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Full text of "The Pennsylvania-German Society : [Publications]"

gc M«L* 

974.8 
P3847p 
V.21 
1427084 



GENEAUOOY COLLECTION 



EN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02144 0828 



GENEALOGY 
974.8 
P3847P 
v.21 






- 






PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES 



YORK, PA., OCTOBER 14, 1910 



/.i 



Vol. XXI. 



(rC/ 

^ * I PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 



1912 



EDITION 600 COPIES 



publication Committee 

JULIUS F. SACHSE, LITT.D. 
DANIEL W. NEAD, M.D. 
J. E. B. BUCKENHAM, M.D. 



Copyrighted 1912 

BY 

The Pennsylvania-German Society 



1427084 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Contents 3 

Officers of the Society 4 

Minutes of the Meeting at York 5 

Address of John E. Roller, Esq 6 

Report of the Secretary 23 

Report of the Treasurer 27 

Election of Officers 27 

New President's Address 35 

Toasts 37 

Obituaries , 61 



{Pennsylvania : The German Influence in its Settle- 
ment and Development : 

A Unique Manuscript by Rev. Peter Miller (Brother Jabez) 
together with Beissel's 99 Mystical Proverbs. 

Part XXIII. The Wayside Inns on the Lancaster Roadside, 
between Philadelphia and Lancaster, by Julius Fried- 
rich Sachse. 

Guide to the Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa., 
1 742-1 9 10, by Augustus Schultze. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 

FOR 1910-1911. 



President: 
Prof. Henry E. Jacobs, D.D., S.T.D., LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents : 

Robert C. Bair, Esq. 

B. F. Fackenthal, Esq. 

Secretary : 
Prof. George Taylor Ettinger, Ph.D. 

Treasurer : 
Julius F. Sachse, Litt. D. 

Executive Committee : 

Terms Expire ign. 

Naaman H. Keyser, D.D.S. 

William K. T. Sahm, M.D. 

Term Expires 1912. 
Abraham S. Schropp. 

Terms Expire 1913. 

Rev. Theodore E. Schmauk, D.D., LL.D. 

Rev. Nathan C. Schaeffer, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D. 

Terms Expire 1914. 

Rev. L. Kryder Evans, D.D. 

J. E. Burnett Buckenham, M.D. 

Terms Expire 1915. 
Daniel W. Nead, M.D. 
Hon. Maurice C. Eby. 




REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

Pennsylvania-German Society 

AT ITS 

TWENTIETH ANNUAL MEETING 

Held at York, Pa. 
On Thursday, October 14, 1910 



^"HE Executive Committee of the Society held its 

regular quarterly meeting in the parlor of the 

Colonial Hotel, York, Pa., at seven o'clock, on Thursday 

evening, October 13, 19 10, for the transaction of business. 

Morning Session. 

The twentieth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society was held in the Parish House of Christ 
Lutheran Church, York, Pa., Friday, October 14, 19 10. 
The Local Committee, of which Robert C. Bair, Esq., 
one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society, was the Chair- 



6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

man, had made such excellent arrangements that the large 
gathering of members and their friends at once felt thor- 
oughly at home. 

The meeting was called to order at 10.30 a.m., by the 
President of the Society, John E. Roller, Esq., of Har- 
risonburg, Virginia, after which the Divine Blessing was 
asked by the Reverend G. W. Enders, D.D., pastor of 
Christ Lutheran Church, York, Pa. 

Dr. E. T. Jeffers then extended a most cordial welcome 
to the members of the Society on behalf of the city of 
York and its people. On account of the lateness of the 
hour the response of Dr. Theodore E. Schmauk on the 
subject "The Twentieth Anniversary of our Society" was 
postponed until the dinner in the evening. 

Address of John E. Roller, Esq., of Harrisonburg, 
Virginia, as President of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society. 

In the very latest issue of the North Carolina Booklet, 
a little magazine published by the North Carolina Society 
of the Daughters of the Revolution, a reference is made 
to the German settlement in Orange County, of that State, 
which may be read as illustrative of the character of the 
German settlement throughout the South. 

"The German Settlement, or Dutch, as it was uni- 
versally called by others of the County, was not large and 
it was segregated by its language and by the habits of the 
people themselves. They took little or no interest in 
public affairs, and had their own churches and their own 
preachers, who preached to them in the German language." 

These settlers, says the historian, came from Lancaster, 
Chester, York, and Bucks and Berks counties, Pennsyl- 



President's Annual Address. 7 

vania, and while the migration began as early as 1745 it 
was at its flood tide from 1750 to 1775. Some of these 
settlers were careful enough to bring with them certificates 
of character, from their friends and neighbors, and one of 
these certificates, which is still preserved by a family in the 
South as a precious heirloom, is from "their friends and 
neighbors, inhabitants of the townships of Heidelberg and 
places adjacent, in the county of Berks, in the Province 
of Pennsylvania," to the effect that "they are of a sober, 
honest, peaceable, and good behavior, and are about to 
depart, in the good esteem of the neighborhood." 

It is stated, also that the chief cause of this migration to 
the South was the French and Indian War from 1750 to 
about 1755, the date of Braddock's defeat, which — on ac- 
count of the activity of the Northern and Western In- 
dians — had vastly increased the migration from Pennsyl- 
vania and from the Valley of Virginia. 

It is said, also, that there was a severe winter in 1750- 
51, and that a killing frost which had come unexpectedly, 
at an early date — it may be possible that some of you 
antiquarians remember it — had also helped to induce or 
had determined some of these immigrants to go south- 
ward. 

The fact that this quiet settlement, " segregated " as the 
writer says it was, by reason of its godliness, and faithful 
observance of the duties, which they owed to their church 
and their God, exerted a profound influence upon its 
neighbors and associates is found in the further statement 
that " These newcomers found the inhabitants about their 
colony grossly ignorant of the essentials of the Christian 
religion. They knew something of the form of godliness 
but nothing of its power: they thought that religion con- 
sisted only in the practice of its outward forms." So that 



8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

we find that even the early Baptists of that region adopted 
a rite of "christening," or "devoting" their children as 
they called it, which was thus performed: "As soon as cir- 
cumstances would permit, after the birth of the child, the 
mother carried it to the meeting, when the minister, either 
took it in his arms, or laid his hands on it, thanked God 
for His mercy, and invoked a blessing on the child, and at 
the same time, it received its name. This rite, which by 
many was satirically called a ' dry christening,' prevailed 
not only in the Sandy Creek Association, but in other parts 
of the South." 

But — returning to our subject — the fact remains, also, 
that until the treaty of Fort Stanwix, and that of Gren- 
ville, coming after the power of the Northern and Western 
Indians had been broken, at the battle of Fallen Timbers, 
by the force under "Mad" Anthony Wayne, and had 
made the country beyond the Appalachian Mountains safe 
for settlement, the tide of immigration of the German 
element, as well as of the Scotch Irish, was Southward, 
even to a point as distant as Pensacola, on the Gulf. 

It is true that many Germans had preceded these 
settlers in Virginia and the other States southward. 
There were Germans at Jamestown in 1607, and while 
that gascon and braggart, Captain John Smith denounces 
them as " the damned Dutch," and proceeded to kill them 
all off, in his "True Relation" as he called it, yet the fact 
remains that one of that element had sufficient influence 
with the Virginia company of London to secure Smith's 
recall never to return to Virginia, and that the very men 
whom he says "perished miserably" because of their 
alleged affront to his dignity, were still alive and well, 
when the new Council came in. That these men were 
no mere artisans and laborers without education, save 



President's Annual Address. 9 

enough to "make potash," and "grow tobacco," as they 
were known to be skilled to do, is proven by the fact that 
one of them was learned enough to write a letter in Latin 
describing the affairs of the Colony to John Pory, the 
Secretary of the Company, and afterwards, speaker of the 
First House of Burgesses of Virginia — the first popular 
representative assembly that ever sat in America. 

But the language which Smith applied to the Germans 
of the Jamestown Colony is quite mild when compared 
with the language which the English Secretary applied to 

the French glass makers of the Colony of whom 

he said, " a more damned crew, hell has never vomited." 

A noted colony of Germans had preceded the settlers 
from Pennsylvania, even in North Carolina. The story 
of the colony of de Graffenried and Michel, at Newberne, 
between the Trent and the Neuse, on the coast of Carolina, 
is one of deep interest. The destruction of the colony by 
the Tuscaroras, and the capture and carrying away of the 
two great leaders of the colony, is one of the romantic 
stories of American history. How de Graffenried made 
his escape from the Indians by claiming that he was the 
"King of the Palatines," and by securing the interference 
of Governor Spotswood of Virginia, who announced to the 
Indians that he would slay men, women and children, 
without mercy and without regard to number, if harm 
should come to their captives, is a truthful romance of 
great interest. 

The only point at which it touches the immigration of 
the Germans from Pennsylvania southward is in fact that 
Spotswood — having found that some of the settlers at 
Newberne were soldiers who had fought under his com- 
mand in Europe — had declared himself to be their staunch 
friend and ally, and proceeded very generously to invite 



io The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

them to Virginia. But he says, also, that "upon their 
arriving here, just at a time when the Tuscarora Indians 
had departed from the treaty they had made, I did both in 
compassion for those poor strangers, and in regard to the 
safety of the country, place them together upon a piece of 
land several miles outside of all of the other inhabitants," 
where he built them a fort and expected them to serve 
as a protection to the rest of the colony. 

It is not within the scope of my address here to-day 
to do more than to refer to the knightly John Lederer, the 
first white man who ever looked upon the beautiful valley 
of the Shenandoah, west of the Great Mountains. The 
credit of his advance cannot be taken from him, nor from 
the people of his blood, by the splendor and glory of the 
march of Spotswood and his knightly cavalcade of " the 
Knights of the Golden Horse Shoe " to the same region, 
a half a century later. 

It is a painful thing to tell that this "modest and in- 
genious hero " and " pretty scholar," instead of receiving 
applause and a generous welcome upon his return, was met 
with affronts and reproaches, and it is even said that " the 
malice of the people improved to such a general animosity 
that he was not safe in Virginia from the outrage of the 
people, drawn into the persuasion that the public levy of 
that year went all to the expense of his vagaries." Forced 
by " this storm " he left the state never to return. 

It would be an interesting thing indeed, if it could be 
positively determined and known, as to who were the first, 
of that great and shining host, to begin this movement 
from Pennsylvania into Virginia, and through the Caro- 
linas, following the great and beautiful valleys of the 
mountainous region, to the southward. 

Was it Maria Elizabeth Gerber, to whom Kelpius, in 



President's Annual Address. n 

1704, addressed a twenty-two page letter, in which he gives 
his adherest, or follower, whose German name will be 
recognized at once, his views as to the Quakers and their 
doctrines? The questions as to who she was, and where 
she lived, are still unsolved, and are of deep historic 
interest. She has been pursued in all the public records of 
America, and in those of Europe, without success. 

Was it Henry Funk and his associates of the Mennonite 
faith among whose children was a son named for John 
Kelpius, the great mystic? 

Was it Adam Miller, whose naturalization papers seem 
to have indicated that he was in the Valley of the Shenan- 
doah as far back as 1726? 

Was it Zerechius Fleishman and George Utz, who filed 
a petition before the General Council of Virginia on the 
3d of April, 1724, for permission to take up a large body 
of lands, in the County of Spottsylvania, on behalf of 
themselves and fourteen other Germans, then residing in 
that country? 

Was it Jacob Vanmeter, who on the 17th of June, 
1730, asked the General Council for authority to take up 
lands, for himself and eleven children, reciting in his peti- 
tion that his relations and friends living in New York were 
desirous of moving to Virginia, and asking that 10,000 
acres of land lying in the fork of the Shenandoah river 
between that and the river Cohongarta might be set apart 
to them ? 

Was it Isaac Vanmeter, of New Jersey, who filed his 
petition on the 17th of June, 1730, in which he set forth 
that he and divers other German families were desirous 
to settle themselves on the western side of the great 
mountain, in the fork of the Shenandoah River? 

Was it John Casper Stoever, whose marriage and 



12 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

baptismal record extends from 1730 to 1779, and whose 
first labors in the ministry were in the service of the 
Lutheran Congregation at the far-famed old Hebron 
Church, in the county of Madison, in the State of Virginia 
and who was sent back to Europe to solicit funds for 
church purposes and while there published a pamphlet 
setting forth the needs of the German Lutherans of Vir- 
ginia, and who was destined never to return again, having 
died on board ship and been buried at sea, upon his home- 
ward voyage. 

It is an interesting thing to know that his original book 
of subscriptions obtained in Europe is still preserved, and 
contains many a noted and historical name. 

Was it John Casper Stoever, the second, who was re- 
fused ordination at first by Daniel Falkner, although there 
was at that day, great need for pastors for the scattered 
Congregations in America ? His Baptismal Register con- 
tains many of the noted names of Virginia. Among the 
children baptized by him are such names as those of Sikles, 
Stephan, Christman, Bauman, Fromann, Colvert, Schnepf, 
Weisman, Bugher, Dieter, Dellinger, Maag, Crisp, Ehr- 
hart, all of the Opeckon; Bird, Moore, Guill, Dawbin, 
Hodge, White, Leenwill, Hoolman, Heydt, Cundtz, 
Dyart, Gebert, Ann, Strubel, of the Shenandoah; Heyl 
and Seltzer of Massannutton; and Hoevner of South 
Branch. 

Among the interesting things to be found in the records 
of Old Virginia is a grant of a body of ten thousand acres 
of lands to the "Trappists," and it cannot be doubted that 
this could only have meant the Virginia followers of the 
two Stoevers and Anthony Henkel, the pastors from the 
"Trappe," the first of whom had served the Virginia 



President's Annual Address. 13 

people, as we have already seen, in spiritual things, and 
had made a journey to Europe in their behalf. 

Each and every suggestion made in this address could 
be the theme of a volume, full of deep interest. Later 
still came the colonies from the cloister of the Seventh-Day 
Baptists, or Sabbatarians at Ephrata. There were no 
less than three colonies from this noted place that went to 
the South. One at Strasburg, in the County of the Shen- 
andoah, on the North Shenandoah, or Cape Leannocks 
River, established a colony which has left many traditions 
of their presence behind them. They owned a lot in the 
town and lands adjacent to it, and they have left behind 
them names and memories, which have not yet been for- 
gotten. 

Yet another, at the " Dunkard Bottom " on the New 
River, in the southwestern part of the State, a stream which 
rises east of the Appalachian Mountains and flows west- 
ward into the waters of the Ohio. Here they made a 
settlement, the history of which is still involved in ob- 
scurity, save that your speaker has in his possession the 
materials for a more complete history of it than has ever 
yet been given to the public. Still another, or third 
colony was settled in the County of Shenandoah, and from 
it are descended many people in the South, more or less 
prominent, who know nothing to-day of the characteristics 
and origin of the people from whom they spring. 

The great body of the immigrants were adherents of 
the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, and under the lead 
of Joist Hite and those who came with him, they began to 
take up lands and settle the country in a lawful and orderly 
way. Spying out the beautiful and fertile land, in every 
part of all that great country, with rare good judgment, 
they selected the best, and these have been sent down from 



14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

sire to son, in almost unbroken line from that date to the 
present. 

From this great body of the people have sprung some of 
the most distinguished men of "The Sunny South," in 
every department of life. 

As ministers of the holy religion of our Lord and 
Savior, many of them have led noted and useful lives. 
Without assuming anything in their modest and useful 
lives, they have nevertheless achieved eternal fame. It 
would take no small volume of the publications of this 
Society to give even a brief suggestion of the names and 
achievements of the men of the German element, who have 
preached the gospel, taught theology: handed down the 
true apostolic succession from themselves to their succes- 
sors, and have made a deep impression upon the mental 
activities, as well as the every-day life, of the people of 
America than that of any other body of men, or any other 
man, or set of men, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and 
all the other politicians, to the contrary, notwithstanding. 

In the legal profession, many of them sought, and 
found, grand and growing success, and everlasting fame, 
and honor besides. In this department, too, the best 
efforts of this Society could not hope to accomplish all that 
should be desired within a half century of continuous work. 
It is the purpose of this address to call attention to the field 
and to cut the first blaze in the first tree along the path. 

Of the men of our race, who distinguished themselves 
in the South, in the legal profession, it will not be disputed 
that William Wirt was facile princeps. Born of humble 
parentage, and compelled to endure many hardships in 
early life, he attained, nevertheless, the highest honors of 
the profession. As Attorney General of the United States 
he was never excelled by any of the men who have filled 



President's Annual Address. 15 

that great office. The memory of his successes at the 
bar are still treasured among the best practitioners of the 
profession, and while his success as a politician was sub- 
sequently dimmed by his disastrous candidacy for the 
presidency, yet his fame has grown, until to-day he is re- 
garded by the men of our race and blood, as one of its 
greatest ornaments. He was never popular or acceptable 
to the German element in America and they rarely named 
their children for them, as they were wont to do with men 
whom they loved and admired. They thought that in the 
11 Old Bachelor," a book supposed to have been written by 
him and of which several editions were published by him 
in Maryland and Virginia, he had spoken slightingly of 
the German people. It has since become known that 
Wirt did not write the number of the Old Bachelor of 
which complaint was made, although he has been held 
responsible for it. It was written by a kinsman of his 
wife. But Wirt did write the life of Patrick Henry and 
he drew so glowing a picture of his subject that the fame 
of Henry has become embalmed in the hearts and affec- 
tions of the American people, and continues to grow 
brighter and brighter, and will so continue as long as free 
institutions shall exist in a republican America. So un- 
stinted were the encomiums which Wirt heaped upon 
Patrick Henry that the correctness of his statements be- 
came the subject of animated controversy between the dis- 
tinguished men of the land. It is the good fortune of 
your speaker to have in his possession the correspondence 
between Robert Walsh, of Philadelphia, charge d'affaires 
under Jefferson at Paris, upon the one side, assailing Wirt's 
description, and Francis W. Gilmer, the brother-in-law of 
Wirt, a distinguished young lawyer and literateur, defend- 
ing the same upon the other, in which Gilmer successfully 



16 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

maintains upon authority, and upon proofs, his side of 
the controversy. This praise of Henry is confirmed anew 
by that magnificent book, The Life of Patrick Henry, by 
his grandson, William Wirt Henry, a classic of American 
literature. 

But with all his right to distinction and fame, Wirt was 
a modest and unassuming man. If time were afforded, I 
would like to quote from a letter of his, addressed to his 
wife, which has never before been published, in which he 
writes to her upon the eve of his engaging in an argument 
in a most important case, in which some of the grants of 
the land were his adversaries, and have you tell us what 
you think of his modesty and his greatness. 

He was a Christian too, as well as a modest man. 
Hear what he says about his public profession of the 
Christian religion, also to be found in a letter never before 
published. 

"God forbid," writes Mr. Wirt to a friend, "that the 
public profession that I have made should redound to the 
dishonor of His cause. It was the fear of this, and not 
the fear of man, that has so long held me back. I am 
grieved that my having gone to the Lord's Table has got 
into the papers. Of what consequence is it to the cause 
of Christ that such a poor reptile as myself should have 
acknowledged Him before other worms of the dust like 
myself. I feel humble and startled at such an annuncia- 
tion. It will turn the eyes of the hypocritical and ma- 
lignant world upon me, and I fear it will tend more to 
tarnish than to advance His cause. I hope for more 
fervor in prayer, for more of the Spirit of God, shed 
abroad in my heart, for more of His presence throughout 
the day, for a firmer anchorage in Christ to keep this 
heart of mine and its affections from tossing to and fro on 



President's Annual Address. 17 

the waves of this world, and things of time and sense, for 
a brighter and stronger faith, and some assurance of a 
Savior's acceptance and love. I feel as if He could not 
love me; as if I were utterly unworthy of His love; and 
as if I had not one lovable point or quality about me: but 
that on the contrary, he must regard me still as an alien 
from His kingdom, and a stranger to His love. But with 
the blessing of God, I will persevere in seeking Him, rely- 
ing on His promise that if I come to Him, He will in no 
wise cast me off." 

There are unpublished legal documents, original letters, 
and other manuscript to make a grand volume for the 
publication of this society, and a new life of Wirt is a 
necessity. 

Rivaling Wirt's fame is that of the Sheffeys, the first of 
whom, and perhaps the most distinguished, was Daniel 
Sheffey, a member of Congress for many years, and who 
rose from the shoemaker's bench to a position of dis- 
tinguished honor and usefulness. "The shoemaker had 
better have stuck to his last," said his satirical critic, John 
Randolph, of Roanoke. " If my adversary had started 
on the bench he would never have gotten away from it," 
was his quick and prompt reply. From such an origin 
came his distinguished grandson, Hugh W. Sheffey, for 
more than half a century one of the leaders of the Virginia 
Bar and the best known and most honored layman of the 
Episcopal Diocese of Virginia. The Hon. James P. 
Sheffey was another distinguished member of this family. 

But in deed, and in truth, the men who have brought 
honor to our race throughout the South besides these just 
named are legion. It seems invidious to name any, where 
so much honor has been conferred by so many. 

In the Carolinas, and the far South, the Barringers, the 



18 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Forneys, the Holtzcaws, the Hokes, and many others, 
have brought us never-dying fame. 

The story of these must be written up and published in 
detail, and the work of this Society is to enlist the men who 
with loving hearts and minds will do the work. 

It has been the dream of your speaker that the work 
of this Society should embrace also one or more pretentious 
volumes which would do some measure of justice to the 
men of our race and bood who served their country with 
distinction, and usefulness, in the wars of America. 
First, in the Colonial wars, in battles with the aborigines 
and their French allies ; later on, in the war of the Revolu- 
tion; and in that of 1812 as well; as in the war with 
Mexico; to be followed by a superb volume giving the 
history of the deeds of the men who participated in the war 
between the States, on the Federal side, and then, if he 
could but link his name with a truthful account of the 
heroic deeds of the men of Pennsylvania-German descent 
who served in the armies of the South, and the motives 
that prompted them to take the part which they did, he 
would feel that his share of the honors of earth was full. 

Our Southern soldiers were no degenerate sons of the 
men of 1776, who only fought, like ourselves, a war of 
Rebellion, the difference being that theirs was a successful 
one, while ours was not. Our people thought that they 
were resisting infringements that were being made upon 
the guarantees of constitutional liberty, which the sacri- 
fices of their fathers had helped to secure. Our armies, 
just as theirs, thought that they were serving in the defense 
of their country. 

There were no tories on the " Dutch side " in old Vir- 
ginia and they were equally scarce, I am told, in the Caro- 
linas, as there were none in Pennsylvania. So that when 



President's Annual Address. 19 

the alarm of the War of the Revolution sounded, and the 
signal fires were lighted on every hill, they came forth a 
host of shining warriors ready and eager to march to the 
defence of the cause to which they had given their allegi- 
ance. A Muhlenberg led the German regiment in Vir- 
ginia, and he and Weedon were the contribution of Vir- 
ginia, from her Colonial German element, to the general 
officers of the Revolutionary War. Behind these were the 
field officers, and those of the line, distinguished in every 
grade, and the privates were sons of sturdy German an- 
cestry, that had but a few years before settled in the Sunny 
South Land. 

The need is that some Herodotus, with heart glowing 
with love for the memory of these forefathers of ours, 
might be found, to transcribe the glory of their deeds for 
the inspiration of mankind. 

Nor have the men of the South lost their right to claim 
a share in these honors because of the part which many of 
them bore, in the late War between the States, and surely 
no true lover of his country either North or South would 
withhold it from them. As has been written by one of 
your poets : 

Hail to the sons of German sires, 
Who lit the Southland's bivouac fires, 
And followed oft to victory 
The banner of the matchless Lee. 

They followed through the smoke of war 
The standards of the cross and star, 
And not an envious heart can trace, 
A stain upon that hero race. 

The years to come will crown them all 
Though fated was their cause to fall. 
They faltered not, and won renown 
Wounded and dying for the hero's crown. 



20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

As the question is stated by a distinguished statesman 
and writer, a scion of a distinguished and noted family, 
whose ancestors have filled the Presidential chair twice, 
and who has as much right to speak as any other, and who 
says: "As I read the record and understand the facts in 
the case, of direct and insoluble issue, between the 
sovereign State and sovereign Nation, between 1788 and 
1 861, every man was not only free to decide, but had to 
decide for himself, and whichever way he decided he was 
right. The Constitution gave him two masters. Both he 
could not serve, and the average man decided which to 
serve in the light of sentiment, tradition, and environ- 
ment." 

From the ashes of the bivouac — from the memorials of 
the sufferings of men for their fellow men — a nation learns 
the virtues of peace. From the land of memories a people 
can catch grander visions for future inspiration. To-day 
they cannot only dream, but see, and know, a united 
country — though the sections may have been sundered far, 
no line of cleavage now appears. The old soldiers of this 
land of ours, though once divided by the color of their 
uniforms, and as some even thought in the principles for 
which they were contending, have forgotten their differ- 
ences, in the rightful claim of the men upon both sides that 
each fought as he believed, at the call of his country. 

It is a fact well known to intelligent men that the vast 
and overwhelming majority of men who fought for the 
Southern cause did not fight for slavery, and never thought 
of themselves as fighting for the preservation of slavery, 
for they neither owned slaves, nor cared to own them, or 
expected ever to own them. Neither did they fight for the 
right of secession, or for the Southern interpretation of 
the Constitution. Virginia was for the Union by an over- 



President's Annual Address. 21 

wheming majority, and had so voted, and she had per- 
sisted in her refusal to join the seceding States, steadily 
and faithfully, notwithstanding the excitement of the day, 
and the tremendous influences and forces that were being 
brought to bear to bring her into the conflict, alongside 
with her sister States of the South; and she so continued, 
until there came the call of Abraham Lincoln for troops 
for the purpose of making war. Then it was that the 
most extreme antisecessionists and anti-war men in the 
Virginia Convention became the most enthusiastic men in 
the Commonwealth in the advocacy of war, and in their 
service in it. 

The cavaliers of Stuart and of Lee, of Hampton and of 
Barringer, need not be ashamed to sit at the board with 
the troopers of Kilpatrick and Milroy when bumpers are 
filled to the men who fought with Marion, or followed the 
sword of " Light Horse " Harry Lee. The men who 
marched with Lee and Jackson, or followed the standard 
of a Pender, a Ramseur, a Forney, a Phifer, or Hoke, 
need not refuse to claim a share in the glories of their 
ancestors, who fought at Camden, at Kings Mountain; 
at Yorktown, in the South, or crossed the Delaware with 
Washington, at Trenton, or fell at Long Island, or at 
Brandywine, in the North. 

Do you know that if you were to efface from the history 
of the achievements of American arms the record of the 
deeds of the men of German blood, for whose descendants 
I speak to-day, there would be noted a most wonderful 
and perhaps irretrievable loss ? That prince of noblemen, 
the courteous and courageous Fitz Hugh Lee, in his life 
of one of our beloved Southern leaders, is proud to 
acknowledge the fact that the immortal Robert E. Lee 
was himself in part from German ancestry. Would you 



22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

spare the fame of Lee from the records of our race? 
Would you spare the fame of the " Stonewall" brigade or 
of Stuart's cavalry or of the thousand of brave men of 
German descent who served in the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, or with the other Armies of the South, from the 
same records? Would you spare the fame of Kemper and 
Armistead, or of Pender, or of Ramseur, from the fatal 
heights of Gettysburg, and the other fields of the great 
war? Would you spare the glorious fame of that im- 
mortal young hero, John Pelham, major of artillery, in the 
Army of Northern Virginia, of whom it was said by Lee 
that it was "glorious to see such courage in one so 
young " ? Would you efface the memory of the deeds of 
that Prince Rupert of the Old North State, the fearless 
and knightly commander of its first brigade of cavalry — 
Rufus Barringer, one of the heroes of the historic fight on 
the plains of Brandy, from the records of American 
achievement and valor? Would you spare the story of 
the lives of Zolicoffer, of Deshler and Strahl, of Eshleman 
and Shank, and, indeed, of all the thousands of heroes of 
German descent, who served out fair Sunny South Land 
with the highest devotion, and poured out their hearts' 
blood for her cause? I know that your answer will be 
" Let us have a volume in the publication of this Society 
in honor of each and every man who deserves it at our 
hands." 

I will quote again, as I have often done before, the well- 
known lines, 

" And when recording history displays, 
Feats of renown though wrought in other days, 
Tells of a few stout hearts that bled and died, 
Where duty placed them at their country's side, 
Who is not moved with what he reads, 
Who takes not fire at their heroic deeds, 
I9 base in kind and born to be a slave." 



Report of the Secretary. 23 

The spirit of this Society has ever been one of tolerance; 
within its membership are enrolled every possible shade 
of political and religious belief. There has never been a 
word of dissension or strife among us on any possible 
subject. We have realized the spirit of one of the sires of 
the forgotten Huguenots, one of those who have changed 
language and have given up allegiance to country and 
home twice in as many centuries. He, like many, had 
learned to look out beyond the hills into the beautiful blue 
sky, and see the visions which the Lord God Almighty 
himself vouchsafes to all who are humble and lowly of 
heart, even when sick, in body or mind. 

This is the advice he gave to his descendants and I pass 
it to you. " 'Tis a world of shadows, and yet in the 
gloom, there shine faces — faces of men and women. The 
shadows will flee away but the men and women will pass 
into undying memories. Such memories, whether they 
hallow fair Valima or perfume the fields of Poitou, are 
the breath of the life of the soul." 

11 May you be human even if the crowd of shadows leave 
you lonely. May honor and sincerity seem to you better 
than all the bribes of the King of Shadows, may you love 
what is brave and serve what is true, so shall you be not 
unworthy of these forefathers of yours." 

Report of the Secretary. 

It affords the Secretary a great deal of pleasure to be 
able to report that during the past year the Pennsylvania- 
German Society has enjoyed its usual degree of prosperity. 

The Executive Committee, in whose hands are the 
affairs of the Society when not in annual session, as usual 
held four meetings in the months of January, April, June 



24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and October. In order to facilitate the work and also 
distribute the labors of the Executive Committee in 
directing the affairs of the Society it was resolved to divide 
the work which had hitherto devolved largely upon the 
Secretary among several committees; and accordingly 
there were appointed committees on Dues and Delivery of 
Volumes, on Editorial Work, on Proof and Indexing, on 
Printing and Illustrating, and on New Members. 

During the year the Executive Committee also made a 
special effort, by sending out personal letters, to have as 
many of the former members as possible reinstated, with 
the gratifying result that about thirty delinquents renewed 
their membership that had been allowed to lapse. The 
Executive Committee likewise has appointed a committee 
to prepare a complete bibliography of Pennsylvania- 
German literature. 

In order that the wisdom and the experience of the 
older members of the Executive Committee may be re- 
tained but that there may still be room for the infusion of 
the young and aggressive element that is becoming promi- 
nent in the life of every community in which the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans are represented and from whom must 
come our future membership, the Executive Committee 
recommends to this Society in annual session assembled 
that its Constitution be so amended that the Executive 
Committee be increased to fifteen members instead of ten 
as it is at present constituted. 

As far as has come to the knowledge of the Secretary, 
during the past year the Society has lost by death Dr. 
Joseph Henry Dubbs, of Franklin and Marshall College, 
Oliver S. Henninger, editor of the Allentown Item, Hon. 
Jeremiah A. Stober, of Schoeneck, Pa., Dr. Charles H. 



Report of the Secretary. 25 

Ott, of Sayre, Pa., and Mr. John M. Hartman, of Mt. 
Airy, Philadelphia. 

The number of members at present in good standing 
is 490. 

During the past year Volume XVIII. of the Proceed- 
ings of the Society has come from the press and been dis- 
tributed to the members entitled to the same, and Volume 
XIX. is almost ready for the printer. If by some over- 
sight any members failed to receive their copies of Volume 
XVIII. , they will confer a favor upon the officers by 
promptly notifying the Secretary or the Treasurer to this 
effect. 

Thus in brief, my fellow-members, I have tried to give 
you an idea of the activities of the Society as conducted 
by the Executive Committee. Let me assure you that in 
all that was done the welfare and the progress of the 
Society were the first thought and the sole purpose in the 
minds of those to whom you have entrusted the manage- 
ment of the affairs of the Society. 

To-day we are celebrating the twentieth anniversary of 
the founding of this Society. Of the record of these 
twenty years we may well feel proud. What our future 
will be is largely in our own hands. With the active 
interest and the united support of all our members, it is 
not too much to expect that the glories of the future will 
eclipse the achievements of the past. 

George T. Ettinger, 

Secretary. 

On motion of Dr. Schmauk, properly seconded, it was 
proposed that, in accordance with the resolution of the 
Executive Committee, we amend the Constitution of our 
Society so that Article IV., Section 1, be changed to read 



26 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

in the latter part " and an Executive Committee of sixteen 
members," including the Secretary as an ex-officio member; 
and Article IV., Section 4, be changed so as to read " The 
Executive Committee elected at the first election shall 
divide itself into five classes. The first class of three mem- 
bers shall hold office for five years; the second class of 
three for four years; the third class of three for three 
years; the fourth class of three for two years; and the 
fifth class of three for one year. At each annual meeting 
thereafter successors shall be chosen to the class whose 
term shall then expire." 

In accordance with the rules of the Society the proposed 
amendments were received to lie over for final adoption 
one year hence. 

On motion of Dr. Nead, duly seconded, it was resolved 
that the President appoint a committee to prepare a bibli- 
ography of Pennsylvania-German literature as recom- 
mended by the Executive Committee in the Secretary's 
report. 

The Committee as later appointed by the President con- 
sists of Dr. S. P. Heilman, Chairman, Rev. A. Stapleton, 
D.D., Mr. Daniel Miller, Prof. L. Oscar Kuhns, Prof. 
Harry A. Reichard, Rev. John B. Stoudt, and Mr. Edwin 
C. Jellette, with authority to call to their assistance any 
persons they may see fit and to give them credit for such 
assistance in the printed work. 



Treasurer's Report. 27 

Treasurer's Report. 

Dr. 

Received from Dues , $ 579.00 

Books Sold 27.00 

Interest 20.00 

York Banquet 130.00 

Total Receipts $ 756.00 

October 14, 19 10, balance 3,123.72 

$3,879.72 
Cr. 

As per Vouchers $1,320.76 

Cash in Bank 2,558.96 

$3,879.72 

Cash General Fund $2,448.96 

Cash Life Fund 1 10.00 

P. & E. Bond 500.00 

$3,058.96 

Julius F. Sachse, 

Treasurer. 

On motion duly seconded the Annual Statement of the 
Treasurer and the Auditors' Report certifying to the cor- 
rectness of the same were received and adopted. 

Election of Officers. 

The election of officers for the coming year resulted 
as follows: President, Rev. Henry E. Jacobs, D.D., 
LL.D., Philadelphia, Pa.; Vice-Presidents, Robert C. 
Bair, Esq., York, Pa., B. F. Fackenthal, Esq., Riegels- 
ville, Pa.; Treasurer, Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D., Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Executive Committee, Hon. M. C. Eby, Har- 
risburg, Pa., Dr. D. W. Nead, Buffalo, N. Y. 



28 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Papers. 

After the general discussion pertaining to the affairs of 
the Society, Prof. Albert G. Rau, Ph.D., Dean of the 
Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pa., read an exceedingly 
interesting paper on "The Trades among the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans," which called forth an animated discus- 
sion on the part of many members. 

A member whose name escaped the stenographer said: 

" There is one thing I would like to mention, and that 
is the tools that our fore-fathers brought with them. I 
have found that a great many tools were brought across 
the seas. I recall an anvil with the date of 1698. The 
immigrant who brought it with him I find arrived in 1731* 
His son set up a smithy and used that anvil. His grand- 
son followed and after that his great-grandson used that 
same anvil, and the particular thing they manufactured 
were augers. They excelled in that. All the country 
over that family were known as expert auger makers, and 
that anvil remained in the family until 1854, when the 
great-grandson died, and the executor unfortunately 
allowed the anvil to be sold as junk and it was smelted 
into metal. That is a wonderful thing and it would be a 
great thing to have that anvil today, used for four gen- 
erations. 

" There is another thing I expected our good friend to 
speak about, and that is the manufacturing of spinning 
implements. The turning lathes were brought to this 
country and some of the looms were brought across. 
While it is true that some of these tradespeople followed 
the profession of farming so that they could get their 
bread and butter, these arts went from one family to 
another and in this way the larger manufacturers grew. 



Papers. 29 

" Some of the finest clocks I have ever seen in this coun- 
try were made during the Revolutionary War, some of 
them wonderful works of art, showing the phases of the 
moon. I know one that was made in 1780. It is a marvel. 
It is beautiful. It was made in the city of Reading. It 
would be very interesting indeed for us to gather some of 
those relics. 

" I have a colonial knife made by a professional knife 
maker, and with a steel stencil he cut his name on the 
blade. It was made right here in America. The spoon 
makers also made spoons, knives and forks and they nearly 
all brought them from Europe." 

Dr. Schmauk said: 

" Mr. President, I desire to express our great apprecia- 
tion of the paper of Professor Rau, particularly at the 
breadth of the foundation which he has laid at the bottom 
of his study. I also desire to call attention to the fact 
that the greatest art that ever flourished on this American 
continent, from my point of view, emanated from the 
Pennsylvania-Germans, namely, the art of organ building, 
in which there was nothing that began to equal them in all 
this country." 

Mr. Sener: 

11 1 am sure that some of the clocks made by the Penn- 
sylvania-Germans are pieces of art. There are many peo- 
ple in Lancaster who have them, and I have one of my 
own, No. 11, made about 1772, a beautiful piece of work, 
solid mahogany. 

" Peter Getz, that old Pennsylvania-German, designed 
coins and he also suggested the design for the seal of the 
United States." 



30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Mr. Croll: 

" It affords me much pleasure to be with you. I have 
tried for fifteen years to be at one of your meetings and I 
have come from Buffalo, New York, in order to be here. 
My friend to the right referred to the clocks. I have in 
my family a clock that was bought in Berks County at 
public sale, so just where the clock came from I don't 
know. My clock is No. 71. I would like to suggest that 
as long as we have this beautiful organ here, that we have 
a piece played on it some time during the day." 

Dr. S. P. Heilman: 

" Mr. Rau asked for suggestions. Another thing which 
touched the Pennsylvania-German in many points was the 
cider mill. Right here in this little book of mine is a 
picture of that cider mill, where they made cider and 
apple jack and had those old-time apple butter parties." 

Mr. Roller: 

" I have seen Pennsylvania-German clocks in the Shen- 
andoah Valley made in 1780." 

The meeting was adjourned at 12.15 P- m ' 

Luncheon. 

Upon adjournment the members of the Society gathered 
in the Assembly Room of the Parish House of Christ 
Church, where a dainty luncheon was served free to the 
members and a delightful hour was spent in social inter- 
course. Many members also availed themselves of the 
intermission to visit the various points of interest in the 
historic city of York. 



Papers. 3 1 

Afternoon. 

The afternoon session of the meeting was called to 
order by the President at 2.15 o'clock. 

After a selection on the organ by the organist of Christ 
Lutheran Church, Rev. John Baer Stoudt, of Emaus, Pa., 
read a very interesting paper on "Some Pennsylvania- 
German Rhymes and Riddles," which was followed by a 
lively general discussion, in which, however, nothing of 
additional value worthy of permanent preservation in 
these minutes was called forth. 

Prof. Edwin M. Fogel, Ph.D., of the University of 
Pennsylvania, then followed with a very suggestive paper 
on "Some Pennsylvania-German Superstitions." Many 
members participated in the discussion of this paper. 

Dr. Schmauk said: 

"It is my judgment that the Pennsylvania-German is 
less superstitious than any other of the races that have set- 
tled America from the point of view of being affected by 
his superstitions. What he has he has accepted. He is in 
the situation of being willing to accept facts. He is put 
into a certain place, and no matter how narrow that place 
is he will face the situation and he will face it patiently 
and boldly. These superstitions have come down from 
before them, and I do not believe that you will find a 
single race that has taken an heritage of this kind in such 
a matter-of-fact way. He will repeat them, he will tell 
his children, he will probably as far as his judgment goes 
conform his conduct with them, but he will not lose his 
nerve, and that is the difference between him and the more 
mercurial races by which we are surrounded." 



32 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Dr. Stapleton: 

" In using the word superstition in connection with re- 
ligion, I have no doubt that it occurs to us how closely the 
terms have been identified in the ages past, and it is easy to 
see how closely the two ideas were allied. I know that 
within our own family, over near the foot of the Blue 
Mountains in old Dutch Berks some fifty-one years ago, 
we had customs that we would never think of now, but in 
those days they were a part of our life. On Green Thurs- 
day we would just as reverently and sacredly gather the 
eggs that were laid that day for Easter morning breakfast, 
and if there were not enough eggs to go around father 
would divide the portion so that each would have a taste 
of the eggs. This was a part of our religious belief. You 
may call it superstition if you please, but it was a part of 
our religion and a custom that we followed regularly 
every year until I was a grown-up man. 

" Then father would take us out in the fields and we 
would go through the fields hunting for different herbs 
which were a cure for certain diseases. And in that prac- 
tical way I learned what has never been taken away from 
me. After I was a high school boy I learned the technical 
part of botany, but the foundation was laid when I was 
a child. Snake root, sarsaparilla — all these things we 
gathered and they were just as much a part of our religion 
as we said our prayers, and we kept them to be used 
during the year for fever or any disease that we might be 
threatened with." 

Mr. Croll : 

" Speaking of driving away the witches reminds me of 
an aunt of mine when her soap would not come. My 



Papers. 33 

business takes me to all kinds of manufactories, and I 
have had occasion to come in touch with soap on a large 
scale, and I find that in their earlier history when the soap 
wouldn't come there was something lacking in the chem- 
ical composition. Well, my dear old aunt, now gone to 
her rest, an old maiden lady who was a mother to me 
during the war times, when boiling soap and it wouldn't 
come, would say to me in Pennsylvania-German, ' Sylvester, 
get me a stick.' I went and I got such a stick and 
trimmed it up, and we jammed it into the soap and in five 
minutes that soap was all right." 

President Roller then said : 

11 Gentlemen of the Society: there is one thing more be- 
fore we come to the last number of the program, some 
remarks by the incoming President. Before we get to 
that I want to offer to the Society for publication what I 
think is an exceedingly interesting and valuable thing. 
There was an English and German edition of this book 
and of that publication only one copy is known to be in 
existence. It was formerly in the possession of a gen- 
tleman in Lebanon, but unfortunately it is now in the 
hands of a collector in Philadelphia. I had the promise 
that it would be put in my hands, and then it would have 
been given to the Society along with this book, and I made 
every effort to get it but was not successful. But I have 
here the English translation of it by Peter Miller in his 
own handwriting. 

11 On the front cover of the book is this written in a 
strange hand writing. These are the words : ' These let- 
ters and manuscript belonged to Dr. Benjamin Franklin 
of Pennsylvania who gave them to me.' Unfortunately 
that is not signed and we are unable to trace the owner- 



34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ship of it. My desire is that the Executive Committee 
shall take this manuscript and if they concur in my views, 
namely, that we ought to have from Dr. Sachse an exact 
copy of the German edition printed by Franklin." 

Dr. Sachse: 

"Mr. President and members of the Society: I think 
that this was one of the first books that Benjamin Franklin 
printed. Only one copy existed, but fortunately I have 
the duplicate and it can be re-produced in facsimile, and I 
suggest that it be re-produced with the facsimile on one 
page and the English translation on the other. 

" I think I have the only copy of that in German and I 
think that the translation that our President has before 
him is a copy that was made by Peter Miller in English 
for Benjamin Franklin about the year it is dated, and as 
I have the plates of the only German copy, I think it 
would be well to have them published as I suggested." 

President Roller: 

"Then I would like to have the pleasure of having it 
printed and present it to the Society." 

Dr. Schmauk: 

" I should like to present a motion, — that we express 
our great appreciation of the kindness of our President 
and his loyalty to our organization in tendering to us this 
valuable manuscript, and that we hand it over to the Com- 
mittee with the recommendation, which will be an instruc- 
tion, that they publish the same in our Proceedings with 
the facsimile plates of the original which Dr. Sachse has 
in his possession. That is all that is needed to be said. 



Papers. ^^Q^ 35 

This is work that the Society has undertaken before, and 
there is a well-established and correct method of doing it. 
Dr. Sachse fully understands that. I think we ought to 
express our appreciation of what our President has done 
in bringing back to us here in our own community a manu- 
script of Peter Miller, although he is not, strictly speak- 
ing, a part of our community, and I adopt those sentiments 
as a part of my motion." 

This motion was carried unanimously. 

President-elect Jacobs, having been presented, said: 

" Mr. President and fellow members of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society: Without any attempt at an ad- 
dress, as your program prescribes, I wish simply to express 
my high appreciation of the honor which you have given 
me in electing me as your President. I must say that I 
feel humiliated, because I have not been a very faithful 
member of the Society. I have not been present at many 
of the meetings, although I have taken a great deal of 
interest in your proceedings. I feel humiliated also in 
view of the lore to which we were introduced this after- 
noon, a great deal of which is entirely strange to me. My 
studies have reached the work of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans in other fields, but I cannot express too highly 
my appreciation of those two thorough papers to which 
we have listened. 

11 1 come at your summons because I have not a drop of 
blood in my veins that is not Pennsylvania-German. I 
also represent different sections of the Pennsylvania- 
German immigration. My two grandmothers having been 
members of the Reformed Church, my grandfathers mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church and my great-grandmother 



36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

having been a member of the Moravian Church, I touch 
the Pennsylvania-German community at different points. 

"The question has sometimes been raised why there 
should be an association of this kind. I do not think that 
anyone that knows the proceedings of this Society after 
they have been published will ask such a question. Our 
common work for our common country depends upon our 
loyalty to our historic antecedents, and that man who 
takes no interest in the lives of his ancestors does not 
deserve to have anyone in this generation or the genera- 
tions to come take any interest in his life. So, Mr. Presi- 
dent, I regard this association as a most important one 
for the sake of the people, the republic and the common 
country to which we all belong, and in which each part of 
the country must do its work upon its own nationality and 
according to its own historic development." 

After the Secretary had read the greetings of Rev. P. 
C. Croll, D.D., of Beardstown, 111., and a hearty vote of 
thanks had been passed to the pastor and the people of 
Christ Lutheran Church, of York, for their kindness and 
hospitality to the Society, the meeting adjourned. 

Evening. 

A goodly company of ladies and gentlemen, members 
and friends of the Pennsylvania-German Society, gathered 
in the Banquet Hall of the Colonial Hotel at 5.00 p.m. 
and partook of a five-course dinner, after which prominent 
members responded to toasts. As this was the twentieth 
anniversary of the Society, the toasts were full of inter- 
esting reminiscences, which were deemed worthy of per- 
manent preservation. The authorities of the Society are 
happy, therefore, to be able to present in permanent form 



Toasts. 37 

the stenographic report of the several excellent addresses 
made on this happy occasion. When the large assembly 
dispersed at a late hour, all declared with one voice that 
this meeting at York, both by reason of its interesting pro- 
gramme and by reason of its enthusiastic banquet, had 
been one of the most successful sessions ever held by the 
Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Toasts. 

Benjamin M. Nead, Esq., of Harrisburg, presided. 

Dr. Schmauk: "The Twentieth Anniversary of Our 
Society." 

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: I have been ac- 
customed to speak against all sorts of competition, and in 
a number of instances have had the fire department right 
outside of the building, in which I was attempting to keep 
the attention of those inside, but I have never as yet 
attempted to compete with those strong desires of the 
inner man which manifest themselves in a situation such as 
this and before they have been fully satisfied. I realize 
the enormity of the task that is before me, and I stand 
with some trepidation on the threshold of the remarks I 
am about to make. 

This is a happy birthday party. The Pennsylvania- 
German Society is a blushing young maiden of twenty 
summers on this day, who is open to your congratulations, 
and to all who will treat her properly she is willing to 
extend a delicate Philadelphia finger tip and to all the 
ladies who will treat her with courtesy she is willing to 
implant on their fair countenances a typical Berks County 
kiss. She has determined, however, to remain forever in 



38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the state of single blessedness, and while she is entirely 
willing to receive and possibly coquette with other organi- 
zations that are more fair, more beauteous and particu- 
larly more aged and powerful than herself, she has thus 
far been able to resist every proposal that has ever been 
placed before her. And I pray the Lord that she may 
ever continue to be a blushing and useful old spinster and 
not allow herself to be entangled in any alliance that will 
take away the fairness of her name and rob her of the 
strength of her friends. This beauteous young damsel, 
instead of being about to give up any of her charms, is in 
the process of growing more useful every year. I am 
sure those of you who have seen the lack of baldness on 
the heads of every one of the speakers today will agree 
with me that we are on the path to perennial youth, that 
we are beginning to get strong, that instead of having 
defeat before us we shall be able by the help of Him who 
has given us ancestry in the past and opportunity in the 
present to do greater, larger and more majestic things for 
the cause for which we stand in the future that is to come. 

Most happy are we to be on the southernmost out-post 
of Pennsylvania-German territory, which contains in itself 
the two cities of York and Hanover, — beautiful old York, 
with her stately square, her lofty buildings, with her 
historic churches, with that quietness in the evening and 
that rush in the day time, the opposite of the typical Amer- 
ican city, which shows that there is still here a balance in 
power of the German blood that means sustenance, that 
stands for principle and that infuses itself into the civiliza- 
tion of our younger classes. 

Yesterday afternoon as I rode down the banks of the 
broad bosom of the Susquehanna in one of those magnifi- 
cent Washington expresses I felt the force of the contrast 



Toasts. 39 

between my mode of traveling and that of those who 
came from the place where General Roller tried to get that 
little book. By the way that book was in my house for 
about a week, and while I was not responsible for its sale, 
had I known the General wanted it I might have used 
what influence I had to have kept it. As I thought of 
those men who every spring and every fall made a trip 
down through York, down into Maryland and Virginia, 
and when I thought of those lonely trips, partly on horse- 
back, I felt that we ought to be thankful as a Society to 
be able to preserve the forms of the new which we are 
allowed to enjoy in this day and generation. And when 
we entered into that beautiful old church yard where the 
first and second and the third church has been erected, 
where in the year 1745, in this earliest formed county on 
the other side of the Susquehanna there rang out for the 
first time the tolls of the church bell to call the worship- 
ers of the Lord together, and when I recall the steady 
ministry that is connected with this congregation and with 
this majestic town as it waded through the Colonial and 
through the Revolutionary period, I felt that our Associa- 
tion was fortunate indeed in having been welcomed into 
these hospitable borders. 

When I listened to the address of our beloved President 
with fear and trepidation, thinking that possibly there 
might be some over-ardency in the experiences through 
which he has passed or some over-ardency on the part of 
those who had passed through similar experiences a little 
farther North, and found that such was not the case but 
that there was a manly plea on his part for the principles, 
for which we are bound to respect him, my heart rejoiced 
that the bosom of this Society was large enough to cradle 
on its one knee such a typical representative as our General 



4-0 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

from Virginia, and on its other knee such a typical repre- 
sentative as the State Superintendent of Public Schools of 
Pennsylvania. I hope that some of the vigor of youth 
will return into both of these men. I do not mean to call 
Dr. Schaeffer an old man, and I am only referring to the 
crown of white hair that graces his youthful countenance 
and confers upon him a dignity that is worthy of the chief 
educator of the state of Pennsylvania. 

It was my opinion that on this evening we should have 
been floating on the waves of the Hudson River in one of 
the palatial steamboats that ply back and forth, and that 
our banqueting should be interspersed with the sweet 
musical songs that come from the Catskills, for this is the 
two hundredth anniversary of the arrival of the Palatines 
in the state of New York, and our Society might have 
made a glorious pilgrimage up this stream where the 
Palatines were first set to work and from which came that 
migration down the Susquehanna. But it proved to be an 
impracticable dream, and instead of sailing on the waves 
of the Hudson we are high and lofty, safe and dry in the 
Colonial Hotel, — the name is all right, — in this kingly 
old city of York. 

Twenty years ago there were two or three men who met 
together and who declared that this Society should be 
organized. I will not give up the credit of that meeting, 
for I am sure it belongs to Lebanon County for having 
made the suggestion for an organization of this kind. 
However, suggestions are very different things from deeds 
and it remained for the county of Lancaster to do the 
actual thing, in connection with Dr. Egle of Harrisburg. 
The man who has been most active in furthering this asso- 
ciation, the one who laid the preliminary plans and who 
brought matters to a focus, I am glad to say, is with us 



Toasts. 41 

tonight, our first Secretary, Mr. Frank Diffenderffer. It 
was due to his communication with Dr. Egle, and it was 
due to his ability to gather round and about him Dr. Stahr, 
who is present tonight, and two representative Lancaster 
citizens, that this Society came into existence and has 
proved itself creditable to the ancestry which he represents. 

The first meeting that I recall was held in Dr. Diffen- 
derffer's office, where five men assembled to talk over the 
situation. A meeting that was held in the Moravian 
Church, of which Dr. Hark was pastor, was a very typical 
meeting. We had there two extreme factions, those who 
maintained that this organization be formed for the sake 
of the dialect, whose meetings should be conducted in the 
Pennsylvania-German dialect, and on the other hand those 
who opposed that sort of Society, those who felt that to 
be wide of the main proposition and not at all typical, and 
on that day this Society escaped the danger of becoming a 
mere dialect Society. 

At first there were less than one hundred members. The 
next year there were over one hundred. The next there 
were several hundred, and now we have a membership of 
over four hundred and fifty persons, and I have no doubt 
that before the next meeting takes place we shall have 
gone over the five hundred mark. 

There is no reason why this Society, which is in the heart 
of all that great emigration that went not only south to 
where General Roller lives, but also west and which is 
found in almost every state west of us today in large and 
magnificent representation, should not be brought into 
active and living touch with the scholarship and with the 
strength and power that are to be found in this organiza- 
tion. And as I sit down I trust that you all will be so filled 
with the charm of this lovely blushing maiden of two 



42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

decades that you will be willing to bow to her, to bring 
more admirers to her feet, to place many crowns upon her 
head, and to place her with enthusiasm at the top of the 
mountain where our country may see her in the fullness of 
her strength, which may God grant shall never be 
diminished. 

Mr. Hess: "The Meeting Twenty Years Ago in Lan- 
caster." 

Ladies and gentlemen: A certain prominent man once 
said that he spoke upon two occasions. One was when he 
had to say something and the other was when he had 
something to say. This afternoon I tried to recall that 
meeting twenty years ago, and after listening to the elo- 
quent words of the gentleman from Lebanon I felt that 
while I thought I was in the position of the second speaker, 
that I had something to say, I found I was in the position 
of the first one and had to say something. 

Now the meeting twenty years ago to which I refer was 
a meeting in the parlor or office of the parsonage of Dr. 
Hark. That meeting was called by a member of this So- 
ciety and one who was probably more prominent and took 
a more active part in the organization of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society than any other member. He called six 
men, five with himself, to meet in his office. They were 
Dr. Stahr, Professor Buehrle, Professor Lyte, Hiram 
Young and Dr. Egle. Two of those men have gone to 
that bourne from which no traveler returns, Dr. Egle and 
Hiram Young. The other four are still with us and 
active members of this Society. Those six men met and 
spoke of the organization of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society and how important it was. Those six men then 
and there agreed that they would send out notices to dif- 



Toasts. 43 

ferent persons in different parts of the state, asking them 
to meet at the office of Rev. Dr. Hark. At the first real 
meeting, February 26, 1891, thirty-one counties were 
represented. 

The first question that arose at this meeting was whether 
it was to be the Pennsylvania-German Society or the Penn- 
sylvania-Dutch Society, and the Society passed through a 
crisis at that time, because the two active members in favor 
of the Pennsylvania-Dutch thought of the dialect, while 
the rest of the men were more interested in the history and 
biography and genealogy of the Pennsylvania-Germans 
than in the dialect itself. And finally the name of the 
society was decided upon and was the name that we now 
have, the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

It was agreed that they should send out notices. They 
were sent out, inviting all persons interested in the Penn- 
sylvania-Germans to meet in April or May. The exact 
number I do not know, for I have no data to which I can 
refer at this time, but a large number met at the Court 
House in Lancaster, and that was the first general meeting 
of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The President presided at that meeting and several men 
came from Philadelphia to attend that meeting, and I say 
that the Society passed through a crucial period when 
those two men who came from Philadelphia asked us either 
to join the German Society of Pennsylvania or else make 
our membership so large that also the latest generations 
of Germans could become members of the Society. Dr. 
Hark appointed a Committee on Constitution, and they 
insisted on making a limited membership to those who 
came of early ancestors, and it was then and there that our 
Society was formed and organized. Thanks to those men 
that it is what it is today. 



44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

At that time we hardly knew what a mine we had and 
what would be the output of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society, but today its volumes are in the prominent libra- 
ries of the world, and everywhere people have learned to 
know more of the Pennsylvania-Germans and the part 
they took in the history of not only Pennsylvania, but in 
the history of our country. 

Mr. Bair : " The Meeting in York." 

Mr. Toastmaster, ladies and gentlemen: Your kindly 
introduction, Mr. President, would I think appeal to any 
man and lift him into the sixth sense realm. I have a feel- 
ing toward the Pennsylvania-German Society which I can 
scarcely describe. I could hug her, not because, as Dr. 
Schmauk has said, she is " twenty years old," but rather 
because I have known her since she was a little tot. I 
watched her grow, until now she stands forth in the splen- 
dor of her young womanhood. The Pennsylvania- 
German Society gone into decline? Dead at the top? 
Dead at the root ? Well not as long as there are virtuous 
sons and daughters justly proud of their German ancestry; 
not while there are sons and daughters of early immigrant 
settlers of Lancaster County and eastern Pennsylvania, — 
not while any of them live. I have said I have known her 
since she was a little tot, and am sure I do not speak above 
the head of anyone in this presence when I say that once 
we are in with the tots we are in with them for life. 

The Pennsylvania-German Society was but three years 
old when it first visited York. It was on the eleventh of 
October, 1893, that it came here, and I recall that both of 
us were seventeen years younger then than now. With 
what delightful expectation I had looked forward to the 



Toasts. 45 

coming of the Pennsylvania-Germans. It so happened, — 
permit this personality, — that I was selected at that time 
by our evening newspaper to report the proceedings of 
that meeting, and in return for whatever I might report 
I was to be remunerated in the form of a ticket to a ban- 
quet in this same room following the convention. 

I sat down in the court room of our old Court House 
and heard the call to order, by the President of the Society, 
Henry L. Fisher. I heard the Honorable John W. Bit- 
tinger deliver the address of welcome for the citizens and 
Germans of York. I heard Mr. Thomas C. Zimmerman 
respond in a brilliant address, so brilliant, that at the time 
I wondered innocently, does this come from Reading. 
The convention was ready. Now three years old as a 
simile may destroy a proper concept of the physical and 
mental vigor of the Society, but you will have to consider 
it as if by protean power, sprung right out of the rock full 
grown, ready for business. There was that splendid ven- 
erable man, Dr. John G. Morris of the Maryland Society, 
and I remember I thought at the time how fine it was on 
the part of the Pennsylvanians in the very first part of 
their program to make way for the President of a sister 
state. Then came on these other names. (I had to go 
to my scrap book to recover them.) J. Max Hark, F. R. 
Diffenderffer, Rauch, George C. Heckman, John B. 
Warfel and Julius F. Sachse, who has again come to us. 
Then Lewis B. Hennighausen made a brilliant speech on 
" The Treasure the German American has in his An- 
cestor." Mr. Hennighausen, living or dead, has my 
profound respect, for by that speech he impressed himself 
upon me; for when the American people, or any other 
nationality, forget their ancestors it will not be long before 
they forget their homes, their flag and their country; then 



46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

having lost honor of parentage, it will not be long before 
the ballot box, sunk below the solid level of the flag, will 
fail to record the will and judgment of a free people. If 
we propose to stand by the spirit our ancestors had, politi- 
cally or socially, if you please, we will have to keep close 
to the integrity of their simple, unselfish, faithful lives, — 
the bed rock upon which human society and our own 
Christian government were built. Gentlemen, I verily 
believe it will yet be found that such organizations as the 
Pennsylvania-German Society have proved anchors of the 
ship of state, holding fast a respect for the lives and char- 
acter of our forefathers who were never in a hurry but 
always at work. 

Now, with your permission, I want to swell myself for 
a moment into something of the exultation I felt seventeen 
years ago when I wrote this, the heading of my newspaper 
report of your convention. 

11 On the second visit of William Penn to his province, 
in the autumn of 1700-1701, he led out from Philadel- 
phia to the summit of the high watershed between the 
Delaware and the Susquehanna a distinguished company 
of gentlemen. From thence he pointed out to the rich 
investors who accompanied him, the wondrous wooded 
valleys of the Conestoga and Pequea, as well as the dis- 
tant hills beyond the Susequehanna. Not long thereafter 
the Swiss Cantons and Palatinate sent into that extensive 
1 forest garden of the Lord ' the early Mennonites and 
Lutherans. 

"One hundred and eighty-five years have passed since 
they first came and now an honoring posterity — The So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania-Germans — assembles within the 
boundaries of old Springettsbury Manor, a part of the 
domain, beyond the river, Penn himself had pointed out 



Toasts. 47 

to friends in Germany. Though long belated, this Society 
assemblies to gather up the almost forgotten past, to ex- 
amine its records, measure its influences, establish the fame 
of the settler Teuton, declare the excellence of his enter- 
prise in America, and finally unite in perpetual bond of 
fellowship the sons of German blood. 

" Not since the first German set foot on soil west of the 
Susquehanna has a society met in York County to honor 
the forefathers of our vast German population. It was 
an intelligent and high purposed throng that pressed into 
the Court House at ten o'clock this morning. The con- 
vention at York of the Pennsylvania-German Society is an 
event. An event from which will spring fuller apprecia- 
tion of our rich home history and a more careful preserva- 
tion of the priceless rubbish on our garrets." 

And now you are come back again. My friend Nead 
has spoken of kindness. Though so long away we had 
often thought of you and wondered why you neglected us. 
I feel as though we ought to kill a fatted calf right here. 
There will be nothing too good in York hereafter for the 
Pennsylvania-German Society, and I hope that seventeen 
years will not elapse again before you bring your wives 
and sweethearts here. The Pennsylvania-German Society 
cannot come or go too often into any part of Pennsylvania, 
for their literature and they themselves carry impressive 
influences wherever they go. 

Mr. Richards: "The Past Membership of the Society." 
My dear friends, if I wanted to talk all by myself about 
the past membership of the Pennsylvania-German Society 
I would not know where to begin and I would not know 
where to end. It would be unjust to our past membership, 
for they speak for themselves, and I think there is no more 



48 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

beautiful illustration of what I mean than what we see in 
the Bible itself, — where the human life is likened to a race, 
which is witnessed on all sides by throngs of spectators. 
So our Pennsylvania-German Society is running a race, 
and as it runs that race I in spirit go with it and I see 
seated around this amphitheater of ours all the dear 
friends, not of the past but of the present but who were 
with us in the past, and don't let us forget them. When 
I think of the faithfulness of the men with whom I served 
for so many years and when I think of all the pleasant 
moments I have had with those men, when I think of all 
the delightful conditions which surround my association 
with those men, I say to myself, as they sit and look at us, 
Thank God that the Pennsylvania-German Society has 
been running a good race. 

St. Paul, when speaking of this race, has reference to 
the unseen witness. My dear friends, where shall I begin 
to speak about the unseen witnesses of the past, those 
whom we love and who are no longer with us ? There is 
Dr. Egle, my dear old friend, who was one of the origi- 
nators of this Society, a strong, big man something like 
myself. He was not like the man that the New Jersey 
girl wanted to marry and had to go to Texas to find. Her 
idea of a man was one six feet tall, wearing a No. 15 hat 
and No. 12 shoes. A real man would not have been Dr. 
Egle, according to her estimate, but we know that Dr. 
Egle was a real man, a man who knew something. We 
know what this Society was to Dr. Egle, and Dr. Egle 
may be looking down on us and thinking of what we have 
done, and let us remember what he did for us in the past. 

Then I think of that dear old friend of mine, to whom 
reference has been made, Dr. Heckman, who was with me 
at the meeting in Lebanon many years ago and read an 



Toasts. 49 

excellent paper. I still think of Dr. Heckman's being 
associated with this Society, but he is gone. We must not 
forget him and men like him. 

Why, it was only a year or two ago that we were ap- 
plauding at our banquet the grand address made by our 
dear friend Dr. Dubbs, and there are men like Dr. Dubbs 
who have left their influence with us, and don't let us 
forget those men and don't let us neglect to do the duty 
which they so valiantly upheld. 

We all remember Dr. Porter, who was such an honor 
to this Society, one of the greatest orators this country has 
ever seen in the pulpit, and how many of the Executive 
Committee think of Dr. Porter who insisted upon being 
with us at our meetings, full of cheer, full of everything 
that helped to lighten the load that was resting on our 
shoulders. 

We have had a great many witty addresses made before 
this Society and we have had a great many able men speak 
to us, but there was one very dear to me, my brother, and 
many of you remember with what sparkling wit he 
abounded and what kind of a man he was, and he has gone 
before us. There was a man who in my place would have 
had you laughing all the time. 

So one after another they have gone. We are passing 
on, but don't let us forget those who have gone. Let us 
think of these few and many like these few, for I have no 
time to tell you of the others. Let us revere their memory. 
Let us not forget the past membership of our Society. 

If I were Mr. Henninger, I would be inclined to tell a 
little story. It is a true story. That is the reason I tell it, 
but then you know Mr. Henninger never told anything 
but the truth. The fable was iEsop's, but the story was 
not. He told about a farmer who, as in the fable, went 



50 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

out one day and found a rattlesnake frozen stiff. He was 
a humane man, so he picked up the rattlesnake, took it 
home and thawed it out. That much is like the fable, but 
the difference between the fable and the story it this: that 
this rattlesnake appreciated what was done for it by this 
good friend, and they became very closely attached to each 
other. The snake was allowed the freedom of the house 
and was fed, as it were, from its master's hand. One 
night after the master had gone to bed he heard a racket 
down stairs and went down. What did he see? This 
shows the snake's appreciation and kindness. A burglar 
had gotten into the house and this snake had caught the 
burglar, had wrapped his tail around the burglar and a 
leg of the table, and had put his head out of the window 
and was rattling for a policeman. 

Mr. GLESSNER:"The New Members." 

Mr. Toastmaster and friends: Seventeen years ago I 
was introduced in this hall by the toastmaster of the occa- 
sion of the assemblage of the Pennsylvania-Germans as the 
baby member. Today I am introduced as the new mem- 
ber. When I look to my right and see the Vice-President 
of this association, who was then a student in my office, 
and when I look around and see our old friend here, Dr. 
Sachse, and the various other members, and when I think 
of who were present then but who are with us no longer, 
I only know that the Pennsylvania-German Society doesn't 
grow old and that if I was the baby member of the Society 
then, I am now the young member and I am glad that I 
haven't grown a day older. Possibly I still use one of our 
old-time trundle beds that our friends were talking about 
this afternoon. 

I am a peculiar member of our Society. I am a Penn- 



Toasts. 51 

sylvania-German who cannot speak German. I was un- 
fortunate enough to be raised in the northern part of this 
county. My father thought it best to raise a crowd of 
boys in the country, so he took us up to the northern sec- 
tion of York County which is entirely English, and 
Pennsylvania-German was as much of a curiosity as the 
elephant is to the boy on his first visit to the circus. My 
mother talked to the butter man in Pennsylvania-German 
and I would look on with awe at this jabbering, and I do 
not understand much of it now. There was one thing that 
I discovered there that I have never discovered among 
the Pennsylvania-Dutch settlement in York County and 
that is the way the houses were built. You had to go up 
stairs to go into the cellar and down stairs to go into the 
attic. 

As one of the younger members of this society, I want 
to say that I fully realize that you older members have 
done for us a great work. You have built a foundation 
and you have preserved records from which we, as we 
come in closer touch, can build further and further and 
further and store up knowledge, that to the future genera- 
tions will be of incomparable value. No one realizes 
what a mine, what a fund of Pennsylvania-German history 
is found right here in York County, and I am sorry to 
know that there are so few York Countians here who 
seem to appreciate what a fund there is here. 

It is amusing to sit and watch your Vice-President. I 
have known him a great many years and know that he 
is a full-blooded Pennsylvania-German. I don't think 
there is a drop of any other kind of blood in his veins, 
and I want to say this: I think he has gotten instilled into 
him during the last seventeen years a good bit of old- 
fashioned Pennsylvania-German common sense, and I 



52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

know that as Vice-President you will have a well of in- 
formation. He wont tell you, but down in his treasury 
and strong box there is a well of information that the 
Pennsylvania-German Society wants to get at. He knows 
more about the Pennsylvania-Germans in York County 
than any other man in York County, and you want to get 
it and you want to have it published in the Pennsylvania- 
German periodicals, because if you don't you miss some- 
thing. 

Now as younger members, in welcoming you here in 
York County we extend to you the only welcome that a 
good old-fashioned York County Dutchman can extend, — 
that is, the open hand. Come again, and we promise you 
that the next time you come, and I hope it will not be 
seventeen years, there will be more York Countians at 
the board and you will receive a warmer welcome, if it is 
possible, than you have this time, almost as warm, Gen- 
eral, as your old friend General John Gordon got when 
he was here in 1863. We received him then as we have 
tried to receive you today, as we will receive everyone, 
with an open hand. 

Dr. Schaeffer: "The Work of the Society." 

Mr. Toastmaster, ladies and gentlemen: The Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society can claim to have saved my life at 
least once. I came to York yesterday afternoon feeling 
like the girl who said she was just dying for a new sensa- 
tion, and I came to York just dying for a new story in 
Pennsylvania-Dutch and last night I got one that gave 
me enough material to restore my health, to renew my 
strength and keep me vigorous for another year. Now 
that is but a concrete example of the first part of the work 



Toasts. 5 3 

of the Pennsylvania-German Society, namely : the protec- 
tion of good fellowship among kindred spirits. I claim 
that is one service which the Pennsylvania-German Society 
renders to every one of its members who takes the trouble 
to come to our annual meetings. 

Some time ago a gentleman said to me " You Pennsylva- 
nians are funny fellows. You never can do anything 
without a feed or a banquet, and you do more laughing 
than any other people on the face of the earth." I was 
willing to plead guilty on that charge. I think I have 
eaten meals in every state in the Union, but give me a 
good old-fashioned Pennsylvania-German meal, or such a 
banquet as we had last year in Bethlehem and this year in 
York. I think one part of the work of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society is to test and testify to the culinary art of 
the different communities in which we meet. 

But of course the greatest part of the work of the So- 
ciety is historical. The feeling has been expressed that we 
have reached the acme of our glory. I don't believe it. 
We have just begun to cultivate the historical field. We 
have cultivated the historic field in the direction of religion, 
for the Pennsylvania-Germans are a very religious people 
and it is natural that we should first take up that side of 
the development. We have hardly dipped into the work 
of the Pennsylvania-Germans in the domain of education, 
and we have not discussed what the Pennsylvania-Germans 
have done in the domain of science. How few people 
know that it was a Pennsylvania-Dutchman who first 
showed how to stop gangrene in the hospitals during the 
Civil War where the soldiers were dying like flies. People 
in your own city didn't know of that great work, while 
scientists of Europe have discussed it. Development in 



54 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

medicine in another direction is a field that we have hardly 
touched. 

They sometimes say that the people of Berks County 
still vote for General Jackson. I always say that they vote 
for his heirs and assigns. Two days before the last elec- 
tion in which Thaddeus Stevens' name appeared as a candi- 
date for Congress, Thaddeus Stevens went to another 
world and he was lying a corpse in his home when the 
people of Lancaster County elected him to Congress for 
the last time. 

I made that statement in order to put myself square 
against the insinuation made by the best advertised man in 
the world, Theodore Roosevelt. He made an assertion in 
one of his writings that the Pennsylvania-Germans who 
dropped their dialect and became English came into 
prominence, but those who did not drop their dialect be- 
came an unimportant part of the United States, wielding 
no further influence. Now the Germans of Lancaster 
County exerted a great influence over the whole nation 
because they kept Thaddeus Stevens in Congress, no mat- 
ter what the politicians of Pennsylvania might say or do. 

In the next place the Pennsylvania-Germans have taught 
the people of the United States the greatest of all lessons, 
that of conservation, by their proper methods of farming 
and by rotation of crops. Here in Lancaster County for 
two hundred years they have been practising rotation of 
crops and following proper methods of tillage, and the 
soil today is as productive as when our Pennsylvania- 
German forefathers first settled on the banks of the 
Conestoga, and I don't think that Teddy would dare say 
today that the Pennsylvania-Germans who have kept up 
their dialect have not shown the people of the United 
States how to farm. 



Toasts. 55 

The people of America are not only writing history to- 
day, but they are making history and the Pennsylvania- 
Germans of today are making history. There is no danger 
that we shall ever exhaust the historic material of our 
Pennsylvania-German people, and the people one hundred 
years hence will find just as much worthy of historic record 
as we find in the deeds of our ancestors. 

Once in a while- somebody says to me "The difference 
between the Pennsylvania-Germans and the high Germans 
is that the high German has literature; the Pennsylvania- 
Dutch has none." Think of the things that have been 
written in Pennsylvania-German and think of that domain 
of folk-lore that has been given to us by our young men 
this afternoon. There is a whole world that we have 
not begun to cultivate. 

Within the last year the Pennsylvania-German Society 
has discovered three new young men, our Secretary and 
the two young men on the program this afternoon. Now 
I do not know of anyone connected with the Society who 
knows more of the promising young men among the Penn- 
sylvania-Germans than does our friend, Dr. Jacobs, the 
President of the next year, and the greatest service we can 
render to the Pennsylvania-German Society is to find real 
talented young men, to give them a chance, put them on 
the program and set them to work cultivating these unex- 
plored fields. If we will do that it will mark a new era 
in the history of our Society. Those of us who are turn- 
ing gray and who are beginning to be among the old men 
of the Society can do no more gracious act than to pass 
that proposed amendment of the Constitution, which will 
put new persons in the Executive Committee. We can 
do no more gracious act than to find bright young men and 
set them to work to develop the talent they may have, to 



56 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

think through the pen and chronicle in proper historic 
form the achievements of the Pennsylvania-Germans. 

Dr. Evans: "Pennsylvania German Wives, New Style 
and Old Style." 

Mr. Toastmaster, ladies and gentlemen: Now I don't 
know what inspiration it was that put this subject in the 
shape it is, Pennsylvania-German wives, new style and old 
style. When we speak of Pennsylvania-German wives 
we mean wives, mothers and daughters. We don't speak 
of them as new style ; they are all the good old style. Our 
wives are simply a reproduction of their German mothers 
and they preserve their identity. 

When I speak tonight, and I am going to say only a few 
words, of the German wives the new style and the old 
style, I want you to think of your mother while I think 
of my mother, and I want you to think of your wife as I 
think of mine. God made our wives and our mothers, 
and God put greater hearts in our wives and mothers than 
he did in us men. God gave them greater love and more 
persevering affection than he did us. When you were little 
and had your troubles why did you go to mother? You 
always did, and you remember too that mother was always 
accessible. You had no trouble to get into her presence. 
She was never too busy, and when you came rushing in 
to her she heard you, and that trouble hurt her more than 
it did you. She dropped everything and you were in her 
arms and she kissed away the tears and it was all right. 
No one, next to the Master, has laid down her life for 
her children and husband as our Pennsylvania-German 
wives and mothers. And all these things that our wives 
and mothers are now doing for our boys and girls, let us 



Toasts. 57 

say something of these things to our wives and mothers 
if they are still living. Let us not bring it in in a belated 
way. Let us tell our wives and our sweethearts that we 
appreciate them. 

I regret to say that this is the next to the last topic. 
A theme like this to be at the tail end of a program ! Next 
year let us have this topic away up at the top, for our wives 
and mothers are always at the top, where they should be 
kept. Long live our wives and our daughters and our 
sweethearts. May they always be found with us and may 
we realize what we see in that beautiful little verse of 
Schiller's when we look at them in their imperial glory and 
majesty and sway of their dominion. 

Truly we may sing of our Pennsylvania-German wives, 
and daughters, as Schiller sings of his Laura : 

" Deine Augen-wenn sie Liebe laecheln, 
Koennten Leben durch den Marmor faecheln, 
Felsenadern Pulse leihn ; 
Traeume werden um mich her zu Wesen, 
Kann ich nur in deinen Augen lesen: 
Laura, Laura mein ! " 

Nun " ehret die Frauen, denn sie flechten und weben 
Himmlische Rosen in's irdische Leben." 

Dr. Jacobs: "The Future." 

Mr. Toastmaster, fellow members of the Society and 
friends: I cannot help but express my great gratification 
for all that I have seen and heard at this meeting. It was 
a special gratification for me to greet here your President, 
whom I have learned to know in Virginia, a representative 
of that immigration of the eighteenth century, as it went 
beyond the boundaries of Pennsylvania and Maryland and 
roamed up the Shenandoah Valley. 



58 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

I am convinced that the work of this Society is only at 
its beginning, that the monuments that have been left of 
those who founded this Society and who have cooperated 
with so much success can be made the foundation of a still 
more extensive and richer display of that which is offered 
in this Society, an opportunity to trace the history of our 
people, not simply as they have gone out of Germany, but 
in their relation in the country from which they came, to 
trace that history in the development of our country in its 
earlier period. The pioneer period is an important one, 
and there is one particular section of our history that has 
not been properly presented. I do not want to cast any 
reflections on the gentlemen of our Society, but there is a 
field which it is our duty to bring to the attention of 
our friends around us, and that is the important office 
which the Pennsylvania-Germans performed in the 
foundation of our country in the declaration of that 
great struggle, the Revolutionary War, when it was 
the Pennsylvania-Germans, occupying the very center 
of the country, standing in the midst of an English- 
speaking community which in many of its parts was 
either disloyal to the cause of the Colonies or felt only 
feebly on its side, who decided that question. The monu- 
ment that was unveiled last week in Philadelphia is a 
proper memorial of that fact, only in connection with the 
exercises on that occasion there was one feature that I did 
not like. Not only in the public exercises but in the vari- 
ous press notices the name of General Peter Muhlenberg 
was given prominence as though he were a foreigner, 
whereas he was an American of German birth. That is 
the office of our people. That is simply the position which 
I understand this Society holds, a Society composed of 
those who glory in our American citizenship, whose eyes 



Toasts. 



59 



are not turned back to Germany as an earthly Paradise, 
but who are as fully alive to what is occurring in America 
as any who are around us, only we differ in this respect: 
that we have brought a particular element into the develop- 
ment of this country from Germany. It is our duty, and 
so solemn a trust it is to me that I mean to preserve faith- 
fully the history of all that our forefathers have done, 
and if in the future the Society will work on these lines, it 
will be doing a great work, both for our own people and 
the country itself. 




Biographical Sketches of 2>eceaseo 

Members of the Pennsylvania* 

German Society 



Abraham F. Hostetter, Esq. 
Samuel M. Sener, Esq. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY. 




ABRAHAM F. HOSTETTER. 

B. MAY 29, 1851. D. JUNE 15, 1911. 



Abraham F. Hostetter. 63 



Abraham F. Hostetter, Esq. 

Abraham F. Hostetter, the son of Simon (born Janu- 
ary 21, 182 1 ) and Mary Frantz Hostetter, was born 
May 29, 185 1, near Millport, in Warwick Township, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. His paternal grand- 
father was Jacob Hostetter (born February 20, 1794, 
died February, 1862), son of Christian Hostetter (born 
December 2, 1761, died October 26, 1838), son of 
Abraham Hostetter (born 1723, died 1796), son of Jacob 
Hostetter (died 1761), who came to this country with 
Mennonites from Switzerland in 1709 or 17 10. 

After attending the schools of the district, he continued 
his studies at the State Normal School at Millersville, of 
which institution he was a graduate. He began his legal 
studies under Hon. John Dean, subsequently a Justice of 
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, at Hollidaysburg, 
Pa., and took a full course in the Law School of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, from which institution he also was 
graduated. In the fall of 1878 he was admitted to prac- 
tice law in the Courts of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Hostetter was a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the Millersville State Normal School, Chairman of the 
Board of Censors of the Lancaster Bar Association, and 
for many years a member of the Purchasing Committee of 
the Law Library Association. He was also a member of 
the Board of Trustees of the Young Men's Christian 
Association and of the Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation. He also was connected with the Pennsylvania 



6 4 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Forestry Association, the Lancaster County Historical 
Society, and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

After a gradual decline of some months, Mr. Hostetter 
died on June 15, 191 1. 

He was admitted to membership in the Pennsylvania- 
German Society January 18, 1898. 

G. T. E. 




THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY. 





-p^^-^7^ 



B. LANCASTER, PA., OCTOBER 5, 1855. 
D. LANCASTER, PA., JUNE 26, 1911. 



Samuel M. Sener. 65 



Samuel M. Sener, Esq. 

Samuel M. Sener, Esq., was born in Lancaster, Pa., 
October 5, 1855. His father, Henry C. Sehner (Sener), 
born February 6, 1828, was the son of John Sehner (born 
January 4, 1798, died October 24, 1864), who was the 
son of Johannes Sehner (born October 17, 1765, died 
July 11, 1 8 14), who was the son of Gottlieb Soehner, who 
came over from Germany, landed in Philadelphia October 
17, 1749, and died about 1780. 

His father, grandfather, great-grandfather, and great- 
great-grandfather were carpenters and joiners. Gottlieb 
Soehner subscribed to the oath of allegiance to the Colo- 
nies on August 2, 1778, and Johannes Sehner subscribed 
on May 30, 1778. 

His mother, Frances A. Coggsdall, was born August 
27, 1834, the daughter of Mary Kline (born December 
24, 1 8 10, died March 10, 1887), whose mother was 
Elizabeth Leonard (born March 20, 1768, died May 11, 
1 853) » wno was a daughter of George S. Leonard of 
Revolutionary fame. (See Rupp's "Lancaster County," 
page 425.) The early ancestors of Mr. Sener were 
staunch Lutherans. 

Mr. Sener was educated in the public schools, studied 
law, and was admitted to the Lancaster Bar in 1877. He 
did not, however, devote himself closely to the practice of 
his profession, but at various time was engaged on the 
local newspapers, being at one time court reporter for 
"The New Era." He was very prominent in local his- 



66 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

torical and scientific circles, and for many years was the 
librarian of the Lancaster County Historical Society. He 
was a trustee of the A. Herr Smith Memorial Library, 
and a member of the Sons of the Revolution, of the So- 
ciety of the War of 1812, of the Lancaster Press Club, 
and of the Linnean Society. 

Mr. Sener was the author of a " History of the Catholic 
Church in Lancaster County," "The Sehner Ancestry," 
and other works, and was a contributor to the United 
States Catholic Historical Researches and other publica- 
tions. Since 1874 he had been a member of St. Mary's 
Catholic Church of Lancaster, Pa. 

He died June 26, 191 1. 

Mr. Sener was a charter member of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society. 

G. T. E. 




H XHntque Manuscript 

Eg 

IRew peter flIMller 

(JBrotber 5abe3) 

lprfor of tbe JEpbrata Community, In Lancaster Count?, Pennsylvania 



WRITTEN FOR 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

TOGETHER WITH A 

FAC-SIMILE AND TRANSLATION OF 

Beissel's 99 Mystical proverbs 

ORIGINALLY PRINTED BY BENJAMIN FRANKLIN IN 1730 

COMPILED AT THE REQUEST OF THE 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF 
THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY 

BY 

JULIUS F. SACHSE 




LANCASTER, PA. 
1912 



Copyrighted 1912 

BY THE 

pennsuIvaniasCerman Society. 



Press of 

The New era printins Compan? 

Lancaster, Pa. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY. 




PRIOR JAEBEZ (REV. PETER MILLER), 

OF THE EPHRATA COMMUNITY, IN HIS ANCHORITE CELL, 
THE WRITER OF THE LETTER TO BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. 



FROM AN OLD SKETCH IN POSSESSION OF JULIUS F. SACHSE. 




A UNIQUE EPHRATA MANUSCRIPT BY 
REV. PETER MILLER (PRIOR JABEZ), 

Prepared for and Sent to Benjamin Franklin. 

T the annual meeting of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society, held at York, 
Pa., Friday, October 14, 19 10, the 
retiring President of the Society, 
John E. Roller, Esq., of Harri- 
sonburg, Rockingham County, 
Va., stated that he had obtained 
a heretofore unknown Ephrata Manu- 
script folio of some 120 pages from a 
dealer in England, which he now pre- 
sented to the Society. 

Upon examination this proved to be 
entirely in the handwriting of Prior Jabez (Rev. 
Peter Miller) who had succeeded Father Fried- 
sam (Conrad Beissel) as Prior or Superintendent of the 
Ephrata community. 

This manuscript was prepared for Benjamin Franklin 
by Peter Miller some three years after his election (April 
8, 1768) as a member of the American Philosophical 
Society and was sent to Benjamin Franklin, who was then 




2 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the president of the society, and the book was undoubtedly 
at one time the property of that venerable scientific in- 
stitution. 

The contents of this manuscript consists of a letter to 
Franklin, two pages of which are here reprinted : 

First Page. 

To Benjamin Franklin Esquire: 
Sir: 
Being prevented by many interruptions, the Discharge 
upon your worthy Letter was so long postponed. I send 
you hereby a collection, which for the most part uncom- 
mon : I do not pretend, that they Word for Words hath 
been the Father's Tenets; for he himself would never 
publish any, and protested against others, which, by doing 
also, hath increased the Division in the Church. Yet can 
I give Assurance, that if the Father was alive, and would 
read them, that he would own them. I wish, that it hath 
been in my Hand, to make all pallatable according to the 
modern Taste : but Truth hath haired Lipps, & used in its 
utterance a rough Tune. I offer the whole to your Free- 
dom, either to burn or publish the same, or to make such 
alterations, as you think best: for altho' I am convinc'd of 
the Veracity of the Substance of the whole, yet must I sue 
for Pardon when the Expressions are defective, for I am a 
Foreigner to the Idiotism of the Language, which I hope 
to obtain from your Clemency. I hope, the whole will be 
forwarded by the Care of your Lady, with which and her 
Family we have in your Absence cultivated the same 
Friendship, which was established for many years: but I 
gave Mr. Christ: Marshal, 1 Liberty, to peruse said writ- 

1 Christopher Marshall, a Philadelphia publisher. 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 3 

ings, and even to copy of for his Friends, if he would, 
which have inquired for such Things, which I thought 
necessary not to conceal from you. 

The Present, which I have added, was the Father's 
musical Book, wherein are contained the most part of the 
Musical Concerts, by himself composed. It did cost three 
Brethren three Quarters of a Year Work to write the 
same: by the Imbellishment thereof it will appear, what 
a great Regard we had for our Superior, in the whole 
Book there is no musical Error. And as it was written 
before the Mystery of Singing was fully discovered, there- 
fore are not all the Keys therein mentioned. The Masters 
of that Angelic Art will be astonished to see that therein 
a Man, destituted of all human Instruction, came therein 
to the highest Pitch of Perfection, merely through his own 
Industry. Also, that when he did set up a School in the 
Camp, not only the Members of the Single Station were 
therewith occupied for many years: but also the Family- 
Brethren were also thereby enamoured, that their natural 
Affection, to their Family suffered a great Loss. 

It is a Wonder, how the even Notes and few half-notes 
can be so marvellously transposed, as to make thereby 
iooo Melodies, all of 5 Tunes, and some of 6 Tunes, yea 
some of 7 Tunes, also that they came not one the other in 
the Way. In the Composition the Father had the same 
Way as in his Writings, viz : he suspended his considering 
Faculty, and putting his Spirit on the Pen, followed its 
Dictates strictly, also were all the Melodies flown from the 
Mystery of Singing, that was opened within him, there- 
fore have they that Simplicity, which was required, to 
raise Edification. It is certain, that the Confusion of Lan- 
guages, which began at Babel, never did affect Singing: and 
therefore is in Substance of the Matter in the Whole 



4 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

World but one Way of Singing; altho? in particulars there 
may be Differences. 

As concerning our Oeconomy : It is true that it received 
by the Father's death a severe Shock; yet have we through 
the Grace of God, both Brethren & Sisters, hitherto main- 
tained our Ground and a visible Congregation. But shall 
not propagate the Monastic Life upon the Posterity; since 
we have no Successors, & the Genius of the Americans is 
bound another way. 

I have your kind Greeting communicated both to the 
Brethren & Sisters in the Camp : Which all send you their 
humble Reciprocation, the number of Brethren being 12 — 
and of the (3) Ladies 26, all good old Warriours. We 
all wish, that God would grant you in your high Age the 
Spirit of Rejuvenescency, and that, when satiated with 
Years, you might occupy your Lot in the Lord's Inheri- 
tance: in which humble wishes I in particular remain 

EPHRATA in Sir 

Pennsylvania 

the 1 2th of June Your obedient Servant 

1 77 1. Peter Miller. 

P. S. Please to tell Mr. Neate the humble Respect from 
all the Camp, especially from Brother Obed & me. 

This is followed by an introduction, three pages; then 
follows an elaboration of Beissel's Dissertation on Mans 
Fall, "Printed in Ephrata in 1765, and sold by Christo- 
pher Marshall in Philadelphia." This consists of nineteen 
chapters of 104 folio pages. 

In conclusion of this dissertation the writer states : 

Conclusion. 
These Sheets were by no means written with an Inten- 
tion, to sell them for infallible Truths: but to stir up the 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 5 

capacity of the Reader, and therefore is every line sub- 
mitted to Judgment Supernatural Things, if proposed 
even in the best method in Words, carry not with them 
that Impression, which they had, before they were uttered : 
and therefore are the Words of the h. Scripture defective. 
The Father would never publish any Creed, and was not 
well pleas'd with the many, we have now : I hope therefore 
the Reader will use in Reading those Lines the same Free- 
dom, which I have used in writing the same. For altho' 
the Substance of the matter stands firmly, yet am I a 
Foreigner to the Language, and have not sufficiently 
Words at Command to express clearly the Idees of the 
Mind. And if any Expression should seem offensive, or 
destroy any Article of our common Faith: I shall not refuse 
to acknowledge my Fault, knowing well that our own self 
is nothing else, but a concatenated Series of all Errors. 
With this I take my humble Leave from the Reader. 
Written at Ephrata in Lanca- 
ster County in Pennsylvania 
in the Year 177 1. 

Then follows: A translation of Beissel's Ninety and 
Nine Mystical Proverbs, after which comes a " Supple- 
ment to the Antecedent Discourses, 9 pages," and an 
appendix of a collection of 57 " Apophtegens taken from 
the Father's Writings." 

Peter Miller's translation of the 99 Mystical Proverbs 
unfortunately does not cover the whole of Franklin's im- 
print of 1730, but only the first fourteen (14) pages, of 
the original book. These are here reproduced upon oppo- 
site pages with a fac-simile of the German-Franklin Edi- 
tion of 1730. 

In the original as printed by Franklin, these 99 Mystical 
Proverbs are followed with Sixty-two Poetische Gedichte 



6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

(poetical poems), pp. 14-23. Lection eines Christen, 
welche ihne sein Chrmeister zu lernen auf gegben (A) 
Christian's Lesson — imparted for study by his instructor) , 

PP. 24-25- 

Eine sehr nachdenchiche unter werffung, und bevgung 
unter diese lehr (A very impressive submission, and obedi- 
ence to this doctrine under this rule), pp. 26-27: Andere 
Section (Another lesson), pp. 28-32. 

Conrad Beissel and sectarian associates were among the 
earliest patrons to encourage and patronize Benjamin 
Franklin in his efforts as an independent printer in Phila- 
delphia, after his return to America from England in 1726. 
According to the Chronicon Ephratense, the first book 
issued by these Sabbatarians, was Beissel's Buchlein von 
Sabbath. This was printed, according to the Chronicon, 
in 1728, the year when Franklin formed the partnership 
in the printing business with Hugh Meredith. As no copy 
of this book in the German has thus far been found, nor 
known to exist, it is impossible to even surmise by whom 
it was printed. 

As the book aroused considerable attention, Michael 
Wohlfarth (Welfare in English) later Brother Agonius 
of the Ephrata community, translated the book into Eng- 
lish. This was printed in the following year, 1729, by 
Andrew Bradford. It bore the following title •} | Mys- 
tyrion Anomias, | The | Mystery of Lawlesness | or | Law- 
less Antichrist | Discovered and Disclosed. | 

At the same time a book of Wohlfarth was issued from 
the same press, under the title : | The | Naked Truth | Stand- 
ing against all Painted and Disguised | Lies, Deceit, and 
Falsehood | or the | Lords Seventh-Day | &c. 2 

1 For account of this book, " Full Title and Fac-Simile," see " The Ger- 
man Sectarians of Pennsylvania," Philadelphia, 1899, Vol. 1, p. 140 et seq. 

2 Ibid., p. 148 et seq. 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 7 

But a single copy of above books is known to exist, one 
being in the library of the writer. 

In the year 1729 there were no less than four printing 
offices in the infant City of Philadelphia. These were: 
Andrew Bradford, at the Sign of the Bible in the Second 
Street; Samuel Keimer, in Second Street; David Harry, 
printer in Philadelphia in Second Street; Franklin and 
Meredith, New Printing Office in High Street near the 
Market. 

A careful examination of the above two issues abso- 
lutely proves them to be issues of the press of Andrew 
Bradford. 

At an early day an acquaintance had been formed be- 
tween Conrad Beissel, Michael Wohlfarth, Samuel Ecker- 
ling and Benjamin Franklin. This resulted in Beissel 
engaging Franklin to print a new work for him in 1729 
under the title: Mystische, und sehr geheyme Sprueche. 
Usually known as the "Nine and Ninty Mystical Prov- 
erbs." This book bore Franklin's imprint and date 1730. 

Franklin's earliest business journal, which has come 
down to us, begins July 4, 1730. A careful examination 
of the issues of Franklin's press for the year 1729 shows 
that he had but two paid commissions besides Conrad 
Beissel's Mystical Proverbs, viz: Ralph Sandiford — A 
Brief Examination of the practice of the times &C, 1 and 
John Thompson — An Overture Presented to the Reverend 
Synod. 2 All other issues of his press during that year 
appear to have been ventures of his own. Neither the 
Mystische Sprueche, nor the Gottliche Liebes und Lobes 
Gethone, bearing the Franklin imprint of 1730 are men- 
tioned in his journal, consequently both were finished and 
paid for before Franklin began his business journal, July 
4, I730- 



8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

There is but a single original copy of the Mystische 
Sprueche known to exist. This was formerly in possession 
of Mr. Henry S. Heilman, of Lebanon, who lately sold it 
to a Philadelphia dealer for the sum of five hundred and 
fifty dollars. Several years prior to the above sale, the 
present writer secured photographic negatives of every 
page of this unique Franklin imprint, fourteen pages of 
which are reproduced in connection with this paper. 

When Prior Jaebez sent this manuscript to Franklin, he 
also sent him one of the illuminated Manuscript Music 
Books. No trace of this book is now to be found in the 
Archives of the American Philosophical Society. 

In the latter part of his introduction to this unique 
manuscript Rev. Peter Miller directly states that all of this 
music was composed by the " Father " ( Conrad Beissel) , and 
that in the whole book there is no musical error. Further 
that " The Masters of that Angelic Art will be Astonished 
to see therein a Man, destitute of all human Instruction 
[i. e., musical knowledge], came therein to the highest 
Pitch of Perfection, merely through his own Industry." 

A careful perusal of this part of Rev. Miller's introduc- 
tion will show that it substantiates and verifies the trans- 
lations and statements in the paper on the "Ephrata 
Music " in Vol. XII of the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society and Sachse's " German Sectarians," Chap- 
ter VI., Vol. II. 

As before stated Beissel's Ninty and Nine Mystical 
Proverbs are followed with 62 Poetische Gedichte (poeti- 
cal poems) these Peter Miller did not translate but in their 
place added fifty-seven short, pithy, instructive sayings, 
selected from Beissel's writings, as these have never been 
published, they are printed here as a fitting conclusion to 
this paper. 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 

M YSTI S C HE 

Und fehf geheyme 

SP RUECHE, 

Welche in dcr Himlifchen fchule des 
heiligcn geiftes erlernet. 

Und dan folgens, einige 
QOETISCHE GEDICHTE. 

AUFFGESETZT. 

Den liebhabern und fchulern dei 
Gottlichen und Himmlifchen 

weifzheit zum dienft. 

V O R 

Die fau diefer weltaber, habenwirkcine 

fpcife, wcrden ihncn auch wohl cin 

vcrfchloflcncr garden, und 

vcrfiegelter bnm- 

nen bleibcn. 

Tax P H ILJD ELPHIA. 
Gedruckc bey B.FRANKLIN in Jahr 1730* 



io The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



(3) 




M YSTIS C HE 

Und fehr geheyme 

$PRUECHE,&q. 



%%5tfICH felber recht erkennen ift die 
•J jJ5 hdchfte vollkommenbeir, und den eini- 
«r> S ,_* g en ^ Ewigen, und unfichtbahren Gotc 
r« r « r «r" in Chrifto Jefu recht verehren und an- 
blBlBlm beten> ift das Ewige leben. 

e. Alleuntugend ift funde, aber dochiftkeinefb 
grofz als die; von Gott gefchieden fein. 

.3. WerGottliebet, der ift von Gott, und hat den 
eingebohrnen fohn in ihm bleibeud, dann deifelbe 
ift auf^egangen und kommen von Gott. 

4. Die hficbfte wcifzheit ift, keine weifzheit ha- 
ben: doch ift der der hochfte, dcr Gott befitxet, 
daun Er ift allein weifz. 

A 2 5- ^ le 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. n 



NINETY NINE 

MYSTICAL SENTENCES, PUBLISHED FOR THE 

SCHOLLARS OF DIVINE WISDOM BY THE REV: 

FATHER CONRAD BEISSEL AND PRINTED 

AT PHILADA. BY B. FRANKLIN 

Anno 1730. 

1. To know truly himself, is the highest Perfection: and to 
worship and adore right the only, everlasting and invisible God 
in Jesus Christ, is Life eternal. 

2. All wickedness is Sin: yet is none so great, but to be sep- 
arated from God. 

3. Whosoever loveth God, is from God, and hath the unigenite 
Son remaining in himself, for the same did proceed from God. 

4. The highest Wisdom, is, to have no Wisdom: yet is he the 
highest, which possesseth God, for He is alone Wise. 



12 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



(4) 

c. Alle wercke die ein menfch thut, bringen ihn 
an das ende, worzu fie gefchehen, es fey urn Gottcs 
oder urn fein felbft willcn. 

6. Baue Gott keinen tempel, aufler Jerufalem* 
damit du kcinem frcmden dcine gabe bringeir, 
und er dir auch lohne. 

7. Trage kein feuer in einem hftlrzernen gcfafis 
damir es dich nicht verfchre. Baue abcr emeu Al- 
tar von neuen fteinen, und lege fein rauchwerck 
darauff, und lafz es durchgluen von dem feuer der 
liebe Gortes, lb wird ein lieblicher geruch auf- 
fieigen vor ieine heilige naien. 

8. Sey allezeit klein, und niedrig im hohen 
ftande, und baueja nicht tfberfich, ehe du die tiefen 
eemeflen, du mb'gteft fonft fiber die maafz kommen, 
m deinem auf-fteigen, und dcin bau zerbrechen. 

9. Undfcaue&r ja keinen ftul in den Himmel, 
ehe du die erde xu deinem fusbanck haft ; du mog- 
tcft fonft die erde fur den Himmel erwahlet haben. 

10. Srreite wieder niches, dafz dirzu roachtig ift, 
doch halte wache bey dir ftlbft, damit du nicht 
von deinem eigenen Haufgefindt ermordet werdeft. 

1 1. Baue dem Haufs mit emfigkeit, und lege den 
grundt niedetwerts, und fctze es auf feulen ; und 
wann du auf die h8hc kommeft, Co wende fleifc 
an, dafz du ein gut dach daruber deckeft, damit 
du dich darunter verbergeft, wanns trub hergehef, 
und nicht verberben muUeft zur zeit der noth. 

j 2. Bewahre dein hertz vor den nacht-dieben, 
doch fehc wohl zu dafz der mittags-teuflfel nicht 
mit leinen Engeln in deinen garten komme, und 
denweinftockendieaugen abbeiflcn, welches fchlim- 
mer, als wen die wilden fchweyne hinein brechen, 
den diefelbige zerwdhlen nur die erde. 

13. Zur nacht warms trub und finfter iff* Co 
wende dein aug allezeit gegen aufgang, dann 
wann die forme aufgehct, Co verbergen flch alle 

wide 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 13 



5. All Works, which a man Worketh, bring him to that End, 
for which they are calculated, either for God's or his own Self's 
sake. 

6. Build no Temple without Jerusalem, lest thou mightest offer 
thy Gifts to a Foreigner, and he also might reward thee. 

7. Carry no Fire in a Wooden Vessel, lest it might burn thee 
but build an Alter from new Stones, and put thereon good Frank- 
incence, and let the Fire of divine Love penetrate the same: then 
shall a pleasant Odour raise before his holy Nose. 

8. Be always little and humble in a high Station, and raise not 
they Building high, before thou hast measured the Depth, lest thou 
mightest in thy ascending come above the Measure, and thy Build- 
ing be destroyed. 

9. And build not for thyself a Seat in Heaven, before thou hast 
made the Earth thy Footstool: lest thou mightest have chosen the 
Earth for the Heaven. 

10. Fight with nothing, which proves to mighty for thee: yet 
keep good watch with thyself, lest thou mightest be killed by thine 
own Domestiks. 

11. Build thine House with Industry, and make its Foundation 
in the Depth, and let it be supported by Pillars: and when thou 
commest to the Roof thereof, study to make a good Covering, 
whereunder thou mayst hide thyself in Cloudy Seasons, and 
mightest not perish in Time of Distress. 

12. Beware thine Heart against Night-Thieves, yet take good 
care, lest the Noon-Devil with his Angels might enter into thy 
Garden, and bite off the Eyes of thine Vines : which is worse, than 
when the wild Boars break in, for those only rout the Soil. 

13. At Night-Time, when it is cloudy and dark, turn thy Eye 
continually towards Son-raising: for when the Sun raiseth, then 



14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



(5) 

wilde thiere, und verkriechen fich in ihre hohlen, 

14. Und wann dir die fonne .aufgegangen, fo 
gehe an deine arbeir, und arbe'ue lehr emfig in 
deinera tagwerck fort, und wende dein aug fehr 
offt gegen auf und niedergang, damir du icheft 
wie weit der tag verloffen, auf das dir die fonne 
nicht untergehe und die nacht dich uberfalle, ehe 
du dein tagwerck vollendet, und du muffed hauflen 
auf dem feld bleiben, wann die thure der Sradc 
verfchloifen find. So du aber dein tagwerck vol- 
lendet am liechten-tagc, fo gehe bin und helffe 
deincn brfldcrn ; fo wirft du eine Sch&'ne wohnung 
im lande der lebendigen haben > und dein gewachs 
wird griinen uud bliihen zu feiner zcit, und wirft 
dich erkflhlen am abend des tages, da dich keine 
fonne mehr ftcchen wird. 

15. Sey nicht trSge indeinem thun, damit dtt 
dein maafz erffllleft, es ley zum guten odcr zum 
b8fen, fo wirftu deffelbigen lohn empfahen ; doch 
lafz das beftc allezeit das liebftc fein. 

16. Vertiau, noch vcrmuthe niemal das befte zu 
dir, damit dich dein feind nicht fahe mic dcinem 
eigenen netz ; dann niemand ift gur ais der eiaigc 
Gott. 

1 7. Wer bey fich felbft weHe ift, der ift ein narr, 
dann alle wehzheit ift von Gott, und die inn lieb- 
haben ehren diefelbige. 

18. Alles was der menfeh thut, das bringet inn 
zu demfelbigen eude, worzu es gefchiehet, es fey 
das leben, oder der todt. Darum, fo lafz keine 
werckc an dir gefunden werden, die den todt zu 
ihrem befitzer haben. 

19. Nicht ift das grofs und hoch, wo man davor 
h2lt : Sondern das ift hoch zu achten, wo in der 
niedrigkeir des fohns Gottes eiflunden wird. 

20- Es find wedcr hdhen, noch fiefen gemeflcn, 
doch hat des bcydeeesehen.wowenigvon ihm 
fdberbfilt. S ° Weir 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 15 



all wild Beasts hide themselves in their Holes. 

14. And when the Sun raiseth to thee, go about thine own 
Business with Industry, and Labour in thy Task, and turn thy 
Eye often towards Sun raising and Setting, to see, how far the 
Day is passed away: lest the Sun might Set, and Night overcome 
thee, before thou hast finished thy Task, and thou art forced, to 
tarry the Night on the Fields, when the City-Gates were shut. 
But if thou hast finished thy Task with Day-Light: then go and 
help thine Brethren, and thou shalt have a fine Abode in the Land 
of Living, and thy Fruit shall be verdant and blossom at her 
proper Season, and thou shalt refresh thyself at the Evening of the 
Day, when the Sun shall scorch thee no more. 

15. Be not lazy in thy Doings, that thou mayest fill thy 
Measure either in good or evil: yet prefer allways the best. 

16. Never have a good Confidence to thy own self, lest thine 
Enemy might catch thee in thine own Net: for none is good but 
the only God. 

17. Whosoever is wise with himself, is a Fool: for all Wisdom 
is from God, and all those, which love him, honour the same. 

18. All actions of a Man bring him to the same End, for whose 
sake they are done, either for Life or Death: therefore let no 
Works be found on thee, whose Possessor is Death. 

19. Not is he great and high, which is looked upon as flesh: but 
he is highly to be esteemed, which hath his Conversation in the 
Meekness of the Son of God. 

20. Neither the Heights nor Depths are yet measured; but he 
hath seen both, which thinketh little of himself. 



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St. Wcit ift der gerciiTt, der flahe bey ihm fel- 
bcr ill , hoch ift dcr gcftiegen , dcr allezeit in der 
Uefcn wandelc. 

22. Gche richtig vor dich hin, nach Jeru&lem, 
und fehe nicht hinder dich , dann in Babel find die 
fprachen verwirret. 

23. Sey richtig in dcinem thun, und befuche 
dein Hauls des nachts, damic du am cage k&incft 
wandcln. 

24. Haft du dcinen faamen gedet, fo bringe ihn 
bey zeiren unter die erden, es mflgren fonftcn die 
vogel des Himmels ihn auS'reflen, und du in der 
crndtc mflflcft mangel leiden 

25. Bauc kein Haufs aufler deincm vattcrlandr, 
und habe keinen wohn-platz, wo du nicht dahcim 
bift ; doch wohne allezeit in dem Tempel zu Jeru- 
faiem, fo haft du eine fichere wohnung, denn 
dafelbft verheiflecder Herr friedefeinen einwohnern, 
und ift ielbft in dcr mitten. 

2f>. Wer feinen gedancken nachfolget, der fehlet 
des rechten weges, und wer aut" das gefchrey der 
v6gcl achrct, dcr wrrd nimmer weilz 

27. Alle werckc des Hcrrn, find 16blich , bey 
den weifen, aber die narren wandeln im finlremus; 
wann ihncn ichon eitel gutes wiederfahret. 

28. Gutc, und trcu begegnen einandcr auf dem 
wegc, wahrhcit und gerechtigkeit kufl'en fich cin- 
arider. 

29. Wer auf den windachrcr, der fact nichr, und 
wer urn derkalte wilien nicht pflflget, der erndtct 
nicht , und wer unoothigeu haodclu nachgeher, 
mu(z verderben. 

$0. Wer fallen (oil, der mufz zuvor ftehen, und 
wen der Hcrr aurTrichten foil, dcr mufe zuvor ge- 
fellcn fein. 

