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H laarrative ant) Critical f)iston? 






Ipublication Committee 


^mns^I^ania (German 

in t()e 

lettlement of J^ar^Ianb 



Member of the Pennsylvania-German Society ; the Historical Society of 

Pennsylvania ; the Historical Society of Berks County ; the 

Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution, etc. 

" Forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit."— VIRGIL 

Part XXV. of a Narrative and Critical History 

prepared at the request of 

The Pennsylvania-German Society 


Copyrighted 1914 


penns^Ivania=(9ecman Society; 






^0R a century and a half 
the term " Mason and 
Dixon's Line" has been a 
more or less familiar expres- 
sion, and for the greater part 
of the latter half of that 
period it was frequently on 
men's tongues. The lines 
drawn on the earth's surface 
by geographers or laid out by 
the wisdom of statecraft are 
often taken in too literal a 
sense ; and so, in the course of time, it came to pass that 
Mason and Dixon's Line came to be regarded almost as a 
tangible barrier : the line dividing the North from the South. 
Yet, as a mater of fact, were it not for the monuments set 
up at stated intervals it would be impossible to tell where 
the jurisdiction of one commonwealth ends and that of the 
other begins. The mountains and valleys are continuous, 
the fertile fields lie side by side, there is no difference to be 
found in the people, and it not unfrequently happens that 
a farm will lie partly on one side of the line and partly on 
the other, and there are even houses through which the line 
runs, one part of the house being in Maryland and the 
other part in Pennsylvania. 

vi \The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

But outside of the question of contiguity there is a senti- 
mental attachment between the states of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. Had the boundary between the two colonies 
been fixed at the point where the respective charters appar- 
ently placed it, the fortieth parallel of north latitude, a 
considerable portion of the territory now included within 
the state of Pennsylvania would belong to Maryland, The 
fortieth parallel runs about on a line with Lehigh Avenue 
in Philadelphia, so that had that meridian been decided on 
as the dividing line between the two colonies the greater 
part of the city of Philadelhia would now be situated in 
Maryland. So too would be a strip of territory nearly 
twenty miles in width, extending across the state and tak- 
ing in such towns as West Chester, York, Chambersburg, 
and all the fertile country surrounding those towns. 

In the following pages an attempt has been made to 
gather together in brief form what Is known concerning the 
Influence of the Pennsylvanians In the settlement of the 
western part of the colony of Maryland. There is no 
claim of originality, but use has been freely made of the 
results of other investigations. It Is very unfortunate that 
there are but few records in existence concerning the period 
under consideration, so that many points cannot be deter- 
mined, but what is known has been put together in concise 
form for convenient reference. 

The writer wishes here to express his thanks to Dr. 
Julius F. Sachse for preparing the illustrations, which add 
materially to the Interest In the work, and also to Dr. Frank 
R. Dlffenderffer for material assistance in searching old 

Reading, Pennsylvania, 
December, 1913. 


The Maryland Colony 

The First German Settlers . . . . 


The Germans in Pennsylvania . 

The Movement to Maryland . . . 

The Monocacy Road 

The First Settlements 





viii The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Home-Making in the Wilderness 66 

Mechanical Arts and Industries 80 

The Religious Life 89 

Education, Redemptioners, Servitude 108 

The Border Troubles 121 

The French and Indian War 141 

Fort Frederick 163 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period 176 

Preparing for the Struggle 196 

The Flying Camp 205 

Contents. ix 


The German Regiment 224 


Service of the Maryland Troops 241 


Forwarding the Cause at Home 260 

Index to Proper Names 272 

Index to Subjects 299 


Archives of Maryland. 

Banvard, Joseph. Pioneers of the New World, and the Old French War. 

Chicago, 1880. 
Bozman, John Leeds. The History of Maryland from its first Settlement, 

in 1633, to the Restoration, in 1660. z vols. Baltimore, 18371 
Browne, William Hand. Maryland, the History of a Palatinate. Boston, 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove. A History of the German Baptist Brethren in 

Europe and America. Mount Morris, 111., 1899. 
Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. 
Doddridge, Joseph. Notes on the Settlements and Indian Wars of the 

Western Parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the Year 1763 until 

the Year 1783. Wellsburgh, Va., 1824. 
Eddis, William. Letters from America, Historioal and Descriptive. 

London, 1792. 
Griffith, Thomas W. Annals of Baltimore. Baltimore, 1824. 
Harbaugh, Henry. The Life of Michael Schlatter. Philadelphia, 1857. 
James, Bartlett B. The Labadist Colony in Maryland. Baltimore, 1899^ 
Johnson, John. Old Maryland Manors. Baltimore, 1883. 
Kercheval, Samuel. A History of the Valley of Virginia. Woodstock, 

Va., 1850. 
Kuhns, Levi Oscar. The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial 

Pennsylvania. New York, 1901. 
McCorraac, Eugene Irving. White Servitude in Maryland, 1634-1820. 

Baltimore, 190*4. 
McMahon, J. V. L. An Historical View of the Government of Maryland, 

from its Colonization to the Present Day. Baltimore, 1837. 
McSherry, James. History of Maryland. Baltimore, 1904. 



Mereness, Newton D. Maryland as a Proprietary Province. New York, 

190 r. 
Neill, Edward. The Founders of Maryland as Portrayed in Manuscripts, 

Provincial Records and Early Documents. Albany, 18761. 
Pennsylvania Archives, First and Second Series. 
Ridgely, David. Annals of Annapolis. Baltimore, 184-1. 
Scharf, J. Thomas. The Chronicles of Baltimore. Baltimore, 1874. 
History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day. 3 

vols. Baltimore, 1879. 

History of Western Maryland, being a History of Frederick, Mont- 
gomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany and Garrett Counties. 2 vols, 
Philadelphia, i88e. 

Sioussat, St. George Leakin. Economics and Politics in Maryland, 1720^ 

1750. Baltimore, 1903. 
Steiner, Bernard C. Beginnings of Maryland, 16131-1639. Baltimore, 


Maryland under the Commonwealth. A Chronicle of the Years 1649— 

r658. Baltimore, 1911. 

Maryland during the English Civil Wars. Baltimore, 1906—7. 

Western Maryland in the Revolution. Baltimore, 1902. 

Schultz, Edward T. First Settlements of Germans in Maryland. Fred- 
erick, Md., 1896^ 

Society for the History of Germans in Maryland. 16 annual reports. 

Thomas, James Walter. Chronicles of Colonial Maryland. Baltimore, 


The Maryland Colony. 

'TTHE settlement of Maryland 
^ was the culmination of the 
plan of George, Lord Baltimore, 
to found a colony where the in- 
habitants might worship God ac- 
cording to the dictates of their 
consciences.^ Sir George Calvert 
was brought up a Protestant and, 
enjoying the personal friendship 
of James L, he obtained rapid ad- 
vancement in the government service and was finally made 

1 " It cannot with evident certainty be stated that Sir George Calvert, in 
the settlement of either of his provinces, Avalon or Maryland, had in view 
the formation of an asylum for English Catholics, although it is so stated 
by several historians ; such intention of his being nowhere clearly expressed 
by himself, unless it be in the before mentioned MS. account of Avalon, by 
Sir George himself, still remaining in the British Museum, the contents of 
which we have no opportunity of examining. With regard to Maryland, 
the fact, ascertained in history, as well in the records of the province, that 
most of the first colonists of that province were Roman Catholics, leaves a 
strong inference that it was the original contemplation of Sir George 
thereby to erect for such Catholics a place of refuge. In respect to 
Avalon, however, we have not this fact, as a ground for such inference."— 
Bozman's " History of Maryland," Vol. I., p. 242. 

6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

principal Secretary of State. In 1624 he became a Roman 
Catholic and at once resigned his position as Secretary, 
but the king kept him as a member of the Privy Council 
and created him Lord Baltimore, of Baltimore, in Ireland. 

At this time the laws of England were very severe 
against the Roman Catholics and in order to escape perse- 
cution Lord Baltimore determined to found a colony where 
religious liberty would be secured to all the inhabitants. 
For some years he had been interested in schemes for 
colonizing America, having been one of the councillors of 
the New England Company and a member of the Virginia 
Company until its charter was revoked, when he was 
appointed one of the council for the government of that 
colony. He first turned his attention to New Foundland 
and, securing a grant in that locality, he erected a province 
which he named Avalon.^ After first sending a small 
party of colonists, he went thither himself with his family, 
but a residence of two years convinced him that that local- 
ity was not suited for the successful planting of a colony, 
and he sailed for Virginia. 

The authorities in the Virginia colony would not allow 
him to land unless he would take the oath of allegiance 
and supremacy, and this his religious principles would not 
allow him to do. He, therefore, sailed north and explored 
the shores of the Chesapeake above the Virginia settle- 

2 Bozman, Vol. i, p. 240, quotes Oldmixon's " British Empire in Amer- 
ica," as follows: "This gentleman" (Sir George Calvert) "being of the 
Romish religion was uneasy at home, and had the same reason to leave 
the kingdom, as those gentlemen had, who went to New England, to 
enjoy the liberty of his conscience. He therefore resolved to retire to 
America, and finding the New Foundland company had made no use of 
their grant, he thought of this place for his retreat; to which end he 
procured a patent for that part of the island, that lies between the bay 
of Bulls in the east, and cape St. Mary's in the south, which was erected 
into a province, and called Avalon." 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 7 

ment, and finding this territory suitable for his purpose he 
returned to England and petitioned Charles L, who by 
that time had succeeded his father, for a grant of land in 
that locality. Opposition arose from the Virginia authori- 
ties and, although the king was favorably disposed toward 
Lord Baltimore, the matter was delayed, and before the 
charter was finally granted, on June 20, 1632, Lord 
Baltimore died, and the charter, when issued, was in the 
name of his eldest son, Cecilius. 

The charter granted to Lord Baltimore was the most 
liberal ever granted by the English crown. It erected the 
colony into a palatinate,^ and created the proprietary but 
little short of a ruling sovereign. He was made " abso- 
lute lord of the land and water within his boundaries, could 
erect towns, cities, and ports, make war or peace, call the 
whole fighting population to arms, and declare martial 
law, levy tolls and duties, establish courts of justice, ap- 
point judges, magistrates, and other civil officers, execute 
the laws, and pardon offenders; he could erect manors with 
courts-baron and courts-leet, and confer titles and dignities, 
so that they differed from those of England; he could 
make laws with the assent of the freemen of the province, 
and. In cases of emergency, ordinances not impairing life, 

3 The term Palatinate originated with the early Frankish or German 
rulers who bestowed on an officer known as the " Count of the Palace " 
(comes palatii, or palatinus) certain powers nearly equaling those of 
royalty. Later these powers were bestowed on powerful vassals who, to 
all intents and purposes, became kings, except that they acknowledged the 
suzerainty of the appointing sovereign. In England certain counties were 
made palatinates, and the charter granted to Lord Baltimore gave him 
all the " rights, jurisdictions, privileges, prerogatives, royalties, liberties, 
immunities and royal rights, and temporal franchises whatsoever ... as 
any bishop of Durham, within the bishopric or county palatine of Durham, 
in our kingdom of England, ever heretofore hath had, held, used, or 
enjoyed, or of right could, or ought to have held, use or enjoy." 

8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

limb, or property, without their assent; he could found 
churches and chapels, have them consecrated according to 
the ecclesiastical laws of England, and appoint the in- 

Having received his charter. Lord Baltimore immedi- 
ately proceeded to organize an expedition to colonize the 
territory which had been granted to him. He secured two 
vessels, the Ark and the Dove, on which his party of 
colonists embarked and sailed from Cowes on November 
22, 1633. There were about two hundred in the party, 
of whom about twenty were " gentlemen adventurers," as 
they were called: men of fortune who took part in the 
enterprise partly In a spirit of adventure, although, no 
doubt, some of them sought a religious asylum, the bal- 
ance of the company being made up of servants and crafts- 
men of various kinds. Lord Baltimore had intended 
accompanying the expedition, but his presence in England 
being necessary he placed his brother Leonard in command 
as governor. Early in the following spring they reached 
the Chesapeake, and after stopping at an island near the 
mouth of the Potomac, which they named St. Clement's, 
where, on March 25, 1634, they celebrated their first mass 
in the new world, Governor Calvert with a small party 
started out to seek a suitable location for their settlement. 
He had secured as guide Henry Fleete, an Englishman 
who was well acquainted with that part of the country, 
having spent several years among the Indians. But 
although Fleete was thoroughly acquainted with the sur- 
rounding country he was not the first of his countrymen 
to visit it. 

The first white man to visit the territory now embraced 
within the state of Maryland was Captain John Smith, of 
Virginia. Very soon after the foundation of the James- 





\P OF VIRGINIA, 1606. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 9 

town settlement that hardy pioneer turned his attention to 
exploring the country to the north, and in the summer of 
1608 he made two trips in an open boat, with a few com- 
panions, and made his way as far north as the mouth of the 
Susquehanna, exploring the different rivers and marking 
them on his map with an accuracy that is scarcely exceeded 
at the present day. He rowed up the Potomac river to a 
point above the present site of Washington, as far as he 
could go in his boat, and has given us a comprehensive 
description of that part of the country. Of this expedition 
Lossing says:^ "It was one of the most wonderful of 
exploring expeditions, considered in all its aspects." 

Under the guidance of Fleete the party went a short 
distance up the Potomac, and at a point where an Indian 
town already existed a tract of land was purchased from 
the Indians and a tovv^n laid out which was named St. 
Mary's. During their first year the colonists subsisted 
largely upon supplies of food, chiefly Indian corn, obtained 
from the Indians. The policy followed by Governor 
Calvert in his treatment of the Indians was such as to gain 
their friendship, and thus were avoided many of the dis- 
asters which overtook colonists in other parts of the 
country. The Maryland settlers, as a rule, were free from 
attacks by hostile Indians. 

It was evidently Lord Baltimore's intention to found an 
aristocratic state, based on large holdings of land, the 
land to be kept in the family of the original owner through 
the law of entail. The first allotment of land to the 
settlers was made with this end in view. In the proprie- 
tary's instructions to his brother Leonard, who represented 
him, he advises him that he is to 

4 Quoted by Scharf, " Chronicles of Baltimore," p. %\ 

lO The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

" make or cause to be made under our great seal of that our said 
province unto every first adventurer for every five men aged between 
sixteen and fifty years, which such adventurer did bring into our 
said province to inhabitt and plant there in the year of our Lord 
1633, and unto his heirs forever, a grant of two thousand acres of 
land of English measure for the yearly rent of 400 lb. of good 
wheat, . . . 

And we do further will and authorize you, that every two thou- 
sand acres, and every three thousand acres, and every one thousand 
acres of land so to be passed or granted as aforesaid unto any adven- 
turer or adventurers, be erected, and created into a manor to be 
called by such name as the adventurer or adventurers shall desire."' 

But this plan of Lord Baltimore's did not succeed. 
While it was possible for a colonist, by bringing over a 
large number of servants, to obtain a large grant of land, 
it was unusual to find plantations containing more than one 
thousand acres. Prior to 1700 there were few towns and 
these did not grow very rapidly. The character and occu- 
pations of the inhabitants militated against the growth of 
towns. The colony of Maryland had been established by 
Lord Baltimore as a religious asylum where the inhabi- 
tants might worship God according to the dictates of their 
consciences, and although he was a Roman Catholic, no 
attempt was made to prevent those who belonged to 
Protestant denominations from settling in the colony. 
Indeed, it is probable that of the first colonists the greater 
number were Protestants. Most, if not all, of the " gen- 
tlemen adventurers " were probably Roman Catholics, but 
of the servants and laborers there is no doubt that a very 
large proportion were Protestants, although there is no 
way of accurately determining this, as there is no record of 
the names of all the colonists. These settlers were planters 

6 Bozman's " History of Maryland," Vol. II., pp. 38^40. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 1 1 

and farmers and the plantations were, as a rule, spread 
over a rather extended territory. There were no manu- 
factories, and what manufactured goods were required 
were brought over from England. 

Following the example of the Virginia colonists, the 
newcomers almost Immediately began the cultivation of 
tobacco. Indeed more attention was paid to this than to 
anything else. The chief aim of the planters was to raise 
as much tobacco as possible, for, being the currency of the 
colony, all other commodities were purchasable with It, 
and a man's possessions were reckoned In accordance with 
the amount of tobacco he could produce. The natural 
consequence of this state of affairs was that the quality of 
the tobacco soon began to deteriorate, while the growing 
of corn and other necessaries of life almost ceased. As 
early as 1639 ^^ ^^t was passed compelling every grower 
of tobacco to plant and cultivate two acres of corn for 
each member of his family. The next year another act 
was passed limiting the culture of tobacco to so many 
plants per head, but even these laws did not Improve 
matters much. The colony did not grow very rapidly, the 
settlers confined themselves almost entirely to the terri- 
tory adjacent to tidewater, and It was not until the coming 
of the German settlers, who by their thrift and Industry 
showed the possibilities of the fertile fields, that the colony 
began to make rapid strides forward. 


The First German Settlers. 


HERE is nothing in the 
records to show that there 
were any Germans among the 
first party sent out by Lord Bal- 
timore to found the colony of 
Maryland, but it is extremely 
probable that among that com- 
pany of two hundred people, 
consisting chiefly of servants and 
artisans, there were a number of 
Germans. The colony had been 
founded as an English settle- 
ment, and it is evident that foreigners were not desired, for 
while there was no direct prohibition of the settlement of 
foreigners in the colony, there was no inducement to lead 
them in that direction. The terms upon which land was to 
be granted to colonists was such as to lead to the formation 
of an aristocracy, which was undoubtedly Lord Baltimore's 
purpose, and naturally this aristocracy would be expected 
to be made up of wealthy Englishmen who could take ad- 
vantage of the conditions of plantation. According to the 


Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 13 

instructions sent out by Lord Baltimore to his brother, in 
1 636, any member of the first party of colonists who brought 
over with him five men was to receive two thousand acres 
of land subject to an annual quit-rent of four hundred 
pounds of wheat. The same allotment of land was made 
to those who came over in the years 1634 and 1635, bring- 
ing with them ten men, but the rent was to be six hundred 
pounds of wheat, and those who came over later, or 
brought fewer men, were to be granted smaller amounts 
of land.^ As Bozman says:''^ " It will be readily perceived, 
that these instructions, or conditions of plantation, were 
well calculated to induce men of some property in England, 
who were able to bear the expense of transporting serv- 
ants and dependents, to emigrate to this province. It is 
true, that it was sketching out aristocratic features in the 
future government of the province, which in other times, 
might have been supposed to operate in discouragement of 

But it was evidently this class of people that Lord Balti- 
more wanted, and foreigners were not even allowed to own 
land nor had they any political rights. It was not until 
1648 that foreigners were allowed to take up land. In 
the commission of William Stone, lieutenant of the prov- 
ince, accompanying the conditions of plantation of 1648, 
and dated at Bath, August 20, 1648, Lord Baltimore 

And we do hereby authorize and Require you till we or our heirs 
shall signify our of their Pleasure to the Contrary from time to 
time in our name and under the Great Seal of the said Province 
of Maryland to Grant Lands within our said Province to all Ad- 
venturors or Planters to or within the same upon such terms and 

8 Archives of Maryland, Vol. Ill, p. 471 
7 " History of Maryland," Vol. II., p. 38. 

14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Conditions as are expressed in the said last Conditions of Planta- 
tion bearing date with these presents and according to the forms 
of Grants above mentioned and not otherwise without further and 
special warrant hereafter to be obtain*^ for the same under our or 
our heirs hand and seal at Arms and whereas we are Given to 
understand that as well divers Frenchmen as some other People 
of other Nations who by our former as also by these last Conditions 
of Plantation are not Capable of having any lands within our said 
Province and are already seated or may hereafter with our or you 
our Lieutenants leave there for the time being seat themselves in 
our said Province we do hereby Authorize you to make any Person 
or Persons of French Dutch or Italian discent as you shall think 
fit and who either are already planted or shall hereafter come and 
Plant in our said Province Capable of our said last Conditions of 
Plantation and do hereby Give you Power to Grant Lands there- 
upon within our said Province unto them and every of them accord- 
ingly as well for and in respect of themselves as for and in respect 
of any Person or Persons of British or Irish discent or of any of 
the other discents aforesaid which they or any of them and also 
which any other Person of British or Irish discent shall hereafter 
with our or you our said Lieutenants leave transport into the said 
province in the same and in as ample manner and upon the same 
terms and Provisoes as you are hereby or by our Commission to 
you for the Government of the said Province authorised to Grant 
any Lands to any Adventuror or Planter of British or Irish discent 
within the said Province.^ 

The following year the conditions of plantation were 
abrogated and new ones issued under date of July 2, 1649. 
The new ones were practically the same as those issued the 
year before except that they authorized an Increase in the 
size of the manors to be granted. Lord Baltimore gives 
as his reason for issuing the new ones that those of 1648 
"were not like to give sufficient encouragement to many 

8 Archives of Maryland, Vol. III., p. 222. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 15 

to adventure and plant there." Bozman seems to think^ 
that this action on the part of Lord Baltimore, in allowing 
foreigners to take up land, was prompted chiefly by his 
anxiety to increase the population of the province, and 
that he was undoubtedly indifferent as to what sect of 
Protestant religion his colonists belonged. Whether this 
liberality on the part of Lord Baltimore led to any increase 
in the number of Germans who settled in the colony is not 
evident, but It Is extremely probable that it did have that 
effect. There Is no doubt that from a very early period in 
the history of Maryland the colony was constantly receiv- 
ing additions from the neighboring colony on the Dela- 
ware, which at the time of the founding of the colony of 
Maryland was under the control of the Dutch. It is true 
that these additions were not made up of a very desirable 
class of people, consisting chiefly, as they did, of runaway 
servants. The records of the Dutch and Swedish colonies 
on the Delaware frequently mention occurrences of this 
kind. In a letter from Director-General Peter Stuyvesant 
to the directors of the Dutch West India Company, dated 
September 4, 1659, he says:^*^ 

The City's affairs on the Southrlver are in a very deplorable and 
low state. It is to be feared, that, if no other and better order is 
introduced, it will be ruined altogether; it would be too long and 
tedious, to report all the complaints brought from there, nor can 
all be received (as true;) but it is certainly true, that the people 
begin to run away In numbers, as for instance, while I write this, 
there arrives from there an English ketch, which went there with 
some provisions from Boston three weeks ago ; the skipper of it, a 
well-known and trustworthy man, says that during his stay of 14 
days at the Southriver about 50 persons, among them whole fam- 
ilies, run away from there to Virginia and Maryland. 

9 " History of Maryland," Vol. II., p. 342. 

10 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. VII., p. 611. 

1 6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Again, on the 17th of the same month Stuyvesant 
writes :^^ 

We mentioned in our last letter the deplorable and bad state of 
affairs in the City's Colony on the Southriver, caused by the deser- 
tion and removal of the Colonists to Maryland, Virginia and other 
places, which increases daily in such a manner, that hardly thirty 
families remain. 

It is very probable that the state of affairs was greatly 
exaggerated by Stuyvesant, as there is no record of such 
wholesale additions to the population of Maryland, and 
the few stragglers who did make their way into that col- 
ony were not in sufficient numbers to leave any records of 
their doings. One of the first of the German settlers in 
Maryland of whom we have any record, and the first who 
may be called a Pennsylvania-German, was Cornelius 
Commegys. He had formerly lived in the colony on the 
Delaware, and after spending some time there had re- 
moved to Maryland. The exact date of his arrival in the 
latter colony is not known, but it was probably about 1661, 
as he was naturalized on July 22 of that year. In the 
same year Augustine Herman, writing to Vice-Director 
Beekman, of the Dutch colony on the Delaware, says: 
"Nothing could be done with Cornelius Comegys this 
year, it must be done next year and some other instructions 
sent from the Manhattans, which upon my return home I 
shall help your Honor to procure. "^^ This would seem 
to indicate that there was some trouble in connection with 
Commegys's removal to Maryland. W^eishaar^^ says that 

1^ Ibid., p. 617. 

^2 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. VII., p. 697. 
13 Report of the Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland, 
Vol. XV., p. 19. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. ly 

on July 30, 1666, Commegys received a patent for 150 
acres of land In Cecil county. Later on he obtained a 
much larger tract of land, for the proceedings of Council 
show^^ that on December 15, 1669, he was granted a 
patent for 350 acres of land. There is very little known 
of the history of Cornelius Commegys. Weishaar says : 
"When in 1679 the two Labadists, Danker-Schilders and 
Sluyter-Vorstmann visited Maryland, they found Com- 
megys in possession of a large farm, and his son Cornelius 
was about to buy a farm for himself. His first wife 
Wilhemintye, however, had died, and he was married 
again to an English woman." 

It may be interesting to note the manner in which for- 
eigners were naturalized at this time. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that at that period there was not the same 
distinction between the terms Dutch and German that 
there is to-day. In fact, the term German was rarely used, 
and the appellation Dutchman was indiscriminately applied 
to the representatives of all the Teutonic races. Under the 
heading " Denization of Swedes and Dutch," in the Pro- 
ceedings of Council, appears the following paper :^^ 

" Caecelius Absolute Lord and Proprietary of the Provinces of 
Maryland and Avalon Lord Barron of Baltemore &c To all per- 
sons to whome theis shall come Greeting in our Lord God Ever- 
lasting. Whereas Peter Meyor late of New Amstell and Subject 
of the Crowne of Sweeden hauing transported himselfe his wife 
and Children into this our Province here to Inhabite hath besought 
us to grante him the said Peter Meyor leaue here to Inhabite and 
as a free Dennizen freedome land to him and his heires to purchase 
Knowe yee that we Doe hereby Declare them the said Peter Meyor 
his wife and Children as well those already borne as those here- 

1* Archives of Maryland, Vol. V., p. 59. 
15 Ibid., Vol. III., p. 428. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

after to be borne to be free Dennizens of this our Province of 
Maryland And doe further for vs our heires and Successors 
straightly enjoyne Constitute ordeine and Command that the said 
Peter Meyer be in all things held treated reputed and esteemed as 
one of the faythful people of us our heires and Successors borne 
within this our Province of Maryland And likewise and lands tene- 
ments Revenues Services and other hereditam*^ whatsoeu"^ within 
our said Province of Maryland may inherrite or otherwise purchase 
receive take haue hould buy and possesse and them may occupye and 
enjoye Give Sell alyen and bequeathe as likewise all libertyes fran- 
chises and priviledges of this our Province of Maryland freely 
quietly and peaceably haue and possesse occupye and enjoye as our 
faythful people borne or to be borne within our said Province of 
Maryland without lett Molestacon vexacon trouble or Greivance 
of us our heires and Successo" and Custome to the contrary hereof 
in any wise notwithstanding Giuen at Saint Marys vnder the Great 
Scale of our said Province of Maryland this two and twentyth day 
of July in the thirtyth yeare of our dominion over the said Province 
of Maryland Annoq domini One thousand six hundred Sixty one 
Wittness our Deare Brother Philip Calvert Esq"" our Leivetennant 
of our said Province of Maryland." 

Accompanying this paper is the following list of names 
of persons who were to be included in this process of 
naturalization : 

Axell Stille 
Peter Jacobson 
Marcus Sipherson 
Clement Micheelson 
Hendrik Hendrickson 
Andrew Clementson 
Peter Montson 
Hendrick Mathiason 
Mathias Cornelison 
John Wheeler 

Bartholomew Hendrickson 
Cornelius Urinson 
John Urinson 
Andreu Toreson 
Paul Johnson 
Gothofrid Harmer 
Jacob Micheelson 
Cornelius Comages 
Michaell Vandernorte 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 19 

While this naturalization apparently accorded to the 
persons naturalized all the rights and privileges of 
natural-born citizens, such was evidently not the case, for 
at the meeting of the assembly thirteen years later, 1674, 
a number of these persons along with others, presented a 
petition asking that 

they and every one of them shall from henceforth be adjudged 
reputed and taken as natureall borne people of this Prouince of 
Maryland and alsoe that they and every one of them shall and may 
from henceforth by the same Authority be enabled and adjudged 
to all intents and Purposes able to demand Challenge aske haue 
hold and Injoy any Lands Tenements Rents & Hereditaments 
within this Prouince as Heire or Heires to any of their Ancestors 
by Reason of any discent in fee simple feetayle Generall or Speciall 
or Remainder vppon and fee Tayle generall or speciall to come to 
them or any of them by discent in fee simple feetayle Generall Spe- 
ciall or Remainder vppon any Estate tayle as aforesaid or by any 
other Lawfull Conveyance or Conveyances or meanes whatsoever 
as if they and every of them had been borne within this Prouince 
or were of Brittish or Irish discent as aforesaid and alsoe that they 
and every of them from henceforth shall and may be Enabled to 
prosecute maintaine & avow Justifie and defend all manner of 
accons suites plaints or other demands whatsoever as Liberally 
franckly freely Lawfully fully and securely as if all of them had 
been Natureall borne within the Prouince of Maryland. ^^ 

The most distinguished German who at that period 
made his home in Maryland was Augustine Herman. 
Although he was born at Prague, Bohemia, it is very prob- 
able that Herman was a German. He entered the service 

18 Archives of Maryland, Vol. II., p. 400. The names in this petition 
show how rapidly the process of anglicizing the names of foreigners pro- 
ceeded. For instance, Hendrik Hendrickson had become Henry Hender- 
son ; Hendrick Mathiason, Henry Mathews ; Andrew Clementson, Andrew 

20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of the Dutch West India Company and came to New- 
Amsterdam, where he attained a position of prominence 
and married a relative of Peter Stuyvesant. When the 
trouble between the Maryland colony and the Dutch 
settlers on the Delaware seemed to be reaching an acute 
stage on account of the actions of Col. Nathaniel Utie, 
who had been sent to the Delaware colony by Governor 
Fendall, of Maryland, and notified the settlers there that 
the territory in question belonged to Maryland and de- 
clared that they must either leave or recognize the author- 
ity of Maryland, Augustine Herman was sent by Stuy- 
vesant as one of the commissioners to confer with the 
Maryland authorities and try to bring about a settlement 
of the difficulty. Their mission was a failure, but Herman 
seems to have been very favorably impressed with the 
locality and determined to make his home in Maryland. 
The various boundary disputes had taught Herman the 
importance of having a map of the territory, and he made 
a proposition to Lord Baltimore to the effect that he would 
make a map of the country if he were granted a certain 
amount of land with the privilege of a manor. This prop- 
osition was accepted, and in September, 1660, Herman 
received a grant of four thousand acres of land, to be 
selected where he saw fit. The tract chosen was on the 
Elk river, and early In the following year, having bought 
the land from the Indians, he settled on Bohemia Manor, 
as he named his acquisition. He immediately went to 
work on his map, which was completed in 1670. It 
covered the whole section of country between North Caro- 
lina and the Hudson river. In the acknowledgment of 
the receipt of the map Herman was informed 

That His Lordship had received no small Satisfaction by the 
variety of that mapp, and that the Kings Majesty, His Royall 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 21 

Highness, and all others commended the exactness of the work, 
applauding it for the best mapp that ever was drawn of any country. 

Herman was naturalized by act of assembly on Sep- 
tember 17, 1763, it being the first act of this kind passed 
by the assembly. It also included Herman's brother-in- 
law, George Hack, Garrett Ruttzn and Jacob Clauson. 
The record of this transaction in the "Assembly Proceed- 
ings, September-October, 1663," is as follows :^^ 

Thursday Sep*^ 17*^ 

Then was read the pet° of Augustine Herman for an Act for 
Naturalizacon for himselfe Children and his brother in Lawe 
George Hack 

Ordered that An Acte of Naturalizacon be prepared for the 
Consideracon of both howses to naturalize Garrett Ruttzn and his 
Children and Jacob Clauson ffreemen of this Province 

Ordered likewise that an Acte of Naturalizacon be prepared for 
Augustine Herman, and his Children and his brother in Lawe 
George Hack and his wife and Children. 

Herman attained considerable prominence in the colony 
and filled various offices. He took an active part in the 
quarrels arising over the boundary between Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, and his house was named, in 1682, as the 
place of meeting for Lord Baltimore and Governor Mark- 
ham, of Pennsylvania, to discuss the question. It was also 
on Herman's land that the Labadist colony was estab- 
lished.^^ The Labadists were a pietistic sect founded in 
Germany about 1669 by Jean de Labadie. Labadie, who 

1^ Archives of Maryland, Vol. I., p. 462. 

IS For a full account of the Labadists see " The Labadist Colony in 
Maryland," by Bartlett B. James. 

22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

was born In 1610, had been educated as a Jesuit priest, but 
his pronounced inclination towards mysticism, as well as 
his eccentricities, made him objectionable to the Society of 
Jesus, and he easily secured his release from that order 
and became a free lance. His attacks on the Roman 
Catholic church, and more particularly the Jesuits, led to 
his persecution and he was driven by the authorities, civil 
and ecclesiastical, from one place to another. About 1650 
he adopted the Calvinistic doctrines and was ordained a 
Protestant minister, but he soon found that, from his 
viewpoint, the Protestant church also needed reformation, 
and he attempted this reformation so vigorously that he 
again antagonized both the civil and ecclesiastical authori- 
ties and was finally deposed from the ministry. He then 
established an independent church to teach the pure prin- 
ciples and practices of the Christian faith, as he conceived 
them. He attracted followers and located at different 
places but was compelled to move, until finally, after the 
death of Labadie, the colony located at Weiward, in 
Friesland. The needs of the colony required more land 
for their support than they could procure at Weiward, and 
In 1679 the Weiward assembly sent Peter Sluyter and 
Jasper Danckers to America to look for a location for a 
new colony. These two men traveled under the names of 
P. Vorstman and J. Schllders. While In New York they 
made the acquaintance of Augustine Herman's son Eph- 
raim and accompanied him to Maryland, where they met 
the elder Herman. The two Labadists were much pleased 
with the locality and Herman was very favorably im- 
pressed with them. They were very anxious to secure 
part of his land for their colony, but while he would not 
agree to sell them any of It he became so entangled with 
them that later on he was compelled by legal action to 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 23 

transfer part of his estate to them.^^ The two commis- 
sioners returned to Weiward to make their report to the 
assembly, and in 1683 brought back with them the nucleus 
for a colony and, through legal action, compelled Herman 
to transfer to them nearly four thousand acres of land, 
consisting of four necks of land eastwardly from the first 
creek that empties into Bohemia river, from the north or 
northeast to near the old St. Augustine, or Manor church.^o 
The colony did not grow very rapidly and never amounted 
to much more than one hundred persons. It was domi- 
nated by Sluyter, who assumed the title of bishop, and who 
gradually managed to secure title to most of the land. He 
exacted rigid obedience from every member of the com- 
munity, to whom was assigned some part of the work. 
Some of them had to see to the cooking, others to the 
housework. The fields had to be cultivated by some, 
while others looked after the stock. " The different fam- 
ilies had dwellings according to their needs, though, by 
partitioning off the larger compartments, strict economy 
of space was observed. All rooms were at all times open 
to the pastors and to those who held oversight in their 
name. Those who joined the community resigned into the 
common stock all their possessions. Individuality in 
attire was suppressed. Degrading tasks were assigned to 
those suspected of pride. Samuel Bownas, a minister of 
the Society of Friends, in the record of his visit to the 
community gives a more particular account of their table 
discipline than can be found elsewhere. He says: 'After 
we had dined we took our leave, and a friend, my guide, 
went with me and brought me to a people called Labadists, 
where we were civilly entertained in their way. When 

1^ James, "The Labadist Colony in Maryland," p. 35. 
20 Ibid., p. 38. 

24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

supper came In, it was placed upon a large table in a large 
room, where, when all things were ready, came in at a call, 
twenty men or upwards, but no women. We all sat down, 
they placing me and my companion near the head of the 
table, and having passed a short space, one pulled off his 
hat, but not so the rest till a short space after, and then 
they, one after another, pulled all their hats off, and in 
that uncovered posture sat silent uttering no word that we 
could hear for nearly half a quarter of an hour, and as 
they did not uncover at once, neither did they cover them- 
selves again at once, but as they put on their hats fell to 
eating not regarding those who were still uncovered, so 
that it might be ten minutes time or more between the first 
and last putting on of their hats. I afterward queried 
with my companion as to their conduct, and he gave for 
an answer that they held it unlawful to pray till they felt 
some inward motion for the same, and that secret prayer 
was more acceptable than to utter words, and that it was 
most proper for every one to pray as moved thereto by the 
spirit In their own minds. I likewise queried if they had 
no women amongst them. He told me they had, but the 
women ate by themselves and the men by themselves, hav- 
ing all things In common respecting their household affairs, 
so that none could claim any more right than another to 
any part of their stock, whether In trade or husbandry.' "^^ 

According to the belief of the Labadists the church was a com- 
munity of holy persons who had been born again from sin, held 
together by the love of truth as it is in Jesus Christ. They laid 
great stress on the power of the Holy Ghost, operating not only 
through the scriptures and the administration of the sacraments, 
but also by direct communication with the souls of the elect. The 
presence of the Holy Ghost was indicated by the conduct of the 

21 Ibid., p. i6. 




^ MAP, 1670. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 25 

believer. They did not believe in infant baptism because it could 
not be foretold w^hether the child would grow up in the fear of 
God or in sin. To them baptism was the sealing of a new covenant 
with God and insured the washing away of sins. They held that 
the believers and unbelievers should be kept apart, and carried this 
doctrine to such a length that they believed it was the duty of a 
husband and wife to separate if either were not of the elect. They 
held themselves as freed from allegiance to any law. 

"Labadism," says James, ^^ "was essentially a mystical 
form of faith, teaching supreme reliance upon the inward 
illumination of the Spirit. And yet the works of the 
Labadists disclose a high form of Christian faith and aspi- 
ration. Whatever its defects, and the opportunities for 
hypocritical pretence which it offered, Labadism was yet 
a standard of faith and conduct which no one could con- 
form to without at the same time exemplifying high Chris- 
tian graces." 

The Labadist colony on Bohemia river ceased to exist 
as such shortly after the year 1720. 

According to Weishaar,^^ other Germans who settled in 
Maryland prior to 1700 were Martin Faulkner, who was 
granted 150 acres of land in Anne Arundel county, Sep- 
tember 23, 1680; Daniel Hast, Somerset county, August 
30, 1680; Robert Knapp, September 22, 1681; Christo- 
pher Geist, August 10, 1684; William Gross, October 24, 
1684; Richard Schippe; John Leniger, October 10, 1683; 
Rudolph Brandt, June 12, 1686; William Blankenstein, 
about 1685 ; Jo^^ Falkner, 1685 ; Thomas Faulkner, June 
12, 1688; William Gross, May 2, 1689; William Lange, 
November 10, 1691 ; Robert Sadler, April 4, 1689. 

22 " The Labadist Colony in Maryland," p. 14. 

23 Report of the Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland, 
Vol. XV., p. 20. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

These are practically all the Germans who had settled 
in the colony before 1700. Compared with those of 
other nationalities they were few in number and were not 
of sufficient importance to make any impression in consider- 
ing the character of the inhabitants. Maryland was still 
English in all respects and it remained so until the large 
influx of Pennsylvania-Germans a third of a century later. 



The Germans in Pennsylvania. 


ROM the time that Moses 
led the hosts of Israel out 
of Egypt toward the Prom- 
ised Land history records no 
such exodus of a people as 
that which took place from 
the Rhenish provinces of Ger- 
many in the early years of the 
eighteenth century. The op- 
pressed and Impoverished In- 
habitants went, not by scores, 
nor even by hundreds, but 
literally by thousands. In this day we can scarcely realize 
the extent of the emigration which took place from Ger- 
many at that time, nor the causes which brought It about. 
These causes were varied, though It was the ruthless devas- 
tation of the valley of the Rhine, commonly known as the 
Palatinate, during the Thirty Years' War and those which 
followed It, "mpre than any other cause that started the 
great and steady stream of German blood, muscle and 
brains to Pennsylvania's shores."-^ 

2* Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D., in Proceedings and Addresses of the Penn- 
sylvania-German Society, Vol. VII., p. 172. 


28 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Almost with the opening of the Thirty Years' War, In 
1620, the troops of the Emperor Ferdinand II. of Ger- 
many, under Tilly and Maximilian, devastated the Protes- 
tant lands and cities of the Palatinate, and began the 
ravages which marlced that war. The Protestants retali- 
ated, with the result that the country was almost depopu- 
lated. Before this war the Palatinate was credited with 
a population of half a million souls; at the close of the 
struggle a census showed less than one third of the original 
number.^^ It has been estimated that in the first half of 
the seventeenth century two thirds of the people of Ger- 
many perished from war, pestilence and famine. One of 
the effects of the war was the destruction of almost all 
trade and commerce. During the war Alsace, adjoining 
the Palatinate, was so terribly devastated by the French 
that the German Emperor found himself unable to hold it. 
The population was greatly reduced in numbers and much 
of the land was left uncultivated. 

With the end of the Thirty Years' War the impover- 
ished and destitute inhabitants of Germany hoped for a 
respite from their troubles and for a chance to rebuild 
their homes and rehabilitate their fortunes. But that hope 
was in vain. In 1674, during the Dutch War, Turenne 
pushed forward into the Palatinate, defeated the imperial- 
ists at Sinzheim, and deliberately destroyed the whole 
country. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 
1685, large numbers of Huguenots left France and settled 
in the Palatinate. The French king becoming angered 
because the Palatine Elector gave shelter to these perse- 
cuted people, sent Louvois with one hundred thousand 
soldiers, with orders to destroy the Palatinate. "How 
well this horde of murderers did his bidding," says Dr. 

25 Ibid., p. 125. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 29 

Sachse, " is a matter of history. Even to the present day, 
after the lapse of two centuries, the line of march may be 
traced from the Drachenfels to Heidelberg. Crumbling 
walls, ruined battlements and blown-up towers still remain 
as mementoes of French vandalism. "^"^ 

But even this was not the end of their chapter of hor- 
rors, for with the opening of the eighteenth century the 
War of the Spanish Succession caused the country again to 
be overrun, and what little the previous marauders had left 
was destroyed by the flames and battles of another invasion. 
The few people who were left were in the direst poverty. 
Even those who a few years before were well-to-do, were 
now no better off than their poorest neighbors, for with 
their homes destroyed and their fields uncultivated they 
had nothing, and no prospects of having anything. 

But, as though the trial by the sword and flames was 
not enough, nature did what she could to still further afflict 
the stricken inhabitants of the Palatinate. The winter of 
1708-9 was unusually severe. The cold was intense and 
long-continued, and the half-starved and destitute inhabi- 
tants were illy-prepared to withstand the rigors of that 
unusually severe winter, so that many of them perished 
from the cold. To the little remnant that was left it 
seemed as though they had been forsaken by God as well 
as by man, and they were ready to turn in any direction 
that offered an escape from the terrible situation in which 
they found themselves. 

At this juncture the agents sent out by WilHam Penn, 
and to a lesser degree by some of the proprietors of some 
of the other American colonies, made their appearance 
and distributed broadcast glowing accounts of the new 

28 Proceedings and Addresses of the Pennsylvania-German Society, Vol. 
VII., p. 170. 

30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

homes that might easily be founded in the land across the 
sea. The poverty-stricken, starving people jumped at the 
chance that was offered and rose en masse and made their 
way as best they could to the nearest seaports and started 
for England as the first stage in their journey to the new 
home beyond the sea. They went literally by the thousand. 
In May or June, 1709, the Germans began to arrive in 
London, and by October between 13,000 and 14,000 had 
come."" The coming into England of so large a number 
of destitute people with no means of sustenance presented 
to the English people a problem which had to be met 
promptly. As Dr. Diffenderffer says, " Never before, 
perhaps, were emigrants seeking new homes so poorly 
provided with money and the other necessaries of life to 
support them on their way as were these Palatines. . . . 
From the day of their arrival in London they required the 
assistance of the English to keep them from starving. 
There was little or no work; bread was dear, and the only 
thing to do was to bridge the crisis by raising money by 
public subscriptions." 

A large amount of money was collected and by direction 
of Queen Anne one thousand tents were taken from the 
Tower of London and set up in the country outside of 
London. In these camps many of the emigrants were shel- 
tered, while others were housed in barns and warehouses, 
and some in private houses. The government took active 
steps to get rid of the foreigners as quickly as possible, 
and eventually they were disposed of. Nearly four thou- 
sand of them were sent to Ireland,^^ where their descend- 

2T Frank R. DiffenderflFer, Litt.D., in Proceedings and Addresses of the 
Pennsylvania-German Society, Vol. VII., p. 266. 

28 Dr. Diffenderffer is of the opinion that if these German colonists did 
not actually establish the linen industry in Ireland they gave it such an 
impulse as to make it the most important textile industry in that country. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 3 1 

ants live to this day. Many of the Roman Catholics were 
returned to the places from which they had come, and a 
large party, numbering over three thousand, was sent to 
the New York colony, many of whom eventually found 
their way down into Pennsylvania and settled in the Tulpe- 
hocken region. 

This was practically the beginning of the German emi- 
gration to America, although the Crefeld colony under 
Pastorius had made a settlement at Germantown in 1683 
and Kocherthal, with his fifty-three companions, had 
founded Newburg on the Hudson at the beginning of 
1709. A constant stream of German colonists followed, 
at first slowly, then in larger numbers, the greater number 
going to Pennsylvania. By 17 17 so many of them had 
arrived in that colony that alarm was excited in the minds 
of the authorities. In that year Governor Keith thought 
the matter of sufficient importance to recommend that the 
masters of all vessels bringing in foreign passengers be 
required to furnish lists of all such persons and that the 
emigrants be required to take the oath of allegiance. 
Through this recommendation being, at a later period, 
enacted into a law a fairly accurate record of the number 
of German emigrants who came into Pennsylvania has been 
preserved. The exact number is not known, as many came 
before the records were begun, in 1727, and some of these 
records appear to have been lost, but Professor Oscar Kuhns 
has gone over the lists very carefully and has figured out 
that between 1727 and 1775 the number of Germans who 
came to Pennsylvania was about 68,872.2^ The authori- 
ties~of the province did not look kindly upon this influx 
of German emigrants. Secretary James Logan was par- 
ticularly outspoken in his opposition to them, and on a 

29 " The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial Pennsylvania," p. 57. 

32 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

number of occasions wrote unfavorably concerning them. 
On march 25, 1727, he wrote to John Penn: "We have 
many thousands of foreigners, mostly Palatines, so-called, 
already in y® Countrey, of whom near 1500 came in this 
last summer; many of them are a surly people, divers 
Papists amongst them, and y^ men generally well arm'd. 
We have from the North of Ireland, great numbers yearly, 
8 or 9 Ships this last ffall discharged at Newcastle. Both 
of these sorts sitt frequently down on any spott of vacant 
Land they can find, without asking questions; the last 
Palatines say there will be twice the number next year, & 
y* Irish say y^ same of their People." 

The proprietaries were naturally influenced by the un- 
favorable reports sent "to "therri concerning the German 
emigrants and in consequence, although they were doubt- 
less actuated by other motives, determined to have them 
settle on the outlying lands: s6tti'aTthey might serve as a 
bulwark between the inhabitants of the more-thickly 
settled parts of the province and the hostile Indians. In 
1729, John, Thomas and Richard Penn wrote to Secre- 
tary Logan: "As to the Palatines, you have often taken 
notice of to us, wee apprehend have Lately arrived in 
greater Quantities than may be consistent with the welfare 
of the Country, and therefore, applied ourself to our 
Councill to find a proper way to prevent it, the result of 
which was, that an act of assembly should be got or en- 
deavoured at, and sent us over immediately, when we 
would take sufllicient Care to get it approved by the King. 
With this resolution we acquainted the Governour, by 
Cap' Stringfellow, to Maryland, the 25*'' Feb"^ a Duplicate 
of which we have since sent by another shipp, both w'^'' 
times we also enclos'd Letters for thee ; but as to any other 
people coming over who are the subjects of the British 



Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 33 

Crown, we can't Conceive it anyways practicable to pro- 
hibit it : but supposing they are natives of Ireland & Roman 
Cathollcks, they ought not to settle till they have taken the 
proper Oaths to the King, & Promls'd Obedience to the 
Laws of the Country, and. Indeed, we Can't Conceive It 
unreasonable that if they are Inclinable to settle, they 
should be obllg'd to settle, either Backwards to Sasque- 
hannah or north In y^ Country beyond the other settle- 
ments, as we had mentioned before in relation to the Pala- 
tines; but we must desire Care may be taken that they are 
not suffered to settle towards Maryland, on any account."^^ 

Not only did the provincial authorities feel apprehen- 
sion concerning the large number of Germans who were 
coming into the colony, but the same impression prevailed 
among the English generally, and even as late as 1751 
Benjamin Franklin said: "Why should the Palatine boors 
be suffered to swarm into our settlements, and, by herding 
together, establish their language and manners, to the 
exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded 
by the English, become a colony of aliens, who will shortly 
be so numerous as to Germanize us, instead of our Anglicl- 
fylng them, and will never adopt our language or customs 
any more than they can acquire our complexion? " Frank- 
lin later realized that he had made a mistake in speaking 
so contemptuously of this element which formed so large 
a proportion of the population of Pennsylvania, and tried 
to smooth It over by trying to make It appear that he had 
used the word " boor" in the sense of " farmer." 

But in spite of the opposition to them the Germans con- 
tinued to come in increasing numbers. It Is said that in 
17 19 six thousand German emigrants came to Pennsylva- 
nia, but as accurate records were not kept at that time It is 

30 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. VII., p. 140. 

34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

probable that this estimate is exaggerated. In 1727, when 
fairly accurate records were kept, over twelve hundred 
landed, while in 1732 the number was between two and 
three thousand. As the eastern section of the country be- 
came more thickly settled the Germans spread out to the 
west and southwest and settled in the more remote parts 
of the colony, often on land not yet purchased from the 
Indians, as was the case with the party from Schoharie 
county. New York, who made their way through the 
unbroken forests, following the Susquehanna, and settled 
at Tulpehocken. They were part of the party who settled 
in Livingston Manor, in 17 10, and after spending some 
years there had gone to Schoharie, whence they were again 
impelled to move. The Indians naturally resented this 
encroachment upon their lands and frequently assumed a 
hostile attitude, making attacks on unprotected settlements. 
The settlers appealed to the authorities for aid in repelling 
these attacks, but, in addition to the fact that the Quaker 
authorities were opposed to furnishing means for warfare 
and bloodshed, they were almost continually having con- 
troversies with the governors and proprietaries, and but 
little was done in the way of furnishing protection, and the 
inhabitants of the outlying sections were usually left to 
their own devices. 

The condition of these settlers is well illustrated in a 
letter^^ written by Casper Wistar from Philadelphia, 
under date of November 8, 1732 : 

Being importuned daily by so many of our countrymen to re- 
lieve them from the great distress, into which they have come, 
partially through their own thoughtlessness, and partially by the 
persuasion of others, and it being absolutely impossible to help all, 

31 Quoted by Rev. Dr. Henry E. Jacobs, in Proceedings and Addresses of 
the Pennsylvania-German Society, Vol. VIII., p. 142. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 35 

sympathy for the poor people still in the Fatherland, and who, 
before undertaking such a journey, have time to reflect, constrains 
me to give a true account of the conditions of things in this new 
land. I make this particular request that these facts may be re- 
ported everywhere, that no one may have the excuse for learning 
them only from his own personal experience. 

Some years ago this was a very fruitful country, and, like all 
new countries, but sparsely inhabited. Since the wilderness re- 
quired much labor, and the inhabitants were few, ships that 
arrived with German emigrants were cordially welcomed. They 
were immediately discharged, and by their labor very easily earned 
enough to buy some land. Pennsylvania is but a small part of 
America, and has been open now for some years, so that not only 
many thousand Germans, but English and Irish have settled there, 
and filled all parts of the country; so that all who now seek land 
must go far into the wilderness, and purchase it at a higher price. 

Many hardships also are experienced on the voyage. Last year 
one of the ships was driven about the ocean for twenty-four weeks, 
and of its one hundred and fifty passengers, more than one hun- 
dred starved to death. To satisfy their hunger, they caught mice, 
and rats; and a mouse brought half a gulden. When the sur- 
vivors at last reached land, their sufferings were aggravated by 
their arrest, and the exaction from them of the entire fare for both 
living and dead. This year ten ships with three thousand souls 
have arrived. 

One of the vessels was seventeen weeks on the way and about 
sixty of its passengers died at sea. All the survivors are sick and 
feeble, and what is worst, poor and without means; hence, in a 
community like this where money is scarce, they are a burden, and 
every day there are deaths among them. Every person over four- 
teen years old, must pay six doubloons (about 90 dollars) passage 
from Rotterdam, and those between four and fourteen must pay 
half that amount. When one is without the money, his only 
resource is to sell himself for a term from three to eight years or 
more, and to serve as a slave. Nothing but a poor suit of clothes 

36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

is received when his time has expired. Families endure a great 
trial when they see the father purchased by one master, the mother 
by another, and each of the children by another. All this for the 
money only that they owe the Captain. And yet they are only 
too glad, when after waiting long, they at last find some one will- 
ing to buy them; for the money of the country is well nigh ex- 
hausted. In view of these circumstances, and the tedious, expen- 
sive and perilous voyage, you should not advise any one for whom 
you wish well to come hither. All I can say is that those who 
think of coming should weigh well what has been above stated, 
and should count the cost, and, above all, should go to God for 
counsel and inquire whether it be His will, lest they may under- 
take that whereof they will afterward repent. If ready to haz- 
ard their lives and to endure patiently all the trials of the voyage, 
they must further think whether over and above the cost they will 
have enough to purchase cattle, and to provide for other necessities. 
No one should rely upon friends whom he may have here ; for they 
have enough to do, and many a one reckons in this without his 
host. Young and able-bodied persons, who can do efficient work, 
can, nevertheless, always find some one who will purchase them 
for two, three or four years; but they must be unmarried. For 
young married persons, particularly when the wife is with child, 
no one cares to have. Of mechanics there are a considerable num- 
ber already here; but a good mechanic who can bring with him 
sufficient capital to avoid beginning with debt, may do well, 
although of almost all classes and occupations, there are already 
more than too many. All this I have, out of sincere love for the 
interests of my neighbor, deemed it necessary to communicate con- 
cerning the present condition in Pennsylvania. 


The Movement to Maryland. 


URING the first century of 
Its existence the colony of 
Maryland did not grow very rap- 
idly and it was, relatively, of minor 
importance. The territory actu- 
ally settled consisted chiefly of a 
narrow strip along Chesapeake 
Bay, the colonists showing but little 
inclination to locate very far from tidewater. This was but 
natural, for everyone was devoting his energies to raising 
tobacco, and to dispose of this it had to be shipped abroad, 
and the numerous inlets along the coast afforded ample op- 
portunity for this shipment, without the necessity of a long 
haul to the port of lading. It is curious to note how every 
settler devoted all his time and labor to the raising of 
tobacco, without regard to reason, and to the exclusion of 
the necessaries of life; but tobacco was the only medium 
of barter and exchange, and all debts, public and private, 
were settled in that commodity. Naturally, therefore, 
everyone wanted to raise as much tobacco as possible, and 
the result was that but little attention was paid to the 
quality, and the consequent lowering of value of the prod- 


38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

uct brought the young colony into financial difficulties with 
all the evils attendant on a depreciated currency. The 
enactment of laws requiring the settlers to raise a certain 
amount of corn and other commodities had scarcely any 
effect, and it was not until 1748, more than a hundred 
years after the founding of the colony, that an effective 
law regulating the production of tobacco was enacted. It 
was this restriction of the settlements to the neighborhood 
of the coast and the evils arising from the unlimited culti- 
vation of tobacco that undoubtedly limited the growth of 
the colony, although the feudal system in force in the 
tenure of land had something to do with it. The colony 
was practically at a standstill. In 1689, fifty-six years 
after its foundation, it had a population of but 25,000. 
In the next twenty-one years, to 17 10, the population in- 
creased but five thousand, and in 1733 the number of tax- 
able inhabitants, including all males above the age of 
fifteen, was but 31,470; but about this time the German 
settlers began to come into Maryland from Pennsylvania, 
although it was not until some years later that they came in 
sufficient numbers to materially affect the progress of the 
colony. When this movement reached its height the effect 
was decidedly noticeable, and by 1756 the population had 
increased to 130,000, and by far the greater number of 
these were Pennsylvania-Germans. ^^ 

When the Germans began to arrive in Pennsylvania in 
large numbers in the early part of the eighteenth century, 
and spread out over that colony to the west and south, it 
was but natural, in view of the unsettled condition of the 
boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, that some 
of them should get over the dividing line into Maryland. 

32 Louis p. Hennighausen, in Report of the Society for the History of 
Germans in Maryland, Vol. VI., p. 14. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 39 

As early as 17 10 this has been noted, for on October 27 
of that year the journal of the Maryland House of Dele- 
gates records that * 

This House being informed several Palatines were come to 
settle in this Province & being w^illing and desirous to encourage 
those poor People in their Industry have resolved that those Pala- 
tines vi'ith their Servants shall be free this present year from paying 
any publick, County, or Parish Levy or Charge, to which they 
pray the Concurrence of the Honble Council.^^ 

Butjhere was no marked movement of the Germans 
from Pennsylvania into Maryland until the latter part of 
the second decade of the eighteenth century, and then one 
of the chief causes In bringing about this movement was 
the indifference of the Quaker authorities of Pennsylva- 
nia to the safety of the inhabitants of the back counties. 
They were well satisfied to have these sturdy Germans on 
the western frontier to serve as a barrier between them- 
selves and the hostile Indians, but they were very unwilling 
to go to any expense to provide the settlers with means 
of protecting themselves. Among the numerous appeals 
to the Pennsylvania authorities was the following petition 
from a number of settlers in Colebrook Valley, asking for 
protection from the attacks of the Indians who had already 
attacked the settlers near Falckner's Swamp and Goschen- 
hoppen :^* 

To his Excellency Patrick Gordon Esqr Governor Generall In 
chie(f) Over the Province of pencilvania And the Territoris 
Belonging Bonbrenors township and the Adjacences Belonging 
May ye 10*'' 1728 
We think It fit to Address your Excellency for Relief for your 

Excellency must know That we have Sufered and Is Like to Sufer 

33 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XVIL, p. 524. 

