

I^otes, or lots and slathers or si civs. A 
large quantity, or a great many. The 
first of these words is common where- 
ever the English language is used. 

Obstropelous. Stubborn, racalcitrant. 
Perhaps a perversion of obstreperous. 
It was rather common among the il- 

Old rip. A broken down horse. Ap- 
plied also to women as an epithet of 

Roushen or rousen. Big, large, ex- 

Rambunctious. Spirited, fiery. 

Real down. Very exceedingly. "A real 
down nice boy." 

Scutch. To knock nuts from a tree 
with a pole. Scutching; a whipping. 
Halliwell says the word means "to 
beat slightly". In Pennsylvania it 
means "to beat hard". To scutch 
flax" is a common phrase. 

Shite-poke. An awkward or unreliable 
person. The word is often employed 
by persons who never saw the bird. 

Shoe-mouth deep, boot-top deep. A 
familiar way of estimating the depth 
of mud, water, or snow. 

Slantendickler. Evidently a sort of cor- 
relative to perpendicular. 

Smack. To strike with the palm of the 
hand. Spank is not in use. 

Snollygoster. Applied to anything that 
is unusually large. 

Snoot. A vulgar designation of the 
mouth. Kuhn says Die Schnutc is 
thus applied in Rheinfranken. 

Sock. To hit with a ball. Sockball is a 
familiar game. 

Sturk. A young bullock. So far as I 
know this word was used by one fam- 
ily only. Its connection with the 
Anglo-Saxon is evident. 

Throne/. Pressed with work or busi- 

7 hroughother. Confused, mixed up. 
This is doubtless a translation of 

Swithers. A quandary. "I am in the 
swithers what to do". Used by Burns. 

Spite is a very common word both in 
English and German to signify vex, 
annoy, chagrin. "It spites me that I 
lost my knife." My man is very much 
spited at the storekeeper.' 

Still is a word much used with various 
significations. In general it means ha- 
bitually, customarily. "I still go to 
school at eight o'clock", did not mean 
I continue to go, etc. In Hamlet we 
find : "Thou still hast been the bearer 
of good news." Often it seems to be 
thrown into a sentence for the reason 
that it may mean anything or nothing. 
Tin. A tin cup. 
Toadsmasher. A wagon with broad tires 

on the wheels. 
A mattock was called a "grubbin' hoe" 
although "mattick" was also used. 
The preterit of the verb beat, to out- 
do, was bet ; but it seems strange that 
the Old and New England hct from 
the verb to heat was not in vogue, 
am however of the opinion that I 
heard overhet. 



Put it past. Be surprised. As, "I 
wouldn't put it past him to steal." 
Land that was too wet at certain sea- 
sons of the year to be cultivated was 
said to be spouty ; a weaker term 
than swampy. 

In looking over J. R. Lowell's Intro- 
duction to the Biglow Papers I was sur- 
prised to find how long is the list of 
words which I heard in my youth that 
were current in England aforetime and 
thence transplanted into New England 
where they were regarded as Yankee- 
isms. Among these are coweumber, 
Iwnkereher. lick, jist, bde (for boil), 
cornish, shet (but not bet) grozved, 
blowcd, khowed, hev, hed, hes, rench 
and renched (for rinse and rinsed), 
thrash, shet (for shut), the latter is also 
used for rid but is not in Lowell so far 
,as I have noticed, chimley, ferder, chist, 
brie hes, slick, git, let ' cr slide, agin, ben 
(for been), allow, (for believe or de- 
clare), wilt to begin to with, but like- 
wise to become suddenly embarrassed, 
yon and ydn, crick and run, wrastle, 
fleshy (for stout), purvide, heap (for 
many, hollow (for a halloo), drozvned 
(for drowned), more'n, oust, sight (for 
a great many), raise a house and house- 
raisin' side-hill, spark (for pay court 
to), and a considerable number of 

Two words that were never called 
into requisition by anybody were whose 
and whom ; and the statement holds 
good as to the former in both English 
and German. You would not hear any 
one say : "The man whose wife is sick", 
"but : "The man that his wife is sick", or 
some similar phrase. In the German 
the dative takes the place of the genitive. 
The accusative 'who' is probably a sur- 
vival rather than a grammatical error, 
since we find it so used by the Eliza- 
bethan writers. Yon and yan were also 
Tieard, but onlv from persons of English 
or Irish descent. In German the dative 
is much used where the genitive would 
"be put in literary speech. It is an inter- 
esting fact that in other languages, in 
Modern Greek, for example, the genitive 
is also lacking in the speech of the un- 
lettered. The general statement may be 
made that certain words and expressions 

were peculiar to the farmers of Scotch- 
Irish descent and others to those of Teu- 
tonic ancestry and that they were inter- 
changed but rarely. Parental usage had 
so thoroughly impressed itself upon the 
minds of the children in certain pecu- 
liarities of speech, in the case of persons 
who read little, that it was not eradicated 
in mature life. So much is the speech 
of the unlettered a part of their person- 
ality. Habit is not second nature, but 
nature itself. 

It must be considered remarkable that 
in a community in which there was 
probably not a man who had been born 
in England there should be in use so 
mnay words transplanted from British 
dialects. It is hardly less strange that 
no more are of German origin in view of 
the fact that the German element was so 
strongly represented. I recall very few 
words used in a somewhat peculiar or 
archaic signification among those I have 
investigated that I was unable to find in 
dialect dictionaries. As late as the six- 
teenth century there were no dialects, 
strictly speaking, in Great Britain. The 
literary language that began to be sys- 
tematically developed a little earlier is 
made up of selections in use in different 
parts of the island that were gradually 
disseminated everywhere by means of 
the printing-press. In the cases before 
us we have the survivals handed down 
orally through several generations- 
three at least, — although they were not 
in the direct line of descent. The inter- 
vening ocean did not break the con- 

The patriotic and praiseworthy efforts 
of a comparatively small number of 
Germans to keep alive their language in 
this country is not meeting with much 
support from their fellow-countrymen. 
It is probable that German literature, 
German science, German theology and 
German philosophy are, on the whole 
better known to those to whom the lan- 
guage is not a vernacular and who there- 
fore do not speak it with ease than to 
those whose ancestry is Teutonic. Our 
public schools are rapidly Anglicising all 
who expect to make their permanent 
home within the confines of the Great 


An Interview with Lawrence J. Ibach the Amateur 


By Dr. I. H. Betz, York, Pa. 

HE partial eclipse of the sun 
on Sunday, June 28, 1908, 
was an event that called 
forth much comment, not 
only on the part of the 
daily press, but among in- 
dividuals of all classes. 
Eclipses and comets which 
formerly inspired so much uneasiness 
and dread among all classes, are now as- 
sociated with curiosity from the stand- 
point of natural causes which produce 
them. But an eclipse even yet is viewed 
by savages as a monster who is hiding 
the face of the sun, and they believe that 
it is their bounden duty to scare him 
away with tin pans and torn toms. They 
claim to be absolutely successful every 
time ! Are not some of our own reason- 
ings often on a par with theirs? 

Astronomy, as we know it, while 
young in name is one of the oldest of the 
sciences. It was known during the Mid- 
dle Ages by the name of astrology or the 
science of the stars. Such phrases as the 
"star of destiny," his star is in the ascen- 
dant," or the "result of the mission was 
disastrous" indicate that stellar and 
planetary influences at one time were 
predominant. To be born under a lucky 
planet, or some other favorable in- 
fluence, was "a consummation devoutly 
to be wished" by fond parents who had 
the welfare of their offspring at heart. 

The moon also seemed to shed a ma- 
lignant influence upon human kind, since 
it was held to produce aberrations of the 
mind. From this we derive the terms 
"lunatic" and "lunacy", from the fact 
that the moon was termed "luna" in the 
Latin tongue. Long before this time — 
in the dim and distant past — on the 
plains of Babylonia and Assyria, where 
the air was clear, dry and transparent, 
men had viewed the heavenly bodies and 
made well marked and definite observa- 

tions upon them with the unaided senses. 
At a still earlier time, when the 
wealth of men consisted in their flocks 
which were herded from place to place, 
the bright and starry sky offered rare 
opportunities in this nomadic life to ob- 
serve the starry vault with all the mi- 
nute intent that the unaided eye was 
capable of. The heavenly bodies being 
the most striking and brilliant objects 
visible to the inquirer, they became as- 
sociated with a host of fancies and crude 
speculations. In fact they became adored 
and worshipped, and were believed to in- 
fluence man and his destiny. Thus man 
became a sun worshipper and a worship- 
per of the stars and planets as minor 
deities. When we defer to the almanac 
and its guide marks we but make obei-. 
sance to these ancient worthies, to whom 
we are indebted for the sexigesimal di- 
visions of the day, hours, minutes and 

The sages of India, Assyria, Babylonia, 
Arabia, Phoenicia and China have made 
many observations and reached many 
conclusions which have been incor- 
porated and verified by the modern mind 
and have been assimilated by the science 
of the day. That many of these old 
time beliefs have become antiquated and 
discarded goes without saying. The 
signs, up and down, in which implicit 
confidence is placed by devotees of the 
almanac, would seem to be based on 
phases of the moon. "Whatever they do 
signify is not definitely known yet they 
are still deferred to on traditional 
grounds. However the day has come, or 
is pretty generally at hand, when all old, 
time-honored practices and beliefs in the 
natural world must give reasons for 
their existence. Mere say-so will no 
longer pass muster. Mathematics, phys- 
ics, chemistry and astronomy are now in 
the domain of the exact sciences, and it 



is vain to enter the arena and challenge 
their credentials. The three last have 
had their contests in the domain of mat- 
ter, motion and force with its modifica- 
tions and its transformations, and have 
maintained their claims successfully. 

That department of physics termed 
meteorology is confessedly, still incom- 
plete. When we come to the domain of 
life and mind, whether in their individ- 
ual or collective capacities, the modify- 
ing influences become greater and more 
involved and those sciences arising from 
them are attended with much uncer- 
tainty, and can no longer be termed 
exact. Thus in biological, pathological, 
physiological and psychological science, 
differences of opinion may accompany 
different methods of interpretation. In 
sociology, different forms of govern- 
ment may be contended for in different 
lands and countries. It is for this rea- 
son that different political parties pre- 
vail, strenuously maintaining they are 
right and if they fail of success the 
country will face about towards retro- 

A science so exact that it can predict 
long previously an eclipse within a frac- 
tion of a second appeals powerfully to 
all who observe and reason from cause 
to effect. Such sciences are fascinating 
in the extreme, and their outcome being 
verifiable truth, they produce a habit of 
mind that is satisfied with nothing but 
exact demonstration. 

Of the great astronomers of the world 
we may name Ptolemy, Copernicus, 
Kepler, Galileo, Tycho Brahe, Herschel, 
Newton, Huygens, Proctor, Young, 
Newcomb, Holden and others. Their 
names and inspiration to pursuits of the 
immensities which produce and add 
grandeur to the verities of existence. 
Boys who have a taste in this direction 
can never divest themselves of this 
tendency, and even though their desires 
are ungratified, they will always in their 
musings of the past dwell upon "what 
might have been" had fortune smiled 
but kindly upon their longings, ambi- 
tions and aspirations. 

But let us proceed to an amateur as- 
tronomer whom the writer met and in- 

terviewed years ago at Newmanstowm, 
Lebanon County, Pa. This is a small 
town on one of the leading highways of 
the county and about two miles from the 
Philadelphia and Reading railroad, the 
nearest railroad station being Sheridan. 
This region is fertile limestone land. 
About ten or twelve miles to the north 
in what is known as the slate land belt 
is situated Fredericksburg formerly 
known as Stumpstown. This was the 
birthplace of James Lick. This town 
has about six hundred inhabitants and 
is situated a few miles west of the 
Berks County line. It is a rural com- 
munity and has no railway communica- 
tion. We made copious notes of the con- 
versation, surroundings and library of 
Mr. Lawrence J. Ibach at the time and 
found him to be a very interesting gen- 

His home was a modest unpretending 
two-story frame house. In the rear por- 
tion of it the philosopher and astrono- 
mer had his study. In this were all the 
appurtenances of an astronomical stu- 
dent's life. On the walls were hung 
maps descriptive of his profession. 
Placed upon the low old fashioned table 
which stood in the middle of the room 
were several elegantly mounted globes. 
Lying in a rack was a large sectional 
telescope while around the room a num- 
ber of smaller ones were seen. 

In the corners of the apartment were 
great stacks of books and also on many 
shelves that lined the room. Among his 
rare books was a copy of "Montcula" 
recounting observations and calculations 
many thousands of years ago. Here 
were also reminiscences of the Ptolemies 
Thales, and others. Here were also 
found standard and learned works on 
astionomy such as the opinions of Kep- 
ler, Lu Caille, Lambert, Tobias Mayer 
Euler, Huygens, Galileo, Maupertius, 
and others of a more recent date. Our 
friend was a lover of Tycho Brahe and 
Copernicus. To hear him go into ecsta- 
sies over these favorite authors was a 

He was an ardent admirer of Jo- 
hannes Muller to whom he claimed 
must be assigned the honor of giving the 
completest ephemerides. 



Here and there were scattered only as 
a student can scatter, charts and calcu- 
lations of wind currents and air lines, 
sketches of particular stones, instru- 
ments to measure the sun and moon, 
and such articles as pertain to the science 
of astronomy. It was truly a singular 
apartment to those uninitiated. Mr. 
Ibach like Elihu Burritt the learned 
blacksmith who acquired more than 
seventy languages was also a son of Vul- 
can who gained his knowledge amidst 
patient industry and toil. We noticed 
in Mr. Ibach's study a file of the Boston 
Investigator a sturdy sheet whose motto 
was, "Hear all sides then decide." We 
soon learned by his conversation that he' 
was an original thinker of no mean or- 
der yet exceedingly hospitable toward 
new ideas yet conservative as regarded 
new departures from those which were 
thoroughly based on experience. He did 
not base his dicta on other men's opin- 
ions and mere say-so but on verified 
conclusions not hastily formed but with 
time as the arbiter. 

During a long and interesting conver- 
sation with Air. Ibach we learned much 
of his family history and antecedents 
and also of his career as a man and as a 
student in his favorite study. He was 
a son of Gustavus Ibach a native of 
Dusseldorf, Germany, and was born 
January 17. 1816 at Allentown, Pa. His 
father was well known in his day as a 
successful worker in skillets and ladles. 
Young Lawrence was sent to school un- 
til he was 15 years of age after which 
he commenced to learn the trade of his 

In 1835 the family removed to his 
then present residence at Newmanstown, 
Lebanon County, where they lived until 
1849 when the subject of this sketch 
rented a forge near Reading from a Mr. 
Sidle a nephew of the then somewhat 
noted astronomer Charles F. Engleman. 
In 1852 he returned to Newmanstown 
the surroundings and climate near Read- 
ing not agreeing with him. During his 
stay near Reading he was a frequent 
visitor to Mr. Engleman and his boyish 
love of astronomy and mathematical 
subjects was freshly inspired. 

The intercourse with Mr. Engleman 
proved of much benefit to the nascent 
astronomer and he spoke with kindly 
feelings of the pleasure and instruction 
he received from him on astronomical 
topics. At the death of Mr. Engleman 
which occurred in i860 he became the 
purchaser of all his books, charts and 
unfinished calculations. These latter by 
the advice of friends he was prevailed 
upon to finish. In 1863 his first calcula- 
tion appeared. Since that time he had 
calculated for various almanacs in the 
United States. Among them being the 
Hagerstown of Maryland. At that time 
he was also engaged in calculating for 
some of the largest houses in the coun- 
try. He also was in the employ of the 
large metropolitan dailies who issued 
yearly almanacs. 

In 1875 he translated his work into 
four different languages, — French, 
Spanish, Italian and German, thus show- 
ing that though wrapped up in his par- 
ticular business he had taken time to 
study other branches of learning. Mr. 
Ibach being of German descent spoke 
the Pennsylvania German dialect in all 
its niceties. He was frank, affable and 
courteous in his manners and received 
strangers with politeness. He was a 
good conversationalist and above all a 
good listener. He was deferential in 
manner but without a trace of obse- 

On all subjects our astronomical 
friend impressed himself most sanely 
and on all the problems of mathematics 
and physics which have so often dis- 
rupted the understanding. The squar- 
ing of the circle, perpetual motion, the 
philosopher's stone, the fountain of 
youth, the elixir of life, the duplication 
of the cube, the dissociation of matter 
and force, the destruction of matter and 
force and other erratic problems found 
no lodgment in his hospitable mind. He 
was familiar with all of them and with 
their checkered history. His ingenious 
comments, his shrewd remarks and in- 
ferences impressed one most forcibly. 

We took leave of our versatile friend 
with many good wishes and thanks for 
the interesting hours we had spent with 



him so agreeably and instructively. We 
never met' him again but his memory has 
recurred to us repeatedly through the 
long years which have intervened since 
that period. Here and there might for- 
merly be met of like tendencies men who 
beguiled their leisure hours with stud- 
ies which appealed to them. Strange 
to say a number of these individuals 
were blacksmiths and shoemakers. The 
noted mystic philosopher Jacob Boehme 
whose influence has been so great upon 
this division of thought was a shoe- 
maker's apprentice at Gorlitz in Silesia. 
The same can be said for Andrew Jack- 
son Davis in America and of Benjamin 
Often the shoemaker who delivered 
courses of lectures in Tammany Hall, or 
of Samuel Smiles the shoemaker of 
Great Britain who became a self taught 
naturalist. Of Elihu Burritt who created 
so much attention a generation ago in 
pursuits which he anticipated we have 
already spoken. The tastes of Air. 

George Miller of York in the pursuit of 
practical entomology and ornithology 
during a long life time in the home field 
of York County the fruits of which are 
now stored in the rooms of the Histori- 
cal Society of York County are most 
praiseworthy in character and stamp 
their collector as one of tenacity of pur- 
pose and of untiring energy. This may 
also be said ' of other collectors and 
founders of science like the Mels- 
iieimers, father and son, of Revs.Wagner 
and Morris in York County. Such pur- 
suits are stimulating and healthful and 
by their example lead others to travel in 
their footsteps and thus lead to the 
acquisition of knowledge in a field that 
seems almost boundless. Therefore the 
labors of an Ibach which we have pri- 
marily sketched in this paper possess 
its uses and let us hope may have many 
imitators in this and kindred fields. Mr. 
Ibach died some years ago and was suc- 
ceeded bv his son. 

Things Hiiint No 3Iore Like They Wus 

Haint? Things haint no more like they wus 
When Me and Becky wus girls, 

An did comb alwus in two long plats 
And yet two sech nice spit-curls. 

Et don't give no more the Bellsnickles 

For et calls now Sandy Klaus 
Et wonders me too how et comes 

But I mean tis jest pecause. 

An they dont set no more an tat 
Like when me an Beck wus girls, 

But set alwus now an broity 
The same like the stylie girls. 

An tresses do open in back now 
Whiles baskes haint stylie you see, 

An they comb alwus in sech sigh-keys 
But so dumn I don't comb me. 

An when fellers come oncet to spark 

The old ones don't go to bed 
But set alwus up in the parly 

And hark at all wot is sed. 

An the young ones shame them to work 

An wear every day kit gluts, 
I sham myself too but sure am glad 

Things haint no more like they wus. 


March 12, 1911. 

Caleno Falls, Delaware Water Gap 

In a covert cool and dim 

O'er which trees both great and grim 

Lean with limb entwined in limb; 

In this dank and darkling dell 
Like a cave where monk doth dwell 
Thinking that his soul is well; 

Mountain waters gently play 
On their leaf-hid winding way, 
Dashing into softest spray. 

To the tinkling water's brink 
Downy mosses creep to drink 
While their sleepy wee eyes blink. 

Timid flowerets here and there 

Tremble in the chilly air 

That cloth lift their gossamer hair. 

Now and then the whir of wings 
Brings a mountain bird that sings 
Rarely, to his bardic springs. 

Where I see her water's fall, 
Where I hear her liquid brawl, 
I'm Caldeno's willing thrall. 


Bethlehem, Pa. 


The Germans in North Carolina West of the Catawba 

By Rev. L. L. Lohr, Lincolnton, N. C. 

ITTLE is known except in a 
general way of the history 
of the early settlement of 
this section Dy the Ger- 
man colonists. As there 
were no newspapers in this 
locality at that time, and 
as no local historian ex- 
isted among them, there is no record of 
their early struggles and conflicts. But 
from such accounts as have been handed 
down from one generation to another, 
there is reason to believe that they were 
not without such experiences as usually 
accompany pioneer life. 

The land was heavily wooded, and as 
much of the smaller timber was over- 
grown with vines, it was a task of no 
small magnitude to clear away the for- 
est and prepare the soil for cultivation. 

Wild beasts were quite numerous, and 
these were a source of considerable an- 
noyance, e|pecially on account of their 
destruction of small stock. Their Indian 
neighbors were not hostile, still they 
could not be trusted at all times. Burn- 
ing of property and other acts of vio- 
lence were by no means uncommon 
among them. But according to certain 
information, said to be reliable, there 
was more trouble with their ghosts than 
with the Indians themselves while roam- 
ing about in flesh and blood. There are 
a few localities which are said to have 
been at one time, the scenes of frequent 
visits from some departed Indians 
whose war-whoop broke in upon the 
stillness of the night, till the more heroic 
residents would take out their trusted 
flint and steel rifles, fire a few shots, 
when peace and quiet would again reign 
supreme. Another locality said to have 
been the burial place of Indians was of- 
ten visited on Sunday afternoons by 
groups of young men leisurely strolling 
here and there. On one occasion one of 
them concluded to thrust his walking 
stick into one of the graves. He did so 

only to find to his great surprise that he 
could not withdraw it. His companions 
came to his assistance, but to no pur- 
pose. The staff remained in the earth 
wedged no doubt between the rock, but 
supposed by them to be in the firm grip 
of the old Indian who had determined 
that that stick should never molest him 
again in the future. Curious spectators, 
it is said, often came and viewed that 
mysterious staff protruding from the In- 
dian mound, but not being sure as to 
what might happen, there was no one 
courageous enough to attempt to remove 

The entire country abounded also in 
witches of various degrees of ability in 
witchcraft. These were dreaded even 
more than wild beasts, Indians, Indian 
ghosts, and the whole category of other 
evils. And many of the older residents 
had some marvelous and thrilling stor- 
ies to relate of their observation and ex- 
perience with witches. Of course, this 
condition of things has long since passed 
away. There is but one residence in all 
these parts still supposed by its owner 
to be witch-ridden. A visit to that home 
when the occupant is away, will afford 
the opportunity to see heavy padlocks 
swung to the doors, and in addition 
massive chains curiously kinked and 
knotted, securing the doors to the porch 
posts. The former are intended to keep 
out thieves ; the latter, to hold back 

Emigration to this locality began 
about the year 1750. A few of the set- 
tlers may have come as early as 1745. 
There is practically no information on 
the subject except that which is gotten 
from grants, deeds, legal papers, family 
Bibles, and tradition. The majority of 
the colonists were from Pennsylvania. 
Some of them located for a time in 
Rowan, a county about fifty miles to the 
East ; but hearing of the more fertile 
lands on the west bank of the Catawba, 



especially on the waters of its principal 
tributary, the South Fork, they soon 
took possession of these and formed 
permanent settlements. However, there 
is some reason to believe, as will be ex- 
plained later, that part of the emigrants 
came directly from the Palatinate ; or 
that at least they were not long in this 
country before taking up their abode 
here. But most of them came directly 
from the counties of York and Lancas- 
ter without stopping at any intervening 
points. The older people of this com- 
munity speak of the above counties and 
of the experiences of their ancestors in 
coming from there to this locality. The 
great grandfather of the writer was a 
stage driver, and held his position for 
several years ; but a tierce encounter 
with some highway robbers about two 
miles from the present city of Lancaster, 
and in which a couple of men were 
killed, caused him to change his occupa- 
tion and seek his fortune elsewhere. He 
was the original pioneer to this section 
of the many families who now bear his 

As to the causes which brought the 
early settlers to this section of the 
South, these were the same as those 
which sent them to other parts of the 
world. In some cases the cause was in- 
cidental, as in the above example. But 
on the part of those who came directly 
from the ancestral homeland, there was 
much dissastis faction with the treatment 
received at the hands of intolerant 
rulers. This hardship was felt by Pala- 
tinate German and Swiss alike. The 
latter are also represented here by such 
family names as, Bauman, (Bowman), 
Behm (Beam), Huber (Hoover), Hoff- 
stetter, Muller (Miller), Schneider,Tay- 
lor), Schenck, and Yoder. Some were 
influenced in their coming by Wander- 
lust, a trait of character possessed by 
the German people in all their history. 
But no doubt the primary motive for 
many was the desire to acquire, to ac- 
cumulate wealth, and to improve their 
conditions in general. 

And in all this section they could not 
Tiave chosen a more desirable locality 
than that which is embraced in what is 

now the counties of Lincoln, Catawba, 
and Gaston, covering an area of about 
fifty by thirty miles. The soil is pro- 
ductive. Much if it is very fertile. 
There are no other lands anywhere in 
the South better adapted to agricultural 
purposes in general. But under the old 
regime of farming which existed here 
till within the more recent years, no one 
seemed to know just what the soil was 
capable of producing. Even down to a 
period as recent as thirty years ago 
farming was done in a very superficial 
way. There was no effort to increase 
the yield except by increasing the acre- 
age. The bull tongue, the twister, the 
bar share ( in some instances with a 
wooden mold board), the hoe, the hand 
rake, the mattock, the grass scythe, and 
the cradle for harvesting wheat, consti- 
tuted the entire outfit of farm imple- 
ments. With the natural fertility of the 
soil, these would have done well enough, 
if only better use had been made of 
them. But as they had large tracts of 
land, there was no desire to cultivate a 
particular field longer than to draw out 
its natural strength, when the neighbors 
were invited in for a chopping and log 
rolling, and another was opened up. And 
to have seen some of these farms as 
they appeared during the 70s and 80s, 
overgrown in places with briars and 
broom sedge, furrowed with gullies, on 
account of poor drainage, lack of ter- 
racing, shallow and improper cultiva- 
tion, and consequent rapid erosion pro- 
duced by the winter rains, would have 
been to see a picture of agricultural life 
rather univiting. But conditions have 
changed. The new awakening which 
has come to the South as a whole is no- 
where more evident than here. Farm 
implements and machinery of the best 
and latest designs are being used. The 
intensive idea of farming obtains almost 
everywhere. Under the more progres- 
sive spirit of the present, aided by state 
demonstration work, the yield has been 
increased a hundred fold. Fields and 
farms once discarded and supposed to 
b e practically worthless — although 
naturally rich but poor on account of 
neglect — are being reclaimed. The re- 



spouse to the better treatment is all that 
could be desired. In this particular lo- 
cality, 50 to 75 bushels of corn, 50 
bushels of oats, 30 bushels of wheat, 250 
bushels of sweet potatoes, a bale of cot- 
ton worth $75.00, can be easily produced 
on an acre. This is not a chance pos- 
sibility which may occur under certain 
extraordinary conditions ; but it is what 
is being actually done by all the better 
grade farmers. 

And just here it ought to be said that 
those who pass through the South and 
whose observation is limited to the view 
obtained from the window or steps of a 
moving train, do not see enough to ap- 
preciate its agricultural possibilities. In 
fact the impression thus obtained is 
somewhat disappointing. This is espec- 
iallv true, if the observer has ever gone 
by rail through the Cumberland or Leba- 
non valley, or from Reading to Lancas- 
ter, and noted the magnificient farms 
that appear on either side. But here the 
railroads cross the streams at right 
angles, or follow the dividing line on the 
water sheds, thus affording but little op- 
portunity to see the better sections of the 

From an industrial standpoint also, 
this territorv is of strategic importance. 
It is situated partly on and partly above 
the "fall line" which marks the junction 
of the Piedmont Plateau with the sandy 
coastal plain. It has an abundance of 
available water power that is not excel- 
led anywhere south of the Merrimac. 
Twenty-five vears ago this was un- 
utilized ; but the growth of the textile 
industries, and the advance in the 
knowledge of transmitting electric 
power, have given a wonderful impetus 
to the development of these falls. There 
are now 74 cotton mills in active opera- 
tion on this territory. The majority of 
these are either run by water or operated 
by electric power from the neighboring 
streams. Miles and miles of copper and 
aluminum wire are now stretched upon 
steel towers and wooden poles, and 
carrying energy from the source of 
power for the use of factories and mills 
at points favorable to transportation and 
health, instead of requiring the mills to 

be built near the streams, where ill 
health and poor work are bound to re- 
sult. Many of these mills are owned 
and controlled by these German descend- 
ants, and in others they have large 
holdings. The whole section is one of 
vast industrial possibilities. And judg- 
ing from what has been accomplished 
during the last ten years, we may confi- 
dently look for greater things in the 
future. Natural resources and climatic 
conditions are such that the appeal thus 
made to the capitalist is very strong. In 
fact with the raw material right here on 
the ground, and with abundant water 
power for manufacturing purposes, this 
is destined to become one of the great in- 
dustrial centers of the country. It shows 
st once the wisdom and the foresight of 
the fathers in selecting for themselves 
and their children such a goodly land. 

In educational matters their training 
for many years was not extensive ; but it 
was thorough as far as it went. They 
made provision for good schools as soon 
as conditions and circumstances would 
allow. The church and the school house 
went up side by side. Their interest in 
education of an approved type is seen in 
the action which they took in sending 
Christopher Rintleman and Christopher 
Layrle (1772) as a delegation to Europe 
for the purpose of applying to the Con- 
sistory Council of Hanover for minis- 
ters and school teachers to supply the 
various congregations ready to be organ- 
ized. They succeeded in getting one 
minister, Adolph Nussman, and one 
teacher Gottfried Arndt. These came 
over the next year (1773), and did 
very effective work in caring for the 
educational and religious interests of the 
colonists. Other helpers would have 
followed, and the good work begun by 
these pioneer teachers would have pro- 
gressed more rapidly ; but the Revolu- 
tionary War which came on in the mean- 
while, cut off all intercourse with 
Europe, and demoralized the country in 
general. This section especially felt the 
effect of the disturbances to no small de- 
gree, as it was the scene of two fierce 
conflicts between the Patriots and the 
Tories, — that of Ramsour's mill, Tune 



20, 1780, and the battle of King's Moun- 
tain October 7 of the same year. 