5!. Deriftgroft und hoehgclehrt, der allexett 
gem die niederfte fielle vertrin. 
6 32. Haft 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 17 



21. Far hath he travelled, which is come to himself: and he 
raiseth himself very high, which hath his Conversation in the 
Depth. 

22. Go strait forwards to Jerusalem, and do not look back: for 
in Babel are the Languages confused. 

23. Be upright in thy Doings, and visit thine House at Night- 
Time, that thou mayest walk on the Day. 

24. If thou hast showed thy Seed, bring the same in due Time 
under Ground; lest the Birds of Heaven will eat it up, and thou 
shalt suffer Famine in Harvest-Time. 

25. Build not a House without thy native Country, neither 
have a Dweling-Place, where thou art not at home: but dwell 
continually in the Temple at Jerusalem, then thou are sure in thy 
Habitation, for there the Lord promiseth Peace to his Inhabitants 
and is himself in their Midst. 

26. Whosoever followeth his own Thoughts, misseth the true 
Way, and whosoever taketh Aside from the Singing of Birds, 
shall never grow wise. 

27. All works of the Lord are commendable with the Wise: but 
the Fools walk in Darkness ; altho' they richly are loaded with all 
Sorts of Goodness. 

28. Benignity and Sincerity meet one another on the Way: 
Truth and Righteousness kiss one another. 

29. Whosoever observeth the Wind, will not sow: and whoso- 
ever will not plough because of the cold Season, shall also not 
reap. And whosoever meddled with unnecessary Things, must 
perish. 

30. No man can fall, except he stood before: and whom the 
Lord shall erect (lift up) must have been before fallen. 

31. The same is great and high learned, which allways willingly 
occupieth the lowest Station. 



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32 Haft du deinen acker gct>3Uer, und deinen 
faamen gefaet, fo gib dich in ruh ; doch nimm der 
zeit wohl wahr, damit du deinen faamen nicht im 
■winter faeft, wann die fonne keine krafft hat. 

33. Lafz frieden wohnen, in deinen thoren, und 
gercchtigkeic in deinen gangen, fo wird keine plage 
xu deiner htftten fich nahen, und kein ungluck 
wird dein Haufs treffen. 

34. Wer fich zu den gortlofen gefellet, der ift 
cin narr, und wer fpStterey lieber, der tSdtet feint? 
eigene feele. 

35. Die frucht der weifen ift friede, und ein- 
rtacht; aber narrhcit wird gefunden, bey deuen die 
den frieden halTen. 

3f5. Die thorc Jerufalems werden offen ftehen, 
den kindern meines volcks, bis zur mitternacht, 
aber die heuchler werden rru'ilTen drauflen bleibcn, 
ob fie auch fchon am lichren rage wandeln. 

37. Wer fein Haufs bauet nut anderer leut gut, 
der famlet feuer, daflelbe zuverzehren. 

38. Wer Gott dienet, in cinem fremden kleidt, 
deflfen thorheit wird vor der gemeyne offenbahr 
werden. 

39. Mein (bhn, hute dich vor diebftahl, damic 
du keinem andern das feine verprafleft, und du fcl- 
ber dabey verderbeft, lafs aber deine feele fatt wer- 
den, von deiner cigenen hande werck ; to wirft du 
den fegen empfangen von Gott dem allerhbchften, 
dan geraubet und geftohlen gut gedcyef nicht. 

40. Lafz dich von niemand loben nocb fchelten, 
als nur von deinen cigenen wercken die in deiner 
fcelen auigebohren werden. 

m 41. Grejflf in kein fremdes Ampt, und mifchedich 
nicht in fremdc hfndel, fondern warte des deinen, 
damit du dein eigen tagwerck vollendeft, und nimm 
dich (lets deflen an, was dir bcfohlen, fo wird end- 
Ikh das gewachs deiner gerechtigkett dit dienen 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 19 



32. Hast thou cultivated thine Acre, and fittried him, then sow 
thereon thy Seed, and rest thyself: but take good Care of the 
Time, lest thou mayest Sow thy Seed in the Winter-Season, when 
the Sun hath no Strength. 

33. Let Peace dwell in thy Gates, and Righteousness in thy 
Passes, then no Pleague shall approach to thy Tents, and no 
unluky Accident Shall touch thine House. 

34. Whosoever associateth himself to the Wicked, is a Fool: 
and whosoever loveth Mockery, killeth his own Soul : 

35. The Fruit of the Wise is Peace and Concord: but Folly is 
found there, where Men hate Peace. 

36. The Gates of Jerusalem shall be open for the Children of 
my People until Midnight Time: but Hypocrites must remain 
without, altho' they walk at Day-Light. 

37. Whosoever buildeth his own House with the Goods of 
others: gathereth Fire for its Destruction. 

38. Whosoever worshipped God in a foreign Garment: his 
Folly shall be revealed before the whole Congregation. 

39. My Son ! beware of Thiefery : lest thou mayest wast anothers 
Goods, which might tend to thine own Destruction: but let thy 
Soul be satiated of the Works of thine own Hand, then shall thou 
have blessing from the highest God; for stolen and robbed Goods 
will never prosper. 

40. Let none praise or despise thee, but thine own Works, 
which were begotten in thy Soul. 

41. Meddle not with a foreign Office, neither mix thyself with 
strange Business; but take care of thine own, that thou mayest 
finish thy Task ; and take care of that, which is put to thy Charge, 
so shall at last the Growth of thine Righteousness serve thee in the 
Time of Necessity, and shall have Abundance in Time of Scarcity 
and Famine. But whosoever meddled with unnecessary Things, 
must perish. 



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zur zeit der noth, und wirft in der grofTen theurung 
und hungerfnoth gemig haben, wer aber unn6thig- 
cn fachen nachgehet mus verdcrben. 

42. Sey nicht doppelhertzig, noch zweyziingicht, 
dan einc zwcygabclichtc zunge machet ftirften un- 
eins, und ein doppeltes Hem veifto*ret die, fo gro- 
fen frieden haben, und hat felber nimmer kcine ruh. 

43. Htfre allezcit lieber, dann dafz du redeft, 
dann die ohren des wcifen mercken auf, aber des 
narren Hertz lieget auf fciner zungen. 

44. Wer leine zunge hewahret der bewahret icin 
leben, darumfehe wohl zu, dafz fie nicht dein Herr 
wcrde : und wo fie es ift ; fo lege fie in ftock, bis 
der Heir ihr gefangnus wendet ; alsdann werden 
der ftummen zungen lobfagen. 

4*. Eine (ache mag fo unfchuldig fein als fie 
will, fo foil man den tfberflus der woite meiden : 
foil alfo nie mehr worte machen, als was zur fach 
gehtfret. 

46. Ein weifer ift in dem allem geubt, und weilz, 
dafz, wer wohl reden will, dafz der crft wohl fchwey- 
gen lemen mufz. 

47. Ein veTftandiger mercket zu crft, che cr fra- 
get, ein narr aber bricht heraus, wie waffcr in ein- 
cm zerbrochenen damm. 

45. Reden bringer ehre, und reden bringet auch 
fchandc, ein weifer weifz fich in bcydes zu fchick- 
cn, und harret der zeit 

40. Desgleichen auch, hat fchweygen (cine zeit, 
zur ehre und fchande. der weilc aber tiift'ts, dann 
er waitet der zeit. 

50. Die wercke des Herm find loblich, bey den 
einfalrigen; Die aber veTkehrtes wegesfind, rathTen 
zu fchanden werden. 

51. Wer die wei&heit und ruthe veracht, der ift 
unfeelig; dann feine wercke find veilohren, und fein 
ende ift der todt. 

52. Wer 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 21 



42. Be not doubled-hearted, neither have a two-forked Tongue: 
for a two-forked Tongue sets Princes at Variance, and a double 
Heart destroyed such, which enjoy great Peace, and hath for itself 
never any Rest. 

43. Be more prone to hear, than to talk: for the Ears of the 
Wise man attend to; but the Fool's Hearth lyeth on his Tongue. 

44. He that guardeth his Tongue, guardeth his Life: therefore 
take good care, lest she might become thy Master; but if she is it 
already, put her into the Stocks, until the Lord changed her Cap- 
tivity, then shall the Tongue of the Speechless give Praise. 

45. Let a Thing be as innocent as ever it will: the Superfluity 
of Words must be avoided: therefore shall we never make more 
Words, than what belongeth to the Matter. 

46. A Wise Man is in all this very exercised, and knoweth, 
that whosoever will speake well, must first learn well to be silent. 

47. A -Man of Understanding taketh first Notice of the Matter, 
before he asketh: but a Fool breaketh through like Water in a 
broken Damn. 

48. To Speak bringeth Honour, and sometimes to speake 
bringeth Shame : a wise man knoweth to yield to both, and waiteth 
for the Time. 

49. The Works of the Lord are praise-worthy with the inno- 
cent: but they which travell on perversed ways, shall be ashamed. 

50. Also to be silent hath its Time, and sometimes inserves to 
Honour, sometimes to shame: but a wise man will hit the Mark 
in both, for he waiteth for the Time. 

51. Whosoever despiseth Wisdom and the Rod, is unhappy: 
for his Works are lost, and his End is Death. 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



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52. Wcr ilch zu feinem fchSpffer kehret, und 
nicht recht, der wird muhc zu John, und wetter 
zur cinernde bekommen. 

53. Die weifzheit ift ein fchon ding, doch £ndet 
fie nicht viel liebhaber, dann fie ift keufch. 

54. Der menfch bricht viel licber die Ehe mit 
eines andern weib, als dafz er fich vergnfigcn la'fet, 
an dem weibc, dafz ihm Gott zugefelle 

55. Kein hurer, noch Ehebrechcr geht ein, ins 
reich der Himmeln, fondern nur die, fo in der 
heiligen Ehe leben. 

56. Kein cinzeler wird das angcficht Gottes 
fchauen, dann er lcbet ihm felber, und bringet 
keine frucht. Wer aber in der heiligen Ehe ftehct, 
der lebet ihm felber nicht, dann er fuchet feinem 
weibe zu gefallcn, dieweii er in ihr fruchthar ift. 

57. Wer ohne Ehe lebet, der ift gleich einem 
baum, der zwar bliihet, und auch Schftnc blotter 
hat, Aber bringet kcine frucht. 

<8. Darum foil der menfch frflh darzu thuu, 
daiz cr fich eine erfehe, womit er kSnnc in liebc 
pflegen, und alfo in ihr fruchtbar werde. Mufz. 
aber mit allcm fieifz zufehen, daft er fich nicht 
vcrhanget an eine hcizliche bauren-tOchter, oder 
an cine* armen burgers in der Stadt, allwo man fein 
brod rait faurer arbeit erwerben mus, fonft mufx cr 
ein knecht nnd fclaf fein, feintebenlang, und mufz 
zuletit noch btffen danck xu lohn haben. 

59. Darum fche dich urn, nach einer fchSnen 
reichen, und Edelen, als die da ift von Adclichem 

feblfic, da darfr* man nicht hart arbeitcn, um fein 
rod und klcyder, und kan leben in grofcm fric* 
den und ergtfiztichkeit ah ihrer fch&ie, und ift von 
ihrem reichrhura verlbrget, dafz einem an nahrung 
nicht mangeln wird fein lebenlang. 

60. Wann du aber erwachfen, and zu deinem 
volten alter kommen, kinder zu zeugen, und haft 

B ' die 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 23 



52. Whosoever converteth himself to his Maker, and not right: 
shall have pains for his Reward, and Tempests for his Harvest. 

53. Wisdom is a fine Thing: yet hath she not many Courtiers, 
for she is chaste. 

54. Men are more prone to commit Adultery with another's 
Wife : than to content themselves with that Wife, which God hath 
associated to them. 

55. No adulterer neither whoremonger shall enter into the 
Kingdom of God ; but only those, which live in holy Matrimony. 

56. No single man shall see the Face of God, for he liveth for 
himself, and bringeth forth no Fruit: but whosoever liveth in holy 
Matrimony, liveth not for himself, for he studieth to please his 
Wife, for in her he fructified. 

57. Whosoever liveth without Matrimony, is like a Tree, which 
blossometh, and hath fine Leaves: but beareth no Fruits. 

58. Therefore shall we in early Time concern ourselves for one, 
which we may love, and also fructify in her. Yet must we take 
good Care, not to marry an ugly Farmer's or a poor Citizen's 
Daughter, where we must gain our Bread with hard Labour all 
our Life-time, and yet shall at last receive an evil Reward for all 
our Labour. 

59. Therefore concern thyself for a fine, righ and noble one, 
which is of noble Blood : there thou needest not to work hard for 
thy Bread and Rayment; but canst live very contentedly, and canst 
rejoice thyself in her Beauty and provide thyself with her Riches, 
also that thou shalt not be in Want of thy Allowance for all thy 
Life. 

60. But if thou art grown up, and arriv'd to the Years of Ma- 
turity, also that thou art fit to begot Children, and hast not yet 



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die fchtfne und Edele noch nicht funden. So reife 
wit Jacob in demo: Mutter, Vatters-hauiz, zu dei- 
ncr Mutter Biuder, derfelbe hat zwey tochter, die 
cine heife't wcifzheir, die andere thorheit. Die 
wiifl: da durch dcinen havten dienlt zu vveibcrn er- 
werben, wiewohl dir nur die fchtfne als die weirz« 
licit (cdev Rahel) beliebeti wird, Co wirft du doch 
zu eift def thorheit (oder lea) mtiflen bcyliegen, 
dann rait dcifclbigen wirft du erft fruchtbar wevden. 
Abcr fehe wohl zu, dafz du den ctft gebohrnen 
fohn nicht zum erben raacheft ; dann cr wird durch 
hochauffteigen dein bett beliideln. Der zweyte 
und drittc ifts auch nicht, dann fie werden dutch 
gleifznerey lugen redener fein, und duvch falfchcn 
fchein zu moVder werden. Genes xxxv. v. 17, 25, 26. 
Juda, dcr itls, den werden fcine BruMer loben. Zu- 
letzt wird Jofeph, dcr Sohn der weifzhcit gcboh- 
ren, Dicfer ift Kcufch, Ziichtig, und JungfrXulich. 
Und wann du diefen haft, fo mache dich auf, und 
, zeuch nach dcinem Vattcrlandt ; Dann Gott, der 
dich biflier gefegnet hat, wird rnit dir (cin auf, 
dcinem wege, und wird dir auch dcinen erftge- 
bohmen Brudci untcrtha'nig machen, damit du dcr 
crbe feyeft und bleibeft, immcr und Ewiglich. 

61. Habc deine Mutter in ehren, und vcrgifA 
nicht wic fauer du ihr worden bill, dann fie hat 
dich untcr ihrem hertzen getragen, und vor dich 
Seforgct, dafz dir das lofz aufts licbliche fid, und 
hat dich zum erftgebohmen fohn gemacht, auf dafz 
dir cin gut erbe wcrde im lande dcr lebendigen. 

61. Verlafz, nicht das weib deincr Jugend, und 
hutc dich mil allcm fleifc, dafz dein Hertz keinem 
fremden wcibe zufalle. 

63 Dcr fonncn fchein, haltc allczeit hober dann 
des mondtcn fchein. Doch fchc zu, dafc du reine 
augen habeft, dafz dich das helleiiccht nicht blende, 
undmfifler hernach im tuncfedn wanddo, und durch, 
frlfchen fchein vcrfflhrtt werden. H- Da. 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 25 



found that beautiful and noble Woman : then go with Jacob in the 
House of thy Mother's Father, to thy Mother's Brother, which 
hath two Daughters, the one called Wisdom, the other Folly. 
Those shall thou gain by thine hard Labour for Wives. But 
altho' the beautiful or Wisdom (:Rahel:) shall please thee, yet 
must thou lay by first with Foolishness or Lea; for with her shalt 
thou fructify: Yet must thou take good Care, not to make the 
first-born Son thy Heir, for he shall through Self-Elevation stain 
thy Bed. Neither is it the second or the third: for Instruments 
of Cruelty were found in their Habitations Gen: 49-5. But 
Judah is it, whom his Brethren shall praise. At last will be born 
Joseph, the Son of Wisdom: the same is chaste and virginal: and 
if thou hast acquired him, go on thy Journey to thy native Country. 
For God, which hath blessed thee hitherto, shall be with thee on 
the way, and shall also make subject unto thee thy first-born 
Brother, that thou mayest be the Heir for Ever. 

61. Honour thy Mother, and forget not her Travells about 
thee : for she carried thee under her Heart, and took Care for thee, 
that the Lines fell unto thee in pleasant Places, and hath made 
thee a first-born Son, that thou mightest have a good Portion in 
the Land of the living. 

62. Forsake not the Wife of thy Youth, and be carefull, lest thy 
Heart might adhere to a foreign Woman. 

63. Thou shalt allways prefer the Shine of the Sun before the 
Shine of the Moon: yet take Care, that thy Eyes be pure, lest the 
clear Light might dazle the same, also that afterwards thou must 
travell in Darkness, and be deceived by a false Shine. 



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6*4. Danim fehe wohl zu, dafc du keinera weibf 
zufallcft in dem iande da dich dcine Muttec geboh- 
rcn hat, damit du keinec aus-Iandifchen deinea Ja- 
amen gebeft, und alfo deiu gdegneteslofTjundcrb- 
tbcil gcmeyn raachdl. 

6y Wann du fieheft die ibnne unterffchco,. (6 
fche ihr nicht nach, dafz. fie foil von da wicder 
kommen, fonft ergreiffct dich die finfternus, dann 
dicfelbe folget allcieit dcm liecht nach. Kchre 
aber urn, undwendedein angefichtgegen Auffgang*, 
fo wird dich ihr helles liecht wiederum urogeben, 
und witft erguicket werden mit einera hcblichcn 
Morgen-thau. 

66. Dem blinden ftcll kein liecht vor, und hey 
dem dauben mache nicht viel wort. Dann die ko- 
iften find umfonft, und die mflhe id verlohren. 
Doch fetzeinmauch keinen anftofz, damit du nicht, 
urn feynet willen mflfleft fchuld tragen. 

67. Der Herr ift fciud, alien doppclhertxi^en 
und zweyfecligen, weh dencn ! die damic verftrjekt 
find, wie will cs ihnen gehen auf den tag, wann 
Gort die fcelen richren wird ? 

<J8. Das ftraffen dcr wcifen thut wo!, dem dcr 
es zu heruen nimmct, aber das liebkofen des heuch- 
lers, bringet wdrme und motten. 

69. Die wotte dcr wcifen find ein feuer, g und 
fcrennen den fpfttter, bis in fcin eingeweydt hincin. 
Aber das kuTzendes heuchlcrs thut ihm wol. 

70. An der fiucht fiehet man wic des baums ge- 
wartet iflr, alfo fieher man einen Mann, an ieincm 
wefen und thun, was er iia finn hat. 

71. Lobe niemand in feinen wercken, vor dem 
ende und aufgang. Dann in dem todt und ende 
der wercke, fichct man, was einer vor cin Mann 
gewefen. 

72. Der todt ift der ftinden fold, darum find alle 
wercke die vor dem todt hergehen, vorbetten des 

B z todtej, 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 27 



64. Therefore have good Care, not to join with a Woman in 
the Country, where thy Mother hath begotten thee: lest thou 
mayest bestow thy seed upon a foreign on, and also make common 
thy blessed Lot and Portion. 

65. If thou dost see the Sun setting, do not look after her, as 
if she would raise from thence again, or else Darkness will catch 
thee, for the same followeth allways the Light: but turn thy Face 
towards East, then shall her clear Light again surround thee, and 
thou shalt be refresh'd with a pleasant Morning-dew. 

66. Before the blind put no Light, and with the deaf do not 
talk much, for the Costs are loss and the Pain for nothing: yet 
give them no Offense, lest a Guilt in his behalf might be laid upon 
thee. 

67. The Lord hateth all, which have double Hearts and two 
Souls : wo unto them, which are insnared therewith ! how will they 
fare at that Day, when Souls shall be judged by God. 

68. The Reprovings of the Wise are acceptable with those, that 
take them to Heart: but the Flattery of the Hypocrite created 
nothing but Worms and Motts. 

69. The Words of the Wise are a Fire, and burn the Morker 
to his very Bowels: but the Kissing of the Hypocrite doth please 
him. 

70. By the Fruit is to be seen, how the Tree was tended: also 
is a man known by his Behaviour, what is his Intention. 

71. Praise nobody in his Deeds before the End: for in the Death 
and End of the Works it appeareth, what a Man he was. 

72. The Death is the Wages of Sin: therefore are all Works, 
which precede Death, foretellers of the same; but they, which 



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todtes, und die nach dem todt folgen, Zeigen an, ' 
dafz ein neues leben gebohren. 

72. Wol denen, die urn der gerechtigkeic willen 
leyckn, die fterben einen feeligcn todtes, denn der 
todt der heiligen, ift theuer geachtet. 

74. Darum i'ehe zu, dafz du eines (eeligen todtes 
ftcrbeft, dann alle wercke vor dem todte, find eine 
urfach, zu einem feeligcn, oder zu cinem unfceli- 
gen todte. 

75. Wirempfahen, was uniere thatenwerth find, 
fagt der murder : Wol dem, der fich nicht felber 
rcchtfertigct, der kan eines fecligen todtes fterben. 

76. Wcr fcin leben licb hat, der wirds vcrlieren, 
und wcr es verlicret, der wirds finden. 

77. Der fpfoter und hcuchler mufz vicl lcidcn, 
dann er will zwey leben zugleich befitzen. 

78. Todt und leben wohnen nicht zugleich in 
einem Haufi beyfammen, dann wo das eine kom- 
mt, da geht das ander weg. 

79. Darum, lb nimm cur nicht vor, zwey Her- 
ren zugleich dienen, fie mSgten dir zuletzt beyde 
ilbel lohnen. 

80. So viel an dir ift, Co diene Gott mit gantzem 
hertzen, oder du wirft nur 2rger dardurch, und 
muft zuletzt doppelte ftreiche leyden. 

Si. Wcr Gott mit halbem hertzen dienet, der 
"wird wfirme und motten zu lohn haben. 

82. Alles was du thuft, (b gedencke an das ende 
und aufgang deiner wercke, To wirft du auch den 
anfang erkennen lemen. 

S5. In alien dingen wo du fieheft, dafz dir Gott 
am ende nicht lohnen kan, fo verlafe den anfang, 
fo kommeft du zu keinem b6Tcn ende. 

84. Ein jeglichcr Herr, lohnet leinem knecht 
nach feinem dienft, darum fehe wobl zu r dafz 
keine werke an dir gefunden werden, die einen 
b&Tai lohn zugewartcn habcm 



Ninety Nine Mystical Sentences. 29 



follow after Death, indicate, that a new Life is born. 

73. Happy are those, this suffer for Righteousness sake, they 
dye a happy Death: for the Death of the Saints is very precious. 

74. Therefore take good Care, to dye a happy Death: for all 
Works preceding Death, are a Cause of a happy or unhappy Death. 

75. We receive the due Reward of our Deeds, saith the Mur- 
derer: happy is he, which doth not justify himself, for the same 
can dye a happy Death. 

76. Whosoever loveth his Life, shall loose it; and whosoever 
loseth the same, shall find it. 

77. The Mocker and Hypocrite must suffer much, for he wanted 
to possess two Lives at once. 

78. Death and Life do not reside together at once in one House: 
for when the one cometh, the other goeth away. 

79. Therefore do not propose to serve two Masters: for both 
might at last give thee evil Wages. 

80. Strain all thy Faculty, to serve God from the whole Heart: 
or else thy Situation turns worster, and at last thou shall receive 
double Stripes. 

81. Whosoever worshippeth God with a half Heart: the same 
shall have Worms and Motts for his Wages. 

82. In all, what thou dost, consider the End and Issue of thy 
Works, so shalt thou also learn to know the Beginning thereof. 

83. In all Things, of which thou knowest, that God at the End 
can not reward thee: leave also thee Beginning, then shalt thou 
not come to a bad End. 

84. Every Master pays out his Servant according to his Merits: 
therefore take Heed, that no works might be found with thee, 
which have merited bad Wages. 



3© The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



(»3) 

8$. Seeligift, der in fcinen wercken kein bofcs 
end zu gewarten hac. 

80* Wol dera der cin gut gewiflen hat, und ver 
ljfct alien bSfen anfang, fo findet er ein gutcsende. 

S7. Darum vcrlafe allc werckc, die Gott nicht zu 
ihrem anfang haben, dann in einer fachen wo Gott 
der anfang nicht ift, da kan er auch am ende nicht 
lohnen. 

SS. Und fehe zu, dafz du in deinen wercken 
dich nicht felber xum zweck habeft, fonft veifehl- 
eft du des rechten weges, und biingeft *ohl deino 
wercke ans ende, aber dich felber nicht. 

80. Sey nimmer muTig, fondem arbeitc fleifig in 
deinem rufT, auf da& du was zu geben haft dem 
dflrrrtigen 

90. Vor alien dingen hfite dich, dafz du kemera 
andern umfonft fcin brod abetted, es mogtecin hun- 
ger ins land kommen, und du mGiTeft es hemach 
theuer bczahlen. 

91. Darum verlafz dich auf keines andern tifch, 
ob du es fchon haben kanft. Dan der hochfte vcr- 
gelter der alles fiehet, mfcgte dir es rechncn, uod 
du mflgtcft alsdann nicht /.ubeiahlen haben. 

92. Liebe den fchlafT nicht, auf dafz du niche 
vcrarmeft, dann ein ichla'Ser mufz zurhTcnc kleyder 
tragen. 

93. Darum, fo fehe zu, dafz du (lets des deinen 
warteft, und deiti brod efleft von dcincm eigenen 
ackerbau. Und klcideft dich, von den heerden del- 
ner fchafe, und werdeft warm von den fellen, dei- 
ner lSmmer, und efleft honig aus den felfcn, und 
Milch und Butter von den zygen, und werdeft 
fett von den Haimmeln und btfeken, und aJfo darf- 
feft weder kalte, noch fchneh, noch hunger fSrch- 
ten. Dan dein gantz.es Haufz hat eine zwey facho 
decke, und deine kammern find voll alles voraths 
auf viel Jahr. Dafs du auch in der grofen thenr- 

ung 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 31 



85. Happy is he, which needeth not to expect in his Work a 
bad End. 

86. Happy is he, which hath a good Conscience, and quitted 
every bad Beginning : also shall he find a good End. 

87. Therefore leave all Works, which have God not for their 
Beginning: for in a Thing, wherein God is not the Beginning, he 
can also neither reward at the End. 

88. And be carefull, not to have thy own self for a Scope in thy 
Works, for also thou missest the true way, and bringest thy Works 
to an End ; but not thyself. 

89. Be never idle; but work with Industry in thy Calling: that 
thou mayst have something to give to the needy. 

90. In all Things take care, not to eat anothers Bread for 
naught: lest a Famine might come in the Country and thou must 
pay dear for it. 

91. Therefore put not thy Thrust upon another's Table, altho 
thou canst have it : for the highest Recompenser, who doth see all 
Things, might put it on thy Account, and thou mightst then have 
nothing to pay for it. 

92. Love not Sleep, lest thou might be impoverished: for a 
drowsy Fellow must wear Suits worn out. 

93. Therefore take Heed, never to neglect thine own Business, 
and to eat Bread of thine own. Farm; that thou mayst cloth thy- 
self from the Herds of thy Sheep, and growest warm from the 
Skins of thy Lambkins, and mayst eat Honey from the Rock, and 
Milk and Butter from thy Goats, and growest fat from the Rams 
and he-goats: and needest not to fear neither cold nor Snow or 
Hunger. For all thy House hath double Coverings, and thy 
Chambers are filled with Provisions for many Years, which shall 



32 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



( 14) 

ung und hungers-noth wirlt genug habcn. 

94. Scy auch kcin fchlemmer und Prafl'er, damtt 
du dasdeine nicht ini wohlftand vcrzehrcft, und h«- 
nacb in dcr noth, muflcfl mangel Iciden! 

95. Thcile dein brod dcin nungerigen, und wo 
du einen nacket Hcheft fo klcyde inn. So wirft du 
einen fchafz iammlen in dcr norh, und cinen voratli 
auf vicl Jahr 

96- Scy nicht weife, bey dir felbft, ehc du den 
weg dcr ihorhctt durchwandclt haft Du roogteJr 
fonft die thorheit vor weifzheit befitzen. 

97. Und traue dir felber nigs gutes zu, bis du in 
deinen beften wercken bid zu fehanden worden. 
Dann niemand ift gut, dann dcr etnige Gott. 

98. Sreige ja nicht viberfich, ehe du die tiefen 
gemeffen, du mogteft, fonften in dcinem aufsterigen 
xu hoeh kommen. und ein andercr rn(i/Te dich 
thirteen. 

99. Klein und gering fein, in feinen eigenen au- 
gen. Das til der fieg in Gottes-krarTr. 

VOETISCHE GEDICHHE. 

OMcnfch ! bedenck es wohl, du fleckft dem todt 
im rachen, 
Wo du nacb wolluft lebft, kanGotr nigs aus dtr 
machen 

2. 
O Menfch J bedenck esdoch ! veilafz die eitle weir : 
Sonft wirft du mmmermehT zur frommen fcliaav ge- 
xSfhlt. 

Lafzab, von deineni fmn, dereitlen wolluft freud., 
bonftmogt dichsTeuendort, injennerewigkeir. 

4. Verworffcn 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 33 

suffice thee even in the greatest Famine. 

94. Neither be a Glutton or luxurious, lest thou mayst ruin thy 
Estate by debauching in Prosperity : and then suffer Want in Need. 

95. Distribute thine Bread among the Hungry, and if thou dost 
see any nacked, cloth him: then thou shalt gather a Treasure in 
Distress and Provision for many Years. 

96. Be not wise with thyself, before thou hast travelled through 
the way of Folly : lest thou mayst possess Folly for Wisdom. 

97. And put no Trust in thyself, until thou are confounded in 
thy best Works: for none is good, except the only God. 

98. Ascend not too high, before thou hast measured the Depth: 
lest in thy Ascending thou mayst come too high, and another might 
cast the down. 

99. To be little and low in his own Eyes, is the Victory in the 
Power of God. 

FINIS. 




34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



APPENDIX TO PETER MILLER'S 
MANUSCRIPT 

TO THE AFOREGOING SENTENCES, CONTAINING 

A COLLECTION OF APOPHTHEGMS TAKEN 

FROM THE FATHER'S WRITINGS. 

i. Be still and retire within thyself. In all Things, which thou 
undertakest to do: let not move thee from any Thing; except 
which bringeth thee from the quiet Chamber of thine own Essen- 
ciality. For from the stillness of Zion proceedeth the Brightness 
of God: therefore be airways still, and attend to what the Lord 
Speaketh within thee. 

2. In all thy Doings carry thyself as poor and a Possessor of 
nothing in this World, which by the Providence of God can be 
every Hour transposed into an utter Dereliction on God, Angels 
and Men, O what a happy Gain! when a Heart is emptied from 
the Comfort of all Creatures, and O! what Gladness & Comfort 
will it cause on the Day of the happy Eternity both on God and 
his Grace. 

3. If thou art mournfull, then be joyfull with the houfull: and 
when thou art hoyfull, then be mournfull with the Mournfull, lest 
thou mayst in an unbecoming Manner cumber others with thy 
Burdens. Assist them, which were in Distress, and be merciful 
towards the helpless. Comfort them, which were dejected, and 
help the afflicted: so as thou wishest God to be toward thee, be 
thou towards others. 

4. Despise not those, which are in Favour with God, and love 
not, which are by him hated. Let not thy Vessel be moved from 
the Winds of thine own Thoughts: but when it is calm stretch 
out thy Sails. When thy Time is over, Sleep: and when thou 
awaked, look about after the fine Day-Spring. 

5. In dark Times be bold and magnanimous: Prosperity be 
afraid: if it goes mediocriter, be thou the same. In glad Days 
be mournfull: in Prosperity Sorrowfull: if it goeth after thy 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 35 

Wishes, mourn for it. And in all this have no other Concern : but 
that thou mayst not neglect the Sufferings, which God hath 
ordained for thy Salvation, as long thou livest on Earth. 

6. Be of low mind, and cloth thyself not into a strange Form, 
lest thou mightest be puffed up by something, which thou art not. 
Also mind not, what thou art thyself, lest thou mayst abuse 
another's Goods: therefore be emptied both of what thou and 
others are, for an emptied Mind is a Tabernacle of God, and a 
possessor of Nothing is His Property. 

7. Cloth thyself in White, and have no Blood-coloured Gar- 
ment, except what clotheth thee for the Cross ( :the Purple-Cloak 
of Christ:) What hath in itself no remaining Substance, tell not 
to others. Thou shall not lie neither against God nor Men; but 
study both to talk, and to keep Silence well, then shall thou be 
acceptable both before God & Men. 

8. Thou shalt not rest securely in thine own Station. The more 
thou thinkest to be safe, the more dubious thou shalt be thereon, 
especially when thou art not yet returned from weeping, for it is 
written: He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious Seed, 
shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his Sheaves 
with him Ps: 126-6. O how many dangerous Irregularities are 
found in our well-meaning contentedness with our own-Self. 
Therefore, if thou will be sure, entertain a continual Disagree- 
ment with thyself: yet have the most Confidence unto God and 
thy Nighbour and the last of thy self. 

9. Whosoever concerned himself for thee in thy Distress, for 
him shalt thou concern thyself in his Wellfare. If thou dost pros- 
per, bewail thyself: if Things do ill with thee, be glad. Carry 
no Burdens, which are heavier, than thou art, or else thou shalt 
have no Wages for thy Labour, and shalt besides forget thyself, 
and neglect that, which is the most necessary. Only carry thyself 
well, and thou hast worked well. 

10. Thou shalt in all thine Words and Deeds have no other 
Will and Intention, but to make thine Nighbor happy, and to be 
unto him useful and edifying: and thou shalt between him and thee 



36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

neither be his or thine own Judge, lest thou mayst pass Judgment 
for him too severe and for thee too Mild. 

11. Thou shalt in all thy Life meddle with nothing else; but 
to love the only God from thy whole Heart, above all Visible and 
invisible & Created Things. And if this seemeth to thee too 
tedious: then spend thy Time in such Things, wherein thou canst 
be to thy Nighbour usefull and edifying. But thine own Things 
do also, that thou mayst be clear in thy Conscience at the Day of 
Judgment. 

11. Be not over-happy in passing Judgment over that, which is 
good or evil, before thou hast known anothers Scope, and the 
Issue thereof : for perhaps the one hath with an imperfect Thing a 
good, and the other with a perfect Thing a bad Intention. There- 
fore be carefull at all, not to imbark into another's Affairs, whereby 
thine own suffereth Detriment. 

12. Be never idle, watch, contemplate and meditate, who 
governs thy Doings: whether it be the chastising Spirit of God, 
or thine own perverse Nature. Besides this be easy, and meditate 
only such Things, which transcend thy Comprehension: then shall 
thou be qualified to receive advises from God, & sinnest not. 

13. Be peacable in all Things: art thou despised, content thyself 
therewith, thou art safe: art thou put in Eminence, suffer it as a 
Malefactor, and watch thyself narrowly. Whosoever hateth thee, 
for him make Attonement: bear him, which loveth thee, and of 
him, which prayeth thee, hold mediocriter. 

14. Be not against any Person, except thy own self: for thou 
canst bear this, without hurting another. Whosoever is not against 
thee, against him thou shalt be neither. And if any is thy Adver- 
sary: him shalt thou love, like thyself, and thank him, for he 
laboureth for thee gratis. Him, which is concerned for thee, thou 
shalt neither praise nor revile, for thou hast from both no Reward. 

15. Rejoice at thy God; rejoice at his Love; rejoice, that he is 
so marvellous in his holy Councils; rejoice, that he hath so 
marvellously forseen thee to everlasting Salvation; rejoice at that 
great Work of Grace in the new Covenant; rejoice that a naked 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 37 

Jesus, nailed on the Cross hath acquired for thee such a high 
Warfare to thy own Salvation : and therefore be glad at all Times. 

16. Not a better Proof have we of the Way to God, but this, 
viz: if one gets rid of himself: for as much a man possesseth him- 
self, as much is he an Evildoer, and hath an unlawful Property, 
& can therefore not escape being punished. And therefore so far 
as a man is emptied from himself, so far is he free from Sin, & so 
far he is free from Sin, so far beginneth he to love God. 

17. Before all Things be watchfull not to loose the Love of the 
holy Being of God, when thy Nighbour, Brother or Friend Sin- 
neth against thee: and, what is the most, beware of that Sin care- 
fully, of which the Good is the Cause; for this Sin is the Pleauge, 
which spoileth at Noon-Time, because we think to render God 
thereby a Service. In all Winds and Storms sit thou calmly in thy 
Hut, and Think on God. 

18. If thou wanted to be sure of thy Salvation, it will be necesl 
sary to raise sometimes within thee a Doubt and Mistrust against 
that good, which thou hast acquired by thy Conversion, viz: 
whether it is deriv'd from Grace or thy own own Natural Prop- 
erty, and if thou findest, that thy Good is too much mixed with 
Nature: thou owest yet God a Conversion; therefore take heed 
not to be too careless in thy Life. 

19. Love to be in a low Station: yet be not alone low, but also 
upright; lest thou mightst fall into Hypocrisy. For as it is neces- 
sary for thee, to be low-minded, even so shall thou learn therein to 
boast upon thy Greatness, or else robbest thou God of His own. 

20. Do not neglect the Time of thy Youth: that thou mayst 
recommend thy Age unto God. Thou shalt neither mourn or 
rejoice at any Thing, which hath in itself no Cause for Life 
eternal. If thou art distressed, then remember the Vanity of this 
and the Joy of the Life to come: and be for nothing more con- 
cern'd ; but that thou mayst possess thy Soul with God in Peace. 

21. Be neither a Glutton, nor luxuriant: thou shalt neither in 
temporal or Spiritual Things elevate thyself, lest thou mightest 
appear in another Form, than thou art, and might afterwards at 



38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

another Time be humbled. A Greater Perfection is not, but not 
to appear in a strange Shape: yet must Holiness have a Covering. 

22. If thou art in Sufferings, and art Sorrowfull in thy Soul, 
then take Care, not to burden therewith thine Nighbour, neither 
in Words, nor Deeds or Gestures, or else thou robbest thine own 
Crown: for in as much as thou disburdenest thyself from Suffer- 
ings, thou deprivest thyself of the Crown of Life eternal. And 
when thou cumberest therewith thy Nighbour, and he beareth the 
same willingly, he will gain that, what thou loosest. 

23. If thou prayest, be free from all Images, and empty thyself 
from all created Things. Thou shalt not pray for any Thing, 
which thou canst comprehend with thine own Thoughts, or else 
thou adorest the Creature, and not the Creator. But will those 
truely pray, then shall thou penetrate with thy will without the 
World and Time: for also shalt thou come to the Godly Magia, 
where thou will find all, for which thou hast prayed. And hast 
thou attained to the Will of God, then thy Petition is granted. 

24. If thou will find the way to Wisdom: then meddle meerly 
with such Things, which thou understandest not. And from what 
thou understandest not, thou shalt not speake: and if thou under- 
standest the same, yet esteem the matter itself higher, than that, 
what thou understandest thereof. 

25. If thou wilt please God, dis-please thyself in all thy Doings 
and levell all thy Designs against thine own Inclination: and 
believe of God only such Things, which are against thee. What 
thou likest, on the same shalt thou die, lest thou mightst change 
Death into Life, and Life into Death. Make a Doubt of thine 
own Doings whether right, and of thine Nighbours Doings, 
whether wrong, and thou shalt please God. 

26. Build not thine House with Sins, neither thine Apartments 
with unrighteousness. Paint not thyself white with another Man's 
Blackness, neither cloth thyself in another's Beauty. In all 
Things let thy Soul be satiated of thine own Works, whether they 
be good or bad, and according to them thou shalt be rewarded. 

27. In all thine Adversities be easy, and have no Thoughts, lest 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 39 

thou mightest Sin against God. If thou farest wall, remember 
God, and be carefull, not to forget him. Neither shalt thou esteem 
any Thing for thy Best, unless thou sufferest thereof Sorrow of 
thine Soul: nor hold any Thing evil, except thou hast suffered 
thereon Dammage in thy Salvation, or in the Hope to God. 

28. Have no other Thoughts of thy own Self; but that thou 
art against God, neither have any other Thoughts of God; but 
that he is against thee: Yet shall thou think of God nothing, but 
what is good, and suspect of thy own Self all Evil, and therefore 
have a Dislike on thyself, and esteem greatly what commeth from 
God, Also shalt thou please God, and hast fighted a good Battle. 

29. Be not envious or uncharitable against thy Nighbour, 
Brother or Friend: for an envious Heart is bound with Ropes of 
the Hell, and can not reach future Comfort, and an uncharitable 
Heart is separated from God and his Communion. Therefore 
take Care, that thy Light be not extinguished, and thou must 
travell in Darkness. 

30. Be friendly to all Mankind, without Assimilating thyself to 
the World, and Communicate not with the Sins of others. Thou 
shalt wrong nobody on thy Side with thy Doings, neither cumber 
any with thy Burdens. Him, that wrongeth thee, recompence with 
Kindness, and pray for him, which aggravateth thee : and therefore 
be in thy whole Life edifying both to Friends and Enemies. 

31. Fight against nothing, which proves too mighty for thee: 
neither shalt thou oppose that, which is lesser than thou ; but thou 
shalt like to be least. Thou shalt act in no Thing, as thou 
thinkest to be right: but shalt observe, what is right before God, 
altho' thou hast a different notion thereof, for it is written: that 
the Imaginations of the Thoughts of Man's Heart are only evil 
continually Gen: 6-5. 

32. Whosoever watched well over himself, ought to be praised: 
and whosoever can quit himself, is honourable. Whosoever for- 
gets himself, is rich: and whosoever will loose himself, shall be 
found again in God. 

33. Be with all thy Heart concern'd for thy everlasting Salva- 



40 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

tion, and let the Days of the longanimous Visitation of God not 
pass by in vain. O! what a Treasure canst thou gather, when 
thou layest hold on Life eternal, and dischargest all Cares and 
Sorrows of this World. 

34. Be not a Backbiter among thy People, or else thou shalt not 
ascend to the Mountain of God. Before all Things love Sincerity 
and Truth from thy Heart, and have not a two-forked Tongue: 
for also shalt thou be assimilated to God and his Image. Neither 
talk nor think an Evil against another: or else thou art the same, 
what thou talkest or thinkest. For whosoever is evil, thinketh 
Evil : and whosoever is good, thinketh good. 

35. Lobe all Men without Difference ; but let the Saints, which 
are acceptable before God, bestow upon thee as much Love, as they 
have, also thou be acceptable before God, and Men shall honour 
thee, And take good Care, not to refuse the Love of the Saints, or 
by hurting them to make them cry to God because of their Love. 
But the Wicked and refractory thou shalt love. 

36. Carry no Burdens on the Sabbath-day: but when God 
resteth within thee, thou shalt also rest within him. And when, 
God worketh within thee, thou shalt also work within him. 

37. A solitary Life, which is separated from the World and 
Creatures, ought to be thy greatest Treasure: for we can easily 
forfeit our Fortune in this World. Whosoever doeth so, as he is 
from his Nativity, is already in his Place: therefore shall Man 
learn to know himself and his Creator, and what the Grace of the 
new Covenant is. 

38. Take Heed, not to allow thine own Productions a free 
Course to bring thee to their intended End, or else thou shalt 
gather a great Heap of Fire-wood, which will make thee hot at 
that great Day. But if thou wantest to be sure, be suffering and 
dying in all they Doimgs, that of thy Doings might remain nothing, 
of which thou canst not take an Advantage at the Day of Eternity, 
For all, what we gather here, we must spend there, be it good or 
bad. 

39. Have not a precipitant Anger, and be zealous for nothing, 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 41 

but what can again attone thy Zeal, i. e. the Love to the holy Being 
of God. Whosoever disjoined himself from thee, him shalt thou 
maintain, and wait for him, under the Patience of God, to his own 
Reconciliation, that he might not perish on the Day of Judgment. 
For the Love hath the Shield of everlasting Salvation. 

40. Talk nothing without Faith, in order to fructify on that 
great Harvest-day; for it is written: that men must give an 
Account from every vain Word. Hear not that, what thou darest 
not to say: and what thou dost not like to hear, thou shalt not tell 
it to another. In all thy Doings regulate thyself after thy Nigh- 
bour's temporal and eternal Wellfare, and thou shalt live. 

41. Be mercifull, and have Compassion with the distressed: 
remember in all thy Doings, what a Reward thou hast to expect 
for thy Labour. Judge no man, before thou knowest his Thoughts, 
perhaps hath he a good Intention: therefore take care, not to con- 
demn an innocent. 

42. Hate not neither thy Nighbour, Brother or Friend, and 
take Care not to wrong the Elects of God, for they are his Orphans, 
and their Supplications ascend through the Clowds before him, 
which helpeth them and therefore despise them not. 

43. Whosoever acted prudently with his Tongue, is a wise Man ; 
but which followeth his own Thoughts, is a Fool, whosoever 
taketh too much Care of himself, shall loose his Soul: but who- 
soever neglected himself, shall find himself again in God. 

44. In all thy Life concern thyself for a good End, because all 
our Works shall be brought before the Judgment of God, let them 
be good or bad. Therefore love only such Things, from which 
thou canst expect a Benefit at the Day of Judgment. And let all, 
what increaseth not thy Harvest on the Day of Eternity, pass by, 
then art thou safe. 

45. In affliction of thy Soul let thine Heart rejoice: but when 
thou hast Gladness, then are Sorrowful for the Life to come. 
Thou shalt neither want, nor know or desire any Thing of God; 
but shall allways think ; I understand not, neither do I know, what 
is good, because I am not yet a Child. For these know alone, what 



42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the Father wanted: and when they, being hungry, ask from him 
Bread, he will not give them a stone. 

46. Be not wise with thyself, and have no other Thoughts of 
thyself, but such as thou art thyself: that thou mightst not sustain 
a Loss. In wellfare, and when thou hast a good Cause, think little 
of thyself: but when thou art low and despised, then boast upon 
thy Greatness. 

47. Be carefull and solicitous in all Things: and meditate only 
about such matters, which appertain to thy Salvation & Peace. 
Forget all Things and thyself : then shalt thou get clear from vain 
transitory Things, and shalt be taken up from God and the incom- 
prehensible Eternity. All what we do and work out, is deficient: 
but what do not work, is of great Value, and remaineth for Ever. 

48. Thou shalt do neither Good not Evil for thy own Ease: 
but die, that thou with a clear Conscience mightest live, and live, 
that thou with a clear Conscience Mightest die: For whosoever 
doth any Thing for his own Ease, is in that, what he doth, not in 
the Communion of the Son of God. 

49. Never reprimand thy Nighbour, Friend or Brother about 
any Thing except thou canst answer for his Defects, and attone 
him before God : or else instead of reforming him, thou lodest him 
with heavier Burdens, also that his Debts and Burdens grow 
heavier than his Defects. Therefore be carefull, never to talk or 
think any Thing from thy Nighbour Brother or Friend without 
Love and Mercy. 

50. Love not the Sleep, lest thou mightst impoverish thyself: 
neither be too precipitate in thy Running, lest thou mayst neglect 
any Thing. In all Things, which thou takest in Hand, make 
thereof the Beginning so, as thou wishest to have the end. Happy 
is he, which in all his Doings hath not to expect a bad End. There- 
fore take Care in all Things, not to make a bad Beginning, then 
shalt thou come to a good End. 

51. Thou shalt not leave the right way for the sake of others: 
neither shalt thou because of the great Multitude of them, which 
are Wicked, let the Love of God grow cool within thee. Nothing 



A Unique Ephrata Manuscript. 43 

shall disturb thee, to recede from the true Way: and if the Sins 
and Iniquities of others over-whelm thee, be not disturb'd, but 
make thereof Advantage to thy own Reformation. 

52. Let none reprove thee, but thine own Evil, and reprove 
thou nobody, except thine own Folly. Fly both from the Praising 
of the Wicked, and from the Reproach of the Pious. Neither 
shalt thou do any Thing either for temporal Honour's or Profits' 
sake: but study alone to please God, that thou mightst live for 
Ever. 

53. Happy is the Man, which in his Calling soon becometh poor 
both in Body and Spirit: in all Things, which we do besides this, 
appeareth not the Image of God, but our own; but by Poverty 
and Nakedness a man is free'd from all adherence to himself. For 
every Man hath within himself a Selfishness, from which, if he is 
not free'd, he can not see the Face of God. 

54. There is no other Sin, but to live without the Nature of 
God; it is written of Abraham: he kept my Laws and Statutes. 
God is longanimous, merciful and friendly, and possesseth himself 
not: and thou shalt neither possess thyself, nor have any Property, 
if thou wantest to be found within him. God is righteous, and 
therefore doth he never enter there, where we have yet something 
to loose. 

55. Whosoever possesseth earthly Things, can not possess him- 
self; and whosoever possesseth himself, can not possess God; and 
whosoever possesseth God, hath found his true Property. O how 
happy is he, which came home, and rested also on his Mother's 
Bosom. He hath travelled well, which left his own ugly Seat: 
and he sitteth well, which hath Feasted at all Times that, which is 
the most bitter. 

56. Thou shalt value thyself neither too high, nor too low: 
neither shalt thou in thy Judgment too much exact or suppress thy 
Nighbour, that also (to his Character) both something better or 
lesser might be added without perceptible Alteration. If thou 
appearest to thyself much despised then have great Regard for 
thyself ; and if thou seemest to thyself to be honourable, then humil- 
iate thyself. 



44 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



57. I know for the Future no other Labour, but to rest & to 
bear the Work of God: if in former Times I hath not paid too 
much Regard for myself, and instead of that exercised myself more 
in quitting myself, I might have obtained that Peace, which my 
Heart sought for. But now my Nullity is publickly revealed: 
God have Mercy upon me, that I may Succeed. 

AMEN. 




THE ONLY KNOWN PORTRAIT OF PRIOR JAEBEZ (REV. JOHN PETER MILLER). 



Pennsylvania: 

THE GERMAN INFLUENCE 

IN ITS SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 



H IRarrative anfc Critical Distorg 



PREPARED BY AUTHORITY OF 

THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY 

PART XXIII 

THE WAYSIDE INNS ON THE LANCASTER ROADSIDE, 

BETWEEN PHILADELPHIA AND LANCASTER, 

PENNSYLVANIA 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 



publication Committee. 
JULIUS F. SACHSE.'.Litt.D. 
DANIEL W. NEAD, M.D. 
J. E. B. BUCKENHAM, M.D. 



UTbe XiXHa^6t6e f nm 

on tbe 

Lancaster IRoabsibe 

betweeen 

pbtlafcelpbia ant) Xancaster 



Part XXIII. of a Narrative and Critical History 

prepared at the request of 

The Pennsylvania-German Society 



BY 

JULIUS FRIEDRICH SACHSE 




LANCASTER, PA. 
1912 



Copyrighted 1912 

BY THE 

pennggft>anfax$erman Society. 



PRESS OF 

The New Era printing company 

LANCASTER. PA. 




THE WAYSIDE INNS ON THE 
LANCASTER ROADSIDE. 



N provincial or colonial days the 
most important institution in 
our commonwealth, next to the 
church and school-house, was 
the wayside inn. Scattered as 
they were along the roadside 
throughout the province they 
were important beacons for the 
weary traveller, as well as a 
haven of rest and refreshment 
for the sojourner, whether 
farmer, drover, teamster or 
traveller upon business or pleas- 
ure bent. Many of these tav- 
erns or inns became important 
landmarks in both our social 
and political history, growing in the course of years from 
the lowly log tavern, to the stately stone turnpike inn of 
later years, in which important social functions were held. 
In many instances they were also polling places, and the 
meeting place of Masonic Lodges and similar organiza- 
tions. Some also were favorite places for mass meetings 

5 




6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and political rallies, where the candidates held forth, occa- 
sions upon which the barrel of hard cider was ever in evi- 
dence to slake the thirst of the prospective voter. 

Many of these wayside inns in Pennsylvania became 
known throughout the land for their good cheer, cleanli- 
ness and hospitality. The hosts or landlords of these 
houses of the better class were almost invariably Germans 
or Pennsylvania-Germans, and the culinary department 
was supervised by the wife of the innkeeper. 

Everyone of these wives was a hausfrau in every sense 
of the word. Upon her devolved not alone the culinary 
department but the care and oversight of the whole estab- 
lishment, except the bar, stable yard, and supervision of 
the hostlers and reception of the guests, which fell to her 
husband the landlord. 

The meals at these inns, such as the Spread Eagle 
and Warren presided over by the Pennsylvana-German 
matron, as served were entirely different from the fare 
set out in the houses kept by other nationalities, for 
instance where in the other wayside inns, even of the 
better sort, regular fare consisted of fried ham, cornbeef 
and cabbage, mutton and beef stews and mush and 
molasses, bread half rye and corn meal, with occasional 
rump steak and cold meats, and tea. In these Pennsylva- 
nia-German inns we had such dishes as Kalbskopf (mock 
turtle) soup redolent with the odor of Madeira; Sauer 
braten a favorite dish of the Fatherland; Schmor braten 
(beef a la mode) ; Spanferkel (sucking pig stuffed and 
roasted) ; Kalbsbraten (roast veal filled) ; Hammelsbraten 
(roast mutton) ; Kuttlefleck (soused tripe spiced) ; Hinkei 
pie (chicken pot pie) ; Apfelklose (apple dumplings) ; 
Bratwurst (sausage) ; applecake, coffee cake with its coat- 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 7 

ing of butter, sugar and cinnamon, and many other dishes 
unknown to their English competitors. 

To conduct one of these stands in turnpike days required 
quite as much executive ability as is required to manage 
one of the pretentious hostelries of the present day. The 
proprietors in many cases were men of intelligence and 
prominence in the community; even members of Congress 
and State Representatives are to be found among their 
number. 

So closely were the lines drawn between the classes of 
the stage tavern and the wagoner, that no stage tavern 
would on any account permit a teamster to put up there 
for the night, for if it became known that a wagoner had 
stopped there it would be considered a lasting disgrace 
and would result in the loss of the better class of patrons. 

From the earliest days in our history there were sharply 
defined lines in these wayside inns, as each class catered 
for special custom. Thus those of the better class were 
known as " stage stands," inns where the travelling public 
by stage stopped for refreshment, meals, and sometimes 
rest over night. Here also the relays were changed. 
Next in the scale came the "wagon stands," taverns 
patronized by wagoners or teamsters: here they " put up " 
for the night, feeding their tired teams, and in many cases 
sleeping upon a bag of hay upon the floor of the bar-room 
or barn. Another class were the "drove stands," where 
special accommodations were to be had by the drovers 
for their cattle, which were here watered, fed or pastured, 
until they were again upon the hoof towards their desti- 
nation. Lastly, come the lowest class of the passing 
wayside inns, the " tap house," where the lowest class of 
the passing or resident public was catered to. These 
houses harbored such as none of the other classes would 



8 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



entertain. The chief income of these "tap houses" came 
from the sale of bad spirits or whiskey. They were 
invariably kept by Irishmen. 

In olden times all distances between cities and places 
were computed from inn to inn. Thus by referring to 
any old provincial almanac, tables like this will be found. 



Copy of an old Distance Table giving a List of Taverns on the old 
Lancaster Road or King's Highway, which was the Predecessor 
of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike. 



Philadelphia to 



Qts. 



Colters Ferry 

Black Horse 

Merion Meeting 

Three Tuns 

The Buck 

The Plough 

Radnor Meeting 

Mills Tavern 

The Ball 

Signeof Adr'l Warren. . . . 

White Horse 

Downing Mill 

The Ship 

The Wagon 

John Miller at the Tun. . 

Pequa Bridge 

Dougles's Mill 

Widdow Caldwells " Hat : 

John Vernon's 

Conistoga Creek 

Lancaster Court House. . 



Another feature of these old inns of the days gone by 
were their sign boards which swung and creaked in their 
yoke, high upon a mast or pole set in the roadside. These 
sign boards were all figurative and in some cases painted 
by artists of note. The cause for the figurative feature 
was twofold; first, they were more ornate and could be 
better understood by the two different nationalites which 



Miles, quarters and perches. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 9 

made up our population than signs lettered in either 
German or English. Thus, take for instance, "The Black 
Bear"; a representation of this animal was known at 
once to either German or Irishman, while the words 
" Black Bear" would have troubled the former, while the 
latter certainly never would have recognized his stopping 
place if the sign board bore the legend: " Der Schwartze 
Bar." Secondly, but few of the teamsters or wagoners, 
irrespective of race, could read; nearly all had their orders 
to stop at certain houses, and they knew them by the sign 
board when they came to them. Then again, in some 
cases the name of the subject would be different in the 
High or Palatinate German dialect; thus, twelve miles 
from Philadelphia, there was a wagon stand upon whose 
sign board was painted a sorrel horse, and among the 
English-speaking teamsters the inn was known by that 
name; referring to a High German distance-table, we 
find it scheduled as " Braunes Pfed," the "Brown Horse." 
To the Palatinate wagoner, however, it was known as 
" Der Fuchs," "The Fox." This was not an isolated case, 
the inn often receiving a nickname which eventually found 
its way into the local distance tables. 

Many of these signs were of a homely character, such 
as The Hat, The Boot, The Wagon, The Eagle, The 
Lion, The Cat, The Turk's Head, etc. 

The drove stands usually had signs pertinent to their 
class of patrons, such as The Bull's Head, The Lamb, 
The Ram's Head, The Swan (black or white), etc. 

The tap houses were known by such names as "The 
Jolly Irishman," "Fox Chase," "The Fiddler," "The 
Cat," etc. 

The better class of inns or stage stands were usually 
named after popular heroes, such as "The King of Prus- 



io The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

sla," " St. George and the Dragon," " General Washing- 
ton," " General Paoli," " Spread Eagle," and the " Indian 
Queen." The names were sometimes changed, owing to 
political changes; thus, one of the most noted taverns on 
the Lancaster roadside, the " Admiral Warren," after the 
Revolution had the coat on the figure of the sign board 
changed from red to blue, and henceforth it was "The 
General Warren," in honor of the hero of Bunker Hill. 
Similar cases are upon record where the head of " King 
George," after the struggle for Independence, was, by 
aid of the painter's brush, metamorphosed into " George 
Washington." 

The highest development of the wayside inn was 
reached when the Lancaster turnpike became the chief 
highway and the model roadbed in the United States. 

Pennsylvania merits unquestionably the praise of hav- 
ing contracted the first stone turnpike in this country. It 
led from Philadelphia to Lancaster, it was 62 miles long; 
was commenced in 1792, and finished in 1794, at an 
expense of $465,000, by a private company, and it 
became the pattern for all subsequent hard roads in this 
country. 

Originally nine toll bars ( " Schlagbaume " ) were 
erected between Philadelphia and Lancaster, at the fol- 
lowing distances, beginning at two miles west of the Schuyl- 
kill, viz., 2, 5, 10, 20, 29^, 40, 49^, 58>4, Witmer's 
Bridge. 

The Lancaster turnpike replaced the old Conestoga or 
King's road, which connected Philadelphia with Lancas- 
ter, the chief inland city of Penn's colony. 

The following is a copy of an old distance-table giving 
a list of the taverns and landmarks on the old Lancaster 
road or King's highway, which was the predecessor as it 
were of the turnpike: 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 



ii 



Philadelphia 

Colter's Ferry 

Black Horse 

Merion Meeting 

Three Tuns 

The Buck 

The Plough. 

Radnor Meeting 

Mills Tavern 

The Ball 

Sign of Adml. Warren. . . . 

White Horse 

Downing Mill 

The Ship 

The Wagon 

John Miller at the Tun. . . 

Pequa Bridge 

Dougless Mill 

Widow Colwell's " Hat " . . 

John Vernon's 

Conestoga Creek 

Lancaster Court House. . . 



Qts.l 



It was the purpose of this series of papers* to give 
the history of some of these old public houses, land- 
marks as they were, both legendary and documentary, 
showing the developments from the earliest hostelry, the 
" Blue Ball," in Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, 
established half way between the Schuylkill river and 
Brandywine creek, when yet the pack-horse reigned 
supreme, to the multitude of public houses for the enter- 
tainment of man and beast, often so close together on 
the turnpike that several could be found within a mile. 

How the roadside inns and taverns increased on the 
new road between Philadelphia and Lancaster upon the 
completion of the turnpike between these two points, 
owing to the great increase of travel, is best seen by a com- 
parison of the above list of the King's or "Old" road 
with a list compiled by the writer and appended to this 
paper, where it will be seen that the number of roadside 
* 1886, 



12 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

inns between the two cities had increased from fourteen 
on the old road to fifty and more on the turnpike. 

In this list are given some of the names by which these 
landmarks were known to the German teamsters, drovers 
or travellers of that day. 

The hard stone road, its white surface glistening in the 
sunlight, with its ever changing scene of life and activity, 
formed a picturesque and diversified panorama. In later 
days we have the Troy coach, swinging upon its leather 
springs, rolling along the hard road, drawn by four pranc- 
ing horses; the Conestoga wagon with its broad tires; 
the slow-plodding six-horse team with tinkling yoke bells ; 
the large droves of cattle being driven from the green 
pastures of Chester and Lancaster to the seaboard; the 
accommodation stage-wagon in contrast to the mail coach, 
and the farm wagon or "dearborn," with the farmer 
going to or from the city market; and many other features 
all contributed to this ever changing scene. 

With the advent of the railroad with its iron horse the 
scene changed until within a few years the various turn- 
pikes virtually became deserted highways, giving up to 
mere local travel — with road-bed neglected or abandoned 
until in some cases they became dangerous to travel. 

While the wayside inns, once so important a landmark, 
gradually went out of existence, many of them struggling 
for some time as country boarding houses, or degenerating 
to the level of an ordinary country tavern, which in colon- 
ial times were places of importance, and now merely live 
in the traditions of the county, and vaguely in the memory 
of a few of a former generation still amongst us, it was 
to perpetuate such records and traditions that the writer 
gathered such as were available relating to the various 
hostelries as were, or had been on the Lancaster road and 



W 'ay side Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 13 

turnpike within the bounds of Chester County. These 
records, forming a series of papers, were published in the 
"Village Record " of Chester County during the " 8o's " 
of the last century. 

The two following papers, "The Spread Eagle" and 
"The Warren" have been selected for republication in 
the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania-German Society, as 
these hostelries were strictly representative Pennsylvania- 
German houses, kept by the Siter and Fahnestock families 
respectively. These two houses, stage-stands of the first 
order, where " entertainment was dispensed for man and 
beast," had not only a local reputation for elegance, but 
a national one as well, during the former turnpike days, 
until supplanted by the state railroad from Philadelphia 
to Columbia about the year 1836. 

What is true of the old Lancaster turnpike applies also 
to the roads leading out from Philadelphia to Bethlehem 
and the northeast, and to the road to Baltimore and the 
south; many of the hostelries on these roads were kept 
by Pennsylvania-Germans, or men of German birth. 

Of late years, long after the following stories were 
written, a new factor appeared with the advent of the 
twentieth century, namely the horseless carriage, which 
has had an unexpected effect upon our old turnpikes, so 
sadly neglected for many years, and in certain localities 
abandoned as unfit for travel. The advent of this factor, 
with power derived from gasoline, electricity or denatured 
alcohol, brought about a demand for good roads. The 
agitation for safe roads spread over the land, and resulted 
in many delapidated and neglected turnpikes being again 
surfaced and put in good condition for safe and speedy 
travel ; among these reconstructed roads there is none finer 
than the Lancaster Turnpike from Philadelphia, through 



14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

what is known as the suburban district on the Pennsylva- 
nia main line; and it is now again, as it was when first 
built over a century ago, quoted as the model and speci- 
men piece of road building, second to none in the state. 

Whether this new condition of travel will eventually 
bring about the rehabilitation of any of our old colonial 
hostelries in a manner suitable to the needs of the twentieth 
century, or whether they will be supplanted by establish- 
ments like those at Bryn Mawr or Devon, remains to 
be seen. 

In the meantime, these sketches of days gone by may 
prove of interest to the autoists, both male and female, as 
they gaily spin up or down the old highway, in a luxury 
and speed undreamed of by the old wagoner, teamster or 
stagers of a century ago. 





Z O 

q t 



LU UJ 
I > 




♦irN the old distance tables pub- 

" lished prior to the building 
of the Philadelphia and Lancaster 
Turnpike the distances are given 
from the court house formerly at 
Second and Market streets. This 
course was followed in the early 
days of the turnpike. The mile- 
stones on the turnpike, however, 
commence from the Schuylkill 
River. Consequently in the later 
distance tables the locations of 
the old landmarks appear to be 
two miles less than on the older 
tables, the two miles being the 
distance from the court house to 
the west bank of the Schuylkill. 
The following list of inns on 
the Lancaster turnpike is based on notes made by the 
writer during the year 1886-1887, when most all of the 
photographs were taken. 

Many of these old landmarks have been changed since 
that time; some remodeled for the use of wealthy subur- 
ban residents ; others, half in ruin, are occupied by foreign 

*5 




16 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

laborers; some have been demolished, and a few have 
descended to the level of an ordinary country tavern. 

In compiling this list every effort has been made to give 
the proper location of the various old wayside inns between 
Philadelphia and Lancaster. 

Shortly after the turnpike and the permanent, or 
Market Street bridge, over the Schuylkill was completed, 
the stage coaches started on their journey from the corner 
of Eighth and Market streets. 

The traveller after crossing the Market Street (perma- 
nent) bridge over the Schuylkill at Philadelphia, on his 
journey westward, first passed: 
i. The Fish, on the west side of the Schuylkill, which 
was kept by the Boone family. 

2. The Lamb Tavern, built and kept by John Elliot. 

The exact location of this old inn is not known. 

3. The Rising Sun. This was in Blockley Township, 

about two and a half miles west of the bridge. 

4. The Columbus Tavern, built in 1798, by Col. Edward 

Heston for his son Abraham. It stood on the turn- 
pike in Blockley Township, just east of Meetinghouse 
Lane, the present 5 2d Street. 

5. The White Lamb. Opposite the fourth mile stone 

near the present Wynnefield Avenue. This building 
is still standing. 

In this vicinity, in later years there were several 
taverns of minor importance, which are not to be in- 
cluded in our list of the Wayside Inns. They were 
known as : 

Hughes Tavern. 

The Durham Ox. 

Ludwicks. 

Sheep Drove Yard. 

These have long since passed away, nor can the 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 17 

exact location be given with certainty at the present 
day. 

6. The Flag Tavern. This was the first inn on the 

turnpike in Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County. The College of St. Charles Borromeo now 
covers part of the site. Near the fifth milestone. 

7. The Black Horse Tavern. Also in lower Merion, 

Montgomery County, about four miles west of the 
river. It is said that the original Black Horse Inn 
was built on the old Lancaster road by a progenitor 
of the Wynne family. This is about one mile east 
of the old Friends Merion Meeting-house just over 
the city line. 

8. The Three Tuns. In Lower Merion Township, 

Montgomery County, about two miles above Merion 
Meeting, seven miles from Philadelphia. 

9. The Green Tree. In same township, about half a 

mile west of the Three Tuns. 

10. The Red Lion. Also in Ardmore. This inn was for 

many years kept by the Litzenberg family. It is still 
kept at the present day as a saloon and tavern. It is 
about a quarter of a mile west of the seventh mile- 
stone. 

11. The Seven Stars. In the village of Athensville, now 

Ardmore, also in Lower Merion, Montgomery 
County. Kept for many years by the Kugler family. 
It was upon the south side of the turnpike, near the 
seventh milestone. 

12. The Prince of Wales. In Haverford Township, 

Delaware County. About half a mile west of 
Ardmore. 

13. The Buck Tavern. On the south side of the turn- 

pike, between Haverford and Bryn Mawr, in Haver- 
ford Township, Delaware County, *4 mi l e west °f 



18 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the eighth milestone, on the extreme verge of the 
county. This inn was a stage stand of the first order, 
and was renowned for its good cheer. It was kept 
for many years by the Miller family, and was ap- 
pointed a post-tavern at an early day. In 1832 
Jonathan Miller, the tavern keeper, was the post- 
master. 

14. The Sorrel Horse. In Radnor Township, Delaware 

County. 

15. The Plough. Also in Radnor township. In later 

years, after being remodeled, became the residence 
of a Philadelphia capitalist. The location is about 
eleven miles west of the Schuylkill. 

16. The Unicorn. Also known as "Miles Tavern," 

after the family who kept it for many years. It was 
also known as the "Irish" Tavern. The location 
of this old hostelry was a short distance below the 
fourteenth milestone on the turnpike, where both the 
old road and turnpike cover the same ground. 

[Note. These three taverns — the Sorrel Horse, 
Plough, and Unicorn — all appear as landmarks on 
the old Lancaster road. Also on the early distance 
tables of the turnpike this would lead to the inference 
that at least the Sorrel Horse and Plough were re- 
opened on the pike.] 

17. The Spread Eagle. Radnor Township, Delaware 

County, on the border of Chester County, a few rods 
above the fourteenth milestone on the turnpike. 
This was a stage stand of the first order, and re- 
nowned for its cleanliness and good cheer. It was 
a post tavern and relay station. For many years this 
inn was kept by the Siter family. The hamlet of 
eight or ten dwellings and shops that grew up around 
the old inn was known as Siterville. In 1832 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 19 

Edward Siter was the postmaster. During the 
eighth decade of last century, the property was 
bought by the Drexel and Childs operation at Wayne 
and demolished. 

18. The Lamb Tavern. The first inn on the turnpike in 

Chester County. It stood a short distance east of 
the fifteenth milestone, and was kept by the Lewis 
family. Many of the reminiscences of this vicinity 
were told the writer by George Lewis, then in his 
ninetieth year. 

19. The Stage Tavern. On the hillside a little west of 

the fifteenth milestone. It was located upon what 
was claimed to be the highest point west of Phila- 
delphia. Here the town of Glassly was laid out 
about the year 1800. The old inn was a wagon and 
drove stand, and was kept by the Beaumont family. 

20. The Spring House. In the hollow, just east of 

Reeseville, now Berwyn. Kept for a time by a 
branch of the Kugler family. It was between the 
fifteenth and sixteenth milestones. In later years it 
was known as Peggy Dane's. The site is now 
covered by an artificial ice and cold storage plant. 

21. The Drove Tavern. In Tedyffrin Township, 

Chester County, opposite the sixteenth milestone. It 
was kept by the Reese family, from which the settle- 
ment took its original name " Reeseville," now the 
flourishing town of Berwyn. The old signboard is 
now in the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

22. The Blue Ball. Prissy Robinson's, on the turnpike 

near the seventeenth milestone, now known as Dayles- 
ford. For years this old inn was kept by the notori- 
ous Prissy Robinson, who for years was a local char- 
acter in this locality. 

23. The Black Bear. For a time known as the Bull's 



20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Head. This old inn stood on the south side of the 
turnpike where the road from Newtown Square to 
Howelville crosses the turnpike. It was a wagon 
and drove stand during the turnpike days and was 
torn down in 1877. The barn stood on the south- 
west corner of the road. 

24. The General Jackson later The Franklin. On the 

north side of the turnpike at the eighteenth milestone. 
This old inn, still standing, was kept for years by a 
branch of the Evans family. Prior to the Anti- 
masonic craze (1828-1832), the inn was known as 
a lodge stand, as a special room was set apart for 
society meetings, among which was " Farmer's 
Lodge, No. 183, Free and Accepted Masons," who 
met there from 1822 until about 1830. This inn is 
in Trydeffrin Township, Chester County. 

25. The Paoli. Another of the celebrated stage stands 

on the eastern end of the turnpike. It was in 
Trydeffrin Township, Chester County, on the north 
side of the turnpike, just west of the eighteenth mile- 
stone. For many years it was kept by the Davis and 
later by the Evans family. It was the polling place 
for several townships, also the chief postoffice for 
this district. Samuel Davis was the postmaster in 
1832. In later years the Paoli was used as a summer 
boarding house, presided over by Joshua Evans and 
Mrs. Davis. It was destroyed by fire some twenty 
odd years ago. 

26. The Green Tree. Near the nineteenth milestone in 

Willistown Township, Chester County. This was a 
wagon stand in the early days. Its last boniface was 
Davis Gill, sheriff of the county. It was demolished 
in 1877 when the Pennsylvania Railroad was 
straightened. 



o m 

m 



F 2 

m o 




Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 21 

27. The Warren Tavern [Admiral Vernon, Admiral 

Warren, General Warren]. In East Whiteland 
Township, Chester County, on the north slope of the 
South Valley Hill. It was near the' twentieth mile- 
stone, and the first inn on the turnpike in the Great 
Chester Valley. It was one of the oldest inns west 
of Philadelphia, being on the King's Road in Pro- 
vincial days, twenty-two miles west of the court house 
in Philadelphia. After the Revolution it was kept 
by a branch of the Fahnestock family from Ephrata, 
during whose regime its reputation was second to 
none in the state. In 1832 Charles Fahnestock was 
the postmaster. They were also the first innkeepers 
who refused to sell liquors on the Sabbath. 

28. General Wayne. A wagon stand, near the twenty- 

second milestone, at the north side of the turnpike. 
On the inside of the barroom door the marks of the 
teamsters' whips could be seen, where, in former 
years, they tried their strength, and the cutting power 
of their whip lashes. This building is now used as a 
dwelling. 

29. The Steamboat. On the north side of the turnpike, 

half a mile east of the twenty-fourth milestone. It 
is in West Whiteland Township, near the present 
Glen Lock Station on the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
At present writing the house is unoccupied and fallen 
into decay. 

30. The Sheaf of Wheat [Sheaf— Barley Sheaf]. A 

wagon and drove stand near the twenty-sixth mile- 
stone. 

31. The Ship Tavern. Near the twenty-seventh mile- 

stone in West Whiteland Township. Originally 
west of Downingtown, at a point where the Old Lan- 



22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

caster road and the new turnpike occupied the same 
ground. When the original ship was closed, the 
old sign was taken to the new location, and there for 
many years swung and creaked in its yoke by the 
roadside. 

32. The General Washington. In East Cain Township, 
near the thirty-first milestone. Also known as Down- 
ings or the Stage office and on the old distance tables 
as Downing' 's Mill, thirty-three miles from the Phila- 
delphia court house. This noted hostelry was at the 
eastern end of the village of Downingtown, on the 
north side of the turnpike at the junction of the Lion- 
ville road. This inn was the halfway station be-, 
tween Philadelphia and Lancaster, and occupied the 
same position on the successive roads between those 
two points. "Downings" was a "stage" stand of 
the first order. It is not known what effigy the 
signboard bore during provincial days. After the 
Revolution, however, it became known as the " Gen- 
eral Washington," and the swinging sign portrayed 
the general and a civilian standing side by side. In 
early days this inn was also a postoffice. Isaac 
Downing was the postmaster in 1832. The building 
is now remodelled and used as a private residence 

33. The Halfway House. A wagon stand on the south 

side of the turnpike, a short distance west of " Down- 
ings." The site of this old inn is now occupied by 
several store buildings. 

34. The Swan Tavern. Also in Downingtown. It is 

on the south side of the turnpike, a short distance 
west of the above two hostelries. The old Swan 
has of late been remodeled and is now the chief 
tavern and saloon in East Downingtown. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 23 

35. Gallagherville Tavern. On the turnpike, near the 
thirty-third milestone. 

36. The Ship Tavern. The original Ship Tavern was on 

the south side of the turnpike in West Whiteland 
Township, Chester County, about one mile west of 
Downingtown, near the thirty-second milestone, at a 
point where the old Lancaster or Conestoga road and 
the new turnpike occupied the same ground. When 
the original tavern was closed, the old sign was taken 
to the new location, near the twenty-seventh mile- 
stone, where for many years it swung and creaked in 
its yoke by the roadside, perforated as it was by the 
bullet holes made by continental soldiers during the 
Revolution. The original building is still standing, 
being used as a summer residence. Thomas Parke 
was the proprietor during Revolutionary times, and 
later was acquired by the Edge family. 

37. The Prussian Eagle. On the east bank of the West 

Branch of the Brandywine, in Valley Township, now 
the flourishing town of Coatesville. In i860 the inn 
was kept by J. T. Minster, since which time it has 
been enlarged and is now known as the " Speakman 
House." It is west of the thirty-sixth milestone. 

38. The Midway House. Formerly on the turnpike just 

beyond the West Branch of the Brandywine. It was 
just east of the thirty-seventh milestone. The inn 
took its name from the fact that it was just half way 
or midway between Philadelphia and Columbia, the 
original termini of the old state railroad. In i860 it 
was kept by A. Bear. Henry Conroy was also a 
former innkeeper. 

39. Hand's Pass. {The Cross Keys.) This old inn, a 

wagon stand, was so named after its location. It 



24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

stood in what was in former days a wild and lonely 
spot on the hill side, then covered with heavy timber. 
It was near the thirty-eighth milestone. Tradition 
tells us that it received its name from the fact that 
General Hand had encamped there with a portion of 
Washington's army. The old hostelry was sur- 
rounded by a dense wood, and for some reason had 
an uncanny reputation, so much so that many 
teamsters avoided remaining there over night as much 
as possible. There were also a number of ghostly 
traditions current about this old inn during turnpike 
days. 

40. The Rainbow Tavern. Between the thiry-eighth 

and thirty-ninth milestone. This was also a wagon 
and drove stand. 

41. The Barley Sheaf. Noted on the distance table in 

Carey's Almanac for 1803 as being eight miles west 
of Downingtown. This would be near the thirty- 
ninth milestone. 

42. The Washington Tavern. West of the fortieth 

milestone. 

43. The States Arms (also United States Arms). This 

inn was in Sadsbury Township, on the north side of 
the turnpike, at the intersection with the road leading 
from the Conestoga and Pequea country to Wilming- 
ton. This inn, in the early years of the nineteenth 
century, was the last tavern in Chester County, where 
stages going west changed horses. The old inn was 
also known as a "lodge" stand, as here at the be- 
ginning of last century "Unity" Masonic Lodge, 
No. 80, held its meetings. It was between the 
fortieth and forty-first milestones. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 25 

44. Sadsbury Hotel. Also known as Kendigs, formerly 

as Baer's. Just east of the forty-first milestone, at 
the intersection of the Wilmington Pike. This inn 
was also one of the tavern postoffices. In 1832 John 
Kendig was the postmaster. At the present day it 
is used as a country tavern. 

45. The Black Horse Tavern. Near the forty-second 

milestone in West Sadsbury Township. This inn 
was also used as a postoffice. In 1832 Samuel Jack- 
son was the postmaster. House now owned by John 
Wallace Boyd. 

46. The General Wayne Tavern. At the forty-third 

milestone. At the close of the war of 18 12 John 
Petit was the owner of the Wayne with fifty acres of 
land. Being beautifully situated a company was 
formed to lay out a town in 18 14. Petit sold his 
tavern and farm to Abraham & Company for 
$16,000, whereon they laid out a town and called 
it " Moscow." The turnpike became Cossack street 
for the nonce, while parallel and cross streets were 
given Russian names. The plot was gotten up in 
fine style, but flourished only on paper. After the 
bubble bursted the tavern property became the cele- 
brated Moscow Academy, for many years presided 

over by Rev. . Latta. The milestone in front 

of this house is the first giving the distance both 
ways, viz., 43 m. to P. ; 19 m. to L. 

47. The Cross Keys. A wagon stand near the forty- 

fourth milestone from Philadelphia, the eighteenth 
from Lancaster. 

48. The Mount Vernon. In Sadsbury Township, Lan- 

caster County, between the forty-fifth and forty-sixth 
milestones, a short distance west of the Chester 



26 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

County line. The inn is still kept as a licensed house, 
and stands at the intersection of the road leading 
from Christiana to Limeville. 

49. Clemson Tavern. " The Continental." Formerly 

west of the forty-seventh milestone. This was also 
known as the " Gap Tavern." The house stood on 
the north and the barn on the south side of the 
tavern; and it was currently reported there was a 
tunnel leading from one to the other. It was the 
rendezvous of the notorious "Gap gang" broken up 
by the conviction of Amos Clemson, who died in 
prison, and others of its leaders. 

50. The Rising Sun. Also known as " The Sign of the 

Rising Sun " and " The Sign of the Rising of the 
Sun." A tavern on the turnpike near the forty- 
eighth milestone at the crossing of the pike by the 
Newport road. The locality is still known as the 
Gap. The inn was a wagon stand for the teamster 
and wagoner. In 1801 it was kept by John Young, 
and for a time was the meeting place for a Masonic 
Lodge. 

5 1 . Slaymaker's Tavern. A noted stage stand and post 

house, on the north side of the turnpike between the 
forty-eighth and forty-ninth milestone. It was kept 
by a family from which it took its name. Amos 
Slaymaker was a member of the firm of Reeside & 
Slaymaker, who operated a line of stages on the turn- 
pike before the time of railroads. In 1832 Wm. D. 
Slaymaker was the local postmaster. 

52. Kinzer's Tavern. Between the forty-ninth and fiftieth 

milestone. 

53. Williamstown. Between the fifty-first and fifty- 

second (tenth and eleventh) milestone, now known 
as The Vintage and is an ordinary country tavern. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 27 

54. The Plow and Anchor. At Leaman Place between 

the fifty-second and fifty-third milestone (ninth and 
tenth) . This Tavern was kept for many years by 
John Reynolds, an ancestor of General John F. 
Reynolds. The old inn is now the residence of Miss 
Mary Leaman, who still treasures the signboard of 
the old inn. 

55. Paradise Tavern. Near the fifty-third (ninth) mile- 

stone. 
$6. Soudersburg Tavern. 

57. Geiger's Tavern. 

58. The Running Pump. Near the fifty-fifth (seventh) 

milestone, on what is now known as the Buckwalter 
farm. 

59. Greenland Tavern. West of Mill Creek, between 

the fifty-eighth and fifty-ninth (third and fourth) 
milestone. 

60. Tavern. (Bridgeport.) East end of Wit- 

mer's Bridge over Conestoga River. 

61. " Conestoga Inn " Tavern. West bank of Conestoga 

River at Witmer's Bridge. 

62. The Swan at Lancaster. Kept by Col. Matthias 

Slough from 1761 to 1806. This noted tavern was 
built in 1754. This inn was a stage stand of the 
first order, and was the scene of many important 
gatherings, social, political and Masonic. The regu- 
lar meetings of Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M., being 
held at the Swan Tavern from June, 1788, until 
June, 1792. 




OLD INNS ON THE LANCASTER ROAD SIDE. 



THE SPREAD EAGLE TAVERN NEAR THE I4TH MILESTONE 



♦fjN the extreme northwestern 
" part of Radnor township, in 
Delaware county, on the Lan- 
caster Turnpike, fourteen miles 
west of Philadelphia, formerly 
stood at the base, as it were, of 
the South Valley Hill, a large 
three-story stone building with 
porch and piazza extending 
along the entire front. 

By the date stone, high up in 
the gable the wayfarer could 
still plainly see the year when the house was completed, 
the legend read " 1796." This building, one of those 
monuments by which we may be able to trace the past, 
was formerly the justly celebrated " Spread Eagle 
Tavern," known far and wide to travellers from both 
continents; built, as the stone informs us, in the year fol- 
lowing the one in which was completed the first link of 

28 




2 r 




Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 29 

what was to be the first great National highway to the 
West, and at the date of the building of the Inn connected 
Philadelphia, then the Capitol City of the United States, 
with Lancaster, the second important town of the Com- 
monwealth, and it may here not be amiss to say that to 
Pennsylvania's private citizens who subscribed almost half 
a million dollars to complete this great work of internal 
improvement, belongs unquestionably the praise of having 
constructed the first stone turnpike in the Union. 

The turnpike at this point for a short distance occupies 
the bed of the old Provincial or King road. The present 
building supplanted a small rude stone house, which was 
kept as a house of entertainment by one Adam Ramsower 
as early as 1769. The following year he petitioned to 
have his license renewed. In his petition to the Court 
August 28, 1770, he says: "Your Honors hath been 
pleased for these several years past to grant me your 
recommendation to the Governor for a license to keep a 
public house of entertainment," &c. Anthony Wayne 
appears as one of the subscribers to this petition. 

The following year Ramsower advertised the place for 
sale as shown by the following advertisement in a Phila- 
delphia newspaper: — 

"To be Sold 
on Thursday the 26th of December instant A Valuable 
messuage, plantation and tract of land, situate in Radnor 
Township, Chester County adjoining the Lancaster road, 
Containing near 100 Acres of good land, about 16 miles 
from Philadelphia, about 70 acres are cleared and the re- 
mainder exceedingly well timbered about 14 acres of very 
good watered meadow, and an excelent Orchard that bears 
plentifully every year; the dwelling house is a large well 



30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

finished stone building, and a well accustomed tavern, 
known by the name of the " Spread Eagle " and is well ac- 
commodated with a barn, stables, sheds, gardens &c a 
pump of good water near the door, with trough to water 
creatures. Any person inclining to purchase may come 
and view the premises before the day of Sale, at which 
time the Conditions of Sale will be made known by 

"Adam Ramsower." 
(Pennsylvania Gazette, Dec. 19, 177 1.) 

The next official knowledge we have of the tavern is 
the following curious petition, together with the quaint 
"certificate of character" which accompanied it when 
handed into Court. 

"To the Worshipful Justices of Court of General 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace, held and Kept at Chester 
the 25th day of August, 1772: 

" The petition of Jacob Hinkel of Said County, Humbly 
Sheweth : 

"That your petitioner hath lately purchased the mes- 
suage and plantation where Adam Ramsower lately dwelt, 
situated in Radnor township, in said county, at which place 
a house of public entertainment hath been kept for a num- 
ber of years past, known by the name of ' Spread Eagle;' 
your petitioner therefore prays that your honors will be 
pleased to grant him a recommend to his honor, the 
Governor, for a license to keep a public house of entertain- 
ment at the place aforesaid and your petition shall pray. 

Jacob Hinkel." 
"Lancaster county ss. 

" Whereas, Jacob Hinkel, tanner, the bearer hereof, who 
hath resided within the County for the term of 12 years, 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 31 

is now moving to Chester county with the intention to 
keep a house of public entertainment on the road leading 
from Philadelphia to Lancaster at the noted tavern of 
the ' Spread Eagle ' and whereas, the said Jacob Hinkel 
did petition to us subscribing magistrates and other in- 
habitants of Lancaster county for a testimony of his char- 
acter whilst he lived in the said county, and also for a 
recommendation to the magistrates of said county of 
Chester. 

11 This is therefore to certify that the said Jacob Hinkel 
whilst he lived in said county acted the parts of a true and 
honest member of the civil government, and as such by 
virtue of our underwritten names, we do heartily recom- 
mend him to the worshipful, the Judges of the Peace of 
the County of Chester, etc, etc. 

Edward Shippen, 
Emanuel Carpenter, 
James Clemson, 
and ten others, 
Lancaster, the fourth day of August, 1772." 

At the commencement of the Revolutionary period the 
house was known as the gathering place of the patriots of 
the vicinity, while "Miles" old tavern, a short distance 
below, which had been rechristened "The Unicorn" and 
was then kept by a loyal Irishman, was patronized by the 
citizens who were either Tory or Loyalists. 

During the alternate occupation of this territory by the 
opposing forces 1777-8, the house became somewhat of a 
land mark, several reports and letters in reference to the 
military situation being dated at, or mentioning the 
" Spread Eagle " tavern. During the encampment of the 
American army at Valley Forge the inn for a time was used 



32 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

as an outpost, when the large chestnut tree on the West 
side of the Valley road, about fifty feet North of the 
present turnpike, was utilized as a signal station, or out- 
look for that picket; this tree still standing may easily be 
recognized on the road leading to the present railroad 
station ; it also marks the boundary line between Delaware 
and Chester counties. 

The inn continued in the possession of Jacob and Daniel 
Hinkel until 1778 and possibly until 178 1, although no 
records are known to exist, stating who kept the house 
between those years. We know that one Alexander Clay 
was in charge, from 1787 until 1791, when Adam Siter 
appears, and he was followed by John Siter, during whose 
time the new house was built. 

As soon as the turnpike was finished it at once became 
the main artery of travel between the East and West. As 
the line of the new road at some points deviated a con- 
siderable distance from the old provincial road many of the 
colonial inns which had been landmarks for a century 
became useless on account of their distance from the new 
turnpike, others which were still accessible did not come 
up to the needs or demands of the increased travel brought 
forth by the new state of affairs. 

Of the numerous inns which were at once projected 
and built along the line of the new thoroughfare, the 
" Spread Eagle " Tavern was one of the largest as well as 
the most pretentious public houses between Philadelphia 
and Lancaster. 

The first sign board of the tavern was supported by two 
tall masts planted on the south side of the road; and is 
said to have been painted by one of America's most dis- 
tinguished artists. It was a representation of the out- 
spread American eagle as depicted on the silver dollar of 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 33 

that date with the shield of the Union on its breast, the 
wings extended, and grasping in one talon the arrows of 
war, while in the other the olive branch of peace; a blue 
scroll in his beak with the emblazoned legend " E Pluribus 
Unum" and thirteen stars for an event completed the 
gorgeous sign of the new candidate for the patronage of 
the traveling public. 

Shortly after Martin Slough's successful attempt in 
1795 to run a four-horse stage between Philadelphia and 
Lancaster, stage coach lines continued to increase on the 
new road, and the Spread Eagle at once sprang into popu- 
larity with the traveling public, as well as with the 
"wagoners" and "teamers"; for at that early day the 
furnishings and cuisine of the hostelry were probably un- 
surpassed in the State. It is said that during the summer 
and fall of 1798 when the Capitol city was again visited 
by the yellow fever scourge, our inn was crowded with 
members of the Government, as well as attaches of the 
accredited representatives of the foreign powers in Phila- 
delphia. 

It was not long before quite a hamlet grew up in the 
vicinity of the busy inn, besides the usual blacksmith and 
wheelwright shops, livery stable, barns and other out- 
buildings attendant to an inn of the first rank. There was 
a flourishing saddlery as well as a village cobbler and 
tailor. The large " Eagle " store on the opposite side of 
the turnpike still does a flourishing trade to this day. A 
post-office was located here at an early day and the hamlet 
became known to the world and on the maps and gazetteers 
of the day as " Sitersville." 

The inn on account of its distance from the city became 
the stopping place of both mail, post and accommodation 

3t 



34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

stages for meals and relays, it being the first station west 
and the last relay station eastward. 

It also was the usual breakfast station for the stages 
leaving Philadelphia at four and five o'clock in the morn- 
ing. In 1 807 the price charged stage passengers was 3 1 Y\ 
cents per meal while others were only charged 25 cents. 
The reason given for this discrimination was, that being 
obliged to prepare victuals for a certain number of pas- 
sengers by the stage, whether they came or not, it fre- 
quently caused a considerable loss of time, and often a 
waste of victuals, whereas in the other case they knew to a 
certainty what they would have to prepare. 

The expense of traveling by the stages from Philadel- 
phia to Pittsburg at this period was $20 and 12 J^ cents 
for every pound of luggage beyond fourteen. The 
charges, by the way, for meals and lodging were about $7. 
The whole distance was 297 miles, and was performed in 
six days. 

The expense by wagon was $5 per cwt. for both persons 
and property, and the charges by the way amounted to 
about $12. It would take twenty days or more to per- 
form the journey by wagon. 

The favorite liquid refreshments dispensed over the bar 
and drank by the hardy " wagoners " and travelers in these 
early times besides whisky, brandy, rum and porter, were 
such as "cyder" plain, royal or wine; "apple" and 
"peach" brandy; "cherry bounce," &c. Among the 
better class of stage travelers a good bowl of "punch" 
was always in order and never out of order. 

It is not known just how long John Siter remained in 
charge. He was succeeded by Edward Siter, who for two 
years retired from the old inn, as is shown by following 
advertisement. 



3 > 

§ < 




Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 35 

" Edward Siter 
Late of the Spread Eagle on the Philadelphia and Lan- 
caster Turnpike road, takes the liberty of informing his 
friends and the public in general that he has taken that 
large store on South East corner of Market and Eighth 
Sts Number 226 in Philadelphia where he is now opening 
a good assortment of groceries, wholesale and retail on the 
most reasonable terms, where country produce will be 
bought or stored and sold on commission with punctuality. 

He believes himself from his former conduct in business 
to obtain a share of publick patronage." 

{Federalist, Dec. 9, 18 12.) 

Edward Siter was succeeded by James Watson for two 
years. But the venture of neither proving successful we 
find Edward Siter again in charge of the inn until the year 
1817. 

The following five years — 18 17 to 1823 — David Wil- 
son, jr., was the host. Zenas Wells kept the inn 1823,, 
1824 and 1825. 

For a short time during the first quarter of the centuryv 
most probably while the house was in charge of Wilson 
or Wells, a change was made on the old signboard, 
another neck and head being added by a local artist, thus 
changing our glorious bird of freedom into one of those 
nondescript birds with two heads as used in ancient 
heraldry; this change is still fresh in the memory of several 
octogenarians who yet live in the vicinity. It is further 
said that this change was caused by some political excite- 
ment rife at that time. The new signboard, however, 
caused much merriment among the neighbors and wagon- 
ers, who could not see the utility of the change, and by 
them the house was nicknamed the " Split Crow," and in 
an article written about 6$ years ago by Mr. George W. 



36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Lewis (still living) the house is referred to by that name. 
After Edward W. Siter came in possession, in 1825, the 
signboard was again Americanized, and after being re- 
painted remained until it was finally effaced by the action 
of the elements about the time the usefulness of the house 
as an inn had passed away. 

Among the curious customs pevalent at this time, was 
for the smiths to burn their own charcoal, and it was not an 
uncommon sight for the traveler to see a charcoal kiln on 
fire back of the shops. 

The continuing increase of travel and patronage soon 
necessitated the erection of more taverns; it is said they 
eventually averaged about one to the mile between the 
Eagle and Downingtown. The first of these new turn- 
pike inns stood about three quarters of a mile west of the 
Eagle, on the eastern end of what was then known as the 
"Glassley Commons." The inn was known as the 
"Lamb"; it was established by John Lewis about 18 12 
or 13, who remained there for two years, when he was 
succeeded by the " dingers," father and son, who re- 
mained in charge until the necessity for a public house 
there had passed away. 

A few hundred rods east of the Eagle where the old 
road intersects the turnpike stood an old provincial inn, 
"The Unicorn." This house was built in 1747 by one 
James Miles. A license was granted to him in the follow- 
ing year. This inn was known on the early distance 
tables as " Miles Tavern," being 16 miles, 1 qr., 26 perches 
from the Court House in Philadelphia on the road to 
Lancaster, and is noted on the quaint pamphlet published 
by Wm. Bradford in Philadelphia in 175 1. This build- 
ing is no doubt still recollected by the residents of the town- 
ship; also its destruction by fire on St. Valentine night, 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 37 

February, 1872, attended unfortunately by the loss of a 
life, an old man being burned to death in the attempt to 
save some of his effects. 

These two taverns just mentioned took most of the over- 
flow which could not be accommodated at the Spread 
Eagle, still it is yet within the recollection of many persons 
when the yards of all three inns were filled to their utmost 
capacity with wagons, stages and teams, while the bar- 
rooms within resounded with the roystering song or ribald 
jests of the hardy wagoner. 

The travel on the turnpike reached its height probably 
during the latter part of the '20's, just previous to the 
building of the Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad by the 
Canal Commissioners of the State. During this era all 
was life and bustle about the Inn; there was hardly a 
moment during the twenty-four hours of the day that there 
was not some travel past the Inn. It was a frequent sight 
to see long lines of Conestoga wagons going towards the 
city loaded with the products of the West or going in the 
opposite direction freighted with the productions of East- 
ern mills or foreign merchandise; these wagons were 
usually drawn by five stout horses, each horse having on 
its collar a set of bells consisting of different tones, which 
made very singular music as the team trudged along at the 
rate of about four miles an hour. Emigrants could also 
frequently be seen on their way, generally in companies 
for mutual assistance, going with their families and worldly 
possessions towards the new West — there to settle and 
found homes for their posterity. Large herds and flocks 
also furnished their quota to this ever moving living 
panorama. 

Within the tavern all would be life and animation, on 
warm, fair nights the porch as well as the piazza above 



38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

was illuminated by large reflecting lamps, when on such 
occasions congregated the ladies and gentlemen who were 
stopping there either permanently or merely temporarily to 
while away the time and watch the life and bustle on the 
road in front of the Inn, as well as in the yard beyond; the 
shouts and activity of the hostlers and stablemen at the 
arrival or departure of the mail or post coach, the rapidity 
with which the horses were unhitched, or replaced by fresh 
relays after the passengers had refreshed themselves, the 
number of travelers on horseback or private conveyance, 
the occasional toot of a stage horn or ringing of the 
hostler's bell, all tended to form a continuous change of 
scene. In 1823 there were no less than eleven principal 
lines of " Land Stages," daily running on the turnpike to 
and from Philadelphia past the Eagle. These were 
known as the "Berwick," " Downingtown," " Harrisburg 
Coachee," "Harrisburg Stage," "Lancaster Accommoda- 
tion," "Lancaster Coachee," "Lancaster and Pittsburg 
Mail," " Mifflin, Lewistown, via Harrisburg," " Philadel- 
phia and Pittsburg via York," "Pittsburg via Harris- 
burg," "Philadelphia and West Chester" besides numer- 
our lines of accommodation stages. The fare for way 
passengers was usually six cents per mile; through fare 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg was $18.50 each way, 
meals and lodging extra. 

The "Coachee" was a carriage peculiar to America, 
the body was rather longer than that of a coach, but of the 
same shape. In the front it was left open down to the 
bottom, and the driver sat on a bench under the roof of the 
carriage. There were two seats in it for passengers, who 
sat with their faces towards the horses. The roof was 
supported by posts placed at the corners, on each side of 
the doors, above the panels; it was open and to guard 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 39 

against bad weather; there were curtains made to let down 
from the roof and fasten to buttons placed for the purpose 
on the outside. There was also a leathern curtain to hang 
occasionally between the driver and the passengers. The 
Coachee had doors at the side, since the panels and body 
were generally finely finished and varnished. 

As an instance of the importance of the Spread Eagle as 
a post town, a comparison of the receipts of the United 
States post office for the year ending March 31, 1827, 
shows there was a larger amount of postage collection 
there than at any other tavern post office on the turnpike 
east of Downingtown, viz.: $60.25. During the same 
period the collections at the Paoli were but $6.54. 

In the year 1825, Edward W. Siter became the land- 
lord of the Spread Eagle and remained until 1836, when 
Stephen Home appears as the lessee, who had for some 
time been connected with the house. 

On the evening of September 15th, 1834, an incident 
occurred which probably caused more excitement and sen- 
sation in the immediate vicinity of Siterville than had ever 
been known on any previous occasion within the memory 
of the oldest inhabitant. This was caused by the descent 
of Mr. James Mills' balloon, which had started on an 
aerial voyage from Philadelphia at half-past four o'clock 
in the afternoon. The following is the bold aeronaut's 
own description of what took place: 

"Warned by the increasing obscurity of the world below 
I began to descend and at six o'clock and twenty minutes 
reached the earth in a fine green field, near the Spread 
Eagle, on the Lancaster Turnpike, 16 miles from Phila- 
delphia. As I descended very slowly, two young gentle- 
men and Dr. M , of Philadelphia, came to my assist- 
ance, and laying hold of the car in which I remained towed 



40 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

me about a quarter of a mile to the tavern, where I 
alighted, balloon and passenger, safe and sound. Before 
discharging the gas, several ladies got successively into the 
car and were let up as far as the anchor rope would permit. 
The gas was let out and the balloon folded. In doing this 
a cricket was unfortunately included, and having to cut his 
way out he made the only break in the balloon which oc- 
curred on this expedition. Mr. Home, of the Spread 

Eagle, treated me with great kindness, and Dr. M 

politely offered me a conveyance to the city, which I 
reached at one o'clock this morning." 

After the completion of the railroad which was located 
at this point, about half a mile to the north of the turnpike, 
and the successful attempt at steam transportation, the 
decline of the Inn was rapid, the glory of the once noted 
hostelry waned year after year, and it soon became merely 
a cross road country tavern with no patronage except what 
the laboring population in the vicinity supplied. 

The only exception to this desolation was during the 
winter when the sleighing was good then for a time the 
old tavern would for a short period be galvanized into a 
new life as it were. Open house would be held all night; 
four to six musicians were in attendance, and as sleigh load 
after sleigh load of young people would arrive to refresh 
themselves and enjoy a dance or two, some of the old 
scenes of life and activity approximating the former glories 
of the tavern were reproduced. To such as participated 
in any of these parties the cheerful rubicund face of the 
host will no doubt be recalled, whether it was Ned Siter, 
Steve Horn, or Benny Kirk. However even these sleigh- 
ing parties are now things of the past, and almost unknown 
to the present generation in the vicinity. 

After changing ownership many times the Inn finally 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 41 

came into possession of George W. Childs, of Phila- 
delphia, who bought the property so as to prevent anyone 
obtaining a license for the sale of liquor so near his venture 
at Wayne station, a short distance below on the turnpike. 

In the following Summer the use of the building was 
given by its benevolent owner to the Managers of the 
Lincoln Institution of Philadelphia as a Summer home for 
the large number of Indian girls who were being trained 
and educated by that Institution. Fears had been enter- 
tained by the Managers and patrons of the Institution that 
a hot Summer in the city might prove disastrous to the 
Indian children, so it was determined to try the experiment 
of sending the girls to the country for half the year pro- 
vided such removal would in no way interfere with their 
training or studies. Therefore the Managers of the 
school concluded to accept the kind and opportune offer of 
Mr. Childs allowing them the use of the old Inn and sur- 
rounding grounds free of charge. It, however, cost the 
Institution over a thousand dollars to make the former 
hostelry habitable and suitable for their purpose. It was 
not long before almost a hundred girls were so established 
in their new temporary home and the experiment from the 
very start proved itself a complete success. 

The old Spread Eagle once more became a point of 
attraction, not only with the residents or sojourners in the 
vicinity, but also for the curious and sympathetic, some 
from a remote distance. Public religious services were 
held every Sunday at Wayne Hall; these services were 
always largely attended, on which occasion the choir, music 
and the responses, according to the ritual of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, were entirely rendered by the Indian 
girls, who seemed to thoroughly comprehend the meaning 
of the services. 



42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

It was a beautiful, yet strange spectacle to see these 
dusky maidens, descendants of the aborigines, going two by 
two, from their services, as they trudged along the smooth 
white turnpike, sober and demure with their prayer book 
and hymnal in their hands; where but a little over two 
centuries ago their people had roamed and hunted free 
and undisturbed by anything approaching civilization, as 
monarchs of these glorious hills and valleys. Now no 
vestige of this former race remains but an occasional arrow 
dart ploughed up by the husbandman as he tills the soil. 
During these two summers several traveling Indian bands 
that visited Philadelphia also visited the school at the old 
Inn, and it is said that the impressions made upon their 
minds, and the reports they made when they returned home 
were of the greatest use to the school. Probably the most 
noteworthy and interesting of the visits was the one when 
the celebrated " Sitting -Bull " accompanied by his band, all 
resplendent in scarlet blankets, leggings and feathers, with 
faces and hands daubed and streaked with vermilion and 
chrome yellow, came and spent a few hours at the old inn ; 
quite a feast was prepared for them by the Indian girls 
which they seemed to enjoy, still not a muscle moved in 
their stolid countenances which could be construed as either 
showing approbation or displeasure. 

One of the most interesting events during the sojourn of 
the Indian girls at the old tavern was the entertainment 
given on the evening of September 24, 1884, at Wayne 
Hall. It consisted of a series of twenty-two tableaux illus- 
trative of Longfellow's beautiful poem of Hiawatha. 
The Rev. Joseph L. Miller, chaplain of the institution, 
read those portions of the poem descriptive of the scenes as 
presented by the dusky children. There were 10 char- 
acters represented in the tableaux. All the scenes passed 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 43 

off successfully, and were well applauded by the large audi- 
ence present. Among the most vivid pictures were " The 
Indian's Home," Hiawatha's "infancy" with an Indian 
Lullaby, and "Hunting," "The Ambush," "Hunters' 
Return " and " Lover's Advent." The " Wedding Feast," 
with its songs and dances were the crowning features of the 
evening. In this scene the stage was filled with the girls 
and boys of the institution all in striking costumes brilliant 
in color and beads, feathers, tassels, fringes and other 
trinkets. A wedding song was sung, then came the dance, 
after which a chorus of over thirty Indians sang a hymn in 
the Dakota language. 

The old tavern was used by the Lincoln Institution dur- 
ing the years 1884-5, when after several vain attempts on 
part of the managers to buy the property from Mr. Childs, 
they vacated the old Inn and purchased ten acres of wood- 
land on the northern slope of the south Valley hill, about 
1 y 2 miles northeast of the old inn, where they erected three 
large buildings as a permanent summer school ; this is now 
known as " Po-ne-mah." 

The suburban village and improvements which have 
sprung up on all sides of the old hostelry, with the at- 
tendant pleasure travel, on the turnpike now again put in 
first class condition by the Lancaster Avenue Impovement 
Company, so far have had little effect on old " Siterville." 
At the present writing (1886) the old inn though in good 
repair is closed and without an occupant, and looms up on 
the roadside like a dark and sombre relic of the past, with 
nothing to remind the present generation of its departed 
glories. 




THE WARREN TAVERN NEAR THE 20TH 
MILE STONE. 




HE traveller of the present day 
on the Lancaster turnpike, 
after leaving the " Green 
Tree," or Duffryn Mawr, 
crosses under the railroad 
where the old deserted stone 
road now running, north to 
the rival highway with its 
quadruple tracks, which so 
completely supplanted it, here 
commences his descent into 
the Great Chester Valley, winding around the hillside. 
After passing the Green Tree store, so long presided 
over by the Bakers and Philips, and the new hall of 
Thomson Lodge, No. 340, F. & A. M., the twentieth 
mile stone with the attendant toll-booth, is soon reached. 
At this point the pike enters a gorge in the chain of 
the South Valley hills, and at the foot, after crossing 
the long stone bridge over the rivulet which pours down 
the hillside through the ravine which here intersects the 

44 



co > I 

o £ m 

CD Z $ 






> H 

< I 
d m 




Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 45 

other, there may be seen in the small valley thus formed 
a commodious house, of ample dimensions, two stories in 
height, capped by a sharp gable, pierced with three dormer 
windows, the enclosure within the bounds of the snow- 
white picket fence (1888) dotted with numerous outbuild- 
ings — the evergreens of stately growth, all tend to attract 
the attention of the traveller of the present day, and give 
the stranger an impression that the structure is one of more 
than ordinary importance, and a well-preserved relic of a 
former period — perhaps dating back to the Colonial 
period, and that it was the home of some brave, sturdy 
soldier of the Revolution, who wore the blue and buff, and 
on many a field performed deeds of valor and prowess 
while opposing the hireling invader. 

In the first surmise the stranger would be correct. The 
house in question, and the more primitive structure which 
it replaced, was for over a century one of the best known 
landmarks on the Lancaster roadside. When first opened 
as a public house in the fourth decade of the last century, 
the sign-board as it swung and creaked in the wind bore 
the image and name of Admiral Vernon. This was, how- 
ever, soon changed to the Admiral Warren. After the 
Revolution, in turnpike days, it was known to all travellers 
as the " Warren," the British Admiral giving place on the 
sign-board to the patriot general, who died for his country 
on Bunker Hill. After the turnpike was completed toward 
the close of last century, it was not long before the house 
became a tavern stand or stage house of the first class, 
being equaled in reputation and patronage only by the 
"Eagle," "Paoli" and "Downings"; the reputation of 
the " Good-cheer" and the cleanliness of the bedding made 
it one of the most desirable stopping places on the thor- 
oughfare. Among the guests who patronized the inn, and 



46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

who found shelter under the hospitable rooftree, drank 
the wines, and enjoyed the products of the larder, were to 
be numbered presidents, judges, foreign potentates, and 
the most distinguished travelers from this and foreign 
climes. 