34 Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Vol. I., p. 213. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

By the Ingians they have fell upon ye Back Inhabitors about 
falkners Swamp & New Coshahopin Therefore We the humble 
Petitionors With our poor Wives And Children Do humbly Beg 
of your Excellency To Take It into Consideration And Relieve 
us the Petitionors hereof Whos Lives Lie at Stake With us and 
our poor Wives & Children that Is more to us than Life There- 
fore We the humble Petitionors hereof Do Desire An Answer 
from your Excellency By ye Bearor With Speed So no More at 
present from your poor Afflicted People Whose names are here 

John Roberts 
Jn Pawling 
Henry Pannebeckers 
Wm Lane 
John Jacobs 
Isaac Dubois 
Israeli Morris 
Ben i amen Fry 
Jacob op den graef 
Johannes SchoU 
Richard Adams 
George Poger 
Adam Sollom 
Dirtman Kolb 
Martin Kolb 
Gabriel Showier 
Anthony halmon 
John Isaac Klein 
Hans Detweiler 
William Bitts 
Heinrich Rutt 
Hubburt Castle 
Henery Fentlinger 
Christian Weber 
Gerhart de hesse 

Hen rich Kolb 
John fret 
Paul fret. 
Wm Smith 
Peter Rambo 
David young 
Christopher Schmit 
Garret Clemens 
Johannes Reichardt 
Mathias Tyson 
Peter Johnson 
Jost hyt 

Christian Alibock 
bans Rife 
Daniel Stowford 
Abraham Schwartz. 
Johann Vallentin Kratz. 
John Johnson 
Colly hafilfinger 
Nickolas huldiman 
Michal Sigler 
Christian Stoner 
Johannes Garber 
John huldiman 
Claus Johnson 



^g;!^.,^^^^^ ^,^>^^^/^ ^3^6?^^^ ^^0^ Qp^ a^a^^^^o^ ^^^ 






Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 41 

Lorentz Bingamon Nicholas hicks 

Richard Jacob Johannes Lisher 

Hermanes Kiisters Jacob Shimor 

Peter Bun Michall Cross 

Jacob Engners Peter Rife 

Hans ■ George Rife 

Conrad Cusson George Mire 

Jacob Mernke Postron Smith 

Christian Nighswanger Edward Scherer 

Conrad Knight Jacob Crontor 

Jacob Kolb Jacob Stoferd 

hons Wolly Bergy Henrey Stoferd 

John Mior Paul fret. Junior. 

This appeal, like so many others of similar import, 
brought no response from the authorities. Among the 
signers of this petition was Jost Hyt, or Jost Hite, as he 
Is generally designated In the Virginia records. Hite, who 
appears to have been a man Imbued with the courage of his 
convictions, apparently became disgusted with the manner 
in which the rights of the Inhabitants were Ignored by the 
authorities, and determined to seek a home In some other 
locality where the safety of the settlers would not be a 
matter of indifference to those In authority. Thus was 
started a movement which resulted In the peopling of 
a state. 

In 1709 Franz Ludwig Michel and Baron Christopher 
von Graffenrled, from Berne, Switzerland, established a 
colony In North Carolina, but on account of the Indian 
massacres, as well as the fact that the settlers were not 
able to obtain land upon as favorable terms as they had 
expected, most of the colonists removed Into the colony 
of Virginia. Here they were favorably received by Gov- 
ernor Alexander Spottswood, who established a colony for 

42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

them at Germanna, where he erected an iron-works in 
which a number of the foreigners found employment. 
This settlement, however, did not prosper and soon became 
extinct, and the inhabitants located in other parts of the 
colony. The presence of these Germans with their thrift 
and industry naturally excited a desire to have more of 
the same kind of people in the colony, and in 1730 Isaac 
and John Van Meter, two Dutchmen whose father had 
settled on the Hudson, obtained from the Governor of 
Virginia a patent for 40,000 acres of land in that colony, 
on condition that they would settle two hundred German 
families on the land ceded to them. In looking for a place 
where he might locate under more favorable conditions 
than he had found to obtain in Pennsylvania, Jost Hite 
made an agreement with the Van Meters and became a 
partner in the plan to found a German colony in Virginia, 
and in 1732, with his family, his son-in-law, George Bow- 
man, Jacob Chrisman and Paul Froman, with their fami- 
lies, and several others — sixteen families in all — left York, 
crossed the Potomac, and settled near where Winchester 
now stands. Although a little before this, as early as 
1729, a few Germans had made their way down from 
Pennsylvania into Maryland and settled near the Mono- 
cacy river, this settlement of Hite's may be considered as 
the entering wedge which started the great movement of 
the Germans from Pennsylvania into Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. In pursuance of their plan Hite and Van Meter 
traveled through the German settlements to the north and 
extolled the advantages of the territory they were exploit- 
ing, and thus started the movement towards the south. 

Charles, Lord Baltimore, becoming aware of this move- 
ment, and desiring to obtain settlers for the unoccupied 




Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 43 

western portion of his colony, issued the following proc- 
lamation:" " 

By the Right Honourable Charles Absolute Lord and Pro- 
prietary of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon Lord Baron of 
Baltimore &'c 

Wee being Desireous to Increase the Number of Honest people 
within our Province of Maryland and willing to give Suitable 
Encouragement to such to come and Reside therein Do offer the 
following Terms : 

i^' That any person haveing a ffamily who shall within three 
Years come and Actually Settle with his or her Family on any of 
the back Lands on the Northern or Western Boundarys of our 
said province not already taken up between the Rivers Potomack 
and Susquehana (where wee are Informed there are Several large 
Bodies of Fertile Lands fit for Tillage, Which may be Seen aithout 
any Expence) Two hundred Acres of the said Lands in ffee Simple 
Without paying any part of the fforty Shillings Sterling for every 
hundred Acres payable to Us by the Conditions of Plantations, 
And without paying any Quit Rents in three Years after the first 
Settlement, and then paying four Shillings Sterling for Every 
hundred of Acres to us or our Heirs for every Year after the ex- 
piration of the said three Years. 

2^ To allow to Each Single person Male or Female above the 
Age of Thirty & not under Fifteen One hundred Acres of the 
said Lands upon the same Terms as mentioned in the preceding 

S** That We will Concour in any reasonable Method that shall be 
proposed for the Ease of such New Comers in the payment of their 
Taxes for some Years And We doe Assure all such that they shall 
be as well Secured in their Liberty & property in Maryland as any 
of his Majesty's Subjects in any part of the British Plantations in 
America without Exception And to the End all persons Desireous 
to come into and Reside in Maryland may be Assured that these 
Terms will be Justly & Punctually performed on our part Wee 

44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

have hereunto sett our hand and Seal at Arms, at Annapolis this 
Second day of March Annoq Domini 1732.^^ 

This exceedingly liberal off er of land at a rental of about 
one cent per acre per annum, with no rent to be paid for" 
three years, naturally attracted the attention of the emi- 
grants, and, as Hennighausen says,^® "the settlers on 
their way to Spottsylvania, seeing the rich soil of Frederick 
county offered to them on such liberal terms, did not pro- 
ceed further, but stuck their spades into the ground right 
then and there." 

A little later another element that had considerable 
weight in inducing many already settled in Pennsylvania 
to go farther south was the fact that the winter of 1 740-1 
was an Intensely cold one. Not only were there prolonged 
periods of Intense cold, but an unusual quantity of snow 
fell, so that there was a great deal of suffering all through 
the settlements of Pennsylvania.^^ While the severe 
weather prevailed over the most of America, and was 
almost as marked In Virginia as It was In Pennsylvania, 
many of the inhabitants of the latter colony, under the 
Impression that farther south the climate would be less 
rigorous, removed from the settlements already formed 
In Pennsylvania, and went to Maryland and Virginia. 

35 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXVIII., p. 25.. 
38 Op. cit, p. 151. 

3'^Blodget's "Climatology of the United States," p. 144, says: "It was 
commonly called ' the cold winter.' " 


The Monocacy Road. 

♦|i5 EFORE the coming of the 

^^'^ white man the original own- 
ers of the American continent had 
made many paths, or " trails," as 
they were called, running from 
one section of the country to an- 
other for the use of their war 
parties, or on their hunting expe- 
ditions. At first, before any roads 
were cut, the settlers found It con- 
venient to continue using these trails, as they were generally 
the shortest route between any two points. They were suit- 
able for travelers on foot or for pack-horses, but could not 
be used for wagons, and as the needs of the settlers devel- 
oped many of the Indian trails were widened Into roads, 
and not a few of the well-known highways of to-day are but 
the amplification of the by-paths over which the redman 
found his way through the primeval forest. One of these 
Indian trails started at a point on the Susquehanna river 
near where Wrightsvllle now stands and extended through 
the territory now forming parts of York and Adams 
^' 45 

46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

counties, Pennsylvania, to a point on the Monocacy river 
near the boundary between the provinces of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, thence to the Potomac river, crossing the 
South Mountain through a gap known as Crampton's Gap. 
It was over this trail that the first Germans went from 
Pennsylvania to Maryland, in 17 10, and later when the 
movement became more extensive the same route was used. 
When communication between the settlements in Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania became more frequent the neces- 
sity of having better means of travel became urgent and 
steps were taken to have a road properly laid out. In 
1739 application was made to the Lancaster county court 
for the appointment of viewers for such a road. The 
record of this proceeding may be of interest. It is found 
in "Road Docket No. i, from 1729 to 1742," and is as 
follows : 

" 1739. At a Court of General Quarter Sessions, held at Lan- 
caster, the Seventh day of August, in the thirtieth year of His 
Majesty's reign Anno Dom. before John Wright, Tobias Hen- 
dricks, Thomas Edwards, Samuel Jones, Edward Smout, Thomas 
Lindley, Anthony Shaw, Samuel Boyd, James Armstrong and 
Emanuel Carpenter, Esqrs. Justices of our Lord the King, the 
Peace of our said Lord the King, in the said county to keep, as 
also divers fFelonys, tresspasses &c other misdeeds in the said county 
committed to hear & determine assigned. 

" Upon the Petition of Several of the Inhabitants of the town- 
ship of Hallem, on the West side of Susquehanah, setting forth the 
necessity of a road from John Wright's iferry, towards Potomac 
river, and praying that persons may be appointed to lay out the 
Same: Ordered by ye Court, that Joshua Minshall, Henry Hen- 
dricks, ffrancis Worley Jun"", Christian Crowl, Michael Tanner & 
Woolriclc Whistler view and, if they or any four of them se cause 
that they lay the same by course and distance, ffrom the said fferry 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 47 

to the line dividing the Provinces, and report ye same to ye next 

At a Court of General Quarter Sessions held on the 5th 
and 6th days of February, 1740, the following return of 
the viewers was handed to the Court : 

" The Persons appointed at the August Court last & continued 
to November Court following do report that, pursuant to order, 
they have viewed and laid out a road from Susquehanah river 
South Westerly, towards the Province line, according to the 
courses & distances following, viz. : Beginning at the said river, in 
the line between the lands of John Wright Jun. and Samuel Tay- 
lor; thence South 80 deg. West 430 per. 71 deg. West. 562 per, 
to Crawl's run: South 70 deg. West, 430 per. to a marked white 
oak. West 76 per. to the Canoe run ; South 68 deg. West 254 per. 
to a black oak ; South 53 deg. West 540 per. to the West branch of 
Grist creek; South 66 deg. West 280 per.; South 84 deg. West 
264 perches; West 166 per. to Little Codorus creek; South 82 
lor; thence South 80 deg. West 430 per. 71 deg. West. 562 per. 
South 72 deg.: West 260 pr. to Big Codorus creek; continuing the 
same course 360 per. to Perrin's run. West 246 per. to Springle's 
field; South 72 deg. West 80 per: South-West 160 per; South 60 
deg. West, 126 per. to the point of a steep hill: South 48 deg. 
West 134 per. South 69 deg. West 200 per. South 58 deg. West 
240 per. to Loreman's run: South, 57 deg. West 40 per.: South 71 
deg. West, 166 per. to a black oak, by Chrn Oyster's South 55 
deg. West, 172 per. South 40 deg. West 330 per. South 52 deg. 
West 172 per. to Nicholas lougher's run: South 44 deg. West 380 
per. South 58 deg. West 376 per.: South 22 deg. West 120 per. 
to the West branch of the Codorus creek: South 30 deg. West 66 
per.: South 36 deg. West, 60 per.: South 26 deg. West 66 per.; 
South 104 per." 

Here the court record of this proceeding concerning the 
road ends, but from the fact that the road was constructed 

48 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

It is quite probable that the report of the viewers was 

By an act of the Maryland assembly this road was con- 
tinued to the Potomac river. It practically followed the 
old Indian trail and was known as the Monocacy Road. 
It was over this road that Benjamin Frankhn, in 1755, 
sent the 150 wagons and 200 horses he had secured in 
Pennsylvania to General Braddock in preparation for 
the ill-fated campaign against Fort Duquesne. Having 
learned that Braddock had determined to send officers into 
Pennsylvania to seize the horses and wagons needed, in 
order to prevent such a catastrophe Franklin offered to 
secure the necessary equipment, and, making his headquar- 
ters at Lancaster, he sent the horses and wagons he was 
able to obtain over the Monocacy Road to Braddock's 
camp at Frederick. 

This was the route over which the settlers in Maryland 
sent their produce and manufactures to Philadelphia, at 
first by pack-horses and later by wagons. At first the 
wagons were home-made affairs, the wheels being sawed 
from the trunks of the gum, or buttonwood tree. Later 
came the well-known Conestoga wagon, ^^ with its blue 

2^ It is remarkable how much misinformation is frequently crowded into 
the so-called " Historical Novel " — misinformation which is made to 
masquerade as fact. For instance, in " The Quest of John Chapman," by 
Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, D.D., on page 80, appears the following 
remarkable explanation of the reason for building the Conestoga wagon 
in the shape in which it was made: 

" Not until they came to the Susquehanna did Dorothy appreciate the 
meaning of these wagons, with the body built like a boat with prow in 
front and curved behind. Coming to the edge of the river, the driver 
drove the team into the stream until the wagon floated like a boat. Then 
the horses and running gears were driven back to the land, and the 
wheels and axles were placed in the body of the wagon which had now 
become a boat. One driver poled or paddled, the other led the swimming 
horses, until all were conveyed safely to the opposite shore." 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 49 

body and bright-red running gears, drawn by four, six, 
or even more horses. When the first wagons made their 
appearance the owners of the pack-horses bitterly opposed 
their use, just as, a few generations later, the wagoners 
opposed the building of the railroads. 

During the Revolution, when It was desired to transfer 
the British prisoners from Reading and Lancaster to some 
point farther In the Interior, they were conducted over the 
Monocacy Road to the barracks at Frederick, Maryland, 
and to Winchester, Virginia. It was by this same road 
that General Wayne, In 178 1, led the Pennsylvania troops 
to Yorktown. The Monocacy Road was macadamized In 
1808, and, until the railroads were built, It was the main 
thoroughfare between Maryland and the South and Phila- 
delphia and the eastern section of the country. 



The First Settlements. 


'N studying the early history 
of Maryland one is at once 
Impressed by the fact that there 
are but few records. Outside 
of the Council and Assembly 
proceedings there Is very little 
on record to show the growth 
and development of the colony 
during the first half of the eigh- 
teenth century. More particu- 
larly Is this the case as regards the settlement of the western 
part of the state, the section In which movement of the Ger- 
mans from Pennsylvania was most prominent. Whether or 
not there were such records, It Is Impossible to say, but It Is 
scarcely likely that this was the case. It Is more probable 
that the Pennsylvania-German settlers. Intent on preparing 
their lands for cultivation and building their homes, wasted 
no time on such matters; and so It happens that the history 
of the first settlements In that section are shrouded In 
uncertainty. While It Is known that a few Pennsylvania- 
Germans came down Into Maryland during the first 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 51 

quarter of the eighteenth century, there were not many of 
them and they were so widely separated that there was no 
attempt made to found a town or village. It was not until 
after the year 1730 that any considerable number of them 
settled in Maryland. 

The territory now known as Western Maryland, the 
part that was settled by the Pennsylvania Germans, was 
originally part of Charles county, which was formed in 
1638. There was very little settlement of the western 
part of this county for nearly one hundred years, so that 
there was no change made in the county lines, and it was 
not until the Germans had come in numbers that a further 
division was deemed necessary. In 1748 the western part 
of the colony was erected into a county which was named 
Frederick. It was in this section that the Pennsylvania- 
Germans made their first settlements. 

The first permanent settlement made by the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans was the village of Monocacy.^^ This vil- 
lage which was the most important settlement in western 
Maryland until it was outstripped in growth by its 
younger neighbor, the town of Frederick, has disappeared 
from the map, and even its site was unknown until the 
investigations of Schultz definitely fixed its location. It 
was situated on the west side of the Monocacy river near 
where the Virginia road crossed that stream, and about ten 
miles north of where Frederick was afterwards laid out. 
This, as Schultz says, would locate it a little south of the 
present town of Creagerstown. It was at Monocacy that 
the first church was built by the Pennsylvania-Germans, a 
log structure in which Henry Melchior Muhlenberg and 
Michael Schlatter afterwards held services, and it may 

30 " First Settlements of Germans in Maryland," by Edward T. 

Schultz, p. 6. 

52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

rightly be regarded as the mother-church of the Lutheran 
and German Reformed denominations in Maryland. 

In his investigation to discover the exact site of the 
ancient village of Monocacy Schultz enlisted the services 
of Rev. George A. Whitmore, of Thurmont, Maryland, 
and Mr. Whitmore's report, as given by Schultz, seems to 
settle definitely the location. Says Mr. Whitmore:*'' 
*' From the information which I have been able to gather 
from the oldest and most reliable citizens here, one of 
whom is now ninety years old, and a man remarkably pre- 
served in mind, Mr. W. L. Grimes, Sr., also Mrs. Michael 
Zimmerman and Miss Melissa Myers, both of them 
bordering on eighty years, and others, it seems that the 
present Creagerstown is the site where the old log church 
stood. These good people, who are all connected with the 
oldest and most reliable families, remember quite well the 
old weather-boarded log meeting-house which preceded 
the present brick church, in 1834. Mr. Grimes helped 
to tear down the old building and purchased some of the 
logs and boarding, which he used in the construction of 
some houses in the village, and they are there to-day. 
From what I can learn from them, the church was origi- 
nally built simply of logs, and that the weather-boarding 
was supplied many years afterwards. The new brick 
church was erected a few rods north of the old site on a 
new lot containing one and a half acres, which, together 
with the old location, is covered with graves. The first 
graveyard lay immediately in the rear of the old church, 
and contains also an acre and a-half, but not a tombstone 
can be found, only the indenture of graves covered with a 
mat of broom-sage, under which no doubt much history 
is hidden. 

*o Schultz, p. 21. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 53 

" Then, again, I have found traces in two instances, plain 
and unmistakable, of the old Monocacy Road, passing 
just below the village, in a southwestern direction and 
crossing Hunting creek where, according to tradition, there 
was an old tavern, and where there are now three or four 
old dwellings. Tradition also says the Monocacy Road 
crossed the river at Poe's Ford, which has not been used 
for over a century. The road on both sides of the creek 
lies in timber land of old sturdy oak." 

At this late day it is impossible to determine the cause 
of the decadence of the town of Monocacy and its passing 
out of existence, but it is very probable that the laying out 
of another town a short distance away and on land that 
had a higher elevation, was one of the chief causes. 
Schultz says: "John Cramer, a German, or a descendant 
of a German, between 1760 and 1770 laid out a village 
on grounds belonging to him, which was named in his 
honor, Creagerstown. The site selected was a few rods 
north of the old log church and little less than a mile from 
the first settlement. The site selected for the new village 
was on more elevated ground, which fact doubtless caused 
it to expand to the detriment of the older village." That 
the existence of Monocacy as a town was well known Is 
shown by the following letter addressed to Benjamin 
Tasker, esquire: 

London, July the 9th 1752. 

Sir: By the ship " Patience," Captain Steel, a number of Pala- 
tines are embarked for Maryland to settle there, which being noti- 
fied to me, and a Recommendation to you desired of me, in favour 
of Messieurs F. & R. Snowdens & D. Wolstenholme, to whose 
care they are consigned and recommended. 

I therefore desire you will give such necessary Assistance to the 
People on their Arrival, to forward them to Manockesy (which I 

54 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

understand is in Frederick County) or where else they shall want 
to go to settle within the Province, as in your Power, and that 
they may be accomodated in a proper manner; But the charges 
attending any such service to them must be done in the most mod- 
erate manner in respect to the Proprietor and to answer their 
requisites necessary to their service. The increase of People being 
always welcome, your prudence would have supplied this Letter 
in a kind Reception of them; nevertheless as particular occasions 
may require your Favour I conclude my recommendation of them, 
in giving them all possible satisfaction relating to the manner and 
Place they shall choose to settle in Maryland. I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 
C^ciLius Calvert. 

Washington in one of his letters also speaks of Mono- 

Another very early settlement was the village of Cono- 
cocheague, near the present site of Clearsprlng. This was 
a well-known place and is mentioned by Washington and 
other letter writers of that period. Until after the French 
and Indian War this was the most westerly settlement in 
Maryland. One of the early settlers in that locality was 
Jonathan Hager, who afterwards laid out Elizabeth-Town, 
now known as Hagerstown. Jonathan Hager was un- 
questionably a Pennsylvania-German. All writers on the 
subject say that It is impossible to find out just when he 
came to America, and Scharf says:'^^ " Capt. Hager came 
from Germany about 1730." Yet the Pennsylvania 
Archives*^ and Rupp's "Thirty Thousand Names "^^ both 
give the time of his arrival in Pennsylvania as 1736. Ac- 
cording to these records among the passengers on the ship 

41 " History of V^estern Maryland," Vol. II., p. 1059. 

42 Second Series, Vol. XVIL, p. 122. 

43 Second Edition, p. 101. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 55 

Harle, which arrived at Philadelphia September i, 1736, 
was Jonathan Heger, whose age is given as 22. The first 
record of his being in Maryland was when he obtained a 
patent for two hundred acres of land near the present site 
of Hagerstown. This was on December 16, 1739, so that 
it is probable that he spent about three years in Pennsylva- 
nia. According to Scharf, "the earliest information of 
Jonathan Hager, Sr., is found in the statement that he 
received a patent of certain land on which a portion of the 
city of Philadelphia now stands," but, unfortunately, 
Scharf rarely gives authority for his quotations. After his 
settlement in Maryland, at various times until 1765, Hager 
obtained patents to different plats of land until his holdings 
amounted to almost twenty-five hundred acres. He laid 
out the town of Elizabeth-Town (Hagerstown) in 1762. 
This was apparently a very successful undertaking, for ten 
years later, under date of September 7, 1772, Eddis 
writes:*^ "About thirty miles west of Frederick-town, I 
passed through a settlement which is making quick ad- 
vances to perfection. A German adventurer, whose name 
is Hagar, purchased a considerable tract of land in this 
neighborhood, and with much discernment and foresight 
determined to give encouragement to traders, and to erect 
proper habitations for the stowage of goods, for the supply 
of the adjacent country. His plan succeeded: he has lived 
to behold a multitude of inhabitants on lands, which he 
remembered unoccupied : and he has seen erected in places, 
appropriated by him for that purpose, more than a hun- 
dred comfortable edifices, to which the name of Hagar's 
Town is given, in honor of the intelligent founder."*^ 

*•*" Letters from America," p. 133. 

45 Jonathan Hager was born in 17114. In 1740 he married Elizabeth 
Kershner. He died November 6, 1775, from the effects of an injury, a log 

56 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The town of Frederick was laid out in 1745. The terri- 
tory had been settled ten years before by a party of colo- 
nists under the leadership of Thomas Schley, who was their 
schoolmaster. There is nothing on record to show whether 
Schley and his party came to Maryland by way of Penn- 
sylvania or not, and it has been assumed that they landed 
at Annapolis. The fact that their names have not been 
found in the Pennsylvania records does not prove con- 
clusively that they did not come to that colony first, as did 
most of the emigrants of that period, for those records are 
admittedly Incomplete. 

It Is a fact that cannot be controverted that of the thou- 
sands of Germans who settled in Maryland prior to 1760 
and entirely changed the character of that colony, with 
but very few exceptions they were Pennsylvania-Germans. 
In fact, although there were some notable exceptions, the 
number who came directly to Maryland from Germany 
can be regarded as a negligible quantity. It is unfor- 
tunate that there was no record kept of the arrival of emi- 
grants at the ports of Annapolis and Alexandria, such as 
was kept at Philadelphia; or, if there was such a record 
kept, that it has disappeared, for owing to the absence of 
a record of this kind there is no way of telling just what 
number of Germans came directly to Maryland without 
first stopping in Pennsylvania. It is true that all writers 
who have touched upon this subject, and they are not a 
few, state that, according to the records of the port of 
Annapolis, from the year 1752 to 1755 German emigrants 
to the number of 1,060 arrived at that port, but the evi- 
dence presented is not sufficient. In my opinion, to prove 

rolling on him and crushing him at a saw-mill where he was superintend- 
ing the preparation of the lumber for the German Reformed church, in 
the building of which he took a great interest. 





Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 57 

conclusively that this is the case. The authority for this 
statement is a paper read by Francis B. Mayer before the 
Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland, on 
October 21, 1890.**^ Some years ago Mr. Mayer saved 
from destruction at a paper mill two parchment-bound 
volumes entitled " Records of Arrivals and Clearances at 
the Port of Annapolis," commencing in 1748. According 
to this record, among the arrivals at that port were the 

September 18, 1752, Ship " Integrity," Jo. Coward, Master 150 
tons, 6 guns and 14 men — the baggage of 150 Palatine passengers 
from Cowes. 

September 19, 1753, Ship "Barclay," J. Brown, Master, 120 
tons, 12 men — baggage of 160 Palatines. 

November 8, 1753, Ship "Friendship," baggage of 300 Palatine 

January 16, 1755, Ship "Friendship," baggage of 450 Palatine 

It is upon this record that Mr. Mayer bases the state- 
ment that 1,060 Palatine emigrants arrived at the port of 
Annapolis. He says : " Of the arrival of Palatine Passen- 
gers, as the Germans were all known as Palatines, we have 
no mention except in connection with their baggage." It 
seems to me that this is rather significant, and it at once 
raises a doubt as to whether the assumption that these ships 
brought the passengers as well as their baggage is correct. 

The story of the oppression and suffering undergone by 
the German emigrants who sought a home in America two 
hundred years ago is an oft-told tale; and standing out 
prominently in the story are the accounts of the villainous 

*^ Report of the Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland, 
Vol. v., p. 17. 

58 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

methods employed by the promoters, as they would be 
called to-day; the Neulanders, as they were known then; 
the men who by every means In their power tried to induce 
as many as possible to take ship for America. It is a well- 
known fact that these shipping-agents made a practice of 
so arranging matters that frequently a family of emigrants 
would find out too late that their baggage — all their house- 
hold effects, their clothing, and often even all the money 
they possessed — was not put on board the vessel on which 
they had taken passage, but had been left behind on the 
dock. When this fact was discovered the Neulander 
would promise that the baggage would follow on the next 
ship; but in very many such cases the owners never saw 
their baggage again. It was a very common practice to 
send such baggage to a port other than the one to which 
the owner had gone, and when the latter was not on hand 
to claim it when it did arrive it was usually sold and the 
proceeds of the sale divided between the captain of the 
ship and the shipping-agent, the Neulander. 

Bearing this fact in mind, when we read of certain ships 
bringing to Annapolis the baggage of over one thousand 
Palatine passengers, with no mention of the passengers 
themselves, the information that has come down to us con- 
cerning the methods of the Neulanders is at least suffi- 
cient to raise a doubt as to whether there were any German 
emigrants brought by those ships; whether those different 
lots of baggage were not some of that literally stolen from 
the unfortunate emigrants, who, without their belongings, 
and in many cases their money which had been carefully 
put away in their chests, were not able to pay for their 
passage and were sold as Redemptioners. This view of 
the matter seems but the more likely when we consider the 
fact that at least two of these ships, the Friendship and the 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 59 

Barclay, and probably also the Integrity, were commonly 
engaged In carrying German emigrants to the port of 
Philadelphia. Considering all the circumstances of the 
matter, it seems to me that there is more than a reasonable 
doubt as to whether there were any emigrants landed at 
the port of Annapolis from the ships specified. 

The town of Frederick grew rapidly and soon out- 
stripped the older villages, and three years after it was 
"laid out, when the county of Frederick was organized, it 
was made the county seat. In an address delivered at the 
Centennial celebration held at Frederick In 1876, Dr. 
Lewis H. Stelner said: 

Frederick was laid out by an English gentleman, but Its lots and 
the rich farms immediately surrounding it were soon taken up by a 
host of honest, thrifty, laborious German emigrants, who fled from 
the oppressive restrictions of their own fatherland to seek a refuge 
here for themselves and their families, and whose names under- 
went many a distortion and mutilation at the hands of the English 
representatives of the Lord Proprietor, as they labored to write 
them down from sound upon the pages of our early records. The 
German was spoken one hundred years ago more freely and fre- 
quently upon the streets of Frederick than the English, two of 
their congregations had their sen^ice entirely in that language, the 
children were Instructed In both languages In the schools, the style 
of houses and barns introduced was that of German rather than 
English origin, and, In various degrees of modification, had so held 
its place here that strangers who have had the opportunity of 
European travel Invariably notice how much Frederick resembles 
a continental town. But these emigrants brought with them their 
mother-tongue and familiar forms of worship and architecture. 
They brought also German thrift, industry, and honesty, with 
ardent love of home— wherever It might be, whether native or 
adopted,— they brought laborious habits, virtuous lives, truthful 
tongues, unflinching courage, and an intense longing to do their 
duty to their families, the community, and the State. 

6o The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Writing of Frederick in 177 1, William Eddis says:*"^ 
"The third place of importance in the province of Mary- 
land, is situated about seventy miles west of Annapolis, 
and is the capital of a most extensive, fertile and populous 
county. Frederick Town is the name of this settlement. 
Within fifty years, the river Monocacy, about three miles 
to the eastward, was the extreme boundary of cultivated 
establishments; and Mr. Dulany, father of the present 
secretary of the province, was much censured for having 
procured considerable tracts of lands, in the vicinity of that 
river, which it was generally supposed could not even 
repay the trifling charge of the purchase, for many succeed- 
ing generations. The richness of the soil, and the salu- 
briety of the air, operated, however, very powerfully to 
promote population; but what chiefly tended to the ad- 
vancement of settlements in this remote district, was the 
arrival of many emigrants from the palatinate, and other 
Germanic states. ... This place exceeds Annapolis in 
size, and in the number of inhabitants. It contains one 
large and convenient church, for the members of the estab- 
lished religion : and several chapels for the accommodation 
of the German and other dissenters. The buildings, though 
mostly of wood, have a neat and regular appearance. Pro- 
visions are cheap and plentiful, and excellent. In a word, 
here are to be found all conveniences, and many super- 

The town of Baltimore was laid out in 1730 but it did 
not at first, at least, attract the Germans from Pennsylva- 
nia. They were, as a rule, farmers by occupation, and 
they preferred to settle on the fertile lands in the western 
part of the colony rather than make their homes on the 
seaboard, particularly as the conditions of living in the 

*' " Letters from America," p. 98. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 6i 

latter locality were very unfavorably influenced by the 
fact that tobacco culture overshadowed all other occupa- 
tions and produced a financial stringency that could not be 
easily overcome. Among the first, if not the first, of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans to settle in Baltimore were Leonard 
and Samuel Barnitz, who came from York about the year 
1748 and established the first brewery there. Other Lan- 
caster and York county Germans who later followed them 
were the DIffenderffers, the Leverings, the Steigers, the 
Strickers, and others, but, at least until after the Revolu- 
tTon, the additions to the population of Baltimore from 
tills source were not of very great importance compared 
with the number who. were filling up the western part of 
the state. 

" Shortly after 1745 a number of Germans from Pennsyl- 
vania, chiefly Moravians, made a settlement at what is 
now the village of Graceham, in Frederick county, about 
twelve miles northwest of Frederick. Of these people 
Schultz says:*^ "Its earliest settlers were Germans or 
descendants of Germans, who drifted into Maryland from 
the Pennsylvania settlements. Among them were the Har- 
baughs. Boilers, Hens, Ebenhards, Kreigers, Reinekes, 
Lydricks, Seiss, Schmidts, Utleys, Williards, Zahns, Her- 
zers, Rosens, Renzands, Schaafs and Richters." The dis- 
trict in which Sharpsburg is located was another section 
settled chiefly by the Pennsylvania-Germans, although 
there were also a number of English among them. Among 
the early German settlers were the families of Cruse, Nead, 
Sahm, Graff, Bartoon and others. There were a number 
of other small settlements made by the Pennsylvania- 
Germans but they did not become places of importance 
before the Revolution, and after that struggle the number 

*8" First Settlements of Germans in Maryland," p. 16. 

62 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of Germans who came to Maryland direct from the Father- 
land increased rapidly, and there were numerous additions 
as well from among the Hessians who had come to fight 
and remained to be citizens, so that the Pennsylvania- 
German influence was not so predominant as in the pre- 
Revolutionary period. 

The unceasing stream of Germans which flowed through 
the province of Pennsylvania to the outposts of civilization 
and formed a bulwark between the savage aborigines and 
the older settlements, peopled a wilderness from which 
they carved an empire. They found nothing there except 
the fertile land. Whatever of material prosperity they 
had they produced with their own hands and brain. They 
were not an ignorant people and although mostly farmers, 
yet following the German custom, every boy was taught 
some trade, so that in their new homes with no one to 
depend upon but themselves, after their homes were built 
and their fields plowed and sowed they turned their hands 
to whatever was necessary to be done. As Scharf says,*^ 
"It is a significant fact that nearly all the German immi- 
grants who came into Maryland soon established them- 
selves in permanent homes, and in almost every instance 
took rank at once as thrifty and enterprising citizens. The 
greater number were skilled in agriculture, but there was 
a large percentage of first-rate mechanics, shoemakers, 
paper-makers, butchers, watch-makers, bakers, smiths, 
iron-workers, etc. It is a generally recognized fact that 
the Protestant population of France and Germany sup- 
plied the best class of workmen In the various branches 
of manufacture. Thus we are told by the historian Lecky 
that ' twenty thousand Frenchmen attracted to Branden- 
burg by the liberal encouragement of the elector at the time 

4» " History of Western Maryland," Vol. I., p. 63. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 63 

of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, laid the founda- 
tion of the prosperity of Berlin and of most of the manu- 
factures of Prussia.' The same is true in a greater or less 
degree of all the Protestant refugees, and it would be 
difficult to overestimate the industrial value to our own 
country of the successive immigration of whole communi- 
ties from the different German states." 

Nor did those in authority hesitate to give the Germans 
credit for what they were doing. As early as 1745, Daniel 
Dulany writing to Governor Samuel Ogle, says: "You 
would be surprised to see how much the country is im- 
proved beyond the mountains, especially by the Germans, 
who are the best people that can be to settle a wilderness; 
and the fertility of the soil makes them ample amends for 
their industry." In 1773 Governor Eden, in a letter to 
Lord Dartmouth, says of the Germans who had settled in 
the western part of the state :^" "They are generally an 
industrious laborious people. Many of them have acquired 
a considerable share of property. Their improvement of 
a Wilderness into well-stocked plantations, the example 
and beneficent Effects of their extraordinary industry have 
raised in no small degree a spirit of emulation among the 
other inhabitants. That they are a most useful people and 
merit the public regard is acknowledged by all who are 
acquainted with them." Even the narrow-minded Eddis 
whose British prejudice could find but little to praise in 
the colony, had a good word to say of the Germans. In 
one of his letters he says:^^ "These people who, from 
their earliest days, had been disciplined in habits of indus- 
try, sobriety, frugality, and patience, were peculiarly fitted 

50 Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Fourth Series, 
Vol. X., p. 694. 

^"^ " Letters from America," p. 99. 

64 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

for the laborious occupations of felling timber, clearing 
land, and forming the first improvements ; and the success 
which attended their efforts induced multitudes of their 
enterprising countrymen to abandon their native homes, 
to enjoy the plenteous harvest which appeared to await 
their labors in the wild, uncultivated wastes of America." 

Washington in his numerous journeys through western 
Maryland had a good opportunity to note the manner in 
which the Germans had developed that section, and he 
was so favorably impressed with the evidences of their 
desirability as colonists that when he was planning to 
develop the lands presented to him by the British govern- 
ment at the close of the French and Indian War, he seri- 
ously considered the advisability of bringing over a number 
of Germans to settle on his property. With this idea in 
view he wrote the following letter to James Tilghman, of 
Philadelphia :^2 

Interested as well as political motives render it necessary for me 
to seat the lands, which I have patented on the Ohio, in the 
cheapest, most expeditious, and effectual manner. Many expe- 
dients have been proposed to accomplish this, but none, in my judg- 
ment, so likely to succeed as the importing of Palatines. But how 
to do this upon the best terms, is a question I wish to have an- 
swered. Few of this kind of people ever come to Virginia, whether 
because it is out of the common course of its trade, or because they 
object to it, I am unable to determine. I shall take it very kind 
in you, therefore, to resolve the following questions, which I am 
persuaded you can do with precision, by inquiring of such gentle- 
men, as have been engaged in this business. Whether there is any 
difficulty in procuring these people in Holland ? If so, from whence 
does it proceed? Whether they are to be had at all times, or at 
particular seasons only, and when? Whether they are engaged 

62 Sparks' "Washington," Vol. II., p. 382. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 65 

previously to sending for them, and in what manner? Or do ships 
take their chance after getting there? Upon what terms are they 
generally engaged ? And how much for each person do they com- 
monly stand the importer landed at Philadelphia? Is it customary 
to send an intelligent German in the ship, that is to bring them? 
Do vessels ever go immediately to Holland for them, and, if they 
do, what cargoes do they carry? Or are they to go round, and 
where? In short, what plan would be recommended to me, by 
the knowing ones, as best for importing a full freight, say two or 
three hundred or more, to Alexandria? In case of full freight, 
how are the numbers generally proportioned to the tonnage of a 
vessel ? 

At the same time he wrote a letter to Henry RIddell, a 
ship-owner, in which he offered to pay the traveling ex- 
penses of the German emigrants to the Ohio river and to 
provide the settlers with victuals until a first crop had been 
gathered, and to exempt them from the payment of any 
rent for a period of four years, if there was no house on 
the property at the time of taking possession of it. 




Home-Making in the Wilderness. 

HT this day It is difficult to 
realize the task accom- 
plished by the hardy pioneers 
who, nearly two centuries ago, 
left behind them all the advan- 
tages of a civilized community 
and went into the wilderness to 
build themselves homes; into a 
wilderness inhabited by wild ani- 
mals of every description and, 
still more to be feared, the savage Indians. It required 
a courageous and Indomitable spirit, for every settler 
literally took his life in his hands and as well the lives 
of his loved ones. We have heard many tales of the 
bravery and daring performances of these men, and, 
now and then, some woman Is mentioned as having per- 
formed some act which made her memorable; but the 
silent woman, those unknown thousands of whom we do 
not hear, are worthy of as much commendation and their 
memory Is as much to be revered as is that of the men. 
Their part In the building was as important and as strenu- 
ous as that of the men, although, perhaps, not so plainly 


Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 6j 

discernible. It was no easy matter for them to attend to 
the ordinary routine of housekeeping with only the rudest 
utensils to do it with. There was for them no spare time : 
when there was nothing else to be attended to the spinning- 
wheel and the loom must be kept busy. They were a 
hardy race, inured to hard work and the lack of comforts, 
yet the tombstones which have survived the ravages of 
time and the church records tell us that even they could 
not long bear up under the strenuous existence, but were 
frequently cut off in what we would now consider the prime 
of life. The advance of civilization and the improvements 
in the mode of living have materially lengthened the span 
of life, and on the foundations reared by those venture- 
some pioneers their descendants to-day live to a far greater 
age surrounded by comforts and advantages undreamed of 
in those days. 

The first thing the settler had to attend to after deciding 
upon the place to locate was to provide a shelter. Some- 
times natural caves afforded convenient temporary shelter, 
but, as a rule, it was necessary to erect some sort of a struc- 
ture. The first dwellings were very simple affairs, the 
erection of more elaborate cabins and houses being de- 
ferred until some of the land had been put under cultiva- 
tion. The simplest shelter was made by planting two 
forked poles at the proper distance apart and laying in the 
forks another pole to serve as a ridge-pole. Against this 
ridge-pole slabs cut from larger trees were placed, sloping 
to the ground. One end was closed by other slabs, while 
the other end was partly closed in the same way, the open- 
ing left being covered by a rudely-constructed door or 
sometimes merely covered by a blanket. Sometimes the 
hard beaten earth was used as the floor, while at other 

68 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

times the floor would be constructed of the split slabs 
of wood. 

The next dwelling was the cabin built with hewn logs, 
with a roof of clapboards or plank, and in some cases of 
shingles, and a plank floor. Until saw-mills were erected 
all the planks used in building had to be cut from logs 
with the whip-saw. Kercheval gives the following descrip- 
tion of making planks with the whip-saw '?^ 

It was about the length of the common mill-saw, with a handle 
at each end transversely fixed to it. The timber intended to be 
sawed was first squared with the broadaxe, and then raised on a 
scaffold six or seven feet high. Two able-bodied men then took 
hold of the saw, one standing on the top of the log and the other 
under it, and commenced sawing. The labor was excessively 
fatiguing, and about one hundred feet of plank or scantling was 
considered a good day's work for the two hands. The introduc- 
tion of saw-mills, however, soon superseded the use of the whipsaw, 
but they were not entirely laid aside until several years after the 

The building of the log cabin required more extensive 
preparations. Trees of proper size had to be selected and 
cut down and hewn into logs with the broadaxe and prop- 
erly notched, clapboards had to be split for covering the 
roof and various other purposes, and when shingles were 
to be used they had to be rived. In the more thickly 
settled portions of the country a number of neighbors 
would frequently join with the owner in building his cabin, 
and in this way a very elaborate structure could be erected 
in a short time. Dr. Doddridge thus describes the erection 
of such a structure :^^ 

63 "A History of the Valley of Virginia," p. 134. 

"* " Notes on the Settlements and Indian Wars of the Western Parts of 
Virginia and Pennsylvania," p. 135 et seq. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 69 

The fatigue party consisted of choppers, whose business it was 
to fell the trees and cut them off at proper lengths. A man with a 
team for hauling them to the place, and arranging them, properly 
assorted, at the sides and ends of the building, a carpenter, if such 
he might be called, whose business it was to search the woods for 
a proper tree for making clapboards for the roof. The tree for 
this purpose must be straight grained and from three to four feet 
in diameter. The boards were split four feet long, with a large 
frow, and as wide as the timber would allow. They were used 
without planing or shaving. Another division was employed in 
getting puncheons for the floor of the cabin; this was done by 
splitting trees, about eighteen inches in diameter, and hewing the 
faces of them with a broadaxe. They were half the length of the 
floor they were intended to make. The materials for the cabin 
were mostly prepared on the first day and sometimes the founda- 
tion laid in the evening. The second day was allotted for the 

In the morning of the next day the neighbors collected for the 
raising. The first thing to be done was the election of four corner 
men, whose business it was to notch and place the logs. The rest 
of the company furnished them with the timbers. In the mean- 
time the boards and puncheons were collecting for the floor and 
roof, so that by the time the cabin was a few rounds high the 
sleepers and floor began to be laid. The door was made by sawing 
or cutting the logs in one side so as to make an opening about three 
feet wide. This opening was secured by upright pieces of timber 
about three inches thick through which holes were bored into the 
ends of the logs for the purpose of pinning them fast. A similar 
opening, but wider, was made at the end for the chimney. This 
was built of logs and made large to admit of a back and jambs of 
stone. At the square two end logs projected a foot or eighteen 
inches beyond the wall to receive the butting poles, as they were 
called, against which the ends of the first row of clapboards was 
supported. The roof was formed by making the end logs shorter 
until a single log formed the comb of the roof; on these logs the 

yo The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

clapboards were placed, the ranges of them lapping some distance 
over those next below them and kept in their places by logs placed 
at proper distances between them. The roof and sometimes the 
floor were finished on the same day as the raising. 

In the mean time the masons were busy. With the heart pieces 
of the timber of which the clapboards were made they made billets 
for chunking up the cracks between the logs of the cabin and 
chimney. A large bed of mortar was made for daubing up those 
cracks. A few stones formed the back and jambs of the chimney. 

As a rule the furniture used by the early settlers was of 
the rudest sort, generally home-made. Sometimes there 
might be a piece or two brought from their old home, and 
these, of course, were highly prized, and some of them 
have been handed down to the present day as heirlooms. 
But the bulky nature of furniture precluded much of It 
being carried on the journey to the wilderness. The lack 
of regular furniture was made up by all sorts of make- 
shifts. A table was usually made from a split slab, the 
top surface smoothed off and four legs set In auger holes. 
Three-legged stools were made In the same way, as were 
also benches on which to sit at the table while eating. 
Wooden pins driven Into the logs and supporting clap- 
boards served as closets and shelves. Sometimes bed- 
steads were made In this way: A single fork was placed 
with Its lower end in a hole In the floor and the upper end 
fastened to a joist. A pole was placed In the fork with 
one end through a crack between the logs of the wall and 
this was crossed by a shorter pole within the fork with Its 
outer end through another crack. Sometimes other poles 
were pinned to the fork a little distance above these for 
the purpose of supporting the front and foot of the bed, 
while the walls were the supports of Its back and head. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 71 

As the settler prospered and his possessions Increased, 
sooner or later, the simple log cabin was replaced by a more 
pretentious dwelling. This, too, was often built of logs, 
but In that event the materials were better prepared and 
the logs joined more evenly, and sometimes the outside was 
covered with clapboards, and in some Instances with 
plaster, producing the "roughcast" house. In regions 
where limestone was plentiful the house was often built of 
stone In a very substantial manner; so much so that some 
of these houses built by the early settlers are standing 
to-day. These houses were very much more commodious 
than the first log cabin, generally being two stories in 
height, with sometimes a garret, the floors being divided 
Into several rooms, and having a cellar underneath. In 
many Instances the largest room in the house was the 
kitchen, on one side of which was a large open fire-place, 
or hearth. These fire-places were quite an institution, in 
which a great fire of oak or hickory cord-wood was made. 
During the winter the kitchen was usually the living-room, 
as In all probability it was the only room in the house in 
which there was a fire. The family would seat themselves 
about the fire, with, perhaps, no other light than that made 
by the burning logs. The only means of producing light 
was by the use of tallow candles or the fat-lamp, and many 
a boy who later made his mark In the world learned the 
letters of the alphabet and to read by the flickering light 
from the blazing logs in the huge kitchen fireplace. 

The cooking utensils were of the simplest kind. There 
were no stoves and all cooking had to be done over the 
open wood fire. Iron pots and pans were supported over 
the coals by an iron tripod, or swung by chains attached 
to a beam or iron bar set in the chimney. Later the chain 
was superseded by iron pot-hooks which could be adjusted 

72 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

to different lengths. Baking was accomplished in a Dutch 
oven, a squat iron pot with an iron cover, over which the 
hot coals could be heaped. This was succeeded by the 
large arched oven built of masonry. Sometimes this was 
detached from the house under a shed, but very often it 
joined the house, the iron door of the oven opening into 
the kitchen fireplace. Baking in these ovens was an inter- 
esting process, a process rarely seen in private families, at 
least, nowadays. The oven was large enough to take in 
cord-wood, with which it was filled and the fire started. 
When the wood was all consumed the ashes were scraped 
out, and the floor of the oven swabbed with a wet cloth 
on a pole, to remove any ashes remaining. The loaves of 
bread were placed on the floor of the oven with the peel, 
a broad, flat wooden paddle with a long handle. The 
baked loaves were removed from the oven in the same 
way. In preparing the bread for the oven each loaf as it 
was shaped was set to rise in a bread-basket, made of 
braided straw, similar to those shown in the illustration.^'^ 
Until the introduction of stoves the only way of heating 
a house was by open wood fires, and, as a rule, but few 
of the rooms were heated. One of the earliest contrivances 
used was the Franklin stove, named from its inventor, 
Benjamin Franklin, which was but a modification of the 
open fireplace. It consisted of iron plates set into the fire- 
place, a back-piece, with two sides and a top and bottom. 
The bottom piece, or hearth, extended into the room some 
distance from the chimney, and the top piece slightly so, 
the latter forming a shelf upon which articles could be 
placed to be kept warm. Sometimes instead of iron plates 

^^ In the childhood of the writer bread-baskets exactly like those shown 
in the illustration were used by the juvenile members of the family on 
Christmas Eve, being set in the chimney-corner, in place of hanging a 
stocking, in anticipation of the visit of the Kris-kingle. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 73 

slabs of soapstone were used in constructing the Franklin 
stove. Later came the cast-iron stove, box-like in shape, 
with its modification, the ten-plate stove, with its oven for 

In the absence of refrigerators a spring-house In which 
to keep milk and butter was almost a necessity, and 
wherever it was possible such a structure was built. Some- 
times the Ingenuity of the settler was exercised in construct- 
ing a spring-house in the absence of a spring to flow 
through It. The writer is well acquainted with one good 
example of a spring-house of this sort, built some time 
during the eighteenth century. There was no spring on 
the property, but there was a deep well with an abundant 
supply of cold water. The spring-house was built near by 
the well. It was excavated to a depth of about two and 
a half feet below the surface, and thick stone walls were 
erected, surmounted by a heavy arch. Along one side a 
heavy wooden trough was built from which an iron pipe 
led to the well, where it was inserted into the pumpstock. 
Every time the pump was used the surplus water remaining 
In the stock, through siphonage and gravity, flowed into 
the trough in the spring-house, keeping the latter con- 
stantly filled with fresh cold water and answering all the 
purposes of a spring, in which to set the milk cans and 
butter pails. This building had a second story, the upper 
part serving as the smoke-house for curing the meat. At 
one corner on the outside, about five feet from the ground, 
an iron fire-box was constructed in the wall, with a flue 
leading up into the smoke-house. In smoking meat a fire 
of hickory sawdust and chips was built In the fire-box, the 
smoke being conducted up Into the room where the meat 
was hung. Being on the outside at the ground level, the 
fire could be attended to with but little inconvenience. The 

74 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

substantial character of this structure is shown by the fact 
that although during the Civil War the upper part of the 
building was destroyed by fire, the arch remained intact 
and is in as good condition to-day as when it was built a 
century and a quarter ago. 

During the first year or two the matter of providing 
food for his family was a serious consideration for the 
settler in a new country, particularly if he were located at 
a considerable distance from the more thickly settled local- 
ities. A family starting off to make a home In the wilder- 
ness, even if the cost did not prevent, was not able to 
carry with them sufficient food to last them until their 
land could produce what they needed, and at times during 
their first year there was not much variety in their food. 
The streams provided them with fish, and the woods with 
flesh and fowl, but very often their vegetable supply de- 
pended upon whether wild tubers and edible roots could 
be found in their locality. But after the first year, when 
the land had been cleared and planted with corn and 
wheat, and vegetable gardens provided, there was usually 
an abundance of food. Indian com was one of their 
staples, and to a less degree wheat, but with both of these 
the difficulty lay in the grinding, if there was no mill near 
by. Sometimes a hand-mill was used, and in the absence 
of this a course meal was made by pounding the grain in a 
large mortar improvised by burning a deep hole in a 
wooden block, another block of wood providing the pestle. 
Hominy was made in much the same way. 

Beef was a rarity until a sufficient supply of domestic 
cattle had been raised, but its lack was supplied by venison 
and bear meat, of which plenty could be obtained in the 
forests. They were usually well supplied with pork, as 
the hogs were allowed to run loose in the woods, where 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 75 

they found plenty upon which to feed. Every family 
raised a lot of hogs, and about the beginning of winter 
these were butchered and the meat cured. Butchering day 
was quite an institution. The hogs were killed and cleaned 
the day before, and early the next morning the butchers 
started to work cutting up the carcases. The work called 
for the assistance of all the members of the family as well 
as that of what neighbors could be procured, to help to 
cut up the fat to be rendered into lard. The hams and 
shoulders were trimmed ready for putting into the brine, 
to be cured for smoking, many yards of sausage was 
stuffed, as well as liver-pudding {Lebermurst) . In pre- 
paring the latter the liver and kidneys, with the tenderloin 
and some of the head-meat, was put into a large iron 
kettle and boiled until it was thoroughly cooked. It was 
then transferred to the block and chopped fine and 
stuffed into skins, like the sausage, or packed in crocks and 
sealed with a layer of fat. The water in which the meat 
had been boiled was used to prepare what was commonly 
called Pon-hoss {P f annhase) ,tha.t is. Pan-rabbit. A great 
many fantastic explanations have been given of the deri- 
vation of this term, but it is simply one of the humorous 
names similar to Welsh-rabbit, for a mixture made from 
cheese, or Leicestershire plover, for a bag-pudding. Pon- 
hoss was made by using the water in which the pudding- 
meat had been boiled for making a corn-meal mush. This 
was put into pans to harden and was then cut into thin 
slices and fried. Sometimes a mixture of corn-meal and 
wheat flour, or buckwheat flour was used. A somewhat 
similar mixture is made nowadays in the larger cities, par- 
ticularly Philadelphia, and is known as scrapple, but it is 
not the pon-hoss of the early Germans.^^ 

58 " A University of Pennsylvania professor, whose home is in Vienna, 
tells noe that nowhere on the continent of Europe did he ever eat anything 

76 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

On Shrove Tuesday every German housewife cooked a 
great dish of Fastnacht-cakes, or fastnachts {Anglice 
Fosnot) as they were usually called, a cake made of a 
modified bread-dough and fried in deep fat. These cakes 
were a very common dish throughout the winter, in some 
families almost entirely replacing the use of bread. There 
were a number of dishes peculiar to the Germans, such 
as "Sauer-Kraut und Speck," " Schnitz und Knopf," etc., 
which to those not to the manner born may seem strange, 
but very often a stranger tasting them for the first time 
found that they were not to be despised. 

Coffee and tea were not for everyday use, nor was there 
a plentiful supply of dishes and knives and forks for table 
use. Very often wooden platters, or, in some instances, 
pewter dishes and spoons, were used, and when individual 
plates were lacking the members of the family helped 
themselves from the general dish. Dr. Doddridge gives 
an interesting account of the first time he saw cups and 
saucers and tasted coffee :^'^ 

" I well recollect the first time I ever saw a tea cup and saucer, 
and tasted coffee. My mother died when I was about six or seven 
years of age. My father then sent me to Maryland with a brother 
of my grandfather, Mr. Alexander Wells, to school. At Colonel 
Brown's in the mountains, at Stony creek glades, I for the first 
time saw tame geese. . . . The cabin and its furniture were such 
as I had been accustomed to see in the backwoods, as my country 

like scrapple. He is quite certain that it is of American origin. Nor can 
he, excellent scholar in five languages as he is, and whose mother tongue 
is German, explain just whence the name ponhaus. I venture to assert 
that if you said ponhaus to a Philadelphia waiter or possibly to any ordi- 
nary market man in this town he wouldn't know what you wanted. I am 
equally positive that in certain sections of Berks, Lancaster, York and 
Lehigh counties scrapple is a meaningless jumble of letters." — Philadelphia 
Public Ledger, January 16, 1913. 
""^ Op. cit., p. 110. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 77 

was called. At Bedford everything was changed. The tavern at 
which my uncle put up was a stone house, and to make the change 
still more complete it was plastered in the inside, both as to walls 
and celling. On going into the dining room I was struck with 
astonishment at the appearance of the house. I had no Idea that 
there was any house In the world which was not built of logs ; but 
here I looked around the house and could see no logs, and above I 
could see no joists; whether such a thing had been made by the 
hands of man, or had grown so of itself, I could not conjecture. 
I had not the courage to Inquire anything about it. 

" When supper came on ' my confusion was worse confounded.' 
A little cup stood In a bigger one with some brownish looking stuff 
in it, which was neither milk, hominy nor broth ; what to do with 
these little cups and the little spoon belonging to them, I could 
not tell ; and I was afraid to ask anything concerning the use of 

them. . . 

" It was In the time of the war, and the company were givmg 
accounts of catching, whipping and hanging the Tories. The word 
jail frequently occurred: this word I had never heard before; but 
I soon discovered, and was much terrified at its meaning, and sup- 
posed that we were in much danger of the fate of the Tories ; for, 
I thought as we had come from the backwoods, it was altogether 
likely that we must be Tories too. For fear of being discovered I 
durst not utter a single word. I therefore watched attentively to 
see what the big folks would do with their little cups and spoons. 
I imitated them, and found the taste of the coffee nauseous beyond 
anything I ever had tasted In my life. I continued to drink, as the 
rest of the company did, with the tears streaming from my eyes, 
but when it was to end I was at a loss to know, as the little cups 
were filled immediately after being emptied. This circumstance 
distressed me very much, as I durst not say I had enough. ^ Look- 
ing attentively at the grown persons, I saw one man turn his little 
cup bottom upwards and put his spoon across it. I observed that 
after this his cup was not filled again; I followed his example, ^and 
to my great satisfaction, the result as to my cup was the same." 

78 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Speaking of the use of table china ware, Dr. Doddridge 
says: "The introduction of delft ware was considered by 
many of the backwoods people as a culpable innovation. 
It was too easily broken, and the plates of that ware dulled 
their scalping knives; tea ware was too small for menj 
they might do for women and children. Tea and coffee 
were only slops, which in the adage of the day ' did not 
stick by the ribs.' The idea was they were designed only 
for people of quality, who do not labor, or the sick. A 
genuine backwoodsman would have thought himself dis- 
graced by showing a fondness for those slops." 

The clothing worn by the family was all manufactured 
in the home from the raw material. The wool or flax was 
spun and the yam woven into cloth. A mixture of the 
two, with flax for the chain and wool for the filling, and 
known as linsey-woolsey, was the warmest and most sub- 
stantial cloth that was made, and was quite commonly 
used for clothing. Some of the women were expert 
spinners and weavers, and produced linen of the finest 
weave, and the heavy woolen bed-spreads spun and woven 
by those pioneer women are much sought after even to-day. 
One of these in the possession of the writer, spun and 
woven in the family of an ancestor, still retains its colors 
as bright as the day it was woven. 