A very commendable feature of the 
educational work of that period, and 
one for which the German people have 
always been noted, was the emphasis 
laid upon the religious idea, making all 
their training distinctively Christian. 
Ihis is seen in the subject matter of 
their text books, — their readers abound- 
ing in selections from the Bible, and the 
contents as a whole appealing to the 
heart as well the mind. Even such 
books as the ABC Buchstabir-und 
Lesebuch by Billmeyer, and the ABC 
Buck by the Henkels, gotten up for the 
children, are not without the Creed, the 
Lord's Prayer, other short prayers, and 
hymns. It is not to be wondered at, 
therefore, that the children of that day 
grew up as a rule into men and women 
with a high sense of honor, a keen ap- 
preciation of right and wrong, and with 
such other qualities of mind and heart 
as help to make up ideal citizenship. 

But we have come upon more evil 
times. What we have gained in peda- 
gogical methods and in meaningless 
fairy tales, no doubt somewhat interest- 
ing to the children, we have lost in 
weightier matters. 

The school houses of that period, like 
those which existed everywhere else un- 
der similar conditions, can not be said to 
have been models of construction and 
convenience. They were invariably 
built of hewn logs, with an immense fire 
place, one side of which was occupied 
by the teacher, while the scholars 
perched on slab benches high enough to 
keep the little folks from dangling their 
feet on the floor, were gathered around 
in a kind of semi-circular order. On the 
rear of the building an opening was us- 
ually made by cutting out one of the 
logs, almost its full length. This, some- 
times with sash, but more frequently a 
drop shutter hinged with leather straps, 
served as a window to throw light upon 
the improvised writing desk which was 
ordinarily a plank supported on pegs 
driven in the wall. Here the children 
were gathered together immediately af- 
ter the noon hour to receive their usual 

instruction in penmanship. How they 
could ever learn to write at this particu- 
lar period with nerves and muscles all 
wrought up from the strenuous exertion 
on the play ground, indulging in bull 
pen, town ball, shinney, and other vigor- 
ous' sports, is somewhat hard to under- 
stand. But withal, they did well, re- 
markably well, even better than the ma- 
jority of the vertical enthusiasts of the 
present day. But these old-time school 
houses with their cherished memories 
have passed away. They were primitive 
enough it is true. Still they rendered a 
most splendid service as they had to do 
with the making of some of the best 
men and women which the state has 
ever had. In their stead there have 
arisen other buildings strictly modern in 
their appointments. During the last five 
years especially there has been a de- 
cided advance in rural educational work. 
No other section of the country any- 
where has better school houses than 
those which are being erected at this 
time in this vicinity. Lenoir college (Lu- 
theran) at Hickory and Catawba college 
(German Reformed) at Newton, are 
two flourishing institutions of learning 
conducted in the interests of Christian 
education. These schools are patronized 
not only by the families of German de- 
scent but by others also ; and the young 
men who go out from them are taking 
high positions in the professional, busi- 
ness, and social life of the state. From 
a denominational viewpoint ihe pioneers 
were either German Reformed or Lu- 
theran, principally the latter. There 
were a few German Baptists at the be- 
ginning, but these were never strong 
enough to form an organization. For 
many years churches were built and used 
in common, each denomination how- 
ever teaching and preaching the tenets 
of its own faith, but at present the un- 
ion house of worship is the exception 
and not the rule. Almost every family 
had its own private burying ground. 
This was no doubt in part to the absence 
of churches and church cemeteries for 
a number of years. In some cases it 
may have been due to the lack of bridges 
and the consequent inability to cross 



swollen streams. This would necessi- 
tate selecting some plot of ground 
nearer home, preferably of course on 
the old homestead. There was naturally 
a desire to bury the rest of the family 
at the same place. Hence these family 
burying plots when once started were 
kept up for years, and in fact until in 
some instances desecration to the graves 
on the part of new and disinterested 
owners of the land caused the younger 
generations to see the propriety of tak- 
ing their dead to the church cemeteries 
w-iere their mortal remains could rest in 
peace undisturbed by the ruthless hand 
of greed and gain. 

Like all their ancestors these people 
were devoutly religious and well read in 
the Bible and in their devotional books. 
Almost every home was supplied with 
choice books bearing on religious sub- 
jects, even more so than can be found in 
many homes of the present day. And 
the fact that these Bibles, hymn books, 
prayer books, and religious books in 
general invariably bore the imprint of 
some German publisher, may be taken 
as an argument for believing that some 
of the early settlers came directly from 
the Palatinate. Had all who came into 
this section, come directly from Penn- 
sylvania, and had they lived there for a 
considerable length of time before mov- 
ing here, it is reasonable to suppose 
that they would have supplied them- 
selves with many of the devotional 
books gotten out by its numerous pub- 
lishers. Of course there are here a 
number of books bearing the imprint of 
Saur, Billmeyer, Zentler, Cist, Mentz, 
and other early German American pub- 
lishers, but the greater part of the old 
German literature found in this locality 
was produced in Germany. 

It should be said, however, that with 
the beginning of the Henkel publica- 
tions in New Market, Va. in 1806, al- 
most every house was supplied with the 
productions of their press. This print- 
ing house on account of its continuous 
existence of more than a century, and 
on account of the high character of its 
publications, has had a remarkable in- 

fluence upon the religious life of the 

So far as we know, no pastor lived 
and labored among these pioneer settlers 
during the first twenty-five years of 
their residence here. They may have 
had an occasional visit from some 
traveling missionary. Under existing 
conditions, therefore, it became neces- 
sary for their school teachers to look af- 
ter their spiritual needs, visit the sick, 
bury the dead, and read prayers and 
sermons in the service on Sundays. They 
applied to Muhlenberg for help, but he 
had no men to spare. Hence they sent 
a delegation to Europe to lay their case 
before the church authorities there. As 
the result of that effort has already been 
stated, it is only necessary to add that 
Arndt who came here as a teacher, was 
ordained to the office of the ministry two 
years later (1775). While there is no 
known record of his work as a whole, it 
is generally believed that he organized 
all the older congregations in this sec- 
tion. Rev. Paul Henkel, himself a pio- 
neer minister born near Salisbury, Ro- 
wan County (1753), and preaching in 
that vicinity (1 781- 1792) and again 
1 800- 1 805). in a report to a Virginia 
Conference, has this to say of the 
labors of Rev. Arndt, — "In Lincoln 
County there are eight or nine congrega- 
tions, several of which are quite large. 
All these have erected joint houses of 
worship. The Lutheran congregations 
were served by Gottfried Arndt for 
twenty years ; and even before that time 
he had often traveled among these 
churches and performed official duties 
as far as his circumstances would per- 
mit. Four years before his death which 
occurred in 1807, he had the misfortune 
to lose his sight. He is buried under 
the Lutheran Church at Lincolnton. 

Living at the same time and caring for 
the religious interests of the Reformed 
people, was Rev. Andrew Loretz. Lit- 
tle is known oLhis history, although he 
is supposed to have been a native of 
Switzerland. He died in 1812. His 
residence, a substantial brick structure 
which he erected in 1793, is still fairly 
well preserved, and is one of the oldest 



landmarks in the community. Follow- 
ing Arndt came Revs. Philip Henkel, 
David Henkel, and Daniel Moser, who 
laid deep and well the foundations upon 
which much of the present work of the 
church is standing. Beginning with the 
death of Arndt, their work extended 
down to the year 1830. With few ex- 
ceptions all the congregations whose or- 
ganization dates back to the beginning 
of the last century, are strong and flour- 
ishing. And although most of them 
have sustained the usual losses which 
come from death and removal, the old 
mother congregations were never more 
active and vigorous than now, and they 
are showing a most commendable zeal 
along lines of practical church work. As 
an example of religious activity among 
these people, it must be said that the N.. 
C. Conference of the Tenn. Synod, 
which is confined almost entirely to the 
territory designated in the caption of 
this article, and which is composed of 
about twenty-five ministers, has its own 
Field Missionary whose whole time and 
service are given to the work of develop- 
ing new congregations within its bounds. 
Of course the strategic importance of 
the points cared for, makes this work 
necessary ; but it is the co-operation of 
the churches already established that 
makes it possible. 

The oldest plot of ground west of the 
Catawba set apart for religious pur- 
poses is that jointly owned by the Dan- 
iel's Lutheran and Reformed congrega- 
tions, and on which since 1889, each has 
had its own house of worship. It con- 
sists 'of about sixty acres of land and is 
comprised of an original grant made by 
George III to Matthew Floyd, and 
deeded by him to Nicholas Warlick, 
Frederick Wise, Urban Ashebanner, 
Peter Statler, Peter Summey, and Peter 
Hafner, for the consideration of 10 £s, 
and by them conveyed to the "two con- 
gregations of Lutherans and Calvinists", 

January 9, 1774. But we are fully jus- 
tified in believing that service was held 
here in what was then known as the 
school house church, even before the 
above date, as the old deed shows that 
these parties had purchased the land 
from Floyd six years before a formal 
transfer was made by them to the con- 

The location is ideal and one that is 
beautiful for situation, and is in the 
midst of one of the finest agricultural 
sections in the state ; while the sur- 
rounding community is made up of sub- 
stantial and high-class citizens. This 
special mention is made of this particu- 
lar locality, because here was the first 
settlement west of the Catawba, and the 
first congregation ; and because of the 
many useful men whom it has sent out 
into the professional ranks of life. The 
following ministers were born in this 
community and partly reared within the 
bounds of its two congregations ; Ger- 
man Reformed, Revs. John Lantz and 
Chas. W. Warlick. Lutheran, — Revs. 
Polycarp Henkel, D.D., Socrates Henk- 
el, D.D., until his death Editor of "Our 
Church Paper", New Market, Va., Jesse 
R. Peterson, L. A. Fox, D.D., Professor 
of Philosophy in Roanoke College, Va., 
Junius B. Fox. Ph. D., at the time of his 
death Professor in Newberry College, S. 
C. ; R. A. Yoder, D.D., for many years 
President of Lenoir College, Hickory, 
N. C, J. A. Rudisill, H. L. Seagle. H. 
A Kistler, and the present pastor of the 
congregation, L. L. Lohr. And to this 
list it may be well to add the name of 
the present Supt. of the City Public 
Schools of Wilson, S. C, and Pres. of 
the State Teachers' Association, Prof. 
Chas. L. Coon. The German descendants 
in North Carolina west of the Catawba 
have done reasonably well in the past ; 
and it is confidently hoped that their fu- 
ture will show no steps backward. 


Stories of Old Stumpstown 

Under this heading E. Crumbine, M.D., of 
Mt. Zion, Pa., has collected a handful of 
very interesting sketches giving a history of 
events, traditions and anecdotes of early 
Fredericksburg. These were read before the 
Lebanon County Historical Society in 1909 
and 1910 and have been issued in paper 
cover book of 152 pages. The following 
extracts give a fair idea of the contents of 
the whole book. We hope there are many 
others at work or ready to go to work to 
gather up equally valuable sketches of their 
respective communities. — Editor. 


One hundred years ago (in 1810), the 
name of the village was still unsettled. 
It was known as Stump's Town, 
"Shtumpa Shtedd'l", New Town and 
Fredericksburg. There was no postoffice 
before 1826. 

There was no free school house. The 
school was kept, and only German 
taught, in the small log school building 
located on the south eastern corner of 
St. John's churchyard. There was only 
one church, built of logs, and it had no 

Kerosene and other illuminating oils 
were unknown. So were electricity and 
gas. Tallow candles, and wrought iron 
lamps in which hog's fat was burnt, were 
in use. 

Farmers raised flax, and from it such 
warp and woof which was woven on 
home-made wooden looms into linen 
cloth of finer and coarser texture. Out 
of this cloth were made towels, bed- 
linen and underwear. They also made 
a very coarse fabric of the thicker fibres 
of the flax plant, called tow-cloth — 
"werrigich Tuch". "Half-linen" or 
linsey-woolsey was a cloth made of linen 
warp and woolen filling or woof, and 
was fashioned into clothing for both 
sexes. Both warp and woof were the 
product of the spinning-wheel and the 
weaving was done on small looms. 
Another product of the local weaver was 
a heavy woolen bed blanket in two or 
more bright colors, with the name of the 
maker and the year Anno Domini woven 
in. English capitals in one corner. One 
of the manufacturers was Emanuel 
Neilv, and his name can still be found 

packed away in old-fashioned chests and 
on beds of Lebanon county guest rooms. 
Philip Krebs was a weaver in "Reams- 
town" street. These blankets are heir- 
looms in some families, having descended 
through four or five or more genera- 
tions, and they are highly prized by their 

The village contained only two religi- 
ous organizations, the Reformed and the 
Lutherans, but a mile south the Menno- 
nites were numerous, and worshipped 
in a building of logs, erected in 1775. It 
contained a plain pulpit, unpainted 
wooden benches and was erected on an 
acre of land donated by Casper Sherrick 
in 1774. 

Three miles to the northwest of the 
little Mountain was a large wooden 
structure in which a Moravian congrega- 
tion worshipped. It was known as the 
"Herrnhuter Schulhaus" — the Moravian 
Schoolhouse. The auditorium was on 
the second story, while the ground floor 
was used as a dwelling by the school- 
master, who taught in it six days in the 
week during the winter months. 

The morals of the town and vicinity 
were not of the strictest order, and the 
people were not all of the pious and 
goody-goody kind as they are described 
by some local historians. The village 
people at Lebanon and neighboring 
counties were not all saints, and had 
their vices. Gambling was not unknown 
and drunkenness was not uncommon. 
Whiskey was cheap, brawls at the 
taverns were frequent, while scarcely a 
public vendue, a political gathering or a 
military parade passed oft" without a 
fight. In later years one of the habitual 
brawlers of the vicinity acquired the 
nickname of Bully Wagner, and another, 
a Light, was known as the "Butta Wam- 

Very few newspapers were brought 
to the village, and these were mostly 
printed in German. Dailies were un- 
known ; so were the magazines. 

The county was not Lebanon, but 
Dauphin. It was not before 1813 that 
Lebanon County was erected. 



Oranges were seen about twice a year. 
When the merchants brought new goods 
from Philadelphia their stock of mer- 
chandise included a box of oranges. 
Bananas were unknown in the town. 

The spinning-wheel and reel were in 
nearly every home. The reel was called 
a "Hoshpel". There were also "wool- 
wheels". "Hospel" was often applied to 
an unsteady, foolish fellow. The spin- 
ning-wheel, the reel and the wool-wheel 
have all gone out of business, and only 
the foolish, human "hospel" remains. 

There was not a mile of telegraph nor 
a single trolley car in the State and the 
telephone had not even been dreamt of 
in Stumpstown, nor in any other town 
or out of it. 

There was no threshing machine ; 
wheat and other cereals were threshed 
with flails, or tramped out on the barn- 
floor by horses. An able workman could 
earn 40 cents per day and board, in 
threshing with a flail in a farmer's barn 
in the winter time, but he was obliged to 
labor from early dawn till dark night. 

There were no mowers, no reaping 
machines, no self-binders. Grain and 
grass were cut with sickles, cradles and 
Dutch scythes. The Dutch scythes were 
sharpened on a "Denglestock" with a 
"Dengle hammer". 

Rye-bread was largely eaten, and 
applebutter was a universal sauce. 
Cherries, apples and peaches were dried 
for winter use, and canned fruit was not 
known. There were no pure food laws, 
and no cases of ptomaine poisoning. So- 
called "sanitation" of the present day 
would have been hooted and regarded, 
with disgust and contempt. 

The Sunday collections in church were 
taken in a small black velvet bag, eight 
inches in depth, the top kept open by 
means of an iron ring four inches in 
diameter, suspended from the end of a 
long pole. The bag had a small bell 
attached to the botton, to arouse drowsy 
members into a sense of giving. The 
coins dropped into it were the big copper 
cents of the time. It was called a 
"Klingle-Seckly", which means, literally, 
a tinkling-bag. There was congregational 
singing led by a "fore-singer", and no 

instrumental accompaniment. 

Within the schoolhouse there were no 
wall-maps, charts, globes nor black- 
boards. Goosequills were in use instead 
of steel pens. 1 he cost of tuition was 
two cents per day and the county com- 
missioners paid the schooling of indigent 
children. Attending school was not com- 
pulsory. It was a "free" school, inas- 
much as one was free to attend, or not, 
as he pleased. And still the children 
grew up to useful manhood and woman- 

There were no licensed saloons. Every 
storekeeper sold whiskey by the pint or 
quart, and the price was six cents per 
pint. Lager beer was not heard of. 
Neither was ice cream. 

Cigars could be bought at the rate of 
four for a cent, or twenty cents and less 
per hundred, tied together with a strip 
of corn husk. 

There was not a single organ or piano 
in any private house or church in Bethel 
Township, and extremely few within the 
present borders of our county. 


One of Mr. Shlatterly's habits was, 
when the school-room noises became too 
loud and annoying to give a smart, re- 
sounding rap on his desk with his rod or 
ruler and call out in a loud voice, 
"Silence". It so happened that a certain 
boy named Bentz came one morning as 
a new pupil, and during the day he was 
greatly disturbed by the teacher's ex- 
clamations, being under the impression 
that they were addressed to him indi- 
vidually and calling him Si Lentz. Now 
be it understood that "Si" in the Penn- 
sylvania German lingo stands for the 
plural of pig and the poor boy imagined 
that he was being called a "Pig-Lentz" 
all day long. Therefore after his first 
day he astonished his parents by declar- 
ing that nothing would induce him to 
return to school only to be abused and 
called a "Si-Lentz" from morning till 
evening. It is interesting to note that 
after having the meaning of the term 
explained to him, the lad came back, 
developed a mathematical turn of mind 
and became the best arithmetician in the 




Twelve years later there was another 
pole-raising by the Democrats in front 
of John Foesig's tavern, near the corner 
of Market and Pinegrove streets. It 
was accompanied by an ox-roast and fol- 
lowed by a roistering frolic at night. 
Three Reading artists were brought to 
the place, one to paint in big letters the 
names of Buchanan and Breckinridge on 
the large square canvas attached to the 
pole, and all three to play stringed in- 
struments for the crowd. It was a rainy 
day, and when the first attempt failed to 
raise the shaft and plant it into the deep 
hole excavated for its reception, a 
gathering of Fremont Republicans on 
the opposite side of the street in front of 
old Jacob Eshleman's house, cheered 
vociferously as it came down into the 
mud. But when in a second attempt the 
Democrats made a "long pull, a strong 
pull and pull altogether", when the pole 
reached the perpendicular, and the 
names of the distinguished Pennsylva- 
nian and the Southern slave-holder were 
flung to the drizzling air, then it was 
their turn to cheer and they did cheer. 
Perhaps their enthusiasm would have 
been less vociferous had they foreseen 
the long years of bloody strife between 
the North and the South which was to 
begin before the administration of James 
Buchanan and John C. Breckinridge 
came to a close. 

This occasion furnished a theme for a 
rhymester who wrote a lampoon in the 
vernacular against the local Democratic 
leaders, which appeared in the "Libanon 
Demokrat". It was too good to be en- 
tirely lost, and a part of it is here re- 
produced : 

An Invitation. 

Hurrah, hurrah, ihr Demokraten ! 
Komrat herbei zum Ochsenbraten. . 
Macht eich raus in aller Freeh, 
Es gibt e'n wedderliche Shpree ! 

E'n alter Ochs ist an der Heck, 
Den braten wir mit Haut tin' Dreck ; 
Der Kalbs-kop Butcher un der Hans 
Die heben schon den Ochs am Schwantz ! 

Der Buck, so hab ich hoere sagen, 
Wollt komme' auf 'm Wind-Muehl 

YYagen ; 
Und wei bei jeder Lumperei 
Ist der Huchster au' dabei. 

Der Kueh-Dokter derf der YYampe 

Und sich e'n neues Hemd raus scheren ; 
Und wass noch gibt der groesste G'spass, 
Ein gut-gefilltes Whiskey-Fass ! 


In the northwest corner of Market 
Square stood in the first half of the 
nineteenth century a steep-roofed brown- 
ish-red, one-storied house which was the 
residence of Michael Stroh and his wife, 
whose maiden name was Rudy. Mrs. 
Stroh was known to all the boys and 
girls of the village as Mammy Stroh, 
and every one loved her and her large 
and comfortable sitting room, as well as 
the toothsome wares which she sold 
there. These consisted of sweet cook- 
ies, "mintsticks" and black molasses 
candy, called" "mozhey". Besides these 
she kept for sale inch-sized blocks of 
candy, wrapped in papers of different 
colors with narrow slips, on which were 
printed sentiments in two rhyming lines, 
known as "loveletters". They might 
have been termed "courtship made 
easy". They were sold at the rate of 
four for a cent, and the rhymes were 
like these : 

"Our joys when united will always in- 

And griefs when divided are Iull'd into 

Another was like this : 

Love all sincere, dear youth, is mine,. 
For oh ! my faithful heart is thine. 

Cigars tied together in bundles of 100 
with narrow strips of corn husks were 
sold at the rate of four for one big cop- 
per cent. 

She also made and sold a sw r eet drink, 
known as mead, which was a veritable 
nectar to young palates. She wore a 
snow-white cap with a big ruffle, or frill, 
which surrounded her kind, brown, 



wrinkled, motherly, old face as with a 
halo of glory. Her room was heated by 
means of a big, old-fashioned stove and 
the fuel burned in it was white oak and 
solid hickory wood. For a youth of 
romantic seventeen to sit on the shiny, 
old-fashioned, red wood-chest, behind 
that warm stove, next to a girl of sweet 
sixteen was like enjoying a seat beside a 
redeemed Peri in Paradise, and the 
buzzing of the hre in the old wood-stove 
was like the music of the sphere falling 
upon the ears of the blest ! 

Mammy Stroh's parlor was a sort of, 
trysting-place for the Dutch lads and 
lassies and many an acquaintance begun 
there in the dim light of her fat-lamp 
ripened into friendship and the closer 
ties of love. Many a matrimonial match 
had the beginning in Mistress Stroh's 
cake-parlor over a glass oi spicy mead 
and a delicious "Leb-kuche", paid for 
by the boy's copper pennies. She drove 
an especially brisk trade during the 
Christmas and New Year holidays, 
when many a rip and levy and a big 
shower of coppers, found their way into 
her money box. The young people of 
that day spent more copper than silver 
pieces, and despite the fact of having 
no end of pure-food legislation in our 
time, the dappled cookies and the black 
"mozhey" of Mammy Stroh's manufac- 
ture were purer and healthier than the 
disgusting chewing-gum and the un- 
wholesome sweetmeats that are annually 
thrust upon the holiday market to sow 
the seeds of ill health and bad habits. 

a teacher's examination (p. 55) 

The advent of the County Superin- 
tendent in 1854 marked a new era in 
school affairs. The first incumbent was 
John H. Kluge of Lebanon, a teacher in 
the Lebanon Academy building on the 
corner of Willow and the "plankroad" 
now Tenth Street. He was a short, fat 
man, with a round pleasant face and a 
kind heart but withal of a somewhat 
sarcastic turn, as the following incident 
will show : It was a day in the month 
of September, early in the fifties. A 
number of old schoolmasters with some 
younger men were behind the desks in 

room number 4 in the old schoolhouse, 
while Mr. Kluge, as examiner, occupied 
the large desk facing the class. The 
branch was English grammar, and the 
examination was oral. "Mr. X," said 
the Superintendent in mild tones, "what 
is English grammar?" 

In a shrill treble Mr. X. replied, 
"Well, I cannot say much about it." 

"Don't you know anything about Eng- 
lish grammar?" was the next question. 

"O, yes, I know some." 

"Well, then, Mr. X. will you tell me 
what a noun is?" said Mr. Kluge. 

"A noun?" repeated the old peda- 
gogue, rolling his eyes along the ceiling 
as if to find an answer there. "No, sir; 
I cannot say chust now what — what a 
noun is." 

"AVhy, Mr. X. if you know anything 
at all about grammar you should be able 
to answer this question ; it is the sim- 
plest one I can ask you." 

This was too much for our old friend 
Mr. X. and in his thin treble he almost 
shouted, "Well, I haf kep' school dese 
twenty-five years !" 

"Is it possible?" said Mr. Kluge, slow- 
ly but with emphasis, and passed on to 
the next candidate for pedagogical 


They often suffered persecution at the 
hands of the unregenerated sons of 
"Belial" who during the evening services 
would play all manner of tricks on the 
rear and illy lighted benches, or in the 
darkness outside. On one occasion, at a 
meeting on Mechanic street, held on a 
warm summer night, when all were on 
their knees and nearly every one's voice 
shouting irregular responses and loud 
aniens to the one who was leading in 
prayer, a certain elderly brother was 
kneeling with his back toward the open 
window. He wore very long hair, and 
when one of the "wicked ones" armed 
with a long, slender stick having the end 
split into short, brush-like splinters, 
quietly poked it through the window, 
and, twisting it like a screw into the 
devout brother's long locks, gave it a 



sudden wrench and tore out a handful 
of hair, the sufferer leaped to his feet 
and shouted, "Hier in unsere Mitte is 
der Almechtig Gott, aher drous in der 
dunkele Nacht ist der lehendig Teufel !" 
(Here is our midst is the presence of 
Almighty God, hut out in the darkness 
of night is the living devil!") 


The minor ailments, especially of chil- 
dren, were as a rule, treated with 
domestic remedies in the first fifty years 
of the town's existence. The garrets 
held a store of recognized remedies for 
many of the ills which flesh is heir too. 
Suspended from the rafters, tied in 
paper, were sage, and hyssop, catnip and 
boneset, rue and rosemary, thyme and 
mint, horehound and coriander, fennel 
and pennyroyal, elecampene root and 
hollyhock flowers. For rheumatism 
there were the amulets, the pow-wowers 
and prickly ash bark ; for erysipelas 
there was the woman who, with three 
strands of red silk, or red wool, could 
charm it away, or if silk and wool were 
difficult to get, three shovelfuls of live 
coals carried thrice across the person of 
the patient would of a certainty afford 
relief. In the corner cupboard were the 
camphor bottle and the lily-dram, the 
walnuts in whiskey and the tansy bitters. 

Living the simple life, sleeping in 
attics so well ventilated that little snow- 
drifts were often found on top of the 
featherbed or on their woolen stockings 
on the bare floor as they opened their 
eyes in the early dawn the boys and girls 
became hardy and strong. Making their 
morning ahlutions, not in a warmed 
bathroom, but out at the pump, sur- 
rounded by snow, with icicles pendant 
from the spout, they became robust and 
rosy-cheeked, and it is safe to say that 
the death-rate among the early villagers 
was no greater than it is in our own time 
of State Health Boards, Anti-toxin 
fakes, subsidized, outdoor, hospital 
camps and Christian Science humbugs. 

the store (p. 74) 

The merchants of the olden time 
bought their goods at Philadelphia, 

whence they were brought in big Cone- 
stoga wagons by farmers, who, when 
taking to the eastern markets the pro- 
ducts of the farm and the still, brought 
dry goods, hardware and groceries on 
their return home. This was the custom 
before the building of the Union Canal, 
hut after the opening of that water-way, 
the goods were carried to Lebanon by 
boat, and thence hauled to their destina- 
tion for the retail trade. Spring and 
autumn were the seasons for the mer- 
chant to replenish his stock, and these 
were great times for the housewives who 
needed ginghams and calicoes, muslins 
and ribbons, to go and see the new goods. 
The crowds on these occasions were 
similar to those in a modern department 
store on a bargain day, and for weeks 
the merchant's money-drawer was con- 
verted into an instrument of music, as 
the Spanish dollars, the quarters, fips 
and levies dropped into them in great 

Among the curious dames who at an 
early hour hastened to see the latest 
novelties was one whom we will call 
Catherine Q. She seldom bought any- 
thing, her scant supply of pin-money 
forbidding it, but she took a great inter- 
est in the newest textile fabric, especially 
in blue cotton prints, and she loved to 
smoke cigars. She was the first one for 
whom the salesman made a display of 
calicoes, his silk ribbons and his new fip- 
sugar. She spent hours in examining 
the various kinds of merchandise, the 
proprietor knowing well the value of her 
advertising tongue if he was patient and 
obliging. After having taken a mental 
inventory of almost the entire stock, hut 
buying nothing she would say, "And 
now you ought to present me with a real 
good cigar!" And she got it every time. 
She spent the remainder of the day in 
going from house to house with a glow- 
ing account of the fine bargains to be 

Among the merchandise of a general 
store were rye, whiskey and other 
liquors. Monongahela whiskey could be 
bought at eight to ten cents per quart, 
and it was a common thing to keep a 



rum bottle in the family cupboard. When 
new goods arrived, and the huge hogs- 
heads of sugar, the puncheons of rum 
and the heavy casks of molasses were 
unloaded, the whiskey bottle was free to 
all obliging persons who assisted in the 
work. On one of these occasions a lad 
of thirteen was among the busy crowd 
and was busiest where the bottle was 
kept. In the course of an hour or two 
he was unable to walk. His fond mother, 
supposing her boy had been taken sud- 
denly ill, put him to bed and nursed him 
as a sick child. All at once his stomach 
rebelled, and there was a fearful up- 
heaval, which by its odor, betrayed the 
lad's condition to the mother. Starting 
awav from him in disgust and indigna- 
tion, she cried, "Why, my God, Obadiah, 
you are drunk !" "Do you really think 
I am, Mom?" said the lad and took his 
time to become sober. 


Every Fredericksburger had a meal- 
chest, or a flour barrel, a dough-trough, 
or "Bock-muld", and also bread-baskets 
made of rye-straw and hickory-splints. 
These articles were kept in a small room 
called the "meal-room". To this room 
the miller carried the bag of meal. The 
bran was taken to the stable and then fed 
to the cow. The miller was always sure 
of his pay, for he took toll before grind- 
ing the grain. The toll amounted to ten 
per cent, and it was measured out with 
a small wooden box called a "mulder- 
bexly" or toll-box, which was filled and 
taken for each bushel that was ground. 
Every customer got the flour of his own 
wheat, and the miller was said to be 
doing "custom work". This custom has 
passed away. A farmer may still take 
a bag of wheat to the mill, but he only 
exchanges it for its value in flour. Every 
family in those old days baked its own 
bread, in a brick oven. No house was 
complete without a "bake-oven". There 
were three utensils used in the process 
of baking bread, which are quite un- 
known to many persons of the present 
day. They were the "Back-ofa-kitch", 
the "Back-ofa-huddle", and the "Back- 

ofa-sheeser". The first of these was a 
sort of long-handled hoe with which the 
live coals were raked or dragged out of 
the oven after it was heated — literally, a 
bake-oven catch, catch having been cor- 
rupted to "kitch". The second consisted 
of a cloth tied to a long pole with, which 
the oven was swept clean of what the 
"kitch" failed to remove. The last- 
literally, a bake-oven shooter — was a 
flat, wooden shovel, also with a long 
handle, which was used to convey the 
pans containing the dough into the hot 
oven, as well as to remove them when 
baked. The baking was done on Friday, 
as a rule, and on the same day was 
baked the week's supply of pies. I heard 
of a certain economical housewife, who. 
when she was boarding the laborers, 
baked a supply two weeks ahead in order 
to have then stale all the time and 
consequently have them last longer. 