The scenes of life and activity then to be seen daily in 
the "tavern yard" in front of the hostelry were not sur- 
passed at any other point on the road; the arrival and 
departure of the stagecoaches, the genial host " Funny- 
stock " always present to greet the new arrivals, or to wish 
the departing ones bon voyage; the bustling hostlers and 
stablemen, together with the shouts of the drovers, busy 
in the large cattle pens, stables and shelters, then on the 
opposite side of the turnpike, the passing teamsters, with 
strings of tinkling bells on the horse yokes, all tended to 
make up the ever-recurring scenes of excitement at this 
renowned halting place on the Lancaster roadside. 

When, however, in the course of time the stone age of 
travel, as the turnpike days may well be called, was super- 
seded by that of iron and steam, the Warren, in com- 
mon with its chief competitor the "Spread-Eagle," was 
left stranded far from the new road, and soon the inn from 
being one of the most busy spots between Philadelphia and 
Lancaster rapidly fell into decay, and after the withdrawal 
of the stagecoaches dropped to the level of an ordinary 
cross-road country tavern, and at the present day all that 
is left to remind the present generation of even the exist- 
ence of such a noted landmark is the name of the local 
postoffice, viz.: "Warren Tavern," and even this is in 
danger of being before long a thing of the past, as lately 
there has been started a movement looking to a change of 
name, as was the case with the " Spread-Eagle " by some 
supercilious newcomers, on whose sensitive ears the word 



S r- 



> s 

33 O 



I o 



t«H »Z |- 



§* 



o3 
z 3 



o — , 







Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 47 

" Tavern " seems to grate harshly, and who have no idea 
of the derivation of the name, and who if they achieve 
their object may perhaps succeed in replacing the name of 
the revolutionary hero with that of one of his British of 
Hessian opponents, a proceeding which would be entirely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the Anglo-maniacs 
who have lately cropped out among us. 

How in 1733 the great road from Lancaster was laid 
out to a point in Chester County, near the "Sign of the 
White Horse," and the action taken by the residents of 
Tredyffrin, Easttown and Willistown and adjoining town- 
ships to have the road completed to the Schuylkill has been 
set forth in the preceding articles. It was not until No- 
vember 6, 1 74 1, when the final return of the commissioners 
giving the route to the Schuylkill was presented to Lieut. 
Governor George Thomas and Council. By this report 
we find that the new road was laid out eastward from the 
" Sign of the White Horse " along the old road " until near 
Robert Powell's House, then leaving the old road, and on 
George Aston's land south 72 degrees, east 200 perches to 
a run, thence 80 perches, whence it again meets the old 
road, then on it south 33^ degrees, east 21 perches, then 
in Willistown south 33 J / 2 degrees, 20 perches, &c, &c." 

By the above survey it will be seen that at the time there 
was no house on the site of the Warren, or mention would 
certainly have been made of it. It is safe to assume that 
George Aston built the house as soon as the road was 
open for travel, at the point where the road crossed the 
run, and the ascent of Valley Hill commenced through the 
notch, or gulf before described. This was not until 1 743-4, 
and in the latter year we find Aston a resident of East 
Whiteland, as well as a prominent member of St. Peter's 
congregation in the Valley. He. was also an active factor 



48 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

in building the stone church (St. Peter's) in the Valley. 
The church records state that: "April 15th, 1745, was 
held a vestry in St. Peter's Church, which was the first 
there ever held." George Aston is among those chosen as 
vestrymen, and in the subsequent allotment of pews No. 4 
fell to his lot. He was the eldest son of George Aston, 
who purchased 500 acres of land, and settled in Cain. He 
was a prominent citizen, and served as one of the justices 
of the county from 1724 to 1729. In the administration 
of his office he, however, seems to have been too zealous 
by encouraging litigation where it should have been 
avoided. Complaint of this fact being made, and coming 
to the knowledge of Hon. Patrick Gordon, the Governor 
acquainted the board that it was necessary that a new com- 
mission of " the Peace for Chester county should be issue, 
and that he had some very good reasons for leaving out 
one, viz : George Aston, who had acted but too much, &c." 
George Aston, the elder, died in 1738, leaving two sons 
and three daughters. George, the eldest, and builder of 
the old wayside inn, married a daughter of Owen Thomas, 
of East Whiteland, and became the owner of the property 
now known as the Warren property. Application for 
license was no doubt made to the Court as soon as the 
house was ready for occupancy. This was granted in 
1745. The inn was located, as was then the universal cus- 
tom, near or at a running stream of water, and situated 
about midway between its rivals — the " Blue Ball " and 
the " Sign of the White Horse " — became from the start 
the stopping place for the churchmen and missionaries as 
they journeyed along the road. The house when first 
licensed was named the "Admr. Vernon," after a cele- 
brated British naval officer, Sir Edward Vernon, the hero 
of Porto Bello, and who in view of his achievements was 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 49 

then the idol of England. With the outbreak of the 
French and Indian troubles, the gallant capture of Louis- 
burg, June 17, 1745, followed by the victories over 
the French fleet in 1747 by Admiral Peter Warren, 
K.C.B., the latter soon became the ideal hero of the war 
party in the province, of which Aston was a prominent 
member; and it was not long before the former hero was 
supplanted in the minds of the people by the latter, whose 
deeds of valor were performed really to protect the 
colonies. 

The change on the sign board of our wayside inn was 
probably made in 1748 when Aston relinquished the house 
to one Daniel Goldsmith, who rented the inn. It appears 
from the records that for some reason, not stated, the new 
host was refused a license by the Governor in the next year, 
1749. George Aston then again took charge, but when 
the French and Indian troubles broke out in 1753, threat- 
ening the lives and homes of the inhabitants of the Chester 
Valley, while the Governor and the council were squab- 
bling as to whether there should be any defence or not, 
George Aston was among the first men in the county to 
form a company for the defence of the province, and with 
them did his duty well in checking the infuriated savages 
in Northampton County. 

In the account of the public expenditures of the day we 
find an entry, March 2, 1756, where the Assembly voted 
£240, 15s. 4d. "to Captain George Aston for himself and 
his companys pay." 

On account of Captain Aston's prominence as a military 

man, the house now became a rendezvous and center for 

the military as well as the church party in this section of' 

the county. In most of the local military documents from 

4t 



50 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Braddock to Stanwix we find " George Aston's " noted as 
a landmark and stopping place. Aston's son, Owen, be- 
came the County " Wagon Master," while in Roger Hunt's 
account book of 1759, who was a brother-in-law of Cap- 
tain Aston's, we find frequent reference to "George Aston 
at ye Admiral Warren." 

Aston appears to have kept the house during these trou- 
blesome times, when the French and Indians inspired so 
much fear in the community, until 1760, when he was suc- 
ceeded as host by one Peter Valleau. Three years later 
Aston and his wife sold the property to Lnyford Lardner, 
of Philadelphia, a brother-in-law of Richard Penn, and 
who was the agent of the Penn family in America. Val- 
leau continued until 1767. Nothing of note is known to 
have occurred during his occupancy. 

He was succeeded by Caleb Parry, who deserves more 
than a passing notice. He was the son of David Parry, 
of Tredyffrin, whose father, James Parry, donated the 
ground on which the Great Valley Presbyterian Church 
was built. During the French and Indian times David 
Parry was one of the associators, and the lad, Caleb, no 
doubt imbibed much of his military spirit from him, and 
at the very outbreak of the Revolution we find Caleb Parry 
commissioned as Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel Atlee's 
" First Regiment of Pennsylvany Musketry," recruited 
mainly from among the Presbyterians in the Chester and 
Pequea Valleys. He was active in all the military opera- 
tions around New York, which culminated so disastrously 
to the patriot cause, and on the memorable 27th of August, 
1776, in the engagement known as the Battle of Long 
Island, Colonel Parry was numbered among the slain, as 
his brother officers stated, " Dying like a hero." An 
account of the affair states: 



W ay side Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 51 

11 The men shrunk and fell back, but Atlee rallied them 
and Parry cheered them on and they gained the hill. It 
was here, while engaged in an officer's highest duty, turn- 
ing men to the enemy by his own example, that the fatal 
bullet pierced his brow." 

To return to the roadside inn during the second year 
that Parry was in charge, a danger threatened the inn. 
This was nothing more or less than the petition for license 
of a new house between the Warren and the Blue Ball. 
Parry fearing this would injure his business appealed to 
his landlord, Lynford Lardner, to use his influence with 
the Governor to prevent a license being granted to Joshua 
Evans, the new applicant. Lardner in pursuance to the 
request sent a protest to the Court, in which he states that 
about six years before he had purchased the estate of 
George Aston and wife, three and a half miles from " Blue 
Ball " and three miles from " White Horse," and he feared 
the establishment of another tavern between his and the 
Blue Ball would discourage his tenant, &c. The protest, 
however, did not avail, as the license was granted and the 
" General Paoli " was the result. Parry remained at the 
Warren for another year after the Paoli was opened, when 
he resigned in favor of Isaac Webb, who was there 
177 1-2-3. He was also a renter and was followed by 
Samuel Johnson, in 1774. In this year Lynford Lardner, 
the owner of the property, died October 6th, and his will, 
proved October 25, 1774, following curious provision is 
made. He orders that his executors " do sell and dispose 
of the iron works newly erected, known as the Andover 
Iron Works, in the Province of New Jersey, and also my 
messuage and tenniment, commonly called by the name of 
Warren Tavern, in the county of Chester, and the planta- 
tions and lands thereunto belonging, which I purchased 



52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

from George Asheton and wife, for the payment of just 
debts, and for other purposes in this, my last will, &c, &c." 

In pursuance with the above provision, Catharine Lard- 
ner and John Lardner, the executors, November 2, 1776, 
conveyed the "Admiral Warren plantation, in Whiteland 
township," to Hon. John Penn, of Philadelphia. 

Samuel Johnson was the tenant until the property was 
transferred to the new owner, when he was succeeded by 
Peter Mather, a man of strong Tory proclivities. 

During the term of Webb and Johnson the old inn seems 
to have lost prestige. This was partially caused by the 
" General Paoli " becoming the favorite gathering place of 
the patriot spirits, with which the locality abounded, 
while the Warren and the Unicorn, seven miles below, had 
the reputation of being loyal houses. 

Local tradition tells us that the Warren became the 
gathering place for the Tories in the vicinity, and such 
persons as were disaffected to the patriot cause. Further 
that after the outbreak of active hostilities, meetings were 
frequently held in the house, where British envoys, or offi- 
cers, were present, and information which had been ob- 
tained was sent to the enemy. Notable among the visitors 
to the inn at the time was the talented, but unfortunate, 
Major Andre, who was then a paroled prisoner of war at 
Lancaster, and who had the liberty of certain roads, among 
which was the Philadelphia road to within a point twenty 
miles from the city. 

What good use Andre made of his parole may be sur- 
mised, when it is known that he is said to have mapped 
the country and suggested the capture of Philadelphia by 
way of the Chesapeake and Great Valley, the plan so suc- 
cessfully carried out by Howe and Cornwallis in the Fall 
of 1777. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 53 

In the year 1777, when it was destined that the tide of 
war should surge through our fertile valley — then the 
garden of Pennsylvania — the house was in charge of Peter 
Mather, who, if our traditions be true, was like his prede- 
cessor, a strong tory. This is further strengthened by the 
fact that when the British Army was quartered in the val- 
ley Mather was one of the few who appears to have suf- 
fered no loss, while his immediate neighbors lost almost 
all of their possessions. 

On the eventful night of the 20th of September, when 
the cohorts of the enemy under Grey, accompanied by his 
aid, Major Andre, silently marched up theSwedeford road, 
they wheeled to the left at the road which led to the War- 
ren, where a halt was made, and to divert suspicion from 
the real traitors who guided the advance, the patriotic 
blacksmith at the shops, then situated on the south side of 
the old Lancaster road just north of the present turnpike 
bridge, was forced to get out of his bed and accompany the 
column. This dreadful occurrence of this dark night it is 
unnecessary to repeat here, as they are well-known in his- 
tory as the " Massacre at Paoli," and have been graphically 
described by more able pens than that of the writer. 

After the British had left the vicinity Mather, the inn 
keeper, was publicly charged by his neighbors as being 
responsible for the massacre, also of having guided the 
British. Both of these accusations he strenuously denied, 
producing proof that he had not been out of the house dur- 
ing the night. In confirmation of his statements are the 
two facts, viz. : First, that in no known British letter, report 
or account is mention made of Peter Mather, or his connec- 
tion with the attack; second, that notwithstanding the sus- 
picion attached to him he was permitted to continue to live 
in the house and keep the inn for a number of years. The 



54 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

place, however, was shunned and avoided by most of the 
residents of the vicinity, and the inn keeper drew his patron- 
age from the chance travellers on the road, who knew noth- 
ing of the odium common report attached to the unfortu- 
nate Boniface. From these facts it may be surmised that 
the enterprise was not a financial success. 

About the close of the Revolutionary war there was con- 
siderable excitement throughout the county in reference to 
the proposed removal of the county seat from Chester, on 
the Delaware, to a more central part in the county. There 
were three points suggested, all being public houses, viz. : 
" Downing's," the "Turk's Head" (now West Chester), 
and the "Admiral Warren," with the chances in favor of 
the latter on account of its position in the Great Valley, 
and being within easy reach from all points in the county; 
but the fact that the property was owned by one of the 
Penn family, together with the state of the popular feeling 
towards anything which savored of the old regime, pre- 
cluded the acceptance of the locality on any condition. 
Notwithstanding the activity of John Penn's agents and 
friends the agitation of the matter only tended the more to 
incense the populace against the old inn; consequently, 
when in 1783, the Assembly passed an Act (March 19) 
doubling the rates of all tavern licenses, the outlook be- 
came still darker for Mather. He, however, held out 
until the property was sold, when he made a sale of his 
personal effects and went to West Chester. Shortly after 
the removal of the county seat there he kept a licensed 
house within the new borough, again succeeding, it is said, 
the very man — Isaac Webb — who had occupied the " War- 
ren" prior to Mather. In the new location his expecta- 
tions again failed to be realized, so after remaining for a 
year or two he seems to have drifted to the city, where his 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 55 

ill fortune followed him ; as the people who knew him were 
wont to say " God frowned on him," so he fell lower and 
lower in the social scale. First he drove team or dray, 
but finally in his old age came down to pushing a hand 
cart or wheelbarrow, and even here the boys were wont to 
make his existence miserable by calling after him " Here 
we are and there we go," and " Remember Paoli." 

The ownership of the old Roadside Inn now passed into 
the possession of the Fahnestock family, in whose hands it 
was to remain for more than half a century, and reach a 
renown and popularity second to none of the sixty odd 
hostelries on the roadside between the city and Lancaster. 

Many are the tales told of how Fahnestock bought the 
house ; how the vendue crier refused his bid on account of 
his uncouth appearance as he stood there in his long coat 
of undyed homespun, secured by large hooks and eyes in 
lieu of buttons; his long straggling beard and hair but 
partly hidden by his broad brimmed hat, his homemade 
cowhide boots, and worse than all he was clad in a pair of 
pantaloons, a fact which made him the butt of all present. 
Then how he produced the bright jingling coin, and told 
the crier that if his bids wouldn't count his money would, 
and the subsequent discomfiture of the vendue crier. These 
tales and many more of a similar import were told and 
retold in the barrooms, and to travelers in stages along the 
road until they were as current on the pike as they were 
among the children of the cross-roads school, or among the 
old crones who sat besides the hearth, "A whirling their 
wheel, or quilting the coverlids." 

The true facts of the case are that John Penn, the owner 
of the property, was anxious to dispose of the whole prop- 
erty. This by some means became known to Casper Fahne- 
stock, a member of the German Mystic Community at 



56 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Ephrata, and resulted in Casper, accompanied by Brother 
Jabez (Rev. Peter Miller), the prior of the congregation, 
and another brother, making a pilgrimage down the Lan- 
caster road in the last week of March, 1786, to Philadel- 
phia. They traveled on foot, as was their custom, clad in 
the rough habit of their order with staff in hand, Casper, 
in addition, carrying a pair of saddle bags. When the trio 
arrived at the Warren they craved admittance, but received 
a rebuff from Mather, who told them " no beggars were 
wanted around there," so the three brethren continued on 
to the city. Penn, who was known to Brother Jabez, was 
at once called on, the price agreed upon, the conveyance 
made, executed and acknowledged in open court, March 
31, 1786, before Hon. Edward Shippen, President- Judge 
of the Common pleas. This document states that the 
Hon. John Penn, Esquire, and Dame Anne, his wife, con- 
vey to Casper Fahnestock, of Cocalico township, Lancaster 
county, shopkeeper, the Warren Tavern plantation of 337 
acres, the consideration being two thousand pounds lawful 
money of Pennsylvania in specie of gold or silver. This 
money was paid out of the saddlebags which Casper had 
carried all the way from Ephrata, the subscribing witnesses 
being Peter Miller and Joan Louis Patey. The trio imme- 
diately started west on their return in the same manner as 
they had come. Casper's saddlebags were lightened of 
their weight of coin, but contained the plantation in its 
stead. On their arrival at the tavern, it was long after 
nightfall. The mystic brethren, however, stopped and 
inquired for Mather, who had, it seems, already gone to 
bed. As the latter came down in gown and slippers, Cas- 
per told him that he was now the owner of the property, 
and intended to remain and examine his purchase in the 
morning, a proceeding to which there was no objection 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 57 

from the now obsequious Mather. In a few days the old 
Tory made a vendue, at which Casper was a frequent 
bidder, and ere the first week of April had elapsed the old 
Roadside Inn was in charge of the German Sabbatarian 
from the Monastery on the Cocalico. The new host, 
although an old man, being over sixty years of age, soon 
made his presence felt with the wagoners and travellers on 
the road. In view of the succeeding events, an extended 
notice of the first of the name in Chester county, as well 
as his successors will not be amiss. 

Casper Fahnestock was a native of Germany, born in 
1724. He was the eldest son of Dietrich Fahnestock, the 
founder of the "whole tribe of Fahnestocks" (in Amer- 
ica) , as the inscription calls him on his tombstone in the old 
God's Acre of the Sabbath-keepers atEphrata, on the banks 
of the Cocalico. Dietrich, the elder, came to this country 
with his wife, child and two sisters, in 1726. His sole 
possessions consisted of an axe, a weaver's shuttle, a Bible 
and a German thaler. He first settled on the Raritan 
River in New Jersey where the family lived for a number 
of years, but becoming convinced of the truth of the Sabba- 
tarian doctrine, joined that body of Christians, and about 
1748 we find the family residents of Ephrata. In the next 
year, June 21, 1749, a patent was granted him by the 
Governor for 329 acres of land at ? ? ? ? 

as the founder of the " Chester County " Fahnestocks. 
Casper, as were the rest of the family, was a member of 
the Ephrata community ; his aunt even entered the Convent 
Saron, and became known as " Sister Armilla "; they were 
all consistent Sabbath-keepers, Casper and his wife Maria 
in addition keeping several other mosaic laws, such as 
eschewing the use of pork, the use of meats and milk at the 
same meals, &c. It was from these peculiarities that the 



58 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

common impression arose among his English neighbors, 
that the family were of the Jewish faith. 

The new owner had no sooner taken charge than the 
tavern at once became the stopping place for all of the 
Lancaster county Germans. Menish, Dunker, Ornish, 
Lutheran, Reformist and Moravian all found shelter and 
entertainment with the old " Sieben-Tager "* from Ephrata. 
Casper was ably seconded by the members of his family ; 
his wife Maria, and mother-in-law, Elizabeth Gleim, took 
charge of the kitchen, the oldest son Charles presided over 
the bar, Daniel, who was a cripple, and his brother Diet- 
rich, assisted in the house and tavern-yard, while the two 
other children, Esther and Catherine, with Charles' wife 
Susan, attended to the wants of the house, table and guests. 
Just six months after the family were domiciled in the old 
tavern Casper's wife's mother, Elizabeth Gleim, died in 
her 75th year. She was buried on the plantation in a small 
clearing on the northern slope of South Valley Hill, about 
one fourth of a mile from the tavern, according to the 
custom of the Sabbatarians of that day; due north and 
south, with prayer and song, the ceremonies being con- 
ducted by the reverend Prior, of the Ephrata community, 
Brother Jabez. This spot was in the course of time sur- 
rounded by a low stone wall and became the burial ground 
of the Fahnestock family (Chester county branch) and 
now through neglect and the ravages of time has become 
about as gruesome a place of sepulture as it is possible to 
imagine. 

At this period of history the German element had in- 
creased to so great an extent in our State, that it actually 
became a question whether the State should not become a 
German State, and that all judicial and legislative proceed- 

* Member of the mystic Seventh-day Baptist Community of Ephrata, 
Lancaster Co., Penna. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 59 

ings be held in that language. In 1787, the German high 
school was established with a grant of 10,000 acres of 
land. German was introduced into the different charity 
and township schools ; all tending to lay the foundation for 
a German commonwealth; the plan cherished by the pro- 
jectors was to eradicate the English language completely. 
The German element held together and won victory after 
victory at the polls over the " die dummen Irischer," as 
their English-speaking opponents were called. At last 
their preponderance became so great that everything 
seemed favorable to bring about the result, viz. : That the 
German language would be legally declared to be the 
tongue of the commonwealth, when the French revolution 
broke out with its attendant influx of French refugees, 
French ideas of atheism, ( foreign to the German character) , 
liberty, equality, etc., etc. This was followed by the gen- 
eral war in Europe, and the almost total cessation of emi- 
gration from Germany. During this state of affairs the 
English-speaking element gained strength from day to day, 
and the German struggle for supremacy, so auspiciously 
begun, soon declined; and it was not long before the high 
school at Lancaster, which was to have been the great uni- 
versity of America, became a thing of the past. Politically, 
however, the Germans for many years continued to hold 
the balance of power. 

Among the wagoners and travelers on the turnpike the 
German element was so largely in the majority that no 
public house could succeed unless some one in charge was 
conversant with the German tongue. As there was no 
question about the nationality of the new host of the War- 
ren, he being German to the core, his great difficulty was 
from the start to provide for those who sought his shelter. 
Further, by his attention to business and the cleanliness of 
the house, the Inn soon became a desirable stopping place 



60 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

for "Irisher" or "Gentleman," as well as for the 
" Deutscher." It even became a station for the profes- 
sional express rider, a character and occupation long since 
passed away and forgotten. 

Thus matters went on, the patronage and renown of 
"the Dutch tavern," as it was called by the wagoners, 
increased with the travel of the road, and the proprietor 
kept pace with the requirements of the traveling public. 
Casper kept the Corduroy Causeway through the swamp in 
better repair than it had been heretofore, a proceeding 
which pleased the frequenters of the road and proved 
another feature to attract custom to the Inn. This cause- 
way was to the north of the present turnpike bridge, and 
before this time was one of the worst places on the Lan- 
caster road, being often impassable in the spring and 
winter. 

Some idea of the difficulties of the travel in that day may 
be gleaned from the following letters, written just a cen- 
tury ago by Miss Marie Penry, the daughter of a cele- 
brated Welsh physician. She was one of the Moravian 
Sisterhood at Lititz, and gives a graphic description of her 
trip from Philadelphia to Lancaster. Nothing could illus- 
trate more forcibly the great change which has taken place 
during the century in the time and manner of communica- 
tion between the two places. Miss Penry writes that she 
set out from Philadelphia on a Friday morning in Novem- 
ber, leaving the city at 8 o'clock. Her traveling com- 
panions consisted besides the driver of Mr. Tilt and wife, 
and two children, seven years old, twins. He was a Brit- 
ish officer who had been a prisoner of war at Lancaster, 
and there married, and on his release went to Halifax, and 
was now on his way to see his relatives. This composed 
the load. When they arrived at Fahnestock's they stopped 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 61 

for refreshment for man and beast, and there met an Irish 
gentleman and his wife who had arrived in the country but 
a few days before, and were now on their way to the west- 
ern end of the county. They had hired a chair and came 
thus far, when their driver refused to proceed on account 
of the bad condition of the roads, and being unable to 
procure any conveyance were in consequence stranded in a 
strange land. When the party started on their journey 
they took the "Irish Gentlewoman" as the letter calls 
her, in the stage with them, and as her husband could not 
even get a horse for hire, he was obliged to travel on foot 
along side of the stage. Thus the journey to the Brandy- 
wine commenced. It was, however, not destined to con- 
tinue to the end of their goal, as the extra weight in the 
stage with the roughness of the road, had a bad effect on 
the vehicle, which proved unequal to the strain. The party 
had not proceeded far ere a crack was heard, and the hind 
axle broke, letting the stage down on the road. Fortu- 
nately the horses were stopped and the passengers gotten 
out of the wreck without injury. The party, the letter 
continues, now all footed it Indian fashion to the nearest 
inn, which was about two miles from where the stage broke 
down (probably the Sheaf of Wheat). On their arrival 
they partook of an ordinary wayside meal. The spirits of 
the party were clouded by the prospect of having to pass 
Saturday and perhaps Sunday there. However, after the 
meal was finished a countryman offered to take the party 
to Downing's for a consideration, as a great favor. His 
team proved to be a country wagon without springs or 
cover, with no seats other than bundles of rye straw. Into 
this vehicle, Miss Penry continues, we went with all our 
packages, and our Irish gentleman, who seemed to think 
that " humble riding was better than proud walking on 



62 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

foot " was but too glad to avail himself of the opportunity 
to join the party. Thus the party arrived long after dark 
at the hospitable house of the "Downings"; as the fair 
writer adds — " Politeness and good nature had lessened 
every difficulty." 

The time, 1789, from Philadelphia to Downings, was 
over twelve hours, express time 1889 is one hour. 

At this period there were two matters agitating the com- 
munity, both of which seriously affected the usually imper- 
turbable inn-keeper. One was the question of making a 
stone highway, chaussie, or turnpike, to take the place of 
the old road. The second was the action taken by the 
Federal government in taxing whiskey, a matter which was 
destined to lead to the most serious consequences. 

A fact not generally known is, that the first organized 
opposition to the new excise law, took place in our Chester 
county, and the exciseman or collector was roughly used, 
barely escaping with his life. The rioters, however, were 
convicted and punished severely by the State Courts. On 
that occasion the foreman of the jury told the Attorney 
General " that he was much or more opposed to the excise 
law than the rioters, but would not suffer violators of the 
law to go unpunished." 

This opposition thus started extended to the western 
counties, where it culminated in 1794, in what is known in 
history as the "Whiskey insurrection." When President 
Washington issued his requisition for military force to 
quell the incipient insurrection against Federal authority, 
Governor Mifflin, in response to the Federal proclamation, 
made a personal tour through the eastern part of the State 
to arouse the military spirit of the populace. In the prog- 
ress of this trip he came through Chester county and 
addressed the people at various points, among others the 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 63 

Warren Tavern is named, where, it is stated that, notwith- 
standing the protests from the proprietor, who, as a con- 
sistent Sabbath-keeper, was a non-combatant, a recruiting 
office was opened and a company recruited by Edward 
Pearce, which became known as " Captain Parker's Com- 
pany " of Colonel Harris' Regiment, Edward Pearce being 
promoted to the Adjutancy. It was not long before the 
tocsin of war, the piercing note of the fife, and the heavy 
tread of armed men was again heard in our peaceful valley. 
Most of the troops, however, marched by way of the 
Swedesford, striking the Lancaster road a little below the 
"White Horse." The baggage and supplies came out 
over the new turnpike, which had been made here and 
there in sections between the Warren and the city, but 
which on account of the ignorance displayed by those hav- 
ing the enterprise in charge was almost impassable, even 
for the baggage trains. However, the incipient war in 
Western Pennsylvania was soon over, when the efforts to 
perfect the new turnpike were redoubled; the long bridge 
was built and the new road at the "Warren" occupied 
almost all the roadbed of the provincial thoroughfare. 
Casper, to be up to the times, and foreseeing the large in- 
crease in the travel, at an early day set about to prepare 
materials for a new house on as large a scale as the Siters 
had built six miles below. This new house was built so as 
to face on the north side of the turnpike. The old "Ad- 
miral Vernon," similar to all of the inns on the Lancaster 
road, was built on the south side of the road, and it was 
not long ere the new sign board of the " General Warren " 
swung in its yoke on a high mast near the southeast angle 
of the new turnpike tavern. 

With the native thrift of old Casper and his family all 
the work had to be done by themselves — trees were felled, 



64 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

hewed and sawed, lime burned, sand hauled and stone quar- 
ried — for the new hostelry. A curious anecdote is told 
about old Casper in connection with the latter labor: Dur- 
ing the fine moonlight nights in summer " Old Cas," as he 
was called, would make his men work in the quarry long 
after supper, or, at least, would go and swing the sledge 
by himself. This was not to the taste of the young genera- 
tion, and several made up their minds that they would 
stop the old German and get him out of his Dutch notions. 
So the Pearce boys, the next night, rigged themselves up in 
horns and blankets, carrying heavy log chains, and quietly 
getting near where the old man was cracking the stone in 
the moonlight, jumped up, rattled their chains and uttered 
unearthly yells. The old man, startled for a moment, 
resumed his labor as unconcerned as if they were trees, 
merely saying: " I bees not afrait von yous if you bees der 
teufel," finishing up with, "Wer auf Gott vertraut kan 
weder tod nocht teufel schaden,"* and calmly continued 
his work. 

Another one relates how it would worry the old man 
during harvest when the mowers or reapers would sit down 
longer for rest or refreshments than he thought they ought 
to, and when he could stand it no longer he would come up 
and say, "Now, poys, youse takes a bissel grog (whiskey 
and water) ; es is not goot so long to sitz on de kalt grund ; 
takes a bissel grog and youse goes on." 

The new tavern, however, was built and ready long 
before the turnpike was a complete success, for many were 
the trials of the public spirited projectors of the enterprise. 
With the completion of the turnpike there came a demand 
for increased mail facilities. The government then en- 
grossed with the French question and the impending war 
with that power, yet found time to accede to the demand 

* Whoever trusts in God neither death nor Satan can harm. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 65 

of the people. A post office was established in Downing- 
town April 1, 1798, the only one between Philadelphia and 
Lancaster, and the official announcement was made that 
there would be three mails per week between Philadelphia, 
Downingtown and Lancaster, closing one-half hour before 
sunset every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. This was 
hailed with satisfaction by everyone. 

In connection with the French war excitement of 1798 
there is a curious anecdote. Early in the year envoys were 
appointed to France by President Adams. One of these, 
Callender by name, in place of embarking for France left 
the city on a tour westward. Why or what for was not 
known at the time. He got as far as Fahnestock's and 
remained there several days, until on the morning of July 
13th, when he was found by a teamster a little after day 
break laying over 21st mile-stone dead — drunk. 

The explanation of Commissioner Callender's strange 
conduct is very simple when it is known that three fugitive 
French Princes, Louis Phillipe, Duke de Montpensier and 
the Count de Beaujolais, were at that time sheltered under 
the humble, but hospitable roof of the old German Sabbath- 
keeper. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast 
than the home of these scions of French royalty at that 
time with their former residence, viz., the Palais Royal at 
Paris. The humble Roadside Inn, however, had this great 
advantage, the three princes were as safe as the humblest 
laborer in the land ; their heads were safe on the shoulders 
of their effete bodies. 

It was to consult with these princes that Callender came 
to the old Roadside Inn. The princes naturally did all 
they could to favorably impress the Commissioner and 
gain him for their cause. In this attempt they drew heavily 
on their scant resources, plying the Commissioner liberally 
5t 



66 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

with numerous bottles of old Madeira, which had been 
bought by Casper at Mather's sale and which it was 
claimed had come over the water, while yet the signboard 
bore the legend " Ye Adm'll Vernon." 

It was in this eventful year (1798) that the capital city 
was again visited by the yellow fever scourge. A camp 
for patients was established beyond the Schuylkill, and 
donations of farm and garden produce were solicited. 
The Fahnestocks at once took active measures to collect 
and send the needed supplies to the sufferers, vieing with 
the Downings and Joseph Moore, of East Whiteland, in 
supplying the necessaries and luxuries to the sick and con- 
valescent poor of the fever-stricken city. 

After the road was finished and' by its advantages and 
superiority over the common roads came into universal 
favor, with teamsters and travellers, the old tavern stands 
soon had more patronage than they could accommodate; 
this was especially the case with the Fahnestock's. Old 
Casper although having long passed the allotted period of 
three score and ten, still continued as host and proprietor 
of the house, holding to the German maxim that "No 
father should give the reins of his hands to his child as 
long as he lived." However, in 1789, old Casper then 
in his 77th year, was forced by the infirmities of age to 
relinquish the house to his son Charles, who was then in 
his 37th year, and in whose name the license was granted 
for the last year of the Eighteenth Century. 

In the next year (1800), the present blacksmith shops 
were built on the turnpike. As before stated, the old shop 
on the Lancaster road stood in the meadow, about five feet 
north of the turnpike bridge. The top of the roof of the 
old shop was on a level with the low parapet of the present 
bridge and stood there for many years. 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 67 

As has been mentioned in a previous article, during the 
period of 1 790-1 800 when Philadelphia was the capital of 
the United States, there were frequently delegations of the 
Indian tribes, who travelled up and down the road in their 
journey to visit the " Great Father " ; on one of these 
visits an occurrence took place, which caused much specu- 
lation, and remains to the present day an unsolved prob- 
lem, notwithstanding the many attempts made by the 
Fahnestock family and many others to solve the enigma. 
It was as follows: A short time after the turnpike was 
finished an Indian coming down the road had broken some- 
thing about his gun, and, when he came to the Warren 
asked the smith at the shops to repair it. The blacksmith 
had just run out of charcoal, which was the only kind of 
coal then used by smiths, and told the Indian that he could 
not fix his gun until he had burnt a new kiln of charcoal. 
The Indian asked him if he would do it if he got him coal, 
and getting an answer in the affirmative he took up a pick 
and basket which were in the shops, and giving a grunt 
started for the woods on the South Valley hill. He re- 
turned in about half an hour with a basket full of black 
rocks or stones. The smith tried to make the Indian under- 
stand it was coal that he needed. The Indian merely put 
some of his black stones on the hearth and pulled the bel- 
lows, and to the surprise of the smith the stones com- 
menced to burn. The Indian merely said, "White man 
now fix gun." The now thoroughly surprised smith found 
the Indian's rocks equal to his best charcoal. The gun was 
repaired, and the smith was naturally anxious to know 
where the burning stones were found, but nothing could in- 
duce the Indian to divulge where he had found it except 
that he said "there was much — much," pointing towards 
the wooded hillside. Many were the efforts made from 



68 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

that day to this to discover the location, but so far without 
success. 

Although with the advent of the nineteenth century 
Philadelphia had ceased to be the capital city the traffic 
on the turnpike showed no diminution; our road became 
the great highway to the West. Stage lines were started 
to all points, while wagoning and emigrants increased to 
such an extent that ere long the licensed houses on the road 
between Philadelphia and Lancaster averaged one to the 
mile, and even then the farm houses adjacent to the high- 
way were often called upon to accommodate the overflow. 

When the political question cropped out in relation to 
the western territory, which culminated in the "Aaron 
Burr" fiasco, it became imperative as early as 1804 that 
regular communication should be maintained between 
Philadelphia and the Ohio at Pittsburg, other than by the 
always more or less uncertain post or express rider. Satis- 
factory arrangements, however, were not consummated 
until after much effort on the part of the federal author- 
ities. The first notice of the new enterprise was the follow- 
ing quaint announcement — it was published in but a single 
paper, and is here reproduced in full as a contrast to the 
railroad advertisements of the present day — viz. : 

PHILADELPHIA & PITTSBURG 
MAIL STAGES. 

A contract being made with the Postmaster General of 
the United States for the carrying of the mail to and from 
Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, in stage wagons, a line of 
stages will be in operation on the first of July next, on 
same route, which line will start from John Tomlinson's 
Spread Eagle, Market street, No. 285, Philadelphia, and 
from Thomas Ferree's, the Fountain Inn, Water street, 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 69 

Pittsburgh ; and perform the same route in seven days from 
the above places. Passengers must pay $20.00 each, with 
the privilege of twenty pounds of baggage, all above that 
weight, or baggage sent by above line, to pay at the rate 
of $12.00 per 100 pounds, if the packages are of such 
dimensions as to be admissible for conveyance. 

The proprietors of this line of stages, well knowing the 
arduous undertaking of a new establishment, and aware of 
the laborious task and expense that the prosecutors of 
their necessary engagements will require, are determined 
that their conduct shall be such, as they trust will be sanc- 
tioned by a discerning public and receive their support. 

Printed cards will be distributed, and may be had at the 
proprietors' different stage houses, giving a full detail of 
the distances and times of arrival at the several towns 
through which the line shall pass. 

N. B. — Printers who shall think the above establishment 
a public benefit will please give the same a place in their 
respective papers a few times. 

Philadelphia, June 13, 1804. 

As announced in the above advertisement, promptly at 
8 o'clock on the morning of the 4th of July, 1804, a fit day 
for the starting of the new national enterprise, the stage 
which was to be the first to run through from the Delaware 
to the Ohio was drawn up in front of Tomlinson's Spread 
Eagle stage office, then at the northeast corner of 8th and 
Market streets, the four prancing horses with bridles gaily 
decorated with red, white and blue ribbons. Long before 
the starting time the mail was in the "boot," the straps 
drawn tight, the booked passengers in their seats, while as 
a last precaution an extra keg of fistoil and tar was slung 
to the hind axle, the lynch pin examined and the dust proof 



7o The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

covers fastened over the hubs. Then after another glass 
was drunk the driver and armed guard took their places 
on the box, the lines tightened, the whip cracked and the 
pioneer mail stage to the West left the stage office among 
the cheers of the assembled multitude and whirled rapidly 
out Market street towards Center Square, where another 
ovation awaited the stage and its occupants from the citi- 
zens who were preparing to celebrate Independence Day. 
The new permanent bridge was quickly passed and the 
ironclad hoofs of the four prancing steeds clattered on the 
smooth turnpike. At every tavernstand the passing mail 
was received with cheers and wishes of Godspeed and safe 
journey to the travelers. Stops were only made at such 
stagehouses as the Buck, Eagle, Paoli, and there for liquid 
refreshment only. It was near two o'clock in the after- 
noon, as the stage dashed down the Valley hill through the 
toll gate at the twentieth milestone, when the guard blew 
six sharp blasts on his bugle — this the signal to the host of 
the "Warren" how many guests there would be for din- 
ner; then came the notes of "Independence Day," the 
'".Yankee Doodle," the echo taking them up and returning 
them through ravines on the hillside a hundred fold. 
Hardly had the echo faded, when the four prancing steeds 
were reined up in front of the " Warren." The stage door 
was quickly opened, the passengers alighting and meeting 
with a greeting as only Charles Fahnestock was capable of 
extending to the wayfarer. The dust was quickly washed 
down with cold punch, when dinner was served, toasts 
drunk and ample justice done to the viands. In the mean- 
time the anvil of the shops had been brought out into the 
road and improvised as a cannon, and load after load was 
fired in honor of the occasion. During the djinner the relays 
had been brought out, and the stage was once more ready 



Way side Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 71 

for the journey westward. Another punch was drunk, 
hands shaken, and amid wishes of Godspeed, the reports 
of the improvised artillery, and the cheers of the assembled 
neighbors, mingled with the bugle notes of the guard, the 
stage with its freight started merrily up the hill on its way 
towards the Ohio. 

This enterprise of running mail stages through to Pitts- 
burg formed the theme of conversation for the balance of 
the week. Many were the different opinions pro and con 
— prophecies of failure and adverse criticisms; yet notwith- 
standing the headshaking and discouraging comments of 
Old Casper, the stage went through, arrived safely on time 
in a week, and the through mail was an established fact. 
These stages were what in later years was known as the 
" Good Intent Line." The route lay from Lancaster to 
Chambersburg, by way of Carlisle and Strasburg; arriving 
in Chambersburg in two and one half days, averaging 
about four miles an hour, from the latter place to the end 
of the journey; the progress under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances was much slower, the distance from Chamers- 
burg to Pittsburg, about 150 miles, taking four and one 
half days, or about two to two and a half miles an hour. 
There were thirty-five regular stopping places or stages 
between the two cities. At first the enterprise was slow in 
coming into favor with the traveling public. It was not 
until the following year (1805) that the proprietors were 
taxed to their capacity and were forced to run an occasional 
special or extra coach; this was necessitated by the excite- 
ment caused by the Burr Exposition, which had then 
reached its culmination; the success of the through stage 
line opened a new era for the Warren, and the house under 
the management of Charles Fahnestock, became known to 
travelers in this country and Europe, as one of the best kept 



72 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

houses in America. He was a rather spare built man, of 5 
feet 1 1 inches, with a full beard, and always wore a brown 
or snuff-colored coat and spoke with a strong German 
accent. He was very particular in regard to the sale of 
liquors; ordinary local patronage and wagons were not 
encouraged. The bar was a small arrangement very high, 
and slabs running about 2 inches wide, and 3 inches apart, 
running from bar to ceiling. In front there was a small 
opening with an outside shelf holding about four glasses. 
The liquor was measured out by the gill or half gill and 
passed through this opening. When the landlord thought 
a patron had enough he would refuse him any more telling 
him quietly " to sit down awhile." The tavern keeper con- 
fined himself strictly within the old law of 1762 by which 
"Taverns were allowed to sell to regular inmates and 
travellers in moderation," (Acts Assembly, vol. 1, pp. 
19-21 — fol. Phila. 1762.) 

The Fahnestock family had no sooner learned the prin- 
ciples and teachings of their guests than the Owens, Miss 
Wright and their followers were kindly and firmly in- 
formed by Charles Fahnestock that they would have to 
seek other quarters, that the house would afford them 
shelter no longer, nor would he harbor anyone who pro- 
mulgated sentiments similar to theirs, which were so for- 
eign to all religious and moral teachings. Another guest 
during the agitation of Owen's plan for colonization in the 
Great Valley was his Highness Bernhardt, Duke of Sachse- 
Weimar-Eisenach, who was then on a visit to this country. 
The attempt of Owen to interest the nobleman in his 
scheme resulted as did all of Owen's plans — in failure. 

As before stated, local custom was not encouraged by 
the inn-keeper, regular habitues of the tavern were few, 
and such as there was were respectable and sober. Charles 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 73 

Fahnestock was naturally a temperance man, and had the 
courage, when the house was at the height of popularity, 
to close his bar on Sunday. This was an unheard-of inno- 
vation at that day, which called down much adverse criti- 
cism upon him. He, however, persisted, and even went 
so far as to hang a sign over the bar 

NO LIQUOR 

SOLD ON THE 

SABBATH 

and he had enough moral courage to adhere to the deter- 
mination. Among the few of the neighbors who were fre- 
quently to be seen on the tavern porch was an Englishman 
of means, Thomas Bradley, between whom and the inn- 
keeper a strong bond of friendship had arisen. It lasted 
until death parted the two friends in 1829. Thomas 
Bradley was buried in the Fahnestock ground and is the 
only stranger who rests within the enclosure. 

Another visitor who was occasionally to be seen at the 
Warren was Charles Fahnestock's cousin, Andrew. He 
was a Sabbatarian, and on account of his originality and 
appearance always attracted the attention of strangers. 
He always travelled on foot, dressed in a long drab coat, 
wearing a broad brimmed white hat, and carrying his long 
"Pilgerstab" (staff) in his hand. He was at one time 
quite wealthy, but gave all his wealth to the poor, saying 
11 The Lord would never suffer him to want." He would 
never receive any salary for his services as preacher, trust- 
ing entirely in the Lord for his support. On these visits 
he would often take his cousin to task for joining the Pres- 
byterian Church with his family and failing to keep the 
Sabbath (7th day), as had his ancestors before him. 



74 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The preacher on his journeys along the pike was often 
made the subject for the teamsters' jokes, who met him, 
but, as we would say at the present day, Andrew never got 
left. On one of these occasions, a teamster asked him if 
he believed in the devil. Andrew answered that " he read 
about him in his Bible." The wagoner then asked him if 
he ever saw the devil. The answer he got was, " I never 
want to see him plainer that I do just now." The ribald 
wagoner had no more questions to ask the German Sab- 
batarian. 

At the commencement of the fourth decade (1830) 
travel had increased to such an extent that greater facilities 
and shorter time was demanded by the traveling public. 
To meet this demand the proprietors of the stage line, S. 
R. Slaymaker & Co., from Philadelphia to Chambersburg, 
and Reside Slaymaker & Co., from Chambersburg to Pitts- 
burg, increased their stock and facilities to so great an 
extent that in 1831 they announced that they would hence- 
forth run two daily lines to Pittsburg, viz. : The U. S. Mail 
stage, the "Good Intent Line," would leave their office, 
284 Market street, Philadelphia, above 8th street, every 
morning at two o'clock a. m., for Pittsburg, via Lancaster, 
Harrisburg, Carlisle, Chambersburg, Bedford, Somerset 
and Mount Pleasant, going through in three days; only 
six passengers being admitted to each stage, as many stages 
were to be run as called for by the passengers, they aver- 
aging about six daily. 

The Mail Telegraph stage line left Philadelphia at 6.30 
a. m. by way of Greensburg from Bedford, making the trip 
in four days. This service was especially recommended to 
families or ladies, as the telegraph line avoided the fatigue 
of night travel. Firstrate horses, careful drivers and 
splendid new coaches were held out as the inducement to 



JVayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 75 

the traveling public. In September, 1831, during the 
height of the traveling season the tavern was discovered 
to be on fire. It was first discovered over the kitchen, and 
is supposed to have been caused by a defective flue or 
chimney. The whole structure soon fell a victim to the 
destroying element. 

A curious anecdote in connection with the fire was long 
current. As soon as the alarm was given Charles called 
on several of the willing helpers to carry down the old 
German chest, which had belonged to his father, Casper. 
It was so heavy that it took five men to carry it. The inn- 
keeper had it carried across the road. He then sat on it 
and calmly watched the destruction of his valuable prop- 
erty. His action at the time caused much comment. No 
information was vouchsafed. After the fire was subdued 
and the danger to the outbuilding over, Charles had the 
chest carefully carried to the house just east of the bridge, 
never leaving the chest out of his sight until it was again 
in a place of safety. The explanation to this was — the 
old German oaken chest was his bank, weighted down by 
the roleaux of gold and silver coin, which were stored be- 
tween the folds of several old coverlids. 

The house was at once rebuilt on the solid walls, which 
were unharmed by the fire, and on its completion enjoyed 
an increased patronage. 

In the month of April, 1834, the Philadelphia and Co- 
lumbia Railway was open for travel. For a time the 
Green Tree had been the eastern terminus for the stages. 
So far the Warren had not felt the effects of the new im- 
provement. Within a month after the first train went 
down the road drawn by the "Black Hawk" matters 
changed. The stage coaches were withdrawn east of Co- 
lumbia. It was the twentieth of May, a dark rainy day, 
when the last regular stage passed the Warren on its way 



76 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

eastward. The Fahnestocks, similar to many other tavern 
keepers who were off the railway, had no faith in its ulti- 
mate success. The various local stages still ran, so did the 
Pitt teams, but neither were accustomed to stop at the 
Warren, nor could the old tavernkeeper bring himself 
down to cater to that class of custom. For a while a stage 
was run from the West Chester intersection to the Warren 
for the benefit of such travelers who wanted to stop at the 
Warren, but the arrangement was soon discontinued. 
Charles Fahnestock, now well-advanced in years and dis- 
gusted with the existing state of affairs, turned the inn over 
to his son William, who had become a strict Presbyterian 
and member of the Great Valley Church, much against the 
wishes and advice of his " Uncle Andrew," who was wont 
to tell him that all of his plans would "go aglee " unless 
he returned to the faith of his forefathers and kept the 
seventh day. William, however, turned a deaf ear to his 
relative, and became a prominent man in the church. Be- 
side being active in all church matters, he was for some 
years the " precentor" and led the singing. 

Wm. Fahnestock had presided over the inn not quite 
three years when his father was gathered to his people, 
and was buried with his father in the old family plot on 
the Valley hill, the Rev. Wm. Latta consigning the body 
to the grave. It is said that this was the last interment 
in the ground. 

William now had full sway, and as he was a strong 
temperance man he at once stopped the sale of liquor, and 
to the surprise of the frequenters of the pike a new sign 
board appeared in front of the "Warren," not high up 
in the yoke as of yore, but flat in front of the porch. It 
was an oval sign hung on pivots and fastened with a hook. 
During six days of the week it read : 



Wayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike. 77 

WARREN 

TEMPERANCE 

HOTEL. 

At sundown on Saturday the sign was turned and until 
Monday it read : 

NOTHING 

SOLD ON THE 

SABBATH. 

The new departure did not meet with favor, and the 
patronage of the house rapidly decreased. The new host, 
in his temperance idea, eventually went so far as to cut 
down the large apple orchard which was in the field oppo- 
site the house, south of the pike. This was done so as to 
prevent the apples being used for cider. The year after 
the experiment of keeping a temperance hotel failed — 
summer boarders were tried with varying success. Wil- 
liam also made several attempts to locate the traditionary 
coal mine of the Indian, shafts were sunk at different 
points on the South Valley hill, but were eventually aban- 
doned. He also went extensively into the Morus Multi- 
caulis craze* which ended in failure. It seemed, as if not 
only the glory of the house had departed, but that the 
prophecy of the old Seventh-day Baptist preacher, " Uncle 
Andrew," was coming true.f So in the next year, 1838, 
Wm. Fahnestock divided the tract up and sold it to vari- 
ous parties, the tavern and adjacent fields being bought by 
a Mr. Thompson, who kept it one year and then sold it 
to Professor Stille, of Philadelphia, who in turn sold it in 
1846 to the present owners. 

* The silkworm craze, 
f Vide p. 77, supra. 



<$uioe 



to tbe 



©lb /Moravian Cemetery 

of Betblebem, pa. 
1742*1910 



BY 

AUGUSTUS SCHULTZE, D.D., L.H.D. 




LANCASTER, PA. 
1912 




Zhc ©lb Moravian Cemetery 
of Betblebem, pa. 



1742*1910 



By AUGUSTUS SCHULTZE, D.D., L.H.D. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 

Of the interesting and attractive places in historic Bethlehem there is 
perhaps .none which is more sought out by strangers and which we hold 
in greater veneration than the old Moravian Cemetery, " God's Acre," 
as our fathers called their burying ground. 

Its central location, well kept walks, stately shade trees, rustic benches, 
and elevated position affording a fine view of the Lehigh Mountains, all 
combine to make it a pleasant resort for old and young. The solemn still- 
ness which pervades the place, in contrast with the noise and commotion 
of business and travel on the adjoining thoroughfares, invites the passer-by 
to peaceful rest. The uniform simplicity of more than 2,600 graves 
arranged in parallel rows, with their plain tombstones and concise epitaphs 
marking the resting places of rich and poor, high and low alike, teaches an 
impressive lesson as to the common brotherhood of mortal man. Once a 
year, at the inspiring service held within its gates on Easter morning, 
towns-people and visitors gather in a vast concourse to give joyful expres- 
sion to the faith in a blessed resurrection of all those who have died in the 
Lord. An additional interest attaching to this Cemetery lies in the remark- 



iv The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

able mingling of races, the graves of men and women from different 
nationalities of Europe being interspersed with those of many Indians and 
Negroes who, through the labors of the Moravian Brethren, found salva- 
tion in Christ. The descendants of Bethlehem Moravian families, further- 
more, can here trace their pedigree through a number of generations and find 
all the representative names of the past 170 years of the town's existence. 

But the greatest attraction of this historic spot lies in the contemplation 
of the life records made by many of the men and women whose earthly 
remains have found a resting place here. Detailed biographies of all those 
prominent in the church and community, and a narration of the varied 
experience through which they passed, as outlined in the official Record 
of Interments, would fill several interesting volumes. For our purpose it 
will be sufficient to give brief abstracts of these biographies. 

The original plot of the Cemetery, as laid out in 17142 and 1745, com- 
prised the northwestern portion of the grounds only, the grave of Juliana 
Nitschmann, in the middle of the path, marking the center of the Cemetery; 
the first grave is that of John Mueller, who died on June 26, 1742, one day 
after the organization of the church at Bethlehem. We, therefore, begin 
at the northwest end, near Market Street, with Section A, Row I, and 
continue taking the Rows and Sections in regular order from west to east, 
.and from north to south. 

The dates after the names indicate the year of birth and death. When 
the death of a child occurred in the year in which it was born, but one 
date is given. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION A. 

(Beginning at the northwest gate.) 

Row. Interment. Page. 

I. Married Men 1760-1802 3 

II. Mostly Unmarried Men 1758-93 (one 1814) 10 

III. Married and Single Men 1758-95 ( one l8 22) 14 

IV. Mostly Little Boys 1764-1812 18 

V. Little Boys 1746-1815 19 

VI. Little Boys 1744-1817 21 

VII. Unmarried Men and Boys 1742-1796 22 

VIII. Married Men 1744-1793 25 

SECTION B. 

I. Mostly Married Men 1793-1841 31 

II. Married and Unmarried 1794-1842 35 

III. Men and Boys 1795-1843 37 

IV. Men and Boys 1812-1841 40 

V. Mostly Little Boys 1817-1841 43 

VI. Boys and Men 1817-1841 44 

VII. Men and Boys 1796-1840 46 

VIII. Married Men 1795-1841 49 

Non-Moravians 1777-1849 53 

(Row nearest to Market Street.) 

Juliana Nitschmann 1751 54 

(In the path between A and C.) 

SECTION C. 

I. Married Women 1744-1771 55 

II. Unmarried Women and Girls 1745-1769 59 

III. Little Girls 1744-1769 62 

IV. Little Girls 1747-1758 64 

V. Little Girls 1760-1791 65 

VI. Mostly Widows 1784-1794 67 

VII. Unmarried Women 1769-1790 71 

VIII. Married Women 1761-1779 73 

IX. Married and Unmarried Women 1809-1820 78 

X. Married Women 1817-1832 81 

1 



2 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

SECTION D. 

I. Married Women 1783-1848 85 

II. Mostly Unmarried Women 1792-1847 89 

III. Children and Adults 1785-1845 92 

IV. Children and Unmarried Women 1798-1838 95 

V. Little Girls 1795-1838 97 

VI. Women and Children 1795-1840 98 

VII. Women and Children 1790-1842 102 

VIII. Mostly Married Women 1780-1845 104 

IX. Married Women and Children 1820-1849 108 

X. Married and Single Women 1832-1849 m 

SECTION E. 

I. Married and Unmarried Women 1849-1869 114 

II. Married and Unmarried Women 1850-1869 118 

III. Married and Unmarried Women 18 50-1868 122 

IV. Married and Unmarried Women 1850-1868 125 

V. Girls 1849-1869 128 

VI. Little Girls 1849-1869 130 

VII. Little Girls 1848-1870 131 

SECTION F. 
I. Women — Men 1870-1897 133 

II. Women — Men 1870-1901 137 

III. Women — Men 1870-1901 141 

IV. Women — Men 1870-1903 146 

V. Children, Women — Men 1870-1908 150 

VI. Children, Women — Men 1870-1910 153 

VII. Children, Women — Men 1870-1910 156 

SECTION G. 
I. Little Boys 1843-1856 159 

II. Mostly Little Boys 1842-1856 161 

III. Men and Boys 1842-1859 163 

IV. Men 1842-1862 165 

V. Men 1842-1863 169 

SECTION H. 

I. Little Boys 1872-1881 173 

II. Little Boys 1859-1881 175 

III. Boys and Men 1859-1881 176 

IV. Men 1863-1882 180 

V. Men 1863-1881 185 



M A. R K E 1 



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4 CEMETERY 

EM, PA. 







ttbe @lo flDoravian Cemetery of Betblebem, fl>a. 

SECTION A. 

(Beginning at the north-west gate.) 
Row I. — Married Men. 

i. Nathaniel Seidel, 1718-82, a Bishop of the Moravian Church, and for 
twenty years the President of the American Provincial Board. He 
was born at Lauban, Silesia, on October 2, 1718, the son of a Bohe- 
mian emigrant, and learned the trade of cloth-weaving. Having 
found Jesus as his Saviour he joined the Moravian Church at Herrn- 
hut in 1739, and came to Bethlehem in 1742 to engage in evangelistic 
work. He was appointed itinerant missionary among the Indians 
and white settlers, and to this end made many journeys, always on 
foot, laboring with great zeal and success. In 1748 he was ordained 
a Presbyter. Five years later he was sent on an official visitation to 
the Danish West Indies, the next year to North Carolina (where he 
founded the church at Bethabara), and the following year to the 
mission in Surinam, S. A. In 1758 he was consecrated a Bishop, 
and after Zinzendorf's death became President of the Provincial 
Board of Elders in place of Bishop Spangenberg, who returned to 
Germany. He was married to Anna Joanna Piesch, a niece of Anna 
Nitschmann. They left no children. He departed this life on May 
17, 1782. 

2. John Ettwein, 1721-1802. He was born at Freudenstadt, Wurtemberg, 
on June 29, 1721, a descendant of protestant refugees from Savoy. 
Having joined the Moravian Church in 1739, he soon distinguished 
himself by his zeal and sound judgment, and was appointed to 
various offices in the churches of Germany and England. Coming 
to America in 1754, he here found a field of labor for which he was 
particularly qualified. For the next thirty years he served with 
unwearied energy in various places and capacities, among whites 
and Indians, attending both to the temporal and spiritual interests of 
the Church. In 1766 he became the assistant of Bishop Nathaniel 
Seidel and from that time on, and especially during the stormy time 
of the Revolutionary War, he was the accredited representative of 
the Moravian Church before the Government. In 1784 he was con- 



\ The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

secrated a Bishop and became the successor of Nath. Seidel as Presi- 
dent of the Governing Board of the Moravian Church in America. 
He lived to the age of 80 years. A street in Bethlehem is named 
after him. His wife, Joanna M. Kymbel, preceded him to the grave 
in 1789 (Section C, VI, 16) ; one married son died in 1798. One 
daughter married J. D. Kliest, a justice of the peace in Bethlehem. 

3. David Digeon, 1722-77, a shoemaker from French Switzerland. He 

came to Bethlehem in 1743 in the ship Little Strength, with 120 
Moravian Brethren and Sisters. His wife Mary, maiden name 
Bardsley, was from England. During the last twenty years of his 
life he was demented. 

4. John Tobias Hirte, 1707-70. He was born at Eybau, Saxony. He was 

converted while serving in the Saxon army, and Moravian Brethren 
purchased his freedom. He proved an efficient workman in building 
the first houses of the Church at Herrnhaag, and was master car- 
penter at the building of Nazareth Hall. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Klose, died in 1767. 

5. George Christ, 1701-69, born at Neuhofmansdorf, Moravia, was 

spiritually awakened by the preaching of the carpenter and mis- 
sionary Christian David. He married Anna Maria Schroller, and 
coming with her to Bethlehem in 1743, he found employment on the 
Church farm. 

6. Martin Hirt, 1729-60, born at Leinbach, Alsace. He came to Pennsyl- 

vania as a child, with his parents, and joined the Church, but proved 
a backslider, and remained rough and worldly, until he lost his eye- 
sight and became a paralytic, when he repented of his ways. He 
was married to M. Beroth. 

7. John Gottlob Klemm, 1 690-1762, born near Dresden, Saxony. After 

attending the University of Leipzig for a short time, he became an 
organ-builder in Dresden and was married. Count Zinzendorf, who 
had rented the lower story of his house, engaged him to repair the 
organ at Berthelsdorf, near Herrnhut, and he went there to live ; but 
in 1735 he emigrated with the " Schwenkfelders " to Pennsylvania. 
Here his wife died. He then returned to the Moravian Church, built 
an organ for the Nazareth Hall Chapel, and for a while taught also 
at the Hall. 

8. Michael Schnall, 1715-63, a stocking-weaver from Speier, in the 

Palatinate. He had been a sergeant in the French army and heard 
of Herrnhut from his fellow-soldiers. Was received into the Church 
at Heerendyk, Holland, and came to Bethlehem with three com- 
panions in September of 1741, when the first house only had been 
built. He married in 1747, and left three sons. One of them, John 
Schnall, served as a missionary at Fairfield, Canada. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 5 

9. Samuel Johannes, 1730-63, of the Malay race, and the first Moravian 
convert from the Island of Ceylon, in the East Indies. Christian 
Dober, a surgeon on that Island, who himself was converted by the 
preaching of the Moravian missionaries, in 1742 brought him to 
Marienborn, Germany, where he was baptized. In 1754 he came to 
Bethlehem, and here married the widow Magdalene, m.n. Mingo, a 
colored woman. 

10. Andrew Schout (Schaut), 1700-63, a seaman, born at Copenhagen, 

Denmark. Having risen to the rank of captain of a Dutch man-of- 
war, he in 1737 entered the service of the adventurer King Theodorus 
of Corsica (Baron Neuhof), who made him commander of a ten-gun- 
ship. Later he was first mate on a Russian admiral's ship. Meeting 
the Moravian Brethren at Reval, Russia, he became converted 
through their testimony, and was engaged as mate on their mission 
ship Irene, under Captain N. Garrison. In 1757 this ship was cap- 
tured by a French privateer, and Schaut spent nine months in a 
French prison. Finally coming to Bethlehem, he served as constable 
and visitor's guide. His wife, m.n. Jungblut, whom he married in 
1744, lived but a few years. 

11. John Henry Segner, 1714-63, born at Steinhude, in Schaumburg- 

Lippe, Germany. A tailor by trade, he became body servant of 
Count Christian Renatus Zinzendorf. Later he served in the mission 
household on the Island of St. Thomas, W. I., and finally in the 
"clergy-house" at Nazareth and at Bethlehem. He was married 
to Christina Frey. 

12. George Partsch, 1719-65, born at Langendorf, Upper Silesia. In 1743 

he married Susan L. Eller at Herrnhaag, twenty-four couples being 
joined in wedlock on the same day, all of whom came to Bethlehem 
in that year. In 1755 he and his wife were appointed to Gnaden- 
hiitten on the Mahony, Pa., where six days after their arrival the 
missionaries were massacred by hostile Indians. Partsch crawled 
through a window, and his wife leaping down from the burning 
house escaped with him. Both afterwards served in the " Economy " 
or common household of the Bethlehem congregation, and of the 
mission in St. Thomas. 

13. William Angel, 1729-69, born at Hanixerton, Wiltshire, England. 

Came to America in 1754 and was sent to Bethabara, N. C. After 
the death of his first wife, m.n. Holder, he returned to Bethlehem 
and took charge of the Burnside farm near Bethlehem. He died of 
small-pox. 

14. Richard Popplewell, 1718-71, born in Yorkshire, England; was 

brought here with three companions for the purpose of conducting a 



6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

cloth-weaving and fulling establishment. In 1757 he married Eliza- 
beth Cornwell. He died suddenly, from a stroke of apoplexy. 

15. George Schneider, 1716-73, born at Zauchtenthal, Moravia. He came 

to Bethlehem in 1742, and four years later married Gertrude Peter- 
sen. For some years he farmed the church-land at Nazareth and 
the Nain tract near Bethlehem. 

16. H. W. Gottlieb von Vippach, 1713-73, a German nobleman, born near 

Gnadenfrei, Silesia, and early in connection with the Church. After 
living in various Moravian settlements in Germany, he resolved in 
1769 to emigrate to America. His wife had died at Herrnhut. 

17. Ephraim Culver (Colver), 1717-75, born at Lebanon, Connecticut. 

Coming to Pennsylvania in 1753 he built him a grist-mill north of 
the Blue Mountains. After the Indians had burned his house and 
mill, he moved to Nazareth and became landlord of " The Rose " 
Inn. Later he lived at Schoeneck. He was thrice married. 

18. Robert Hussey, 1713-75, born at Wiltshire, England. In 1743 he 

accompanied the itinerant missionary Leonard Schnell on a journey 
from Bethlehem to Georgia, on foot, proclaiming the Gospel in many 
places, where there had never been any preaching before. After his 
return he was appointed teacher in the school at Oley, Pa. He mar- 
ried Martha Wilkes. 

19. Christian Froehlich, 1715-76, born at Felsberg, Hesse Cassel, learned 

the trade of a baker and entered the service of Count Zinzendorf in 
that capacity. In 1740 he came to America, in company with Bishop 
David Nitschmann and others, and in the Spring of 1741 helped in 
the founding of Bethlehem and the building of the first large house 
(Gemeinhaus). He also dug the first grave on this cemetery for 
John Mueller (A, VII, 12). After being married to M. E. Robins, 
he served the Church for a while as a missionary in St. Thomas, 
and among the Indians at Pachgatgoch, Conn. In 1752 he entered 
the employ of a sugar refiner in New York, where his wife died. 
He returned to Bethlehem in March, 1776, and died a month later. 

20. John Bechtel, 1690-1777, born at Weinheim in the Palatinate, emi- 

grated to Pennsylvania in 1726, settling at Germantown, where, 
though unordained and simply a pious mechanic, he officiated as the 
minister of the Reformed Church for 16 years. In 1742 he was 
ordained by Bishop Nitschmann, but four years later, being dismissed 
from the Reformed Church, he removed to Bethlehem, and served in 
the " Brethren's Economy " as turner. He was also President of 
the Bethlehem Board of Trustees, attaining an age of 87 years. 

21. John Brandmueller, 1704-77, from Basle, Switzerland, a minister; 

arrived here in 1743, and two years later was ordained a Deacon of 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 7 

the Church. Served at Swatara, Allemaengel, Donegal and Friedens- 
thal, until after the departure of his wife, when he retired to Beth- 
lehem. His father had foretold him that he would meet his death 
by drowning, and after two narrow escapes during his life he was 
actually found dead in the mill-race, where he had gone to bathe 
his head, as was his custom. 

22. Daniel Kunkler, Sr., 1719-77, shoemaker, born at St. Gall, Switzer- 

land. Was twice cited before the government in his home country, 
because he spoke against " the Decree of Reprobation " and pro- 
claimed Christ as the " Saviour of all men." Here in America he 
found employment at the Bethlehem ferry, at the Inn, and in the 
carpentershop of the congregation. 

23. Joseph Moeller, 1713-78, born at Zittau, Saxony. He came here with 

the first " Sea Congregation," in 1742, and was employed at Naza- 
reth, Gnadenthal and Bethlehem as gardener. He married Catharine 
Koch, and had two sons. 

24. John Chr. Richter, 1712-78, a cabinetmaker from Saxe-Altenburg. 

He was married to Charlotte Eisen, who died in 1764, after the birth 
of her fifth child. Richter was a sacristan for 28 years. 

25. James Langley, 1708-78, an Englishman, a friend of the Church, but 

not a member. Being old and invalid he came to see his daughters 
in Bethlehem, who faithfully nursed him until his death. 

26. Andrew, a negro, born in Ibo, West Africa, sold as a slave from place 

to place. In 1741 a New York Jew bought him and wanted to sell 
him to the Island of Madeira. Andrew being very anxious to 
remain, was advised to pray to God for help. The next day the 
New York merchant, Thomas Noble, one of the first members of the 
Moravian Church in that city, bought him. He came to Bethlehem, 
where he was baptized in 1746, Mr. Noble having given him to 
Bishop Spangenberg as a present. He married Magdalene, a native 
of Guinea, and had three children, t 1779. 

27. John Matthew Graf, 1747-79, born at Lancaster, Pa., a hatter by 

trade. Was married to Margaret Moore. In 1776 he became lieu- 
tenant of a company of militia, taking an active part in the Revolu- 
tionary War. He came here to be cured of a serious ailment. 

28. Andrew Brocksch, 1703^79, born in Silesia. He was a widower since 

1758, his wife Anna, m.n. Helwig, having departed in that year. 
For more than 16 years he served the town as a faithful night- 
watchman. 

29. Valentine Haidt, 1700-80, from Danzig, Prussia. In 1724 he was 

married in London to Cath. Compigni, with whom in 1774 he cele- 
brated a joyful golden jubilee. He served the Church in various 



8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

capacities, but especially by executing many oil-paintings of our 
Saviour's birth, life, sufferings and death, for the use of the churches 
at Herrnhaag, Herrnhut, London and at Bethlehem; many of the 
portraits preserved in the Archives are his handiwork. 

30. Christian Eggert, 1714-80, born in the Uckermark, not far from Berlin. 

Having gone to Berbice in South America, in 1742, as superintendent 
of a plantation, he there met the missionary Theo. Schuman, was 
converted, and started for Bethlehem. Here he did faithful service 
for many years as a gardener. He was married to Apollonia Grosch, 
and left two sons and a daughter. 

31. Frederick Boeckel, 1716V-80, born in the Palatinate. He came with his 

wife to Pennsylvania in 1736, settling in Berks County, heard Count 
Zinzendorf preach, and was one of the founders of the church at 
Heidelberg. Later he was employed in the school at Germantown 
and on the farms at Christiansbrunn and Bethlehem, at which place 
after the common household ceased he took charge of the farm 
entirely. Of his first marriage there were one son and five daughters ; 
of his second marriage, one son. 

32. John Jones, 1714-81, a blacksmith from Skippack, Pa.; moved into the 

neighborhood of Bethlehem in 1749, and bought a farm. He left five 
sons and fifteen grandchildren. 

33. Nicholas Garrison, 1701-81, born on Staten Island, N. Y., went to sea 

in his thirteenth year, and did not return home for eight years, 
during which time he was three times made a prisoner of war. 
Having married after his father's death, he again followed sea- 
faring. In 1736 he met Bishop Spangenberg in the West Indies, 
who came in Garrison's ship to New York. The next year Garrison 
taking sick on the Island of St. Thomas was tenderly nursed by the 
missionary Frederick Martin. In 1740 he was captured by a Spanish 
man-of-war and held as prisoner on the Island of Cuba for six 
months. In 1743 he went with Count Zinzendorf to Europe and 
joined the Church at Marienborn. The same year he brought 132 
Moravians to America in The Little Strength, and soon after was 
twice captured by the Spanish and the French. Taking command of 
the missionary vessel of the Brethren, Irene, he continued to serve 
them as captain until 1756, going as far as Greenland and Surinam. 
Retiring from the sea he lived for some time at Niesky, Germany, 
but returned to America in 1763, and served the town of Bethlehem 
as cicerone or visitors' guide. He departed in the 81st year of his 
life. Garrison Street is named after him. He was twice married, 
and had twelve children. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 9 

34. John Henry Miller, 1702-82, from Waldeck, Germany, a printer by 

trade. Came to America in 1741, with Zinzendorf, and set type for 
Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. The next year he accompanied 
Zinzendorf on his first journey to the Delaware Indians. Returning 
to Europe he founded the first Moravian printing office at Marien- 
born, and coming again to Philadelphia in 1751 he established his 
own printing office. He continued serving the public and the Church 
until 1780, but suffered many losses during the Revolutionary War. 
The last two years of his life he spent at Bethlehem, where his wife 
had departed in 1779. 

35. Michael Haberland, 1698-1782, born at Schoenau, Moravia; emi- 

grated with 21 other persons to Herrnhut, and from there in 1734 
proceeded to Georgia, as one of the nine Brethren who took up their 
abode near the Savannah River, as colonists and missionaries. 
Returning to Germany in 1740, he married A. H. Jahne, and found 
employment as a carpenter. Since 1749 he lived at Bethlehem and 
Nazareth, working faithfully at his trade as a mechanic. 

36. Daniel Kunkler, 1753-92, son of Daniel Kunkler (A, I, 22), born at 

Nazareth; was engaged in the tobacco business, and after his father's 
death took charge of his store. He married Mary Colver. 

37. Ludwig Stotz, 1710-82, from Lauffen, Wurtemberg, a weaver and 

farmer, who came here in 1750. He was married to Cath. Wolfer 
and had four children. 

38. Henry Ferdinand Beck, 1710-83, born at Pfuellingen, Wurtemberg; 

learned the baker's trade, and after the death of his parents emi- 
grated to Georgia. There he married S. Barbara Knauer, with whom 
he had nine children, of whom five survived him. One son, David, 
died as a missionary in St. Thomas. Having become acquainted 
with the Moravian Brethren in Georgia, he followed them to Beth- 
lehem, and served as a minister in various congregations. He was 
ordained a Deacon of the Church in 1754. Epileptic troubles com- 
pelled him to retire from active life in 1767. 

39. James Hall, 1724-83, born at Bradford, Yorkshire, England, was con- 

verted under the preaching of the Brethren Cennick and Ingham, 
and came to Pennsylvania in 1756. Being a cloth-weaver and fuller 
by trade, he found employment at the fulling-mill in this town. He 
was twice married. 

40. John George Klein, 1705-83, from Kirchardt in the Palatinate, emi- 

grated to Pennsylvania in 1727, married Anna Bender, and settled 
on the spot where afterwards Lititz was built. Being spiritually 
awakened he helped to erect a chapel by the side of his farm, and 
in 1755 ceded his farm for the laying out of the town, and moved 
to Bethlehem. 



io The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

41. Anton Schmidt, 1725-93, a tinsmith, born near Pressburg, Hungary. 
His parents emigrated with him for conscience sake to America. He 
came to Bethlehem in 1746; was married first to A. C. Riedt, who 
bore him three sons, and then to Beata Ysselsteyn, with whom he 
had six children. 

Row II. — Mostly Unmarried Men. 

1. George Henry Loskiel, 1740-1814, Episcopus Fratrum, born at Anger- 

miinde in Courland, Russia, the son of a Lutheran divine. He 
studied theology, and joining the Moravian Church filled various 
important offices in the ministry of the Church in Germany and 
Russia. He also wrote a history of the Indian Mission and " Etwas 
fur's Herz." In 1771 he married Magdalene Barlach, of Wolmar, 
Livonia. They had no children. In 1802 he was consecrated a 
Bishop, and came to America, having been appointed President of 
the "Provincial Helper's Conference." In 1812 he was elected a 
member of the "Unity's Elders Conference" in Europe, but was 
unable to leave America on account of the war and failing health. 

2. Henry William Schemes, 1726-77, born at Urholdsen, Germany, the 

son of an officer of the army. He went to St. Croix, West Indies, in 
order to escape military service in Denmark, and became overseer 
on a plantation. There he met the missionary Frederick Martin 
and became a converted man. In 1752 he removed to Bethlehem. 
After some years he was sent out to the mission in Jamaica and 
later to the mission in Surinam, in both of which he assisted in the 
work, mainly in temporal affairs. In 1775 he retired to Bethlehem. 

3. Christian Christensen, 1718-77, a shoemaker, born at Christiania, 

Norway. He spent some years at Herrnhaag and in Holland, and 
came to Bethlehem in 1762. He was unmarried. 

4. Christopher Henry Baermeyer, 1722-74, son of the burgess and town- 

captain of Feuchtwangen, Franconia, Germany. He taught for a 
time at Nazareth Hall. 

5. John Godfrey Engel, 1755-74, a Bethlehem youth, and a shoemaker by 

trade. He died of consumption. 

6. Stephen Volz, 1747-74, an Alsatian ; came to America as a child with 

his parents. He was an invalid. 

7. Balthasar Koehler, 1740-58, a pious youth, born in Skippack Town- 

ship. He moved to Bethlehem one year before his death. 

8. Casper Boeckel, 1742-58, born at Heidelberg, Pa. He attended the 

Moravian schools at Germantown and Macungy, before coming to 
Bethlehem. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. n 

9. Paul Jens Scherbeck, 1726-58, from Holstein, Germany. Came to 
Bethlehem in 1750, with 80 other " Single Brethren " from 
Herrnhaag. 

10. Joachim Busse, 1736-58, born at Reval, Livonia; attended the Mora- 

vian school at Lindheim and learned the tinker trade; quiet and of 
retiring disposition. 

11. John Rodgers, 1704-58, born at Portsmouth, England. In his twelfth 

year he came to New York and spent eight years with a farmer, but 
found this manner of life too dull, and became a sailor, and later a 
Spanish soldier. Being stationed at Oran, in Africa, he was taken 
prisoner and sold to the Dey of Algiers as a Christian slave. Here, 
in 1746, Chas. Nottbeck, a Moravian missionary, brought him the 
message of spiritual redemption in Christ. When three years later 
he was ransomed, he joined the Brethren as soon as he could find 
them, and eventually came to Bethlehem. He spoke six languages, 
and translated several Moravian hymns into the Spanish tongue. 

12. John Kapp, 1735-59, a youth from Switzerland. He led a happy life 

of simple-hearted faith and Christian fellowship with his Brethren. 

13. Jonathan Beck, 1742-59, was born in Georgia, where his parents 

became connected with the Moravian Church. He learned the 
woolen-weaver's trade; died of measles. 

14. John Adolph Walton, 1741-59, born near Philadelphia; hard of hear- 

ing ; a tailor by trade. 

15. Casper George Hellerman, 1724-60, from Quedlinburg, Germany. 

Had served as a soldier. He was foreman of the tailoring estab- 
lishment in the Brethren's House at Bethlehem. 

16. John M. Lindstroem, 1723-60, a Swede, joined the Church at Herrn- 

hut. He worked here as linen-weaver and farmer. 

17. Andrew Rillman, 1708-60, a stocking-knitter from Saxony. Came 

here in 1749 with Bishop John Nitschmann's colony, and served as 
sick-nurse. 

18. John George Bitterlich, 1712-60, born at Ebersbach, Saxony, when 

his father was 77 years old. He learned the weaver's trade. In 
passing through the city of Berlin he was forcibly taken and com- 
pelled to be a soldier, but would not take the oath of allegiance. 
Abraham de Gersdorff, obtaining an audience with King Frederick 
the Great of Prussia in his behalf, pleaded a royal rescript, which 
granted to the Moravian Brethren exemption from military service. 
Bitterlich thereupon was brought before the king dressed in uniform, 
and then dismissed. He came to Bethlehem in 1748. 

19. John Henry Grunewald, 1724-60, born at Zuchelrade, Mecklenburg, 

came here in 1754 with Bishop G. Spangenberg. He was overseer 
of the boys in domestic and farm work. 



12 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

20. Andrew Gump, 1735-60, born at Monocacy, Md.; came with his father 

to Bethlehem in 1758. 

21. Peter Martin, 1730-60, a tailor from Kieselbrunn, Wurtemberg, 

worked at his trade in Lancaster until 1757. He was the twelfth 
brother of the Bethlehem congregation who died between April 1 
and May 3, 1760, of an epidemic fever. 

22. Andr. Christian Kloetze, 171 1-60, born at Wollmirstadt, near Mag- 

deburg, a shoemaker by trade. Lived at Pilgerruh, Marienborn and 
other Moravian settlements, and came here in 1754 with Bishop 
Spangenberg. He wakened the unmarried Brethren in their dormi- 
tory every morning by singing a hymn. 

23. Jacob Schoen, alias Wuest (the original name meaning "wild" or 

"ugly" was changed to one meaning "fair"), 1721-60, a locksmith 
from Switzerland, unreliable in his disposition and inclined to lead 
others astray. Was dismissed several times from the Church at 
Christiansbrunn and elsewhere, but always returned begging for 
readmission. 

24. John Mueller, 1728-61, from Muehlhausen, Switzerland. He taught 

at Nazareth Hall until he became consumptive. 

25. Matthew Hoffman, 1717-62, a carpenter from Oley, Pa.; had been 

weak-minded for a number of years. 

26. Gottlob Mack, 1748-62, born at Bethlehem, the son of the missionary 

M. Mack, then stationed in St. Thomas, W. I. He learned the potter 
trade; died of a fever. 

27. John Meyer, 1742-64, born at Heidelberg, Pa., came to Bethlehem in 

1759- 

28. Chas. Godfrey Rundt, 1713-64. He was born at Konigsberg, Prussia, 

served for sixteen years in the army as a musician, his instrument 
being the hautboy; joined the Moravian Church at Herrnhut in 1747, 
and emigrated to America in 1751. Here he accompanied D. Zeis- 
berger and other missionaries on their journeys to the Indians as an 
assistant missionary. After being ordained a Deacon in 1755, he 
preached the Gospel to the white settlers in eastern Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey. Rundt was a poet, and of a quiet disposition, 
loving solitude. He remained unmarried. 

29. John Mordick, 1751-64, born at Nazareth and educated at Nazareth 

Hall. 

30. William King, 1718-65, an Irishman from Randalstown, Antrim 

County. He belonged to the Moravian Church at Dublin and 
Fulneck, and emigrated but a short time before his death. 

31. Adam Hosfeld, 1719-66, a saddler from Saxe-Meiningen, was con- 

verted by the reading of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. He served 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 13 

here as foreman in the saddler-shop, almoner and visitors' guide, 
being at the same time a member of the Board of Elders. 

32. Jacob Schneider, 1708-77, a Wiirtemberger with a checkered career, 

who had spent much of his life as a peddler and as a soldier, both 
in Germany and in Holland, and then repenting of his sins had 
gone about with a show-case representing the Saviour's sufferings in 
Gethsemane. He confessed himself " the greatest sinner of the 
Single Brethren's Choir, but the Saviour has had mercy on me." 

33. Niels Moos, 1727-77, a native of the Island of Moos near Jutland, 

Denmark. Worked here on the farm of the Brethren's House. 

34. John Ehrhard, 1732-77, had been a soldier in Hesse-Cassel. A sea- 

captain took him to America, but compelled him then to serve three 
and one half years for his passage money. He closed his life here 
as a painter. 

35. J. Michael Rippel, 1722-77, born at Zeulenrode, near Baireuth, Ger- 

many. In 1758 he made the beginning of the " Economy of Single 
Brethren " at Lititz, and since 1772 served as cook in the Brethren's 
House at Bethlehem. 

36. John Ettwein, 1758-77, a faithful son of Bishop John Ettwein. 

Owing to the establishment of the Hospital here, during the Revolu- 
tionary War, typhoid fever became epidemic. John E. nursed the 
sick for seven weeks, until he himself was taken with the fever 
and died. 

37. John Anton Segner, 1754-78, a shoemaker, born at Nazareth. His 

father, John Henry Segner, died at Gnadenthal, near Nazareth. 

38. Ludwig Stotz, 1754-78, born at Gnadenthal, and educated in the 

Moravian schools; a hatter by trade. 

39. Christian Stiemer, 1720-87, born in Preussisch Holland, Germany, was 

foreman in the shoemaker shop of the Brethren's House and a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees. 

40. John Frederick Beck, 1751-88, born in Bethlehem, went to North 

Carolina as a house carpenter, and assisted in the establishment of 
Moravian settlements there. 

41. John Jacob Fries, 1708-93, born at Odense, Denmark. He studied 

theology in Copenhagen and taught in the Moravian Theological 
Seminary at Barby, Saxony. Coming to this country in 1753, he was 
appointed chaplain of the Single Brethren at Christiansbrunn and 
ordained a Deacon of the Church. He began the work which led to 
the organization of the Moravian congregation at Schoeneck, near 
Nazareth, and spent the remainder of his long life in preaching and 
teaching at Bethlehem and neighborhood, and as assistant in the city 
of Philadelphia. He remained single. 



14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Row III. — Married and Single Men. 
i. Francis Thomas, 1732-1822, born in Wurtemberg, cabinet-maker, died 
at the advanced age of 89 years. His wife Anna C. Graeff, died in 
1815, leaving no children. Well beloved and generally known as 
" Daddy " Thomas, he acted as visitors' guide for many years. 

2. Nicholas Jacob Sangerhausen, 1701-85, a widower, born at Blanken- 

burg, Thuringia, a lace-maker by trade. Came to Bethlehem from 
Herrnhaag in 1749, and worked at his trade. 

3. John Jacob Gysi, 1713-85, a Swiss, who lived in Saucon, but desired 

to be buried on this graveyard, having been received into church- 
fellowship at Emmaus. 

4. Rudolph Straehle, 1712-85, a widower, born in Wurtemberg, served 

in the imperial army of Germany, came to Bethlehem in 1749. He 
was married to Dorothea S. Nurnberger and had three sons. Served 
here as night-watch (policeman). 

5. John George Nixdorf, 1700-85, made an experience of religion at a 

widespread religious revival among the children in Silesia, his home, 
at the beginning of the century. He came to this country in 1743, 
kept school at Lancaster and other places, and was ordained a 
Deacon at the Synod of Lebanon in 1758. He married Joanna Korn, 
and celebrated with her their golden wedding in 1778. 

6. Otto Chr. Krogstrup, 1714-85, born in Fuhnen, Denmark, studied 

theology in Copenhagen and became a minister of the Lutheran 
Church, but joined the Moravian Church in 1748. Coming to 
America in 1753, he served in the ministry at Lititz, Graceham, 
York and longest in Lancaster, until the death of his wife, Anna 
Burnet, in 1784. He was a gifted preacher. 

7. Adam Luckenbach, 1713-85, from Winckelbach near Hachenburg, in 

Nassau, Germany. He married Eva Maria Spiesz, who bore him 
one son and two daughters. He was school teacher in various places 
in eastern Pennsylvania, and spent his declining years with his son, 
John Lewis, on the farm on the south side of the Lehigh. He was not 
a communicant member of the Church, but a friend of the Brethren. 

8. John Matthew Otto, 1714-86, physician and surgeon of the congre- 

gation, had practised as a physician in his native town Meinungen, 
Saxony. Being " awakened " he joined the Church at Herrnhaag, 
and in 1750 came to Bethlehem in the company of more than sixty 
Moravians. He served here for thirty-six years with great faith- 
fulness and much success. He was twice married, first to Joanna 
M. Dressier, who died in 1776, and again to Maria Schmidt, who 
died in 1784, leaving him a second time a widower. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 15 

9. John Michael Zahm {alias Toll), 1718-87, came for Sunzheim, in 
the Palatinate. He taught in several Moravian schools, was in 1755 
ordained Deacon, preached at Lebanon and Gnadenthal, and since 
1780 assisted in the management of the financial affairs of the 
Church as Treasurer of the " Sustentation." He was married to 
Regina Hantsch and had one son living at Lancaster. 

10. Daniel Neubert, 1704-88, born near Annaberg, Saxony; a tanner by- 
trade. In 1734 he wedded Rosina Hauer, this being the first mar- 
riage ceremony performed at Herrnhut. Their union lasted more 
than fifty years, but was not blessed with children. Having come to 
Bethlehem in 1742 he started the first tannery in this town, and also 
was the first miller. In 1754 he was ordained a Deacon, and sub- 
sequently preached at Emmaus and Schoeneck, but eventually he 
returned to his trade as tanner. 

n. Joachim Birnbaum, 1714-88, a tailor from Brandenburg, Germany, 
who came to Bethlehem in 1749. His wife Helen, m.n. Niissen, died 
in 1784. 

12. Jens Wittenberg, 1719-88, unmarried, from Christiania, Norway. 

Came here in 1754 with fifty-six " Single Brethren," served in the 
school and as master of the purse-maker shop in the Brethren's 
House. 

13. Hector Gambold, 1719-88, born at Puncheston, Pembrookshire, South 

Wales; was converted and became connected with the Moravian 
Brethren at Oxford. He came to America in 1742, married Helen 
Craig, of New York, and was ordained a Deacon in 1755. He served 
in the ministry in several Moravian congregations, longest on Staten 
Island, viz., 1763-84. 

14. John Lewis, 1744-88, a skillful surgeon, born at Long Acre, Caer- 

marthenshire, South Wales. He came to Bethlehem in 1783, married 
Rev. F. C. Lembke's daughter, of Nazareth, and was appointed 
surgeon at Salem, N. C, where he had a large practice, but was 
recalled on account of intemperate habits. 

15. Peter Joachim Pell, 1717-89, a shoemaker, unmarried; born at Ham- 

burg, Germany. He worked at his trade in the Brethren's House. 

16. Timothy Horsfield, 1732-89, son of Timothy Horsfield, Sr. (A, VIII, 

3), was for nearly thirty years pharmacist with Dr. Matthew Otto. 
He married Juliana Parsons and had two sons. He also served in 
the Board of Trustees and as church organist. 

17. George Pitschman, 1714-89, born at Grosz Schoenau, Saxony; worked 

here as a damask weaver until 1757, when he became Rev. George 
Neisser's assistant, and was ordained a Deacon in 1762. Retiring to 
Bethlehem in 1770, he served as night-watchman for eight years. 



16 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

18. George Neisser, 1715-84; born April 11, at Sehlen, Moravia. He was 

a member of the Moravian colony that was sent to Georgia in 1735; 
came to Pennsylvania in 1737, and was one of the original occupants 
of the first house in Bethlehem. He also was the first schoolmaster 
and postmaster of the town. In 1748 he was ordained for the min- 
istry and subsequently served in various congregations, lastly in the 
city of Philadelphia, where he died. His remains were removed to 
this resting place in 1886. 

19. George Nicholas Lorenz, 1723-89, from Weissenheim on the Rhine, 

Germany; a farmer living near Bethlehem, formerly belonging to 
the Church at Emmaus. 

20. Joseph Huebsch, 1711-90, born in Bohemia, lived here as a single man 

and worked on the farm. 

21. John Buerstler, 1732-90, born at Oley, Pa.; employed on the church 

farm. He was twice married, first to Eva Roth, and then to A. M. 
Plattenberger. 

22. Zacharias Eckhardt, 1713-89, a druggist, born at Tubingen, Wurtem- 

berg; unmarried. For many years he pulled the bellows of the 
church organ. 

23. Immanuel Nitschmann, 1736-90, oldest son of Bishop John Nitsch- 

mann and his wife Juliana; was born at Herrnhut. He served as 
steward (Chorhausdiener) of the unmarried Brethren until his mar- 
riage in 1780. He was an organist and excellent violin player. 

24. George Huber, 1718-90, from Baden, Germany, a blacksmith by trade. 

He married the widow of J. P. Lehnert, who had died at Nazareth 
in 1756, the first Moravian buried there. 

25. Jost Jansen, 1719-90, from North Jutland, Denmark; sailor, shop- 

keeper, and for several years host at the Sun Inn; was married to 
Maria Fischer. 

26. Jacob Wiesinger, 1715-90, born at Heilbronn, Germany, emigrated to 

America in 1750. He was twice married, but left no children. 

27. Harmanus (Herman) Loesch, 1726-91, born at Tulpehocken; a miller 

at Friedensthal, and in Bethlehem. He was thrice married, his last 
wife being the widow of Martin Hirt, whose maiden name was 
Beroth. 

28. John Frederick Peter, 1707-91, born at Brieborn, Silesia ; was assistant 

minister of the Moravian Church at Neusalz, Germany. After the 
death of his first wife, Susanna Jacksch, in 1760, he was called to 
Bethlehem and appointed assistant pastor here. He then married the 
widow Engel, m.n. Nietsche. Two sons, by his first wife, entered the 
ministry; his son David, of the second wife, was appointed to open 
a store at Gnadenhuetten, Ohio. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 17 

29. John Thomas, 1711-91, a bachelor, born at Pieriz, Pomerania; a car- 

penter by trade. In 1747 he accompanied Ch. David to Greenland 
to erect a church there. 

30. John Andrew Borhek, 1726-91, a cloth-weaver, born in Gottingen, 

Germany. He came here in 1750, and in 1772 married Anna Maria 
Fischel. He had two sons, viz., John Andrew and Christian 
Frederick. 

31. Gottlieb Lange, 1716-91, born at Hartmannsdorf, Saxony, a saddler; 

he was twice married and left one son, Christian, by his first wife, 
Cath. Klingerstein. 

32. Thomas Schaaf {alias Bock), 1717-91, a weaver, born near Nurem- 

berg. His first wife, A. C. Loze, died in 1748 ; later he married 
Anna Mann. 

33. Marcus Kiefer, 1719-91, born at Nielingen, Germany; a farmer. He 

was survived by his widow, m.n. Rubel and five children. 

34. Daniel Kliest, 1716-92, from Frankfort on the Oder, Germany; a 

locksmith; was twice married. 

35. Christoph Schmidt, 1714-92, a tailor, from Nuremberg, Bavaria, 

served for a number of years as assistant missionary in Berbice, 
S. A., and in Antigua ; unmarried. 

36. Henry Krause, 1717-92, born at Toerpitz, Silesia, a butcher. He 

arrived here in 1753 1 on the ship Irene and married Catharine 
Ruch. They had one son, John Gottlieb. 

37. Andreas Schober, 1710-92, from Moravia, a stone-mason. He was 

married in 1743 to Hedwig Schubert and had four sons, one of whom 
lived at Salem, N. C. 

38. Matthew Gimmele, 1716-92, a tailor, of Jewish descent, unmarried. 

39. Paul Muenster, 1716-92, born at Zauchtenthal, Moravia. His ances- 

tors belonged to the ancient Brethren's Church and suffered cruel 
persecution. He was ordained a Deacon in 1746, and served in 
Holland and England until 1761, when he was called to Bethlehem 
and became the pastor of the Moravian congregation here. He filled 
this position from 1761-92, till the time of his death. His first wife, 
Anna Kremser, died in 1779 ; two years later he married the widow 
Boeckel, m.n. Gump. 

40. David Kunz, 1725-92, from Zauchtenthal, Moravia; emigrated for the 

sake of the faith. He resided in Bethlehem since 1750, following the 
occupation of an " oil-miller," a model of industry and faithfulness. 

41. Dominicus Krause, 1715-93, born at Tubingen in Wiirtemberg, a nail- 

smith by trade; was employed here as a gardener; unmarried. 

42. Abraham Boemper, 1705-93, born at Herborn in Nassau, Germany; a 

silversmith. He emigrated to Surinam, South America, and there 



18 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

assisted the missionaries in founding a mission. After coming to 
New York he was agent for the missions in Surinam and the West 
Indies. He was twice married, his second wife being the widow 
Rachel Ysselsteyn. He attained the age of 88 years. 
43. Detlef Delfs, 1723-95, born at Emkendorf, Holstein; shoemaker and 
sick-nurse; unmarried. 

Row IV. — Mostly Little Boys. 

1. Gottlieb Lange, 1762-64. 

2. Chr. Fr. von Marschall, 1762-64. 

3. Andrew, a negro child, son of Andrew and Magdalene, 1767. 

4. Paul Eggert, son of Christian Eggert, 1767. 

5. Timothy Horsfield, 1768. 

6. John Albrecht, 1768. 

7. Christian F. Diemer, 1768. 

8. Daniel and Andreas Oberlin, 1768, twin children of John Francis 

Oberlin. 

9. Beatus Stoll, 1770. 

10. Chr. Andrew Weber, 1766-70. 

11. John Colver, 1771. 

12. Matt. Just Jansen, 1770-72. 

13. Abraham Steiner, 1772. 

14. Johannes Eggert, 1772. 

15. Nathaniel Schober, 1767-73, died of small-pox. 

16. Richard Popplewell, 1771-74. 

17. Just Jansen, 1774-77. 

18. Wm. Lee Shd?pen, 1776-77, Dr. Shippen's little son, of Philadelphia; 

came here while the father was superintendent of the Hospital. 

19. Matthew Schmidt, Anton's child, 1777. 

20. Benjamin Dean, of Philadelphia, f at Easton, 1776-77. 

21. John Henry Kornmann, 1778. 

22. John Okely's stillborn, 1780. 

23. Christian Ren. Swihola, son of the minister at Emmaus, 1780-81. 

24. Joseph Luckenbach, 1780-81, child of John and M. Luckenbach on the 

farm south of the Lehigh. 

25. Christian Ebert, 1781-82. 

26. John C. Weinecke, 1782. 

27. Ludwig D. Luckenbach, 1783, son of John Luckenbach. 

28. Frederick C. Beutel, 1781-83. 

29. Joseph Hall, 1784. 

30. Chr. David Heckewelder, 1784-85. 

31. Joh. Ignatius Nitschmann, 1785, son of Immanuel N. and Maria, m.n. 

Van Vleck. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 19 

32. Matthias Weiss, son of George Weiss, 1789. 

33. Aug. Eberhard Nitschmann, 1790, a son of Immanuel Nitschmann. 

34. Daniel Horsfield, 1789-90. 

35. Benjamin Freytag, 1791-92, son of Eberhard Freytag. 

36. John Heckewelder, 1788-93, son of Christian Heckewelder. 

37. John and Jacob Till, 1795, twin children of Joseph Till. 

38. Samuel Luckenbach, son of J. Adam Luckenbach, 1794-96. 

39. Unknown. 

40. W. Henry Oerter, son of Joseph O., 1797-98. 

41. William Boehler, son of William Boehler, 1798. 

42. John Boehler, 1794-98, son of John and grandson of William Boehler. 

43. J. Daniel Kliest, 1799. 

44. Beatus Bueckel, 1800, son of Henry Bueckel. 

45. G. N. Adolf Cunow, son of J. Gebhard C, 1800-02. 

46. C. Jacob Fetter, 1800-03. 

47. Thomas Huebner (Huebener), 1804-05, son of Abraham H., the potter. 

48. Her. Polycarpus Cunow, 1806, son of Gebhard C. 

49. Beatus Huebner, 1810. 

50. George Rauschenberger, 1741-1811, born at Salisburg, this county. 

He was married in succession with E. Luckenbach, M. Schenk and 
A. M. Lucas, and died at the age of 70 years. 

51. John Brandmiller, 1736-1812, born at Basel, Switzerland, son of John 

Brandmiller, Sr. (A, 1, 21) ; baker; unmarried. 

Row V. — Little Boys. 

1. Beatus Lang, t 1759. 

2. Joseph, 1758-59, an Indian boy, from Nain, near Bethlehem. 

3. Eggert, infant son of Christian and Apollonia Eggert, 1758. 

4. Samuel (Achgonema), 1743^57, an Indian boy, son of the Delaware 

chief Augustus of Meniolagomeka, a faithful and cheerful scholar; 
died of small-pox. 

5. Peter Russmeyer, 1756, from Lancaster. 

6. John Leonard Gattermeyer, 1755. 

7. Beatus Schmidt, 1752, infant son of Melchior Schmidt. 

8. J. Daniel Kliest, 1750. 

9. Matthias Weiss, 1746-48, born at Nazareth. 

10. Joseph Mueller, 1746-48, son of John Henry Miiller, born at Fred- 

erickstown. 

11. Thomas Fischer, 1746-48. 

12. J. Ludwig Weinert, 1745-48, died of small-pox. 

13. Joseph Hessler, 1746-48. 

14. Paul Boehner (Bunder), 1748, born in St. Thomas, son of the mis- 

sionary John Boehner. 



20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

15. Nathanael Yarrel, 1745-48. 

16. Daniel Blum, 1746-48. 

17. Joseph Mueller, 1745-48, son of Rev. Joseph Mueller. 

18. Christian, 1747, son of the negress Hanna, the first African buried on 

this cemetery. 

19. Schaaf, 1747, stillborn son of Thomas Schaaf. 

20. Nathanael, 1745-46, son of the Indian brother Nathaniel and his wife 

Zippora. \ 

22. Abraham Meinung, 1745-46, second son of the Rev. A. Meinung. 

22. Joseph Leinbach, son of Joseph and Catharine L., 1746. (The grave- 

stone erroneously has 1740.) 

23. Gottlieb Demuth, 1745-46. 

24. Matthew Schropp, 1745-46, first child of Rev. Matthew Schropp at 

Nazareth. 

25. Gottlob, an Indian boy, son of Joshua, 1746. 
Nathaniel Werner, 1746. 



'^ Daniel Vollert, 1746, from the other side of the Lehigh 

27. Thomas, 1736-47, an Indian boy, son of Jephtha, died unexpectedly 

before he was baptized. He was a candidate for baptism. 

28. John Ardin, of New York, 1748. 

29. Thomas, 1748, an Indian child from Gnadenhutten on the Mahony. 

30. Abraham, 1743-50, a negro boy, about 7 years old; born in Philadel- 

phia, baptized by Bishop Spangenberg in 1749. 

31. John Haberland, 1750. 

32. John Levering, first child of John and Maria Levering, 1750. 

33. Christian Fr. Post, 1750-51, son of the missionary C. F. Post and his 

wife Rachel, an Indian. 

34. Nathanael Lehnert, 1751-52, second son of Peter L. 

35. John David Schnall, 1751-52. 

36. Francke, 1753, stillborn son of John C. Francke. 

37. John Boehler, 1754, Francis B.'s son. 

38. Jacob Till, of Nazareth, 1754. The first time that trombones were used 

at a burial in Bethlehem. 

39. J. Carl Schulze, 1754-55, son of Carl Schulze. 

40. C. Gottlieb Geitner's son, 1755. 

41. Benjamin Beutel, 1796. 

42. Abraham Huebner, 1796, son of Abraham Huebner. 

43. William Huebner, 1802-03, son of Abraham Huebner. 

44. Carl Theod. Schulz, 1803-04, son of John Henry Schulz. 

45. J. Louis Pietsch, 1806. 

46. Francis B. Rauch, 1811, son of J. Frederick Rauch. 

47. Rob. Parmenio Borhek, son of Chr. Fred. Borhek, 1813. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 21 

48. Chas. F. Goundie, 1811-15, and Lewis W. Goundie, 1814-15, sons of 
J. Sebastian G. 

Row VI. — Little Boys. 

1. Unknown. 

2. Renatus Mau, t 1763. 

3. William, t 1763, son of the Malabar Samuel John and the negress 

Magdalene. His father died one week after him. 

4. Frederick Hoeth, 1757-62. His mother was in 1755 forcibly carried 

off by the Indians, and forced to marry an Indian, but returned with 
her son in 1760. He was baptized by Bishop Peter Boehler, and the 
missionary David Zeisberger pronounced the benediction upon the 
departing child. 

5. John Culver, 1761. 

6. John Lehnert, 1761. 

7. Beatus Cammerhoff, stillborn, 1751. 

8. Ludwig Friedrich Cammerhoff, 1748-49, first son of Bishop Cammer- 

hoff; " ein muntres lustiges Herzel." 

9. Isaac Moeller, 1743-46, son of Abraham Moeller. 

10. James Gambold, 1746, son of Ernst Gambold. 

11. Vetter's stillborn son, 1746. 

12. Thomas Yarrell, 1743-45. 

13. Johannes Demuth, 1745, son of Gottlieb Demuth. 

14. Ludwig Johanan Post, 1745, first-born son of the missionary C. F. Post 

and his Indian wife Rachel. 

15. Anton Peter Boehler, 1744, son of Rev. Peter Boehler, then pastor of 

the Moravian congregation at Bethlehem. 

16. Andreas Senseman, 1743-44. 

17. John Okely, 1745, son of John Okely, itinerant preacher in Eastern 

Pennsylvania. 

18. Jacob Vetter's stillborn son, 1745. 

19. Zabulon Becker, 1745. 

20. Gottlob Buettner, 1745, posthumous son of the missionary Gottlob 

Biittner, who t at Shekomeko in February, 1745. 

21. Sigor Garrison, from Staten Island, died in the Boarding School, 1745. 

22. Paul Bryzelius, 1744-45. 

23. John Bischoff, 1743-46, son of the minister David Bischoff. 

24. Johannes, son of the Mohican Indians Joseph and Mary, 1745-46. 

25. Samuel, son of the Delaware Indian Beata, 1746. 

26. Gabriel, 1743-46, son of the Indian Joshua, born at Shekomeko. 

27. Joseph Antes, 1745-46, son of Henry Antes, at that time Superintendent 

of the " Moravian Economy " at Bethlehem. 

28. Benjamin Klemm, posthumous son of Fred. Klemm, 1746. 



22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

29. Abraham Kunkler, 1747-48, Daniel's son, born at Nazareth. 

30. Owen, t 1758, about 2^4 years old, a negro boy; came from New York 

to the Bethlehem Nursery; baptized by Bishop Cammerhoff. 

31. Ludwig Mueller, 1749-50, son of Joseph Mueller. 

32. A. F. Gottlieb Mau, 1750, oldest son of Samuel Mau. 

33. Martin, 1744-50, an Indian boy, son of Philip and Lydia; born at 

Shekomeko, baptized 1749, at a Synod, by Missionary Martin Mack. 

34. John Doerbaum, 1751. 

35. Joh. Christoph Francke, 1752. 

36. Joh. Fred. Schlegel, 1752. 

" 37. Gottlieb, 1750-53, son of the Indian John Peter. 

38. Daniel, 1743-53, a negro boy. His father was Joseph Boston, from 

Guinea, Africa, a slave working in iron mines belonging to Mrs. W. 
Allen, of Philadelphia; the mother lived in the Ysselsteyn house. 
He came to Bethlehem in 1745. The boy did faithful service in the 
Nursery. 

39. John Sehner, 1752-58, son of Peter Sehner. 

40. John Martin Spohn, 1746-58, born at Lauffen, Wurtemberg, came to 

Pennsylvania as a child. 

41. Henry, an Indian boy, born at Nanticoke, on the Susquehanna, i757 _ 59- 

42. Unknown, probably no grave. 

43. Carl Aug. Rudolphi, 1803, the surgeon's son. 

44. Thomas Otto Braun, 1803, the clothweaver's son. 

45. Samuel Liebisch Bush, 1805. 

46. Edward and Carl Schulz, 1808, twin sons of Rev. Theodore Schulz, 

who was here on a visit. 

47. Owen Rice, son of the merchant Owen Rice, t 1812. 

48. John Geo. Irmer, 1817. 

Row VII. — Unmarried Men and Boys. 

71. John Arboe, 1713-72, born at Soerup in Schleswig. He taught school 
in Germany, and later was employed in the administration of the 
financial affairs of the Church. Coming to America in 1760, he was 
ordained a Deacon, and served as steward in the Brethren's House 
and as Mission Agent. 

2. Henry Schoen, 1718-73, a glazier by trade, born at Lubeck, Germany; 

came to Bethlehem in 1750, and served in the Moravian school at 
Macungy (Emaus) for eight years. Afterwards he lived in the 
Brethren's House, working at his trade. 

3. David Heckewelder, 1748-72, from Yorkshire, England; came here in 

1754, as a child, with his parents; left the Church, became consump- 
tive and begged to be taken back. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 23 

4. Christian Frederick Ziegler, 1718-71, born at Schoenebeck, in Pome- 

rania. He studied theology in Germany, and was a tutor; came to 
Pennsylvania in 1753, with seven other theological candidates, and 
served as teacher at Bethlehem and Nazareth. 

5. Thomas Hofman, 1719-70, was a dragoon in the army of Wurtemberg, 

Germany; came to Bethlehem from Marienborn in 1750; worked 
here as a tanner, as also from 1756-64 at Salem, N. C. 

6. Frederick Weber {alias Klappen), 1722-60, from Holtighausen, Nas- 

sau, emigrated to America in 1741. He became awakened through 
the preaching of Count Zinzendorf; served in the Boys' School for 
eight years, and later as warden of the unmarried Brethren. 

7. John George Stiefel, an unmarried man of sixty odd years, formerly 

a " Separatist," born near Frankfurt-on-the-Main. He had been a 
soldier in the imperial army, and in 1720 he emigrated to Pennsyl- 
vania with Conrad Beissel ; met the Moravian Brethren at Oley, and 
removed to Bethlehem, where he spent the rest of his life in happi- 
ness and usefulness, t 1748. 

8. Abraham Graff, 1726-48, a native of Pennsylvania; was baptized in 

the 23d year of his age by Bishop Spangenberg; he died of brain 
fever. 

9. Matthew Gottlieb Gottschalk, 1715-48, born at Arnswalde in Bran- 

denburg; joined the Moravian Church at Marienborn, and served as 
a lay evangelist in Germany and England. He came to Bethlehem 
in 1747, with Bishop Cammerhoff, and labored as itinerant preacher 
in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia. He also 
assisted in the founding of Moravian schools. 

10. Christian Tannewald, born in Stockholm, Sweden, a carpenter; came 

here from Lancaster and joined the Church. Died 1748. 

11. Benjamin, called Schabat, an Indian of the Wampanoag (Wompanos) 

tribe, t 1746. 