The settlers on the frontier were not slow to see the 
advantage of some parts of the Indian costume, and soon 
combined it with parts of the European style of dress. 
The use of the hunting-shirt was almost universal. It was 
generally made of linsey-woolsey, although some were 
made of dressed deer skins, but these were very uncom- 
fortable in wet weather. The hunting-shirt was a sort of 
loose frock, reaching half way down the thighs, with large 
sleeves, open before, and made so that when belted it 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 79 

would lap over considerably. It usually had a cape, and 
sometimes was fringed with a piece of cloth of a different 
color, the edges of which were ravelled. The wide bosom 
of the shirt was utilized for holding articles of food, or 
anything else necessary to have convenient. From the 
belt, which was tied behind, were suspended the toma- 
hawk, the scalping-knife and the bullet bag. The feet 
were usually covered with moccasins, made of dressed 
deer skin. These were made of a single piece of skin, with 
a gathering seam along the top of the foot, and another, 
without gathers, from the bottom of the heel to a little 
above the ankle-joint. Flaps were left on each side to 
reach some distance up the legs. These were adjusted to 
the ankles and lower part of the leg by thongs of deer 
skin. In cold weather the moccasins were stuffed with 
hair from the deer skins or dry leaves. 

" In the latter years of the Indian war," says Dr. Dodd- 
ridge, " our young men became more enamored of the 
Indian dress throughout, with the exception of the match- 
coat. The drawers were laid aside and the leggings made 
longer, so as to cover the upper part of the thigh. The 
Indian breech-clout was adopted. This was a piece of 
linen or cloth nearly a yard long and eight or nine inches 
broad. This passed under the belt before and behind, 
leaving the ends for flaps hanging before and behind over 
the belt. These flaps were sometimes ornamented with 
some coarse kind of embroidery work. To the same belts 
which secured the breech-clouts, strings which supported 
the long leggings were attached. When this belt, as was 
often the case, passed over the hunting-shirt, the upper 
part of the thighs and part of the hips were naked." 



Mechanical Arts and Industries. 


NE great advantage to be 
found in a settlement 
made up of Germans was the 
fact that every German boy, no 
matter what his station in life 
might be, was taught a trade; 
a custom which prevails in Ger- 
many to this day, but which, 
unfortunately, was to a great 
extent abandoned by the Ger- 
mans in this country, about the 
middle of the nineteenth century. As a result of all the 
men being trained artisans the German settlers were able to 
obtain many articles which otherwise they would have had 
to go without, or else secure them from some of the older 
settlements at an expenditure of considerable time and 
money. While they were all skilled in agriculture, there 
was a large number who were good mechanics, and those 
who were not able to manufacture for themselves the 
articles they needed had no difficulty in finding some one to 
make them for them, and very often there was a trading 
in this sort of service. One man would make some article 


Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 8i 

for another, who would pay for it by doing in return some- 
thing in which he was proficient. 

At first, until the land was cleared, the fields prepared, 
and the homes built, there was not much done in the way 
of starting manufactories, but as the settlements increased 
and villages and towns sprang up, creating a greater de- 
mand for manufactured articles, a larger number of the 
settlers turned their attention in this direction, leaving the 
raising of crops to be done by others. There were few 
trades that were not represented, in a greater or less de- 
gree. There were expert cabinet-makers who, besides 
making the ordinary household furniture, frequently 
turned out beautiful specimens with lines modeled on the 
work of Heppelwhite and Chippendale, some of which 
have come down to this day. 

As the only means of conveyance for passengers and 
freight at that time was by horses, the wagon-makers' trade 
was an important one. But few wagons were brought 
from abroad, for without counting the original cost of 
them, the freight for carrying them across the ocean would 
have made their cost prohibitive. The first wagons used 
were made entirely of wood, the wheels being sawed from 
the trunk of a buttonwood or gum tree. But it was not 
long before the iron mines were opened and forges set up 
and after that a better class of wagons were obtainable. 
There were expert wheelwrights and wagon-builders 
among them, who turned out large numbers of substan- 
tial wagons. The fact that Benjamin Franklin in two 
weeks was able to obtain from the Germans of Pennsyl- 
vania one hundred and fifty wagons for Braddock's expe- 
dition shows how well supplied they were in this particular. 

Transportation methods of this kind required the use 
of large quantities of harness and saddles, so that saddlers 

82 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and harness-makers were numerous. The manufacture of 
leather was another very Important Industry. Leather was 
needed for making boots and shoes as well as for harness 
and saddles, and great quantities of it were used. As the 
leather was all made by the old-fashioned process of tan- 
ning, In which the skins were macerated In vats for many 
months, a great many vats were necessary In order to keep 
up the supply, so that some of the tanneries were very 
large establishments. Shortly after 1753 Matthias Nead 
established a tannery near Clear Spring, Maryland, which 
was conducted by himself, his son and his grandsons for 
about three quarters of a century.^^ Fastened with wafers 
to the wall of this tannery was the following rhyming 
notice, which has been preserved : 


Ye shoemakers, Cobblers, and others attend, 

Just look at this Notice, it is from your friend ; 

My Purse is so empty, tis light as a feather, 

You have worn out your Shoes, and not paid for the Leather. 

Now take my Advice and pay off the old score, 

Before you get trusted for any skins more; 

I have Sheep Skins, & Calf Skins, & Upper, and Soal, 

I have all kinds of Leather, from an Ox, to a Foal; 

I have leather that's green, and leather that's dry, 

But pay down the Rhino if any you'd buy: 

A hint to the wise is sufficient tis said, 

Pay ! and take a Receipt from your good old Friend 


Nearly every family made the soap they used. Soap- 
making was an interesting process, a process still In use in 

^8 It was quite common for a trade or business to descend from father to 
son for several generations. 



Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 83 

many of the families descended from the early German 
settlers. The ashes from the hickory wood burned in the 
open fireplaces or in the cast-iron stoves were carefully 
saved, and in the early spring the lye for making soap 
was prepared from them. This was done by means of the 
ash-hopper, a V-shaped wooden structure raised from the 
ground, the point downward, with a hole bored at the 
bottom of one end opening on the trough-like board used 
for the bottom. The hopper was lined with straw and 
then filled with hickory ashes, after which a large amount 
of water was poured in on top of the ashes. The water, 
percolating through the ashes, extracted all the alkali and 
came out at the bottom a dark brown liquid, the lye, ready 
for soap-making. This was boiled in a large iron kettle 
with the various kinds of fat and grease that had been 
saved all winter, and the result was soap. Most house- 
wives made both hard and soft soap. 

Paper-making was another industry that the Germans 
early established. With them linen rags was the material 
used for making paper, but it was a descendant of one of 
the early German settlers in Maryland who gave to the 
world straw paper and straw-board, now so universally 
used. The Shryock family came to Pennsylvania from 
Germany and later went to Maryland shortly after 1730. 
They settled in what is now Washington county. A de- 
scendant of this family moved over the line to Chambers- 
burg, Pa., in 1790, where he built a mill for the manu- 
facture of banknote paper, with which he supplied the 
United States government. His son, George A. Shryock, 
succeeded him, and later discovered the process of making 
paper from straw, with its allied products straw-board and 
binders' board. Mr. Shryock has left an account of how 
he came to engage in the manufacture of straw paper. It 

84 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

appears that Col. William Magaw, who was a relative of 
Mr. Shryock, was extensively engaged in the manufacture 
of potash at Meadville, Pa. The potash was made from 
ashes, the latter being leached just as in preparing lye for 
making soap. While overseeing the work Colonel Magaw 
was in the habit of chewing bits of the straw that had 
been taken from the ash-hoppers when they were emptied. 
He noticed that when this chewed straw was pressed in 
the hand the softened fibers matted together, forming a 
pulp very much like that from which ordinary wrapping 
paper was made, and it occurred to him that the material 
might be used for that purpose. He wrote to Mr. Shryock, 
who was at that time engaged in the manufacture of rag 
paper at the Hollywell paper mill, just outside of Cham- 
bersburg, suggesting to him the advisability of investigat- 
ing the matter, and later, in the summer of 1829, visited 
Chambersburg for a test of the idea. "The experiment 
was, at that time and place, made and proved a decided 
success," says Mr. Shryock. " I was so well satisfied of 
Its practicability that I bought a large cast iron kettle of 
John V. Kelly, in Chambersburg, cribbed it with wood 
staves so that I could boil from seven hundred to one 
thousand pounds of straw at one filling, and made, for 
.^ome weeks, from twenty to thirty reams per day. The 
material used at that time in the preparation of the straw 
was potash, exclusively. I abandoned the manufacture of 
rag paper, and devoted my mill exclusively to the manu- 
facture of straw paper for some months. In November, 
1829, I visited the east to see a cylinder machine then in 
operation in Springfield, Massachusetts, by Messrs. Ames. 
On my way I accidentally met with Mr. Lafflin, of Lee, 
Massachusetts, at Hays' Pearl Street House, New York, 
and engaged him to build for me a small cylinder machine, 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 85 

at Hollywell Paper Mill, near Chambersburg, Pennsylva- 
nia. This was certainly the first machine that ever oper- 
ated on that material. Within the first year I introduced 
the grooved wood roll for the manufacture of binders' 
and box boards, etc. These two manufactures were (as 
far as has been ascertained) the very first use of straw 
paper as a staple article in our world." 

In the older settled parts of Maryland it was difficult 
to induce the settlers to plant anything but tobacco, but 
the German settlers did not require urging to induce them 
to turn their attention in other directions. Flax was one 
of their staple products, and large quantities of it were 
grown. They used it for the manufacture of their own 
clothing, they made thread from it for which they found 
a ready market, and the seed commanded a good price. 
To raise a good quality of flax required care and attention, 
but it was needed, for at that period the amount of wool 
they could raise was not sufficient for them to depend upon 
it alone for their clothing. The seed was disposed of in 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, many wagon loads of It 
finding its way thither. 

When the flax was ready to be harvested the stalks were 
pulled from the ground by the roots and tied in small 
bunches from which shocks were formed, to allow the 
seed to dry. When the seed had been beaten out the stalks 
were ready for the process of retting, or rotting. For this 
purpose the flax-stalks were spread out in a field and 
allowed to remain for several weeks, the action of the rain 
and sun setting up a process of fermentation which loosed 
the fiber from the woody portion of the stalk.^^ The flax 

59 The best quality of flax was not produced by this process of retting, 
" dew-retting," as it is called. The plan more generally pursued is to pack 
the bunches of flax-stalks closely together in pools of water prepared for this 

86 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

was then dried and was ready to be broken. The simplest 
sort of a flax-break was made of two pieces of board, 
hinged together at one end, so that they could be separated 
and the sharpened edges brought together. Bunches of 
the flax stalks were passed through the break, the upper 
part being brought down sharply upon the stalks at many 
places. In this way the woody portion was broken and 
loosened from the fiber. When the flax had been well 
broken it was ready for hackling. The flax hackle was 
usually made by driving a number of long, sharp-pointed 
nails through a piece of board so that they projected for 
several inches. The flax was hackled by the operator 
grasping a bunch of the straw and drawing it over the 
hackle. This separated the tow from the flax proper. 
The oftener the flax was hackled the finer was the quality 
of the finished product. 

The tow was spun and woven into a coarse cloth which 
was used for making towels, bagging, and coverings of 
various kinds, while from the flax itself linen of various 
degrees of fineness was woven, and much of it was dis- 
posed of in barter as thread. The spinning of the flax 
occupied the winter evenings, and in a large family it was 
no unusual thing to see several spinning-wheels at work 
by the light from the kitchen fire, operated by a mother 
and her daughters. Every young woman was taught to 
spin. A Maryland German writing to his brother and 
describing his situation says: " I shall now inform you how 
I am Situated as it Respects the things of this world. I 
have a small Farm of lOO acres of land and on it a Tan- 
yard, and By Farming and Tanning a little we are able to 
Support our selves. Our Soil is well adapted to Clover, 

purpose, and allow the fermentation to take place in this way. In Ireland 
much of the flax is retted in bog-holes. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 87 

Wheat, Corn & oats, and Fruit of all sorts. We have 3 
sons and 8 daughters — 5 are able to turn the Spinning 
wheel and throw the Shuttle." 

There were many metal workers, particularly in iron 
and copper. At an early date Dirck. Pennybacker, a 
grandson of Heinrich Pannebacker, one of the early 
settlers at Germantown, Pa., built an iron-works near 
Sharpsburg, but about 178 1 it was destroyed by a freshet 
and he removed to Virginia. The coppersmiths were 
skilled workmen who fashioned various utensils, particu- 
larly the large copper kettles, which were beaten by hand 
from one piece of metal, and which were frequently made 
large enough to hold a barrel of cider. There were many 
other articles manufactured by the German settlers, and 
their descendants were not behind those of other nationali- 
ties in the products of their inventive genius. According 
to Scharf it was a Frederick county German, Joseph 
Weller, of Mechanicstown, who, in 1831, discovered the 
process and manufactured the first friction matches made 
in this country. 

The Germans in Maryland did not establish any news- 
papers at a very early date. According to Daniel Miller,^^ 
the first German newspaper in Maryland was established 
by Matthias Bartgis at Frederick, in 1785. In 1795 the 
publication of the Deutsch Washington Correspondent 
was started at Hagerstown by John Gruber. Gruber was 
born in Strasburg, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about 
1778. He learned the printing trade in Philadelphia, and 
in 1793 was in Reading, Pa., a member of the firm of 
Jungman & Gruber who published Die Neiie Unpar- 
theiische Readinger Zeitung. He did not remain in Read- 

*o " Early German American Newspapers," in Proc. and Add. of the 
Pennsylvania-German Soc, Vol. XIX., p. 96. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ing very long, as two years later he was located in Hagers- 
town. In 1796, In addition to his newspaper he began the 
publication of what has proved to be a monument to his 
memory which bids fair to last indefinitely: The Hagers- 
Town Town and Country Almanack. This almanac soon 
attained a very large circulation which it retains to this 
day, and in most of the homes in western Maryland and 
southern Pennsylvania It was regarded as a necessity. 
The farmers planted their crops according to the rules 
and signs given in it, and it was always consulted before 
any undertaking was begun. Until 1822 it was printed 
only in German, but in that year the English edition was 
begun. In 1836 Mr. Gruber obtained a series of crude 
wood-cuts appropriate to each month, and from that time 
to the present the "Almanack" has made its appearance 
each year exactly as its founder designed it over three 
quarters of a century ago. 


2>^r newe 9?or&^3lmrrfcatti((^c 
t a i t mi 2 a n i 




iKfro cnD <2S«J<nin9, ©onncn 5(uf* un6 Umcrgong,. t>a (^kbtngc^^wS Slofsong, 
e/iI^rK*^ onb Uottrgong; txr QJenu* 5laf^ unD Untcrgang, eourtov 8«u^ <^ 
ti^^/^flfci imi ootKrc |u cukw ^alen&a flc1)6risc ©ucl^ ja fm&au 

3«ra er^cnmal ^eiaa^gt ge&cs. 



The Religious Life. 

MITH the exception of 
Virginia, the English 
colonies planted in America 
during the seventeenth cen- 
tury were founded for the 
purpose of escaping religious 
persecution. The ruling pow- 
ers having determined that 
the established church should 
be paramount, allowed no 
middle ground, and laws of 
the greatest severity were 
put into force against the 
Roman Catholics, Puritans, Dissenters, etc. The colony 
of Maryland was founded by Roman Catholics and until 
the beginning of the eighteenth century the members of 
that denomination were in the majority, yet a spirit of 
religious toleration prevailed such as was scarcely to be 
found in any other colony.^^ This is the more remark- 

61 The excellent character which Cecilius, Lord Baltimore, is said to 
have always borne, would prompt us to impute this proceeding to the 


9© The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

able considering the attitude of the Roman Catholics in 
the mother country, particularly during the reign of Queen 
Mary, and it is a curious side-light on the mutations of 
human affairs that the only religious persecution that oc- 
curred in the colony was directed against the Roman Cath- 
olics, following the Puritan Revolution. 

At some time previous to 1638 the governor of the 
province had issued a proclamation prohibiting " all un- 
seasonable disputations in point of religion, tending to the 
disturbance of public peace and quiet of the colony, and 
the opening of faction in religion," but when this was 
issued is not known, for, as Bozman states, the proclama- 
tion does not appear in the records. In 1648, in commis- 
sioning William Stone as governor. Lord Baltimore in- 
cluded in the oath of office to be taken by the governor a 
provision that he would not molest or discountenance for 
his religion any person professing to believe in Jesus Christ 
and, in particular, no Roman Catholic, if he were neither 
unfaithful to the Lord Baltimore, nor conspired against 
the civil government; that he would not make a difference 
of persons in conferring office or favors, because of reli- 
gion, but would regard the advancement of Baltimore's 
interests and the public unity and good of the province 

most laudable motives — the liberal indulgence of all men in their religious 
opinions. But, whoever is acquainted with the history of Europe, during 
the seventeenth century, must know that no genuine Roman Catholic at 
that time could entertain these liberal sentiments, or at least openly avow 
them. All Protestants were deemed by them heretics, and liable to the 
strong arm of persecution for their impious and presumptuous doctrines. 
We must, therefore, unavoidably confess that this liberal and tolerant 
measure of Lord Baltimore wears very much the appearance of that policy 
of conduct, just herein before alluded to, which the English Catholics are 
accused of having pursued, that is in joining the two great fanatic sects 
— the Presbyterians and the Independents, in their united endeavours to 
effectuate the destruction of the Church of England. — Bozman's " History 
of Maryland," Vol. II., p. 336. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 91 

without partiality; and that if any person in the prov- 
ince should molest any Christian for his religion he would 
apply his power to protect the person so molested and 
punish the person troubling him.^^ 

In 1649 the assembly enacted a law providing for reli- 
gious toleration which was in force for nearly half a cen- 
tury. During this time there was no established church; 
each sect or denomination conducted its affairs as it saw 
fit, and all support of churches and ministers was volun- 
tary. But in 1692 the assembly passed an act malcing the 
Protestant Episcopal church the established church of the 
province, and imposing an annual tax of forty pounds of 
tobacco per poll on all taxables for the purpose of building 
churches and maintaining the clergy. This law was very 
unpopular and many of the Dissenters, Quakers and 
Roman Catholics paid their taxes in the poorest quality of 
tobacco, so that the few ministers who came to the colony 
under the provisions of the law received very light support. 
This law remained in force until the Revolution, but there 
was always more or less opposition to it so that there was 
great difficulty in obtaining competent ministers. 

The German settlers were a pious God-fearing set of 
people, and their first thought, after settling in a locality, 
was to provide means for the public worship of God. 
After securing shelter for themselves the first public im- 
provement was the erection of a building to be used as a 
church. A history of these churches would be a history of 
the people, but, unfortunately, in many instances the early 
records of the churches have been lost or destroyed, so 
that the history of these congregations has to be con- 
structed from a few fragments, as well as it can be. The 
settlers were chiefly members of the Lutheran and German 

82 Steiner, " Maryland during the Civil Wars," Part II., p. io6. 

92 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Reformed churches, although there were a few Moravians 
and other sectarians among them. Their greatest trouble 
came from their inability to secure ministers. There were 
very few regularly ordained ministers in the country and 
those who were sent over from Germany, as a rule, re- 
mained at the older settlements, where their services were 
more in demand; and for many years the religious wants 
of the outlying settlements were looked after by travelling 
ministers, or missionaries, who were able to hold services, 
baptize the children, and perform the marriage ceremony 
at any given point only at long intervals. Then, too, the 
people were often imposed upon by dissolute intemperate 
men who posed as regularly ordained ministers, who, in 
this capacity, secured control of the congregations. Some 
of them were Indeed such : men who had at one time occu- 
pied positions of honor In their churches, and had fallen 
from their high estate; but many of them were unprin- 
cipled adventurers who, in the dire needs of the different 
congregations, saw a means of securing a livelihood with 
the least possible expenditure of energy. A great deal of 
the trouble which subsequently arose in the various congre- 
gations was caused by men of this sort. It was not only 
among the German settlers that these pretended ministers 
were to be found, sowing their seeds of discord; they were 
equally common in the English settlements. In the 
absence of regular ministers religious services were usually 
conducted by the schoolmaster, who would read sermons. 
The church buildings erected were for many years used 
jointly by the Lutheran and German Reformed congre- 
gations, services usually being held by each congregation 
on alternate Sundays. 

Dr. Schmauk says^^ that the first Lutheran church in 

«3 " A History of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania," in Proc. and 
Add. of the Pennsylvania-German Society, Vol. XII., p. 381 



Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 93 

Maryland was erected in what is now Cecil county by 
Swedes from the settlement on the Delaware in 1649, but 
what may unquestionably be regarded as the mother- 
church of the Lutheran denomination in Maryland was 
the little log church erected at the village of Monocacy 
about 1730. It is unfortunate that nothing is now pre- 
served which shows anything about the organization of 
this congregation, and it is only in later years that we find 
anything authentic concerning it. From the records of 
Rev. John Caspar Stoever we get the names of a number 
of the early members of the Monocacy congregation, as 
on his numerous visits to that section of the country he 
baptized the children of those attached to the congrega- 
tion. Thus, in 1734, four children of John Jacob 
Mattheis were baptized. In 1735 we find the names of 
Heinrich Sinn and Michael Reusner; in 1736, John and 
Balthasar Fauth, Matthias Roessell, Johannes Mittag, 
George Lathy, John Jacob Hoof, Adam Baker and Henry 
Prey; in 1737, John George Geiger and George Henckel; 
In 1738, Heinrich Fortunee, Joseph Mayhew, Valentine 
Mueller, Philip Ernst Grueber and George Spengel; in 
1739, Wilhelm Dorn and Bernhardt Weinmer; in 1740, 
John George Beer, Herman Hartman and Michael 
Schauffle; in 1741, Jacob Verdriess and Jeremias Ellradt, 
and in 1742 Peter Apfel. Other names of persons con- 
nected with the Monocacy congregation at that period are : 
Traut, Baum, Habach, Berg, Hutzel, Schweinhardt, 
Schaefer, Schaub, Lein, Teufersbiss, Banckauf, Bruschel, 
Bronner, Lehnick, Kuntz, Gump, Lutz, Lay, Schreyer, 
Bischoff, Wetzel, Beyer, Rausch, Boltz, Ort, Kleeman, 
Geyer, Rudisiel, Mausser and Kauth. 

The chief sources of information concerning the early 
history of the old church at Monocacy are the writings of 

94 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Rev. Michael Schlatter and Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlen- 
berg, both of whom paid visits to the congregation. Mr. 
Schlatter was the first to visit Monocacy. He had been 
sent to America by the authorities of the German Re- 
formed church in Holland as a missionary to the congre- 
gations scattered through Pennsylvania and Maryland. 
He arrived in Philadelphia in the autumn of 1746 and 
made numerous journeys to the outlying settlements, 
organizing congregations where there were none and 
assisting in whatever way he could those already organ- 
ized. Early the next spring he started on a visit to the 
Maryland settlements. "On the 29th of April," he 
says,^* " amid earnest prayers that the presence of God 
might go with me, I undertook a great journey to Mono- 
cacy and other places in Maryland, with a view also of 
visiting the congregations on the borders of the Susque- 
hanna, having before given notice to each congregation of 
the time when I expected to be with them. On the first 
day, I got as far as Lancaster, and the following day I 
reached the Susquehanna, a distance of seventy-three miles. 
This is the largest stream in the English colonies, which, 
like all other streams, has received its name from the 
Indians and until now has retained it. In like manner, 
also, do the regions of country receive their names from 
the streams which flow through them. Hence if, in what 
follows, I shall mention any places not referred to before, 
it must be remembered that then I have passed over some 
larger or smaller stream, a matter which is frequently not 
accomplished without great danger. At least, when I 
crossed the Susquehanna it was greatly swollen, so that I 
crossed it with twelve men at the oars of the boat, and 

8* " The Life of Rev. Michael Schlatter," by Rev. H. Harbaugh, A.M., 
p. 152. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 95 

then only reached the opposite shores amid dangers which 
threatened my life, the river being, at that time, about 
two miles wide." 

He reached York on May 2 and held services there and 
then went on to Conewago, in Adams county, where he 
also held services. He then goes on to say: "On the 6th, 
I journeyed forty miles farther to Monocacy, where, on 
the following day, I held preparatory service to the Holy 
Communion, and baptized twenty-six children, and, on the 
8th, administered the most excellent Supper of the Lord, 
with peculiar interest and much edification, to eighty-six 
members. After divine service was ended, I read my 
instructions to the people. The congregation, anxious 
after spiritual food, listened with tears of joy and with 
gratitude to God, and forty-nine heads of families offered 
to raise, for the support of a minister, in money and grain, 
the amount of forty pounds, equal to 266 Dutch guilders. 
If this congregation were united with another called 
Connogocheague, lying thirty miles distant, these two 
would be able to sustain a minister. Farther, I must say 
of this congregation, that it appears to me to be one of 
the purest in the whole country, and one in which I have 
found the most traces of the true fear of God; one that is 
free from the sects, of which, in other places, the country 
is filled. For, on 7000 acres of land in that neighborhood 
there were none but such as are of the German Reformed 

Just seven weeks after Mr. Schlatter's visit to Mono- 
cacy Mr. Muhlenberg arrived there. He had been met 
at Conewago (now Hanover) by two men from the Mono- 
cacy settlement and the three men starting out in a pouring 
rain, " were compelled to ride all night through the wilder- 
ness with the rain pouring down and the poor horses up to 

g6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

their knees in water and mire." In this manner the journey 
of thirty-six miles was accomplished and Monocacy was 
reached in the morning. He found the Lutheran con- 
gregation divided into factions, through the efforts of 
Moravian missionaries and of men who, while posing as 
Lutheran ministers, were secretly trying to transfer control 
of the congregation to the Moravians. Mr. Muhlenberg 
called the congregation together and, as he says : 

Before we began the service I had them give me the church book, 
and I wrote in it, in the English language, several articles, among 
others that our German Lutherans confess the holy Word of God 
in the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures, and besides the Augsburg 
Confession the other symbolical books; and, where it can be done, 
they have the sacraments administered to them by regularly called 
and ordained ministers, and, according to their rules, do not allow 
open, gross, and persistent oifenders against the Ten Command- 
ments and the civil laws to be regarded as members, etc. This I 
read publicly to the congregation, and explained it in German, and 
added that he who would be and would remain such a Lutheran 
should subscribe his name. 

This book in which Mr. Muhlenberg wrote the articles 
for the government of the Lutheran church at Monocacy 
is now in the possession of the Lutheran church at Fred- 
erick. The articles, with the names signed to them are as 
follows : 

Whereas we the Subscribers, enjoy the inestimable liberty of 
Conscience under the powerfuU Protection of our most Gracious 
Sovereign King George the Second and His Representatives our 
gracious Superiour of this Province, and have used this blessed 
liberty since our first settling Here at Manakasy till this day in 
Worshipping God Allmighty according to the protestant Lutheran 
persuasion, grounded in the old and New Testament and in the 


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Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 97 

invariata Augustana Confessione ceterisq. libris Symbolicis; We will 
therefore endeavour to pray for our Most Gracious Sovereign and 
all that are in Authority, that we may lead a peaceable and quiet 
life in all Godliness and Honesty. 

And whereas we are Several times disturbed by pretended Min- 
isters that Style themselves Lutherans, but can not produce any 
lawfuU Certificate or Credentials of their Vocation Ordination of 
a lawfull Consistory or Ministry, and cause Strife, Quarrels and 
Disputations among the Congregations, We the Subscribers, the 
Church Wardens and members of the protestant Lutheran Con- 
gregation, erect and constitute and agree and bind ourselves to the 
following Articals imprimis 

1. The Church we have erected and built at Manakasy and used 
hitherto shall stand and remain and be for the worship of our 
protestant Lutheran Religion according to our Confession, and 
oeconomie as long the blessed acts of Tolerance and of our liberty 
stand forever. And the Reformed Congregation shall have liberty 
for their lawfull minister. 

2. No Minister shall be admitted and permitted to preach or 
administer the holy ordinances in our Church without a lawfull 
Call and Certificate of His lawfull Lutheran ordination and Ex- 
amination by a Lutheran Consistory or Ministry, and without 
Consent of the Church Wardens. 

3. Every Year shall be chosen four or more blameless Members 
of our Congregation for Church Wardens, and they shall be 
chosen per plurima vota. 

4. The Church Wardens shall hold and preserve the Key of the 
Church, the Vessels and Ornaments that belong to the Church and 
Congregation and deliver every piece in time of Worship or when 
Necessity requireth it. 

5. Two of the Church Wardens shall keep an exact account of 
the alms and be ready to lay at the end of the Year the Reckoning 
before the rest of the Church Wardens and the Congregation. 

6. Whenever a Member or Church Warden of our Congrega- 
tion should turn to an other persuasion, or lead a notorious sinful! 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

life against the ten Commendments or against the Constitutions 
and laws of our most Gracious Superiours, He or they shall not be 
accounted for a Member of our Congregation but be excluded. To 
this before mentioned Articals, which only tend to promote peace 
and Quietness we set our Hands this 24 day of June 1747, in the 
21 year of the Reign of our most Gracious Sovereign King George 
the Second, whom the Lord preserve. 

Hans Georg Lay 
Johannes Kritzman 
Johan Michal Romer 
Georg Michal Hoffman 
Peter Apfel 
Henry Sechs 
Jacob HofE 
Martin Wetzel 
Georg Schweinhardt 
Georg Hiitzel 
Gabriel Schweinhard 
Fillip Kiintz 
Ludwig Weltner 
Johannes Schmidt 

Johannes Verdries 

Martin Wetzel 

Michell Reisner Johan Michal Romer I Church 

Heinrich Sechs Georg Michal Hoffman j Wardens 

Dieder Lehny 

Johannes Stolmeyer 

Johan Sechs 

Hans Sigfried Guy 

Valentine Verdries 

Hans Georg Soldner 

Johan Christoph Schmidt 

Johannes Vogler 

John Davis 

Friedreich Verdries 

Martin Wetzel Junior 

Nicolaus Wetzel 

Friedreich Willhaut 

Georg Honig 

Jerg Kolz 

Johannes Schmidt 

Accompanying these articles is a subscription list^^ to 
which Is signed the following additional names : 

Fredreich Sinn, 
Adam Stoll, 
Mateus Kesszele, 
Adam Spach, 
Baltzer Pfaut, 
Jacob Mateus, 

Jacob Bene, 
Conradt Kiinz, 
Joh. Battel Meyer, 
Joh. Georg Gotz, 
Joh. Georg Gump, 
Jacob Faut. 

«' Nahmcn der Persohnen welche zu Erkauftung und Einschreibung 
dieses Kirchen buchs mit Noch werraogen beigetragen haben. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 99 

But in spite of the efforts of Mr. Muhlenberg there 
continued to be more or less discord among the members, 
and the congregation did not prosper, and about the time 
that Rev. Bernard Michael Hauseal became pastor of the 
Lutheran church at Frederick, in 1753, the Monocacy 
congregation was absorbed by the former. This absorp- 
tion was the final act which led to the decadence and disap- 
pearance from the map of the village of Monocacy. The 
Lutheran congregation at Fredericic, which was virtually 
the successor of the one at Monocacy, was organized about 
1735, the exact date not being on record. Among the 
early members of the congregation were the families of 
Unsult, Bechtel, Schley, Culler, Angelberger and Metzger. 
For many years there was no regular pastor, services being 
conducted at intervals by the ministers stationed at the 
Lutheran church at Hanover, Pa. In 1753 Rev. Bernard 
Michael Hauseal became the pastor of the congregation 
and remained until 1758. From 1763 to 1768 Rev. John 
William Samuel Schwerdtfeger was pastor, and he was 
followed by Rev. John Christopher Hartwick. Other 
ministers connected with the church were Rev. John 
Andrew Krug, 177 1; Rev. John Frederick Wildbahn, 
1796; Rev. Frederick Moeller, 1799. The first church 
was a wooden one, built in 174 1-6, which was replaced by 
a stone one, 1754-60. Among the members of the con- 
gregation in 1777 were John George Lay, John Michael 
Roemer, George Michael Hoffman, Peter Apple and 
Henry Six, all of whom had been members of the original 
congregation at Monocacy. The services were conducted 
in German until 18 10. 

The German Reformed congregation at Frederick was 
organized before 1740. When Rev. Michael Schlatter 
visited the place in 1748 he found a congregation of con- 

icx) The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

slderable size, although there was no regular pastor. He 
preached In a new and unfinished church and administered 
communion to ninety-seven persons. Rev. Theodore 
Frankenfeld became the regular minister in 1753. He 
was succeeded, in 1756, by Rev. John Conrad Steiner. 
Other pastors of the congregation were: 1760, Rev. Philip 
William Otterbeln; 1766, Rev. Charles Lange; 1768, 
Rev. Frederick L. Henop; 1784, Rev. John Runkel, who 
retired in 1801. 

One of the historic churches in western Maryland was 
the old Lutheran church near Sharpsburg. This section 
was settled about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
The church was built on ground donated by Col. Joseph 
Chapline, who laid out the town of Sharpsburg. The deed 
for this property is recorded in Liber L, Folio 179, of the 
records of Frederick county, and is as follows : 

At the request of Dr. Christopher Cruss the following Deed 
was recorded the i6th day of March 1768. 

This Indenture made this 5th day of March, One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Sixty Eight, between Col. Joseph Chapline of 
Frederick County and Province of Maryland of the one part, and 
Dr. Christopher Cruss, Matthias Need, Nicholas Sam and William 
Hawker, Vestrymen and Church Wardens of the Lutheran Church 
in the Town of Sharpsburg, in the County aforesaid, of the other 

Witnesseth that the said Col. Joseph Chapline, for and in con- 
sideration of the religious regard which he hath and beareth to the 
said Lutheran Church as also for the better support and main- 
tenance of the said Church, hath given, granted, aliened, enfeoffed 
and confirmed, and by these presents doth give, grant, bargain, 
alien, enfeoff and confirm unto the said Dr. Christopher Cruss, 
Mathias Need, Nicholas Sam and William Hawker, Vestrymen 
and Church Wardens and their successors, members of the above 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. loi 

Church, for the use of the Congregation that do resort thereto, 
One Lot or portion of ground, No. 149, containing One hundred 
and fifty-four feet in breadth and Two hundred and six feet, more 
or less, in length, with all profits advantages and appurtenances to 
the said Lot or portion of ground belonging or appertaining. To have 
and to hold to them the said Dr. Christopher Cruss, Mathias Need, 
Nicholas Sam and William Hawker, Vestrymen and Church 
Wardens, and to their successors forever, to them and their own 
use, and to no other use, intent or purpose whatsoever forever 
yielding and paying unto the said Col. Joseph Chapline, his heirs 
and assigns, One Pepper Corn, if demanded, on the ninth day of 
July One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty Eight, and yearly 
hereafter, and the said Col. Joseph Chapline for himself and his 
heirs doth covenant and agree to and with them the said Dr. 
Christopher Cruss, Matthias Need, Nicholas Sam and William 
Hawker, Vestrymen and Church Wardens and their successors, 
that them and they shall and may have, hold, and peaceably enjoy 
and possess the said Lot or portion of ground and other the 
premises, yielding and paying the rent aforesaid hereinbefore re- 
served and any rent that may grow due to the Lord Proprietary 
freely and absolutely, but with this reserve, that if the above 
named Dr. Christopher Cruss, Matthias Need, Nicholas Sam and 
William Hawker, Vestrymen and Church Wardens, do not build 
or cause to be built on said Lot in the term of seven years then the 
above lot to revert to Col. Joseph Chapline his heirs and assigns. 

A log church was erected, thirty-three by thirty-eight 
feet in size. A bell, which was said to be a very old one, 
was swung from a pole on the outside. Later a cupola was 
built on the church and the bell was placed in it. The 
interior of the church was arranged, as nearly all of the 
old churches were, with a very high pulpit, reached by 
nearly a dozen steps. Over the pulpit was an umbrella- 
shaped sounding-board. There was an elevated platform 
for the elders and deacons, while the congregation sat in 

I02 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

pews with very high backs. In 1849 <^he outside of the 
building was rough-casted. During the battle of Antietam, 
in September, 1862, the church was used as a hospital, but 
as it was in the line of fire from the cannon it was so much 
damaged as to be unfit for further use, and shortly after 
the war it was torn down. The early records of the 
church are all lost: probably destroyed during the war, 
so that nothing is known of its early history. Among the 
families connected with this church at an early date were 
those of Roullett, Hovermale, Funk, Nead, Rohrback, 
Gardenour, Sheeler and Harman. 

The Germans did not settle in Baltimore in any con- 
siderable number at a very early date, the greater number 
of that nationality going to the rich farming lands in the 
western part of the colony, yet it is evident that shortly 
after the middle of the eighteenth century there was quite 
a number of them there, sufficient to organize two con- 
gregations: one Lutheran and the other German Re- 
formed. The exact date when these congregations were 
organized is not known, but it could not have been very 
long after 1750. In the early records of the first Lutheran 
congregation in the city is found the statement that "up 
to the year 1758 both Lutherans and German Reformed 
worshipped together, and great friendship and harmony 
prevailed. In that year they resolved to erect a house of 
worship in common, as each party was too weak to build 
one alone; and it was at the same time determined that a 
pastor should be called by either church, as might best 
suit."^" At first there was no regular minister attached to 
the congregation, services being held at intervals as the 
presence of a minister would permit. According to 
Scharf, Rev. J. S. Gerock was the regular minister in 

88 Scharf's " Chronicles of Baltimore," p. 40. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 103 

1758, but this is evidently a mistake, as at that time Mr. 
Gerock was pastor of the Lutheran church at Lancaster, 
Pa., where he continued until 1767, when he removed to 
New York city.^'^ It is probable that he occasionally 
visited the church in Baltimore. In 1773 among those 
connected with this church were the families of Linden- 
berger, Wershler, Hartwig, Hoecke, Rock, Grasmuck, 
Levely, Barnitz and Dr. Wiesenthall. In 1758 a lottery 
was conducted to raise funds, with which the new church 
was erected. 

The first German Reformed congregation in Baltimore 
was organized about the same time as the first Lutheran 
one. According to a record in one of the books of this 
congregation, dated January 25, 1769, "the first minister 
of this congregation was John Christian Faber, bom in 
Mosback on the Neckar, in the Pfaltz, in Europe. His 
father was a preacher at Gimmeldingen on the river 
Haardt. May the blessing of God attend this enterprise, 
and may the church increase and flourish." Mr. Faber 
was pastor of this congregation for about fourteen years, 
but his pastorate was far from being a harmonious one. 
Concerning Mr. Faber, Dr. Ruetenik says:®^ "He proved 
cold and tedious in the pulpit, and his conversation under 
the pulpit was devoid of salt — entertaining rather than 
elevating." For this reason some of the members of the 
congregation wanted a younger and more warm-hearted 
minister, and advocated the claims of Rev. Benedict 
Schwob, or Swope. This resulted in a division in the con- 
gregation and a second one was formed in 1770 under the 
leadership of Mr. Swope. Dissensions continued between 

^'' Schraauk. " The Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania," in Proc. and 
Add. of the Pennsylvania-German Societj', Vol. XI., p. 349. 

*8 " The Pioneers of the Reformed Church in the United States," p. 97. 

104 ^^^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the two congregations, and in 1774 Mr. Swope retired and 
was succeeded by Rev. Philip William Otterbein, who 
remained in charge of the congregation until his death 
in 1813. 

In the first church Mr. Faber was succeeded by Rev. 
George Frederick Wallauer, and he by Rev. Charles 
Louis Boehme. One of the old books of the church 
records that "after some time Mr. Boehme got into 
trouble and at a meeting of the Rev. Synod held at Read- 
ing, Pa., in 1782, he was dismissed from the ministry. 
At the same time liberty was given to call another minister, 
and they called Rev. Nicholas Pomp, who delivered his 
first sermon on the first Sunday in September, 1783. At 
this period Jacob Coberts, Frederick Meyer, Jacob Meyer 
and Henry Zorah were the elders of the church; and 
Philip Cruslus, Andrew Granget, and Philip Miller, the 

One of the early congregations established by the 
Lutherans was the one at Middletown, where a church 
was erected about 1755. Among the pastors of this con- 
gregation were Rev. Frederick Gerresheim, in 1779; Rev. 
John Andrew Krug, Rev. Jacob Goering, Rev. John 
George Schmucker, and Rev. Johan George Graeber, who 
was pastor in 1796. 

The Rocky Hill church, near Woodsborough, was built 
in 1768. It was a two-story log building and was occu- 
pied by the Lutherans, German Reformed and Presby- 
terians. Until 1830 preaching was in the German lan- 
guage. "Apple's Church" was built near Mechanicstown 
about 1765 by the Lutherans and German Reformed. 
Among the first Reformed ministers of this church were 
Rev. Jonathan Rahauser and Rev. Mr. Bassler. At a 

** Scharf, " Chronicles of Baltimore," p. 42. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 105 

much later period the congregation was served by Revs. 
S. R. Fisher and E. E. Higbee. One of the Lutheran 
ministers who was pastor of this congregation was Rev. 
Reuben Weiser. 

St. John's Lutheran church in Hagerstown was organ- 
ized in 1770. Its constitution was signed by sixty mem- 
bers. Its first pastor was Rev. J. F. Wildbahn. From 
1773 to 1793 Rev. John George Young was the pastor, 
and he was succeeded by Rev. Dr. J. G. Schmucker. In 
179 1 a lottery was held to raise money for the church. 
The trustees and managers for the lottery were Peter 
Hoeflich, Henry Shryock, Peter Woltz, Baltzer Woltz, 
David Harry, Jacob Harry, William Lee, John Lee, 
Rezin Davis, Alexander Clagett, Nathaniel Rochester, 
Henry Schnebly, William Reynolds, Melchior Beltz- 
hoover, John Geiger, John Protzman, Adam Ott, Michael 
Kapp, George Woltz, John Ragan, Abraham Leider, 
Robert Hughes, Henry Schroder, Henry Eckert, William 
Van Lear, Jacob Miller, Frederick Stempel, Peter White- 
sides, Andrew Kleinsmith, Philip Entlen and John Ney. 

Rev. Jacob Weyman became the pastor of the German 
Reformed church in Hagerstown in 1770 and remained in 
charge until 1790. Among the members of the first con- 
gregation were William Baker, William Heyser, Philip 
Osten, Peter Wagner, Jacob Hauser, Jonathan Hager, 
Ernst Baker, Yost Weygand, Esau Gnadig, Johannes 
Karr, Frantz Greilich, Herman Greilich, Andreas Link, 
Eustagines Jung, Wilhelm Conrath, Heinrich Doutweiler, 
Jacob Fischer, Johannes Steincyfer, Frantz Wagner, 
Ernst Dietz, Rudolph Bly, Johannes Oster, Michael 
Eberhart, Matthias Saylor, George Herdic, George Cam- 
pert, Johannes Nicholas Schister, Johannes Frey, Peter 
Diller, George Frey, Conrad Eichelberger, Philip Klein, 

io6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and Ernst Kremer. In 1774 the congregation erected a 
substantial church building, and it was during the erection 
of this structure that Jonathan Hager, the founder of 
Hagerstown, was killed by a heavy timber falling on him. 

One of the first Lutheran Churches in what is now 
Washington county, Maryland, was the Antietam church, 
situated on Antietam creek, about four miles from Hagers- 
town. Rev. John G. Young, writing in 1786, says that 
this church was built in 1756, but the will of Robert 
Downing, who owned the land on which it was built, 
speaks of the church as being in existence at the time the 
will was made, in 1754. Mr. Young says: "About thir- 
teen families of our church united, purchased ten acres 
of land, and built a sort of church, as their circumstances 
allowed." Rev. Bernard Michael Hauseal, of the Fred- 
erick congregation, was the first minister to hold services 
at this church. For a short time Rev. J. W. S. Schwerdt- 
feger conducted services there, and when Rev. J. G. Young 
became pastor of the Hagerstown church, in 1773, he 
held services at the Antietam church every four weeks. 
This he continued to do until 1785. At that time the 
congregation consisted of from fifty-five to sixty families. 

There were a number of Brethren located in that section 
at an early date. Dr. Martin G. Brumbaugh says : " The 
Antietam church was organized in 1752. William Stover 
was the first elder. His parents were not members. He 
was born about 1725 and died in 1795. He was assisted 
in the ministry for some time by George Adam Martin 
and was succeeded by his son Daniel Stover, who died 
October, 1822. This church extended over a large terri- 
tory and was a midway point for emigration from eastern 
Pennsylvania to Virginia and the west. This church was 
located in the famous Conococheague country. It was the 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 107 

scene of many Indian depredations during the French and 
Indian Wars and during the Revolution. The early mem- 
bers suffered greatly, and some were ruthlessly murdered. 
There was no meeting-house for the congregation until 
1798, when Price's Church was erected. "^*^ 

'0" History of the Brethren," p. 512. 



Education, Redemptioners, Servitude. 


HEN the German emi- 
grants began to ar- 
rive in this country, and more 
particularly in Pennsylvania, 
in large numbers and it be- 
came apparent that unless the 
influx was checked the Ger- 
man settlers would soon out- 
number the English, the lat- 
ter in no uncertain terms 
voiced their objection to al- 
lowing the Germans to come 
in unlimited numbers, and 
found all sorts of reasons for this objection. One of the 
chief reasons advanced on all sides was the statement that 
the Germans were a rude, ignorant and uneducated class 
of people. This objection was frequently urged, and from 
that day to this it has been the custom for those who 
should know better to speak of the Pennsylvania-German 
settlers as illiterate and uneducated. No doubt this was, 
in some degree, due to the fact that the settlers did not, 
as a rule, learn to speak the English language, but ad- 


Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 109 

hered to the use of their own language as well as to their 
manners and customs. But in point of education, as that 
term is generally understood, it is very probable that 
among the German settlers there was as large a percentage 
of educated people as among those speaking the English 
language, if, indeed, the percentage was not greater. 

At the period when the colony of Maryland was founded 
it was not considered necessary for everyone to be edu- 
cated and a very large proportion of the population, even 
among the well-to-do, were not able to write. This is 
plainly shown by the number of people who were com- 
pelled to make their marks in signing legal papers. 
Among the "gentlemen adventurers" who came over in 
Lord Baltimore's first colony were many who came within 
this category, and it was no unusual thing to find that 
some of the servants brought over had considerably more 
of an education than their principals. Indeed, it was quite 
customary to bring over among the servants some who 
were able to act as scrivener and letter-writer. The matter 
of securing an education was considered of minor impor- 
tance, and if it was thought necessary with some of the 
younger generation, they were sent back to England for 
the purpose of securing it; but what they considered an 
education to be obtained in this way, was not so much a 
knowledge of the liberal arts as it was of the manners and 
customs of polite society, to be gained through visiting in 
the families of their English relatives. 

This being the case, there was little interest taken in the 
matter of establishing schools, and it was many years 
before there were any schools. There were a number of 
causes which militated against the establishment of schools, 
but outside of the lack of interest and the absence of a feel- 
ing of necessity for an education, the chief cause was the 

I lo The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

scattered condition of the population. The raising of 
tobacco was the chief occupation, and of necessity the 
settlers were scattered over a wide extent of territory. 
There was, in the early history of the colony, little to fear 
from the Indians, owing to the founder's pacific treatment 
of them, so that there was no occasion for the settlers to 
gather together in groups for protection, and towns and 
villages were unknown. So much so was this the case that, 
as one writer has pointed out,'^^ if Maryland had had a 
law similar to the Massachusetts law of 1647, which pro- 
vided that every township of fifty householders should 
appoint some one " to teach all such children as shall resort 
to him to write and read," it would not have required the 
establishment of a single school, as there was no portion 
of the province thickly enough settled to have fifty house- 
holders in an area equal to a New England township. 

The earliest effort to establish an educational institution 
was made in 1671, but the bill was amended by the lower 
house of the assembly, which had a Protestant majority, 
in such a manner as to render it distasteful to the Roman 
Catholic upper house, and further consideration of it was 
dropped. At frequent intervals other attempts were made 
to found a system of schools, but they were generally un- 
successful. There were a number of reasons for this lack 
of success. In the first place, the country was so sparsely 
settled that there was no locality in which a central point 
could be selected for a school which would be convenient 
of access for the children of the settlers. Then, too, as a 
rule, the schools, if they were established, would be chiefly 
for the children of the poorer class of settlers, for those of 
means usually had their children taught by private teach- 
ers, although it must be said that there was not much inter- 

'1 Sellers, " History of Education in Maryland," p. r6. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 1 1 1 

est taken in the matter of education and very many of 
the wealthier class of settlers had very little education, 
even some of the judges being unable to write their names. 
But the chief difficulty in the matter of providing schools 
was the impossibility of finding suitable teachers. As a 
rule the men who were secured as teachers were dissolute 
and intemperate individuals who were unable or unwilling 
to attempt to make a living in any other occupation. 
Large landowners who brought over servants frequently 
secured one who was competent to act as teacher for the 
younger members of the family. In this way the questions 
of education and servitude are, in a measure, related to 
each other. Sometimes a ne'er-do-well son of a wealthy 
English family was sent to the colony to get rid of him, 
rather than with an expectation of his bettering himself, 
and such an one frequently acted as teacher. There were 
instances, too, where convicts who had been transported 
to the colony were employed as teachers. In 1745 the 
officers of the school in Talbot county offered a reward of 
£5 currency for the capture of their Irish schoolmaster, 
who had run away with two geldings and a negro slave. 

In 1696 a law was passed providing for the erection of 
a school in each county, but by 17 17 but one had been 
erected, at Annapolis. Every few years a new law was 
passed providing for the erection of schools, but from one 
cause or another they proved abortive, and as late as 
March 21, 1754, a writer in the Maryland Gazette com- 
plained of the amount of money that was every year being 
sent to the neighboring province of Pennsylvania for edu- 
cational purposes. " On inquiry," he says, " it has been 
found that there are at least 100 Marylanders in the 
academy at Philadelphia, and it is experimentally known 
that the annual charges for clothes, schooling, board, etc., 

112 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

amount (at least) to £75 Maryland currency, £50 sterling, 
for each youth sent thither — that is, to be genteelly and 
liberally educated. Hence it is evident that if this practice 
continues but twenty years (at the moderate computation 
of £5,000 sterling per annum) there must be remitted 
from Maryland for the benefit of the Pennsylvanians the 
round plumb or sum of £100,000 sterling. Besides this, 
'tis well known that vast sums are every year transmitted 
to France, etc., for the education of our young gentlemen of 
the popish persuasion, etc. Though perhaps superior poli- 
tics, interest and influence may render the saving the money 
in the latter case (entirely lost to the province) impracti- 
cable, yet certainly our Protestant patriots might contrive 
ways and means for keeping within Maryland the cash 
advanced (as aforesaid for the use of Pennsylvania), by 
establishing a college on each shore, or one at Annapolis, 
at which (if duly endowed and regulated by proper 
statutes) our Protestant youth might be educated much 
better, cheaper, and more conveniently accommodated, and 
at the same time the cost expended would still circulate 
within the province." 

In 1763 Governor Sharpe wrote: "It is really to be 
lamented that while such great things are being done for the 
support of Colleges and Accademies in the Neighbouring 
Colonies, there is not in this even one good Grammar 
School. I should be glad if either by Donations or some 
other Method the Fund or annual Income of our School 
in this City could be augmented so as to enable us to give 
such a Salary to a Master & Usher as would encourage 
good & able Men to act in those Capacities. "^^ 

The matter of education was treated in a very different 
manner by the German settlers. It was the usual custom 

^2 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XIV., p. 115. 


O < 


i i 

DC Q. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 113 

for a party of German emigrants starting out to form a 
settlement to take with them a schoolmaster. One of the 
first buildings erected was a schoolhouse, very often before 
a church, and until the church building was provided the 
schoolhouse was used for religious services. It was many 
years before the different settlements and villages were 
able to have a regular minister, and in the absence of a 
pastor the religious services were usually conducted by the 
schoolmaster. The latter was very often the most impor- 
tant person in the settlement. He was usually well edu- 
cated and generally he was the one to whom nearly every- 
one went for advice on almost any matter. He was the 
scrivener for drawing up legal papers or writing letters 
for those who were unable to write, and generally being 
an expert penman he was frequently called upon to draw 
up marriage certificates or certificates of baptism, which 
very often were executed in a very artistic manner. This 
facility In using the pen was put to use in making Rewards 
of Merit for the children in the school, usually comprising 
pictures of flowers and birds, an example of which is 
shown in one of the illustrations. These pen drawings 
were colored with inks made from various vegetables. In 
the original of the one illustrated the roses are colored 
different shades of pink, the ribbon with which they are 
tied is blue, and the eagle yellow. As a rule, though not 
always, the schoolmaster was an elderly man and not un- 
frequently, like Goldsmith's schoolmaster, 

"A man severe he was, and stern to view; 
I knew him well, and every truant knew: 
Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace 
The day's disasters in his morning face." 

Sometimes in employing a schoolmaster the German 

114 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

settlers were deceived by an adventurer, for there was a 
considerable number of unprincipled dissolute individuals 
travelling about through the colonies seeking employment 
wherever they could, sometimes even posing as ministers 
and securing control of the churches; and as these men 
were usually well educated they sometimes found employ- 
ment as schoolmaster, though there were not very many 
instances of this sort. 

If the schoolmaster was unmarried and had no family 
of his own he generally lived with the families whose chil- 
dren came to his school. " Children were not merely sent 
to school and their entire mental training left to the school- 
master. Parents assisted their children in learning their 
lessons at home, and when schools and schoolmasters were 
wanting parents were the teachers of their children. . . . 
The German ABC Book and Spelling Book were fre- 
quently printed in this country, also Arithmetics, Readers, 
including the New Testament, Psalter and other books. 
The Catechism and Hymn-Book were also used In teach- 
ing the young to read. In many homes children would 
gather in the long winter evenings at the table at which 
meals were served during the day, that parents might 
assist them in learning their lessons."'''^ 

The best known of the early German schoolmasters of 
Maryland was Thomas Schley, the progenitor of Admiral 
Winfield Scott Schley, who. In 1735, settled In the locality 
where ten years later the town of Frederick was laid out. 
Mr. Schley is said to have built the first house in Fred- 
erick. From all accounts of him he appears to have been 
a man of considerable education, but his abilities were not 

■^3 Rev. Dr. F. J. F. Schantz, " The Domestic Life and Characteristics of 
the Pennsylvania-German Pioneer," in Proc. and Add. of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society, Vol. X., p. 54. 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 115 

confined to the teaching of the children, for he took an 
active part in all the affairs of the settlement. Speaking 
of him, Rev. Michael Schlatter says:'^* "It is a great ad- 
vantage to this congregation Frederick that they have the 
best schoolmaster that I have met in America. He spares 
neither labor nor pains in instructing and edifying the 
congregation according to his ability, and by means of 
singing, and reading the word of God and printed sermons 
on every Lord's day." 

Another Pennsylvania-German schoolmaster who settled 
in Maryland and took an active part in affairs was Ben- 
jamin Spyker, Jr., a son of Peter Spyker, president judge 
of the courts of Berks county, Pennsylvania. He was 
born in Berks county in 1747 and was given an unusually 
good education for those times. Shortly after reaching 
his majority he went to Sharpsburg, Maryland, which had 
been laid out about five years before, to become the school- 
master of the German Reformed congregation of that 
place. Steps were immediately taken to build a school- 
house, and in 1769, by means of a lottery, the sum of six 
hundred dollars was raised for this purpose and for com- 
pleting the church. The managers for this lottery were 
George Strecher, Christian Orndorff, Joseph Smith, Wil- 
liam Good, Abraham Lingenfelder, John Stull, Michael 
Fockler, George Dyson, and Benjamin Spyker.'^^ At the 
outbreak of the Revolution Spyker raised a company and 
served as captain in the Flying Camp and later in the 
Maryland Line. 

74 Harbaugh's " Life of Michael Schlatter," p. 177. 
''^Maryland Gazette, June 8, 1769. 

ii6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The first settlers of Maryland brought with them a 
large number of servants, as according to the different 
" Conditions of Plantation," the amount of land which a 
settler was entitled to take up was determined by the num- 
ber of servants he brought in. It has been estimated that 
among the original emigrants the ratio of servants to free- 
men was six to oneJ® 

Later there were large numbers of Redemptioners, as 
they were called, who came to the colony. These were 
people whose services were sold to the settlers for a term 
of years, in order to pay for their passage to the colony. 
Some of the Redemptioners became so voluntarily in order 
to obtain passage to the colony, but many were forced into 
this involuntary servitude through misfortune or, as was 
often the case, through the criminality of the captains and 
owners of the ships which brought them to this country. 
While the condition in which these people found them- 
selves was one of servitude, they were, as a rule, not 
treated badly, and many of them, when their term of 
service was ended, became landowners themselves. For 
many years, however, there were few Germans among the 
Redemptioners who came to Maryland, for the reason 
that very few German emigrants landed at Maryland 
ports; but as the German settlers increased in numbers and 
prospered and required additional help, it was no unusual 
thing for them to obtain Redemptioners from Philadel- 
phia. This was only natural, for it was at that port that 
most of the Germans landed, and as the settlers naturally 
desired those of their own nationality as servants, it was 
necessary for them to go to that port to obtain them. 
That there were a great many servants obtained in this 
way is evident from the fact that in a record of Redemp- 

'8 Johnson, "Foundations of Maryland," p. 173. 



Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 117 

doners bound out on their arrival at Philadelphia, cover- 
ing a period of only two years/'^ twenty-two were sold to 
residents of Maryland. This record is interesting as 
showing the length of time these Redemptioners were to 
serve, as well as the amount paid for their services. Their 
names and the persons who secured their services are as 
follows ; 

October 8, 1771, William Harry, of " Hagars twp., 
Conecocheig, Md.," secured the services of Jacob Kreme- 
wald for 3 years and 6 months for £22.8.7. 

October 12, 177 1, George Burkhart, of Frederick, 
Maryland, secured Johan Michael Smith and his wife for 

3 years and 9 months at £39.9.1, and Rosina Trubb for 

4 years and 6 months at £19.10.7. 