When a death occurred, messengers 
were at once sent out to carry the sad 
news, with the date and hour of the 
funeral, to friends and relatives. Four 
persons of the neighborhood were 
selected as "grave-makers" — married 
men if the deceased died in wedlock; 
boys or young men in case of an infant 
or' unmarried person. These four dug 
the grave, acted as pallbearers, and made 
the interment. 

Soon after the death the church bell 
would ring for a short time, and, after a' 
pause, would "toll" forth the number of 
years of the deceased. In case of an 
infant of an age under three, the bell 
would "toll two". The neighbors would 
offer their services free to make prepara- 
tions for the funeral. A calf would be 
killed and numbers of chickens decapi- 
tated. There would be roasting and 
stewing and baking, and a great array of 
funeral meats, cakes and pies would 
cover tables and benches in the cellar. 
In order to keep rats and mice away, 
small lights were improvised by cutting 
out of a newspaper or some wrapping 
paper, a circular piece the size of a 
saucer. The centre of this was twisted 
into the shape of an inch-long wick and 



put in the bottom of the saucer. Lard 
or hog's fat used for burning in the 
saucer in a "Fett-Amshel", or fat-lamp, 
was pressed on the paper in the saucer 
around the wick-like projection, which 
was greased and lighted. Three or four 
of these night-lamps were placed at dif- 
ferent points in the cellar, where they 
burned all night and kept the little four- 
footed thieves away. 

As late as the middle of the last cen- 
tury, and even later, it was a common 
custom for the neighbors to sit up all 
night and keep watch with the dead. 
Though far from approaching the con- 
vivial Irish wake, the occasion was made 
more or less of a social gathering, and 
at midnight refreshments were served 
to the watchers. Hymns were sung at 
intervals, and the younger folks often 
managed to do a little decorous love- 
making on the quiet towards the wee 
small hours of the morning. 

There were no hearses in those days, 
and when from the country, the dead 
were carried in large "Conestoga" 
wagons covered with canvas, spread over 
big bows arching from side to side. At 
other times the coffin was placed on the 
straw-spread bottom of a coverless 
wagon, with the driver and undertaker 
seated in the forepart on a board laid 
across the box. The preacher and the 
"foresinger" headed the funeral train in 
a rockaway or in an old-fashioned family 
carriage. The friends followed in dif- 
ferent kinds of vehicles from the heavy 
carriage to the lumbering, springless 

two-horse wagon which had an abundant 
supply of straw in the bottom and had 
boards laid across the box to serve as 

The funerals coming from the east, 
from the north or from the west, halted 
just south of the crossing of Pinegrove 
and Market streets. The coffin was 
placed on the black bier near the side- 
walk. The minister, the "foresinger", 
the relatives and friends, together with 
a number of idlers and apprentice boys, 
were grouped around. A hymn was sung 
as the undertaker turned back on its 
hinges the upper sections in two parts, 
of the coffin lid, exposing the face and 
upper parts of the shroud, and then, the 
bell began tolling and continued to do so 
until the open grave was reached. There 
the burial service was recited, another 
hymn was sung, generally from the 
"Saenger am Grabe" and the coffin was 
lowered into the grave. The friends 
followed the minister to the church to 
sit under a long and often tedious ser- 
mon. It was the custom for the kins- 
folk to keep their hats on their heads in 
church during the services. The appren- 
tice boys and the village idlers remained 
at the grave until the "grave-makers' r 
had rounded the mound and also gone 
to the church. Then the boys returned 
to their tasks in the shop, and the few 
idlers to their accustomed benches and 
boxes in the stores and taverns, there 
to discuss the merits and faults of the 


ierman oocia 

1 Ideal 

WISH to thank you most 
sincerely for the privilege 
of appearing before you 
on the birthday of your 
national hero who with 
Frederic the Great initi- 
ated the friendship be- 
tween our two countries, 
which has existed unbroken ever since. 
I most highly appreciate the great honor 
conferred on me by this University of 
world wide fame. This is all the more 
the case as the same honor has some 
years ago been conferred on His 
Majesty the Emperor. It is exceedingly 
gratifying to me, that the degree of 
doctor of laws brings me in a lasting 
connection with the celebrated Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania which under the 
leadership of its distinguished presidents 
has become a centre of light and inspira- 
tion to the whole world. I am well 
aware, that in conferring such a great 
honor on me you were less prompted by 
the wish to recognize my small personal 
merits than by the desire to express your 
friendship and sympathy for the nation 
I have the honor to represent. Such 
friendship seems especially natural at 
Philadelphia, as this beautiful city has 
been the home of, the first German set- 
tlers, who reached this hospitable coun- 
try. In the days of the great founder of 
this University, Pennsylvania was the 
most German of the colonies. That is, 
however, a story which you all know 
more about than I do. Those German 
settlers and the many millions of others 
who came here in later days have since 
been Americanized and proved to be 
very good citizens. They now form a 
natural bond of an ever increasing 
friendship between Germany and the 
United States. Most of them left their 
old home, when the name of Germany 
only lived in verse and song and the 
nation was granulated into many political 
units. Unfriendly foreign critics who 
regret that Germany cannot in our days 
be bullied as in former centuries are apt 
to reproach us for having, with our 

political sleepiness, also laid aside our 
old and true German ideals. This, how- 
ever, is not at all the case. I believe that 
no better proof could have been given 
that idealism is still the chief character- 
istic of the German soul and that 
righteousness is the dominant motive in 
the will of our nation, than by the efforts, 
made in my country to solve the social 
problem which is the problem of the day. 
A celebrated German author has said: 
"Mankind is pitiful, as it has not even- 
been able to devise a method of clothing 
everybody and protecting everybody 
against hunger and thirst." We are still 
far from attaining this ideal goal. Very 
much can, however, be done to alleviate 
the state of dependence on the rich man 
in which the poor man- now lives. This 
state of dependence is apt to lead to 
political agitation of a dangerous and 
Utopian kind, but one of the great lessons- 
history teaches us is, that no population 
is ever disturbed by wholly imaginary 
grievances and that political agitation 
lives and is formidable only by virtue of 
what is reasonable in its demands. The 
faculty to distinguish clearly how far 
such demands are reasonable is an indis- 
pensable element of statesmanship, and a 
statesman who intends to take the social 
problem in hand must be gifted with that 
dramatic instinct, that fine, sympathetic 
insight, which enables a man to put him- 
self for a moment into the condition 
and mood of men entirely unlike him- 
self in feeling, education, habits and 
principles. Our great Bismark was such 
a statesman. After he had restored the 
unity of the German nation and re- 
formed our tariff law, he realized that it 
was his duty to take a bold initiative in 
the domain of social legislation under 
the Government of our present sovereign 
with the assistance of the federal states, 
the Imperial Parliament, and the whole 

This legislation throws a heavy burden 
on the tax payer in general and the 
employers especially, a burden which 
they, however, have gladly taken on 



their shoulders, hecause the new institu- 
tions, in practically raising the wages of 
our working classes, have secured to 
them a tolerable standard of life, guar- 
anteed their physical health and so 
furthered their social, moral and intel- 
lectual interests. 

If the workman is without employ- 
ment, all the municipal and associated 
effort, skillfully co-ordinated and effici- 
ently directed, can do to find him work 
is promptly done. For the workless man 
who thinks he can better his prospects in 
a new home, the "herberge" and the relief 
station exist and offer the traveler hos- 
pitable lodging and food by the way. To 
the needs of the miscellaneous crowd of 
unemployed whose love of steady indus- 
try is not always above suspicion, labor 
colonies, conducted both on industrial 
and agricultural lines, minister in their 
special way. In the towns exceptional 
seasonal distress is more and more met 
by the provision of public works. To 
encourage the provident a method of 
insurance against worklessness has been 
introduced in some cities. 

If the workman wishes to change his 
dwelling, the municipality has a house 
agency of its own, at which all desired 
information and help can be obtained 
without charge. If he wishes to buy or 
to build a house for himself, public 
funds of various kinds — state, municipal,, 
philanthropic — are available, and many 
millions of dollars have already been 
advanced in this way. 

If the money is wanted on loan the 
municipality acts as pawnbroker and 
offers prompt relief with absolute as- 
surance of fair dealing. 

If the workman is in difficulty from 
want of friendly advice, the municipal 
information bureau is prepared to 
counsel him on every subject. 

If capital and labor have fallen out, 
the industrial courts offer facilities for 
settling the disagreements expeditiously 
and without cost. 

If sickness throws its shadow over the 
worker's home, the gloom is relieved 
owing to the fact that the needs of wife 
and children are supplied by the insur- 
ance fund to which he has contributed 

during health. So, too, in the event of 
accident, there are well ordered public 
hospitals and convalescent homes, to 
which every rate-paying citizen may go 
for nursing and rest, and there is also an 
excellent system of healing agencies 
which has been set up by the insurance 
authorities and which is at the disposal 
of all insured workers of any age and of 
either sex. 

When the age of decay and helpless- 
ness has come, a pension awaits the 
weary soldier of industry, a pension not 
large, nor yet as large as it might be, but 
a welcome supplement to his own sav- 
ings or to the sacrifice of children or 

All these practical experiments in the 
science of social government are re- 
markable for their originality. I hope 
therefore to foster your friendly feelings 
for my country by speaking of them, as 
Germany has in this domain shown an 
initiative and a boldness which, whether 
the results always give satisfaction or 
not, compel admiration and respect. 

As you see our efforts to solve the 
social problem, cover the whoie range of 
life and action, and it would therfore be 
quite impossible to deal with all our 
social institutions today. I would not 
venture to engage your attention for 
such a long time. I will begin with the 
industrial insurance laws, because these 
are of the greatest interest to foreign 
nations and are being copied by many. 

These industrial insurance laws must 
be taken into account if we wish to pass 
a fair judgment upon the wages and 
standard of life of the German work- 

On the one hand the employer is 
heavily taxed by these laws, a tax which 
must be added to the cost of production, 
and on the other hand, thanks to the 
insurance laws, the employed enjoy 
benefits such as the workmen of other 
countries can not count on. 

The first of the three laws I intend 
speaking of without going into more 
tedious details than are absolutely neces- 
sary, requires insurance against sick- 
ness in the case of all persons who are 
regularly employed for wages. There 



are various groups of insurance agencies 
whose regulations differ in many details 
from one another, but the general basis 
of insurance is the same. 

The law provides for a minimum 
benefit, which consists of free medical 
attendance and medicine from the begin- 
ning of the sickness ; and in the event 
of incapacity for work sick-pay from 
the third day of illness, amounting to 
half the daily wages, on which the con- 
tributions have been based. The long- 
est period for which sick-pay is granted 
is twenty-six weeks, after which, should 
incapacity continue, the liability is 
transferred to the invalidity insurance 
fund, though medical assistance may 
continue for a year. 

Instead of insured persons receiving 
free medical attendance at home, they 
may be treated in hospital — with their 
consent in the case of people having 
homes of their own — without their con- 
sent, when to their cure are necessary 
such attending and nursing as cannot be 
efficiently given in their own homes. 
Where a person upon whom others de- 
pend for support is attended in a hospi- 
tal, half the sick-pay to which he would 
otherwise have had a claim is paid to 

It is within the power of most of the 
funds to extend the sick relief to a 
maximum of one year ,to increase the 
benefit to three quarters of the wages 
and to increase the relief given to the 
families of persons treated in hospital to 
half their wages. 

The contributions are paid to the 
extent of two-thirds by the insured and 
to the extent of one-third by the em- 

The workmen have a large share in 
the management of the sick-funds, the 
board being elected by employers and 
employed. The employers' respresenta- 
tives may never number more than half 
of the workers' representatives. 

The accident insurance laws embrace 
the same classes of wage earners. The 
insurance is carried out under the guar- 
antee of the empire on the mutual system 
by the employers united in trade asso- 
ciations, which may embrace all the 

several branches of industry in certain 
districts or in the whole empire, parity 
of risk being thus aimed at. The asso- 
ciations enjoy the privilege of legal per- 
son are self-governing, the members of 
each association electing their own exec- 
utive, membership to which is honorary. 
The imperial insurance board exercises 
supreme control and oversight over the 
whole of the trade associations, yet only 
with a view to the full observance of the 
law. Every employer becomes a mem- 
ber of the association of his trade by the 
fact of his establishing an industrial 
undertaking, and the liability to insure 
his work-people and to pay contributions 
on their behalf necessarily follows. The 
whole of the employers are divided into 
danger classes and the premiums levied 
are fixed accordingly in a danger tariff. 
The workmen make no contribution, the 
employers bearing the whole liability. 
The trade associations do not, however, 
confine their attention to paying com- 
pensation for accident. As it is evident 
that both the trade associations and their 
individual members have a strong inter- 
est in diminishing the chances of acci- 
dents, the law confers on the trade 
associations the improtant privilege of 
prescribing regulations for the preven- 
tion of accidents. By such regulations 
not only the employer can be compelled, 
under penalty of higher assessments to 
adopt the necessary measures for safety, 
but the workmen can also be forced by 
fines to follow these rules. 

Compensation is paid even though 
there be negligence on the workman's 
part. The compensation payable in case 
of injury begins only at the expiration 
of thirteen weeks after the occurrence of 
the accident, the sick-fund being respon- 
sible in the interval. After that time the 
association provides all requisite medical 
attendance, and also pays a weekly pen- 
sion so long as incapacity lasts. 

The amount of the pension depends on 
the yearly earnings of the injured per- 
son and on the degree to which his 
earning power is depreciated. The full 
pension amounts to two-thirds of the 
yearly wages and is given in case of 
complete incapacity to work ; while a 



smaller percentage is given where the 
earning capacity is only partially de- 
str< tyed. 

In place of, free attendance and a 
pension an injured person may be given 
.gratuitous treatment in a hospital, in the 
same way as under the insurance law 
against sickness. Should an accident 
have fatal result, death-money, to the 
extent of one-fifteenth of the yearly 
earnings, and pensions are paid to the 
relatives dependent upon a deceased per- 

Liability to insurance against old age 
.and invalidity falls on all workmen who 
have completed their sixteenth year, and 
no fixed period of employment is neces- 
sarv as a prior condition. 

The work of insurance is carried on 
by insurance societies in co-operation 
with State adminstrative bodies subject 
to the control of the insurance board of 
the empire. These societies are formed 
for single or -combined communal unions, 
for portions of a State, for a whole 
State, or for several States together. 
Representatives of the employers and 
emploved are elected in equal numbers 
upon the several organs of management. 
They are honorary officers and have only 
a claim to out-of-pocket expenses, these 
covering, in the case of work-people, loss 
•of time and earnings. 

The receipt of an invalidity or old age 
pension depends on the payment of the 
prescribed statutory contribution and the 
occurrence either of inability to earn a 
livelihood or the prescribed age of quali- 
fication namely, the seventieth year. 
'There are three contributions, equal pay- 
ments by the employers and their insured 
work-people and a subsidy by the empire 
of fifty marks toward every pension 
granted. The empire also pays the con- 
tributions of the workmen while serving 
in the army or navy, defrays the 
■expenses of the imperial insurance office 
and effects gratuitously, as in the case 
•of accident insurance, the payment of 
pensions through the postoffices. The 
premiums are payable for every week of 
work and the insured are divided intq 
five wage classes. The premiums are 
levied in the form of stamps, which are 

issued by the various insurance institu- 
tions for the several wage classes and 
are sold at the postoffices. These stamps 
are affixed to receipt cards which are 
exchanged for new ones when filled up. 
The employer deducts a workman's 
premium from his wages and affixes the 

The amount paid as pension differs 
according to the wage class and the 
duration of the contribution. The pen- 
sions are paid through the local postoffice 
where the recipients live. Finally, to 
meet the case of those who, after con- 
tributing to the funds, do not live to 
enjoy the promised benefits, it is pro- 
vided that half of the premiums paid by 
insured persons shall be returned in the 
event of death before the receipt of a 
pension and in the event of incapacity 
occurring owing to an accident which is 
compensated out of the accident insur- 
ance funds. 

You will have noticed, ladies and 
gentlemen, that there is a fundamental 
difference between our compulsory in- 
surance system and the new English old 
age pension law, inasmuch as in the 
latter country the workmen pay no con- 
tributions. I will, however, refrain 
from discussing the merits of the two 

The enormous sums accumulated by 
our triple insurance system are not a 
dead charge on the national household, 
they remain its property and also really 
benefit the nation by increasing the 
capacity of the workmen, who are im- 
proved in health and power by resistance, 
by unburdening private charity, and by 
furthering important national aims such 
as satisfaction of agricultural require- 
ments of credit, building of workmen's 
homes, hospitals, sanatoriums, schools 
and so on. 

The workmen's insurance laws have 
had a great influence on the German 
cities in giving a strong impetus, which 
led to the creation of very many useful 
municipal institutions. 

The cities are burdened by the work- 
men's insurance partly in their quality 
as administrative authorities having to 
perform a certain quantity of work for 



the execution of the three branches of 
insurance, partly as the responsible 
executors of the communal sick insur- 
ance which often requires subvention 
out of communal funds, and partly as 
employers in the municipal public works, 
such as gas, water, electric works, and 

Considering that the workman is only 
entitled to claim the benefits of the 
insurance laws in case of sickness, acci- 
dent, invalidity and old age, if his posi- 
tion is that of a workman from the legal 
point of view, many towns have taken 
measures to the effect that every healthy 
workman gets occupation, if possible, 
and remains insured. 

For that purpose, labor register offices 
have been instituted which, under 
responsible direction, form central offices 
for the labor market and assist the 
workman in looking for employment. 
They supply to the unemployed work- 
man quick and gratuitous information 
about vacancies and so reduce the time 
of involuntary idleness and enable him 
to earn his living and, at the same time, 
to found his legal claim for further 
assistance. Hardly any German city of 
any industrial importance can be named 
which has not in regular operation an 
efficient labor registry. 

The executive bodies are chosen in 
different ways, but employers and work 
people are generally given a place and a 
voice upon them. In the great majority 
of cases the bureaus are independent 
departments of municipal government 
with separate officials and offices, though 
here and there they are associated with 
other branches of work. In most cases 
the seekers of work like the seekers of 
workers are simply registered in lists, 
classified according to occupation and at 
stated times are invited to call and in- 
quire whether their needs can be sup- 
plied. Tt is becoming very common, 
however, to provide convenient waiting 
rooms in which the registered unem- 
ployed can be sheltered during the day. 
Where this is done a vacancy list is 
usually read out in hearing of the as- 
sembled applicants at regular intervals. 
Several cities have devoted and have 

even specially built large and convenient 
buildings for this important branch of 
work. As a rule the bureaus are open 
all day on week ways, and in many cases 
a few hours on Sundays as well. Free 
service is now the almost universal rule, 
whether the applicant be a workman or 
an employer, the costs of the institution 
all falling on the municipality. 

The period for which applicants are 
registered varies from a fortnight to 
several months, but at the end of the 
time registration may be renewed, should 
work not have been found. No uniform 
rule is followed in the consideration of 
applications for employment. Nominally, 
indeed, such applications are taken in 
the order of priority in the case of un- 
skilled workmen, though the head of a 
household will not uncommonly be given 
preference before a single man. In 
dealing with skilled labor a man's 
capacity and his fitness for the special 
task offered are considered, even where 
the employer does not make express 
stipulations on the point. It is unusual 
for the labor bureau to inquire into the 
personal character of the applicants ; 
here master and man are left to the test 
of experience. It is, however, an almost 
invariable rule to require an applicant 
for work to legitimatize himself by the 
production of some such official docu- 
ment as a labor book, army discharge 
certificate, or insurance paper, which not 
infrequently has to be deposited until he 
either finds work or is discharged from 
the register. There is no rule debarring 
men in work from seeking new employ- 
ment through the labor bureau, but it is 
seldom that questions are asked on the 

The towns are further endeavoring 
to reduce involuntary idleness by provid- 
ing for work, viz., by having so-called 
"distress work" executed. This kind of 
work has been undertaken by the cities 
to a great extent during the last years of 
economic depression. The municipali- 
ties are recognizing the opportunity, if 
not so readily the duty, of offering a 
helping hand to the laboring class in 
time of need. In most large cities the 
undertaking of "distress works" in times 



of exceptional unemployment is now a 
part of a well devised scheme and is 
regulated in every detail by elaborate 
municipal statutes or By-Laws. As a 

rule such works are carried out during 
the winter months only, from the begin- 
ning of December to the end of Febru- 
ary or the middle of March. And yet 
the fact should be emphasized that the 
municipalities are adverse to any formal 
recognition of the workless amongst 
their citizens. Even in the cities where 
the provision of distress works is syste- 
matic and recurs unerringly with the 
revolution of the year ,the authorities, 
in self-protection, generally take care to 
disown any direct social obligation. 
They act of grace and not of moral com- 
pulsion. Sound reasons point to the 
desirability of such a policy of prudence. 
The concession of the principle of a 
"right to work" involves a responsibility, 
which, whether justifiable or not, is one 
of immense significance. Moreover, if 
a municipality is morally bound to pro- 
vide its members with employment it is 
obvious that such a responsibility cannot 
be extended to outsiders whom roaming 
ways, encouraged by an adventurous 
spirit or even a genuine desire for work, 
may have brought to the town. Jf a 
universal right to work be admitted, the 
question becomes a national one, and the 
State must in that event intervene. At 
the same time it is recognized that it is 
a wise policy to keep deserving people 
off the poor law, so helping them to re- 
tain the spirit of independence and self- 
reliance and not less to protect them 
from idleness, which is so fruitful a 
cause of demoralization in every class of 
society. It is the recognition of this 
fact more than any other consideration 
that has led so many municipalities in 
Germany to over-ride objections and 
difficulties and under proper safe-guards 
to create facilities for work in times of 
special scarcity. There are two ways of 
doing this; where possible work of an 
ordinary kind is offered on normal con- 
ditions as to wages, either by the munic- 
ipality engaging direct from the labor 
bureau such of the unemployed as can 
be accommodated or by its requiring its 

contractors to cover their labor require- 
ment from the local supplies. Where 
such normal work cannot be offered, 
distress or relief works of a temporarv 
character are carried on under special 
conditions. The works of the latter 
kind most commonly undertaken are 
excavation, the laying out of parks and 
gardens, the constructions of roads and 
streets, forest work, sewerage work, 
paving, stone breaking and so forth. In 
most cities distress work is only offered 
to persons selected by various tests, as 
residential qualification or responsibility 
for the maintenance of others. 

Some municipalities have also ap- 
proached the question of insuring work- 
men against involuntary idleness and 
thus providing assistance for them when 
they are out of employment. 

The institution of insurance against 
worklessness is an offshoot of the labor 
bureaus. Not only is it a product of 
the experience gained in the work of 
labor registration, but, where intro- 
duced, it has generally been directly 
associated with that work, if not under 
the same officials, at least as an integral 
part of the policy of labor protection. 
The enterprising municipal workers of 
Cologne were the first to supplement 
their existing admirable labor bureau by 
an unemployment bureau. Other cities 
have followed this example. The execu- 
tives of these institutions generally con- 
sist of the mayor, or a deputy named by 
him, the chairman of the municipal labOr 
bureau, and elected members, half 
insured workmen, half patrons or honor- 
ary members, of whom some must be 
employers. Unemployment bureaus 
mostly confine insurance and its benefits 
to worklessness occurring during winter. 
In this way they greatly narrow their 
liabilities, while yet protecting their 
members against want and suffering in 
the most trying season of the year. 
Worklessness must also be unavoidable 
and free form culpability. Every mem- 
ber must pay weekly contributions in 
order to be entitled to out-of-work 
benefits. There are, however, three 
other sources of income,- the contribu- 
tions of patrons and honorary members, 



contributions from societies, employers 
and others and a liberal subvention from 
the municipality. 

In return for their contributions the 
insured have a claim to support from 
the funds in the event of inculpable 
worklessness ocurring during the period 
December 1 to March i for so long a 
time as such condition continues and 
work cannot be found for them. Such 
unemployed persons are required to pre- 
sent themselves at the bureau twice a 
day. Should work be offered, suitable 
as to the character and remuneration, it 
must be accepted on pain of forfeiting 
the out-of-work benefit. Here will be 
seen the practical advantage of having 
the insurance fund connected with the 
labor bureau. It is usual to give to 
members of the fund prior consideration 
in the filling of vacancies by way of 
encouraging them in a provident spirit. 

The cities are also devoting ever 
increasing attention to the housing of 
the workmen employed by them and of 
the less prosperous inhabitants of their 
districts in general. On the one hand, 
they construct cheap dwellings of a 
small size for the municipal workmen, 
or they stipulate by statute that such, 
dwellings constructed by them may only 
be let or sold to workmen and subaltern 
officials, on the other hand, they en- 
courage private builders or building 
societies to construct such dwellings by 
granting them certain favors and sub- 
ventions in money or by conceding 
municipal ground to build on. Besides, 
they endeavor to improve the dwellings 
in existence and help the requirements 
of offer and demand to be met with by 
emitting police rules for the conditions 
of dwellings, by appointing inspectors of 
dwellings and opening dwellings' regis- 
ter offices. In their treatment of this 
problem the German municipalities have 
an advantage in their favor in the landed 
estate which commonly forms an impor- 
tant part of a city's assets. It is for the 
most part land unbuilt upon and not 
always within the present municipal 
area, yet its eligibility for public and for 
residential purposes increases every year 

as the means of locomotion are im- 
proved. Berlin, Cologne, Munich, Dres- 
den and Frankfurt among the larger 
German cities are especially rich in this 
respect, thanks largely to the foresight 
and intelligence of their local officers in 
the matter, and few places of any con- 
sequence are entirely without. There 
are also few which do not entrust to 
their statistical bureau, which forms so 
important and so instructive a depart- 
ment of municipal government, the duty 
of enumerating houses, with details as 
to character, proportions, number of 
rooms, and inhabitants, rents, etc., so, 
full and exact as to give to the report a 
high social value. Leipzig is one of the 
cities and there are many of them — 
which have devoted a portion of their 
real estate to the housing of the working 
classes. The municipality there has 
leased for ioo years at a low rent to a 
philanthropic building society a large 
piece of communal land in the environs 
for the erection of cheap houses. The 
majority of the houses have to contain 
three and some of them more than four 
rooms. This society cannot transfer its 
leasehold rights to third parties without 
the consent of the municipality, and in 
the event of doing so, both the offending 
contract and the lease itself may be 
cancelled. The municipality undertook 
the initial construction of all squares, 
roads and footpaths, and went further 
in undertaking to advance money on 
mortgage for building purposes should 
the building societies' revenues prove 
inadequate, with the provision that the 
society must refund the loan by regular 
repayments in such a manner that on 
termination of the lease the mortgage 
will' be redeemed. The municipality will 
then take over the land and the dwellings 
built upon it without compensation. It 
should be stated that the society itself is 
being financed by the insurance board 
of the State of Saxony. This is only 
one illustration out of many which might 
lie cited of insurance boards making 
loans for the erection of workingmen's 
dwellings. The profitable employment 
of the enormous accumulations of in- 
surance contributions had become a 



question of acute difficulty until the 
happy idea was devised of making ad- 
vance from them to public and philan- 
thropic societies formed for the estab- 
lishment of agencies directly concerned 
with the welfare of the working classes. 

The cities are further endeavoring to 
satisfy the requirements of the working 
classes for education, for these require- 
ments are steadily increasing with the 
improvement of the workman's material 
position. For that reason a number of 
communities have instituted compulsory 
industrial schools for youths, popular 
libraries, reading rooms, lectures, house- 
keeping schools for the inhabitants, 
especially the workmen, for the true 
ambition of the masses of the German 
nation is less for economic amelioration 
and material advantages than for educa- 
tion. It is of course difficult to say how 
far education is followed for the sake of 
the material benefits which it is able to 
bestow and therefore is an indirect 
object of pursuit. Yet every one who 
has followed the German working class 
movement and is acquainted with the 
intellectual life of the German masses 
will be ready to testify to the widespread 
popular desire for education, for knowl- 
edge, for a greater share in the spiritual 
treasures of the time. The masses see 
in education endless perspectives ; their 
thirst for knowledge, like their ambition, 
impels them to one aim, to be educated. 
More or less all acknowledge, that this, 
more than anything else determines a 
man's rank in modern society, that per- 
sonality is won by force of education. 
All the means of extending and perfect- 
ing education are seized with zeal and 
often with passion. 

For the performance of the social 
tasks described above, a number of 
towns have thought fit to appoint special 
deputations, so-called "social commis- 
sions" whose duty it is to propose de- 
sirable measures for the welfare of the 
working classes and to give their opinion 
on similar measures that are proposed 
from other quarters. Among the mem- 

bers of these commissions there are also 
representatives of the working classes, 
so that all preliminary work is done 
from the very beginning in touch with 
the interested workmen and the meas- 
ures, when adopted, may be sure of 
being well received by them. 

What I have mentioned in no way 
gives a complete picture of the present 
social activity of our communities. But 
it will be sufficient to show to what 
degree the cities develop and extend the 
workmen's insurance and complete the 
institutions created on account of it ; it 
will show, how, under the influence of 
the principles established by the work- 
men's insurance, the cities take new 
departures in the interest of improving 
the conditions of the working classes 
and how, by doing all this, they are the 
pioneers, as it were, who prepare the 
ground for State and imperial legisla- 
tion. Thus the cities, these most impor- 
tant members of our national household, 
have highly developed the effects of the 
workmen's insurance and have increased 
its influence upon our national economy. 
I am afraid of overtaxing your patience, 
so I will close my address in thanking 
you most sincerely for your kind atten- 
tion. I hope I was able to give you the 
impression that idealism is still a very 
effective motive in the acts of the Ger- 
man legislation and that the German 
nation feels its social responsibility and 
considers it a duty to assist the weaker 
classes in their struggle for existence 
and to help them to attain a higher 
social, moral and intellectual standard. 