12. John Mueller, an unmarried man, born at Rhinebeck, N. Y., who 

came to Bethlehem a few weeks before his death, with the mis- 
sionary C. H. Rauch, and Indian converts. He died on June 26, 
1742, and was buried on the following day. This was the first 
interment on the Bethlehem God's Acre. Count Zinzendorf selected 
the spot for the grave and conducted the funeral. 

13. George Heydecker, a native of Wurtemberg, Germany; died on Sep- 

tember 10, 1742, at Frederickstown, where he served as lay evan- 
gelist. The body was brought here for interment. 

14. Peter Bartolet, from Oley, Pa. Departed this life September 2, 1744. 

15. Michael Schaefer, a youth from Tulpehocken; t 1744- 

16. Jacob Kuemmerle, 1718-45, a native of Wurtemberg. 



24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

17. Caspar Schaefer, a youth from Tulpehocken; t 1745. 

18. Conrad Harding, a theological student from Tundern, Holstein; came 

to America in 1743, on the ship Little Strength. He lost his reason, 
and in attempting to run away was drowned in the Lehigh River, 
on March 29, 1746. 

19. Wesakau, a converted, but as yet unbaptized, Indian, of the Wampa- 

noag (Wompanos) tribe from Pachgatgoch; died of small-pox, July 
28, 1746. 

20. Corydon, 1735-48, a negro boy from the Guinea Coast, Africa, whom 

his master, Abraham Boemper, had brought here from New York. 

21. Martin Schneider, 1721-49, born in Moravia, and a mason by trade. 

He arrived from Europe in May, 1749, in the ship Irene, and died 
in August of the same year. 

22. Peter Boeckel, oldest son of Frederick Boeckel; born at Heidelberg, 

Pa. He died on October 10, 1749, about eleven years old. 

23. Peter Petersen, 1728-50, from Norway; joined the Church in London, 

and came to America as a sailor on the ship Irene. 

24. Theodorus, a button maker, born near Erfurt, Germany. He came to 

America in the Irene with the " Jorde Colony," in June, 1750, as an 
invalid, and died two months later. 

25. Jonas, 1741-50, an Indian boy of the Mohican tribe ; came from Wech- 

quetank on the Hudson, and was baptized by Bishop Cammerhoff at 
the Indian village of Friedenshiitten, near Bethlehem. 

26. Martin Christensen, 1719-51, born in Jutland, Denmark. He was 

received into church-fellowship at Herrnhaag, in 1746, and served 
as a sailor on ships going to Greenland and to America. 

27. John Henry Bergman, 1720-52, born in Livonia, Russia; became 

attached to the Moravian Brethren at Reval, and joined a company 
of unmarried men who sailed for Bethlehem in 1750. 

28. John Healy, 1720-53, from Gomersal, Yorkshire, England, a cloth- 

weaver. He came in 1749, with three others, to conduct the manu- 
facture of woolens. He also was the English-speaking guide of 
visitors. 

29. Christian Gottfried {alias London), 1731-56, a negro slave from 

Guinea; was presented to Count Zinzendorf in London, in 1749. 
He came to Bethlehem the following year with about 80 young men 
led by J. Jorde, and worked here as a tanner. He frequently sent 
letters to his "master" Zinzendorf. 

30. Isaac, 1738-56, a Wampanoag Indian, born at Shekomeko, a son of 

Isaac (A, VIII, 9) and Rebecca. He was baptized by Cammerhoff, 
and lived at Gnadenhiitten on the Mahony until the time of the 
massacre. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 25 

31. Jacob Heydecker, 1725-57, from Hoervelsingen, near Ulm, Germany, 

brother of George Heydecker (No. 13) ; a locksmith by trade. 

32. Samuel, 1743-57, * n Indian boy of 14 years, second son of the Dela- 

ware Augustus, born at Meniologameka, a bright scholar in the 
school; died of small-pox. 

33. Christian Wedsted, 1720-57, born at Ripen, Jutland, studied at Copen- 

hagen, and having united with the Moravian Church was one of the 
first class of 20 students at the opening of the Theological Seminary 
at Barby. He came here in 1753, with Peter Boehler, and served as 
Secretary. 

34. Andreas Seifart, 1723-58, born at Lipka, Bohemia, a carpenter; ar- 

rived here in 1749, was sickly and earned a living by mending 
clothes. 

35. Joseph Boelen, 1727-58, born in New York City, a baker; he also 

served in the Boys' Boarding School here and at Macungy. 

36. Philip Clauss, 1752-81, born on Burnside's farm near Bethlehem; 

learned the weaver's trade and later found employment as cook in 
the Brethren's House. 

37. Jacob Herr, 1718-83, born at Laufen, Wurtemberg, joined the Church 

at Herrnhaag and came to America in 1753; worked in the "Econ- 
omy " for thirty years, lastly at the oil mill. 

38. Immanuel Strueby, 1719-84, born at Heidelberg, originally a shoe- 

maker. In 1758 he was called to the mission in Surinam and served 
at the station Sharon, until it was destroyed in 1761 ; later he was 
engaged in the Bethlehem school. 

39. John Renatus Lembke, 1757-85, born at Nazareth, a hatter by trade; 

was foreman of the hatters in the Brethren's House and a member 
of the Bethlehem Board of Trustees. 

40. Simon Christoph Meyer, 1719-86, from Langensalza in Thuringia, a 

button-maker. He came to America in 1773, after having been 
ordained a Deacon at Barby; served as steward of the unmarried 
Brethren at Christiansbrunn and Nazareth. 

41. Andrew Wagenseil, 1718-96, from Leutkirch in Suabia, Germany; 

shoemaker and soldier; came here from Herrnhaag, and was em- 
ployed as a tanner. 

Row VIII. — Married Men. 

1. David Nitschmann, born December 27, 1696, at Zauchtenthal, Moravia, 
emigrated to Herrnhut in 1724, and at once engaged in evangelistic 
work in Germany and Russia. In 1732 D. Nitschmann and Leonard 
Dober went to St. Thomas, W. I., as the first Moravian Missionaries 
among the heathen. In 1735 he was consecrated the first Bishop of 



26 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the renewed Moravian Church, by Bishops Jablonsky, of Berlin, and 
Sitkovius, of Poland, the two survivors of the ancient Moravian 
Episcopate, and the following year he led a Moravian colony to 
Georgia. In 1740 he came to Pennsylvania, bought 500 acres, the 
tract of land on which Bethlehem now stands, and after having 
served in this place and elsewhere with much acceptance for 32 
years, he departed this life October 8, 1772. He was married first in 
1726 to Rosina Schindler, and after her death, to the widow of the 
West Indian Missionary Fred. Martin, Maria, m.n. Leinbach. 

2. Amadeus Paul Thrane, 1718-76. He was born at Aalborg, Jutland, 

studied theology, served the Church at Herrnhaag, Germany, espe- 
cially among the " Single Brethren," and came to Bethlehem in 1761, 
with Bishop Nath. Seidel. From that year on until his death, he was 
the eloquent " Ordinarius " or pastor of the Bethlehem Moravian 
Congregation, laboring with much success and acceptance among 
old and young. He was also a member of the Provincial Board 
and much interested in the Indian mission. 

3. Timothy Horsfield, 1708-73; born in Liverpool, England; butcher; 

came to America in his 17th year and, in 173 1, married Mary 
Doughty, of Long Island. Having made the acquaintance of D. 
Nitschmann and Peter Boehler, he entertained many Moravian mis- 
sionaries on their way from and to Europe and the West Indies. In 
1749 he moved to Bethlehem and was appointed the first Justice 
of the Peace, which office he held for 12 years. Three children 
survived him. 

4. Dietrich Ernst Walther, 1722-69, a shoemaker, born at Zelle, Han- 

over. When 19 years old, he was pressed into the service of the 
Prussian army under Frederic the Great. Here at Bethlehem he 
worked at his trade, having come to America in 1705 with the colony 
led by J. Jorde. 

5. David Nitschmann, Senior, 1676-1758, familiarly known as father 

Nitschmann, the uncle of Bishop D. Nitschmann and the father of 
Anna, the second wife of Count Zinzendorf. He was born at Zauch- 
tenthal, Moravia. Like his father before him, he became a leader in 
the evangelical services held in secret among the descendants of the 
Ancient Brethren's Church. He was imprisoned as an " arch-here- 
tic," but escaped and went to Herrnhut, Saxony. In 1734 he was 
sent to St. Croix, W. L, as a member of a missionary colony, but 
returned after the death of his wife Anna, m.n. Schneider. In 
March, 1741, he helped to cut down the first tree for the building of 
Bethlehem, and for many years superintended the affairs of the 
young town in the capacity of " Trustee " of the Moravian Estates. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 27 

6. J. C. Frederick Cammerhoff, 1721-51, the youngest Bishop of the 

Moravian Church. He was born at Hillersleben, Saxony. He be- 
came acquainted with the Moravian Brethren while studying theol- 
ogy at the University of Jena, was private secretary of Count 
Zinzendorf, and in 1746 was appointed superintendent of the work 
in Pennsylvania. To this end he was consecrated a Bishop in 
London. The same year he married the Russian Baroness Anna von 
Pahlen. Here at Bethlehem he labored with great zeal, and also 
made many perilous journeys to the Indians, sacrificing his young 
life in the service. 

7. John {alias Tschop (Tschoop) ), with the Indian name of Wasamapa, a 

prominent Mohican living at Shekomeko, near the Hudson, in New 
York State. He was converted under the preaching of the Moravian 
missionary C. H. Rauch and baptized on April 16, 1742. Subse- 
quently he became an Evangelist among his people. In 1745 these 
Christian Mohicans were driven from their homes and came to Beth- 
lehem; John and other Indians soon after died of small-pox. He 
departed this life August 27, 1746, much lamented by his people and 
by the white Brethren. 

8. Thomas, otherwise called Pechtowappid, a Mohican from Shekomeko, 

who was baptized on August 11, 1742, by C. H. Rauch. Coming to 
Bethlehem, he served as warden of the small Indian congregation, 
and died of small-pox, August 15, 1746. 

9. Isaac, with the Indian name of Otapaivanamen, of the Wampanos 

tribe, from Shekomeko. Lived at the Indian settlement of Friedens- 
hiitten near Bethlehem and departed this life on August 2, 1746. 

10. Petrus, known before his baptism as Nacasabamit, a Mohican, died of 

small-pox, 1746. 

11. Joseph, a Mohican, died of small-pox, July 21, 1746. 

12. John Gold, 1678-1745, born at Zauchtenthal, Moravia, and at one time 

the magistrate of that village ; emigrated to Herrnhut in 1727, pro- 
ceeded with a Moravian colony to St. Croix, but was recalled. Later 
he served on St. Thomas, W. L, and spent his declining years here 
in retirement. His daughter Anna married Dr. Krieglstein, a Mo- 
ravian medical missionary who spent many years imprisoned in 
Russia. 

13. David Zeisberger, 1696-1744, from Zauchtenthal, Moravia, the father of 

the distinguished missionary of the same name. In 1736 he, with 
his wife Rosina, came over to Georgia and in 1740 proceeded from 
there to Pennsylvania, where Zeisberger became one of the founders 
of the town of Bethlehem. 

14. Michael Tanneberger, 1704-44, a married man from Moravia, and a 

shoemaker by trade. 



28 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

15. Lucas {alias Quawatschonit), a Wampanos Indian, from Pachgatgoch, 

Connecticut, the father of Rachel Post, the first wife of the missionary 
Fr. Post. He came to Bethlehem in 1747, together with a large com- 
pany of Christian Indians who were driven out from their homes in 
Connecticut; died the same year. The funeral address was trans- 
lated for the Indians by the interpreter Abraham. 

16. Daniel, a Delaware Indian, died of consumption, April 19, 1749, at the 

village of Friedenshiitten. 

17. John Brownfield, 1714-52, born at Greenwich, England, was brought 

up in the family of General Oglethorpe, in London, became ac- 
quainted with the Moravian Brethren in Georgia, and moved to 
Bethlehem in 1745, where he married Cath. Kearney. He was or- 
dained a Deacon of the Church in 1749. 

18. Christopher Hencke, 1698-1752, from Seifhennersdorf, Saxony; lived 

for 11 years at Herrnhut, and came to Bethlehem in 1743 with the 
second " Sea Congregation." 

19. George Hantsch, 1690-1754, born at Ottendorf, Saxony; tailor; came 

to Bethlehem in 1743 with his wife Regina, m.n. Dressier, and two 
children. Served as lay evangelist in eastern Pennsylvania. 

20. Daniel Brodhead, 1693-1755, "one of his Majesty's Justices" at Dans- 

bury, Pa., and a faithful friend of the Brethren. Died here, while 
on a visit for the purpose of getting cured of a disease. He was 
buried on this cemetery with special marks of grateful love on the 
part of the Church. 

21. James Burnside, 1708-55, born at Athboy, Meath Co., Ireland; became 

acquainted with the Brethren in Georgia, and in 1743 followed them 
to Bethlehem. After the death of his first wife, he married M. 
Windover, m.n. Peterson, of New York, and made evangelistic tours 
through New England and Jersey, being stationed for a while at 
Dansbury. Later he bought a farm near Bethlehem, and served his 
country twice as the representative of Northampton County in the 
General Assembly. His funeral was attended by a large concourse 
of people from the neighborhood. 

22. John Reinhard Ronner, 1698-1756, born near Strassburg, Alsace, a 

button-maker by trade; came here in 1742 with Nathaniel Seidel. 
He was ordained a Deacon in 1743, and served with his wife Eliza- 
beth, m.n. Fisler, at Tulpehocken, Philadelphia, Nazareth and al. 
He also nursed the Indians during the small-pox epidemic. In 1750 
he was appointed to the mission of St. Thomas, whence he returned 
in 1755, afflicted with dropsy. 

23. John Leighton, 1706-56, a Scotchman, born at Dundee on the Firth of 

Tay. He was converted under the preaching of Bro. Molther in 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 29 

London, came to America in 1743 with 120 Moravian colonists, and 
served in the schools and as a Home Missionary, preaching the 
Gospel to the poor especially. His last appointment was on the 
Morris river, in West Jersey. 

24. Simeon, 1680-1756, a Delaware Indian from Oak Harbour, New Jersey, 

formerly a noted witch-doctor. He bitterly repented of his heathen 
practices, and though almost blind, regularly attended the services 
of the Christian Indians. He was at Gnadenhuetten on the Mahony 
the evening of the massacre and spent two nights hidden in the 
forest, until found by Bishop Spangenberg. 

25. John Peter, 1703-57, a Wampanos Indian, born near New London, 

Conn., was a sailor for twelve years and given to strong drink. Re- 
ceived baptism at Shekomeko in 1748 ; died of small-pox. 

26. John Bernard Mueller, 1716-57, a native of Wurtemberg; joined the 

Church at Herrnhaag and came to Bethlehem in 1749, with a colony 
of single Brethren led by John Nitschmann, 28 of whom were 
married on July 15 of the same year. He founded the cloth-weaving 
manufactory at Bethlehem and Nazareth. 

27. Michael, an Indian of the Minisink (Monsey) nation, some seventy 

years old ; was converted and baptized in the great awakening at 
Shekomeko in 1742, and driven out with his Brethren in 1746. He 
spent nine years at Gnadenhutten on the Mahony; after the massacre 
he came to Bethlehem to live in the Brethren's House, t July, 1758. 

28. J. C. Gottfried Engel, 1723-59, born at Treuenbriezen, Brandenburg, 

was converted through the singing and testimony of a blind beggar. 
He came to Pennsylvania in 1749, and was employed as a Home 
Missionary at Lebanon, York and other places ; ordained a Deacon 
in 1754. He married A. M. Nitsch. 

29. John Philip Meurer, 1708-60, originally a shoemaker from Ingweiler, 

Alsace. He arrived with the first " Sea Congregation " on the snow 
Catharine, with his wife Christiana, m.n. Kraft; was ordained at 
Tulpehocken and had charge of a Lutheran congregation until 1746. 
Later he served in the churches at Donegal, Lebanon, Swatara and 
York. 

30. George Ohneberg, 1720-60, born at Kempten, Bavaria; came here in 

1743, from Herrnhaag, with his wife Susan ; filled several appoint- 
ments in Pennsylvania, and was then called to Santa Cruz, W. I., 
where he labored for seven years as a missionary with zeal and suc- 
cess. He had one son, John George, and one daughter, Sarah. 

31. John Henry Moeller, 1710-60, born on the island of Fiihnen, Den- 

mark; was converted at the age of 25 and joined the Moravian 
Church at Pilgerruh. Here in Pennsylvania he served in the schools 
and in the ministry at Heidelberg, Lynn and Oley. He was or- 

3 



30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

dained a Deacon in 1758. His last office was that of financial 
manager (Vorsteher) of the Bethlehem Boarding School. 

32. Abraham Reinke, 1712-60, born at Stockholm, Sweden. He studied 

at the College of Brandenburg and the University of Jena ; was ap- 
pointed tutor of Count Christian Renatus Zinzendorf and served in 
the ministry at St. Petersburg, as also in England and Holland. 
Coming to Bethlehem in 1744, he was soon after ordained Presbyter 
and served as pastor in the churches at Nazareth, Bethlehem, Phila- 
delphia and Lancaster, until a pulmonary affection compelled him to 
give up preaching. He was a gifted speaker. His wife, Susanna, 
m.n. Stockberg, died in 1758. 

33. John Jorde, 1706-60, a carpenter from Hirschfelde, Silesia. He joined 

the Church at Herrnhut, and came to Bethlehem in 1743, with his 
wife, Margaret, m.n. Home, and a colony of 36 married couples, 
most of whom settled at Nazareth and neighborhood to farm the 
land belonging to the Church there. For a while he served also as 
lay evangelist. 

34. John Christian Fritsche, 1721-60, born at Groszenhayn, Saxony, a 

weaver; came to Bethlehem in 1743, from Herrnhaag, in the ship 
Little Strength. He worked on the Nazareth and Gnadenthal farm. 
His wife, Anna Maria Vogt, bore him four children. 

35. David Tanneberger, Sr., 1696-1760, from Zauchtenthal, Moravia, shoe- 

maker; married Judith Till; emigrated to Herrnhut in 1726; went 
with the Moravian Colony to Georgia, and in 1737 left that Province 
for Germantown, Pa. In 1745 he removed to Bethlehem and for 
fifteen years served the congregation as foreman of the shoemaker 
shop. After the death of his wife he married the widow Regina 
Demuth. 

36. Samuel Mau, 1718-83, born at Hemmingen, Wiirtemberg; came to 

Pennsylvania as a farm hand, and was awakened through the 
preaching of the Brethren at Oley. The Moravians also purchased 
his freedom, as his passage money had not yet been paid. He 
married A. Cath. Krempe. 

37. Christian Werner, 1696-1783, born at Copenhagen, Denmark, of Men- 

nonite parents, a lace-maker. Arrived here in 1742 with the first 
" Sea Congregation " ; served in the school as sick-nurse and on the 
farm; later he was one of the letter carriers between Bethlehem and 
Philadelphia, and constable (Platzaufseher). He married Mary 
Brandner, and lived to the age of 87 years. 

38. Thomas Fischer, 1712-84, a hatter from Neustadt on the Aisch, Ba- 

varia. Came to Bethlehem in 1743, with Agnes, m.n. Kleeman, his 
wife, and worked here as hatter, sacristan, trustee and almoner. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 31 

39. Andrew Christian Weber, 1719-84, born at Gernrode, Anhalt-Bern- 

burg, a baker by trade. Came to Pennsylvania in 1750; was em- 
ployed first as baker and cook, and after the abolishment of the 
" Economy " as steward of the Boarding School. He married Maria 
Appollonia Bechtel. 

40. Henry (Hendrick) Van Vleck, 1722-85, born in New York city, of 

Dutch Reformed family; merchant. United with the Brethren and 
became their agent. He married Jane Cargill, of New York, and in 
177 j removed to Bethlehem; suffered great loss during the Revolu- 
tionary War in that his best house in New York was burnt down. 
He left three sons, one daughter and ten grandchildren. 

41. Joseph Neisser, 1722-93, born at Sehlen, Moravia; emigrated with his 

parents to Herrnhut and learned the trade of cutler. In 1765 he was 
called from Ebersdorf to Bethlehem. He served with his wife, Ro- 
sina, m.n. Hauff, in various country congregations until 1784, when 
they moved to Bethlehem and retired from active work. But one 
daughter survived her parents. 

SECTION B. 
Row I. — Mostly Married Men. 

1. Christian Frederick Oerter, 1716-93, book-keeper of the Bethlehem 

Moravian Church Diacony; born at Schleiz, in Germany; married 
in 1745 to Anna Boelen, of New York; left one son, Joseph. 

2. Adam van Erd, 1722-94, a leather-breeches maker; born at Sobern- 

heim, in the Palatinate; came to Pennsylvania in 1741, with 10 com- 
panions, and joined the Church at Bethlehem. He married Patience 
Ashley, and left three sons. 

3. John Merk, 1723-96, from the county of Zurich in Switzerland. Emi- 

grated with his parents in his 9th year, his father dying on the ocean. 
Having learned the saddler trade, he accompanied Bishop Spangen- 
berg, in 1752, to North Carolina, and assisted in surveying the Mora- 
vian tract of land in Wachovia. In 1760 he accepted a call as mis- 
sionary to St. Thomas, and later was ordained a Deacon of the 
Church. In 1768 he married the widow Maria Sus. Levering, m.n. 
Bechtel, who had two sons and three daughters by her first husband. 
Since 1786 he resided in Bethlehem, and was a member of the Board 
of Trustees. 

4. Edward Thorpe, 1721-97, born at Ribly, Yorkshire, England; learned 

shoemaking. He came here in 1754, with 54 " Single Brethren " ; 
was teacher in the Boys' School here and at Nazareth. In 1763 he 
married the widow Grace Ockertshaus, m.n. Brooke ; was ordained 
a Deacon, and for two years had charge of the Moravian mission at 



3 2 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Sichem, New England. His further appointments were Pachgatgoch, 
Philadelphia and Staten Island. 

5. John August Klingsohr, 1746-98, pastor and preacher of the congre- 

gation at Bethlehem; born at Hiindorf, Saxony. As a boy he 
painted on porcelain and attended the Academy of Painting in the 
city of Dresden, Saxony. Later he studied theology at the universi- 
ties of Leipzig and Jena, and having joined the Moravian Church, 
taught in the schools of Gnadenfrei and Kleinwelke ; from 1781-82 
he was pastor at Kleinwelke. After the death of his first wife, M. 
Schneider, he was appointed to the service of the Church in America. 
In 1784 he married A. El. Mack, and from 1784-90 had charge of 
the church at Lititz. He was also a member of the Helpers' Con- 
ference of the Moravian Church in America. His epitaph reads: 

"Angels beckoned him away, 
And Jesus bade him come." 

6. John George Stoll, 1717-1801, born at Balgheim, in the principality of 

Oettingen, Germany. Came here in 1749, with his wife Anna, and 
was employed on the Church farms near Nazareth. After the death 
of his first wife he married Rosina Rohleder, and took charge of the 
saw-mill and flour-mill at Bethlehem ; for three years he also had 
charge of the Inn south of the Lehigh. 

7. Ferdinand Ph. Jacob Dettmers, 1718-1801, born at Hildesheim, Han- 

nover; became a merchant, and when he united with the Church, 
was appointed warden of the Brethren's House at Niesky and or- 
dained Deacon. Was called to Bethlehem in 1761 ; married C. D. 
Morhardt and served as warden of the churches at Bethlehem, 
Nazareth and Lititz. 

8. James Birkby, 1732-1803, from Wyke, Yorkshire, England. He was 

married to Hannah Brook, who died in New York in 1799. In 1777 
he, in company with J. D. Gottwalt, was appointed to begin a mis- 
sion among the Negro slaves on the island of St. Kitts, where their 
labors were greatly blessed. Returning to America in 1785 he be- 
came minister of the Church in New York. 

9. George Quier, 1730-1803, from Nassau-Saarbriick on the Rhine. Came 

to Pennsylvania when 20 years old and married a widow by the 
name of Miller, who soon after the breaking out of the Indian War 
was carried off prisoner by the Indians, and died in captivity. In 
1762 he married Mary Staudt, who bore him nine children. 
10. John Frederick Moehring, 1737-1804, born at Hirschberg in the Voigt- 
land, Germany, was ordained Deacon in England, came to America 
in 1783, and after marrying Maria S. Neisser served in the ministry 
at Gnadenhutten, Staten Island, and Old Man's Creek, N. J. His 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 33 

wife died in 1793 ; two years later he married Christine Boeckel and 
again served on Staten Island. 
it. James Cruickshank, 1743-1805, born on the island of Montserat, West 
Indies; came with his parents to Lower Saucon, and after attending 
school in Philadelphia made his home in Bethlehem. He married 
Agnes Martin and was book-keeper in the Young Ladies' Seminary 
some years until his death. 

12. Charles Cist, 1738-1805, born in Petersburg, Russia; studied medicine 

at the University of Halle, and was appointed by the empress Cath- 
erine II army surgeon in Siberia. Resigning his position in 1770 
he came to Philadelphia, and later married Mary Weiss of Bethle- 
hem, through whom he became connected with the Moravian Church. 

13. Valentin Fuehrer, 1724-1808, born at Esopus (Kingston), N. Y.; 

found the Saviour through the missionary C. H. Rauch. He married 
Margaret Loesch of Bethlehem; for 20 years he had charge of the 
ferry over the Lehigh, for 14 years of the Inn south of the river, and 
for seven years he was toll-keeper at the Lehigh bridge. Toward 
the end of his life he became blind. 

14. George Schindler, 1727-1808, born at Zauchtenthal, Moravia; came 

here in 1754; married Magd. Wetzel; worked as farmer and car- 
penter and for a while had charge of the Inn south of the Lehigh. 

15. J. C. Siegmund Weinecke, 1732-1811, born at Ebersdorf, Germany; 

shoemaker and tanner. In 1771 he married Joanna Liebisch. 

16. Christian Hornig, 1733-1812, born at Wenigmonden, Silesia, a shoe- 

maker by trade. He married A. M. Spohn and was employed as 
gardener and forester. 

17. John David Weiss, 1793-1823, born in Bethlehem; a musician and 

piano-maker, worked in Philadelphia, Baltimore and Easton, died 
while on a visit here, 30 years old. 

18. George Frederick Beckel, 1773-1824, youngest son of Frederick Beckel, 

of Bethlehem; a stocking-weaver; married A. M. Kindig and left 
two sons, viz., Charles F. and Lewis Beckel. 

19. Joshua Hauer, 1791-1826, born near Bethlehem, was employed at the 

brewery; married in 1815 Joanna Green. 

20. Thomas Langballe, 1764-1826, from Tysted, North Jutland, Denmark. 

In 1787 he was called to the mission in Surinam, where he served 
for more than 33 years. His first wife, E. Oertel, died in 1802; the 
second, H. Warner, one year after her marriage; a third, C. Loren- 
zen, in 1818; the fourth, M. S. Meinung, survived him. 

21. John Tobias Schneckenburg, 1792-1829. His parents were mission- 

aries stationed at St. Johns, Antigua. He was educated at the 



34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Moravian schools and taught school at the Dryland school-house. 
In 1812 he married Rachel Schropp. 

22. John Henry Schultz, 1764-1829, born at Gerdauen, Prussia; studied 

agriculture and managed estates, before he entered the service of the 
Moravian Church. Coming to Bethlehem in 1800, he was appointed 
accountant in the Administrator's Office. He married Sus. Jung- 
man. 

23. Christian Frederic Kampman, 1745-1832, physician; born at Schwin- 

gelsen, Alsace. Studied at Niesky and Barby; physician at Gnadau, 
Germany, Hope, N. J., and since 1808 at Bethlehem. In 1780 he 
married Anna Maria Lehnert and had one son. 

24. Peter Jungman, 1760-1834, born at Bethlehem, a son of the noted mis- 

sionary among the Indians, J. G. Jungman (B, II, 12). He married 
Christine Loesch, who preceded him to the grave in 1831. 

25. Peter Samuel Beear, 1800-37, from Moore Township, this County. 

He was a carriage maker by trade; married Theodora Cunow, and 
died at the age of 36 years of consumption. 

26. Thomas Morgan, 1784-1837; came from England and was landlord at 

the Eagle Hotel. He left a widow with four sons and three 
daughters. 

27. John Balthasar Vogenitz, 1767-1837, born at Salza, near Magdeburg, 

Germany; came here from Barby, Saxony, and took charge of the" 
brewery at Christiansbrunn, near Nazareth. He was twice married. 

28. James M. Abbot, 1810-38; a machinist from New England, died of 

small-pox, at the age of 28. 

29. George Ernst Gehbe, 1772-1838, from Thuringia, Germany; came 

here in 1792. He married J. C. Rauch. They had no children. 

30. Daniel Hauser, 1784-1839, born at Hope, N. }., unmarried, a day- 

laborer; became addicted to the use of strong drink, and had to go 
to the poor-house near Nazareth. 

31. Conrad Starkeman, 1799-1840, born at Altenau, Thurgau, Switzerland; 

found employment at Lewis Doster's dyeing establishment and saw- 
mill. 

32. Samuel Jacob Peisert, 1802-40, born at Nazareth, unmarried. 

33. Henry Samuel Fetter, 1808-40, married Sarah Kraemerof Allentown, 

and died there, 32 years old, on July 12. 

34. Henry Samuel Fetter, 1840, infant son of the preceding, died August 

30- 

35. Maurice A. Brickenstein, 1838-41, child of Rev. John Brickenstein, 

warden of the Bethlehem congregation. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 35 

Row II. — Married and Unmarried. 

i. Christian Rudolph Strehle, 1751-94, born at Bethlehem. When 13 
years old, he went with other boys to North Carolina, learned the 
carpenter trade and worked in the Moravian congregations there till 
1789, when he returned. 

2. Martin Rohleder, 1724-97, from Zauchtenthal, Moravia. United with 

the Church July 12, 1750, at Gnadenfrei, Silesia, together with 50 
other persons; came to America four years later and lived mostly at 
Christiansbrunn, working on the farm. 

3. Joseph Giersch, 1726-97, from Schoenau, Moravia; came from Herrn- 

hut and found employment at the flour mill, and as cook in the 
Brethren's House. 

4. Nicholas Matthiesen, 1723-98, a book-binder from Copenhagen, Den- 

mark; arrived here in 1750. 

5. Thomas Otto, 1778-99, a son of Dr. Joseph Otto of Nazareth; was 

clerk in the store. 

6. Christian Anton Ricksecker, 1785-1802, son of Peter Ricksecker; very 

reserved ; died suddenly, when on his way to Easton, and was found 
lying by the road side. 

7. John Seiffert, 1722-1802, born at Zauchtenthal Moravia, came here in 

1748 and worked on the Church farm until 1794, when on account of 
his age he retired from active life. 

8. Matthew Wittke, 1749-1803, born at Nazareth; brewer at Christians- 

brunn and Bethlehem, since 1792 assistant warden of the Brethren's 
House. 

9. Jacob Hermann, 1715-1803, born at Diirmenz, Wurtemberg; a stock- 

ing-weaver and watchman, lived mostly at Christiansbrunn. 

10. William Boehler, 1725-1806, born at Genheim, in the Palatinate; car- 

riage-maker. He spent three years at the Indian mission and learned 
to speak the Delaware language. Married Anna Ehrenhard, by 
whom he had two sons and one daughter. 

11. John Christopher Pyrlaeus, 1748-1808, born in Bethlehem, educated 

at Nazareth Hall, lived for a while at Hope, N. J., married Sarah 
Thorp and settled at Bethlehem as glazier and painter. 

12. John George Jungmann, 1720-1808, an efficient missionary among the 

Indians. He was born at Storkenheim, Palatinate, came to Penn- 
sylvania in 1731; joined the Moravian Church and married the 
widow of the missionary Gottl. Buettner. After serving in the 
Indian Mission at Pachgatgoch, Conn., he became David Zeis- 
berger's assistant on the Beaver Creek and in Ohio, and faithfully 
shared his labors and trials until 1784, when he retired to Bethle- 
hem. He lived to the age of 88 years. A daughter married the 
missionary A. M. Brucker and died in St. Thomas, W. I. 



36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

13. John Luckenbach, 1789-1810, son of J. Adam Luckenbach, born at 

Bethlehem, unmarried. 

14. John Christian Reich, 1757-1811, from Herrnhut, Saxony. He was 

married first to Eliz. Bartow, and the second time to Sarah Green. 

15. Martin Freyhube, 1720-1813, born at Oels, Silesia; a shoemaker by 

trade; worked for 43 years in the Christiansbrunn Economy, and 
coming to Bethlehem in 1793 was employed in the tobacco factory. 
He attained the age of 92 years. 

16. Louis Frederick Boehler, 1751-1815, a son of Bishop Peter Boehler, 

born in London, England. He was married to Mary C. Crohn and 
left one daughter. 

17. Thomas Emanuel Schneller, infant son of Chas. Schneller, died in 

1835. 

18. Joseph Miksch, 1796-1824, born at Christiansbrunn. He moved to 

Bethlehem, built him a house, married Elizabeth Clewell, and died 
at the age of 28 years. 

19. Christian Frederick Berg, 1774-1825, from Jutland, Denmark. In 

1800 he married Hannah Tempest, and with his wife entered the 
foreign mission field, being first appointed to South America, and 
later to the West Indies. He returned from Barbados arriving in 
Bethlehem only two weeks before his death. He left two sons, viz., 
Joseph (who studied for the ministry) and Charles. 

20. Gottfried Hennig, 1745-1825, born at Seifhennersdorf, near Herrnhut, 

linen-weaver; died unmarried at the age of 80. 

21. John Ricksecker, 1780-1827, born at Lititz, Pa.; learned the shoemaker 

trade. He married, in 18 10, Eliz. Kunkler and after her death, in 
1819, A. M. Schenk; was a good musician. 

" Loved husband, father, brother, son 
For us too soon thy race was run, 
Thou'rt blest and may yon realms of light 
Our souls for ever reunite." 

22. George Fenner, 1790-1829, born at Nockamixon, Bucks County, son of 

Felix Fenner, and father of Felix and Levi Fenner. 

23. Matthew Eggert, 1763-1831, born at Bethlehem; was assistant warden 

at Lititz and at Bethlehem until 1808, had charge of the Bethlehem 
boys' school until 1814, and conducted a fulling mill and dyeing es- 
tablishment until 1826. Married in 1802 Maria Ruppert, and left one 
son and several daughters. 

24. Joseph Rice, 1785-1831, born at Nazareth; conducted the old inn at 

Nazareth for two years, and later the Bethlehem inn and brewery. 
In 1808 he married Anna Salome Heckewelder who bore him three 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 37 

25. William Rice, 1799-1833, born at Bethlehem; married in 1823 Lydia 

Oerter; died at the age of thirty-three. 

26. Abraham Knauss, 1754-1836, born at Emaus, was married to Eliz. 

Boeckel, who bore him two sons and died in 1821. He lived on a 
farm 5 miles from Bethlehem, and died at the age of 82 years. 

27. Abraham Schmidt, 1771-1837, a blacksmith; he left the Church in 

order to marry Sus. Treibel. After her death he applied for read- 
mission and his application was granted. 

28. Maurice Christ. Knauss, 1837-38, a child, son of Charles Knauss. 

29. Ch. Marcus Fetter, infant son of Herman M. Fetter, tinsmith in 

Hellertown, 1838. 

30. Fred. Will. Dober, 1834-38, son of Charles Christlieb Dober, who was 

a professor in the Theological Seminary; born at York, Pa. 

31. John Joseph McHose, 1838, infant son of the tobacco dealer John Mc- 

Hose. 

32. Beatus Bahnson, 1839, still-born. 

33. James E. Boehler, 1839, son of the house carpenter Philip B. 

34. Wm. Montfort Luckenbach, 1837-39, son or Samuel L. 

35. Adam Heck, 1839-40, son of Will. Heck, born at Neuhemspach, in the 

Palatinate. 

36. Augustus Stolzenbach, 1838-42, son of Henry, three years old. 

Row III. — Men and Boys. 

1. Matthias Weiss, 1709-95, a widower; born at Muehlhausen, Alsace, 

united with the Church at Herrnhaag; married in 1743 Mary Marg. 
Firnhaber, and came to Bethlehem. He assisted in the founding of 
the Nazareth congregation, and then for forty years conducted the 
blue-dyeing establishment of the Bethlehem Diacony. After the 
death of his first wife in 1756, he married Regina Neuman, who pre- 
ceded him to the grave in 1791. Children of the first marriage were 
John and Matthias, of the second marriage J. George and Paulus. 

2. John Christian Hasse, 1740-97, born at Ebersdorf, Germany. He at- 

tended the Moravian College at Barby, served in the " Schreiber- 
Collegium " of secretaries and copyists, and in 1767 was appointed 
to the mission in Jamaica, W. I. Four years later he came to Beth- 
lehem; served as book-keeper of the "Church Administration," and 
as Notary Public. He was married first to Anna Chase and again 
to A. M. Demuth. 

3. Jacob Sturgis, 1777-98, born at Lebanon, a shoemaker, unmarried; his 

parents resided at Lititz; was sent here with the hope of being bene- 
fitted by his surroundings. 



38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

4. John Gottfried Roemelt, 1712-99, from Breslau, Silesia; a nail-smith 

by trade ; came to America in 1748, married Juliana Haberland, who 
preceded him to the grave in 1790. 

5. Peter Braun (Brown), 1726-1800, born at Creuznach, in the Palatinate; 

emigrated to America in 1743, and three years later joined the Mora- 
vian Church. After serving in the schools of Frederickstown, Oley, 
Macungy, Bethlehem and Nazareth, he married Barbara Meyer and 
began to assist in ministerial work, until in 1769 he was ordained 
Deacon and called to the Mission in Antigua, W. I. He continued 
in the mission service until 1791, laboring with signal faithfulness 
and success, especially on the island of Antigua, where he was instru- 
mental in the conversion of many hundred negroes. His first wife 
died in 1771 ; he was married a second time to B. F. Gottlich; a son 
Nathaniel, also became a missionary in Jamaica, W. I. 

6. John Adam Schneider, 1716-1801, born at Hanau, Bavaria; a shoe- 

maker, came to Bethlehem in 1747 with his first wife Elizabeth, m.n. 
Koch, and served in the Economy. After her death he married 
Cath. Luckenbach and moved to Upper Saucon. 

7. Henry Andreas, 1762-1802, born in Bethlehem, son of Abraham An- 

dreas, and like his father a silversmith or jeweler. He married 
Elizabeth Wagner of Philadelphia and lived in that city until 1800. 

8. Abraham Andreas, 1725-1802, a silversmith, born at Frederickstown, 

Pa. He was married to Eleanora Ysselsteyn, who bore him two chil- 
dren. His son Henry departed on September 4, and the father fol- 
lowed on October 26 of the same year. 

9. Apparently no grave ; perhaps rocky. 

10. Louis Cassler, 1718-1805, from Langenselbold, principality of Birstein 
(Hessen), Germany; a shoemaker. After the death of his first wife 
whose maiden name was Ruth, he married Anna C. Goettling, and 
moving to Lititz built himself a house there, the first private house 
of the place. In 1800 he visited his children at Bethlehem and 
moved to this town. He had thirteen children. 

ii. John Krause, 1742-1807, an unmarried man from Ebersdorf, princi- 
pality of Reuss; last from Salem, N. C. ; assistant to the apothecary. 

12. Joachim Senseman, 1748-1809, born at Bethlehem, a baker, unmarried. 

Lost the use of his left arm by the accidental discharge of his gun, 
while hunting, and was obliged to relinquish his trade for garden 
and farm work. 

13. John George Weiss, 1758-1811, son of Matthias Weiss of Bethlehem. 

He married Elizabeth Schneider and left several sons. One of them, 
Jedidiah, was born February 21, 1795. 

14. John Bernard Wuensch, 1793-1812, from Emaus, Pa., an earnest 

Christian, apprenticed as carpenter with Wm. Boehler. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 39 

15. John Jacob Mack, 1760-1815, from Oettingen, Germany; entered the 

service of a prince Reuss, taught school and in 1800 was ordained 
Deacon, and was called to the Moravian Mission on the island of 
Antigua. He married the widow of the missionary Haman, who 
died in Barbados, Mary Haman, m.n. Grant. Being frequently 
sick he retired from the service in 18 10. He left no children. 

16. John Meder, 1740-1816, member of the "Provincial Helpers' Confer- 

ence," and pastor of the Church at Nazareth. He was born at Ran- 
den, Livonia, the son of a Lutheran minister; served as a missionary 
on the island of Barbados, and later as minister at Lititz and Naza- 
reth. His first wife, the widow A. C. Angermann, died in 1804 at 
Lititz; his second wife was the widow H. Tillofsen, m.n. Warner. 
He had come from Nazareth on March 8th to attend a meeting of 
the Helpers' Conference in Bethlehem, but was taken sick and could 
not return. 

17. Henry Steinhauer, 1782-1818, born at Haverfordwest, South Wales, 

the son of Rev. John Steinhauer and Anna Maria, m.n. Gambold. 
He studied at the schools of Eulneck, Barby and Niesky and served 
very successfully as a professor at Fulneck; came here in 181 1, and 
four years later was appointed Principal of the Young Ladies' Semi- 
nary which position he filled very ably and acceptably, so that under 
him there was a large increase of pupils in the school. He mar- 
ried Mary Child, but died only three years after the marriage, aged 
36 years. 

18. Massa Warner, 1754-1824, born at Hebron, Conn., son of David 

Warner. He was a carpenter by trade, but for a number of years 
acted as ferry-man at the Lehigh River, and when the bridge was 
built became toll-keeper. His wife, M. D. Miksch, bore him three 
sons and three daughters, and he lived to see 15 grandchildren. 

19. John Schneider, 1777-1825, from Saucon Township; had charge of the 

mill and was in the Board of Trustees. He married Catharine 
Seifert. 

20. George Clewell, 1781-1825, born at Schoeneck. He married Eliz. 

Luckenbach, moved to Emaus and later lived on a farm near Beth- 
lehem. He was survived by seven children. 

21. Henry Bickel, 1748-1826, a Swiss, from Zurich, and a blacksmith by 

trade. He united with the Church at Neuwied, and came to Bethle- 
hem in 1785, where he married Eva Giesse. Not finding suitable oc- 
cupation he bought a small farm. 

22. Christian Frederic Borhek, 1776-1828, born in Bethlehem. His first 

wife, Catharine Kindig, bore him one son; his second wife, Mary 
Luckenbach, six children, two of whom died before their father. 

23. James E. Oerter, infant son of John O., died three months old, in 1831. 



40 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

24. John Ignatius Masslich, 1794-1832, born at Lititz, Pa., a weaver. In 

1819 he married Lydia Hall of Salem. 

25. John Christian Richter, 1754-1832, born at Bethlehem; unmarried; 

attained an age of 74 years. 

26. Peter Campbell, 1834, a child. 

27. George Henry Bauer, 1741-1836, from Jessingen in Wiirtemberg, Ger- 

many; a farmer; lived mostly at Emaus, where he married A. R. 
Demuth, and after her death E. Fleckser. 

28. W. Henry Fetter, child of Herman Fetter of Hellertown, died in 1836, 

six months old. 

29. John F. Stolzenbach, 1835-37, son °f Henry S., met his death by 

drowning in the Monocacy, near the oil mill. 

30. Hunziger, 1837, an infant. 

31. Sylvester A. McHose, 1837, son °f tne tobacconist John McHose. 

32. Thomas Jones, 1837, a colored child. 

33. Walter S. Eggert, 1837, an infant. 

34. Edmund Richard Rose, 1832-37, was in the care of his grand-mother. 

" This lovely bud so young and fair 
Called hence by early doom, 
Just came to show, how sweet a flower 
In Paradise would bloom." 

35. H. S. Muhlenberg Goundie, 1837-38, infant child of G. Henry 

Goundie. 

36. John Oestereich, 1842-43. 

Row IV. — Men and Boys. 

1. Daniel Hauser, 1744-1812, born in York County, Pa., removed with 

his parents to North Carolina, and during the Indian war fled to 
Bethabara for refuge. Uniting there with the Church he worked in 
the Brethren's House at Bethabara, and in 1771 took charge of a mill 
at Hope, N. J., where he remained 36 years. His wife, Elizabeth 
Meyer of Bethlehem, bore him three sons and two daughters. 

2. George Huber, 1760-1813, born at Nazareth; blacksmith and for a 

while postmaster. In 1801 he bought a farm near Bethlehem. His 
wife, Salome Eschenbach, was last from Hope, N. J. 

3. John Frederic Peter, 1746-1813, born at Heerendyk, Holland, son 

of Rev. John Frederic Peter, Sr. ; studied at Hennersdorf, Niesky 
and Barby, was in 1769 called to Nazareth Hall and later to Beth- 
lehem as assistant superintendent of the unmarried men. When the 
Brethren's House was turned into a Continental Hospital, he was 
called to Salem, N. C, where in 1786 he married Catharine Lein- 
bach. Later he taught school at Hope, and finally served as assistant 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 41 

to the warden of the Bethlehem congregation. He was also organist 
of the Church, and a fine musician and composer. 

4. Jacob Rubel, 1725-1813, born at Diersdorf in the Palatinate; came to 

Bethlehem in 1746, worked on the farm at Gnadenhiitten on the 
Mahony and at Schoeneck, and later again in Bethlehem as carpen- 
ter. He was also market-clerk. With his wife Catharine, m.n. 
Holden, he celebrated his golden wedding. 

5. Peter Rose, 1733-1814, born at Hasselberg in Frankonia, Germany; 

came to America when a young man, enlisted in 1755, fought against 
the French, and was wounded in the right shoulder. After joining 
the Moravian Church, he worked on the farm at Bethlehem, and in 
1773, married A. Rosina Boeckel. They removed to North Carolina, 
but returned to Bethlehem, where, in 1801, he became tollkeeper at 
the bridge. 

6. John Weiss, 1748-1814, son of Matthias, born at Bethlehem; married 

to A. M. Blum. He carried on his father's business, that of a blue- 
dyer; a very corpulent man. 

7. Tobias Boeckel, 1740-1815, born in Heidelberg Township, Berks Co.; 

a shoemaker; played trumpet and trombone. He married A. Barbara 
Heckedorn and had three sons and three daughters. 

8. Henry Lindemeyer, 1728-1817, from Basel, Switzerland; came to 

America in 1750, was in 1761 appointed assistant minister and the 
next year ordained a Deacon and called to Emaus. Was obliged to 
retire, because his wife, Eliza Horsfield, became melancholy and his 
eyesight failed. 

9. David Gold, 1750-1817, born at Gnadenthal, near Nazareth; a tanner; 

moved into the neighborhood of Bethlehem. He was married to 
Catharine Seyfried. 

10. Adolph Hartman, 1744-1817, born at Nazareth; blacksmith and mason. 

He was married three times, first to A. C. Heckedorn, next to Reb. 
Diemer, m.n. Montague, and lastly to the widow Lewis, m.n. 
Lembke, who died in 18 10. His only son George Adolph became 
minister on Staten Island. 

11. Charles Colver, 1741-1817, born at Danbury, Conn.; a brick-maker, 

married to Anna Heil. He moved to Salem, N. C, left the Church, 
but later was readmitted and returned to Bethlehem. 

12. John Cunningham, 1774-1819, born in Scotland; lived in Baltimore; 

died while here on a visit to his daughter who attended the Board- 
ing School. 

13. John Stotz, 1751-1821, born at Gnadenthal; married to Eliza Kaske. 

14. Daniel Luckenbach, 1777-1821, son of Adam Luckenbach; tinsmith; 

subject to epileptic fits; found dead in bed one morning. 



42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

15. John Christopher Eilerts, 1753-1822, born at Hienthal, Norway; 

studied theology at the University of Copenhagen, taught in the 
school at Christiansfeld, and in 1791 was called to the Boys' School 
in Bethlehem. He was an excellent teacher; unmarried. 

16. Samuel Steip, 1757-1822, born at Gnadenthal. In 1789 he married 

Anna Krogstrup, who departed this life in 1820, survived by one 
daughter Anna. 

17. Leonard Knauss, 1745-1823, from Salisbury Township; cooper and 

carpenter. In 1769 he married J. Salome Mueller who bore him 
eight children. In 1819 they celebrated their golden wedding. He 
lived to see 58 grandchildren. 

18. Jacob Clewell, 1751-1824, born near Schoeneck, this county; was mar- 

ried to A. Cath. Roehrig. 

19. Jacob Bush, 1773-1825, born near York, Pa.; shoemaker. He was 

married first to A. Weinecke, and after her death to Eliz. Althaus. 

20. David Beitel, 1755-1825, born in Berbice, British Guiana, South 

America, where his parents served in the mission. He remained 
single, working in the Economy at Christiansbrunn and Bethlehem, 
and died at the age of 70 years. 

21. Matthew Schulz, 1752-1826, born at Zaso, near Cotbus, Germany. 

He joined the Church at Kleinwelke and came to America in 1791 ; 
farmed at Christiansbrunn and for the Bethlehem Boarding School. 
He married Rachel Frevel, but had no children. 

22. Felix Fenner, 1753^1829, born in Philadelphia. He lived in Nocka- 

mixon Township, Bucks Co.; married Martha Eschenbach. 

23. William Jones, Esq., 1761-1831, born in Philadelphia. A captain in 

the Revolutionary war, later Secretary of our navy and the first 
president of the Bank of the United States. Died here on a visit. 

24. John Jacob Jundt, 1774-1831, born at Botmingen near Basel, Switzer- 

land; was gardener and cook at Herrnhut. In 1807 he was called 
to Lititz as superintendent of the "Single Brethren," and in 1816 he 
became steward in the Bethlehem Seminary. His wife's name was 
A. S. Hasse. 

25. Louis Schnerr, 1805-33, born in Whitehall Township, Northampton 

Co., son of George Schnerr; died of typhoid fever. 

26. Simon Koenig, 1789-1834, born in Bethlehem Township, name and 

record omitted in the list of interments. 

27. Abraham V. Hagy, 1819-35, born at Merion, Montgomery Co., Pa.; 

record of life omitted. 

28. Wm. Jesro Lange, 1837, infant son of Christian Lange. 

" Rest, dear babe, from sorrow free, 
Where we all once wish to be." 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 43 

29. Robert F. Borhek, 1837, son of James T. Borhek, died at the age of 

nine months. 

30. George Fred. Seidel, 1837, son of Charles F. Seidel, 14 days old. 

31. Christian Yotter, 1833-36. 

32. Edw. Malcolm Beckel, 1829-37, son of Charles F. Beckel. 

33. Wm. Benj. Luckenbach, 1834-37, son of the miller C. Augustus L. 

34. Sigley, 1837, still-born child of John Sigley. 

35. Ch. Edward Belling, 1832-38, son of the shoemaker Augustus B.; died 

of scarlet fever. 

" E'er sin could blight, or sorrow fade 
Death came with friendly care; 
An opening bud to heaven conveyed, 
And bade it blossom there." 

36. Matthew Hanke, 1755-1841, born at Old Nazareth; shoemaker by 

trade. In 1784 he married Eliz. Huber and took charge of the 
Lititz Inn. Having removed to Hope, N. J., he there lost his wife, 
but married again, and moved to Nazareth, where his second wife 
died in 1837. He attained an age of 86 years. 

Row V. — Mostly Little Boys. 

1. Chas. Henry Schneller, 1817, son of David Peter Schneller. 

2. Henry Dan. Steinhauer, 1816-17. 

3. Gambold Steinhauer, 1817, like the preceding one a son of Rev. Henry 

Steinhauer. 

4. Geo. Henry Irmer, 18 19, son of J. George Irmer. 

5. Owen Walter, 1817-19, born in Lower Saucon. 

6. Probably no grave. 

7. Benjamin Rice, 1820-21, son of Owen and Caroline Rice. 

8. Abraham Rice, 1823, son of Owen R., 13 days old. 

9. Geo. F. Jungman, 1823-24, Christian J.'s son. 
10. Franklin B. Maslich, 1824. 

ii. Jos. Charles Walter, 1824-26, son of Joseph W., residing near Beth- 
lehem. 

12. Abraham A. Vogenitz, 1827-28, son of Andrew Vogenitz. 

13. Daniel Doster, 1828, son of Lewis D., two months old. 

14. Robert Hoffert, 1824-28, son of Samuel H. 

15. J. Daniel Oesterlein, 1759-1829, born at Nazareth; foreman in the 

weaving establishment of the Brethren's House; later married to 
Elizabeth Dehuff ; for 30 years assisted in church music as trombonist. 

16. Edwin Bischof (Bishop), 1810-30, son of Charles B. ; a shoemaker. 

17. Joseph Till, 1759-1830, shoemaker; born at Warwick near Lititz, Pa.; 

he married Eliza Gutjahr, who died in 1816. His daughter became 
the wife of Henry Held. 



44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

18. James N. Warner, 1828-31, and a still-born child, 1832; sons of David 

and Esther Warner. 

19. Held, still-born, child of Julius Held, 1831. 

20. Edwin J. Lick, 1829-31, name omitted in record. 

21. Dorsey Syng Physic Stout, 1824-31, son of Dr. Abraham Stout. 

22. Charles O. and Alfred I. Kremser, twin children of Charles K., died 

1832, two months old, the former on the 21st, the latter on the 24th 
of February. 

23. Wm. Cunow Beear, 1828-32, son of Peter Beear. 

24. Albert H. Borhek, 1831-32, son of James T. Borhek. 

25. Emil Th. Schneller, 1824-32, son of Peter S. 

26. Edward Romantus Krause, 1824-32, son of John K. 

27. Robert Bruce Eggert, 1829-32, from Bethlehem Township. 

28. John E. Warner, 1831-32, son of John W. 

29. Abraham D. Bealer (Boehler), 1828-32, Philip's son. 

30. Lucian Wolle, 1825-32, son of John Frederick W. 

31. A. Haas, still-born, 1832. 

32. Robert A. Beear, 1829-32, Peter's son. 

33. Abr. Smyth Andress, 1833, son of Abr. Andress. 

34. Beatus Luch, still-born, 1833. 

35. Joseph A. Kluge, 1833, son of John Peter Kluge, 7 months old. 

36. Henry John Schropp, 1833-34, 8 months old, son of John Schropp. 

37. Beatus Lehman, still-born, 1834. 

38. Francis Th. Jungman, 1834, son of Christian J. 

39. John Godfrey Pietsch, 1770-1841, a tobacconist, born at Neukirchen, 

in Upper Lusatia, Germany; came to America in 1795 from Klein- 
welke. He was twice married ; his second wife, m.n. Moeller, died 
before him. 

Row VI. — Boys and Men. 

1. Geo. L. Schneller, son of David Peter S., 1817. 

2. Sam. Sidney Smith, 1814-19, son of John Jac. Smith. 

"How does our Saviour look?" 
" Right clean," was his reply. 

3. Eugene J. Borhek, 1820, son of Chr. Frederick B. 

4. Wm. Frederic Luch, 1809-21, aged 12 years; son of Jacob Luch. 

5. Josiah Hower, 1821, son of Joshua H. 

6. Joseph Wm. Luckenbach, son of Christian L., 1821-22. 

7. Julius Bishop, 1823, son of Charles Bishop. 

8. Eugene S. Bishop, 1822-24, son of Jonathan B. 

9. Edward Walter, 1821-24, son of Joseph W. 
10. Benjamin Helwig, 1822-24, son of Gideon H. 

ii. James Louis Boeckel, 1809-25, born at Bethlehem, died at the age of 
15 years. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 45 

12. Josiah O. Eggert, 1826-27, son of Benjamin E. 

13. Edmund Walter, Joseph's son, 1828. 

14. Joseph H. Youngman (Jungman), 1824-29, son of J. Christian Young- 

man. 

15. Robert C. Eggert, 1828-29, Benjamin's son. 

16. William H. Andress, 1829, son of Abraham A. 

17. Julius A. Vogenitz, 1829-30, son of Andrew V. 

18. August Fl. Pietsch, 1810-30, born in Bethlehem; tobacconist; fine 

musical talent; died at the age of 19 of influenza. 

19. William B. Luckenbach, 1803-30, born at Bethlehem, the son of Sam- 

uel L. ; tinsmith and coppersmith; moved to Philadelphia. In 1826 
he married Sarah Tombler; he died a young man of 27 years, leav- 
ing two sons and one daughter. 

20. Abraham Huebner, 1765-1831, born at Bethlehem. He was married 

to A. Rosina Stoll and left two sons, Abraham and Henry. Besides 
being an industrious potter, he served as curator of the Sisters' House, 
and in the Board of Trustees. 

21. Charles Frederic Neisser, 1804-31, born at Bethlehem, a tailor; lost 

the use of one eye. He married Venilia Herbach, but had no chil- 
dren ; died in consequence of a fall. 

22. George Matthew Loesch, 1750-1831, born at Drebkau, Lusatia, Ger- 

many. He was a missionary in Surinam, South America, where he 
married Agnes Demuth. They had no children. 

23. Jacob Van Vleck, 1751-1831, Episcopus Fratrum; born in the city of 

New York; studied at Nazareth Hall and in Barby, Germany. Re- 
turning to this country in 1778 he was appointed assistant pastor at 
Bethlehem, and in 1760 Principal of the Young Ladies' Seminary. 
This office as well as that of Principal of Nazareth Hall, from 1802- 
09, he filled with eminent success. Later he served as pastor of the 
churches at Nazareth, Lititz and Salem. In 181 5 he was consecrated 
a Bishop, and removed to Bethlehem. In 1789 he married Anna E. 
Staeheli, who bore him two sons, viz., William Henry and Charles 
Anton; both entered the ministry. 

24. John Schmidt, 1774-1831, born in Bethlehem, unmarried. As he 

seemed to have no talent for the trades which he tried, viz., nail- 
smith, linen-weaver and tailor, he was employed as night-watch and 
gardener. 

25. John Jacob Luch, 1756-1831, from Feldkirchen in the county of Vogels- 

berg, Germany. Was compelled to enlist as a soldier in Holland, 
and served six years as a private and three years as sergeant. Came 
to Bethlehem in 1790 and established a bakery. He was married to 
A. Pens. 

26. Henry A. Gundt, 1829-31, and Ivan C. Gundt, 1828-32, sons of Henry 

Gundt (Goundie). 



46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

27. Edward W. Youngman, 1832, son of Christian Y. 

28. Josiah D. Eggert, 1831-32, born in Bethlehem Township. 

29. Benjamin S. Miksch, 1832-33, son of John Matthew M. 

30. Joseph Riedeman, 1823-33, son of Joseph O. Riedeman. 

31. Doster's boy, 1832, twin son of Lewis Doster. 

32. William H. Weber, 1832-33, son of J. Christian Weber, aged 10 

months. 

33. Edw. S. Krause, 1833, John Krause's son. 

34. Haas, still-born, 1834. 

35. Aaron Hillman Schneider, 1833-34, son of George Schneider. 

36. Gustav W. Grunewald, 1834, son of Gustav Grunewald. 

37. Valentine Rau, 1835, child of Valentine Rau, living near Bethlehem. 

38. John Christian Kern, 1785-1841, a stocking-weaver, born at Nazareth, 

maried M. Eliz. Bischoff and died at the age of 56 years. 

Row VII. — Men and Boys. 

1. John Peter Steiner, 1741-96, born at Warwick (Lititz), was educated 

in the Moravian school at Emaus and, for five years, served in the 
Nazareth school. Later he followed the trade of wheel-wright at 
Bethlehem, living in a shop which he erected for himself near the 
Brethren's House. He remained single. 

2. John Herman Bonn, 1719-97, unmarried; was born at Skippack, 

Montgomery Co., Pa. On March 19, 1742, he was baptized by Count 
Zinzendorf, and five years later he came to Bethlehem. He was 
among the first Brethren who moved into the " Single Brethren's 
House " on November 16, 1748, having given active help in building 
it. For a short time he had charge of the flour and saw-mill at 
Gnadenhiitten on the Mahony; then became warden of the colony 
at Christiansbrunn, where he served for more than thirty years with 
great faithfulness, returning to Bethlehem in 1792. He was also 
ordained a Deacon of the Church. The last five years of his life 
he spent in retirement attaining to an age of 77 years. 

3. Henry Gerstberger, 1713-97, unmarried, aged 84 years. He was born 

at Langendorf, Upper Silesia, and came to Bethlehem in 1751, with 
a colony of 80 Moravians. 

4. John Warner, 1754-97, born at Sichem, a Moravian Home Mission in 

Dutchess Co., N. Y., He learned the carpenter's trade, working at 
Gnadenhuetten on the Mahony and in Bethlehem. 

5. Henry Hellert, 1734-99, unmarried; a Dane from near Copenhagen 

and a sail maker by occupation. Having joined the Church at 
Herrnhut he was, in 1773, appointed an assistant missionary on the 
island of Jamaica. After ten years' service he returned to Europe 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 47 

and, in 1787, was sent to St. Thomas to take charge of the mission 
plantation. In 1795 he retired on account of failing health and 
came to Bethlehem, where he served as cook in the Brethren's 
House. 

6. John Theobald Kornmann, 1721-1805, born at Bergheim, Alsace; 

leather-dresser in the service of the " Bethlehem Diacony." In 
1771, at the age of 50, he married the widow A. Marg. Angel, m.n. 
Bichler. 

7. John Weygand, 1741-1806, an unmarried man, born in Philadelphia; 

was overseer of the " Boys " and steward in the Brethren's House. 

8. John Steup, 1752-1814, unmarried, born at Gnadenthal near Nazareth; 

a miller; died from a fall out of the door in the second story of the 
mill. 

9. Samuel Warner, 1756-1816, son of Daniel Warner, born at Oblong, 

N. Y. ; remained single; worked at Christiansbrunn on the farm 
and in Bethlehem as a tanner. 

10. John George Irmer, 1773-1818, born at Schnellewalde, Upper Silesia; 

a baker. He was married three times, first in 1809 to J. E. Stotz, 
who died in 1813, again to A. S. Bischoff who died in 1817, and the 
third time to Hannah Kindig, who survived him. He fell from a 
wagon injuring his spine. 

11. William H. Woehler, 1828-30, a little boy, son of John W. 

12. Eugene W. Vogenitz, 183 i, infant son of Andrew V. 

13. Gideon Helwig, 1770-1822, born at Nischwitz, Silesia; came here in 

1790 and found employment as cook and later as oil-miller; he mar- 
ried Eliz. Meyer and left two sons, Ferdinand and Benjamin. 

14. John Heckewelder, 1743-1823, born March 12, at Bedford, England, 

the son of Rev. David Heckewelder. He became a distinguished 
missionary of the Moravian Church among the Indians, beginning 
his service in 1762 as the assistant of Post and Zeisberger; later he 
had charge of mission stations in Ohio and of the work in general, 
but on account of his wife's ill health was compelled to retire from 
the mission-field. He also wrote a history of the Indian Mission. 
In 1780 he was married to Susan Ohneberg in the chapel of the mis- 
sion station Salem in Ohio, this being the first wedding of a white 
couple in the State of Ohio. His eldest daughter Sarah married 
Joseph Rice, his second daughter Susan married Christian Lucken- 
bach. He lived to see 13 grandchildren and died at the age of 80. 

15. John Peter Fetter, 1741-1823, born at Frederickstown, Montgomery 

Co., Pa. In 1767 he married Christiana Riem who died in 1800. 
He was a widower for 23 years, attaining to the age of 82 years. 

16. David Eschenbach, 1755-1823, born at Oley, Pa., the son of the Rev. 

Andrew Eschenbach, who in 1742 with several other candidates was 



48 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ordained a minister of the Gospel, at Oley. In 1778 he married A. 
C. Omensetter and applied for confirmation in 1822. 

17. Anthony Schmidt, 1784-1823, a married man, son of Anton Schmidt, 

Sen. (Row VII, 24.) He had a frail constitution; spent most of 
his life here in Bethlehem. 

18. Gottlieb Braun, 1760-1825, born at Nazareth; a cloth-weaver; mar- 

ried Rebecca Otto. 

19. John Clewell (Clevel), 1754-1827, born at Plainfield, this county; 

had a farm near Bethlehem. He was married first to Ch. Weinland, 
who died in 1800, and then to Lea Heil, who died in 1819. He lived 
to see 33 grandchildren. 

20. Daniel Weinland, 1799-1827, unmarried, born at Bethlehem. 

21. Godfrey Henry Mueller, 1753-1831, born in New York City; farmed 

at Nockamixon. He married Julia S. Krause who bore him twelve 
children. From these he had 53 grandchildren and 11 great-grand- 
children. His death was caused by his falling from a pear tree. He 
was 78 years old. 

22. George Anderson Ising, 1759-1831, born at Froerup in Holstein. 

Came here in 1786, bought a farm near Bethlehem, and married Eva 
M. Luckenbach, who left him a widower in 1796. 

23. Charles Gottlieb Blech, 1755-1832, born at Somnitz, Silesia, Ger- 

many; a minister. With his wife Mary, m.n. Warner, whom he 
married in 1803, he served the Church in several congregations with 
faithfulness and devotion. He had two sons and three daughters. 

24. Anthony Schmidt, 1749-1834, born in Bethlehem; a locksmith by 

trade. His first wife was M. Baumgaertner, and his second Eliza- 
beth Fetter. He attained the age of 84 years. His son Anthony 
Schmidt, Jr., died in 1823 and is buried in the same Row (No. 17). 

25. Abraham Levering, 1757-1835, was born at Old Nazareth and his 

parents were called to the mission in Jamaica, W. I. After learning 
a trade and tending store for a while he became a teacher at Naza- 
reth Hall. In 1790 he married A. C. Cassler and took charge of the 
Bethlehem Inn and later of the store. In 1805 he was appointed 
warden of the Church at Lititz and for a while al?o steward of the 
Lititz Boarding School, besides holding other important offices. He 
also served the Church with his musical gift, and for 55 years was a 
member of the Church choir. In 1832 he retired to Bethlehem. He 
had three sons and one daughter. His age was 77 years. 

26. John Christian Lange, 1766-1837, born at Bethlehem; a saddler by 

trade. His wife's maiden name was Sarah Jesro. He died of 
apoplexy. 

27. Parmenio Schuman, 1803-38, son of Dr. Henry Schuman of Salem. 

He was born at Graceham, Md., and after attending school at 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 49 

Nazareth Hall, studied in the Moravian College at Niesky, Germany, 
and the Theological Seminary at Gnadenfeld. Returning to this 
country in 1824 he took up the study of law, and practiced at 
Easton, Pa. 

28. John van Erd, 1775-1839, born in Bethlehem, followed the shoemaker's 

trade. He was unmarried. 

29. Henry C. Eckert, 1839-40, infant son of Jacob Eckert. 

" When in this yard my grave you see, 
Dear parents, do not weep for me; 
My time was short, but blest is He, 
Who called me to Eternity." 

30. Christian F. Field, 1840, grandson of the hostess of the Eagle Hotel, 

Mrs. Freeman. 

31. Oliver W. Manuel, 1840, Edward M.'s son. 

32. Alexander A. Beear, 1833-40, son of Peter B. 

33. James W. Goehring (Gehring), 1836-40, son of the tanner Adam 

Gehring at Hellertown. 

34. Benjamin M. Doster, 1839-40, son of Lewis D. 

Row VIII. — Married Men. 

1. Jeremiah Denke, 1725-95, born at Langenbilau, Silesia. Having 

served as organist at Herrnhut and as chaplain of the unmarried 
Brethren at Gnadenberg, he was ordained a Deacon of the Church 
and came to America in 1761, the voyage across the ocean taking 21 
weeks. He became the pastor of the churches successively at Lititz, 
Nazareth and Bethlehem; he also was appointed a member of the 
Helper's Conference in the American Moravian Church. His first 
wife, A. S. Steinman, died in 1773, his second wife, Sarah Test, in 
1789; the third, Eliz. Leinbach, survived him. 

2. John Geo. Gruen, 1722-96, a linen-weaver from Noerdlingen, in 

Bavaria. He came to Bethlehem in 1750, and after living for some 
years at Christiansbrunn, he married A. E. Weber of Bethlehem. 

3. John Lewis Huebner, 1717-96, a potter, born at Rommelshausen near 

Marienborn, Germany. He was received into the Church at Bethle- 
hem in 1743, and was made an acolyte; he served as an assistant 
missionary among the Indians and accompanied Bishop Nath. Seidel 
on his official visit to Surinam, S. A. He was married first to C. 
Ysselstein, and after her death to C. Baumgartner. One son, John 
Lewis, was minister of the Church at Lancaster and at other places. 

4. Richard Lee, 1703-97, born in the city of London, attained to the 

age of 94 years. Having first found employment as a saddler in 
Philadelphia, he then moved to a farm in Lower Saucon, where he 



So The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

married Anna Cook. After his wife's death, when in his 79th year, 
he heard Jacob Fries preach and was so deeply impressed, that he 
applied to be received into the Church and moved to Bethlehem, in 
order here to spend the remaining years of his life. 

5. Christian Ettwein, 1752-98, born in London, came to Bethlehem with 

his parents, Bishop J. Ettwein and wife, and later learned the trade 
of a stone mason. He married Regina Zahm. 

6. John Christian Ebert, 1749-99, born at Ottenhayn, Silesia. He was in 

the old country a forester, and here in Bethlehem for several years 
landlord of the Sun Inn. He married A. R. Jungman. 

7. George Henry Neisser, 1771-1803, born in Germantown, Pa., son of 

the watchmaker Augustin Neisser; himself a hatter, and later nail- 
smith. He married A. Rosalia Boeckel, who bore him three chil- 
dren. He was a member of the Church in Philadelphia, but died 
here while on a visit. 

8. John Schropp, 1750-1805, born at Nazareth. He married in 1784 M. 

E. Tanneberg, who died in 1801, and again in 1802 Elizabeth Krog- 
strup. He died on July 4th, and a posthumous son, John, was born 
on September 8th. 

9. Bernard Adam Grube, 1715-1808, born at Walschleben, near Erfurt. 

He studied theology at Jena, was ordained in 1740, taught school 
and preached in Holland and Livonia, and came to Pennsylvania in 
1748. Here he was stationed at Meniologameka, near the Blue 
mountains, and after his marriage with the widow Eliz. Busse of 
Nazareth did faithful service among the Indians at Gnadenhiitten on 
the Mahony, and other places, especially also during the Indian 
War. His first wife having died in 1776, he married the widow S. 
Eberhardt, m.n. Van Vleck. With her he served at Lititz, Hope and 
Emaus as pastor and preacher, but continued to take a deep interest 
in the Indian Mission. He also officiated at the marriage of the two 
missionaries, Heckewelder and Zeisberger. He lived to be 92 years 
and 6 months. 

10. Johannes Ljungberg, 1737-1808, a Swede. In 1775 he married Re- 

becca Nixon of Nazareth, and after her death the widow Sarah 
Peter, m.n. Bailey. 

11. John Lewis Huebner, 1761-1813, son of Lewis Huebner (VIII, 3); 

born at Nazareth and educated for the ministry of the Church. In 
1790 he was ordained Deacon and married Christiana Eschenbach. 
He served as minister in the congregations at York, Lancaster, 
Gnadenhiitten (Ohio) and Hebron. His last appointment was that 
of principal of the Young Ladies' Seminary at Bethlehem. 

12. Gottlieb Krause, 1759-18 14, born at Bethlehem, son of Henry Krause. 

He was a butcher, and after his father's death took charge of the 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 51 

business. He married A. J. Stoll, by whom he had a son, John ; after 
her death he married M. Bauer. 

13. John Samuel Krause, 1782-1815, born at Christiansbrunn, son of Mat- 

thew K. He came to Bethlehem in 1796 and became a watchmaker 
and silversmith. His wife Maria Lewis, m.n. Schropp, in 1814, bore 
him a son, Matthew. 

14. Owen Rice, 1751-1820, son of Owen Rice, Sr., born in New York, 

where his father served as minister. He had for many years charge 
of the Bethlehem Store as manager and approved himself very 
faithful and efficient. He was also in the Board of Trustees. His 
wife, Elizabeth Eyerie, departed this life before him. 

15. Christian Gottlob Paulus, 1764-1821, born at Neukirch in the Voigt- 

land, Germany; was a member of the Church in Germany and was 
"called" to Bethlehem in 1793. A shoemaker by trade, took charge 
of the Inn of the Congregation. His wife, A. J. Nicholaus, departed 
this life two months before her husband. Their marriage was blessed 
with seven daughters, the oldest being J. Caroline (Rice), born in 
1801. 

16. John Kremser, 1758-1823, born at Nazareth; a shoemaker by trade; 

worked on the farm at Christiansbrunn and was landlord in the Inn 
at Nazareth and Hope, N. J. By his first wife, A. M. Peisch, he had 
one son; by his second, A. S. Beck, one son and two daughters. 

17. William Boehler (Bealer), 1769-1823, born at Bethlehem; carpenter; 

was married to Barbara Woodring. 

18. Joseph Jones, 1755-1824, born on the Jones farm near Bethlehem. In 

his twentieth year he married Hannah Horn and lived to see 27 
grandchildren. In 1810 he was married a second time to the widow 
Maria Nitschmann, m.n. Van Vleck. 

19. Marcus Fetter, 1772-1827, born at Lancaster; blacksmith like his 

father before him; also a good musician. He married E. Herbach 
and had five children, four sons and one daughter. 

20. Christian Eggert, 1760-1827, born at Bethlehem; a tanner. In 1791 

he married A. M. Suess who bore him two sons and three daughters. 

21. John David Bischoff (Bishop), 1749-1827, born at Gnadenthal; origi- 

nally a wheel-wright, later worked in the mill and learned to build 
grist mills. He wedded first J. S. Mau, who died in 1806, and after- 
wards A. R. Schmidt. 

22. Thomas Scott, 1781-1831; no record found. 

23. George Schuster, 1774-1831, born at Uhyst, Lusatia, Germany, came 

here in 1801 and established himself as a tailor. He married Eliz. 
Steinke. 

24. William Jones, 1778-1832, born at Myfodd, North Wales, England. 

In 1806 he married Margaret Davis and spent the last seven years 
of his life in Bethlehem. His son was Dr. Maurice Jones. 



52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

25. Lewis David de Schweinitz, 1780-1834, born at Bethlehem; educated 

at Nazareth Hall and in Germany; chaplain of the "Single Breth- 
ren" at Gnadenberg and Gnadau; 1812-21 Administrator of the 
Unity's property in North Carolina; 1821-24 pastor at Bethlehem 
and Administrator of the Church property in the Northern District. 
He was the last " Senior Civilis " in the Moravian Church. A dis- 
tinguished botanist, he received the degree of Ph.D. from the Uni- 
versity of Kiel. He was married to Amalia, m.n. Ledoux, and was 
survived by four sons all of whom entered the ministry, doing faith- 
ful and efficient service in the Church. 

26. Joseph Horsfield, 1750-1834, a saddler by trade; a man of great talent 

and usefulness; was appointed Justice of the Peace, Notary Public, 
Postmaster and superintendent of the bridge-building. He also 
served as organist. His wife, Elizabeth Benezet, bore him three 
daughters. 

27. George Adolph Hartman, 1781-1839, from Hope, N. J. He taught at 

Nazareth Hall and in 1817 was ordained Deacon. For twenty years 
he served as minister of the congregation on Staten Island. He 
was twice married, first to Isabel Fulton and then to C. E. Lange, 
neither of whom had children. 

28. Gabriel Traeger, 1809-39, born at Lititz; a shoemaker. He married 

Lucinda E. Luckenbach, who bore him one son and one daughter. 
He died of a pulmonary disease, highly esteemed for his faithfulness 
and industry. 

"The human heart repines and grieves 
To part with kindred here, 
But faith in God the mind relieves, 
And wipes away the tear." 

29. David Kunkler, 1794-1839; a baker, born at Emaus. His first wife 

was E. Omensetter, and his second wife, whom he married in 1827, 
Mary Pyrlaeus. 

30. J. Fred. Frueauff, 1762-1839, born at Neudietendorf, Saxe-Gotha, a 

graduate of the Barby Theological Seminary; was chaplain of the 
" Single Brethren " at Lititz and at Bethlehem, and in 1798 became 
minister, first at Schoeneck, subsequently in Philadelphia, Nazareth 
and Lititz. From 1805-15 he was Principal of the Boarding School 
at Lititz, and from 1819-21 of the Bethlehem Boarding School. He 
also was a member of the Provincial Board of Elders until his death, 
which occurred suddenly on November 14, 1839, while on a journey 
to Philadelphia. He was married to Johanna Elizabeth, m.n. de 
Schweinitz. 

31. Charles Christian Dober, 1792-1840, born at Herrnhut, studied with 

his twin brother Theodore at the Moravian College and Theological 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 53 

Seminary, in Germany, and in 183 1 came to America. After teach- 
ing for a year in the Theological Seminary at Nazareth, he became 
pastor of the church at York, and later at Schoeneck. In 1837 he 
was again called to the Seminary, and the following year moved 
with the same to Bethlehem. An affection of the nerves compelled 
him to retire from active service and he died after prolonged 
suffering. 

32. John Schropp, 1805-40, born at Bethlehem. When 23 years old, he 

wedded Maria Corn. Goundie, who bore him four sons and two 
daughters. He was in the store with Owen Rice and later went into 
business for himself. He died at the age of 35 years. 

33. Paul Weiss, 1763^1840, son of Matthew Weiss of Bethlehem. After 

having taught in the Bethlehem Boys' School and at Nazareth Hall 
until 1803, he was ordained a Deacon of the Church by Bishop Los- 
kiel and became pastor of the congregation at Schoeneck, and in 
1813 at Emaus, where he remained for 17 years, until he retired from 
the service. His age was 77 years. 

34. Joseph Oerter, 1764-1841, son of the bookkeeper Christian O. of this 

town. He learned the bookbinder trade and married M. J. Hasse 
in 1793. His children were John, bookbinder, Lawrence, missionary 
in the West Indies, and Lydia (Rice). Since 1818 he was a 
widower. He died at the age of 76 years. 

NON-MORAVIANS. 

Row Nearest to Market Street. 

1. Unknown. 

2. Frau Speck, from the Blue Mountains. 

3. Sarah Hillman, late Kokan, 1780-1817, born in Montgomery Co., Pa., 

wife of Aaron Hillman ; not a church-member and not baptized, but 
trusting in Christ as her Saviour. Her still-born child was buried 
with her. 

4. William Mann, 1784-1812, born at Bramley, near Fulneck, England. 

Came to America in his 17th year, and for the last five years served 
at the Sun Inn. 

5. Frederick Schopp, 1771-1806, born at Leipzig, came to Bethlehem in 

1805 and found employment with Christian Eggert as leather-dresser. 

6. Aquila Willmot, 1752-77, born in Baltimore Co., Md., one of the 

Army Surgeons in the hospital established by the government at 
Bethlehem, during the Revolutionary War. He died of typhus fever 
and his grave was the first dug in this row. 
7-11. Unknown. (Farrel's child and William Carr.) 
12. Robert Gillespie, 1737-77, a widower, steward in the army hospital. 
He was born in Carlow Co., Ireland. 



54 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

13. Thomas Bartow, Sr., 1709-82, born in West Chester Co., N. Y. He 

filled many civil offices under the Colonial Government. The war 
occasioned his moving to his son at Bethlehem. 

14. Joanna Christina Petermann, 1779-99, born in the principality of 

Witgenstein, Germany. Her father having come to America in 1790, 
the mother followed with the children ; but the father meanwhile 
had died, and the family was given temporary shelter and support 
here. This daughter died the day after their arrival. 

15. Henry Schmidt. 

16. Thomas Bartow, Jr., 1771-1801, born in Philadelphia, unmarried, died 

20 miles away from Bethlehem; the body interred here at the 
request of relatives. 

17. Frederic Shunk. 

18. Joseph Oswald Riedeman (Ruedemann), 1785-1836, born in Switzer- 

land. 

19. Magdalena Riedeman, m.n. Schneider, 1791-1831, born near Basel, 

Switzerland. 

20. David, a negro, departed 183 1. 

21. Lydia Ann Wilson, a negro girl, died August 2, 1831. 

22. Abigail Newton, 1805-28, born in the state of New York, consort of 

Alvin Newton. Her husband having departed on August 7, she 
followed him on September 14 of the same year; her infant daugh- 
ter Sarah Ann died on September 28, and was buried in the same 
grave. 

23. Alvin Newton, 1804-28, born in the state of Connecticut. He was an 

overseer of the Lehigh Canal Company. 

24. Sarah Ann McLaughlin, an Irish girl. 

25. Isaac Conklin, 1804-26, born in Rockland Co., N. Y. ; a shoemaker, 

working for Chas. Tombler ; a good hearted fellow. 
" This stone was caused to be laid by the young men of Bethlehem." 

26. James, a negro. 

27. Richard Dumphy (Murphy?). 

28. Beatus Delaney, still-born child of Nelson Delaney, 1849. 

29. Maurice Lange. 

30. Ache, still-born. 

31. Tombler, still-born. 

IN THE PATH, BETWEEN A AND C. 

(Originally the center of the Cemetery.) 

Juliana Nitschmann, m.n. Haberland, 1712-51, born at Schoenau, Mo- 
ravia, a descendant of faithful members of the Ancient Bohemian 
and Moravian Church of the Brethren. She emigrated to Herrnhut 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 55 

in 1729 with her parents, and was one of the young women who on 
May 4, 1730, covenanted with each other to consecrate themselves 
wholly to the service of the Lord. In 1734 she was wedded to the 
Rev. (later Bishop) John Nitschmann, and became the mother of 
seven children, of whom four sons, Jonathan, Joshua, John, and Im- 
manuel, survived her. From 1734-48 she served with her husband in 
various important positions of the Church in Europe, and in 1749 
they were appointed to the work in America, and arrived at Bethle- 
hem bringing with them a congregation of 120 Moravians. She was 
honored by the title of " the mother of Pennsylvania," and when she 
departed this life, on February 22, 1751, her remains were interred in 
what was then the center of the Cemetery, as a mark of special 
honor and respect. 

SECTION C. 

Row I. — Married Women. 

Anna Maria Lawatsch, Nov. 17, 1712-Jan. 20, 1760. She was the 
daughter of Tobias Demuth, born at Carlsdorf, Moravia, and emi- 
grated to Herrnhut in 1729. She was a woman of rare social and 
spiritual gifts; lived in the family of Count Zinzendorf and was 
ordained Deaconess. In 1738 she became the wife of the Rev. A. A. 
Lawatsch, with whom she served in various offices and places with 
signal acceptance and success, particularly in the capacity of " gen- 
eral elder," or spiritual adviser of the female portion of the Church. 
In 1732 she and her husband were called to Pennsylvania, where 
her work again was prominently in the cure and care of souls. She 
assisted in the founding of Lititz, and in 1757 led a colony of newly 
married persons to the Moravian settlements in the Wachovia, N. C. 
She left but one daughter. 

Anna Elizabeth Boeckel, m.n. Rohrbach, 1710-71, born at Carlstadt, 
in the Palatinate. In 1736 she married Fred. Boeckel, and the same 
year emigrated with him to America, settling near Reading. She 
was converted in 1741, under the preaching of Count Zinzendorf, 
and moving into the Moravian settlements, she and her husband 
found employment in the "Economy," or common household of 
those days. Since 1761 she served also as a midwife. She left six 
children. 

. Rachel Boemper, m.n. Baumgart, 1701-69, born at Marmeltown, N. Y. 
In her 24th year she married Isaac Ysselsteyn, and came with him 
to Pennsylvania, settling on the Ysselsteyn farm south of the Lehigh 
River. After the Moravians had founded Bethlehem and her hus- 
band had departed this life, she, in 1745, moved to Bethlehem with 
her six daughters, a servant (Jacque van der Merk), and the negress 



56 The Peruisylvania-German Society. 

Hannah. In 1748 she married Abraham Boemper, and during the 
last 20 years of her life served with him in the Church. (A, III, 42.) 

4. Maria Hirte, m.n. Klose, 1710-67; born at Roesnitz, in Silesia. In 1743 

she married Tobias Hirte, at Herrnhaag, and the same year came 
with him to America. They lived successively at Nazareth, Gnaden- 
thal and Bethlehem. (See A, I, 4.) 

5. Anna Stoll, 1718-66, born at Balgheim, principality of Oettingen, 

Germany. She was married to John Stoll in 1737, and came to 
America in 1749, with John Nitschman's Colony. She worked on the 
farm at Gnadenthal and at Bethlehem. She had eleven children. 

6. Agnes Post, an Indian woman of the tribe of the Unanamiyack (Dela- 

ware). In 1748 she was baptized at Bethlehem by Bishop Cammer- 
hoff, and on Sept. 24 of the same year married the missionary Fred. 
Post. His first wife, Rachel, also an Indian, had died in 1747. She 
died at Friedenshutten, near Bethlehem, on July 8, 1751, of con- 
sumption. 

7. Theodora, whose Indian name was " a Techtanoah," grandmother of 

Rachel Post (the first Indian wife of the missionary). She moved to 
Friedenshutten, near Bethlehem, and was baptized four hours before 
her death, Oct. 16, 1747. 

8. Mary Shaw, m.n. Jones, departed on Sept. 29, 1746, at Walpack, be- 

yond the Blue Mountains, after giving birth to a little boy, who 
expired soon after his mother. The bodies were brought to Bethle- 
hem for interment, under the accompaniment of many friends from 
Walpack. 

9. Salome, wife of the Indian helper Joshua, from Shekomeko, Elder of 

the Indian congregation at Friedenshutten. She died of small-pox 
Sept. 16, 1746, after having been delivered of a boy one week before. 

10. Zipporah {alias Wawottakkem), wife of the Indian Nathaniel, died at 

Friedenshutten, Aug. 23, 1746. 

11. Magdalena, wife of the Indian Zaccheus, died in childbed, July 20, 

1746. 

12. Elizabeth Hencke, wife of Christopher Hencke, from Zittau, Saxony; 

died Oct. 10, 1744, and was buried the following day. 

13. Anna Anton, 1724-44, born at Zauchtenthal, Moravia; departed this 

life after an illness of sixteen weeks, in the 21st year of her age. 

14. Joanna Okely, m.n. Robins, 1715-45, born in Philadelphia, of Quaker 

parentage; was awakened through the preaching of George White- 
field, and baptized by Zinzendorf in 1743. The same year she mar- 
ried John Okely, scrivener and conveyancer for the Moravian Econ- 
omy, and later a Justice of the Peace. 

15. Rosina Zeisberger, widow of David Zeisberger, who preceded her to 

the grave by one year and a half. They were both from Moravia, 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 57 

emigrated to Herrnhut in 1726, and ten years later went with Bishop 
David Nitschmann's colony to Georgia. Their son David followed 
them to America, and afterwards became the most distinguished Mo- 
ravian missionary among the Indians. His mother died on Feb. 23, 
1746, when her son was in his 25th year. 

16. Rachel Post, a Wampanoag Indian, from Shekomeko, N. Y. In 1743 

she became the wife of the missionary Frederick Post. She died 
Dec. 26, 1747, and was buried by Bishop Spangenberg; her still-born 
son was placed in her arms. 

17. Joanna Wade, m.n. Hopson, 1723-48, born in Wiltshire, England. She 

joined the Church in London, and there married John Wade in 1744, 
who after coming to America was appointed an Evangelist and later 
ordained Deacon. 

18. Anna Catharine Schaaf, m.n. Loze, 1722-48, born at Creuz-Wertheim 

on the Main, Germany. She came to Pennsylvania in Nov., 1743, 
with her husband the weaver, Thomas Schaaf. 

19. Anna Maria Otto, m.n. Weber, 1715^49, first wife of Dr. John 

Frederic Otto. She was born at Frankfort-on-the Main, united with 
the Church at Herrnhaag, and, in 1743, came to America with her 
husband and many other Moravians in the ship Little Strength. She 
left one son, Joseph, and one daughter, Anna Theodora. 

20. Theodora, a blind old Indian woman, who had been baptized by the 

Rev. Gottlieb Pezold; departed Nov. 24, 1749. 

21. Rachel, an aged Delaware widow living one mile above Bethlehem, 

along the Manocacy creek. She was baptized by Bishop Cammerhoff 
on Jan. 10, 1750, and died on Jan. 15 of the same year. 

22. Anna Rosina Kliest, m.n. Beyer, 1723-50, born at Schoenbrunn, near 

Brieg, Silesia. She was sent to Pennsylvania from Herrnhut, with 
the " Sea Congregation," which arrived in 1749, and married the 
locksmith, Daniel Kliest. 

23. Anna Maria, a Delaware Indian, wife of Tobias. She had been bap- 

tized at Bethlehem, together with her husband and infant daughter. 
When taken ill in the forest beyond the Delaware, she besought the 
Indians to convey her to Bethlehem. Her wish was gratified, and 
she was carried all the way to Bethlehem, where she died Oct. 28, 

1753. 

24. Rosina Michler, m.n. Schneider, 1715-55, born at Zauchtenthal, Mo- 

ravia. Her father, David Schneider, in 1725, was imprisoned on ac- 
count of his evangelical faith, together with father David Nitsch- 
mann, but escaped in a miraculous way and went right from prison 
to Herrnhut, followed by his wife and daughter. Rosina assisted 
her parents by weaving, until in 1741 she married to John Michler. 
Two years later they sailed for America in the Little Strength, with 



58 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

43 other couples. They served in the Moravian schools at German- 
town and at other places. 

25. Eva Catherine Muecke, m.n. Muezner, 1720-55, born at Boeckingen, 

near Heilbronn, Germany. On May 27, 1743, she was married to M. 
Muecke, at Herrnhaag, Germany, simultaneously with the marriage 
of twenty-three other couples destined for Nazareth, Pa. She after- 
wards served with her husband in the school at Frederickstown and 
at other places. She left four sons. 

26. Dorothy Gattermeyer, m.n. Uhlmann, 1726-55, born at Zauchtenthal, 

Moravia. She came to Bethlehem in 1749, and on July 15 of the 
same year, in company with 27 other couples, was married to John L. 
Gattermeyer, a blacksmith and sick-nurse. Together they served the 
Church in various capacities, until the time of her departure, October 
18, 1755. Her widowed husband then went to Gnadenhutten on the 
Mahony, Pa., to help in the mission work. On November 24 of 
the same year, at the massacre of the missionaries by the Indians, 
he died a martyr's death. 

27. Anna Caritas {alias Nanny), a Shawano Indian, married to the negro 

Bro. Joseph. She was born in North Carolina, her mother having 
been carried away captive by the Mohawks. She came to this 
neighborhood half a year before Bethlehem was built, and in 1747 
joined the Church finding employment in the washhouse. After 
marrying Joseph she moved with him to Frederickstown and served 
in the Moravian school there faithfully and diligently, until the war 
troubles drove them to Bethlehem. On December 31, 1755, having 
become consumptive, she said: "now I am ready, now I shall go to 
the Saviour," and soon afterwards expired, while her friends were 
singing German and Indian hymns by her death-bed. 

28. Margaret Catharine Weiss, 1720-56. She was born at Frankfort-on- 

the-Main, the daughter of the Notary Public, J. C. Firnhaber, and 
became awakened through the visits of Chr. David of Herrnhut. 
In 1753 she married Matthias Weiss and was one of the 120 pilgrims 
who came over in the Little Strength. She and her husband were 
among 31 couples who moved to Nazareth, but in 1747 they returned 
to Bethlehem. She left two sons and one daughter. 

29. Margaret Kunz, m.n. Ballenhorst, was married to Matthew Kunz of 

Bethlehem on August 12, 1750. On September 10 of the same year 
she ran down to the Lehigh, "near the washhouse," and drowned 
herself. An inquest was held and the verdict of the jury was for- 
warded to the court. 

30. Anna Schaaf, m.n. Mann, 1720-57, born in the county of Bern, 

Switzerland; came here in 1752, and was employed as sick-nurse in 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 59 

the Sisters' House until 1755, when she was married to Thoma9 
Schaaf, being his second wife. (See C, I, 18.) 

31. Mary Apollonia Bechtel, m.n. Marret, 1691-1758, born at Heidel- 

berg, Baden, of Huguenot parents. In 1715 she married John 
Bechtel (A, I, 20), a pious mechanic, with whom in 1726 she came 
to Germantown, Pa. There Bechtel, though not ordained, but 
licensed by the University of Heidelberg, for more than sixteen years 
officiated as German Reformed minister. In 1742 Zinzendorf was a 
frequent guest at their house, and J. Bechtel was ordained a Deacon 
by Bishop D. Nitschmann. Having been dismissed from the Re- 
formed Church in 1746, they removed to Bethlehem. 

32. Susanna (Sarah) Reinke, m.n. Stockberg, 1715-58, born at Sunmoer, 

near Bergen, Norway; came to Herrnhut in 1740 with a Dr. Turk, 
when she could speak Danish only. In 1744 she was married to the 
Rev. Abraham Reinke (A, VIII, 32), who was appointed to the ser- 
vice of the Church in Pennsylvania, after having held pastoral 
charges in Russia, Holland and England. Here she served with her 
husband in various congregations; having a preference for English 
speaking people. She left one son, Abraham. 

33. Eva, an old Indian widow of the Mohican tribe. In 1742 she was con- 

verted at Shekomeko and afterwards baptized by Peter Boehler. She 
was married to the Indian Nicodemus, who became the Elder of the 
Indian congregation at Gnadenhiitten on the Mahony and departed 
this life there, in 1747. After her husband's death she moved to 
Bethlehem and, like Anna, became " a widow of about fourscore and 
four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God 
with fastings and prayers night and day." She died November 18, 
1758. 

34. Susan Dorothea Geitner, m.n. Gaupp, 1726-60, from Urach, Wiirtem- 

berg. Came to Bethlehem in 1752 on the ship Irene with a colony 
of unmarried women from Heerendyk in Holland. The following 
year she married C. Geitner, to whom she bore three sons. 

35. Maria Werner, 171 1-60, born at Salzburg, Germany. Left her home 

with other Salzburg exiles on account of the evangelical faith; ar- 
rived in Pennsylvania with the Moravian colony of 1742. She was 
appointed the first " Pflegerin " (superintendent) of the unmarried 
women at Bethlehem. In 1745 she married Chr. Werner and served 
with him in the "Nursery" (children's home) at Bethlehem and 
Nazareth. 

Row II. — Unmarried Women and Girls. 

1. Anna Seidel, 1722-67, born at Lauban, Silesia. She served in the 
church in Germany among her sex, being received as an Acolyte, 



60 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and in 1761 came to America with a colony of 50 persons led by her 
brother Bishop N. Seidel. 

2. Catharine Albrecht, 1735-66, born in Philadelphia, moved with her 

parents to the Ysselsteyn farm near Bethlehem and served in 
families. 

3. Maria Jones, 1740-65, born at Elizabeth, N. J.; joined the Church in 

1756, and served as nurse in the family of Bishop Peter Boehler. 

4. Margaret Wernhammer, 1707-64, born at Aurach, Bavaria; came to 

Bethlehem in 1752, served in the "Nursery" and was made an 
Acolyte. 

5. Elizabeth Broksch, 1734-64, born at Meffersdorf, Upper Lusatia. She 

came to America in 1761 with the colony led by Bishop N. Seidel, 
and being an Acolyte served the Church in various capacities. 

6. Elizabeth Kannhaeuser, 1723-63, from Bayreuth, Bavaria. In 1758 

she was received as an Acolyte and ordained Deaconess of the 
Church, and in 1761 she was called to Bethlehem to be the warden or 
Deaconess of the unmarried women in the " Sisters' House." 

7. Hannah Geddis, 1725-51, born in New York City. Was converted 

under the preaching of Peter Boehler. Death was caused by con- 
sumption. 

8. Zippora, an Indian girl, born about 1733 at Wequehachke (?), i. e., the 

high land; daughter of Nathaniel and Zippora (C, I, 10). She de- 
parted this life 175 1. 

9. Salome, an Indian, of the tribe of the Hooglanders, from Shekomeko; 

was baptized in 1748 by Bishop Cammerhoff and had the testimony 
of being one of the " happiest Christians in the Sisters' House." 
She died of consumption in 1751. 

10. Elizabeth, an Indian girl from the tribe of the Araivaks in Berbice, 
South America, about 17 years old. She was baptized by Moravian 
missionaries in 1748, and the following year came to Bethlehem with 
the missionary W. Zander. She died June 18, 1750. 

n. Sybilla Holder, a girl, about 15 years old from Allemaengel, Lehigh 
Co. t 1750. 

12. Elizabeth Brashier, 1729-50, born in New York, came to Bethlehem in 

1744, to join the choir of the " Older Girls." She was the first 
" Single Sister " from the Sisters' House who was called home, and 
the record says: " Sie hielt recht brautmaeszig Heimfahrt." 

13. Lydia Montagne, 1731-45, a girl from New York, daughter of the 

shop-keeper Jacobus Montagne. 

14. Anna Maria, an Indian girl, daughter of the Mohican Nathaniel and 

his wife Zippora. She was baptized January 1, 1747, by the Rev. 
Abr. Reinke, and departed in the 13th year of her age, January 23, 
1750. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 61 

15. Mary Elizabeth Engfer, 1721-52, born at Bolzin, Brandenburg. She 

was forewoman in the tailoring establishment of the Sisters' House. 

16. Mary Margaret Ebermeyer {alias Eberwein), 1715-54, born at 

Alberspach, Wurtemberg, came here in 1752 in company with Anna 
J. Seidel, wife of Bishop Seidel. 

17. Anna Maria Stotz, 1739-55, f rom Lauffen, Wurtemberg, was a daugh- 

ter of Ludwig Stotz. 

18. Mary Catharine Diez, 1728-56, born at Buedingen, Wetteravia, Ger- 

many. Served in the Children's Home in Marienborn and other 
Moravian schools, and came to Bethlehem in 1752 with 16 other 
young women, to serve among the children. She was made an 
Acolyte. 

19. Cornelia, 1728-57, a mulatto slave girl, belonging to Mr. and Mrs. 

Horsfield. She was born near New York and was received into the 
Church in 1755. 

20. Rebecca Jones, 1729-59, from Norfolk, Virginia. Lost her parents 

when yet a child and came with a family to New York, where she 
heard the Rev. Jac. Rogers preach. 

21. Catharine Leibert, 1737-60, born in Philadelphia. After her father's 

death her mother brought her here, and later she superintended the 
" Older Girls " in the Sisters' House. 

22. Benigna Antes, 1748-60, daughter of the late Henry Antes. After her 

father's death, in 1754, Bishop Spangenberg brought her to the Beth- 
lehem Boarding School, where she died of smallpox. 

23. Theodora, a Delaware Indian, 1742-61, born at Mennissink, near the 

Delaware Water Gap. 

24. Johannetta Salterbach, 1730-62, born at Hachenburg, Germany. 

Was converted in Philadelphia through the preaching of Zinzendorf 
and served in several Moravian schools, being also made an Acolyte 
of the Church. 

25. Mary Goetje, 1745-62, from Nazareth, attended the Girls' Boarding 

School at Bethlehem, while her parents were in North Carolina. 

26. Anna Roebuck, 1750-63, born in Bethlehem, died of brain fever. 

27. Anna M. Enners, 1752-65, from Nazareth, died in the Bethlehem 

Boarding School. 

28. Magdalena Anton, 1751-66, a mulatto girl, born at Bethlehem, daugh- 

ter of the negro Anton and the Indian Elizabeth. 

29. Catharine Margaret Schuckart, 1735-67, from Heidelberg, Germany. 

30. Maria Agatha Hammer, 1730-67, born at Ehningen, Wurtemberg; 

did faithful service in Germany, England, and, since 1761, here in 
Bethlehem among the children. She was an Acolyte. 

31. Maria Barbara Westhoefer, 1740-68, from Muddy Creek, in Lancas- 

ter Co. Was employed as cook in the Sisters' House and in the 
Okely family. 



62 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

32. Rebecca Weiss, 1752-68, moved to Bethlehem with her mother from 

Philadelphia, making her home in the Sisters' House. 

33. Maria Justina Erd, 1725-68, born at Langendiebach, near Hanau, Ger- 

many; was, in 1759, received as an Acolyte, and came to Bethlehem 
in 1763 as Deaconess of the young women. 

34. Rebecca Volck, 1745-69, from Lynn, Lehigh Co., Pa. During the In- 

dian War, in 1757, her parents sought refuge at Gnadenthal, near 
Nazareth. 

35. Sarah Price, 1738-69, born in Philadelphia and baptized in 1746, at 

Bethlehem; she was a teacher, and in 1762 became an Acolyte. 

Row III. — Little Girls. 

1. Mary E. Angel, 1767-69, from the Burnside farm near Bethlehem. 

2. Sophia Otto, 1758-60, daughter of J. Matthew Otto, died at the Nurs- 

ery (children's home) of smallpox. 

3. Anna B. Senseman, 1750-60. Her mother perished in the massacre at 

Gnadenhuetten, Pa., in 1755 ; her father was the Rev. Joachim Sen- 
seman, who was called to the mission in Jamaica, W. I. 

4. Sophia D. Schlegel, 1755-60, daughter of the missionary Frederick 

Schlegel. 

5. Joanna Engel, 1758-60, daughter of Gottfried Engel. 

6. Anna C. Schropp, 1753-59, daughter of Matthew Schropp, of Nazareth. 

7. Mary Digeon, 1745-51, daughter of David D., died in the Girls' 

School. She was a general favorite among her companions, and 
being afflicted with lung trouble, was anxious " to depart and to be 
with Christ." 

8. Elizabeth, daughter of the Indian Peter and of his wife Christine, died 

soon after her baptism, 1746. 

9. Anna M. Kunkler, 1745-46. The cause of death was smallpox. 

10. Sarah Noble, youngest daughter of the merchant Thomas Noble, in 

New York, died 1746. 
IX. Anna, 1746, child of the Indian Zacchaeus and his wife Magdalene. 

12. Elizabeth Reichart, 1744-46, David Reichart's daughter, died in the 

children's home. 

13. Johanna S. Schober, 1744-46, daughter of Andrew Schober. 

14. Elizabeth Nieke, 1745. Her father was pastor of the Lutheran church 

at Tulpehocken, Pa. 

15. Anna M. Huber, 1744, daughter of John M. Huber. 

16. Mary Hussey, daughter of Robert Hussey; the first interment of a 

female in this graveyard. She died May 3, 1744, and was buried 
May 5. 

17. Elizabeth Hartman, 1736-45, a girl from the Boarding School. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 63 

18. Joanna E. Pyrlaeus, I744--45. daughter of the Rev. John Pyrlaeus, 

minister in Philadelphia. 

19. Anna M. Francke, 1745, daughter of John C. Francke. 

20. Anna Mack, 1744-45, first daughter of Martin Mack. 

ax. Boehringer, still-born daughter of David J. Boehringer, 1745. 

22. Elizabeth Liebisch, 1742-45, daughter of Martin Liebisch. 

23. Joanna E. Nieke, 1744-46, oldest child of Rev. Geo. Nieke. Died of 

smallpox. 

24. Mary Elizabeth Hussey, 1745-46, second daughter of Robert H., died 

of smallpox. 

25. Anna Boehmer, 1745-46, from Nazareth. 

26. Beata, 1745-47, daughter of the Indian Zacchaeus and his wife Beata, 

a Delaware. 

26. Christine Francke, 1747, daughter of John C. Francke. 

27. Benigna Schaus, 1747, daughter of the miller Adam Schaus. 

28. Elizabeth Wittke, 1747. 

29. Elizabeth Klemm, 1743-50, born in Philadelphia. Her mother came 

to Bethlehem in 1744. 

30. Caritas, an Indian girl of between 8 and 9 years, a daughter of the 

Delaware Daniel and his wife Ruth, of Meniolagomeka, in Monroe 
Co., Pa. Bishop Cammerhoff baptized her, when she was 5 years 
old. She died in the Boarding School. 

31. Mary Becker, 1746-52, daughter of W. L. Becker in Philadelphia, died 

in the Children's Home, south of the Lehigh. The cause of death 
was an epidemic cough. 

32. Mary Nielsen, 1747-52, Nazareth. 

33. Anna, daughter of the Delaware Indian Joshua and his wife Agnes, 

died 1756. 

34. Christine, 1755-57, third and last child of the Wampanos (Wam- 

panoag) Indian, John Peter. 

35. Susan Ohneberg, 1755-58, born on the island of St. Thomas, W. I. 

36. Hannah, 1757-58, infant daughter of the Indians, Benjamin and 

Zippora, living at Nain. 

37. Anna Mary Clauss, 1758, J. Geo. Clauss' daughter. 

38. Eleanora, 1758-59, daughter of the Indians, Daniel and Elizabeth, of 

Nain. 

39. Anna M. Michler, 1769, Wolfgang Michler's- daughter. 

40. Elizabeth Russmeyer, 1757-59. Her parents had charge of the church 

at Warwick (Lititz). 
40. Anna C. Goetje, 1758-60, daughter of the shoemaker Peter Gotje, at 
Nazareth. 



64 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Row IV. — Little Girls. 

1. Anna M. Neisser, 1758, a daughter of Rev. George Neisser. 

2. Louisa Partsch, 1757-58. Her parents were George and Mary 

Partsch. 

3. Salome Mau, 1758. 

4. Sophia, 1758, daughter of the Delaware Indian Paul and his wife 

Magdalen. 

5. Johanna Rogers, 1757. 

6. Anna M. Eggert, 1757, first born child of Christian Eggert. 

7. Benigna, 1743^51, a little Indian girl from the Boarding School; born 

at Shekomeko, the daughter of the departed Indian Peter and his 
widow Christine, married again to Shebosh. 

8. Maria Post, 1746-47, first daughter of the missionary Frederick Post 

and his Indian wife Rachel. 

9. Elizabeth Peterson, 1747. 

10. Elizabeth Shaw, 1745-47, daughter of Joseph Shaw. 

11. Catharine Hartman, 1746-48, daughter of Frederick Hartman. 

12. Joanna Reuz, 1746-48. 

13. Sally Rice, 1746-48, daughter of Rev. Owen Rice. 

14. Maria Schaub, 1748, daughter of John Schaub. 

15. Anna Miksch, 1748. 

16. Salome, 1746-48, daughter of the Indian Benjamin and his wife 

Zippora. 

17. Theodora Neisser, 1747-48, first daughter of Rev. George and Theo- 

dora Neisser, born at Bethlehem. 

18. Elizabeth Digeon, 1748, second daughter of David D. 

19. Anna Partsch, 1747-48, second daughter of Geo. Partsch, born at 

Nazareth. 

20. Anna C. Wade, 1748, daughter of John and Joanna Wade. Her 

mother died about 20 days before her. 

21. Anna E. Yarrell, 1748, Thomas Yarrell's daughter. 

22. Elizabeth Utley, 1748-49, infant daughter of the Rev. Richard Utley, 

Moravian minister in Philadelphia. She was born in Bethlehem. 

23. Joanna Ardin, 1748-49, daughter of James Ardin. 

24. Lydia, a little Indian girl, about %V 2 years old, daughter of Henry and 

Dorothy; unbaptized; died May 4, 1749. 

25. Anna, second daughter of the Indian parents Henry and Dorothy, died 

June 20, 1749. 

26. Anna Green, 1749, daughter of John S. Green, four months old. Had 

been baptized in Bethlehem, together with her parents, on May 26, 
1749- 

27. Mary Hoepfner, 1745-49, daughter of J. C. Hoepfner. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 65 

28. Anna Salome, 1746-49, from Friedenshuetten, daughter of the Dela- 

ware Indian Salome. 

29. Juliana Schaue, 1748-50, second daughter of John Schaub. 

30. Anna Th. Otto, 1748-50, Dr. John Fr. Otto's daughter. 

31. Martha Gambold, 1750, daughter of Ernest (Hector) Gambold. 

32. Juliana Roemelt, still-born, 1751. 

33. Sarah Reinke, 1748-52, second daughter of the Rev. Abraham Reinke 

in Philadelphia. 