October 16, 177 1, Baltzer Gole, of Hagar's-Town, 
Frederick county, secured the services of Peter Drislaan 
and his wife Elizabeth Barbara, for 5 years for £43.4.6. 
According to the terms of the indenture they were to be 
found all necessaries, and at the expiration were to have 
one new suit of apparel, besides their old clothes. 

The same day Nicholas Houer, of Frederick, obtained 
the services of Johannes Kast and his wife, Rachel Bar- 
bara, for 5 years, as servants, for £42.0.6. 

October 29, 177 1, Michael Fockler, of Frederick, 
secured Felix Meyer for 3 years for £16.11.6. 

November 11, 177 1, Joseph Neide, of Bohemia Manor, 
Cecil county, secured Christiana and Johannes Sappor, the 
former for 5 years at £22, and the latter for 14 years, i 

'''' " Record of Indentures of Individuals bound out as Apprentices, 
Servants, etc., and of German and other Redemptioners, in the office of the 
Mayor of the City of Philadelphia, October 3, 1771, to October 5, 1773," in 
Proc. and Add. of the Pennsylvania-German Society, Vol. XV., p. 9 et seq. 

ii8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

month and 21 days at £23.10.10. It was also agreed that 
Johannes should be taught to read in the Bible and write 
a legible hand. 

December 4, 1771, Michael Waggoner, of Pipe Creek 
Hundred, Frederick county, obtained the services of 
Michael Piltz and Barbara, his wife, for 3 years for £25 ; 
Casper Piltz for 13 years for £10, and Rosina Barbara 
Piltz for 7 years for £18. 

December 11, 1771, Martin Rohrer, of Conecocheague, 
Frederick county, obtained Peter Schleitz for 3 years and 
6 months for £16.13, and Daniel Volks for 6 years for 
£17.5.3. ^t the expiration of their terms of services each 
was to receive, besides the usual two suits of wearing 
apparel, an ax, a grubbing hoe, and a maul and wedges, 
or 40 shillings in money. 

December 17, 1771, John Innis, "near Conecocheig, 
Frederick Town, Frederick co., Md.," obtained Johannes 
Koch and Maria Eliza, his wife, for 4 years each, for 

July 22, 1772, Jacob Kimberlin, Jr., of Elizabeth town- 
ship, Frederick county, obtained Mary Matthews for 2 
years at £10.0.0. 

October 24, 1772, Jacob Bear, of Conecocheague, 
Frederick county, obtained George Frederick Pindle for 
II years for £14.0.0. 

May 31, 1773, Benjamin Esteurn, of Kitochin Hun- 
dred, Frederick county, obtained Catherine Manipenny as 
a servant, for 5 shillings. No term was specified in this 

Negro slaves were owned in Maryland from a very 
early period. The culture of tobacco required the services 
of a large number of servants and this need was most 
readily supplied through this source. As the German 

Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 119 

settlers became more numerous and required more assist- 
ance they naturally adopted the customs of their neighbors 
and acquired negro slaves. Some of them had religious 
scruples against slavery, but, as a rule, they followed the 
custom of the country and continued owning slaves until, 
at least, the early years of the nineteenth century, as 
shown by the following advertisement in the Hagerstown 
Herald of Friday, February 28, 1806, by the son of a 
Pennsylvania-German who settled in Maryland at a very 
early date : 


Ran away from the subscriber, living near the Big 
Spring, about 12 miles from Hagerstown, in Wash- 
ington county, Maryland, on Sunday, the i6th 
inst. a Negro Woman named Dinah, about 5 feet 
3 or 4 inches high, 23 or 24 years of age, squints 
with the left eye; had on and took with her one 
light calico gown, one blue and one dark; two 
jackets, one blue and one light; a white petticoat, 
two linsey jackets & two petticoats; two home made 
shifts, one bonnet of lead colour trimmed with black, 
and a new pair of shoes. Whoever takes up and 
secures said runaway in any jail, shall have, if taken 
up within 15 miles of home Five Dollars, and if a 
greater distance the above reward, to which will be 
added all reasonable charges if brought back. 

Daniel Nead. 

February 21, 1806. 

It was not at all unusual for the Germans to free a 
slave by giving him manumission papers, and much more 
frequently they were freed by will, as was the case with 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Peter Hoeflich, one of the first settlers In Hagerstown, 
whose will directed that " In relation to my negro man 
Arnold, it is my will that he be emancipated in three years 
from the ist day of May, A. D. eighteen hundred and 
twenty-five, but he must make up all lost time during the 
three years that is lost from my death until he becomes 


The Border Troubles. 

"J^HE unfortunate contro- 
^ versy between William 
Penn and his heirs and the 
Lords Baltimore over the 
boundary between the colonies 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania 
had its foundation in the fact 
that at the time the respective 
charters were granted there 
was no accurate map of the 
country in existence. At the time the charter was Issued 
to Lord Baltimore the territory It embraced was an un- 
known and unexplored wilderness. At that time It was 
not, relatively, of much importance to have the northern 
boundary of the colony strictly defined, the question be- 
coming a serious one only after William Penn had received 
his charter, half a century later. 

The map used in defining the boundary between the two 
colonies was the one made by Captain John Smith, in 
1606, and while this map was remarkably accurate, con- 
sidering the difficulties under which It was made, yet it 
was not absolutely so, particularly in the marking of the 


122 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

various parallels of latitude; and It was this variation 
which was the chief cause of trouble later on. The 
charter granted to Lord Baltimore fixed the northern 
boundary of his colony at the fortieth parallel of north 
latitude, and the charter granted to Penn, fifty years later, 
defined the same point as the southern boundary of his 
demesne. Had this fortieth parallel been where It was 
supposed to be, and where the maps of the period showed 
It to be, there probably would have been no trouble. At 
the same time, the wording of the Maryland charter Is 
very far from being clear. According to It Maryland was 
to extend "unto that part of the bay of Delaware on the 
north, which lleth under the fortieth degree of north lati- 
tude from the equinoctial." It will be noted that the 
charter does not say that the province was to extend to 
the fortieth parallel of north latitude, which was Lord 
Baltimore's contention, but to the territory on Delaware 
Bay "which lieth under the 40th degree." Now the 
fortieth degree begins where the thirty-ninth ends: at the 
thirty-ninth parallel of north latitude, so that a strict con- 
struction of the letter of the charter would fix the northern 
boundary of Maryland at the thirty-ninth parallel of north 

A great deal has been written on this controversy, most 
of which Is so strongly tinctured with the partisan bias of 
the writer, that it is difiicult to arrive at a correct under- 
standing of the subject. It Is no doubt a fact that both 
Penn and Baltimore honestly believed in the correctness 
and justice of their respective claims; at the same time, 
neither one can be absolved from the charge of Indulging 
In sharp practices in their efforts to fortify those claims. 

From the first settlement of the colony of Maryland 
Lord Baltimore was more or less active in looking after 

The Border Troubles. 123 

his rights on the northern boundary of his colony, but the 
question did not become acute until about the close of the 
first quarter of the eighteenth century. Shortly after the 
Dutch had captured the Swedish colony on the Delaware, 
in 1659, the Maryland authorities sent Col. Nathaniel 
Utie to notify Governor Alrichs, at New Amstel, that the 
settlers on the Delaware must either acknowledge the 
jurisdiction of Maryland over that colony or abandon the 
settlement, threatening dire consequences in the event of 
failure to comply with the notice. Col. Utie is said even 
to have taken the trouble to serve similar notices on the 
Individual settlers. However, the Dutch authorities, after 
threatening to arrest Utie, paid little attention to the 
notice and nothing came of it. 

William Penn was hardly settled in the possession of 
his colony when the same question came up. At a meeting 
of the Provincial Council, on April 3, 1684, a letter was 
received from Samuel Landis, High Sheriff of the County 
of Newcastle. As the old record has it, " Samuel Lands' 
Letter was read. Concerning Coll. Geo: Talbot's goeing 
with three Musqueters to y® houses of Widdow Ogle, 
Jonas Erskin & Andreis Tille, and tould them that if they 
would not forthwith yield Obedience to y® Lord Balte- 
more, & Own him to be their Propor, and pay rent to him, 
he would Tourne them out of their houses and take their 
Land from them."^^ This information caused consider- 
able excitement, particularly as Sheriff Landis reported 
that Jonas Askins had heard Col. Talbot say that if 
William Penn himself should come into Maryland on his 
way to Susquehanna Fort, he would seize him and retain 
him, and Penn himself wrote out a com.mission to William 

'8 Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, Vol. I., p. 113. 

124 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Welch, John Simcock and James Harrison to investigate 
the matter and reportJ^ But outside of writing some 
letters back and forth between the Pennsylvania and 
Maryland authorities nothing was done. 

Two years later, at a meeting of the Provincial Council, 
on June 5, 1686, the record states that 

" John White Informes this board that y® Marylanders have 
Lately Reinforced their fort at Christina and y* they would not 
suffer him to Cutt hay, but thrittend those he Imployed to do it 
w**^ their gunns presented against them, and y*^ what hay they had 
Cutt y® Mary Landers would not suffer them to Carry it away, 
and if they did Cutt any more y® Marylanders sayd they would 
throw it in to y® River. And further Informs that Majr English 
a few Days past came in to y® County of New Castle with about 
fourty armed horse men ; Left them at John Darby's whilst Majr 
Inglish and a Mary Land Capt Came to New Castle, where John 
White meeting him made Complaint to him of the abuses don 
him by y^ Mary Landers at y® fort. Majr English tould him that 
if Thou wilt say you Drunken Dogg, ned Inglish lett me Cutt 
hay, I will give you Leave: Whereupon y® sd John White Re- 
quested y® Councill's advice how he should behave himselfe in this 
affaire. The Councill advised him to use no Violence, but bear 
with patience, not Doubting but y® King will soon put an End 
to all their hostile actions against his Collony."^" 

The boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania not 
being clearly defined, and the authorities of both colonies 
claiming jurisdiction over certain sections, It was but 
natural that there should be frequent clashes and a gen- 
erally unsettled condition of affairs. As both colonies de- 
manded taxes from the settlers in the disputed territory the 
latter scarcely knew what to do, although some of them 

^* Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Vol. I., p. 85. 
80 Colonial Records, Vol. I., p. \%%\ 

The Border Troubles. 125 

acknowledged allegiance to that province which seemed 
most likely to further their own plans. 

The lands lying to the west of the Susquehanna river 
were among the most fertile to be found in either of the 
two provinces and being, therefore, very desirable, every 
opportunity was sought to gain access to and settle upon 
them. When William Penn made his early treaties with 
the Indians it was agreed that he should have the right 
to take up lands in that section on either side of the 
Susquehanna, but it was mutually understood that the lands 
lying to the west of the Susquehanna should not be settled 
until they had been formally purchased from the Indians. 
There was no written agreement to this effect, at least none 
has ever been found, but frequent references to it indicate 
that it was in existence, at least verbally. The desirable 
lands along the west bank of the Susquehanna within the 
territory in dispute were eagerly desired, and It was in 
connection with them that the chief trouble arose. 

The controversy over the disputed territory became 
prominent at an early date. At a meeting of the Provin- 
cial Council of Pennsylvania, on February 15, 17 17, 

" the Governr acquainted the Board that the Proprietors Com- 
missioners of Property had lately Represented to him in Writing, 
that certain persons from Maryland had, Under Colour of Rights 
from that province, lately Survey'd out Lands not far from Con- 
estogo, & near the thickest of our settlements to the Great Dis- 
turbance of the Inhabitants there, and that for preventing the 
Disorders which might arise from such Incroachments, they De- 
sir'd that magistrates & proper officers should be appointed in those 
parts in order to Prevent the like for the ffuture. The Governour 
also imparted to the Board the Copy of a Letter which he had 
wrote on this Occasion to Collo. Hart, Governour of Maryland, 
and further added, that this Day the Secretary had shewn him a 

126 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Letter from Collo. ffrench, Informing of ffurther Designs of the 
same kind, that the same persons from Maryland was Immediately 
upon putting in Execucon; That hereupon he thought it neces- 
sary fforthwith to Call the Council, as he now did, and Desired 
their Advice what methods might be most proper to be taken in 
the premises."*^ 

The members of the Council recognized the importance 
of the matter and ordered that a commission be prepared 
appointing Col. French ranger and keeper, with instruc- 
tions to take such steps as might be agreed upon. It was 
also decided to appoint magistrates for that section. But 
the trouble was not to be so easily allayed. The settlers 
from the south wanted those fertile lands and were de- 
termined to have them, if it were possible. 

It was not very difficult to prevent the Pennsylvania 
settlers from crossing the Susquehanna and occupying 
lands to the west of that river, but it was altogether dif- 
ferent with those who came up from Maryland. The 
authorities of the latter colony claimed jurisdiction over 
the territory In dispute, and If they did not actually Issue 
warrants for land in that section they at least made no 
efforts to prevent the Maryland settlers from taking up 
land in the territory which the Pennsylvania authorities 
claimed to belong to that province. Although It had been 
agreed between Penn and the Indians that no settlements 
should be made to the west of the Susquehanna until the 
land was actually purchased, the aggressive actions of the 
Marylanders in taking up lands alarmed the Indians, who 
complained to Governor Keith, of Pennsylvania, and the 
latter, in the hope that further trouble might be avoided 
by taking up the land, persuaded the Indians to allow a 

81 Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, Vol. III., p. 37. 

The Border Troubles. 127 

large tract of land on the west bank of the Susquehanna to 
be surveyed into a manor for the use of Sprlngett Penn, 
and to be known at Springettsbury Manor. Writing to 
the Pennsylvania Council from Conestoga on June 18, 
1722, Governor Keith says: 

"Finding the Indians, since I came last here, to be very much 
alarmed with the noise of an intended survey from Mary Land, 
upon the Banks of Sasquehannah, I held a Council with them at 
Conestogoe, upon Tuesday & Saturday last, wherein I proposed 
to them to Cause a large Tract of Land to be surveyed on the 
Side of that River for the Proprietor, to begin from the Upper 
Line of my new settlement six miles back, & extending downwards 
upon the River as far as over against the mouth of Conestogoe 

He went on to say that the Indians were pleased with 
the proposition, and that having heard that the Mary- 
landers proposed setting out for Pennsylvania on that day 
he intended having the survey made at once. The land 
was surveyed on June 19 and 20, 1722, but this action did 
not have the efFect Intended, In keeping the colonists from 
Maryland from settling on the land. In the following 
year a number of people from Maryland took up land In 
that locality, among them being Edward Parnell, Jeffrey 
Summerfield, Michael Tanner and Paul Williams, who 
settled near the Indian town of Conejohela. In 1728 
these settlers were driven off by the Pennsylvania authori- 
ties, and as no warrants for the land could be Issued, the 
Proprietary land office having been closed from 17 18 to 
1732, during the minorities of Thomas and Richard Penn, 
and the land not having been purchased from the Indians, 
Samuel Blunston, of Wright's Ferry, v/as authorized to 

82 Ibid., p. 178. 

128 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

issue licenses to settlers to take up land on the west of the 
Susquehanna river. These licenses were promises to grant 
the holders patents for the land they settled, and about 
twelve thousand acres were taken up under these licenses, 
and after the territory was purchased from the Indians, in 
1736, the patents were signed by the Proprietary, Thomas 
Penn, at Lancaster.^^ 

But even these proceedings could not keep back the 
settlers from Maryland. In March, 1730, Thomas 
Cresap received a grant from Maryland for the land from 
which the Pennsylvanians had driven Parnell and others a 
couple of years before, and settled upon it. With the 
coming of Cresap the trouble among the settlers in the 
disputed territory became more acute, and it was not very 
long before it culminated in a condition of actual warfare 
along the border. It is difficult at this day to form an 
accurate opinion of the character of Cresap. According 
to the Pennsylvanians he was a quarrelsome, lawless in- 
dividual whose home was a rendezvous for criminals and 
fugitives from justice and other disreputable characters, 
who were banded together under the leadership of Cresap ; 
while from the viewpoint of the Marylanders he was a 
law-abiding citizen of that province who was continually 
being interfered with in his efforts to develop the land 
which had been granted to him. It is a pretty well estab- 
lished fact, however, that either under an agreement with 
Governor Ogle, of Maryland, or, at least, with the con- 
nivance of the latter, Cresap made his advent and organ- 
ized a body of followers numbering about fifty for the 
express purpose of driving the settlers from the territory 
along the west bank of the Susquehanna ; those settlers, at 
least, who acknowledged the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, 

88 "History of Waynesboro," by Benjamin M. Nead, p. 25. 

The Border Troubles. 129 

and it is evident that whatever the character of Cresap may 
have been he proposed to accomplish that end, no matter 
what means might have to be employed. A campaign of 
bluster was started and many of the settlers were ordered 
to leave under threats of dire punishment in case they did 
not heed the notice to leave. 

A good idea of the state of affairs may be gathered 
from a letter written to the Governor of Pennsylvania by 
John Wright and Samuel Blunston, under date of October 
30, 1732, in which they say: 

" About two years Since, Thomas Cressop, and some other people 
of Loose Morals and Turbulent Spirits, Came and disturbed the 
Indians, our friends and Allies, who were peaceably Settled on 
those Lands from whence the said Parnel and others had been 
removed. Burnt their Cabbins, and destroyed their Goods, And 
with much threatening and Ill-usage, drove them away; and by 
pretending to be under the Maryland government (as they were 
got far from their Laws, Sought to Evade ours). Thus they 
proceeded to play booty. Disturbing the Peace of the Government, 
Carrying people out of the Province by Violence, Taking away 
the Guns from our friends, the Indians, Tying and making them 
Prisoners, without any offence given; And threatening all who 
should oppose them; And by Underhand and Unfair practices, 
Endeavoring to Alienate the minds of the Inhabitants of this 
Province, and Draw them (from Obedience) to their party. 
Their Insolence Increasing, they Killed the horses of Such of our 
people whose trade with the Indians made it Necessary to Keep 
them on that Side of the river, for Carrying their Goods & Skins; 
Assaulted those who were sent to look after them, and threatened 
them Highly if they should Come there again. "^* 

Among those who sought a refuge in Cresap's house 
was Samuel Chance, a debtor of Edward Carthdge, an 

8* Pennsylvania Archives, First Ser., Vol. I., p. 364. 

130 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Indian trader. Cartlidge's son arranged to capture 
Chance and bring him back. Cresap was operating a 
ferry across the Susquehanna river and Chance was help- 
ing him in running his boats. On one occasion, on the 
last day of October, 1730, when Cresap and Chance were 
called to the east side of the river, they found there a 
party consisting of Edward Beddock, Rice Morgan, and a 
negro belonging to Cartlidge. The party embarked in 
the boat and when in mid-stream they attacked Cresap, 
threw him overboard and rowed back to land with Chance. 
Cresap succeeded in landing on an island in the river, 
from which he was later taken by an Indian. He made 
a report of this proceeding to the Governor of Maryland, 
embodied in a deposition made before Benjamin Tasker,^^ 
in which he claimed that Chance was a debtor of hi« and 
was working for him to discharge part of his indebtedness. 
In sending this deposition to Governor Gordon, of Penn- 
sylvania, the Governor of Maryland wrote that he had 
been told by some Indians " that they were offered a good 
reward by one Cartlidge, of Conestogoe, to drive Said 
Cresap and his family off his land and bum his home." 

Disturbances were continually breaking out, armed 
parties coming up from Maryland and threatening the 
settlers, and being met by armed posses of Pennsylvanians. 
As a rule, these encounters were bloodless battles, although 
not always was this the case. In the early part of 1734 
John Emerson, a Lancaster lawyer who had been ap- 
pointed ranger and keeper of Conestoga manor, went to 
Cresap's house to arrest him. He took with him his 
servant, Knowles Daunt, and five others. Cresap fired on 
the party and Daunt received a wound from the effects 
of which he died. 

88 Ibid., p. 311. 

The Border Troubles. 13 1 

In July, 1735, Cresap came to the plantation of John 
Wright with an armed party and announced that they had 
come to fight, but his blustering attitude had little effect 
upon Wright and the party retired without opening hostili- 
ties. Shortly after this Governor Ogle, of Maryland, 
ordered the militia of Baltimore and Harford counties, 
under Colonels Rigsbe and Hall, to muster for the purpose 
of going up into the disputed territory to distrain for the 
Maryland levies which had been made among the inhabi- 
tants of that region. Information to this effect having 
reached the Lancaster county magistrates, they induced 
Benjamin Chambers, of the Conococheague settlement 
(now Chambersburg) , to go to the muster and learn all 
he could concerning it. Colonel Chambers made the trip 
and although he was at first regarded as a spy he was 
finally allowed to depart, and hurrying to Donegal where 
many of the settlers had gathered for a house-raising, he 
reported the results of his investigations, and a large party 
of armed men immediately left for Wright's ferry, where 
they met the Marylanders, and the latter, considering 
themselves overmatched, returned to Maryland.^^ 

In 1736, in a letter to the President and Council of 
Pennsylvania, John Wright describes another invasion. 
Under date of Tuesday, September 7th, he writes: 

"After our Sheriff and People had waited some time in ex- 
pectation of the Marylanders arrival, & were mostly Dispersed, on 
Saturday night last, the Sheriff of Baltimore and the greater part 
of their Military officers, with upwards of two Hundred Men, 
arrived at Cressap's, and about noon on Saturdays came in Arms, 
on horseback, with Beat of Drum and sound of Trumpet, to Hen- 
dricks, their Sheriff, and several other Gentlemen, that afternoon, 
at different times, came to John Wright, Jun., where about thirty 

88 Pennsylvania Archives, First Ser., Vol. IV., p. 535. 

132 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of our People were Lodged, to Demand the Dutch who were some 
of them in his house. Our sheriff sent them a written message, 
desireing to know the Reason of their coming in that Hostile 
manner, to threaten the peace of our Province, They Dated their 
answer from John Hendricks, in Baltimore County. However, 
Justice Guest, one of their Company, appointed ten o'clock the 
next day to speak with some of our People; but about five that 
evening, they left Hendricks with great Precipitation, and went 
to Cressap's. Yesterday our Sheriff sent a written message that 
he had orders to Command them peacably to Depart; But if 
any of their Company would meet the Magistrates, and some other 
Persons of our County, who were with him, and endeavour ami- 
cably to settle those unhappy Differences at present subsisting in 
these parts, they sho^ receive no Insults or 111 usage. To which 
their sheriff return'd a Insolent and threatening answer in writing, 
& much more by word of mouth. Soon after John Wilkins, one 
of our Company, unknown to the rest, went down to Cressap's, 
whom they took prisoner, upon pretence of his having been in a 
former Riot, & sent under a Guard towards Maryland. Our 
Magistrates sent them a Letter, to desire Wilkins might be suf- 
fered to return home, which they refused to receive. 'Tis said 
a messenger is sent down to their Governor, who is still waiting 
in Baltimore County, and is expected up this day w*'* considerable 
more force. 

" Our Sheriff with about a hundred and fifty people, have been, 
since Sunday evening, at John Wright's, Jun. No hostilitys have 
as yet been Committed, except the taking of Wilkins; But they 
have sent our People word this day to take care of their Buffs. 
Had we arms & ammunition, of which we are almost Destitute, 
we Judge, from the Disposition of our People, that we might come 
of with Honour; But for want of them, they think it not safe 
to wait upon such a number of armed men to the limits of our 
promise; But to endeavor to Defend such of his Majesties peace- 
able subjects, as are fled from their own Houses, and come to 
them for Refuge. Sam^ Blunston came home from the other side 

The Border Troubles. 133 

the River in the night, last night, and Immediately return'd. He 
desired this account might be sent to you; which for the want of 
a better Hand to do it, I have very faithfully performed."^^ 

The Pennsylvania authorities finally came to the con- 
clusion that matters had been allowed to drift long enough, 
and decided to have Cresap arrested for the murder of 
Knowles Daunt. A warrant, dated September 5, 1736, 
was, therefore, issued by Jeremiah Langhorne and 
Thomas Greeme, magistrates of Philadelphia.^^ This 
was placed in the hands of Samuel Smith, sheriff of Lan- 
caster county, and on the night of November 24, 1736, 
with a posse of about thirty men, he surrounded Cresap's 
house. Cresap's party at once opened fire on the posse 
and In the fight one of the sheriff's party was wounded. 
Finding that nothing could be accomplished In this way, 
the sheriff ordered Cresap's house to be set on fire. This 
was done, and when the fire had gained considerable head- 
way the entire party rushed out, firing as they came. In 
the confusion of their escape from the burning building, 
Michael Relsner, one of Cresap's party, accidentally shot 
and killed Lauchlan Malone, another of the party. As he 
came from the house Cresap was overpowered, and with 
several of his party was sent to Philadelphia, where he was 
confined In jail. It Is said that when he was being taken 
through the streets of Philadelphia he looked around and 
said: "Why, this Is the finest city In the province of Mary- 
land !"^^ He was confined In jail for over a year and 
when finally released returned to Maryland and settled 
at Antletam. 

87 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Ser., Vol, VII., p. 213. 

88 Pennsylvania Archives, First Ser., Vol. I., p. 489. 
s'Scharf's "History of Western Maryland," Vol. I., p. 114. 

134 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

About the same time the following communication was 
sent to the Governor of Maryland :^*^ 

_, Lancaster County in Pensilvania 


The Oppression and ill Usage We have met with from the 
Government of Maryland, or at least from such Persons who have 
been empovuered thereby and their Proceedings connived at, has 
been a Treatment (as We are well informed) very different from 
that which the Tenants of your Government have generally met 
with, which with many other cogent Reasons, give Us good Cause 
to conclude the Governor and Magistrates of that Province do 
not themselves believe Us to be settled within the real Bounds of 
his Lordships Dominions, but we have been seduced & made Use 
of, first by fair Promises, and afterwards by Threats and Punish- 
ments to answer Purposes which are at present unjustifiable, and 
will if pursued tend to Utter Ruin. 

We therefore the Subscribers with many Others Our Neigh- 
bours being become at last truly sensible of the Wrong we have 
done the Proprietors of Pensilvania in settling on their Lands 
without paying Obedience to their Government do resolve to re- 
turn to our Duty and live under the Laws and Government of 
Pensilvania, in which Province We believe Our selves seated. 

To this We unanimously resolve to adhere 'till the Contrary 
shall be determined by a legal Decision of the Disputed Bounds, 
and Our honest and just Intention we desire may be communicated 
to the Governor of Maryland or whom else it may concern. 

Signed with Our Own hands this Eleventh day of August 
Anno Dom. 1736. 

Michael Tanner Jacob Welshoffer Charles Jones Nicholas Baun 
Henry Lib Hart Henry Hendrix Jacob Lawnius 

Martin Schultz Christian Crowler Francis Worley jun"" 
Tobias Fray Balthar Shambargier Jacob Seglaer his X mark 

Martin Fray George Scobell Nicholas Birij Jacob Grable 

Jacob Seglaer Philip Sanglaer Henry Stantz 

Caspar Sanglaer Tobias Bright & al 

»o Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXVIIL, p. 100. 

The Border Troubles. 135 

Two days later the following communication was sent 
by the same persons and others to the Governor and 
Council of Pennsylvania :^^ 

The Petition of most of the Inhabitants on the west side of the 
Sasquehanna River, opposite to Hempfield, in the County of Lan- 
caster, Humbly Sheweth, that your petitioners, two or three years 
past, (Being many of us newly arrived in America,) and altogether 
strangers to the Boundaries of the two Provinces of Pennsylvania 
& Maryland, were, by many plausable pretences and fair promises, 
persuaded to settle under the Government of the latter, supposing 
from what we were then told, that these lands were within that 
Province, And that the River Sasquehanna was the Division. But 
after we were seated, finding the usage we received was very 
different from that to the rest of the Government, and what small 
substance we had, was made a pray to some persons impowered 
by them. And th" we often made known our cause of complaint, 
could have no redress, nor the promises, which had been first made 
us, in the least Regarded. Being also lately told by some in 
power there that we were worse than Negroes, for that we had no 
Master, nor were under the protection of any laws, and since 
informed by them, that the River Sasquehanna, could not be the 
bounds, as we had been at first told, but that an East and West 
Line would Divide the Provinces. And also, observing that the 
People on the East side of said River, Inhabitants of Pennsylvania, 
who live much more to the Southward than we Do, Enjoyed their 
possessions peaceably, without any Disturbance or claim from the 
Province of Maryland. We, from these reasons. Concluded we 
had been imposed upon and Deluded, to answer some purposes of 
the Government of Maryland, which are not justifiable, and 
might, in the end, tend to our Ruin; and that we were not settled 
within the true and Real bounds of that Province, as we had been 
made to believe. And from a sense thereof, and of the wrong we 
were doing to the Proprietors of Pennsylvania, in Living on their 

*^ Pennsylvania Archives, Second Set., Vol. VII., p. 215. 

136 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Lands, (as we now conceive we are,) without paying the acknowl- 
edgements due to them for the same, and in denying Obedience 
to the Laws of your Government, Unanimously Resolved to Re- 
turn to our Duty. Your Humble Petitioners, therefore, pray you 
would Impute our late Errors to our want of better Information, 
And would be pleased to Receive us under the Protection of your 
Laws and Government. To which for the future we promise all 
faithful obedience and submission and in Granting this our humble 
Petition your petitioners as in Duty bound shall ever pray for 
your Health and Prosperity. Signed with our own hands and 
Dated the thirteenth day of August, one thousand seven hundred 
and thirty-six. 

The receipt of this paper, together with the knowledge 
that a similar communication had been sent to the Presi- 
dent and Council of Pennsylvania, angered the Maryland 
authorities, and at a meeting of the Maryland Council, 
held on October 21, 1736, it was put on record that the 
Council had good reason to be assured that this action on 
the part of the settlers in the disputed territory had been 
Instigated and countenanced " by some who pretended to 
be Magistrates and Residents of Pennsylvania." The 
Council went on to say that such proceedings "may have 
the most mischievous Consequences, not only to the Peace 
of this Province, but also in the Example which may be 
thereby given to any other of his Majestys Subjects dar- 
ing to refuse Subjection to the Government in which they 
live and reside. "^^ They, therefore, adopted a resolution 
directing that a proclamation be Issued offering a reward 
for the arrest of " all who have acted, countenanced or 
abetted the Actors in any of the Matters aforesaid." 

In accordance with this resolution, on October 21, 1736 
Governor Ogle Issued a proclamation offering a reward of 

»2 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXVIIL, p. loi. 

The Border Troubles. 137 

one hundred pounds each for the arrest of Samuel 
Blunston and John Wright, magistrates, Samuel Smith, 
sheriff, and Edward Smoute; twenty pounds each for the 
arrest of Michael Tanner, Christian Crowie, Mark Evans, 
Charles Jones, the constable, and Joshua Minshall; and 
ten pounds each for the arrest of the following persons: 
Jacob Grabill, Jacob Seglaer, Conrad Lowe, Christian 
Lowe, Jacob Seglaer, Jr., Michael Aringall, Philip 
Seglaer, Dennis Myer, Hance Stanner, Tobias Spright, 
Tobias Henricks, Leonard Immel, Balchar Sangar, 
Michael Wallack, Michael Evat, Michael Miller, Jasper 
Carvell, George Swope, George Philler, Nicholas 
Butchlere, Andrew Phlavlere, Henry Stantz, Henry Lep- 
hart, Peter Gartner, Jacob Lawnious, Nicholas Conn, 
Conrad Strlcklaer, Henry Bowen, Francis Worley, Jun""., 
Martin Sluys, Jacob Hoopinder, Michael Raishlere, 
Tobias Fry, Martin Fry, Henry Smith, Jacob Welshoffer, 
Henry Henricks, Adam Byard, Godfrey Fry, Methusalem 
Griffith, Bartholomew Shambarriere, Nicholas Hatchey, 
Yorrick Cobell, Henry Young, Michael Waltz, Kelyon 
Smith, Caspar Varglass, Martin Wyngall, Nicholas Peery, 
Bryonex Tandre and Eurick Myer. 

Michael Tanner, Joshua Minshall and Charles Jones 
were arrested and confined In the jail at Annapolis. 

In spite of these actions the disorder along the border 
continued, and finally the matter was brought to the atten- 
tion of the King, and by an order In council, dated August 
18, 1737, the Governors of Maryland and Pennsylvania 
were commanded to put a stop to the disorders and grant 
no more warrants for land in the disputed territory until 
the boundary question was settled. In 1738 an agreement 
was made for the running of a provisional line between the 
provinces which was not to interfere with the actual pos- 

138 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

sessions of the settlers, but was merely to suspend all grants 
in the disputed territory until the final settlement of the 
boundary question. 

This settled the border warfare, but some years later 
another matter came up which, for a time, threatened to 
drive a large number of the German settlers from western 
Maryland. It was but natural that quite frequently some 
of the settlers were not able to meet the payments of quit- 
rents as they fell due and at length it became the custom to 
turn these claims over to the sheriffs for collection, and 
these officers frequently added such an exorbitant amount 
as commissions and penalties, that it finally became a ques- 
tion whether many of the Germans would remain in the 
province. The matter was brought before the Council by 
Governor Ogle at a meeting held on June 7, 1748. In 
his statement he says: 

" Sometimes Lists (which the People call Black lists) have been 
Delivered to the Sheriffs of arrears of Rents due and when such 
lists have been so Delivered, the Sheriffs have not only Charged 
the People a Commission of Ten p Cent for Receiving the Money 
but also a fee of 168 pounds of Tobacco, till Lately it has been 
reduced to 126 or 15 shillings Altho the Money has been Paid 
them and they never made any Distress; This has been Submitted 
to by Several because they did not know but that the demand 
was lust, and if otherwise they knew not how to obtain any Relief 
without Puting themselves to a greater expence in seeking Relief 
than the fees and ten p Cent were worth. But of Late these 
particulars have been carried to so great a length that it has made 
a great many People Resolve to Leave their habitations and the 
Province, rather than to submit to such Impositions (as they have 
been lately informed they were) and Several are actually gone, 
and others Intend to follow as soon as they can dispose of what 
they have, at any rate: The Present Sheriff having one of these 

The Border Troubles. 139 

Black Lists on or about the eighth day of March last past, an under 
sheriff Summoned the Persons to attend the high Sheriff at Fred- 
erick Town, which they accordingly did, and Paid down all that 
was Demanded of them together with Ten p Cent (except Stephen 
Ranspergen who did not Pay the ten p Cent) and every one of 
them Paid fifteen shillings to the Sheriff."^' 

The Governor also submitted the names of the follow- 
ing persons who had paid the fifteen shillings penalty: 
Jacob Foot, Peter Apple, Henry Trout, Melcar Wher- 
field, Christian Thomas, Peter Hoffman, Christian Get- 
soner, Stephen Ransbergen, Henry Roads, Conrad Kemp, 
Francis Wise, Jacob Smith, George Lye, Isaac Miller, 
Thomas Johnson, Joseph Browner, Henry Browner, Nick 
Frisk, John Smith, John Browner, Jacob Browner, Ken. 
Backdolt, Nicholas Reisner, David Delaitre, Martin 
WIsell, Casper WIndred and Peter Shaffer. 

In a deposition by Stephen Ransbergen, dated May 6, 
1748, he says: 

"A Great Number of the Germans and some others were 
so much alarmed by the Sheriffs Proceedings, that Several of them 
have already left the Province, and others have declared, that as 
soon as they could sell what they are Possessed off, they would go 
away, many of the Germans declaring that they being Oppressed 
in their Native Country, Induced them to Leave it, and that they 
were Apprehensive of being Equally oppressed here, and that there- 
fore they would go away to avoid it."®* 

Several other depositions to the same effect were read at 
this meeting of the Council, and the sheriff of Prince 
George's county and the farmer of quit-rents being present, 
Governor Ogle Instructed the sheriff that he should be 

»3 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXVIII., p. 420. 
** Ibid., p. 423. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

very careful in exacting no fees from the people and in 
doing nothing that was not warranted by law, and to the 
farmers he said that " they should use all the lenity possible 
in collecting the quit-rents from the people." This dis- 
position of the matter seems to have settled the trouble, as 
nothing further is heard of it. 

The boundary question was not finally settled, however, 
until the two English surveyors, Charles Mason and 
Jeremiah Dixon, ran the line which has gone into history 
as Mason and Dixon's Line. This survey was started in 
December, 1763, and the surveyors were finally discharged 
in December, 1767. This line was marked at intervals of 
a mile by stone monuments, every fifth monument having 
carved on the northern side the arms of Penn and on the 
southern side the arms of Lord Baltimore. 

The French and Indian War. 


HE amicable relations with the 
Indians established by the first 
colonists in Maryland continued for 
more than a century. There was never 
any trouble, at least with the southern 
Indians, and the latter assisted the col- 
onists in defending themselves when 
the northern Indians became threaten- 
ing. It was not until the redmen were 
drawn into the quarrels between Eng- 
land and France that trouble arose for 
the Marylanders. 
The war between England and France was ended by 
the treaty signed at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, but that treaty 
did not settle the question of the boundaries between the 
colonies of the two countries in America. At that time 
the territory under the control of England embraced only 
a rather narrow strip along the Atlantic coast, and did not 
extend very far to the westward, although the English 


142 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

claimed the country westward to the Pacific ocean. In the 
possession of France was Canada, on the north, and the 
Louisiana territory, on the south, and the French claims 
included all the territory between these two sections. It 
was the design of the French to connect these two colonies 
by a line of forts extending from the Bay of Fundy to the 
Gulf of Mexico, by way of the St. Lawrence, the lakes, 
and the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. As early as 1745 
the Marquis de la Galissoniere, the Governor-general of 
Canada, had begun putting this scheme into execution. 

The British government naturally made its own prep- 
arations to check this advance of the French, which would 
cut off the English from pushing farther westward, and 
in pursuance of its plans in 1749 made a grant of five 
hundred thousand acres of land to the Ohio Company, an 
association made up of a number of residents of Mary- 
land and Virginia. The territory covered by this grant 
lay on the south side of the Ohio river, between the 
Kanawha and Monongahela rivers. According to the 
terms of this grant a large part of the land was to be 
settled immediately, one hundred families were to settle 
upon it within seven years and a fort was to be erected and 
maintained as a defense against the Indians. 

When the Marquis Du Quesne de Menneville succeeded 
the Marquis Galissoniere as Governor-general, in 1752, 
he continued the policy of his predecessor and rapidly ex- 
tended the fortifications along the lakes, and in 1753 
erected a fort at Presque Isle, now Erie, Pennsylvania, and 
one on the Riviere aux Boeufs, now French Creek. In 
working out their plan the French endeavored as far as 
possible to make friends with the Indians and turn the 
latter against the English. In this design they were 
largely successful, being aided by the fears of the Indians 

The French and Indian War. 143. 

on account of the encroachment of the English settlers on 
the redmen's domain. Through the intrigues of the 
French, on the one hand, and the spreading out of the 
English settlements, on the other, it required but a small 
spark to fire the train already laid and cause it to break 
out into a fierce conflagration. 

The Ohio Company proceeded to carry out the terms of 
its grant and at the beginning of 1754 a small company of 
militia furnished by Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, 
started to build a fort at the Forks of the Ohio. The 
officers of this company were William Trent, captain; 
John Frazer, Lieutenant, and Edward Ward, Ensign. 
On April 17, 1754, during the absence of both the captain 
and lieutenant, Contrecoeur, the French commander at 
Riviere aux Boeufs, made his appearance with a force of 
several hundred men and compelled Ensign Ward to sur- 
render. The Frenchman at once went ahead with the 
erection of the fort, enlarging it and making it more 
formidable, and named it Fort Du Quesne. At the time 
of the surrender a body of three hundred militia, sent by 
Governor Dinwiddle to garrison the fort, were on their 
way to the Forks of the Ohio. These troops were under 
the command of Colonel Joshua Fry and Lieutenant- 
colonel George Washington. News of the surrender of 
the fort by Ensign Ward reached these officers while at 
Will's Creek, and they advanced very cautiously. Hear- 
ing that a French force under Coulson de Jumonville was 
not far away, Washington went out to meet them, and in 
the fight that ensued de Jumonville and a number of his 
men were killed and the rest of them taken prisoners. Not 
long after this Colonel Fry being killed by a fall from his 
horse, Washington became the commander of the expedi- 
tion. When Contrecoeur, the commander at Fort Ehi 

144 ^^^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Quesne, heard of this fight, he sent a party of six hundred 
men against Washington's force The latter hastily con- 
structed a fortification at Great Meadows, which he called 
Fort Necessity. Here he was attacked on July 3, 1754, 
and not being able to hold the place against a superior 
force, he was compelled to surrender. He retreated to 
Will's Creek, now Cumberland, where his force went into 
camp, and he returned to Virgina to acquaint Governor 
Dinwiddie with the result of the expedition. 

This was the beginning of the struggle that was to last 
for years and to almost depopulate some sections of the 
country. The German settlers of western Maryland were 
nearest to the scene of hostilities and they were, for a time 
at least, to endure all the horrors of a bloody warfare with 
a savage foe. They did their part, too, in defending the 
country against the invaders, in spite of the fact that 
Governor Sharpe did not have much faith in their willing- 
ness to do so. On November 3, 1754 he wrote: 

"It is expected I apprehend from your letter that the Germans 
who have imported themselves into these Provinces will be found 
as ready as they are capable of bearing Arms on the Occasion, but 
I can assure you that whatever Character they may deserve for 
Courage or military skill I despair of seeing any of them so for- 
ward as to offer themselves Voluntiers under my Command unless 
the Enemy was to approach so far as actually to deprive them of 
their Habitations & Possessions of which alone they are found 

The provinces of Pennsylvania and Virginia were the 
ones which were chiefly interested in holding back the 
French, for the reason that French occupation of the terri- 
tory along the Ohio would prevent their expansion to the 

86 Archives of Maryland, Vol. VI, p. no. 

The French and Indian War. 145 

westward; and for this reason, because the territory be- 
longing to Maryland was not involved in the contest, the 
Maryland assembly was lukewarm in making preparations 
for taking part in the war. The perennial controversy 
between the upper and lower houses also had a great deal 
to do with the negligence of the authorities in this respect. 
On the part of all the colonies there was a feeling that 
this was a war between England and France, although the 
scene of it was on the western continent, and this being 
the case, it was thought that the mother country should 
provide for the expenses of carrying it on. The Mary- 
land assembly put itself on record as being opposed to 
helping in a war of conquest but was ready to do its part 
in defending the province against invasion. The German 
settlers on the frontier, however, knew only too well what 
to expect, and at once made what preparations they could 
to protect themselves, no matter what the attitude of the 
authorities might be. Companies of riflemen and rangers 
were organized and scouts were sent out to give warning 
of approaching danger. Many of the settlers of the more 
outlying sections abandoned their homes and with their 
families went to the more thickly-settled regions 

As soon as the news of the defeat of the provincials at 
Fort Necessity reached the east Governor Sharpe called 
the Maryland assembly into session on July 17th, and 
asked for an appropriation for raising troops. The legis- 
lature passed an act appropriating six thousand pounds to 
be used by Governor Sharpe " for his majesty's use, 
towards the defence of the colony of Virginia, attacked by 
the French and Indians, and for the relief and support 
of the wives and children of the Indian allies that put 
themselves under the protection of this government." 
Three companies were raised to be sent to Will's Creek, 


146 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

where Colonel Innes, who commanded the North Carolina 
troops, had erected a fort which was named Fort Cumber- 
land Besides the men from North Carolina the troops 
under Colonel Innes' command consisted of three com- 
panies from New York, one company from South Carolina 
and a company of one hundred Marylanders, altogether a 
little more than one thousand men.®® 

In the autumn of 1754 Governor Sharpe was appointed 
commander-in-chief of all the forces engaged against the 
French on the Ohio, and he at once set out for Fort Cum- 
berland, where he arrived in November He proceeded 
to prepare for active operations in the spring and gathered 
large quantities of military stores and provisions, although 
he was greatly handicapped by the refusal of the assembly 
to appropriate money to carry on the war, except under 
such conditions as the Governor could not approve. In 
December the assembly passed a law for levying troops 
and provided that if in the service any citizen should be so 
maimed as to be incapable of maintaining himself he 
should be supported at the public expense There was no 
difficulty in obtaining volunteers. The settlers in the 
western part of the province promptly enrolled themselves, 
and even in the eastern section calls for volunteers were 
promptly met. 

In February, 1755, Major General Edward Braddock ar- 
rived from England to take command of the forces engaged 
against the French. Braddock's plan of campaign was 
laid out for him before he left England,^^ and on his 
arrival he called a council of the colonial governors, which 
was held at Alexandria, before which the plans were dis- 
ss Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXVIII., p. 77. 

s^ See secret instructions to Gen. Braddock from George III., Penn- 
sylvania Archives, Second Sen, Vol. VI., p, z^s. 

The French and Indian War. 


cussed and three expeditions were arranged for: the one 
against Fort Duquesne, to be commanded by Gen. Brad- 
dock, with the regulars, reinforced by troops from Mary- 
land and Virginia; one against Niagara and Fort Fron- 
tenac, to be led by Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, 
and one against Crown Point, under Sir William Johnson. 
In preparing for his campaign Braddock made his head- 
quarters at Frederick. The expedition started for the 
Ohio on May 30, and after it had left large numbers of 
Maryland troops marched to the frontiers to garrison the 
posts and protect the settlers As the assembly failed to 
appropriate money for maintaining these troops the ex- 
pense was met by private subscription. 

The details of the disastrous Braddock campaign are 
outside the scope of this work and cannot be given here. 
The effects of it were prompt and overwhelming. The 
extreme western settlements of Maryland were abandoned, 
the settlers flying for protection to more eastern points, 
some of them, however, stopping at Fort Cumberland and 
others at the block-house of Col. Thomas Cresap. Terror 
and desolation reigned everywhere. Hostile bands of 
Indians made raids on unprotected outposts, massacreing 
the garrisons and such settlers as they were able to capture. 
Even before the defeat of Braddock the Indian raids had 
begun. On June 28 Governor Sharpe sent the following 
message to the lower house : 

I have just received letters from Col. Innes at Fort Cumber- 
land, and from the back inhabitants of Frederick County, advising 
me that a party of French Indians last Monday morning (June 
23) fell on the inhabitants of this province, and killed two men 
and one woman (who have been since found dead), eight other 
persons they have taken prisoners and carried off. The names of 
the persons who were murdered and left are John Williams, his 

148 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

wife, and grandson, and with their bodies also was found that 
of a French Indian. The persons carried o£E are Richard 
Williams (a son of John who was murdered), with two children, 
one Dawson's wife and four children. Richard William's wife 
and two brothers of the young man that is killed have made their 
escape. This accident, I find, has so terrified the distant in- 
habitants that many of them are retiring and forsaking their 
plantations. Another letter from Winchester, in Virginia, in- 
forms me that a party of Indians have also attacked the back 
inhabitants of that province, of whom they have killed eleven and 
carried away many captives. Apprehending the French would 
proceed in this manner as soon as Gen. Braddock and the troops 
under his control should have passed the mountains, and being 
confirmed in my opinion by an intimation in the general's letter, 
I issued a proclamation near a month since, cautioning the distant 
and other inhabitants of this province to be on their guard, and 
unite for their common defence and safety. At the same time I 
sent peremptory orders and instructions to the officers of the 
militia of Frederick County frequently to muster and discipline 
their several troops and companies, once a fortnight at least, and 
in case of alarm that the enemy was approaching or had fallen on 
the inhabitants, to march out and act either offensively or de- 
fensively, and use all means to protect and defend the inhabitants 
from the devastations of the French or Indians. However, I find 
neither the proclamation nor instructions will be effective unless 
the militia can be assured that they shall receive satisfaction, and 
be paid for the time they are out on duty. I should consider it 
highly proper for us to have about one hundred, or at least a 
company of men, posted or constantly ranging for some time on the 
frontiers for our protection. In this I desire your advice, and 
that you will enable me to support such a number. 

Shortly after this a party of settlers on their way to 
Fort Cumberland was attacked and fifteen of them killed, 
three escaping. The following account from the Mary- 
land Gazette of October 9, 1755, gives some idea of the 
state of affairs that followed Braddock's defeat : 

The French and Indian War. 149 

By a person who arrived in town last Monday from Col 
Cresap's, we are told that last Wednesday morning the Indians 
had taken a man prisoner who was going from Frazier's to Fort 
Cumberland, and had also carried oflE a woman from Frazier's 
plantation, which is four miles on this side Fort Cumberland. 
The same morning they fell in with a man and his wife who had 
left their plantations, and were retiring into the more populous 
part of the country; they shot the horse on which the man was 
riding, but as it did not fall immediately he made his escape. The 
woman, it is supposed, fell into their hands, as neither she or the 
horse on which she was riding have been seen since or heard of. 
The same party of Indians also have carried off or killed Benjamin 
Rogers, his wife, and seven children, and Edmund Marie, one 
family of twelve persons, besides fifteen others, all in Frederick 
County. On Patterson's Creek many families have within this 
month been murdered, carried away, or burnt in their houses by a 
party of these barbarians, who have entirely broke up that 

Another person, who left Stoddert's fort last Sunday, acquaints 
us that the inhabitants in that part of the country were in the 
greatest consternation. That near eight persons were fled to the 
said fort for protection, and many more gone ofiE in the greatest 
confusion to Pennsylvania. This, it seems, had been occasioned 
by a dispatch sent to Lieut. Stoddert and the neighborhood by 
Col. Cresap, advising them that a party of seventeen Indians had 
passed by his house and had cut off some people who dwelt on the 
Town Creek, which is a few miles on this side of Cresap's. One 
Daniel Ashloff, who lived near that creek, is come down towards 
Conococheague, and gives the same account. He also says that as 
himself and father, with several others, were retiring from their 
plantations last Saturday they were attacked by the same Indians, 
as he supposes, and all but himself were killed or taken prisoners. 
It is said that Mr. Stoddert, who has command of fifteen men, 
invited a few of the neighbors to join him and to go in quest of 
the enemy, but they would not be persuaded, whereupon he applied 

150 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

himself to Maj. Prather for a detachment of the militia, either to 
go with a party of his men in pursuit of the savages, or garrison 
his fort while he made an excursion. We hope there will be no 
backwardness in the militia to comply with such a reasonable re- 
quest, especially as any party or person that shall take an enemy 
prisoner will be rewarded with six pounds currency, and the person 
who will kill an enemy, with four pounds, provided he can pro- 
duce witnesses, or the enemy's scalp, in testimony of such action. 

The whole country to the west was in a condition of 
terror. Indian raids were constantly occurring, small 
parties attacking the settlers whenever their unprotected 
condition made it possible. Even the severity of winter 
did not serve to lessen the danger. In a resume of the 
operations of the French Governor-General Vaudreuil 
writes : 

"A detachment commanded by M. de Niverville came, after a 
campaign of thirty-three days, within reach of Fort Cumberland, 
and though it was impossible for him to approach it, in consequence 
of the dread our Indians had of being surrounded, there being con- 
siderable snow on the ground, he nevertheless, took four prisoners 
in the settlements bordering on the river called Potomak, in 
Virginia, about fifteen leagues from Fort Cumberland ; burned ten 
houses and the like number of barns full of wheat; killed twenty 
horses or cows. This trifling success ought to show the enemy 
that the severest season of the year does not protect them against 
our incursions."^* 

With the opening of the year 1756 the attacks became 
more frequent. Captain Dagworthy still occupied Fort 
Cumberland, but the territory around it was almost de- 
serted. In March, the commander at Fort Duquesne 
sent a small force of Indians under Ensign Douville with 
orders to " make it his business to harass their convoys and 

88 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Scr., Vol. VI., p. 423. 

The French and Indian War. 151 

endeavor to burn their magazines at Canagiechuie [Cono- 
cocheague] if possible. "^^ Commenting on this order, 
Washington wrote to Governor Dinwiddie, on April 7, 
" I have ordered the party there to be made as strong as 
time and our present circumstances will afford, for fear 
they should attempt to execute the orders of Dumas. "^""^ 
On the 1 6th Washington wrote: 

All my ideal hopes of raising a number of men to scour the 
adjacent mountains have vanished into nothing. Yesterday was 
the appointed time for a general rendezvous of all, who were 
willing to accompany me for that desirable end, and only fifteen 
appeared. ... I have done everything in my power to quiet the 
minds of the inhabitants by detaching all the men I have any com- 
mand over to the places more exposed. There also have been 
large detachments from Fort Cumberland in pursuit of the enemy 
these ten days past, yet nothing, I fear will prevent the people from 
abandoning their dwellings and flying with the utmost precipita- 

Again, on the 22d, he says: 

The supplicating tears of the women and moving petitions of 
the men melt me into such deadly sorrow, that I solemnly declare, 
if I know my own mind, I could offer myself a willing sacrifice 
to the butchering enemy, provided that would contribute to the 
people's ease.^°^ 

The Maryland Gazette of March 1 1 contains the fol- 
lowing letter from Isaac Baker, dated at Conococheague : 

My last was of the 26th instant. On our march to Toona- 
loways, about five miles this side Stoddert's Fort, we found John 
Meyers' house in flames, and nine or ten head of large cattle 

»9Ibid., p. 361. 

io<> Ford, " The Writings of George Washington," Vol. I., p. 238. 

101 Sparks's Washington, Vol. II., p. 138. 

102 Ford's Washington, Vol, I., p. 250. 

152 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

killed. About three miles and a half farther up the road we found 
a man (one Hynes) killed and scalped, with one arm cut off and 
several arrows sticking in him; we could not bury him, having 
no tools with us for that purpose. Half a mile farther (within a 
mile of Stoddert's Fort) we found Ralph Watson's house burnt 
down, and several hogs and sheep killed. When we came to 
Stoddert's Fort we found them all under arms, expecting every 
minute to be attacked. From thence we went to Combe's Fort, 
where we found a young man about twenty-two years of age 
killed and scalped; there were only four men in this fort, two of 
which were unable to bear arms, but upwards of forty women and 
children, who were in a very poor situation, being afraid to go out 
of the fort, even for a drink of water. The house caught fire 
during the time the Indians were surrounding the fort, and would 
have been burnt down, but luckily there was some soapsuds in the 
house, by which they were extinguished. The young man men- 
tioned above was one Lynn's son, and was sitting on the fence of 
the stockyard with Combe's son, when they discovered the In- 
dians, upon which they ran to get into the fort, and before they 
reached it Lynn's son was shot down, and an Indian pursued the 
other man with a tomahawk within thirty yards of the fort, but he 
luckily got into the fort and shot the Indian. We searched the 
woods to see if we could see where the Indian was buried (as 
they supposed him to be mortally wounded). We found in two 
places great quantity of blood, but could not find the body. We 
saw several creatures shot, some dead, and others going around 
with arrows sticking in them. About half a mile on this side Mr. 
Kenney's (in Little Toonaloways) we found a load of oats and a 
load of turnips in the road, which two boys were bringing to 
Combe's, and it is imagined the boys are carried off by the Indians. 
When we came to Mr. Kenney's we saw several sheep and cattle 
killed. From thence we went to one Lowther's, about two miles 
farther, where we found his grain and two calves burnt, two 
cows and nine or ten hogs killed, and about fifty yards from the 
house found Lowther dead and scalped, and otherwise terribly 

The French and Indian War, 153 

mangled ; his brains were beat out, as it is supposed, with his own 
gun barrel, which we found sticking in his skull, and his gun 
broken; there was an axe, two sc)'thes, and several arrows stick- 
ing in him. From here we returned to Combe's and buried the 
young man, and left ten of our men here to assist them to secure 
their grain, which soon as they have done they purpose to leave 
that fort and go to Stoddert's, from hence we went to Stoddert's 
Fort, where we laid on Friday night and yesterday. On our way 
down here we buried the man we left on the road. 

The two houses of the legislature continued their 
wrangling over appropriating money to carry on the war, 
the lower house insisting that the estates of the Proprietor 
should bear their share of the taxes, while the upper house 
and the governor refused to consent to this, and the result 
was that nothing was done. The settlers became ex- 
asperated at this do-nothing policy, and finally a body of 
armed men assembled at Frederick, under the leadership of 
Col. Thomas Cresap, and threatened that unless the legis- 
lature ceased wrangling and made some effort to provide 
for the defense of the province, they would march to 
Annapolis and compel action A bill was then passed ap- 
propriating forty thousand pounds. Of this amount 
eleven thousand pounds were to be used in building a fort 
and several block-houses on the western frontier, and for 
levying, arming, paying and maintaining a body of troops, 
not exceeding two hundred men, to garrison these posts. 
As Fort Cumberland was too far to the westward to afford 
much protection to the settlers Governor Sharpe deter- 
mined to build another fort nearer the frontier, and in 
1756 Fort Frederick was erected, concerning which more 
will be said later. 

All through the summer of 1756 the Indians raids con- 
tinued, many of the settlers being killed and others carried 

154 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

off prisoners. On August 29, Washington wrote to Lord 

" It is with infinite concern, that I see the distresses of the 
people, and hear their complaints, without being able to afford 
them relief. I have so often troubled your Honor for aid from the 
militia, that I am almost ashamed to repeat my demands; nor 
should mention them again, did I not think it absolutely neces- 
sary at this time to save the most valuable and flourishing part of 
this county from immediate desertion. And how soon the re- 
mainder part, as well as the adjacent counties, may share the same 
fate, is but too obvious to reason, and to your Lordship's good 
sense, for me to demonstrate. The whole settlement of Cono- 
cocheague in Maryland is fled, and there now remain only two 
families from thence to Fredericktown which is several miles below 
the Blue Ridge. By which means we are quite exposed and have 
no better security on that side, than the Potomac River, for many 
miles below the Shenandoah; and how great a security that is to 
us, may easily be discerned, when we consider, with what facility 
the enemy have passed and repassed it already. That the Mary- 
land settlements are all abandoned is certainly a fact, as I have had 
the accounts transmitted to me by several hands, and confirmed 
yesterday by Henry Brinker, who left Monocacy the day before, 
and also affirms, that three hundred and fifty wagons had passed 
that place to avoid the enemy, within the space of three days."^°^ 

Ten days later he wrote to Gov. Dinwiddle that the 
frontiers of Maryland were abandoned for many miles 
below the Blue Ridge, as far as Frederick. 