NOTE.— The foregoing, quoted from "Old 
Perm," is the address of the German Am- 
bassador, Johann Heinrieh von Bernstbrff. 
LL.D., delivered on the occasion of his 
receiving the honorary degree of LL.D., 
conferred by the University of Pennsylva- 
nia, February 22, 1911. 

Germany has been our schoolmaster in 
many respects and can teach us as Ameri- 
cans how "to assist the weaker classes in 
their struggle for existence and to help 
them to attain a higher social, moral and 
intellectual standard." The address merits 
the widest possible circulation. — Editor. 



Historic Pilgrimages Along Mountain By- Ways 

By Asa K. Mcllhaney, Bath, Pa. 

OHOQUALIN, meaning 
" the river between the 
mountains," is what the 
Indians called the Dela- 
ware Water Gap. Here, 
where the ponderous Kit- 
tatinny is rent asunder, 
the majestic Delaware 
flows through it with a width of 800 
feet, and at an elevation of 300 feet 
above tide water. The two formidable 
peaks guarding the portals of the pass 
tower 1600 feet into the air, — Mount 
Minsi commemorates the tribe of the 
Minisinks on the Pennsylvania side, and 
Mount Tammany, so called in memory 
of the great chief of the Lenni Lenapes, 
standing sentinel on the New Jersey 
side of the river. 

Leaving this fairyland of hill and dale 
famous for its glorious sunrises and 
golden sunsets, we begin our journey 
through Upper Mount Bethel the largest 
township in Northampton County. It 
was erected a separate district in 1787, 
from the territory of old Mount Bethel 
which was originally a part of Bucks 
County before the erection of North- 

For the next six miles we follow the 
course of the Delaware, and of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna and Western Rail- 
road which hugs the banks of the river. 
The Mount Minsi Hotel not far from 
the southern base of the mountains is 
near the Cold Cave of which we have 
heard so much. This is a passage in the 
loose mountain rock from which con- 
stantly issues a current of cold air. 
Formerly it was thought by many that a 
cave existed here, and that the current 
of air probably came from a large sub- 
terranean channel of water running un- 
der the mountain. A gray-haired hermit 
stands guard to its entrance ; but we do 
not stop long enough to prove the truth 
or falsity of this theory. 

It should be stated here that the 
Delaware Valley, from this point to 

Trenton, is one of the most interesting 
and historic locations on the continent, 
and perhaps in the world. For the past 
thirty years, it has been the theatre of 
investigation by the most eminent scien- 
tists in the domain of archaeology and 
geology. Important discoveries have 
been made, as the result of excavations 
conducted under the auspices of the 
American Museum of Natural History. 
Many scientists claim that three distinct 
periods of culture existed in this valley, 
— the paleolithic, the intermediate, and 
the historic Indian. Prof. Putman of 
Harvard, Prof. Holmes of the National 
Museum, Dr. Brinton of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Prof. Libby of Prince- 
ton University, and Dr. Abbott of Tren- 
ton, are some of the men who have 
made investigations. 

Looking south from the Gap is seen a 
dip of rock under which was the Indian 
workshop ; a person is able also to get a 
good idea of the passage of the glacier 
through the rock gorge down into the 
valley where it began to break up in the 
vicinity of the rope ferry north of Belvi- 
dere. In front of us is 


situated on Slateford creek which rises 
in the mountains near Tot's Gap, and 
flows into the Delaware. The slate de- 
posits of Pennsylvania begin at this 
place, and extend in a southwesterly 
direction across the southeastern part of 
the state into Maryland, following a line 
nearly parallel with the Blue Mountains. 
Hon. James Madison Porter of Easton, 
Secretary of War under Tyler, owned 
and operated the slate quarries here as 
early as 1805. 

Among the names of the first settlers 
in Mount Bethel, we find that of La 
Bar, — three brothers Peter, Charles and 
Abraham, who emigrated from France 
to this country before 1730. 

"After landing at Philadelphia," 
writes Capt. Ellis, "they at once started 



out in pursuit of a home. Making their 
way up the Delaware, partly through 
dense forests, they finally reached the 
southern base of the Blue Mountains, 
where, believing they had penetrated be- 
yond the bounds of civilized man, they 
located a tract of land, built a log cabin, 
and settled on a place a half mile south 
of Slateford. Here the three brothers 
commenced the hardships of a pioneer 
life. They were the first who cleared 
land on the Delaware north of the mouth 
of the Lehigh. They had been in their 
new home but a short time, when the 
tawny neighbors began to manifest a 
friendly feeling, and evinced an inclina- 

region, for just north of the mountains 
they found Nicholas Depui, who was 
then quite an old man, and settled at a 
place called Shawnee, on the Minisink 
lands, one of the hrst settlements made 
in the state. 

Not long after they found another 
small settlement ; probably that part of 
the Hunter settlement, planted by the 
Scotch-Irish at Williamsburg. 

During this brief period, the three 
pioneers had obtained considerable 
knowledge of the "Forks" region, and 
the friendly intercourse with the In- 
dians, had enabled them to learn consid- 
erable of the Indian language. While at 


tion to become acquainted. This feeling 
being reciprocated by the new pioneers, 
it was not long before amicable relations 
had been established between the 
brothers and the curious red men, then 
numerous at this point near the Gap. 
This friendship greatly promoted the 
safety of the brothers, and enabled them 
to procure from the Indians a supply of 
corn, which, in those days, must be 
pounded in a mortar, by hand; for there 
was no grist mill. 

At this time, the young pioneers were 
progressing favorably, and they began to 
look about them. They soon found that 
they were not the only whites in this 

this place the la Bar brothers married, 
and soon afterwards removed north of 
the mountain into what is now Monroe 

A few years later, George a son of 
1 'eter, moved south of the mountain, and 
settled near the original La Bar cabin, 
where he reared a large family. He lived 
to the age of one hundred and six years, 
and his son, also named George, died in 
1S74 at the age of one hundred and 
eleven years and nine months. Many La 
Bar descendants still live in this valley."' 
We wend our way a mile or two south- 
ward, pass the new D. L. & W. railroad 
bridge, which is being constructed over 



the Delaware, and enter the borough of 


first known as Dill's Ferry, later as Co- 
lumbia Station. It has a population of 
about one thousand. The Enterprise a 
weekly paper first published here in 1874 
is still issued, and growing in circulation. 
The D. L. & W. Railroad built in 1856, 
passes through the borough, on the west 
bank of the river. The land on which 
the town was started was originally the 
farm of Enos Goble who became the 
first station agent. 

A few rods north of the station is a 
wooden arch bridge, eight hundred feet 
long and eighteen feet wide, over the 
Delaware, constructed in four spans, and 
supported by three stone piers. Before 
the erection of the bridge, the inhabi- 
tants crossed the river by the ferry, just 
north of where the bridge stands. Mr. 
Dill was the first ferryman, — about 
1780. He also had a log tavern on the 
Tiill opposite the ferry. This has long 
since been demolished. Other ferrymen 
were the Deckers, Jacob Lamb, Michael 
Weller, and John Ott. In Portland is 
also an excellent flouring mill on the 
banks of Jacobus Creek. It was built in 
1815, by Robert Butz, and is now 
operated under the name of the Portland 
Roller Mills. 

Just opposite Portland is said to have 
been the first slate quarry operated in 
the United States. This was in 1804 
when a Welshman named Evans worked 
It in a primitive way. 

Adjoining Portland on the southwest 
is a pretty village called Middlevillage. 
Here once lived the Shannons, Frys, and 

Hurrying on a few more miles, over 
dusty roads brings us to 


which at first was named Williamsburg. 
It is one of the three points of the loca- 
tion of the "Hunter Settlement." The 
earliest records have been lost or de- 
stroyed, which leaves much of its early 
history only traditionary. It is known 
however that the first log church erected 
here was used for school, as well as for 
religious purposes. This must have 
"been before the Revolution, and the old 

graveyard adjoining it, is still older, for 
there is in it a tombstone with the date 
of a death in 1750. The Lutheran and 
German Reformed people built the 
church and held the burial-ground in 

Some years later a schoolhouse was 
built and Mr. Laughlin was the first 
teacher in this building. In those days 
a winter school of two or three months 
was all that could be afforded, and it 
was no unusual thing for boys and girls 
to have to walk two or three miles, for 
the little instruction the schoolroom af- 
forded them. The people felt the need 
for better schools, and the term was of- 
ten extended by subscription. Such was 
the case when the project of the Wil- 
liamsburg Academy was conceived by a 
few of the citizens. The Rev. Gershow 
Goble was especially active in the mat- 
ter, and it was acted upon so energeti- 
cally that in April, 1853, a very comfort- 
able academy building had been erected. 
Jonathan Moore became the preceptor 
and very efficiently filled the position for 
twelve years. This school was the 
opening of a higher education, and many 
who received the benefits of its intel- 
lectual training are filling honorable 

In this village lives William Reagle 
an acquaintance of one of our party. 
Here we stop to give our horses rest, 
and to partake of a sumptuous supper in 
which the luscious strawberries gratu- 
itously 'furnished by the Reagles form 
the principal repast. 

Steering to the west on a road running 
parallel with the mountains to the north, 
we now travel through a country set- 
tled by the Ink. Oyer, Reichard. Miller. 
Beck, Reimel and Hess families and 
come near to 


which lies at the junction of the Tot's 
( rap and Fox Gap roads both of which 
lead over the mountains, and into Mon- 
roe County. This hamlet was at first 
called Roxbury, but later named for Gil- 
bert Johnson. Alexander Campbell, 
however, was the original owner of the 
land in this vicinity. The first log build- 



ing was erected by John Strauss in 1818. 
Near by, is the growing town of 


founded by Andrew Delp, and known 
for many years as Delpsburg. It has a 
population of fifteen hundred and is 
surrounded by numerous slate quarries. 
East Bangor's most prominent citizen is 
our friend — the Hon. H. K. Bender, re- 
cently elected a member of the State 
Legislature. This well-known educator 
is a native of Monroe County, and was 
principal of the borough schools for fif- 
teen years, and later Superintendent of 
the Northampton County schools for six 

point, and finding here combined, the 
three indispensable conditions for profit- 
able slate productions, viz. — slate, soft 
and tough in quality, and unlimited in 
quantity, and lying in a good and acces- 
sible location, he in company with Jacob 
P Scholl o f Bethlehem and Samuel 
Straub of Bath, purchased the farm of 
P. La Bar, and on August 1, 1866, these 
gentlemen having associated with them 
Samuel Lewis of Allentown, Francis 
Weiss and E. T. Foster of Bethlehem, 
and A. L. Foster of Mauch Chunk, 
commenced quarrying under the super- 
intendency of Mr. Jones. The name, 
Bangor, was given to the quarry and the 


A drive of another mile brings us to 


which is in the heart of the region of 
slate — that valuable stone which has in 
the past forty years become an impor- 
tant product in the list of useful min- 
erals, and which dame Nature has de- 
posited so plentifully in the hills and val- 
leys in eastern Pennsylvania, although it 
is found and quarried in other parts of 
the world. 

The Bangor of today dates its real 
beginning from 1866, when R. M. Jones, 
Esq., from Caernarvonshire, North 
Wales, a practical geologist and slate 
quarrying expert, followed the slate 
strata from the Delaware River to this 

locality on account of the similarity of 
their natural features, to those of the 
town and quarries of Bangor, in Wales. 

As early as 1790, Frederick Teel 
opened a blacksmith shop here, and in 
time a few more buildings were erected 
including a church and a mill. The first 
settlers were mostly Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans of the Mennonite denomination. 
The early name given to the place, 
Creektown, from the fact that Martin's 
Creek flows through the borough ; later 
the central part of the present Bangor 
was called New Village, and the upper 
part of Main street, Uttsville. 

Bangor is located at the foot of hills, 
and when approaching it from the north, 



you can look down and survey its di- 
mensions with wonderful accuracy and 
the view is decidedly pleasing. The 
population is about 6000, and with this 
growth have come good schools and 
many conveniences. Electric lights, 
macadamed streets, flagged walks, and 
pure water drawn from a reservoir at 
the summit of the Blue Mountains. 

The mountain region near the Bangors 
is very interesting. On its summit and 
slope, in the vicinity of the Big Offset, 
are found rare plants. Among these 
are the large white Globe flower with its 
golden centre gleaming in the sunshine ; 
the Pitcher plant or Indian dipper whose 
flower is a deep reddish-purple and 
whose leaves are pitcher shaped; the 
round-leafed sundew opening only in 
the sunshine; the pretty little Rhodora, 
abundant in Monroe County and which 
Emerson loved so much as to immortal- 
ize it in song. Three species of the yel- 
low moccasin, the oak fern and the lit- 
tle grape fern give added charm to the 
surroundings, for the last-named is very 
rare and rejoices the heart of the fern- 
hunter who is so fortunate as to find it. 
Probably the scarcest of all is the 
Canoe or Paper birch, greatly admired 
by the late Dr. Thomas C. Porter one of 
America's foremost botanists. It is a 
tree 60 to 80 feet high, with dull, chalky- 
wbite bark which curls away from its 
few furrows in horizontal plates. The 
Indians easily proved their ingenuity in 
the uses of this tree. "They formed 
their tents from it, and built canoes rib- 
bing them with cedar, and covering them 
with large sheets of birch bark. They 
sewed the seams with threads made of 
spruce or cedar roots, and closed the 
chinks with pitch or gum of the Balm 
of Gilead. These small craft were 
graceful and durable and the Indians 
managed them with consummate skill." 

Nature has bountifully blessed this lo- 
cality, and the boys and girls who live 
bere should become familiar with the 
names and habits of the principal flora, 
so that in distant years, they can boast 
of a close friendship with the woods 
and streams, and with wild life in its 
many varied phases. 

The school children in Switzerland 
are compelled by law to study the wild- 
flowers growing in their own country. 
What inspiration they have for nature ! 
How they love the edelweiss that white 
composite flower so much worn by 
travelers as a trophy and "which grows 
on the most inaccessible cliffs where 
even the chamois dare hardly venture" ! 
The Swiss name signifies "noble purity," 
and the government forbids its sale. 

Last September, (1910), George 
Chavez the young Peruvian aviator, flew 
over the Alps, from Brigue, Switzer- 
land, — crossing the Simplon Pass at an 
altitude of 7000 feet, and falling finally 
at Domo d'Ossola, Italy, in an accident 
which caused his death. This unprece- 
dented feat remains unequaled. His dy- 
ing words were, "Oh, ye Alps ; ye are 

At the funeral a little Swiss girl laid 
upon the casket a bunch of edelweiss 
that bloomed alone amid the eternal 
snows of the Alps, bound with a ribbon 
upon which had been written, "Gathered 
among the mountain peaks over which 
you flew." 

With a parting request that the 
younger people will soon enter this gar- 
den of Nature in the Kittatinnies, learn 
to tread these mountain paths, appre- 
ciate the brooks and rocks on every side, 
listen to the bird-songs as they pass, and 
above all to show the same admiration 
for these wondrous-tinted wild flowers 
as does the highland maiden hers, we 
turn southward. The borough of 


lies a few miles to our right. It occupies 
a commanding site on an elevation and 
is a pretty town. The population is over 
5000, and like the town previously de- 
scribed, — slate quarrying is the chief in- 
dustry. Rough as its surface was, un- 
derneath lay one of the most extensive 
and best deposits of slate known in the 
world today ; but it took a few English- 
men who had come to this country to 
work in the quarries at Chapmans. to 
reveal the hidden wealth beneath the 
surface. The building of the Bangor 
and Portland railroad by. Conrad Miller, 



and through whose influence the late 
John I. I Hair invested in several hun- 
dred acres of slate property, possibly 
did more to develop the PenArgyl slate 
section and build up the borough, than 
any other factor. 

Here lives our old friend, Joseph H. 
Werner, Esq., who for nine years — back 
in the eighties, was the efficient county 
superintendent of schools. It is said 
that to him must be given the credit for 
first putting the county schools on a firm 
working basis. We would like to stop 

Flory, Frutchey, Itterly, Teel, Werk- 
heiser, Woodring, I lowers, llursh. Mes- 
singer, Young Kessler, Hahn and 

During the Indian wars, a temporary 
fort was built and occupied by some ten 
or twelve families as a place of refuge. 
This strong house became a permanent 
dwelling, and as near as can be ascer- 
tained was on the late Jacob Ruth farm, 
about the middle of the township. The 
Indian path leading from their villages 
on the Susquehanna to the Falls of the 


just long enough to shake hands with 
this educator, but time will not allow. 

We continue through part of Wash- 
ington Township where resided the Al- 
bert, Snyder, Lockard, Buzzard, Acker- 
man, Bowman and Wetzel families, to 
the village of Ackermanville. Here the 
first grist mill in the township was built 
by Henry Miller in 1788. *At Bitz's 
schoolhouse we enter Plainfield, whose 
first settlers were Hollanders. They 
came in about 1740, but no record of 
their names can be found, except those 
of the Renders and Hellers. German set- 
tlers soon followed, and today de- 
scendants remain here by the name of 

Delaware and the lower settlements, 
passed through the Wind Gap and tra- 
versed a part of Plainfield. 

It is getting late, and the moon for a 
change begins to shine through the dark 
clouds and lightens things around us. 
We pause at the Edward Repsher home- 
stead long enough to quench the thirst, 
both of man and beast. Along the road- 
side is an old-fashioned watering trough, 
near a spring. We look for the cocoa- 
nut - shell, or for the long - necked 
crooked-handled gourd dipper which in 
the olden days always hung in such a 
place,a symbol of country simplicity 
and purity. 



Leaving Belfast to our right — a vil- 
lage which in no way reminds us of its 
Irish prototype, and passing through lit- 
tle Ashland which is not to be con- 
founded with its big namesake i n 
Schuylkill County brings us close to an 
interesting institution — the 


at beautiful Boulton on the Bushkill. 

"From all outward appearances, this 
building does not seem different from 
hundreds of other small manufacturing 
structures, but a little questioning about 
the building brings out the information 
that this factory is one that was once 
prominently identified with the history 
of this country. In this factory were 
made rifles, muskets and pistols for the 
war of 1 812 and for the Civil War, and 
for the North American Fur Company, 
of which John Jacob Astor was presi- 

liver since the Henrys came from 
England to America, they have been 
connected, more or less, with govern- 
mental service, either as soldiers, states- 
men or manufacturers of fire arms. The 
first one of them was William Henry, 
who established a gun factory at Lan- 
caster, Pa., in 1752. His muskets were 
in such demand that his little shop could 
not make them fast enough. Besides 
•conducting the making of fire arms, he 
was in charge of small arms in the 
French and Indian War, and was pres- 
ent at the attack on Fort Duquesne. 
During this battle he saved the life of 
the Delaware Indian Chief, Killbuck. 

It was a custom among the Indians 
that when one of them was saved from 
death by a white man, names would be 
exchanged. So it happened that Henry 
and the Indian Chief exchanged names, 
and to this day the descendants of the 
Killbuck family retain the name of 
Henrv as the middle name, both male 
and female. 

Most of the firearms used during the 
Revolutionary W'ar were made by the 
Henrys. Shortly before "Mad" Anthony 
Wayne made his attack on Stony Point, 
he sent to the Henry factory a message, 
"Hurry up them Guns". 

In 1780, Win. Henry, Second, built a 
small 71m factory at Nazareth. He en- 
tered into a contract with the State of 
Pennsylvania and also the United States 
government for the manufacture of fire 
arms. Machinery was crude, and men 
expert at the trade of gun making hard 
to get. He was unable to supply all the 
muskets and rifles for which he had or- 
ders. Besides he had a very scant sup- 
pi v of water power, and in looking 
around for a place where he might have 
a better supply, he decided upon a place 
along the Lehicton Creek, now called 
the Bushkill. This was in 181 2, and 
Henry moved his factory from Nazareth 
to the new site he had selected, which 
afterwards was given the name of 

The government was keeping him well 
supplied with orders for the second war 
with Great Britain was then raging. A 
few years later William Henry, Second, 
retired from active manufacturing and 
the charge of the factory was given into 
the hands of his sons, John, Joseph, 
Henry and Wiliam Henry, Third. The 
factory was making special efforts to 
bring out a rifle that would stand the 
hardest tests of the frontiersmen, and 
the fame of the Henry rifle soon spread 
along the frontier. 

When John Jacob Astor organized 
his North American Fur Company, he 
ordered his supply of rifles for his hun- 
ters and trappers from the Henry fac- 
tory. The rifles he wanted were to be 
of a certain style and the Henry factory 
was the only one that could furnish 
them. Mr. Astor even sent Ramsey 
Crooks, who afterwards became presi- 
dent of the North American Fur Com- 
pany, to Boulton to order a supply of 
rifles and personally complimented the 
Henrys on the quality of the rifles they 
were making. Of course, when the fur 
trade fell off and the North American 
Fur Company went out of existence, 
the manufacture of these rifles also 

During this time, the Henry factory 
also made many rifles and pistols for the 



militia of the South and West. Of 
course, all the rifles made by the Henrys 
were muzzle loaders. Gradually breech 
leading rifles were being manufactured 
to supplant the old style of rifles. The 
Henrys were not equipped to meet the 
competition and the manufacturing of 
rifles was then dropped. 

Attention was then turned to the 
making of the "Henry" shot gun, and 
this was continued until about ten years 
ago. The building has since been used 
for various other purposes, but the gen- 
eral structure has remained undisturbed 
and is still in a fair state of preserva- 
tion. The Henry family has interesting 
letters written to William Henry at 
Lancaster by famous generals and 
statesmen of Revolutionary times. The 
family has also in its possession the 
famous painting "Death of Socrates" by 
Benjamin West. The painter was a 

great friend of Wiliam Henry, and it 
was at the suggestion and request of 
Mr. Henry that West painted this great 
picture in 1756. 1 

But time is passing. The king of day 
has long moved down the western slope 
and disappeared behind the Northamp- 
ton hills. 

Driving through Nazareth we "strike 
the pike" and turn our faces homeward, 
leaving behind us, a vast amount of his- 
torical material untouched, which, how- 
ever, we contemplate examining at a 
future day. 

In an hour, we reach our destination, 
having traversed sixty miles ; and thus 
end another interesting historic ramble. 

'What is given concerning the Henry Gun Factory is a 
quotation through the courtesy of Granville Henry. Esq., 
a direct lineal descendant living at Boulton. 

Ziegler's Church, Pa. 

In the year 1734 and 1735 several 
emigrant trains came from Oley and 
Goshenhoppen to the Kittatinny Valley 
by the Indian path crossing the Lehigh 
Mountain through the Rittenhouse Gap. 
The emigrants were attracted by the 
fine forests and clear water which ac- 
counts for the early settlements of Wei- 
senberg and Lynn valleys. The Ziegel 
Church stands between the extremes of 
Longswamp and Lynn valleys. Many 
of the emigrants settled on the slopes 
and dales of the ridge on which the 
church stands. The congregation was 
organized in 1745. In 1747 this congre- 
gation was visited by Rev. Michael 
Schlatter. From 1735 to 1745, a period 
of ten years, they were without pastor 
and church, but they assembled in their 
log cabins for services. When they had 
no schoolmaster the sermons were read 
by male members. 

The first church built of rough logs 
was dedicated July 29, 1750. From the 
very beginning it was a union church. 
The first Reformed pastor was Philip 
Jacob Michael, and the Lutheran pastor 
was Jacob Friedrich Schertlein. 

Some of the charter members were 

Adam Braus, Ludwig Reichard, Bern 
hardt Schmidtt, Nicholaus Mayer, Peter 
Haas, Joerch Schaefer, Karl Oorn, Ur- 
ban Friebel, Johann Merkel, Daniel 
Krauss, Michael Hoetz, Johannes Her- 
goether, Egitticus Grimm, Zacharias 
Heller, Friedrich Windisch, Adam 
Weber, Georg Bayer, Johann N. Gift, 
Georg Wendel Zimmermann, Michael 
Old, Heinrich Ga'genbach, Melchior 
Ziegler, Philipp Breinig, Peter Heim- 
bach, Bartholomaeus Miller, Georg A. 
Leibinsperger, Jacob Kuntz, Albrecht 
Himmel, David Muszgenug, Michael 
Confort, Andreas Sassamanshausen, 
Georg Schumacher, Melchior Seib, 
Heinrich Miller, Johannes Vogel, Jacob 
Ruemmel, Johannes Hermann, Conrath 
Neff, Johannes, Heider, Adam Schmidt, 
Philipp Wendel Klein, Johannes Baer, 
Jacob Goho, Yost Schlicher, Franz 
Wesco, Philipp Fenstermacher, Jacob 
Acker, Georg Falk, Daniel Hettler, Ja- 
cob Weitknecht, Johannes Doll. 

In 1 77 1 the land was patented to the 
congregation through Adam Brausz 
(Reformed) and Jacob Grimm (Lu- 
theran). The tract consists of 41 acres. 
— Reformed Church Record. 


Early Berks County Tombstone Inscriptions 

By Louis Richards, Esq., Reading, Pa. 

Pres. Berks County Historical Society 
(continued from march issue) 

Schultze, Christoph Emanuel, Prediger, b. 
25 Dec. 1740 in Saalfield, Saxony, came to 
this country in 1765, lived with his wife 
Elizabeth 43 years, preached 5 years in Phil- 
adelphia and 38 years in Tulpehocken, 9 
children; d. 11 March 1809; 68 y. 2 m. 2 w. 

Eva Elizabeth, wife of same, b. 10 Feb. 
1748; d. 21 July 1808; 60 y. 5 m. 1 w. 4 d. 

Maria, wife of Frederick Rapp, b. 3 Nov. 
1742; d. 20 Oct. 1806. 

Walborn, Martin, b. 15 April 1733; d. 3 
Feb. 1816; 82 y. 9 m. 18 d. 

Maria Margaretta, wife of same, b. 4 Feb. 
1734; d. 9 May 1820; 86 y. 3 m. 5 d. 

Walborn, John, b. 1761 ; d. 1847. 

Brua, Hannah, b. 24 June 1763; d. 17 
March 1810; 46 y. 9 m. 23 d. 

Apolonia. wife of Jacob Wagner, b. 15 
Aug. 1742; d. 29 Jan. 1815. 

Etchborger, John Peter, b. 26 April 1760; 
d. 30 Oct. 1823; 63 y. 6 m. 4 d. 

Lechner, Christian, b. 8 March 1768; d. 
29 May 1823; 55 y. 2 m. 21 d. 

Katterman, John, b. 1751; d. 1829. 

Moore, Samuel, d. 12 Jan. 1843; 61 y. 6 m. 

Weiser, Johan, b. 23 Jan. 1766; b. to Cath- 
arine Auspach, d. 7 Nov. 1825; 69 y. 9 m. 
4 d. 

Illig, Johannes, b. in Lancaster County 22 
Aug. 1766; d. 2 Oct. 1824; 48 y. 1 m. 10 d. 

Ulrich, Rev. Daniel, b. near Annville 10 
Aug. 1789; entered the ministry in 1809; 
became pastor of the united congregations 
of Tulpehocken, Rehrersburg, Heidelberg 
and others, which he served from 1811 to 
1851; d. 2 June 1855 while on a visit at Pitts- 
bur?: 65 y. 9 m. 22 d. 

Elizabeth, wife of same and dau. of the 
late John Weidman, Esq.; b. 7 Sept. 1787; d. 
10 Dec. 1862; 75 y. 3 m. 3 d. 

Schoeh, Jacob, b. 2 Dec. 1807; d. 28 June 
1881; 73 y. 6 m. 8 d. 

Tulpehocken Refonnd Chureh 

Spiicker, Peter, Esq., b. 27 Oct. 1711; d. 
13 July 1789; 77 y. 8% m. 

Maria Margaret, wife of same, b. 21 March 
1721; d. 10 Oct. 1781; 59 y. 6 m. 19 d. 

Laner, Christian, b. 19 April 1715; d. 8 
Sept. 1786; 71 y. 

LeRoy, Anna Maria, b. Aug. 1708; d. 1 
Sept 1800; 92 y. 

Etchberger, Jacob, b. 13 Feb. 1724; d. 12 
Aug. 1806; 82 y. 6 m. less 1 d. 

Schiitz, Johan Wm., b. 12 May 1734; d. 29 
July 1796: 62 y. 2 m. 17 d. 

Zeller, Frantz Daniel, b. 8 April 1751; d. 
3 Oct. 1821; 70 y. 5 m. 26 d. 

Eckert, Jonas, b. 15 Oct. 1738; d. 19 Sept. 

Catharine, b. Ruth, wife of same, b. 1747; 
d. 1813. 

Kitzmiller, Johan, b. in 169- ; d. 1745. 

Brunner, Heinrich, Esq., b. 18 March 
1755; d. 16 Nov. 1802; 47 y. 3 m. 

Mier, isack, b. 4 January 1730; d. 15 July 
1770; 40 y. 6 m. 

Myers, John, Esq., d. 15 Dec. 1819; 55 y» 

9 m. 10 d. 

Catharine, wife of same and dau. of 
Philip Hahn, b. 20 May 1762; d. 9 April 

Miller, John, d. 12 May 1817; 87 y. 


Sigfried's Church 

Hennany, Jacob, son of Nicholas and Eva,, 
b. Fisher; b. 13 Nov. 1755; d. 14 Sept. 1836; 
81 y. lm. 13 d. 

Christiana, b. Lebenguth, wife of same, b. 
29 Sept. 1759; d. 10 July 1841; 81 y. 10 m. 
19 d. 

Siegfried, Daniel, b. 29 Dec. 1763; d. 20- 
Nov. 1846; 82 y. 11 m. 21 d. 

Grim Family Ground 

Grim, Heinrich, b. 1 Aug. 1733; d. 14 Dec. 
1804; 71 y. 4 m. 

Grim, Jeremiah, b. 6 Dec. 1768; d. 26 Sept. 

Elizabeth, wife of same and dau. of Peter 
and Mary Snyder, b. 3 March 1781; d. 11 
Sept. 1836. 

DeLong's Church, Bowers 

Bieber, Theobald, b. 2 June 1756; d. 13 
May 1826; 69 y. 11 m. 11 d. 

DeLOn£, Michael, b. 26 Dec. 1739; d. 26 
Jan. 1819. 

Barbara, wife of same, b. 1756; d. 1832. 

Ziegler, Andreas, b. 30 Nov. 1744; d. 28- 
Feb. 1800. 

Henrietta Sophia, wife of same, b. Neidig, 
b. 1749; d. 1829. 

Bauer, Frederick, b. 8 July 1758; d. 12 
April 1845; 86 y. 9 m. 4 d. 