34. Anna M. Senseman, 1754. 

35. Jorde, still-born, 1756. 

36. Anna M. Mueller, 1755-56, second daughter of Bernard Mueller. 

37. Anna Schaeffer, 1756, Nicholas Schaeffer's daughter. 

38. Joanna Ettwein,, 1755-56, born in Bethlehem. 

39. Salome Stoll, 1756. 

40. Thorn, still-born, 1757. 

41. Elizabeth Hirte, Tobias Kirte's daughter, 1757. 

42. Anna J. Krause, Henry Krause's first child, 1757. 

Row V. — Little Girls. 

1. M. Justina Jansen, 1767-69, born at Bethlehem. 

2. Anna R. Kunckler, 1760-69, born at Nazareth, died of smallpox. 

3. Anna Eleonora Senseman, 1763-69, born at Pachgatgoch, died of 

smallpox. 

4. Joan Salome Rogers, 1758-69, born at Bethabara, N. C. Her mother 

having died and her father, the Rev. Jac. Rogers, gone to Europe, 
Bishop Ettwein in 1764 brought her to Bethlehem. She died of 
smallpox. 

5. Anna J. Huber, 1767, George Huber's daughter. 

6. Anna J. Schmick, 1754-61, daughter of J. J. Schmick; died of small- 

pox. 

7. Christine Blum, 1756-60, Francis Blum's daughter, born at Nazareth. 

Smallpox. 

8. Elizabeth Boehner, 1751-61, born in St. Thomas, West Indies; died 

of smallpox. 

9. Juliana Fritsche, 1749-61, born at Nazareth, attended the Boarding 

School. 

10. Anna J. Schmidt, 1752-61, daughter of John Schmidt, died of small- 

pox. 

11. Anna M. Schaub, 1753-61, born at Nazareth. 

12. Lange, 1761, first daughter of Gottlieb Lange, still-born. 

13. A. Rosina Hafner, 1749-61, daughter of J. Jacob Hafner of Nazareth. 



66 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

14. A. Maria Hafner, 1756-61, born at Gnadenthal; died of consumption 

brought on by smallpox. 

15. A. Maria Schnall, 1752-62, from Nazareth. 

16. Maria Ockertshausen, 1760-62. 

17. Agnes Schulze, 1754-62, daughter of Gottfried Schulze, at Nazareth. 

18. A. Maria Kaske, 1761-63, born at Ephrem, on the Corentyn River, in 

Guiana, South America; came with her parents, who were mission- 
aries of the Church. 

19. Mary Christine Boehmer, 1753-64, at the school. 

20. Catharine Hancke, 1759-65, born at Friedensthal, near Nazareth. 

21. Chr. Sophia Detmers, 1764-70, died of "sore throat." 

22. M. Magdalen Huebner, 1770, born at Bethlehem. 

23. Anne Marie Hornig, Christian Hornig's daughter, 1770. 

24. Elizabeth Buerstler, 1763-71, born at Gnadenthal, died of smallpox. 

25. A. Elizabeth Boeckel, 1771-72, born in Bethlehem. 

26. A. Pauline Thrane, 1763-72, born at Bethlehem ; daughter of Rev. A. 

P. Thrane, pastor of the Church. 

27. Joanna Weinecke, 1773-74. 

28. Eleonora Huebener, 1775. 

29. Christine Ernest, Conrad Ernest's daughter, 1776. 

30. Elizabeth Senseman, 1765-77, born at the Indian Mission station Pach- 

gatgoch, came to Bethlehem when her parents were appointed to the 
mission in Jamaica, W. I. 

31. J. Maria Kornmann, 1772-77, daughter of Theobald Kornmann. 

32. Elizabeth Schmid (Schmidt), 1777, daughter of Anton Schmidt. 

33. Unknown or no grave. 

34. Hannah Dean, 1769-78, born in Philadelphia. Her parents placed her 

in the Moravian School here, in order to keep her safe during the 
war. 

35. Elizabeth Jansen, 1779-81, daughter of Jost and Maria Jansen. 

36. A. Rosina Schneider, 1783, from Saucona, died of smallpox. 

37. Justina Dorothea de Schweinitz, infant daughter of the Rev. Hans 

Christian Alexander de Schweinitz, died July 23, 1784. 

38. A. Catharine Schmid (Schmidt), 1781-88, daughter of Anton Schmidt, 

died of smallpox. 

39. Maria D. Beutel, 1784-89, C. F. Beutel's daughter. 

40. Maria Heckewelder, 1782-90, only daughter of Christian Renatus 

Heckewelder. 

41. Anna and Maria Weiss, 1790, twin daughters of George Weiss. 

42. Louisa Henrietta de Schweinitz, 1789-91, daughter of H. C. A. de 

Schweinitz and his wife, nee de Watteville. 

43. Unknown or no grave. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 67 

Row VI. — Mostly Widows. 

1. Mary Magdalen Otto, m.n. Schmidt, 1735-84, wife of the " Medicus 

Matthew Otto." She was bora in the Palatinate and came to 
America as a child. Both her parents having died on the journey, 
she was cared for by Mr. and Mrs. Boeckel at Heidelberg, Pa. In 
1748 she came to Bethlehem, was later received as an Acolyte, and 
in 1778 married the widower, Dr. M. Otto. 

2. Anna Mary Kunkler, m.n. May, 1718-84, born at Lindheim, Wetter- 

avia, Germany. She was raised in the family of Baron de Schrau- 
tenbach. In 1743 she became the wife of Daniel Kunkler and emi- 
grated to Bethlehem, where they found employment at the Sun Hotel 
and later kept a store. 

3. Sarah Leighton, m.n. Clifford, a widow, 1704-85. She was born at 

Canterbury, England, and in 1732 married the baker John Leighton. 
In 1743 they came to Pennsylvania in the company of 120 Mora- 
vians; served as home missionaries in Maryland, Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey. Her husband died in 1756. 

4. Rosina Neubert, m.n. Hauer, 1715-85. Her father, Tobias Hauer, was 

a linen weaver at Kunewalde, Moravia. Christian David's evangel- 
ical testimony brought on persecution and the family, therefore, emi- 
grated to Herrnhut, through the deep snow of winter. She was one 
of the 18 young women of Herrnhut, who in 1730 joined in the first 
covenant of complete consecration to the Lord's service. In 1734 
she married Dan. Neubert, the ceremony being the first which 
took place in the church at Herrnhut; and in 1784 the couple cele- 
brated its 50th wedding anniversary. In this country she and her 
husband worked most faithfully at various stations for the support 
of the Church. 

5. Helen Birnbaum, m.n. Nuessen, 1711-84. She was born near Klagen- 

furth, Carinthia, Austria, but left her native country on account of 
the faith. In 1749 she came to Pennsylvania with Bishop John 
Nitschmann, and afterwards married Joachim Birnbaum, a tailor. 

6. Barbara Martens, m.n. Arnold, 1723-85. She was born at Rehweiler, 

in Franconia, Germany, and came to Bethlehem in 1748, where she 
became the wife of Rev. Frederick Schlegel. She served with him 
in several city and country churches, and in 1764 they were called to 
the mission in Jamaica. There her husband, after a successful ser- 
vice of five years, died. Her second husband was Martens, with 
whom in 1778 she went to Europe; but he died on the journey and 
she returned to Bethlehem, where she continued to serve the Church 
as Deaconess among the widows. Her son, J. Fred. Schlegel, be- 
came a missionary in St. Thomas. 



68 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

7. Elizabeth Langaard, m.n. Sommers, 1729-85, born at Gravenhaag, in 

Holland. She came to America with her mother, after her father's 
death, and in 1763 was married to Andrew Langaard who in 1777 
died at Emaus. 

8. Judith Otto, m.n. Benezet, 1710-86. She was the daughter of Stephen 

Benezet in Philadelphia, and was born at St. Quentain, France. Be- 
ing Huguenots they were compelled to emigrate. She came to 
Bethlehem in 1747, when the settlement had scarcely been com- 
menced, and the next year became the wife of the missionary, Rev. 
David Bruce, Count Zinzendorf officiating at their marriage. Her 
husband died in 1749 at the Indian mission of Wechquadnach. The 
following year she married Dr. John Frederick Otto, the first physi- 
cian at Bethlehem, later at Nazareth, where he died in 1779. She 
left one son, John David Bruce. 

9. Anna Hasse, m.n. Chase, 1743-86, from London, England. She was 

married to John Chr. Hasse, with whom in 1764 she went to Jamaica 
to serve in the mission-household. From there they came to Beth- 
lehem. 

10. Catharine Stotz, m.n. Wolfer, 1716-86, born at Lauffen, Wurtemberg. 

She was married in her native town to the farmer Ludwig Stotz, who 
died at Bethlehem in 1782. 

11. Anna Helena Haberland, m.n. Jahne, 1710-87. She was born at 

Berthelsdorf, Saxony, for four years lived in Count Zinzendorf's 
family, and in 1744 was ordained a Deaconess. With her husband, 
the carpenter, Michael Haberland, she served in the Economy at 
Bethlehem and Nazareth, and in 1782 became a widow. 

12. Agnes Fischer, m.n. Clement, 1709-88, from Muehlhausen in Switzer- 

land. In 1743 she married Thomas Fischer and came to Bethlehem, 
where her husband worked as a hatter. 

13. Lucia Spohn, m.n. Biezer, 1714-88, from Lauffen, Wurtemberg. Her 

husband was Matthew Spohn, and the two were employed on the 
farm at Christiansbrunn, near Nazareth, until her husband's death. 

14. Elizabeth Utley, m.n. Kremser, 1730-89, born at Roesnitz, Upper 

Silesia. In 1766 she was married at Herrnhut to the missionary 
Samuel Utley, with whom she served among the negroes in Antigua, 
W. I., and later in this country at Manokacy, in Maryland, where 
her husband died in 1771. 

15. Anna Maria Mueller, m.n. Borel, 1730-89, from Lauffen, Wurtem- 

berg. She was married to Henry Mueller, tailor and brickmaker, 
who died in 1779, leaving a widow and several children. 

16. Joannetta Maria Ettwein, m.n. Kymbel, 1725-89, wife of Bishop 

John Ettwein (A, I, 2). She was born at Hachenburg, in Nassau, 
Germany, and married in 1746. Having been appointed to the 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 69 

service of the Church in America, she arrived here with her husband 
in 1754, and shared his labors in the ministry until the time of her 
departure. She was survived by her husband and several children. 

17. Anna Elizabeth Schmidt (Smith), m.n. Green, 1759-89, born at Gna- 

denthal near Nazareth. She was married in 1781 to John Schmidt, 
baker, and died of the grippe, an " epidemic influenza prevailing in 
1789." 

18. Juliana Roemelt, m.n. Haberland, 1715-90, born at Schoenau, Mora- 

via, the daughter of George Haberland. In her 9th year she came to 
Herrnhut and in 1749 she accompanied Bishop John Nitschmann, 
who had married her sister, to America. Here she became the wife 
of John F. Roemelt. 

19. Regina Zahm, m.n. Hantsch, 1720-90, from Ottendorf, near Herrnhut. 

In 1746 she married the Rev. John Mich. Zahm, with whom she 
served in several city and country congregations. She left one son 
living at Lancaster, and one daughter married to the mason Chr. 
Ettwein. 

20. Mariane (Mary Ann) Garrison, m.n. Brandt, 1708-90; widow of the 

Moravian sea-captain Nicholas Garrison, who died in 1781 (A, I, 
33). She was born in the county of Bern, Switzerland, and in 1748 
married captain Garrison who was then a widower, living at 
Herrnhaag. 

21. Dorothea Schmidt, m.n. Vogt, 1713-90, from Blaubeuern, Wurtemberg. 

She married the furrier John Schmidt, who came to Bethlehem to- 
gether with her on the Irene in 1749. 

22. Mary Eliza Pitschman, m.n. Opitz, 1719-90, born at Milkendorf, 

Upper Silesia. Her husband was the weaver George Pitschman, 
who afterward became the Rev. George Neisser's assistant, and in 
1762 was ordained Deacon. 

23. Barbara Fenstermacher, 1709-90, born at Erstadt in the Palatinate. 

In 1726 she married Michael Leibert a Roman Catholic, and bore to 
him ten children, of whom one son, Peter, lived at Germantown, 
and two sons, George and Martin, at Emaus. Being left a widow in 
1742, she was married a second time to Christian Fenstermacher, a 
member of the Moravian Church in Philadelphia. In 1764 they 
removed to Lititz, where he became storekeeper, dying in 1768. 

24. Martha Hussey, m.n. Wilkes, 1719-90, born at Paris, France, fled on 

account of religious persecution to England and there became the 
wife of Robert Hussey, with whom she emigrated to America. 

25. Rosina Muenster, m.n. Nitschmann, 1706-91, a widow of 85 years. 

She was born at Zauchtenthal, Moravia, the daughter of George 
Nitschmann, whose house was torn down because he entertained 
visitors from Herrnhut. After having married John Muenster, she 



70 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

came, in 1743, to Bethlehem. For five years they superintended the 
school at Macungy. Her husband died in 1754 at Friedensthal. 
She was a busy worker and assisted on the Bethlehem farm till she 
was 80 years old. 

26. Regina Weiss, daughter of John Neuman, 1720-91. She was born at 

Langenoels, Silesia, and 1757 married the " blue-dyer " Matthias 
Weiss, to whom she bore two sons, George and Paulus. 

27. Mary Miller, m.n. Ashley, 1734-91, from New England. She was the 

wife of John Miller, a missionary on the island of Jamaica, where he 
died in 1781. 

28. Anna Elizabeth Gruen, m.n. Weber, 1734-91, born in the county of 

Witgenstein, Germany. She was married to George Gruen, and 
her daughter became the wife of the baker John Schmidt. 

29. C. R. Magdalen Wiener, m.n. Christ, 1759-92, from Wissbach, Wur- 

temberg, wife of Christopher Wiener, and mother of four children. 

30. Helen Gambold, m.n. Craig, 1718-92, born in Ireland. Came to 

America in her 10th year, lived in the family of the merchant Noble 
in New York. She was married to Rev. Hector Gambold, to whom 
she bore two sons. She served with her husband in the ministry, 
more than 20 years on Staten Island. 

31. Mary Digeon, m.n. Andrews, 1719-93, born in Old England. She was 

first married to a certain Bardsley. Her second husband was the 
shoemaker David Digeon, and she left one son. 

32. Anna Margaret Jungman, m.n. Bechtel, 1721-93, from Frankenthal in 

the Palatinate, a daughter of John Bechtel, a minister of the Re- 
formed Church at Germantown. In 1742 she became the wife of the 
Rev. Gottlob Biittner, missionary among the Indians at Shekomeko, 
who died in 1745. She was married the second time to the mission- 
ary Rev. John George Jungman, with whom she spent 48 years in 
happy wedlock, becoming the mother of 8 children. Together they 
served in the Indian Mission, first in New York and Pennsylvania, 
and later in Ohio, through the perilous and trying experiences during 
the war, leading to the destruction of the mission station in Ohio. 
She spoke the Delaware tongue fluently. In 1785 her husband re- 
tired to Bethlehem. 

33. Anna Maria Huber, m.n. Berck, 1728-94; born at Bubendorf, near 

Basel, Switzerland. Her first husband was Peter J. Lehnert, of 
Nazareth, to whom she bore three sons. After his death, in 1756, she 
was married a second time to the blacksmith, George Huber, of 
Nazareth, with whom she had five children. 

34. Elizabeth Rauschenberger, m.n. Luckenbach, 1748-94. She was born 

in Lower Saucon, near Bethlehem, and married John George Rau- 
schenberger. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 71 

35. Anne Maria Hessler, m.n. Winkler, 1715-94, from Einbeck in Han- 
over. Her husband, Abraham Hessler, died in 1770, at Nazareth. 
Her son Abraham, born in 1744, was minister at Bethabara, N. C. 

39. Anna Helen Schnell, m.n. Haensche, 1722-94, born at Walldorf, 
Upper Lusatia. In 1742 she became the wife of John George Schnell, 
with whom she served the Church in Germany, England and in the 
island of Jamaica. 

37. Magdalena Kiefer, m.n. Rubel, 1727-94. She was born at Conestoga, 
Lancaster Co., of Mennonite parentage, and was baptized by Bishop 
Spangenburg at Frederickstown in 1748. Her husband was Marcus 
Kiefer. 

Row VII. — Unmarried Women. 

1. Magdalene Gill, 1744-69, a single woman, born at Oldman's Creek in 

New Jersey; came to Bethlehem in 1767, and died of smallpox. 

2. Anna Rosina Ashley, 1737-69, born at Rochester, New England ; was 

baptized in 1759, by Peter Boehler, and came to Bethlehem, after her 
two sisters, Mary and Patience, had moved here. 

3. Anne Maria Roemelt, 1756-69, a Bethlehem girl, died of consumption. 

4. Anna Maria Heckewelder, 1745-70, from Bedford, England. She 

came to Bethlehem in 1754, with her parents and three brothers. 

5. Anna Maria Almers, 1744-70, born at Bethlehem. Her parents were 

serving in the ministry of the Church, and when she was three years 
old they left for England. 

6. Maria Smith, 1745-70, from Salisbury, Conn. She was baptized in 

1766, by the Rev. Francis Boehler, at the Moravian Home Mission 
of Sichem, N. Y. 

7. Anna Christina Feisser, 1749-71, from York, Pa. Worked in the 

Economy at Gnadenthal and later in the Bethlehem Sisters' House. 

8. Mariana Beyerle, 1707-72, born near Regensburg, Bavaria. She came 

to Bethlehem in 1749, and was employed in the school; but losing 
her mind, she had to be kept in a room by herself. Her constant 
thoughts, however, all seemed to be centered upon Christ and His 
sufferings. 

9. Elizabeth Meurer, 1752-73, a Bethlehem girl who as a child had a 

stroke of apoplexy, became epileptic, and lost her reason, so that she 

was a special object of pity. 
10. Eliza Michler, 1761-73, daughter of Wolfgang Michler, Schoeneck, 

near Nazareth, died of brain fever. 
xx. Martha Mans, 1716-73, from Bergen, Norway. She came here from 

Herrnhaag, and served among children and girls as an Acolyte or 

spiritual leader. 



72 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

12. Elizabeth Wittke, 1755-75, born at Bethlehem; naturally timid, but 

happy in the enjoyment of Christian fellowship; she lived in the 
Sisters' House. 

13. Jane Burnet, 1735-76, from New York. Her parents became ac- 

quainted with Zinzendorf, and she made Bethlehem her home. The 
cause of her death was a hemorrhage. 

14. Sabina Lerch, 1748-77, born in Salisbury Township. She found em- 

ployment as a domestic at Emaus and Bethlehem. 

15. Susan Rebecca Wolson, 1749-77, born at Milesend, near London; 

moved to Bethlehem with her parents in 1753. 

16. Lea Edmunds, 1742-77, born at Simsbury, Conn.; united with the Mo- 

ravian Church in New York City. 

17. Anne Maria Francke, 1745-77, born at Fredericktown, Pa., a daughter 

of Rev. J. Christopher Francke. She was a faithful and beloved 
teacher. 

18. Anna Maria Schneider, 1749-78, born at Nazareth; died of consump- 

tion. 

19. Probably no grave. 

20. Margaret Kapp, 1744-79, born at Donegal, Pa.; lived in the Sisters' 

House. 

21. Elizabeth Popplewell, 1766-80. Her father, Richard P. died in 1771. 

22. Mary Elizabeth West, 1745-83, from Newport, R. I. Her parents 

were Baptists. She joined the Moravian Church in 1766. 

23. Anna Catharine Brownfield, 1750-80, daughter of John Brownfield, 

the bookkeeper of the Economy at Bethlehem. 

24. Catharine Rauschenberger, 1744-80, from Saucon Township, near 

Bethlehem. She served in the Rose Tavern and in the Sun Inn, and 
later removed with other " Single Sisters " to Lititz. 

25. Anna Maria Schmutter, 1721-84, from Bork, near Anspach, Bavaria. 

Came to Bethlehem from Herrnhaag; served in families. 

26. Sarah Ysselsteyn, 1740-85, from Saucon Township; was brought up 

in the Moravian schools at Nazareth, Emaus, Germantown and 
Bethlehem. In 1766 she moved to the home of her mother, married 
to A. Boemper. 

27. Rachael Huebner, 1758-85, born at Nazareth. After her mother's 

death she moved into the Sisters' House. She died of consumption. 

28. Elizabeth Lindemeyer, 1767-86, daughter of the Rev. Henry Linde- 

meyer, minister at Emaus. 

29. Maria Schlatter, 1726-87, born at Hammethal, near Schaffhausen, 

Schwarzburg-Rudolfstadt. She soon became an orphan and was 

30. Anna Rosina Friedman, 1772-87, born on the Island of St. Thomas, 

W. I. She lost both her parents in infancy. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 73 

31. Anna Rebecca Langley, 1734-87, from Northampton, England. Under 

her direction fine needle-work was introduced into the Bethlehem 
Sisters' House. 

32. Benigna Beck, 1749-88, daughter of Henry Ferdinand Beck, a Deacon 

of the Church, who labored in the Gospel in the rural churches. She 
spent her life mostly in the Sisters' House. 

33. Eleonora Eliz. von Seidlitz, 1724-89, born at Rackau, near Breslau, 

Germany, daughter of Joachim Frederick von Seidlitz. After hav- 
ing served in the Church on the Continent and in England, she was 
appointed Superintendent of the unmarried women in Bethlehem, 
and filled this position from 1763 to 1781, when she was succeeded 
by Anna von Marschall. 

34. Maria Dorothea Loeffler, 1725-89, from Groszen Heppach, Wiirtem- 

berg. She was an Acolyte and steward in the Sisters' House. 

35. Erdmuth Langley, 1741-89, from Northampton, England, younger 

sister of A. R. Langley (No. 31). Both sisters came to Bethlehem 
after their father, because of reverses of fortune, had gone to the 
West Indies. When later he returned broken in health, they tenderly 
nursed bim. Erdmuth was baptized in 1757, by Rev. Abr. Reinke. 

36. Anna Oerter, 1752-99, daughter of Christian Frederick Oerter, born at 

Bethlehem. She was a music teacher. 

37. Elizabeth Weber, 1747-90, from Muddy Creek, Pa., a daughter of 

John Weber in Fredericktown ; moved with her widowed mother 
to Nazareth, and from there to Bethlehem. 

Row VIII. — Married Women. 

1. Mariana Hoeht, 1737-72, born at Lichtenberg in the Palatinate. Her 

parents had settled beyond the Blue Mountain chain. In 1755 the 
family was attacked by Indians, both parents were killed and Ma- 
riana was carried off prisoner, together with two of her sisters. She 
was compelled to marry an Indian, by whom she had one son, and 
remained among the savages for several years, suffering many hard- 
ships and indignities, until at last she escaped with her son and 
reached Bethlehem. 

2. Jane Proske, 1720-71, born in London, England. In 1743 she was 

married to George Proske and served with him in several Moravian 
congregations in England and on the Island of Jamaica, where her 
husband died in 1763. 

3. Elizabeth Ronner, m.n. Fisler, 1717-71, born at Floex, Switzerland. 

Having come to Pennsylvania as a child, she was converted under 
the preaching of Whitefield. With her husband, the Rev. Reinhard 
Ronner, she served in various country congregations of the Moravian 



74 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Church, and in St. Thomas, W. I. After her husband's death she 
was for ten years a Deaconess among the Moravian widows in New 
York. 

4. Anna Liebysch, 1713-70, from Zauchtenthal, Moravia. With her hus- 

band, Martin Liebysch, of Moravia, she served in the orphanage at 
Herrnhut, and in the " Economy " at Nazareth. Her husband died 
at Christian's Spring. 

5. Magdalene Elizabeth Reiss, 1701-69, born at Heilbronn, Wurtem- 

berg. Her husband died in 1743, on the Ronneburg, Germany. She 
•came to Bethlehem in 1749, with Bishop John Nitschmann, and was 
appointed Stewardess in the Nazareth Nursery (Children's Home), 
until in 1768 she moved into the newly built Widows' House of 
Bethlehem. 

6. Maria Sehnert, m.n. Goepfert, 1726-61, born near Schaffhausen, Swit- 

zerland. In 1748 she became the wife of Peter Sehnert, to whom she 
bore five children. For a time they lived on Timothy Horsfield's 
farm on Staten Island, where the Moravian pilgrims were hospitably 
entertained. Later she was matron and head-cook in the Bethlehem 
schools; a particularly good-hearted and amiable person. 

7. Anna Catherine Schmidt, m.n. Riedt, 1727-62, from Heidelberg, Pa. 

From her 15th year she lived at the house of her cousin, Conrad 
Weisser, with whom Count Zinzendorf lodged on his first journey to 
the Indians. In 1747 she became the wife of Anton Schmidt, and 
spent with him seven years among the Indians, working for their 
conversion. Later they resided at Christiansbrunn. 

8. Anna Catharine Oberlin, 1740-63, m.n. Young, born at Lancaster, Pa. 

After her father's death her mother married John Hopson. She her- 
self assisted in teaching children, until in 1763 she became the wife 
of Francis Oberlin. She died a little more than one month after her 
wedding. 

9. Elizabeth Schneider, 1725-63, from the Wetteravia, Germany. She 

was married to Adam Schneider, and left several children. Since 
1762 they lived south of the Lehigh River. The cause of her death 
was cancer. 

10. Charlotte Richter, m.n. Eyse, 1723-64, born at Stettin, Prussia. She 

came to Pennsylvania with John Nitschmann's colony in 1749, and 
afterwards married J. Christian Richter. 

11. Anna Felicitas Kliest, m.n. Schuster, 1729-65, from Calv, Wurtem- 

berg. She came here in 1752 and was made an Acolyte, for service 
among the older girls and as a sick-nurse. She married the wid- 
ower Daniel Kliest. 

12. Elizabeth Colver, m.n. Smith, 1717-71, born at East Haddom, Conn. 

In 1746 she married Ephriam Colver, and moved to Dansbury 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 75 

(Stroudsburg), but was obliged to flee to Nazareth before the 
Indians. With her husband, she found employment at the Rose 
Tavern and at the Bethlehem Inn. 

13. Maria Barbara Wiesinger, 1706-71, from Muench Aurach, near Bay- 

reuth, Germany. In 1732 she was married to John Jacob Wiesinger. 

14. Anna Salome Dencke, m.n. Steinman, 1744-73, the daughter of Men- 

nonite parents at Epstein, in the Palatinate. She became a Deaconess 
of the Church, and in 1771 married the Rev. Jeremiah Dencke. 

15. J. Christiana Parsons, m.n. Ziedich, 1699-1773, born at Quedlinburg, 

Germany. Having been brought to Philadelphia by an uncle of 
hers, she there married Wm. Parsons, and in 1749 joined the Mora- 
vian Church in that city. After her husband's death she removed to 
Bethlehem. 

16. Mary Horsfield, m.n. Doughty, 1708-73, born on Staten Island, of 

Quaker parentage. In 1731 she became the wife of Timothy Hors- 
field, later Bethlehem's Justice of the Peace, with whom she lived in 
happy wedlock for 42 years. Her husband having departed on 
March 9, 1773, she followed him on Oct. 14 of the same year. 

17. Anna Oerter, m.n. Boelen, 1720-74, born in New York, a daughter of 

the silversmith Hendrick Boelen. In 1745 she became the wife of 
Christian Frederick Oerter, to whom she bore three sons and two 
daughters. They served together in several of the Moravian schools 
until 1756, when her husband became bookkeeper for the Bethlehem 
Economy. 

18. Regina Tanneberger, m.n. Leupold, 1702-74, born at Wiesestadt, Bo- 

hemia. Her father, George Leupold, in 1727, emigrated with his 
family to Herrnhut, where the daughter in the next year was married 
to G. Demuth, with whom she had two sons. In 1734 she and her 
husband were among the Moravians who went to Georgia, and two 
and a half years later they came to Germantown, Pa., where the 
husband died. She then married the shoemaker David Tanne- 
berger, Sr., who died in 1760, leaving her again a widow. 

19. Probably no grave. 

20. Maria Hauser, m.n. Schweizer, 1692-1774, born in Switzerland. Her 

first husband, Adam Stohler, died on the journey to America, in 
1727; and her second husband, Felix Hauser, fifteen months after 
their marriage. In 1742 she heard Count Zinzendorf preach, and 
the same year removed to Bethlehem. 
ax. Martha Powell, m.n. Prichett, 1704-74, from Norly, near Oxford, 
England. She was awakened at the religious revival started by P. 
Boehler and the Wesleys, and became the spiritual leader of the 
Moravian young women in London. In 1742 she married the mer- 
chant, Joseph Powell, and arrived in this country with the first " Sea 



76 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Congregation." Her husband was engaged as an itinerant mis- 
sionary on Staten Island, in Connecticut, Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania, also for six years among the negroes of Jamaica, W. I. Her 
husband died a few months after her, while on a visit to Sichem, 
N. Y. 

22. Christina Claus, 1695-1775, born at Rosteig, Alsace. Her husband, 

John Claus, departed this life in 1748, whereupon she emigrated to 
America to find religious liberty. Her son, J. George, lived near 
Bethlehem. 

23. Cornelia Huebner, m.n. Iselstein (Ysselsteyn), 1731-75, born at Clav- 

erack, N. Y. Her parents in 1738 moved to the Lehigh Valley, where 
she became acquainted with the Brethren, when they built Beth- 
lehem. In 1757 she married Louis Huebner (B, VIII, 3), to whom 
she bore two sons and three daughters. 

24. Catharine Volck, m.n. Herr, 1713-75, from New York State. At the 

age of seventeen years she became the wife of Charles Volck, to 
whom she bore fourteen children. Soon after their marriage they 
moved to Lynn, Lehigh County, Pa. Count Zinzendorf visited them 
there several times, and when a Moravian congregation was organ- 
ized at Lynn, the minister lodged at their house, until a parsonage 
was built. Her husband died in 1766, at Hebron, Pa. 

25. Probably no grave. 

26. Maria Theresia von Schweinitz, m.n. von Marschall, 1752-75, born 

in London, daughter of Frederick Wm. von Marschall. She was 
married in 1770 to Hans Christian von Schweinitz, who was ap- 
pointed Administrator of the estates of the Moravian Church in 
America. The same year they arrived at Bethlehem. She died of 
consumption, leaving one daughter, Joanna Elizabeth, and a son, 
Frederick Christian, only one year old. 

27. Eliza Okely, m.n. Home, 1690-1775, born at Berwick on the Tweed, 

England, the daughter of Dr. Alexander Home, a prominent physi- 
cian. She came to New York in 1738 to keep house for her uncle, a 
merchant in that city. In 1745 she married the widower John Okely, 
conveyancer for the Moravian Economy at Bethlehem, and since 
1774 a Justice of the Peace. 

28. Gertraud Weber, m.n. Biebighaus, 1710-76, from the principality of 

Witgenstein, Germany. She was the wife of John Weber, and bore 
him 8 children. Her husband died at Fredericktown. 

29. Johanna Sophia Otto, m.n. Dressel, 1726-76, born at Grunau, in 

Schwarzburg-Rudolfstadt. She soon became an orphan and was 
raised in an orphanage. In 1749 she joined Bishop J. Nitschmann's 
colony for America. In 1753 she married Dr. Matthew Otto, Beth- 
lehem's physician, and had three children. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 77 

30. Anna Margaret Sangerhausen, m.n. Stammer, 1702-76, born in the 

Duchy of Gotha. She married Jacob Sangerhausen and came here 
in 1749. 

31. Barbara Eliza Herzer, m.n. Linck, 1697-1776, born in Wiirtemberg, 

Germany, came here in 1743 with her husband Henry Herzer, who 
died at Lebanon, Pa. They labored in the schools and in several 
rural congregations. 

32. Anna Maria Brandmueller, 1698-1776, from Basel, Switzerland, wife 

of the home missionary John Brandmuller, with whom she served at 
Swatara, Allemaengel, Donegal and Friedensthal. 

33. Anna Klein, m.n. Bender, 1701-77, born at Kirchardt, in the Palati- 

nate. After coming to this country, she first worked to pay her pas- 
sage and, after marrying George Klein, she assisted her husband in 
cultivating a farm which, in 1755, they ceded to the Moravian 
Church for the establishment of the Lititz congregation. 

34. Sarah Petersen, m.n. Robins, 1708-77, born in Philadelphia. Her 

second husband, Peter Petersen, with whom she had moved to New 
York, left her in 1770. 

35. Anna Bischoff, m.n. Pech, 1720-78, born at Mocker, Upper Silesia. 

In 1752, at Herrnhaag, she was married to David Bischoff, came to 
this country the same year and, with her husband, served faithfully 
in several congregations. After her husband's death which occurred 
in 1763 at Bethania, N. C, she moved to Bethlehem. She was sur- 
vived by one son and one daughter. 

36. Gertraud Bonn, 1692-1779. She came to this country from Holland as 

a child, and in 17 10 married a widower living at Skippack, Mont- 
gomery Co., Peter Bonn by name, with whom she had twelve chil- 
dren. Through Bishop Spangenberg she found the Saviour, and 
after her husband's death, in 1774, she came to Bethlehem. 

37. Johanna Dorothea Miller, m.n. Blauner, 1702-79, from Bern, Swit- 

zerland. In 1743 she was married, at Marienborn, to the Philadel- 
phia printer John Henry Miller (A, I, 34), and after spending some 
time in Holland and England, came in 1752 to Bethlehem. As she 
could not make up her mind to live in Philadelphia, her husband 
attended to his business there alone, while she remained at Beth- 
lehem. 

38. Anna Muenster, m.n. Kremser, 1718-79, born at Roesnitz, Upper 

Silesia. She had been a Deaconess among the young women at 
Marienborn before she married the Rev. Paul Muenster. With him 
she served at Fulneck and Ockbrook, England, and, from 1761 to 
the time of her death, at Bethlehem, gave special attention to the 

6 



78 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

spiritual interests of married women. For a number of years she 
was invalid, being unable to walk. She had one son Christian 
Thomas. 

Row IX. — Married and Unmarried Women. 

i. Anna Maria Fischer, 1744-1809, born at Nazareth, unmarried; a 
devout and happy Christian and esteemed leader of the " Older 
Girls." 

2. Maria Barbara Nitschmann, m.n. Leinbach, 1722-1810, born at Hoch- 

stadt, Wetteravia. In 1742 she became the wife of that pioneer mis- 
sionary to the West Indies, Frederick Martin, who died on the island 
of St. Thomas in 1750. Their daughter Agnes was married to James 
Cruickshank (B, I, 11). In 1754 the widow Martin was married to 
the widower Bishop David Nitschmann, who died in 1772. Their 
daughter Anna Maria married Christian Heckewelder. 

3. Catharine Eliza Hartman, m.n. Lembke, 1759-1810, a daughter of 

the Rev. F. C. Lembke, minister at Nazareth. In 1783 she married 
the skillful surgeon, John Lewis, of London, and moved to Salem, 
N. C. ; after five years they returned and her husband died in 1788. 
In 1799 she was married for the second time to Adolphus Hartman. 

4. Joanna Elizabeth Schropp, unmarried, 1785-1810, born at Nazareth, 

a daughter of John Schropp, warden of the Bethlehem congregation ; 
a gifted and exemplary woman, who began to teach in the Boarding 
School when but 17 years of age and, in 1807, was appointed Dea- 
coness of the Single Sisters. 

5. Anna Catharine Boehler, m.n. Ehrenhardt, 1742-18 10, born at Ma- 

cungie (Emaus), Pa. She was the wife of William Boehler who 
died in 1806, and had a son bearing the same name. 

6. Mary Apollonia Eggert, m.n. Grosh, 1729-1810, from Schornsheim in 

the Palatinate. In 1755 she was married to Christian Eggert of 
Bethlehem who died in 1780. She left two sons. 

7. Anna Catharine Busch, m.n. Weinecke, 1779-1810, born in Bethle- 

hem, married Jacob Busch. 

8. Elizabeth Gambold, unmarried, 1747-1811, born in Bethlehem, a 

daughter of Rev. Hector Gambold. Died after a prolonged illness. 

9. Anna Nicolaus, m.n. Colver, 1748-1811, born at Dansbury, Conn., 

wife of Stephen Nicolaus who, in 1795, died at Hope, N. J. 

10. Mary Magdalene Brecht, 1742-1811, born at Heidelberg, Pa.; unmar- 
ried. She wished nothing to be said about her but that " Christ was 
her light, her guiding star." 

n. Susan Benigna Rauch, m.n. Boeckel, 1787-1810. She was born at 
Bethlehem, a daughter of Tobias Boeckel, and taught music in the 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 79 

Boarding School. In 1810 she became the wife of John Fr. Rauch, 
of Lititz. 

12. Rosina Stoll, m.n. Rohleder, 1727-1811. She was a Moravian from 

Zauchtenthal, who left her home for conscience sake, while her 
mother was thrown into prison. Her husband, John Stoll, died in 
1801 at the age of 83 (B, I, 6), and she herself attained the same age. 
Her daughter was married to Abr. Huebner. 

13. Eva Lorenz, m.n. Clauss, 1727-1811, from the Alsace. She came to 

Pennsylvania in 1751 with her mother, in order to escape compul- 
sory conversion to the Romish Church. She was married to Geo. N. 
Lorenz of Schoeneck, who bought a farm near Bethlehem. 

14. Mary Magdalene Rauschenberger, 1739-1812, born in Salisbury 

Township, this county. She remained single ; served in families. 

15. Elizabeth Popplewell, m.n. Cornwell, 1733-1812, born on Long Island, 

N. Y., daughter of William and Caritas Cornwell. In 1757 she 
married Richard Popplewell, and left two sons and one daughter. 

16. Anna Margaret Motz, 1742-1812, born at Upper Milford, this county; 

an Acolyte and since 1795 assistant superintendent of the unmarried 
women and Deaconess, in place of Anna von Marschall. 

17. Anna Joanna Hussey, 1751-1812, born at Bethlehem, remained single; 

she had a weak constitution. 

18. Gerhardine Sydrich, m.n. Petersen, 1733-1812, from Long Island, N.Y. 

In 1774 she was married to Rev. Daniel Sydrich, and served with 
him in the ministry at Hope, N. J., Philadelphia, and Graceham, 
Md. After his death she was appointed Deaconess in the " Widows' 
Choir" at Bethlehem. 

19. Maria Elizabeth Isles, 1756-1813. She was born on the island of 

Antigua, W. I., her father, Samuel Isles, being the pioneer mis- 
sionary on that island, who died there. 

20. Anna Maria Hasse, m.n. Demuth, 1746-1812, born at Fredericktown, 

Montgomery Co., Pa. She became the second wife of J. Christian 
Hasse, bookkeeper and Notary Public in Bethlehem. (B, III, 2.) 

21. Joanna Elizabeth Irmer, m.n. Stotz, 1784-1813, born at Bethlehem, 

wife of J. George Irmer. 

22. Elizabeth Segner, 1760-1813, born at Gnadenthal, near Nazareth; un- 

married; a simple hearted child of God. 

23. Elizabeth Lindemeyer, m.n. Horsfield, 1737-1814, a daughter of Tim- 

othy Horsfield born on Long Island. She was married to Rev. 
Henry Lindemeyer, with whom she served the churches at Emaus 
and York, until a nervous affection and her husband's failing eye- 
sight made it necessary for them to resign. 

24. Barbara Hoehns, 1736-1814, from Zweybriicken in the Palatinate; un- 

married. 



80 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

25. Christiana Dorothea Detmers, m.n. Morhardt, 1730-1814, from Scutt- 

gard, Wiirtemberg. Her husband, Ph. J. Detmers, warden of the 
congregation at Nazareth and Lititz, died in 1801. She attained the 
age of 84 years. 

26. Magdalene Schweisshaupt, 1761-1814, born at Hebron, near Lebanon, 

Pa. 

27. Sarah Luckenbach, m.n. Chitty, 1781-1815. She was born at Hope, 

N. C, her father being Benjamin Chitty. In 1801 she married the 
blacksmith Samuel Luckenbach (G, IV, 5), of this town, to whom 
she bore two sons, viz., William in 1803, and Chas. Augustus in 
1806. 

28. Anna Rudolphi, nee Schaaf, 1757-1815, born in Bethlehem. Her hus- 

band was John F. Rudolphi. They had no children. 

29. Sarah Heckewelder, m.n. Ohneberg, 1746-1815, from Nazareth, 

daughter of the missionary Geo. Ohneberg; brave, energetic and 
kind-hearted. In 1780 she became the wife of the noted missionary 
among the aborigines of this country, the Rev. John Heckewelder, 
the marriage ceremony being performed in the chapel of the Indian 
mission at Salem, Ohio. In 1810 they retired to Bethlehem. Of 
their three daughters, the oldest, Joanna Maria, remained single; an 
other, Anna Salome, married Joseph Rice; the third daughter, 
Susan, married Christian Luckenbach of this town. 

30. Anna Catharine Thomas, m.n. Graeff, 1746-1815, born at Lancaster, 

married Francis Thomas of Lancaster. 

31. Catharine Rubel, m.n. Holder, 1733-1815, from Maxetany Township, 

Berks Co., wife of Jacob Rubel. They lived on the farm at Naza- 
reth and Schoeneck, and in 1807 celebrated their golden wedding. 
They had no children. Her age was 82 years. 

32. Phoebe Anna Hillman, m.n. Koken, 1777-1815. She was born at 

Allentown, of Quaker parentage; in 1800 she was married to Aaron 
Hillman. Her sister, Sarah, who became Aaron Hillman's second 
wife, is buried in the Stranger's Row, No. 3. 

33. Joanna Weinecke, m.n. Liebisch, 1745-1816, born at Gnadenthal, this 

county. Her husband, C. S. Weinecke, died in 1811. 

34. Elizabeth Till, m.n. Gutjahr, 1760-1816, from Warwick (Lititz), Pa. 

In 1792 she married Joseph Till. She was survived by one 
daughter. 

35. Anna Loesch, m.n. Blum, 1732-1817, born at Providence near Phila- 

delphia, Pa. Her husband, Jacob Loesch, departed this life at 
Nazareth in 1782. 

36. Anna Benigna Krause, m.n. Partsch, 1749-1817, from Nazareth. Her 

parents were the missionaries, George and Susan Partsch. In 1781 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 81 

she married Matthew Krause of Nazareth who died there in 1808, 
leaving a son, John Samuel, born in 1782. 

37. Anna Rosina Rose, m.n. Boeckel, 1751-1817, a daughter of Frederick 

Boeckel, born at Christiansbrunn, near Nazareth. Her husband, 
Peter Rose, of Salem, N. C, was toll-keeper at the Lehigh bridge 
from 1801 to the time of his death, in 1814. 

38. Anna Dorothea Zeisberger, m.n. Klose, 1736-1818, from Herrnhut. 

She married at Herrnhut, in 1776, the Rev. David Zeisberger who at- 
tended the General Synod of the Church at Barby as delegate from 
America. On account of the war they were unable to return until 
1779. Her husband then was for 18 years pastor of the Church at 
Nazareth, and there departed this life in 1798. They had no 
children. 

39. Maria Fulton, m.n. Eschenbach, 1745-1818. She was born at Oley, 

Berks Co., Pa. She was four times married, had five children and 
died as a widow, 64 years old. 

40. Christina Piepenburg, m.n. Rubel, 1730-1818, born in a village on the 

Brandywine, this State. She was first married to Rev. J. H. Sense- 
man, and served with him among the Indians at Pachgatgoch and 
among the Negroes in Jamaica, where he died in 1772. In 1774 she 
married the missionary Adrian Piepenburg in Jamaica, who died in 
1781. She herself attained the age of 88 years. 

41. Anna Colver, m.n. Heil, 1746-1818, from Warwick (Lititz) ; she was, 

the wife of Charles Colver who had a farm near Bethlehem. 

42. Leah Clewell, m.n. Heil, 1758-1819, born at Lynn, Pa. In 1801 she 

married the widower, John Clewell. 

43. Anna Regina Ettwein, m.n. Zahm, 1756-1819, born at Warwick, 

daughter of Rev. Matthew Zahm. In 1782 she became the wife of 
Christian Ettwein, who died in 1798. 

44. Patience van Erd, m.n. Ashley, 1736-1820, born in Rochester, N. Y. 

She was married to Adam van Erd, who died in 1794. She was an 
invalid and obliged to use crutches. 

45. Sarah Ljungberg, nee Bailey, 1756-1820, born at Horton, Yorkshire, 

England. In 1791 she became the wife of the Rev. Christopher G. 
Peter, in England, who was appointed Moravian minister in New 
York city, and died in 1797. She was married a second time to John 
Ljungberg (B, VIII, 10), warden of the congregation at Nazareth, 
who departed this life in 1808. 

Row X. — Married Women. 

1. Maria Rosina Rice, m.n. Vierling, 1791-1817, a daughter of Dr. Vier- 
ling of Salem, N. C. She was educated and taught in the Bethle- 



82 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

hem Boarding School. In 1811 she became the wife of Owen Rice, 
Jr., to whom she bore three sons. Edward, the only one who 
survived, became a doctor and professor; the last born, Owen, was 
buried with his mother, having died two days after her. 

2. Anna Sophia Irmer, m.n. Bischoff, 1789-1817. She was born in Beth- 

lehem, her father being David Bischoff. She married the widower J. 
Geo. Irmer, a baker. 

3. Anna Rosina Schwihel, m.n. Partsch, 1764-1818 ; wife of John Jacob 

Schwihel, a missionary in the West Indies, who departed this life at 
Nazareth in 1806. 

4. Maria Justina Oerter, m.n. Hasse, 1772-1818. She was born in Beth- 

lehem and in 1793 married Joseph Oerter, to whom she bore three 
children, viz., John, Lydia and Lawrence. 

5. Anna Christina Freytag, m.n. Oliver, 1761-1818, from Bristol Eng- 

land; taught in the Moravian Schools at Gummersall and Fulneck. 
She came to America in 1791. In 1795 she was married to the wid- 
ower Dr. Eberhardt Freytag, and had two daughters. 

6. Elizabeth Schropp, nee Krogstrup, 1763-1819, born at Warwick, this 

State. After teaching in the Bethlehem Boarding School, she mar- 
ried, in 1803, the widower John Schropp, warden at Bethlehem, who 
died in 1805. She left one son, John. 

7. Maria Louisa Krause, John Schropp's daughter, 1790-1819. She was 

born at Bethlehem, and in 18 10 married J. Samuel Krause, who died 
in 1815. She was survived by one son, Matthew, and one daughter, 
Sophia Louisa. 

8. Magdalena {alias Beulah Brockden), a negro widow, 89 years old, 

1731-1820. In her tenth year she was brought over from Guinea, 
Africa; in 1748 she was baptized here in Bethlehem and afterwards 
married the negro Andrew {alias Ofodobendo Wooma), a native of 
Ibo, Guinea, who died in 1779 (A, I, 26). 

9. Anna Maria Kern, m.n. Stoll, 1752-1820, born in Bethlehem. Her 

husband, John Michael Kern, died at Nazareth in 1804. She left 
two sons. 

10. Elizabeth Dencke, m.n. Leinbach, 1743-1820, born at Oley, Pa. She 

was the second wife of Jeremiah Dencke, warden of the Church at 
Nazareth who died in 1795. 

11. Anna Steip, m.n. Krogstrup, 1758-1820, born in Philadelphia; wife of 

Samuel Steip. She left one daughter Anna. 

12. Elizabeth Rice, m.n. Eyerie, 1760-1820, born at Nazareth. In 1781 

she became the wife of the merchant Owen Rice, Sr., to whom she 
bore five sons, viz., Joseph, Owen, Jacob, John and William. 

13. Maria Kunkler, m.n. Colver, 1752-1821, born at Dansbury (Strouds- 

burg), Pa. Her husband, Daniel K, died in 1782. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 83 

14. Elizabeth Weaver, " consort of Matthew Weaver," 1761-1821, from 

Philadelphia. She came here on a visit, having a great desire to live 
and die in Bethlehem. 

15. Anna Joanna Paulus, nee Nicolaus, 1779-1821, born at Hope, N. J. 

She married in 1800 Christian G. Paulus and had seven daughters, 
six of whom survived her. 

16. Sarah Horsfield, m.n. Mumford, 1750-1822, from Newport, R. I. In 

1768 she there became the wife of Israel Horsfield. After his death, 
in 1801, she moved to Bethlehem. Her daughter, Elizabeth, taught 
in the Boarding School, while she herself had charge of the orphaned 
children of her son. 

17. Anna Johanna Mueller (Miller), m.n. Levering, 1759-1822. She 

was born on the island of Jamaica, W. I. In 1783 she married Rev. 
Geo. Gottfried Mueller, of Lititz, with whom she had one son, 
Benjamin. 

18. Anna Maria Heckewelder, m.n. Nitschmann, 1758-1823. She was 

born at Lititz, her father being Bishop David Nitschmann and her 
mother M. Barbara, nee Leinbach. In 1781 she married Christian 
Heckewelder, storekeeper of the "Economy" at Bethlehem and 
Hope, N. J., who departed this life in 1803. 

19. Anna Barbara Boeckel, m.n. Heckedorn, 1740-1823, born in Catores 

Township, York Co., Pa.; taught school, and married in 1770. Her 
husband, Tobias Boeckel, died in 1815. She attained to the age of 
82 years, and left six children and 20 grandchildren. 

20. Christina Elizabeth Moehring, m.n. Boeckel, 1744-1823, born at 

Heidelberg, Pa. She served as Deaconess among the Single Sisters 
at Hope, N. J., and afterwards with her husband, Frederick Moeh- 
ring, who died in 1804, in country congregations. 

21. Anna Theresia Thumhard, m.n. Schneider, 1753-1823, born at Herrn- 

hut, Saxony. She married Rev. G. Henry Thumhard, a missionary 
in the West Indies, who died at Lititz, Pa., in 1818. 

22. Anna Catharine Clewell, m.n. Roehrig, 1753-1824, from Allen 

Township, this State. With her husband, Jacob Clewell, she had 
four sons and one daughter, who in turn had 41 grandchildren. 

23. Susanna Zeisberger, m.n. Lecron, 1744-1824. She was born at Lan- 

caster, Pa., on February 17, 1744, her parents being Lutherans. In 
178 1 she married the distinguished missionary among the Indians, 
David Zeisberger, who was then 50 years of age. She faithfully 
shared his labors and tribulations in the mission for 27 years, and 
after his death, which occurred November 17, 1808, at Goshen, 
Ohio, she took up her abode in the Widows' House at Bethlehem. 
She departed this life on September 8, 1824, aged 80 years. She 
left no children. 



84 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

24. Anna Maria Weiss, m.n. Blum, 1750-1824, born at Bethlehem. In 

1780 she married John Weiss who died in 1814. They had no 
children. 

25. Mary Elizabeth Quier, m.n. Stout, 1743-1824, born at Macungie 

(Emaus) ; became the wife of George Quier and bore him five sons 
and four daughters. She lived to see sixty grandchildrn and fifty- 
three great-grandchildren. 

26. Mary Magdalene Schindler, m.n. Wetzel, 1741-1825, born at Long 

Swamp, Pa.; wife of the carpenter George Schindler, who died in 

1809. Having no children of her own, she took loving care of chil- 
dren of missionaries. 

27. Maria Magdalena Loskiel, nee Barlach, 1744-1826. She was born at 

Wollmar, Livonia, her father being the Rev. John Caspar Barlach. 
In 1771 she married the Rev. Geo. Henry Loskiel, later consecrated 
a Bishop of the Church, with whom she served faithfully and 
efficiently both in Europe and here at Bethlehem. Her husband 
departed this life in 1814. They had no children. 

28. Anna Elizabeth Coortsen, m.n. Tanneberg, 1743-1826, born at Beth- 

lehem. In 1785 she married Ellert Coortsen who died at Lititz in 

1810. She was a widow of 83 years, when she died. 

29. Elizabeth Stotz, m.n. Kaske, 1755-1826, born at Nazareth. Her hus- 

band John Stotz died in 1822. 

30. Hannah Meder, m.n. Warner, 1751-1826, from Connecticut. She was 

first married to Nils Tollofsen, warden of the Church at Nazareth 
who died in 1806, and a second time to Rev. John Meder, pastor at 
Nazareth, again becoming a widow in 1816. 

31. Agnes Cruickshank, m.n. Martin, 1749-1826. She was born on the 

island of St. Thomas, her father, Frederick Martin, being the pioneer 
missionary among the Negroes. She married James Cruickshank 
who departed this life in 1803. 

32. Rebecca Braun, m.n. Otto, 1765-1828, born at Bethlehem and wife of 

Gottlieb Braun. She left three sons and three daughters. 

33. Mary Mack, nee Grant, 1755-1828. She was born near Ballinderry, 

Ireland. Her first husband, the widower J. Haman, Moravian mis- 
sionary in Barbados, W. I., died shortly after their marriage in 1799. 
With her second husband, John Jacob Mack, she served for 9 years 
in the mission on the Island of Antigua. Her husband preceded 
her to the grave in 1815. 

34. Gertraud Moeller, m.n. Prozman, 1756-1828, born at York, Pa. In 

1784 she was married to F. L. Moeller and lived with him at Hope, 
N. J., and at Graceham, Md. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 85 

35. Rebecca Schropp, m.n. Edmonds, 1762-1828. She was born at the 

Moravian Home Mission of Sichem, New York. In 1806 she mar- 
ried the widower Christian Schropp, who died in 1826. 

36. Justina Kindig, m.n. Bader, 1768-1828, born at Gnadenthal, near 

Nazareth. In 1819 she became the second wife of Andrew Kindig. 

37. Salome Huber, m.n. Eschenbach, 1762-1829, born at Oley, Pa. She 

was the wife of George Huber. For many years she served as the 
principal female sacristan. 

38. Barbara Muenster, m.n. Gump, 1737-1829, born near Fredericktown, 

Maryland. She was first married to the widower Frederick Boeckel, 
to whom she bore one son. After his death in 1780, she was mar- 
ried a second time to the Rev. Paul Muenster, also a widower, who 
died in 1792. She attained the age of 92 years. 

39. Anna Benigna Bage, m.n. Hessler, 1749-1829, born at Bethlehem. 

With her husband, Nicolas L. Bage, she served for a number of 
years at Emaus and Hebron, Pa., in the ministry. She became a 
widow in 1789. 

40. Mary Eve Bickel, m.n. Giess, 1759-1830, from Lower Saucon, this 

county. Her husband was Henry Bickel. 

41. Probably no grave. 

42. Johanna Salome Knauss, m.n. Mueller, 1743-183 1, born near Freder- 

icktown, Md. She was married to Leonard Knauss and lived to 
see 78 descendants, of whom 44 granchildren and 27 great-grand- 
children survived her. She died at the age of 87 years. 

43. Agnes Loesch, m.n. Demuth, 1749-1832. She was born at Herrn- 

haag. In 1794 she married G. M. Loesch, missionary to Suriname, 
S. A. They had no children. In 1808 they retired from the service 
on account of impaired health. 

SECTION D. 
Row I. — Married Women. 

1. Anna Maria Thrane, m.n. Neisser, 1724-83. She was a daughter of 

Jacob and Anna Neisser, some of the first Moravian emigrants who 
founded Herrnhut. In 1744 she was married to Rev. C. T. Benzien 
and ten years later came with him to America, where her husband 
was appointed chaplain of the settlement at Gnadenthal, near Naza- 
reth. After his death she was married to Rev. Amadeus P. Thrane, 
minister at Bethlehem, who died in 1776 (A, VIII, 2). A son from 
the first marriage, C. Ludwig Benzien, entered the ministry. 

2. Dorothea Sophia Strehle, nee Niirnberger, 1723-83, born near Jena, 

Germany. She came to Pennsylvania in 1748, and the following 
year married Rudolph Strehle. She left three sons. 



86 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

3. Maria Nitschmann, m.n. Price, 1740-83. She was born in Philadel- 

phia. Her first husband, Rev. Tiersch, died two years after their 
marriage, in 1773, in North Carolina. Her second husband was Im- 
manuel Nitschmann. 

4. Mary Catharine Lange, m.n. Klingenstein, 1724-84, from Hildrig- 

hausen, Wurtemberg. She married Gottlieb Lange, and had a son 
Christian. 

5. Jane van Vleck, nee Cargill, 1723-84, born at Isle, Scotland. In 1745 

she married Henry van Vleck, then clerk in the store of Mr. Noble, 
in New York City. After Mr. Noble's death, he took charge of the 
business, and their house became a hospitable home for Moravian 
missionaries. In 1773 they moved to Bethlehem. A son Jacob and 
a daughter Mary survived, also four grandchildren from a departed 
son Abraham. 

6. Anna Maria Bernts, m.n. Bossert, 1729-97, born at Oley, Pa. She was 

twice married, first to Andrew Eschenbach, to whom she bore ten 
children, and then to John Bernts. After his death she moved to 
Bethlehem in order to live with her daughter, the wife of George 
Huber. 

7. Anna Rosina Neisser, m.n. Hauff, 1723-97, from Burkau, Upper Lu- 

satia. In 1745 she became the wife of Joseph Neisser, and they 
were in the service of John de Watteville and Count Reuss until 
1765, when they came to America and assisted in serving country 
congregations, such as Lynn and Graceham. In 1784 they retired, 
and her husband died in 1793. They had six children. 

8. Anna Magdalene Hafner, m.n. Ried, 1725-97, born at Tulpehocken, 

Pa. She was employed, with her husband, on the church farms at 
Nazareth and Christiansbrunn. 

9. Catharine Moeller, m.n. Koch, 1722-98, from Selbold, principality of 

Isenburg, Germany. She was the wife of Joseph Moeller, who died 
in 1778. 
10. Catharine Huber, m.n. Butmansky, 1703-98, born at Seidendorf, Mo- 
ravia. She was first married to Fred. Riedel, who, in 1735, with 
other Moravian colonists went to Georgia, but had already died, 
when his wife followed him the next year. She then married Peter 
Rose, another Moravian colonist, who taught school among the Creek 
Indians on the Savannah River; but he also died in 1740. Coming 
then to Bethlehem she was ordained a Deaconess by Zinzendorf, and 
was married again to J. M. Huber, with whom she assisted in the 
work of the Church at Bethlehem and Nazareth, until her husband 
was sent on an official journey to the West Indies. The ship found- 
ered and he did not return. His widow was then appointed superin- 
tendent of the widows in Bethlehem, and retained her physical and 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 87 

mental vigor until the time of her death. She was in her 95th year 
when she died. 

11. Catharine Brownfield, m.n. Kearney, 1716-98, born in New York; one 

of the first converts made by Zinzendorf on his visit to America. In 
1747 she became the wife of John Brownfield, for some time secretary 
of Gen. Oglethorpe, of Georgia, and later bookkeeper of the Beth- 
lehem Economy. Her husband died five years after their marriagge, 
while she attained the age of 82 years. 

12. Anna Catharine Mau, nee Kremper, 1725-99, from Mannheim, Ger- 

many. In her twelfth year she accompanied her parents to Georgia, 
and after her father's death she came to Bethlehem, where she 
married Samuel Mau. A daughter became the wife of David 
Bischoff. 

13. Elizabeth Reich, m.n. Bartow, 1769-99, born in Philadelphia. Her 

husband, John Chr. Reich, was clerk in the Bethlehem store. 

14. Susan Nixdorf, m.n. Korn, 1708-1800, born near Frankenstein, Silesia. 

In 1728 she married the beer brewer, J. Geo. Nixdorf, and in 1743 
she came with him to Bethlehem. Her husband departed this life in 
1785. Her age was 92 years. 

15. Catharine Oerter, 1757-1803, a daughter of Chr. Frederick Oerter of 

Bethlehem. She remained single. 

16. Anna Bender, 1736-1804, born at Warwick, near Lititz, Pa.; unmar- 

ried ; an Acolyte and assistant superintendent of the " Single Sisters." 
After her funeral, by her request and at her expense, the whole con- 
gregation partook of a love-feast. 

17. Esther Frey, 1747-1805, born at Allemaengel, Lehigh County, of Re- 

formed parents; was baptized at her request, when 8 years old, 
against her father's will. She served in the family of Rev. G. 
Neisser, in Philadelphia. 

18. Dorothea Jungman, m.n. Schmidt, 1756-1807, wife of John Jungman, 

who was appointed Steward of the Tuscarawas Reservation in Ohio. 
After their return she took care of the aged missionary J. Geo. 
Jungman, who died in his 89th year. 

19. Christina Hoff, 1747-1808, born at York, Pa.; unmarried. She served 

in families and at the Bethlehem Inn. 

20. Elizabeth Levering, 1764-1808, born on the island of Jamaica, W. I., 

the daughter of the missionary John Levering. 

21. Christina Stauffer, 1735-1808, born at Warwick, Pa. She wanted to 

have nothing recorded of her life, save that she found salvation and 
peace in Christ. 

22. Juliana Horsfield, m.n. Parsons, 1737-1809. She was born in Phila- 

delphia, of Lutheran parentage. Her father endeavored to keep his 
children away from the Church and from Christian influences, but 



88 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

did not succeed. In 1767 she became the wife of Timothy Horsfield, 
who died in 1789. She left two sons, and through her son William 
she had three grandchildren. 

23. Elizabeth Luckenbach, nee Partsch, 1745-1809, born at Nazareth. In 

1781 she married the widower John Lewis Luckenbach, who in 1795 
died at Hope, N. J. She was his fourth wife. 

24. Maria Schmidt, m.n. Baumgartner, 1748-1809, born at Donegal, Pa. 

In 1783 she married Anton Schmidt. 

25. Anna Elizabeth Van Vleck, nee Staeheli, 1764-1829, from Bern, 

Switzerland. In 1789 she became the wife of the Rev. and later 
Bishop J. Van Vleck (B, VI, 23), then Principal of the Bethlehem 
Boarding School, and a delegate to the General Synod of 1789. She 
bore him two sons, W. Henry and Charles Anton. 

26. Barbara Ricksecker, nee Hoehneisen, 1755-1830, from Dover Town- 

ship, near York, Pa. In 1779 she was married to Peter Ricksecker, 
and had five sons. 

27. Catharine Peter, m.n. Leinbach, 1755-1830. She was born at Oley, 

Pa. In 1786 she became the wife of the teacher, warden and 
organist, John Frederick Peter (B, IV, 3). 

28. Mary Jones, m.n. Cummins, 1744-1831, born at Redbay, on the coast 

of Ireland. She was the wife of David Jones, who died in 1784. 

29. Elizabeth Haus, m.n. Jones, 1806-33, bom near Bethlehem, and wife 

of George Haus. Her infant daughter was buried with her. 
" Farewell, dear husband, parents, brothers and sisters dear, 
I am not dead, but sleeping here ; 
Remember me when this you see, 
Prepare for death and follow me." 

30. Elizabeth Horsfield, nee Benezet, 1754-1836, born in Philadelphia. 

In 1783 she married Joseph Horsfield, who died in 1834. She had 
three daughters. 

" God my Redeemer lives, 
And often from the skies 
Looks down and watches all my dust, 
Till He shall bid it rise." 

31. Sarah Livingston Peters, m.n. Linn, 1795-1840, born in New York. 

She was the wife of John W. Peters, of Philadelphia. 

32. Sarah Kummer, m.n. Hinchcliffe, 1797-1842. She was born near Ful- 

neck, England, taught in the Bethlehem Boarding School and mar- 
ried the bookkeeper of the school, J. Gottlieb Kummer, afterwards 
Principal of the school at Lititz, and, from 1836, at Bethlehem. She 
had a son C. Edward K. and several daughters. 

33. Susanna David, m.n. Bartow, 1775-1843, born in Philadelphia. Her 

husband, John David, of Philadelphia, died in 1809. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 89 

34. Sarah Kummer, m.n. Miiller, 1761-1843, from Frorup, in Holstein, 

Germany. In 1794 she married George Zorn, missonary on St. Croix, 
W. I., who died in 1807. A son, Rev. Jacob Zorn, became a promi- 
nent missionary on the island of Jamaica, but died in May, 1843 
(half a year before his mother), leaving three children. The mother 
was married a second time, in 1809, to the missionary John Kummer, 
in the West Indies, who died in 1813. Returning to North America, 
she served as superintendent and Deaconess among her sex, attain- 
ing the age of 82 years. 

35. Anna Rosina Wolle, m.n. Geyer, 1761-1845, from Ottenhayn, near 

Herrnhut, Saxony. In 1783 she became the wife of Peter Wolle, 
missionary in the West Indies, and served with him on different 
islands for 29 years. Her husband died in 1813, at Nazareth. She 
had four sons and one daughter. 

36. Anna Maria Boeckel, m.n. Kindig, 1778-1846, born near Nazareth. 

She was married to George F. Boeckel, who died in 1824. 

37. Sophia Elizabeth Kitchelt, m.n. Richter, 1776-1847, from Sebniz, 

near Dresden, Saxony. She was, in 1804, called to the mission ser- 
vice on the island of St. Thomas, W. I., as the bride of S. G. 
Kitchelt, with whom she labored on the Danish islands until his 
death, in 1813. 

38. Elizabeth Schmidt, m.n. Fetter, 1768-1847, born at Lancaster. Her 

husband, Anton Schmidt, died in 1834. 

39. Eliza Montford Horsfield, 1779-1857, born at Newport, R. I. She 

was a teacher in the Bethlehem Boarding School. " She had many 
friends, but no enemies." 

40. Eliza Cist, 1794-1847. She was born in Philadelphia, one of the five 

daughters of Charles Cist; unmarried. 

41. Sarah Lange, m.n. Jesro, 1766-1848, born at Fredericktown, Md. In 

1742 she married Christian Lange, who died 1837. She became par- 
alyzed and perfectly helpless. 

Row II. — Mostly Unmarried Women. 

1. Mary Catharine Biez, 1727-92, born at Skippach, Montgomery Co., 

Pa. Converted under the preaching of Rev. L. Schnell. 

2. Anna Maria Klotz, 1739-93, from Tulpehocken, Berks Co., Pa. She 

served in families and Moravian schools. 

3. Anna Maria Stauber, 1763-93, a daughter of Paul Christian Stauber 

of Lititz. Her parents moved to " Wachovia," in North Carolina. 

4. Mary Catharine Quier, 1762-93, born near Schoeneck, Pa. 

5. Esther Weiss, 1758-94, from Philadelphia; came here in 1790, an in- 

valid. 



90 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

6. Anna Dorothea von Marschall, 1754-95, daughter of Baron Fred- 

erick von Marschall, who died at Salem, N. C, in 1802. She was 
born in London, and came to Bethlehem in 1779, as Warden (Super- 
intendent) of the unmarried women. 

7. Christina Stehly, 1754-95, from Switzerland. She requested that no 

record of her life be written. 

8. Margaret Barbara Seidner, 1714-96, born at Griinwerth, near Werth- 

heim, Baden, Germany; came to Bethlehem in 1752, with Anna Joh. 
Seidel, and was employed on the farm. 

9. Anna Merz, 1724-97, from Dailfingen, Wurtemberg. Came to Beth- 

lehem in 1751, from Philadelphia, and served in families. 

10. Rachel Edmonds, 1744-97, horn at Simsbury, Conn.; moved with her 

parents to Oblong, N. Y., where she was greatly blessed through the 
preaching of the Brn. Rogers and Powell. 

11. Maria Barbara Horn, 1729-97, born at Werthheim, Baden; joined the 

Moravian Church in 1749 at Herrnhaag, and was " called " to 
America in 1763, finding employment as cook in the Sisters' House. 

12. Anna Maria Levering, 1752-97, born at Nazareth; she attended the 

Boarding School and taught school. 

13. Anna Maria Groen, 1774-99, born at Bethlehem; died of consumption. 

14. Anna Elizabeth Steiner, 1735-1800, from Warwick, Pa., of Mennon- 

ite parentage. She was baptized by Bishop Spangenberg, and served 
as an Acolyte (assistant superintendent) among the girls. 

15. Mary Magdalene Oesterlein, 1762-1802, born at Nazareth; though 

in feeble health herself, she faithfully nursed her mother, who was 
rendered helpless by a paralytic stroke. 

16. Johanna Rebecca Sperbach, 1716-1803, born at Bischofswerda, 

Saxony. She joined the Church at Herrnhut; served as a Deaconess 
at Herrnhaag and in England, and, in 1752, was called to America 
to have spiritual charge of Single Sisters living out of town. Her 
visiting was done mostly on foot. From 1761-70 she was Deaconess 
at Lititz and New York. 

17. Anna Maria Beyer, 1723-1804, born at Bayreuth, in Bavaria. 

18. Salome Hoepfner, 1753-1805, born at Nazareth; in indigent circum- 

stances, but kindly assisted by the inmates of the Sisters' House. 

19. Rosina Pietsch, m.n. Schenk, 1781-1807. She was born at Hope, N. J., 

and was married to John Gottfried Pietsch. 

20. Anna Louisa Kummer, 1787-1808, born at Niesky on the island of St. 

Thomas, W. I., where her parents served as missionaries. 

21. Anna Catharine Borhek, m.n. Kindig, 1780-1808, a daughter of 

Andrew Kindig of Nazareth Township. She was the first wife of 
the hatter Chr. Fr. Borhek, and left a son, James Theodore. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 91 

22. Anna Sulamith Nyberg, 1748-1808, a daughter of Rev. Lorenz T. 

Nyberg of Bethlehem. When she was nine years old her parents 
went to England, leaving her in the care of the Church. She spent 
a happy and blessed childhood in the schools and later served 
among children as an Acolyte. 

23. Anna Boehler, m.n. Rose, 1740-1809, daughter of Peter Rose of Ger- 

mantown. She was first married to Rev. Fred. Unger, who died at 
Heidelberg, Pa., and the second time to Rev. Francis Boehler, who 
died, in 1806, at Lititz. 

24. Mary Elizabeth Reitzenbach, m.n. Spohn, 1738-1809, born at Lauffen, 

Wurtemberg. Her husband, Phil. Jac. Reitzenbach, died in 1802, at 
Nazareth. 

25. Maria Clauss, 1755-1827, born at Schoeneck, this county. 

26. Mary Cist, 1788-1829, born in Philadelphia, a daughter of Chas. Cist 

and his wife Mary, m.n. Weiss. In 1823 the mother with five 
daughters left Philadelphia and moved to Bethlehem. 

27. Maria Verona Schneider, 1746-1829, born at Donegal, Pa. In 1779 

she was received as an Acolyte; in 1788 she became the assistant of 
Anna von Marschall, the Warden (superintendent) of the Sisters' 
House, and later her successor. In 1798 she was appointed Dea- 
coness of unmarried women at Lititz. She attained an age of 83 
years. 

28. Maria Catherine Clewell, 1784-1831, from Schoeneck; sick-nurse in 

the Boarding School. 

29. Mary Gill, 1750-1831, born at Oldman's Creek, N. J. Came here in 

1788. Her special duty was to wait on visitors to Bethlehem. 

30. Catharine Christ, 1757-1831, from Allemaengel. She served at the 

Bethlehem Inn and as cook in the Sisters' House. In 1798 she ac- 
companied the familyof H. C. von Schweinitz to Herrnhut, return- 
ing in 1802. 

31. Charlotte Sabina Schropp, 1787-1833, born at Nazareth, a daughter 

of John Schropp. She taught in the Boarding School. After her 
father's death she was adopted by Bishop Loskiel and wife, and 
showed them the loving attention of a daughter. 

32. Verona Miller, 1758-1834, from Nazareth. Though often sick, she 

attained the age of 76 years. 

33. Maria Elizabeth Kunz, 1769-1836, born at Gnadenthal, near Naza- 

reth. After teaching in the Bethlehem Boarding School, she served 
from 1804-17 as Warden of the Sisters' House at Bethlehem and 
Nazareth, and later as Deaconess at Lititz. 

34. Catharine Anna Fetter, m.n. Sanders, 1817-38, born at German- 

town, Pa. She married Herman M. Fetter, and removed to Heller- 
town ; died of consumption. 



92 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

35. Susanna Schulz, m.n. Jungman, 1764-1839. Her parents, J. Geo. 

Jungman and wife, were noted missionaries among the Indians. In 
1801 she married John Henry Schulz, who died in 1829. 

36. Margaret Kunkler, m.n. Young, 1794-1842, from Hope, N. J. She 

married twice ; her first husband was Lewis Pyrlaeus, of Easton, and 
the second David Kunkler, who died in 1839. She was the mother 
of Mrs. H. B. Luckenbach. 

37. Louisa Augusta Sigley, 1842-45, infant daughter of John Sigley. 

38. Ellen Cist, 1797-1874, born in Philadelphia; unmarried; she lived in 

the Widows' House. 

39. Mary L. Grosh, 1845-46, Abraham Grosh's daughter. 

40. Emma A. Long, 1846, daughter of Charles Long. 

41. Maria Cecilia Tombler, 1746-47, daughter of Oliver Tombler. 

" Sleep, dearest child, altho' 'tis hard, 
To see thee thus so soon depart; 
With bleeding hearts thy parents say 
'Tis God's own deed, in God's own way." 

Row III. — Children and Adults. 

1. Elizabeth Boening (Beuning), 1776-85, from Upper Saucon; died of 

scarlet fever. 

2. Joanna E. Unger, 1779-85, a daughter of Rev. Fr. Unger, born at 

Bethlehem after her father's death. 

3. Juliana Fischer, 1791-1800, daughter of the missionary J. G. Fischer; 

born at Hope on the Corentyn, Surinam. 

4. Frederica Braun, 1800-01, daughter of Gottlieb Braun. 

5. Susanna C. Eggert, 1806, daughter of Christian Eggert. 

6. Probably no grave. 

7. Mary Lathrop, 1795-1809, from Norwich, Conn.; a girl attending the 

Boarding School. 

8. Anna Margaret Kornmann, m.n. Bichler, 1743-1809, born at War- 

wick, Pa. She was married to William Angel, who died in 1769, 
and the second time to Th. Kornmann, who died in 1805. 
, 9. Barbara Baumgaertner, m.n. Gepfert, 1724-1810, born at Meres- 
hausen, Switzerland. She married Matthew Baumgartner, who 
died, in 1775, at Lititz; spent the years of her widowhood with her 
daughter, the wife of Anton Schmidt. 

10. Sophia Magdalene Rudolphi, m.n. Otto, 1769-1810, daughter of Dr. 

Matthew Otto, of Bethlehem ; married to Dr. J. F. Rudolphi. 

11. Anna Maria Hornig, m.n. Spohn, 1743-1810, born at Lauffen, Wiirtem- 

berg, wife of Christian Hornig. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 93 

12. Joanna Maria Benade, m.n. Christ, 1778-1811, born at Nazareth. In 

1799 she became the wife of Rev. (later Bishop) Andrew Benade, 
who was appointed Principal of the Young Ladies' Seminary. To- 
gether they labored with signal success for the prosperity of this 
institution, until she was called home. She left two daughters. 

13. Charlotte Emilie Cunow, 1797-1811, a young girl, daughter of the 

Rev. J. Gebhard Cunow, born at Bethlehem. 

14. Maria Werner, 1748-1812, and Anna Werner, 1748-1822, twins born 

October 30, 1748, at Nazareth. 

15. Maria Joanna Loesch, m.n. Beroth, 1732-1814, born at Oppa in the 

Palatinate, descended from Huguenots. Her first husband, Martin 
Hirt, died at Nazareth in 1768; her second, the miller Herman 
Loesch, at Bethlehem, in 1791. 

16. Christina Sophia Giese, m.n. Clauss, 1724-1814, from Volzburg, near 

Zweibriicken, Germany; she married Christian Giese. 

17. Elizabeth Hauser, m.n. Meyer, 1741-1814, born at Germantown, Pa., 

wife of Daniel Hauser. 

18. Beata Schmidt, m.n. Ysselstein, 1737-1814, born at Claverack, N. Y. 

Her husband, Anton Schmidt, of Bethlehem, died in 1793. 

19. Anna Senseman, m.n. Brucker, 1747-1815, born in Bethlehem. In 

1780 she married the missionary Gottlob Senseman, of Lititz, Zeis- 
berger's faithful companion in successful work and severe trials, in 
the Indian Mission service. He was specially noted for his energy 
and eloquence. Her husband departed this life at Fairfield, Canada, 
in 1800. Their son, Christian David, born during the Indian War at 
Schoenbrunn, Ohio, settled at Nazareth. 

20. Christiana Louisa Stotz, 1788-1815, born at Bethlehem; unmarried. 

21. Joanna Everitt, 1761-1815, from Lynn Township, Lehigh Co. 

22. Christina Segner, m.n. Frey, 1727-1816, born in Frederick Township, 

Montgomery Co., Pa. She came to Bethlehem in 1747, was baptized 
and the following year married John Henry Segner, with whom she 
served three years in the Mission on St. Thomas, W. I., and after- 
wards at Gnadenthal. At the latter place her husband died in 1763. 

23. Barbara Jag, m.n. Holder, 1747-1816, born in Lynn Township. She 

married John Jag, who died at Nazareth in 181 1. 

24. Elizabeth Ricksecker, m.n. Kunkler, 1790-1817, born at Emaus, Pa. 

In 1810 she married John Ricksecker. Her children were Moses, 
Israel and Benjamin. 

25. Mary Magdalene Wolle, m.n. Luch, 1797-1817, a daughter of Jacob 

Luch, born at Christiansbrunn. In 1816 she was married to Christian 
Jacob Wolle, landlord at Bethlehem, and had a daughter, Louisa 
Arabella. 



94 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

26. Rebecca Cist, 1787-1825, daughter of Charles Cist, of Philadelphia; 

came here in 1823, with her mother and sisters and taught in the 
Young Ladies' Seminary. 

27. Johanna Neisser, 1752-1825, born at Lancaster, a daughter of the Rev. 

George Neisser, who, in 1784, died in Philadelphia (A, III, 18). She 
tenderly nursed her invalid mother, but was herself afflicted with 
partial deafness. 

28. Anna Rosina Beyer, 1756-1826, from Nazareth. She taught in the Pa- 

rochial Schools at Lititz and Nazareth. 

29. Elizabeth Staut, 1780-1826, a daughter of John Staut of Williams 

Township. 

30. Anna Catharine Kremser, 1761-1828, born at Nazareth; of delicate 

constitution. 

31. Elizabeth Lewis, 1743-1831, born in London; well educated. In 1761 

she went to Fulneck, and later to Herrnhut, where she learned Ger- 
man. In 1771 she was appointed Deaconess of the unmarried 
" Sisters " at Dublin, Ireland, and after serving in the same office at 
Fulneck she was, in 1783, called to America to succeed Charlotte de 
Gersdorf as Deaconess of the Single Sisters of Bethlehem. She at- 
tained the age of 89 years. 

32. Martha Eliza Duncan, 1817-32, a pupil of the Boarding School, 15 

years old. She was a daughter of General William Duncan of Phil- 
adelphia. 

"This flower was plucked before it was noon, 
But if for heaven, 'twas not too soon." 

33. Maria Eggert, 1768-1832, born at Bethlehem. Her father died when 

she was only 14 years old. 

34. Anna Joanna Edmonds, 1750-1833, born at Simsbury, Conn. Several 

of her sisters had preceded her in coming to Bethlehem. She served 
as sick-nurse and among children. 

35. Mary Ann Horsfield, 1800-36, daughter of William and Rebecca 

Horsfield, of Bethlehem. 

36. Louisa Matilda Paulus, 1815-38, born at Bethlehem; a milliner and 

teacher in Plainfield Township, this county. 

37. Laetita Boyd, m.n. Horsfield, 1798-1840, daughter of William Hors- 

field; married Copeland Boyd, of Montgomery Co., who, in 1838, 
established a paper mill at Bethlehem. 

38. Anna Maria Anstedt, 1799-1844. 

39. Mary Cornelia Goepp, 1842-45, infant daughter of Rev. Philip H. 

Goepp. 

40. Mary Constance Lehman, 1842-45, daughter of Ernest Lehman. 

41. Louisa S. Rice, 1845, daughter of William Rice. 

42. Oestreicher, still-born, 1845. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 95 

Row IV. — Children and Unmarried Women. 

i. Henrietta Levering, 1797-98, daughter of the storekeeper, Abraham 
Levering. 

2. Cornelia M. Huebner, 1800, daughter of Abraham Huebner. 

3. Antoinette E. Huebner, 1801, daughter of Abraham Huebner. 

4. Lisetta Levering, 1797-1803, born at Bethlehem, daughter of Abraham 

Levering. 

5. Maria E. Rudolphi, 1805, daughter of Frederick Rudolphi. 

6. Lydia C. Huebner, 1808, daughter of the potter, Abraham Huebner. 

7. Eleanor F. Leibert, 1810-11, daughter of the tanner, Joseph Leibert 

and his wife Rebecca, m.n. Nitschmann. 

8. Rosina C. Ziegler, 1789-1815, born at Emaus, Pa. 

9. Mary Christiana Beaumont, 1778-1816, born on the island of St. 

Croix, W. I. Was sent here to attend the Boarding School, and 
afterwards taught music in that institution; of a very amiable 
disposition. 

10. Barbara Schneider, 1742-1817, from Donegal, Lancaster Co., Pa. 

Lame from her second year; she lived with her sister, Elizabeth 
Weiss. - 

11. Maria Rosina Schulz, 1750-1817, born in Bethlehem; a teacher. 

12. Maria Catharine Gerhardt, 1730-1818, from Wingsbach, Wetteravia, 

Germany; unmarried. Was for 30 years stewardess (Chordienerin) 
in the Sisters' House; aged 87 years. 

13. Susanna Fischer, 1748-1818, born at Nazareth; of a retiring disposi- 

tion and suffering with rheumatism. 

14. Maria Christ, 1738-1818, born at Lauffen, Wurtemberg. Came to 

America with her parents in 1750. From 1763-69 she held the posi- 
tion of Assistant Superintendent in the Sisters' House at Lititz. 

15. Anna Abigail Green, 1752-1819, from New Jersey; educated in the 

Boarding School. 

16. Anna Maria Ziegler, 1800-18 19, born at Emaus, Pa. 

17. Anna Maria Kremser, 1748-1819, born at Fredericktown, Md. Was 

brought to the Bethlehem School at the age of four years, and always 
remained in Bethlehem. 

18. Eliza Nugent, 1804-20, pupil of Boarding School, from Philadelphia. 

19. Maria Fritsch, 1751-1820, born at Gnadenthal, near Nazareth. 

20. Gertraud Schneider, 1755-1820, from Nazareth. She first lived on a 

farm near Bethlehem, and later in the small building by the side of 
the Sisters' House; was somewhat weak-minded. One night her 
clothing caught fire, and she died from the effect of the burns 
received. 

21. Anna Bauer, 1782-1821, born at Emaus, Pa. Served in families, and 

after her mother's death took care of her father. 



96 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

22. Mary Pyrlaeus, 1746-1821, born in Bethlehem; aged 75 years. Her 

parents were missionaries and were called to England when she was 
but six years old. She was educated in the Boarding School and 
taught there from 1767-79, and again from 1807, in all 20 years. 

23. Louisa Salome Moeller, 1791-1822, from Hope, N. J.; superintended 

the older girls. 

24. Anna Bischoff, 1745-1823, born at Bethlehem. Her parents were in 

the service of the Church in North Carolina. She herself was fore- 
woman of the weaving establishment in the Sisters' House. 

25. Elizabeth Adams, 1753-1824, born at Warwick, near Lititz, Pa. She 

served in families and on the farm. 

26. Maria Elizabeth Beroth, 1742-1825, born at York, Pa.; kind and 

motherly in her ways ; served more than 50 years among the children 
in the Nursery and the Boarding School; aged 83 years. 

27. Benigna Froehlich, 1748-1825, born at Bethlehem, daughter of the 

baker and missionary, Christian Froehlich. In 1794 she was ap- 
pointed Deaconess at Hope N. J., and served in that capacity for 
eight years; aged 77 years. 

28. Anna Maria Prozman, 1747-1825, born near Herrnhaag, Wetteravia; 

aged 77 years. 

29. Sarah V. D. Oppie, 1811-28, a pupil of the Bethlehem Boarding School, 

born at Princeton, N. J. She was an orphan. 

" The Spirit dwells beyond the skies, 
The mortal part shall glorious rise." 

30. Catharine McAllister, 1760-1828, born at Antrim, Ireland; unmar- 

ried. She joined the Church at Gracehill, Ireland, and followed her 
brother to America. 

31. Hannah A. Schneller, 1826-32, the six year old daughter of Charles 

Schneller, born in Hanover Township. 

32. Matilda M. Schneller, 1825-32, Charles Schneller's daughter. 

33. Mary E. Andress, 1830-32, daughter of Abraham Andress. 

34. Amanda Cinderella Snyder, 1828-32, George Snyder's daughter. 

" This lovely bud so young and fair," etc. 

35. Mary A. Witmeyer, 1828-32, daughter of George Witmeyer. 

36. Iduna Concordia Grunewald, 1833, daughter of the artist Gustav 

Grunewald. 

37. Regina L. Mezger, 1832-34, daughter of Frederick Mezger. 

38. Ellen R. Carrick, 1832-35. 

" Farewell, thou dost wander beyond my sight ; 
No love than ours was fonder, my heart's delight; 
But we shall meet above to part no more, 
Where blooms my angel love on that blest shore." 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 97 

39. Clewell's still-born, 1836. 

40. Elizabeth Wollever, 1836-37, daughter of the day laborer James 

Wol lever. 

41. Antoinetta L. Osborne, 1837-38, daughter of Henry Palmer Osborne, 

of Easton. 

42. Louisa P. Schneller, 1838, George C. Schneller's daughter. 

Row V. — Little Girls. 

1. Maria Ising, 1794-95, daughter of George Ising. 

2. Charlotte P. Cunow, 1796, John Gebhard Cunow's daughter, born at 

Niesky, Germany. 

3. Ernestine T. Cunow, 1799, seventh daughter of John Gebhard Cunow. 

4. Lisetta Schnall, 1798-1802, daughter of the missionary John Schnall, 

stationed at Fairfield, Canada. She was born at Gnadenthal and 
was left in charge of Bethlehem friends. 

5. Beata Schropp, 1803, daughter of the Church Warden, John Schropp. 

6. Beata Schulz, 1805, John Henry Schulz's child. 

7. Clementine S. Borhek, 1806, Chr. Frederick Borhek's child. 

8. Henrietta Paulus, 1806, daughter of Chr. Gottlob Paulus. 

9. Caroline Henkel, 1809-1816, a pupil of the Boarding School; born on 

the island of St. Croix, W. I. 
10. Louisa A. Wolle, 1817, daughter of Chr. Jacob Wolle. 
n. Rachel Hillman, 1809-17, born in Bethlehem. 

12. Beata Rauch, 1818. 

13. Mary A. Hauer, 1816-18, Joshua Hauer's child. 

14. Olivia C. Eggert, 1820, daughter of Benjamin Eggert. 

15. Mary Elizabeth Ross, 1806-22, a pupil of the Boarding School; born 

in Georgia; came to Bethlehem in 1820. 

16. Emma M. Kunkler, 1823, born in Bethlehem. 

17. Mary A. Hauer, 1822-24, daughter of Joshua Hauer. 

18. Henrietta S. Seidel, 1810-24, born at Nazareth, daughter of the Rev. 

Charles F. Seidel. 

19. Margaret Henderson, 1812-24, a pupil of the Boarding School, from 

New York. 

20. Probably no grave. 

21. Sarah J. Oerter, 1825, daughter of John Oerter. 

22. Beata Rauch, 1825. 

23. Catharine Gold, 1825-26, Philip's child. 

24. Harriet A. Youngman, 1826-27, daughter of Christian Youngman. 

25. Sarah A. Fuehrer, 1825-28, Joseph's daughter. 

26. Jeannette Taylor, 1819-28, a pupil of the Boarding School, from New 

York ; born at Liverpool, England ; 9 years old. 



98 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

" Happy the children who are gone 
To worship at the Saviour's throne." 

27. Josephine W. Luckenbach, 1821-28, daughter of Christian Luckenbach. 

28. Beata Weinland, 1828, John Samuel's child. 

29. Martha C. Warner, 1828-29, daughter of John Warner. 

30. Benigna Caritas (Charity) Pyrlaeus, 1750-1829, born at Bethlehem, 

aged 78 years. When she was but one year old, her parents were 
called to serve in the ministry in England. She grew up in the Mo- 
ravian School and afterwards taught for thirty years in the Bethle- 
hem Boarding School. 

31. Emma M. Rice, 1830, daughter of William Rice. 

32. J. Luckenbach's still-born, 1830. 

33. Margaret R. Lachenour, 1830-31, daughter of Daniel L. 

34. Anna R. Bealer (Boehler), 1830-31, Philip's daughter. 

35. Eugenia M. Leibert, 1830-31, daughter of James Leibert. 

36. Zoller's still-born, 183 1. 

37. Ida A. Woehler, 1828-32, daughter of Henry Woehler. 

38. Henrietta E. Held, 1832. 

39. Cornelia Wolle, 1829-32, daughter of John Frederick and Sabina 

Wolle. 

40. Sittebach, still-born, 1833. 

41. Sarah E. Luckenbach, 1835, George L.'s daughter. 

42. Haas, still-born, 1835. 

43. Emma L. Boehler, 1835-36, daughter of the carpenter Philip B. 

44. Amelia A. Bigler, 1835-36, born at Gracehill, Antigua; daughter of 

the missionary (later Bishop), David Bigler. 

45. Angelina Hauck, 1837, daughter of Nicholas Hauck of Bethlehem. 

46. Sarah A. Luckenbach, 1828-38, daughter of William Luckenbach, 

died of dropsy. 

" Happy the children who are gone 
To Jesus Christ in peace, 
Who stand around His glorious throne 
Clad in His righteousness." 

47. Goundie, 1838, infant daughter of Henry Goundie. 

Row VI. — Women and Children. 
1. Maria Wilhelmina Werwing, m.n. Von Raschau, 1721-95, daughter 
of the Baron Christian von Raschau, born at Durlach in Baden. 
In 1743 she became the wife of Rev. Peter Werwing, minister at 
Gnadenfrei, who died in 1755. She then served as Deaconess among 
the widows in Germany and from 1763 in this country, first at 
Nazareth and since 1768, when the Widows' House was built, at 
Bethlehem. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 99 

2. Susanna Louisa Partsch, m.n. Eller, 1722-95, born at Buedingen, in 

Wetteravia, Germany. She came to this country in 1743 with her 
husband, Geo. Partsch, and worked first at Nazareth, and in 1755 at 
Gnadenhuetten on the Mahony (Weissport), for the support of the 
Indian Mission. At the massacre of the Missionaries she escaped 
by jumping from a window and hiding herself in a hollow tree. 
In 1761 she and her husband for a short time became missionaries 
in St. Thomas, W. I. Her husband died in 1765. She left three 
daughters. 

3. Catharine Freytag, m.n. Jacobsen, 1767-95, born on Staten Island. 

In 1790 she married Dr. Eberhard Freytag, to whom she bore a son, 
Christian Daniel. 

4. Barbara Giesy, m.n. Reisle, 1722-95, from Lichschall, Switzerland. 

She came here with her husband, Jacob Giesy, living at Saucon, 
until after her husband's death in 1785. Her husband belonged to 
the so-called Separatists. 

5. Catharine Huebner, m.n. Baumgaertner, 1741-96, from Lebanon, Pa. 

In 1779 she married the widower John Lewis Huebner and had one 
son, Anton. 

6. Maria Salome Beutel, nee Fetter, 1753-96, born at Lancaster. She 

kept house for Rev. H. C. A. de Schweinitz, while he was a widower, 
and in 1781 she became the wife of Christian F. Beutel and mother 
of seven children. They had charge of the Bethlehem farm. 

7. Eva Maria Ising, m.n. Luckenbach, 1765-96, from Upper Saucon. 

She was baptized in her 15th year by John Frederick Reichel. Her 
husband was George Ising, who assisted C. F. Beutel on the farm. 

8. Joanna Sophia Gambold, m.n. Schlegel, 1761-98, born at York, Pa. 

In 1786 she married the widower Joseph Gambold and moved to 
Hope, N. J., where for two and one half years they had charge of the 
Inn of the congregation and later engaged in farming. 

9. Regina Fischer, m.n. Bar, 1759-99, from Konigsberg, Prussia. With 

her husband, J. G. Fischer, she served in the Moravian Mission in 
Surinam, especially at the Indian Mission of Hope. In 1798 they 
retired to Bethlehem. 

10. Christine Clewell, nee Weinland, 1757-1800, daughter of the warden 
at Gnadenthal, near Nazareth. With her husband, John Clewell, she 
lived near Bethlehem, becoming the mother of four sons and three 
daughters. 

n. Anna Catharine Verdriess, nee Bender, 1722-1801, born at Heilbronn, 
Wiirtemberg. She became the wife of the miller Hartman Verdriess, 
to whom she bore seven children. In 1766 they removed to Grace- 
ham, Md. After her husband's death, in 1774, she sold the farm 
there and returned to Bethlehem. 



ioo The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

12. Eleonora Jones, nee Godfrey 1712-1802, born at Derby, Chester Co., 

Pa. She moved with her husband, John Jones, into the neighbor- 
hood of Bethlehem and herself joined the church, but not her family. 
She left three sons and one daughter. 

13. Anna Maria Knauss, m.n. Wuensch, 1774-1803, born at Emaus. She 

lived on a farm near Bethlehem. 

14. Anna Rosina Miksch, 1749-1803, born at Bethlehem. In 1780 she re- 

moved, with other sisters, to Nazareth, but returned in 1802 to live 
with her sister, Mrs. Warner. 

15. Susan Elizabeth Kaske, m.n. Funk, 1 721-1804, born at Germantown, 

Pa. She married George Kaske, who died 1795 at Nazareth. They 
had six children. 

16. Barbara Wiesinger, m.n. Knecht, 1735-1804, from the Palatinate. She 

accompanied her uncle to St. Kitts, W. I., where she married her 
second husband, Brown, an Englishman. They came to this coun- 
try. Her husband died at Hebron and she entered the Widows' 
House. In 1772 she married her third husband, Abraham Wiesin- 
ger, who died in 1790. After residing for ten years with a married 
daughter at Hope, she returned to the Widows' House. 

17. Anna Margaret Rauschenberger, nee Swalbe, 1753-1805, born at 

Goshehoppen, Pa. She was thrice married; first to Peter Mueller 
who died in the Revolutionary War, next to Martin Schenk who died 
in 1797 at Nazareth, and lastly to George Rauschenberger. 

18. Anna Catharine Ziegler, m.n. Koch, 1732-1805, born at Selbold, 

County of Isenburg, Germany. She came here with her widowed 
mother and married J. Fred. Ziegler. They moved to Nazareth 
where she became a widow in 1786. 

19. Barbara Rauschenberger, 1743-1806, daughter of J. Fred. Rauschen- 

berger, from near Emaus. 

20. Maria Margaret Auerbach, m.n. Zerb, 1729-1807, from Tulpehocken, 

Pa. Thrice married. Her first husband was the missionary Samuel 
Isles, who died in Antigua, W. I., in 1765. In 1767 she married 
Paul Schneider who died the same year. In 1769 she married J. Chr. 
Auerbach who died in 1792. 

21. Maria Salome Heil, 1756-1808, born at Allemaengel, Pa.; unmarried. 

Having come to Bethlehem in 1783, she worked twelve years on the 
congregation farm and thirteen years in the kitchen of the Widows' 
House. 

22. Maria Rosina Moeller, m.n. Dietrich, 1722-1808, from Torpisch (Dor- 

pitz?) in Silesia. She united with the Church in Herrnhut, was 
married to John Henry Moeller, and came to America with the 
" second Sea Congregation." Her husband was miller at Henry 
Antes' mill which was rented for the Moravian School in Frederick 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 101 

township. Afterwards he became steward of the girls' school at 
Bethlehem, and died in 1760. 

23. Maria Apollonia Weber, m.n. Bechtel, 1733-1808, born at German- 

town. Her husband, Andreas Weber, who for twenty-two years was 
steward in the Boarding School died in 1784. They had one son. 

24. No grave. 

25. Maria Poppelwell (Popplewell), 1768-1829, born at Bethlehem. She 

lost her parents early, was in straitened circumstances and much 
troubled with rheumatism. 

26. Rebecca, 1809-30, colored woman, daughter of William and Christina. 

"Jesus saith: He that believeth in me shall be saved." 

27. Elizabeth Oesterlein, m.n. Dehuff, 1772-1831, born at Lancaster, Pa., 

wife of John D. Oesterlein. She left two daughters. 

28. Julianna Pierce, 1753-1831, from New York; was in her eighth year 

sent to the Bethlehem School and attained the age of 77 years. 

29. Sophia Christiana Kitschell, 1805-33, born on St. John, West Indies. 

30. Probably no grave. 

31. Anna Christina Menier, 1746-1833, born at Heidelberg, Germany, 

aged 87 years; worked many years on the farm and in the wash- 
house. 

32. Benigna Ettwein, 1749-1834, born at Herrnhaag, Germany, a daugh- 

ter of Bishop John Ettwein ; came to America with her parents and 
after her father's death, in 1802, made her home in the Sisters' 
House; aged 85 years. 

33. Olivia Ella Bush (Ruderer), 1819-37, an adopted child, born in the 

state of New York. 

34. Maria Magdalene Meurer, 1747-1838, born at Bethlehem; daughter 

of the Rev. Philip Meurer. Both her parents, who had served in the 
ministry in country congregations, died when the daughter was but 
a child. She was delicate, and was obliged to support herself by 
sewing; very fond of music. She attained the age of 91 years. 

35. Frances Maria Stanton, 1826-39, a pupil of the Boarding School, 

from Catskill, N. Y. ; died of consumption. 

36. L. C. Zoller, infant daughter of Francis Zoller; 1839. 

37. Elizabeth Chamberlain, daughter of William Ch., 1840. 

38. Catharine Everly, 1824-40, a pupil of the Boarding School, from Nor- 

ristown, Pa. Entered the Seminary in 1836. 

39. Isabel F. C. Schroeder, 1829-40, born at Easton. 

40. Ellen E. Goepp, 1836-40, daughter of Rev. Philip H. Goepp. 

41. Cornelia E. Kremser, 1840, daughter of Charles Kremser. 



102 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Row VII. — Women and Children. 

i. Sarah Staples, unmarried, born in Old England, age not definitely 
known, but probably over 80 years, died in 1790. 

2. Mary Elizabeth Loesch, 1767-91, daughter of the miller H. Loesch, 

born at Friedensthal. 

3. Elizabeth Theophila Nyberg, 1747-91, born at Lancaster; daughter 

of the Rev. Lorenz T. Nyberg, minister at Lancaster, Pa. Her 
parents were called to England and in 1775 went to Sweden. 

4. Anna Rosina Roemelt, 1753-91, born at Bethlehem; became dropsical 

and was for ten years an inmate of the sick-room in the Sisters' 
House. 

5. Christina Louisa Bader, 1761-92, from Lancaster, Pa.; superintended 

the choir of the older girls. 

6. Anna Allen, 1780-95, a pupil of the Bethlehem Seminary, from St. 

Johns, Canada. 

7. Maria Agnes Meyer, 1714-95, born at Oberfettingen, Wurtemberg. 

She came to Bethlehem in 1752; worked on the farm and in the 
" Nursery " and for 14 years in the family of T. Horsfield. 

8. Juliana Esther Wapler, 1723-96, born at Birnbaum, near Bayreuth, 

Germany; taught in the Moravian Schools at Herrnhaag and Hen- 
nersdorf ; was in 1756 ordained a Deaconess and came here in 1761, 
to serve as assistant principal of the Boarding School. She con- 
tinued to teach until 1785, when she retired. 

9. Maria Fenner, 1778-99, born at Lower Saucon, near Bethlehem; 

daughter of Felix Fenner. 

10. Sarah Mumford, 1757-1800, from New London, Conn.; came to Beth- 

lehem in 1788. She was for ten years afflicted with dropsy. 

11. Eva Lanius, 1734-1801, born at York, Pa., a daughter of Jacob Lanius. 

She was for many years a faithful sick-nurse in the Sisters' House. 

12. Margaret Elizabeth Fuehrer, m.n. Loesch, 1736-1802, a daughter of 

George Loesch, born at Tulpehocken. In 1755 she married the 
widower Valentine Fuehrer and had five sons. 

13. Anna Rosina Ebert, m.n. Jungman, 1751-1803, born in Bethlehem. 

She married Christian Ebert who died in 1799. 

14. Mercy Salmons, m.n. Holy, 1731-1803, born at Stratford, Conn. Her 

husband deserted her and her two children and went to South Car- 
olina, where he died. She united with the Moravian Church at 
Sichem, N. Y. 

15. Benigna Zahm, 1748-1804, born at Bethlehem; for 13 years teacher in 

the Boarding School and assistant of Esther Wapler on whom she 
also waited after her retirement. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 103 

16. Marianne Roesler, nee Kresser, 1719-1804, from Zuswingen, near 

Noerdlingen, Bavaria. Her first husband, J. Bernard Mueller, died 
in 1757; the second, Gottfried Roesler, in 1776. 

17. Sarah Pyrlaeus, m.n. Thorp, 1763-1806, born at Sichem, Conn. In 

1788 she became the wife of John Chr. Pyrlaeus, and had a son, 
John Lewis, born 1789. 

18. Bibiana Frederica Braun, m.n. Pletscher, 1725-1807, from Ebersdorf, 

Germany. She was first married to missionary Goettlich, who died 
in 1771, on St. Croix, W. I. In 1772 she became the wife of that 
simple-hearted, but indefatigable and eminently successful missionary 
on the island of Antigua, Peter Braun, who died in 1800 (B, III, 5). 

19. Anna Maria Borhek, m.n. Fischel, 1743-1807, born at Cross Creek, 

near York, Pa. After spending ten years at Lititz she, in 1772, mar- 
ried John Andreas Borhek, who died in 1791. She served for many 
years as Sacristan. She left two sons. 

20. Catharine Theodora Neisser, nee Medler, 1722-1807, from Walden- 

genloch, Wurtemberg. She came to Philadelphia in 1728, with her 
parents; was greatly blessed through the preaching of Whitefield 
and Zinzendorf. In 1745 she became the wife of the Rev. George 
Neisser, with whom she served in many city and country congrega- 
tion, until he departed this life in Philadelphia in 1784 (A, III, 18). 

21. Catharine Krause, m.n. Ruch, 1724-1807. She came from Eckendorf 

in Alsace. She arrived in America in 1752, and was married in 
1755. Her husband, John Henry Krause, died in 1792. They had 
one son and one daughter. 

22. Elizabeth Ockertshausen, 1758-1808, born at Fulneck, England; 

single. In consequence of a severe fall in her tenth year, she re- 
mained an invalid to the end of her life. 

23. Rosina Barbara Braun, 1739-1808, born in the Palatinate, Germany. 

She came to New York when twelve years old, and in 1775 moved to 
Bethlehem. 

24. Elizabeth Brucker, m.n. Schneider, 1757-1828, born at Gnadenthal, 

Pa. In 1789 she was married to the widower John Brucker, of 
Nazareth, and came to Bethlehem in 1793. 

25. Mary Cist, m.n. Weiss, 1760-1831, born in Philadelphia. She was the 

daughter of Jacob Weiss and the wife of the printer Charles Cist, 
who died in 1805. Removed from Philadelphia to Bethlehem in 
1823. 

26. Maria Jones, m.n. Van Vleck, 1757-1831, born in New York. In 1784 

she was married to Immanuel Nitschmann, who died in 1790, and 
again, in 18 10, to Joseph Jones, who departed this life in 1824. 

27. Elizabeth Beckel, 1754-1831, born at Bethlehem; served in families 

and nursed the sick. 



104 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

28. Salome Andrews, m.n. Fenner, 1797-1832, born in Bethlehem Town- 

ship. 

29. Catharine Hoff, 1774-1835, born at Lancaster. 

30. Catharine Biege, m.n. Zink, 1750-1838, born in Moore Township. 

She married George Biege and was, in 1796, baptized in the 
Lutheran Church. Later she came here to her married daughter. 
She attained the age of 87 years. 

31. Rosina Peisert, m.n. Frevel, 1759-1839. She was born in Montgomery- 

Co. Having become the wife of Christian Peisert of Nazareth, in 
1791, she assisted him in the "Economy" of Gnadenthal, near Naza- 
reth, until his death, which occurred in 1825. 

32. Joanna Maria Weber, 1763-1840, born in Bethlehem; daughter of An- 

drew Christopher Weber, steward in the Boarding School; unmar- 
ried. She was organist in the Sisters' House and was employed as 
copyist of Church records and diaries. 

33. M. C. Agnes Luch, 1838-40, a daughter of the baker, Christian F. 

Luch. 

34. Henrietta S. Seidel, 1836-40, daughter of Charles Seidel, born at 

Gwynedd, Montgomery Co. 

"Her Angel Spirit thus sweetly lisps: 
Ah, weep no more, for I am blest." 

35. Sarah C. Chamberlain, 1840, a daughter of William Chamberlain. 

36. Maria E. Doster, 1840, child of Lewis Doster. 

37. L. Begg's still-born. 

38. Adelaide A. Schneller, 1841, daughter of George Charles Schneller. 

39. Anna C. Schropp, 1840-41, daughter of John and Cornelia Schropp. 

40. Elizabeth C. Manuel, 1838-42, a daughter of Edward Manuel. 

41. Mary L. Ledgerwood, 1820-42, born at Little Falls, Herkimer Co., N. Y. 

42. Keturah Chamberlain, 1842, William Chamberlain's child. 

Row VIII. — Mostly Married Women. 

1. Verona Mueller, m.n. Frey, 1723-80, born at Frederick, Montgomery 

Co., Pa. Having been spiritually awakened by the preaching of 
Zinzendorf, she went with him to Marienborn, Germany, married 
Jacob Mueller and served with him in the Moravian schools in Ger- 
many and England. Returning to America she was ordained a Dea- 
coness and, with her husband, who was also a practitioner of minor 
surgery, superintended the property of the Church at Nazareth and 
other places, until her husband's death in 1761. During the last 
years of her life she was afflicted with cancer. 

2. Judith Kuehlbrunn, m.n. Mesners, 1722-81, born in New York. She 

was first married to a French doctor in New York, named Errow, 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 105 

and her daughter, Elizabeth, became the wife of Abr. Van Vleck. 
The mother, after a widowhood of five or six years, married a 
limner (artist), Lawrence Kuhlbrunn of New York, who died in 
1775. She then left New York on account of the Revolutionary- 
War and removed to Bethlehem with her daughter and Abraham 
Van Vleck. 

3. Mary Luckenbach, nee Gehman, 1757-81, a Mennonite from Berks 

Co.; was baptized in her 19th year. In 1776 she married John 
Lewis Luckenbach of Upper Saucon, to whom she bore three sons. 
She joined the Church in 1779. 

4. Margaret Jorde, m.n. Horn, 1721-82, from Lemingen, near Anspach, 

Germany. Coming to America in 1743 with her husband, the car- 
penter John Jorde, and 35 married couples, she found employment 
on the Moravian farm at Christiansbrunn and at other places. 
After her husband's death, in 1760, she worked for many years at 
the Bethlehem Sun Inn. 

5. Catharine Haidt, nee Compigny, 1700-82, from London, England, but 

of Huguenot parentage. In 1724 she married the Moravian minister 
and artist Valentine Haidt, who died in 1780. 

6. Joanna Schmick, m.n. Ingerheidt, 1721-95, born at Larwick, Norway. 

In 1752 she came to Bethlehem and married the Rev. J. Jacob 
Schmick, missionary among the Indians. They served together at 
Gnadenhiitten, on the Mahony, at Nain, Pachgatgoch and especially 
in Ohio. Her husband died in 1778. 

7. Mary Catharine Lembke, nee Wyk, 1721-98, born at Stockholm, 

Sweden. She was made an Acolyte in 1748 ; came her in 1754, and 
married the Rev. Francis Christian Lembke, minister at Nazareth 
and Principal of Nazareth Hall, who died in 1785. 