Wherever it was possible the settlers raised companies 
of rangers for their protection. At Conococheague a sub- 
scription was raised and a company of twenty men, under 
Lieutenant Teagard, was equipped. " Their services 
were soon required," says Scharf,^*^^ " for on August i8th 

103 Ford's Washington, Vol. I., p. 329. 

10* History of Western Maryland, Vol. I., p. 97, 

The French and Indian War. 155 

the enemy plundered the settlers near Baker's Ridge, and 
on the 20th attacked a funeral train, killing two persons, 
George Hicks and Lodovick Claymour. They were fol- 
lowed by a party of thirteen of Teagard's men, under 
Luke Thompson, until they came within two miles of the 
mouth of the Conococheague, on the Pennsylvania road, 
when five shots were heard about three hundred yards in 
advance, which threw the pursuing party into some con- 
fusion; but Matthias Nicholls, a young man of eighteen, 
insisted that they should run up and come upon the enemy 
while their pieces were unloaded, and set off immediately. 
The others, however, ran off, but he continued the pursuit, 
and rescued William Postlewaite, who had been seriously 
wounded by the Indians." 

That the French looked with equanimity on the outrages 
committed by the Indians is shown by a letter written to 
his brother by the Rev. Claude Godfroy Cocquard, in 
which he says : 

" You will learn, first, that our Indians have waged the most 
cruel war against the English; that they continued it throughout 
the spring and are still so exasperated as to be beyond control; 
Georgia, Carolina, Marrelande, Pensilvania, are wholly laid 
waste. The farmers have been forced to quit their abodes and to 
retire into the town. They have neither ploughed nor planted, 
and on their complaining of the circumstance to the Governor of 
Boston, he answered them that people were ploughing and plant- 
ing for them in Canada. The Indians do not make any prisoners; 
they kill all they meet, men, women and children. Every day 
they have some in the kettle, and after having abused the women 
and maidens, they slaughter or burn them."^°^ 

Up to this time the war had been allowed to drag along 
in a desultory sort of way, no really active operations being 

105 Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. VI., p. 409. 

156 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

undertaken, but in 1758 William Pitt became prime 
minister and he determined that a very different sort of 
campaign should be started. There had been great diffi- 
culty In securing enough troops to carry on the war, and 
in 1756 the British government decided to enlist a regi- 
ment made up of the foreign settlers in the British posses- 
sions in America, principally Germans. In order that 
those who enlisted in this regiment might have over them 
officers who were able to speak their own language, an act 
of parliament was passed authorizing the king to grant 
commissions to a certain number of German, Swiss and 
Dutch officers This regiment, when formed, was known 
as the Sixty-second, or Royal American Regiment of Foot, 
and was made up almost entirely of Germans from Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. Later it was changed to be the 
Sixtieth Regiment, and is in existence today. The first 
battalion of the regiment was placed under the command 
of Colonel Henry Bouquet,^"^ a native of Switzerland who 
had settled in Pennsylvania. This battalion was made up 
of Germans from Pennsylvania and Maryland. 

At the beginning of the year 1758 plans were made for 
an expedition against Fort Duquesne, under the command 
of General John Forbes. The troops under his command 
numbered between six and seven thousand and consisted 
of provincials from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and 
North Carolina, some Highlanders and the Royal Ameri- 
cans. The expedition started from Philadelphia the latter 
part of June, the Maryland troops, with those from Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, assembling at Winchester, Va., 
under Colonel George Washington. Colonel Bouquet 
reached Raystown, now Bedford, Pa., early In July but 

108 H. A. Rattermann in " Deutscher Pionier," Vol. X., p. 217', says that 
Bouquet's real name was Strauss. , 

The French and Indian War. 157 

the main body of troops did not arrive until September. 
The details of this expedition cannot be entered into here, 
but there was one engagement in which the Maryland 
troops played a conspicuous part At the earnest solicita- 
tion of Major James Grant, of the Highlanders, Colonel 
Bouquet allowed the former to make a reconnoissance in 
order, if possible, to discover the position of the enemy at 
Fort Duquesne This expedition started on September 9, 
and consisted of thirty-seven officers and 805 privates, 
among whom were eighty-one Marylanders. With the 
usual disregard shown by the British officers of the In- 
dian methods of warfare, Major Grant allowed his force 
to be led into an ambuscade, and on the 14th he was at- 
tacked by the French and Indians with disastrous results, 
270 of his men being killed and 42 wounded. As usual 
under such circumstances, the British troops became de- 
moralized under the Indian method of attack, but the 
Marylanders conducted themselves gallantly. As one ac- 
count of the affair gives it, " the Carolinians, Marylanders, 
and Lower Countrymen, concealing themselves behind 
trees and the bushes, made a good defence; but were over- 
powered by numbers, and not being supported, were 
obliged to follow the rest."^^^ Of the Maryland force of 
eighty-one men, twenty-seven privates and one officer, 
Lieutenant Duncan McRae, were killed. 

The French, knowing that Colonel Bouquet's troops 
were only the advance guard, determined to attack them 
before the arrival of the main body, and on October 12 a 
force of 1,200 French and 200 Indians attacked Bouquet's 
camp at Loyalhanna. After several hours of hard fight- 
ing the enemy was repulsed. In this attack the Mary- 
landers had three men killed, Lieutenant Prather and two 

lOTenna. Archives, Second Series, Vol. VI., p. 455. 

158 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

privates, six privates were wounded and eleven were miss- 
ing. General Forbes did not reach Loyalhanna until No- 
vember. Numerous skirmishes followed, but the French 
realizing that they could not hold Fort Duquesne, set fire 
to it and abandoned it The English pushed forward, and 
on November 25, 1758, took possession of the ruins of 
Fort Duquesne, which was rebuilt and named Fort Pitt. 

With the abandonment of Fort Duquesne by the French 
the troubles of the settlers of western Maryland were 
greatly modified, although there were occasional raids by 
bands of hostile Indians until the end of the war, in 1763. 
With the end of the war the settlers began to return to 
their deserted homes and advance further toward the west. 
Seeing this, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, determined to pre- 
vent it and drive the English from the western frontier. 
With this end in view he secretly traveled from tribe to 
tribe and formed an alliance, and without any warning the 
blow fell upon the unsuspecting settlers. The savages 
planned to attack the settlers during harvest and destroy 
their crops and cattle and kill the men This plan was put 
into execution in June, 1763. Bands of raiding Indians 
spread over western Maryland, killing the settlers and de- 
stroying their property. Describing the condition of 
affairs at this time, in a letter to Robert Stewart, dated 
August 13, 1763, Washington wrote : 

" Another tempest has arisen upon our frontiers, and the alarm 
spread wider than ever. In short, the inhabitants are so appre- 
hensive of danger, that no families remain above the Conoco- 
cheague road, and many are gone from below it. The harvests 
are, in a manner lost, and the distresses of the settlements are 
evident and manifold."^*'^ 

108 Sparks' Washington, Vol. II., p. 339. 

The French and Indian War. 159 

The condition of the settlers at this time is well shown 
in a letter in the Maryland Gazette, written at Frederick, 
under date of July 19, 1763, which says: 

Every day, for some time past, has ofEered the melancholy scene 
of poor distressed families driving downwards through this town 
with their effects, who have deserted their plantations for fear of 
falling into the cruel hands of our savage enemies, now daily seen 
in the woods. And never was panic more general or forcible than 
that of the back inhabitants, whose terrors at this time exceed 
what followed on the defeat of Gen. Braddock, when the frontiers 
lay open to the incursions of both French and Indians. While 
Conococheague settlement stands firm we shall think ourselves in 
some sort of security from their insults here. But should the 
inhabitants there give way, you would soon see your city and the 
lower counties crowded with objects of compassion, as the flight 
would in that case become general. Numbers of those who have 
betaken themselves to the fort, as well as those who have actually 
fled, have entirely lost their crops, or turned in their own cattle 
and hogs to devour the produce, in hopes of finding them again in 
better condition should it hereafter appear safe for them to return. 
The season has been remarkably fine, and the harvest in general 
afforded the most promising appearance of plenty and goodness 
that has been known for many years. But alas! how dismal an 
alteration of the prospect! Many who expected to have sold and 
supplied the necessities of others now want for themselves, and 
see their warmest hopes defeated, the fruits of their honest in- 
dustry snatched from them by the merciless attack of these blood- 
thirsty barbarians, whose treatment of such unhappy wretches as 
fall into their hands is accompanied with circumstances of in- 
fernal fury, too horrid and shocking for human nature to dwell 
upon even in imagination. We were so sensible of the importance 
of Conococheague settlement, both as a bulwark and supply to 
this neighborhood, that on repeated notice of their growing dis- 
tress Capt. Butler, on Wednesday last, called the town company 

i6o The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

together, who appeared under arms on the court-house green with 
great unanimity. Just as the drum beat to arms we had the agree- 
able satisfaction of seeing a wagon sent up by his excellency 
(whose tender care for the security of the province raised senti- 
ments of the highest gratitude in the breast of every one present) 
loaded with powder and lead, — articles of the greatest importance 
at this critical juncture, when the whole country had been drained 
of those necessary articles by the diligence of our Indian traders, 
who had bought up the whole for the supply of our enemies, to be 
returned, as we have dearly experienced, in death and desolation 
among us. A subscription was then set on foot and cheerfully 
entered into, in consequence of which twenty stout young men 
immediately enlisted under Mr. Peter Grosh to march immediately 
to the assistance of the back inhabitants, and with other volunteers 
already there raised, to cover the reapers, in hopes of securing the 
crops. Had not the Governor's supply arrived so reasonably it 
was doubted whether the whole town could have furnished am- 
munition sufficient for that small party, half of which marched 
backwards in high spirits on Thursday, and the remainder on 
Friday morning. And on Sunday subscriptions were taken in the 
several congregations in town for sending up further assistance. 
On Sunday afternoon we had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Michael 
Cresap arrive in town with mokosins on his legs, taken from an 
Indian whom he had killed and scalped, being one of those who 
had shot down Mr. Wilder, the circumstances of whose much- 
lamented murder and the success of Col. Cresap's family you no 
doubt have received from other hands. Money has been cheer- 
fully contributed in our town towards the support of the men to 
be added to Col. Cresap's present force, as we look upon the 
preservation of the Old Town to be of great importance to us, 
and a proper check to the progress of the savages; but notwith- 
standing our present efforts to keep the enemy at a distance, and 
thereby shelter the whole province, our inhabitants are poor, our 
men dispersed, and without a detachment from below it is to be 
feared we must give way, and the inundation break upon the 
lower counties. 

The French and Indian War. 


The Indian depredations continuing, early in 1764 two 
expeditions were planned, one under Colonel Bradstreet, 
against the Wyandots, Ottawas, Chippewas and other 
nations near the great lakes; the other, under Colonel 
Bouquet, against the Delawares, Shawnese, Mingoes, 
Mohickans, and other nations between the Ohio and the 
lakes. Colonel Bouquet's force was made up of part of 
the Forty-second and Sixtieth Regiments, some troops 
from Pennsylvania, and two companies of volunteers from 
Maryland, riflemen from Frederick county, one com- 
manded by Captain William McClellan, the other by Cap- 
tain John Wolgamott These two companies were made 
up as follows: 


William McClellan. 

John Earl, 

David Blair, 

Joseph Hopewell, 


James Dougherty. 


John Moran, 
Edmund Moran. 


Henry Graybill. 

David Shelby, 
George Rout, 
William Beadles, 
John Dean, 
Richard Arsheraft, 
Nicholas Carpenter, 
Thomas Vaughan, 


James Ross, 
Isaac Flora, 
Richard Coomore, 
William Sparks, 
Thomas Clemens, 
John Sealon, 
John Doughland, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Patrick O'Gullen, 
Robert Ford, 
Joseph Clemens, 
James Small, 
Joshua Young, 
George Mathison, 
Isaac Wilcocks, 
William Hanniel, 
John Dougherty, 
William Colvin, 
William Flora, 

James Booth, 
James Dulany, 
William Fife, 
William Dunwidie, 
Peter Ford, 
Thomas Davis, 
David Johnson, 

Thomas Edington, 
James Bradmore, 
William Lockhead, 
James Ware, 
Thomas Williams, 
John Masters, 
John Murray, 
Felix Leer, 
Bartholomew Pack, 
Charles Hays, 
William Polk. 

John Wolgamott. 


Matthew Nicholas. 


John Blair. 


Samuel McCord, 
Robert Blackburn, 
Abraham Enocks, 
James Myers, 
William Marshal, 
James Fox. 

The Indians did not make any resistance, but sued for 
peace, and thus ended, for the time being, the Indian 
troubles which for years had made the western frontiers 
of Maryland the scene of terror and bloodshed. 


Fort Frederick. 

uiiil imiiiOBiia 

LU1UU uiuiinifiiiiii 
iiuu . luinu ,iU - 
lum II iiiiii II , V 
uiiii i ' II nil nr/^ = 

iiiiu r::::ui II (iju^^i^ 
!in» 1 mi uaii rrt 
iiui I aniuiiu \'v 
[iiijili I iiiiiuiiii n 
iiuui I lujuiiiiinii 
Miun I jwiiiiiijii '^ju 
iiuii I luinui "^11 

HEN the first settlement 
was made by the Ohio 
Company, about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, upon the land 
they had obtained under their 
grant, in accordance with the 
terms of that grant a minor forti- 
fication was built at the junction 
of Will's Creek with the Poto- 
mac river, for the purpose of 
affording protection to the settlers. At this time that sec- 
tion of territory was supposed to be in the colony of Vir- 
ginia. After the defeat at Great Meadows, Washington 
retreated to Will's Creek, and while he went back to Vir- 
gnia to report to Governor Dinwiddie, he left his force in 
charge of Colonel Innes, who commanded several com- 
panies of North Carolina troops. Acting under instruc- 
tions from the Virginia government, during the autumn of 
1754 Colonel Innes constructed a fort at this point, which 


164 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

he called Fort Mount Pleasant. This fort was little more 
than a blockhouse, and a series of stockades. About the 
close of the year Governor Dinwiddle received Instructions 
from England to build a fort at Will's Creek of such dimen- 
sions and character of construction as the Importance of the 
position seemed to require. These Instructions were trans- 
mitted to Colonel Innes, who proceeded to build the fort. 
The men engaged In its construction were three companies 
from North Carolina, under Colonel Innes, two companies 
from New York, one from South Carolina and one from 
Maryland. When it was completed It was named, at the 
request of General Braddock, Fort Cumberland, in honor of 
the commander-in-chief of the British army. This fort 
was under the jurisdiction of the Virginia government. 
For some time it was the sole protection for the western 
frontier of Maryland against the hostile Indians. The 
Maryland settlement did not extend beyond the mouth of 
the Conococheague creek, in what is now Washington 
county, and this left a wide extent of territory, about sixty 
miles, which was without protection. 

After the defeat of Braddock the Indian raids became 
more frequent and a number of blockhouses were built 
between Fort Cumberland and the western frontier to 
which the settlers could flee upon the raising of an alarm. 
These, however, had but little effect in preventing the raids 
or In affording protection to the settlers. As Judge Stock- 
bridge says, " a period of terror and desolation ensued. 
The borders of Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia be- 
came one extended field of petty battles, murder und 
devastation. The outposts were driven in, and some of 
the smaller posts captured and their garrisons massacred; 
and Frederick, Winchester and Carlisle became the 
frontiers of the colonies. Fort Cumberland was still held 
by the troops under Captain Dagworthy, but this Isolated 

Fort Frederick. 165 

fortress could afford no protection against roving bands 
of savages who passed around it to seek their prey in the 
settlements beyond. The panic spread by the flying 
British troops spread even to the bay shore. Many of the 
inhabitants of the interior fled to Baltimore, and there 
preparations were made by the citizens to embark their 
women and children on board the vessels in the harbor 
preparatory to a flight to Virginia, while some of the 
Virginians even believed that there was no safety short of 
England itself."^^^ 

The need of further defenses was evident and Governor 
Sharpe did all in his power to procure the means of secur- 
ing them, but the assembly was slow in meeting the need 
of the hour. Finally, in response to the appeals of the 
Governor and the urgent demands of the people, on March 
22, 1756, a bill was passed appropriating forty thousand 
pounds for the defense of the colony, of which eleven 
thousand pounds were to be used for the erection of a fort 
and several blockhouses on the western frontier, and for 
the levying, arming, paying and maintaining a body of 
troops to garrison these posts. Governor Sharpe at once 
proceeded to put into execution the plans he had formu- 
lated. He purchased from Peter and Jacob Cloine a tract 
of land consisting of about one hundred and forty acres, 
in Frederick county, near where Hancock, Washington 
county, now stands. The deed for the land is dated 
August 19, 1756, but Sharpe was so anxious to provide 
defenses that he secured possession of the land and began 
the erection of the fort before the deed was executed. On 
August 21, 1756, he wrote to Lord Baltimore: 

As I apprehended that the French would e'er long teach their 
Indian Allies to approach & set fire to our Stoccado or Wooden 

100 « American Historical Register," Vol. II., p. 748. 

1 66 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Forts I thought proper to build Fort Frederick of Stone, which 
steps I believe even our Assembly now approve of tho I hear some 
of them sometime since intimated to their Constituents that a 
Stoccado would have been sufficient & that to build a Fort with 
Stone would put the Country to a great & unnecessary Expence, 
but whatever their Sentiments may be with respect to that matter 
I am convinced that I have done for the best & that my Conduct 
therein will be approved by any Soldier & every impartial person. 
The Fort is not finished but the Garrison are well covered & 
will with a little Assistance compleat it at their leisure. Our 
Barracks are made for the Reception & Accommodation of 200 
Men but on Occasion there will be room for twice that number. 
It is situated on North Mountain near Potowmack River, about 
14 miles beyond Conegocheigh and four on this Side of Licking 
creek. I have made a purchase in the Governor's Name for the 
use of the Country of 150 Acres of Land that is contiguous to it, 
which will be of great Service to the Garrison & as well as the 
Fort be found of great use in case of future Expeditions to the 
Westward for it is so situated that Potowmack will be always 
navigable thence almost to Fort Cumberland, and the Flatts or 
Shallows of that River lying between Fort Frederick and Conego- 
cheigh. It is probable this Fortification will cost the Province 
£2000, but I am told that one is raising at Winchester in Virg* 
that will not be built for less than four times that Sum, and 
when finished will not be half so good.^^° 

This structure was named Fort Frederick in honor of 
the proprietor, Frederick, sixth Lord Baltimore. Some 
confusion has arisen from the fact that there were two 
structures known as Fort Frederick. During the Revolu- 
tion the general assembly of Maryland, in 1777, passed 
an act providing that there should be erected " in or near 
Fredericktown In Frederick County, a number of fit, con- 
venient and proper barracks of plain brick or stone work, 

110 Archives of Maryland, Vol. VI., p. 466. 

Fort Frederick. 167 

with a block house at each corner and ditched and palisaded 
in, sufficient for the reception of two battalions, with 
officers." Schultz says: "There is ground for the belief, 
however, that there was a stockade fort, or something of 
that character, on or near their site at the time of the 
French and Indian Wars, similar to those erected by the 
early settlers near the present Clearspring and Williams- 
port, to which the women and children retreated when 
the Indians became troublesome."^^ ^ 

Fort Frederick was built on a hill about one hundred 
feet above the level of the Potomac and about one-third 
of a mile from the river. From its position it commanded 
the surrounding country. Describing its construction, 
Scharf says : 

"The old fort occupied an acre and a half of ground, and Its 
massive walls of hard magneslan limestone are four feet thick at 
the bottom, and two feet at the top. The stone, which Is mostly 
in large, Irregular blocks, was brought from the mountain three 
miles distant, and Is laid In such excellent mortar that nothing but 
an earthquake or the hand of man will ever shatter the walls. 
These are seventeen and a half feet In height at the highest point, 
and are very fairly preserved. The greatest damage that has been 
done was the cutting of a wagon-gate through the west curtain 
sixty years ago, and now Nathan Williams, Its present owner, has 
pulled down the west bastion to make room for his barn. The 
fort Is square, with a bastion at each angle. The south bastion Is 
the best preserved, but the whole structure Is very far from being 
a ruin. The portal was twelve feet wide, and the immensity of 
the gates may be judged by the fact that one of the iron hinges, 
which Williams kept until a few years ago, weighed forty-two 
pounds. There is not a piece of the old wood-work left, some 
curiosity-seekers having carried off the last bit In 1858. Gen. 
Kenly's First Maryland Regiment occupied the fort In 1861, and 

m " First Settlements of Germans in Maryland," p. 56. 

1 68 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

knocked a hole in the wall through which to point a gun for taking 
pot shots at the Confederates across the Potomac. The original 
armament of the fort was a gun in each bastion, worked en bar- 
bette, and within the enclosure were the barracks."^^^ 

But Governor Sharpe's troubles over the building of 
Fort Frederick were far from being ended. His original 
estimate of the cost of building the structure fell far short 
of the actual cost, and he was compelled to ask the as- 
sembly for more money with which to complete it. Then, 
too, the cost of maintaining the garrison and paying the 
troops was no small item. The residents of the eastern 
section of the colony, at a distance from the scene of the 
Indian raids, did not realize just what they meant, and 
could not see why so much money was required for the 
protection of the western settlers. Their idea was to 
keep down the expenditures as much as possible, so that 
there were constant disputes between the executive and the 
assembly on the question of providing means to carry on 
the war. On December 15, 1757, the House of Delegates 
made the following address on the subject of Fort 
Frederick : 

" Near the sum of £6000 has been expended in purchasing the 
ground belonging to and constructing Fort Frederick, and though 
we have not any exact information what sum may still be wanting 
to complete it (if ever it should be thought proper to be done), yet 
we are afraid the sum requisite for that purpose must be con- 
siderable, and we are apprehensive that the fort is so large that, in 
case of attack, it cannot be defended without a number of men 
larger than the province can support, purely to maintain a forti- 

On June 9, 1758, Governor Sharpe wrote to General 
Forbes,"^ giving a detailed account of the trouble over 

112 History of Western Maryland, Vol. II., p. 1298. 

113 Archives of Maryland, Vol. IX., p. 1-98. 

Fort Frederick. 169 

the payment of the troops. Lord Loudoun had proposed 
that Maryland should raise and support five hundred men 
to garrison Fort Cumberland and Fort Frederick, but in- 
stead of agreeing to this proposal the assembly included in 
the bill which they passed a provision which prohibited the 
Maryland troops from garrisoning Fort Cumberland, or 
at all events, giving fair warning that if these troops did 
go to Fort Cumberland they would not be paid by the 
province of Maryland. Fuel was added to the flames of 
the dispute by Virginia turning over Fort Cumberland to 
Maryland. When the Virginia troops retired from the 
fort it was necessary for their place to be taken by Mary- 
landers, but the Maryland assembly absolutely refused to 
agree to this. However, Governor Sharpe took the 
matter into his own hands and sent Captain Dagworthy 
with one hundred and fifty of his men from Fort Fred- 
erick, to garrison Fort Cumberland. As the assembly 
would not authorize the enlistment of more troops, 
Governor Sharpe called for volunteers and his call was 
promptly answered by the settlers of Frederick county, so 
that Fort Frederick was soon garrisoned by a force of two 
hundred and fifty hardy pioneers, under Captain Alexander 
Beall. As the assembly refused to appropriate money to 
pay and maintain the garrison, the cost had to be met by 
private subscriptions. Writing to Sir John St. Clair, on 
March 27, 1758, Governor Sharpe says: 

I am obliged to you for encouraging General Forbes to enter- 
tain a favourable opinion of me & of my Desires to forAvard the 
Service, but I am much afraid that it will not be in my power to 
confirm it. In short, I cannot promise him any men from this 
Province unless He or General Abercromby will engage to pay 
them & I have taken the Liberty to tell him as much in the Letter 
I have now sent. It is well Capt Dagworthy & the Rest of our 

170 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Officers taught their men to live without Victuals last Summer; 
otherwise they may not have found it so easy a matter to keep them 
together 6 months without pay in the Winter. How much longer 
they will be contented to serve on this Footing I cannot tell, but 
lest Accidents should happen I hope some other Troops will be 
ordered to Fort Cumberland as soon as possible.^^* 

The difficulty about the payment of the troops was 
partially overcome by taking some of them into the king's 
service, and on one occasion General Forbes advanced 
sufficient money to pay them something, although he said 
that he could not undertake to take care of the arrearage. 

The road between Fort Frederick and Fort Cumberland 
was a rough and circuitous one, and several attempts to 
remedy this were made. Writing to Governor Sharpe 
from " Conlgogegh," on June 13, 1758, Colonel Bouquet 

As it will be of the greatest benefit to His Majesty's Service, 
to have a road of communication open from Each of the Provinces 
to Fort Cumberland I am under the necessity of requesting you 
to have the straightest Road reconnoitred, leading from Fort 
Frederick to Fort Cumberland: Recommanding to those you ap- 
point to mark it out to report the time that 500 men will take to 
cut it: any Expence you may be at shall be paid by Sir John S* 
Clair; as he will be the nearest to you. Please to send him the 
Report of it, that if found practicable he may send Troops to 
work at it.^^® 

Two days later Sharpe directed Captain Evan Shelby 
to survey a route for a road and make a report as to the 
cost and the time required to make it, and on the 25th 
of the same month Captain Shelby reported that "Upon 

11* Archives of Maryland, Vol. IX., p. 164. 
116 Archives of Maryland, Vol. IX., p. 205. 

Fort Frederick. 171 

the whole, it is my opinion that a Road might be made 
between the two Forts which will not be 60 miles in Length 
& there will be no bad Pinches for Waggons to ascend 
nor any bad Fords." The road was evidently not con- 
structed at that time, for in the following December the 
assembly appointed a commission to determine whether a 
better road could not be built. This commission consisted 
of Colonel Thomas Cresap, Joseph Chapline, E. Dorsey, 
Josias Beall, Francis King and Captain Crabb. After 
investigating the subject the commission reported as 
follows : 

Your committee have made an inquiry into the situation of the 
present wagon-road from Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberland, 
and are of the opinion that the distance by that road from one 
fort to the other is at least eighty miles, and find that the wagons 
which go from one fort to the other are obliged to pass the river 
Potowmack twice, and that for one-third of the year they can't 
pass without boats to set them over the river. 

Your committee have also made an inquiry into the condition of 
the ground where a road may be made most conveniently to go 
altogether on the north side of the Potowmack, which will not 
exceed the distance of sixty-two miles, at the expense of £250 
current money. 

Your committee are of the opinion that a road through Mary- 
land will contribute much to lessen the expense of carrying 
provisions and warlike stores from Fort Frederick to Fort Cum- 
berland, and will induce many people to travel and carry on a 
trade in and through the province, to and from the back country.^^® 

This report was accompanied by an itemized account of 
the distances and the probable cost of building each stretch 
of the road. This road was eventually built, and, as the 
commission's report had indicated, did prove of great ad- 
vantage to the province. 

11'' Scharf's " History of Western Maryland," Vol. II., p. 1328. 

172 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The erection and occupation of Fort Frederick gave the 
settlers in that section the protection they needed. The 
Indians soon learned to avoid the locality of the fort. 
Writing to Lord Loudoun, on October 12, 1756, Gov- 
ernor Sharpe says: "No Indians have been down among 
the Inhabitants for a considerable time, nor appeared on 
this side of Fort Frederick." After the fall of Fort Du- 
quesne and the withdrawal of the French from the Ohio 
river, the necessity for the continued maintenance of Fort 
Frederick ceased. Governor Sharpe accordingly leased the 
property on which it was built to Henry Heinzman, for 
a rental of thirty pounds yearly. The lease was dated 
December 25, 1762, and provided that "whereas there is 
not any garrison or soldiers at the said Fort Frederick, and 
several persons who live at or near the said fort do, and 
if not prevented, will continue to make great waste and 
destruction of the said fort and improvements by burning 
the plank and other materials, "^^''' possession of it was 
to be given, the Governor reserving the right to enter upon 
the property and annul the lease at any time when he 
might need the same for military purposes. 

Scarcely had Fort Frederick been turned over to the 
uses of peace when another war-cloud began to gather on 
the horizon. The tension between the colonies and the 
mother-country grew greater and greater, and finally the 
cords which bound them together were broken and the 
struggle was on; but still the tide of warfare did not 
surge near the old fort. Its walls looked down upon 
peace and quiet, for the German settlers in western Mary- 
land were not slow in going to the defense of the liberties 
of their adopted country, and many of the fields and 
plantations in the neighborhood were almost deserted. 

11'^ Stockbridge in " American Historical Register," Vol. II., p. 75+. 

Fort Frederick. lyt 

During the earlier years of the Revolutionary War the 
British and Hessian prisoners were confined at various 
points in Pennsylvania : Reading, Lancaster, York, Bethle- 
hem and Lebanon, but after the occupation of Philadelphia 
by the British, particularly as there were rumors of an 
uprising among the prisoners, the War Office decided to 
transfer some of the prisoners to some point further inland, 
and Fort Frederick was investigated to determine whether 
it would be a suitable place for the purpose. On Decem- 
ber 1 6, 1777, the following letter was written to Colonel 
Moses Rawlins: 

As you are about returning home by way of Fort Frederick in 
Maryland, the Board of War request you will take a view of 
the situation of that place and represent the state you find it in 
immediately. As it is proposed to send a number of prisoners of 
war thither, you will examine it with a view to this design. You 
will see how many men it is capable of holding, what repairs are 
wanting, how soon those repairs can be made, whether workmen 
can be procured in this vicinity to do the work, and whether 
materials are within reasonable distance. You will also report 
how many men you think it will be necessary to employ as guards 
for the number of prisoners the place is capable of receiving, and 
every other matter which shall occur to you as necessary for the 
information of the Board. 

Colonel Rawlins reported that the fort could easily 
be put in condition for the confinement of the prisoners, and 
the Maryland assembly directed that the necessary repairs 
be made. The assembly also provided for a guard for 
the prisoners. During part of the time this guard con- 
sisted of Captain John Kershner's company. On July 27, 
1778, this company was made up as follows: 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Jno. McLaughlin, 

Luke Sholly, 
Martain Phipher, 

Jacob Craver, 
Jacob Barnt, 

John Oster, 

Michael Hartly, 
George Stuart, 
George Hudson, 
Jno. Shriber, 
Ellas Reeter, 
George Carter, 
Abraham Bower, 

John Kershner. 


Peter Backer. 

Wm. Conrod. 


David Wolgamot, 
George Fanglar. 


Peter Conn, 
John Conn. 

Drum and Fife. 

Peter Lighter. 


Christlain Kirgery, 
James Flack, 
George May, 
Chris. Shock, 
Jno. Robinson, 
Jacob Geerhert, 
David Fosney, 

Martain Harry (or Narry), Richd. Menson, 

Andrew Miller, 

Peter Haflegh (Hoeflich), 

Fredk. Craft, 

Henry Tyce, 

Goodhert Tressel, 

Peter Oster, 
Thos. McCullim, 
Casper Snider, 
Peter Rough, 
Adam Sydey, 

Fort Frederick. 175 

Jacob Binkler, Abraham Feeter, 

Abraham Troxal, Jr., John Augusteen, 

Jacob Rldenour, Jacob Rorer, 

Peter Adams, Peter Sybert, 

Abraham Leedy, Michl. Spesser, 

Jno. Gable, Fredk. Deefhem (or Deef- 

Mlchael Kernam, herr), 

Danl. Kemmer, Fredk. Shackler, 

Adam Coon, Phillip Criegh, 

Jacob Adams, David Wirley, 

Jno. FIche, Chrlstiain Nockey 

Mathw. Williams, (or Hockey), 

Wm. Allin, Jacob Tysher. 

A number of prisoners from various points in Pennsyl- 
vania were transferred to Fort Frederick. At first some 
of the prisoners were allowed to work for the neighboring 
farmers, but it was found that this plan had disadvantages 
and in the autumn of 1778 the Board of War directed 
Colonel Rawlins to *' call in all the prisoners In the neigh- 
borhood of your post or its dependencies and, as the 
practice of letting them out to farmers and suffering them 
to go at large is attended with great mischiefs, you will in 
future keep them in close confinement." 

After the surrender of Cornwallls a large number of 
the prisoners taken at that time were sent to Fort 

In September, 1791, by direction of the Legislature of 
Maryland, Fort Frederick was sold to Robert Johnson, of 
Frederick county, for three hundred and seventy-five 
pounds, ten shillings, since which time it has belonged to 
a number of different people. For a short time during 
the Civil War the fort was occupied by some of General 
Kenly's command. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 


ITH the end of Pon- 
tiac's war and the sign- 
ing of the treaty between Eng- 
land and France peace and 
quiet returned to the western 
part of Maryland, and the 
settlers returned to their de- 
serted homes. Many of them, 
however, were in almost a desti- 
tute condition. Not only had 
their crops been destroyed and 
their domestic animals driven 
off or killed, but, in many cases, 
all their buildings with their contents had been burned. 
Then, too, many of them had fallen in arrears in the pay- 
ment of their rents, so that their situation was deplorable. 
Their poverty was emphasized by the fact that there were 
constant demands upon them for fees and taxes. The 
British government, at the close of the French and Indian 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 177 

War, found itself staggering under an immense debt, and 
as it had been incurred in a war in America, although the 
underlying principles which led to it had their foundations 
at home, it was speciously assumed that the colonies should 
defray the expenses of the war, and steps were taken to 
bring this about. 

In March, 1765, the Stamp Act was passed. This pro- 
vided that all bills, bonds, leases, notes, ships' papers, in- 
surance policies, and legal documents, to be valid in the 
courts, must be written on stamped paper. The passage 
of this act was instantly resented by the colonists, and 
nowhere were the indignation and determination to resist 
the enforcement of the law more pronounced than among 
the German settlers in western Maryland. Indeed, the 
first open stand against the use of the stamped paper and 
the determination to transact business without the use of 
stamps was made in Frederick county, which at that time 
Included the whole of western Maryland. 

Zachariah Hood, a native of Maryland, and a mer- 
chant of Annapolis, who was In England at the time, was 
appointed stamp distributor for the province of Mary- 
land. So Intense was the feeling of the Inhabitants of 
Maryland that when Hood returned with the stamps and 
a cargo of goods he was not allowed to land. Knowing 
that the open threats of the people to burn the stamps if 
they were brought on shore would be carried out, the 
authorities deemed It advisable that no opportunity should 
be given for such proceedings, and the stamps were kept 
on board ship and finally taken to Virginia, where they 
could be held under the protection of a British ship of war. 
In the meantime business of all kinds was held up. There 
were many legal papers which could not be issued except 
on stamped paper, and there were no stamps In the colony. 


178 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Indignation meetings were held everywhere and resolu- 
tions were passed condemning the passage of the Stamp 
Act and refusing to use the stamps, and in many places 
Zachariah Hood, the stamp distributor, was burned in 
effigy. The matter was brought to a head in Frederick 
county. At a meeting of the Frederick county court, on 
November 18, 1765, Judges Joseph Smith, David Lynn, 
Charles Jones, Samuel Beall, Joseph Beall, Peter Bain- 
bridge, Thomas Price, Andrew Hugh, William Blair, Wil- 
liam Luckett, James Dickson and Thomas Beatty being 
present, the following order was made : 

Upon application of Michael Ashford Dowden, bail of James 
Veach, at the suit of a certain Stephen West to surrender said 
James Veach in discharge of himself, which the court ordered to 
be done, and an entry of the surrender to be made accordingly, 
which John Darnall, Clerk of the Court, refused to make, and 
having also refused to issue any process out of his office, or to make 
the necessary entries of the Court proceedings, alleging that he 
conceives there is an Act of Parliament imposing stamp duties on 
all legal proceedings, and therefore that he cannot safely proceed 
in exercising his office without proper stamps. 

It is the unanimous resolution and opinion of this Court that all 
the business thereof shall and ought to be transacted in the usual 
and accustomed manner, without any inconvenience or delay to be 
occasioned from the want of Stamped Paper, Parchment, or Vel- 
lum, and that all proceedings shall be valid and effectual without 
the use of Stamps, and they enjoin and order all Sheriffs, Clerks, 
Counsellors, Attorneys, and all officers of the Court to proceed in 
their several avocations as usual, which Resolution and Opinion 
are grounded on the following and other reasons: 

1st. It is conceived that there has not been a legal publication 
yet made of any Act of Parliament whatever imposing a Stamp 
Duty on the Colonies. Therefore this Court are of opinion that 
until the existence of such an Act is properly notified, it would be 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 179 

culpable in them to permit or suffer a total stagnation of business^ 
which must inevitably be productive of innumerable injuries to 
individuals, and have a tendency to subvert all principles of civil 

2d. As no Stamps are yet arrived in this Province, and the in- 
habitants have no means of procuring any, this Court are of 
opinion that it v^^ould be an injustice of the most v^^anton oppres- 
sion to deprive any person of a legal remedy for the recovery of 
his property for omitting that w^hich it is impossible to perform.^^' 

The clerk of the court, to protect himself, refused to 
comply with this order, whereupon the Court ordered 

That John Darnall, clerk of this Court, be committed to the 
custody of the sheriff of this county for a contempt of the authority 
of this court, he having refused to comply with the foregoing 
order of this Court relative to the execution of his office in issuing 
processes and making the necessary entries of the Court's proceed- 
ings; and that he stands committed for the above offense until he 
comply with the above mentioned order.^^^ 

On the issuance of this order the clerk submitted to the 
order of the court, paid the costs and was discharged. 
This was the beginning of the overthrow of the Stamp 
Act, and on November 30 a celebration in honor of the 
decision of the court was held at Frederick. The Mary- 
land Gazette of December 16, 1765, gives an extended 
account of this celebration, which is quoted by Scharf.^^o 
The action taken in Frederick county was followed in other 
parts of the province, so that so far as Maryland was con- 
cerned the Stamp Act was absolutely disregarded. The 
law was repealed on March 18, 1766. 

The next year, however, a law was passed imposing 

"8 Scharf's " History of Western Maryland," Vol. I., p. izz. 

119 Ibid. 

120 History of Western Maryland, Vol. I., p. i2Z. 

i8o The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

duties on glass, paper, pasteboard, white and red lead, 
painters' colors, and tea imported into the colonies. The 
passage of this act quickly revived the opposition of the 
colonists, and associations were formed to oppose the col- 
lection of the taxes, the members pledging themselves to 
non-importation. These pledges were generally strictly 
adhered to, although occasionally some merchant, seeing 
a chance to make a good profit, violated the conditions of 
the agreement. But the punishment for such actions was 
swift and sure, and the instances of it were rare, " In 
October, 1769, a number of wagons of contraband goods, 
valued at three hundred pounds, were shipped from Penn- 
sylvania to Frederick, and not being accompanied with 
the proper certificates, they were stored at the risk and cost 
of the owners."^^^ 

Meetings to protest against the imposition of these taxes 
were held in all the counties. The Maryland Gazette gives 
an account of a meeting held in Frederick county on August 
28, 1770. The place of meeting was a school house, near 
Troxell's mill, on Tom's creek. Among those present were 
William Blair, James Shields, Sr., William Shields, Charles 
Robinson, Patrick Haney, Robert Brown, Henry Hocker- 
smith, William Elder, son of Guy, Samuel Westfall, 
Moses Kennedy, Alexander Stewart, William Curran, Jr., 
Charles Carroll, William Koontz, Christian Hoover, John 
Smith, Daniel McLean, John Faires, John Long, Arthur 
Row, John Crabs, Moses Ambrose, George Kelly, Walter 
Dulany, Thomas J. Bowie, James Park, Robert Agnew, 
John Corrick, Frederick Troxell, Rudolf Nead, Octavius 
S. Taney, George Ovelman, Dominick Bradley, Thomas 
Hughes, Philip Weller, Jacob Valentine, William Brawner, 
Thomas Martin, Daniel Morrison, William Munroe, and 

121 Scharf's " History of Western Maryland," Vol. I., p. 124. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. i8i 

Henry Brook. At this meeting the following resolution 
was adopted: 

Resolved, by the inhabitants of Tom's Creek, Frederick County, 
in the province of Maryland, loyal to their king and country that 
we reaffirm the great Magna Charta of our Civil and Religious 
Rights, as granted by Charles of England to Lord Baltimore and 
the inhabitants of this colony, as reaffirmed on the first landing of 
the Pilgrim Fathers of Maryland, that there shall be a perfect 
freedom of conscience, and every person be allowed to enjoy his 
religious and political privileges and immunities unmolested. 

The opposition of the colonists to the imposition of 
these taxes and the adoption of a policy of non-Importa- 
tion were so general that the British government found it 
impossible to enforce the law, and with the exception of 
the tax on tea it was allowed to fall into abeyance. With 
the destruction of the cargo of tea in Boston harbor and 
the subsequent passage of the Boston Port Bill, in 1774, 
the indignation of the colonists and their determination to 
oppose the oppressive measures of the British government 
became so Intense that the majority of the people were 
ready to follow any one who would take a determined stand 
against the unpopular measures. At that period the ma- 
jority of the population of Maryland lived In the western 
part of the province, within the limits of what was then 
Frederick county, and of these by far the greater number 
were the Germans who had come down from Pennsylvania, 
and their descendants. These people had abondoned their 
homes across the ocean and had come to America to escape 
from just such oppression, and it was but natural, there- 
fore, that they should quickly resent any attempts of the 
British government to enforce what appeared to be unjust 
laws, particularly in the matter of taxation. The Inhabi- 
tants of Frederick county, therefore, generally took the 

1 82 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

lead in proposing measures for the relief of the people. 
Their action following the passage of the Boston Port BUI 
was prompt. On June ii, 1774, the Inhabitants of the 
lower part of Frederick county held a largely attended 
meeting at the tavern of Charles Hungerford. They 
elected Henry Griffith moderator and adopted the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

Resolved unanimously. That it is the opinion of this meeting 
that the town of Boston is now suffering in the common cause of 

Resolved, unanimously. That every legal and constitutional 
measure ought to be used by all America for procuring a repeal of 
the act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of Boston. 

Resolved, unanimously , That it is the opinion of this meeting 
that the most effectual means for the securing American freedom 
will be to break off all commerce with Great Britain and the West 
Indies until the said act be repealed, and the right of taxation 
given up on permanent principles. 

Resolved^ unanimously , That Mr. Henry Griffith, Dr. Thomas 
Sprigg Wootton, Nathan Magruder, Evan Thomas, Richard 
Brooke, Richard Thomas, Zadok Magruder, Dr. William Baker, 
Thomas Cramphin, Jr., and Allen Bowie be a committee to attend 
the general committee at Annapolis, and of correspondence for the 
lower part of Frederick county, and that any six of them shall have 
power to receive and communicate intelligence to and from their 
neighboring committees. 

Resolved, unanimously. That a copy of these our sentiments be 
immediately transmitted to Annapolis, and inserted in the Mary- 
land Gazette. Signed per oroer, 

Archibald Orme, Clerk.^^'^ 

Nine days later, on June 20, a meeting was held In the 
court house at Frederick, at which John Hanson presided, 
and the following resolutions were adopted: 

1^2 Force's " American Archives," Series IV., Vol. I., p. 403. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 183 

I. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this meeting that the town 
of Boston is now suffering in the common cause of America, and 
that it is the duty of every colony in America to unite in the most 
effectual means to obtain a repeal of the late act of Parliament for 
blocking up the harbor of Boston. 

II. That it is the opinion of a great majority of this meeting 
that if the colonies come into a joint resolution to stop all imports 
from, and exports to, Great Britain and the West Indies till the 
act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of Boston, as well 
as every other act oppressive to American liberty, be repealed, the 
same may be the means of preserving to America her rights, liberties 
and privileges. 

III. That, therefore, this meeting will join in an association 
with the several counties in this province and the principal colonies 
in America to put a stop to all exports to, and imports from, Great 
Britain and the West Indies, shipped after the 25th day of July 
next, or such other day as may be agreed on, until the said acts 
shall be repealed, and that such association shall be upon oath. 

IV. That we, the inhabitants of Frederick county, will not deal 
or have any connections with that colony, province, or town which 
shall decline or refuse to come into similar resolutions with a 
majority of the colonies. 

V. That no suit shall be commenced after the stop shall be put 
to imports and exports for the recovery of any debt due to any 
person whatsoever, unless the debtor be about to abscond, or being 
appealed to shall refuse to give bond and security. 

VI. That Messrs. John Hanson, Thomas Price, George Scott, 
Benjamin Dulany, George Murdock, Philip Thomas, Alexander 
C. Hanson, Baker Johnson, and Andrew Scott be a committee to 
attend the general congress at Annapolis, and that those gentlemen, 
together with Messrs. John Gary, Christopher Edelen, Conrad 
Groth, Thomas Schley, Peter Hoffman, and Archibald Boyd, be a 
committee of correspondence to receive and answer letters, and in 
any emergency to call a general meeting, and that any six shall have 
power to act. 

184 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Ordered, that these resolves be immediately sent to Annapolis, 
that they may be printed in the Maryland Gazette. 

Signed per order, 

Archibald Boyd, CI. Com.'^^^ 

The inhabitants of the upper part of Frederick county 
met at Elizabeth-Town, now Hagerstown, on July 2. The 
Maryland Gazette gives the following account of this 

On Saturday, the 2d of July, 1774, about eight hundred of the 
principal inhabitants of the upper part of Frederick County, Md., 
assembled at Elizabeth Town, and being deeply impressed with a 
sense of the danger to which their natural and constitutional rights 
and privileges were exposed by the arbitrary measures of the 
British Parliament, do think it their duty to declare publicly their 
sentiments on so interesting a subject, and to enter Into such Reso- 
lutions as may be the means of preferring their freedom. After 
choosing John Stull, Esq., their Moderator, the following resolves 
were unanimously entered Into: 

I. That the Act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of 
the Town of Boston is a dangerous invasion of American liberty, 
and that the town of Boston is now suffering in the common cause, 
and ought to be assisted by the other Colonies. 

II. That the stopping all commercial intercourse with Great 
Britain will be the most effectual means for fixing our Liberties 
on the footing we desire. 

III. That a general congress of Delegates from the several 
colonies to effect a uniform plan of conduct for all America is 
highly necessary, and that we will strictly adhere to any measure 
that may be adopted by them for the preservation of our Liberties. 

IV. That the surest means for continuing a people free and happy 
is the disusing all luxuries, and depending only on their own fields 
and flocks for the comfortable necessaries of Life. 

123 Force's "American Archives," Series IV., Vol. I., p, 433, 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 185 

V. That they will not, after this day, drink any Tea, nor suffer 
the same to be used in their Families, until the Act for laying 
duty thereon be repealed. 

VI. That they will not, after this day, kill any sheep under three 
years old. 

VII. That they will immediately prepare for manufacturing 
their own clothing. 

VIII. That they will immediately open a subscription for the 
relief of their suffering Brethren in Boston. 

After choosing John Stull, Samuel Hughes, Jonathan Hager, 
Conrad Hogmire, Henry Snebley, Richard Davis, John Swan, 
Charles Swearingen, Thomas Brooke, William McGlury, and Elie 
Williams as a committee, they proceeded to show their disappro- 
bation of Lord North's Conduct with regard to America by Hang- 
ing and burning his Effigy, after which a subscription was opened 
for the relief of the Poor of Boston. In consequence of the Fifth 
Resolve, a number of mercantile Gentlemen solemnly declared that 
they would send off all the Tea they had on hand and that they 
would not purchase any more until the Act laying a duty thereon 
be repealed, among which number was a certain John Parks. 

A great deal has been written concerning the " Boston 
Tea-party," but there were tea-parties in other parts of the 
colonies which, while they may not have been so spectacular 
as the one at Boston, were just as effective In the results 
obtained. As McSherry says "Long before the destruc- 
tion of tea In Boston harbor by disguised men the patriots 
of Maryland calmly, openly, and In the presence of the 
governor and the provincial officers discussed and set at 
defiance this obnoxious act and prevented Its execution."^ 2* 
The most spectacular occurrence of this kind In Maryland 
was the destruction of the brlgP^^^y Stewart. In October, 
1774, that vessel arrived at Annapolis having among its 

1^* " History of Maryland," revised ed., p. ii6. 

1 86 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

cargo several packages of tea consigned to Thomas Wil- 
liams & Co. The vessel was owned by Anthony Stewart, 
who paid the duty on the tea. As soon as this became 
known a public meeting was called at which the greatest 
indignation was expressed. The merchants who received 
the tea were present at the meeting and publicly apologized 
for having done so and agreed to burn the tea. But this 
did not entirely satisfy the people, who openly made threats 
against the vessel and its owner. Mr. Stewart, in order to 
quiet the people, offered to destroy the vessel himself. 
This proposition was accepted and Mr. Stewart, accom- 
panied by the merchants to whom the tea was consigned, 
went aboard the Peggy Stewart, ran her aground at Wind- 
mill Point, and set fire to her in the presence of a great 
crowd of people. 

In the account given above of the meeting at Elizabeth- 
Town "a certain John Parks" is mentioned. It seems 
that Parks did not abide by the agreement not to buy any 
more tea, and when it was discovered that he had a chest of 
tea in his possession he was summoned before the Com- 
mittee. He admitted the fact and agreed to deliver the tea 
to the Committee. The Maryland Gazette of December 
22, 1774, gives the following account of the subsequent 
proceedings in this case: 

The committee for the upper part of Frederick county, Mary- 
land, having met at Elizabeth Town, on the 26th of November, 
which was the day appointed for the delivery of John Park's chest 
of tea, in consequence of his agreement published in the Maryland 
Journal of the i6th ult. After a demand was made of the same, 
Mr. Parks offered a chest of tea, found on a certain Andrew Gib- 
son's plantation, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, by the com- 
mittee for that place, which tea he declared was the same he 
promised to deliver. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 187 

The committee are sorry to say that they have great reason to 
believe, and indeed with almost a certainty, that the said chest of 
tea was in Cumberland county at the time Parks said upon oath it 
wzs at Christen Bridge. 

After mature deliberation, the Committee were of opinion, that 
Parks should go with his hat off, and lighted torches in his hands, 
and set fire to the tea, which he accordingly did, and the same was 
consumed to ashes, amongst the acclamations of a numerous body 
of people. The Committee were also of opinion that no further 
intercourse should be had with the said Parks. Every friend to 
liberty is requested to pay due attention to the same. 

Voted, the thanks of this committee to that of Cumberland 
county, for their prudent and spirited behaviour upon this occasion. 

Signed by order of the committee, 

John Stull, President. 

N. B. The populace thought the measures adopted by the com- 
mittee were inadequate to the transgression, and satisfied them- 
selves by breaking his door and windows.^^^ 

On November 18, 1774, a meeting of the qualified 
voters of Frederick county was held at the court house In 
Frederick and the following gentlemen were named to 
represent the county, and to carry Into execution the asso- 
ciation agreed upon by the Continental Congress: Charles 
Beatty, Henry Griffith, Thomas Sprigg Wooton, Jacob 
Hunk, Nath. Magruder, Richard Thomas, Evan Thomas, 
Richard Brooke, Zadock Magruder, William Baker, 
Thomas Cramphin, Jr., John Murdock, Thomas Jones, 
Allen Bowie, Jr., William Deaklns, Jr., Bernard O'Neal, 
Brook Beall, Edward Burgess, Charles G. Griffith, Henry 
Griffith, Jr., Wm. Bayley, Jr., Samuel W. Magruder, 
Nath. Offutt, Archibald Orm, Joseph Threlkeld, Walter 
Smith, Thos. Beall of George, Richard Crab, William 

125 Force's " American Archives," Fourth Series, Vol. I., p. 1009; Ridge Vs 
" Annals of Annapolis," p. 164. 

1 88 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Luckett, William Luckett, Jr., Greenbury Griffith, Samuel 
Griffith, John Hanson, Thomas Price, Thomas Bowles, 
Conrad Grosh, Thomas Schley, Jonathan Wilson, Francis 
Deakins, Casper Schaaf, Peter Hoffman, George Scott, 
Baker Johnson, Philip Thomas, Alexander C. Hanson, 
Archibald Boyd, Arthur Nelson, Andrew Scott, George 
Strieker, Adam Fisher, Wm. Ludwick, Weltner Van 
Swearengen, William J. Beall, Jacob Young, Peter Grosh, 
iEneas Campbell, Elias Bnmer, Frederick Kemp, John 
Haas, John Romsburg, Thomas Hawkins, Upton Sher- 
edine, John Lawrence, Basil Dorsey, Charles Warfield, 
Ephraim Howard, Joseph Wells, David Moore, Joseph 
Wood, Norman Bruce, William Blair, David Schriver, 
Roger Johnson, Henry Cock, Robert Wood, William 
Albaugh, Jacob Mathias, Henry Crawle, Jacob Ambrose, 
David Richards, William Winchester, Philip Fishbum, 
William Hobbs, Thomas Cresap, Thomas Warren, Thos. 
Humphreys, Richard Davis, Jr., Charles Clinton, James 
Prather, George Brent, James Johnson, James Smith, 
Joseph Chapline, John Stull, Samuel Beall, Jr., William 
Baird, Joseph Sprigg, Christian Orendorf, Jonathan 
Hager, Conrad Hogmire, Charles Swearengen, Henry 
Snavely, Richard Davis, Samuel Hughes, Joseph Perry, 
John Jugerhorn, Joseph Smith, Thomas Hog, Thomas 
Prather, William McClary, John Swan, Eli Williams, 
Stophall Burkett, and Thomas Brooke. ^^^ Any five of 
them had power to act. 

At the same time the following were named as a Com- 
mittee of Correspondence : Charles Beatty, Thos. Sprigg 
Wooton, John Hanson, Thomas Bowles, Casper Shaaf, 
Thomas Price, Baker Johnson, Philip Thomas, George 
Murdock, Alexander C. Hanson, Thomas Cramphin, Jr., 
William Bayley, Jr., Evan Thomas, Richard Brooke, 

126 Force's " American Archives," Fouth Series, Vol. I., p. 986. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 189 

Thomas Johns, Walter Smith, William Deakins, John 
Murdock, Bernard O'Neal, John Stull, Samuel Beall, Jr., 
James Smith, Joseph Chapline, Joseph Sprigg, Charles 
Swearengen, Rich. Davis, Jonathan Hager, and Joseph 

The following were also elected to attend the Provincial 
Convention : Charles Beatty, Henry Griffith, Thos. Sprigg 
Wooton, Jacob Funk, Evan Thomas, Richard Brooke, 
Upton Sheredine, Baker Johnson, Thomas Price, Joseph 
Chapline, and James Smith. 

The Provincial Convention, which met on December 
8, adopted resolutions recommending that the inhabitants 
of the province, from sixteen to fifty years of age, form 
themselves into companies of sixty-eight men, and elect a 
captain, two lieutenants, an ensign, four sergeants, four 
corporals, and a drummer for each company, and to use 
their utmost endeavors to make themselves masters of mili- 
tary exercise. It was also recommended that each man be 
provided with a good firelock and bayonet fixed thereon, 
half a pound of powder, two pounds of lead, and a car- 
touch-box or powder-horn, and a bag for ball, and be in 
readiness to act in any emergency. 

When they had made up their minds to act, the citizens 
of Frederick county were fired with enthusiasm, and in 
order that all the necessary precautions might be taken 
another meeting of the citizens of the county was called 
to be held at the court house on Tuesday, January 24, 
1775. At this meeting John Hanson was made chairman, 
and Archibald Boyd, secretary. The association and re- 
solves of the American Congress and the proceedings of 
the last Provincial Convention were read and unanimously 
approved, and the following resolutions adopted r^^"^ 

127 Force's "American Archives," Fourth Series, Vol. I., p. 1173. 

190 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

I. Resolvedj That Messrs. Charles Beatty, Henry Griffith, 
Thomas Sprigg Wooton, Jacob Funk, and Nathan Magruder, 
Richard Brooke, Zadock Magruder, William Baker, Thomas 
Cramphin, Jr., Alexander Bowie, Jr., William Deakins, Jr., John 
Murdock, Thomas Johns, Bernard O'Neal, Brooke Beall, Edward 
Burgess, Charles G. Griffith, Henry Griffith, Jr., William Bayley, 
Jr., Samuel Magruder, Nathaniel OfiFutt, Archibald Orme, Joseph 
Threlkeld, Walter Smith, Thomas Beall of George, Richard 
Crabb, William Luckett, William Luckett, Jr., Greenbury Grif- 
fith, Samuel Griffith, John Hanson, Thomas Price, Thomas 
Bowles, Conrad Grosh, Thomas Archley, Jonathan Wilson, Francis 
Deakins, Casper Schaaff, Peter Hoffman, George Scott, Baker 
Johnson, Philip Thomas, Alexander C. Hanson, Archibald Boyd, 
Arthur Nelson, Andrew Scott, George Strieker, Adam Fisher, Wm. 
Ludwick, Weltner Van Swearengen, Wm. M. Beall, Jacob 
Young, Peter Grosh, ^neas Campbell, Elias Brunner, Frederick 
Kemp, John Haas, John Remsburg, Thomas Hawkins, Upton 
Sheredine, Basil Dorsey, John Lawrence, Charles Warfield, 
Ephraim Howard, Joseph Wells, David Moore, Joseph Wood, 
Norman Bruce, William Blair, David Schriver, Roger Johnson, 
Henry Cock, Robert Wood, William Albaugh, Jacob Mathias, 
Henry Crawle, Jacob Ambrose, David Richards, William Win- 
chester, Philip Fishburn, William Hobbs, Thomas Cresap, Thomas 
Warren, Thomas Humphreys, Richard Davis, Jr., Charles Clinton, 
James Prather, George Bent, James Johnson, James Smith, Joseph 
Chapline, John Stull, Samuel Beall, Jr., William Baird, Joseph 
Sprigg, Christian Orendorff, Jonathan Hager, Conrad Hogmire, 
Charles Swearingen, Henry Snavely, Richard Davis, Samuel 
Hughes, Joseph Perry, Joseph Smith, Thomas Hog, Thomas 
Prather, William McClary, John Swan, Eli Williams, Christopher 
Burkett, Thomas Brooke, Michael Raymer, Nicholas Tice, John 
Adlum, Samuel Norwood, Bartholomew Booth, Jacob Boyer, 
Michael Jacob Miller, Andrew Bruce, John Darnall, John Rems- 
burg, William Dorran, John Key, John Beall, John McCallister, 
Charles Beall, Lewis Kemp, John Stoner, Thomas Beatty, Thomas 

The Pre-Revohitionary Period. 191 

Gilbert, Abraham Hoff, P. Henry Thomas, Jacob Good, Westel 
Ridgely, Samuel Carrick, Abraham Hosteter, Baltzer Kelcholumer, 
Samuel Emmet, John Gary, Christopher Edelin, Amos Riggs, 
John Grimber, Leonard Smith, Nicholas Hower, Richard North- 
craft, John Herriot, Richard Smith, Zacharias Ellis, Azel Waters, 
Martin Cassil, James Johnson, George Bare, Benjamin Johnson, 
and Abraham Paw be a committee of observation, with full powers 
to prevent any infraction of the said institution, and to carry the 
resolves of the American Congress and of the Provincial Conven- 
tion into execution ; that any seventy-five of those gentlemen have 
power to act for the county, and any five in each of the larger 
districts be authorized to act in any manner that concerns such 
Division only. 