Christina, b. Wieant, wife of same, b. & 
Feb. 1757; d. 30 Jan. 1837; 79 y. 11 m. 27 d. 

Long, Elizabeth, wife of Nicholas Long, b. 

10 Aug. 1730; d. 22 Nov. 1807; 87 y. 3 m. 12 

Long, Nicholas, b. 10 Aug. 1730; d. 22 Nov. 
1817; 87 y. 3 m. 12 d. 

Long, Nicholas, b 1728. 

DeLong, Joseph, b. 18 March 1763; d. IT 
June 1S47; 84 y. 2 m. 29 d. 

Schirardin, Jacob, b. in Rauweiler, Europe 
in Jan. 1735; d. 11 July 1820; 85 y. 6 m. 



Schirardin, Margaret, b. Haag, b. 15 Feb. 
L735; d. ; 72 y. 11 m. 15 d. 

Shirardin, Abraham, b. 25 July 1766; d. 29 
Dec. 1818; 52 y. 5 m. 4 d. 

Schmick, Johan Caspar, b. 1720; d. 19 
Feb. 1S12 in 92d y. 

Magdalena, b. Yager, wife of same, b. 14 
Oct. 1740; d. 25 Dec. 1809; 69 y. 2 m. 11 d. 

Haak, Jacob, b. 3 May 1744; d. 26 Jan. 
1829; 88 y. 8 m. 23 d. 

Hoffman, Henry, b. 2 Feb. 1741; d. 22 Feb. 
1818; 77 y. 20 d. 

SchirardJn, Jacob, b. 8 Jan. 1761; d. 9 Jan. 
1S22; 61 y. 1 d. 

DeLong, John, b. 27 March 1723; d. 22 
Nov. 1813; 90 y. 7 m. 27 d. 

Scharadin. Peter, b. 25 July 1764; d. 3 
March 1841; 76 y. 7 m. 8 d. 

Kareher, Johannes, b. 29 Jan. 1758; d. 2 
March 1824; 66 y. 1 m. 3 d. 

Maria, wife of same, b. 10 Oct. 1753; d. 16 
Sept. 1851; 97 y. 11 m. 6 d. 

Seibert, Jacob., b. 28 Sept. 1777; d. 11 Mav 
1859; 81 y. 7 m. 13 d. 

Catharine, b. Butz, wife of same, b. 26 
March 1777; d. 26 Dec. 1831; 54 y. 9 m. 

Fensterniacher, Jacob, b. 19 Nov. 1751; d. 
19 July 1835; 83 y. 8 m. 

. Maria, wife of same, b. 22 Oct. 1767; d. 21 
Aug. 1850; 82 y. 9 m. 29 d. 

Kieffer, Peter, b. 14 Dec. 1736; d. 30 Nov. 
1815; 78 y. 11 m. 16 d. 

Maria, b. Long, wife of same, b. 19 Nov. 
1742; d. 7 March 1816; 73 y. 3 m. 18 d. 

Humbert, Jacob, b. 22 Sept. 1798; d. 12 
July 1880; 81 y. 9 m. 20 d. 

Bauer, Jonas, b. 29 Jan. 1797; d. 6 Sept. 
1882; 85 y. 7 m. 7 d. 

Alsace Churches 

Christian, Johann, b. 11 Feb. 1743; d. 11 
Feb. 1798; 55 y. 

Christian, Johanna, b. 6 May 1749; d. 2 
July 1809; 60 y. 1 m. 14 d. 

Berber, Susanna, b. Heyer, b. 2 Dec. 1796; 
d. 9 April 1824; 27 y. 4 m. 7 d. 

Romig, Maria Magdalena, b. 10 April 
1768; d. 25 Sept. 1827; 59 y. 5 m. 15 d. 

Romig Johannes, b. in Frankfort-on- 
Main. 20 Sept. 1755; d. 11 April 1814; 58 v. 
6 m. 21 d. 

Peifer, Catharina, b. Sailer, wife of 
Henry Peifer, b. 13 March 1794; d. 13 May 
1839; 45 y. 2 m. 

Schneider, Maria, b. Klose, b. 5 March 
1769; d. 13 Oct. 1792. 

Haberacker, Johannes, b. 1741; d. 28 Dec 
1795; 54 y. 

Fischer, Johannes, b. 15 March 1737- d 30 
May 1806; 69 y. 2 m. 14 d. 

Gehret, Susannah, b. 22 Dec. 1770; d 5 
Feb. 1798; 27 y. 1 m. 13 d. 

Fielcher, Nicolaus, b. 29 Sept. 1734; d 29 
Nov. 1763; 29 y. 2 m. 

Fielcher, Daniel, b. 19 Feb. 1768; d ?6 
April 1804; 36 y. 2 m. 6 d. 

Fielcher, Clara, b. Himmelberg-^r, b. 11 
Feb. 1744; d. 2 May 1818; 74 y. 2 m. 21 d. 
Rothermel, Samuel, b. 28 March 1782; d. 

5 Sept. 1808; 26 y. 5 m. 7 d. 

Fischer, Valentin, b. 2 Feb. 1778; d. 30 
Jan. 1824; 53 y. 11 m. 28 d. 

Schadel, George, b. in Franfort-on-Main 

3 April 1754; d. 14 Nov. 1826; 72 y. 7 m. 11 d. 
Schadel, Elizabeth, b. Fischer, wife of 

Geo. Schadel, b. 21 April 1766; d. 9 April 
1830; 65 y. 11 m. 8 d. 

Balthaser, Heinrich, b. 27 May 1771; d. 
10 Aug. 1846; 75 y. 2 m. 11 d. 

Balthaser, Susanna Margaret, wife of 
same, b. 20 June 1777; d. 2 Jan. 1862; 84 y. 

6 m. 13 d. 

Haberacker, Johann Heinrich, b. 1 April 
1772; d. 14 June 1850; 78 y. 2 m. 13' d. 
Rothenberger, Peter, b. 24 March 1769; d. 

4 Jan. 1825; 55 y. 9 m. 10 d. 

Rebecca, wife of same, b. Schalter, b. 1 
Sept. 1773; d. 28 Nov. 1847; 74 y. 2 m. 27 d. 

Fischer, Valentine, b. 2 Feb. 1770; d. 30 
Jan. 1824; 53 y. 11 m. 28 d. 

Rothermel, .Martin, b. 29 Oct. 1749; d. 21 
Nov. 1818; 69 y. 22 d. 

Rothermel., Jacob, b. 20 Jau. 1778; d. 3 
July 1812; 34 y. 5 m. 13 d. 

Fisher, Joseph, b. 19 March 1786; d. 19 
June 1809; 23 y. 3 m. ' 

Baum, Johannes, b. 23 Jan. 1725; d. 28 
Feb. 1808; 83 y. 1 m. 4 d. 

Baum, Johann Theobold, b. 15 March 
1693; d. 27 April 1762. 

Strunk, Catharine, b. 1 May 1740; d. 5 
May 1811; 71 y. 4 d. 

Schop, Conrad, b. 12 May 1753, in Deutsch- 
land; d. 15 Jan. 1838; 84 y. 8 m. 3 d. 

Schop, Maria Christina, b. Klohs, wife of 
same, b. 3 Nov. 1761; d. 13 Aug. 1823; 62 y. 
9 m. 10 d. 

Spengier, John Heinrich, b. 10 Nov. 1747; 
d. 26 March 1826; 78 y. 4 m. 16 d. 

Spengier, Johann Adam, b. 4 April 1753; 
d. 30 Nov. 1823; 70 y. 8 m. less 4 d. 

Schneider, Jacob, son of Abraham and 
Maria Eliz. Schneider, b. 20 Sept. 1782; 
d. 9 Nov. 1867; 85 v. 1 m. 19 d. 

Wanner, Jacob C, b. 15 Feb. 1794; d. 7 
Sept. 1854; 60 y. 4m. 22 d. 

Catharine, b. Schneider, wife of same, b. 
22 Feb. 1797; d. 5 Aug. 1865; 68 y. 5 m. 13 

Schneider, Johannes, b. 18 Dec. 1786; d. 
20 March 1852; 65 y. 3 m. 2 d. 

Leinbach, Heinrich, b. 29 Aug. 1780; d. 19 
Nov. 1852; 72 y. 2 m 20 d. 

Matrdalena, b. Baum, wife of same, b. 12 
Oct. 1785; d. 18 July 1855; 69 y. 9 m. 6 d. 

Moller, Johann Heinrich, b. 24 May 1797; 
d. 23 Jan. 1885; 87 y. 7 m. 30 d. 

Maria, b. Resch, wife of same, b. 12 May 
1807; d. 9 March 1848; 40 y. 9 m. 27 d. 

Resch, Catharina. b. Eisenhauer, wife of 
Philip Resch, b. 1 May 1779; d. 4 Feb. 1847; 
67 y. 9 m. 3 d. 



Haas, Daniel, b. 10 July 1774; d. 18 April 
1845; 70 y. 9 m. 21 d. 

Hahn, Adam, b. 8 Feb. 1775; d. 12 July 
1849; 74 y. 5 m. 1 d. 

Moller, Johannes, b. in Deutschland 20 
Jan. 1774; d. 20 May 1844; 70 y. 4 m. 10 d. 

Moller, Magdalena, b. 6 Sept. 1768; d. 2 
Oct. 1823; 55 y. 26 d. 

Bauni, Jonas, b. 21 March 1765; d. 24 Nov. 
1825; 60 y. 3 m. 3 d. 

Elizabeth, b. Zacharias, wife of same, b. 
21 Aug. 1768; d. 5 Nov. 1854; 86 y. 2 m. 14 

Klohs, Catherine, b. Siegfried, wife of 
Jacob Klohs, Sr., b. 4 March 1780; d. 30 
May 1846; 66 y. 2 m. 26 d. 

Klohs, Jacob, son of John and Maria 
Klohs, b. 12. Sept. 1771; d. 30 Jan. 1S49; 77 
y. 4 m. 18 d. 

Klohs, Magdalena, b. Baum, wife of Jacob 
Klohs, b. 14 March 1768; d. 25 Aug. 1833; 65 
y. 5 m. 11 d. 

Rothenberger, Frederiek, b. 25 Nov. 1771; 
d. 5 Dec. 1833; 62 y. 10 d. 

Fick, Peter, b. 24 Jan. 1766; d. 14 July 
1849; 83 y. 5 m. 20 d. 

Maria Magdalena, b. Graul. wife of same, 
b. 25 Jan. 1774; d. 19 Jan. 1852; 78 y. less 
6 d. 

Rapp, Johannes, b. 26 Feb. 1791; d. 13 
Jan. 1872; 80 y. 10 m. 17 d. 

Harbold, Adam, b. 25 Nov. 1784; d. 19 
March 1847; 62 y. 3 m. 24 d. 

Elizabeth, wife of same, b. 21 Sept. 1788; 
d. 21 March 1859; 70 y. 6 m. 

Schmehl, Adam, b. 22 Nov. 1797; d. 19 
Aug. 1866; 69 y. 8 m. 28 d. 

Mary, b. Emore, wife of same, b. 9 Aug. 
1797; d. 30 July 1882; 84 y. 11 m. 21 d. 

Lies, Daniel, b. 7 Sept. 1800; d. 21 Feb. 
1852; 51 y. 5 m. 14 d. 

>'oll, Catharine, wife of Johannes Noll, b. 
20 Nov. 1787; d. 18 May 1849; 61 y. 5 m. 28 

Gehret, Jacob, b. 25 Feb. 1768; d. 7 April 
1852: 84 y. 1 m. 12 d. 

Tatnall, Susannah H., wife of John Tat- 
nall and daughter of Henry Gehret, b. 10 
July 1786; d. 25 March 1849; 62 y. 8 m. 15 d. 

Gehret, Henry, b. 3 March 1797; d. 29 Oct. 
1844; 47 y. 7 m. 26 d. 

Ebling Henry, d. 5 May 1816; 53 y. 

Magdalena, wife of same, d. 3 March 1837; 
67 y. 

Ebling, Frederiek, b. 10 Dec. 1831: 66 y. 

Hartman, John Geo., b. 6 Jan. 1748; d. 22 
March 1835; 82 y. 2 m. 16 d. 

Wahl, Jacob Michael, b. 19 Feb. 1786; d. 
26 July 1834; 48 y. 5 m. 7 d. 

Heyer, Jacob, b. 19 Dec. 1750; d. 22 May 
1834; 73 y. 5 m. 3 d. 

Catharine, wife of same, b. 25 March 
1781; d. 19 Sent. 1851; 70 y. 5 m. 24 d. 

Hyneman, Jane, wife of John M. Hyne- 
man, b. in Carlisle 25 Dec. 1778; d. 8 July 

Fie*, Barbara, b. 25 Dec. 1767; d. 30 Jan. 
1847; 79 y. 9 m. 5 d. 

Private Burying Ground, near Temple 

Elding Johannes, b. Aug. 20, 1725; d. 
March 21, 1787; 61 y. 7 m. 1 d. 

Ebling, Maria Philipina, b. Yager, b. 13 
Feb. 1735; d. 6 May 1816; 81 y. 2 m. 23 d. 

Ebling, Jacob, son of Paul, b. 24 Aug. 
1808; d. 27 Jan 1859; 50 y. 5 m. 3 d. 

Ebling, Daniel, son of Jacob and Sarah, b. 
1845; d. 1851. 

Bernhart, Wendel, b. 6 Jan. 1746; d. 26 
Dec. 1813; 67 y. 11 m. 20 d. 

Bernhart, Catharine, b. Ebling, b. 11 Dec. 
1753; d. 17 Feb. 1830; 76 y. 2 m. 6 d. 

Ebling, Maria, b. Bleiler, b. 3 Dec. 1771; 
d. 25 July 1817; 45 y. 7 m. 22 d. 

Ebling Paul, b. 17 Sept. 1761; d. 13 Sept. 
1825; 61 y. 11 m. 26 d. 

Bernhardt, Barbara, b. Lasch, b. 22 Dec. 
1777; d. 6 Dec. 1833; 55 y. 11 m. 14 d. 

Bernhardt, Adam, b. 21 July 1816; d. 5 
April 1S48: 31 y. 9 m. 14 d. 

Bernhardt, Daniel, b. 1 July 1811; d. 6 
Dec. 1834; 23 y. 5 m. 12 d. 


Snyder Family Ground, Oley Line. 

Keim, Nicholas, b. 2 April 1719; d. 2 Aug. 

Barbara, b. Schneider, wife of same, b. 
Oct 1757; d. 8 June 1788. 

MesserSmith, John K., d. 26 May 1831; 
61 y. 9 m. 26 d. 

Schneider, Peter, b. 21 Aug. 1752; d. 15 
Dec. 1815; 63 y. 3 m. 24 d. 

Catharine, born Young, wife of same, b. 
2 Aug. 1768: d. 15 Nov. 1840; 72 y. 3 m. 13 d. 

Schneider, Daniel, b. 8 Oct. 1750; d. 28 
Feb. 1817; 66 y. 4 m. 20 d. 

Schneider, Esther, b. Herbein, b. 9 March 
1759; d. 24 March 1780. 

Schneider, Peter, b. March 1723; d. 27 
Oct. 1796; 73 y. less 8 m. 

AppOlonia, Eva, b. Young, b. 26 Dec. 1721 : 
d. 25 April 1799; 77 y. 3 m. 18 d. 

Schneider, Benjamin, b. 21 Dec. 174S; d. 
26 Oct. 1816; 67 y. 10 m. 5 d. 

Schneider, Johannes, b. Dec. 1687; d. 19 
July 1743. 

.. wife of Jacob Schneider, 1). 17is; 

d. 16 Oct. 1785: 67 y. 3 m. 

Schneider, Daniel, son of Jacob, b. 27 
Aim. 1749; d. 21 May 1804; 56 y. 8 m. 13 d. 

Schneider, Catharine, i>. L688; d. 27 Mar 

Schneider, Henry, b. 1721; d. 1762. 

Geehr, Jacob, b. 10 July 1779; d. 23 
March 1853. 

Esther, b. Schneider, wife of same, b. 1 
Aug. 1782; d. 4 Feb. 1819. 

Messersmith, Daniel, d. 23 Aug. 1820; 76 
y. 1 m. 29 d. 

Katherina, b. Keim, wife of same, b. Jan. 
1747; d. 25 March 177.:. 


Swabian Proverbs and Idioms 


161. Dear friszt im Anegauh. U. 

162. Ma hat noh all Tag z' Nacht 
.gessa. U. 

163. Dau hoiszt 's schnarrmaula. U. 

164. Dia naget am Hungertuach. U. 

165. Miar schnurret d'r Maga-ne-ei'. 

166. Frisz Drag, wenn d'r des net 
.guat gnuag ischt. U. 

167. Dui hat a reachta siiasza Gosch. 
U. (1st schleckig.) 

168. Dear iszt mit Adams Gab'l. U. 

169. Dear halt's heut mit de G'mau- 
late. U. (Hat nichts zu essen.) 

170. No en guata Grung lega, dasz ma 
au' trinka ka'. U. 

171. Bei deam schlacht's Essa und 
Trinka-n-a'. U. 

172. Des ischt a habhafts Essa. IT. 

173. Mit ui ischt guat Drag essa. B. 

174. Des ischt ausganga ohne Butter. 

175. Ma schwatzt ja no vom Drag, ma 
friszt a ja net. U. 

176. Dear friszt oim's Sach vom Maul 
weg. U. 

177. Du darscht no saga, Maul was 
-witt'. U. 

178. Du darscht Teller saga, nau leit 
glei' a Wurscht drauf. U. 

179. Desmaul muascht 's Maul num- 
"binda. U. 

180. Des ischt a reacht'r Knopf les- 
dau'de. U. (Knopflesliebhaber.) 

181. Des muasz ma deam us de Zah' 
tua. U. 

182. Wenn's oim am beschta schmeckt, 
soil ma aufhaira. U. 

183. Jetzt hau'-n-i aber ehrlich g'essa. 
IT. (Ehrlich-tuchtig.) 

18. Des ischt a lerks Brod. U. (Lerk- 

185. Deam traumt's no allaweil vom 
Fressa und Saufa. U. 

186. Schwatzt dear en Kas. S. 

187. Dear ischt kasweis wor'a. U. 

188. D'r Hunger treibt Brautwiirscht 
na. U. (Ironisch.) 

189. Wia ma iszt, so schafft ma-n-au'. 

190. Viel Koch versalzet da Brei. B. 

191. A voller Bauch schtudirt net 
gern. U. 

192. Dear nimmt Schnitt, wia d'r 
Bett'la' auf d'r Kirbe. B. 

193. Dear muasz noh maih schwarza 
Brei essa. B. 

194. Diar muasz ma vom Saumeahl 
kocha, wenn d'net guat tuascht. B. 

195. Diar muasz ma mit'm Saumeahl 
roschta. B. 

196. Dear mumpflet. U. 

197. Hot dear a Memum'l. U. 

198. Ischt des heut a gf rasz ! U. 

199. Dui hot allaweil a G'schleck. U. 

200. Gib deam au' a Yersuacherle. U. 

201. Miar isch ganz wampelig. U. 

202. I be' pfropft voll. U. 

203. Dear hat alles g'fressa, bei Rubes 
und Schtubes. U. 

204. Des schmeckt, die de rei'scht 
Arznei. U. 

205. Miar isch ganz schwachmatisch. 

206. Des ischt a wuaschter Surfler. U. 
(Beim Suppenessen.) 

207. Dear hat heut da Frestag. U. 

208. Due schlacht d' Gosch anderscht 
drum rum. U. 

209. Ma schneid't hinta rum, dasz d' 
Heuret lachet. B.(d' Heuret-der Schatz.) 

210. Ischt des au'a Fressa? So richt' 
ma 's de Saua na'. B. 

211. D'r Hung'r ischt d'r bescht 
Koch. U. 

212. Des Floisch hat en Guh. U. 

213. Dear hat da Hacker. U. 

214. Dear hot da Gazger. T. 

215. Miar schmeckt's, wia amol. B. 

216. Jetzt isch babbala! U. 

217. Jetz' isch gar. U. 

218. Wenn dear no ebes in d'r Pfann 
brozla hairt, nau isch scho reacht. U. 

219. Was machscht do fiir en Dotsch? 

220. Des ischt a furnehms Essa. B. 

221. 's Letscht isch 's Bescht. U. 

222. Dui hat heut scho' ebas lacherigs 
g'essa. U. 

223. Des ischt a lumpfa Nud'l. U. 



224. Ma ka' alles, no net vor', Bacha 
in Ofa., und noch'm Essa an Tisch. T. 

225. Des ischt a rar's Fressa. U. 

226. So sauf d'r d' Gurgel no volls a'. 

227. Dear mag weiter au' nex trinka. 

228. Dear ischt net dumm. d' Briiah 
diirftet mir saufa, und er hatt d' 
Brocka. U. 

229. Konim m'r teant a bisle Gott 
g'segnes. U. 

230. Trinkscht noh en Schoppa? In 
deane Hosa nemme. U. 

231. Dear Wei lauft wie OE1 na. S. 

232. Dear hat all Tag oin Rausch. U. 

233. Dear kommt aus'm Rausch gar 
nemme raus. U. 

234. I moi', dea' hab's. U. 

235. Dear mag's Biar au' net ! U. 

236. Aellamol vor ma goht, hot ma 
noh oin ghat. S. 

237. Guat fressa und guat saufa 
mochtet d' Leut wohl, aber nex schaffa. 

238. Des ischt a reachter'r Hock'r. U. 

239. Dear hat au' Pech an de Hosa.U. 
seel z'sama. U. 

240. Dear ka' wohl ebas hintere tua'. 

241. Dear schvitt' nex in d' Schtief'l. 

242. Wenn dear amual hocket, nau 
bringt ma'n nemme fort. U. 

23. Deam krachet d' Schtiefel, dear 
hat am Schuahmacher koi' Trink-geld 
gea ! U. 

244. Dear hat en Rausch im G'sicht, 
wia a Haus. U. 

245. Dear sauft net no, near friszt au' 
d'rzua. T. 

246. Des ischt a reacht'r Biarludle. T. 

247. Saufet bigott! 's ischt a Fescht! 

248. Wenn du net warscht, und's tag- 
lich Broad, no miiaszt ma d' Suppa 
trinka. T. 

249. Ema B'soffena gat a Heuwag 
us 'm Weag. U. 

250. Dear Wei' ischt net schleacht, 
dear schmeckt noch noh maih. S. 

251. Mit ema Schoppa isch gar net 
a'g'fanga. S. 

252. Dea' Wei' schpiirt ma bis in 
kloina Zaiha na. U. 

253. Narr, sauf was d' vertraga 
ka'scht. U. 

254. Dear sauft, bis oba raus lauft. U. 

255. Dia fresset und saufet allaweil 
gefiirnei'. U. 

256. Dear hat au' z' tuif ins Glasle 
gucket. U. 

267. Essa und Trinka halt Leib und 
seel z'sama. U. 

268. D'r a'rscht Schluck ischt d'r 
bescht! U. 

269. Schpiialwasser loscht au' da 
Du'scht. U. 

270. Ma ka' net maih tua, als gnuag 
essa-n-und trinka. U. 

271. Dear ischt au' bei keim Pfuscher 
in d' Lehr ganga. U. (Ein floter Trink- 
er. ) 

272. Dear denkt da ganza Tag an nex. 
wia an's Fressa und Saufa. U. 

2J7,. Dear lauft allaweil in oim Dampf 
rum. U. 

274. I hau' Du'scht, dasz e nemme zua 
de Auga raus sieh ! U. 

275. Des ischt a reacht'r Kleaba'. U. 
26. Dear sauft im hella U'verschta'd. 


277. Dear sauft se da Kraga volends 
a. U. 

278. Dear hat d' Leab'r auf d'r 
Somm'rseita. U. (Trinkt gern.) 

279. Beim Essa und Trinka ischt dear 
net links. U. 

280. Beim Essa und Trinka schtellt 
dear sein Ma'. U. 

281. Dear sauft, wia a Roig'l. T. 
(Roig'l-Mitglied der Konigsesellschaft) 

282. Dear sauft fur bassleta'. U. 
(passe le temps, Zeitvertreib.) 

283. I will d'r's bringa! U. (Zutrink- 
en. ) 

284. Dear dudlet in oimfort. T. 

285. Vom viele Saufa schwatzt ma 
allaweil, aber net vom viela Du'scht. 

286. Dear ka' scho' gott's laschterlich 
saufa. S. 

287. Dear mag wohl au' lupfa. S. 

288. Dear schopplet au' geara. 

289. Dear ischt schtierb'soffa. U. 

290. Des isch a siiffigs Wei'le. S. 

291. Des ischt a reacht'r Suff'l. S. 


Gabriel Schuler. A Vigorous Pioneer 

Elizabeth D. Rosenberger, Covington, Ohio 

X Lower Salford Township 
Montgomery County, Pa., 
we still have toll-gates. 
We remember well the 
toll-gate nearest our farm 
which was kept by Mrs. 
Schuler. She was a de- 
scendant of a family well 
and favorably known in my neighbor- 

We learned that the elder Mr. 
Schuler first lived in Germantown hav- 
ing come there from Germany to es- 
cape persecution as a follower of 
Menno Simon. In my day there was 
a Miss Lydia Schuler who excited our 
interest and who was much talked 
about, because in company with sev- 
eral other religiously inclined women 
she set her heart on seeing the land of 
Palestine. Our timid grandmothers 
were sure she never would return, such 
unheard-of risks had never been taken 
by any other woman whom they knew. 
But Miss Lydia was not to be lightly 
set aside, she persisted in planning for 
her journey, and it is safe to say that 
not even Christopher Columbus was 
more frowned upon and disapproved 
of by his friends than was Lydia 
Schuler. Who could tell what might 
happen to her when far away from 
home and friends? But undaunted, 
with high hopes and expectations she 
set out on her travels. She was par- 
ticularly anxious to visit the Holy 
Sepulcher and her account of her stay 
in Jerusalem as given in the Gospel 
Visitor was most interesting. 

But it is with Gabriel Schuler that 
our chief interest lies. Lie lived with 
his parents in Germantown in the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century., 
And he was fond of the chase and 
often wandered into the wilderness 
and met the Indians and formed their 
acquaintance. 1 1 is family were troub- 
led when he risked himself about 
twenty miles from Germantown in 
what was then an unbroken wilder- 

ness, lie was fearless and liked to ex- 
plore this new country; in one of these 
excursions he came to Lower Salford 
Township, and was impressed by its 
beauty and no wonder! As I still re- 
turn to it as the home of my childhood 
I see new beauty in its rolling" fields 
and green valleys. Gabriel Schuler 
found here in the thick woods a space 
that was almost clear, with rivulets of 
water, and the green grass and flowers 
betokened great fertility of soil. 

He decided to come here and live. It 
was growing late so he turned his 
steps homeward, the sun was his guide 
and he blazed his way with an axe, 
marking the trees so that he could find 
his way back again at some future day. 
Put imagine the consternation of his 
mother when he told her of his inten- 
tion. She wept and urged him to re- 
main with them and not brave the dan- 
gers of a life in the wilderness, lonely 
and unprotected, subject to attack by 
the Indians. Rut all her entreaties 
were in vain. He left Germantown in 
1712 or in 1715 (we are not sure of the 
exact date) and traveled north to the 
banks of a small stream called the Lit- 
tle Branch; we used to drive our cows 
there for water in time of a drouth. It 
is believed that he built his cabin on 
the farm owned in later years by my 
cousin Geo. D. Alderfer. There are no 
old deeds in existence of these first 
purchases of land, but from all Ave can 
learn it is probable that in 1718, Ga- 
briel Schuler bought a tract of land 
containing about 425 acres. The Eng- 
hsh government made all these settlers 
pay a rent and obtain a title for their 
land. By this time many other set- 
tlers were in this community. Gabriel 
Schuler had prospered sit that he 
bought 700 acres of woodland north- 
west of his first purchase, which today 
forms the township of Franconia. Then 
he left his home along the Branch and 
moved to Franconia. He was an in- 
genious workman in wood, for when 



the Goschenhoppen church was built 
he made the pulpit at home and then 
donated it to the church. 

In this new home Gabriel Schuler, 
saw one generation pass away, and an- 
other take its place, the log cabins 
were being replaced with more com- 
fortable houses. His head began to 
show the almond blossoms of many 
winters and people began to think of 
him as an old man, one of the first set- 
tlers of the community. 

Then one day he came to his son 
who was a carpenter. It was on a 
rainy day and many farmers had con- 
gregated in the carpenter shop. How 
well I can remember the circumstances 
as related to me by Abraham H. Cas- 
sel who was so intimately acquainted 
with all these facts. Gabriel Schuler 
asked one of the men to turn the grind- 
stone. And Schiller's own son turned 
the grindstone until the axe had a 
keen sharp edge on it. He spoke not a 
word and the men who had been 
laughing and joking before he entered 
were impressed by his serious manner 
and his silence ; some of them feared 
that the old man had come to give 
them word of an Indian uprising. The 
mystery was soon made plain. Having 
ground the axe until its sharp edge 
suited him he said, "Now let each one 
follow me." 

"Shall we take arms along?" asked 
one man. 

"Each one may do as he pleases," 
was Schuler's reply. 

All the men went with him ; some 
were armed. When they came to the 
forest, Gabriel Schuler said, "Now let 
each of you go into the woods and se- 
lect a fine large tree. When you hear 
the sound of the trumpet come to me." 

The men went in various directions, 
and looked at the trees and when the 
trumpet sounded they returned to 
where Schuler awaited them. Now 
let me see the trees you have selected, 
he said. 

He accompanied them to their trees 
but as each one was pointed out to 
him, he shook his head. Then he asked 

them to see the tree he had selected. 
And they all agreed that he had found 
the largest, finest oak-tree there. But 
none was prepared for what took place, 

Gabriel Schuler took off his jacket 
and with his axe commenced to cut 
down the tree. The men formed a cir- 
cle about him, all curiously wondering 
what the wild man was going to do. 
They watched him as with steady 
strokes he chopped through the half of 
the tree; then without changing his 
position or resting even a moment he 
changed his axe from his right to his 
left hand and in less than an hour the 
tree tottered and fell. Then with a 
triumphant laugh Gabriel Schuler 
straightened up and explained the 

Standing upon the stump he said, "I 
will now explain the meaning of this. 
Todav I am ioo years old and to you I 
would bear evidence of my well-main- 
tained strength. I desire now of each 
of you the solemn promise that this 
tree, which today I felled before you 
without resting, shall remain in its 
present position, nor be disturbed nor 
removed by any one." 