8. Rosina Kremser, m.n. Oberdorf, 171 -98, from Kreuz Wertheim, Fran- 

conia, Germany. In 1742 she became the wife of Andrew Kremser, 
and the same year emigrated with him to Bethlehem. Her husband 
was steward of the school at Fredericktown, at Nazareth and lastly 
at Friedensthal, where in 1769 he died. A son John was landlord at 
Nazareth. 

9. Hedwig Regina Shober, m.n. Schubert, 1721-1800, from Landsberg on 

the Warthe, Germany. In 1743 she married Andreas Shober and 

came to America. She had 20 grandchildren. 
10. Christine Fetter, m.n. Riem, 1745-1800, born at Lancaster, Pa. She 

was married to Peter Fetter and moved here in 1782. Her sons were 

George and Marcus. 
iz. Anna Maria Peter, m.n. Nitschmann, 1723-1801 ; born at Trautenau, 

Silesia. Her first husband, J. C. Gottfried Engel, died in 1756; her 

second husband was the Rev. Frederick Peter, of Bethlehem, who 



106 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

died in 1791. A daughter, Agnes, married Rev. J. Fr. Reichel and 
died on the island of Antigua. A son, David, was called to Gnaden- 
hutten to take charge of a store. 

12. Maria Elizabeth Schropp, nee Tanneberger, 1753-1801, born at Naza- 

reth. She was married, in 1784, to John Schropp, warden of the 
church at Nazareth, and later at Bethlehem. 

13. Anna Dorothea Nitschmann, 1743-1803, a daughter of Bishop John 

Nitschmann, and a granddaughter of David Nitschmann, Senior (A, 
VIII, 5). She was born at Seitenschrein, Livonia, Russia, and came 
to America in 1761. 

14. Susanna Elizabeth Oesterlein, nee Werner, 1728-1803, born at 

Mannheim, Germany; wife of Daniel Oesterlein, who died in 1786. 
They worked on the church farm at Nazareth and at Gnadenthal. 

15. Gertrude Schneider, nee Peterson, 1720-1803, from Long Island, N. Y., 

wife of George Schneider, who died in 1774. 

16. Eleonora Andreas, m.n. Ysselstein, 1733-1804, born at Esopus, N. Y. ; 

moved into this neighborhood with her parents in 1738, before Beth- 
lehem was built. In 1758 she was married to Abraham Andreas, 
with whom she spent 44 years of happiness. For 32 years she also 
served as midwife. 

17. Grace Thorp, nee Brooke, 1723-1805, from Yorkshire, England. Her 

first husband, Conrad Ockertshaus, died in 1760. Three years later 
she maried Edward Thorp, who being ordained Deacon served at 
Sichem, Pachgatgoch and other places in the ministry, and finally 
returning to Bethlehem, earned part of his support by working on the 
cobbler's bench. 

18. Anna Catharine Hanke, m.n. Opp, 1724-1806, from the Palatinate; 

worked in the Economy at Nazareth and neighborhood. Her hus- 
band, Matthew Hanke, died 1785, at Gnadenthal. 

19. Joanna Sophia Bischoff, m.n. Mau, 1754-1806, born at Bethlehem. In 

178 1 she became the wife of David Bischoff, to whom she bore two 
sons and two daughters; she was of a very quiet disposition. 

20. Mary Catharine Schnall, nee Gemehly, 1722-1807, from Wetteravia, 

Germany. Her father, who was a Dunkard, settled in Frederick 
Township, Pa., and she was for a time in the convent at Ephrata. 
In 1742 she united with the Moravians, and in 1747 was married to 
the stocking-weaver Michael Schnall, who died in 1763. Their son 
John became a missionary among the Indians. 

21. Juliana Benedicta von Gammern, m.n. Mauersberg, 1717-1807, born 

at Panten, Silesia. In 1751 she was married to the Rev. Abraham 
von Gammern, of Neusalz, and during the Seven Years' War had 
some thrilling experiences. In 1761 they came to America, being 
appointed to the service in North Carolina. Her husband died at 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 107 

Bethabara, N. C. After his death she returned to Bethlehem, and 
for many years was Deaconess of the Widows' Choir. She attained 
the age of 90 years. 

22. Sarah Smith, m.n. Martin, 1730-1808, born in Moira Parish, North 

Ireland. Her husband, George Smith, died at Nazareth in 1803. 

23. Anna Joanna Krause, m.n. Stoll, 1761-1808, born here in Bethlehem. 

In 1792 she became the wife of John Gottlieb Krause. A son John 
was born in 1794. 

24. Christina Elizabeth Jungman (Youngman), m.n. Loesch, 1761-1831, 

born at Friedensthal ; wife of the miller Peter Jungman. They 
moved to Lititz and remained there for 36 years. She had one son, 
Christian Jungman. 

25. Anna Rosina Schlegel, m.n. Mack, 1761-1831, born at Pachgatgoch, 

the Indian Mission in New York. In 1785 she married the mis- 
sionary John Frederick Schlegel, son of the missionary Frederick 
Schlegel who died in Jamaica. They labored together in St. Thomas, 
W. I., until her husband's impaired health, in 1791, compelled their 
return to the States, where they served in Home Missions until his 
death in 1805. The widow then had for many years charge of the 
Bethlehem school for girls. 

26. Catharine Jacobina Haas, m.n. Neuffer, 1796-1835, born at Bietig- 

heim, in Wurtemberg. 

27. Esther Luch, m.n. Miller, 1805-37, f fom Rockhill, Bucks Co., Pa., first 

wife of Jacob Luch. 

28. Joanna Catherine Gehbe, m.n. Rauch, 1776-1838, born at Lititz, Pa.; 

wife of E. Gehbe. 

29. Juliana Salome Miller, m.n. Krause, 1758-1839, from Nockamixon, 

Bucks Co., Pa. Her husband, G. Henry Miller, died in 1831; she 
then lived with her son at Saucon. 

30. Catharine Claus, m.n. Walter, 1807-40, born at Forks, Monroe Co.; 

wife of Daniel Claus. 

31. Juliana Rosina Lange, m.n. Hiittenrauch, 1800-40, from Hohenstein, 

Saxony; wife of Fr. Aug. Lange. 

32. Tabea Elizabeth Schroeder, m.n. Till, 1805-40, born at Hope, N. J., 

daughter of J. Chrn. Till. Her husband, Ferdinand Schroeder, died 
at Easton in 1839. 

33. Ethelinda C. Lange, 1843, infant daughter of Christian Lange. 

" Not lost, blest thought, but gone before 
Where joys prevail for evermore." 

34. Mary Ann Eberman, 1836-43, daughter of Rev. William Eberman. 

35. Marietta L. Luckenbach, 1841-44, daughter of George Luckenbach. 

36. Schilling's still-born, 1844. 

37. Josephine A. Luckenbach, 1831-44, daughter of William Luckenbach. 



108 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

38. Caroline Schultze, m.n. Behrens, 1813-1905, born at Gadenstedt, 

Hanover; came to Bethlehem from Neudietendorf, Germany. In 
1854 she was married to Jacob Bollinger, of Nazareth, who died in 
1869. In 1880 she became the wife of Christian Ludwig Schultze, 
who departed this life in 1887. She attained the age of 91 years. 

" Ich weisz, dass mein Erloser lebt." 

39. Alice S. Brickenstein, 1843-45, Rev. John C. Brickenstein's daughter. 

40. Dr. Fickardt's still-born, 1845. 

41. Mary Louisa Hauck, 1842-45, daughter of Nicholas Hauck. 

Row IX. — Married Women and Children. 

1. Anna Catharine Fredericka Braun, m.n. Unger, 1772-1820, daugh- 

ter of the Rev. Fred. Unger in Philadelphia. In 1801 she married 
the Rev. Nathanael Braun, minister at Hebron, Pa., and on Staten 
Island, who died in 1813. Two daughters, Charlotte and Caroline, 
survived. 

2. Hannah Irmer, m.n. Kindig, 1783-1821, born near Nazareth. In Jan- 

uary of 1818 she married the widower George Irmer, who met his 
death by falling from a wagon on his return from Allentown, in Oc- 
tober of the same year. 

3. Elizabeth Knauss, nee Boeckel, 1759-1821, born at Heidelberg. In 

1780 she became the wife of Abraham Knauss, of Emaus. 

4. Anna Elizabeth Steineke, m.n. Busch, 1752-1822, born near York, Pa. 

Her husband was Samuel Steineke, of Lititz. After his death, in 
1819, she moved to Bethlehem, to be near her children. 

5. Sarah Smith, m.n. Bailey, 1734-1823, from Philadelphia. In 1766 she 

married Fred. Smith, who served in the ministry, and died in 1806. 
She lived to the age of 88 years. 

6. Margaret Rice, m.n. Philips, 1793-1824, consort of John Rice; born in 

the city of Philadelphia. 

7. Sarah Elizabeth Hueffel, m.n. Hunzicker, 1766-1824, born at Aarau, 

Switzerland. In 1798 she became the wife of the Rev. Christian 
Gottlieb Hueffel, pastor and principal of the school at Niesky and 
Barby, from 1809-18 a member of the general Governing Board of 
the Church at Berthelsdorf, in the financial department. They were 
called to Bethlehem in 1818. She left two daughters, Frederica J. 
and Charlotte S. 

8. Maria Christina Boehler, m.n. Krohn, 1749-1825, from Stettin, 

Prussia; wife of Lewis F. Boehler, who died in 1815. 

9. Maria Dorothea Warner, m.n. Miksch, 1755-1826, born at Gnaden- 

thal. In 1781 she married Massa Warner, who died in 1824. 
10. Dorothea Huber, nee Ronner, 1747-1826, born at Bethlehem; wife of 
the shoemaker Joseph Huber. They moved to Hope, N. J. After 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 109 

her husband's death, in 1817, she returned to the neighborhood of 
Bethlehem. 
n. Maria Catharine Blum, nee Weiss, 1744-1827, born at Nazareth; 
married to Frederick Blum. 

12. Joanna Elizabeth Frueauff, nee von Schweinitz, 1772-1828, a daugh- 

ter of Hans Ch. A. von Schweinitz. In 1797 she became the wife of 
the Rev. John Frederick Frueauff, a graduate of the Barby Theo- 
logical Seminary, to whom she bore one son and three daughters. 
Her husband was successively pastor of the churches at Schoeneck, 
Philadelphia and Nazareth, Principal of Linden Hall, Lititz, and of 
the Moravian Seminary at Bethlehem, and finally a member of the 
Provincial Board of Elders. 

13. Rebecca Leibert, m.n. Nitschmann, 1782-1828, born at Berlin, Adams 

Co., Pa., daughter of John, and granddaughter of Martin Nitsch- 
mann, who died in the massacre at Gnadenhiitten, on the Mahony, 
Pa. In 1806 she married Joseph Leibert; she left one son and one 
daughter. 

14. Lisetta Miksch, m.n. Dixon, 1799-1829, born at Emaus, Pa.; wife of 

John Miksch. She had one son and one daughter. 

15. Christina Htjebner, nee Eschenbach, 1760-1829, from Oley, Berks Co.; 

a daughter of the Rev. Andrew Eschenbach. In 1790 she married 
the Rev. Lewis Huebner, with whom she served in several churches, 
until his departure, in 1813. She had a son, Samuel, and a daughter, 
Lydia. 

16. Maria Christina Gundt (Goundie), m.n. Ising, 1806-31, born at Neu- 

salz, Silesia ; first wife of Henry Goundie. She had two sons. 

17. Mary Elizabeth Held, m.n. Till, 1793-1832, daughter of Joseph Till; 

wife of Henry Held. 

18. D. S. Elizabeth Benzien, m.n. Boettcher, 1767-1832, from Stargard, 

Pomerania. Her husband, Chr. Lewis Benzien, died in 1811. 

19. Louisa Herpel, m.n. Fiihrer, 1798-1833, born in Bethlehem, wife of 

Joseph Herpel. 

" Hier in dieser frischen Hohle 
Ruhet die getreue Seek; 
Sie ist gestorben vor der Zeit, 
In groszer Lieb und Traurigkeit." 

20. Margaret Pugh Jones, m.n. Davis, 1784-1834, born in London, Eng- 

land. 

21. Henrietta Mathilde Kluge, m.n. Irmer, 1815-35, born in Bethlehem; 

married to Christian Lewis Kluge. 

" Rest here, dear wife, from all thy sorrows free, 
Till we, in heaven, shall meet with thee." 



no The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

22. Martha Peter, m.n. Edmonds, 1756-1836, born at Sichera, Conn. In 

1804 she married the widower Rev. Simon Peter, pastor at Friedberg 
and Bethabara, N. C, who died at Salem, N. C. 

23. Margaret Krause, m.n. Bauer, 1756-1839, born in Salisbury Township. 

In 1809 she became the wife of Gottlieb Krause, who died in 1814. 

24. Martha Fenner, nee Eschenbach, 1757-1839, from Oley, Pa. She mar- 

ried Felix Fenner, who left her a widow in 1829. 

25. Mary Magdalene Willis, nee Dinah, a colored woman, 1785-1839. 

She came to Bethlehem from Staten Island, was baptized in 1806, 
and in 1830 married a colored man, John Willis. 

26. Mary Zieber (Sieber), m.n. Bolton, 1790-1840, born in Montgomery 

Co., Pa. ; wife of Isaac Sieber. 

" This languishing head is at rest, 
Its thinking and aching are o'er, 
This quiet, immovable breast, 
Is heaved by affliction no more." 

27. Anna Maria Hunsicker, m.n. Seip, 1800-42, born in Lehigh Co., wife 

of Henry Hunsicker. 

28. Elizabeth Stout (Staut), m.n. Straub, 1752-1843, widow of John 

Stout. She came here in 1805. Her age was 91 years. 

29. Christina Engelhart, 1762-1843, born in the West Indies, where her 

parents served as missionaries; unmarried. 

30. Catharine Schneider, 1760-1843, born at Bethlehem; taught school at 

Hope, N. J. Aged 83 years. 

31. Joanna Hauer, m.n. Green, 1796-1845, born at Newport, R.I. ; widow 

of Joshua Hauer. 

32. Rebecca Horsfield, m.n. Weiss, 1774-1845, born in Philadelphia. She 

married William Horsfield, who kept store at Nazareth, Emaus and 
Bethlehem. Her husband died February 8, 1845, and she followed 
him on February 14 of the same year. 

33. Anna Joanna Osborne, 1842-46, born at Bethlehem. 

34. Louisa E. Weber, 1844-47, daughter of John C. Weber. 

35. Louisa M. Hauck, 1847, infant daughter of Nicholas Hauck. 

36. Ellen E. A. Huth, 1848-49, daughter of John Huth. 

37. Fr. Oppelt's daughter, 1847. " Our dear little daughter." 

38. Adeline L. Mies, 1847, daughter of Gottlieb Mies. 

" Geliebtes Kind, du deiner Eltern Freude, 
Wohl dir! Auf immer gniner Weide 
Lebst du — Ihn preisend, dem mit Cherubinen 
Auch Kindlein dienen." 

39. Josephine A. Jacoby, 1845-48, daughter of James Jacoby. 

40. Cornelia H. Doster, 1848, daughter of Lewis Doster. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. in 

41. Cornelia C. Schneider, 1851-55, daughter of Francis Schneider of 

South Bethlehem. 

42. Sarah M. Bapp, 1846-49, Joseph Bapp's daughter. 

43. Ellen L. Eckert, 1848-49, daughter of Jacob Eckert. 

Row X. — Married and Single Women. 

1. Anna Rosina Bischoff, m.n. Schmidt, 1754-1832, born at Nazareth. 

In 1812 she was married to the widower David Bischoff, who died 
in 1827. 

2. Anna Maria Eggert, m.n. Suess, 1768-1832, born in Maryland. In 

1791 she married Christian Eggert, and after his death, in 1827, sne 
lived in the Widows' House. She had two sons, two daughters and 
13 grandchildren. 

3. Anna Mary Blech, m.n. Warner, 1776-1832, born at Gnadenhutten, 

on the Mahony. In 1803 she became the wife of the Rev. C. G. 
Blech, and served with him at Graceham, Md., Hebron, Pa., and 
other Moravian churches with faithfulness and devotion. She died 
on September 3, and her husband on September 6, three days later. 
They had two sons and three daughters. 

4. Anna Catharine Eschenbach, nee Omensetter, 1757-1832, born in 

Philadelphia. She was married, in 1778, to David Eschenbach, who 
departed this life in 1823. 

5. Fredrica Christina Woehler, m.n. Mensching, 1764-1832, from Stadt- 

hagen, Germany. In her 25th year she was married to C. W. 
Woehler. One son died in the Russian campaign in 18 12, and her 
husband in 1813. She came to America in 1827, after her children 
had preceded her. 

6. Rosina Dixon; m.n. Huber, 1764-1833, born at Bethlehem; married in 

1794 John Dixon and moved to Emaus. She had one son, George, 
and two daughters. 

7. Anna Rosina Schaefer, m.n. Gold, 1756-1833, born at Gnadenthal. 

In 1787 she was married to Frederick Schaefer and became a 
widow in 1830, when, with her daughter, she moved into the Beth- 
lehem Widows' House. 

8. Catharine Justine Pietsch, m.n. Moeller, 1785-1833, born at Hope, 

N. J., moved to Lititz. In 1809 she became the wife of Gottfried 
Pietsch. 

9. Anna Maria Schneckenburg, nee Heckedorn, 1752-1834, born at York, 

Pa. She was married to Nicholas Schneckenburg, who died in 1794. 

10. Justine Masslich, m.n. Prozman, 1758-1834, from York, Pa. In 1811 

she married Gottlieb Masslich and became a widow that same year. 

11. Juliana Witke, 1759-1836, born at Christiansbrunn, near Nazareth; 

served in the Bethlehem Boarding School. 



ii2 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

12. Anna Maria Kampman, m.n. Lehnert, 1753—1836, born at Bethlehem, 

widow of Chr. Fred. Kampman, M.D. Her son, Lewis, entered the 
ministry, her daughter, Anna Elizabeth, married Bishop William H. 
Van Vleck. 

13. Catharine Elizabeth Weinland, m.n. Luckenbach, 1767-1836, from 

Upper Saucon. She was baptized in 1779, and, in 1790, married 
David Weinland, who farmed for the congregation. She left two 
sons. 

14. Mary Magdalene Luckenbach, m.n. Becker, 1761-1837, from Lower 

Milford, Lehigh Co. In 1781 she married John Adam Luckenbach. 
She lived to see eight sons and six daughters, 89 grandchildren and 
20 great-grandchildren. 

15. Elizabeth Till, m.n. Frey, 1768-1838, born at Lititz, wife of J. 

Christian Till. 

16. Susanna Bourquin, m.n. Schmidt, 1767-1839, born at Bethlehem, wife 

of the cabinet-maker John Fr. Bourquin. She was survived by two 
sons and one daughter. 

17. Euphemia Armstrong Freytag, m.n. Tombler, 1812-40, from Hope, 

N. J.; wife of Daniel Freytag. Her infant son, Eugene, who died 
three days before the mother, was buried in the same grave. 

18. Mary Elizabeth Kluge, m.n. Albright, 1796-1842, was born at Lan- 

caster. She taught school at Lititz, Nazareth and in the Bethlehem 
Seminary, and in 1829 became the wife of the widower Rev. J. Peter 
Kluge, of York, with whom she served in several Moravian 
churches, until in 1838 they retired from active service. 

19. Sarah Luckenbach, nee Kuefer, 1787-1842, born in Tinicum Town- 

ship, Bucks Co., wife of Joseph Luckenbach. Moved in 1815 to 
Emaus, and returned to Bethlehem in 1836. She left one son and 
two daughters. 

" Ihr schones thatenreiches Leben 
Ihr treues gutes Mutterherz 
War uns ein Gliick von Gott gegeben, 
Er zog es wieder himmelwarts." 

20. Sarah Joanna Andress, m.n. Horsfield, 1808-43, from Nantucket, Mass. 

She was baptized in 1822, taught in the Boarding School and, in 
1828, married Abr. Andress, the brewer, to whom she bore five sons 
and one daughter. 

21. Agnes Luch, m.n. Pentz, 1770-1843, born at Carlisle, Pa., widow of 

John Jacob Luch, the baker. 

" O the transporting rapturous scene 
That rises to my sight, 
Sweet fields arrayed in living green, 
O what a soul's delight." 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 113 

22. Anna Weiss, nee Kiesel, 1767-1844, born at Lititz, wife of Rev. Paul 

Weiss, and faithful partner in his long service as minister at Schoe- 
neck and Emaus. In 1830 they retired to Bethlehem. Her husband 
died in 1840. 

23. Elizabeth Weiss, m.n. Schneider, 1764-1844, born at Donegal, Lan- 

caster Co. In 1788 she married J. George Weiss, who died in 1811. 

24. Rachel Schultz, nee Frevel, 1766-1845, born in Montgomery Co., wife 

of Matthew Schultz of Christiansbrunn, later farmer for Bethlehem 
Boarding School. 

25. Anna Jones, 1775-1846, from Philadelphia; lame and rheumatic. 

"The Lord is my strength, and is become my salvation." 

26. Emilie Charlotte Osborne, m.n. Paulus, 1813-46, wife of Henry 

Palmer Osborne. 

27. Catharine Schneider, m.n. Seyfried, 1781-1847, born near Schoeneck, 

widow of John Schneider, who died in 1825. 

28. Anna Walter, m.n. Luckenbach, 1787-1848, widow of Joseph Walter,. 

who died in 1846. 

29. Margaret Schnall, m.n. Hasting, 1763-1848, from Ireland. In 1791 

she married the Rev. John Schnall, for 10 years Warden at Gnaden- 
thal and for 15 years missionary at Fairfield, Canada. Of her 
daughters, one married John Levering, another Br. Bagge of Salem, 
and the third the Rev. John C. Jacobson, pastor and principal at 
Nazareth. 

30. Rachel Schneller, 1784-1848, born on the island of Antigua, W. L, 

where her parents served as missionaries. 

" Weep not for me, my time is past, 
Nor wish me back in pain; 
My life on earth would only last 
To suffer death again." 
3_. Sabina Henry, m.n. Schropp, 1759-1848. Her father was Matthew 
Schropp, a deacon of the church. She married William Henry of 
Nazareth, who died in Philadelphia in 1822. They had four sons 
and 5 daughters, and she lived to see 46 grandchildren and 31 great- 
grandchildren. She attained the age of 88 years. 

32. Sophia Maria Bourquin, 1806-48, born at Bethlehem. 

" She's gone ; but where ? she's gone to rest, 
To rest upon her Saviour's breast; 
She's gone ; her Father took her home 
To dwell with Seraphs round His throne." 

33. Elizabeth Warner, 1778-1848, born at Gnadenhiitten on the Mahony, Pa. 

34. Maria Frederica Milchsack, 1826-48, a daughter of Augustus Milch- 

sack. 



ii4 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

35. Anna Rosina Kafka, m.n. Boeckel, 1774-1849. She was twice mar- 

ried ; the first time to Geo. H. Neisser, of Germantown, who died of 
yellow fever in 1803, and the second time to Chas. Kafka. 

36. Anna Maria Bishop, m.n. Schneckenburg, 1790-1849, born at St. 

Johns, on the Island of Antigua, of missionary parents. In 1809 she 
became the wife of Charles D. Bishop, to whom she bore three sons 
and one daughter. 

37. Adelaide Louisa Pietsch, 1820-49, born in Bethlehem; a teacher of 

music, at Lititz and in the Bethlehem Seminary. 

38. Mary Ervin, m.n. Yohe, 1823-56, daughter of Jacob and Catharine 

Yohe, a sister of the landlord of the Eagle Hotel. 

39. Maria Rice, 1829-49, only daughter of Owen and Ann Caroline Rice, 

had moved with her parents to Catasauqua. 

40. Elizabeth Busch, m.n. Althaus, 1783-1849, born in Moore Township, 

this county. In 1811 she baecame the wife of Jacob Busch. After 
his death, which occurred in 1824, she was sick-nurse at Nazareth 
Hall. 

41. Anna Sybilla Kremser, m.n. Beck, 1760-1849, from Philadelphia, 

where her father, Henry Beck, was a minister of the Moravian 
Church. In 1793 she married John Kremser, who departed this life 
in 1823. She attained the age of 89 years. 

42. Juliana Siegmund, m.n. Christ, 1806-49, born at Upper Saucon, first 

wife of Jacob Siegmund. 

" I have found Redemption in the blood of the Lamb. 
Reader, hast thou ? " 

43. Anna Christina Levering, m.n. Cassler, 1769-1849, born at Lititz, Pa. 

In 1790 she married Abraham Levering who, after having been 
landlord at the Sunn. Inn for 10 years, was appointed Warden of the 
church at Lititz and Steward of the Boarding School there. He died 
in 1835. 

44. Mary Aurora Wisman, nee Neudel, 1822-49, from Chemnitz, Saxony. 

Her husband came from Russian Poland. 

45. Mary Allen, 1779-1849, born near Philadelphia. She taught embroid- 
. ering and, from 1822-37, she served as a Deaconess among the un- 
married women at Nazareth. 

SECTION E. 

Row I. — Married and Unmarried Women. 

1. Rebecca Matilda Shultz, m.n. Bagge, 1808-49, born at Waughtown, 
near Salem, N. C. In 1833 she became the wife of Rev. Henry A. 
Shultz (later a Bishop), and served with him first in North Carolina, 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 115 

and then in Pennsylvania, since 1844 in Bethlehem. A still-born 
boy was buried with her. 

2. Theodora Mack, 1758-1851, a daughter of the distinguished missionary 

among the Indians (later Bishop), Martin Mack. She was born at 
Nain, near Bethlehem. In 1784 she moved to Nazareth, where she 
taught school for 23 years, as also later in Bethlehem for about 20 
years. She died at the age of 92 years. 

3. Maria Theresia Weinland, m.n. Hanke, 1798-1851, born at Hope, 

N. J., wife of J. Samuel Weinland. 

4. Maria Kaufman, m.n. Amdor (Amtor), 1781-1852, born at Saucon, 

this county. She was first married to S. Geo. Sevitz and again, in 
1823, to the widower Sam. Kaufman of Saucon, who died in 1841. 

5. Cornelia Elizabeth Goundie, nee Wagner, 1780-1853, born in Mont- 

gomery Co. She was baptized at Bethlehem in 1802. Her first hus- 
band, Henry Andress, having died in 1802, she married John Sebast. 
Goundie, and had seven children. 

6. Phoebe Maria Miller, m.n. Kimball, 1803-53, born near Hope, N. J. 

Her husband, George Miller, died 1850. 

7. Sarah Louisa Rondthaler, m.n. Rice, 1818-54, born in Bethlehem. In 

1841 she became the wife of the Rev. Edward Rondthaler, and 
served with him in several Moravian churches, lastly in the princi- 
palship of Nazareth Hall. 

8. Maria Elizabeth Stout, m.n. Schropp, 1S32-54, born in Bethlehem. 

In 1851 she became the wife of Charles Stout, with whom she moved 
to Easton, to live with her husband's parents, Dr. Abraham Stout, 
then stationed at Easton. She died here, while on a visit. 

9. Ruth Emma Beckel, m.n. Kreiter, 1827-54, Dorn at Lititz. From her 

fifth year she lived in the family of Jac. Siegmund. In 1850 she was 
married to Charles N. Beckel. She died of consumption, leaving 
one son, Lawrence. 

10. Anna Maria Stout, m.n. Miner, 1801-55, born at Wilkes-Barre. In 

1819 she married Dr. Abraham Stout of Doylestown. Three years 
later they moved to Bethlehem, and she and her husband were bap- 
tized in the Moravian Church in 1829. She was the mother of three 
sons and one daughter. 

11. Maria Barbara Luckenbach, m.n. Kornman, 1777-1855. In 1799 she 

married J. Lewis Luckenbach. For 42 years she resided in Easton, 
where she also died. 

12. Sarah Ann Rice, nee Peter, 1795-1855. She was born in New York, a 

daughter of Rev. Godfrey Peter. After her father's death her mother 
married J. Jungberg, and she moved with her parents to Nazareth 
and Bethlehem, where her step-father was appointed Warden of the 



n6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Church. Here in 1819 she married Jacob Rice. Her daughters 
were married to Rev. Sylv. Wolle and Rev. A. A. Reinke. 
" Rosen welken und verschwinden 
Manche fallt als Knospe ab," etc. 

13. Emmeline Anthony, 1836-56, of catholic parentage. 

14. Salome Leibert, 1789-1857, born at Emaus, moved to Bethlehem, to 

her brother Joseph. 

15. Mary Catharine Rauch, nee Toon, 1786-1857, born near Bethlehem, 

second wife of John Frederick Rauch. 

16. Mary Margaret Steinhauer, m.n. Sessing, 1806-57, from Basel, Swit- 

zerland. She was a teacher at Neuwied and here, until, in 1835, she 
married the widower Daniel Steinhauer. 

17. Angelina Henrietta Fuehrer, 1829-58, from near Bethlehem. Weak- 

minded. 

18. Louisa Amelia de Schweinitz, m.n. Ledoux, 1791-1858, born at Stettin, 

Prussia. In 1812 she became the wife of Rev. Louis David de 
Schweinitz, then "Administrator" at Salem., N. C. In 1821 they 
were called to Bethlehem, where her husband departed this life in 
1834. She was the mother of four sons, all of whom became promi- 
nent ministers in the Moravian Church. 

19. Mary Cornelia Rice, 1825-58, a daughter of Jacob Rice; single. 

20. Elizabeth Schaefer, 1793-1859, born at Nazareth, taught in the Beth- 

lehem Moravian Seminary. 

21. Maria Theresia Leinbach, m.n. Lange, 1799-1860, born at Bethlehem. 

" She is not dead, but sleepeth." 

22. Amanda Lovinia Kleckner, nee Jacoby, 1819-60, from Lower Saucon, 

wife of Reuben Kleckner. 

23. Hanna Elizabeth Jarmon, m.n. Young, 1766-1861, born near Bridge- 

town, N. J. Her parents belonged to the Seventh Day Baptists. 
After the death of her husband, John Jarmon, she came to live with 
her daughter, Mrs. Robinson, in Bethlehem, and was baptized here 
in 1861 by Bishop Shultz, when she was nearly 95 years of age. 

24. Joanna Frederica Weniger, m.n. Mendorf, 1802-61, from Stassfurt 

near Magdeburg, Germany. In 1840 she became the wife of J. G. H. 
Weniger and the following year emigrated with him to America. 

25. Theresa Adelaide Bigler, nee Frueauff, 1810-62, born at Lititz, Pa., 

where her father was principal of Linden Hall. In 1831 she married 
Rev. (later Bishop) David Bigler, served with him for 5 years in the 
West Indies, and afterwards in Philadelphia, New York and Beth- 
lehem. 

26. Johanna Magdalene Stolzenbach, m.n. Mornhinweg, 1802-62, from 

Eisenach, Saxe-Weimar. She came here in 1834 with Rev. Ph. H. 
Goepp. The following year she married Jacob Stolzenbach. " She 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 117 

was very faithful in attending divine services on Sundays and week- 
days." 

27. Clara Cornelia Hagen, nee Reichel, 1817-62, born at Salem, N. C. 

After teaching at Salem and Lititz she, in 1841, became the wife of 
Rev. F. F. Hagen, with whom she served in several churches in 
North Carolina, and at York, Pa., until her husband was appointed 
a member of the Provincial Board in Bethlehem. She was the 
mother of seven children. 

28. Catharine Elizabeth Hauck, m.n. Bauer, 1808-62, born at Hoheinoed, 

Bavaria. She came to Bethlehem with her husband Nicolas H., in 
1832, and joined the Moravian Church in 1846. 

29. Mary Ktjmmer, nee Horsfield, 1794-1863, a daughter of Joseph Hors- 

field. In 1813 she married J. J. Kummer of Bethlehem, to whom 
she bore one son and three daughters. 

30. Julia Fiot, m.n. De Souville, 1803-63. She was born in Alsace, and 

lived with her husband in South Bethlehem. 

31. Sarah Louisa Warner, 1824-63, unmarried. She was born in Bethle- 

hem. After teaching in the Seminary for a number of years, she 
lived in the Sisters' House. 

32. Angelica Malvina Seidel, 1816-97, daughter of the Rev. Chas. F. 

Seidel ; a woman of varied talents and accomplishments, but afflicted 
with epilepsy from her eleventh year. 

33. Salome Elizabeth Boehler, nee Knauss, 1807-63, born at Hope, N. J., 

wife of Philip Boehler and mother of 11 children. 

34. Anna Peifer (Pfeifer), m.n. Clewell, 1807-64, from Hanover Town- 

ship, this county. She married H. C. Peifer, who died in 1844. 

35. Rebecca Milchsack, m.n. Koehler, 1830-64, born in Allen Township, 

wife of Geo. Francis Milchsack. 

36. Rebecca Nitschmann Rice, 1847-64, daughter of James Rice of Beth- 

lehem. 

37. Mary Elizabeth Oerter, 1851-65, daughter of Rev. Lawrence Oerter, 

born at Bethabara, N. C. She attended the Young Ladies' Seminary. 

38. Barbara Boehler, m.n. Woodring, 1776-1865, born at Graceham, Md. 

Her husband, William Boehler, died in 1823. She lived to see six 
children, 30 grandchildren and 44 great-grandchildren, and died at 
the age of 89 years. 

39. Jane Matilda Jacobson, nee Greider, 1831-66, born at Warwick, Pa. 

After teaching at Linden Hall and in the Bethlehem Seminary she 
married William A. Jacobson, in 1853. She departed this life at the 
Lochiel Iron Works, near Harrisburg, and the body was brought 
here for interment. 

40. Josephine Louisa Cassler, 1851-66, a daughter of Matthew Cassler, 

born at Nazareth. 



n8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

41. Susanna Luckenbach, m.n. Heckewelder, 1786-1867, daughter of the 

missionary, Rev. John Heckewelder. Shortly before her birth her 
parents came from Ohio to Bethlehem, but they went back to the 
Indian Mission, returning to Bethlehem in 18 10. The next year she 
married Jacob Christian Luckenbach and became the mother of 
seven children. Her husband died in 1852. 

42. Eliza Wolle, m.n. Horsfield, 1792-1867, daughter of Joseph Horsfield. 

In 1819 she married Jacob Wolle, who departed this life in 1863. 
Their daughter became the wife of the Rev. Francis Holland. The 
mother died at Hope, Indiana, when on a visit to her daughter, and 
the remains were brought here for interment. 

43. Maria Anna Goth, nee Nowitsky, 1835-68, from Koritjov, Poland, of 

Catholic parentage. In 1852 she was married to Anthony Goth, and 
followed him to this country. She had eleven children, of whom 
seven preceded her to the grave. 

44. Johanna Maria Heckewelder, 1781-1868, a daughter of Rev. John 

Heckewelder, born at the Indian Mission station at Salem, Ohio, the 
second white child born in that State. She became a teacher, but 
was obliged to retire on account of impaired hearing. After the 
death of her parents she moved into the Sisters' House, where 
" Polly H.," as she was familiarly called, had many visitors, com- 
munication being carried on by writing on a slate. She attained the 
age of %jY 2 years. 

45. Anna Maria Freudenberger, 1847-69, daughter of George Freuden- 

berger of Bethlehem. 

Row II. — Married and Unmarried Women. 

1. Anna Barbara Fuehrer, nee Knauss, 1772-1850, born at Emaus, 

widow of Fr. Fuehrer, whom she married in 1794, and who died in 
1849. 

2. Sarah A. S. Clewell, 1862-65, daughter of Richard Clewell of Upper 

Saucon. 

3. Mary Elizabeth Kummer, 1784-1851, born at Niesky, St. Thomas, of 

missionary parents. She served as a teacher at Lititz, Salem and 
in Bethlehem, especially in fine needlework. 

4. Anna Wilhelmina Miller, m.n. Kreider, 1797-1852, born in Bethle- 

hem. She was married first to Dan. Lude, who died in 1830, and 
then to Jacob Miller. 

5. Sarah Joanna Reinke, nee Green, 1777-1852, born at Newport, R. I. 

In 1799 she married the Rev. J. Chr. Reich, Warden of the church 
at Lititz, and Nazareth. After his death she married, in 1816, the 
Rev. Abr. Reinke, pastor at Lititz, who died in 1833. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 119 

6. Ann Caroline Rice, nee Schropp, 1793-1853, born at Bethlehem. She 

taught in the Boarding School, and in 1819 married Owen Rice, with 
whom she removed to Catasauqua. 

7. Justina Elizabeth Eichler, m.n. Sautter, 1806-54, born at Gracebay, 

Antigua. In 1841 she married the widower Abr. Eichler, of Lititz, 
who left her a widow in 1846. She then taught school at Bolton, 
near Nazareth, and in the Bethlehem Seminary. 

8. Caroline Lucinda Wolle, m.n. Helwig, 1815-54, widow of Frederick 

Wolle, who died at Nazareth in 1844. 

9. Maria Margaret Schneider, nee Diidlein, 1798-1854, born at Bunzlau, 

Silesia. In 1839 she married the widower George Schneider, of 
Philadelphia, and joined with him the Moravian Church in Phila- 
delphia. Her husband died in 1853. 

10. Anna Susanna Jundt, m.n. Hasse, 1774-1855, born at Bethlehem, 
widow of J. J. Jundt, who had charge of the farm belonging to the 
Bethlehem Boarding School. He died in 1831. 

n. Catharine Warner, 1789-1855, born at Bethlehem, a daughter of 
Massa Warner. She served for 20 years as sick-nurse in the Sisters' 
House. 

12. Anna Maria Knauss, nee Schoenheintz, 1820-55, from Schuezingen, 

Wurtemberg. In 1737 she became the wife of the baker Godfrey 
Knauss, and came to Bethlehem in 1846. 

13. Jane Knauss, nee Thomas, 1818-56, from Malaga, N. J., widow of 

Lewis Knauss. She was baptized during her last illness by Bishop 
Bigler. 

14. Anna Salome Rice, nee Heckewelder, 1784-1857, a daughter of the 

missionary, Rev. John Heckewelder. She was born at New Gnaden- 
hutten, near Detroit, and baptized by Rev. David Zeisberger. In 
1808 she married Joseph Rice, of Bethlehem, who died in 1831. 

15. Sophia Dorothea Seidel, nee Reichel, 1781-1857, born at Barby, Ger- 

many, a daughter of Bishop Ch. Fr. Reichel. In 1809 she became 
the wife of Rev. C. F. Seidel, who for nine years was Principal of 
Nazareth Hall, and for fourteen years of the Bethlehem Seminary. 

16. Elizabeth Clewell, m.n. Luckenbach, 1785-1858. She married George 

Clewell, and left 7 children and 32 grandchildren. Her husband 
preceded her to the grave in 1825. 

17. Mary Elizabeth Blech, 1835-58, a daughter of Rev. Charles A. Blech, 

pastor at Camden, N. J., later principal at Salem, N. C. She taught 
school at Lititz and at Bethlehem. 

18. Anna Ruth Delia Martin, 1834-58, born at Trenton, N. J.; was bap- 

tized here in 1852, while attending the Young Ladies' Seminary, and 
later taught in that school. 



120 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

19. Sabina Wolle, ra.n. Henry, 1792-1859. In 1809 she was married to J. 

Fr. Wolle and moved with him to Jacobsburg; later they returned 
to Bethlehem. She had 10 children, and lived to see 35 grand- 
children. In 1854 she had a stroke of paralysis. 

20. Maria Klose, late Spence, 1809-59, born at Ockbrook, England. In 

1832 she married the widower Rev. John G. Klose, missionary in the 
West Indies, who after thirty years' faithful service died there in 
1852. 

21. Susanna Gold, 1785-1860, born at Schoeneck; was for 34 years house- 

keeper for Samuel Luchenbach. 

22. Sarah Hunsicker, 1834-60, born at Allentown ; single. 

23. Margaret Yeakel, 1792-1866, born in Bavaria, a daughter of Peter 

Yeakel (Jakel). Came to America in 1830; not a member of the 
Church. She was an inmate of the County Almshouse, where she 
died. 

24. Salome Freitag, late Fetter, 1778-1861, born at Lancaster. After 

teaching for 10 years at Lititz, and for 10 years at Salem, N. C, she 
married in 1819 Dr. Eberhard Freytag, of Bethlehem, who died in 
1846. 

25. Elizabeth Peifer (Pfeiffer), late Rader, 1827-61, wife of Cornelius 

Peifer, of Bethlehem. 

26. Catharine Hartman, m.n. Dreisbach, 1788-1862, born at Berghausen, 

Hanover, Germany. Her husband died in Philadelphia. 

27. Louisa Klose, 1835-62, born at Bridgetown, Barbadoes, W. I., where 

her parents served as missionaries. She taught in the Seminary. 

28. Caroline Renata Zorn, m.n. Siewers, 1807-62, daughter of Henry 

Siewers, missionary in St. Croix, W. I. She taught in the Bethlehem 
Seminary and, in 1828, married the Rev. Jacob Zorn, with whom she 
served on the island of Jamaica until his death, in 1844. 

29. Rosina Luckenbach, m.n. Heckedorn, 1784-1862, born near York, Pa. 

In 1813 she became the wife of Rev. Abraham Luckenbach, mis- 
sionary among the Delaware Indians in the United States and at 
Fairfield, Canada, who after a faithful service of 43 years retired to 
Bethlehem. Two married daughters lived in Bethlehem, viz., Lucy 
A. Rau and Belinda Roepper. 

30. Matilda Sterner, m.n. Clewell, 1835-63, born at Salisbury, Lehigh Co., 

wife of Samuel Sterner. 

31. Mary Ann Luckenbach, m.n. Sheridan, 1828-94. In 1848 she became 

the wife of Parmenio A. Luckenbach, then of Philadelphia, and 
two years later moved with him to Bethlehem. Her husband de- 
parted this life in 1889. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 121 

32. Elizabeth Catharine Hartman, m.n. Lange, 1794-1863, born in Beth- 

lehem. In 1819 she married the Rev. George A. Hartman, minister 
on Staten Island, who died in 1839. 

33. Belle Bartlett, 1843-63, a daughter of Nathan and Sally Ann Bart- 

lett. 

34. Susannah Vognitz, m.n. Biege, 1782-1864, born in Moore Township, 

Pa.; married the widower Frederic Vognitz, who died in 1836. She 
was the mother of eight children, and attained the age of 82 years. 

35. Rebecca A. Herwig, 1805-64, born in Lower Saucon, laundress in the 

Young Ladies' Seminary. 

36. Aravesta Lauretta Hope, m.n. Bush, 1831-64, born at Easton, adopted 

by George Dixon. She married George W. Hope of New Jersey. 

37. Anna Elizabeth Van Vleck, m.n. Kampman, 1785-1865, born at 

Hope, N. J. In 1817 she became the wife of the Rev. (later Bishop) 
W. H. Van Vleck, then minister in Philadelphia, afterwards prin- 
cipal of Nazareth Hall and pastor successively, in New York, Salem 
and Philadelphia. He departed this life in 1853. 

38. Rosa Kupferschmidt, died in 1872. 

39. Catharine Christ, m.n. Freitag, 1805-66, born at Bethlehem. In 1827 

she married Matthew Christ, and from 1830-49 she was engaged 
in teaching in the Moravian Parochial School, greatly esteemed by 
pupils and parents. 

40. Maria Bush, m.n. Muench, 1801-66, born at Mt. Bethel. Her first 

husband was Daniel Breder; after his death, in 1838, she married 
William Bush. 

41. Elizabeth Hatnick, m.n. Hanke, 1787-1866, born at Lititz. Her hus- 

band, John Hatnick, died in 181 1, at Nazareth. 

42. Sarah Horsfield, 1785-1867, daughter of Joseph Horsfield, of Bethle- 

hem. After teaching in the Moravian Seminary for fifteen years she 
took care of her aged parents, and after their death spent thirty-one 
years in the Sisters' House, " a shining example of humble piety." 
She had an extraordinary knowledge of Moravian hymns. 

43. Margaret Fulton, 1788-1868, from Ireland, a single woman, and for 

many years an inmate of the Sisters' House. 

44. Maria Elizabeth Kern, m.n. Bishop, 1794-1868, widow of John Chr. 

Kern, who died in 1841. 

45. Caroline Frederica Xenia Dressler, m.n. Zeibig, 1818-69, born at St. 

Petersburg, Russia. She was an opera singer in Europe and was 
married first to a Mr. Pollert and then to Mr. Dressier. Coming to 
Bethlehem, she taught vocal music in the Boarding School. She 
belonged to the Lutheran Church. 



122 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Row III. — Married and Unmarried Women. 

i. Louisa Marietta Whitesell, 1833-50, born in Bethlehem. 

2. Susanna Clewell, nee Trollinger, 1801-51, born at Tinicum, Bucks 

Co., wife of William Clewell; lived at Shimer's mill. 

3. Anna Maria Hess, 1817-51, wife of Jacob Hess. 

4. Anna Sabina Bishop, m.n. Clewell, 1790-1851, from Plainfield, this 

County; married in 1814 J. Jonathan Bishop. 

5. Josephine Eliza Luckenbach, nee Rice, 1812-52, born in Bethlehem, 

daughter of Joseph Rice. In 1830 she married William Luckenbach, 
to whom she bore three sons and seven daughters. 

6. Margaret Opitz, 1782-1853, from Plainfield Township. She was for 

many years cook in the Widows' House. 

7. Mary Knauss, m.n. Hauser, 1777-1854, born at Hope, N. J. Her hus- 

band was Christ. Knauss who died in 1847. 

8. Martha Warner, nee McGilton, 1794-1854, born in Philadelphia. In 

18 10 she became the wife of J. Ch. Warner. Their union was 
blessed with five sons and five daughters, of whom, however, but 
one son and three daughters survived their mother. They joined the 
Church in Philadelphia in 1812, moved to Christianspring in 1836, 
and to Bethlehem in 1850. 

9. Maria Eggert, m.n. Rupert, 1777-1854, born at Lancaster. Her hus- 

band was Matthew Eggert, at one time warden of the Single Breth- 
ren at Lititz, who died at Bethlehem in 183 1. She left one son and 
two daughters. 

10. Elizabeth Fetter, late Harbach, 1775-1855, born at Graceham, Md. ; 

wife of Marcus Fetter. 

11. Jacobine Gangewere, m.n. Weiss, 1779-1855, from Ober Tegernau, 

Grand Duchy of Baden. She was first married to J. J. Pflueger, 
with whom she had 9 children. Her second husband was Henry 
Gangewere. 

12. J. M. Caroline Hamilton, m.n. Ludwig, 1826-55, Dorn at Quedlinburg, 

Germany. She taught school in Germany, France and England, 
until, in 1852, she became the second wife of Rev. Allen Hamilton, 
missionary on the island of Antigua, W. I. She died in Philadelphia, 
leaving one daughter. 

13. Theodora Beear, m.n. Cunow, 1800-56, a daughter of Rev. J. G. 

Cunow of Bethlehem. In 1824 she married P. S. Beear, and for 20 
years she taught in the primary department of the Moravian Day 
School. 

14. Henrietta Louisa Degelow, m.n. Kschieschang, 1796-1857, from Ber- 

thelsdorf, Saxony. She came to America in 1855. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 123 

15. Sarah Jane Schnurman, m.n. Yerkes, 1836-57, born at Bethlehem. 

She married Joseph Schnurman of Allentown. 

" Whether the period of this life 
Be long or short, we know 
'Tis of itself of no great weight, 
We're pilgrims here below." 

16. Maria Benade, m.n. Henry, 1788-1858. In 1811 she married the 

widower Rev. Andrew Benade, Principal of the Bethlehem Boarding 
School, later pastor at Lititz, and at Salem, N. C. In 1835 her hus- 
band was appointed president of the Provincial Helpers' Conference 
(the Executive Board of the Moravian Church). In 1848 they 
moved to Bushkill near Nazareth, but returned to Bethlehem in 1850. 

17. Maria Wolle Rondthaler, 1840-58, a daughter of Rev. Emmanuel R., 

born at Camden, N. Y. 

18. Mary Anna Lange, nee Jones, 1812-58, from Bethlehem Township. 

In 1828 she married Christian Lange. Her youngest daughter be- 
came the wife of Rev. C. B. Shultz. 

19. Frances Hannah Clewell, 1842-59, daughter of Edward Clewell, 

born at Blairsville, Indiana Co., Pa. 

20. Anna Rosina Huebner, m.n. Stoll, 1771-1860, widow of Abraham 

Huebner who died in 1831. In 1852 she moved into the Widows' 
House. 
2i. Magdalena Zoller, 1798-1867, born at Walddorf, Baden. She came to 
Bethlehem in 18 19, was cook in the Boarding School and, in 1830, 
married Francis Zoller. 

22. Mary Schneller, m.n. Brown, 1800-60, wife of George Charles 

Schneller. She was the mother of 13 children. 

23. Anna Apollonia Woehler, m.n. Eggert, 1801-61. Her husband, the 

shoemaker Wm. Woehler, died in i860. 

24. Jane Boutelle, nee Carlow, 1773-1861, born at Katskill, N. Y., a 

widow of 88 years. 

25. No grave. 

26. Amalia Maria Weber, 1799-1862, born at Bethlehem, unmarried. 

27. Mary Aurelia Walter, nee Kremser, 1833-62, wife of John Frederick 

Walter. 

28. Joanna D. C. Trautvetter, 1799-1862, a daughter of Rev. Trautvetter, 

of Neudietendorf, Germany. She followed her younger sister, Wil- 
helmina who had married the Rev. C. C. Dober, to the United States 
and made her home with her. 

29. Anna Ang. Anderson Seidel, 1847-62, a daughter of Frederick Seidel, 

born at Pittsburgh, Pa. 



124 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

30. Henrietta D. E. Liliendahl, 1805-63, born at Neudietendorf, Ger- 

many. She was actively engaged as a teacher in the Sunday-school 
and a member of various Church societies. 

31. Aurelia Louisa Kaucher, nee Loesch, 1824-63, born at Bethabara, 

N. C. After the death of her husband, William Kaucher, she 
taught the mission school among the Delawares in Kansas, and later 
assisted in the South Bethlehem Sunday-school. 

32. Emily Jane Bigler, 1846-63, born in New York, a daughter of Bishop 

David Bigler. 

33. Rebecca Louisa Smith, m.n. Doll, 1788-1863, from Upper Saucon; 

was baptized in Bethlehem in 1808. Her husband, J. Jac. Smith, 
died in 1821. During the last ten years of her life she lived with 
her daughter, Maria Ruede. 

34. Susan Read, 1759-1864, widow of Charles Read of Philadelphia. She 

was a member of the Reformed Church, and 94 years old. 

35. Anna Maria Luch, late Ricksecker, nee Schenk, 1796-1864. She was 

first married to John Ricksecker who died in 1828, and the second 
time to Chr. Fr. Luch. 

" We'll ne'er forget thee while below, 
Our prayer shall be that we may go 
To meet thee there on Canaan's shore, 
Where sin and death are known no more." 

36. Hannah Berg, nee Tempest, 1773-1864, born at Wyke, Yorkshire, Eng- 

land. In 1808 she became the wife of Rev. Chr. Berg, missionary to 
Antigua and other West India Islands. Having come to Bethlehem 
on a furlough, in 1825, her husband died here and she spent the re- 
maining 40 years of her life here in widowhood. Her son Joseph 
became a prominent minister and professor in the Reformed Church. 

37. Elizabeth Schaeffer (Winter), 1845-64, born near Frankfurt, Ger- 

many. Her father, Pet. Winter, having died, when she was but two 
years old, her mother married A. Schaeffer. 

38. Justina Maria Grunewald, nee Lehman, 1796-1865, born at Niesky, 

St. Thomas; taught in the Young Ladies' Seminary at Gnadau, Ger- 
many. In 1 83 1 she married the artist, G. Grunewald, and came 
with him to America. 

39. Joanna Catharine Simon, 1793-1865, from Harlem, Holland. She 

served with her husband, the Rev. H. F. Simon, in the mission on the 
islands of Antigua and St. Kitts, W. I., and, from 1837-49, at Hebron 
and Hopedale, in this state. Her husband died at Hopedale. 

40. Amanda Matilda Anstaett, m.n. Boehler, 1832-66, born at Bethle- 

lehem, daughter of Philip W. Boehler ; wife of Michael Anstaett. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 125 

41. Liddy J. Amelia de Schweinitz, m.n. de Tschirschky, 1829-66, born at 

Wilka, Silesia. In 1850 she became the wife of Rev. Edmund de 
Schweinitz, and did faithful service with him in several Moravian 
churches. Their union was blessed with two sons and two daugh- 
ters. Her motto was: 

" Mein Name bei der Welt vergehe 
Damit er dort geschrieben stehe. 
Hier ungenannt und ungekannt, 
Dort vor des Vaters Thron genannt." 

42. Susanna Maria Kremser, m.n. Bauer, 1788-1867, born at Emaus. In 

1812 she married John A. Kremser and their union lasted 54 years. 

43. Elizabeth Luckenbach, nee Weinland, 1783-1867, widow of John 

David Luckenbach, whom she married in 1804. They lived on the 
farm south of the Lehigh. They had 10 children, 66 grandchildren 
and 43 great-grandchildren. 

44. Frederica Justina Hueffel, 1800-68, a daughter of Bishop C. Hueffel. 

She was born at Berthelsdorf, Germany, and came here with her 
father, who at the Synod of 1818 was appointed president of the P. 
H. C. at Bethlehem. She herself, after teaching in the Seminary 
was, in 1826, appointed Deaconess and superintendent of the un- 
married women at Lititz, and in 1837, at Salem, N. C. In 1852 she 
returned to Bethlehem to live in the Sisters' House, exercising a 
general superintendence. She approved herself a faithful, zealous 
handmaid of the Lord. During the Civil War she was at the head 
of the Ladies' Sewing Society in aid of the soldiers. 

45. Elizabeth Beidelman, m.n. Lynn, 1849-68, from Lower Saucon. In 

1867 she was married to Robert Beidelman. 

Row IV. — Married and Unmarried Women. 

1. Susan Elizabeth Stadiger, m.n. Bage, 1775-1850, born at Bethabara, 

N. C. In 1802 she became the wife of John Fr. Stadiger, warden of 
the church property at Nazareth, Hope and from 1808-37, at Bethle- 
hem. He died in 1849. 

2. Elizabeth Weber, m.n. Brunner, 1774-1851, born at Gnadenthal. Her 

husband, John Weber, died in 1849. 

3. Mary Ann Leibert, m.n. Tschudy, 1809-51, born at Lititz. In 1829 

she married James Leibert and became the mother of three sons, 
Richard, Eugene, and Joseph, all of whom took a prominent part in 
church and school affairs. 

4. Angelina Gering, nee Bishop, 1814-51, wife of Adam Gering then liv- 

ing at Hellertown. 

9 



126 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

5. Margaret Opitz, m.n. Ebert, 1756-1852, born in New Jersey. With 

her husband, John Opitz, she lived near Nazareth, but afterwards 
moved to her daughter in Bethlehem. She lived to see 46 grand- 
children and 117 great-grandchildren. She attained the age of over 
95 years. 

6. Sophia Am alia Zoller, 1834-53, born near Graceham, Md., daughter 

of Francis Zoller. 

7. Anna Maria Licht, 1780-1853, from near Emaus, Pa., served in the 

family of Rev. Frueauff. 

8. Anna Benigna Ettwein, 1787-1854, a daughter of Christian Ettwein 

and granddaughter of Bishop J. Ettwein; she lived in the Sisters' 
House from 1805 to the time of her death. 

9. Elizabeth Case, m.n. Fulton, 1791-1855, born near Belfast, Ireland. 

Her husband, Peter Case, died in 1844 at Quakertown. 

10. Anna Maria Weimer, nee Seeger, 1791-1855, from Stammheim, in 

Wurtemberg, Germany. She was not a member of the Church; was 
married three times. 

11. Adelaide Caroline Richards, 1833-55, from Moore Township, this 

county. Confirmed in the Reformed Church; lived in the family of 
Rev. David Bigler. 

12. Rachel M. A. Schneckenburg, m.n. Schroff, 1805-56, born in Lancas- 

ter Co. She was baptized in 1826. Her husand, Tobias Schneck- 
enburg, died in 1829. 

13. Anna Rosina Giersch, 1776-1856, born in Bethlehem, but lived mostly 

at Nazareth. 

14. Wilhelmina Belinda Gering, m.n. Luckenbach, 1831-57, second wife 

of Adam Gering, to whom she was married in 1852. 

15. Wilhelmina Henrietta Dober, m.n. Trautvetter, 1802-57, born at 

Neudietendorf, Saxe-Gotha. She was the wife of Rev. Charles 
Dober, and after his death she lived with her sister Johanna, in the 
Widows' House. 

16. Joanna Wilhelmina Halter, 1826-58, born at Enon, South Africa, her 

parents being missionaries among the Hottentots. She attended the 
conservatory of music at Leipzig and was an excellent singer; came 
here in 1856 as a teacher of music. 

17. Henrietta Mies, m.n. Dixon, 1796-1858, born at Emaus, wife of 

Thomas Mies. 

18. Frederica Helen Boehler, 1788-1859, born at Hope, N. J., daughter of 

Rev. Francis Boehler; single. 

19. Maria Antonia Hesse, m.n. Maechler, 1832-59, born in the County of 

Schwyz, Switzerland. 

20. Anna Pauline Dixon, m.n. Paulus, 1804-60, wife of George W. Dixon 

of Bethlehem, to whom she was married in 1821. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 127 

21. Margaret Schweizer Perkin, 1787-1860, born in Philadelphia, widow 

of Dr. Perkin, who died in 1834. She came to live with her son, 
George Perkin. 

22. Ernestine Henrietta Volkmar, nee Degelow, 1831-60, from Berthels- 

dorf, Saxony. She married Carl Volkmar. 

23. Anna Catharine Belling, m.n. Brunner, 1782-1861, born at Gnaden- 

thal. Her husband, H. G. Belling, died in 1859, at Nazareth. 

24. Probably no grave. 

25. Anna Maria Bagge, nee Schnall, 1796-1861, a daughter of the mission- 

ary Rev. John Schnall, in Fairfield, Canada. Her husband was C. 
F. Bagge of Salem, who died in 1837. 

26. Caroline Elizabeth Lehman, m.n. Luckenbach, 1838-62, a daughter 

of William Luckenbach, and wife of Bernhard E. Lehman. 

27. Mary Christine Schulz, nee Peisert, 1797-1862. She married Samuel 

Schulz and became the mother of seven children. 

28. Catharine Lynn, m.n. Hager, 1817-62, a daughter of Philip Hager> 

born in Bucks Co. In 1855 she married Jesse Lynn. 

29. Salome Ebbecke, nee Meinung, 1779-1862. She was born at Salem, 

N. C. After serving as teacher and superintendent of the unmarried 
women at Salem and Bethlehem, she married the widower Rev. Th. 
Langballe. After his death she was again married to J. C. Ebbecke 
of Schoeneck. Lastly she was appointed warden of the Widows* 
House. 

30. Eliza Kleckner, nee Brunner, 1834-63, from Springtown, Bucks Co., 

wife of Valentine C. Kleckner. 

31. Maria Sautter, m.n. Schuster, 1774-1863, from Rauden, near Uhyst, 

Lusatia. In 1802 she married Rev. W. F. Sautter, missionary to 
Antigua, W. I., who died in 1825. Her daughter married the Rev. 
(later Bishop) L. T. Reichel. 

32. Cornelia S. A. Pharo, m.n. Levers, 1830-63, wife of Job Pharo. Her 

infant daughter, Sarah Elmira, was buried with her. 

" Affection mourns, 
Heaven rejoices." 

33. Anna Maria Anton, m.n. Mueller, 1800-63, born at Wallsbrunnen, 

Lorraine, wife of Peter Anton. They came to America in 1829. 

34. Hannah Milchsack, m.n. Everett, 1796-1863, born at Emaus. In 1823 

she married Augustus Milchsack. 

35. Amanda Sophia Reinke, 1844-64, born at Nazareth, a daughter of 

Bishop Samuel Reinke. 

36. Harriet Matilda Oppelt, m.n. Hatnick, 1809-64. After teaching in 

the Moravian Seminary for eleven years she married Francis H. 
Oppelt of South Bethlehem. 



128 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

37. Lydia Theodora Benzien, 1801-64, born at Salem, N. C, where her 

father was Administrator of the general Church Estate. 

38. Maria Theresia Christ, nee Everett, 1792-1865, widow of Louis Christ, 

of Emaus, and mother of ten children. 

39. Anna Matilda Greider, m.n. Levering, 1799-1865, a daughter of Rev. 

A. Levering, wife of Michael Greider of Lititz. One son was the 
Rev. Eugene Greider. After her husband's death she was for 26 
years matron in the Bethlehem Seminary, and manifested uncommon 
energy and activity. 

40. Wilhelmina Loesch, m.n. Boehler, 1801-66. She taught in the Young 

Ladies' Academy at Salem, N. C, and in 1824 married Charles W. 
Loesch. Her husband died at Bethabara, N. C, in 1833. Her son 
was in the employ of the Tract Society, New York; a daughter 
married the Rev. G. F. Oehler. 

" It is well with our mother." 

41. Louisa Augusta Kaucher, 1848-66, daughter of Wm. Kaucher. She 

died while on a visit to her uncle, the Rev. G. Oehler, at Coveville, 
Pa. 

42. Catharine Salathe, a married woman, died in 1869, about 50 years 

old. 

43. Anna Graefle, 1797-1867, born in Switzerland, servant in the family 

of W. Horsfield and G. Grunewald. 

44. Julia Ann Schaefer, 1833-82, widow of the late Henry D. Schaefer; 

was born at Chestnut Hill, Monroe Co., and died in Philadelphia. 

45. Maria Borhek, m.n. Luckenbach, 1784-1868, daughter of Adam 

Luckenbach, of South Bethlehem, second wife of Christian F. Borhek, 
who died n 1828. She was the mother of six children. 

Row V. — Girls. 

1. Charlotte M. Yohe, 1848-49. 

2. Caroline Louisa Reichel, 1839-50, a pupil of the Bethlehem Boarding 

School; daughter of Rev. L. T. Reichel of Nazareth. 

3. Martha Jane Rauch, 1848-50, daughter of Ambrose Rauch. 

4. Amanda J. Ricksecker, 1816-51 and Eliza C. Ricksecker, 1817-46, 

daughters of Samuel and Anna Ricksecker, born at Nazareth, died at 
Boston. The remains were removed to this place in 1855. 

"This place is holy ground, 

World with its care away, 
A holy, solemn stillness round 

This lifeless mouldering clay. 
No pain, nor grief, nor anxious fear 
Can reach these peaceful sleepers here." 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 129 

5. Albert F. Clewell, 1846-47, and Mary Clewell, 1848-51, children of 

Reuben Clewell of Easton. 

6. Mary A. Weinland, 1851, daughter of William Weinland. 

7. Alice R. Milchsack, 1852, daughter of George Milchsack. 

8. Anna E. Miller, 1852, daughter of William Miller. 

9. Elizabeth C. Weiss, 1853, daughter of William Weiss. 

10. Caroline V. Miller, 1853-54, daughter of William Miller. 

11. Sarah A. Waltz, 1872. 

12. Beata Kunze, still-born, 1868. 

13. Felix Fenner's still-born, 1856. 

14. Emma L. Bittrich, from South Bethlehem, 1856. 

15. Amy Frances Rauch, daughter of Edward Rauch, 1857. 

16. Emma L. Lelansky, 1856-58, daughter of F. Wm. Lelansky, janitor of 

the Moravian Parochial School. 

17. Clara A. Heck, 1856-58, daughter of William Heck. 

18. Maria C. Mies, 1857-58, daughter of Gottlieb Mies. 

19. Jemima C. Maloy, 1858, from South Bethlehem. 

20. Mary F. Freiling, 1873-81. 

21. Anna M. Karte, 1858-59, West Bethlehem. 

22. Margaret E. Glitsch, 1850-60, born in New York. 

23. Mary E. A. Brown, 1853-60, daughter of Edward and Clarissa Brown. 

24. Mary M. Peisert, i860, daughter of Levin Peisert, born in Phila- 

delphia. 

25. Luckenbach, 1861, infant daughter of Wm. Luckenbach. 

26. Alice L. Miksch, 1852-61, daughter of Joseph Miksch. 

27. M. Louisa Freudenberger, 1850-62. 

28. Caroline M. Wagner, 1862. 

29. Betge's still-born, 1863. 

30. Caroline E. Hartman, 1863, daughter of John Hartman. 

31. Mary Kuenz, 1860-68, daughter of Henry Kiinz. 

32. Ida Olivia Benner, 1869, daughter of Levi Benner. 

33. Adelaide Prince, 1863-64, daughter of Robert Prince. 

34. Probably no grave. 

35. Anna C. Luckenbach, 1864, J. Edward Luckenbach's child. 

36. Fietta L. Peisert, 1864-65, from South Bethlehem, daughter of Levin. 

37. Emma E. Anstaett, 1864-65. 

38. Amanda Cornelia Blank, 1853-65, born at Upper Saucon. Her 

mother was matron in the Young Ladies' Seminary. 

39. Cora E. A. Gross, 1865-66, born at Slatington, Pa. 

40. Eleonora Sterner, 1866-67, daughter of Samuel Sterner. 

41. Mary A. Clewell, 1866-67, daughter of Daniel Clewell. 

42. Mary J. McCarty, 1867. 



130 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

43. Minerva A. Ricksecker, 1866-67, daughter of Emanuel Ricksecker. 

44. Gertrude N. Beckel, 1868, daughter of Louis Beckel. 

45. Charlotte E. Malthaner, 1868-69. 



Row VI. — Little Girls. 

1. M. Amanda Gold, 1848-49, daughter of James Gold. 

2. Jane C. Rice, 1848-49, daughter of John Rice. 

3. Mary Beidelman, 1882. 

4. Beata Doster, 1849, infant daughter of Lewis Doster. 

5. Mary C. Heck, 1847-51, born at Hopedale, Pa., daughter of William 

Heck. 

6. M. Louisa Heck, 1843-51, daughter of William Heck. 

7. Beata Decker, 1852. 

8. Olivia C. Kaucher, 1850-52, daughter of William Kaucher. 

" Transplanted to heaven." 

9. Aline J. Geissinger, 1849-53, daughter of Jacob Geissinger, was 

drowned near her parents' mill. 

10. Emma L. Osborne, 1852-54, daughter of H. P. Osborne. 

11. Sarah E. Stone, 1854-55, daughter of Samuel Stone. 

12. Ellen S. Friederich, 1854-55, daughter of Jacob Friederich. 

13. Anna C. Miksch, 1852-56, daughter of Levin Miksch. 

14. Julia Beck, 1867-77. 

15. Anna E. Stone, 1857. 

16. Francesca P. Groman, 1856-58, daughter of David Groman. 

17. Anna M. Klink, 1853-58. 

18. Alma F. Volkmar, 1858. 

19. Ellen M. Blank, 1854-59, daughter of Jacob Blank. 

20. Caroline E. Miksch, 1858-59, daughter of Levin Miksch. 

21. Minna O. Weiss, 1858-59, Julius Weiss' daughter. 

22. Minerva J. Hauck, i860. 

23. Wilhelmine L. Betge, i860. 

24. Lilly M. R. Schoeneberger, 1878-81. 

25. Beata Christ, 1861. 

26. Anna Poesche, 1860-61, born in St. Louis. The parents were here on 

a visit. 

27. Beata Conradi, 1862, infant daughter of Adolph Conradi. 

28. Maria A. Goth, 1862, daughter of Anton Goth. 

29. Ellen A. Doster, 1851-63, daughter of Jac. Lewis Doster. 

30. Emily V. Rupp, 1861-63. 

31. Jennie C. Fries, 1862-63, Jacob Fries' daughter. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 131 

32. Lydia A. Schneller, 1862-64, daughter of Benjamin Schneller. 

"A bud on earth, 
To bloom in heaven." 

33. Emily E. Knauss, 1863-64. 

34. Auguste Emilie Gugatsch, 1863-64, daughter af Adolph Gugatsch. 

35. Amanda L. Stone, 1864; the father, Samuel Stone, was with the army 

in Virginia. 

36. Mary E. Rieser, 1864-65, from South Bethlehem. 

37. Anna S. Knes, 1865, infant daughter of John Knes. 

38. Emily E. Kreiter, 1865, daughter of Aaron Kreiter. 

39. Amelia M. Goth, 1866, daughter of Anton Goth. 

40. Cornelia A. Sutton, 1867, born at Riegelsville. 

41. Landis, 1867, daughter of Henry Landis. 

42. Laura A. Fradeneck, 1863-68, daughter of Emil Fradeneck. 

43. Ellen A. Walter, 1868, daughter of Frederick Walter. 

44. May Irene Smith, 1868, daughter of Adam Smith. 

" Lonely the house and sad the home, 
Since dear little Irene is gone, 
But oh, a brighter home than ours 
In heaven is now her own." 

45. Lizzie A. Kleckner, 1868-69, daughter of William Kleckner. 

Row VII. — Little Girls. 

1. Jane E. Fenner, 1848-49, daughter of Felix Fenner. 

" Du gingst geliebtes Kind 
Zu deiner Ruhe ein, 
Wo Gottes Engel sind, 

Wirst du auch selig sein." 

2. Josephine E. Mies, 1848-49, daughter of Gottlieb Mies. 

3. Sarah C. Luckenbach, 1849, child of Thomas Luckenbach. 

4. Ellen E. Milchsack, 1849, daughter of George Milchsack. 

5. Reichenbach, 1851, infant daughter of Henry Reichenbach. 

6. Rebecca C. Werst, 1850-51, daughter of Jacob Werst. 

7. Mary Ann Rauch, 1811-1898, widow of Rev. Reuben H. Rauch. She 

was the daughter of John Harbaugh, of Graceham, Md. With her 
husband, whom she married in 1839, she did missionary service in 
Antigua, West Indies, but had to return because of impaired health. 
Her husband then became a justice of the peace and died in 1884. 

8. Alice E. Eckert, 1846-52, daughter of Jacob Eckert. 

9. Mary L. Fenner, 1852-53, daughter of Felix Fenner. 



132 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

10. Jacoby's still-born, 1853. 

n. Ellen L. Manuel, 1842-54, daughter of Edward Manuel. 

12. Mary E. Luckenbach, 1854-55, Parmenio Luckenbach's daughter. 

13. Emily Benade, 1855-56, daughter of Charles and Selina Benade. 

14. Selma Miller, 1877-79, daughter of William Miller. 

15. Anna Etig, 1878-79. 

16. Maria J. Krause, 1853-57, and Emma L. Krause, 1855-57, daughters 

of Levin Krause. 

17. Emma E. Wille, 1856-57. 

18. Beata Snyder, 1858, still-born, daughter of Josiah Snyder. 

19. Emily J. Milchsack, 1857-59, daughter of George Milchsack. 

20. Sophia C. Miller, 1853-59, daughter of Jacob Miller. 

21. Emma V. Schrader, 1858-59, a daughter of Julius Schrader. 

" Jesus called our little Emma, 

Called her to His arms of love, 
There to dwell with Him forever, 
In that blissful land above." 

22. Sarah E. Mies, 1852-59, daughter of Gottlieb Mies. 

23. Jane M. Gering, 1853-60, adopted daughter of Adam Gering. 

24. Emma Fradeneck, 1864-88, daughter of Albert Fradeneck. Not a 

church-member. 

25. Emily Jane Jacoby, 1867, daughter of Franklin Jacoby. 

26. Cornelia E. Clewell, 1861, daughter of Samuel Clewell. 

27. Martha H. Sims, 1861, daughter of William Sims. 

28. Maria Louisa Kampmann, m.n. Oerter, 1821-98, widow of Rev. Louis 

F. Kampmann, to whom she was married in 1843. With her hus- 
band she did faithful service in the pastorate at Canal Dover, 0., 
and in various other congregations, and from 1858 to 1864 in the 
Moravian Theological Seminary at Bethlehem, of which Rev. 
Kampmann was elected the first President. Later her husband was 
a member of the Provincial Board of Elders. After his death she 
still continued in efficient activity for the W. Miss. Society and 
Ladies Sewing Society. Of her eight children, only two sons 
remained. 

29. Fanny E. Stone, 1861-62. 

30. Lydia A. Krausemueller, 1863. 

31. A. M. Salome Anstaett, 1861-63, born at Allentown, daughter of 

Michael Anstaett. 

32. Letitia and Edward Kummer, 1864, twin children of C. Edw. 

Kummer. 

33. Schmidt's still-born, 1864. 

34. Sarah S. Fradeneck, 1863-64, born in Lower Saucon. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 133 

35. Aravesta L. Mies, 1864. 

36. Daisy E. Rieser, 1863-64, from South Bethlehem. 

37. Laura M. Levers, 1861-65, daughter of Aaron Levers. 

" Gone, but not forgotten." 

38. Lucy R. Leinbach, 1866, daughter of Dr. A. N. Leinbach. 

39. Mary E. Clewell, 1864-66, twin-daughter of Walter Clewell. 

40. Mary Wier, 1864-69, daughter of Robert Wier. 

"With the angels." 

41. Stadiger's still-born, 1867. 

42. Anna S. La wall, 1863-68, daughter of Jacob Lawall. 

43. Lily A. Sutton, 1868. 

44. Abigail Clewell, m.n. Reinhardt, 1814-97, born at Emaus; became the 

second wife of William Clewell, a farmer. After his death she lived 
for many years in the " Gemein Haus," but died at Locust Valley, 
near Coopersburg, Pa. Though very deaf, she always attended and 
greatly appreciated the services in the house of God. 

45. Frances C. Beckel, 1868-70, daughter of Charles N. Beckel. 

SECTION F. 
Row I. — Women — Men. 

1. Magdalene Dorothy Brown, 1794-1870, m.n. Miller. She was mar- 

ried to Matthew Brown, who died in 1853. 

2. Emma Cecilia Greider (Grider), m.n. Smith, 1839-70, born at Naza- 

reth, wife of Orville A. Grider. In 1868 they moved to Allentown, 
where she died. 

3. Eleonore Jane Breder, m.n. Bilheimer, 1841-71, from Moore Town- 

ship, Northampton County. In 1859 she was married to Geo. Breder. 

4. Jane Winnemore, died January 5, 1872; unmarried, probably over 85 

years of age, but she never made known the year of her birth. 

5. Sarah Ann Schrader, m.n. Thomas, 1837-72, born at Lower Saucon; 

widow of Julius Schrader. 

6. Anna Benigna Reichenbach, m.n. Christ, 1792-1873. She was born at 

Emaus and was the widow of Henry Reichenbach. 

7. Maria Rosina Rose, 1795-1873, born at Nazareth; widow of Joseph 

Rose, 78 years. 

"There is rest in Heaven." 

8. Ann Caroline Brown, 1805-74, daughter of the Rev. Nath. Brown of 

Staten Island. From 1820 to the end of her life, for 54 years, she 
gave instruction in vocal and instrumental music, at first as a resi- 
dent of the Boarding School, then living in the Sisters' House. 



134 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

9. Elizabeth Grider, m.n. Skirving, 1833-75, born in Philadelphia. In 
1864 she became the wife of Rufus A. Grider. She was very active 
in the work of the Sunday-school and in different church societies. 

10. Amelia Kleckner, m.n. Lerch, 1847-76, a daughter of Joseph Lerch. 

In 1866 she married William Kleckner and three years later joined 
the Moravian Church. 

11. Louisa Wilhelmina de Tschirschky, 1799-1876, a daughter of Baron 

Henry von Schoenberg-Luga, born at Weiss Culm. In 1822 she was 
married to Fred, von Tschirschky and subsequently removed to 
Kleinwelka, Saxony. She lost her husband in 1848. On the mar- 
riage of her youngest daughter to the Rev. Edmund de Schweinitz, 
she accompanied her to America. 

12. Sarah S. Davenport, m.n. Cargill, 1810-77, born in New York City, 

wife of John T. Davenport. She came to Bethlehem in 1874. 

13. Catharine Louisa Albright, m.n. Clewell, 1799-1878, born at Schoen- 

eck. She was first married to C. H. Beck, who died at Salem, N. 
C, in 1823, and again to Henry Albright of Nazareth who died in 
1845. 

14. Caroline Eger, m.n. Krsek, 1807-78, born at Hirschberg, Bohemia. 

She became the wife of Alois Eger and came to America in 1857, to 
be with her daughter, who had married Anthony Goth. She was a 
Roman Catholic by birth, but joined the Moravian Church here. 

15. Sarah Ann Luckenbach, m.n. Zahm, 1819-79, born at Lancaster. Her 

first husband was Aaron Traeger. After his death and the death of 
her three children, she, in 1853, married William Luckenbach, to 
whom she bore two children. 

16. Barbara Schenk, m.n. Feltschli, 1815-97, born at Augsburg, Bavaria. 

She came to Bethlehem in 1842 with her husband, Ladislaus Schenk, 
who died in 1881. 

17. Caroline Joan Koch, m.n. Huth, 1853-80. She married Ad. Koch and 

became the mother of seven children of whom only one survived 
her. 

18. Anna Gertrude Cooke, m.n. Kelly, 1812-80. She was born at Boston, 

of Roman Catholic parentage and, when only 15 years old, was mar- 
ried to John C. Cooke. Having joined the Moravian Church with 
him, they entered the misson service in the West Indies and after 
laboring there for 16 years, took charge of the church at Friedberg, 
N. C, until 1861, when they retired to Bethlehem. Her husband de- 
parted this life in 1871. 

19. Marie Louise de Schweinitz, m.n. de Tschirschky, 1826-81, born at 

Wilke, Saxony. In 1846 she became the wife of the Rev. Robert de 
Schweinitz, and faithfully served with him in various Moravian con- 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 135 

gregations, of which her husband had pastoral charge. She also as- 
sisted in the building up and successful management of the large 
Boarding School for girls, the Salem Academy, N. C. 

20. Charlotte Frederica Hunt, m.n. Hauschild, 1820-81, born at Gnadau, 
Germany. She came to Bethlehem in 185 1 and was married the 
same year to Jacob L. Hunt. She left one son and one daughter. 

ax. Eliza Cecilia Manuel, m.n. Christ, 1820-82, daughter of Lewis Christ, 
of Emaus. Her husband, Edward Manuel, died in 1872 of small- 
pox. 

22. Pauline Frederica Betge, m.n. Graff, 1826-82. She was born at Gna- 

denfrei, Silesia, and was a teacher, before she married; emigrated to 
America with her husband in 1850. They first went to Watertown, 
Wis., then removed to Hopedale, Pa., and finally to Bethlehem. 

23. Mary Hildebrand, m.n. Pfliiger, 1811-83. She was twice married, first 

to S. P. Ricksecker of Lititz, and then to J. H. Hildebrand of Beth- 
lehem. 

24. Mathilda Helen Schaefer, 1841-84, daughter of Adam Schaefer; af- 

flicted with spine disease. She removed with her mother to Phila- 
delphia, where she died. 

25. Vacant. 

26. Agnes Amelia Kluge, 1837-84, daughter of the Rev. Charles F. Kluge, 

born in New York. She became a teacher in the Young Ladies' Sem- 
inary and served in this capacity for 27 years, with great faithfulness 
and devotion. 

27. Louisa Amelia Reck, m.n. Adler, 1821-85, born at Lobenstein, Princi- 

pality of Reuss. She came to America in 1849 and, two years later 
was married to the plumber and gasfitter G. H. Reck. Her only 
daughter, Julia, was the first wife of Prof. A. Schultze. 

28. Caroline Theresa Clewell, m.n. Fradeneck, 1846-88, wife of Daniel 

Clewell. Separated from her husband and lived with her widowed 
mother, until her mental condition required her removal to the Nor- 
ristown asylum, where she died. 

29. Anna Julia Fahs, m.n. Vogt, 1848-89, from Astorf, near Breslau, Ger- 

many. She was confirmed at Easton and, in 1880, became the wife 
of James Fahs. 

30. Emma Mack, m.n. Mengo, 1851-90. Having lost both parents she was 

adopted by a family near Lehighton and, in 1871, married John 
Mack. 

31. Elizabeth Fuehrer, m.n. Roth, 1806-90, born at Schoeneck. In 1827 

she married Henry Fuehrer. 

32. Catharine Eysenbach, m.n. Kron, 1812-91, from Sprendlingen, Hesse; 

emigrated with her husband, Louis Eysenbach, in 1850. They joined 
the Moravian Church at Lititz, Pa., and came to Bethlehem in 1869. 



136 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

33. Vacant. 

34. Vacant. 

35. Bertha Ernestine Spiegler, 1839-96, born at Dietendorf, Saxe Coburg, 

Gotha. Came to Bethlehem in 1865, with her parents. Her father 
died in 1873, and her mother in 1885. She was an excellent dress- 
maker. 

36. William Herman Boehler, 1827-97, born at Bethlehem, son of Philip 

Boehler. He followed the trade of pump making. Later, having 
removed to Reading, he worked in the P. & R. car shops. He was a 
devoted musician and played the clarionette in the church orchestra 
and the Philharmonic. In 1849 he married Sarah Walter, who, how- 
ever, became a helpless invalid. He died in Reading. 

37. Daniel Sensenbach, 1825-93, born at Bath, Pa. He was a carriage 

painter. In 1864 he married Maria Freitag, and three years later 
united with the Moravian congregation. 

38. William Heck, 1804-91, born at Munchsweiler, in the Palatinate. His 

wife, m.n. Eliz. Becker, in i860 became demented and died in an 
asylum. He himself attained the age of 86 years, but in 1885 was 
stricken with paralysis. 

39. Samuel B. Sterner, 1828-90, born in Springfield Township, Bucks Co. 

He was confirmed in 1858. His first wife was M. Clewell; his 
second L. Schwarz. 

40. John Henry Hildebrand, 1811-90, from Uttenhofen, Wurtemberg. 

Originally a carpenter, he worked here for many years in the Zinc 
Works, and later in the Gas Works. He was twice married, first to 
the widow C. Smiley, and again, in 1880, to the widow M. Rick- 
secker. 

41. John Joseph Haller, 1859-89, son of Christian Haller. He married 

M. A. Schlegel, and died at the age of 29. 

42. Vacant. 

43. Vacant. 

44. Francis Max Rauch, 1804-86, born at Lititz. In 1842 he married 

Louisa F. Ricksecker. He was steward at Linden Hall, Lititz, and 
later engaged in business for himself, till his property was destroyed 
by fire. He came to Bethlehem in 1867 and served as a Notary 
Public. 

" At evening time it shall be light." 

45. Peter Yaeckel (Yeakel), 1794-1885, born at Hirschberg, in Bavaria, 

Germany. He emigrated to America in 1832 with his wife, C. 
Kiefer, who died in 1855. With his second wife, J. M. Zobel, he 
moved to Bethlehem and joined the Moravian Church, approving 
himself a true child of God. He attained the age of 90^2 years. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 137 

46. John Becker, 1827-84, a Bavarian, who came here in 1841 and married 

A. M. Stolzenbach. For six years he served on the police force and 
for three years in the Borough Council. 

47. George William Dixon, 1801-84, born at Emaus; married, in 1834, 

A. P. Paulus, who died in i860. In memory of his deceased daugh- 
ter, Mary, who attended Linden Hall Seminary at Lititz, he built 
the Mary Dixon Memorial Chapel at that place. 

48. Francis Henry Oppelt, 1807-94, born in Germany. For many years 

he maintained a hydropathic institute on Fountain Hill, South Beth- 
lehem. In 1844 he marriet Harriet M. Hatnick, a teacher in the 
Moravian Seminary, who died in 1864. 

49. Jacob Lebrecht Hunt, 1813-82, born at Calbe, near Magdeburg, Ger- 

many; came to America in 1849. With his wife, m.n. Hauschild, 
he moved to Weaversville, but returned to Bethlehem in 1861. 

50. Matthew Christ, 1796-1882, born at Lititz. He was landlord of the 

Sun Inn and teacher of the Parochial School, also a talented musi- 
cian. After 60 years' residence in Bethlehem he removed to his 
daughter in Delaware, where he died, aged 86 years. 

Row II. — Women — Men. 

1. Elizabeth Hillman, m.n. Moeller, 1787-1870, a widow, whose hus- 

band, Aaron Hillman, farmer for the Moravian Seminary, had died 
in 1852. 

" The weary at rest." 

2. Agnes Rosalia Fradeneck, 1841-70, single, a daughter of Gilbert 

Fradeneck; born at Nazareth, and the first child baptized in the 
new church at Nazareth. 

3. Helena Bartlett, died June, 1871, daughter of Nathan Bartlett. 

4. Ellen Augusta Milchsack, m.n. Beitel, 1829-72, born at Nazareth. 

In 1852 she married Henry T. Milchsack. During the last years 
of her life she was an invalid, but bore her affliction with great 
patience. 

5. Anna Rosina Peisert, 1794-1872, born at Nazareth. She was an in- 

mate of the Sisters' House for nearly 40 years. 

6. Laura Euphemia Luckenbach, 1856-73, a daughter of Thomas Luck- 

enbach. 

7. Cornelia Clementine Mueller, m.n. Weber, 1808-74. She was the 

first wife of Wm. E. Mueller. 

8. Julia Amelia Schultze, m.n. Reck, 1853-74, on ly daughter of G. H. 

Reck and first wife of the Rev. Aug. Schultze. She died with great 
assurance of eternal life. 



138 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

9. Joanna Salome Schmidt (Smith), m.n. Beck, 1809-75, born at Naza- 
reth; was married to Geo. Schmidt, who died in 1868. One son 
served in the Union Army during the Rebellion and died in South 
Carolina. 

10. Mary Catharine Kampman, 1789-1876, a daughter of Dr. Christian 

Kampman. After the death of her parents she removed to Salem, 
N. C, to live with her sister, the wife of Bishop W. H. Van Vleck. 
In 1849 she returned with her to Bethlehem, and made her home 
in the Sisters' House. 

11. Mary Kampman, 1854-76, a daughter of the Rev. Lewis Kampman. 

She departed this life on Staten Island, while visiting her sister, the 
wife of the Rev. Wm. Vogler. 

12. Elizabeth Krause, m.n. Beitel, 1793-1877, born at Bethlehem, relict of 

John Krause, the butcher, with whom, in 1867, she celebrated the 
golden wedding. She was the mother of 10 children, and lived to 
see 38 grandchildren. 

13. Caroline Rebecca Beckel, m.n. Eberman, 1828-77. She was born at 

Friedensfeld, St. Croix, W. I. In 1848, she was married to Louis F. 
Beckel. 

14. Catharine Hildebrand, m.n. Seibel, 1802-79, born in Lehigh Co. Her 

first husband was Wm. Smiley, who died in 1826; afterwards she 
married John Hildebrand. 

15. Anna Maria Herbst, m.n. Euter, 1794-1879, born at Germantown. 

After the death of her first husband, Thiele, she married John G. 
Herbst, who died in 1866. 

16. Pauline Louisa Doster, m.n. Eggert, 1808-79, a daughter of Matthew 

Eggert. In 1826 she married Jacob Lewis Doster, to whom she 
bore 16 children. Her husband died in i860. She was a faithful 
Christian wife and mother. 

17. Anna Justina Ricksecker, m.n. Beitel, 1797-1880. Her husband, 

Sam'l Ricksecker, died in 1854. After his death she lived chiefly in 
Boston, with her sons Joseph and Emanuel. 

18. Sarah Ann Kleckner, m.n. Snyder, 1817-80. She was first married to 

Isaac Saylor, and the second time to Reuben Kleckner. 

19. Anna Eliza C. Gardner, m.n. Osborne, 1850-81. She taught in the 

Moravian Parochial School and in the Sunday School. In 1872 she 
became the wife of A. Gardner. 

20. Irene Louisa Jacoby, 1870-81, daughter of Augustus Jacoby. 

21. Sarah Ann Andrews, m.n. Gerhardt, 1836-82, born at Lower Saucon. 

Her husband, Adam Andrews, was a soldier and died at Fort 
Monroe. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 139 

22. Mary Elizabeth Eggert, m.n. Freytag, 1796-1882. She was a daugh- 

ter of Dr. Eberhard Freytag, and widow of Benjamin Eggert, to 
whom she was married in 1819. 

23. Lydia Rice, m.n. Oerter, 1799-1884. Her husband, Wm. Rice, de- 

parted this life in 1833. After his death she taught in the Young 
Ladies' Seminary until 1844. Her last years were spent with her 
daughter, Mrs. Cargill, in Philadelphia. She was a devoted member 
of the Church. 

24. Laura Kampman Vogler, m.n. Kampman, 1850-84, daughter of the 

Rev. Lewis Kampman, and wife of the Rev. W. H. Vogler, with 
whom she served in the ministry in Philadelphia, and at New Dorp, 
Staten Island. 

25. Anna Juliana Hittinger, m.n. Proske, 1796-1884, born at Nazareth. 

Her husband died at Seidersville, this County. She attained the age 
of 87 years. 

26. Lydia Smith, m.n. Whitesell, 1814-84. She was born at Lower Mount 

Bethel, this County. After the death of her husband, John Smith, 
she moved to Allentown, and in 1869 to Bethlehem. 

27. Margaret Hilt, m.n. Lenz, 1804-85. She left her native country, Wvir- 

temberg, in 1817. The vessel being wrecked on the coast of Norway, 
she was obliged to winter there, and was confirmed in a Norwegian 
church. She was married in Ohio. For 30 years she lived in Beth- 
lehem with her daughter, Mrs. P. Laub. She died while on a visit 
to Ohio. 

28. Anna Margaret Schaefer, m.n. Borzel, 1818-88, born in Bavaria. 

Her husband, Adam Schaefer, left her. She was the mother of five 
daughters. 

29. Lisetta Haus, m.n. Vognitz, 1811-89. Her father came to America 

from Barby, Germany, and taught at Nazareth Hall. She was first 
married to C. Daubert, and a second time to George Haus, who died 
in 1864. 

30. Alice May Gernand, 1866-90. She came to Bethlehem from Grace- 

ham, Md., to live in the family of her uncle, Bishop Bachman. In 
consequence of a cancerous tumor she became melancholy. 

31. Martha Ritchie Simpson, 1837-90. 

"After life's fitful fever, she sleeps well." 

32. Adeline Jacobine Perkin, m.n. Smith, 1821-91. In 1847 she married 

George Perkin, then a teacher in Wyoming Co., Pa. In 1855 she 
removed with him to Philadelphia, and three years later to Bethle- 
hem. She served as Sunday-school teacher and sacristan. 

33. Rebecca Ann Fradeneck, m.n. Getter, 1837-92, born in Lower Saucon. 

In i860 she was married to Albert A. Fradeneck, who died in 1882 
of small-pox. She experienced many hardships. 



140 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

34. Hanna Aaron, m.n. Beaveraud, 1809-93, born in Lower Saucon. Her 

husband, S. H. Aaron, died four years after their marriage in 1842, 
leaving her a widow for more than fifty years. 

35. Mary Frances Beckel, m.n. Levering, 1840-94, born at Warwick, Lan- 

caster Co. She married, in 1862, Charles N. Beckel, who died in 
1888. She served as a sacristan. 

36. Michael Hottel, 1819-1901, born at Upper Saucon, in Mennonite con- 

nection; baptized in 1846, married Caroline Brandt. He joined the 
Moravian Church in 1879. His trade was carpet weaving. After 
his wife's death he lived with his children in Philadelphia. 

37. Gustav Herman Reck, 1817-1900, born at Gnadenfrei, Silesia, a 

coppersmith and very skilful mechanic. He joined a colony of Mo- 
ravians who came to America after the Synod of 1848. His wife, 
Louisa Adler, and his daughter Julia, who was married to the Rev. 
A. Schultze, departed this life before him. He was a cheerful Chris- 
tian to whom " godliness with contentment is great gain." 

38. John Jacob Gerber, 1820-92, born at Knittlingen, Wurtemberg. He 

came to America in 1856, and, ten years later, married Maria Storz, 
who died in 1885. 

39. James Albert Kremser, 1846-91, a son of Charles Kremser, skillful in 

making wax flowers. His wife was Cath. Stoneback. 

40. Michael Schoeneberger, 1814-90. He was received into the Church in 

1856. He lived at Colesville, south of the Lehigh, and was the 
father of 6 children. 

41. Carl Gottfried Wagner, 1822-89, from Heinewald, near Zittau, 

Saxony. He came to America in i860 and worked as a stone-cutter 
and carpet weaver. His wife's maiden name was Beyer. 

42. Lucius Thomas Witmeyer, 1835-88. He was married to M. A. 

Keller, and died in Philadelphia. 

" We shall meet in yonder city 
Where the towers of crystal shine." 

43. George Monroe Wilhelm, 1851-88, born at Nesquehoning, Carbon 

Co., Pa. He held the position of baggage master on the Lehigh & 
Susquehanna R. R. In 1873 he married Hermine Hunt and removed 
to Plainfield, N. J., but returned in 1881. 

44. Charles William Rauch, 1817-87. He was a son of Ch. Henry Rauch, 

of Lititz. After the death of his first wife, A. A. Kern, he married 
C. L. Huebner. He was largely interested in business enterprises, 
and one of the first Borough officers of Bethlehem. 

45. Theodore Francis Wolle, 1832-85, son of Bishop Peter Wolle, was 

born in Philadelphia. He had excellent musical talent, devoutly 
employed in the service of the Church. He began his musical career 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 141 

in 1853 at the Methodist Female College of Greensboro, N. C. In 
1865 he became professor of music in the Young Ladies' Seminary at 
Bethlehem and later the genial organist and director of the choir in 
the Moravian Church. He was also for many years connected with 
the Bethlehem Philharmonic Society. He was married to Adelaide 
Sussdorf of Salem, N. C. 

46. Christian Frederic Degelow, 1795-1885, born near Herrnhut, Saxony. 

In 1824 he married H. L. Kschieschang, and emigrated with her in 
1855. His wife having died two years later he was for 27 years a 
widower and passed through many hardships. He left three sons. 

47. Reuben Samuel Rauch, 1812-84. In 1839 he married Mary Harbach 

of Lititz and accepted a call as missionary to Antigua, W. I., but 
returned three years later on account of ill health. He was by trade 
a hatter, later a Justice of the Peace and surveyor. 

48. George Frederick Freudenberger, 1819-83, from Remlingen, Bavaria, 

residing at Bethlehem since 1845. He was married to C. Haag, of 
Emaus. 

49. Morris Reuben Sigley, 1869-83, a boy of 14 years. 

50. John Matthew Miksch, 1798-1882, a watchmaker, born at Christians- 

spring. His first wife, Lis. Dixon, died in 1829, his second, Car. 
Vierling, in 1879. He was an esteemed elder and trustee, also for a 
number of terms chief burgess of the town. 

"Even to hoar hairs will I carry you." 

Row III. — Women — Men. 

1. Lizetta Theodora Bishop, m.n. Clewell, 1810-70, born in Milford 

Township, Northampton Co. She was first married to Henry 
Kuester, and again to Jonathan Bishop, who died in i860. 

2. Anna Maria Wilhelm, m.n. Beck, 1805-70, relict of Daniel Wilhelm, 

who departed this life in 1861. She lived with her daughter Mrs. 
Syl. Belling and for six years was an invalid. 

3. Caroline Huth, m.n. Reichenbach, 1816-71, born near Emaus, a 

daughter of Henry Reichenbach; wife of John Huth. She died of 
smallpox. 

4. Hannah Luch, m.n. Demuth, 1817-72, from Springfield Township, 

Bucks Co. She was the wife of J. Jac. Luch. 

5. Maria Louisa Knauss, m.n. Wilhelm, 1850-72, a daughter of Dr. Benj. 

Wilhelm, wife of William V. Knauss. She died after a happy mar- 
ried life of one year. 

6. Amelia A. Rauch, m.n. Kern, 1819-73. She was married in 1841 to 

Charles W. Rauch. 



14 2 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

7. Sarah Fahs, m.n. Young, 1838-74, born at Reading; wife of James 

Fahs. 

"We are lonely without thee, dear mother." 

8. Lovina Sterner, m.n. Swartz, 1844-78, wife of Samuel Sterner residing 

in Allentown. She was not a member of the church. 

9. Amanda L. Stone, m.n. Luckenbach, 1836-75. In 1854 she married 

Samuel Stone, with whom she had 16 children. She died at the age 
of 39 years, after a brief illness brought on by the birth of her last 
child. 

10. Catharine Barbara Schmich, 1803-76, born at Seckenheim, Baden. 
She emigrated, in 1851, with her husband, Philip Schmich. After 
his death she lived in the Sisters' House, first as a sick-nurse, later 
herself a sufferer from rheumatism, and for 7 years a confirmed 
invalid. 

ii. Anna Sybilla Kremser, 1794-1877, unmarried, born at Nazareth. She 
was an inmate of the Sisters' House for not less than 70 years and 
for a number of years its steward. 

12. Frances Clewell, m.n. Ferrel, 1805-77, daughter of Joseph Ferrel, of 

Saucon, this county. She married Edward Clewell, lived at 
Schoeneck, Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pa.; was sick-nurse in the 
Bethlehem Boarding School, and finally retired to the Sisters' House. 

13. Eliza G. Napheys, 1850-78, born in Philadelphia, a pupil and later a 

teacher in the Young Ladies' Seminary. 

14. Anna Cecilia Tombler, m.n. Freytag, 1800-79, wife of Charles C. 

Tombler, with whom she lived in the married state for 56 years. She 
had four sons. 

15. Catharine Margaret Malthaner, m.n. Schoenhainz, 1812-79, from 

Wurtemberg, Germany. She came to America in her 16th year, and 
married John Malthaner, who died in 1873. She was the mother of 
8 children. 

16. Jane Elizabeth Beck, m.n. Hunter, 1858-79, born at Nazareth. In 

1878 she married William M. Beck and died in child-bed. Her 
infant daughter Jennie Ermine, born July 22, 1879, was buried with 
her. 

17. Catharine Morr, 1813-80, born at Walddorf, near Heidelberg, Ger- 

many, a Roman Catholic by birth. She emigrated in 1854 with her 
husband, Michael Morr, and joined the Moravian Church in 1857. 

18. Lindora Seraphine Grosh, m.n. Borhek, 1815-80. She was a daughter 

of Christian Borhek and the wife of Abraham Grosh, who died in 
1875. She then moved to her adopted daughter in Philadelphia. 

19. Eleanor Sophia Goth, m.n. Lichtenthaeler, 1845-81. She was the 

daughter of the Rev. Ch. Lichtenthaeler of Antigua, W. I.; taught in 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 143 

the Young Ladies' Seminary from 1863-69 and, subsequently, mar- 
ried Anthony Goth. She was a gifted soprano singer and leader of 
the church choir. 

20. Lydia Maria Koehler, m.n. Bush, 1803-82, born at Reading. She was 

received into the church, in 1848, by baptism as a widow. 

21. Mary Elizabeth Albright, 1859-82, daughter of Jacob Albright, born 

at Nazareth. 

22. Ann Lisette Jacobson, m.n. Schnall, 1806-83, born at New Fairfield, 

Canada, where her parents served as missionaries. In 1826 she be- 
came the wife of the Rev. (later Bishop) J. C. Jacobson and served 
with him in North Carolina, at Nazareth, and at Bethlehem. Her 
husband died in 1870. 

23. Mary Penn Connelly, 1792-1884, born in Philadelphia. Both her 

parents died of yellow fever, before she was two years old. In 1814 
she came to Bethlehem, took up her residence in a cottage on Market 
Street and, after joining the Church, was very active in missionary 
societies and other church enterprises. She attained to the age of 91 
years. 

24. Susanna Elizabeth Kremser, m.n. Weinland, 1806-84, widow of 

Charles Kremser who died in 1879. 

25. Anna Louisa Hunter, 1862-84, daughter of Joshua Hunter of Naza- 

reth. 

26. Coelestine Spiegler, m.n. David, 1811-85, born near Gnadenfeld, 

Upper Silesia, Germany. She joined the Moravian Church and 
married J. B. Spiegler of Neudietendorf, with whom she emigrated 
in 1864. Her husband died in 1873. 

27. Judith Stauffer Albright, m.n. Geissinger, 1828-85. Her parents 

were Mennonites and she was baptized as an adult. In 1858 she was 
married to Jacob Albright and in 1867 moved with him to Beth- 
lehem. For 16 years she was in poor health. 

28. Amelia Antoinette Hoffman, m.n. Borhek, 1813-88, relict of George 

Hoffman. For many years she resided in the Bell House with her 
son, Frederick Hoffman. 

29. Sophia Frederica Fahs, m.n. Rudolphi, 1797-1889, a daughter of Dr. 

J. F. Rudolphi. In 1821 she was married to Henry Fahs with whom 
she lived at Graceham, Md., until 1849, when they moved to Bethle- 
hem. Her husband died in 1872; she attained the age of 91 years. 

30. Isabelle Allison de Schweinitz, 1869-90, youngest daughter of Bishop 

Edmund de Schweinitz. After graduating with honors at the Beth- 
lehem Seminary she removed to Philadelphia, where she died. 

" And there shall be no more death." 



144 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

31. Helen Charlotte Belling, ra.n. Borhek, 1810-91. Her husband, 

Augustus Belling, was toll-keeper at the old Lehigh bridge, from 
1858 until 1880, when he died. 

32. Caroline Theresa McNeil, m.n. Vognitz, 1819-91. She was the widow 

of Jacob McNeil, who died in 1888. 

33. Bertha de Schweinitz, 1856-93, youngest daughter of the Rev. Robert 

de Schweinitz, born at Salem, N. C. She was an active Sunday- 
school teacher. She died in Philadelphia, having gone there for 
medical treatment. 

34. Louisa Frederica Rauch, m.n. Ricksecker, 1817-94, born a * Lititz, Pa., 

relict of Francis M. Rauch who died in 1886. The seven years of 
her widowhood she spent with her children here and elsewhere, de- 
parting this life at Lancaster, Pa. 

35. Charlotte Lichtenthaeler, 1818-94, m.n. Kreider. Having married 

the Rev. Abraham Lichtenthaeler, missionary to the West Indies, she 
served with him in Jamaica, St. Kitts, and St. Thomas, for a period 
of 34 years. After her husband's death, in 1892, she moved into the 
Widows' House. 

36. Robert William de Schweinitz, 1819-1901, son of Lewis David de 

Schweinitz, born at Salem, N. C. After studying for the ministry, 
he served in the pastorate of several congregations and with special 
distinction as principal of Salem Academy and of Nazareth Hall. 
In 1876 he was elected a member of the Provincial Board of Elders 
and for many years filled most efficiently the position of treasurer of 
the church funds and the various church activities. He was largely 
instrumental in starting the Alaska mission work and the Moravian 
Aid Society. In 1846, he married Marie Louise von Tschirschky, 
who departed in 1881. Of his six children, 3 sons and 3 daughters, 
one son, Dr. Paul de Schweinitz, specially continued his father's 
work in the service of the Lord and of the Church. 

37. Christian Frederic Hartman, 1820-93, born at Mark Neukirchen, Sax- 

ony. He came to America in 1839 and four years later married M. 
J. Romig of Schoeneck, who died in 1857. He married again in 
1863, his second wife being A. E. Clewell. He was a violin and 
guitar maker. 

38. Lewis Anthony Gerlach, 1820-92, born at Nazareth. He was a 

tanner by trade. In 1865 he removed to Bethlehem, but relinquished 
his business after a few years. He was married to Louisa Weaver. 

39. Carl Herman Schippang, 1825-91, born at Gnadau, Prussian Saxony; 

married L. E. Schmidt of Gnadenfeld, and came to Bethlehem in 
1868. For 15 years he was Janitor of the Franklin School. His 
grandson Eddie, son of Alvin Schippang, who was born and died 
in March, 1891, was buried in the same grave. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 145 

40. George Ervin Milchsack, 1866-90, a machinist, son of George and 

Susanna Milchsack. 

41. Albert Parmenio Luckenbach, 1826-89, married to Mary A. Sheridan. 

42. John Jacob Luch, 1802-88, for many years one of the drivers on the 

old stage line to Philadelphia, and a member of the " Bethlehem 
Guards." His first wife, Esther Miller, died in 1837; his second, 
Hannah Demuth, in 1872. Eventually homeless and feeble in body 
and mind he found refuge in the Northampton Co. Almshouse. 

43. Charles Nathaniel Beckel, 1827-88. He was associated with his 

father, Charles F. Beckel, in the " Foundry." He also served faith- 
fully, for many years, in the Moravian School Board and as trom- 
bonist, besides being burgess of the town for three years. In 1879 
he had an attack of paralysis and his infirmity gradually increased. 
His first wife, E. R. Greider, of Lititz, died in 1854. His second 
wife was M. F. Levering, of Lancaster. 

44. Christian Ludwig Schultze, 18 11-87, horn at Gatow, near Spandau, 

Prussia. In 1835 ne married Frederica L. Haeseler and in 1849 re- 
moved to Gnadenberg, where both entered the service of the Mora- 
vian Church as stewards of the Brethren's House and in the Boys' 
Academy. In 1871 they followed their son the Rev. A. Schultze, to- 
America. His wife died in 1872. In 1880 he married C. Bollinger, 
m.n. Behrens. 

45. Charles Augustus Witmeyer, 1833-85, a teamster. He was married 

to F. Miller of Nazareth. 

46. Reuben Kleckner, 1816-85, born at Salzburg, Lehigh Co., a mason by 

trade. He was twice married, first to L. A. Jacobi, and the second 
time to the widow S. Saylor. 

47. Lewis Francis Kampman, 1817-84, son of Dr. F. C. Kampman and A. 

R. Heckewelder, born in Philadelphia. After studying for the min- 
istry and teaching at Nazareth Hall, he served in the pastorate of 
various Moravian congregations. In 1858 he was elected President 
of the Moravian College. Later he was for 12 years a member of 
the Provincial Board of the Church. His last appointment, from 
1879-84, was to the church at York, Pa. 

48. Gustave Adolph Betge, 1810-84, born in Dresden, Saxony. At the 

age of 40 he married Pauline Graff, and coming to Bethlehem in 
1855, he was employed as janitor in the Young Ladies' Seminary. 
His wife died in 1882. 

49. Lawrence Frederic Oerter, 1803-83, son of Joseph Oerter, originally 

a book-binder and cabinet maker, then a teacher at Nazareth Hall. 
In 1835 he was called to the Mission Service in the West Indies, and 
married M. S. Lichtenthaeler. After spending 12 years on the island 



146 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of Barbadoes, and St. Kitts he was obliged to return on account of 
failing eye-sight. Besides making a second attempt at Mission work 
in Jamaica, he then assisted in the service of the home churches at 
various places, until he was compelled to retire permanently in 1864. 
50. Charles Augustus Goth, 1864-82, a son of Anthony Goth, died at St. 
Paul, Minn., of typhoid fever. His remains were brought here for 
burial. 

Row IV. — Women — Men. 

1. Christiana Frederica Wilhelm, m.n. Paulus, 1819-70. After teaching 

some time in the Young Ladies' Seminary, she in 1848 married Dr. 
Benj. Wilhelm, and left two sons and two daughters. 

2. Mary Catharine Yost, m.n. Vognitz, 1818-71, born in Lehigh Co. She 

was married in 1842 to Samuel Yost. 

3. Emma Elizabeth Fahs, 1867-72, daughter of Allan Fahs, died in con- 

sequence of falling into a tub of boiling water. 

4. Sophia Theresa Eggert, 1806-72. For 22 years she superintended the 

laundry of the Boarding School. 

5. D. Louisa Frederica Schultze, m.n. Haeseler, 1815-72, born at Grosz- 

beeren, near Berlin, Prussia. In 1835 she became the wife of Louis 
Schultze, with whom she afterwards served the Church efficiently 
and acceptably in the Brethren's House and the Boys' Academy at 
Gnadenberg, Silesia. In 1870 she and her husband came to Bethle- 
hem to live with their son, Prof. A. Schultze of the Moravian 
College. She had a desire to depart and to be with Christ. 