II. Resolved, That the gentlemen appointed at the last meeting 
of this County a committee of Correspondence be hereby con- 
tinued, and that the duration of their authority be limited to the 
second Tuesday in October next. 

III. Resolved, As the most convenient and effectual method 
of raising the sum of $1,333, being this County's proportion of the 
$10,000 which the provincial convention has appointed to be raised 
for the purchase of arms and ammunition, that a subscription be 
immediately opened in every part of the County, and the following 
gentlemen be appointed to promote such subscriptions in their 
several Hundreds: 

For Salisbury Hundred, Jonathan Hager, Henry Snavely and 
Jacob Sellers. 

For Upper Catoclin, Peter Bainbridge, Benjamin Eastburn, 
Caspar Smith, and Thomas Johnson. 

For the Lower part of New Foundland, Edward Burgess, Walter 
Beall, Joseph Perry. 

For Skipton, Thomas Cresap, Moses Rawlings, and Richard 
Davis, Jr. 

For Georgetown, William Deakins, Thomas Johns, Walter 

For Sharpsburg, Joseph Chapline and Christian Orendorf. 

192 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

For Lower part of Potomack Hundred, William Bayley, Sam- 
uel Wade Magruder, Andrew Hugh, and Charles Jones. 

For Tom's Creek Hundred, William Blair, William Sheales, 
and Benjamin Ogle. 

For Catoclin Hundred, George Strieker, William Luckett, Jr., 
and Westel Ridgely. 

For Upper Antietam Hundred, Jacob Funk, Conrad Hogmire, 
Joseph Perry, John Ingram. 

For Linton Hundred, Martin Johnson, and Joseph Flint. 

For Cumberland Hundred, Charles Clinton. 

For Middle Monocacy, Thomas Beatty, Mathias Ringer, Chris- 
topher Stull, and T. Flemming. 

For Rock Creek Hundred, Thomas Cramphin, Zadock Magru- 
der, W. Baker, and Allen Bowie. 

For Sugar Loaf Hundred, Francis Deakins, R. Smith, L. Plum- 
mer, Z. Waters, and Z. Linthicum. 

For Burnt Woods Hundred, Ephraim Howard, Charles War- 
field, David Moore, John Lawrence, Henry Crowle, and William 

For Lower Antietam Hundred, Thomas Hog, Henry Butler, 
and Thomas Cramphin. 

For Linganore Hundred, John Beall, Charles G. Griffith, Nicho- 
las Hobbs, Basil Dorsey, and William Duvall. 

For Conococheague, David Jones Isaac Baker, and Jacob Friend. 

For Piney Creek Hundred, Jacob Good, John McCallister, 
Samuel McFarren, Abraham Hiter, and John Key. 

For Lower Monocacy Hundred, Lewis Kemp, John Darnall, 
Thomas Nowland, and Leonard Smith. 

For Northwest Hundred, Samuel Harwood, Peter Becraft, and 
Richard Beall, of Samuel. 

For Marsh Hundred, Charles Swearingen, Eli Williams, James 
Smith, Richard Davis, and George Swimley. 

For Upper Part of Potomac Hundred, Brooke Beall, Samuel 
West, Nathaniel Ofifutt, and Alexander Clagett. 

For Seneca, Charles Perry, Richard Crabb, Gerard Briscoe. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 193 

For Pipe Creek Hundred, Andrew Bruce, William Winchester, 
David Schriver, and Nathaniel Norris. 

For Manor Hundred, William Beatty, Joseph Wood, Jr., Azel 
Waters, John Remsburg, Abraham Hoff, and Valentine Creager. 

For Upper Part of Monocacy Hundred, Henry Cox, Roger 
Johnson, Richard Butler. 

For Upper Part of New Foundland Hundred, Henry Griffith, 
Richard Brooke, and Henry Gaither, Sr. 

For Elizabeth Hundred, John Stull, Otho Holland Williams, 
John Swan, and John Rench. 

For Fredericktown Hundred, Phil. Thomas, Thomas Price, 
Baker Johnson, Peter Hoffman, and Ludwick Weltner. 

For Fort Frederick Hundred, Ezekiah Cox. 

For Sugar Land Hundred, ^neas Campbell, John Fletcher, 
John Luckett, Alexander Whitaker, and Solomon Simpson. 

The said gentlemen are instructed to apply personally, or by 
Deupty, to every freeman in their respective Districts, and to 
solicit a generous contribution. 

They are ordered to state accounts of money received, and pay it 
to the Committee of Correspondence, which is hereby appointed 
to meet at Fredericktown, the 23d day of March next: and they 
are further ordered to report to the said Committee the names of 
persons (if any) who shall refuse to subscribe. 

IV. That Messrs. Thomas Johnson, William Deakins, Charles 
Beatty, George Murdock, John Stull, and John Swan, or any one 
of them, be empowered to contract, in behalf of the Committee of 
Correspondence, for any quantity of powder and Lead, to be paid 
for on the said 23d day of March. 

V. In order that a committee of observation may be more con- 
veniently chosen, and a more proper representation of the people 
may be had, the several collectors in each Hundred are desired to 
give notice to those qualified by their estates to vote for Repre- 
sentatives of some time and place of meeting in the Hundred, to 

elect members for a Committee, agreeably to the following 

194 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

When the number of taxables exceed two hundred, and amounts 
to not more than four hundred, the District shall elect three mem- 
bers. The Collectors are ordered to return such Representatives 
to the Committee of Correspondence on the 23d day of March; 
the Committee so chosen shall then meet, and the authority of the 
present Committee of Observation shall be dissolved. 

VI. Resolved, That Messrs. John Hanson, Charles Beatty, 
Upton Sheredine, Baker Johnson, Philip Thomas, Jacob Funk, 
Samuell Beall, Joseph Chapline, John StuU, James Smith, Henry 
Griffith, Thomas Sprigg Wootton, Richard Brooke, William 
Deakins, and Thomas Cramphine, or any five of them, shall repre- 
sent this County to any Provincial convention to be held at the 
city of Annapolis before the second Tuesday of October next. A 
petition from the People called Dunkers and Mennonists was 
read. They express a willingness freely to contribute their money 
In support of the common cause of America, but pray an exemp- 
tion from the Military Exercise on the score of their Religious 

Resolved, That this petition be referred to the Committee to be 
chosen agreeably to the fifth Resolve. In the mean time it is 
strictly enjoined that no violence be offered to the person or prop- 
erty of any one, but that all grounds of complaint be referred to 
said Committee. 

Arch. Boyd, Clerk. 

Although making preparations to be ready for any con- 
tingency, the German citizens of Maryland were not, as a 
rule, prepared to go to the length of severing their con- 
nection with Great Britain. They considered that their 
rights had been Invaded, but they also thought that this 
matter could be adjusted by the British government with- 
out going to the length of a separation of the colonies from 
the mother country. In the latter part of 1774 the magi- 
strates of Frederick county adopted the folowing address 
to their representatives In the Provincial Convention : 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 195 

Address of the Magistrates of Frederick County, Maryland, to 
the Honourable Matthew Tilghman, Thomas Johnson, Robert 
Goldsborough, William Paca and Samuel Chase, Esquires. 

We the Subscribers, Magistrates of Frederick County, sensible of 
the disinterested services you have rendered your county on many 
occasions, but particularly as Deputies from this Province to the 
Continental Congress, beg leave to return you our sincere acknowl- 
edgements. The vs^hole of the proceedings of that important As- 
sembly are so replete w^ith loyalty to the King; with tenderness to 
the interest of our fellow-subjects in Great Britain ; and above all, 
reverential regard to the rights and liberties of America, that they 
cannot fail to endear you to every American, and your memory to 
their latest posterity."^ 

The magistrates who signed this address were chiefly of 
English extraction, but at the same time the Grand Jury, 
made up partly of German citizens, also forwarded an ad- 
dress to the same representatives. In this address, after 
endorsing the action of the Continental Congress, the Grand 
Jury goes on to say: "Permit us, gentlemen, to observe, 
that Councils tampered with such filial loyalty to the Sov- 
ereign, such fraternal delicacy for the sufferings of our 
friends in Great Britain, and at the same, with such un- 
shaken zeal for the preservation of the inestimable privi- 
leges derived from our admirable Constitution, cannot 
fail to give weight and influence to the cause, and must 
moderate and relax the minds of our most poignant 
enemies."^ 2^ 

But, as Dr. Steiner says, "The 'most poignant enemy' 
was King George, and when the men of Frederick dis- 
covered that fact, all 'filial loyalty' was lost and they 
girded themselves for the fray." 

"8 Force's " American Archives," Series IV., Vol. I., p. 992. 
i2»Ibid., p. 993. 



Preparing for the Struggle. 


EXINGTON and Bunker 
Hill will always be bril- 
liantly illuminted pages in the 
history of America, and the 
Minute Men who had the te- 
merity to contest the advance 
of Major Pitcaim and his reg- 
ulars, and the farmer boys be- 
hind the fence on Breed's Hill who twice drove back the 
crack Welsh Fusileers, will always be entitled to their due 
meed of praise. They were the advance guard in the 
struggle with the mother country, and were steadfast in 
the hour of need, and are justly honored for the part 
they played. But after they had begun the contest and 
others were needed to reinforce them and continue the 
work, it was the sturdy Germans from the south: from 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, who hurried to their aid. 
The first troops from the other provinces to reach Cam- 
bridge after the battle of Bunker Hill were the two com- 

1 96 

Preparing for the Struggle. 197 

panics from Frederick county, Maryland, made up largely 
of Germans. This was but the beginning, and although 
many of these Germans were opposed to war and had come 
to this country to escape from the burdens imposed upon 
them by it, they left their homes and their untilled fields 
and joined the bands of patriots, prepared to back their 
desire for the freedom they had been promised with the 
rifle and bayonet. It is impossible to estimate the full value 
of their services, but considering the numbers of them who 
served in the patriot army throughout the war, it can be 
stated as an incontrovertible fact that without the aid of 
the Germans from Pennsylvania and Maryland the issue 
of the Revolutionary War would have been more than 

The news of the fight at Lexington reached Annapolis 
on the morning of April 26th, and couriers rapidly carried 
it to all parts of the colony. The excitement produced by 
the information that the war had been begun had scarcely 
begun to subside when news was received of the battle of 
Bunker Hill, which was fought on June 17, 1775. Three 
days before the Continental Congress had adopted a reso- 
lution providing for a battalion of riflemen, two companies 
of which were to be raised in Maryland, two in Virginia, 
and six in Pennsylvania. The two Maryland companies 
were assigned to Frederick county, and it was ordered that 
as soon as they were enlisted they were to be marched to 
Boston. A meeting of the Committee of Observation for 
Frederick county was held in the court-house at Frederick 
on June 21, and at this meeting John Hanson, chairman of 
the Maryland delegation to the Continental Congress, 
read the resolution adopted by that body just a week 
before. The committee at once adopted a resolution direct- 
ing that the two companies of expert riflemen be forth- 

198 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

with raised and named the following officers for the 
companies : 

First Company. — Michael Cresap, captain; Thomas 
Warren, Joseph Cresap, Jr., and Richard Davis, Jr., 

Second Company. — Thomas Price, captain; Otho Hol- 
land Williams and John Ross Key, lieutenants. 

These companies were promptly recruited from among 
the expert riflemen of Frederick county, a large propor- 
tion of whom were Germans. Unfortunately the muster 
rolls of these companies have not been preserved, or at 
least cannot be found, so that the names of these patriots 
cannot be given. So prompt was the organization of these 
companies that by the middle of July they were ready to 
start on their march to Boston. The appearance of these 
riflemen and their skill as marksmen attracted attention 
everywhere. Writing to a friend In Philadelphia, under 
date of August i, 1775, a gentleman In Frederick says:^^° 

Notwithstanding the urgency of my business, I have been detained 
three days in this place by an occurrence truly agreeable. I have 
had the happiness of seeing Captain Michael Cresap marching at 
the head of a formidable company of upwards of one hundred and 
thirty men, from the mountains and backwoods, painted like 
Indians, armed with tomahawks and rifles, dressed in hunting- 
shirts and moccasins, and though some of them had travelled near 
eight hundred miles from the banks of the Ohio, they seemed to 
walk light and easy, and not with less spirit than at the first hour 
of their march. Health and vigour, after what they had undergone, 
declared them to be intimate with hardship and familiar with 
danger. Joy and satisfaction were visible in the crowd that met 
them. Had Lord North been present, and been assured that the 
brave leader could raise thousands of such like to defend his Coun- 

130 Force's " American Archives," Fourth Series, Vol. III., p. 2. 

Preparing for the Struggle. 199 

try, what think you, would not the hatchet and block have intruded 
upon his mind? I had an opportunity of attending the Captain 
during his stay in Town, and watched the behaviour of his men, 
and the manner in which he treated them ; for it seems that all who 
go out to war under him do not only pay the most willing obedi- 
ence to him as their commander, but in every instance of distress 
look up to him as their friend or father. A great part of his time 
was spent in listening to and relieving their wants, without any 
apparent sense of fatigue and trouble. When complaints were 
before him he determined with kindness and spirit, and on every 
occasion condescended to please without losing his dignity. 

Yesterday the company were supplied with a small quantity of 
powder from the magazine, which wanted airing, and was not in 
good order for rifles ; in the evening, however, they were drawn out 
to show the gentlemen of the Town their dexterity at shooting. A 
clapboard, with a mark the size of a dollar, was put up; they began 
to fire offhand, and the bystanders were surprised, few shots being 
made that were not close to or in the paper. When they had shot 
for a time in this way, some lay on their backs, some on their breasts 
or side, others ran twenty or thirty steps, firing, appeared to equally 
certain of the mark. With this performance the company were 
more than satisfied, when a young man took up the board in his 
hand, not by the end, but by the side, and holding it up, his brother 
walked to the distance, and very coolly shot into the white ; laying 
down his rifle, he took the board, ai.J holding it as it was held 
before, the second brother shot as the former had done. By this 
exercise I was more astonished than pleased. But will you be- 
lieve me, when I tell you, that one of the men took the board, 
and placing it between his legs, stood with his back to the tree 
while another drove the centre. What would a regular army of 
considerable strength in the forests of America do with one thou- 
sand of these men, who want nothing to preserve their health and 
courage but water from the spring, with a little parched corn, with 
what they can easily procure in hunting: and who wrapped in their 
blankets, in the damp of night, would choose the shade of a tree for 
their covering, and the earth for their bed. 

200 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

These two companies of riflemen marched from Fred- 
erick on July 1 8, 1775, and although their journey of 550 
miles was over rough and difficult roads, they reached 
Boston on August 9, without the loss of one man. These 
troops were the first from the south to reach Cam- 
bridge, and they naturally attracted considerable attention. 
Thatcher says:^^^ '* Several companies of riflemen, amount- 
ing, it is said, to more than fourteen hundred men, have 
arrived here from Pennsylvania and Maryland; a distance 
of from five hundred to seven hundred miles. They are 
remarkably stout and hardy men ; many of them exceeding 
six feet in height. They are dressed in white frocks, or 
rifle shirts, and round hats. These men are remarkable 
for the accuracy of their aim; striking a mark with great 
certainty at two hundred yards' distance. At a review, a 
company of them, while on a quick advance, fired their 
balls into objects of seven inches diameter at a distance of 
two hundred and fifty yards. They are now stationed on 
our lines, and their shot have frequently proved fatal to 
British oflScers and soldiers, who expose themselves to view, 
even at more than double the distance of common musket- 

The next year these companies were incorporated in a 
regiment of riflemen commanded by Colonel Stephenson, 
of Virginia. Upon his death Moses Rawlings became colo- 
nel of the regiment, and Otho Holland Williams, major. 
Both of these ofllicers were from that part of Frederick 
county which is now Washington county, Maryland. 

Although, as has been said, a large number of the citi- 
zens of Maryland were not in favor of a separation from 
Great Britain, events were moving so rapidly as to compel 
them to abandon this position. On July 26, 1775, the 

131 « A Military Journal during the American Revolutionary War," p. 37. 

Preparing for the Struggle. 201 

Provincial Convention determined to take the government 
of the Province into its hands, and adopted the following 
declaration : 

The long premeditated, and now avowed, design of the British 
government, to raise a revenue from the property of the colonists 
without their consent, on the gift, grant, and disposition of the 
Commons of Great Britain; and the arbitrary and vindictive stat- 
utes passed under color of subduing a riot, to subdue by military 
force and by famine the Massachusetts Bay; the unlimited power 
assumed by Parliament to alter the charter of that Province and the 
constitutions of all the colonies, thereby destroying the essential 
securities of the lives, liberties, and properties of the colonists ; the 
commencement of hostilities by the ministerial forces, and the cruel 
prosecution of the war against the people of Massachusetts Bay, 
followed by General Gage's proclamation, declaring almost the 
whole of the inhabitants of the united colonies, by name or descrip- 
tion, rebels and traitors; are sufficient causes to arm a free people 
in defence of their liberty, and justify resistance, no longer dictated 
by prudence merely, but by necessity ; and leave no other alternative 
but base submission or manly opposition to uncontrollable tj^anny. 
The Congress chose the latter ; and for the express purpose of secur- 
ing and defending the united colonies, and preserving them in 
safety against all attempts to carry the above mentioned acts into 
execution by force of arms, resolved that the said colonies be im- 
mediately put into a state of defence, and now supports, at the joint 
expense, an army to restrain the further violence, and repel the 
future attacks of a disappointed and exasperated enemy. 

We therefore inhabitants of the Province of Marjdand, firmly 
persuaded that it is necessary and justifiable to repel force by force, 
do approve of the opposition by arms to the British troops em- 
ployed to enforce obedience to the late acts and statutes of the 
British Parliament for raising a revenue in America, and altering 
and changing the charter and constitution of the Massachusetts Bay, 
and for destroying the essential securities for the lives, liberties, 
and properties of the subjects in the united colonies. And we do 

202 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

unite and associate as one band, and firmly and solemnly engage 
and pledge ourselves to each other, and to America, that we will, to 
the utmost of our power, promote and support the present opposi- 
tion, carrying on as well by arms as by the continental association 
restraining our commerce. 

And as in these times of public danger, and until a reconcilia- 
tion with Great Britain on constitutional principles is effected, (an 
event we ardently wish may soon take place) the energy of govern- 
ment may be greatly impaired, so that even zeal unrestrained may 
be productive of anarchy and confusion, we do in like manner unite, 
associate, and solemnly engage, in maintenance of good order and 
the public peace, to support the civil power in the due execution of 
the laws, so far as may be consistent with the present plan of 
opposition ; and to defend with our utmost power all persons from 
every species of outrage to themselves or their property, and to 
prevent any punishment from being inflicted on any offenders other 
than such as shall be adjudged by the civil magistrate, the Conti- 
nental Congress, our Convention, Council of Safety, or Com- 
mittees of Observation. 

The Maryland delegates to the Continental Congress 
had been forbidden, except under certain circumstances, to 
agree to any declaration of independence, but it soon became 
evident that the sentiment of that body was In favor of 
such a declaration. Consequently, when a resolution to 
that effect was Introduced the Maryland delegates were re- 
called and the question was referred to the people so that 
delegates to the Provincial Convention could be elected and 
given Instructions upon the matter. The people of the 
various counties held their meetings and elected delegates 
to the convention and Instructed these delegates to repeal 
the restrictions Imposed upon the delegates to Congress 
and to allow them to unite with those of the other colonies 
In declaring their independence and the formation of a con- 
federacy. Less than a week before the adoption of the 

Preparing for the Struggle. 203 

Declaration of Independence the Maryland Convention 
rescinded the restrictions placed upon their delegates, so 
that the latter were able to join in voting for its passage. 
The Maryland Convention, however, determined to put 
itself on record, and on July 3, 1776, adopted the following: 

A Declaration of the Delegates of Maryland. 

To be exempted from Parliamentary taxation, and to regulate 
their internal government and polity, the people of this colony 
have ever considered as their inherent and unalienable right ; with- 
out the former, they can have no property; without the latter, no 
security for their lives or liberties. 

The Parliament of Great Britain has of late claimed an uncon- 
trollable right of binding these colonies in all cases whatsoever; to 
enforce an unconditional submission to this claim the legislative 
and executive powers of that State have invariably pursued for these 
ten years past a steadier system of oppression, by passing many 
impolitic, severe, and cruel acts for raising a revenue from the 
colonists; by depriving them in many cases of the trial by jury; by 
altering the chartered constitution of our colony, and the entire 
stoppage of the trade of its capital; by cutting off all intercourse 
between the colonies ; by restraining them from fishing on their own 
coasts ; by extending the limits of, and erecting an arbitrary govern- 
ment in the Province of Quebec ; by confiscating the property of the 
colonists taken on the seas, and compelling the crews of their ves- 
sels, under the pain of death, to act against their native country 
and dearest friends; by declaring all seizures, detention, or de- 
struction of the persons or property of the colonists, to be legal and 

A war unjustly commenced hath been prosecuted against the 
united colonies with cruelty, outrageous violence, and perfidy; 
slaves, savages, and foreign mercenaries have been meanly hired to 
rob a people of their property, liberties and lives; a people guilty 
of no other crime than deeming the last of no estimation without 
the secure enjoyment of the former; their humble and dutiful 

204 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

petitions for peace, liberty, and safety have been rejected with 
scorn; secure of, and relying on foreign aid, not on his national 
forces, the unrelenting monarch of Britain hath at length avowed, 
by his answer to the city of London, his determined and inexorable 
resolution of reducing these colonies to abject slavery. 

Compelled by dire necessity, either to surrender our properties, 
liberties, and lives into the hands of a British King and Parlia- 
ment, or to use such means as will most probably secure to us and 
our posterity those invaluable blessings, — 

We, the Delegates of Maryland, in Convention assembled, 
do declare that the King of Great Britain has violated his com- 
pact with this people, and they owe no allegiance to him. We have 
therefore thought it just and necessary to empower our deputies in 
congress to join with a majority of the united colonies in declaring 
them free and independent States, in framing such further con- 
federation between them, in making foreign alliances, and in adopt- 
ing such other measures as shall be judged necessary for the preser- 
vation of their liberties; provided the sole and exclusive rights of 
regulating the internal polity and government of this colony be 
reserved for the people thereof. We have also thought proper to 
call a new Convention, for the purpose of establishing a govern- 
ment in this colony. No ambitious views, no desire of independ- 
ence, induced the people of Maryland to form an union with the 
other colonies. To procure an exemption from parliamentary tax- 
ation, and to continue to the legislatures of these colonies the sole 
and exclusive right of regulating their internal policy, was our 
original and only motive. To maintain inviolate our liberties and 
to transmit them unimpaired to posterity, was our duty and first 
wish; our next, to continue connected with and dependent on, 
Great Britain. For the truth of these assertions, we appeal to 
that Almighty Being who is emphatically styled the Searcher of 
hearts, and from whose omniscence nothing is concealed. Relying 
on His divine protection and affiance, and trusting to the justice 
of our cause, we exhort and conjure every virtuous citizen to join 
cordially in the defence of our common rights, and in maintenance 
of the freedom of this and her sister colonies. 



The Flying Camp. 


HROUGHOUT the sum- 
mer of 1775 the citizens 
of western Maryland, compris- 
ing chiefly the German element 
of the population of the Prov- 
ince, were actively engaged in 
preparing for the war which 
they now knew was inevitable. 
Men enrolled themselves into 
companies and perfected them- 
selves in military tactics under 

oflScers of their own choosing. Four of these companies 

were officered as follows: 

Captain, William Blair. 
1st Lieutenant, George Hockersmith, 

2d Lieutenant, Henry Williams. 
Ensign, Jacob Hockersmith. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

William Curran, Jr. 
George Kelly, 


John Smith, 
Christian Crabbs. 
John Crabbs, Arthur Row, 

George Matthews, James Park. 

Drummer, Daniel McLean. 

Captain, William Shields. 

ist Lieutenant, John Faires. 2d Lieutenant, Michael Hockersmith. 

Ensign, John Shields. 

Charles Robinson, 
James Shields, Sr., 


Patrick Haney, 
Robert Brown. 

Moses Kennedy, 
John Hawk, 


John Long, 
Thomas Baird. 

Captain, Jacob Ambrose. 

1st Lieutenant, Peter Shover. 2d Lieutenant, Henry Bitzell. 

Ensign, John Weller. 

Martin Bartz, 
Frederick Schultz, 


John Gump, 
Casper Young. 

John Protzman, 
Dominick Bradley, 
Drummer, John Shaw. 


George Kuhn, 
Laurence Creager. 
Fifer, Philip Weller. 

Captain, Benjamin Ogle. 
1st Lieutenant, Henry Matthews. 2d Lieutenant, George Nead. 
Ensign^ James Ogle. 

The Flying Camp. 207 

John Syphers, Peter Leonard, 

Lawrence Protzman, Conrad Matthew. 

Jacob Valentine, Adam Knauff, 

Daniel Protzman, William Elder. 

Drummer^ John Roche. Fifer, Daniel Linebaugh. 

These companies, numbering over 250 men, were at- 
tached to one of the battalions raised in Frederick county 
and performed active service throughout the war. 

On the first day of January, 1776, the Convention re- 
solved to immediately put the Province in the best state of 
defence and to raise an armed force sufficient for this pur- 
pose. It was decided that this force should consist of 
1,444 men, with the proper officers, and that It should be 
divided into a battalion of eight companies of sixty-eight 
men each, with officers, and the remainder of the troops 
formed into companies of one hundred men each. On 
January 14 this was changed so that there was to be a bat- 
talion of nine companies, seven independent companies, 
two companies of artillery and one company of marines. 
The Council of Safety was empowered to order these 
troops into Virginia, Delaware and Pennsylvania. Officers 
for the battalion were elected as follows: Colonel, William 
Smallwood; major, Thomas Price; paymaster, Charles 
Wallace; clerk to colonel, Chrlstr. Richmond; ist Sur- 
geon's mate. Dr. Michael Wallace; quarter master, Joseph 
Marbury; acting adjutant, Jacob Brice. These companies 
were enlisted chiefly in the eastern section of the Province, 
and while there were many Germans among the officers 
and privates there was no grouping of that nationality. 

On June 3, 1776, the Continental Congress resolved 

2o8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

"That a flying camp be immediately established in the 
middle colonies; and that it consist of 10,000 men; to com- 
plete which number . . . the colony of Pennsylvania be 
requested to furnish of their militia 6,000, Maryland of 
their militia 3,400, Delaware government, of their militia, 

On the 2 1 St the Maryland Convention resolved "that 
this province will furnish 3,405 of its militia, to form a 
flying camp, and to act with the militia of Pennsylvania and 
the Delaware government in the middle department." 
These troops were to serve until the first of the following 

The organization of the companies for the Flying Camp 
was promptly undertaken, and no class of citizens was more 
prompt in enlisting than the German residents of Frederick 
county. Some of the companies were made up almost en- 
tirely of Germans, while in all of them there was a fair 
proportion of that nationality. Following are the muster 
rolls of the companies enlisted in Frederick county for the 
Flying Camp : 

Lower District, now Montgomery County. 
Captain Edward Burgess' Company in the Flying Camp. 
Captain, Edward Burgess. 
jst Lieutenant, Thomas Edmonston. 

2d Lieutenant, Alexander Estep. 
Ensign, Zephaniah Beall. 
Nathan Orme, Miles Mitchell, 

Richard Weaver Barnes, Thomas Wood, 

Charles Gartrell, Charles Maccubin Reynolds, 

Alexander Lazenby, Joseph Estep, 

Edward Harden, John Tuckker, 

The Flying Camp. 


Zachariah Aldridge, 
Samuel Beall White, 
Nathan Waters, 
Benjamin Fitzjarrald, 
Gilbert Bryan, 
Nathan Musgrove, 
James Burgess, 
Benjamin Burgess, 
Arthur Legg, 
Thomas Freeman, 
John Sheekels, or Shukels, 
John Ray, 

Shadrach Penn, or Peen, 
Zephaniah Browning, 
George Fryback, 
John Hanson WTieeler, 
Samuel Wheeler, 
Thomas Culver, 
Henry Lazenby, 
Jeremiah Beall, 
John Harding, 
Samuel Taylor Orme, 
Thomas Wallis, 
John Lashyear (Layzare), 
Reson Hollon, 
Alexcious Simms, 
Thomas Nichols, 
Laurance Hurdle, 
William Crow, 
Lenard Wood, 
Saml. Carter, 
Thomas Beall, 
Kinsey Hanee, 
Joseph Gartrell, 
John Geehan, or Guhan, 

Jeremiah Ferrell, 

Samuel Purnal, 

Thomas Sheekels, or Shukels, 

Thomas Gittings, 

Archibald Hoskinson, 

Alexander Barratt, 

Owen Haymon, 

Alexander Edmonston Beall, 

John Beaden, 

Alexander Tucker, 

John Wilcoxen, 

Richard Burgess, 

John Fryback, 

Daniel Lewis, 

John Ryan, 

Benj. Tucker, 

Wevour Waters, 

Morris Brashears, 

Obed Willson, 

Stephen Gatrell, 

James Beall (of Roger), 

John Elwood, 

James Carter, 

Josiah Harding (Harden), 

Henry Clark, 

John Nichols, 

Alexander Robert Beall, 

William Garten, 

Solomon Dickerson, 

William Young Conn, 

Marthew Lodgeade, 

Leaven, (Leven) Beall, 

John Ferrell, 

William Hicke, 

Dennis Marhay, 

2IO The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

James Hurvey, John Crook, 

Edward Trout, Samuel Taylor, 

Samuel Solamon, William Blackburn, 

William Hopkins, Richard Nicholsson. 

Captain Leonard Deakins' Company in the Flying Camp. 
Captain, Leonard Deakins. 
1st Lieutenant, Thomas Nowland. 2d Lieutenant ^ Elisha Williams. 
Ensign, John Griffith, resigned, Dennis Griffith. 
Lloyd Beall, James Gauff, 

Zachariah Askey, John Yates, 

William Lanham, Jacob Veatch, 

Richard O'Daniel, William Longley, 

David Green, Dennis Griffith, 

John Taylor, Thomas Stewart, 

Thomas Lightfoot, John Stewart, 

James McDeed, William Walker, 

Samuel Spycer, James McCulloch, 

Bartholomew Edelin, William Lovet, 

William Draper, Jessee Woodward, 

Henry Allison, Nathan Wilson, 

Leonard Hagon, Robert Wilson, 

Charles Mahoney, Edward Jinkings, 

John Baptis Gauff, William Hays. 

Captain Benjamin Spykers Company in the Flying Camp. 
Captain, Benjamin Spyker. 
1st Lieutenant, Greenbury Gaither, 

2d Lieutenant, Richard Anderson. 
Ensign, Nicholas Scybert. 
Zachariah Rily, Thomas Wise, 

John Gorman, William House, 

John McDavid, Geor. Sybert (Scybert), 

The Flying Camp. 


Edward NorthcrafEt, 

Neil Dogherty, 

Michael Stanly, 

William Carlin, 

Peter Hoey (Hoy), 

Strutton Hazel, 

Henry Burton, 

John Smith, 

Archibald Trail, 

Nathan Green, 

John Currington, 

William Murphy, 

Joseph Crawly, 

Edward Goodwin, 

Timothy Maclamary, 

John Turner, 

William Glory, 

John Reynolds, 

William Hollands, 

Allan Mackabee (Mockbee), 

Francis Downing, 

James Wilson, 

Nathan Traill, 

James Artis, 

Aaron Wood, 

John Keemer, 

William Leitch, 

William Baitson, 

Charles Saffle, 

Nicholas Gaither, 

Lodowick Davis (Davies), 

Bennett Herd, 

Henry Mackee (Mackey), 

Michael Rily (Riley), 

Walter Nichols (Nicholl), 

Nathan Roberts, 

Stephen Harper, 

John Cook, 

Joseph Ross, 

Patrick Murphy, 

George Heater, 

Dennis Clary, 

Thomas Love, 

Thomas Knowlar, 

Abraham Booker, 

Joseph Penny, 

John Wilson, 

Richard Short, 

Thomas Chattell, (Chattle), 

John Haymond Nicholls, 

Richard Cooke, 

Lewis Mullican, 

James Pelly, 

Eli Smith, 

John Collins, 

William Lowry, 

Osborn West, 

Leven Kersey, 

William Jerbo, 

John Lowry, 

John Langton, 

John Evans, 

Henry Atchison ( Hutchingson ) , 

John Madding, 

Robert Rickets, 

Zachariah Evans, 

Benjamin Holland, 

Richard Kisby, 

Michael Carter, 

Thomas Sheppart, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Edward Waker, 
Thomas Malloon, 
John Gaskin, 
Robert Drake, 
Patrick Carroll, 

William Pack, 

John Cavenor (Cavernor), 

Philip Hindon, 

Stephen Warman, 

George Heathman. 

Captain Richard Smith's Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, Richard Smith. 

7^/ Lieutenant, Walter White. 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Hayes. 

Ensign, Thomas Sprigg. 


Thomas Fanning, 

Levi Hayes, 

Henry Clagett, 

John Patrick, 

Matthias Henistone, 

Andrew Hughes, 

Jesse Harris, 

William Summers, 

Joseph Lewis, 

John Davies, 

John Smith, 

Alexander Read, 

Matthew Read, 

William Norris, son of Benj°, 

William Wallace, 

Levin Hayes, 

John Raynolds, 

George WIndom, 

Peter Night, 

William Madden, 

Henry Atcheson, 

Andrew Keath, 

Samuel Queen Windsor, 

John Bennett, 

John Hinton, 

Ezeklel Harris, 
Herbert Alex'" Wallace, 
Robert Moore, 
Henry Kuhnes, 
Anthony Murphy, 
Jacob Irlssler, 
William Veal Steuart, 
Michael Clancy, 
James Long, 
Charles Steuart, 
James Nolland, 
John Gibson, 
William Sutton, 
John Harriss, 
John FItzgerrald, 
John Carroll, 
John Burgess, 
Jeremiah Leitch, 
Denmas Mannan, 
Nicholas Rodes, 
Zephenlah Wallace, 
Nicholas Rodes, Jr., 
William Pruett, 

The Flying Camp. 


William Johnston, 
John Bowen, 
Robert Muckleroy, 
William Pollard, 
Jacob Hesse, 
William Preston, 

Alexander Mason, 
James Jordan, 
John Hennes, 
Robert Robinson, 
Thos. Hays. 

Middle District^ now Frederick County. 

Captain Philip Maroney's Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, Philip Maroney. 

ist Lieutenant, Elisha Beall. 2d Lieutenant, John Hellen. 

Ensign, William Beatty, Jr. 


George McDonald, 

Garah Harding, 

William Jacobs, 

John McCrery, 

Daniel Shehan, 

John Churchwell, 

George Holliday, 

George Hill, 

William Gilmour (Gilmore), 

Patrick Murphy, 

Francis Quynn, 

Samuel Wheeler, 

John Shank, 

James McKinzie, 

Thomas Gill, 

William Calvert, 

John McClary, 

William Skaggs, 

John Marshall, 

Bennett Neall, 

John Test, 

Thomas Kirk, Jr., 

Ninion Nichols (Nickols), 

James Hutchcraft, 
Jacob Holtz, 
Henry Smith, 
Richard Wells, 
Elisha Rhodes, 
Paul Boyer, 
Samuel Busey, 
John Kenneday, 
William Chandler, 
William Hilton, 
Warran Philpot, 
Christopher Wheelen, 
James Buller, 
John Jones, 
James Carty, 
John Hutchinson, 
Luke Barnet, 
William Barnitt, 
Samuel Silvor, 
Edward Salmon, 
James McCoy, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

William Cash, 

James Burton, 

Thomas Bayman, 

Thomas Hillery, 

James Beall (Ball), 

John Brease (Breeze), 

Patrick Scott, 

William McKay (McKoy), 

Zadock Griffith, 

Henry Meroney, 

Henry Clements, 

Thomas Fenly (Finley), 

James McCormack Beall, 

Patrick Connan, 

Chas. Philpott Taylor, 

James Lowther, 

Henry Barkshire, 

John Maynard, 

James Beckett, 

James Tannehill, 

John Miller, 

James Bryant, 

Michael Arran, 

Jacob Barrack, 

John Donack, 

James Kelam, 

John Sehom, 
Robert McDonald, 
Richard Tongue, 
Herbert Shoemaker, 
John Myer, 
Richard Fletcher, 
Joseph McAllen, 
Thomas Harrison, 
John Alsop, 
Charles DuUis, 
Joshua Pearce, 
Jacob Rhodes, 
George Kelly, 
William Louden, 
Christian Smith, 
Frederick Beard, 
Henry Fisher, 
James Hudson, 
Michael Hale, 
John Rite, 
William Byer, 
Francis Freeman, 
John Cash, 
William Hollings, 
Jacob Burton. 

Captain Jacob Good's Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, Jacob Good. 
1st Lieutenant, John Baptist Thompson. 

2d Lieutenant, John Ghiselln. 
Ensign, John Smith. 
Christeen Clisce, Henry Brawner, 

George Obalam, Patrick Money, 

The Flying Camp. 


Tobias Hammer, 
George Rice, 
Philip Fletcher, 
Martin Fletcher, 
Christeen Gobble, 
Adam Keller, 
John Dwyre, 
John Billow, 
John Chamberlin, 
William Trace, 
Jacob Freeman, 
James Collins, 
Thomas White, 
Charles Freind, 
James Estup, 
John O'Bryan, 
John Wimer, 
George Gobble, 
Henry Miller, 
Ludwick Mober, 
Peter Giddy, 
Jacob Horine, 
Philip Pepple, 
Daniel Means, 
George Free, 
Daniel McTier, 
Patric Mclntire, 
Danl. Mclntire, 
Danl. Merfey, 
Thomas Adams, 
John Sill, 
Anthony Thomas, 
Matthew King, 
Joseph McClaine, 
David Jones, 
John Harrison, 

John Money, 

Peter Penroad, 

James Campbell, 

Leonard Macatee, 

Thomas Anderson, 

Jacob Bearae, 

Philip Jacob, 

William McClane (McClame), 

Peter Havclay, 

Philip Cenedy, 

Patrick Deneley, 

Joseph McCracken, 

William Linch, 

John Toughman, 

Edward Pegman, 

John Wart, 

Michael Dodson, 

Benj. Norris, 

George Bonagal, 

George Ettleman, 

James Vaughan, 

Wm. Brown, 

Geo. Spunogle, 

Peter Weaver, 

Saml. Hamilton, 

William Price, 

Henry Fanslar, 

William Boe, 

Jacob Martin, 

Jonathan McDonall, 

Zachariah Ward, 

John Slagel, 

Danl. Benning, 

John Robertson, 

George Carroll, 

John Henderson, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Fettea Stuffle, 
Jacob Ridingour, 
George B enter, 
Joseph Ray, 
John Duncan, 

Patrick White, 
John Test, 
Robert McLeod, 
Wm. Drome, 
Wm. Brinsford. 

Captain Peter Mantz Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, Peter Mantz. 

1st Lieutenant, Adam Grosh. 2d Lieutenant, Peter Adams. 

Ensign, John Richardson. 


William Richardson, 

John Shelman, 

Andrew Loe, 

Henry Bear, 

Andrew Wolf, 

John Kellar, 

John Martin, 

Andrew Speak, 

Charles Smith, 

John Newsanger (Neswangher), 

John Gombare, Jr., 

Jacob Bayer, 

George Siegfried, 

Jacob Stevens, 

William Mills, 

Mathias Overfelt, 

David Eley, 

Henry Smith, 

Peter Bell, 

John Twiner, 

John Netsley, 

Geo. Mich. Hawk, 

John Conrad, 

Joseph Pinnall (Pannell), 

Frederick Kallenberger, 

John Snider, 

John Lock, 

Saml. Yaulet, 

James Adams, 

Peter Walts, 

Henry Huffman, 

Jacob Crapell (Creppell), 

Mathew Rudrieck, 

Christ. Stanley, 

Thomas Stanley, 

Chr. Kallenberger, 

Jacob Kern, 

George Hower, 

David Nail, 

George Tennaly, 

Jonathan Jones, 

Frederick Heeter, 

Rudolph Morolf, 

John Mouer (Mourrer), 

John Dutterer, 

Martin Heckentom, 

Abraham Boucher (Bucher) 

Philip Bowman, 

George Stoner, 

Henry Hulsman, 

The Flying Camp. 


Valentine Brunner, 
John Foster, 
Mich. Cramer, 
Laurence Myers, 
John Bennett, 
John Gisinger, 
Henry Teener, 
John Striser, 
Henry Myer, 
John Shenlc, 
John Smith, dyer, 
Jos. Williams, 
Philip Flack, 
John Hendrickson, 
Dennis Realley, 
Thomas Smith, 
Jacob Carnant, 

Henry Grose, 

George Plummer, 

Peter Wagoner, 

Thomas Tobiry, 

Philip Aulpaugh, 

Jacob Shade, 

Peter Snowdenge ( Snowdeigel ) , 

Henry Berreck, 

John Baker, 

Daniel Hinds, 

George Boyer, 

Joseph Shame, 

Michael Baugh, 

Nicholas Becketh (Beckwith), 

Jacob Bowman, 

Andrew Ringer. 

Captain Vallentine Creagers Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, Vallentine Creager. 
1st Lieutenant, Phillip Smith, Jr. 

2d Lieutenant, George Need (Neat). 
Ensign, John Parkinson (Pirkinson). 

Josiah Hedges, 
Christian Cumber. 

Charles Menix, 
John Link. 

Fifer, Peter Trux (Trucks). 
Thomas Edison, Edward Hossilton, 

Christian Smith, John Smith, 

George Dotts, Laurence Stull, 

Jacob Bostion, Samuel Hulse, 

Solomon Bentley, 
Aquilla Carmack, 

John Brattle, 
Solomon Rowlins, 
Drummer, Joseph Allsop 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Matthias Andess, 

John Springer, 

Oliver Linsey, 

Ludwick Moser (Mouser), 

James Silver, 

Michael Fox, 

George Burrawl (Burrol), 

Jacob Barrick (Barrack), 

Jonothan Beard, 

Christopher Cooper, 

Patrick Daugherty (Daugerty), 

Jacob Holtzman, 

Peter Lickliter, 

John Mortt, 

William Slick, 

Thomas Tumbleson (Tombleson), 

Adam Russ, 

Jacob Weyant (Wicant), 

John Ciferd, 

James Cammell (Campbell), 

Henry Decamp, 

James Buckhannon (Buchanan), 

Peter Heveron, 

Jacob Rignall (Rignell), 

Peter Dick, 

Cornelius Downey, 

William From, 

George Younger, 

Lodwick Woller (Wooler), 

Daniel Moore, 

William Weier, 

James Smith, 

Joseph Smith, 

Thomas Parkinson (Pirkinson), 

Henry Fogle, 

Henry Fox, 

Frederick Hardman, 

John Waggoner, 

Adam Waggoner, 

Adam Simmon (Simon), 

George McDonald, 

Henry Clice (Clise), 

Thomas Nailor (Nalor), 

George David, 

Henry Reich, 

Patrick Dayley, 

James Branwood, 

Thomas Cook, 

Philip Greenv^'ood, 

Robert Sellers (Sellors), 

John White, 

David Barrlnger, 

Patrick Rowin, 

George Serjeant, 

Evan Morris, 

William Preston, 

Robert Parson, 

John Langley, 

Daniel Bryan, 

Jacob Ringer. 

Upper District, now Washington County. 
Captain JEneas Campbell's Company in the Flying Camp. 
Captain, /Eneas Campbell. 
1st Lieutenant, Clement Hollyday. 

2d Lieutenant, John Courts Jones. 

The Flying Camp. 


John Moxley, 

Levi Walters, 

George Hoskins, 

William Frankline, 

William Davis, 

John Gillam (Gillum), 

Henry Beeding (Beading), 

Michael Hagan, 

Daniel Moxley, 

George Gentile (Gentle), 

William Dixon, 

Mark Chillon, 

Martin Kiezer, 

Shedereck Locker, 

John Steel, 

James Williams, 

Samuel Lintridge (Lentarage), 

Benjamin Osburn (Ozenburn), 

William Veatch, 

William Lucas (Luckas), 

Charles Byrn (Burn), 

William Housley (Owsley), 

Notley Talbot (Talbort), 

John Martin (Martain), 

Charles Hoskins, 

Barton Lovelass 

(Charles Loveless), 
Grove Toml in (Tamlane), 
William Stallings (Stalion), 
Thomas Gillam (Gillum), 
John Henry, 
Richard Lewis, 
Aneas Campbell, Jr., cadet, 
James Raidy, 

Ensign, David Lynn. 

Ignatius Maddox, 
William Carroll, 
John Snowden Hooke, 
Richard Sarjeant, Jr., 
James Weakley, 
George Kingston, 
John Simpson Aldridge, 
Charles Thomas Philpot, 
Jeremiah Fulsome, 
John Heart, 
Edward Cane, 
Robert Beall Crafford, 
Philip Tracy, 
Henry Jones, 
Thomas Chappell, 
Jacob Mills, 
Hezekiah Speake, 
Walter Raley (Raleigh), 
Zephaniah Mockbee, 
John Higdon, Jr., 
William Lewis, 
Henry Allison, 
Nathan Thompson, 
James Glaze, 
Archibald Chappell, 
Hugh Elder, 
Arthur Cams, 
William Windham, 
Samuel Busey, 
Alexander Adams, 
Lewis Peak (Speake), 
Stephen West, 
Thomas Owen, 
John Jeans, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

John Williams, 
John Compton, 
Peter Boardy, 
William Poland, 
Cornelius Harling, 
Josh. Harbin, 
Charles Lucas (Luckas), 
John Ellis, 
Stephen Gentile, 
Joseph Beeding, 
Philip Sulivane, 
John Ferrell, 
Patrick Rine, 
Benjamin Ellit, 

William Lamar, 
William Thompson, 
Stephen West, 
William Briggs, 
Francis Kitely, 
Nathaniel Glaze, 
Peter Hardesty, 
Thomas Barrett, 
Daniel Ferguson, 
John Self, 
William Oliver, 
John White, 
Abraham Chapman. 

Captain John Reynolds' Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, John Reynolds. 

1st Lieutenant, M.oses Chapline. 2d Lieutenant, Christian Orndorfl. 

Ensign, Nathan Williams. 


William Walker, 

Moses Hobbins, 

John Ferguson, 

Wm. Bradford, volunteer, 

Jacob Hosier, 

Thomas Fowler, 

John Been, 

David Grove, 

Thos. Bissett, 

Wm. Messersmith, 

Wm. Patrick, 

Archibald Mullihan, 

Edward Pain, 

Wm. CofFeeroth, 

John Wade, 

Thomas Stogdon, 

Philip Wyonge, 
Allexander Sparrow, 
Christian Weirich, 
Nicholas Weirich, 
Peter Loar, 
Jacob Long, 
Nicholas Pinkely, 
Mathias Wolf, 
John Randle, 
Michael Edelman, 
Joseph Emrich, 
Jacob Brunner, 
Edward Kerny, 
Nathaniel Linder, 
Harmon Consella, 
Nicholas Hasselback, 

The Flying Camp. 


Silus Tomkins, 

John Class, 

John Hurley, 

Thomas Pitcher, 

Edward Brown, 

Henry Coonse, 

George Deale, 

Benedict Eiginor, 

Edward Dumatt, 

Daniel Murphey, 

Ludowick Kiding, 

Christopher Curts (Cortz), 

Henry Knave, 

Thomas McKoy, D. S. T. 

Henry Saftly, 

John Berry, 

Rinear Bennett, 

Francis Thornbourgh, 

Peter Seaburn, 

Thomas Sands, 

James Cunningham, 

James Nowles, D. S. T. 

Edward Nowles, 

Thomas Barrett, D. S. T. 

Christian France, 

Jacob Weisong, 

Joseph Finch, 

John Hood, 

William Baumgartner, 

George Baumgartner, 

Teeter Waltenback, 

James Thompson, 

George Reynolds, 

Philip Loar, 

Nicholas France, 

Thomas Wilkins, 

George Flick, 

George Bowersmith, 

Robert Wells, 

John Walker, 

Garrett Closson, 

Basil! Williams, 

Simon McClane, 

Joseph Carrick, 

John Peirce Welsh, 

John McKenny, 

Benjamin Dye, 

Jacob Forsythe, 

Edward Gardner, D. S. T. 

Joseph Moor, 

Laurance Williams, 

Bennett Madcalf, 

Ephraim Skiles, 

John Powell, 

Michael Cortz, 

Clement Howard, 

John Teeter, 

Jacob Teeter, 

William Fanner, 

John Iden, 

William Kerney, 

John Eove (Cove?) 

Jacob Linder, 

Rodger Dean, 

James Stewart. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

Captain Henry Hardmans Company in the Flying Camp. 

Captain, Henry Hardman. 
1st Lieutenant J Daniel Stull. 2d Lieutenant, Peter Contee Hanson, 

Jona. Morris. 
Ensign, John Rench. 

Paul Schley, 

Chs. White, 
Francis Fnimantle, 
Daniel Matthews, 
James Jordon, 
George How, 
Thomas West, 
Jno. Kirk, 
Maurice Baker, 
Daniel Cline, 
Jno. Newman, 
Jno. Brown, 
Livie Jones, 
Thomas Fish, 
John Lindsey, 
Jno. Troxel, 
Jno. Collins, 
Thos. Smith, 
Chas. Feely, 
Abm. Miller, 
George Colley, 
Jno. Mowen, 
Martin Rickenbaugh, 
Pat. Ryley, 
Robert English, 
James Crale, 
Jno. Stoner, 
Jacob Hirsh, 
Jno. Bemhart, 
Jno. Grant, 

Wm. Crale, 
James Martin, 
Danl. Fisher, 
Phil. Flack, 
James Green, 
Isaac Hardey, 
Wm. Casey, 
Saml. Smith, 
Wm. Wallis, 
Thos. Jones, 
Danl. Henderson, 
John Ward, 
George Morrison, 
Chr. Hart, 
Jno. Welsh, 
Jno. Moor, 
Jno. Aim, 
Jno. Barry, 
Stephen Preston, 
Rhd. Noise, 
Mathias Houks, 
Stephen Rutlidge, 
William Davis, 
Thomas Collins, 
William Divers, 
Chr. Metts, 
Danl. Wicks, 
Jno. Dicks, 

The Flying Camp. 


Thos. Robison, 
James Duncan, 
Peter Haines, 
Phil. Brugh, 
Peter Fiegley, 
Chr. Neal, 
George Fiegley, 
Phil. Berener, 
Abm. Troxel, 
Samuel Sprigg, 
Barny Riely, 
John Closs, 
Peter Digman, 
Chn. Berringer, 
Thomas McGuyer, 

Jacob Storam, 
Saml. Richardson, 
Conomus Acre, 
Daniel Carry, 
Rhd. Morgon, 
Wm. Campian, 
Isaac Barnet, 
Chr. Fogely, 
Michael Pote, 
George Rismel, 
Chr. Alinger, 
Peter Splise, 
Chr. Walker, 
John Hager, 
Jas Munn. 

The German Regiment. 

'^'HE Continental Con- 
^^ gress having consid- 
ered the question of raising 
a regiment to be composed 
entirely of Germans, on 
June 27, 1776, adopted 
the following resolution : 

That four companies of Ger- 
mans be raised in Pennsylvania 
and four companies in Mary- 
land, to compose the said regi- 
ment: That it be recommended to the convention, or in their 
recess, to the council of safety of Maryland, immediately to appoint 
proper officers for, and direct the inlistment of, the four companies 
to be raised in that colony. 

The Convention of Maryland promptly ratified this 
action by directing that two companies of Germans be 
raised in Baltimore county and two in Frederick county. 
The officers for the German regiment named by Congress 


The German Regiment. 225 

were as follows: Nicholas Haussegger, colonel; George 
Strieker, lieutenant-colonel; Ludwick Weltner, major. 
The proceedings of Congress state that "the committee 
appointed to settle the rank of the captains and subalterns 
in the German battalion, reported the same as follows, 
which was agreed to : 

*' Captains, Daniel Burkhart, Philip Graybill, George 
Hubley, Henry Fister, Jacob Bonner, George Keeports, 
Benjamin Weiser, William Heyser, and David Woelpper. 

" First-lieutenants, Frederick Rolwagen, John Lora, 
Peter Boyer, Charles Bulsel, William Rice, Jacob Kotz, 
Jacob Bower, Samuel Gerock, and Bernard Hubley. 

" Second-lieutenants, George Hawbacker, Christian 
Meyers, John Landenberger, Michael Bayer, George 
Schaeffer, Adam Smith, Frederick Yeiser, William Hitter, 
and Philip Schrawder. 

"Ensigns, John Weidman, Martin Shugart, Christian 
Helm, Jacob Crummet, Jacob Cramer, Paul Christman, 
Christopher Godfrey Swartz, and John Landenberger." 

Of the officers of the regiment. Lieutenant-colonel 
George Strieker and Major Ludwick Weltner were from 
Frederick county. The Maryland captains were William 
Heyser, Philip Graybill, Henry Fister and George Kee- 
ports, The Pennsylvania Archives^^^ state that Colonel 
Haussegger deserted to the British after the battle of 
Monmouth, but Dr. H. M. M. Richards has shown this 
to be a mistake. "This is evidently false," says Dr. Rich- 
ards, " as he returned to his home at Lebanon, where he 
died in July, 1786. His heirs participated in the donation 
land-grants, awarded by the State of Pennsylvania to its 
meritorious and brave officers and soldiers of the Revo- 
lution, which would not have been the case were he a 

»32 Second Series, Vol. XI., p. 73. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

traitor. It is more probable that, on account of his age, 
he became sick and incapacitated from active duty, and 
was given a lengthy furlough, which he spent at his 
Lebanon home."^^^ 

The Maryland Archives^^^ give the following as a por- 
tion of the roster of the German regiment : 

Jacob Alexander, 
John Cole, 
Richard Gaul, 
Jacob Hose, 
John Heron, 
Charles Jones, 
William Johnson, 
Daniel Jacquett, 
Jacob Keyser, 

Philip Beam, 

John Brieger, 

John (or Jas.) Burk, 

William Croft (Kraft), 

Jacob Etter, 

Bernard Frey, 

Joseph Hook, 

Thomas Hutchcraft, 
John Roach (or Rock), 
Michael Smith. 

Levy Arrings, 
James W. L. Ashly, 


Jacob Lowe, 
John Ladder, 
William Lewis, 
Wm. Rummelson, 
George Stauffer, 
Christr. Stanty, 
Frederick Sollers, 
John Truck. 


John Hochshield, 
Patrick Kelly, 
John Michael, 
Thomas Polhouse, 
James Smith, 
S. Fredk Shoemaker. 


John Brown, 
Henry Ferrins. 


Daniel Kettle, 
Francis Kerns, 

133 '< Xhe Pennsylvania-German in the Revolutionary War," p. 399. 

134 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XVIII., p. 184 et seq. 

The German Regiment. 


John Armstrong, 

John Abel, 

George Arnold, 

Leonard Aberly, 

George Bough (or Buck), 

Saml. Bauswell, 

Peter Backer, 

Michael Benner, 

Henry Bender (or Painter), 

Jacob Bishop, 

Jacob Beltzhover, 

Danl. Baylor, 

John Bower, 

Michael Brodbech, 

George Bantz, 

Conrad Beam, 

John Bennett, 

Philip Bates, 

Michael Bowerd, 

Timothy Cahill, 

Jacob Caufman, 

Benjamin Cole, 

George Crothorn, 

Owen Curley, 

Henry Cronise, 

John Croft, 

Thomas Clifton, 

Michael Cambler (or Gambler) , 

Christopher Casner, 

Rudolph Crower, 

Michael Cowley, 

Chas. Champness, 

Jacob Cromer (or Cramer), 

Michael Crush, 

John Cline, 

James Dyer, 

Peter Koons, 
Geo. Keephart, 
Michael Kershner, 
Jacob Kline, 
Jacob Kentz, 
Jacob Kaufman, 
John Lecrose, 
Thomas Larmore, 
Charles Lago, 
George Leithusier, 
Fredk. Larantz, 
Vend el Lorantz, 
Fredk. Locker, 
Martin Lantz, 
Leonard Ludwick, 
Gal fried Lawrey, 
Henry Michael, 
Fredk. Mongaul, 
John Miller, 
Jacob Miely, 
Jacob Miller, Jr., 
Lewis McColough, 
William Mummart, 
Jacob Miller, Sr., 
Henry Martin, 
Wm. Maunsel, 
William Nerving, 
John Nevitt, 
Richd. O'Quin, 
Thomas Proctor, 
William Pointer, 
Robert Porter, 
Henry Painter, 
William Rider, 
Chas. Ronenberger, 
Michael Ritmire, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

John Dalton, 

James Dunkin, 

John Dretch, 

Godlb. Danruth, 

Benja. Elliott, 

John Eissell, 

Wolfgn. Ellsperger, 

Paul Elsing, 

John Etnier, 

Jas. Ensey, 

Peter Engelle (or Angel), 

Bartel Engle, 

John Fennell, 

John FolHott, 

Henry Fisher, 

Charles Fulham, 

Patrick Fleming, 

John Franklin, 

Jacob Frymiller, 

Abram Frantz, 

John Fleck, 

Philip Fisher, 

Fredk. Filler, 

David Finch, 

James Forney, 

Philip Fisher, 

Philip Fitzpatrick, 

Michael Grosh, 

John Grupp, 

George Getig, 

Francis Gavan, 

Edward Gould, 

Adam Gantner, 

Corns. Grunlin (or Quinlln), 

Peter Grice, 

Michael Gambler, 

Conrad Riely, 
Edward Robinson, 
Andrew Robinson, 
Chs. or Chrisr. Raybert, 
Jacob Ruppert, 
George Rittlemeyer, 
Henry Rumfell, 
George Regalman, 
Jacob Ricknagle, 
John Richards, 
Christr. Raver, 
Bernard Riely, 
John Smitherd, 
John Shively, 
George Silver, 
Christian Smith, 

Mathias Smith, 

James Slite (or Fite), 

John Stanton, 

Robert Smith, 

Chr. Settlemeyer, 

John Smith, 

Alexander Sealors, 

John Shrayock, 

Joseph Slreiter, 

John Slife, 

John Shotts, 

Michael Shoemaker, 

Philip Studer, 

Philip Smith (or Smithly), 

John Smith, 

Henry Strome, 

John Shark, 

Jacob Shutz, 

Mathias Shrayer, 

Henry Smith, 

The German Regiment. 