The men solemnly promised and 
kept their word for the tree decayed 
where it fell and only a few years ago 
its fragments could be seen. 

Gabriel Schuler was 109 years old 
when he died. He was one of the un- 
shaken pioneers of civilization and of 
German enterprise which made the 
wilds of Pennsylvania a Paradise. 

Tradition has it that a Gabriel 
Schuler kept a public house or country 
tavern along the Little Branch for a 
number of years. There was another 
tavern close by managed by Isaac 
Klein. There was a brisk competition 
between the two, and Schuler to adver- 
tise his business put out a sign with 
the following couplet. 

"Ich verkaufe bier un vein 

80 volfeil als der nachbar Klein." 

The first house used as Schuler's 
tavern was undoubtedly of logs but I 
well remember the old stone house or 



at least a part of it which he had built 
in 1748. My uncle added to it some 
modern improvements in 1806. It is of 
these places that James Y. Heckler, the 
author of a history of Lower Salford 
writes : 

'The little Branch, the little Branch, 

In Salford winds around, 
And gathers brooks in nooks and crooks 

With which it doth abound. 
And where the jays in summer days 

Build nests upon the trees, 
The robin sings her evening hymns 

In sweeter strains than these." 

Noch eine vergessene deutsche Siedlung in Westindien 

NOTE. — The following lines with the 
heading are a translation of part of an ar- 
ticle in "Deutsche Erde," Vol. 9, (1910) No. 
4. The passage was written in a contro- 
versy with "Hauptpastor Goeze" in 1778 by 
Lessing. According to the writer the Hes- 
sian Army Chaplain was captured by the 
Americans at Saratoga, 1777. Query, is Les- 
sing giving fact or fiction? Editor. 

T the beginning of the last 
century, a deposed Lu- 
theran minister of the 
Palatinate wanted to mi- 
grate to one of the Brit- 
ish colonies with his fam- 
ily, consisting of children 
of both sexes. The vessel 
on which he sailed, was wrecked on a 
small uninhabited Bermudian island 
and all on board of the ship except the 
minister and his family were drowned. 
The minister found the island so 
pleasant, so healthy, so rich in every- 
thing that contributes to the support of 
life that he was well content to end his 
days there. The storm had driven 
among their things a small chest to 
shore in which was found a catechism 
of Luther with various things for chil- 

It is easily understood that this cate- 
chism in the total absence of all other 
books became a very precious treasure. 
He continued to teach his children 
from, it and died. The children taught 
their children and died. Only two years 
ago an English vessel on which there 
was a Hessian army chaplain was 
driven out of its course to the island. 
The chaplain went with some sailors 
to shore to get fresh water and was 
not a little surprised to find himself all 
at once in a quiet, smiling valley 
among a naked, happy people that 

spoke German and indeed a German in 
which he thought he heard only idioms 
and changes of Luther's Catechism. 
He became inquisitive and behold he 
found that the people not only spoke 
with Luther, but also believed with 
him and were as orthodox in belief as 
any army chaplain. The catechism, as 
was natural, was used up in the cen- 
tury and a half and nothing was left 
but the boards of the cover. "In these 
boards," said they, "is found all that 
we know" — "was found, my' beloved,' 
said the chaplain, — "Is found yet, is 
found yet," said they. "We, indeed, 
can not read ourselves, scarcely know 
what reading is but our fathers read 
out of it, and they knew the man who 
cut the boards. The man's name was 
Luther and he lived shortly after 

Before I relate more, dear Pastor, 
were these good people Christians or 
were they not? They believed firmly 
that there is a higher being, that they 
were poo'r, sinful creatures, that this 
highest Being had made preparation 
through another equally high being to 
make them hereafter eternally happy. 
Mr. Pastor, were these people Chris- 
tians or were they not? 

I have related a story of a Hessian 
army chaplain who found on an island 
not mentioned in any geography good 
Lutheran Christians, who knew but lit- 
tle of the catechism and nothing at all 
of the Bible. The thing is however so 
inconceivable to you because the mail- 
carrier brought you nothing about it 
and because you undoubtedly know 
nothing of it that it seems utterly im- 
possible and I am to prove it as it is 
customary to prove things seen with 
documentary evidence. 


Das Deutsche Lied 

The following is a fair summary of 
the remarks made by Dr. B. I. Wheeler, 
President, University of California, 
Berkeley, California, in connection with 
a recent Sangerfest. 

"Seid willkommen hier in den Toren 
einer amerikanischen Universitat; seid 
herzlich willkommen, ihr Manner und 
Frauen von deutschem Blute, von 
deutschen Idealen und mit deutschen 

Die Gestalt und der Geist der mo- 
dernen amerikanischen Universitat wur- 
den uns von den Deutschen gegeben, und 
dies ist eine Schuld, die nie getilgt 
werden kann. 

Willkommen hier, ihr deutschen 
Sanger. Die ganze Seele Deutschlands 
spricht aus der Stimme des deutschen 

Deutschland prosperiert heute vor 
alien anderen Nationen der Erde. Doch 
dieser Wohlstand findet nicht nur seinen 
Ausdruck in nie rastenden, sausenden 
Fabriken u n d canonengepanzerten 
Schiffen, die Nation in ihrer neuge- 
griindeten Einingkeit erntet vielmehr die 
Frtichte jahrelanger, geduldiger Vor- 

bereitung, und den Ertrag eines reichen 
und tief en nationalen Charakters. 

Erziehung und Denken, Ordnung und 
Romantik, Geduld, Studium und Gesang, 
darin kommt der Charakter eines Volkes 
zum Ausdruck, und heute ist die Ernte- 

Die kostbaren Gaben, welche das 
deutsche Yolk der modernen Welt ge- 
geben hat, sind : Philosophic als die 
Form des Denkens, Philologie als die 
Interpretation des Denkens, Musik als 
der Ausdruck des Herzens. Doch wenn 
deutsches Wesen sich als ein Ganzes 
ausdriicken soil, dann musz es durch den 
Gesang sprechen. Das deutsche Lied 
kommt den Deutschen aus dem Herze. 
Die deutschen Sanger sind das deutsche 
Volk. Im Gesang seid ihr wieder zu 

Mit Schiller's Worten : 

Und wie nach hoffnungslosem Sehnen 
Nach langer Trennung bittern Schmerz, 
Ein Kind mit heiszen Reuethranen 
Sich stiirzt an seiner Mutter Herz : 
So fuhrt zu seiner Jugend Hiitten, 
Zu seiner Unschuld, seinem Gliick, 
Vom fernen Ausland fremder Sitten 
Den Fliichtling der Gesang zuriick." 


Im Herzen Europa's gelegen fvinfzig 
Millionen zahlend, mit ihrer Literatur 
Kunst und Wissenschaft in den vorder- 
sten Reichen der Nationen stehend, hat 
dieses Yolk seine besondere Aufgabe in 
der alten Welt, und zwar eine grosze 
und herrliche. Wer wollte das bestrei- 
ten? Europa wiirde nicht das Europa 
sein welches es ist wenn nicht Deutsclv 
land ware. Der Rhein mit seinen 
Rebenhiigel und seinen Burgen, die 
Kaiserstadte Wien und Berlin mit ihren 
groszartigen Universitaten : die Konigs- 
sitze Dresden und Miinchen mit ihren 

uniibertroffenen Kunstschatzen, die 
grosze Zahl unserer Dichter, unserer 
Musiker, unserer Maler, unserer Ge- 
lehrten : unsere groszartigen Bauten 
wie die Straszburger Miinster oder der 
Kolner Dom, die bliihenden Fabriken, 
die bewegten Handelsstraszen, die 
Segel unserer Handelsflotten und die 
Fahnen unserer Kriegsheere : alle. alle 
bezeugen es, dasz hier ein groszes Yolk 
wohnt, ein Volk von machtigen Geist 
und starken Willen. Wbl. 

Der deutsche Pionier, May 1882, p. 





O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb " — A. S. 


On Der Lunipa Party 

(A. C. W.) 
(No. 4) 
Guck, doh is die Seppy Schtengel, 
Mehnt sie waer'n ferschtos'ner eng'l, 
Duht ferdoltsei nix wie klawga, 
Hut's am hertz un hut's im mawga, 
Hut so'n reiszes in de tzeha, 
Kan der hals schier nimmie dreha. 
Hut's im bertz'l, hut so'n schnuppa, 
Schteht druff s'waera hexa kluppa— 
'Now waer's fertich rum tz'fussa, 
Deht mohl biss'l braucha lussa, 
Mehnt ferlicht dehts ebbes botta, 
Debt's nix helfa dehts nix schodda, 
Het g'nunk fun Inscha pilla, 
Solwei-tay un sassafrilla 
Gaebt nix drum won dokt'r, porra, 
Drivver grounsa, drivver knorra 
Bis die fresch im grahwa peifa 
Noch'm letschta froscht un reifa! 
Wom'r kummt fer sotz tz' lehna, 
Wom'r kummt de Joe tz' senna, 
Huscht ken tzeit dich hie tz' setza, 
Huscht ken tzeit fer biss'l schwetza, 
Geht's schun ob die sehm alt leier, 
Grawd wie'm Schimp sei kar'cha kweier: 
Hut's am hertz un hut's im mawga, 
Kan ken koscht un nix ferdrawga, 
Hut so'n reiszes in de tzeha, 
Kan der hals schier nimmie dreha, 
Het doh yetz sich braucha lussa, 
Het fiel besser in die hussa — " 
"Ach, was!" mehnt die Alameda, 
"Luss die Seppy doch in frieda, 
Yehders will sei ehlend klawga, 
Ebber muss's helfa drawga; 
Wie waer's don der Eva gonga, 
Het sie net d' Adam g'fonga 
Sellamohls im schehna gorta 
Uhna lang uff ihn tz' warta? 
Yehders hut noh mitleid g'hotta, 
Wie sie g'heilt hen dert im schotta 
Ivverm schertz un klehder macha. 
Uhna g'schposs un nix tz' lacha, 
Is em's hertz so schwer wie'n wocka, 
Wehs m'r net wuh awtz' pocka, 
Wehs m'r net wuh hie, wuh onna, 
Wuh schun lang der kop em g'schtonna, 
Doh brauch yehders droscht un gnawda, 
Gutie hilf fer's obtz' lawda — 
No-sir-ee! fer's ehlend drawga 
Sawg ich muss m'r's ebber klawga." 
"Yah, uff sei hie debt ich schwaera 
S'weist sich yoh am cider yaehra" — 
Hut die Milla nei g'plaudert, 
S'hut sie recht so ivverschaudert, 
"Deht m'r's loch tzu teit fertzwenga 

Deht's yoh's foss in hutla schprenga, 

Wut m'r's ehlend bei sich halta 

Deht m'r nimmie lang doh walta, 

S'waer schun lengscht'n hivvel derta 

Wuh m'r schloft, die link noch Norda. 

S'geht em grawd wie sella porra, 

Os mitnonner schtreitich wara. 

Sin mohl noch'ra meeting gonga 

Dert huts noh aerscht recht awg'fonga. 

Waer's noch fashion leis tz' hovva 

Des waer g'schprunga wie die schaawa 

Wom'r kumt mit Barker's Lotion. 

Wie sie sawga war's'n caution 

Bis der chairmon uff is g'schprunga, 

G'schtompt un hut d'gavel g'schwunga." 

"Brieder, halt! des geht net lenger, 

Ordning! ordning! doh muss schtrenger"- 

"Never mind," sawgt noh der onner, 

"Luss'n geh, m'r hens mit nonner, 

Luss'n yuscht d' ihdrich kaua, 

Luss'n warxa, luss'n schpawa, 

S'is net gute fer'n schwacher mawga 

Tzu fiel schtorkie Koscht tz' drawga, 

Luss'n rous mit noh wert's besser, 

Nix bleibt siesz in alta fesser." 

"Well, ich hoff s'is besser wara," 

Mehnt die Betsy, "mit dem porra, 

Anyhow so gehts'm Lenni, 

Geht'r als tzum 'Rotha Henni,' 

Kummt noh heem un fiehlt so ivvel, 

Legt sich hie mit tzomda schtivvel, 

Won'r sich noh recht g'brocha 

Noh — "Kotzgricks'l! hob mich g'sctocha!" 

Macht die Linda mit'm dauma 

Dert im maul os wom'r blauma 

Schpoteyohrs unnerm bawm obsuckelt — 

Hut g'lacht un hut's ferduckelt. 

Alles sut m'r net fertzaehla, 

Gebt so dings m'r sut's ferhaehla 

Won's die menschta leit's aw wissa — 

S'bescht m'r watcht sei fedderkissa." 

Doh kummt grawd, tzum glick, die Bolly, 

Kummt mit wei un kucha, golly! 

Hen g'lacht un hen g'grischa, 

Dehl duhn schun die meiler wischa 

"Ich hob's maul foil schtawb un g'fusser, 

Greischt die kleh Sabina Musser, 

"War de gonsa dawg om trenna 

Ach! was duht mei hals net brenna, 

S'geht m'r schier wie'm Marty Wetz'l 

Wie'r sellie frischa bretz'l 

Gessa hut bei'm Ottfried Etting, 

Fuftzeh schtick, fer'n Neiyohrswetting, 

Wie der hosier rother peffer 

Druf hut fer d' arma Keffer. 

Hut yuscht sexa essa kenna, 

Duht'n daus'l-lawnisch brenna, 

Jumpt noh uff un will ons fechta, 

Duht paar uvvarunner ilechta: 



"Hamburg! Deitschland! Kieselwetter! 
Froagt der Ottfried: "Wat's de Matter?" 
"Vat's die metter! Galgaschwind'l! 
Het-i-eich, ihr Ludergsind'l — " 
"Marty, week mit sellem messer, 
Nemm'a bitters, noh werts besser." 

NOTE.— The following poem and letters 
show that the spelling of the dialect is still 
an open question. We invite communica- 
tions on the subject. — Editor. 

En Pennsylvania-Peitsch Wanderlied 

Ach, naus will ich in die scheene Welt, 
Der Himmel is glor un grie des Feld; 
Die Barje dat driwwe sin so bio, 
Es leit was dehinner, des wees ich jo. 

Ja, naus geh ich in die weite Welt, 
Dat gebt's was Neies un ah meh Geld; 
Ich nem mei Bindel un greif der Hut, 
Un wandre naus mit frischem Mut. 

Die Harrnhuter blosen en Marjelied, 
Es rauscht mer des Lewe in alle Glied; 
Mir peifen die Amschle in de Schwem, 
Adje, Du Stadel, mei Bethlehem. 

Uf'm Gottesacker bliehen die Blumme schun, 
Der Karchetarn glantz in der marje Sun, 
Die Schwalme fliehen rings drum in der 

Mei liewe Heemet, Adje, Adje! 

Zum Stadel naus, die Stross entlang, 
Marschiere ich weiter zum Vogelgsang; 
Barg nuf, Barg nunner, an der Saucna 

Noch eemol steh ich un guck zurick. 

Dat winkt mer ebber un schickt en Kuss, 
Es is mei Schatz un ihr letschter Gruss. 
Ach, scheenes Madel, Adje, Adje! 
Wer wandre will muss weiter geh. 

University of Penna. 

University of Pennsylvania 

March 14, 1911. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 
Editor The Penna.-German, 

Dear Sir: I have enclosed a little poem 
in the Penna. German dialect which you 
may find suitable for publication in your 
magazine. You will observe that I have 
avoided affecting the humorous which is 
unfortunately seldom absent in our later 
dialect poetry. Our dialect deserves to be 
employed in more serious literary en- 
deavors. I have above all attempted to show 
that the dialect, homely as it may appear to 
some, even lends itself to the more delicate 
nuances of genuine lyric poetry. 

I have attempted to base the spelling on 
the German sound-system, to my mind the 
only correct one. If I have succeeded in 

helping to bring order into the chaotic form 
of the dialect due to the arbitrary methods 
of spelling usually employed, I shall con- 
sider myself amply rewarded. 

Hoping, too, that your readers may also 
experience some aesthetic enjoyment in 
reading these few verses, I remain, Sir, 
Very respectfully yours, 


Lititz, Pa., March 15, 1911. 
Mr. Prston A. Barba, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 

My Dear Sir: Replying to yours of 
March 14, 1 desire in the first place to thank 
you heartily for your contribution, "En 
Pennsylvani-Deitsch Wanderlied". I will 
make room for it in an early issue of the 

Referring to the contents of your note ac- 
companying the contribution I may say that 
I am in hearty sympathy with your ex- 
pressed opinion that "our dialect deserves 
to be employed in more serious literary 
endeavors." Alas, here as elsewhere men 
toil for the "almighty dollar" and write and 
print what will probably "take" and "sell". 
I agree with you that the spelling should be 
based on the German sound-system. But 
when in editing a magazine like The Penn- 
sylvania-German the question comes up in 
a practical form, and the editor faces prac- 
tical conditions, giants seem to be in the 
way. There are many intelligent readers of 
papers and magazines who talk the dialect 
but do not read German print and are 
unfamiliar with the German sound-system. 
Contributors are apt to have pet theories 
and may take offence if any liberties are 
taken with their spelling. The question 
arises, has an editor even the right to 
change a writer's spelling and use of words, 
barring obvious mistakes? In the case of 
contributors to The Pennsylvania-German, 
I am inclined best to the view that I can 
hasten the day when there will be uniform- 
ity of spelling by letting each contributor 
spell and capitalize as he thinks best. 
Diversity may hasten the day of uniformity. 
Besides it seems to the editor presumptuous 
to dictate to a linguist, master of half a 
dozen languages, how he shall spell his 

I am afraid your present effort will not 
"bring order into the chaotic form of the 
dialect'". You may have clarified your own 
views on the subject, but to get other in- 
telligent men to agree with you and adopt 
your way of doing things is a "horse of 
another color". I do hope your letter and 
contribution may help to create and crystal- 
lize sentiment on the subject. 

By the way, why not spell, "schone", 
"grii", "Neues", "Biindel", "Herrnhuter", 
"Schwamm", "Deutsch", instead of "schee- 
ne", "grie", "Neies", "Bindel", "Harrnhut- 



er", "Schwemra", "Deitsch"? Will our 
spelling be entirely satisfactory as long as 
scholars competent in the prenises will not 
recommend a system of diacritical marks or 
a phonetic notation that will be easily 
understood, readily workable in the ordinary 
printing office? 

Awaiting further communications on the 
subject from you, I remain, 

Yours very truly, 


University of Pennsylvania 

The College 

March 20, 1911. 
Mrs. H. W. Kriebel, 
Lititz, Pa., 
Dear Sir: In reply to the question in 
your letter of the 15th inst. why I do not 
use the forms "schone", "grii", "Neues", 
"Bundel", "Herrnhuter", "Schwamm", and 
"Deutsch" for "scheene", "grie", "Neies", 
Bindel", "Harrnhuter", "Schwemm", and 

"Deitsch", I shall say that o and ii (French 
en and u) represent vowel sounds absolutely 
foreign to our Penna. German dialect, and 
are represented by the German vowels e 
and i (ie) respectively; the diphthong eu 
(like English oi in boil) is also not pre- 
served, but consistently becomes German 
diphthong ei; ii in Schwamm equals German 
e, and is simply preseyed in High German 
on account of the analogous vowel a in its 
singular number (cf. Mann. Manner, etc.). 
High German e being very open before r. I 
have used German a in Herrnhuter. 

You observe, therefore, that in instances 
where the original High G'erman vowels are 
not represented in the dialect, I have sub- 
stituted German vowels representing their 
phonetic values. 

In support of this usage I offer as prece- 
dent the works of the Alemannic poet J. P. 
Hebel, (the Bavarians Fritz Gundlach and 
Franz v. Kobell, and the Palatinate poet, 
Karl Gottfr. Nadler (Vie Anhang to his col- 
lection of dialect poems "Frolich Palz, Gott 

Very truly yours, 



By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

TIRE— By Otto Heller, Ph.D., Professor 
of the German Language and Literature 
in Washington University. St. Louis. 
Cloth. 301 pp. Price $1.25. Ginn and 
Company, New York. 
These studies are devoted to Sudermann, 
Hauptmann, and to Women Writers of the 
Nineteenth Century. They thus cover the 
most conspicuous figures in modern German 
literature. Sudermann and Hauptmann 
and their works are treated with a com- 
pleteness and exactness that are not found 

The studies are not scholastic nor yet 
academic. "His cardinal purpose has been 
to draw attention afresh to a phase of con- 
temporary culture thus far not sufficiently 
heeded by the English-speaking world." 
They are rather the expression of a keen 
interpreter and critic of modern German 
literature and culture. 

The book is suited for reference work or 
collateral reading, and yet it affords interest 
for the general reader. 

Its merit is vouched for by the opinion of 
Professor Francke, the Apostle of culture in 
America, when he says he is "convinced 

that there is here represented the most 
significant accomplishment of American 
criticism in the field of contemporary Ger- 
man literature." 

THE SIEGE OE BOSTON— By Allen French.' 
Cloth; illustrated. 450 pp. Price $1.50 
net. The Macmillan Company, New 
York, 1911. 
We have here a brief and readable ac- 
count of the siege of Boston, and of the 
events which brought it about. The author's 
endeavor has been to treat his subject as a 
single organic unit of events, and he has 
succeeded admirably. Whoever would write 
of the early years of the Revolution must 
needs write about Boston up to the evacua- 
tion of the city by the British troops; for up 
to this time the two are inseparably con- 

Frothingham's "Siege of Boston", 1S49, is 
an authoritative piece of work; but a great 
deal of new material has come to light since 
the publication of that book. The present 
work is really history told by contempo- 
raries for the author has relied upon con- 
temporary statements. His incidents, and 
illustrative anecdotes he has gathered from 1 



records, histories, and letters; much of all 
this is new. The amount is well propor- 

The narrative is a popular one and yet 
scholarly. It is graphic in style; it is even 
dramatic in a way that should appeal to the 
interest of young people. It is written with 
sustained animation; it might properly be 
termed a romance of American history. 


Edwin E. Slosson, M.S. (Kansas) Ph.D. 
(Chicago). Cloth; illustrated. 528 pp. 
Price $2.50, net. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York, 1910. 

For several years already the colleges and 
universities of the country have been freely 
investigated and criticised, sometimes rather 
harshly, defamed and defended, and written 
up and "written down". "Which College for 
the Boy?", by John Corbin, published a few 
years ago, was probably the first attempt in 
book form at a comparative view of these 
institutions. "Great American Universities" 
by Dr. Slosson is, however, a book of a dif- 
ferent type. The contents of both books 
appeared originally in the Saturday Evening 
Post, and in The Independent respectively. 
In this manner they received the benefits of 
some severe criticism. "Great American 
Universities" may be the least "popular", as 
it seems to show the hand of the trained 
investigator, who accepts wherever possible 
onlv first hand knowledge. 

The author adopted a rather unique 
method of obtaining his information. He 
spent a week in residence at each institu- 
tion, "living in some club house or board- 
ing house, attending classes and talking 
with as many of the faculty and students as 
[he] could." And though the work is prob- 
ably not as authoritative as it would have 
been if written by some officer of the respec- 
tive institutions, it is very likely as un- 
biased as it can easily be. A great deal is 
to be said in favor of the comparative 
method adopted here ; on the whole, it af- 
fords the institutions represented an oppor- 
tunity to see themselves and one another as 
others see them. 

There are fourteen universities repre- 
sented; nine are endowed: Chicago, Yale, 
Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, Cornell, 
Pennsylvania. Leland Stanford, and Johns 
Hopkins; and five State Universities: Michi- 
gan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and 

There* may be students and alumni of 
these institutions who will find fault with 
some of the things said; and they may also 
hear of things they never heard of before or 
ever knew about their Alma Mater. The 
author's views, however, may also at times 
be a little warped, and his statements mis- 
leading. He puts the University of Penn- 
sylvania down as having been founded in 
1740, wheras authentic and accepted history 

says 1751. But these may be minor matters, 
for they do not necessarily distort the spirit 
of an institution. , 

The book is written in a pleasing, simple, 
and refreshing style. It is in no sense 
necessary to be a psychologist or an educa- 
tionist to read it with pleasure and with a 
relish. It is original in style as well as in 
matter. A pecular thing about the book is 
the fact that every chapter is entirely dif- 
fernt. One mgiht think these fourteen 
chapters to read nearly alike, being the 
views of one man who looked up that many 
universities; but far from it, they are as 
unlike as if a different man had written each 
chapter. This shows that the author's view 
is not a superficial one, and that he suc- 
ceeded in interpreting the spirit of these 
institutions. His original Illustrations often 
tell more than a page of explanation. 
Speaking of educational machinery he con- 
cluded that after all "the product of the mill 
depends mostly on what kind of grain is 
poured into the hopper". And in speaking 
of the qualifications for admission and grad- 
uation he says "it is hard to ascertain how 
many hours of blacksmithing are equal in 
educational profit to one hour piano-play- 
ing", and that "educators will agree on this 
question in about the same time that econ- 
omists agree how high a wall a bricklayer 
would have to build to entitle him to hear 
Caruso sing". 

There is a pleasing expression of frank- 
ness; he does not attempt to conceal his 
views on the questions considered. He is 
free in his bestowal of condemnation and 
commendation ; he condemns Harvard for its 
extremely elastic courses enabling men to 
choose shotgun courses, and he commends 
Princeton for its conservatism and Precep- 
torial System. 

The book is a standard and stands alone. 
It is interesting and informing. It reveals 
what college catalogues seem to be designed 
to conceal. 

American Prisoners of the Revolution 

Danske Dandridge, Author of "George 
Michael Bedinger," "Historic Shepherds- 
town," etc., has issued a book of great his- 
toric value under the above heading. The 
announcement of the book says: 

This is an account of some of the Ameri- 
can prisoners who suffered in British pris- 
ons during the Revolution. It is, in part, a 
compilation from many sources; from un- 
published Mss. ; from personal narratives; 
from contemporary letters and periodicals, 
and from histories of the time. A great 
many cruel deeds were done, and crimes 
were committed that have long laid in ob- 
scurity. The writer has presented to the 
public this compendium of facts that have 
been collected about the prisons and pris- 
oners, with the object of reviving the mem- 



ory of these martyrs to the cause of Amer- 
ican independence, that their sufferings 
may be commiserated and their patriotism 
receive due honor. They were faithful un- 
to death, and have too long been forgotten 
by their countrymen. 

The author knows that there were many 
kind-hearted Englishmen, opposed to the 
war, and does not wish to lay upon a whole 
nation the blame due to a few. The hor- 

rors of war ought to be dwelt upon by all 
advocates for universal peace. That such 
pictures are presented to the reader in this 
volume of the terrible suffering inflicted by 
men upon their fellows may aid in hasten- 
ing the time when wars shall cease, is the 
earnest hope of the writer. 

The book is sold by the author, Danske 
Dandrige, Shepherdstown, West Va. (Price 
$3.00. Postage 15 cents). 


Lebanon County Historical Society 

The Thirteenth Annual Dinner of the 
Lebanon County Historical Society was held 
at the Hotel Weimar, Lebanon, on Thurs- 
day, February 16, 1911, at nine o'clock P. M. 

The Hon. Chas. V. Henry, Judge of the 
Courts of Lebanon County, the Hon. Thos. 
L. Montgomery, State Librarian, and the 
Hon. Edward E. Beidleman, of the Dauphin 
County Bar, responded to toasts, announced 
by Eugene D. Siegrist, Esq., of the Lebanon 
Bar, the Toastmaster for the evening. 

Preceding the Dinner the lady members 
of the Society and their lady friends held 
a reception, which the members of the So- 
ciety, together with their dinner guests, at- 
tended. The Imperial Mandolin Orchestra 
furnished the music. 

The Society held its first 1911 Stated 
Meeting in its rooms in the Court House, 
Lebanon, Friday, February 17th, two 
o'clock P. M., for the Electon of Officers, de- 
ferred from the Annual Meeting, December 
16th, 1910, the transaction of other business 
deferred from that meeting, and new busi- 
ness and the hearing of a paper. Dr. Wil- 
liam M. Guilford the Nestor of the Medical 
profession of the county, was elected Presi- 
dent, Dr. E. Grumbine who had served the 
office four years, declining a re-election. 

Of Interest to Historical Societies 
SECTION 1. Be it enacted, etc., That 
from and after the passage of this act the 
board of county commissioners of each 
county of this commonwealth, shall pay out 
of the county funds not otherwise appro- 
priated, upon proper voucher therefor being 
given, the sum of Five Hundred Dollars, 

annually, to the Historical Society of said 
county entitled hereinafter provided, to as- 
sist in the maintenance of its library and 
museum, and the payment of its current ex- 
penses, including the salary of its librarian. 

SECTION 2. To entitle an historical so- 
ciety to receive said sum annually from the 
county funds, it shall have been organized 
in a county not containing a city of the first 
or second class; shall be the oldest histori- 
cal society in its county if there be more 
than one, and it shall have been duly in- 
corporated for at least ten years and for 
that period have a continued and active ex- 
istence; at the time of the application for 
payment it shall have an active member- 
ship of at least one hundred members, each 
of whom shall have paid into its treasury a 
membership fee of at least three dollars; it 
shall have established a library containing 
at least two thousand books, pamphlets and 
periodicals, and a museum for the reception 
of historical relics and curios and photo- 
graphs and paintings; it shall have adopted 
a constitution and code of by-laws, and 
shall have held at least two public meet- 
ings yearly at which papers shall be read 
or discussions had upon historical subjects, 
and with its application each year it shall 
present satisfactory vouchers of the board 
showing that the payment of the previous 
year has been properly expended for the 
legitimate purposes of the society. 

We should like to see this bill become a 
law and hope our readers in the House and 
Senate will give it ther hearty suport. 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Historical 

Standing Committees for the Year 1911. 
A. On Bibliography. Object: "The collec- 
tion of material for a complete bibli- 
ography of the Commonwealth." John 
W. Jordan, LL.D., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Capt. H. M. M. Richards, Litt.D., Leba- 
non, Pa.; Rev. Hugh T. Henry, Ph.D., 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Julius F. Sachse, 



Litt. D., Philadelphia, Pa.; Hon. Thomas 
L. Montgomery, Harrisburg, Pa. ; George 
R. Prowell, York, Pa.; Benjamin F. 
Owen, Reading, Pa. 

B. On Historical Activity. Object: "The 
encouragement of historical activity in 
each County of the Commonwealth, and 
the formation of local historical socie- 
ties." Miss Eleanor E. Wright, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; George Steinman, Lancas- 
ter, Pa.; M. R. Allen, Washington, Pa. 