6. Beata Margaret Malthaner, m.n. Wendell, 1840-73, from Lehigh 

Co., wife of Henry Malthaner. Her infant daughter Emma J. 
Malthaner was buried with her. 

7. Clara Alliene Luckenbach, 1859-74, a daughter of Parmenio Lucken- 

bach. 

8. Susan Ann Kummer, 1816-75, born at Bethabara, N. C. For many 

years she taught in the Young Ladies' Seminary and in the Moravian 
Parochial School. Toward the end her mind failed and she died in 
an Asylum in Philadelphia. 

9. Mary Catharine Blum, 1785-1875, born at Hope, N. J. In 1809 she 

entered the Bethlehem Boarding School as a teacher and taught for 
32 years. After retiring she occupied rooms in the Sisters' House, 
and attained the age of 90 years. 
10. Barbara Caroline Levering, m.n. Lambert, 1819-76, born at Lititz. 
She was baptized in 1844 and moved to Bethlehem in 1868 with her 
husband, Lewis F. Levering, who died in 1870. She was the mother 
of 13 children. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 147 

11. Anna Elizabeth Stolzenbach, m.n. Vogel, 1805-77, born at Homburg, 

Hesse-Cassel, Germany. She was married to John Henry Stolzen- 
bach, who died in 1865. 

12. Emma Josephine Malthaner, 1846-78, daughter of John C. Malthaner. 

13. Anna Joanna Steip, 1791-1878, daughter of Samuel Steip. She spent 

all her life at Bethlehem, mostly as an inmate of the Sisters' House. 
Her old age was fresh and vigorous. 

14. Caroline Miksch, m.n. Vierling, 1795-1879, born at Salem, N. C, came 

to Bethlehem in 1814. She was married to John Miksch and was a 
" kind and helpful mother in Israel." 

15. Anna Elizabeth Oerter, m.n. Clewell, 1793-1879, born at Schoeneck; 

relict of the late John Oerter of Bethlehem, who died in 1866. She 
attained the age of 86 years. 

16. Anna Maria Clewell, m.n. Fuehrer, 1796-1880, born near Bethlehem; 

married to Frederic Clewell in 1815. 

17. Anna Rebecca Eberman, m.n. Oehme, 1794-1880, born at Nazareth. 

In 1824 she married the Rev. William Eberman and served with him 
in the West India Missions. After their return her husband held 
the office of warden at Nazareth and was pastor of the church at 
Schoeneck. After his death, in 1858, she spent 22 years in widow- 
hood, passing through various afflictions. 

18. Mary Agnes L. Jones, 1852-81, daughter of Dr. Maurice Jones; a 

faithful Sunday-school teacher. 

19. Julia Ann Whitesell, m.n. Diehl, 181 1-8 1, born in Salzburg Town- 

ship, Lehigh Co. Her husband, John D. Whitesell, died in 1844. 
She had 7 children. 

20. Mary P. Dixon, 1863-82. Her father, George Dixon, erected to her 

memory a chapel for the Linden Hall Seminary at Lititz, which she 
had attended. 

21. Mary E. Prince, m.n. Cargill, 1822-82. She was born in New York. 

In 1853 she married J. Adams, and after his death Robert Prince, 
who died in 1871. 

22. Angelica Sophia Lehman, m.n. Paulus, 1810-83. After teaching in 

the Bethlehem Seminary from 1829-33 she married Ernest Lehman, 
who died in 1857. One daughter was married to the Rev. L. R. 
Huebner. 

23. Charlotte Frederica Beckel, m.n. Brown, 1802-84, a daughter of the 

Rev. Nath. Brown, born at Hebron, Lebanon Co. She taught in the 
Moravian Seminary and sang in the church choir. In 1823 she be- 
came the wife of Charles F. Beckel. 

24. Lavinia Riegel, m.n. Lynn, 1842-84, wife of Benj. H. Riegel. She 

moved to Bethlehem in 1855, and approved herself a devout member 
of the church in various lines of Christian activity. 



148 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

25. Salome Fuehrer, m.n. Herwig, 1800-84. With her husband, Joseph 

Fuehrer, she lived for many years in the farm house, formerly the 
Crown Inn, south of the Lehigh. After his death she moved to 
Bethlehem and for 27 years filled the position of chapel servant in 
the Bell House. She died at the house of her son William, in Le- 
highton. 

26. Sarah Ann Luckenbach, m.n. Tombler, 1806-85, relict of William B. 

Luckenbach, who died in 1830. Her children also died early. 

27. Maria Gerber, m.n. Storz, 1827-85, born near Rotweil, Wurtemberg. 

She came to America in 1864, and two 3 r ears later married John J. 
Gerber. 

28. Caroline Sophia Oerter, 1872-88, eldest daughter of Rev. Albert 

Oerter, born at Salem, N. C. 

29. Sarah Luckenbach, m.n. Hauer, 1803-89, relict of Samuel Luckenbach, 

who died in 1877. She married in 1825 and had nine children. She 
died in the Alms House. 

30. Sarah Adelaide Kern, 1873-90, daughter of James D. Kern, born at 

Oxford, N. J.; moved to Bethlehem from Lebanon, where her parents 
had been members of the Church. 

31. Elizabeth Clewell, m.n. Tombler, 1822-91, from Plainfield Township, 

this County. In 1845 sne married the shoemaker Samuel Clewell. 

32. Adelaide Louisa Belling, 1837-92, a daughter of Augustus Belling, the 

toll-keeper. 

33. Caroline Kleckner, m.n. George, 1810-93. In 1832 she was married 

to Peter Kleckner, who died in 1879. For a period of 48 years she 
served as a sacristan, and was most faithful in the discharge of her 
duties. 

34. Harriet Cecilia Cassler, m.n. Beck, 1828-94. She was married to 

Matthew Cassler. 

35. Christiana Richards, m.n. Steinmetz, 1808-94, irorn Moore Township. 

She was received into the Moravian congregation after the death of 
her husband and followed the vocation of a nurse, living in the 
Sisters' House. 

36. Edward Montgomery Eberman, 1834-1903, born at Lititz, Pa., son of 

Rev. William Eberman, a Moravian missionary to the West Indies. 
He filled very acceptably, for many years, the position of reporter 
for the Bethlehem Times and also wrote in Pennsylvania German. 
In 1870, he married Marie Milchsack. They had two daughters and 
three sons. 

37. Francis Jackson Engle (Engel), 1847-94, born in Plainfield Town- 

ship, this County. In 1864, when not quite 17 years old, he enlisted 
in the Second Pa. Regiment of heavy artillery, and after the war 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 149 

he was always active in promoting the objects of the Grand Army 
organization. In 1869 he married Addie Smith of Nazareth. During 
the last year of his life his health was shattered. 

38. Daniel Shireman, 1813-92, born in Bushkill Township, this County, a 

blacksmith and farmer. He married Selinda Beitel, and spent the 
last 26 years of his life at Bethlehem. 

39. John Augustus Freitag, 1 812-91, born at Gnadenhiitten, on the Ma- 

honing, now Lehighton, where his father, J. C. Freitag, was the min- 
ister. He learned the carpenter trade and, in 1835, married Catha- 
rine Roth, with whom he lived 55 years. 

40. Harry Jacob Fries, 1871-90, a moulder, son of Jacob A. Fries. 

41. Elisha Ward Shields, 1847-90, born at Kernersville, N. C. When 17 

years old he was forced into the Confederate Army. After the war 
he taught at Nazareth Hall and, in 1873, entered the ministry, serv- 
ing with zeal and success in various congregations. His last ap- 
pointment was York. He married Maria Wunderling of Nazareth. 

42. Michael Morr, 1812-88, from Neckarhausen, Hesse Darmstadt, a day 

laborer. His first wife having died in 1880, he married Louisa 
Leopold. 

43. Jacob McNeil, 1820-88, born at Stroudsburg, Monroe Co. He was a 

stage-driver on the line from Philadelphia to Bethlehem, and when 
the Bethlehem Iron Co. was established he took care of its stables. 
In 1843 he married C. Vognitz. 

44. Edmund Alexander de Schweinitz, S.T.D., 1825-87, son of Rev. 

Lewis David de Schweinitz, and himself one of the most able and 
influential leaders of the Moravian Church in recent times. After 
completing his theological studies in Germany, and serving for 
some years as a teacher, he became pastor of the church at Lebanon, 
and in 1853 of the first church in Philadelphia. At the same time he 
edited the new Church paper, The Moravian, and for a while 
served as theological Professor. He next took charge of the church 
at Lititz, and from 1864-80 was pastor of the Bethlehem congrega- 
tion, besides being President of the Moravian Theological Seminary. 
Since 1878 he was President of the Provincial Board of Elders. In 
1870 he was consecrated a Bishop of the Church. He filled all these 
offices with signal efficiency and dignity. He was also a prominent 
writer of Moravian History. He was first married to Lydia de 
Tschirschky, who died in 1866, and again to Isabella A. Boggs, of 
the Young Ladies' Seminary. 

45. Henry Ernest Bartels, 1821-86, born at Ebersdorf, Germany. He 

came to Bethlehem in 1849, but later removed to Hazleton, where he 
followed the trade of a house-painter for 23 years, until the time of 
his death. He was married to H. Boehnisch. 



150 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

46. Herman John Soth, 1854-86, eldest son of Anthony Goth, born at 

Schoenlinden, Bohemia. Upon his father's death, in 1878, he took 
charge of his business, but was affected with lung trouble. He died 
at Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he had gone to regain his 
health. His wife was Eulalia Danner. 

47. Henry Fuehrer, 1805-86. He was born on the Moravian farm, south 

of the river, where the Union Depot now stands. After marrying 
Elizabeth Roth, in 1827, he moved to Emaus. Later he returned to 
Bethlehem and engaged in farming. 

48. Charles Franklin Deemer, 1883-84, infant son of George Deemer, 

born in Philadelphia. 

49. George Peter Deemer, 1858-83, a son of Lafayette Deemer. He mar- 
ried in 1881. 

50. Charles Israel Luckenbach, 1834-83, a son of Samuel Luckenbach. 

In 1864 he married Catharine Ebele. He served in the war, during 
which he became afflicted with epilepsy. The disease eventually 
made it necessary to have him removed to the county hospital near 
Nazareth. 

Row V. — Children, Women — Men. 

1. Anna B. Wetzell, 1869-70. 

2. Ida E. Deemer, 1870, daughter of Lafayette Deemer. 

3. Emma A. Kleckner, 1870-71, a daughter of William Kleckner. 

4. Addie Estelle Riegel, 1864-72, daughter of Benjamin Riegel. 

5. Emily J. Knauss, 1873, daughter of Jacob Knauss. 

6. Louise Stadiger, 1874. 

7. Martha A. Belling, 1874, daughter of Richard Belling. 

"Our Mattie." 

8. Agnes Jane Miller, 1869-75, daughter of Jeremiah Miller. 

9. Estelle L. Becker, 1876, daughter of Theodore Becker. 

10. Annie E. Sigley, 1876-78, daughter of Owen Sigley. She died in New 

Jersey. 
u. Niola R. Maloy, 1877-79. 

12. Mary A. C. Schwoyer, 1878-79, daughter of Daniel Schwoyer and 

granddaughter of Chr. Haller. 

13. Gertrude Amanda Belling, 1874-80, daughter of Richard Belling. 

14. Louisa M. Krause, 1875-81, daughter of Henry Krause, died of diph- 

theria. 

15. Grace J. Fahs, 1880-81, daughter of James Fahs. 

16. Lillie J. Meyers, 1881-83, daughter of John Meyers. 

17. Amelia Wilhelmina Lichtenthaeler, m.n. Sautter, 1803-85. Her 

parents were missionaries and she was born at Gracehill, Antigua. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 151 

She was educated and taught in the Bethlehem Seminary. In 1823 
she married the Rev. David Lichtenthaeler, who died in 1826, in 
Barbadoes, W. I. Returning to Bethlehem she reentered the Young 
Ladies' Seminary as a teacher, and later moved into the Widows' 
House. 

18. Lucy Ann Weber (Weaver), m.n. Christ, 1814-86, born at Emaus. 

Her husband Thomas Weber, having died in 1844, she removed to 
Bethlehem. She was afflicted with deafness, but was of a cheerful 
disposition. 

19. Amanda Brusie, m.n. Messinger, 1865-86, born in Forks Township, 

wife of Ford Brusie. 

20. Eliza Thomas, m.n. Koob (Cope), 1811-86, widow of Israel Thomas, 

who died in 1843. She came to Bethlehem to live with her daughter, 
who had married Julius Schrader, and after her death took care of 
the children, 

21. Mary Elizabeth Bien, m.n. Hedrich, 1818-86, from Hesse Darmstadt, 

Germany. She was married three times. Her first husband, Caspar 
Glitzsch, died in 1854; the second was Henry Buyer of Reading, and 
the third J. B. Bien, who departed this life in 1882. She was a mem- 
ber of the South Bethlehem church. 

22. Mary Agnes Jones, m.n. Willey, 1820-86, born at Gracehill, Ireland, 

a daughter of the Rev. Joseph Willey. In 1848 she married Dr. 
Maurice Jones, who attended the Moravian Synod of that year, and 
came with him to America. 

23. Martha Augusta Luckenbach, 1861-86, daughter of Thomas Lucken- 

bach, a faithful Sunday-school teacher. 

" Angels of life and death alike are His, 
Without His leave they pass no threshold o'er, 
Who then would wish or dare, believing this, 
Against His messengers to shut the door?" 

24. Franey (Verona) Wolf, m.n. Frankenfield, 1837-87, born at Apple- 

bachsville, Bucks Co. In 1858 she married Joseph Wolf. 

25. Marianne Ernestine Benade, 1807-87, the older of two daughters of 

Bishop Andrew Benade who, having last served as President of the 
Provincial Board of Elders, retired in 1849. She taught in several 
Moravian schools. In 1859 she took up her residence in the Widows' 
House and gradually became helpless from rheumatism. She was 
attended by her sister. 

26. Esther Lange, m.n. Wittman, 1809-88, born in Upper Saucon, Lehigh 

Co. Her first husband, Isaac Freeman, having died in 1857, she 
married the widower Christian Lange, who departed this life in 
1S66. 



152 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

27. Pauline Henrietta Chamberlain, m.n. Luch, 1811-88, relict of Wrn. 

Y. Chamberlain who died 1843. For a number of years she served 
as Matron of Nazareth Hall and, in the same capacity, for 15 years 
at Linden Hall, Lititz. 

28. Louisa Elizabeth Herman, m.n. Heller, 1842-88, born at Schoeneck. 

In 1858 she became the wife of Peter Herman and moved to Bethle- 
hem in 1881. 

29. Julia Ann Witmeyer, m.n. Maier, 1805-90, from Bushkill, Northamp- 

ton Co. Her husband, John George Witmeyer, died in 1868, and 
she spent 22 years in widowhood, living in a little stone house on 
Rubel's Alley, near the site of the first house. 

30. Belinda Keller, m.n. Sigley, 1834-90. She united with the Church in 

1884. 

31. Susan Townsend, m.n. Leibert, 1819-91, born at Upper Milford, Lehigh 

Co. In 1846 she married W. Henry Townsend of Emaus, who died 
in 1871. 

32. Maria Huettig, m.n. Klotke, 1821-92, born at Croste, near Bautzen, 

Saxony. In 1851 she married John Huettig and emigrated with him 
to America. 

33. Anna Schaefer, m.n. Luckenbach, 1811-93. In 1842 she was united 

in marriage with Solomon Schaefer of Nazareth, and resided at 
Nazareth until twelve years before her death. Her son Eugene at 
one time was principal of the Moravian Parochial School. 

34. Juliana S. Bealer, m.n. Rauch, 1815-94, daughter of J. Fred. Rauch. 

She was married to Amos Bealer, who died in 1870. 
" There shall be no night there." 

35. Caroline Hottel, m.n. Barndt, 1811-95, born in Saucon Township. In 

1846 she became the wife of Michael Hottel and, in 1879, joined 
with him the Moravian Church. 

36. Joseph Mortimer Levering, D.D., 1849-1908, a bishop and a gifted 

preacher and leader of the Moravian Church. He was the son of 
Lewis and Sophia Houser Levering, of W. Salem, 111. After gradu- 
ating from the Moravian College and Theological Seminary in 1874, 
he served as pastor of the churches at Uhrichsville, O., Lake Mills, 
Wis., and from 1883-1901 at Bethlehem. He was furthermore 
elected a member of the Provincial Elders Conference and its presi- 
dent; he also presided at several Provincial Synods. His chief 
literary work was the monumental history of Bethlehem, published 
in 1903. In 1876, he married Martha Whitesell of Bethlehem, who 
with two daughters survived him. 

37. Reuben William Clewell, 1819-95, a cabinet maker by trade. After 

marrying Jos. Smith, of Easton, he removed to Bridgeboro, N. J., 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 153 

but returned to Bethlehem in 1881. The following year he was 
severely injured by an explosion at the works of the Bethlehem 
Iron Co. 

38. George Francis Oerter, 1869-93, youngest son of the Rev. Albert 

Oerter. He was a clever draughtsman, but very diffident. Through 
illness be became melancholy. 

39. John Louis Eysenbach, 1819-93, born at Eberstadt, in Hesse-Darm- 

stadt, Germany. He emigrated to America in 1850 with his wife, 
Kath. Kron. During the war, in 1863, he became a nurse in the 
Hospital in Philadelphia. For this work he received ordination as 
a Deacon and for a short time served as chaplain. After the war 
he worked at his trade, but continued to take an active interest in 
the promotion of spirtual life. 

40. Elwood Dayton Cortelyou, 1874-92, son of William L. Cortelyou, 

born at Stroudsburg, Pa. 

41. Harvey William Clewell, 1889-91, son of Leander Clewell, residing 

at Reading. 

42. George Wilhelm, 1887-89, son of George M. Wilhelm. 

" How many hopes lie buried here." 

43. Robert J. Fahs, 1887, son of James Fahs. 

44. Paul A. Wilhelm, 1887, son of George Wilhelm. 

45. Albert Ernest Neuman, 1885, son of Julius Neuman of South Beth- 

lehem. 

46. Walter Forest Mack, 1883-84, son of John Mack. 

47. Elmer S. Clewell, 1882-83, son of Leander Clewell, died at Reading. 

48. Harvey J. Beidleman, 1882. 

49. Walter H. Bryant, 188 i. 

50. John A. and Edwin S. Mack, 1880-81, twin sons of John Mack. 

Row VI. — Children, Women — Men. 

1. Lilly E. Fradeneck, 1869-70, daughter of Emilius Fradeneck. 

2. Stadiger's still-born, 1871. 

3. Olivia M. Benner, 1871, daughter of Edwin Benner. 

4. Anna S. Engle (Engel), 1871-72, daughter of F. J. Engle. 

5. Gertrude Kluge, 1873. 

6. Gerlach's infant, 1874. 

7. Clara S. Schaefer, 1874-75, daughter of Wilson Schaefer. 

8. S. I. Deremer, 1876. 

9. Flora O. Smith, 1875-77, daughter of Adam Smith. 

10. Katharine E. Koch, 1878, daughter of Adam Koch. 

11. Anna L. Freudenberger, 1876-79, daughter of Andrew Freudenberger. 

12. Anna L. Bray, 1876-80, daughter of Henry Bray. 



154 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

13. Lillie J. Wolf, 1875-80, daughter of Joseph Wolf. 

14. Mary J. Mack, 1874-80, daughter of John, died of pneumonia. 

15. Sarah E. Clewell, 1881, daughter of Leander Clewell. 

16. Emma C. Neuman, 1880-83. 

17. Mary Anstaett, nee Benner, 1831-85, born in Lower Saucon. In 1869 

she was married to Michael Anstaett, who died in 1880. She was a 
member of the church in South Bethlehem. 

18. Mary Sigley, m.n. Stuber, 1809-86, born at Salzburg, Lehigh Co. Her 

husband, John Sigley, died in 1854. She lived at Bethlehem until 6 
years before her death, when she removed with her son-in-law, A. S. 
Kreiter, to Sharpsburg, Pa. 

19. Sophia Catharine Heine, m.n. Hesse, 1801-86, born at Untertriebe, 

Saxony; was married to John C. Heine in 1829. Coming to America 
in 1840, they first settled in Wayne Co., Pa., but soon removed to 
Bethlehem. Her husband died in 1858. 

20. Susan Groner, 1859-86. She was born in Butler Valley, Luzerne Co., 

and was adopted by Chas. Sigley. In 1885 she married Oscar Groner 
of Bethlehem. 

21. Henrietta Fradeneck, m.n. Cassler, 1810-86. She was confirmed at 

Nazareth, and after marrying Gilbert V. Fradeneck, in 1834, con- 
tinued to live at Nazareth for 16 years. Her husband died in 1864. 
She was very industrious and energetic. 

22. Emma Louisa Schaefer, 1854-86, born at Pleasant Valley. In 1882 

she removed to Easton to live with her brother, being crippled with 
rheumatism. 

23. Caroline Henrietta Brunner, 1856-86, daughter of Henry Brunner 

of Nazareth; confirmed at Bethlehem. Since 1884 she held a position 
in a Philadelphia factory and was killed by an explosion of dust. 

24. Mary Sophia Oerter, m.n. Lichtenthaeler, 1809-87. In 1835 she be- 

came the wife of the Rev. Lawrence F. Oerter. She served with him 
in the mission on Barbadoes and St. Kitts, and later in some churches 
in the States, as also on the Island of Jamaica. Two sons, Albert 
and Edmund, entered the ministry. 

25. Elizareth Heck, m.n. Becker, 1811-87, from Heinsbach, Bavaria. She 

came to this country, in 1834, with her husband, William Heck. In 
consequence of the death of a child, her mind suffered such a shock 
that she was taken to the county Hospital near Nazareth, where she 
spent the last 27 years of her life. 

26. Josephine Clewell, m.n. Smith, 1824-88, born at Wipperny, N. J. In 

1823 she married Reuben Clewell at Easton. 

27. Elizabeth Hufschmidt (Huffsmith), m.n. Schupp, 1845-88, from Plea- 

sant Valley, Monroe Co. She was the wife of Jeremiah Hufschmidt, 
and joined the church in 1883. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 155 

28. Mary McCarty, m.n. Overbeck, 1891-88, born in Springfield Town- 

ship, Bucks Co. Her husband, Andrew E. McCarty, kept the Anchor 
Hotel in West Bethlehem. After his death in 1863 she was con- 
firmed. She attained the age of 87 years. 

29. Joanna Caroline Rice, m.n. Paulus, 1801-90, eldest and last surviving 

of the six daughters of Chr. G. Paulus. In 1826 she married John 
Rice and lived with him for forty-two years. After his death, in 
1868, she moved into the Bell house. She was in good health almost 
to the last, attaining the age of 89 years. 

30. Sarah Ann Hesse, m.n. Yost, 1841-90, born at Friedensville, Lehigh 

Co. In i860 she married Anton Hesse and united with the church 
in 1866. 

" Die Liebe horet nimmer auf." 

31. Mary Hortense Yost, m.n. Peifer, 1836-91, born at Bethlehem, second 

wife of Samuel Yost, to whom she was married in 1875. 

32. Mary Ann Ruedeman, 1825-92. Her parents who came from Switzer- 

land died while she was yet a child. She was adopted into the 
family of the Rev. Lewis D. de Schweinitz, and later lived in the 
Sisters' House. She " went about doing good," ministering to the 
sick and bereaved. 

33. Elizabeth Siegfried, m.n. Burns, 1832-93, born at Pottsville, Pa. Be- 

ing left an orphan, when quite young, she lived in different families, 
until, in 1851, she was married to Reuben Siegfried, an employe of 
J. Lewis Doster. For many years afterwards she was an efficient 
and popular nurse. 

34. Lydia Jarret, m.n. Jones, 1803-94, Dorn on the Jones farm, east of 

Bethlehem. After the death of her husband, Solomon Jarret, she 
removed to Bethlehem and, having united with the Moravian 
Church, in 1849, she ever remained a loyal and devoted member, 
particularly also in her attendance at divine worship. 

35. Louisa Gerlach, m.n. Weber, 1821-95, from Bucks Co. In 1843 she 

married Lewis Gerlach, who died three years before her. She was 
an active woman and spiritually minded. 

36. Joseph Hark, M.D., 1819-1910, born at Niesky, Germany, and a college 

graduate, came to America to accept an appointment as teacher at 
Nazareth Hall. Later he studied homoeopathy and became a prac- 
ticing physician. After his wife's death, he made his home with one 
of his children, especially with Dr. J. Max Hark, of the Moravian 
Seminary. Though deaf in his old age, his mental faculties re- 
mained remarkably fresh and his disposition was cheerful and kind. 
He attained the age of 91 years. 



156 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

37. George Roth, 1833-95, a carpenter, son of John Roth. In 1879 he 

and his wife joined the Moravian Church. He was a skillful work- 
man and a consistent Christian. His only daughter married the Rev. 
E. A. Leeper. 

38. Frederick William Lelansky, 1815-94, born at Kleinwelka, Saxony. 

Coming to Bethlehem in 1853, with his wife Joanna C, m.n. Domcke, 
he found employment in the zinc works, but later became paralyzed 
on the left side. From 1858 to 1890 he held the position of janitor in 
the Moravian Parochial School. 

39. John Michael Huettig, 1814-94., from Rodewitz, near Bautzen, Sax- 

ony, a locksmith by trade. He came here in 1851, with his wife, 
Maria, m.n. Klotke, and for 30 years worked in Beckel's foundry. 

40. Philip Henry Gapp, 1820-94, from Nassau, in Germany. After serv- 

ing his country as a soldier, and receiving an honorable discharge 
as corporal, he came to America in 1847. Here he was first Colpor- 
teur for the American Tract Society, then began evangelistic work 
among the Germans in Philadelphia and neighborhood, and, in 1864, 
was appointed minister of the churches at Palmyra and Riverside, 
which he organized. He continued in active service until 1888. In 
1865 he married Anna Sperber. 

41. Peter Laub, 1823-93, born at Petersville, this County. His first wife, 

C. Rogers, having died, he married the widow Cath. Weiss. He be- 
came a member of the Moravian Church in 1879. 

42. George C. Haller, 1887-90, oldest son of John J. Haller, deceased. 

43. Thomas H. Jacoby, 1880-89, son of Ch. Augustus Jacoby. 

44. Edwin T. Benner, 1886-87, f rom West Bethlehem. 

45. John B. Brusie, 1884-85, son of Ford Brusie. 

46. Robert H. Ruede, 1884, son of Edward Ruede. 

47. Ernest Henry Neuman, 1884, son of Julius Neuman. 

48. Eugene Wilhelm, 1882, son of George Wilhelm. 

49. Eugene H. Jacoby, 1881, son of Eugene Jacoby. 

50. William E. and Lilly E. Ruede, 1881, twin children of Edward Ruede. 

Row VII. — Children, Women — Men. 

1. Irene S. Maloy, 1864-70, daughter of Henry Maloy. 

2. Beata Van Kirk, 1870, daughter of Benjamin Van Kirk. 

3. Mary Jane Christ, 1868-72, daughter of Samuel Christ. 

4. Mary J. Fradeneck, 1872, daughter of Emilius Fradeneck. 

5. Adelaide J. Shaefer, 1873, daughter of Wilson Shaefer. 

6. Sutton's infant daughter, 1874. 

7. Amelia M. and Lillie M. Koch, 1875, twin daughters of Adam Koch. 

8. Christine B. Meyers, 1875-76, daughter of James Meyers. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 157 

9. Lucy E. Bachman, 1874-77, and Helen Bachman, 1870-77, children 
of the Rev. Henry T. Bachman, pastor of the Moravian Church. 
Both died of diphtheria. 

10. Anne Grace Reinke, 1876-78, daughter of the Rev. C. L. Reinke. 

11. Beata Greider, 1879. 

12. Bertha M. Henn, 1880, daughter of Marlon Henn. 

13. Neylia Rebecca Fradeneck, m.n. Poe, 1864-89, born at Allentown; 

wife of George Fradeneck, to whom she was married at Camden in 
1888. 

14. Beata Lewis, 1881, infant daughter of Ellen Lewis. 

15. Beata Huettig, 1882, daughter of Henry Huettig. 

16. Edith C. Beckel, 1884-86, daughter of Lawrence Beckel, died in Phila- 

delphia. 

17. Elsie F. Fahs, 1885-86, daughter of James Fahs. 

18. Gertrude M. Fahs, 1882-86, daughter of James. 

19. Adeline L. Shaefer, 1886, daughter of Wilson Shaefer. 

20. Emma C. Haller, 1885-86, daughter of John Haller. 

21. Mabel A. Fradeneck, 1887-88, daughter of William Fradeneck. 

22. Helen E. Wolf, 1887-88, daughter of John H. Wolf. 

23. Charlotte L. Hunt, 1888-89, on ly child of Edward Hunt. 

24. Beata Betge, 1889, daughter of Adolph Betge. 

25. Esther J. Ward, 1887-89, daughter of the Rev. Henry Ward, born on 

the island of Tobago, W. I. 

26. Louisa Shaefer, 1889-90, daughter of Wilson Shaefer. 

27. Aline C. Jacoby, 1891, daughter of C. A. Jacoby. 

28. Edith L. Detterer, 1890-92, child of the Rev. Fred. Detterer. 

29. Julia Frederica Eysenbach, 1851-95, born in York, Pa. She was one 

of the first Sunday-school teachers in Laurel Street Chapel, and a 
faithful leader in Christian Endeavor work. 

30. Ellen Lord de Schweinitz, m.n. Lord, 1855-96, from Montrose, Pa., 

wife of Bernard A. de Schweinitz. She was a granddaughter of 
Lucretia Mott of anti-slavery fame. 

31. Louisa Walter, 1815-96, daughter of Joseph Walter, born in the 

Walter homestead, on Fountain Hill, South Bethlehem. At the age 
of 20 years, in 1836, she became an inmate of the Sisters' House and 
had her home there for 60 years. She served in many households as 
nurse. 

32. Helen Elizabeth Lynn, m.n. Heck, 1845-96, daughter of William 

Heck; born at Hopedale, Pa. She taught in the Moravian Parochial 
School. In 1871 she became the wife of Alfred Lynn, and removed 
with him to Arkansas, but returned after a short season. Four years 
before her death she had a paralytic stroke. 



158 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

33. Ellen Elizabeth Wuensche, m.n. Kreider, 1838-97, born at Lititz. 

After teaching at Linden Hall Seminary for eleven years, she, in 
1870, became the second wife of the Rev. J. E. Wuensche, and 
served with him in the pastorate of the congregations at Emaus, 
Utica, South Bethlehem and Hopedale. 

34. Agnes Clara Frueauff, m.n. Frueauff, 1816-97, born at Gross Hen- 

nersdorf, Saxony, where her father, the Rev. F. R. Frueauff, con- 
ducted a Moravian school for the nobility. She was educated at 
Zeist, Holland, and after teaching in England, was, in 1836, married 
in London to her cousin, the Rev. Eugene A. Frueauff. They served 
together with signal blessing and great success in the principalship 
of Linden Hall Seminary, Lititz, from 1838-55, and again from 
1867-73. Between the years 1855-67 her husband was Administrator 
of the Estates of the Church. He died in 1879. She was very active, 
cheerful and a devout church-member, and her mental faculties 
remained unimpaired to the end. 

35. Frederica Louisa Schoeneberger, m.n. Vognitz, 1821-96, daughter of 

F. B. Vognitz. In 1841 she was married to Michael Schoeneberger. 
They lived for many years at Colesville, near Friedensville, Lehigh 
Co. Her husband died in 1890. 

36. Anton F. Hesse, 1831-1910, from Crottendorf, in the Erzgebirge, Sax- 

ony, came to America in 1852 and soon after made his home in 
Bethlehem,, where, in i860, he married Sarah Anna Yost. Besides 
being a skillful book-binder, he took an active interest in national, 
educational and church affairs, rendering service in various positions 
which he held. 

"Selig durch Gnade." 

37. Gustav Atjolph Spatzier, 1836-96, born at Seifhennersdorf, Saxony, 

emigrated in 1857 to Bethlehem; removed to Jeffersonville, Ind., 
but returned to Bethlehem in 1864. He was a shoemaker by trade, 
but for many years worked in the Zinc Works, and later in the Beth- 
lehem Iron Works. In 1859 he married C. A. Praeser. He was a 
good workman and a very faithful attendant at divine worship. 

38. Christian Haller, 1821-96, born at Drossingen, Wurtemberg. He was 

by trade a mason and emigrated to America, when 24 years old. He 
married Cath. Gallmeyer, and removed to the Lehigh Mountain, 
where he resided for 30 years. 

39. Samuel Benjamin Clewell, 1822-96, born in Upper Saucon Town- 

ship, Lehigh Co. He was apprenticed to the shoemaker Charles 
Tombler, and followed his trade throughout life. In 1845 he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Tombler, who died in 1891. He was much interested 
in the cause of temperance. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 159 

40. Herman Albright Brickenstein, 1834-95, born at Emaus, where his 

father, the Rev. John C. Brickenstein, was pastor. He studied for 
the ministry, and after teaching at Nazareth Hall, was pastor of the 
churches at Olney and at Brooklyn. In 1864 he was appointed Pro- 
fessor in the Moravian College and, three years later, Editor of The 
Moravian. In 1873 he became Principal of the Linden Hall Semi- 
nary at Lititz, and in this position especially displayed his excellent 
educational gifts and graces. The death of his wife, Susan, m.n. 
Shultz, and failing health compelled him to close his eminently suc- 
cessful labors in 1892. He underwent a medical operation in Ger- 
many and returned to Bethlehem, where he departed. 

41. Beatus Steinmiller, 1894, son of William A. Steinmiller. 

42. John J. Haller, 1889-90, youngest child of J. J. Haller. 

43. Edmund A. Neuman, 1889-90, son of Julius Neuman. 

44. George F. Benner, 1885-86, son of Edwin Benner. 

45. Harold W. Jacoby, 1878-84, son of Augustus C. Jacoby. 

" God's finger touched him and he slept." 

46. Warren W. Jacoby, 1884, son of A. C. Jacoby. 

47. Samuel R. Shaefer, 1883-84, born at South Easton. 

48. Forest L. Benner, 1882, son of Edwin Benner. 

49. Robert R. Jacoby, 1881-82, son of A. C. Jacoby. 

50. Otto Martin Borbonus, 1880-81, died at Reading, Pa. 

SECTION G. 

Row I. — Little Boys. 

1. Albert G. Kleckner, 1836-43, son of Peter Kleckner. 

" O thou art fled — but saints a welcome sing, 
Thy youthful spirit soars on angels' wing: 
Our dark affection might have hoped thy stay, 
The voice of God has called His child away." 

2. Witmeyer's still-born, 1843. 

3. Huth, infant son of John Huth, 1843. 

4. Samuel Yost, 1821-1905. He kept a store, for many years, on Church 

St., Bethlehem. He was first married in 1842 to Mary H. Vognitz 
and after her death, in 1872, married Mary H. Pfeiffer. After 
retiring from business, he made his home with his son, Samuel 
Yost, Jr. 

5. Henry Joseph H. Luckenbach, 1843-44, son of Reuben Luckenbach. 

6. Clement R. Bealer, 1844, son of Amos Bealer. 

7. James F. Brietz, 1843-45, son °* Samuel Brietz, born at Salem, N. C. 



160 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

8. F. and H. Oppelt, still-born, 1845. 

" Our dear little twins." 

9. Beatus Krause, 1845, infant son of Levin Krause. 

10. James H. Siegfried, 1842-45, and Jacob Siegfried, 1841-45, sons of 

Daniel Siegfried. 
n. George Clauss, 1845, son of David Clauss. 

12. Edward C. Lehman, 1846, son of Ernest Lehman. 

13. John Z. Upchurch, 1847, from South Bethlehem, son of John Upchurch. 

14. Edward H. Yohe, 1846-47, son of the landlord Caleb Yohe. 

15. Henry T. Shultz, 1844-47, born in Philadelphia, son of the Rev. 

Henry A. Shultz. 

16. Henry M. Grosh, 1847, son of Abraham Grosh. 

17. Samuel H. Clewell, 1848, son of Sylvester Clewell. 

18. Moulton J. Krause, 1848, son of Levin Krause. 

19. Tilghman F. Bush, 1839-49, son °f William Bush. 

" Ere sin could blight, or sorrow fade, 
Death came with friendly care, 
The opening bud to heaven conveyed, 
And bade it blossom there." 

20. William A. Beear, 1848-49. 

21. W. Miller's infant son, 1849. 

22. Francis S. Williams, 1848-50. 

23. Henry A. Luckenbach, 1849-50, son of Henry B. Luckenbach. 

24. Samuel F. Doster, 1846-50, son of Lewis Doster. 

25. Eberhard Filbig, 1849-51, born in New York City. 

26. John Perkin, 1781-1834, M.D., died in Philadelphia; remains re- 

moved to this grave, by the side of his son. 

27. George Washington Perkin, 1818-93, eldest and last surviving son of 

Dr. John Perkin of Philadelphia; a great reader and a man of 
scholarly attainments. He taught school, had charge of the Mora- 
vian Bookstore in Philadelphia, and later kept store for himself. He 
was well versed in the Hebrew Bible. In 1847 he married J. A. 
Schmidt, who preceded him to the grave. 

28. Chester C. Yohe, 1844-51, Caleb Yohe's son. He was drowned in the 

Lehigh River. 

29. Jacob Zorn, 1843-52, born at Fairfield, Jamaica, a posthumous son of 

the missionary Rev. J. Zorn. 

30. Franklin H. Huth, 1850-52, a son of John Huth. 

" Ich war ein kleines Kindelein 
Geborn auf diese Welt, 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 161 

Aber mein Sterbens Stundekin 

Hat mir Gott bald gestellt. 
Ich weisz gar nichts zu sagen 

Was Welt ist, und ihr Thun, 
Ich hab in meinen Tagen 

Nur Not gebracht davon." 

31. Francis Kampman, 1851-52, son of Rev. Lewis Kampman; born at 

Gnadenhiitten, O. 

32. Beatus Doster, 1852, son of Jacob Lewis Doster. 

33. Theodore C. Luckenbach, 1847-53, son of Reuben Luckenbach. 

34. Eugene H. Krause, 1852-53, son of Levin Krause. 

35. Milton C. Hinkel, 1851-54, son of Charles Hinkel. 

36. Clarence A. Leibert, 1854, son of James Leibert. 

37. Henry T. Miksch, 1854, Levin's son. 

38. Edwin Zelotes Manuel, 1853-54, son or Edward Manuel. 

39. Lewis Christian Boehler (Bealer), 1836-97, one of the pioneer settlers 

of West Bethlehem, and widely known as a pump-maker. He was 
twice married. 

40. Horace Dixon Held, 1854-55, son or Julius Held. 

41. J. Philip Schmich, 1854-55, infant son of J. Peter Schmich. 

42. Edwin M. Cassler, 1854-55, Matthew Cassler's boy. 

43. Alfred T. Ludwig, 1856, son of the missionary Rev. Ludwig. 

44. Charles A. Van Kirk, 1855-56, son of Benjamin Van Kirk. 

" Beneath this stone in sweet repose 
Is laid a mother's dearest pride, 
A flower that scarce had waked to life 
And light and beauty, ere it died. 

" God in His wisdom has recalled 

The precious boon His love had given; 
And though the casket moulders here, 
The gem is sparkling now in heaven." 

Row II. — Mostly Little Boys. 

j. Frederick William Oppelt, 1802-42, born at Fairfield, Canada, where 
his parents served as missionaries among the Indians. He was a 
turner and chair-maker, and was the first husband of Eliza A. Carey, 
the later Hohlfeld — Richardson — Yoder. 

2. Israel Lewis Luckenbach, 1827-42, born in Bethlehem, a son of 

William Luckenbach. 

3. Henry Christian Pfeiffer, 1808-44, gardener in the Boarding School. 

He was born near Bethlehem, was baptized in 1826, and in 1830 
married Anna Clewell. 



162 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

4. David Weinland, 1760-1844, born at Gnadenthal; a stocking-weaver 

by trade. In 1790 he married Cath E. Luckenbach and took charge 
of the congregation farm. He also served the Church many years 
as a musician and as a member of the Board of Trustees. 

5. William A. Freitag (Friday), 1839-45, s ° n of J°bn Freitag, died of 

scarlet fever. 

" Darling sweet, beloved child, 
Docile, friendly, meek and mild, 
Hast thou swiftly winged thy flight 
Up to realms of endless light?" 

6. James O. Schneller, 1845, son of Charles Schneller. 

7. Ormond T. Whittemore, 1845, son of James Whittemore. 

8. William Henry Smith, 1845. 

9. Beatus Clewell, 1846. 

10. Henry H. Gold, 1843-46, died at Quakertown. 

" Dear parents, if you could but hear 

The golden harps around me singing, 
You would not shed a single tear, 

But join the song which we are singing. 
'Twould make you long from earth to flee, 
And seek the radiant home with me." 

u. Owen J. Rice, 1846, son of William Rice. 

12. Samuel B. Stahr, 1846, son of John Stahr. 

13. Henry M. Schober, 1843-46, born in Philadelphia. 

14. Edward B. Boyce, 1794-1849, born in New Jersey; unmarried; for 

many years stage-driver between Bethlehem and Philadelphia. 

15. John F. Weber, 1847, son of John C. Weber. 

16. Edward A. Seidel, 1845-47, son of Charles Seidel. 

17. Edwin C. Hinkel, 1846-48. 

18. James A. Hauck, 1845-49, son of Nicholas Hauck. 

19. John S. Bleck, 1843-49, and Charles A. Bleck, 1841-49, children of 

the Rev. Charles A. Blech; both died of "inflammatory croup." 

" They were lovely and pleasant in their lives, 
And in their death they were not divided." 

20. Jacob Hess, 1849, son of Jacob Hess. 

21. Beatus Miller, 1849. 

22. J. Dietrich Ilion, 1850, son of John Ilion. 

23. Josiah Weston Thwaites, 1841-50, born on the Island of Antigua, W.I. 

24. Daniel Decker, 1859-60, from South Bethlehem. 

25. John H. Knauss, 1850-51, son of Godfrey Knauss. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 163 

26. James L. Fenner, 1850-51, son of Felix Fenner. 

27. Oliver F. Freytag, 1848-51, son of John Freytag. 

28. Edward J. Frick, 1867, son of Lewis Frick. 

29. Bernard A. Salathe, 1844-52, son of Ernest Salathe. 

30. William H. Huth, 1845-52, son of John Huth. 

31. Beatus Reck, 1852, infant son of G. H. Reck. 

32. Beatus Milchsack, 1852, infant son of George Milchsack. 

33. Beatus Luckenbach, 1853, son of Timothy Luckenbach. 

34. Augustus W. Clewell, 1853-54, William ClewelPs son. 

35. David J. Albright, 1853-54, son of Reuben Albright. 

36. Horace E. Rauch, 1853-54, son °f Ambrose Rauch. 

37. Gustavus Herman Reck, 1854, son of G. H. Reck. 

38. Beatus Hildebrand, 1868. 

39. Beatus Grosh, 1855. 

40. William R. Cargill, 1854-55, son of Valentine Cargill. 

41. Fernandus M. Luckenbach, 1855, son of John A. Luckenbach. 

42. Henry B. Kaucher, 1852-56, William Kaucher's child. 

43. Sandford S. Schultz, 1855-56, son of Charles Schultz. 

44. James C. Manuel, 1855-56, son of Edward Manuel. 

Row III. — Men and Boys. 

1. Samuel Lewis Knauss, 1810-42, a carpenter, worked at his trade in 

different places, and, in 1835, married Jane Thomas of Cumberland 
Co., N. J. They moved to Bethlehem in 1837. 

2. David Peter Schneller, 1787-1842, born at St. Johns, Antigua. In 

18 14 he married Catharine Bauer, and their union was blessed with 
five sons. For some years he was a teacher in the Parochial School ; 
later he had a bakery. 

3. Reuben Shantz, 1822-44, f rorn Saucon, Northampton Co.; single. 

4. Owen Joseph Rice, 1820-46, son of Joseph Rice. After his father's 

death he lived in the family of his uncle, Owen Rice. He was a 
merchant. 

5. John Oestreicher, 1801-46, born at Alsheim, near Worms, Germany; 

married to Marietta Murat. He came to Bethlehem in 1840, and 
was in the employ of the Rev. Philip H. Goepp. 

6. Isaac Fenner, 1821-46, a shoemaker, from Bucks Co., Pa. He was 

married to Sarah Lee. He was no church member. 

7. William Fenner, 1823-47, a shoemaker, born at Springfield, Bucks Co. 

8. John Gottlieb Schneller, 1828-48, a son of Charles Schneller, born at 

Bethlehem. 

9. Emanuel Rondthaler, 1815-48, pastor of the Moravian church in 

Philadelphia. He was born at York, studied theology, and after 



164 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

teaching at Nazareth Hall, served as a minister in Camden, N. Y., 
and, since 1844, in the city of Philadelphia. He married Maria 
Wolle, of Bethlehem, and had five daughters. 

10. Henry Christian Kuester, 1805-49, Dor n at Hardegsen, Hannover; a 

shoemaker. He married Lisetta Clewell. 

11. Adam Buehler, 1785-1849, from Seckenheim in the Palatinate; was 

married to Barbara Yundt. 

12. John Weber, 1769-1849. He was born in Bethlehem and lived here 

all his life. He was a tailor by trade. His first wife, Mary Fetter, 
died in 1801. From his second, Elizabeth Brunner, he had one son 
and one daughter. For 18 years he was head-sacristan, and very 
faithful and punctual in the performance of his duties. 

13. Daniel Lawall, 1775-1850, born in Bethlehem Township. In 1805 he 

was married to Eliz. Rothrock, and had charge of the Lehigh bridge. 

14. Daniel Breder, 1827-50, unmarried, a carpenter; not a church member. 

15. James Alexander Rice, 1814-50, born in Bethlehem; merchant. In 

1838 he married Josephine C. Leibert, who bore him two sons and 
two daughters. One son, the Rev. W. H. Rice, D.D., became a 
distinguished preacher and pastor in the Moravian Church, having 
served already as army chaplain in the Civil War; the other son, 
Joseph A., was a prominent merchant of Bethlehem, besides doing 
efficient work as a trustee of the Moravian College and a leader in 
church affairs in general. 

16. John Frederick Stadiger, M.D., 1804-51, born at Nazareth. He be- 

came a physician and married Mary Jones, leaving two sons. He 
died at Perkiomen, Pa. 

17. John Sebastian Goundie, 1775-1852, from Oftersheim, in the Palati- 

nate. He had a brewery. In 1804 he married Cornelia E. Andress, 
m.n. Wagner. 

18. Abraham Augustus Witmeyer, 1829-52, single. In 1850 he enlisted 

in the United States Navy, but was soon discharged, being sick with 
consumption. 

19. George Schneider, 1795-1853. Thrice married. His first wife was 

Agnes Renzheimer; his second Eliz. Hillman; his third Marg. 
Duedlein. 

20. William Henry Wolle, 1810-53, oldest son of John F. Wolle, born 

near Nazareth; died of consumption. 

21. William Kaucher, 1822-53, Dor n in Salisbury Township, Lehigh Co. 

His wife's name was Amelia Loesch. 

" He spoke of heaven, of Jesus' love, 
Of death he felt no fear, 
And gladly left for realms above 
His sorrowing partner here. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 165 

Meet me in heaven ere long, he cried, 
And with a sweet adieu then died." 

22. William Abraham Zoller, 1832-54, born at Graceham, Md., son of 

Henry Zoller, the oil-miller. 

23. John Sigley, 1813-54, born in Lower Saucon; carpenter and musician; 

married Mary Stuber. 

" Inscribed and dedicated to their departed friend and asso- 
ciate by the members of the Bethlehem Brass Band." 

24. William Mathias Weiss, 1827-55. After marrying Cath. Hildt, in 

1849, he moved to Catasauqua, but later returned to Bethlehem. 

25. Herman T. Weiss, 1855-56, infant son of Julius N. Weiss. 

26. Beatus Doster, 1856, son of Lewis Doster. 

27. Fr/ncis W. Becker, 1856-57, son of John Becker. 

28. John J. Held, 1852-57, son of William Held. 

29. John Ehrig, 1864-79. 

30. Charles F. B. Van Kirk, 1856-57, son of Benjamin Van Kirk. 

31. Frederick Jonas Karte, 1843-57, Dorn at Zittau, Saxony, son of Louis 

Karte. 

32. Peter J. Ehman, 1857, son of Philip Ehman. 

33. Herman O. Folkmar (Volkmar), 1857, son of Carl Volkmar. 

34. Henry P. Anstaett, 1856-57, died at Allentown. 

35. Frank E. Shultz, 1856-57, son of Israel Shultz of Easton. 

36. Samuel J. Peysert, 1857-58, son of Robert Peysert. 

37. Charles E. Snyder, 1850-58, from Philadelphia. 

38. Abraham E. Cargill, 1852-58, son of Valentine Cargill. 

39. William R. Perkin, 1857-58, son of George W. Perkin. 

40. John E. Becker, 1857-59, John Becker's son. 

41. Levin T. Goth, 1858-59, son of Anton Goth. 

42. William G. Christ, 1858-59, son of Samuel Christ. 

43. Paul O. A. Betge, 1858-59, son of Gustav Betge. 

44. Edward V. Gold, 1857-59, born at Chestnuthill, Philadelphia. 

Row IV. — Men. 

1. Lewis Schmidt, 1807-42, born at Allentown; unmarried. 

2. John Jungman, 1749-1843, son of John George Jungman, the Mora- 

vian missionary among the Indians. He learned several trades, 
such as potter and carpenter, served as a mail-carrier, and for 16 
years held the office of " forest ranger " at Bethlehem. In 1799 he 
superintended the clearing of the mission land at Gnadenhutten, 
Ohio. His wife, Dorothea Schmidt, died in 1807, and left him a 
widower for 31 years. He attained to the age of 93 years, and was 
at the time of his death the oldest member of the Church. 



166 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

3. John Christian Till, 1762-1844, born at Gnadenthal. His parents 

served in the ministry and died at Bethel, on the Swatara, Pa. His 
great musical talent was recognized and developed by Rev. Simon 
Peter, and in 1785 he began to teach in the Bethlehem school. 
Having, in 1793, married Elizabeth Frey> of Hope, N. J., he served 
as teacher and organist of that church until its abandonment in 1808. 
Afterwards he made musical instruments, and since 1811, for 33 
years, was the faithful and efficient organist of the Bethlehem 
Church. His wife died in 1838. 

4. Joseph Walter, 1789-1846, from Forks Township, this county. In 

1811 he married Anna Luckenbach. 

5. Samuel Luckenbach, 1778-1846, born at Upper Saucon; came to Beth- 

lehem in 1792. In 1801 he married Sarah Chitty. He was a black- 
smith and, for 30 years, " forest ranger " ; father of C. Augustus 
Luckenbach. 

6. Frederic S. Ehrig, 1866-68, son of David Ehrig; was drowned in 

Luckenbach's mill race. 

7. Ozias Rossam Tyler, 1813-48, born in Bridgewater Township, Susque- 

hanna County, Pa. 

8. Timothy Weiss, 1800-48, a carpenter. Moved with his wife, m.n. 

Huebner, to Mauch Chunk, where he was killed by a piece of wood 
striking his head. 

9. John Peter Kluge, 1768-1849, born at Gumbinnen, Prussia. From 

1794 to 1800 he served as a missionary among the Arawack Indians 
in Surinam, S. A., next among the North American Indians on the 
White River, Ind., and later as minister in various home churches of 
North Carolina and Pennsylvania. His first wife, A. M. Rank, died 
in 1820, at Graceham, Md. ; his second, Eliz. Eyerly, in 1827, at 
York, Pa., his third, Mary E. Albrecht, in 1842, at Bethlehem. 

10. Lewis Christian Kluge, 1808-60, a son of the Rev. John Peter Kluge, 

born at Bethabara, N. C. He was a shoemaker by trade, and was 
married to Rebecca, m.n. Yost. 

11. Edward Rice, M.D., 1813-49, studied theology and medicine. From 

1830-37 he practiced medicine at Lititz; became a Deacon in the 
Episcopal Church; returned to the Moravian Church and was pro- 
fessor in the Theological Seminary from 1839-49. He died of small- 
pox. His wife was Juliana Augusta Eberman. 

" Litterarum lumen, terrarum tenebris obumbratum, nobis eripuit et 
in gloriam suam receptum salvum fecit Dominus." 

12. John Frederick Stadiger, 1767-1849, born at Koenigsberg, Prussia. 

He came here in 1797, was ordained Deacon and, in 1802, appointed 
warden of the church estate at Nazareth, later at Hope, N. J., and 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 167 

since 1808 at Bethlehem, where he continued in this office until 1837. 
He was married to Susan E. Bage. 

13. John Frederick Bourquin, 1762-1850, born at Gumbinnen, Prussia. 

He came to Bethlehem in 1800, and married Sus. Schmidt, who died 
in 1839. He was a cabinet maker and a musician. 

14. George Miller, 1808-50, from Williams Township, near Easton. He 

was married to Phoebe Kimball. 

15. Jacob Opp, 1821-50, son of John Opp, born at Springfield, Bucks Co. 

His wife's name was Caroline Rau. He married in 1847 and had 
one son. 

16. Emil Frederick Stolzenbach, 1837-51, a son of Jacob Stolzenbach. 

17. Aaron Hillman, 1775-1852, born at Smithfield, Monroe Co. He had 

been married to P. A. Koken and, after her death, to Sarah Koken, 
who died in 18 17. He came to Bethlehem with his third wife, E. 
Moeller, and was employed as farmer for the Girls' Boarding School. 

18. Daniel Steinhauer, 1785-1852, born in Wales, England; followed his 

brother, the Rev. Henry Steinhauer (B, III, 17), to America. He 
taught school at Zanesville and Newark, O., in Philadelphia and 
Lancaster, as well as at Nazareth Hall, and for a few years in 
Jamaica, West Indies. Since 1847 he assisted in the Bethlehem 
Boarding School. His first wife was Emma Mercer, and the second 
Margaret Sessing. 

19. Eugene Alexander Jacobson, 1834-53, Dorn at Bethany, N. C, son of 

the Rev. J. C. Jacobson. He was an invalid. 

20. John Levin Hillman, 1835-53, born at Nazareth. 

21. Lucius Quincy Luckenbach, 1829-53, a son of William B. Lucken- 

bach; clerk in a store. 

22. Abraham Luckenbach, 1777-1854, born at Upper Saucon. In 1800 he 

became a missionary among the Indians, as assistant of the Rev. J. 
P. Kluge on the White River Reservation, Indiana. Returning in 
1806, he was appointed assistant missionary at Goshen, Ohio, and in 
1810 at Fairfield, Canada. In 1813 he married Ros. Heckedorn who 
bore him two daughters. From 1820-43 he had sole charge of the 
mission at Fairfield and then retired to Bethlehem. He published 
Scripture narratives and hymns in the Delaware language. 

" Welapensitschik englvikik Nihillalquonkunk eli angellichtit — 
wentschitsch allachimuichtit untschi omikemosowoagano wawunk." 
— Rev. 14: 13. 

23. John David Whitesell, 1805-54, born at Friedensthal, near Nazareth. 

In 1831 he married Juliana Diehl. 

24. Edwin Benjamin Krause, 1834-55, unmarried, a son of John and 

Elizabeth Krause. 



1 68 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

25. Ashbel Green Harned, 1817-81, at one time a Presbyterian minister at 

Pittston, Pa., and later Principal of an Academy. His wife, Catha- 
rine Fatzinger, preceded him to the grave. His daughter was mar- 
ried to Albert Kampman. He died in Philadelphia and the body 
was brought here for interment. 

26. Ernest Lewis Lehman, 1806-57, born at Friedensthal, St. Croix, 

where his parents were engaged in mission work. He attended the 
academy at Niesky, Prussia, and learned the trade of coppersmith; 
came here in 1830, and founded the Lehigh Valley Brass Works. He 
married Angelica S. Paulus. He was an expert French horn player. 

27. Charles Herman Stuetzner, 1819-57, from Saxony, Germany. 

28. John Jacob Kummer, 1782-1857, born at New Herrnhut, St. Thomas. 

After marrying Mary Horsfield, of Bethlehem, in 1813, he moved to 
Bethabara, N. C, but returned in 1819, and for nearly 19 years 
taught in the Bethlehem Parochial School. 

29. John Christian Warner, 1786-1858, born at Bethlehem. He married 

Martha Mcjilton (McGilton) of Philadelphia and left four children. 

30. Joseph Leibert, 1780-1858, born at Emaus. In 1806 he married 

Rebecca Nitschmann of York, Pa., the granddaughter of Martin 
Nitschmann, one of the Gnadenhutten, Mahoning, martyrs. She 
died in 1828 leaving two children, James and Josephine. For 30 
years he was a widower. 

31. William Gerhard Neisser, 1796-1859. He was married to Francisca 

Boehler. Toward the end of his life he became melancholy. 

32. Andreas Benade, 1769-1859, Episcopus Fratrum, born at Kleinwelka, 

Saxony; came to America in 1795, as teacher at Nazareth Hall. In 
1799 he was appointed Principal of the Bethlehem Boarding School. 
After 13 years' service here, he was called to Lititz, and, in 1822 as 
pastor to Salem, N. C. In that year he was also consecrated a 
Bishop. In 1836 he was made President of the "Provincial Helpers' 
Conference " at Bethlehem, which position he held until the Synod 
of 1848, when he retired. He was a prominent pulpit orator. He 
attained the age of 90 years. 

33. Frederick William Woehler, 1795-1860, from Stadthagen, Schaum- 

burg-Lippe, Germany. He was a shoemaker and married Apollonia 
Eggert. He was suffocated by escaping coal gas. 

34. Richard Emil Hillman, 1826-60, born at Nazareth. He was a physi- 

cian. In 1850 he married Juliana Shimer and the following year 
moved to Bethlehem to practice medicine. 

35. John Frederick Wolle, 1785-1860, born at Bethany, St. Jan, Danish 

West Indies, where his parents served as missionaries. He was a 
merchant, living at Nazareth, Belfast, Jacobsburg and Bethlehem. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 169 

He married Sabina Henry. Two of his sons, Sylvester and Francis, 
and two of his daughters, Maria Rondthaler and Elizabeth Shultz, 
entered the service of the Church. 

36. Joseph Rice Luckenbach, 1836-60, born at Bethlehem, bookkeeper for 

Jacob Rice, unmarried. 

37. Heinrich Anstaedt (Anstatt), 1783-1860, born at Jocinet in the Palati- 

nate. He married A. Maria Jesse and came to America in 1830. 
His wife died in 1844. 

38. Benjamin Eggert, 1792-1860, a cabinet-maker. In 1819 he married 

Mary E. Freytag. He was an esteemed and prominent member of 
the Church and of the community. 

39. John Jonathan Bishop, 1787-1860, born at Bethlehem. His first wife 

was A. S. Clewell, who died in 1851 ; his second wife was the widow 
L. D. Kuester, m.n. Clewell. 

40. Charles Frederick Seidel, 1778-1861, born at Radeberg, near Dresden, 

Saxony. He studied theology, taught at Gnadenfeld, Silesia, and 
in 1806 received a call as assistant minister at Salem, N. C. In 
1809 he married Sophia D. Reichel, and served as Principal of Naza- 
reth Hall, as minister at Bethlehem, and for 14 years as Principal of 
the Moravian Seminary for Young Ladies, until the Synod of 1836. 
Later he was elected a member of the Provincial Helpers' Confer- 
ence, and retired in 1855. 

41. Joseph Babb (Bapp), 1816-61, from Lower Saucon. He was married 

to Christiana Mason. 

42. Edmund Lehr, 1816-62, born at Allentown, married to Angelina Lucas; 

moved to Bethlehem in 1861. 

43. James B. Harris, 1841-62, son of Abraham Harris, lost his life in the 

great freshet of the Lehigh River, on June 5, 1862. 

44. Jacob Rice, 179 3-1 8 62, a merchant. He opened the second store in 

Bethlehem trading in his own name, and was " a man of great and 
wholesome influence in his day and generation." He also gave 
generous support to all the charitable enterprises of the Church. 
He was married to Sarah A. Peter and had two daughters, married 
respectively to Rev. Sylvester Wolle and Rev. A. A. Reinke. 

Row V. — Men. 

1. John Adam Luckenbach, 1761-1842, born at Upper Saucon, baptized 
in 1780. In 1781 he married M. M. Becker who bore him 8 sons and 
6 daughters. He lived to see 89 grandchildren and 50 great-grand- 
children. He was first farmer south of the Lehigh, then toll collector 
at the bridge. 



170 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

2. William Y. Chamberlain, 1807-43, born near Washington, New 

Jersey, married to Henrietta P. Luch. He came to Bethlehem in 1829 
and found employment in the saw mill. 

3. William M. Horsfield, 1770-1845;, son of Timothy Horsfield; married 

to Reb. Weiss. He kept store at Nazareth, Bethlehem and Emaus 
until 1825, when returning to Bethlehem he built himself a house. 

4. John Eberhard Freytag, M.D. (Freitag), 1764-1846, born at Halber- 

stadt, Germany. He studied medicine at Barby and Halle, Germany, 
and at the Synod of 1789 was called to America. He came to 
Bethlehem in 1790 and for 56 years was a practicing physician of 
this town. He was thrice married ; first to Cath. Jacobson, who died 
in 1796, next to Christine Oliver, who died in 18 18, and lastly to 
Salome Fetter of Salem, N. C. He was a devout and conscientious 
Christian. 

5. John Jones Lange, 1829-1847, a son of Christian Lange; shoemaker; 

unmarried. 

6. Christian Knauss, 1778-1847, son of Leonhard Knauss, a carpenter; 

he married Mary Hauser. 

7. Joseph Mahlin Rose, 1795-1848, born in Philadelphia, died at Easton. 

He was married to Rosina Kremser. 

8. George David Weinland, 1827-48, son of Samuel Weinland. 

" How sweetly sinks the soul to rest 
By mild religious sunbeams blest, 
Which, having acted well in this, 
Departs to share a world of bliss." 

9. Frederick Fuehrer, 1768-1849. He had charge of the ferry boat on the 

Lehigh River until the bridge was built, and later was a farmer. 
His wife's maiden name was Anna B. Knauss. 

10. Joseph Fuehrer, 1800-49, son of Frederick Fuehrer. He was married 

in 1829 to Salome Herwig, and was a farmer and auctioneer. 

11. John C. William Schoenheinz, 1822-49, born at New York City. 

12. C. August Wilhelm Maerker, 1828-50, a carpenter, from Ebersdorf, 

Germany. 

13. Alfred Ricksecker, 1822-50, son of John Ricksecker of Bethlehem; a 

baker, sickly; a good musician. 

14. John David Luckenbach, 1783-1850, born at Lower Saucon. In 1804 

he married Maria Clewell, who bore him 10 children. For 35 years 
he managed the farm south of the Lehigh. 

15. Joseph Jones Hagy, 1816-51, born at Lower Merion, Montgomery Co., 

near Philadelphia; unmarried; not a church member. 

16. William Richardson, 1791-1852, from Montgomery Co.; was in busi- 

ness in Philadelphia. He moved here in 1851 with his wife, the 
former widow Eliza Ann Oppelt. He was an invalid. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 171 

17. Jacob Christian Luckenbach, 1784-1852, born near Bethlehem, a 

locksmith by trade. In 1811 he married Susan Heckewelder, and 
became the father of 4 sons and 3 daughters. He held various 
offices in the Moravian congregation and was much interested in 
improving the appearance of the town and its neighborhood. 

18. William Henry Van Vleck, 1790-1853, Episcopus Fratrum. He was 

one of the three students, with whom the Moravian Theological 
Seminary opened in 1807, and he subsequently served as pastor of the 
churches in Philadelphia, Nazareth and New York. In 1836, after 
having been consecrated a bishop, he was called to Salem, N. C, as 
pastor and president of the Provincial Helpers' Conference. In 1848 
he attended the General Synod at Herrnhut. Lastly he was pastor 
of the Church at Bethlehem. He was especially noted for punctu- 
ality and faithfulness. 

19. Charles David Bishop, 1784-1853, born in Bethlehem. His first wife 

Anna Schneckenburg died in 1849. Her son Gilbert became a mis- 
sionary among the Cherokees. In 1852 he took for his second wife 
Dorothea Siegmund. He was for many years in the Board of Trus- 
tees, also an Elder and School Director, and for a time steward in 
the Boarding School. He was superintendent of the water-works 
and noted for his mechanical skill. 

20. Matthew Brown, 1794-1853; married to Magdalena D. Miller; a 

faithful sacristan and for many years a member of the Board of 
Trustees. 
2i. William Frederick Knauss, 1838-53, a youth of 15 years, son of God- 
frey Knauss. 

22. Samuel Ricksecker, 1788-1854, a shoemaker. In 1815 he married A. 

J. Beitel of Schoeneck, and lived for 20 years at Nazareth, for 7 
years at Filetown near Schoeneck, and for 7 seven years in Boston, 
Mass. He moved to Bethlehem in 1851. 

" Dear as thou wert and justly dear, 
We will not weep for thee, 
One thought shall check the starting tear, 
It is that thou art free." 

23. Edward Rondthaler, 1817-55, born at York, Pa. He studied theology 

and was minister of the congregations at Schoeneck, Graceham and 
Philadelphia. In 1854 he became Professor in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Nazareth, where he died. His wife, m.n. Sarah Louisa Rice 
of Bethlehem, preceded him to the grave. Their son Edward be- 
came a minister and Bishop of the Church. 

24. Owen Rice, 1787-1856, born at Nazareth. He was married first to M. 

R. Vierling and then to A. C. Schropp. His second wife died at 



172 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Catasauqua. In 1818 he represented the Bethlehem Church at the 
General Synod of the Moravian Church. 

25. Samuel Schultz, 1794-1857, born at Salem, N. C, a farmer. He was 

married to M. C. Peisert. 

26. Dr. Abraham Lewis Stout, 1793-18 57, born in Williams Township, 

Bucks Co., baptized 1829 in Bethlehem. In 18 14 he married A. M. 
Miner of Doylestown, who died in 1855. 

27. William Eberman, 1787-1857, born at Lancaster, Pa. In 1825 he was 

called to the mission service in the West Indies. Returning from 
there in 183 1, he became warden of the church at Lititz and, later, 
minister at Hope, Indiana. From 1841-49 he was steward of the 
Sisters' House and Widows' House at Bethlehem, and later again 
he served as warden at Nazareth. He was three times married, his 
first wife being Caroline Lembke, his second Charlotte Lembke and 
his third A. R. Oehme. 

28. Charles Matthew Kafka, 1770-18 57, born at Dresden, Saxony, a 

shoemaker by trade. He served in Napoleon's army, and took part 
in the battle of the Pyramids in Egypt and in the Russian campaign. 
After Napoleon's deposition he came to America and married the 
widow A. Rosina Neisser, m.n. Beckel. 

29. John Christoph Heine, 1794-18 58, from Untertriebe, near Plauen, 

Saxony. He served in the German Army against Napoleon, having 
joined the famous "Luetzow Corps," and fought in the battles of 
Leipzig and Waterloo. In 1829 he married Cath. Sophia Hess, and 
ten years later came to Bethlehem. He lost his life through an acci- 
dent in a sand pit. 

" Boast not thyself of to-morrow, for thou knowest not 
what a day may bring forth." 

30. Theodore Eberhard Freytag, 1837-58, son of Daniel Freytag; un- 

married. He departed this life at Mendota, 111., whence the body 
was brought to Bethlehem. 

31. Nephege's child, 1869. 

32. John Godfrey Herbst, 1822-59, DOrn m Philadelphia, lived at Bath 

and Easton, and taught in the Public school. He was married to 
Mary Leech. 

33. William Matzenbach, 1814-60, from Frankford-on-the-Main ; a single 

man. 

34. Asher Miner Stout, 1822-60, a son of Dr. Abr. L. Stout. He was a 

lawyer by profession. 

35. William Augustus Grosh, 1831-60, born at Lititz, a carpenter; mar- 

ried to Sarah B. Boehler. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 173 

36. Jacob Lewis Doster, 1796-1860, from Niederhofen, Wiirtemberg; came 

to Bethlehem in 1817 and founded a dyeing establishment for colored 
dyes. He also operated a saw-mill and established a large woolen 
factory. He was an energetic and enterprising business man, who 
gave many persons employment. His wife, m.n. Pauline L. Eggert, 
bore him 16 children, viz., 11 sons and 5 daughters, but the majority 
of them died in infancy. 

37. Joseph Luckenbach, 1782-1860, a widower. He had been married to 

Rachel Frute and, after her death, to Salome Kiefer, who died in 
1842. 

38. Philip Gold, 1793-1860, married to Salome C. Weinland. He spent the 

last years of his life in Philadelphia. 

39. Andrew E. McCarty, 1812-61, from Bucks Co. He was a Catholic, 

and was married to Mary Overbeck. 

40. William Harrison Haus, 1 841-61, born at South Easton. He went 

out with the three months' Volunteers of the First Regiment, and, 
after completing his service, died on his way home at Parkton, Md., 
of" a fever. 

" Soldier rest, thy warfare o'er, 
Dream of battlefield no more, 
Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking 
Morn of toil, nor night of waking." 

41. Adolph Goth, 1833-61, a married man, born at Schoenlinde, in 

Bohemia. 

42. William Zoellner, 1804-62, from Hanover Township, Lehigh Co., a 

carpet-weaver ; married to Susan Deily. He died of smallpox. 

43. Robert Turner, 1804-62, born at Armagh, Ireland. He joined the 

Moravian Church in Philadelphia, and married Isabella McClatchy. 

44. William Oliphant Bartlett, 1842-63, a son of Nathan Bartlett of 

this place. 

" Earnest, hopeful, and truthful in life, 
Frank, generous and kind-hearted toward his acquaintances, 
And loving and affectionate to his parents and friends, 
He was beloved by all." 

SECTION H. 
Row I. — Little Boys. 

1. Beatus Stadiger, 1872. 

2. Louis H. Frederick, 1859, son of Jacob Frederick. 

3. Beatus Bleme, 1868. 



174 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

4. James Jenkins, 1860-61, born at Elizabethtown, son of James Jenkins. 

5. Edmund Kampman, 1861, a son of Rev. Lewis F. Kampman. 

6. William Rickert, 1861, son of Charles Rickert. 

7. A. Siegmund Goth, 1859-62, son of Adolph Goth, born at Schoenlinde, 

Bohemia; was drowned in the canal. 

8. Julius T. Weiss, 1861-62, son of Julius N. Weiss. 

9. Disinterred. 

10. Edward S. Fradeneck, 1862, son of Albert Fradeneck. 

11. George W. Mies, 1863, son of Gottlieb Mies. 

12. Gustav A. Goth, 1863, son of Anthony Goth. 

13. Roy Edward F. Beckel, 1878-79, son of C. Edw. Beckel. 

14. Elmer A. Kleckner, 1861-63, son or Valentine Kleckner. 

15. Beatus Leibert, 1864, infant son of Richard Leibert. 

16. Charles F. Stone, 1860-65. His father was absent from home in the 

army. 

17. Harrison E. Pearson, 1865, son of Franklin Pearson. 

18. Harvey E. Lawall, 1866, son of A. J. Lawall. 

19. Charles W. Fahs, 1866, son of James Fahs. 

20. Frederick H. Breder, 1868, son of Cyrus E. Breder. 

21. Henry M. Stone, 1868, son of Samuel Stone. 

22. Beatus Luckenbach, 1869. 

23. Herford S. Benner, 1869, son of Edwin Benner. 

24. Julius G. Mack, 1870. 

25. W. Adolph Gugatsch, 1866-70, son of Adolph Gugatsch. 

26. Maurice F. Witmeyer, 1865-70, son of Francis Witmeyer. 

27. Arthur J. Stone, 1870, Samuel's child. 

28. Joseph H. Reichert, 1870, son of Thomas Reichert. 

29. Frederick W. Malthaner, 1870-71, Henry Malthaner's son. 

30. Beatus Miksch, 1871, infant son of Jacob Miksch. 

31. Joseph W. Toole, 1871-72, son of Israel Toole. 

32. Henry W. Fahs, 1872, son of W. H. Fahs. 

33. Elmer F. Fradeneck, 1872, son of Emilius Fradeneck. 

34. John M. Milchsack, 1871-73, son of George F. Milchsack. 

35. John A. Lawall, 1874. 

36. Charles L. Jaehne, 1870-74, born in New York; died while here on a 

visit to his grandparents, Carl Wagner and wife. 

" Es ist bestimmt in Gottes Rat, 
Dass man vom liebsten, das man hat, 
Muss scheiden." 

37. Beatus Wetzel, 1875. 

38. Arthur C. Beckel, 1875-76, son of Charles N. Beckel. 

39. William H. Clewell, 1875-76, son of Benjamin Clewell. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 175 

40. Beati Riegel, 1876, twin children of Edward and Virginia Riegel. 

41. Robert C. Levering, 1877, son of Arthur Levering. 

"Lovely, bright, chaste as morning dew, 
It sparkled, was exhaled, and went to heaven." 

42. Beatus Steyer, 1877. 

43. Irwin T. Geissinger, 1871-78, born at Allentown, son of Clayton 

Geissinger. 

44. William J. Neuman, 1879, born at Allentown, son of Julius Neuman. 

45. Emil C. Bryant, 1879, son of William Bryant. 

46. Carson P. Spogen, 1877-79, s °n of Anthony Spogen. 

47. Arthur C. Van Billiard, 1879-80, born at Easton, son of Monroe Van 

Billiard. 

48. James T. Bray, 1875-80, and Charles H. Bray, 1878-80, children of 

Henry and Sarah Bray. 

49. Paul H. Wollmuth, 1876-81, son of Charles Wollmuth. 

Row II. — Little Boys. 

1. Herman Meinhart, 1858-59, from Bristol, Pa. 

2. Beati Steiner, 1859, twin children of Samuel Steiner. 

3. Albert C. Schmid, i860, son of Charles Schmid. 

4. Samuel H. Eckert, 1856-61, born in Philadelphia, son of Jacob Eckert. 

5. William H. Krause, 1861, son of Levin Krause. 

6. William H. Schmid, 1861-62, son of Charles Schmid. 

7. Francis A. Overpeck, 1855-57. 

8. William Henn. ( ?) 

9. Francis L. Dinnich. ( ?) 

10. Cornelius Wm. Hesse, 1860-63, son of Anton Hesse. 

11. William Maharg, 1863, son of William Maharg. 

12. Marcus J. Wolf, 1862-63, son of Joseph Wolf. 

13. Francis E. Belling, 1863, Sylvester Belling's child. 

14. John C. Karte, 1856-64, son of Frederick Karte. 

15. Beatus Leinbach, 1864, infant son of Dr. Augustin Leinbach. 

16. Paul Polster, 1855-65, from Jersey City, adopted by Adolph Gugatsch. 

17. John H. Stone, 1865, son of Samuel Stone. 

18. Beatus Hagen, 1866. 

19. George A. Breder, 1867, son of Cyrus E. Breder. 

20. Samuel A. Bealer, 1868, son of Julius A. Bealer. 

21. Eugene Herman Huettig, 1855-68, son of John Huettig. 

22. Disinterred. 

23. Granville A. Schupp, 1860-69, born at Chestnut Hill, Monroe Co., son 

of Levi Schupp. 



176 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

24. Louis F. Beckel, 1864-70, son of Charles N. Beckel. 

25. Harry F. Fahs, 1865-70, son of James M. Fahs. 

26. William H. Sigley, 1870, son of Owen Sigley. 

27. Richard Wm. Heberling, 1869-70, William Heberling's son. 

28. Henry O. Koch, 1871, Adam Koch's child. 

29. Edward P. Fahs, 1870-71, son of James M. Fahs. 

30. Josiah Transue, 1825-97, born in Nockamixon Township, Bucks Co., 

Pa.; a cabinet maker and turner. In 1850 he married Sarah L. 
Christ. After living for many years in the " Gemeinhaus " they re- 
moved, in 1884, to West Bethlehem. 

31. Beatus Stoneback, infant son of William Stoneback. 

32. Henry F. Riegel, 1866-72, son of Benjamin Riegel. 

33. William J. Koch, 1872, son of Adam Koch. 

34. Harry Sutton, 1873, son of Jesse Sutton. 

35. John H. Fahs, 1873-74, son °f Allan O. Fahs. 

36. Joseph P. Fahs, 1874, son of James M. Fahs. 

37. William H. Vogler, 1874, son of Rev. W. H. Vogler in Philadelphia. 

38. Robert J. Meyers, 1874-75, son of James Meyers. 

39. John C. Jacoby, 1876, son of Eugene Jacoby. 

40. Francis David Schneller, 1819-95, born at Bethlehem; a baker and 

tinker by trade. In 1844 he married Sarah E. Krause. 

41. Stewart E. Weber, 1875-77, son °* J onn Weber. 

42. Beatus Daily, 1877, infant son of Lorenzo Daily. 

43. Edmund J. Eastwick, 1889-90. 

44. Abraham A. Reinke, 1870-78, born at Chaska, Minn.; son of the Rev. 

C. L. Reinke. 

45. Beatus Koch, 1879. 

46. Albert P. Styers, 1876-79, son of William Styers. 

47. Thomas A. Luckenbach, 1879-80, son of Augustus Luckenbach. 

48. Frederick S. Engle, 1878-80, son of F. J. Engle. 

49. Walter H. Wollmuth, 1880-81. 

" Ruhe in Frieden." 

Row III. — Boys and Men. 

x. Henry C. Boyd, 1859, son of A. R. Boyd, born at Catasauqua. 

2. George A. Goth, 1857-60, son of Anthony Goth. 

3. Benjamin Henry Riegel, 1836-1907, a son of George and Sarah 

Riegel, joined the Bethlehem Moravian Congregation in 1864. His 
wife Lavinia, m.n. Lynn, departed this life in 1884. 

4. Otto M. Volkmar, 1859-61, son of Carl Volkmar. 

5. William Johnson, 1868. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 177 

6. David Franklin Zoellner, 1854-62, died of smallpox, a son of William 

Zoellner. 

7. James O. Becker, 1851-62, son of John Becker. 

8. Emil F. Betge, 1861-62, son of Gustav Betge. 

9. Edwin S. Van Kirk, 1862, son of Benjamin Van Kirk. 

10. George H. Welsh, 1860-63, a mulatto child, son of Robert Welsh of 

South Bethlehem. 

11. Morris T. Luckenbach, 1862-63, son of Thomas Luckenbach. 

12. William T. Leinbach, 1863, Dr. Augustin Leinbach's child. 

13. Jacob Overpeck, 1863, son of Edward Overpeck. 

14. Alfred J. Luckenbach, 1862-64, son of James H. Luckenbach. 

15. Beatus Witmeyer, 1864. 

16. William E. Fahs, 1861-65, son of Allen O. Fahs. 

17. Otto Meyer, 1865-66. The father, L. Otto Meyer, boarded at the 

Eagle Hotel. 

18. Owen S. Kreiter, 1866-67, son of Aaron Kreiter. 

19. William H. Knes, 1863-68, son of John Knes. 

20. Henry Palmer Osborne, 18 11-68, born at Hope, N. J. He married, in 

1834, Emily C. Paulus, and after her death, in 1847, Charlotte 
Clewell. He had five children of his first marriage and six of the- 
second. 

21. John Heckewelder Rice, 1816-68, born at Nazareth. In 1840 he mar- 

ried Clarissa Mies, who bore him 5 children. In 1861 he enlisted in 
the service of his country as lieutenant of the Eleventh Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, and served for two years, when failing health 
compelled him to resign his commission. 

22. John Henry Eberman, 1832-68, born at Lititz, Pa.; son of Rev. 

William Eberman (G, V, 27). He studied theology, taught at 
Nazareth Hall, and was minister at West Salem, 111. He married 
Anna Senseman. In consequence of domestic troubles he exchanged 
the service in the Moravian Church for that in the Lutheran, and 
died at Schuylkill Haven, Pa. 

23. Ehrenfried R. Martin Linke, 1809-70, born at Neudietendorf, Saxe- 

Coburg-Gotha. He went out as a missionary to the Danish West 
Indies in 1840, and served until 1855. After returning to the States, 
he was in the following year appointed minister at Schoeneck, where 
he served for 4 years. He was married to Caroline Warner. 

24. Amos Bealer (Boehler), 1809-70; son of William Boehler. In 1837 

he married Juliana Rauch. He was a tailor by trade. For a number 
of years he was an invalid. 

25. Benjamin Wilhelm, M.D., 1816-70, born at Konigsfeld in Baden, 

Germany. He came to Bethlehem in 1845, and married Frederica 



178 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Paulus of this town. He was a well known physician. His wife 
died on April 16, 1870, and he followed her on July 13 of the same 
year. 

26. Louis Ferdinand Levering, 1810-70, born at Lititz, youngest son of 

Abraham Levering. He was married to Barbara C. Lambert, and 
their union was blessed with 13 children, 8 sons and 5 daughters, of 
whom, however, but three sons and two daughters survived their 
father. In 1847 he moved to Lancaster and in 1867 to Bethlehem. 

27. George Leander Winkler, 1848-70, born at Salem, N. C. He learned 

the art of printing and in 1867 entered the Moravian College and 
Theological Seminary, with a view to studying for the ministry. He 
died at the College. 

" And Jesus beholding him loved him." 

28. John Christian Jacobson, 1795-1870, born at Burkall, near Tondern, 

Sleswig. He studied theology in Germany, and having accepted a 
call to this country served successfully as pastor and principal at 
Bethany and Salem, in North Carolina, and at Nazareth. From 
1849-67, for 18 years, he was President of the Provincial Board of the 
Moravian Church. In 1854 he was consecrated a Bishop. He mar- 
ried, in 1826, Ann Lisette Schnall. A son became professor in the 
Moravian College, and a daughter married the Rev. Edw. Rond- 
thaler. 

29. Joseph Newby Eberman, 1829-70, born in Antigua, the son of Rev. 

William Eberman. He was weak-minded and helpless. By the in- 
scrutable dispensation of God he continued to live for nearly 50 
years, being tenderly nursed by his devoted mother. 

30. Sylvester Allen Transue, 1853-71, a house painter, son of Josiah 

Transue. He had a diseased leg, which finally necessitated an 
amputation. 

31. Julius Schrader, 1821-71, from Hurte, Brunswick, Germany. In emi- 

grating to America, his ship was wrecked on the coast of South Car- 
olina. His wife was Susan A. Thomas who bore him 4 children. 

32. Louis Frederick Beckel, 1826-81, a leading merchant and talented 

musician, son of Chas. F. Beckel. He was married to Caroline 
Eberman, a daughter of the Rev. Wm. Eberman. 

33. Philip Henry Goepp, 1798-1872, born at Gnadenfrei. He studied 

theology and taught in the Moravian Theological Seminary at Gna- 
denfeld. In 1834 n€ accepted a call to this country, being appointed 
Administrator of the Unity's Estate, and a member of the Provincial 
Helpers' Conference. In 1861 he resigned and, returning to Ger- 
many, spent nine years at Stuttgard, where his wife died. After 
coming back to America, he resided with his son Charles on Staten 
Island, where he died. Goepp Street was named after him. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 179 

34. Gustav Adolph Spatzier, 1860-72, born at Jeffersonville, Indiana; a 

son of Gustav Spatzier. 

35. Peter Anton, 1799-1872, born at Wesele Berg, in Bavaria, of Roman 

Catholic parents. He emigrated in 1829, and, having settled near 
Bethlehem, he was converted through a tract sent him by Sarah 
Horsfield. He joined the Moravian Church in 1848. 

36. John Bernhard Spiegler, 1806-73, from Neudietendorf, Germany. 

He came to Bethlehem in 1865. He followed the trade of dyeing and 
weaving. 

37. John Christian Malthaner, 1810-73, born at Leonbrunn, Wurtem- 

berg. He came to this country in 1828 and became well-known as a 
manufacturer of pianos. With his wife, Kath. Schoenheinz, he had 
8 children. 

38. Alfred Bonthron Lind, 1818-94, born in Jamaica, West Indies. He 

was educated in England and, in 1847, entered the mission service 
in Jamaica. In 1852 he married Elizabeth Oates. For some years 
he was a member of the Directing Board of the Moravian Church on 
that island. He retired from office in 1891 and, in 1894, came to the 
States with his wife, on a visit for recreation, being an invalid. 

39. George Charles Schneller, 1790-1874, son of Rev. Geo. Schneller, of 

St. Kitts. He married Mary Brown, who bore him 13 children, six 
of whom preceded their father to the grave. 

40. William Bush, 1799-1875, born at Reading. He was twice married, 

first to E. Hall, then to M. Breder. 

41. William Cornelius Reichel, 1824-76, born at Salem, N. C. He taught 

at Nazareth Hall and in the Bethlehem Parochial and Boarding 
Schools. From 1858-62 he was professor in the Theological Semi- 
nary and later a successful principal of Linden Hall Seminary at 
Lititz, Pa. In 1870 he again accepted a position as professor in the 
Bethlehem Boarding School. He also was a voluminous and skillful 
writer of local history. After the death of his first wife, m.n. Gray, 
he was married to A. Harkins. 

42. James A. Peiffer, 1838-77. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he en- 

listed in the Union Army and served with distinction until 1865, 
rising to the rank of sergeant. In 1866 he married R. Reif, but his 
health broke down and he was removed to a Military Asylum in 
Virginia, where he died. 

43. Henry Augustus Bigler, 1837-78, born in Philadelphia, second son of 

Bishop David Bigler; was here on a visit from New York; died of 
consumption. 

44. Eugene Alexander Frueauff, 1806-79, born at Lititz, studied at 

Nazareth and in the Theological Seminary at Gnadenfeld, Germany. 



180 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

He served the Church with zeal and faithfulness as warden and 
administrator of estates belonging to the Moravian Church as such, 
but especially as principal of the Moravian School at Lititz, which 
office he held twice. He attended the General Synods of 1836 and 
1857. He was married to his cousin Agnes Frueauff of Zeist, Hol- 
land. The union was blessed with three sons and one daughter. 

45. Peter Kleckner, 1807-79, from Lehigh Co., joined the Church in 1830. 

He was married to Caroline George and died after a protracted 
illness.. 

46. Charles Frederick Beckel, 1801-80; first a watchmaker; began and 

successfully carried on a large foundry. Since his 14th year he was 
a member of the Moravian church choir and, for 53 years, of the 
corps of trombonists. He was also, for more than 30 years, Secre- 
tary of the Board of Trustees, and for six years burgess of Bethle- 
hem. With his wife, Charlotte Brown, he celebrated their golden 
wedding in 1873. 

47. Charles E. Grosh, 1859-80, son of William Grosh. He was injured in 

a railroad accident and died at St. Luke's Hospital. 

48. Orville Augustus Grider, 1832-88. He was in the army from 1861 

1862, as lieutenant of Co. C, of the 129th Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers. Afterwards he married E. C. Smith of Nazareth, who 
died in 1870. He worked as a baker and confectioner at Bethlehem, 
Allentown and Brooklyn. 

49. Maurice Charles Jones, 1810-81, born in London, England, spent a 

portion of his youth in Wales and came to the United States in 1826. 
After attending the Theological Seminary at Nazareth, he studied 
medicine with Dr. A. L. Stout. Though lame and walking on 
crutches he generally acted as visitors' guide. With his wife, m.n. 
Agnes Willey, he had one son and one daughter. 

Row IV.— Men. 

1. John Frederick Rauch, 1786-1863, born at Lititz. He was a member 

of the Board of Trustees and an Elder of the Church, also treasurer 
of the Home Mission Society. His first wife was Sus. Beckel who 
died in 1811; his second wife, M. C. Toon, died in 1857. 

2. Jonathan K. Taylor, 1842-63, son of David H. Taylor of Bethlehem. 

He went into the war as Captain of Co. C, Bethlehem Volunteers of 
the 129th Regiment, received a mortal wound at the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, on December 13, 1862, and died in the Hospital at 
Georgetown, D. C. 

3. Christian Jacob Wolle, 1788-1863, born at Bethania, St. Johns, W. I. 

His first wife, M. Luch, having died a short time after their mar- 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 181 

riage, he married Eliza Horsfield. He had charge of the Sun Hotel 
until 1824, when he moved into the J. Heckewelder house on Cedar 
street, and became a Justice of the Peace and Notary Public. He 
was also a botanist and a good musician. His daughter married the 
Rev. F. Holland. 

4. Robert Daniel Ross, M.D., 1826-63, a Cherokee, born in Tennessee. 

He studied at Princeton and in Philadelphia and became a physician 
and councilor among the Cherokees, but was obliged to leave his 
home on account of the war. 

5. Eugene Cassler, 1848-66, son of Joseph Cassler, born at Bushkill, this 

county; not a member of the Church. 

6. John Bloom Vail, 1839-64, from Albany, N. Y., a Quaker. He mar- 

ried Maria Eckert of Philadelphia and in 1863 entered the United 
States Navy. 

7. Herman Kunze, 1836-68, born at Schoenlinde in Bohemia; a married 

man. 

8. Copeland Boyd, 1789-1864, born near Reading. He married Laetitia 

Horsfield, moved to Bethlehem and established a paper mill. 

9. George Haus, 1795-1864, from Reading; twice married, first to Eliza 

Jones, and again, in 1839, to Lizette Daubert. 

10. William Cornelius Peiffer, 1832-64. He married Eliz. Reder. His 

wife preceded him to the grave in i860. 

11. George Charles Rieser, 1834-64 born in Nazareth Township. He 

taught in the Bethlehem Public School and married E. L. Stolzen- 
bach. 

12. Samuel Junghans, 1827-64, born at New Herrnhut, St. Thomas. He 

was a tailor and came from Germany in 1855, settling first at Hope- 
dale, Pa. His wife was Christine Ruppert of New York. 

13. John Daniel Freytag, 1793-1864, a son of Dr. Freytag. He was for a 

time a merchant in Philadelphia. His wife, Euphemia A. Tombler, 
died in 1840. 

14. Henry Joseph Oerter, 1827-64, born in Bethlehem, married to Magd. 

Bloss. In 1853 he moved with his family to Moravia, Iowa, but re- 
turned in 1806, and settled below Freemansburg, this county. Dur- 
ing the war he served with distinction as Captain of a company of 
Volunteers and was wounded in the battle of Gettysburg. In the 
night of November 29 he was killed by persons unknown and his 
body thrown into the canal. One son, William H., entered the 
ministry. 

15. Gilbert Vincent Fradeneck, 1809-64, born at Mt. Bethel, this county; 

a shoemaker by trade, and, for 10 years, a constable. In 1834 he 
married Henrietta Cassler, of Nazareth. 



182 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

16. John Henry Stolzenbach, 1802-65, born at Homburg, Hessen. He 

came to Bethlehem in 1834, with his wife Anna Eliz., m.n. Vogel, 
and became janitor in the Young Ladies' Seminary. He also served 
for a quarter of a century as organ-blower and bell-ringer in the 
church. 

17. William Louis Brown, 1818-65, son of Matthew Brown; married to 

Phoebe A. Bleck ; for a time a merchant, and for the last eight years 
of his life an efficient teacher in the Moravian Parochial School. 

18. John Andrew Kremser, 1791-1865, a tanner, born at Nazareth. He 

married Susanna Bauer and for many years lived at Rittersville. He 
was survived by four daughters. 

19. Herman Lawrence Stadiger, 1810-66, born at Bethlehem, a son of the 

church warden, Rev. John Frederick Stadiger. He married, in 1842, 
Sophia Shelly, and was a tinsmith by trade, living at Friedensville 
until 1864. 

20. Johann Gottlieb Volkmar (alias Fuehrman), 1797-1868, a weaver 

from Seifhennersdorf, Saxony; a widower. He emigrated in 1856, 
and died after prolonged sufferings from poverty and sickness. 

21. Job Wolston Rose Pharo, 1826-66, born at West Creek, N. J.; an ex- 

pert bricklayer. He married Cordelia Levers of Bethlehem, who 
died in 1863. He was baptized on Easter of 1865. 

22. Charles Reichert, 1828-66, born in Lower Saucon Township, a farmer. 

He was survived by his wife, m.n. Frick. 

23. Charles F. Lott, M.D., 1781-1866, born at Princeton, N. J., a physi- 

cian; lived here in retirement. He died at Quakertown, Pa. 

24. Henry Jung, died in 1869, aged about 50 years. He was a journeyman 

tailor. 

25. Charles B. McCarty, 1838-67, son of Andrew E. McCarty; a soldier 

during the Rebellion, in the 46th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
he rose to the rank of sergeant major. 

26. Jesse William Lynn, 1810-68, born in Lower Saucon, a tailor; came to 

Bethlehem in 1855. He was married three times. With his first wife 
he had six children ; with the second, one. He married the third in 
1863. 

27. Christian Frederick Witmeyer, 1804-68, born at Sindelfingen, Wiir- 

temberg; a blue dyer; came to Bethlehem in 1818. He was unmar- 
ried. Having had the misfortune of losing a leg, he came to live 
with his married brother, and the two remained together for 37 years, 
until the day of their death. 

28. John George Witmeyer, 1797-1868, brother of Christian F. Witmeyer; 

came to America with him in 1818. In 1823 he married Maria Hall, 
who died after two years. He joined the Moravian Church, together 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 183 

with his second wife, Juliana Maier, in 1827. For 23 years he was 
an invalid from the effects of rheumatism. On August 12, 1868, his 
brother died at 11 A. M., and he followed him at 10 P. M. of the 
same day. 

29. Augustus Milchsack, 1798-1871, born at Lancaster, son of George 

Milchsack. He was first apprenticed to the hatter Tschudy, at 
Lititz; next worked as a tailor with J. C. Weber, and as a weaver 
with G. Brown, of Bethlehem, and finally conducted a bakery on 
Broad Street. He married Hannah Everett, of Emaus, who died in 
1863. For a number of years he was the head-sacristan of the 
Bethlehem congregation. 

30. Thomas David Luckenbach, 1816-71, born near Bethlehem, son of 

David Luckenbach, and the last of the family who had the manage- 
ment of the Luckenbach farm in South Bethlehem. He was married 
to Josephine Witmeyer, who bore him 8 children. 

" So fades a summer cloud away, 

So sinks the gale, when storms are o'er, 
So gently shuts the eye of day, 
So dies the wave along the shore." 

31. Peter Wolle, 1792-1871, born at New Herrnhut, St. Thomas. He was 

one of the three theological students with whom, in 1807, the Mora- 
vian Theological Seminary was opened. He served as minister 
and pastor at Lancaster, Philadelphia and Lititz, and in 1845 was 
consecrated a Bishop of the Church. From 1855-61 he was a 
member of the governing board of the Moravian Church in America. 
His wife, m.n. Schober, departed this life in 1853. Their union was 
blessed with five sons and one daughter. 

32. William David Tombler, 1826-72, son of Charles C. Tombler. Hav- 

ing married Mary Thompson, of Stroudsburg, he took up his resi- 
dence at Mauch Chunk, where also he died. 

33. Matthew Henry Buyer, 1824-72, born at Untereisesheim, Wiirtem- 

berg. He was married to the widow M. E. Glitsch, m.n. Hedrich, 
and moved to South Bethlehem from Reading, Pa.; found employ- 
ment in the Zinc Works. 

34. Thomas Conrad Meyer, 1795-1872, born in Bushkill Township; a 

married man, 76 years old ; was received into the church on Palm 
Sunday of the year of his death. 

35. John J. Levers, 1800-72, from Hamilton Township, Monroe Co. With 

his wife, Sarah A. Reichman, whom he married in 1829, he had five 
children. 

36. Peter Ricksecker, 1791-1873, a widower. He was born at Bethlehem. 

After teaching at Nazareth and Lancaster, he accepted a call as a 



184 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

missionary to Tobago, W. L, in 1826, and was ordained a Deacon. 
He also labored on the island of St. Kitts and in Jamaica, W. I., 
until failing health, in 1848, compelled him to return. Later he 
served as pastor at Hopedale, and with his son-in-law, the Rev. 
D. Z. Smith, in the Indian Mission in Kansas, retiring to Bethlehem 
in 1857. He was a skilled musician and organist. 

37. George Julius Witmeyer, 1845-74, son °f George Witmeyer. He was 

married to Selinda Saylor, and died after a protracted illness. 

38. Edward Otto Brown, 1830-74, son of Matthew Brown; sometime or- 

ganist in the Old Chapel; died in consequence of injuries received 
on the railroad. 

39. Samuel Reinke, 1791-1875, son of the Rev. Abraham Reinke. Having 

studied for the ministry, he served in the pastorate of the congrega- 
tions at Lancaster, Philadelphia, Nazareth and at other places, but 
was obliged, now and then, for a while, to retire from active service 
on account of feeble health. In 1858 he was consecrated a Bishop. 
In 1862 he became blind, but an operation restored the use of one 
eye and he continued to preach and to discharge the duties of the 
episcopal office, especially in the matter of faithful intercessory 
prayer for the Church and all its ministers. He left two sons by his 
first wife, m.n. Eyerie, and a son and daughter by his second wife, 
m.n. Hueffel. His three sons, Edwin, Amadeus and Clement all 
entered the ministry. 

" My flesh shall rest within the ground, 
'Till the last trumpet's joyful sound; 
Then burst its chains in sweet surprise, 
And in my Saviour's image rise." 

40. John Godfrey Henry Weniger, 1800-75, born at Schleiz, Principality 

of Reuss, Germany; emigrated in 1842. He was twice married, first 
to F. Mendorff, then to the widow Christiana Bapp. 

41. Frederick Christian Wolf, 1854-76, born at Freedom, Wisconsin. He 

was a student at the Moravian College and Theological Seminary, 
having entered in 1873. He died of brain fever. 

42. Samuel Luckenbach, 1801-77, son of John Adam Luckenbach, born 

in South Bethlehem. For nearly 40 years he worked in a lumber 
yard of West Bethlehem. He was married to Sarah Hauer, who 
bore him 9 children. 

43. Henry Augustus Malthaner, 1837-88, a piano-maker. His wife, 

Beata M. Wendell, died in 1873. 

44. Charles Frederick Kremser, 1798-1879, born at Hope, N. J. He was 

for many years the official grave-digger. His wife was Eliz. Wein- 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 185 

land, with whom he was married for 53 years, and who bore him 8 
children. 

45. Isaac Walp, 1827-79, born at Springfield, Bucks Co., a carpenter. In 

1852 he married C. M. Brown, and in 1876 removed to Philadelphia, 
where he died. 

46. Augustus Belling, 1808-80, born near Schoeneck, a shoemaker by 

trade. For 22 years he was toll-keeper at the old Lehigh bridge. In 
1832 he married Helen Borhek. 

47. Richard Emil Clewell, 1833-81. He was married first to S. Young, 

and then to M. Steiner, who departed this life in 1880. He died at 
Easton. 

48. Ladislaus Schenck, 1820-81, born near Carlsruhe, Baden; a gardener. 

He came to Bethlehem in 1842, and united with the church in 1858, 
having before been a Roman Catholic. 

49. Albert Alexander Fradeneck, 1837-82, born at Nazareth. He died of 

smallpox. His wife was Rebecca Getter. 

Row V. — Men. 

1. Samuel Hoffert, 1798-1863, born in Bucks Co. In 1820 he married 

Louisa Luckenbach. They made their home near Allentown. 

2. Jacob Miller, 1830-63, pattern maker; married Sarah Schmael; died 

in South Bethlehem. 

3. Traugott Leinbach, 1798-1863, born at Salem, N. C. He was a 

jeweler and watchmaker, and also served as organist. His wife, 
Mary T. Lange, died in i860. They had two sons and two 
daughters. 

4. Jacob Miller, 1820-63, irom Lower Saucon, this county. He married 

in 1846 Eliz. Reichenbach, who survived him. 

5. James Gotthold Leibert, 1808-63, born at Bethlehem; first a tanner, 

then landlord and owner of the Sun Hotel. In 1829 he married 
Mary A. Tschudy of Lititz, who bore him three sons, one of whom, 
Eugene, studied for the ministry. After her departure, in 1851, he 
was married a second time to Lydia Wieder. 

6. Hiram C. Yohe, 1830-64, son of Jacob Yohe, a blacksmith by trade. 

He served in the army and, at the great freshet of 1862, did good 
work in rescuing people from drowning. He was married to E. 
Sherry. 

7. Frederick William Fickardt, 1844-64, son of Dr. F. Fickardt of Beth- 

lehem. Died in the service of his country as a soldier in the Second 
Regiment, heavy artillery, Pennsylvania Volunteers, at Fort Lincoln, 
on March 4, 1864, aged 20 years. 



186 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

8. Augustus R. Fickardt, 1846-64., brother of the preceding, and serving 

his country in the same Regiment. He also died at Fort Lincoln, on 
March 9, 1864, of typhus, aged 18 years. 

" Lovely in their lives, in their death they were not divided." 

9. Charles Edmund Doster, 1829-64, born at Bethlehem, a son of Jacob 

Lewis Doster. He was manager in his father's woolen mill. 

10. Michael Anstaett, 1827-80, born in Germany. In 1869 he married 

Mary Benner, a member of the church in South Bethlehem. He 
himself was no church member. 

11. Ernest August Stolzenbach, 1843-64, a son of Henry Stolzenbach, 

born in Bethlehem. 

12. Lawson Merrill, 1839-64, lieutenant in the U. S. Navy; boarded with 

his mother at the Sun Hotel. 

13. James McDonald Ross, 1814-64, an Indian, son of the Cherokee chief 

John Ross, born at Blue Springs, Tennessee. During the Civil War 
he was taken prisoner, and after being liberated he died at St. Louis. 
The body was brought here, and many Indians attended the funeral. 

14. Gustave Henry Wapler, 1796-1864, born at Leipzig, Saxony. He 

came here in 1834, after the death of his wife, and was a musician, 
particularly a good violin player. 

15. Edwin William Zellner, 1842-65, son of William Zellner, born in 

Hanover Township, Lehigh Co. He was a printer. His wife was 
Margaret Dillon of Philadelphia. 

16. Frederick Christian Luch, 1799-18 65, a baker. He married A. M. 

Ricksecker, m.n. Schenk. For nearly 50 years he was a member of 
the Moravian Church choir. 

17. John Cornelius Hagen, 1846-65, a son of the Rev. Francis F. Hagen, 

born at Bethania, N. C. He was a student of the Moravian College 
and enlisted in the Second Regiment of Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
While awaiting his discharge he was taken sick with fever at Cloud's 
Mills, Virginia, and conveyed to Bethlehem, where he died. 

" Duke et decorum est 
Pro patria mori." 

18. Clarence Kampman, 1846-65, second son of Rev. Lewis F. Kampman; 

was a clerk in John Lerch's store and entered the Moravian Theo- 
logical Seminary to study for the ministry. In November, 1864, he 
left Bethlehem, having accepted an appointment as clerk to Admiral 
Lee of the Mississippi Squadron at Cairo, 111. He died on board the 
U. S. ship Red Rover, on June 4, 1865. The body had been tempo- 
rarily interred at Mound City, 111. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 187 

19. John Oerter, 1794-1866, son of Joseph Oerter. He was a book-binder, 

and a much respected member of the church. He was married to 
A. Eliz. Clewell of Schoeneck. One of their daughters became the 
wife of Rev. L. F. Kampman. 

20. Christian Lange, 1802-66. In 1828 he married M. A. Jones, who bore 

him three sons and four daughters. After her death, in i860, he 
married Esther Freeman. 
at. Charles Augustus Fiot, 1803-66, a Frenchman, born and educated at 
Fontainebleau, near Paris, France. When 18 years old, he emigrated 
to Charleston, S. C. From there he moved to Philadelphia, where he 
taught music and painting. He also opened a music store. Retir- 
ing from business, he bought a country seat near Bethlehem. 

22. John Godfrey Herbst, 1793-1866, born at Meuselwitz, near Leipzig, 

Saxony; served in the army against Napoleon I. Coming to America 
in 1819, he married the widow A. M. Thiele, m.n. Euters, and taught 
in various district schools. 

23. Johannes Knes, 1819-67, born at Nochten, Silesia. He came here in 

1851 and found employment at the Zinc Works. On New Year's 
eve, while hastening home to attend the "watch-night meeting," he 
was struck by a passing train and died next morning. He was mar- 
ried to J. M. Bolm. 

24. James Edward Knauss, 1814-67, son of Christian Knauss. He married 

Antoinette Schweizer of Hecktown, who bore him 10 children. After 
teaching school for ten years he devoted himself to mercantile pur- 
suits. 

25. Francis B. Stolzenbach, 1843-67, son of Jacob Stolzenbach; born at 

Nazareth, married in Philadelphia, where he was employed as hotel 
clerk; died of consumption. 

" My husband sleeps. 
I loved thee on earth, 
May I meet thee in heaven." 

26. George Henry Woehler, 1790-1868, from Schaumburg-Lippe, Ger- 

many. Entering the army of Napoleon I at the age of 17, he fought 
in numerous battles, was taken prisoner by the British and compelled 
to take service in the English army, until he was again captured by 
the French. After Napoleon's escape from Elba, he fought in the 
battle of Waterloo. He came to America in 18 17. His first wife, 
Sarah Ehret, died in 1833 at Hope, Ind. Returning to Bethlehem in 
1855, he was married to Aug. Bittrich. 

27. Thomas Mies, 1792-1868, born at Bethel, Lebanon Co. He married 

H. Dixon who died in 1858. In 1830 he moved from Lebanon Co. 
to a farm near Bethlehem. 



1 88 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

28. John Rice, 1790-1868, born at Nazareth, a merchant. In 1812 he mar- 

ried Margaret Philips of Philadelphia, who died in 1824. He was 
married a second time to Joh. C. Paulus. Seven years before his 
death, while living in New York, he had a stroke of paralysis. 
Repeated attacks rendered him almost entirely helpless. 

29. William Clewell, 1807-71, a son of George Clewell; a farmer. His 

first wife was Sus. Trulinger who died in 1851, and his second, Abi- 
gail Reinhardt. 

30. Frederick G. Clewell, 1791-1871, born at Schoeneck. He died in con- 

sequence of a fall from a cherry tree, aged 7954 years, after living in 
the married state for 56 years. 

31. John Chapman Cooke, 1801-71, born in New York. He was engaged 

in business in the South, and in New York. When he joined the Mo- 
ravian Church, he offered for the mission service and, in 1842, was 
called to the mission in the West Indies. After being engaged in 
that work for 16 years, he took charge of the Moravian congregation 
at Friedberg, N. C, until 1861, when he retired to Bethlehem. His 
wife was Gertrude Kelley. 

" The last farewells are given, 
Death broke the golden chain ; 
In yonder starry heaven, 
We hope to meet again." 

32. Godfrey C. Beckel, 1782-1872, son of Tobias Beckel, born at Bethle- 

hem. He was married to Anna Counsel and for a time was con- 
nected with the Moravian church in Philadelphia, where he lived for 
70 years. He spent the last years with relatives in Bethlehem, and 
was kindly cared for at the home of C. F. Beckel. He attained the 
age of 90 years. 

33. Rudolph Max Goepp, 1830-72, a son of the Rev. P. H. Goepp, born at 

Gnadenfeld, Prussia. He studied at the Moravian College, taught at 
Nazareth Hall and later became an attorney-at-law. He died on 
Long Island, N. Y. 

34. Henry Fahs, 1798-1872, born at York, Pa. He was married to Fred- 

erica Rudolphi, who bore him ten children. He died of a stroke of 
apoplexy, while in his boat on the Lehigh. 

35. Benjamin Frederick Schneller, 1821-72, son of David P. Schneller. 

A shoemaker by trade, he became a Justice of the Peace. He was 
also a Sunday-school teacher and a sacristan of the church. In 1849 
he married Maria Hent and their union was blessed with 5 children. 