Richd. Hazelfp, 
Thos. Halfpenny, 
Michael Hartman, 
Jno. W. Hammersly 

(or Amersly), 
F. William Haller, 
John Harley, 
Joseph Hook, 
Henry Herring, 
Casimer Hull, 
Jacob Haseligh, 
Thos. Hazlewood, 
Jacob Heffner, 
Jonathan Hockett, 
Peter Hewer (or Hoover), 
Peter Hemerlck (or Emerick), 
John Hatfield, 
Conrad Hile, 
Jacob Hoover, 
James Hughes, 
Conrad Hausman, 
Dedrick Haninghouse, 
James Johnston, 
Peter Kruise, 
Philip Kuntz, 
John Kibber, 
Mathias Keyer (Keiser), 
John Kendrick, 
John Kline (Cline), 
Chresn. Keplinger, 
Abram Kettle, 

John Shaffer, 
John Snider, 
Adam Stonebraker, 
Adam Shaffer, 
Fredk. Switzer, 
John Smithly (or Smith), 
Henry Statler, 
Michael Stoner, 
Conrad Stoyle, 
William Selwood, 
Andrew Selas, 
John Timblin, 
Fredk. Tawney, 
William Taylor, 
James Tite, 
Henry Wilstock, 
John Wade, 
Danl. Williams, 
John Welty, 
Saml. Wright, 
John Walker, 
Thomas Woolford, 
Joseph Williams, 
Michael Weaver, 
Chrisr. Waggoner, 
Ludk. Witsinger, 
Jacob Wink, 
George Wilhelme, 
Jacob Wagoner, 
Michael Yakely, 
John Zimmerman. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Captain Henry Fister's Company in the German Bat- 
talion, Commanded by Colonel Nicholas 
Haussegger, 1776. 
Captaitij Henry Fister. 

Michael Bayer. 
Ensign, Jacob Grommet. 

Philip Shopper, 
George Wintz. 

Jacob Tudderow, 
Jacob Low. 
Drummer, John Heffner. 


Adam Charles, 

Charles Balzel, 

John Balzel, 
Philip Shroop, 

George Hoover, 
Fredk. Wilhite, 

Henry Delawter, 
Henry Hawk, 
Fredk. Mittag, 
Jacob Fantz, 
Peter Copple, 
Jacob Kuntz, 
John Ridenhour, 
Willm, Snider, 
Adam Froshour, 
Chrlstn. Sheafer, 
Leonard Everly, 
John Wachtel, 
George Studdlemeier, 
Philip Colour, 
Valentine Shotter, 
Henry Ziegler, 
Jacob Tabler, 
Mathias King, 
Jacob Miller, 
Philip Isingminger, 

Abraham Fettle, 
John Imfeld, 
George Shrantz, 
Adam Smeltzer, 
John Bird, 
Gottlieb Klein, 
Peter Graff, 
John Ringer, 
Jacob Croumer, 
Philip Stouder, 
Peter Hoover, 
Peter Americk, 
Conrad Houseman, 
John Klein, 
Henry Hain, 
Jacob Kurtz, 
John Zimmerman, 
Henry Smith, 
Adam Gentner, 

The German Regiment. 


John Leather, 
Henry Hilderbrand, 
Anthony Miller, 
Jacob Farber, 
Michael Moser, 
Ludwick Visinger, 
Jacob Hammer, 
Martin Watkins, 
Nicholas Frye, 
Jacob Weaver, 
Jacob Eggman, 
John Beckerson, 
George Clinton, 
Christopher Slender, 
Michael Beiker, 
Anthony Hamilton, 
Jacob Sheafer, 

Henry Cronies, 
Leonard Ludwick, 
John Snider, 
Henry Herring, 
Peter Kuntz, 
Justinius Hogshield, 
Edward Robertson, 
John Shatz, 
Michael Stiener, 
John Able, 
Michael Shoemaker, 
Frederick Henninghouse, 
Thomas Polehouse, 
Bartle Engle, 
John Klein, 
John Miller. 

Pay Roll of Capt. Michael Bayer's Company in the Ger- 
man Regiment^ Continental Troops in the 
United States. 
Commanded by Lt. Col. Ludwick Weltner. 
For the months of July, August, September and October, 1779. 
Capt. Michael Bayer (Boyer), John Abel, 


-k Shoemaker, 

Corp. — 

Corp. — 

Corp. — rew Robinson, 

Corp. John Hoshied, 

Corp. John Shotz, 

Drum. Thomas Hatchcraft, 

Drum. Henry Ferrins. 

Thomas Mahony, 
George Kepphard, 
Peter Kuntz, 
Abraham Kettle, 

Adam Gantner, 
Jacob Miller, Sr., 
Jacob Cramer, 
Leonard Ludwick, 
Michael Shoemaker, 
Peter Emerick, 
Henry Herring, 
Michael Moser, 
Henry Cronise, 
Phillip Fisher, 
John Snider, 
John Wachtel, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Henry Fisher, 
John Foliott, 
Owen Curley, 
Charles FulHm, 
James Johnson, 



Edward Robinson, 
Ludwick Wesinger, 
Rudolph Marolf, 
Jacob Miller, Jr., 

Phillip Strider, 
Jacob Riggnagle, 
Casemar Hill, 
Conrad Houseman, 
Michael Stoner, 
William Taylor, 
John Zimmerman, 
John Cline, 
Peter Hewer, 
Bartle Engle. 

Muster Roll of Capt. Geo. P. Keeport's Compy. of the 

First German Battalion Continental Troops. 

Commanded by Colonel Nicholas Haussegger. 

Philadelphia, Sept. 19, 1776. 

George P. Keeports, Capt., 
Saml. Gerock, i Lt., 
Willm Ritter, 2 Lt., 
John Lindenberger, Ensign, 
Jacob Smith, ist Serjt., 
Henry Speck, 2nd Serjt., 
John Keener, 3rd Serjt., 
Christn. Kearns, 4th Serjt., 
George Cole, ist Corpl., 
Fredk. Moppes, 2nd Corpl., 
Ulrich Linkenfetter, 3rd Corpl., 
Philip Bitting, 4th Corpl., 
Benja. England, Drummer. 

Michael Brubacher, 
Michael Grosh, 
Michael Dochterman, 
Christn. Settlemires, 
Peter Kries, 
Peter Koefflich (Hoefflich), 

John Weller, 
Gotfried Loure, 
Jacob Wagner, 
Peter Bast, 
Jacob Stein, 
John Schorcht, 
George Schesler, 
Danl. Fuhrman, 
Henry Traut, 
Jacob Schiitz, 
Peter Hahn, 
George Miller, 
Peter Anckle, 
Jacob Wink, 
Danl. Boehler, 
John Harring, 
John Franken, 
John Cole, 
Adam Schaeffer, 
Mathias Schreler, 

The German Regiment. 


Adam Markel, 
David Streib, 
Joseph Carrol, 
David Levy, 
Willm. Trux, 
Jacob Bigler, 
Jacob Burk, 

Conrad Reitz, 
John Brown, 
Fredk. Mongoal, 
John Bauer, 
Conrad Boehm, 
John Miller, 
John Smith. 

Roll of Capt. William Heyser's Company. 
Dated October 23, 1776. 
William Heyser, Captain, Adam Smith, 2nd Lieut., 

Jacob Kortz, ist Lieut., Paul Christman, Ensign. 

David McCorgan (Morgan), 
Jacob Hose, 

Daniel Jaquet (or Jaques), 
Jacob Miller, 
George Gittin, Drum, 

Andrew Filler, 
Philip Reevenach, 
Barnard Frey, 
William Lewis, 
Jacob Gittin, Fife. 

Peter Sheese, 
Henry Stroam, 
Adam Stonebreaker, 
John Fogle, 
Jacob Klien, 
George Miller, 
Phillip Fisher, 
Jonathan Hecket, 
Henry Tomm, 
Jacob Hoover, 
Michael Cambler, 
George Harmony, 
Thomas Clifton, 
Michael Boward, 
Henry Wagner, 


George Buch, 
Stuffle Reever, 
George Wise, 
John Michael, 
John Robertson, 
Adam Lieser, 
Robt. Hartness, 
Henry Be'nter, 
John Armstrong, 
Simon Fogler, 
Jacob Grass, 
Phillip Smithly, 
George Wilhelm, 
James Duncan, 
John Breecher, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

John Crafft, 
John Shoemaker, 
Mathias Gieser, 
Mathlas Dunkle, 
Frederick Filler, 
John Kibler, 
Stuffle Wagner, 
Jacob Heefner, 
Conrad Hoyle, 
Balsor Fisher, 
John Smith, 
Michael Weaver, 
Jacob Belsoover, 
John Rothe, 
Wentle Strayly, 
John Flick, 
John Mettz, 
Henry Michael, 
George Riggleman, 
Nicholas Baird, 
John Hottfield, 
Jacob Greathouse, 

Fredk. Switzer, 
Jacob Fowee, 
Thomas Burney, 
John Itnier, 
Phillip Greechbaum, 
Jacob Bishop, 
Alex. Sailor, 
Martin Pifer, 
Peter Gittin, 
Frances Myers, 
Melcher Benter, 
Tobias Friend, 
Jacob Heefner, 
John Smithly, 
Everheart Smith, 
Godfrey Young, 
Frederick Locher, 
Michael Yeakly, 
James Furnier, 
Henry Queer, 
Henry Statler, 
John Cropp. 

Captain Heyser's company, which was enlisted In Wash- 
ington county, was arranged as follows on May 22, 

j,^yy .135 

William Heyser, Captain, 
Jacob Kortz, First Lieut., 


Adam Smith, Second Lieut., 

David Morgan, 
Jacob Hose, 
John Jaquet, 
Jacob Miller. 

Andrew Tiller, discharged by 

the Surgeon, 
Philip Reevenacht, 
Bernard Frey, 

135 Richards' " The Pennsylvania-German in the Revolutionary War," p. 

The German Regiment. 


Henry Stroam, 
Adam Stonebreaker, 
John Flick, 
Henry Michael, 
Philip Fisher, 
Jonathan Hacket, 
Henry Tomm, 
Jacob Hoover, 
Michael Camler, 
Henry Wagner, 
Melchior Benner, 
John Fogle, 
Francis Myers, 
Jacob Kliene, 
John Michael, 
Simon Fogler, 
John Robinson, 
Jacob Beltzhoover, 
Peter Sheese, 
George Harmony, 
Michael Bawart, 
John Croft, 
Frederick Filler, 
John Kibler, 
John Smith, 
Math's Keyser, 
Michael Weaver, 
Nicholas Beard, 
John Hatfield, 
Conrad Hoyle, 
Christian Reaver, 
Adam Lower, 
Ph. Greechbaum, 

William Lewis, 
John Breecher. 


Frederick Locher, 
Michael Yockley, 
James Fournier, 
Henry Quir, 
John Cropp, 
H'y Statler, 
George Gitting, 
Thomas Clifton, 
George Riggleman, 
Thomas Burney, 
John Metz, 
John Shoemaker, 
Tobias Friend, 
Adam Leiser, 
Jacob Greathouse, 
Robert Hartness, 
Martin Piffer, 
George Miller, 
Christopher Wagner, 
Mathias Dunkle, 
John Roth, 
Jacob Piffer, 
George Bouch, 
Henry Panthar, 
Jacob Grass, 
George Wilhelm, 
George Wise, 
Jacob Heffner, 
Everhard Smith, 
John Armstrong, 
Godfried Young, 
Peter Gitting, died March 18, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

James Duncan, 
John Etnier, 
Philip Smithly, 
Christian Sides, 
Jacob Bishop, 
Alexander Saylor, 
John Smithley, 

Archibald Fleegert, 

Wentle Strayley, died January 

15, 1777, 
Balzer Fisher, died March 15, 

Frederick Switzer. 

ScharP^^ gives another arrangement of this company 
from a roll in the possession of Captain Heyser's 

Pay Roll of Lt. Col. Weltner's Company in the German 

Regt. of the Continental Forces of the United States. 

Commanded by Lt. Col. Ludwick JVeltner. 

July, August, September and October, 1779. 

Capt. Philip Shrawder, 
Serjt. William Lewis, 
Serjt. Jno. Danl. Jacquet, 
Serjt. Jacob Hose, 
Corpl. James Smith, 
Corpl. John Michael, 

Michael Gambler, 
James Ashley, 
William Pointer, 
Jacob Mosen, 
Jonathan Hackett, 
Henry Straam, 
James Duncan, 
George Wilhelm, 
Melcher Benner, 
Fredrik Schwidzer, 
Michael Yockley, 

Corpl. John Brucher, 
Corpl. Adam Stonebraker, 
Corpl. Bernard Fry, 
Drum. Moses McKinsey, 
Drum. Joshua McKinsey. 


Francis Gavin, 
Jacob Kline, 
John Kebler, 
Mathias Keiser, 
John Armstrong, 
John Etnier, 
Jacob Bishop, 
Chris. Raver, 
Philip Fisher, 
Fredk. Locker, 
Alex. Taylor, 

"6 "History of Western Maryland," Vol. II., p. 1190. 

The German Regiment. 


Conrod Hoyle, 
John Fliet, 
Fredrik. Filter, 
Michl. Weaver, 
James Forney, 
Jacob Beltzhoover, 
John Groop, 
George Getting, 
John Hatfield, 
Henry Michael, 
Thomas Clifton, 
John Craft, 

Patrick Fliming, 
George Regliman, 
Henry Stalter, 
Christopr. Waggoner, 
John Smith, 
Henry Benter, 
Philip Smithly, 
Jacob Heefner, 
John Smithly, 
Jacob Haver, 
Henry Quier. 

A Roll of Capt. Philip Graybell's Company. 1776. 

Philip Graybell, Captain, 
John Lohra (Lorah), ist Lieut., 
Christian Myers, 2d Lieut., 
Martin Shugart, Ensign. 

Ferdinand Lorentz, 
Philip Miller, 
Henry Millberger (Millburger) 

Jacob Hoffman, 
Charles Zarrell, 
Charles Charles, 
Joseph Procter, 
Joseph Braeter, 
Christian Apple, 
George Myers (Myer), 
Henry Willsdaugh, 

John Freymiller (Frymiller), George Lighthauser, (Leithauser), 

James Cappelle (Caple), 

John Rick, 

Lorentz Kneary, 

Jacob Etter, 

Peter Baker, 

Rudolph Crower, 

Adam Rohrbach (Rohhbaugh), 

Rowland Smith, 

John Shriock (Shryock), 

William Rommelsem, Serjt., 

Jacob Striter, 

Martin Lantz, 

John Hearly (Harley), 

Joseph Smith, 
Henry Wilstock, 
Henry Rumfield, 
George Hyatt, Fifer, 
Thomas Kimmel (Kemmell), 
Anthony Miller, 
Joseph Hook, 
Jacob Miley, 
Jacob Miller, 
Frederick Heller, Serjt., 
Andrew Gorr (Gore), 
William Speck, Corpl., 
Henry Hargeroder ( Hergeroder ) , 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Wolfgang Ettsperger, 

Christopher Regele (Regie), 

Frederick Wm. Haller, 

John Moore, 

Wendell Andrews (Andreas), 

Michael Kearshner, 

Wolfgang Ettzinger, 

John Shaffer, 

David Mumma (Muma), 

Abraham Frantz, 

Frederick Weger, 

Henry Hartman, 

Wendel Lorentz, 

John Hartenstein (Hardenstein 

William Altimus, 

Jacob Burke, 

Jacob Kintz (Keintz), 

George Rittlemyer, 

Philip Kautz, 

Jacob Myer (Myers), 

John Shlife, 

John Machenheimer, Sjt., 

George StaufiFer, Corpl., 

Gottlieb Danroth, 

Lorentz Danroth, 

Henry Decker, 

Michael Growley, 

Frederick Sollers, Corpl., 

Nicholas Frey, 

Jacob Kerns (Kearns), 

Simon Rinehart (Reinhart), 

Mathias Boyer (Byer), Corpl., 

Jacob Ruppert, 

Nicholas Keyser, 

John Welty, 

John Summers, 

Michael Huling, 

John Eyssell, 

William Litzinger, Serjt., 
), Fredk. Downey (Tawney), 

William Cunius (Cunnius), 

James Smith, 

Peter Finley, Drummer, 

John Smith, 
John Bartholomew Deitch ( Dych ) , 

William Kraft, 

Joseph Williams, 

Henry Sprengle, 

Henry Smith, 

John Strieker, Cadet, 

Peter Segman. 

A List of Recruits belonging to the German Regiment, 

Commanded by Lieut. Colonel Weltner. 

White Plains, September 5, 1778. 

Time of 

Names Service. 

John Kendrick 3 yrs. 

James Champness War. 

George Buch 3 yrs. 

Adam Mussler do. 

William Vincent do. 

Time of 

Names. Service. 

William Johnston do. 

John Richards do. 

Albert Hendricks 9 moa. 

Philip Bates do. 

George Arnold do. 

The German Regiment. 


Time of 
Names. Service. 

Stephen McGrouch do. 

William Neving War. 

James Woolford 3 yrs. 

James Stiles War. 

Peter Batolomey do. 

Richard Hazlip 3 yrs. 

Robert Porter do. 

William Mummard War. 

Hugh McKoy do. 

John Ammersly do. 

John Stanton do. 

John Bennet do. 

John Roach do. 

Benj. Elliott do. 

Cornelius Quinlin 3 yrs. 

Philip Fitzpatrick 9 mos. 

Francis Cams 3 yrs. 

Charles Jones War. 

Samuel Barts War. 

Mathias Smith do. 

William Rider do. 

William Malinia do. 

Benj. Cole do. 

Timothy Cahill do. 

Robert Smith do. 

Cornelius Vaughan do. 

James Murphy do. 

Christian Castner do. 

William Pope do. 

John Fennell do. 

Jacob Kauffman 3 yrs. 

Thomas Proctor do. 

Richard Gaul do. 

John Shively do. 

Thomas Halfpenny do. 

Thomas Hazelwood War. 

Richard Hopkins 9 mos. 

Christn. Murama do. 

William White War. 

James Connoway 3 yrs. 

Time of 
Names. Service. 

Adam Mattrit, fifer War. 

Michael Smith, drummer War. 

John Malady do. 

Thomas Mackall do. 

Charles Fulhara do. 

John Hughmore do. 

Thomas Hutchcrofft do. 

John Wade do. 

Alexander Smith do. 

Frederick Shoemaker do. 

James Johnston do. 

Casimir Hill 3 yrs. 

Thomas Mahony do. 

John Smadern do. 

Jacob Dolton do. 

John Timhen do. 

Michael Hardraan do. 

Henry Ferrins do. 

James Dyer 3 yrs. 

Henry Fisher do. 

Jacob Alexander do. 

Christian Kepplinger 9 mos. 

Philip Hinkel do. 

Thomas Polehouse do. 

Abraham Miller do. 

Bernhard Ridenhour do. 

Levy Aaron 3 yrs. 

Moses McKinsey do. 

Joshua McKinsey do. 

Jacob Moser do. 

Richard O'Quin War. 

James Ashley do. 

James Smith do. 

Thomas Rowlands 9 mos. 

George Bantz do. 

On furlough. 


Died 7 July. 

Died July 27, 'fi. 

Was a Deserter from Carolina. 

Ditto of Col. Chambers. 

240 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Time of ■ ' 

Name. Service. Remarks. 

Thomas Holdup War. Ditto of Carolina. 

Mathias Custgrove 3 yrs. Deserted. 

John Waldon do. ditto. 

Andrew Shuler War. ditto. 

John Stout do. ditto. 

Robert Barnet do. Sick, absent. 

George Kephard 3 yrs. Deserted. 

Edward Connoly do. Taken by the Virginia Artillery. 

Frederick Stone do. Given up to the Laboratory. 

John Weeguel do. Left at Frederick Town. 

These rolls do not contain the names of all the Germans 
from Maryland who served in the Revolutionary War. 
Many of them were to be found in the different regiments 
of the Maryland Line, some of the companies being made 
up almost entirely of Germans. But they are so scattered 
and their names are so changed in the spelling that it is 
impossible to pick them out. 


Service of the Maryland Troops. 


'O every call for troops made 
by the Continental Con- 
gress the response from Mary- 
land was prompt and enthusias- 
tic, and, as a rule, that province 
furnished more men than were 
called for; indeed, in comparison 
with the other colonies, Mary- 
land contributed more than her 
share. But there was very little call for the services of her 
sons at home, as the fighting was all done in other sections 
of the country, and the Maryland companies, as soon as 
they were enrolled, were hurried to the point where they 
were most needed. 

After the evacuation of Boston General Howe con- 
ceived the idea of dividing the country Into two sections, 
the northern part from the southern, and with that end in 
view quickly landed a large force on Long Island for the 
purpose of capturing New York. The exact number of 
i6» 241 

242 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

men making up the British commander's army is not 
known, but it was between 20,000 and 27,000. General 
Washington's force consisted nominally of about 24,000 
men, but of these about one-third were invalids and another 
third were not properly furnished with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Then, too, this force was scattered over a large 
section of country, for while Washington knew something 
of the intention of the British commander, It was not known 
just where he would strike his blow. 

The Maryland battalion had been placed under the com- 
mand of Colonel William Smallwood and sent to join 
Washington's army in the vicinity of New York. As 
other companies were raised they were hurried forward 
under orders to join Smallwood's command, so that by 
August 20, 1776, the whole Maryland force was under the 
command of that officer. They were attached to the bri- 
gade commanded by Lord Stirling. The British troops 
landed on Long Island between the 21st and 27th of Au- 
gust. On the 20th the Maryland troops, with those from 
Delaware, were ordered to advance. Colonel Smallwood 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Ware were In New York as mem- 
bers of a court-martial, and although they asked Washing- 
ton to be allowed to join their command they were not 
permitted to do so, and the troops went forward under the 
command of Major Mordecal Gist. 

The American army under Putnam was drawn out to 
occupy the passes and defend the heights between Flatbush 
and Brooklyn. During the night of the 26th General Clin- 
ton, with the van of the British army, silently seized one 
of the passes and made his way, about daybreak, into the 
open country in the rear of the Americans. He was im- 
mediately followed by another column under Lord Percy. 
To divert the Americans from their left another division 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 243 

under Grant marched slowly along the coast, skirmishing 
with the light parties on the road. Putnam being sur- 
rounded Stirling was ordered with two regiments, one of 
which was the Maryland regiment, to meet the army on 
the route to the narrows. About break of day he took his 
position advantageously upon the summit of the hills and 
was joined by the troops driven in by the advancing columns 
of the enemy. For several hours a severe cannonade was 
kept up on both sides and Stirling was repeatedly attacked 
by the brigades under Cornwallis and Grant, who were as 
often gallantly repulsed. At length the left wing of the 
American force having been completely turned by Clinton, 
and the center under Sullivan broken at the first attack of 
General De Heister, the position of Stirling's brigade on 
the right became perilous in the extreme. The passes to 
the American lines at Brooklyn were in the possession of an 
overpowering British force; two strong brigades were 
assailing him in front, and in his rear lay an extensive 
marsh traversed by a deep and dangerous creek, eighty 
yards in width at its mouth. Nearer its head, at the Yellow 
Mills, the only bridge which might have afforded the bri- 
gade a safe retreat had been burned by a New England 
regiment under Colonel Ward in its very hasty retreat, 
although it was covered by the American batteries. The 
only hope of safety, therefore, for the gallant troops who 
still maintained the battle and held the enemy at bay was to 
surrender, or else to cross the dangerous marsh and creek 
at its mouth, where no one had ever been known to cross 
before. Colonel Smallwood, having arrived from New 
York and learning of the perilous situation of his battalion, 
applied to General Washington for some regiments to cover 
their retreat. After a moment's hesitation as to the pru- 
dence of risking more troops on a lost battle, unwilling to 

244 ^^^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

abandon these brave men to their fate, he detached him 
with Captain Thomas' independent company from New 
England which had just arrived from New York, and two 
field pieces, to take a position on the banks of the stream 
and protect the remnant of the brigade in the attempt to 
cross it. 

The scene of the conflict was within a mile of the Ameri- 
can lines, and while Smallwood was hastening to their aid 
Stirling prepared to make a last effort to check the advance 
of the enemy and give time to a portion of his command to 
make good its retreat. For this purpose he selected four 
hundred men from the Maryland battalion, under Major 
Gist, placed himself at their head, and having ordered all 
the other troops to make the best of their way through the 
creek, advanced against Cornwallis' brigade. As they drew 
out between the two bodies of the enemy it was thought 
by those looking on from the camp that they were about to 
surrender, but as with fixed bayonets they rushed to the 
charge upon the overwhelming force opposed to them fear 
and sorrow filled every heart, and Washington is said to 
have wrung his hands and examined: "Good God! What 
brave fellows I must this day lose."^^'^ 

The following account of the battle of Long Island was 
sent to the Maryland convention by Colonel Smallwood: 

Camp of the Maryland Regulars, 
Head Quarters, October 12th, 1776. 
Sir: — Through your hands I must beg leave to address the 
Hon'ble Convention of Maryland, and must confess not without 
an apprehension that I have incurred their displeasure, for having 
omitted writing when on our march from Maryland to New 
York, and since our arrival here; nor shall I in a pointed manner 
urge anything in my defence, but leave them at large to condemn 

137 McSherry's "History of Maryland," p. 16s. 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 245 

or excuse me, upon a presumption that should they condemn, they 
will at least pardon, and judge me perhaps less culpable, when they 
reflect in the first instance on the exertions necessary to procure 
baggage wagons, provisions and house-room for 750 men, marched 
the whole distance in a body, generally from 15 to 20 miles per day, 
as the several stages made it necessary ; and in the latter I trust they 
will give some indulgence for this neglect, for since our arrival in 
New York it has been the fate of this Corps to be generally sta- 
tioned at advanced posts, and to act as a covering party, which must 
unavoidably expose troops to extraordinary duty and hazard, not 
to mention the extraordinary vigilance and attention in the com- 
mandant of such a party in disposing in the best manner, and hav- 
ing it regularly supplied; for here the commanders of regiments, 
exclusive of their military duty, are often obliged to exert them- 
selves in the departments of Commissary and Quarter-Master 
General, and even directors of their regimental hospitals. 

Perhaps it may not be improper to give a short detail of occur- 
rences upon our march to Long Island and since that period. The 
enemy from the 21st to the 27th of August, were landing their 
troops on the lower part of Long Island, where they pitched a large 
encampment, and ours and their advanced parties were daily skir- 
mishing at long shot, in which neither party suffered much. On the 
26th the Maryland and Delaware troops, which composed part of 
Lord Stirling's Brigade, were ordered over. Col. Haslet and his 
Lieut.-Col. Bedford, of the Delaware Battalion, with Lieut.-Col. 
Ware and myself, were detained on the trial of Lieut.-Col. Led- 
witz, and though I waited on General Washington and urged the 
necessity of attending our troops, yet he refused to discharge us, 
alleging there was a necessity for the trial's coming on, and that 
no other field-officers could be then had. After our dismission 
from the court-martial it was too late to get over, but pushing over 
early next morning, found our regiments engaged. Lord Stirling 
having marched them ofiE before day to take possession of the woods 
and difficult passes between our lines and the enemy's encampment ; 
but the enemy over night had stolen a march on our generals, hav- 

246 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ing got through those passes, met and surrounded our troops on 
the plain grounds within two miles of our lines. Lord Stirling 
drew up his brigade on an advantageous rising ground, where he 
was attacked by two brigades in front, headed by the Generals 
Cornwallis and Grant, and in his rear the enemy's main body stood 
ready drawn up to support their own parties and intercept the 
retreat of ours. This excellent disposition and the superior num- 
bers ought to have taught our Generals there was no time to be lost 
in securing their retreat, which might at least have been affected, 
had the troops formed into a heavy column and pushed their re- 
treat ; but the longer this was delayed it became the more dangerous, 
as they were then landing more troops in front from the ships. 
Our brigade kept their ground for several hours, and in general 
behaved well, having received some heavy fires from the artillery 
and musketry of the enemy, whom they repulsed several times ; but 
their attacks were neither so lasting nor vigorous as was expected, 
owing, as it was imagined, to their being certain of making the 
whole brigade prisoners of war ; for by this time they had so secured 
the passes on the road to our lines (seeing our parties were not 
supported from thence, which indeed our numbers would not 
admit of) that there was no possibility of retreating that way. 
Between the place of action and our lines there lay a large marsh 
and deep creek, not above 80 yards across at the mouth — (the place 
of action upon a direct line did not exceed a mile from a part of our 
lines), towards the head of which creek there was a mill and bridge, 
across which a certain Col. Ward from New England, who is 
charged with having acted a bashful part that day, passed over with 
his regiment, and then burnt them down, though under cover of 
our cannon, which would have checked the enemy's pursuit at any 
time ; other ways, this bridge might have afforded a secure retreat. 
There then remained no other prospect but to surrender^ or attempt 
to retreat over this marsh and creek at the mouth, where no person 
had ever been known to cross. In the interim I applied to Gen'l 
Washington for some regiments to march out to support and cover 
their retreat, which he urged would be attended with too great a 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 247 

risk to the party and the lines. He immediately afterwards sent 
for and ordered me to march down a New England regiment and 
Capt. Thomas's company, which had just come over from New 
York, to the mouth of the creek opposite where the brigade was 
drawn up, and ordered two field-pieces down, to support and cover 
their retreat should they make a push that way. Soon after our 
march they began to retreat, and for a small time the fire was very 
heavy on both sides, till our troops came to the marsh, where they 
were obliged to break their order and escape as quick as they could 
to the edge of the creek under a brisk fire, notwithstanding which 
they brought off 28 prisoners. The enemy taking advantage of a 
commanding ground, kept up a continued fire from four field- 
pieces, which were well served and directed, and a heavy column 
advancing on the marsh must have cut our people of?, their guns 
being wet and muddy, not one of them would have fired, but hav- 
ing drawn up the musketry and disposed of some riflemen conveni- 
ently, with orders to fire on them when they came within shot; 
however, the latter began their fire rather too soon, being at 200 
yards' distance, which notwithstanding had the desired effect, for 
the enemy immediately retreated to the fast land, where they con- 
tinued parading within 800 yards till our troops were brought 
over. Most of those who swam over, and others who attempted to 
cross before the covering party got down, lost their arms and 
accoutrements in the mud and creek, and some poor fellows their 
lives, particularly two of the Maryland, two of the Delaware, one 
of Attley's Pennsylvania, and two Hessian prisoners were drowned. 
Thomas's men contributed much in bringing over this party. Have 
enclosed a list of the killed and wounded, amounting to 256, offi- 
cers inclusive. It has been said the enemy during the action also 
attacked our lines; but this was a mistake. Not knowing the 
ground, one of the columns advanced within long shot without 
knowing they were so near, and upon our artillery and part of the 
musketry's firing on them they immediately fled. The 28th, dur- 
ing a very hard rain, there was an alarm that the enemy had 
advanced to attack our lines, which alarmed the troops very much, 

248 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

but was without foundation. The 29th it was found by a council 
of war that our fortifications were not tenable, and it was therefore 
judged expedient that the army should retreat from the Island 
that night, to effect which, notwithstanding the Maryland troops 
had but one day's respite, and many other troops had been many 
days clear of any detail of duty, they were ordered on the advanced 
post at Fort Putnam, within 250 yards of the enemy's approaches, 
and joined with two Pennsylvania reg'ts on the left, were to remain 
and cover the retreat of the army, which was happily completed 
under cover of a thick fog and a southwest wind, both of which 
favored our retreat; otherwise the fear, disorder and confusion of 
some of the Eastern troops must have retarded and discovered our 
retreat and subjected numbers to be cut off. After remaining two 
days in New York, our next station was at Harlaem, 9 miles above, 
at an advance post opposite Montresove's and Bohana's Islands, 
which in a few days the enemy got possession of without opposition ; 
from the former of which we daily discoursed with them, being 
within two hundred yards, and only a small creek between. It 
being judged expedient to abandon New York and retreat to our 
lines below Fort Washington, the military stores, &c., had been 
removing some days, when on the 15th Sept. the enemy effected a 
landing on several parts of the Island below (and it is cutting to 
say without the least opposition). I have often read and heard of 
instances of cowardice, but hitherto have had but a faint idea of it 
till now. I never could have thought human nature subject to 
such baseness. I could wish the transactions of this day blotted out 
of the annals of America — nothing appeared but flight, disgrace 
and confusion. Let it suffice to say, that 60 light infantry upon 
the first fire put to flight two brigades of the Connecticut troops 
— ^wretches who, however strange it may appear, from the Briga- 
dier-General down to the private sentinel, were caned and whip'd 
by the Generals Washington, Putnam and Mifflin; but even this 
indignity had no weight — they could not be brought to stand one 
shot. General Washington expressly sent and drew our regiment 
from its brigade, to march down towards New York, to cover the 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 249 

retreat and to defend the baggage, with direction to take possession 
of an advantageous eminence near the enemy upon the main road, 
where we remained under arms the best part of the day, till 
Sergant's Brigade came in with their baggage, who were the last 
troops coming in, upon which the enemy divided their main body 
into two columns ; one filing off on the North river endeavored to 
flank and surround us, the other advancing in good order slowly 
up the main road upon us ; we had orders to retreat in good order, 
which was done, our Corps getting within the lines after dusk. 
The next day about 1000 of them made an attempt upon our lines, 
and were first attacked by the brave Col. Knolton of New Eng- 
land, who lost his life in the action, and the 3d Virginia regiment, 
who were immediately joined by three Independent Companies, 
under Major Price, and some part of the Maryland flying-camp, 
who drove them back to their lines, it is supposed with the loss of 
400 men killed and wounded. Our party had about 100 killed and 
wounded, of the former only 15. Since which we have been view- 
ing each other at a distance, and strongly entrenching till the 9th 
October, when three of their men-of-war passed up the North 
river above King's Bridge, under a very heavy cannonade from 
our Batteries, which has effectually cut oflF our communication by 
water with Albany. I must now break off abruptly, being ordered 
to march up above King's Bridge, the enemy having landed 6000 
men from the Sound on Frog's Point. 50 ships are got up there, 
landing more troops — there is nothing left but to fight them. An 
engagement is generally expected and soon. Have enclosed a copy 
of a general return of the battalion and Veazy's company, being all 
the troops I marched from Maryland, with the accoutrements and 
camp equipage taken in Philadelphia, to be rendered the Congress, 
together with our general weekly return. The Independents are 
now about their returns of arms, accoutrements and camp equip- 
age brought by them from Maryland, but not having time to 
finish, they must hereafter be returned to Council of Safety. We 
have upwards of three hundred ofl!icers and soldiers of the Mary- 
land regulars very sick, which you will observe by the return ; and 

250 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

I am sorry to say, it's shocking to humanity to have so many of 
them ; this must hurt the service upon the new enlistments. Major 
Price and Gist and Cap'n Stone are in the Jerseys very sick, and 
Col. Ware and myself are very unfit for duty, though we attend 
it; many more officers are very unwell. I am very respectfully, 
Your obedient and very h'ble servant, 

W. Smallwood.^^^ 

The loss sustained by the Maryland troops in the battle 
of Long Island was unusually heavy. The killed and 
wounded numbered 256. Captain Veazy and Lieutenant 
Butlar were killed, and among the prisoners were Captain 
Daniel Bowie, Lieutenant William Steret, William Ridgely, 
Hatch Dent, Walter Muse, Samuel Wright, Joseph Butler, 
Edward Praul, Edward Decourcy and Ensigns James Fer- 
nandes and William Courts. The conduct of the battle of 
Long Island has called forth a great deal of unfavorable 
comment, taking in both officers and privates, but the 
Maryland troops taking part in it have received nothing 
but praise for their valor, in marked contrast to that of 
some of the New Englanders. McSherry says^^^ "The 
people of Long Island point out to strangers the spot where 
half of the Maryland battalion stemmed the advance of the 
whole left wing of the British army when no other troops 
were left on the field," and Colonel Daniel Brodhead 
wrote :^ ^° " No troops could behave better than the Southern, 
for though they seldom engaged less than five to one, they 
frequently repulsed the Enemy with great Slaughter." 

At White Plains the Marylanders sustained their reputa- 
tion and were in the thickest of the fight, where their loss 
was over one hundred men. The Maryland battalion had 

138 Scharf's " Chronicles of Baltimore," p. 148 et seq. 

139 "History of Maryland," p. 166. 

1*° Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Vol. V., p. 22. 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 251 

become veterans. In three months it had fought three 
battles, and it was the first organization to use the bayonet 
against the British regulars. At the defence of Fort Wash- 
ington they held their own against a vastly superior force 
of Hessians. Washington had posted his army in three 
divisions, Colonel Rawlings with his Maryland regiment 
being stationed on a hill to the north of the lines. They 
were attacked by General Knyphausen with five thousand 
men. At the same time another division of the enemy 
moved against Colonel Cadwallader, of the Pennsylvania 
troops, who commanded within the lines, and a third divi- 
sion crossed the East river in boats and landed within the 
lines. The superiority of the British force drove Cadwal- 
lader's men back into the fort, but the Marylanders, under 
Rawlings, bravely maintained their position. *' Posted 
among the trees, his riflemen poured in upon the advancing 
column a murderous fire which they in vain endeavored to 
sustain. The Hessians broke and retired. Again they 
were brought to the attack and again repulsed with dread- 
ful slaughter. The Maryland riflemen remembered the 
destruction of their brethren of the battalion by the Hes- 
sians at Yellow Mills and did not forget to avenge it. But 
what could a single battalion of riflemen, even of such 
matchless skill and courage, effect when opposed to five 
thousand men armed with the bayonet ? Had every other 
post been defended as theirs was, victory would have 
crowned the American arms that day. But all the other 
troops were already in full retreat. The three divisions of 
the enemy were about to fall upon their rear while they 
contended with a force in front of them far greater than 
their own. At length, by sheer fighting and power of 
numbers, the Hessians reached the summit of the hill. 
Rawlings, perceiving the danger to his rear and learning 

252 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of the retreat of the Pennsylvanians, abandoned his posi- 
tion, as no longer tenable, and retired under the guns of 
the fort."i4i 

As Colonel Magaw was unable to hold the fort against 
such an overwhelming force he was compelled to surrender, 
and twenty-six hundred men became prisoners. The British 
lost nearly twelve hundred men, killed and wounded, more 
than half of this loss being sustained by the Hessians in 
their attack upon Rawlings' Maryland and Virginia rifle- 

A detailed account of all the battles in which the Mary- 
land troops took part cannot be given here, but wherever 
they were called upon — at Trenton, at Princeton, at Mon- 
mouth, on the banks of the Brandywine, at Germantown — 
they were always to be found at the forefront, and ac- 
quitted themselves with glory. Many had been killed and 
many more were disabled on account of wounds and sick- 
ness. "In each succeeding action," says McSherry, "the 
Maryland troops had been further reduced until Small- 
wood's battalion and the seven independent companies, 
which had entered the campaign fourteen hundred strong, 
had been worn down to a mere captain's command." But 
new men filled up the ranks and until the end of the 
war the Marylanders continued to show their bravery on 
many a hard fought field, a bravery that had been bred in 
them through their arduous life on the frontiers of the 

One of the matters which caused considerable trouble 
among the officers of the Maryland troops, as it did among 
those of other states, was the determination of the rank of 
the officers. When it became apparent that there would be 
a war between Great Britain and the colonies, military com- 

"1 McSherry's " History of Maryland," p. 171. 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 253 

panics were formed In all parts of the country, officers were 
selected, and the companies were drilled in military tactics, 
so that by the time that hostilities actually broke out there 
were a number of these companies ready to march at a 
moment's notice, and many of them did so and took an 
active part in the early campaigns. Later on when the army 
was being reorganized under the authority of the Conti- 
nental Congress, the officers of these companies naturally 
expected to be among the first ones promoted on account 
of their having been early in the field. In many instances 
these officers were disappointed in their expectation and 
saw promoted over them officers who had entered the 
service after they had. This naturally caused considerable 
resentment and protests were made to those in authority. 
Promises were made that the matter would be adjusted, 
but progress in this direction was slow and the feeling 
among those who felt that they were being slighted became 
so intense that something had to be done. Early in 1779 
the legislature of Maryland adopted resolutions requesting 
General Washington to settle this question of rank. Upon 
receipt of these resolutions Washington wrote to Governor 
Johnson as follows.^ ^^ 

Head Quarters Middle Brook, 8th April 1779. 

I have been honoured with yours of the 26*^^ March inclosing a 
Resolve of the House of Delegates for the incorporation of parts 
of the German Battalion and Rifle Corps into a Regiment, and 
another for forwarding the recruiting service. I also at the same 
time received from the president of the Senate and the speaker of 
the House of Delegates two Resolves — one empowering me to 
fully settle the Rank of the Officers of the Maryland line, the other 
allowing half pay for life to such Officers as shall remain In the 
service during the war. 

1*2 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXL, p. 339. 

254 ^^^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

By an allotment of the quota of troops to be raised by said State, 
made by Congress the 26*'* Feb^ 1778, the German Battalion was 
wholly attached to the State of Maryland and considered as her 
Reg* since which it hath done duty in that line. Had not this been 
the case, the incorporation of such parts of that Regiment and 
Rifle Corps as are deemed properly to belong to Maryland would 
still be attended with the greatest inconveniences particularly in 
regard to recruiting the Ranks of the Officers, Col° Rawlins and 
most of his being elder than Col° Weltner and those of the GJer- 
man would supersede them upon incorporation. 

Indeed Col° Weltner would not only be superseded, but he must 
be supernumerary. In short, the difficulties attending the measure 
recommended are more than can be conceived, and I am convinced 
by experience that it cannot be carried into execution without 
totally deranging the German Regiment. 

In January last Congress, to make some provision for Col" 
Rawlins and his Officers, resolved that he should increase his 
remaining men (who are not more than 70 or 80) to three Com- 
panies to be commanded by him as a separate Corps. The times of 
most of the old men are near expiring and whether they will rein- 
list I cannot say. 

I entertain a very high opinion of Col° Rawlins and his Officers, 
and have interested myself much in their behalf. It is to be re- 
gretted that they were not provided for in the States to which they 
belong, when the Army was new modelled in 1776, but as they 
were not, after a variety of plans had been thought of that above 
mentioned was esteemed the most eligible, and indeed the only 
one that could be accepted, as the introduction of those Gentlemen 
into the line would have been impracticable. 

I have, agreeable to the powers invested in me, appointed a 
Board of General Officers to take into consideration and report to 
me the rank of the Maryland line. I do not imagine that it will 
be possible to give general satisfaction, but I am convinced that 
the Gentlemen who have the Business in hand will pay the strictest 
attention to the claims of all parties, and give the most disinter- 
ested decision. 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 255 

Whatever the decision may be, I hope that it may be considered 
by the State as definitive, and that they will not in future pay any 
further regard to the importunities of those who may be discon- 
tented with the arrangemenet which is about to be made. 

The matter was one that was not easily arranged and 
after several Boards of Officers had worked on it Wash- 
ington wrote to Governor Johnson, on May 28, 1779, 
giving the rank of the different officers as it had finally 
been agreed upon. Instead of allaying the feeling of 
resentment among the officers the report determining their 
rank Increased it, and a number of them promptly resigned. 
That their resignations were not due to any lack of patriot- 
ism, but to a feeling that they were not being treated prop- 
erly, is shown by the actions of one Pennsylvania-German. 
Benjamin Spyker, Jr., a native of Berks county, Pennsyl- 
vania, who had been teaching school in Maryland, enlisted 
a company early in 1776, and upon the organization of the 
Maryland Line his company became a part of the Seventh 
Regiment. When the question of the rank of the officers 
had been finally settled he resigned his commission and 
went back to his home In Berks county, where he enlisted 
as a private in Captain John Anspach's company, in the 
Berks county militia.^ *^ 

But the settlement of the question of the rank of the 
officers did not end the matter. On June 17, 1779, the 
principal officers of the Maryland regiments In the field 
addressed the following petition to the governor and the 
members of the Senate and House of Delegates :^^* 

We beg leave, most respectfully, to represent to your Excellency 
and Honors that the several provisions hitherto made by the Legis- 

1** Scharf's " History of Maryland," Vol. II., p, 35a. 
^*3 Pennsylvania Archives, Fifth Series, Vol. V., p. 185. 

256 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

lature for the subsistence of her officers, though liberal at the time 
of being voted, have by no means been adequate to the exigent 
expenses of their respective stations. 

That a zeal for the public cause, and an ardent desire to promote 
the happiness and interest of their country have, notwithstanding, 
induced them to continue in the service to the very great prejudice 
of their private fortunes; many of which being now entirely ex- 
hausted, we find ourselves under the painful and humiliating 
necessity of soliciting your Excellency and Honors for a further 
support, and the disposition of a generous and grateful people to 
reward the services of the faithful sons and servants of the State. 

The very great depreciation of the Continental Currency renders 
it absolutely necessary that some further provision should be made 
for our support to enable us to continue a service in which nothing 
but a love of Liberty and the rights of mankind can retain us ; and 
we trust that it will be such as will support with decency and 
dignity the respective ranks which our country has done us the 
honor to confer on us. 

The inconveniences and difficulties we suffer are various and 
grievous, but we think it unnecessary to be particular or to point 
out a mode of redress as the examples of the State of Pennsylvania 
and others in providing for their officers and soldiers are the most 
eligible and ample we desire or expect. 

We beg leave to assure your Excellency and Honors with the 
utmost candor and sincerity, that while we assiduously exert our 
best abilities in a hardy opposition to the enemies of our country, 
we earnestly wish the arrival of that period when our military 
services will be no longer requisite, and, being at liberty individu- 
ally to procure a peaceful competence, we may again be numbered 
among the happy citizens of the Free and Independent State of 

We have the honor to be with great respect, 

Your Excellency and Honors most obedient humble servants. 

Knowing the above representation to be a true state of the 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 


grievances of the officers in the Maryland line, on their behalf, and 
in justice to them, I have subscribed to it. W. Smallwood. 

John Carvil Hall, colonel 4th John James, 

regiment ; 

Otho H. Williams, colonel 6th 
regiment ; 

John Gunby, colonel; 

R. Adams, lieutenant-colonel 7th 
regiment ; 

Thomas Wolford, lieutenant- 
colonel 2d regiment; 

John E. Howard, lieutenant- 
colonel ; 

John Stewart, major; 

John Dean, major; 

Archibald Anderson, major; 

Henry Hardman, captain; 

A. Grosh, captain ; 

Thomas Lansdale, captain; 

Harry Dobson, captain ; 

William D. Beale, captain; 

Jonathan Sellman, captain ; 

Alexander Trueman, captain ; 

Joseph Marbury, captain ; 

Jacob Brice, captain ; 

John Smith, captain; 

William Wilmott, captain; 

Alexander Roxburgh, captain; 

Henry Gaither, captain ; 

Edward Oldman, captain; 

Richard Anderson, captain; 

Edward Pratt, captain; 

George Hamilton, captain; 

Levin Handy, captain ; 

Walker Mun, captain; 

John Carr, 

Nicholas Gassaway, 

Charles Smith, 

R. N. Walker, 

Lloyd Beall, 

Richard McAlister, 

James Brain, 

Ed. Edgerly, 

John J. Jacob, 

James Ewing, 

Wm. Lamar, 

Wm. Woolford, 

Charles Beaven, 

John Hartshorn, 

John M. Hamilton, 

James Gould, 

J. J. Skinner, 

Richard Donovan, 

John Gibson, 

T. B. Hugan, 

Gassaway Watkins, 

W. Adams, 

George Jacobs, 

John Mitchell, 

Philip Theid, 

Edward Moran, 

Thomas Price, engineer; 

Henry Baldwin, quarter-master 

and engineer; 
John Gassaway, lieutenant 2d 

Maryland regiment; 
Samuel Hanson, ensign ; 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

James Woolford Gray, captain ; 

John Gale, captain; 

John Sprigg Belt, captain ; 

John Smith, captain; 

W. Beatty, captain; 

J. C. Jones, captain ; 

John Davidson, captain; 

John Jordan, captain ; 

James Somervell, captain-lieu- 
tenant ; 

Benjamin Price, captain-lieu- 
tenant ; 

Frederick Foird, captain-lieu- 
tenant ; 

George Armstrong, captain-lieu- 
tenant; and lieutenants; 

Francis Reveley, 

Nicholas Mamges, 

Samuel Farmer, 

Osborn Williams, 

Isaac Duall, 

Hezekiah Ford, ensign; 

John Dorsey, surgeon 5th Mary- 
land Regiment; 

Thomas Parran, surgeon 6th 
regiment ; 

William Kiltz, assistant sur- 
geon 5th regiment; 

John Hamilton, paymaster and 
lieutenant, 4th Maryland 

Richard Pindell, surgeon, 4th 
Maryland regiment; 

Christopher Richmond, pay- 
master and lieutenant; 

Benjamin Garnett, engineer; 

James Woulds, adjutant; 

W. Warfield, assistant surgeon, 
6th regiment; 

Robert Denny, engineer and 
paymaster, 7 th regiment. 

The legislature met on July 22, and after considering 
the address of the officers passed an act " relating to the 
officers and soldiers of this State in the American army." 
This measure provided that as the officers were bearing 
the heaviest burdens of the war with a pay that scarcely 
supplied them with the necessaries of life, and as most of 
them were now so reduced in means as to be dependent upon 
the gratuity of the state, each of the commissioned and 
staff officers of the Maryland Line and of the state troops 
in the Continental army was to be allowed every year dur- 
ing the war, at a fixed price, " four good shirts and a com- 
plete uniform, suitable to his station." They were also to 
be allowed tea, coffee, chocolate, sugar, rum, soap and 

Service of the Maryland Troops. 


tobacco, in certain portions, to be dealt out by the day and 
month. During that year, in lieu of these, they were to 
receive $2,000. The non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates were also to be given an allowance in rum and to- 
bacco, which, for the year 1779, was commuted at £20 
currency for each man. The act also provided that those 
who should enlist in a Maryland regiment to serve for 
three years, or during the war, should receive, in addition 
to the bounties provided by congress and the state, a hat, a 
pair of shoes, stockings and overalls. 


Forwarding the Cause at Home. 


HILE the Maryland 
troops were upholding 
the honor of the State in the 
field, those at home, the non- 
combatants, were doing their 
part to forward the patriotic 
cause. A feeling of patriotism 
was manifested everywhere 
among all classes, and in many 
instances those who could not 
very well afford it sacrificed 
the necessaries of life to con- 
tribute towards the support of 
the troops in the field. Every- 
thing that was possible was done to assist in the struggle 
and privations were endured by those at home as well as 
by those in camp. Patriotic sentiments were expressed on 
all sides. Scharf^*^ gives a copy of a letter supposed to 

1*5 "History of Western Maryland," Vol. II., p. 1035. The letter is as 
follows : 

To Capt. William Heyser, at the American Camp, Philadelphia. 
Dear Father 

Through the mercies of almighty God, I my Mamma, my brother and 


Forwarding the Cause at Home. 261 

have been written to Captain William Heyser by his son, 
aged nine years. While the sentiments expressed in the 
letter were no doubt those entertained by almost everyone 
yet the letter itself Is scarcely one such as would be written 
by a nine-year old boy. 

Many of the German settlers in western Maryland had 
conscientious scruples against war and these people were 
averse to enlisting in the army and taking an active part In 
the war, but they contributed of their means, many of them 
liberally. Military stores, gunpowder, guns and cannon, 
were manufactured at a number of places, and supplies of 
various kinds also contributed. At a meeting of the Com- 
mittee of Observation for that part of Frederick county 
which is now Washington county, held at Elizabeth Town 
(Hagerstown) on April 8, 1776, the following communi- 
cation was received from the Council of Safety: 

Sisters are well, in hopes these may find you enjoying these Felicities, 
•which tend to happiness in life, and everlasting Happiness In Eternity your 
long absence and great distance is the only matter of our trouble, but our 
sincere Prayers, is for your V^elfare and Prosperity, begging that God may 
prosper you, and your united Brethren, in your laudable undertaking, and 
in the end crown you with the laurels of a Complete victory, over the 
Enemies of the inestimable Rights, Liberties, and Privileges of distressed 
America, and hand them down inviolate, to the latest Posterity. My Dear 
father, my greatest Grief is, that I am incapable of the military Service, 
that I might enjoy the company of so loving a father, and serve my country 
In so glorious a cause, but tho' absent from you yet my constant prayer 
is for your Safety, in the Hour of danger, your complete victory, over the 
Enemies, of the united States of America, and your Safe Restoration to the 
government of your family. I and my brother Jacob Continue at School, 
and hope to give a full Satisfaction, to our parents, and friends in our 
regular conduct, and Progress in learning, my Mamma, my brother and 
Sister do join me In their Prayers and well wishes for you. 

I am Dr. Father your most dutiful and obedt Son, 

Hagers Town William Heyser 

October 12th 

262 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

In Council of Safety, Annapolis, 
March 23, 1776. 

Gentlemen: — The great difficulty we find in providing blankets 
for the regular forces raised for the defence of this province obliges 
us to apply to the committee of observation for the several counties 
and districts, earnestly requesting that they w^ould use their en- 
deavors to procure from the housekeepers in their respective coun- 
ties and districts all the blankets or rugs that they can with any 
convenience spare, for which the council will pay such prices as 
the committees shall agree on, as well as any expense that may 
arise in collecting them together ; and when you have procured any 
quantity, you will send them to Annapolis, to Col. Smallwood, or, 
in his absence, to the commanding officer on this station, who will 
receive the same, and give orders on the council for the payment 

We hope that the friends to our cause in the county will con- 
tribute everything in their power to the comfortable subsistence of 
the soldiery in this respect ; it will be an act of great humanity, and 
render an essential service to the public. 

We are, Gentlemen, your most O"*^ servants. By order. 

Daniel, of St. Thos., Jennifer, P. 

The proceedings of the Committee then go on to 

In consequence of the preceding letter from the honorable the 
council of safety of this province, we have, agreeably to their re- 
quest, furnished them with what quantity of blankets and rugs the 
inhabitants of this district can with any convenience spare, and a 
price estimated on them by this committee as follows: 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

William Baird, i blanket... o 17 6 John Ingram, i blanket o 15 o 

John Parks, i rug o iz o Adam Grimer, 2 blankets i i& o 

Andrew Rench, i blanket. ..0126 Wm. Douglass, 1 blanket. . . o 10 o 

Simon Myer, " ... o 15 o Matthias Need, i blanket... o 12 o 

i^^Scharf's "History of Western Maryland," Vol, I., p. 134. 

Forwarding the Cause at Home. 


Philip Ryraeby, j coverlets. . 



Michael Ott, i blanket. . 

..0 50 

Geo. Fry, i blanket 



John Feagen, 

. . i'6 

Fclty Safety, i blanket 


« i( 


Jacob Lazear, " 



Jerentiah Wells, 

. . 10 

Joseph Birely, i coverlet... 



Joseph Rench, 


I blanket... 


Zach'h Spires, 

. . 10 

Richard Davis, " 


Matthias Nead, 

. . 10 

Thos. Prather, " 


Henry Startzraan, 

. . IiZ 

Ch'n Rhorer, 


George Swingly, 

. . 0160 

Leonard Shryock, " 


George Hoffman, 

. . 7' 6 

Robert Guthrie, r coverlet. . 



Jacob Brumbaugh, 

. . 21' 3 

Christian Miller, " 



Michael Miller, 

. .42 17 

Jacob Prunk, r blanket 


George Hartte, 

. . 18 

Jacob Rohrer, " 



John Roltrer, 

. .20 10 

Ellen Miller, 


Christ'r Burgard, 

. . 0120 

Chas. Swearingen, i blanket 


Jacob Good, i rug 


Ch'n Eversole, " 


John Rench, i blanket. . 

. . 0120 

r quilt 


John Stull, 


. . 14 

" " I coverlet. .. 



Received of Conrad Sheitz forty-four blankets for the use of this 
province, vv^hich were delivered him by the committee of Observa- 
tion of Elizabeth Town district. 

Received by me this I2th day of April, 1776. 

Geo. Stricker. 

While there were some of the inhabitants of Maryland 
who remained loyal to Great Britain, the majority of them, 
particularly among the Germans, were on the side of the 
patriots, and they were ever on the alert to detect any 
treasonable designs on the part of the Tories, and owing 
to their vigilance they were frequently able to frustrate 
well-laid plans which might have resulted seriously for the 
American cause. One of the most notable of these was 
that concocted by Dr. John Connolly, which was frustrated 
by some of the Germans of western Maryland. Connolly 
was a native of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, where he 
became a physician. After taking part in the French and 

264 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Indian War, he spent some time with various Indian tribes, 
accompanying them on long marches into unexplored terri- 
tory, and finally settled at Pittsburgh. When the Revolu- 
tionary War began he remained loyal to Great Britain. 
While at Pittsburgh he met Lord Dunmore, governor of 
Virginia, and when the latter was making strenuous efforts 
to help the royal cause he found an able ally in Connolly. 
A plan was formed by which Connolly, through his inti- 
macy with the Indians, was to incite them to a war upon 
the frontiers, and to raise an army in Canada and the 
western settlements. Dunmore sent Connolly to General 
Gage, who commanded at Boston, with the following 
proposals : 

Proposals for raising an Army to the Westward, and for effectually 

obstructing a Communication between the Southern and 

Northern Governments. 