C. On Exchanging Duplicates. Object: "The 
establishment of a central agency for 
the exchange of duplicate historical 
material." H. Graham Ashmead, Ches- 
ter, Pa.; Ezra Grumbine, M.D., Mt. Zion, 
Pa.; Charles R. Roberts, Esq., Allen- 
town, Pa. 

D. Publication of Lists. Object: "The an- 
nual publication of a list of historical 
papers relating to the Commonwealth, 
and a list of the historical productions 
of Pennsylvania." Charles F. Himes, 
LL.D., Carlisle, Pa.; Boyd Crumrine, 
Esq., Washington, Pa.; Jeremiah Zea- 
mer, Esq., Carlisle, Pa. 

E. On Preserving Manuscript Records. Ob- 
ject: "The encouragement of the preser- 
vation of the manuscript records of the 
Commonwealth, and eac h sub-division 
thereof, and the publication of such 
records, when possible." Prof. Herman 
V. Ames, Ph.D., Philadelphia, Pa.; H. 
Frank Eshleman, Esq., Lancaster, Pa.; 
Albert Cook Myers, Moylan, Pa. 

F. On State Legislation. Object: "Securing 
State Legislation for the promotion of 
the object of the Federation, which is: 
"The advancement of historical re- 
search relating to the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, local and general." Ben- 
jamin M. Nead, Esq., Harrisburg, Pa.; 
Col. James Gilmore, Chambersburg, Pa.; 
Hon. W. U. Hensel, Lancaster, Pa. 

By the President, 

Attest: West Chester, Pa. 

S. P. HEILMAN, M.D., Secretary, 
Heilman Dale, Lebanon Co., Pa. 

Lehigh County Historical Society 

Announcement has been made of the con- 
templated publication of a History of Le- 
high County, Pennsylvania, by authority of 
the Lehigh County Historical Socety under 
the editorship of Charles Rhoads Roberts, 
Rev. John Baer Stoudt, Rev. Thomas H. 
Krick, William J. Dietrich and Miss Minnie 
F. Mickley. The editors have received the 
following commission: 

"Whereas, the year 1913 marks the close 
of the first century of Lehigh's existence 
as a separate county, and whereas, Lehigh 
county embraces one of the most historic 
sections cf the state of Pennsylvania, and, 
whereas, no separate and complete history 
of the county has ever been published, and, 
whereas, it is the sense of the Lehigh 
County Historical Society and the county in 
general that such a publication would fit- 
tingly commemorate this event, 

Therefore be it resolved that a committee 
of five be appointed by the society to com- 
pile and arrange for the publication of the 

The following constitute the committee: 

Charles R. Roberts, Rev. John B. Stoudt, 
Rev. Thomas H. Krick, William J. Dietrich 
and Miss Minnie F. Mickley. 

Signed: Geo. T. Ettinger, Ph.D., Presi- 
dent; Chas. R. Roberts, Secretary." 

"The Lehigh County Historical Society 
having a Historical Committee to compile 
the history of the county for 1912; the 
Chamber of Commerce of Allentown, here- 
by endorses the publication of such a his- 
tory and approves of the plan of publishing 
such history by the Historical Society. 
[January 9, 1911.]" 

The scope of the work is in part indi- 
cated by the "Table of Contents: Geology, 
Flora, Indians, The German Pioneers, First 
Settlement as Part of Bucks County, Revolu- 
tionary War, Fries' Rebellion 1798, Organi- 
zation of Lehigh County in 1812, Beuch and 
Bar. Education in the County, Newspapers, 
Medical Profession, War Periods, Public 
Charities, Internal Improvements, Census 
of the County, Allentown, Boroughs of the 
County, Townships of the County, Family 

For further particulars address the Secre- 
tary of the Historical Society, Charles R.- 
Roberts, Allentown, Pa. 




Conducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited. Address, The Penna. German, Lititz, Pa. 


About 1715 the widow Eberle with her 
three sons settled at Durlach, Lancaster 
county, Pa. Some claim she brought a 
daughter also. 

Her son Henry about 18 years old on 
arrival in America lived on the old home- 
stead. He may be the Henry Everly referred 
to in The Pennsylvania- German, Vol. XI, 
No. 11, p. 699. Can anyone give any infor- 
mation on this point? Also name of his 

His son Jacob died at Durlach in 1800. 
He married a Miss Huber, or Hoover, of 
near Columbia, Lancaster county, Pa. 
Wanted her name, and names of her par- 

His son Johannes Eberle was born July 
5, 1755, and married Elizabeth Bricker, Nov. 
24, 1776. She was born June 1, 1759. 
Wanted her parents. , 


In 1761 John Rosier when a young man 
settled between Elizabethtown and Maytown 
and married Miss Longenecker. Wanted 
her name, also her parents, and children of 
said John Bosler. 

His son John Bosler was born Nov. 14, 
1765, and married Catharine Gish. Wanted 
her parents. 


George Webbert was born Oct. 15, 1769. 
Wanted his parents. 

He married Elizabeth Miller. Wanted her 



Stephen Barnett married Maria, daughter 
of Jean Bertolet. She was born 1715 and 
died 1802. Wanted their children. Also 
parents of Stephen Barnett. 



Dieble Beaver came in 1741 to Berks, 
county, with three sons. The oldest Hans 
George Beaver aged 21. Wanted the names 
of their wives. 



Dewald Kieffer came with his father and 
two brothers in 1748 and settled in Berks 
county. He married Hannah Fox. Wanted 
names of her parents. 



The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 

For Sale 

Penna. -German, Vols. IV and V complete, 
Vol. Ill No. 4, Vol. IV Nos. 2 and 4, Vol. V 
Nos. 1. 2 and 3. John G. Bechtold, Steel- 
ton, Pa. 


Penna. German Society, extra copy, 
annual proceedings Vol. 14. 

Check list of Penna. County, Town, and 
Township Histories, 1794-1892. 

State condition and price. 

36 Pearl St., Hartford, Con.. 

Corrections for Article "Coveriiiiieut vs. 
Fake Forecasts 

Page 13S, second column, in quotation 
$55.00 should read $555.00. 

Page 143, in third line underneath the 
chart, remove word "equal" between the 
words "through" and "points." 

Page 146, first column, in quotation 4th 



line, insert "to handle" between words 
"competent" and drugs." 

Page 147, second column, between "light- 
ning" last word on 3rd line and "thounder" 
1st word on 4th line, insert "thunder and 
rai on the 26th. Conditions: Temperature 
slightly above normal, no." 

An Omission 

We regret that through a misunderstand- 
ing we failed to state in the March issue 
that the "Pennsylvania Dutchman" who con- 
tributed the article on "Goverment Weather 
Forecasts versus Fake Forecasts and Al- 
manacs" was W. W. Neifert, official in 
charge of the local office of the weather 
bureau, Hartford, Connecticut. This omis- 
sion is one of the inexcusable mistakes that 
editors are liable to make. 


By Leonhard Felix Fuld, LL.M., Ph.D. 

EDITORIAL NOTE.— Dr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and meaning of the surname of 
any reader who sends twenty-five cents to 
the editor for that purpose. 


ADERHOLD is a compound of two Ger- 
man words ADER and HOLD. The original 
meaning of ADER is blood vessel and later 
it came to mean characteristic as in the 
colloquial expression ER HAT KEINE 
characteristics of his father. HOLD means 
agreeable and friendly. Thus MEINE 
HOLDE means my sweetheart. The name 
ADERHOLD accordingly means a man hav- 
ing agreeable characteristic; a man who in 
the language of the day would be called a 

fine fellow. 

Local Historian Appreciated 

The Superintendent of Schools of Union 
County in making his report to the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction said of the 
late Dr. G. G. Groff, of Bucknell University: 
"His articles on 'Local History Pertaining 
to the Early Public Schools of the County' 
have been eagerly read by all whenever they 
would be published by the press of the 
county." , 

Lebanon Countians, Attention! 

From the State of Washington comes this 
request. We hope our Lebanon readers will 
gratify their distant brother: 
Bro. Kriebel : 

Can't you stir up some of our people in 
Lebanon County and give us some items 
from Cornwall and Bismarck. Just ask for 
something in the next number — say that I 
am so far removed and am hungry for news. 


"Slowness" of Germans 

The Government of the Punjab required 
a portable sawmill for use in the hills, and 
a deal of correspondence ensued with both. 
British and American firms, who, however, 
"were not ready" to built a machine answer- 
ing the requirements of the Punjab authori- 
ties. On the other hand, a German firm was 
not only "ready" but promptly manufactured 
the machine, and actually sent it out to the 
Punjab on approval! And yet one often sees 
articles in the trade papers wondering how 
it is that Continental trade continues to ex- 
pand at the expense of other nations. Pre- 
sumably enterprise has something to do- 
with it. — The Allahabad Pioneer Mail. 

Dr. Jolm Baehman, the Distinguished 

The Museum of Charleston, S. C, gave an 
Audobon-Bachman exhibit in March which 
was greatly appreciated. Dr. John Baehman, 
of Swiss-German ancestry, formerly the 
pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church of, 
Charleston, S. C, was the friend and co- 
laborer of Audobon. They met for the first 
time in 1831, and were fast friends to the 
end. Dr. Baehman was a close student of 
plant and animal and published many 
pamphlets and papers. He has been called 
"a cultured and accomplished gentleman, a 
famous preacher, a good citizen, a brave 
patriot and a naturalist of high distinction". 
We hope to give our readers a sketch of Dr. 
Baehman in a later issue of The Pennsyl- 
vania German. 

The Germans in Fayette County, Pa. 

A subscriber in Fayette County writes: 

"I made a trip by foot 10 miles to see an 
old resident well posted but outside of in- 
spiration I only got fragments which I can 
not put into form. He is a wornout man 
and has hardly enough vitality to work out 
a consistent piece of work. But he has a 
rich store of knowledge and assures me of 
the Germans playing an important part in 
the history of this section. At one time they 
composed over three-fourths of the popula- 
tion in this district. I made another trip 
for a valuable letter along this line but 
failed to land it. I shall make another at- 
tempt at the history of the Lutheran Church 
and prepare a general statement. These 
people migrated from Montgomery County 
and located in Virginia and then following 
the Washigton Route they landed in this 
section where they developed the farming 
lands. They have almost completely lost the 
dialect or mother tongue. But few are able 
to speak it and rarely use it in public." 

We thank our good personal friend for his 
efforts and hone he will "stick" until he gets 



A Unique Piece of Workmanship 

There was on exhibition recently in Har- 
risburg, Pa., a unique table made by Levi 
M. Longenecker, of Marietta, Pa. It is in- 
laid, about a yard square and contains ten 
thousand and sixty pieces of one hundred 
and thirteen kinds of wood, including wood 
from the old Columbia dam and the old Co- 
lumbia bridge, burned 1863. This beautiful 
piece of work was made in about two years 
of time by means of a small saw and a 
pocket knife. Mr. L. is a grandson of Peter 
Longenecker, who moved from Chester 
County to Marietta where he died. 

Words of Song Wanted 
Editor Penna. -German: 

Dear Sir: Half a century ago the school 
children of Lebanon County had a game in 
which they sang a rhyme like the following: 
"Ring around the rosy 
Pin upon a posy 
There is a man in our town 
His name is Uncle Josy. 

Mr. Adam Walborn 
Miss Maria Bixler," etc. 

These were the names of the couple with- 
in the "ring." 

By clasping each other's hands, eight to 
a dozen boys and girls formed a ring with 
a boy and girl within it, all singing the 
above lines and stepping to the music. The 
tune very much resembled that of Yankee 

Can any one of the many readers of the 
P-G supply all the words of the song? 

E. G. 

Value of the Magazine 

Mr. Editor: 

I should like to say a few words for the 
magazine. The new cover is very good and 
the book itself is better than ever, and I 
would feel lost without it. Since we have 
"been engaged on the family history I have 
read each issue with greater interest than 
ever, and I have always felt that it was 
money well invested when I subscribed for 
it. There is one other point that I wish to 
speak about since becoming a subscriber. I 
have had letters from people that I have 
never met, and I have derived much pleasure 
hearing from these people, who are also 
engaged in making a family history, and I 
have also made some new friends and good 
ones, and all through The Pennsjivania- 
German. This shows if we will just make 
the effort the results are bound to follow, 
and I do surely wish the P.-G. all the suc- 
cess possible, and that the present year 
will be the most ssuccessful of any in its 

Yours truly, 


The Passing of the German 
Penna. German: 

Dear Mr. Kriebel: In the Feb. No. of The 
Pennsylvania-German I noticed with inter- 
est in the Form — the Passing of the German. 
I was brought up among the Brethren in 
Christ — cfter called River Brethren. In my 
boyhcod and earlier years I was well ac- 
quainted with them in Cumberland, my 
home country, Franklin, where my grand- 
parents lived, Lancaster where I found my 
life companion and somewhat in still other 
counties. In those earlier days their meet- 
ings were a unique mingling of English and 
Penna. German. This was specially so in 
their testimony meetings when all the people 
take part. During the past summer I spent 
my vacation in Franklin and Cumberland 
counties and attended a number of their 
meetings, notably their harvest meetings 
when there was much testimony. I missed 
the Penna. German. Only one sister, quite 
aged, speaking in German in all of several 
meetings I attended where formerly at least 
one-half was German. The preaching was 
all English where years ago there seldom 
was a service with not some German often 

Yours truly, 

(Rev.) A. Z. MYERS, 
Shamokin, Pa. 

Location of Morea 

In the March number 'The Pennsylvania- 
German" I notice an inquiry "if there ever 
was a town in Pensylvania by the name of 
Morea and where it is or was located." 

This town is situated on Broad Mountain, 
in Schuylkill County; about five miles from 
Mahanoy City; about the same distance 
from Delano (east of the former place and 
south of the latter) ; and about twelve north 
of Pottsville. These distances are only ap- 
proximate, as I do not have anything but 
my boyhood recollections to base my statis- 
tics on. 

It is a mining (anthracite coal) town and 
the population, according to my recollection 
and later reports of the development of the 
coal property, is about 800 to 1000. 

In the late 80s the Penna. R. R. made an 
extension of their Schuylkill Valley line 
from Pottsville to New Boston Junction. 
Morea is only a mile or so south of New 
Boston Junction. At the latter place this 
railroad connected with a branch of the Le- 
high Vallev R. R., which connects with the 
Mahanoy Div. at Delano. I was Assistant 
Engineer on the L. V. R. R. at the time these 
connections were made, and my birth place 
near Tamanend in Rush township, same 
county, is only about 8 miles to the north- 
east of Morea. At the time we made the 
surveys for the railroad connection this 
place was known as "Morea Colliery". Later 



(on railway schedules) it was called Morea. 
I do not know by what name the postal de- 
partment now knows it. 


Editor Penna.-German : 

I fear some of your correspondents in the 
February and March numbers are confusing 
words in their discussion of Penna. German 
idioms. Certainly there is no proper war- 
rant for translating as "playwater" the 
German word referred to. Evidently 
"sptiilwasser" is meant, which Adler's large 
dictionary renders, thus: dishwater, dish- 
wash, swill, draff, hogwash. It comes from 
spiilen, to wash, to rinse, as Der Fluss 
spiilt an die Stadtmauer — the river washed 
the citywalls. This is quite a different word 
from spiel, to play, altho the sound is some- 
what similar, and in careless or colloquial 
pronunciation, is alike. (The translation, 
"playwater" illustrates a class of mistakes, 
frequently made in Pennsylvania-German 

communities. Another illustration is the re- 
mark heard recently on the streets of Lan- 
caster: "My off is all." A number of simi- 
lar expressions are found in "Things Haint 
No More Like They Wus" — see page 205 
of this issue. — Editor.) Properly the letter 
u with two dots over it, or "umlaut", (some- 
times rendered as ue when the marked type 
is not available), should be pronounced 
with the lips puckered as if to whistle, and 
at the same time giving the sound of ee, 
long e. This makes a sound much farther 
back in the mouth than ee. Other combi- 
nations besides spiilwasser, are: spiilbutte, 
spiilfass, spiilgelte, a rinsing tub; spiil- 
hader, spiillappem, spullumpen, a dishcloth; 
sptilkelch Kelch, ablution vessel in church; 
spiilkessel, spiilkbel, spiilkumplt, a rinsing 
dish, or vessel ; spiilmagd, a pewter scour- 
er; spiilnapf, a rinsing bowl; spiilstein, a 
sink; spiilwanne, a rinsing pan. There is 
also spiilicht, spiilig, swill, dishwater. 

March 13, 1911. 

A New Magazine for Americans of German Descent 

The Current Literature Publishing Com- 
pany of New York in January heralded a 
new publication bearing the above name in 
these words: 

"Beginning with this month, the publish- 
ers of CURRENT LITERATURE take charge 
of the publication of a new, illustrated 
monthly magazine, printed in the German 
language, entitled 


(Review of Two Worlds) 

This will be, in effect, a German Edition of 
CURRENT LITERATURE, with the addition 
of a Speeial Department devoted to the 
culture-movement fostered so ardently by 
the German Emperor and his advisers on 
one side and President Taft and President 
Roosevelt on the other, for the interchange 
of thought between the great universities 
of the two countries, the closer acquaint- . 
ance of each nation with the Artistic and 
Intellectual Achievement of the other, and 
in general a better understanding between 
these two great sections of the Teutonic 


will be the combination of a German CUR- 
RENT LITERATURE with the magazine 

established in this city several years ago 
by Mr. Louis Viereck and published under 
FER (The German Pioneer). Mr. Viereck 
will continue to cooperate with the new 
and greater magazine as its Contributing 
Editor, resident in Berlin. The Editorial 
Management will be in the hands of his 
son, Mr. George Sylvester Viereek, the 
young American of German descent who 
has already, at the age of 26, made his 
name known on both sides of the sea as an 
author of notable creative literature both 
in prose and poetry. Dr. Edward J. Wheel- 
er, editor of CURRENT LITERATURE, will 
maintain a speeial advisory relation to the 
new magazine. 

Among the contributors to the Special 
Department of the magazine will be many 
of the foremost men both of Germany and 

The firm is sending out circulars to or- 
ganize a club of 5000 Americans of German 
ancestry who will receive a popular edition 
of Prof. Faust's "The German Element in 
the United States" and a year's subscription 
to the new monthly for the nominal sum 
of $3.70, the regular price of both being 
Ten Dollars. The Pennsylvania-German 
extends congratulations to the new enter- 
prise and wishes it abundant success. 


(Founded by Rev. Dr. P. C. Croll, 1900.) 

H. W. KRIEBEL, Editor and Publisher 


Editor of Review Department, Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Advisory Editorial Board : — I. H. Betz, M, D, York, Pa. : Lucy Forney BiTTinger, Sewickley, 
Pa. ; A. Y. Casanova, Washington, D. C. ; Rev. P. C. Croll, D. D., Beardstown, 111. ; Prof. 
G. T. Ettinger, Allentown, Pa.; Prof. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown, Conn.; Daniel Miller, 
Reading, Pa.; Gen. John E. Roller, Harrisonburg, Va. ; Prof. L. S. Shimmel, Harrisburg, 
Pa. ; Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Paulding, Ohio. 

The Pennsylvania-German is the only, popular, illustrated, monthly magazine of biography, genealogy, 
history, folklore, literature, devoted to the early German and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
states' and their descendants. It encourages a restudy of the history of the Germans in America; it res- 
cues from oblivion the record of the deeds of those gone before ; it unearths, formulates and disseminates 
a wealth of historic material of great moment in the right interpretation of our American life ; it meets 
the necessity of having a repository for historical contributions and a medium for the expression of opin- 
ion on current questions pertaining to its field. It aims to develop a proper regard for ancestry, to 
create interest in family history, to promote research along genealogical lines, to unite descendants where- 
ever found, to facilitate a scientific, philological study of its dialect; it makes generally accessble to the 
future historian the precious incidents of German life and achievements in America, and incidentally be- 
comes an eloquent, imperishable monument to a very important element of the citizenship of the United 

PRICE. Single Copies 20 cents; per year $2.00 HINTS TO AUTHORS. Condense closely. Write 

payable in advance. Foreign Postage, Extra: to plainly on one side only of uniform paper. Do not 

Canada, 24 cents; to Germany, 36 cents. cram, interline, scrawl, abbreviate (except words to 

SPECIAL RATES to clubs, to canvassers, on long be abbreviated), roll manuscript, or send incomplete 

term subscriptions and on back numbers. Ask for copy. Spell, capitalize, punctuate and paragraph 

particulars. carefully and uniformly. Verify quotations, refer- 

REMITTANCES will be acknowledged through the ences, dates, proper names, foreign words and techni- 

magazine: receipts will be sent only on request. cal terms. 

ADVERTISING RATES will be furnished on ap- CONTRIBUTIONS. Articles on topics connected 

plication. with our field are alwavs welcome. Readers of the 

CHANGES OF ADDRESS. In ordering change magazine are invited to contribute items of interest 

of address the old and new addresses should be given and thus help to enhance the value of its pages. Re- 

SUGGESTIONS AND PLANS on how to extend sponsibility for contents of articles is assumed by 

the sale and influence of the magazine are invited contributors. It is taken for granted that names of 

and, if on trial found to be of value, will be suitably contributors may be given in connection with articles 

rewarded. when withholding is not requested. MSS. etc. will 

SPECIAL REPORTS WANTED. Readers will be retU raed only on request, accompanied by stamps 

confer a great favor by reporting important and to pay postage. Corrections of misstatements of facts 

significant biographical, bibliographical, genealogical, are we lcomed; these will be printed and at the end 

social, industrial items appearing in books and cur- of the vear ; n( jexed. 
rent literature that relate to our magazine field. 

A "Special" Communication 

The word "Special" is used in this connection in the sense of "designed for 
a particular purpose" "different from others." On the last page of the cover 
we offer "Something Special." In explanation of the same the following is 
submitted : 

The "Special" Campaign 

One of the warmest friends of this magazine in a communication dated March 
27, 191 1, says, among other things; "The magazine as now conducted should 
be' a great success in view of the great body of Pennsylvania Germans to whom 
it should appeal * * * * Did our Pennsylvania Germans show the proper inter- 
est you would have ioo subscribers where you have but one * * * * What you 
need is a good solicitor that should cover the whole country— a good Pennsyl- 
vania German who can be all sorts of things to all kinds of people * * * ' 
They (the subscribers) will not come of themselves but it takes a good man to 
get them." 


It should not be impossible for each of a thousand of our subscribers to get 
five short term subscribers by July first at the offer we are making this month. 
1 am fully persuaded that nearly every one could do much better than this if 
a determined effort were made. I open this campaign because I want each sub- 
scriber in my stead to take it upon himself to do what he can to swell the list of 
subscribers. I shall do what I can through these offers to win all the new 
friends I can for our work. If you do the same we will have good news to 
report by July. 

The "Special" Purpose 

I am continually being urged to secure more advertisements. I want to give 
better service. I ought to make original investigations. I want to serve sub- 
scribers better. 

But all hinges on the subscription list. With a large and growing list of sub- 
scribers the value of the "ad." pages naturally increases. This means more in- 
come, more margin to be set aside for improvements, better service. I have 
certain changes under consideration looking to the improvement of the maga- 
zine which 1 do not care to announce unless I am assured that subscribers will 
back me sufficiently in taking an advance step. I can only say now that I shall 
strive to continually improve the magazine regardless of response to this call, 
but the heartier the response the more satisfactory service will be rendered. I 
have carried the work forward thus far at a considerable sacrifice, doing what 
is done in all other legitimate life pursuits, sowing and toiling in expectation of 
reaping "by and by." But come to think about it, is it not about time that you 
go out and help to gather a few sheaves for the harvest? 

The "Special" Period 

By throwing back numbers into the bargain I am giving the magazine at prac- 
tically one dollar a year. With the present subscription list such a price would 
be suicidal. The results secured in this period will enable us to determine 
whether or not our prices are too high. Do not forget that the offers made will 
expire June 30 and that the period covered ends Dec. 191 1. 

The "Special" Price 

Some warm friends of the magazine continue to make the charge that I am 
giving too much for the money ; others complain that the price is too high. The 
offer we are now making is the most liberal we have yet made. No one ought 
to raise a "kick" against getting over 700 pages of special literature at a dollar. 
Those who think the price they have been paying is too low have a chance to 
equalize matters by presenting subscriptions to their friends. Present subscrib- 
ers can benefit by taking advantage of the liberal commissions we give. 

Our "Offer" Blanks 

The First Form. The back of this card is left blank. We would be pleased 
to have you submit a word of commendation of the magazine which will be 
printed gratis in this space. We can not do this, however, unless you will cir- 
culate at least 50 of the slips either by handing in person to friends, by enclos- 
ing them with your letters or getting friends to distribute them for you. The 
commissions which will be allowed for business secured Will be given on appli- 
cation and to those who order cards for circulation. 



The Second Form. This is self-addressed, is mailable as a postal card and 
is to be prepaid by solicitor. Send five dollars for five of these cards and we 
will give you in addition to cards credit for a year's subscription. By having 
these certificates on hand and speaking a commendatory and timely word you 
can get friends to subscribe and thus help the work along. 

Kindness Appreciated 

We recently referred a correspondent 
in Kentucky to a few of our subscrib- 
ers for information. Letters were 
exchanged and the courteous answers 
received led our correspondent to write 
us as follows: "It is refreshing to meet 
one so responsive and helpful to a 
stranger's requests. I quote from letter 
of Mr. B., 'Though we are strangers 
and can hardly expect to meet we can, 
at least do a kind turn for each other.' 
You are fortunate in having such men 
as your contributors." 

We take this means of thanking our 
subscribers for showing courtesies to 
the Kentucky correspondent and com- 
mending their kindness to all our read- 
ers. Let us be helpful to one another 
in our efforts as "delvers in genealogical 

Professor Fogel's Announced Dialect 

In answer to the question, where is 
Prof. Fogel with his dialect articles, we 
submit the following self-explanatory 
letter : 

Philadelphia, Pa., Mar. 27, 191 1. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 

Editor Penn.-German. 
Dear Mr. Kriebel : I am sorry to 
have to tell you that it will be impos- 
sible for the present to take up the work 
in connection with your contemplated 
Dialect Department. As soon as my 
book on Pennsylvania German Supersti- 
tions is in press I may be able to take 
up the work. You may use any method 
you see fit to bring these facts before 
your readers. 

Very trulv yours, 



In a booklet issued by G. W. W r agenseller, Editor and Owner of the Post, 
Middleburg, Pa., we find these words: 

"Advertise and the world is with you, 
Don't and you are alone 
For the U. S. A. will never pay 
A Cent to the Great Unknown." 
Acting on what is here affirmed our good and tried friends, the subscribers 
of The Pennsylvania-German can render the magazine a signal service by be- 
coming the mutual friend to introduce the magazine among their acquaintances. 
The world is flooded with, advertising matter to such an extent that a great 
deal falls directly into waste baskets to go up in smoke, unread, unhonored 
and unknown. Put your personality at our service, without expense to your- 
self and become the best possible advertising medium. Brothers and Sisters, 
let's advertise. 

Subscriptions Received will be acknowledged in our next issue. 


Vol. XII 

MAY, 19 

GEORG VON BOSSE. (See page 320) 

No. 5 
















First Family Association Meeting 

MONO the many notable Pennsylvania family reunions during the 
past year none surpassed in point of numbers or in interest the 
celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of the landing of 
Philip and Nicholas Laux in America, at Brookside Park, at the 
city of York Pennsylvania, on June 18, 1910, by their descendants 
and by those of their kin who belong to collateral lines. 

Nearly a thousand members of this old and influential fam- 
ily, spelling their names in five different ways, (Laux, Loux, 
Lauck, Laucks, Loucks), were present to take part in the exercises of this their 
first reunion. 

Owing to the advanced years of the venerable president of the Family 
Association, Israel Laucks, Esq., of York, the duties of the chair were at his 
request assumed by the Rev. Dr. Michael Loucks, of Marietta, Pa. 

The opening exercises consisted of : Music, by the Loganville Band ; Praise 
Hymn (composed for the occasion by the Rev. Dr. Michael Loucks) ; Scripture 
Reading by Rev. Edgar V. Loucks, Blue Ball, Pa. ; Prayer by Rev. David 
Laucks Fogelman of Denver, Pa. ; "Address of Welcome," Augustus Loucks, 
York, Pa. ; Response by Alonzo L. Loucks, Esq., Chicago, 111., and Trombone 
Solo by Samuel Loucks, of Marietta, Pa. 

The following historical address was then delivered : — "Our Huguenot An- 
cestrv: The Ancient Home in France," by Hon. James B. Laux, of New York 

The exercises for the forenoon were closed with a rousing "Rally Song" 
entitled: — "Laux's to the Front," composed by Mr. Charles W. Loux, of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., sung to the tune, "Onward Christian Soldiers". 

After a bounteous dinner, served by the ladies of Calvary Lutheran Church, 
Dover, Pa., and an enjoyable fraternization among visitors the afternoon ses- 
sion was opened with music by the Loganville Band, a trombone solo by Mr. 
Lester Loucks, of Jacobus, Pa., and the singing of Luther's grand old hymn, 
"Ein Feste Burg ist wiser Gott." 

The following interesting address was then delivered : — "Landing in the New 
World : From Exile in Germany to Schoharie," by Edwin A. Loucks, Esq., of 
New York City. 

The address was followed with a Recitation, by Master Milton Loucks of 
Gloversville, N. Y., a bright young lad of fourteen, entitled : " The Battle of 
Oriskany", who rendered it in a very intelligent and spirited manner. 

The recitation of this battle poem had a peculiar interest for many of those 
present, for their ancestors had taken part in that bloody fight. It has also a 
special interest to the descendants of the old Palatine stock, wherever found, 
for Oriskany was a battle almost wholly fought by men of the German race, 
led by the heroic Herkimer, as well as being one of the most far-reaching in its 
effects of all the battles of the Revolution. 

The following address was then delivered: — "From Schoharie to Tulpe- 
hocken," by Rev. Michael Loucks, D.D., Marietta, Pa. 



A most entertaining address, captioned: "Family Characteristics" inter- 
spersed with choice bits of humor was given by Mr. Charles W. Loux of Phila- 
delphia, receiving the warmest applause. 

Adjutant General Joseph B. Lauck, of Sacramento, Calif., who, on account 
of rioting in California, was prevented from being present and delivering the 
address, "Reminiscences," sent his "heartiest congratulations" by telegram. 