36. George Francis Milchsack, 1825-73 ; twice married, first to Rebecca 

Koehler who died in 1864, and again to Susanna Shupp. 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 189 

37. Lewis Renatus Huebner, 1831-74, a son of the Rev. Samuel Huebner. 

He studied theology, taught at Nazareth Hall, and was a Professor 
and President of the Moravian College and Theological Seminary 
until 1867. Later he served as pastor of the Moravian congregations 
at Bethlehem, Hope, Ind., and lastly at Gnadenhutten, O., where he 
died. His remains were brought to Bethlehem for interment. He 
married, in 1867, Louisa Lehman, and left two daughters. 

38. John Krause, 1794-1874, a butcher by trade, as his father and grand- 

father had been before him. He married Eliz. Beitel and their 
union, which continued for 57 years, was blessed with ten children, 
four of whom died before their father. He lived to see 38 grand- 
children. 

39. Philip Woodring Bealer, 1805-75, a widower, son of William Bealer. 

His wife, Salome Knauss, died in 1863. They had eleven children, 
5 of whom preceded their father into eternity. 

40. Abraham Grosh, 1819-75, born at Lititz, a carpenter by trade. He was 

married to Lindora Borhek. 

41. Matthew Cassler, 1811-75, born at Nazareth; married in 1844 Harriet 

C. Beck. He was a day laborer. 

42. Herman Ernst Spiegler, 1840-77, born at Alt Dietendorf, Germany; 

Professor of Music at Linden Hall Seminary; died here while on a 
visit to his parents. 

43. Frank Edward Schultz, 1858-77, son of Henry Schultz, born at Naza- 

reth. 

44. Anthony Goth, 1824-78, born at Schoenlinde, Bohemia, of Catholic 

parents. He came to Bethlehem in 1856 and joined the Moravian 
Church. His first wife, m.n. Nowitsky, having died in 1868, he 
married Eleanora Lichtenthaeler. He was a good painter and a fine 
musician. 

45. Jacob Frank Eberman, 1826-79, born at Friedensfeld, St. Croix, son of 

the missionary, Rev. Wm. Eberman. He became a tinsmith. His 
first wife was S. Wendell, and his second Cordelia Warner. One 
son, Clarence, studied for the ministry. 

46. Alois Eger, 1800-80, from Bohemia, uncle of Anthony Goth's first wife; 

a day laborer. 

47. Valentine Hent, 1794-1881, born in Philadelphia; a dentist. After 

the death of his wife, A. Erwin, he removed to Bethlehem, to live 
with his daughter, Mrs. Benjamin F. Schneller. He was the first 
dentist in Bethlehem. Later he was librarian of the Y. M. C. A. 

48. Harry Augustus Malthaner, 1861-81, son of Henry Malthaner, died 

of consumption. 

" Asleep in Jesus, peaceful rest." 

49. Vacant. 

13 



INDEX. 



A 

Aaron (Beaveraud), Hanna .. 

Abbot, James M 

Abraham, negro boy 

Ache, Beatus 

Adams, Elizabeth 

Albrecht, Catharine 

Albrecht, John 

Albright (Clewell), Catharine 

Louisa 

Albright, David J 

Albright (Geissinger), Judith 

Stauffer 

Albright, Mary Elizabeth 

Allen, Anna 

Allen, Mary 

Aimers, Anna Maria 

Andreas, Abraham 

Andreas (Ysselstein), Eleonora. 
Andreas, Henry 

Andress, Abraham Smyth 

Andress (Wagner), Cornelia 
Elizabeth ; see Goundie 

Andress, Mary E 

Andress (Horsfield), Sarah 
Joanna 

Andress, William H 

Andrew, a negro 

Andrew, negro child 

Andrews (Fenner), Salome ... 

Andrews (Gerhardt), Sarah 
Ann 

Angel, Mary E 

Angel, William 

Anna, a Delaware child 

Anna, Indian 

Anna, Indian girl 

Anna Caritas [Nanny] 

Anna Maria, a Delaware 

Anna Maria, a Mohican 

Anstaett (Boehler), Amanda 
Mat 

Anstastt, A. M. Salome 

Anstastt, Emma E 

Anstaett [Anstasdt], Heinrich.. 



Anstaett, Henry P 165 

Anstaett (Benner), Mary 154 

x 4° Anstaett, Michael 186 

34 Anstedt, Anna Maria 94 

20 Antes, Benigna 61 

54 Antes, Joseph 21 

9 6 Anthony, Emmeline 116 

60 Anton, Anna 5 6 

18 Anton (Mueller), Anna Maria 127 
Anton, Magdalena, mulatto ... 61 

J 34 Anton, Peter 179 

l6 3 Arboe, John 22 

Ardin, Joanna 64 

x 43 Ardin, John 20 

x 43 Ashley, Anna Rosina 71 

102 Auerbach (Zerb), Maria Mar- 

xx 4 garet 100 

7 X 

38 B 
106 
38 Babb [Bapp], Joseph 169 

44 Bachman, Lucy E. and Helen. 157 
Bader, Christina Louisa 102 

115 Baermeyer, Christopher Henry. 10 

96 Bage (Hessler), A. Benigna .. 85 

Bagge (Schnall), Anna Maria. 127 

112 Bahnson, Beatus 37 

45 Bapp, Sarah M in 

7 Bardsley (Andrews), Mary; 

18 see Digeon 70 

104 Bartels, Henry Ernest 149 

Bartlett, Belle 121 

138 Bartlett, Helena 137 

62 Bartlett, William Oliphant ... 173 
5 Bartolet, Peter 23 

63 Bartow, Thomas, Jr 54 

62 Bartow, Thomas, Sr 54 

64 Bauer, Anna 96 

58 Bauer, George Henry 40 

57 Baumgaertner (Gepfert), Bar- 

60 bara 92 

Bealer [Boehler], Abraham D.. 44 

124 Bealer [Boehler], Amos 177 

132 Bealer [Bcehler], Anna R 98 

129 Bealer, Clement R 159 

169 Bealer (Rauch), Juliana S. . . . 152 
190 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 191 



Bealer, Philip Woodring 189 

Bealer, Samuel A 175 

Beata, Indian child 63 

Beaumont, Mary Christiana ... 95 

Bechtel, John 6. 

Bechtel (Marret), Mary Apol- 

lonia 59 

Beck, Benigna 73 

Beck (Clewell), Catharine 

Louisa ; see Albright 134 

Beck, Henry Ferdinand 9 

Beck (Hunter), Jane Elizabeth 142 

Beck, John Frederick 13 

Beck, Jonathan n 

Beck, Julia 130 

Beckel, Arthur C 174 

Beckel (Eberman), Caroline 

Rebecca 138 

Beckel, Charles Frederick .... 180 

Beckel, Charles Nathaniel 145 

Beckel (Brown), Charlotte Fred. 147 

Beckel, Edith C 157 

Beckel, Edw. Malcolm 43 

Beckel, Elizabeth 103 

Beckel, Frances C 133 

Beckel, George Frederick 33 

Beckel, Gertrude N 130 

Beckel, Godfrey C 188 

Beckel, Louis F 176 

Beckel, Louis Frederick 178 

Beckel (Levering), Mary 

Frances 140 

Beckel, Roy Edward F 174 

Beckel (Kreiter), Ruth Emma. 115 

Becker, Estelle L 150 

Becker, Francis W 165 

Becker, James 177 

Becker, John 137 

Becker, John E 165 

Becker, Mary 63 

Becker, Zabulon 21 

Beear, Alexander A 49 

Beear, Peter Samuel 34 

Beear, Robert A 44 

Beear (Cunow), Theodora ... 122 

Beear, William A 160 

Beear, Win, Cunow 44 

Beggs, Beata 104 

Beidelman (Lynn), Elizabeth. . 125 

Beidelman, Harvey J 153 

Beidelman, Mary 130 

Beitel, David 42 

Belling, Adelaide Louisa 148 

Belling (Brunner), Anna Cath. 127 



Belling, Augustus 185 

Belling, Ch. Edward 43 

Belling, Francis E 175 

Belling, Gertrude Amanda ... 150 
Belling (Borhek), Helen Char- 
lotte 144 

Belling, Martha A 150 

Benade, Andreas 168 

Benade, Emily 132 

Benade (Christ), Joanna Maria 93 

Benade (Henry), Maria 123 

Benade, Marianne Ernestine .. 151 

Bender, Anna 87 

Benigna, Indian girl 64 

Benjamin, Schabat 23 

Benner, Edwin T 156 

Benner, Forest L 159 

Benner, George F 159 

Benner, Herford S 174 

Benner, Ida Olivia 129 

Benner, Olivia M 153 

Benzien (Neisser), Anna 

Maria; see Thrane 85 

Benzien (Bcettcher), D. S. 

Elizabeth 109 

Benzien, Lydia Theodora 12S 

Berg, Christian Frederick .... 36 

Berg (Tempest), Hannah 124 

Bergman, John Henry 24 

Beroth, Maria Elizabeth 96 

Bernts (Bossert), Anna Maria. 86 

Betge, Beata 129 

Betge, Beata 157 

Betge, Emil F 177 

Betge, Gustave Adolph 145 

Betge (Graff), Pauline Fred- 
erica 135 

Betge, Paul O. A 165 

Betge, Wilhelmine L 130 

Beutel, Benjamin 20 

Beutel, Frederick C 18 

Beutel, Maria D 66 

Beutel (Fetter), Maria Salome 99 

Beyer, Anna Maria 90 

Beyer, Anna Rosina 94 

Beyerle, Mariana 71 

Bickel, Henry 39 

Bickel (Giess), Mary Eve 85 

Biege (Zink), Catharine 104 

Bien (Hedrich), Mary Eliza- 
beth 151 

Biez, Mary Catharine 89 

Bierler, Amelia A 98 

Bigler, Emily Jane 124 



192 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Bigler, Henry Augustus 179 

Bigler (Frueauff), Theresa 

Adelaide 116 

Birkby, James 32 

Birnbaum (Nuessen), Helen .. 67 

Birnbaum, Joachim 15 

Bischof, Edwin [Bishop] 43 

Bischoff, Anna 96 

Bischoff (Pech), Anna 77 

Bischoff (Schmidt), Anna 

Rosina in 

Bischoff (Mau), Joanna Sophia 106 

Bischoff, John 21 

Bischoff [Bishop], John David. 51 
Bishop (Schneckenburg), Anna 

Maria 114 

Bishop (Clewell), Anna Sabina 122 

Bishop, Charles David 171 

Bishop, Eugene S 44 

Bishop, John Jonathan 169 

Bishop, Julius 44 

Bishop (Clewell), Lizetta 

Theodora 141 

Bitterlich, John George 11 

Bittrich, Emma L 129 

Blank, Amanda Cornelia 129 

Blank, Ellen M 130 

Blech (Warner), Anna Mary, in 

Blech, Charles Gottlieb 48 

Blech, Mary Elizabeth 119 

Bleck, John S. and Charles A.. 162 

Bleme, Beatus 173 

Blum, Christine 65 

Blum, Daniel 20 

Blum, Mary Catharine 146 

Blum (Weiss), Maria Catha- 
rine 109 

Boeckel (Heckedorn), A. Bar- 
bara 83 

Boeckel, A. Elizabeth 66 

Boeckel (Rohrbach) , Anna 

Elizabeth 55 

Boeckel (Kindig), Anna Maria 89 
Boeckel (Gump), Barbara; see 

Muenster 85 

Boeckel, Casper 10 

Boeckel, Frederick 8 

Boeckel, James Louis 44 

Boeckel, Peter 24 

Boeckel, Tobias 41 

Boehler (Rose), Anna 91 

Boehler (Ehrenhardt), A. Cath- 
arine 78 

Boehler, Anton Peter 21 



Boehler (Woodring), Barbara. 117 

Boehler, Emma L 98 

Boehler, Frederica Helen 126 

Boehler, James E 37 

Boehler, John 19 

Boehler, John 20 

Boehler, Lewis Christian 161 

Boehler, Louis Frederick 36 

Boehler (Krohn), Maria Chris- 
tina 108 

Boehler (Knauss), Salome 

Elizabeth 117 

Boehler, William 19 

Boehler, William 35 

Boehler [Bealer], William 51 

Boehler, William Herman 136 

Boehmer, Anna 63 

Boehmer, Mary Christine 66 

Boehner, Elizabeth 65 

Boehner [Bunder], Paul 19 

Boehringer, Beata 63 

Bcelen, Joseph 25 

Boemper, Abraham 17 

Bcemper (Baumgart), Rachel.. 55 
Boening [Beuning], Elizabeth.. 92 

Bonn, Gertraud 77 

Bonn, John Herman 46 

Borbonus, Otto Martin 159 

Borhek, Albert H 44 

Borhek (Kindig), Anna Cath- 
arine 90 

Borhek (Fischel), Anna Maria 103 
Borhek, Christian Frederick ... 38 

Borhek, Clementine S 97 

Borhek, Eugene J 44 

Borhek, John Andrew 17 

Borhek (Luckenbach), Maria.. 128 

Borhek, Robert F 43 

Borhek, Rob. Parmenio 20 

Bourquin, John Frederick .... 167 

Bourquin, Sophia Maria 113 

Bourquin (Schmidt), Susanna. 112 

Boyce, Edward B 162 

Boutelle (Carlow), Jane 123 

Boyd, Copeland 181 

Boyd, Henry C 176 

Boyd (Horsfield), Laetitia 94 

Brandmiller, John, Jr 19 

Brandmueller, Anna Maria ... 77 

Brandmueller, John 6 

Brashier, Elizabeth 60 

Braun (Unger), An. Cath. Fr.. 108 
Braun (Pletscher), Bibiana 
Frederica 103 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 193 



Braun, Frederica 92 

Braun, Gottlieb 48 

Braun [Brown], Peter 38 

Braun, Thomas Otto 22 

Braun (Otto), Rebecca 84 

Braun, Rosina Barbara 103 

Bray, Anna L 153 

Bray, James T. and Charles H. 175 

Brecht, Mary Magdalene 78 

Breder, Daniel 164 

Breder (Billheimer), Eleonore 

Jane 133 

Breder, Frederick H 174 

Breder, George A 175 

Breder (Muench), Maria; see 

Bush 121 

Brickenstein, Alice S 108 

Brickenstein, Herman Albright 159 

Brickenstein, Maurice A 34 

Brietz, James F 159 

Brockden, Beulah; see Magda- 

lena 82 

Brocksch, Andrew 7 

Brocksch, Elizabeth 60 

Brodhead, Daniel 28 

Brown, Ann Caroline 133 

Brown (Knecht), Barbara; see 

Wiesinger 100 

Brown, Edward Otto 184 

Brown (Miller), Magdalene 

Dor 133 

Brown, Mary E. A 129 

Brown, Matthew 171 

Brown, William Louis 182 

Brownfield, Anna Catharine . . 72 
Brownfield (Kearney), Cath- 
arine 87 

Brownfield, John 28 

Bruce (Benezet), Judith; see 

Otto 68 

Brucker (Schneider), Elizabeth 103 

Brunner, Caroline Henrietta... 154 

Brusie (Messinger), Amanda. . 151 

Brusie, John B 156 

Bryant, Emil C 175 

Bryant, Walter H 153 

Bryzelius, Paul 21 

Bueckel, Beatus 19 

Buehler, Adam 164 

Buerstler, Elizabeth 66 

Buerstler, John 16 

Buettner (Bechtel), Anna Mar- 
garet ; see Jungman 70 

Buettner, Gottlob 21 



Burnet, Jane 72 

Burnside, James 28 

Busch (Weinecke), Anna Cath- 
arine 78 

Busch (Althaus), Elizabeth ... 114 

Bush, Jacob 42 

Bush (Muench), Maria 121 

Bush [Ruderer], Olivia Ellen.. 101 

Bush, Samuel Liebisch 22 

Bush, Tilghman F 160 

Bush, William 179 

Busse, Joachim 11 

Buyer (Hedrich), Mary Eliza- 
beth; see Bien 151 

Buyer, Matthew Henry 183 

c 

Cammerhoff, Beatus 21 

Cammerhoff, J. C. Frederick.. 27 
Cammerhoff, Ludwig Frie- 

derich 21 

Campbell, Peter 40 

Cargill, Abraham E 165 

Cargill, William R 163 

Caritas, Anna (Nanny) 58 

Caritas, Indian child 63 

Carrick, Ellen R 96 

Case (Fulton), Elizabeth 126 

Cassler, Edwin M 161 

Cassler, Eugene 181 

Cassler (Beck), Harriet Cecilia 148 

Cassler, Josephine Louisa .... 117 

Cassler, Louis 38 

Cassler, Matthew 189 

Chamberlain, Elizabeth 101 

Chamberlain, Keturah 104 

Chamberlain (Luch), Pauline 

Hen 152 

Chamberlain, Sarah C 104 

Chamberlain, William Y 170 

Christ, Beata 130 

Christ, Catharine 91 

Christ (Freitag), Catharine .. 121 

Christ, George 4 

Christ, Maria 95 

Christ (Everett), Maria The- 

resia 128 

Christ, Mary Jane 156 

Christ, Matthew 137 

Christ, William G 165 

Christensen, Christian 10 

Christensen, Martin 24 

Christian, negro boy 20 



1 94 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Christine, a Wampanos child.. 63 

Cist, Charles 33 

Cist, Eliza 89 

Cist, Ellen 92 

Cist, Mary 91 

Cist (Weiss), Mary 103 

Cist, Rebecca 94 

Clauss, Anna Mary 63 

Claus (Walter), Catharine ... 107 

Claus, Christina 76 

Clauss, George 160 

Clauss, Maria 91 

Clauss, Philip 25 

Clewell (Reinhardt), Abigail. 133 
Clewell, Albert F. and Mary. . 129 
Clewell (Roehrig), Anna Cath- 
arine 83 

Clewell (Fuehrer), Anna 

Maria 147 

Clewell, Augustus W 163 

Clewell, Beata 97 

Clewell, Beatus 162 

Clewell (Fradeneck), Caroline 

Ther 135 

Clewell (Weinland), Christine 99 

Clewell, Cornelia E 132 

Clewell (Luckenbach), Eliza- 
beth 119 

Clewell (Tombler), Elizabeth. 148 

Clewell, Elmer S 153 

Clewell (Ferrel), Frances .... 142 
Clewell, Frances Hannah .... 123 

Clewell, Frederick G 188 

Clewell, George 39 

Clewell, Harvey William 153 

Clewell, Jacob 42 

Clewell [Clevel], John 48 

Clewell (Smith), Josephine ... 154 

Clewell (Heil), Leah 81 

Clewell, Maria Catharine .... 91 

Clewell, Mary A 129 

Clewell, Mary E 130 

Clewell, Reuben William .... 152 

Clewell, Richard Emil 185 

Clewell, Samuel Benjamin .... 158 

Clewell, Samuel H 160 

Clewell, Sarah A. S 118 

Clewell, Sarah E 154 

Clewell (Trollinger,) Susanna 122 

Clewell, William 188 

Clewell, William H 174 

Colver (Heil), Anna 81 

Colver, Charles 41 

Colver (Smith), Elizabeth 74 



Colver [Culver], Ephraim .... 6 

Colver, John 18 

Culver, John 21 

Conklin, Isaac 54 

Connelly, Mary Penn 143 

Conradi, Beata 130 

Cooke (Kelly), Anna Gertrude 134 

Cooke, John Chapman 188 

Coortsen (Tanneberg), A Eliz. 84 

Cornelia, a mulatto 61 

Cortelyou, Elwood Dayton .... 153 

Corydon, negro boy 24 

Cruickshank (Martin), Agnes. 84 

Cruickshank, James 33 

Cunningham, John 41 

Cunow, Charlotte Emilie 93 

Cunow, Charlotte P 97 

Cunow, Ernestine T 97 

Cunow, Herman Polycarpus . . 19 

Cunow, G. N. Adolf 19 

D 

Daily, Beatus 176 

Daniel, a Delaware 28 

Daniel, a negro boy 22 

Daubert (Vognitz), Lisetta; 

see Haus 139 

Davenport (Cargill), Sarah S. 134 

David, a negro 54 

David (Bartow), Susanna 88 

Dean, Benjamin 18 

Dean, Hannah 66 

Decker, Beata 130 

Decker, Daniel 16a 

Deemer, Charles Franklin 150 

Deemer, George Peter 150 

Deemer, Ida E 150 

Degelow, Christian Frederick.. 141 
Degelow (Kschieschang), Hen. 

Louisa 122 

Delaney, Beatus 54 

Delfs, Detlef 18 

Demuth, Gottlieb 20 

Demuth, Johannes 21 

Demuth (Leupold), Regina; 

see Tanneberger 75 

Dencke (Steinman), Anna 

Salome 75 

Dencke (Leinbach), Elizabeth. 82 

Denke, Jeremiah 49 

Deremer, S. 1 153 

Detmers (Morhardt), Chr. 

Dorothea 80 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 195 



Detmers, Chr. Sophia 66 

Dettmers, Ferdinand Ph. Jacob 32 

Detterer, Edith L 157 

Diemer, Christian F 18 

Diez, Mary Catharine 61 

Digeon, David 4 

Digeon, Elizabeth 64 

Digeon, Mary 62 

Digeon (Andrews), Mary .... 70 

Dinnich, Francis L 175 

Dixon (Paulus), Anna Pauline 126 

Dixon, George William 137 

Dixon, Mary P 147 

Dixon (Huber), Rosina 111 

Dober, Charles Christian 52 

Dober, Fr. William 37 

Dober (Trautvetter), Wilh. 

Henrietta 126 

Dcerbaum, John 22 

Doster, Beata 130 

Doster, Beatus 161 

Doster, Beatus 165 

Doster, Benjamin M 49 

Doster Charles Edmund 186 

Doster, Cornelia H no 

Doster, Daniel 43 

Doster, Ellen A 130 

Doster, Jacob Lewis 173 

Doster, Maria E 104 

Doster (Eggert), Pauline 

Louisa 138 

Doster, Samuel F 160 

Doster's twin son 46 

Dressier (Zeibig), Car. Fred. 

Xenia 121 

Duncan, Martha Eliza 94 

Dumphy, Richard 54 

E 

Eastwick, Edmund J 176 

Ebbecke (Meinung), Salome.. 127 
Eberman (Oehme), Anna Re- 
becca 147 

Eberman, Edward M 148 

Eberman, Jacob Frank 189 

Eberman, John Henry 177 

Eberman, Joseph Newby 178 

Eberman, Mary Ann 107 

Eberman, William 172 

Ebermeyer, Mary Margaret . . 61 

Ebert (jungman), Anna Rosina 102 

Ebert, Christian 18 

Ebert, John Christian 50 



Eckert, Alice E 131 

Eckert, Ellen L in 

Eckert, Henry C 49 

Eckert, Samuel H 175 

Eckhardt, Zacharias 16 

Edmonds, Anna Joanna 94 

Edmonds, Rachel 90 

Edmunds, Lea 72 

Eger, Alois 189 

Eger (Krsek), Caroline 134 

Eggert, Anna M 64 

Eggert (Suess), Anna Maria., in 

Eggert, Beatus 19 

Eggert, Benjamin 169 

Eggert, Christian 8 

Eggert, Christian 51 

Eggert, Johannes 18 

Eegert, Josiah D 46 

Eggert, Josiah 45 

Eggert, Maria 94 

Eggert (Rupert), Maria 122 

Eggert (Grosh), Mary Appol- 

lonia 78 

Eggert (Freytag), Mary Eliza- 
beth 139 

Eggert, Matthew 36 

Eggert, Olivia C 97 

Eggert, Paul 18 

Eggert, Robert Bruce 44 

Eggert, Robert C 45 

Eggert, Sophia Theresa 146 

Eggert, Susanna C 92 

Eggert, Walter S 40 

Ehman, Peter J 165 

Ehrhard, John 13 

Ehrig, Frederic S 166 

Ehrig, John 165 

Eichler (Sautter), Justin a 

Elizabeth 119 

Eilerts, John Christopher 42 

Eleanora, Indian child 63 

Elizabeth, Arawak 60 

Elizabeth, Indian 62 

Engel (Nitschmann), Anna 

Maria ; see Peter 105 

Engel, Johanna 62 

Engel, J. C. Gottfried 29 

Engel, John Godfrey 10 

Engelhart, Christina no 

Engfer, Maria Elizabeth 61 

Engle, Anna S 153 

Engle, Francis Jackson 148 

Engle, Frederick S 176 

Enners, Anna M 61 



[96 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Erd, Maria Justina 62 

Ernest, Christine 66 

Errow (Mesners), Judith; see 

Kuehlbrunn 104 

Ervin (Yohe), Mary 114 

Eschenbach (Omensetter), 

Anna Cath in 

Eschenbach (Bossert), Anna 

Maria ; see Bernts 86 

Eschenbach, David 47 

Etig, Anna 132 

Ettwein, Anna Benigna 126 

Ettwein (Zahm), Anna Regina 81 

Ettwein, Benigna 101 

Ettwein, Christian 50 

Ettwein, Johanna 65 

Ettwein (Kymbel), Joannette 

Maria 68 

Ettwein, John 3 

Ettwein, John, Jr 13 

Eva, a Mohican 59 

Everitt, Joanna 93 

Everly, Catharine 101 

Eysenbach (Kron), Catharine. 135 

Eysenbach, John Louis 153 

Eysenbach, Julia Frederica ... 157 

F 

Fahs (Vogt), Anna Julia 135 

Fahs, Charles W 174 

Fahs, Edward P 176 

Fahs, Elsie F 157 

Fahs, Emma Elizabeth 146 

Fahs, Gertrude M 157 

Fahs, Grace J 150 

Fahs, Harry F 176 

Fahs, Henry 188 

Fahs, Henry W 174 

Fahs, John H 176 

Fahs, Joseph P 176 

Fahs, Robert J 153 

Fahs (Young), Sarah 142 

Fahs (Rudolphi), Sophia Fred. 143 

Fahs, William E 177 

Feisser, Anna Christina 71 

Fenner, Beata 129 

Fenner, Felix 42 

Fenner, George 36 

Fenner, Isaac 163 

Fenner, Jane E 131 

Fenner, James L 163 

Fenner, Maria 102 

Fenner, Mary L 131 



Fenner (Eschenbach), Martha, no 

Fenner, William 163 

Fenstermacher (Rente), Bar- 
bara [Leibert] 69 

Fetter (Sanders), Catharine 

Anna 91 

Fetter, C. Jacob 19 

Fetter, Ch. Marcus 37 

Fetter (Riem), Christine 105 

Fetter (Harbach), Elizabeth... 122 

Fetter, Henry Samuel 34 

Fetter, Henry Samuel, inf 34 

Fetter, John Peter 47 

Fetter, Marcus 51 

Fetter, W. Henry 40 

Fickardt, Augustus R 186 

Fickardt, Beata 108 

Fickardt, Frederick William .. 185 

Field, Christian F 49 

Filbig, Eberhard 160 

Fiot, Charles Augustus 187 

Fiot (de Souville), Julia 117 

Fischer (Clement), Agnes 68 

Fischer, Anna Maria 78 

Fischer, Juliana 92 

Fischer (Bar), Regina 99 

Fischer, Susanna 95 

Fischer, Thomas, Jr 19 

Fischer, Thomas 30 

Folkmar [Volkmar], Herman 

165 

Fradeneck, Agnes Rosalia .... 137 
Fradeneck, Albert Alexander . . 185 

Fradeneck, Edward S 174 

Fradeneck, Elmer F 174 

Fradeneck, Emma 133 

Fradeneck, Gilbert Vincent . . . 181 
Fradeneck (Cassler), Henrietta 154 

Fradeneck, Laura A 131 

Fradeneck, Lilly E 153 

Fradeneck, Mabel A 157 

Fradeneck, Mary J 156 

Fradeneck (Poe), Neylia Re- 
becca 157 

Fradeneck (Getter), Rebecca 

Ann 139 

Fradeneck, Sarah S 132 

Francke, Anna M 63 

Francke, Anna Maria 72 

Francke, Beatus 20 

Francke, Christine 63 

Francke, John Christoph 22 

' Frederick, Louis H 173 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 197 



Freeman (Wittman), Esther; 

see Lange 151 

Freiling, Mary F 129 

Freitag, John Augustus 149 

Freitag (Fetter), Salome 120 

Freitag (Friday), William A.. 162 

Freudenberger, Anna L 153 

Freudenberger, Anna Maria . . 118 
Freudenberger, George Fred- 
erick 141 

Freudenberger, M. Louisa .... 129 

Frey, Esther 87 

Freyhube, Martin 36 

Freytag (Oliver), Anna Chris- 
tina 82 

Freytag, Benjamin 19 

Freytag (Jacobson), Catharine 99 
Freytag (Tombler), Euphemia 

Armstrong 112 

Freytag, John Daniel 181 

Freytag, M.D., John Eberhard. 170 

Freytag, Oliver F 163 

Freytag, Theodore Eberhard... 172 

Frick, Edward J 163 

Friederich, Ellen S 130 

Friedman, Anna Rosina 72 

Fries, Harry Jacob 149 

Fries, Jennie C 130 

Fries, John Jacob 13 

Fritsch, Maria 95 

Fritsche, John Christian 30 

Fritsche, Juliana 65 

Froehlich, Benigna 96 

Frcehlich, Christian 6 

Frueauff (Frueauff), Agnes 

Clara 158 

Frueauff, Eugene Alexander . . 179 
Frueauff (von Schweinitz), 

Joa. Eliz 109 

Frueauff, John Frederick 52 

Fuehrer, Angelina Henrietta.. 116 
Fuehrer (Knauss), Anna Bar- 
bara 118 

Fuehrer (Roth), Elizabeth 135 

Fiihrer, Frederick 170 

Fuehrer, Henry 150 

Fuehrer, Joseph 170 

Fuehrer (Loesch), Margaret 

Elizabeth 102 

Fuehrer (Herwig), Salome ... 148 

Fuehrer, Sarah A 97 

Fuehrer, Valentine 33 

Fulton, Margaret 121 

Fulton (Eschenbach), Maria.. 81 



Gabriel, Indian boy 21 

Gambold, Elizabeth 78 

Gambold, Hector 15 

Gambold (Craig), Helen 70 

Gambold, James 21 

Gambold (Schlegel), Johanna 

Sophia 99 

Gambold, Martha 65 

Gammern (Mauersberg), Jul. 

Ben. von 106 

Gangewere (Weiss), Jacobine. 122 

Gapp, Philip Henry 156 

Gardner (Osborne), Anna 

Eliza C 138 

Garrison (Brandt), Mariane .. 69 

Garrison, Nicholas 8 

Garrison, Sigor 21 

Gattermeyer (Uhlmann), Dor- 
othy 58 

Gattermeyer, John Leonard ... 19 

Geddis, Hannah 60 

Gehbe, George Ernst 34 

Gehbe (Rauch), Joanna Cath.. 107 

Geissinger, Aline J 130 

Geissinger, Irwin T 175 

Geitner, Beatus 20 

Geitner (Gaupp), Susan Dor- 
othea 59 

Gerber, John Jacob 140 

Gerber (Storz), Maria 148 

Gering (Bishop), Angelina ... 125 

Gering, Jane M 132 

Gering (Luckenbach), Wilhel- 

mine Belinda 126 

Gerhardt, Maria Catharine ... 95 

Gerlach, Beata 153 

Gerlach, Lewis Anthony 144 

Gerlach (Weber), Louisa .... 155 

Gernand, Alice May 139 

Gerstberger, Henry 46 

Giersch, Anna Rosina 126 

Giersch, Joseph 35 

Giese (Clauss), Christina So- 
phia 93 

Giesy (Reisle), Barbara 99 

Gill, Magdalene 71 

Gill, Mary 91 

Gillespie, Robert 53 

Gimmele > Matthew 17 

Glitsch, Margaret E 129 

Glitsch (Hedrich),Mary Eliza- 
beth; see Bien 151 



198 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Goehring [Gehring], James W. 49 

Goepp, Ellen E 101 

Goepp, Mary Cornelia 94 

Goepp, Philip Henry 178 

Goepp, Rudolph Max 188 

Goetje, Anna C 63 

Goetje, Mary 61 

Goettlich (Pletscher), Bibiana 

Frederica ; see Braun 103 

Gold, Catharine 97 

Gold, David 41 

Gold, Edward V 165 

Gold, John 27 

Gold, Henry H 162 

Gold, M. Amanda 130 

Gold, Philip 173 

Gold, Susanna 120 

Goth, Adolph 173 

Goth, Amelia M 131 

Goth, Anthony 189 

Goth, A. Siegmund 174 

Goth, Charles Augustus 146 

Goth (Lichtenthaeler), Eleo- 

nora Sophia 142 

Goth, George A 176 

Goth, Gustav A 174 

Goth, Herman John 150 

Goth, Levin T 165 

Goth, Maria A 130 

Goth (Nowitsky), Maria Anna 118 
Gottfried, Christian (London) . 24 

Gottlieb, Indian boy 22 

Gottlob, Indian boy 20 

Gottschalk, Matthew Gottlieb. . 23 

Goundie, Beata 9S 

Goundie, Charles F 21 

Goundie (Wagner), Cornelia 

Elizabeth 115 

Goundie, H. S. Muhlenberg . . 40 

Goundie, John Sebastian 164 

Goundie, Lewis W 21 

Graefle, Anna 128 

Graf, John Matthew 7 

Graff, Abraham 23 

Green, Anna 64 

Green, Anna Abigail 95 

Greider, Beata 157 

Greider (Smith), Emma 

Cecilia 133 

Greider (Levering), Anna 

Matilda 128 

Greider, Orville Augustus 180 

Grider (Skirving), Elizabeth. . 134 
Groen, Anna Maria 90 



Groman, Francesca P 130 

Groner, Susan 154 

Grosh, Abraham 189 

Grosh, Beatus 163 

Grosh, Charles E 180 

Grosh, Henry M 160 

Grosh (Borhek), Lin dor a 

Seraphina 142 

Grosh, Mary L 92 

Grosh, William Augustus 172 

Gross, Cora E. A 129 

Grube, Bernard Adam 50 

Gruen (Weber), Anna Eliza- 
beth 70 

Gruen, John Geo 49 

Grunewald, Gustav W 46 

Grunewald, Iduna Concordia. 96 

Grunewald, John Henry n 

Grunewald (Lehman), Justina 

Maria 124 

Gugatsch, Auguste Emilie .... 131 

Gugatsch, W. Adolph 174 

Gump, Andrew 12 

Gundt, Henry A 45 

Gundt, Ivan C 45 

Gundt [Goundie] (Ising), 

Mar. Chr 109 

Gysi, John Jacob 14 

H 

Haas, Beata 98 

Haas, Beatus 44 

Haas, Beatus 46 

Haas (Neuffer), Catharine 

Jacobina 107 

Haberland (Jaehne), Anna 

Helena 68 

Haberland, John 20 

Haberland, Michael 9 

Hafner, A. Maria 66 

Hafner (Ried), Anna Magda- 
lene 86 

Hafner, A. Rosina 65 

Hagen, Beatus 175 

Hagen (Reichel), Clara Cor- 
nelia 117 

Hagen, John Cornelius 186 

Hagy, Abraham V 42 

Hagy, Joseph Jones 170 

Haidt (Compigny), Catharine. 105 

Haidt, Valentine 7 

Hall, James 9 

Hall, Joseph 18 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 199 



Haller, Christian 158 

Haller, Emma C 157 

Haller, George C 156 

Haller, John J 159 

Haller, John Joseph 136 

Halter, Joanna Wilhelmina. . . 126 
Haman (Grant), Mary; see 

Mack 84 

Hamilton (Ludwig), J. M. 

Caroline 122 

Hammer, Maria Agatha 61 

Hancke, Catharine 66 

Hanke (Opp), Anna Catharine 106 

Hanke, Matthew 43 

Hannah, Indian girl 63 

Hantsch, George 28 

Harding, Conrad! 24 

Hark, Joseph, M.D 155 

Harned, Ashbel Green 168 

Harris, James B 169 

Hartman, Adolph 41 

Hartman, Caroline E 129 

Hartman, Catharine 64 

Hartman (Dreisbach), Catha- 
rine 120 

Hartman (Lembke), Cath. 

Eliza 78 

Hartman, Christian Frederic . . 144 

Hartman, Elizabeth 62 

Hartman (Lange), Elizabeth 

Cath iM 

Hartman, George Adolph .... 52 

Hasse (Chase), Anna 68 

Hasse (Demuth), Anna Maria 78 

Hasse, John Christian 37 

Hatnick (Hanke), Elizabeth .. 121 

Hauck, Angelina 98 

Hauck (Bauer), Cartharine 

Elizabeth 117 

Hauck, James A 162 

Hauck, Louisa M no 

Hauck, Mary Louisa 108 

Hauck, Minerva J 130 

Hauer (Green), Joanna no 

Hauer, Joshua 33 

Hauer, Mary A 97 

Hauer, Mary A 97 

Haus (Jones), Elizabeth 88 

Haus, George 181 

Haus (Vognitz), Lisetta 139 

Haus, William Harrison 1713 

Hauser, Daniel 34 

Hauser, Daniel 40 

Hauser (Meyer), Elizabeth ... 93 



Hauser (Schweizer), Maria .. 75 

Healy, John 24 

Heberling, Richard Wm 176 

Heck, Adam 37 

Heck, Clara A 129 

Heck (Becker), Elizabeth 154 

Heck, Mary C 130 

Heck, M. Louisa 130 

Heck, William 136 

Heckewelder (Nitschmann), A. 

M 83 

Heckewelder, Anna Maria ... 71 
Heckewelder, Chr. David .... 18 

Heckewelder, David 22 

Heckewelder, John 19 

Heckewelder, John 47 

Heckewelder, Johanna Maria 

(Polly) 118 

Heckewelder, Maria 66 

Heckewelder (Ohneberg), 

Sarah 80 

Heil, Maria Salome 100 

Heine, John Christoph 172 

Heine (Hesse), Sophia Cath- 
arine 154 

Held, Beatus 44 

Held, Henrietta E 98 

Held, Horace Dixon 161 

Held, John J 165 

Held (Till), Mary Elizabeth.. 109 
Hellerman, Casper George ... 11 

Hellert, Henry 46 

Helwig, Benjamin 44 

Helwig, Gideon 47 

Hencke, Christopher 28 

Hencke, Elizabeth 56 

Henderson, Margaret 97 

Henkel, Caroline 97 

Henn, Bertha M 157 

Henn, William 175 

Hennig, Gottfried 36 

Henry, Indian boy 22 

Henry (Schropp), Sabina 123 

Hent, Valentine 189 

Herbst (Euter), Anna Maria.. 138 

Herbst, John Godfrey 172 

Herbst, John Godfrey 187 

Hermann, Jacob 35 

Herman (Heller), Louisa Eliz.. 152 

Herpel (Fuhrer), Louisa 109 

Herr, Jacob 25 

Herwig, Rebecca A 121 

Herzer (Linck), Barbara Eliza 77 
Hess, Anna Maria 122 



200 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Hess, Jacob 162 

Hesse, Anton F 158 

Hesse, Cornelius Wm 175 

Hesse (Maechler), Maria An- 

tonia 126 

Hesse (Yost), Sarah Ann 155 

Hessler (Winkler), Anna 

Maria 71 

Hessler, Joseph 19 

Heydecker, George 23 

Heydecker, Jacob 25 

Hildebrand, Beatus 163 

Hildebrand (Seibel), Catha- 
rine 138 

Hildebrand, John Henry 136 

Hildebrand (Pfluger), Mary.. 135 

Hillman, Aaron 167 

Hillman (Moeller), Elizabeth. 137 

Hillman, John Levin 167 

Hillman (Koken), Phoebe 

Anna 80 

Hillman, Rachel 97 

Hillman, Richard Emil 168 

Hillman (Kokan), Sarah 53 

Hilt (Lenz), Margaret 139 

Hinkel, Edwin C 162 

Hinkel, Milton C 161 

Hirt (Beroth), Maria Joanna; 

see Lcesch 93 

Hirt, Martin 4 

Hirte, Elizabeth 65 

Hirte, John Tobias 4 

Hirte (Klose), Maria 56 

Hittinger (Proske), Anna 

Juliana 139 

Hcehns, Barbara 79 

Hceth, Frederick 21 

Hceth, Mariana 73 

Hcepfner, Mary 64 

Hcepfner, Salome 90 

Hoff, Christina 87 

Hoff, Catharine 104 

Hoffert, Robert 43 

Hoffert, Samuel 185 

Hoffman (Borhek), Amelia 

Ant 143 

Hoffman, Matthew 12 

Hofman, Thomas 23 

Holder, Sybilla 60 

Hope (Bush), Aravesta Lau- 
retta 121 

Horn, Maria Barbara 90 

Hornig, Anna Maria 66 

Hornig (Spohn), Anna Maria. 92 



Hornig, Christian 33 

Horsfield, Daniel 19 

Horsfield (Benezet), Elizabeth. 88 

Horsfield, Eliza Montford 89 

Horsfield, Joseph 52 

Horsfield (Parsons), Juliana.. 87 

Horsfield (Doughty), Mary ... 75 

Horsfield, Mary Ann 94 

Horsfield (Weiss), Rebecca ... no 

Horsfield, Sarah 121 

Horsfield (Mumford), Sarah.. 83 

Horsfield, Jr., Timothy 15 

Horsfield, Sr., Timothy 26 

Horsfield, Timothy (infant) ... 18 

Horsfield, William 170 

Hosfeld, Adam 12 

Hottel (Barndt), Caroline 152 

Hottel, Michael 140 

Hower, Josiah 44 

Huber, Anna J 65 

Huber, Anna M 62 

Huber (Berck), Anna Maria.. 70 

Huber (Butmansky), Catharine 86 

Huber (Ronner), Dorothea ... 108 

Huber, George, Sr 16 

Huber, George 40 

Huber (Eschenbach), Salome.. 85 

Huebner, Eleonora 66 

Huebner, Abraham 20 

Huebner, Abraham 45 

Huebner, Antoinette E 95 

Huebner (Stoll), Anna Rosina. 123 

Huebner, Beatus 19 

Huebner (Baumgaertner), 

Catharine 99 

Huebner (Eschenbach), Chris- 
tina 109 

Huebner (Ysselsteyn), Cornelia 76 

Huebner, Cornelia M 95 

Huebner, John Lewis 49 

Huebner, John Lewis 50 

Huebner, Lewis Renatus 189 

Huebner, Lydia C 95 

Huebner, M. Magdalen 66 

Huebner, Rachel 72 

Huebner [Huebener], Thomas. 19 

Huebner, William 20 

Huebsch, Joseph 16 

Hueffel, Frederica Justina 125 

Hueffel (Hunzicker), Sarah 

Eliz 108 

Huettig, Beata 157 

Huettig, Eugene Herman .... 175 

Huettig, John Michael 156 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 201 



Huettig (Klotke), Maria 152 

Huf schmidt (Schupp), Eliza- 
beth 154 

Hunsicker (Seip), Anna Maria no 

Hunsicker, Sarah 120 

Hunt (Hauschild), Charlotte 

Fred 135 

Hunt, Charlotte L 157 

Hunt, Jacob Lebrecht 137 

Hunter, Anna Louisa 143 

Hunziger, Beatus 40 

Hussey, Anna Joanna 79 

Hussey (Wilkes), Martha 69 

Hussey, Mary 62 

Hussey, Mary Elizabeth 63 

Hussey, Robert 6 

Huth, Beatus 159 

Huth (Reichenbach), Caroline. 141 

Huth, Ellen E. A no 

Huth, Franklin H 160 

Huth, William H 163 

I 

Uion, J. Dietrich 162 

Irmer (Bischoff), Anna Sophia 82 

Irmer, Geo. Henry 43 

Irmer (Kindig), Hannah .... 108 
Irmer (Stotz), Joanna Eliza- 
beth 79 

Irmer, John Geo 22 

Irmer, John George 47 

Isaac, a Wampanoag 24 

Isaac, Otapawanamen 27 

Ising (Luckenbach), Eva Maria 99 

Ising, George Anderson 48 

Ising, Maria 97 

Isles, Maria Elizabeth 79 

Isles (Zerb), Maria Margaret; 

see Auerbach 100 

J 

Jacobson (Schnall), Ann 

Lisette 143 

Jacobson, Eugene Alexander . . 167 
Jacobson (Greider), Jane 

Matilda 117 

Jacobson, John Christian 178 

Jacoby, Aline C 157 

Jacoby, Beata 132 

Jacoby, Emily Jane 132 

Jacoby, Eugene H 156 

Jacoby, Harold W 159 

Jacoby, Irene Louisa 138 



Jacoby, John C 176 

Jacoby, Josephine A no 

Jacoby, Robert R 159 

Jacoby, Thomas H 156 

Jacoby, Waren W 159 

Jaehne, Charles L 174 

Jag (Holder), Barbara 93 

James, a negro 54 

Jansen, Elizabeth 66 

Jansen, Jost 16 

Jansen, Just 18 

Jansen, Matt. Just 18 

Jansen, M. Justina 65 

Jarmon (Young), Hannah 

Elizabeth 116 

Jarret (Jones), Lydia 155 

Jenkins, James 174 

Johannes, Mohican boy 21 

Johannes, Samuel (a Malay).. 5 

John [Tschoop], Indian 27 

Johnson, William 176 

Jonas, Indian boy 24 

Jones, Anna 113 

Jones (Godfrey), Eleonora 100 

Jones, John 8 

Jones, Joseph 51 

Jones (Davis), Margaret Pugh 109 

Jones, Maria 60 

Jones (Van Vleck), Maria 103 

Jones (Cummins), Mary 88 

Jones (Willey), Mary Agnes. . 151 

Jones, Mary Agnes L 147 

Jones, Maurice Charles 180 

Jones, Rebecca 61 

Jones, Thomas 40 

Jones, William 42 

Jones, William 51 

Jorde, Beata 65 

Jorde, John 30 

Jorde (Horn), Margaret 105 

Joseph, a Mohican 27 

Joseph, Indian boy 19 

Jundt (Hasse), Anna Susanna 119 

Jundt, John Jacob 42 

Jung, Henry 182 

Junghans, Samuel 181 

Jungman (Bechtel), Anna 

Margaret 70 

Jungman (Loesch), Christina 

Eliz 107 

Jungman (Schmidt), Dorothea 87 

Jungman, Francis Th 44 

Tungman, Geo. F 43 

Jungman, John 165 



202 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Jungmann, John George 35 

Jungman, Peter 34 

K 

Kafka (Boeckel), Anna Rosina 114 

Kafka, Charles Matthew 172 

Kampman (Lehnert), Anna 

Maria 112 

Kampman, Christian Frederic. 34 

Kampman, Clarence 186 

Kampman, Edmund 174 

Kampman, Francis 161 

Kampman, Lewis Francis .... 145 
Kampmann (Oerter), Maria 

Louisa 132 

Kampman, Mary 138 

Kampman, Mary Catharine . . 138 

Kannhaeuser, Elizabeth 60 

Kapp, John 11 

Kapp, Margaret 72 

Karte, Anna M 129 

Karte, Frederick Jonas 165 

Karte, John C 175 

Kaske, A. Maria 66 

Kaske (Funk), Susan Elizabeth 100 
Kaucher (Loesch), Aurelia 

Louisa 124 

Kaucher, Henry B 163 

Kaucher, Louisa Augusta .... 128 

Kaucher, Olivia C 130 

Kaucher, William 164 

Kaufman (Amdor), Maria.... 115 

Keller (Sigley), Belinda 152 

Kern (Stoll), Anna Maria 82 

Kern, John Christian 46 

Kern (Bishop), Maria Eliza- 
beth r2i 

Kern, Sarah Adelaide 148 

Kiefer (Rubel), Magdalena .. 71 

Kiefer, Marcus 17 

Kindig (Bader), Justina 85 

King, William 12 

Kitschel, Sophia Christiana . . . 101 
Kitchelt (Richter) , Sophia 

Elizabeth 89 

Kleckner, Albert G 159 

Kleckner (Jacoby), Amanda 

Lovinia 116 

Kleckner (Lerch), Amelia .... 134 
Kleckner (George), Caroline.. 148 
Kleckner (Brunner), Eliza ... 127 

Kleckner, Elmer A 174 

Kleckner, Emma A 150 



Kleckner, Lizzie A 131 

Kleckner, Peter 180 

Kleckner, Reuben 145 

Kleckner (Snyder), Sarah 

Ann 138 

Klein (Bender), Anna 76 

Klein, John George 9 

Klemm, Benjamin 21 

Klemm, Elizabeth 63 

Klemm, John Gottlob 4 

Kliest (Schuster), Anna Feli- 

citas 74 

Kliest (Beyer), Anna Rosina.. 57 

Kliest, Daniel 17 

Kliest, J. Daniel 19 

Kliest, J. Daniel 19 

Klingsohr, John August 32 

Klink, Anna M 130 

Kloetze, Andrew Christian .... 12 

Klose, Louisa 120 

Klose (Spence), Maria 120 

Klotz, Anna Maria 89 

Kluge, Agnes Amelia 135 

Kluge, Gertrude 153 

Kluge (Irmer), Hen. Mathilde 109 

Kluge, John Peter 166 

Kluge, Joseph A 44 

Kluge, Lewis Christian 166 

Kluge (Albright), Mary Eliza- 
beth 112 

Knauss, Abraham 37 

Knauss (Wuensch), Anna 

Maria 100 

Knauss (Schoenheintz), Anna 

Maria 119 

Knauss, Christian 170 

Knauss (Boeckel), Elizabeth.. 108 

Knauss, Emily E 131 

Knauss, Emily J 150 

Knauss, James Edward 187 

Knauss (Thomas), Jane 119 

Knauss, John H 162 

Knauss (Mueller). Joh. Salome 85 

Knauss, Leonard 42 

Knauss (Wilhelm), Maria 

Louisa 141 

Knauss (Hauser), Mary 122 

Knauss, Maurice Christ 37 

Knauss, Samuel Lewis 163 

Knauss, William Frederick . . . 171 

Knes, Anna S 131 

Knes, Johannes 187 

Knes, William H 177 

Koch, Amelia M. and Lillie M. 156 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 203 



Koch, Beatus 176 

Koch (Huth), Caroline Joan.. 134 

Koch, Henry 176 

Koch, Katharine E 153 

Koch, William J 176 

Koehler, Balthasar 10 

Koehler (Bush), Lydia Maria. 143 

Koenig, Simon 42 

Kornmann (Bichler), Anna 

Margaret 92 

Kornmann, John Henry 18 

Kornmann, J. Maria 66 

Kornmann, John Theobald ... 47 
Krause (Partsch), Anna 

Benigna 80 

Krause, Anna J 65 

Krause (Stoll), Anna Joanna.. 107 

Krause, Beatus 160 

Krause (Ruch), Catharine .... 103 

Krause, Dominicus 17 

Krause, Edward Romantus ... 44 

Krause, Edward S 46 

Krause, Edwin Benjamin .... 167 

Krause (Beitel), Elizabeth 138 

Krause, Eugene H 161 

Krause, Gottlieb 50 

Krause, Henry 17 

Krause, John 38 

Krause, John 189 

Krause, John Samuel 51 

Krause, Louisa M 150 

Krause (Bauer), Margaret ... no 
Krause, Maria J. and Emma 

L 132 

Krause (Schropp), Maria 

Louisa 82 

Krause, Moulton J 160 

Krause, William H 175 

Krausemueller, Lydia A 132 

Kreiter, Emily E 131 

Kreiter, Owen S 177 

Kremser, Anna Catharine 94 

Kremser, Anna Maria 95 

Kremser (Beck), Anna Sybilla 114 

Kremser, Anna Sybilla 142 

Kremser, Charles Frederick ... 184 
Kremser, Charles O. and 

Alfred 1 44 

Kremser, Cornelia E 101 

Kremser, James Albert 140 

Kremser, John 51 

Kremser, John Andrew 182 

Kremser (Oberdorf), Rosina.. 105 



Kremser (Weinland), Susanna 

Eliz 143 

Kremser (Bauer), Susanna 

Maria 125 

Krogstrup, Otto Chr 14 

Kuehlbrunn (Mesners), Judith 104 

Kuemmerle, Jacob 23 

Kuenz, Mary 129 

Kuester, Henry Christian 164 

Kuester (Clewell), Lizetta 

Theodora; see Bishop 141 

Kummer, Anna Louisa 90 

Kummer, John Jacob 168 

Kummer, Letitia and Edward. 132 

Kummer (Horsfield), Mary .. 117 

Kummer, Mary Elizabeth .... 118 

Kummer (Hinchcliffe), Sarah. 88 
Kummer (Muller), (Zorn) 

Sarah 89 

Kummer, Susan Ann 140 

Kunckler, Anna R 65 

Kunkler, Abraham 22 

Kunkler, Anna M 62 

Kunkler (May), Anna Mary. 67 

Kunkler, jr., Daniel 9 

Kunkler, Sr., Daniel 7 

Kunkler, David 52 

Kunkler, Emma M 97 

Kunkler (Young), Margaret.. 92 

Kunkler (Colver), Maria 82 

Kunz, David 17 

Kunz (Ballenhorst), Margaret 58 

Kunz, Maria Elizabeth 91 

Kunze, Beata 129 

Kunze, Herman 181 

Kupferschmidt, Rosa 121 

L 

Lachenour, Margaret R 98 

Landis, Beata 131 

Langaard (Sommers), Eliza- 
beth 68 

Langballe (Meinung), Salome; 

see Ebbecke 127 

Langballe, Thomas 33 

Lange, Beata 65 

Lange, Beatus 19 

Lange (Wittman), Esther 151 

Lange, Ethelinda C 107 

Lange, Christian 187 

Lange, Gottlieb 17 

Lange, Jr., Gottlieb 18 

Lange, John Christian 48 



204 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Lange, John Jones 170 

Lange (Hiittenrauch), Juliana 

Ros 107 

Lange (Jones), Mary Anna ... 123 
Lange (Klingenstein), M. Cath. 86 

Lange, Maurice 54 

Lange (Jesro), Sarah 89 

Lange, Wrn. Jesro 42 

Langley, Anne Rebecca 73 

Langley, Erdmuth 73 

Langley, James 7 

Lanius, Eva 102 

Lathrop, Mary 92 

Laub, Peter 156 

Lawall, Anna S 133 

Lawall, Daniel 164 

Lawall, Harvey E 174 

Lawall, John A 174 

Lawatsch (Demuth), Anna 

Maria 55 

Ledgerwood, Mary L 104 

Lehman (Paulus), Angelica 

Soph 147 

Lehman, Beatus 44 

Lehman (Luckenbach), Carol. 

Eliz 127 

Lehman, Edward C 160 

Lehman, Ernest Lewis 168 

Lehman, Mary Constance .... 94 

Lee, Richard 49 

Lehnert (Berck), Anna Maria; 

see Huber 70 

Lehnert, John 21 

Lehnert, Nathanael 20 

Lehr, Edmund 169 

Leibert, Barbara; see Fenster- 

macher 69 

Leibert, Beatus 174 

Leibert, Catharine 61 

Leibert, Clarence A 161 

Leibert Eleanor F 95 

Leibert, Eugenia M 98 

Leibert, James Gotthold 185 

Leibert, Joseph 168 

Leibert (Tschudy), Mary Ann. 1125 
Leibert (Nitschmann), Rebecca 109 

Leibert, Salome 116 

Leighton, John 28 

Leighton (Clifford), Sarah 67 

Leinbach, Beatus 175 

Leinbach, Joseph 20 

Leinbach, Lucy R 133 

Leinbach (Lange), Maria 

Theresia 116 



Leinbach, Traugott 185 

Leinbach, William T 177 

Lelansky, Emma L 129 

Lelansky Frederick William . . 156 

Lembke, John Renatus 25 

Lembke (Wyk), Mary Catha- 
rine 105 

Lerch, Sabina 72 

Levering, Abraham 48 

Levering (Cassler), Anna 

Christine 114 

Levering, Anna Maria 90 

Levering (Lambert), Barbara 

Carol 140 

Levering, Elizabeth 87 

Levering, Henrietta 95 

Levering, John 20 

Levering, Jos. Mortimer 152 

Levering, Lisetta 95 

Levering, Louis Ferdinand 178 

Levering, Robert C 175 

Levers, John J 183 

Levers, Laura M 133 

Lewis, Beata 157 

Lewis (Lembke), Catharine 

Eliza ; see Hartman 121 

Lewis, Elizabeth 94 

Lewis, John 15 

Licht, Anna Maria 126 

Lichtenthaeler ( Sautter), 

Amelia W 150 

Lichtenthaeler (Kreider), Char- 
lotte 144 

Lick, Edwin J 44 

Liebisch, Elizabeth 63 

Liebysch [Liebisch], Anna .... 74 
Liliendahl, Henrietta D. E. ... 124 

Lind, Alfred Bonthron 179 

Lindemeyer, Elizabeth 72 

Lindemeyer (Horsfield), Eliza- 
beth 74 

Lindemeyer, Henry 41 

Lindstroem, John M 11 

Linke, Ehrenfried R. Martin.. 177 

Ljungberg, Johannes 50 

Ljungberg (Youngberg), Sarah 81 

Loeffler, Maria Dorothea 73 

Loesch (Demuth), Agnes 85 

Loesch (Blum) , Anna 80 

Loesch, George Matthew 45 

Loesch, Harmanus [Herman] . . 16 
Loesch (Beroth), Maria Joanna 93 

Loesch, Mary Elizabeth 102 

Loesch (Boehler), Wilhelmina. 128/;' 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 205 



Long, Emma A 92 

Lorenz (Clauss), Eva 79 

Lorenz, George Nicholas 16 

Loskiel, George Henry 10 

Loskiel (Barlach), M. Magd.. . 84 

Lott, M.D., Charles F 182 

Lucas, Quawatschonit 28 

Luch (Pentz), Agnes 112 

Luch (Schenck), Anna Maria. 124 

Luch, Beatus 44 

Luch (Miller), Esther 107 

Luch, Frederick Christian . . . 186 
Luch (Demuth), Hannah .... 141 

Luch, John Jacob, Sen 45 

Luch, John Jacob 145 

Luch, M. C. Agnes 104 

Luch, Wm. Frederick 44 

Luckenbach, Abraham 167 

Luckenbach, Adam 14 

Luckenbach, Albert Parmenio. 145 

Luckenbach, Alfred J 177 

Luckenbach, Anna C 129 

Luckenbach, Beata 98 

Luckenbach, Beata 129 

Luckenbach, Beatus 163 

Luekenbach, Beatus 174 

Luckenbach, Charles Israel ... 150 
Luckenbach, Clara Alliene .... 146 

Luckenbach, Daniel 41 

Luckenbach (Partsch), Eliza- 
beth 88 

Luckenbach (Weinland), Eliza- 
beth 125 

Luckenbach, Fernandus M. . . . 163 

Luckenbach, Henry A 160 

Luckenbach, Henry Joseph H.. 159 

Luckenbach, Israel Lewis 161 

Luckenbach, John 36 

Luckenbach, John Adam 169 

Luckenbach, Jacob Christian. . 171 

Luckenbach, John David 170 

Luckenbach, Joseph 18 

Luckenbach, Joseph 173 

Luckenbach, Joseph Rice 169 

Luckenbach, Joseph Wm 44 

Luckenbach, Josephine A 107 

Luckenbach (Rice), Josephine 

Eliza 122 

Luckenbach, Josephine W 98 

Luckenbach, Laura Euphemia. 137 
Luckenbach, Lucius Quincy ... 167 

Luckenbach, Ludwig D 18 

Luckenbach (Kornman), Maria 
Bar 115 

14 



Luckenbach, Marietta L 107 

Luckenbach, Martha Augusta.. 151 

Luckenbach (Gehman), Mary. 105 
Luckenbach (Sheridan), Mary 

Ann 120 

Luckenbach, Mary E 132 

Luckenbach (Becker), Mary 

Magdalene 112 

Luckenbach, Morris T 177 

Luckenbach ( Heckedorn ), 

Rosina 120 

Luckenbach, Samuel 19 

Luckenbach, Samuel 166 

Luckenbach, Samuel 184 

Luckenbach (Chitty), Sarah .. 80 

Luckenbach (Kuefer), Sarah.. 112 

Luckenbach (Hauer), Sarah .. 148 

Luckenbach, Sarah A 98 

Luckenbach (Zahm), Sarah 

Ann 134 

Luckenbach (Tombler), Sarah 

Ann 148 

Luckenbach, Sarah C 131 

Luckenbach, Sarah E 98 

Luckenbach (Heckewelder), 

Susanna 118 

Luckenbach, Theodore C 161 

Luckenbach, Thomas A 176 

Luckenbach, Thomas David . . 183 

Luckenbach, William B 45 

Luckenbach, Wm. Benj 43 

Luckenbach, Wm. Montfort ... 37 

Ludwig, Alfred T 161 

Lydia, Indian girl 64 

Lynn (Hager), Catharine .... 127 

Lynn (Heck), Helen Elizabeth 157 

Lynn, Jesse William 182 

M 

Mack, Anna 63 

Mack (Mengo), Emma 135 

Mack, Gottlob 12 

Mack, John A. and Edwin S.. . 153 

Mack, John Jacob 38 

Mack, Julius G 174 

Mack (Grant), Mary 84 

Mack, Mary J 154 

Mack, Theodora 115 

Mack, Walter Forest 153 

Magdalena, Beulah Brockden.. 82 

Magdalena, Indian 56 

Maerker, C. August Wilhelm.. 170 

Maharg, William 175 



2o6 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Maloy, Irene S 156 

Maloy, Jemima C 129 

Maloy, Niola R 150 

Malthaner (Wendell), Beata 

Marg 146 

Malthaner (Schoenhainz), Cath. 

Marg 142 

Malthaner, Charlotte E 130 

Malthaner, Emma Josephine . . 147 

Malthaner, Frederick W 174 

Malthaner, Harry Augustus . . 189 

Malthaner, Henry Augustus... 184 

Malthaner, John Christian .... 179 

Mann, William 53 

Mans, Martha 71 

Manuel, Edwin Zelotes 161 

Manuel (Christ), Eliza Cecilia 135 

Manuel, Elizabeth C 104 

Manuel, Ellen L 132 

Manuel, James C 163 

Manuel, Oliver W 49 

Marschall, Anna Dorothea von 90 

Marschall, Chr. Fr. von 18 

Maria, Anna, a Delaware .... 57 

Maria, Anna, a Mohican 60 

Martens (Arnold), Barbara... 67 

Martin, Indian boy 22 

Martin, Anna Ruth Delia .... 119 
Martin (Leinbach), Maria 

Barbara; see Nitschmann .. 78 

Martin, Peter 12 

Maslich, Franklin B 43 

Masslich, John Ignatius 40 

Masslich (Prozman), Justine.. 111 

Matthiesen, Nicholas 35 

Matzenbach, William 173 

Mau (Kremper), Anna Catha- 
rine 87 

Mau, A. F. Gottlieb 23 

Mau, Renatus 21 

Mau, Salome 64 

Mau, Samuel 30 

McAllister, Catharine 96 

McCarty, Andrew E 173 

McCarty, Charles B i8b 

McCarty (Overbeck), Mary .. 155 

McCarty, Mary J 129 

McHose, John Joseph 37 

McHose, Sylvester A 40 

McLaughlin, Sarah Ann 54 

McNeil (Vognitz), Caroline 

Theresa 144 

McNeil, Jacob 149 

Meder (Warner), Hannah ... 84 



Meder, John 38 

Meinhart, Herman 175 

Meinung, Abraham 20 

Menier, Anna Christina 101 

Merk, John 31 

Merrill, Lawson 186 

Merz, Anna 90 

Meurer, Elizabeth 71 

Meurer, John Philip 29 

Meurer, Maria Magdalene . . . 101 

Meyer, John 12 

Meyer, Maria Agnes 102 

Meyer, Otto 177 

Meyer, Simon Christoph 25 

Meyer, Thomas Conrad 183 

Meyers, Christine B 156 

Meyers, Lillie J 150 

Meyers, Robert J 176 

Mezger, Regina L 96 

Michael, an Indian 29 

Michler, Anna M 63 

Michler, Eliza 71 

Michler (Schneider), Rosina.. 57 

Mies, Adeline L no 

Mies, Aravesta L 133 

Mies, George W 174 

Mies (Dixon), Henrietta 126 

Mies, Josephine E 131 

Mies, Maria C 129 

Mies, Sarah E 132 

Mies, Thomas 187 

Miksch, Alice L 129 

Miksch, Anna 64 

Miksch, Anna C 130 

Miksch, Anna Rosina 100 

Miksch, Beatus 174 

Miksch, Benjamin S 46 

Miksch (Vierling), Caroline .. 147 

Miksch, Caroline E 130 

Miksch, Henry T 161 

Miksch, John Matthew 141 

Miksch, Joseph 36 

Miksch (Dixon), Lisetta 109 

Milchsack, Alice R 129 

Milchsack, Augustus 183 

Milchsack, Beatus 163 

Milchsack (Beitel), Ellen Au- 
gusta 137 

Milchsack, Ellen E 131 

Milchsack, Emily J 132 

Milchsack, George Ervin 145 

Milchsack, George Francis ... 188 

Milchsack (Everett), Hannah. 127 

Milchsack, John M 174 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 207 



Milchsack, Maria Frederica .. 113 

Milchsack (Koehler), Rebecca. 117 

Miller, Agnes Jane 150 

Miller, Anna E 129 

Miller (Kreider), Anna Wil- 

helmina 118 

Miller, Beatus 160 

Miller, Beatus 162 

Miller, Caroline V 129 

Miller, George 167 

Miller, Jacob 185 

Miller, Jacob 185 

Miller (Blauner), Joh. Doro- 
thea 77 

Miller, John Henry 9 

Miller (Krause) , Juliana 

Salome 107 

Miller (Ashley), Mary 70 

Miller (Kimball), Phoebe 

Maria 115 

Miller, Selma 132 

Miller, Sophia C 132 

Miller, Verona 91 

Moehring (Boeckel), Chr. Eliz. 83 

Moehring, John Frederick .... 32 

Moeller (Koch), Catharine ... 86 

Moeller (Prozman), Gertraud. 84 

Moeller, Isaac 21 

Moeller, John Henry 29 

Moeller, Joseph 7 

Moeller, Louisa Salome 96 

Moeller (Dietrich), Maria 

Rosina 100 

Montagne, Lydia 60 

Moos, Niels 13 

Mordick, John 12 

Morgan, Thomas 34 

Morr, Catharine 142 

Morr, Michael 149 

Motz, Anna Margaret 79 

Muecke (Muezner), Eva 

Catharine 58 

Mueller (Levering), Anna Joh. 83 

Mueller, Anna M 65 

Mueller (Swalbe), Anna Mar- 
garet; see Rauschenberger. . 100 
Mueller (Borel), Anna Maria. 68 
Mueller (Weber), Cornelia 

Clementine 137 

Mueller, Godfrey Henry 48 

Mueller, John 12 

Mueller, John (first grave) ... 23 

Mueller, John Bernard 29 

Mueller, Joseph 19 



Mueller, Joseph 20 

Mueller, Ludwig 22 

Mueller (Kresser), Marianna; 

see Roesler 103 

Mueller (Frey), Verona 104 

Muenster (Kremser), Anna .. 77 

Muenster (Gump), Barbara .. 85 

Muenster, Paul 17 

Muenster (Nitschmann), Rosina 69 

Mumford, Sarah 102 

N 

Nacasabamit; see Petrus 27 

Napheys, Eliza G 142 

Nathanael, Indian boy 20 

Neisser, Anna M 64 

Neisser (Hauff), Anna Rosina. 86 
Neisser (Boeckel), Anna 

Rosina ; see Kafka 114 

Neisser, Charles Frederick .... 45 
Neisser (Medler), Catharine 

Theodora 103 

Neisser, George 16 

Neisser, George Henry 50 

Neisser, Johanna 94 

Neisser, Joseph 31 

Neisser, Theodora 64 

Neisser, William Gerhard .... 168 

Nephege, Beatus 172 

Neubert, Daniel 15 

Neubert (Hauer), Rosina 67 

Neuman, Albert Ernest 153 

Neuman, Edmund A 159 

Neuman, Emma C 154 

Neuman, Ernest Henry 156 

Neuman, William J 175 

Newton, Abigail 54 

Newton, Alvin 54 

Nicolaus (Colver), Anna 78 

Nieke, Elizabeth 62 

Nieke, Joanna E 63 

Nielsen, Mary 63 

Nitschmann, Anna Dorothea . . 106 

Nitschmann, Aug. Eberhard .. 19 

Nitschmann, David 25 

Nitschmann, Sr., David 26 

Nitschmann, Immanuel 16 

Nitschmann, Joh. Ignatius .... 18 
Nitschmann (Haberland), 

Juliana 54 

Nitschmann (Price), Maria ... 86 
Nitschmann (Van Vleck), 

Maria ; see Jones 103 



208 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Nitschmann (Leinbach), Maria 

Barb 78 

Nixdorf, John George 14 

Nixdorf (Korn), Susan 87 

Noble, Sarah 62 

Nugent, Eliza 95 

Nyberg, Anna Sulamith 91 

Nyberg, Elizabeth Theophila.. 102 

O 

Oberlin (Young), Anna Catha- 
rine 74 

Oberlin, Daniel and Andreas.. 18 
Ockertshaus (Brooke), Grace; 

see Thorpe 106 

Ockertshausen, Elizabeth 103 

Ockertshausen, Maria 66 

Oerter, Anna 73 

Oerter (Boelen), Anna 75 

Oerter (Clewell), Anna Eliz.. . 147 

Oerter, Caroline Sophia 148 

Oerter, Catharine 87 

Oerter, Christian Frederick.... 31 

Oerter, George Francis 153 

Oerter, Henry Joseph 181 

Oerter, James E 39 

Oerter, John 187 

Oerter, Joseph 53 

Oerter, Lawrence Frederic .... 145 

Oerter (Hasse), Maria Justina 82 

Oerter, Mary Elizabeth 117 

Oerter (Lichtenthaeler), Mary 

Sophia 154 

Oerter, Sarah J 97 

Oerter, W. Henry 19 

Oesterlein (Dehuff), Elizabeth. 101 

Oesterlein, J. Daniel 43 

Oesterlein, Mary Magdalene.. 90 
Oesterlein (Werner), Susanna 

Eliz 106 

Oestereich, John 40 

Oestreicher, Beata 94 

Oestreicher, John 163 

Ohneberg, George 29 

Ohneberg, Susanna 63 

Okely, Beatus 18 

Okely (Home), Eliza 76 

Okely (Robins), Joanna 56 

Okely, John 21 

Opitz (Ebert), Margaret 126 

Opitz, Margaret 122 

Opp, Jacob 167 

Oppelt, Beata no 



Oppelt, F. and H 160 

Oppelt, Francis Henry 137 

Oppelt, Frederick William .... 161 
Oppelt (Hatnick), Harriet 

Matilda 127 

Oppie, Sarah V. D 96 

Osborne, Anna Joanna no 

Osborne, Antoinetta L 97 

Osborne (Paulus), Emilie 

Charlotte 113 

Osborne, Emma L 130 

Osborne, Henry Palmer 177 

Otapawanamen; see Isaac .... 27 

Otto (Weber), Anna Maria .. 57 

Otto, Anna Th 65 

Otto (Dressel), Johanna 

Sophia 76 

Otto, John Matthew 14 

Otto (Benezet), Judith 68 

Otto (Schmidt), Mary Mag- 
dalen 67 

Otto, Sophia 62 

Otto, Thomas 35 

Overpeck, Francis A 175 

Overpeck, Jacob 177 

Owen, negro boy 22 

P 

Parsons (Ziedich), J. Chris- 
tiana 75 

Partsch, Anna 64 

Partsch, George 5 

Partsch, Louisa 64 

Partsch (Eller), Susanna Louisa 99 
Paulus (Nicolaus), Anna 

Joanna 83 

Paulus, Christian Gottlob 51 

Paulus, Henrietta 97 

Paulus, Louisa Matilda 94 

Pearson, Harrison E 174 

Pechtowappid, Thomas ; see 

Thomas 27 

Peifer [Pfeifer] (Clewell), 

Anna 117 

Peifer (Rader), Elizabeth 120 

Peiffer, James A 179 

Peiffer, William Cornelius 181 

Peisert, Anna Rosina 137 

Peisert, Fietta L 129 

Peisert, Mary M 129 

Peisert (Frevel), Rosina 104 

Peisert, Samuel Jacob 34 

Pell, Peter Joachim 15 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 209 



Perkin (Smith), Adeline 

Jacobine 139 

Perkin, George Washington... 160 

Perkin, John 160 

Perkin, Margaret Schweizer. . . 127 

Perkin, William R 165 

Peter (Nitschmann), Anna 

Maria 105 

Peter (Leinbach), Catharine.. 88 
Peter, John, a Wampanos .... 29 

Peter, John Frederick, Sr 16 

Peter, John Frederick 40 

Peter (Edmonds), Martha no 

Peter (Bailey), Sarah; see 

Ljungberg 81 

Petermann, Joanna Christina . . 54 
Peters (Linn), Sarah Living- 
ston 88 

Petersen, Elizabeth 64 

Petersen, Peter 24 

Petersen (Robins), Sarah 77 

Petrus, Nacasabamit 27 

Peysert, Samuel J 165 

Pfeiffer, Henry Christian 16a 

Pflueger (Weiss), Jacobine; 

see Gangewere 122 

Pharo (Levers), Cordelia S. A. 127 

Pharo, Job Wolston Rose 182 

Piepenburg (Rubel), Christina. 81 

Pierce, Julianna 101 

Pietsch, Adelaide Lousia 114 

Pietsch, August Fl 45 

Pietsch (Moeller), Cath. 

Justine in 

Pietsch, John Godfrey 44 

Pietsch, J. Louis 20 

Pietsch (Schenk), Rosina 90 

Pitschman, George 15 

Pitschman (Opitz), Mary Eliza 69 

Poesche, Anna 130 

Polster, Paul 175 

Poppelwell [Popple w ell], 

Maria 101 

Popplewell, Elizabeth 72 

Popplewell (Cornwell), Eliza- 
beth 79 

Popplewell, Richard 5 

Popplewell, Richard (infant) . 18 

Post, Agnes 56 

Post, Christian Fr 20 

Post, Lndwig Johanan 21 

Post, Maria 64 

Powell (Prichett), Martha ... 75 
Post, Rachel 57 



Price, Sarah 62 

Prince, Adelaide 129 

Prince (Cargill), Mary E 147 

Proske, Jane 73 

Prozman, Anna Maria 96 

Pyrlaeus, Benigna Caritas 98 

Pyrlaeus Joanna E 63 

Pyrlaeus, John Christopher ... 35 

Pyrlaeus, Mary 96 

Pyrlaeus (Young), Margaret; 

see Kunkler 92 

Pyrlaeus (Thorp), Sarah .... 103 



Quawatschonit; see Lucas .... 28 

Quier, George 32 

Quier, Mary Catharine 89 

Quier (Stout), Mary Elizabeth 84 

R 

Rachel, a Delaware Indian ... 57 

Rau, Valentine 46 

Rauch (Kern), Amelia A 141 

Rauch, Amy Frances 129 

Rauch, Beata 97 

Rauch, Beata 97 

Rauch, Charles William 140 

Rauch, Francis B 20 

Rauch, Francis Max 136 

Rauch, Horace E 163; 

Rauch, John Frederick 180 

Rauch (Ricksecker), Louisa 

Fred 144 

Rauch, Martha Jane 128 

Rauch (Harbach) Mary Ann. 131 
Rauch (Toon), Mary Catha- 
rine 116 

Rauch, Reuben Samuel 141 

Rauch (Boeckel), Susan Be- 
nigna 78 

Rauschenberger ( S w a 1 b e ) , 

Anna Marg 100 

Rauschenberger, Barbara 100 

Rauschenberger, Catharine ... 72 
Rauschenberger (Luckenbach), 

Eliz 70 

Rauschenberger, George 19 

Rauschenberger, Mary Mag- 
dalen 79 

Read, Susan 124 

Rebecca, colored 101 

Reck, Beatus 163 

Reck, Gustav Herman 140 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Reck, Gustavus Herman 163 

Reck (Adler), Louisa Amelia.. 135 

Reich (Bartow), Elizabeth 87 

Reich, John Christian 36 

Reich (Green), Sarah Joanna; 

see Reinke 118 

Reichart, Elizabeth 62 

Reichenbach (Christ), Anna 

Benigna 133 

Reichenbach, Beata 131 

Reichel, Caroline Louisa 128 

Reichel, William Cornelius . . . 179 

Reichert, Charles 182 

Reichert, Joseph H 174 

Reinke, Abraham 30 

Reinke, Abraham A 176 

Reinke, Amanda Sophia 127 

Reinke, Anne Grace 157 

Reinke, Samuel 184 

Reinke, Sarah, child 65 

Reinke (Green), Sarah Joanna 118 
Reinke (Stockberg), Susanna 

(Sarah) 59 

Reiss, Magdalene Elizabeth ... 74 
Reitzenbach (Spohn), Mary- 
Elizabeth 91 

Reuz, Joanna 64 

Rice, Abraham 43 

Rice (Schropp), Anna Caroline 119 
Rice (Heckewelder), Anna 

Salome 119 

Rice, Benjamin 43 

Rice, M.D., Edward 166 

Rice (Eyerie), Elizabeth 82 

Rice, Emma M 98 

Rice, Jacob 169 

Rice, James Alexander 164 

Rice, Jane C 130 

Rice (Paulus), Joanna Caroline 155 

Rice, John 188 

Rice, John Heckewelder 177 

Rice, Joseph 36 

Rice, Louisa S 94 

Rice (Oerter), Lydia 139 

Rice (Philips), Margaret 108 

Rice, Maria 114 

Rice (Vierling), Maria Rosina 81 

Rice, Mary Cornelia 116 

Rice, Owen 5 1 

Rice, Owen 17 1 

Rice, Owen, infant 22 

Rice, Owen J 162 

Rice, Owen Joseph 163 

Rice, Rebecca Nitschmann 117 



Rice (Peter), Sarah Ann 115 

Rice, Sally 64 

Rice, William 37 

Richards, Adelaide Caroline . . 126 
Richards ' (Steinmetz), Chris- 
tiana 148 

Richardson, William 170 

Richter (Eyse), Charlotte 74 

Richter, John Christian 7 

Richter, John Christian 40 

Rickert, William 174 

Ricksecker, Alfred 170 

Ricksecker, Amanda J. and 

Eliza C 128 

Ricksecker (Beitel), Anna 

Justina 138 

Ricksecker (Schenk), Anna 

Maria ; see Luch 124 

Ricksecker (Hoehneisen), Bar- 
bara 88 

Ricksecker (Kunkler), Eliza- 
beth 93 

Ricksecker, Christian Anton... 35 

Ricksecker, John 36 

Ricksecker, Minerva A 130 

Ricksecker, Peter 183 

Ricksecker, Samuel 171 

Riedel (Butmansky), Catha- 
rine ; see Huber 86 

Riedeman, Joseph 46 

Riedeman [Ruedemann], Jos. 

Oswald 54 

Riedeman (Schneider), Magda- 

lena 54 

Riegel, Addie Estelle 150 

Riegel, Beati 175 

Riegel, Benjamin H 176 

Riegel, Henry F 176 

Riegel (Lynn), Lavinia 147 

Rieser, Daisy E 133 

Rieser, George Charles 1811 

Rieser, Mary E 131 

Rillman, Andrew n 

Rippel, J. Michael 13 

Rodgers, John H 

Roebuck, Anna 61 

Roemelt, Anna Maria 71 

Roemelt, Anna Rosina 102 

Roemelt, John Gottfried 38 

Roemelt, Juliana 65 

Roemelt (Haberland), Juliana. 69 
Roesler (Kresser), Marianne.. 103 

Rogers, Joan Salome 65 

Rogers, Johanna 64 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 211 



Rohleder, Martin 35 

Rondthaler, Edward 171 

Rondthaler, Emanuel 163 

Rondthaler, Maria Wolle 123 

Rondthaler (Rice), Sarah 

Louisa 115 

Ronner (Fisler), Elizabeth ... 73 

Ronner, John Reinhard 28 

Rose (Boeckel), Anna Rosina. . 8'i 
Rose (Butmansky), Catharine; 

see Huber 86 

Rose, Edmund Richard 40 

Rose, Joseph Mahlin 170 

Rose, Maria Rosina 133 

Rose, Peter 41 

Ross, James McDonald 186 

Ross, Mary Elizabeth 97 

Ross, M.D., Robert Daniel 181 

Roth, George 156 

Rubel (Holder), Catharine 80 

Rubel, Jacob 41 

Rudolphi (Schaaf), Anna .... 80 

Rudolphi, Carl Aug 22 

Rudolphi, Maria E 95 

Rudolphi (Otto), Sophia Mag- 
dalene 92 

Ruede, Robert H 156 

Ruede, William E. and Lilly E. 156 

Ruedeman, Mary Ann 155 

Rundt, Charles Godfrey 12 

Rupp, Emily V 130 

Russmeyer, Elizabeth 63 

Russmeyer, Peter 19 

S 

Salathe, Bernard A 163 

Salathe, Catharine 128 

Salmons (Holy), Mercy 102 

Salome, Anna 65 

Salome, Indian 56 

Salome, Indian 60 

Salome, Indian child 64 

Salterbach, Johannetta 61 

Samuel (Achgonema) 19 

Samuel, Delaware boy 21 

Samuel, Indian boy 25 

Sangerhausen (Stammer), A. 

Marg 77 

Sangerhausen, Nicholas Jacob. 14 

Sautter (Schuster), Maria 127 

Saylor (Snyder), Sarah Ann; 

see Kleckner 138 

Schaaf (Mann), Anna 58 



Schaaf (Loze), Anna Catharine 57 

Schaaf, Beatus 20 

Schaaf [Bock], Thomas 17 

Schaefer (Luckenbach), Anna. 152 
Schaefer (Borzel), Anna Mar- 
garet X39 

Schaefer (Gold), Anna Rosina 111 

Schaefer, Caspar 24 

Schaefer, Clara S 153 

Schaefer, Elizabeth 116 

Schaefer, Emma Louisa 154 

Schaefer, Julia Ann 128 

Schaefer, Mathilda Helen 135 

Schaefer, Michael 23 

Schaeffer, Anna 65 

Schaeffer [Winter], Elizabeth. 124 

Schaub, Anna M 65 

Schaub, Juliana 65 

Schaub, Maria 64 

Schaus, Benigna 63 

Schemes, Henry William 10 

Schenk (Swalbe), Anna Mar- 
garet; see Rauschenberger .. 100 
Schenk (Feltschli), Barbara... 134 

Schenck, Ladislaus 185 

Scherbeck, Paul Jens 11 

Schilling, Beata 107 

Schindler, George 33 

Schindler (Wetzel), Mary 

Magd 84 

Schippang, Carl Herman 144 

Schlatter, Maria 72 

Schlegel (Mack), Anna Rosina 107 
Schlegel (Arnold), Barbara; 

see Martens 67 

Schlegel, John Fred 22 

Schlegel, Sophia D 62 

Schmich, Catharine Barbara . . 142 

Schmich, J. Philip 161 

Schmick, Anna J 65 

Schmick (Ingerheidt), Joanna. 105 
Schmid [Schmidt], A. Catha- 
rine 66 

Schmid, Albert C 175 

Schmid [Schmidt], Elizabeth.. 66 

Schmid, William H 175 

Schmidt, Abraham 37 

Schmidt (Riedt), Anna Catha- 
rine ••• 74 

Schmidt (Green), Anna Eliza- 
beth 69 

Schmidt, Anna J 65 

Schmidt, Anthony, Jr 48 

Schmidt, Anthony 48 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Schmidt, Anton 10 

Schmidt (Ysselstein), Beata .. 93 

Schmidt, Beata 132 

Schmidt, Beatus 19 

Schmidt, Christoph 17 

Schmidt (Vogt), Dorothea 69 

Schmidt (Fetter), Elizabeth. . . 89 

Schmidt, Henry 54 

Schmidt, John 45 

Schmidt [Smith], (Beck), Joh. 

Salome 138 

Schmidt, Lewis 165 

Schmidt (Baumgartner), Maria 88 

Schmidt, Matthew 18 

Schmutter, Anna Maria 72 

Schnall, A. Maria 66 

Schnall, John David 20 

Schnall, Lisetta 97 

Schnall (Hasting), Margaret.. 113 
Schnall (Gemehly), Mary 

Cath 106 

Schnall, Michael 4 

Schneckenburg (Heckedorn), 

Anna Maria m 

Schneckenburg, John Tobias . . 33 
Schneckenburg ( SchroS), 

Rachel M. A 126 

Schneider, Aaron Hillman 46 

Schneider, Anna Maria 72 

Schneider, A. Rosina 66 

Schneider, Barbara 95 

Schneider, Catharine no 

Schneider (Seyfried), Catha- 
rine 113 

Schneider, Cornelia C in 

Schneider, Elizabeth 74 

Schneider, George 6 

Schneider, George 164 

Schneider, Gertraud 95 

Schneider (Petersen), Gertrude 106 

Schneider, Jacob 13 

Schneider, John 30 

Schneider, John Adam 38 

Schneider (Zerb), Maria 

Margaret; see Auerbach ... 100 
Schneider (Dudlein), Maria 

Marg 119 

Schneider, Maria Verona 91 

Schneider, Martin 24 

Schnell (Haensche), Anna 

Helen 71 

Schneller, Adelaide A 104. 

Schneller, Benjamin Frederick. 188 

Schneller, Chas. Henry 43 



Schneller, David Feter 163 

Schneller, Emil Th 44 

Schneller, Francis David 176 

Schneller, George Charles .... 179 

Schneller, Geo. L 44 

Schneller, Hannah A 96 

Schneller, James 162 

Schneller, John Gottlieb 163 

Schneller, Louisa P 97 

Schneller, Lydia A 131 

Schneller (Brown), Mary 123 

Schneller, Matilda M 96 

Schneller, Rachel 112 

Schneller, Thomas Emanuel... 36 

Schnerr, Louis 42 

Schnurman (Yerkes), Sarah 

Jane 123 

Schober, Andreas 17 

Schober, Henry M 162 

Schober, Johanna S 62 

Schober, Nathaniel 18 

Schoen, Henry 22 

Schoen [Wuest], Jacob 12 

Schoeneberger (Vognitz), Fred- 
erica L 158 

Schoeneberger, Lilly M. R 130 

Schoeneberger, Michael 140 

Schoenheinz, John C. William. 170 

Schopp, Frederick 53 

Schout [Schaut], Andrew 5 

Schrader, Emma V 1*32 

Schrader, Julius 178 

Schrader (Thomas), Sarah 

Ann 133 

Schroeder, Isabel F. C 101 

Schroeder (Till), Tabea Eliz.. 107 

Schropp, Anna C 6<z 

Schropp, Anna C 104 

Schropp, Beata 97 

Schropp, Charlotte Sabina .... 91 
Schropp (Krogstrup), Eliza- 
beth 82 

Schropp, Henry John 44 

Schropp, Johanna Elizabeth . . 78 

Schropp, John 50 

Schropp, John 53 

Schropp (Tanneberger), Maria 

Eliz 106 

Schropp, Matthew 20 

Schropp (Edmonds), Rebecca. 85 
Schuckart, Cath. Margaret ... 61 

Schultz, Frank Edward 189 

Schultz, John Henry 34 

Schultz (Frevel), Rachel 113 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 213 



Schultz, Samuel 172 

Schultz, Sanford S 163 

Schultze (Behrens), Caroline.. 108 
Schultze, Christian Ludwig . . . 145 
Schultze (Haeseler), D. L. 

Frederica 146 

Schultze (Reck), Julia Amelia. 137 

Schultz, Beata 97 

Schulz, Carl Theodore 20 

Schulz, Edward and Carl 22 

Schulz, Maria Rosina 95 

Schulz (Peisert), Mary Chris- 
tine 127 

Schulz, Matthew 42 

Schulz (Jungman), Susanna.. 92 

Schulze, Agnes 66 

Schulze, J. Carl . 20 

Schuman, Parmenio 48 

Schupp, Granville A 175 

Schuster, George 51 

Schweinitz, Bertha de 144 

Schweinitz, Edmund Alexander 

de 149 

Schweinitz (Lord), Ellen L. de 157 
Schweinitz, Isabelle Allison de 143 
Schweinitz, Justina Dorothea de 66 
Schweinitz, Lewis David de... 52 
Schweinitz (de Tschirschky) , 

Liddy J. A. de 125 

Schweinitz (Ledoux), Louisa 

Amelia de 116 

Schweinitz, Louisa Henrietta de 66 
Schweinitz (de Tschirschky), 

Marie Louise de 134 

Schweinitz (v. Marschall), 

Maria Th. von 76 

Schweinitz, Robert William de 144 
Schweisshaupt, Magdalene ... 80 
Schwihel (Partsch), Anna 

Rosina 82 

Schwoyer, Mary A. C 150 

Scott, Thomas 5 1 

Segner (Frey), Christina 93 

Segner, Elizabeth 79 

Segner, John Anton 13 

Segner, John Henry 5 

Sehner, John 22 

Sehnert (Goepfert), Maria ... 74 

Seidel, Angelica Malvina 117 

Seidel, Anna 59 

Seidel, Anna Ang. Anderson.. 123 

Seidel, Charles Frederick 169 

Seidel, Edward A 162 

Seidel, George Fred 43 



Seidel, Henrietta S 97 

Seidel, Henrietta S 104 

Seidel, Nathaniel 3 

Seidel (Reichel), Sophia Doro- 
thea 119 

Seidlitz, Eleonora Eliz. von... 73 

Seidner, Margaret Barbara ... 90 

Seifart, Andreas 25 

Seiffert, John 35 

Senseman, Andreas 21 

Senseman (Brucker), Anna ... 93 

Senseman, Anna B 62 

Senseman, Anna Eleonora .... 65 

Senseman, Anna M 65 

Senseman (Rubel), Christina; 

see Piepenburg 81 

Senseman, Elizabeth 66 

Senseman, Joachim 38 

Sensenbach, Daniel 136 

Sevitz (Amdor), Maria; see 

Kaufman 115 

Shaefer, Adelaide J 156 

Shaefer, Adeline L 157 

Shaefer, Louisa 157 

Shaefer, Samuel R 159 

Shantz, Reuben 163 

Shaw, Elizabeth 64 

Shaw (Jones), Mary 56 

Shields, Elisha Ward 149 

Shippen, Wm. Lee 18 

Shireman, Daniel 149 

Shober (Schubert) Hedwig 

Regina 105 

Shultz, Frank E 165 

Shultz, Henry T 160 

Shultz (Bagge), Rebecca Ma- 
tilda 114 

Shunk, Frederick 54 

Siegfried (Burns), Elizabeth.. 155 

Siegfreid, James H. and Jacob. 160 

Siegmund (Christ), Juliana .. 114 

Sigley, Annie E 150 

Sigley, Beatus 43 

Sigley, John 165 

Sigley, Louisa Augusta 92 

Sigley (Stuber), Mary 154 

Sigley, Morris Reuben 141 

Sigley, William H 176 

Simeon, a Delaware 29 

Simpson, Martha Ritchie .... 139 

Simon, Joanna Catharine 124 

Sims, Martha H 132 

Sittebach, Beata 98 



2I 4 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Smiley (Seibel), Catharine; see 

Hildebrand 138 

Smith, Flora 153 

Smith (Whitesell), Lydia 139 

Smith, Maria 71 

Smith, Mary Irene 131 

Smith (Doll), Rebecca Louisa. 124 

Smith, Sam. Sidney 44 

Smith (Martin), Sarah 107 

Smith (Bailey), Sarah 108 

Smith, William Henry 162 

Snyder, Amanda Cinderella... 96 

Snyder, Beata 132 

Snyder, Charles E 165 

Sophia, a Delaware child .... 64 

Spatzier, Gustav Adolph 15S 

Spatzier, Gustav Adolph, Jr... 179 

Speck, Frau 53 

Sperbach, Johanna Rebecca ... 90 
Spiegler, Bertha Ernestine .... 136 
Spiegler (David), Coelstine .. 143 

Spiegler, Herman Ernst 189 

Spiegler, John Bernhard 179 

Spogen, Carson P 175 

Spohn, John Martin 22 

Spohn (Biezer), Lucia 68 

Stadiger, Beata 133 

Stadiger, Beata 153 

Stadiger, Beatus 173 

Stadiger, Herman Lawrence . . 182 

Stadiger, John Frederick 164 

Stadiger, John Frederick 166 

Stadiger, Louise 150 

Stadiger (Bage), Susan Eliz... 125 

Stahr, Samuel B 162 

Stanton, Frances Maria 101 

Staples, Sarah 102 

Starkeman, Conrad 34 

Stauber, Anna Maria 89 

Stauffer, Christina 87 

Staut, Elizabeth 94 

Stehly, Christina 90 

Steineke (Busch), Anna Eliz... 108 

Steiner, Abraham 18 

Steiner, Anna Elizabeth 90 

Steiner, Beati 175 

Steiner, John Peter 46 

Steinhauer, Daniel 167 

Steinhauer, Gambold 43 

Steinhauer, Henry 38 

Steinhauer, Henry Dan 43 

Steinhauer (Sessing), Mary 

Margaret 116 

Steinmiller, Beatus 159 



Steip (Krogstrup), Anna 82 

Steip, Anna Joanna 147 

Steip, Samuel 42 

Sterner, Eleonora 129 

Sterner (Swartz), Lovina 142 

Sterner (Clewell), Matilda .. 120 

Sterner, Samuel B 136 

Steup, John 47 

Steyer, Beatus 175 

Stiefel, John George 23 

Stiemer, Christian 13 

Stohler (Schweizer), Maria; 

see Hauser 75 

Stoll, Anna 56 

Stoll, Beatus 18 

Stoll, John George 32 

Stoll (Rohleder), Rosina 79 

Stoll, Salome 65 

Stolzenbach (Vogel), Anna 

Eliz 147 

Stolzenbach, Augustus 37 

Stolzenbach, Emil Frederick . . 167 

Stolzenbach, Ernest August . . . 186 

Stolzenbach, Francis B 187 

Stolzenbach, John F 40 

Stolzenbach, John Henry 182 

Stolzenbach (Mornhinweg), 

Joh. Mag 116 

Stone, Amanda L 131 

Stone (Luckenbach). Amanda 

L 142 

Stone, Anna E 130 

Stone, Arthur J 174 

Stone, Charles F 174 

Stone, Fanny E 132 

Stone, Henry M 174 

Stone, John H 175 

Stone, Sarah E 130 

Stoneback, Beatus 176 

Stotz, Anna Maria 61 

Stotz (Wolfer), Catharine 68 

Stotz, Christiana Louisa 93 

Stotz (Kaske), Elizabeth 84 

Stotz, John 41 

Stotz, Ludwig 9 

Stotz, Ludwig, Jr 13 

Stout, Dr., Abraham Lewis . . . 172 

Stout (Miner), Anna Maria... 115 

Stout, Asher Miner 172 

Stout, Dorsey Syng Physic 44 

Stout [Staut] (Straub), Eliza- 
beth no 

Stout (Schropp), Maria Eliz... 115 

Straehle, Rudolph 14 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 215 



Strehle, Christian Rudolph 35 

Strehle (Niirnberger), Dor. 

Soph 85 

Strueby, Immanuel 25 

Stuetzner, Charles Herman ... 168 

Sturgis, Jacob 37 

Styers, Albert P 176 

Sutton, Beata 156 

Sutton, Cornelia A 131 

Sutton, Harry 176 

Sutton, Lily A 133 

Swihola, Christian Ren 18 

Sydrich (Petersen), Gerhardine 79 



Tanneberger, David 30 

Tanneberger, Michael 27 

Tanneberger (Leupold), Re- 

gina 75 

Tannewald, Christian 23 

Taylor, Jeannette 97 

Taylor, Jonathan K 180 

Theodora, a Delaware 61 

Theodora, Indian 57 

Theodora, Techtanoah 56 

Theodorus 24 

Thiele (Euter), Anna Maria; 

see Herbst 138 

Thomas (Graeff), Anna Cath- 
arine 80 

Thomas (Koob), Eliza 151 

Thomas, Francis 14 

Thomas, Indian boy 20 

Thomas, Indian child 20 

Thomas, John 17 

Thomas, Pechtowappid 27 

Thorn, Beata 65 

Thorp (Brooke), Grace 106 

Thorp, Edward 31 

Thrane, Amadeus Paul 26 

Thrane (Neisser), Anna Maria 85 

Thrane, A. Pauline 66 

Thumhard (Schneider), Anna 

Theresia 83 

Thwaites, Josiah Weston 162 

Tiersch (Price), Maria; see 

Nitschmann 86 

Till (Frey), Elizabeth 112 

Till (Gutjahr), Elizabeth 80 

Till, Jacob 20 

Till, John and Jacob 19 

Till, John Christian 166 

Till, Joseph 43 



Tillofsen (Warner), Hannah; 

see Meder 84 

Tombler (Freytag), Anna 

Cecilia 142 

Tombler, Beatus 54 

Tombler, Maria Cecilia 92 

Tombler, William David 183 

Toole, Joseph W 174 

Townsend (Leibert), Susan ... 152 
Traeger (Zahm), Sarah Anna; 

see Luckenbach 134 

Traeger, Gabriel 52 

Transue, Josiah 176 

Transue, Sylvester Allen .... 178 

Trautvetter, Joanna D. C 123 

Tschirschky (von Schoenberg), 

Louisa Wilh. de 134 

Tschop, John (Tschoop) 27 

Turner, Robert 173 

Tyler, Ozias Rossam 166 

U 

linger (Rose), Anna; see 

Boehler 91 

Unger, Joanna E 92 

Upchurch, John Z 160 

Utley, Elizabeth 64 

Utley (Kremser), Elizabeth .. 68 

V 

Vail, John Bloom 181 

Van Billiard, Arthur C 175 

Van Erd, Adam 31 

Van Erd, John 49 

Van Erd (Ashley), Patience .. 81 

Van Kirk, Beata 156 

Van Kirk, Charles A 161 

Van Kirk, Charles F. B 165 

Van Kirk, Edwin S 177 

Van Vleck (Staeheli), Anna 

Elizabeth 121 

Van Vleck (Kampman), Anna 

Eliz 88 

Van Vleck, Henry (Hendrick) . 31 

Van Vleck, Jacob 45 

Van Vleck (Cargill), Jane ... 86 

Van Vleck, William Henry 171 

Verdriess (Bender), Anna 

Catharine 99 

Vetter, Beatus 21 

Vetter, Beatus 21 

Vippach, H. W. Gottlieb von.. 6 
Vogenitz, Abraham A 43 



2l6 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Vogenitz, Eugene W 47 

Vogenitz, John Balthasar 34 

Vogenitz, Julius A 45 

Vognitz (Biege), Susanna .... 121 

Vogler (Kampman), Laura .. 139 

Vogler, William H 176 

Volck (Herr), Catharine 76 

Volck, Rebecca 62 

Volkmar, Alma F 130 

Volkmar (Degelow), Ern. 

Henrietta 127 

Volkmar [Fuehrman], J oh. 

Gottlieb 182 

Volkmar, Otto M 176 

Vollert, Daniel 20 

Volz, Stephen 10 

W 

Wade, Anna C 64 

Wade (Hopson), Joanna 57 

Wagenseil, Andrew 25 

Wagner, Carl Gottfried 140 

Wagner, Caroline M 129 

Walp, Isaac 185 

Walter (Luckenbach), Anna.. 113 

Walter, Edmund 45 

Walter, Edward 44 

Walter, Ellen A 131 

Walter, Joseph 166 

Walter, Jos. Charles 43 

Walter, Louisa 157 

Walter (Kremser), Mary 

Aurelia 123 

Walter, Owen 43 

Walther, Dietrich Ernst 26 

Walton, John Adolph 11 

Waltz, Sarah A 129 

Wapler, Gustave Henry 186 

Wapler, Juliana Esther 102 

Ward, Esther J 157 

Warner, Catharine 119 

Warner, Elizabeth 113 

Warner, James N 44 

Warner, John 46 

Warner, John Christian 168 

Warner, John E 44 

Warner (Miksch), Maria 

Dorothea 10S 

Warner (McGilton), Martha. . 122 

Warner, Martha C 9.8 

Warner, Massa 38 

Warner, Samuel 47 

Warren, Sarah Louisa 117 



Wasamapa, John; see Tschop. 27 

Weaver, Elizabeth 83 

Weber, Amalia Maria 123 

Weber, Andrew Christian .... 31 

Weber, Chr. Andrew 18 

Weber, Elizabeth 73 

Weber (Brunner), Elizabeth.. 125 

Weber, Frederick [Klappen] . . 23 

Weber (Biebighaus), Gertraud 76 

Weber, Joanna Maria 104 

Weber, John 162 

Weber, John F 162 

Weber, Louisa E no 

Weber (Christ), Lucy Ann ... 151 
Weber (Bechtel), Maria 

Apollonia 101 

Weber, Stewart E 176 

Weber, William H 46 

Wedsted, Christian 25 

Weimer (Seeger), Anna Maria 126 

Weinecke, Joanna 66 

Weinecke (Liebisch), Joanna.. 80 

Weinecke, John C 18 

Weinecke, J. C. Siegmund .... 33 

Weinert, J. Ludwig 19 

Weinland, Beata 98 

Weinland (Luckenbach), Cath. 

Eliz 112 

Weinland, Daniel 48 

Weinland, David 162 

Weinland, George David .... 170 
Weinland (Hanke), Maria 

Theresia 115 

Weinland, Mary A 129 

Weiss (Kiesel), Anna 113 

Weiss, Anna and Maria 66 

Weiss (Blum), Anna Maria... 84 

Weiss (Schneider), Elizabeth. . 113 

Weiss, Elizabeth C 129 

Weiss, Esther 89 

Weiss, Herman T 165 

Weiss, John 41 

Weiss, John David 33 

Weiss, John George 38 

Weiss, Julius T 174 

Weiss (Firnhaber), Margaret 

Cath 58 

Weiss, Matthias 19 

Weiss, Matthias 19 

Weiss, Matthias. Sr 37 

Weiss, Minna 130 

Weiss, Paul 53 

Weiss, Rebecca 62 

Weiss (Neuman), Regina .... 70 



Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa. 217 



Weiss, Timothy 166 

Weiss, William Matthias .... 165 

Welsh, George H 177 

Weniger (Mendorf), Joanna 

Frederica 116 

Weniger, John Godfrey Henry 184 

Werner, Christian 30 

Werner, Maria 59 

Werner, Maria and Anna .... 93 

Werner, Nathanael 20 

Wernhammer, Margaret 60 

Werst, Rebecca C 131 

Werwing (von Raschau), 

Maria Wilh. . 98 

Wesakau, Indian 24 

West, Mary Elizabeth 72 

Westhoefer, Maria Barbara ... 61 

Wetzel, Anna B 150 

Wetzel, Beatus 174 

Weygand, John 47 

Whitesell, John David 167 

Whitesell (Diehl), Julia Ann. . 147 

Whitesell, Louisa Marietta . . . 122 

Whittemore, Ormond T 162 

Wiener (Christ), C. R. Mag- 
dalen 70 

Wier, Mary 133 

Wiesinger (Knecht), Barbara. 100 

Wiesinger, Jacob 16 

Wiesinger, Maria Barbara ... 75 

Wilhelm (Beck), Anna Maria. 141 

Wilhelm, M.D., Benjamin 177 

Wilhelm (Paulus), Christiana 

Fred 146 

Wilhelm, Eugene 156 

Wilhelm, George 153 

Wilhelm, George Monroe .... 140 

Wilhelm, Paul A 153 

Wille, Emma E 132 

William, Malabar boy 21 

Williams, Francis S 160 

Willis (Dinah), Mary Mag- 
dalene no 

Willmot, Aquila 5.3 

Wilson, Lydia Ann 54 

Winkler, George Leander .... 17S 

Winnemore, Jane 133 

Wisman (Neudel), Mary 

Aurora 114 

Witmeyer, Abraham Augustus. 164 

Witmeyer, Beatus 159 

Witmeyer, Beatus 177 

Witmeyer, Charles Augustus . . 145 

Witmeyer, Christian Frederick. 182 



Witmeyer, George Julius .... 184 

Witmeyer, John George 182 

Witmeyer (Maier), Julia Ann. 152 

Witmeyer, Lucius Thomas . . . 140 

Witmeyer, Mary A 96 

Witmeyer, Maurice F 174 

Wittenberg, Jens 15 

Wittke, Elizabeth 63 

Wittke, Elizabeth 72 

Wittke, Juliana in 

Wittke, Matthew 35 

Woehler (Eggert), Anna Apol- 

lonia 123 

Woehler (Mensching), Fred. 

Christ in 

Woehler, Frederick William . . 168 

Woehler, George Henry 187 

Woehler, Ida A 98 

Woehler, William H 47 

Wolf (Frankenfield), Franey. . 151 

Wolf, Frederick Christian .... 184 

Wolf, Helen E 157 

Wolf, Lillie J 154 

Wolf, Marcus J 175 

Wolle (Geyer), Anna Rosina. . 89 
Wolle (Helwig), Caroline 

Lucinda 119 

Wolle, Christian Jacob 180 

Wolle, Cornelia 98 

Wolle (Horsfield), Eliza 118 

Wolle, John Frederick 168 

Wolle, Louisa A 97 

Wolle, Lucian 44 

Wolle (Luch), Mary Magda- 
lene 93 

Wolle, Peter 183 

Wolle (Henry), Sabina 120 

Wolle, Theodore Francis 140 

Wolle, William Henry 164 

Wollever, Elizabeth 97 

Wollmuth, Paul H 175 

Wollmuth, Walter H 176 

Wolson, Susan Rebecca 72 

Wuensch, John Bernard 38 

Wuensche (Kreider), Ellen 

Eliz 158 

Y 

Yaeckel [Yeakel], Peter 136 

Yeakel, Margaret 120 

Yarrell, Anna E 64 

Yarrell, Nathanael 20 

Yarrell, Thomas 21 



2l8 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 



Yohe, Charlotte M 128 

Yohe, Chester C 160 

Yohe, Edward H 160 

Yohe, Hiram C 185 

Yost (Vognitz), Mary Cath- 
arine 146 

Yost (Peifer), Mary Hortense. 155 

Yost, Samuel 159 

Yotter, Christian 43 

Youngberg (Bailey), Sarah .. 81 

Youngman, Edward W 46 

Youngman, Harriet A 97 

Youngman (Jungman), Joseph 

H 45 

Ysselsteyn, Sarah 72 

Z 

Zahm, Benigna 102 

Zahm (Toll), John Michael ... 15 

Zahm (Hantsch), Regina 69 

Zeisberger (Klose), Anna 

Dorothea 81 

Zeisberger, David 27 

Zeisberger, Rosina 56 

Zeisberger (Lecron), Susanna. 83 

Zellner, Edwin William 186 

Zieber [Sieber] (Bolton), Mary no 



Ziegler (Koch), Anna Catha- 
rine 100 

Ziegler, Anna Maria 95 

Ziegler, Christian Frederick... 23 

Ziegler, Rosina C 95 

Zippora, Indian 60 

Zipporah, Wawottakem 56 

Zoellner, David Franklin 177 

Zoellner, William 173 

Zoller, Beata 98 

Zoller, L. C 101 

Zoller, Magdalena 123 

Zoller, Sophia Amalia 126 

Zoller, William Abraham .... 165 
Zorn (Siewers), Caroline 

Renata 120 

Zorn, Jacob 160 

Zorn (Mueller), Sarah; see 

Kummer 89 



Unknown, Vacant, or 
Disinterred. 

19, 2r, 22, 38, 43, 53, 53, &6, 72, 
715, 7>6, 85, 92, 97, 101, 123, 127, 
I2 '9> J 35> J 36> J 36, 174, 175, 189. 



3737