Then came the concluding address of the day: "The Loucks' from Berks 
County to York County", by Hon. David M. Loucks, Jacobus, York Co., Pa. 

Rev. A. G. Fasnacht closed the day's exercises by pronouncing the Mosaic 
benediction in German. 

Praise Hymn 

Composed by Rev. Michael Loucks, D. D. 

Today with praise to God, 
We meet to own Him Lord; 
Oh, let us here our hearts uplift, 
In songs of one accord. 

He brought us to this day, 

A day of memories sweet; 

Oh, let us here His name adore, 

With love each other greet. 

To Him, our fathers' God, 
We owe a just acclaim; 
He kindly led us here today, 
His mercies to proclaim. 

Praise to the Lord of love, 
For all His goodness past; 
And praises give to Him above, 
While endless ages last. 

Our Huguenot Ancestry : The Ancient Home in France 

By Hon. James B. Laux, of New York 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, 
Kinfolk : 

I believe it was Ben Jonson who said, 
"he who cares not whence he came, 
cares not whither he goes," afterwards 
paraphrased by Edmund Burke in his 
"Reflections o n the Revolution i n 
France," when he said: :'People will not 
look forward to posterity, who never 
look backward to their ancestry." 

There is much wisdom in this saying 
of the fine old dramatist, and I am sure 
this sentiment must commend itself to 
you who are gathered here today, to do 
honor to the memory of the first of our 
name, who came to the New World, the 
blessed land of civil and religious liberty. 
It is fitting therefore that some mention 
should be made of the home in the Old 
World that gave birth to, and cradled 
the race from which we spring. 

When I remind you that we are of 
French Huguenot ancestry I am very 
sure it must stir your blood and quicken 
your heart beats to hear again the story 

of that heroic and persecuted race that 
has done so much for mankind — moral- 
ly, intellectually, and in the realm of art 
— a story that stands unparalleled in the 
history of the woild, and particularly so 
when that story of lofty faith, heroic en- 
durance, and sublime devotion to prin- 
ciple is epitomized in the recital of the 
story of our own ancestry. 

In speaking to you of our Huguenot 
forefathers you must not expect me to 
present each one of you with a family 
tree, fully grown, in the topmost limbs 
of which you may see your own particu- 
lar family snugly ensconced looking 
complacently down at the root and soil 
from which the tree grew, and expanded 
into the mighty trunk, branches and 
leaves in the course of centuries. The 
growing of family trees I must leave to 
each individual family, which should be 
regarded as a pleasant duty to be per- 
formed without delay, and which, more- 
over, should be regarded as a debt due 
to your ancestors to be discharged for 



the benefit, not only of yourselves, but 
of those who come after you. I will 
content myself therefore with giving 
you a brief account of the seed from 
which our family tree has grown, and 
of the soil and times in which it de- 
veloped into maturity, with some refer- 
ence to the storms that beat upon it in 
the days of adversity and persecution, 
thereby proving its right to exist in the 
sunshine of prosperity under the clear 
blue skies of peace, when these storms 
had passed, and not to be cut down as 
one that crumbereth the ground. 

The family of du Laux is one of the 
most ancient in France, and on its long 
roll appear many distinguished names 
throughout the centuries ; soldiers, 
statesmen, scholars and ecclesiastics — 
Romanists as well as Huguenots, for it 
must be remembered that before the 
Reformation, Christians of every nation 
found their religious home in the bosom 
of the Church of Rome, save the Al- 
bigenses in the south of France, and the 
Vaudois or Waldensians in the secluded 
valleys of the Alps, who throughout the 
long tyranny of Rome, adhered to the 
simple faith and ceremonies of the early 
Church, and who hailed as "brethren", 
the Huguenots of France, when they 
accepted the principles of the Reforma- 
tion and threw off the yoke of Rome. 

The origin of the family is recorded 
in the ancient chronicles of the region 
on either side of the Pyrenees in the 
extreme southwest of France, and the 
claim is made that long before the na- 
tions of France and Spain, as we know 
them today had an existence; long be- 
fore the mighty movement for national 
life began to manifest itself in the 
heterogeneous collection of petty king- 
doms, dukedoms and principalities of 
the Feudal Age that were constantly at 
war with each other ; long before the 
birth even of the French and Spanish 
languages; while yet it was a debatable 
question whether the pat o is spoken in 
Provence, the land of the Troubadours 
in the south of France, or that of the He 
de France in the north, in the neighbor- 
hood of Paris, should become the uni- 
versal tongue of the French people, our 

ancestors were petty sovereigns of the 
principality of Biscay on the bay of the 
same name on the Spanish side of the 
Pyrenees, speaking a dialect of the old 
Gothic tongue. You will remember 
that the Visigoths, a warlike branch of 
the great Germanic race invaded the 
Spanish Peninsula during the fifth cen- 
tury and established themselves there, 
and in southern France. 

In passing it may be said, that the 
Goths, though a warlike and conquering 
race were noted for their morality, love 
of justice, and good-faith, and more- 
over, were distinguished for their ap- 
preciation of the fine arts, science and 
learning, qualities transmitted to their 
descendants. Their love of the beautiful 
has its enduring monument in the 
Gothic architecture. The Goth loved law 
and order, and was never an anarchist ; 
he never destroyed for mere love of de- 
struction, but preserved all that was 
worth preserving. 

And so with our mind's eye we can 
look back to those far-off centuries, 
and behold these shadowy Visgothic an- 
cestors of ours hard at work in the task 
of reducing to obedience the turbulent 
population they overcame — a mixture of 
Celt and Iberian — and the formation of 
a stable form of government in the 
foothills, valleys and summits of the 
Pyrenees in the region known today as 
the Basque Provinces of Biscay and 
Alava. Some color of truth is given to 
this ancient tradition of the sovereignty 
of Biscay from the fact that the 
armorial bearings of ancient Biscay are 
similar in certain respects to those of 
the famille du Laux which have been 
handed down to the present day. 

Tradition hath it also, for I will not 
venture to call it history, although the 
claim is staunchly made by the repre- 
sentatives of the family in France, that 
the chiefs of the Maison du Laux dis- 
tinguished themselves greatly in the long 
and bitter conflict waged with the Moors 
of Granada, and that by reason of these 
services they achieved the sovereignty 
of Biscay and Alava which took place 
towards the close of the ninth century,. 



the first ruler of which was Don Lope 
du Laux. 

By consulting your histories you will 
be told that the last unconquered refuge 
of the Christians of Spain, in the Moor- 
ish Conquest was in this very region, 
and that from this spot was exerted the 
force which under men like Alfonso the 
Great, turned the tide of conquest in 
favor of Christianity which finally, after 
a sanguinary conflict of over six hun- 
dred years ended in the expulsion of the 
Moors, during the region of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, in 1492, the year in which 
Columbus discovered America, destined 
to be the asylum for the oppressed of 
every nation, and of every creed. 

According to ancient family records, 
in the possession of the present heads of 
the family in France, Inigo Lope du 
Laux, the sixth Seigneur de Biscaye 
and Count of Alava, had two sons : 
Lope Sanche, Seigneur du Laux, seventh 
Seigneur de Biscaye and Guillaume 
Sanche du Laux, a younger son who had 
crossed the Pyrenees about the year 
1075, and established himself in the Vis- 
county of Beam, near the City of Pau, 
in what is now, with Henry the Fourth's 
ancient Kingdom of Navarre, the De- 
partment of Basses Pyrenees. 

This Guillaume Sanche du Laux be- 
came the founder of the house or family 
from which all those bearing the name 
of Laux descend. He was made the 
Grand Ecuyer of Garcia, King of Na- 
varre, and Governor of the town of 
Navarre, and married Sancia Vaca, 
Souveraine of a little town lying close to 
the Pyrenees. He evidently prospered 
for he enabled a younger son named 
Raimond du Laux, to establish himself 
in a right worthy fashion in the adjoin- 
ing territory of Armagnac, where his 
grandson became the Baron of the lands 
of Labour and Arberac in 1 1 5 1 . The 
Armagnac territory extended in a strip 
from the River Garonne to the Pyrenees, 
and in those days was the scene of many 
a bloody fray between rival feudal 
seigneurs in which the Barons du Laux 
took an active part. They were always 
in the front. 

For many succeeding generations the 
Seigneurs du Laux played an active and 
important part in the history of Beam 
and Navarre, which were a part of 
ancient Gascony, all belonging to the 
Duchy of Aquitaine, and all of which 
was a possession of the Crown of Eng- 
land for over three hundred years 
( 1 152-1453). These lands were terri- 
tory as foreign to the French Kingdom 
as the territory of their German and 
Spanish neighbors. The French con- 
quest of Aquitaine (1451-3), the result 
of the Hundred Years' War, was in 
reality the conquest of a land which had 
ceased to stand in any relation to the 
French Crown, and it was therefore to 
England that the seigneurs and rulers of 
these lands looked as the source of pre- 
ferment, and to whom allegiance was 
due. This is why we now begin to find 
frequent mention of the Seigneurs du 
Laux in the service of the Kings of 
England. About the year 1235 we meet 
with an Arnauld Guillaume du Laux, 
Chevalier, and Amagneux du Laux, also 
a chevalier, who rendered signal service 
to King Henry III in Aquitaine. 

This Amagneux du Laux accompanied 
Louis IX, or Saint Louis, as he is popu- 
larly called in France, in the Seventh 
Crusade against the Saracens, and in the 
disastrous battle of Mansoura in Egypt 
(1250) in which 30,000 Christian sol- 
diers were slain, was taken prisoner 
with King Louis. After paying a heavy 
ransom he returned with the King to 
France, and died at the Chateau du Laux 
in Armagnac and is buried in the church 
at that place, where his tomb and effigy 
can be seen to this day. He won great 
distinction in this crusade, and in com- 
memoration of his services his armorial 
bearings were augmented with a bordure 
bearing bezants, a coin of the Byzantine 
Empire, indicating that the bearer had 
distinguished himself as a crusader. 
That heraldic insignia has been borne 
ever since on the arms of the famille du 

His successor, Ponce du Laux, mar- 
ried October 25, 1264, Jeanne de Cor- 
neillan. and had three sons, one of 
whom, Pierre, became Bishop o f 



Xaintes, and another, Geraud, the Che- 
valier, who followed King Edward to 

It is interesting to note the frequent 
occurrence of Pierre, or Peter, as the 
baptismal name after this time. 
Throughout all the generations since, in 
whatever land the family may have 
made its home, or whatever creed it pro- 
fessed, you will find the name of Peter 
given to some member of it. Is it too 
much to say that the custom of naming 
a son, Peter, which seems almost to 
have become a religious duty in the 
olden time, and in our own day, too, had 
its origin in naming a son of the 
Seigneurs du Laux in honor of Peter, 
the Bishop of Xaintes, whose high rank 
in the hierarchy of the Church was a 
source of pride to the family? There 
would be nothing unusual in that, for 
the preacher uncle, even in our days, is 
considered a great personage, a most 
valuable asset of the family. There is 
always a great commotion when he visits 
the relatives you know, particularly 
among the young folk, and in certain 
parts of the household domain. 

The Seigneurs du Laux seemed to 
have had a gift of diplomacy, for fre- 
quent mention is made of their acting as 
the representatives of the English Kings, 
and of the great Feudal Lords in that 
part of France, and in conformity with 
the custom of the nobles of the ancien 
regime, the rich livings of the Church 
were not allowed to get away from the 
family entirely, nothwithstanding that 
they were soldiers almost to a man. 
Along the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury we find another younger son, Car- 
von du Laux, who became bishop of the 
Diocese of Bayonne, which lies on the 
coast of the Bay of Biscay. He had a 
brother, another Pierre, or Peter, who 
established himself in the region of 
Perigord, in what is now the Department 
of Charente Inferieure, where he mar- 
ried Agnes de Guihan de Barbassan, 
sister of "the noble and valiant Seigneur 
Bertrand de Barbassan," and had several 
children, the oldest son being another 
Pierre, or Peter. A daughter with the 
quaint name of Yalerine married the 

Yicomte de Signac ; interesting and con- 
vincing evidence as to the standing and 
fortune of this founder of another 
branch of the family, which was des- 
tined to arrive at great distinction in the 
succeeding generations, being rewarded 
with the titles of Marquis and Comte. 
A descendant of a branch that abjured 
Protestantism after the return of Henry 
IV to the Church of Rome, became 
Archbishop of Aries, and was guillo- 
tined during the French Revolution in 
1789. Another descendant, Peter Marie^ 
Chevalier du Laux, was a colonel in the 
d'Agenois Regiment in Rochambeau's 
army in our own Revolution, as were 
also humbler members of the family in 
the navy, under the command of Count 
d'Estaing. From an offshoot of this 
branch, that of Anjoumois, came several 
Henry and Phillipe du Lauxs during the 
seventeenth century. Amagneux. a son 
of Peter, married Honorine de Saunier, 
a name well worth adopting in the New 
World. Honorine is a becoming name 
for a good, high-minded woman, and is 
not a name that can be made into a 
silly diminutive. 

His great grandson, Jean du Laux, in 
1575, married Marie, the daughter of 
Francois III, Comte de la Rochefou- 
cault and his wife, the Comtesse de 
Roussy, sister of Eleanore de Roy, who 
became the wife of Louis de Bourbon, 
Prince de Conde, altogether a very bril- 
liant marriage regarded from a social 
and political standpoint and showing the 
position he occupied as a member of the 
old nobility. 

This Jean du Laux was a dis- 
tinguished soldier, and a devoted fol- 
lower of Henry IV, who showed his 
high regard for him in the following 
letter which is still in the possession of 
the family in France, as are also letters 
from Henri IV, the Prince de Conde 
and other Huguenot leaders: 

"Je vous ecris a la hate, pour vous 
prier de venir me joindre a Berger- 
ac pour aller a la rencontre de la 
Reine, ma femme, en meilleur equip- 
age que la brievete du terns pourra 
vous le permettre. Vous y serez 
Mr. du Laux le tres bien venue et 
de bon coeur recu. 

Votre atfeetionne ami Henri." 




"I write to you in haste, to beg of 
you, to join me at Bergerac, to meet 
the Queen, my wife, en meilleur 
equipage that the shortness of the 
time will permit. There you will be 
most welcome, Mr. du Laux, and 
received most cordially. 

Your affectionate friend Henri." 

The family of du Laux had long be- 
fore this time embraced the tenets of the 
Reformation in Beam, the birthplace of 
Henri IV under the vigorous missionary 
work of Jeanne d'Albret, the mother of 
Henri. After this the fortunes of the 
family were closely identified with those 
of Henri IV in his efforts to secure the 
throne of France, and some member of 
it was always present in Henri's great 
battles, among them, Coutras and Ivry, 
and from which in all probability dates 
the cri de guerre: "V alliance mene a la 
gloirc" which is now the motto of the 
family as shown on its coat of arms. 

A significant and convincing proof of 
the Huguenot character of the family at 
this time is shown in the baptismal 
names given to many of the sons. We 
meet with biblical names like Josias, 
Daniel, John and Isaac. The Armands, 
Gastons, Francois', Arnaulds, and names 
of like character become less frequent in 
the period of the Huguenot ascendency. 
That many of the members of the 
several branches of the family, estab- 
lished in different parts of France, be- 
came Protestants and suffered in conse- 
quence, is shown in the names found in 
the list of exiles in foreign countries, as 
for instance, in the Denization Roll of 
London, for 1544 published by the 
Huguenot Society of London, we see the 
name of John Laux, a Huguenot, who 
was naturalized. Also in the baptismal 
records of the French Church in Thread- 
Needle Street, the name of Madeleine 
Laux, daughter of Jacob Laux in 1567. 
In a baptism recorded in the Registry 
of the Walloon Church, in Canterbury, 
England, we find George Laux as a wit- 
ness. Many more instances of this 
character could be cited from the re- 
cords of the French Huguenot Churches 
in England. 
Among the officers of the Huguenot 

Regiments of William III of England 
was a Lieutenant Laux, who was present 
at the Battle of the Boyne, under the 
command of the old Duke de Schom- 
berg and was among the number of the 
Duke's Huguenot regiment of Horse 
that followed the old hero as pointing 
with his sword at the French and Irish 
army across the river he cried out : "al- 
■ lons, mes amis! Rappclez votre courage 
et vos ressentements: VOILA VOS 
PERSECUTEURS!" and plunged into 
the stream. The defeat of James II and 
with it, the downfall of tyranny — politi- 
cal and religious — in England, was the 
result of that day's work of the Hugue- 
not exiles of France, under the glorious 
old Schomberg, who here laid down his 
life for liberty of conscience at the age 
of eighty-two. 

We find in the church records also, 
even at these early dates, evidence of 
the corruption of surnames. The prefix 
is dropped, the silent letter as the x in 
Laux is omitted as had already been 
done in France, where you find in family 
documents the name spelled alternately 
Laux and Lau. Not the least of the sor- 
rows of the old Huguenot families in ex- 
ile was the dismemberment and corrup- 
tion of the family names. This was par- 
ticularly flagrant in Germany, where 
they became Germanized in form, and 
frequently translated. In this country 
also, among the German settlers, with 
whom the descendants of Huguenots had 
cast their lot, this sad work of disfigur- 
ing good old French names has also oc- 
curred. Who would recognize Beau- 
champ in Bushong, or de la Coeur in 
Delliker, or Cauchois in Cushway, or 
Sauvage in Sowash, or Voiteurin in 
Woodring, or Laux in Loucks or 
Laucks, names that are familiar to you 
all. "The pity of it, the pity of it !" 

With what force and with what truth 
the lines from Shakespeare may be used 
by the man whose ancestors bore an hon- 
orable historic name, but which conies 
down to him in a mutilated, grotesque 
and unrecognizable form : 

"Good name in man and woman 
Is the immediate jewel of their souls: 
Who steals my purse, steals trash; 'tis 



But he, who filches from me my ^ood name, 
Robs me of that which not enriches him, 
And makes me poor, indeed." 

And to think that some thoughtless an- 
cestor was guilty of such a senseless 

Further evidence of the profession of 
Huguenot doctrines by the family in 
France, is found in the Rcgistrc dcs 
Manages et Baptismes of the Huguenot 
church of St. Quentin in Picardy in the 
year 1599, where we have the baptismal 
record of Judith de Laux, daughter of 
Jehan de Laux, and his wife, Suzanne 

In the Huguenot David Laux, we have 
not only a devout Protestant, but also a 
scholar of rare attainments. He was for 
a long time one of the editors of the fa- 
mous Estienne printing house in Paris, 
a Huguenot establishment that flour- 
ished in the sixteenth century until it 
incurred the enmity of the Sorbonne, be- 
cause of its publication and sale of 
Bibles when it was removed to Geneva, 
Switzerland. David Laux went to Edin- 
burgh, Scotland. 

The methods employed by the fanati- 
cal successors of Henri IV to drive the 
Huguenots back into the fold of the Ro- 
man Church had the effect of driving 
thousands from France. The Corona- 
tion oath that Henri IV was compelled 
to take gives some idea of what was in 
store for the Huguenots of France. It 
read like this: "I shall endeavor accord- 
ing to my ability, in good faith to drive 
from my jurisdiction and from the lands 
subject to me, all heretics denounced by 
the Church, promising on oath to keep all 
that has been said, so help me God, and 
the Holy Gospel of God." There is no 
question whatever but that Henri's sin- 
cerity in the change of his faith was 
doubted by a very powerful section of 
the Church party, who regarded it 
simply as a political subterfuge, and who 
believed that at heart he was still a 
Protestant and an enemy of the Church. 
In fact, the assassin Ravaillac was taught 
in the Cloisters of St. Bernard to believe 
that Henri was an enemy of the Church 
and should therefore be destroyed. The 
Promulgation of the Edict of Nantes 

four years after his accession to the 
throne 1 1598) which was intended as its 
title indicated, to bring peace to France: 
"An edict of the King for the Healing 
of the Trouble of the Kingdom," con- 
vinced his enemies of his insincerity and 
his assassination soon followed. His ef- 
forts to pacify France by granting to the 
followers of the Reformed religion as 
large a measure as possible of civil and 
religious liberty were entirely at variance 
with the expectations of his Romanist 
supporters, and most grievously did he 
answer for it. 

His untimely death on the eve of 
his departure tor the relief of the Pro- 
testant Princes of Germany became a 
signal for bold encroachments on the 
rights and privileges of the Huguenots 
guaranteed by him in the Edict. The 
treatment of the Huguenots during the 
Regency of Marie de Medici, their bit- 
ter enemy, governed by Italian favorites, 
who inspired her policy, which, like that 
of her family, was always Machiavellian, 
was what might have been expected of a 
family which did not consider a promise 
made by a King to a Protestant as bind- 
ing. Little by little, day by day, the con- 
cessions accorded Huguenots were con- 
tested, reduced and finally denied. 

The great massacre of Huguenots in 
Beam, the home of Henri IV and of 
the du Laux family, where the Protes- 
tant worship was suppressed, and Rom- 
ish priests installed in their places, not- 
withstanding that more than three- 
fourths of the people were Huguenots, 
and had been so for generations was 
one of the greater crimes committed in 
the name of the Most High. Massacres 
in other sections followed, producing in- 
evitable revolts, which armies of the 
King hastened to suppress wherever 

Among the many flagrant violations 
of the Edict of Nantes and persecutions 
that followed upon the death of Henri 
IV, mention may be made of the right 
of residence accorded to national or for- 
eign Protestants, especially to pastors 
and professors in all the cities of the 
Kingdom ; the enjoyment of complete 
liberty of conscience, a right which was 



restricted and finally suppressed, both 
as to the residence, and as to liberty 
of conscience ; the destruction of hun- 
dreds of Huguenot temples, which after 
having existed for sixty years, were 
found to be too near the Romish 
Churches, because the singing of their 
Psalms, the sound of their bells, the pos- 
sible meeting of processions, might 
gravelv inconvenience the Romish ser- 
vice and scandalize the true believers 
who had never dreamed of such a thing 
"before ; the interdiction forcibly, or by 
persuasion, to take children away from 
their Protestant parents in order to 
have them baptized as Romanists ; the 
refusal to admit Protestants to all State 
offices, functions, industries, professions, 
corporations, masterships, under the 
pretext that the Edict of Nantes had 
been granted to the Huguenots as a 
measure of necessity, and under compul- 
sion in dangerous times which the suc- 
cessors of Henri IV declared they were 
not bound by, perpetual and irrevocable 
as it might be called, and how they were 
gradually deprived of all their dignities, 
offices, and functions, and even denied 
the possibility of following a profession, 
trade, even as a hatter, livery-stable 
keeper, or a washerwoman ; the gradual 
reduction of the Chambers of the Edict, 
or bi-partisan special tribunals estab- 
lished to safeguard the rights of the 
Huguenots, and their final suppression ; 
how Huguenots were forced to contri- 
bute to the support of the Romish 
Churches, and their priests ; the suppres- 
sion of Protestant colleges, schools and 
academies ; the refusal to permit the 
holding of consistories, synods and con- 
ferences, though expressly guaranteed 
by the Edict without previous permis- 
sion being required. 

These are but a few of the numberless 
acts of tyranny and persecution that be- 
came the daily portion of the unhappy 
Huguenots of France, between the pro- 
mulgation of the Edict of Nantes in 
I?q8, and the Peace of Westphalia in 
1648, which ended the Thirty Years' 
War, the last of the religious wars that 
deluged the continent of Europe with 
"blood in the Name of Jesus Christ, the 

Son of Cod. 

Let us thank God that we live in an 
age of religious liberty enjoyed by 
Roman Catholics as well as by Pro- 
testants ; an age of toleration and re- 
spect for each other, a high example of 
which is shown today at Yillanova Col- 
lege, a Catholic institution of this state, 
where President Taft is being honored 
with a college degree conferred but 
twice before, and then upon Protestants. 
We are Americans and Christians here 
no matter what the creed we confess. 
W T e worship the same God, whether 
Protestant, Catholic or Jew. 

The persecutions of the Jews of the 
Moors of Spain are alone comparable 
with the treatment of the Huguenots of 
France for vindicitive. bloodthirsty feroc- 
ity. It must not be forgotten that the 
Age of Louis XI Y also ushered in the 
atrocities of the draggonades, the gal- 
leys and the other terrible crimes com- 
mitted in the name of religion. Over five 
hundred thousand Huguenots, among 
the best and most loyal subjects of 
France, were driven into exile by the re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. 

Germany probably received half of 
the Huguenot exiles, many thousands 
settling in the Palatinate of the Rhine, 
where their descendants are living to- 
day, with their unmistakable French 
family names. The publications of the 
German Huguenot Society ''Gescliichts- 
blatter des Deutschen Huguenotten- 
Verein" of Magdeburg, is devoted to the 
fortunes of the Huguenots in Germany. 

The Huguenot forefathers of Philip 
and Nicholas Laux and also those of my 
own ancestor, Peter Laux, of Pucks 
County, Pennsylvania, settled in Hesse 
Darmstadt and Hesse Nassau, in the 
municipalities of Runkel and Epstein in 
Darmstadt and in Minister in Nassau. 

I had the pleasure, some years ago, of 
meeting one of the family still living at 
Minister, a soldier of the Franco-Prus- 
sian War. who as an officer in a cavalry 
regiment in the German armv rode 
through the streets of Paris, after it-, 
surrender to the Germans. On the staff 
of the German Emperor, it is said, were 
over seventy officers of Huguenot de- 



scent. Surely an event of great signi- 
ficance. This officer discussed with me 
the Huguenot origin of the family and 
corroborated all that had come down to 
us from our Huguenot emigrant ances- 

One of our name is, or was, the pastor 
of a Huguenot church in Wurtemberg, a 
few years ago. In Wiesbaden, not far 
from Runkel and Minister, are found 
representatives of the family today; one 
an artist, who retains, strange to tell, the 
ancient way of spelling the name. Some 
of his paintings, in my possession, show 
work of superior merit. Many others 
are artists and scholars, true children of 
the renaissance, for the Huguenots were 
that, if nothing else, protesting, as they 
did, against the slavery of the human in- 
tellect, and in proclaiming their love of 

I believe it was Sir Thomas Overbury 
who said: "The man who has not any- 
thing to boast of but his illustrious an- 
cestors is like a potato; the only good 
thing belonging to him is under the 
ground." Let us hope that this may 
never be said of any of our name. 

While we are taking pride in being the 
descendants of worthy and honorable 
ancestors we must not forget that for- 
midable noblesse oblige of a gentleman 
of France. The higher our endowment 
of good blood, sound intellect and good 
fortune, the greater the obligation to live 
up to the highest standard of life, in 
courtliness, kindliness and gentleness of 
grace and manner, the refinements that 
distinguish the gentleman from the 
boor; the greater our duty to our fellow 
man, to the community in which we 
live, to the State, and to the Nation. It 
is the individual example that affects the 
whole mass, and he who has been 
blessed beyond and above his fellow- 
citizens has had at the same time im- 
posed upon him responsibilities, which 
he must discharge in a manner becoming 
his station. He should so live that his 
example will make our faith more pure 
and stron gin high humanity, an ex- 
ample that will beget within the hearts 
of those about him something of a finer 
reverence for beauty, truth and love — 
traits that should be recognized as 
synonyms of the name of Laux. 

Rally Song, "Laux's to the Front" 

Composed by Charles W. Loux, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scions of the noble 

"People of the Lakes," 
Hear the call to battle 

As the morning breaks. 
Giant evil forces 

Rise before your ken; 
Drones and weaklings falter 

But the world needs men. 

Chorus: — 

Forward, then, and upward, 
Brave the battle's brunt, 
Set on high the standard, 
"Laux's to the front." 

From Navarre's dominions, 

Persecution's fires 
Drove your true and tested 

Faith defending sires, 
But in God's own garden 

Seed of martyr hue, 
Tenderly transplanted, 

Unto fruitage grew. 

Error must be routed, 

Evil put to flight; 
Truth must be defended, 

And enthroned the right. 

Men of martyr's courage, 

"Whom no foe may daunt, 
Hear the Captain's orders, — 

''Laux's to the front.' 


Landing in the New World— From Exile in Germany to Schoharie 

By Edwin A. Loucks, of New York City 

Mr. Chairman and Ladies and Gentle- 
men : 

In describing the coming of Philip 
Laux and Nicholas Laux to America, 
whose landing two hundred years ago 
we celebrate today, I am compelled to 
speak of the sufferings and trials of that 
contingent of German Palatines in 
whose company they arrived in the 
City t of New York, for there is no 
record of their individual experience 
either in Germany, England, or in 
America. They all had the same general 
record of misery and oppression in the 
old world and in the new, and when I 
relate what history tells us of that epoch- 
making emigration, you will gain some 
conception of the life story of your an- 
cestors whose settlement on the beauti- 
ful banks of the Hudson, we are here to 
commemorate in the midst of peace and 
plenty under beautiful skies. 

First, however, let me express my 
great pleasure at meeting so many of 
the descendants of the old pioneer, 
Philip Laux, of the Hudson and Scho- 
harie, who have founded new homes in 
this grand old Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, and to say that I bring you the 
warmest greetings from those of your 
kin in Schoharie and in the Mohawk 
Valley who find it impossible to be here 
with you today. 

The history of the Huguenot persecu- 
tions in France is known of all men, and 
will not be dwelt upon by me. but of the 
experiences of our Huguenot ancestors 
while in exile in Germany, it will be in- 
teresting to speak, for it involves the 
recital of the story of one of the most 
unhappy periods of human history : the 
Thirty Years' War and the Wars of 
Louis the XIV which ravaged and des- 
olated the Palatinate of the Rhine, in 
which so many Huguenots had made 
their home. 

There is every reason to believe that 
the parents or grandparents of Philip 
and Nicholas Laux left France previous 
to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 

and settled in the Palatinate before or 
during the period of the Thirty Years' 
War, which has been called by all his- 
torians the most frightful conflict ever 
engaged in by human beings. It was a 
religious war, and like all wars of that 
character, it developed all the latent in- 
stincts of savagery in man, and wrought 
such horrors in Germany, and left such 
wounds on German life and character 
that even after the lapse of nearly three 
centuries the effects of that dreadful 
conflict are still visible. 

We know that the German home of 
Philip and Nicholas Laux was in Hesse 
Darmstadt, now a part of Hesse Nassau, 
in the neighborhood of the ancient muni- 
cipalities of Runkel and Epstein. This 
information is gathered from the church 
records in Schoharie and on the Hud- 
son, for it seemed to have been the cus- 
tom during the early period of the Pala- 
tine settlements, for the pastors in re- 
cording marriages, to mention the p