As I have, by direction from his Excellency Lord Dunmore, pre- 
pared the Ohio Indians to act in concert with me against his 
Majesty's enemies in that quarter, and have also dispatched intelli- 
gence to the different officers of the militia on the frontiers of 
Augusta County, in Virginia, giving them Lord Dunmore's assur- 
ances that such of them as shall hereafter evince their loyalty to 
his Majesty by putting themselves under my command, when I 
shall appear among them with proper authority for that purpose, 
of a confirmation of titles to their lands, and the quantity of three 
hundred acres to all who should take up arms in the support of the 
constitution, when the present rebellion subsided, I will undertake 
to penetrate through Virginia, and join his Excellency Lord Dun- 
more at Alexandria early next spring, on the following conditions 
and authority: 

1st. That your Excellency will give me a commission to act as 
Major-commandant of such troops as I may raise and embody on 
the frontiers, with a power to command to the westward and 

Forwarding the Cause at Home. 265 

employ such serviceable French and English partisans as I can 
employ by pecuniary rewards or otherwise. 

2d. That your Excellency will give orders to Captain Lord on 
the Illinois to remove himself, with the garrison under his com- 
mand, from Fort Gage to Detroit, by the Aubache, bringing with 
him all the artillery, stores, &c., &c., to facilitate which under- 
taking he is to have authority to hire boats, horses, Frenchmen, 
Indians, &c., &c., to proceed with all possible expedition on that 
route, as the weather may occasionally permit, and to put himself 
under my command on his arrival at Detroit. 

3d. That the commissary at Detroit shall be empowered to 
furnish such provision as I may judge necessary for the good of the 
service, and that the commanding officer shall be instructed to give 
every possible assistance in encouraging the French and Indians of 
that settlement to join me. 

4th. That an officer of artillery be immediately sent with me to 
pursue such route as I may find most expedient to gain Detroit, 
with orders to have such pieces of light ordnance as may be thought 
requisite for the demolishing of Fort Dunmore and Fort Fincastle, 
if resistance should be made by the rebels in possession of those 

5th. That your Excellency will empower me to make such 
reasonable presents to the Indian chiefs and others as may urge 
them to act with vigor in the execution of my orders. 

6th. That your Excellency will send to Lord Dunmore such 
arms as may be spared, in order to equip such persons as may be 
willing to serve his Majesty at our junction, in the vicinity of 
Alexandria, &c., &c. If your Excellency judges it expedient for 
the good of the service to furnish me with the authority and other 
requisites I have mentioned, I shall embrace the earliest oppor- 
tunity of setting off for Canada, and shall immediately dispatch 
Lord Dunmore's armed schooner, which now awaits my com- 
mands, with an account of what your Excellency has done, and 
that I shall be ready, if practicable, to join your Lordship by the 
twentieth of April, at Alexandria, where the troops under my 

266 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

command may fortify themselves under the cover of the men of 
war on that station. 

If, on the contrary, your Excellency should not approve of what 
I propose, you will be good enough to immediately honor me with 
your dispatches to the Earl of Dunmore, that I may return as early 
as possible. 

General Gage approved the plan, and In October, 1775, 
Connolly again joined Dunmore, who In accordance with 
instructions from General Gage, gave him a commission as 
lieutenant-colonel commandant of the Queen's Royal 
Rangers, to be raised "In the back parts and Canada." 
On November 13th Connolly left Dunmore and started 
for Detroit. He was accompanied by Dr. John Smith and 
Allan Cameron. The former was a Scotchman who lived 
on Port Tobacco creek. In Charles county, Maryland. 
Connolly had Induced him to accept a commission as sur- 
geon In the proposed expedition. Cameron was also a 
Scotchman who had left home on account of a duel and 
had come to Virginia with the Intention of purchasing lands 
In that colony. He served for some time as deputy Indian 
agent In South Carolina, but having suffered much abuse 
there for his loyalty to the crown, and having gained some 
notoriety on account of a plan to Incite the Creek and 
Cherokee Indians to fall on the colonIsts,i*^ ^g readily 
engaged to join the party, being promised a commission as 

The party set out in a flat-bottomed boat. Intending to 
go up the Potomac and disembark near the home of Dr. 
Smith and from that point proceed on horseback. A 
storm drove them into the St. Mary's river and from that 
point they went forward on horseback. They had almost 

1*'^ Steincr, " Western Maryland in the Revolution," p. 40. 

Forwarding the Cause at Home. 267 

passed the frontier when, on November 19, they stopped at 
a tavern about five miles from Hagerstown. Here Con- 
nolly was recognized and as information concerning his 
plans had been received a day or two before through a 
letter written by Connolly to a friend in Pittsburgh, the 
party was placed under arrest. They were taken to Hagers- 
town and the next day were brought before the Committee 
of Observation who ordered them sent to the Committee 
of Safety. They were taken to Frederick where their bag- 
gage was thoroughly examined and incriminating papers 
were found, although Connolly's commission and other im- 
portant papers had been concealed in hollow pillion sticks 
and thus escaped detection and were later destroyed by 
Connolly's servant. Smith made his escape but was re- 
captured, and on the order of John Hancock, president of 
Congress, the three prisoners were sent to Philadelphia. 
Connolly, in a " Narrative of the Transactions, Imprison- 
ment and sufferings of John Connolly, an American Loyal- 
ist and Lieutenant-Colonel in His Majesty's Service,"^^^ 
has left an account of this expedition, while Smith tells of 
some of the incidents attending their capture.^^^ He says 
that when they were taken to Frederick two musicians, 
with drum and fife, marched ahead of them playing the 
rogue's march. On reaching Frederick they were taken 
before " a committee which consisted of a tailor, a leather 
breeches maker, a shoemaker, a gingerbread maker, a 
butcher, and two tavern keepers. The majority were Ger- 
mans and I was subjected to a very remarkable hearing, 
as follows : 

" One said ' You infernal rascal, how darsht you make 

1*8 Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. XII., pp. 
310, 407; Vol. XIII., pp. 61, i'S3, 2S1. 
"9 " A Tour through the U. S. of America," by J. D. F. Smyth. 

268 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

an exshkape from this honorable committee ? ' ' Der 
fluchter Dyvel,' cried another, ' how can you shtand so 
shtyff for king Shorsh akainst dis koontry. ' Sacrament,' 
yelled another, ' dis committee will let Shorsh know how to 
behave himself,' and the butcher exclaimed, ' I would kill 
all the English tieves, as soon as Ich would kill an ox or a 
cow.' " 

While there were a number of Tories among the citi- 
zens of Maryland there were very few to be found among 
the German settlers. These, as a rule, were ardent patriots, 
and there were few instances where Germans were arrested 
as Tories. There was, however, one notable exception. 

In 178 1 another plan was formed by the British and 
Tories for dividing the northern colonies from the southern. 
According to this scheme Cornwallis was to march inland 
from the Chesapeake and meet the bands of Tories which 
were to be raised and armed in the interior. In maturing 
their plans it was arranged that a disguised British officer 
was to meet a Tory at a point in Frederick county to put 
him in possession of all the plans of the conspirators. But 
it so happened that an American officer was at the appointed 
place and the Tory's papers fell into his hands, revealing 
the plot and the names of the conspirators. The latter 
were arrested. Among them were a number of Germans : 
Peter Sueman, Nicholas Andrews, John George Graves, 
Yost Flecker, Adam Graves, Henry Shett, and Casper 
Fritchie. On July 25 these seven were placed on trial be- 
fore a special court at Frederick, consisting of Alexander 
Contee Hanson, afterwards Chancellor of the State, Col. 
James Johnson and Upton Sheredine. The seven were 
found guilty of high treason In " enlisting men for the 
service of the king of Great Britain and administering an 
oath to them to bear true allegiance to the said king, and 

Forwarding the Cause at Home. 269 

to obey his officers when called upon," Judge Hanson 
then sentenced the men as follows i^^*' 

Peter Sueman, Nicholas Andrews, John George Graves, Yost 
Flecker, Adam Graves, Henry Shett, Casper Fritchie, attend. It 
has been suggested to the court that notwithstanding your guilt has 
been ascertained by an impartial jury, you consider the proceedings 
against you nothing more than solemn mockery, and have adopted 
a vain idea, propagated by the enemies of this country, that she 
dare not punish her unnatural subjects for engaging in the service 
of Great Britain. From the strange insensibility you have hereto- 
fore discovered, I was indeed led to conclude that you were under a 
delusion, which might prove fatal to your prospects of happiness 
hereafter. I think it is my duty, therefore, to explain to you your 
real situation. The crime you have been convicted of, upon the 
fullest and clearest testimony, is of such a nature that you cannot, 
ought not, to look for a pardon. Had it pleased heaven to permit 
the full execution of your unnatural designs, the miseries to be 
experienced by your devoted country would have been dreadful 
even in the contemplation. The ends of public justice, the dictates 
of policy, and the feelings of humanity all require that you should 
exhibit an awful example to your fellow-subjects, and the dignity 
of the State, with everything that can interest the heart of man, 
calls aloud for your punishment. If the consideration of approach- 
ing fate can inspire proper sentiments, you will pour forth your 
thanks to that watchful Providence which has arrested you at an 
early date of your guilt. And you will employ the short time you 
have to live in endeavoring, by a sincere penitence, to obtain pardon 
from the Almighty Being, who is to sit in judgment upon you, 
upon me, and all mankind. 

I must now perform the terrible task of denouncing the terrible 
punishment ordained for high treason. 

You, Peter Sueman, Nicholas Andrews, Yost Plecker, Adam 
Graves, Henry Shett, John George Graves, and Casper Fritchie, 

150 Scharf's " History of Western Maryland," Vol. I., p. 143. 

270 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and each of you, attend to your sentence. You shall be carried to 
the gaol of Fredericktown, and be hanged therein; you shall be cut 
down to the earth alive, and your entrails shall be taken out and 
burnt while you are yet alive, your heads shall be cut off, your 
body shall be divided into four parts, and your heads and quarters 
shall be placed where his excellency the Governor shall appoint. 
So Lord have mercy upon your poor souls. 

Four of these men were pardoned, the other three being 
executed in the court-house yard at Frederick. One of 
those executed was Casper Fritchie, the father of John 
Casper Fritchie, who was the husband of Barbara Fritchie, 
the heroine of Whittler's poem.^^^ 

With the close of the Revolutionary War the inhabitants 
of the western part of Maryland settled down to a peaceful 
life, turning all their energies to the development of the 
country. The population increased rapidly. Many of the 
Hessians who had come to fight the colonists took up land 
in that section and became their neighbors. Many emi- 
grants came to Maryland from Germany without first stop- 
ping in Pennsylvania, so that the additions to the popula- 
tion lost the distinctively Pennsylvania-German type, but 
the influence of the first settlers was never lost. 

Two hundred years have passed since the first Germans 
from Pennsylvania made their way through the trackless 
wilderness of Maryland: two hundred years which have 
seen that wilderness blossom into one of the fairest gardens 

151 Barbara Fritchie was a Pennsylvania-German. She was born in 
Lancaster, Pa., Decennber 3, 1766, the daughter of Nicholas and Catherine 
Hauer. Although it has been conclusively shown that there is no founda- 
tion in fact for the incident given in Whittier's poem, yet, like the equally 
mythical story of Betsy Ross and the flag, the tale will no doubt continue 
to find believers in its authenticity. 

Forwarding the Cause at Home. 


on earth. Through the trials and sufferings of those early 
pioneers the foundations were laid upon which has arisen 
an empire, than which no more enduring monument to their 
memory could be erected. Their descendants have con- 
tinued the work so well begun and have spread out and 
helped to conquer new fields and make them add to the 
wealth of the nation. To the south and west this stream 
of emigration made its way unceasingly. It would be im- 
possible to particularize, but there is no part of the country, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Gulf to the 
frozen borders on the north, where the descendants of 
those early German settlers of Maryland cannot be found. 
Many of them have set their mark high in the record of 
the world's progress: in science, in art, in mechanics, in 
whatever makes for the betterment of mankind, and in 
reaching high honors themselves have honored the memory 
of those brave men and women who, leaving behind them 
all the comforts of civilization, and taking their lives In 
their hands, carved out a home In the forests of the western 



Aaron, 239 

Abel, 221, 231 

Abercromby, 169 

Aberly, 227 

Able, 231 

Acre, 223 

Adams, 40, 175, 215, 216, 219, 257 

Adlura, 191 

Agnew, 180 

Aim, 222 

Albaugh, 188, 190 

Aldridge, 209, 219 

Alexander, 226, 239 

Alibock, 40 

Alinger, 223 

Allin, 175 

Allison, 210, 219 

Allsop, 217 

Alrichs, 123 

Alsop, 214 

Altimus, 238 

Ambrose, 180, 188, 190, 206 

Americk, 230 

Amersly, 229 

Ammersly, 239 

Anckle, 232 

Anderson, 210, 215, 257 

Andess, 218 

Andreas, 238 

Andrews, 238, 268, 269 

Angel, 228 

Angelberger, 99 

Anspach, 255 

Apfel, 93, 98 

Apple, 99, 139, 237 

Archley, 190 

Aringall, 137 

Armstrong, 46, 227, 233, 235, 236, 

Arnold, 227, 238 
Arran, 214 
Arrings, 226 
Arsheraft, 161 
Artis, 211 
Ashley, 236, 239 
Ashloff, 149 
Ashly, 226 
Askey, 210 
Askins, 123 
Atcheson, 212 
Atchison, 211 
Attley, 247 
Augusteen, 175 
Aulpaugh, 217 

Backdolt, 139 

Backer, 174, 227 

Bainbridge, 178, 191 

Baird, 188, 190, 206, 234, 262 

Baitson, 211 

Baker, 93, 105, 151, 182, 187, 190, 

192, 217, 222, 237 
Baldwin, 257 
Ball, 214 
Baltimore, Lord, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 

12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 42, 43, 

89, 90, 109, 121, 122, 123, 140, 

165, 166, 181 
Balzel, 230 
Banckauf, 93 
Bantz, 227, 239 
Bare, 191 

Index to Proper Names. 


Barkshire, 214 

Barnes, 208 

Barnet, 213, 223, 240 

Barnitt, 213 

Barnitz, 61, 103 

Barnt, 174 

Barrack, 214, 218 

Barratt, 209 

Barrett, 220, 221 

Barrick, 218 

Barringer, 218 

Barry, 222 

Bartgis, 87 

Bartoon, 61 

Barts, 239 

Bartz, 206 

Bassler, 104 

Bast, 232 

Bates, 227, 238 

Batolomey, 239 

Bauer, 233 

Baugh, 217 

Baum, 93 

Baumgartner, 221 

Baun, 134 

Bauswell, 227 

Bawart, 235 

Bayer, 216, 225, 230, 231 

Bayley, 187, 188, 190, 192 

Baylor, 227 

Bayman, 214 

Beaden, 209 

Beading, 219 

Beadles, 161 

Beale, 257 

Beall, 169, 171, 178, 187, 188, 189, 

190, 191, 192, 194, 208, 209, 210, 

213, 214, 257 
Beam, 226, 227 
Bear, 118, 216 
Beard, 214, 218, 235 
Bearse, 215 

Beatty, 178, 187, 188, 189, 190, 192, 

193, 194, 213, 258 
Beaven, 257 
Bechtel, 99 
Beckerson, 231 
Becketh, 217 
Beckett, 214 
Beckwith, 217 
Becraft, 192 
Beddock, 130 
Bedford, 245 
Beeding, 219, 220 
Beekman, 16 
Been, 220 
Beer, 93 
Beiker, 231 
Bell, 216 
Belsoover, 234 
Belt, 258 

Beltzhoover, 105, 235, 236 
Beltzhover, 227 
Bemhart, 222 
Bender, 227 
Bene, 98 

Benner, 227, 235, 236 
Bennett, 212, 217, 221, 227, 239 
Benning, 215 
Bent, 190 

Benter, 216, 233, 234, 237 
Bentley, 217 
Berener, 223 
Berg, 93 
Bergy, 41 
Berreck, 217 
Berringer, 223 
Berry, 221 
Beyer, 93 
Bigler, 233 
Billow, 215 
Bingamon, 41 
Binkler, 175 
Bird, 230 
Bircly, 263 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Birij, 134 

Bischoff, 93 

Bishop, 227, 234, 236 

Bissett, 220 

Bitting, 232 

Bitts, 4Q 

Bitzell, 206 

Blackburn, 162, 210 

Blair, 161, 162, 178, 180, 188, 190, 

Blankenstein, 25 
Blunston, 127, 129, 132, 137 
Bly, 105 
Boardy, 220 
Boe, 215 
Boehler, 232 
Boehrae, 104 
Boiler, 61 
Boltz, 93 
Bonagel, 215 
Bonner, 225 
Booth, 162, 190 
Borker, 211 
Bostion, 217 
Bouch, 235 
Boucher, 216 
Bough, 227 

Bouquet, 156, 157, 161, 170 
Boward, 233 
Bowen, 137, 213 
Bower, 174, 225, 227 
Bowerd, 227 
Bowersmith, 221 

Bowie, 180, 182, 187, 190, 192, 250 
Bowles, 188, 190 
Bowman, 42, 216, 217 
Bownas, 23 
Boyd, 46, 183, 184, 188, 189, 190, 

Boyer, 190, 213, 217, 225, 231, 238 
Bozman, 5, 6, 10, 13, 15, 90 
Braddock, 48, 81 146, 147, 148, 159, 

Bradford, 220 
Bradley, 180, 206 
Bradmore, 162 
Bradstreet, 161 
Braeter, 237 
Brain, 257 
Brandt, 25 
Branwood, 218 
Brashears, 209 
Brattle, 217 
Brawner, 180, 214 
Brease, 214 
Breecher, 233, 235 
Breeze, 214 
Brent, 188 
Brice, 207, 257 

Brieger, 226 

Briggs, 220 

Bright, 134 

Brinker, 154 

Brinsford, 216 

Briscoe, 192 

Brodbech, 227 

Brodhead, 250 

Bronner, 93 

Brook, 181 

Brooke, 182, 185, 187, 188, 189, 190, 
193, 194 

Brown, 57, 76, 180, 206, 215, 221, 
222, 226, 233 

Browner, 139 

Browning, 209 

Brubacher, 232 

Bruce, 188, 190, 193 

Brucher, 236 

Brugh, 223 

Brumbaugh, 106, 263 

Bruner, 188 

Brunner, 190, 217, 220 

Bruschel, 93 

Bryan, 209, 218 

Bryant, 214 

Buch, 233, 238 

Index to Proper Names. 


Buchanan, 218 

Bucher, 216 

Buck, 227 

Buckhannon, 218 

Buller, 213 

Bulsel, 225 

Bun, 41 

Burgard, 263 

Burgess, 187, 190, 191, 208, 209, 

Burk, 226, 233 
Burke, 238 
Burkett, 188, 190 
Burkhart, 117, 225 
Burn, 219 
Burney, 234, 235 
Burrawl, 218 
Burrol, 218 
Burton, 211, 214 
Busey, 213, 219 
Butchiere, 137 
Butlar, 250 

Butler, 159, 192, 193, 250 
Byard, 137 
Byer, 214, 238 
Byrn, 219 

Cadwallader, 251 

Cahill, 227, 239 

Calvert, 5, 6, 8, 9, 54, 213 

Gambler, 227, 233 

Cameron, 266 

Camler, 235 

Cammell, 218 

Campbell, 188, 190, 193, 215, 218, 

Campert, 105 
Campian, 223 
Cane, 219 
Caple, 237 
Cappele, 237 
Carey, 183 
Carlin, 211 

Carmack, 217 

Carmant, 217 

Cams, 219, 239 

Carpenter, 46, 161 

Carr, 257 

Carrick, 191, 221 

Carroll, 180, 212, 215, 219, 233 

Carter, 174, 209, 211 

CartHdge, 129, 130 

Carty, 213, 223 

Carvell, 137 

Cary, 191 

Casey, 222 

Cash, 214 

Casner, 227 

Cassll, 191 

Castle, 40 

Castner, 239 

Caufman, 227 

Cavenor, 212 

Cavernor, 212 

Cenedy, 215 

Chamberlin, 215 

Chambers, 131 

Champness, 227, 238 

Chance, 129, 130 

Chandler, 213 

Chapline, 100, 101, 171, 188, 189, 

190, 191, 194, 220 
Chapman, 220 
Chappell, 219 
Charles, 230, 237 
Charles I, 7 
Chase, 195 
Chattell, 211 
Chattle, 211 
Chillon, 219 
Chippendale, 81 
Chrisman, 42 
Christman, 225, 233 
Churchwell, 213 
Ciferd, 218 
Clagett, 105, 192, 212 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Clancy, 212 

Clark, 209 

Clary, 211 

Class, 221 

Clauson, 21 

Claymour, 155 

Clemens, 40, 161, 162 

Clements, 19, 214 

Clementson, 18, 19 

Clice, 218 

Clifton, 227, 233, 235, 237 

Cline, 222, 227, 229, 232 

Clinton, 188, 190, 192, 231, 242, 243 

Clisce, 214 

Clise, 218 

Cloine, 165 

Closs, 223 

Closson, 221 

Cobell, 137 

Coberts, 104 

Cock, 188, 190 

Cocquard, 155 

Coffeeroth, 220 

Cole, 226, 227, 232, 239 

Col ley, 222 

Collins, 211, 215, 222 

Colour, 230 

Colvin, 162 

Coraages, 18 

Combe, 152, 153 

Commegys, 16, 17 

Compton, 220 

Conn, 137, 174, 209 

Connan, 214 

Connoly, 240 

Connolly, 263, 264, 266, 267 

Connoway, 239 

Conrad, 216 

Conrod, 174 

Consella, 220 

Contrecoeur, 143 

Conrath, 105 

Cook, 211, 218 

Cooke, 211 

Coomore, 161 

Coon, 175 

Coonse, 221 

Cooper, 218 

Copple, 230 

Cornelison, 18 

Cornwallis, 175, 243, 244, 246, 268 

Corrick, 180 

Cortz, 221 

Courts, 250 

Cove, 221 

Coward, 57 

Cowley, 227 

Cox, 193 

Crab, 187 

Crabb, 171, 190, 192 

Crabbs, 206 

Crabs, 180 

Crafford, 219 

Crafft, 234 

Craft, 174, 237 

Crale, 222 

Cramer, 53, 225, 227, 231 

Cramphin, 182, 187, 188, 190, 192, 

Crapell, 216 
Craver, 174 
Crawl, 47 
Crawle, 188, 190 
Crawly, 211 
Creager, 193, 206, 217 
Creppell, 216 
Cresap, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 147, 

149, 153, 160, 171, 188, 190, 191, 

Cressap, 132 
Cressop, 129 
Criegh, 175 
Croft, 226, 227, 235 
Cromer, 227 
Cronies, 231 
Cronise, 227, 231 

Index to Proper Names. 


Crontor, 41 
Crook, 210 
Cropp, 234, 235 
Cross, 41 
Crothorn, 227 
Croumer, 230 
Crow, 209 
Grower, 227, 237 
Crowl, 46 
Crowie, 137, 192 
Crowler, 134 
Grummet, 225 
Cruse, 61 
Crush, 227 
Cruss, 100, 101 
Crusius, 104 
Culler, 99 
Culver, 209 
Cumber, 217 
Cunius, 238 
Cunningham, 221 
Cunnius, 238 
Curley, 227, 232 
Curran, 180, 206 
Currington, 211 
Curts, 221 
Cusson, 41 
Custgrove, 240 

Dagworthy, 150, 164, 169 

Dalton, 228 

Bankers, 22 

Danker-Schilders, 17 

Danroth, 238 

Danruth, 228 

Darby, 124 

Darnall, 178, 179, 190, 192 

Dartmouth, Lord, 62) 

Daugerty, 218 

Daugherty, 218 

Daunt, 130, 133 

David, 218 

Davidson, 258 

Davies, 211, 212 

Davis, 98, 105, 162, 185, 188, 189, 

190, 191, 192, 198, 211, 219, 222, 

Dawson, 148 
Dayley, 218 
Deakins, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 

192, 193, 194, 210 
Deale, 221 
Dean, 161, 221, 257 
Decamp, 218 
Decker, 238 
Decourcy, 250 
Deefhem, 175 
Deefherr, 175 
De Heister, 243 
De Hesse, 40 
Deitch, 238 
Delaitre, 139 
Delawter, 230 
Deneley, 215 
Denny, 258 
Dent, 250 
Detweiler, 40 
Dick, 218 
Dickerson, 209 
Dicks, 222 
Dickson, 178 
Dietz, 105 
Diffenderffer, 30, 61 
Digman, 223 
Dinwiddle, 143, 144, 151, 154, 163, 

Divers, 222 
Dixon, 140, 219 
Dobson, 257 
Dochterman, 232 
Doddridge, 68, 76, 78, 79 
Dodson, 215 
Dogherty, 211 
Dolton, 239 
Donack, 214 
Donovan, 257 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Dorn, 93 

Dorran, 190 

Dorsey, 171, 188, 190, 192, 258 

Dotts, 217 

Dougherty, 161, 162 

Doughland, 151 

Douglass, 262 

Doutweiler, 105 

Douville, 150 

Dowden, 178 

Downey, 218, 238 

Downing, 106, 211 

Drake, 212 

Draper, 210 

Dretch, 228 

Drislaam, 117 

Drome, 216 

Duall, 258 

Dubois, 40 

Dulany, 60, 63, 162, 180, 183 

Dullis, 214 

Dumas, 151 

Dumatt, 221 

Duncan, 216, 223, 232, 236 

Dunkin, 228 

Dunkle, 234, 235 

Dunmore, Lord, 264, 265, 266 

Dunwidie, 162 

Du Quesne, 142 

Dutterer, 216 

Duvall, 192 

Dwyre, 215 

Dych, 238 

Dye, 221 

Dyer, 227, 239 

Dyson, 115 

Earl, 161 
Eastburn, 191 
Ebenhard, 61 
Eberhart, 105 
Eckert, 105 
Eddis, 55, 60, 63 

Edelen, 183 
Edelin, 191, 211 
Edelman, 220 
Edgerly, 257 
Edington, 162 
Edison, 217 
Edmonston, 208 
Edwards, 46 
Eichelberger, 105 
Eggman, 231 
Eiginor, 221 
Eissell, 228 
Elder, 180, 207, 219 
Eley, 216 
Elliott, 228, 239 
Ellis, 191, 220 
Ellit, 220 

Ellradt, 93 

Ellsperger, 228 

Elsing, 228 

Elwood, 209 

Emerson, 130 

Emmet, 191 

Emerick, 229, 231 

Emrich, 220 

Engelle, 228 

England, 232 

Engle, 228, 231, 232 

English, 124, 222 

Engners, 41 

Enocks, 162 

Ensey, 228 

Entlen, 105 

Eove, 221 

Erskin, 123 

Estep, 208 

Estewin, 118 

Estup, 215 

Etnier, 228, 236 

Etter, 226, 237 

Ettleman, 215 

Ettsperger, 238 

Ettzinger, 238 

Index to Proper Names. 


Evans, 137, 211 
Evat, 137 
Everly, 230 
Eversole, 263 
Ewing, 257 
Eyssell, 238 

Faber, 103, 104 

Faires, 180, 206 

Fairfax, 154 

Falkner, 25 

Fangler, 174 

Fanner, 221 

Fanning, 212 

Fantz, 230 

Farber, 231 

Farmer, 258 

Farnslar, 215 

Faulkner, 25 

Faut, 98 

Fauth, 93 

Feagen, 263 

Feely, 222 

Feeter, 175 

Fendall, 20 

Fenly, 214 
Fennell, 228, 239 
Fentlinger, 40 
Ferdinand II, 28 
Ferguson, 220 
Fernandes, 250 
Ferrell, 209, 220 
Ferrins, 226, 231, 239 
Fettie, 230 
Fiche, 175 
Fiegley, 223 
Fife, 162 

Filler, 228, 233, 234, 235 
Finch, 221, 228 
Filter, 237 
Finley, 214, 238 
Fischer, 105 
Fish, 222 

Fishburn, 188, 190 
Fisher, 105, 188, 190, 214, 222, 228, 
231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 239 
Fister, 225, 230 
Fitzgerrald, 212 
Fitzjarrald, 209 
Fitzpatrick, 228, 239 
Flack, 174, 217, 222 
Fleck, 228 
Fleegert, 236 
Fleete, 8, 9 
Fleming, 228 
Flemming, 192 
Fletcher, 193, 214, 215 
Flick, 221, 234, 235 
Fliet, 237 
Filming, 237 
Flint, 192 
Flora, 161, 162 
Fockler, 115, 117 
Fogely, 223 
Fogle, 218, 233, 235 
Fogler, 233, 235 
Foird, 258 
Foliott, 232 
Folliott, 228 
Foot, 139 

Forbes, 156, 158, 168, 169, 170 
Ford, 151, 154, 162, 258 
Forney, 228, 2Z7 
Forsythe, 221 
Fortunee, 93 
Fosney, 174 
Foster, 217 
Fournier, 235 
Fowee, 234 
Fowler, 220 
Fox, 162, 218 
France, 221 
Franken, 232 
Frankenfeld, 100 
Franklin, Z3, 48, 81, 228 
Frankline, 219 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Frantz, 228, 238 

Fray, 134 

Frazer, 143 

Frazier, 149 

Free, 215 

Freeman, 209, 214, 215 

Freind, 215 

French, 126 

Fret, 40, 41 

Frey, 105, 226, 233, 234, 238 

Freynoiller, 237 

Friend, 192, 234, 235 

Frisk, 139 

Fritchie, 268, 269, 270 

From, 218 

Froman, 42 

Froshour, 230 

Frumantle, 222 

Fry, 40, 137, 143, 236, 263 

Fryback, 209 

Frye, 231 

Frymiller, 228, 237 

Fuhrman, 232 

Fulham, 228, 239 

Fullim, 232 

Fulsome, 219 

Funk, 102, 189, 190, 192, 194 

Furnier, 234 

Gable, 175 

Gage, 201, 264, 266 

Gaither, 193, 210, 211, 257 

Gale, 258 

Galissoniere, 142 

Gambare, 216 

Gambler, 227, 228, 236 

Gantner, 228, 231 

Garber, 40 

Gardenour, 102 

Gardner, 221 

Garnet, 258 

Garten, 209 

Gartner, 137 

Gartrell, 209, 210 

Gaskin, 212 

Gassaway, 257 

Gatrell, 209 

Gaul, 226, 239 

Gavan, 228 

Gavin, 236 

Geehan, 209 

Geerhert, 174 

Geiger, 93, 105 

Geist, 25 

Gentile, 219, 220 

Gentle, 219 

Gentner, 230 

George II, 96, 98 

George (King), 195 

Gerock, 102, 103, 232, 235 

Gerresheim, 104 

Getig, 228 

Getsoner, 139 

Getting, 237 

Geyer, 93 

Ghiselin, 214 

Gibson, 186, 212, 257 

Giddy, 215 

Gieser, 234 

Gilbert, 191 

Gill, 213 

Gillam, 219 

Gilmore, 213 

Gilmour, 213 

Gillum, 219 

Gisinger, 217 

Gist, 242, 244, 250 

Gittin, 233, 234 

Gitting, 235 

Gittings, 209 

Glaze, 219, 220 

Glory, 211 

Gnadig, 105 

Gobble, 215 

Goering, 104 

Goldsborough, 195 

Index to Proper Names. 


Goldsmith, 113 

Gole, 117 

Good, 115, 191, 192, 214, 263 

Goodwin, 211 

Gordon, 39, 130 

Gore, 237 

Gorman, 210 

Gorr, 237 

Gotz, 98 

Gould, 228, 257 

Grabill, 137 

Grable, 134 

Graeber, 104 

Graff, 61, 230 

Graffenried, 41 

Granget, 104 

Grant, 157, 222, 243, 246 

Grasmuck, 103 

Grass, 233, 235 

Grauff, 210 

Graves, 268, 269 

Gray, 258 

Graybell, 237 

Graybill, 161, 225 

Greathouse, 234, 235 

Greechbaum, 234, 235 

Green, 210, 211, 222 

Greene, 133 

Greenwood, 218 

Greilich, 105 

Grice, 228 

Griffith, 137, 182, 187, 188, 190, 

192, 193, 194, 210, 214 
Grimber, 191 
Grimer, 262 
Grimes, 52 
Grommet, 230 
Groop, 237 
Grose, 217 
Grosh, 160, 188, 190, 216, 228, 232, 

Gross, 25 
Groth, 183 

Grove, 220 
Grow ley, 238 
Gruber, 87, 88 
Grueber, 93 
Grunlin, 228 
Grupp, 228 
Guest, 132 
Guhan, 209 
Gump, 93, 98, 206 
Gunby, 257 
Guthrie, 263 
Guy, 98 

Haas, 188, 190 

Habach, 93 

Hack, 21 

Hacket, 235 

Hackett, 236 

Hafilfinger, 40 

Haflegh, 174 

Hagan, 219 

Hager, 54, 55, 105, 106, 185, 188, 

189, 190, 191, 223 
Hagon, 210 
Hahn, 232 
Hain, 230 
Haines, 223 
Hale, 214 

Halfpenny, 229, 239 
Hall, 131, 257 
Haller, 229, 238 
Halmon, 40 

Hamilton, 215, 231, 257, 258 
Hammer, 215, 231 
Hammersly, 229 
Hancock, 267 
Hanee, 209 
Haney, 180, 206 
Haninghouse, 229 
Hanniel, 162 
Hanson, 182, 183, 188, 189, 190, 

194, 197, 222, 257, 268, 269 
Harbaugh, 61, 94, 115 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Harbin, 220 

Harden, 209 

Hardenstein, 238 

Hardesty, 220 

Hardey, 222 

Harding, 209, 213 

Hardman, 218, 222, 239, 257 

Hargeroder, 237 

Harley, 229, 237 

Harling, 220 

Harman, 102 

Harmer, 18 

Harmony, 233, 235 

Harper, 211 

Harring, 232 

Harris, 212 

Harrison, 124, 214, 215 

Harriss, 212 

Harry, 105, 117, 174 

Hart, 125, 134, 222 

Hartenstein, 238 

Hartly, 174 

Hartman, 93, 229, 238 

Hartness, 233, 235 

Hartshorn, 257 

Hartle, 263 

Hartwick, 99 

Hartwig, 103 

Harwood, 192 

Haseligh, 229 

Haslet, 245 

Hasselback, 220 

Hast, 25 

Hatchcraft, 231 

Hatchey, 137 

Hatfield, 229, 235, 237 

Hauer, 270 

Hauseal, 99, 106 

Hauser, 105 

Hausraan, 229 

Haussegger, 225, 230, 232 

Havclay, 215 

Haver, 237 

Ha whacker, 225 
Hawk, 206, 216, 230 
Hawker, 100, 101 
Hawkins, 188, 190 
Hayes, 212 
Haymon, 209 
Hays, 162, 210, 213 
Hazel, 211 
Hazelip, 229 
Hazlewood, 229, 239 
Hazlip, 239 
Heart, 219 
Heater, 211 
Heathman, 212 
Heckentora, 216 
Hecket, 233 
Hedges, 217 
Heefner, 234, 237 
Heeter, 216 
Heifner, 229, 230, 235 
Heger, 55 

Heinzman, 172 

Hellen, 213 

Heller, 237 

Helm, 225 

Hemerick, 229 

Henckel, 93 

Henderson, 19, 215, 222 

Hendricks, 46, 132, 238 

Hendrickson, 18, 19, 217 

Hendrix, 134 

Henistone, 212 

Hennes, 213 

Hennighausen, 38, 44 

Henninghouse, 231 

Henop, 100 

Henricks, 137 

Henry, 219 

Hens, 61 

Heppelwhite, 81 

Herd, 211 

Herdic, 105 

Hergeroder, 237 

Index to Proper Names. 


Herman, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 

Heron, 226 

Herring, 229, 231 

Herriot, 191 

Herzer, 61 

Hesse, 213 

Heveron, 218 

Hewer, 229, 232 

Heyser, 105, 225, 233, 234, 236, 

260, 261 
Hicke, 209 
Hicks, 41, 155 
Higbee, 105 
Higdon, 219 
Hilderbrand, 231 
Hile, 229 

Hill, 213, 232, 239 
Hillery, 214 
Hillis, 48 
Hilton, 213 
Hindon, 212 
Hinds, 217 
Hinkel, 239 
Hinton, 212 
Hirsh, 222 
Hite, 41, 42 
Hiter, 192 
Hobbins, 220 
Hobbs, 188, 190, 192 
Hochshield, 226 
Hochersmith, 180, 205, 206 
Hockett, 229 
Hockey, 175 
Hoecke, 103 
Hoefflich, 232 
Hoeflich, 105, 120, 174 
Hoey, 211 
HofF, 98, 191, 193 
Hoffman, 98, 99, 139, 183, 188, 190, 

193, 237, 263 
Hog, 188, 190, 192 
Hogmire, 185, 188, 190, 192 
Hogshield, 231 

Holdup, 240 

Holland, 211 

Hollands, 211 

Holllday, 213 

Hollings, 214 

Hoi Ion, 209 

Hollyday, 218 

Holtz, 213 

Holtzman, 218 

Honig, 98 

Hood, 177, 178, 221 

Hoof, 93 

Hook, 226, 229, 237 

Hooke, 219 

Hoopinder, 137 

Hoover, 180, 229, 230, 233, 235 

Hopewell, 161 

Hopkins, 210, 239 

Horine, 215 

Hose, 226, 233, 234, 236 

Hoshied, 231 

Hoskins, 219 

Hoskinson, 209 

Hosier, 220 

Hossilton, 217 

Hosteter, 191 

Hottfield, 234 

Houcks, 222 

Houer, 117 

House, 210 

Houseman, 230, 232 

Housley, 219 

Hovermale, 102 

How, 222 

Howard, 188, 190, 192, 221, 257 

Howe, 241 

Hower, 191, 216 

Hoy, 211 

Hoyle, 234, 235, 237 

Hubley, 225 

Hudson, 174, 214 

Huffman, 216 

Hugan, 257 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Hugh, 178, 192 

Hughes, 105, 180, 185, 188, 190, 

212, 229 
Hughmore, 239 
Huldiman, 40 
Huling, 238 
Hull, 229 
Hulse, 217 
Hulsman, 216 
Humphreys, 188, 190 
Hungerford, 182 
Hunk, 187 
Hurdle, 209 
Hurley, 221 
Hurvey, 210 
Hutchcraft, 213, 226 
Hutchcrofft, 239 
Hutchingson, 211 
Hutchinson, 213 
Hutzel, 93 
Hutzel, 98 
Hyatt, 237 
Hynes, 152 
Hyt, 40, 41 

Iden, 221 
Irafeld, 230 
Immel, 137 
Inglish, 124 
Ingram, 192, 262 
Innes, 146, 147, 163, 164 
Innis, 118 
Irissler, 212 
Isingminger, 230 
Itnier, 234 

Jacob, 41, 215, 257 
Jacobs, 34, 40, 213, 257 
Jacobson, 18 
Jacques, 233 
Jacquet, 233, 234, 236 
Jacquett, 226 
James, 21, 23, 25, 257 

James I., 5 

Jeans, 219 

Jennifer, 262 

Jerbo, 211 

Jinkings, 210 

Johns, 189, 190, 191 

Johnson, 18, 40, 116, 139, 147, 162, 

175, 183, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 

193, 194, 195, 226, 232, 253, 255, 

Johnston, 213, 229, 238, 239 
Jones, 46, 134, 137, 178, 187, 192, 

213, 215, 216, 218, 219, 222, 226, 

239, 258 
Jordan, 213, 258 
Jordon, 222 
Jugerhorn, 188 
Juraonville, 143 
Jung, 105 

Kallenberger, 216 
Kapp, 105 
Karr, 105 
Kast, 117 
Kaufman, 227 
Kauffman, 239 
Kauth, 93 
Kautz, 238 
Kearnes, 232, 238 
Kearshner, 238 
Keath, 212 
Kebler, 236 
Keemer, 211 
Keener, 232 
Keephart, 227 
Keeports, 225, 232 
Keintz, 238 
Keiser, 229, 236 
Keith, 31, 126, 127 
Kelam, 214 
Kelcholumer, 191 
Kellar, 216 
Keller, 215 

Index to Proper Names. 


Kelly, 84, 180, 206, 214, 226 

Kcmmell, 237 

Kemmer, 175 

Kemp, 139, 188, 190, 192 

Ken d rick, 229, 238 

Kenly, 167, 175 

Kenneday, 213 

Kennedy, 180, 206 

Kenney, 152 

Kentz, 227 

Kephard, 240 

Keplinger, 229 

Kepphard, 231 

Kepplinger, 239 

Kercheval, 68 

Kern, 216 

Kernam, 175 

Kerney, 221 

Kerns, 226, 238 

Kerny, 220 

Kersey, 211 

Kershner, 173, 174, 227 

Kesszele, 98 

Kettle, 226, 229, 231 

Key, 190, 192, 198 

Keyer, 229 

Keyser, 226, 235, 238 

Kibler, 234, 235 

Kiding, 221 

Kieger, 219 

Kiltz, 258 

Kimberlin, 118 

Kimmell, 237 

King, 171, 215, 230 

Kingston, 219 

Kintz, 238 

Kirgery, 174 

Kirk, 213, 222 

Kisby, 211 

Kitely, 220 

Kleeman, 93 

Klein, 40, 105, 230, 231 

Kleinsmith, 105 

Klien, 233 

Kline, 227, 229, 235, 236 

Knapp, 25 

Knauff, 207 

Knave, 221 

Kneary, 237 

Knight, 41 

Knolton, 249 

Knowlar, 211 

Knyphausen, 251 

Koch, 118 

Kocherthal, 31 

Koefflich, 232 

Kolb, 40, 41 

Kolz, 98 

Koons, 227 

Koontz, 180 

Kortz, 233, 234 

Kotz, 225 

Kraft, 226, 238 

Kratz, 40 

Kreiger, 61 

Kremer, 106 

Kremewald, 117 

Kries, 232 

Kritzman, 98 

Krug, 99, 104 

Kruise, 229 

Kuhn, 206 

Kuhnes, 212 

Kuhns, 31 

Kuntz, 93, 229, 230, 231 

Kuntz, 98 

Kunz, 98 

Kurtz, 230 

Kiisters, 41 

Labadie, 21, 22 
Ladder, 226 
Lafflin, 84 
Lago, 227 
Lamar, 220, 257 
Landenberger, 225 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Landis, 123 
Lane, 40 
Lange, 25, 100 
Langhorne, 133 
Langley, 218 
Langton, 211 
Lanharn, 210 
Lansdale, 257 
Lantz, 227, 237 
Larantz, 227 
Larmore, 227 
La shy ear, 209 
Lathy, 9Z 
Laurence, 190 
Lawney, 227 
Lawnious, 137 
Lawnius, 134 
Lawrence, 188, 192 
Lay, 93, 98, 99 
Layzare, 209 
Lazenby, 208, 209 
Lazear, 263 
Leather, 231 
Lecky, 62 
Lecrose, 227 
Ledwitz, 245 
Lee, 84, 105 
Leedy, 175 
Leer, 162 
Legg, 209 
Lehnick, 93 
Lehny, 98 
Leider, 105 
Lein, 93 
Leiser, 235 
Leitch, 211, 212 
Leithauser, 237 
Leithusier, 227 
Leniger, 25 
Lentarage, 219 
Leonard, 207 
Lephart, 137 
Levely, 103 

Levering, 61 

Levy, 233 

Lewis, 209, 212, 219, 226, 233, 235, 

LibHart, 134 
Lickliter, 218 
Lieser, 233 
Lighter, 174 
Lightfoot, 210 
Lighthauser, 237 
Linch, 215 

Lindenberger, 103, 232 
Linder, 220, 221 
Lindley, 46 
Lindsey, 222 
Linebaugh, 207 
Lingenf elder, 115 
Link, 105, 217 
Linkenfelter, 232 
Linsey, 218 
Linthicum, 192 
Lintridge, 219 
Lisher, 41 
Litzinger, 238 
Loar, 220, 221 
Locher, 234, 235 
Lock, 216 

Locker, 219, 227, 236 
Lockhead, 162 
Lodgeade, 209 
Loe, 216 
Logan, 31, 32 
Lohra, 237 

Long, 180, 206, 212, 220 
Longley, 210 
Lora, 225 
Lorah, 37 
Lorantz, 227 
Loreman, 47 
Lorentz, 237, 238 
Louden, 214 
Loudoun, 169, 172 
Lougher, 47 

Index to Proper Names. 


Loure,, 232 

Louvois, 28 

Love, 211 

Lovelass, 219 

Loveless, 219 

Lovet, 210 

Low, 230 

Lowe, 137, 226 

Lower, 235 

Lowry, 211 

Lowther, 152, 214 

Lucas, 219, 220 

Luckas, 219, 220 

Luckett, 178, 188, 190, 192, 193 

Ludwick, 188, 190, 227, 231 

Lutz, 93 

Lydrick, 61 

Lye, 139 

Lynn, 152, 178 

McAlister, 257 
McAllen, 214 
McCallister, 190, 192 
McClaine, 215 
McClame, 215 
McClane, 215, 221 
McClary, 188, 190, 213 
McClellan, 161 
McColough, 227 
McCord, 162 
McCorgan, 233 
McCoy, 213 
McCracken, 215 
McCrery, 213 
McCullin, 174 
McCuIloch, 210 
McDavid, 210 
McDeed, 210 
McDonald, 213, 214, 218 
McDonall, 215 
McFarren, 192 
McGlury, 185 
McGrouch, 239 

McGuyer, 223 

Mclntire, 215 

McKay, 214 

McKenny, 221 

McKinsey, 236, 239 

McKinzie, 213 

McKoy, 214, 221, 239 

McLaughlin, 174 

McLean, 180, 206 

McLeod, 216 

McRae, 157 

McSherry, 185, 250, 252 

McTier, 215 

Macatee, 215 

Machenheimer, 238 

Mackabee, 211 

Mackall, 239 

Mackee, 211 

Mackey, 211 

Maclamary, 211 

Madcalf, 221 

Madden, 212 

Madding, 211 

Maddox, 219 

Magaw, 84, 252 

Magruder, 182, 187, 190, 192 

Mahoney, 210 

Mahony, 231, 239 

Malady, 239 

Malinia, 239 

Mallady, 232 

Malloon, 212 

Malone, 133 

Mamges, 258 

Mannan, 212 

Manipenny, 118 

Mantz, 216 

Marbury, 207, 257 

Marhay, 209 

Markel, 233 

Markham, 21 

Marie, 149 

Marolf, 232 


The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

Maroney, 213 

Marshall, 162, 213 

Martain, 219 

Martin, 106, 180, 215, 216, 219, 

222, 227 
Mason, 140, 213 
Masters, 162 
Mateus, 98 
Mathews, 19 
Mathias, 188, 190 
Mathiason, 18, 19 
Mathison, 162 
Mattheis, 93 
Matthew, 207 
Matthews, 118, 206, 222 
Mattril, 239 
Maunsel, 227 
Mausser, 93 
Maximilian, 28 
May, 174 
Mayer, 57 
Mayhew, 93 
Maynard, 214 
Means, 215 
Menix, 217 
Menneville, 142 
Menson, 174 
Merfey, 215 
Mernke, 41 
Meroney, 214 
Messersmith, 220 
Metts, 222 
Mettz, 234 
Metz, 235 
Metzger, 99 
Meyer, 18, 98, 104, 117 
Meyers, 15, 225 
Meyor, 17 
Michael, 226, 227, 233, 234, 235, 

236, 237 
Micheelson, 18 
Michel, 41 
Miely, 227 

Mifflin, 248 

Miley, 237 

Millberger, 237 

Millburger, 237 

Miller, 87, 104, 105, 137, 139, 174, 
190, 214, 215, 222, 227, 230, 231, 
232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 239, 263 

Mills, 216, 219 

Minshall, 46, 137 

Mior, 41 

Mire, 41 

Mitchell, 208, 257 

Mittag, 93, 230 

Mober, 215 

Mockbee, 211, 219 

Moeller, 99 

Money, 214, 215 

Mongaul, 227 

Mongoal, 233 

Montson, 18 

Moor, 221, 222 

Moore, 188, 190, 192, 212, 218, 238 

Moppes, 232 

Moran, 161, 257 

Morgan, 130, 233, 234 

Morgon, 223 

Morolf, 216 

Morris, 40, 218, 222 

Morrison, 180, 222 

Mortt, 218 

Mosen, 236 

Moser, 218, 231, 239, 

Mouer, 216 

Mourrer, 216 

Mouser, 218 

Mowen, 222 

Moxley, 219 

Muckleroy, 213 

Mueller, 93 

Muhlenberg, 51, 94, 95, 96, 99 

Mullican, 211 

Mullihan, 220 

Muraa, 238 

Index to Proper Names. 


Mumraa, 238, 239 
Mummard, 239 
Muramart, 227 
Mun, 257 
Munn, 223 
Munroe, 180 

Murdock, 183, 187-189, 190, 193 
Murphey, 221 

Murphy, 211, 212, 213, 239 
Murray, 162 
Muse, 250 
Musgrove, 209 
Mussler, 238 

Myer, 137, 214, 217, 237, 238, 262 
Myers, 52, 162, 217, 234, 235, 237, 

Nail, 216 

Nailor, 218 

Nalor, 218 

Narry, 174 

Nead, 61, 82, 102, 119, 128, 180, 

206, 263 
Neal, 223 
Neall, 213 

Need, 100, 101, 217, 262 
Neet, 217 
Neide, 117 
Nelson, 188, 190 
Nerving, 227 
Neswangher, 216 
Netsley, 216 
Neving, 239 
Nevitt, 227 
Newman, 222 
Newsanger, 216 
Ney, 105 
Nicholas, 162 
Nicholl, 211 
Nicholls, 155, 211 
Nichols, 209, 211, 213 
Nicholson, 210 
Nickols, 213 

Nighswanger, 41 
Night, 212 
Niverville, 150 
Nockey, 175 
Noise, 222 
Nolland, 212 
North (Lord), 185, 198 
Norther a ft, 191, 211 
Norris, 193, 212, 215 
Norwood, 190 
Nowland, 192, 210 
Nowles, 221 

Obalam, 214 

O'Bryan, 215 

O'Daniel, 210 

OflFutt, 187, 190, 192 

Ogle, 123, 128, 131, 136, 138, 139, 

192, 206 
O'Gullen, 162 
Oldman, 257 
Oliver, 220 
O'Neal, 187, 189, 190 
Op den Graef, 40 
O'Quin, 227, 239 
Orendorf, 188, 191 
Orendorff, 190 
Orm, 187 

Orme, 182, 190, 208, 209 
Orndorff, 115, 220 
Ort, 93 
Osburn, 219 
Osten, 105 
Oster, 105, 174 
Ott, 105, 263 
Otterbein, 100, 104 
Ovelnaan, 180 
Overfelt, 216 
Owen, 219 
Owsley, 219 
Oyster, 47 
Ozenburn, 219 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Paca, 195 

Pack, 162, 212 

Pain, 220 

Painter, 227 

Pannebacker, 87 

Pannebeekers, 40 

Pannell, 216 

Panthar, 235 

Parran, 258 

Park, 180, 206 

Parkinson, 217, 218 

Parks, 185, 186, 187, 262 

Parnell, 127, 129 

Parson, 218 

Pastorius, 31 

Patrick, 212, 220 

Paw, 191 

Pawling, 40 

Peak, 219 

Pearce, 214 

Peen, 209 

Peery, 137 

Pegman, 215 

Pelly, 211 

Penn, 29, 32, 121, 122, 123, 125, 

126, 127, 128, 140, 209 
Penny, 211 
Pennybacker, 87 
Penroad, 215 
Pepple, 215 
Percy (Lord), 242 
Perrin, 47 

Perry, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192 
Pfaut, 98 
Phlaviere, 137 
Phi Her, 137 
Philpot, 213, 219 
Pifer, 234 
Piffer, 235 
Piltz, 118 
Pindell, 258 
Pindle, 118 
Pinkely, 220 

Pinnall, 216 
Pirkinson, 217, 218 
Pitcairn, 196 
Pitcher, 221 
Pitt, 156 
Plecker, 268, 269 
Plummer, 192 
Poger, 40 
Pointer, 227, 236 
Poland, 220 
Polehouse, 231, 239 
Polhouse, 226 
Polk, 162 
Pollard, 213 
Pomp, 104 
Pontiac, 158, 176 
Pope, 239 
Porter, 237, 239 
Postlewaite, 155 
Pote, 223 
Powell, 221 

Prather, 150, 157, 188, 190, 263 
Pratt, 257 
Praul, 250 

Preston, 213, 218, 222 
Prey, 93 

Price, 178, 183, 188, 189, 190, 193, 
198, 207, 215, 249, 250, 257, 258 
Procter, 237 
Proctor, 227, 239 
Protzman, 105, 206, 207 
Pruett, 212 
Prunk, 263 
Purnal, 209 
Putnam, 242, 243, 248 

Queer, 234 
Quier, 237 
Quinlin, 228, 239 
Quir, 235 
Quynn, 213 

Ragan, 105 

Index to Proper Names. 


Rahauser, 104 

Raidy, 219 

Raishierc, 137 

Raleigh, 219 

Raley, 219 

Rambo, 40 

Randle, 220 

Ransbergen, 139 

Ranspergen, 139 

Rattermann, 156 

Rausch, 93 

Raver, 228, 236 

Rawlings, 191, 200, 251 

Rawlins, 173, 175, 254 

Ray, 209, 216 

Raybert, 228 

Raymer, 190 

Raynolds, 212 

Read, 212 

Realley, 217 

Reaver, 235 

Reeter, 174 

Reevenach, 233 

Reevenacht, 234 

Reever, 233 

Regalman, 228 

Regele, 238 

Regie, 238 

Rcgliman, 237 

Reich, 218 

Reichardt, 40 

Reincke, 61 

Reinhart, 238 

Reisner, 98, 133, 139 

Reitz, 233 

Remsburg, 190, 193 

Rench, 193, 222, 262, 263 

Renzand, 61 

Reusner, 93 

Reveley, 258 

Reynolds, 105, 208, 211, 220, 221 

Rhodes, 213, 214 

Rhorer, 263 

Rice, 215, 225 

Richards, 188, 190, 225, 228, 238 

Richardson, 216, 223 

Richmond, 207, 258 

Richter, 61 

Rick, 237 

Rickenbaugh, 222 

Ricketts, 211 

Ricknagle, 228 

Riddell, 65 

Ridenhour, 230, 239 

Ridenour, 175 

Rider, 227, 239 

Ridgely, 191, 192, 250 

Ridingour, 216 

Riely, 223, 228 

Rife, 40, 41 

Rigglcman, 234, 235 

Riggnagle, 232 

Riggs, 191 

Rigsbe, 131 

Riley, 211 

Rily, 210, 211 

Rine, 220 

Rinehart, 238 

Ringer, 192, 217, 218, 230 

Rismel, 223 

Rite, 214 

Ritmire, 227 

Ritter, 232 

Rittlemeyer, 228 

Rittlemyer, 238 

Roach, 226, 239 

Roads, 139 

Roberts, 40, 211 

Robertson, 215, 231, 233 

Robinson, 174, 180, 206, 213, 228, 

231, 232, 235 
Rob i son, 223 
Roche, 207 
Rochester, 105 
Rock, 103, 226 
Rodes, 212 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Roemer, 99 
Roessell, 93 
Rogers, 149 
Rohhbaugh, 237 
Rohrbach, 237 
Rohrback, 102 
Rohrer, 118, 263 
Roltrer, 263 
Rolwagen, 225 
Romer, 98 
Rommelsem, 237 
Romsburg, 188 
Ronenberger, 227 
Rorer, 175 
Rosen, 61 
Ross, 161, 211 
Roth, 235 
Rothe, 234 
Rough, 174 
Roullett, 102 
Rout, 161 
Roxburgh, 257 
Row, 180, 206 
Rowin, 218 
Rowlands, 239 
Rowlins, 217 
Rudisiel, 93 
Rudrieck, 216 
Ruetenik, 103 
Rumfell, 228 
Rumfield, 237 
Rummelson, 226 
Runkel, 100 
Ruppert, 228 
Russ, 218 
Rutlidge, 222 
Rutt, 40 
Ruttzn, 21 
Ryan, 209 
Ryley, 222 
Rymeby, 263 

Sachse, 27, 29 

Sadler, 25 

Safety, 263 

Saffle, 211 

Saftly, 221 

Sahm, 61 

Sailor, 234 

Salmon, 213 

Sam, 100, 101 

Sands, 221 

Sangar, 137 

Sanglaer, 134 

Sappor, 117 

Sarjeant, 219 

Saylor, 105, 236 

Schaaf, 61, 188, 190 

Schaefer, 93 

Schaeffer, 225, 232 

Schantz, 114 

Scharf, 9, 54, 62, 87, 102, 104, 154. 

167, 171, 179, 260 
Schaub, 93 
Schauffle, 93 
Scherer, 41 
Schesler, 232 
Schilders, 22 
Schippe, 25 
Schister, 105 

Schlatter, 51, 94, 95, 99, 115 
Schleitz, 118 

Schley, 56, 99, 114, 183, 188, 222 
Schmauk, 92, 103 
Schmidt, 61, 98 
Schmit, 40 

Schmucker, 104, 105 
Schnebly, 105 
SchoU, 40 
Schorcht, 232 
Schrawder, 225 
Schreier, 232 
Schreyer, 93 
Schriver, 188, 190, 193 
Schroder, 105 

Index to Proper Names. 


Schultz, 51, 52, 53, 61, 134, 167, 

Schiitz, 232 
Schwartz, 40 
Schweinhard, 98 
Schweinhardt, 93, 98 
Schwcrdtfeger, 99, 106 
Schwidzer, 236 
Schwob, 103 
Scobell, 134 

Scott, 183, 188, 190, 214 
Scybert, 210 
Seaburn, 221 
Sealon, 161 
Sealors, 228 
Sechs, 98 
Seglaer, 134, 137 
Segraan, 238 
Sehora, 214 
Seiss, 61 
Selas, 229 
Self, 220 
Sellers, 191, 218 
Sellraan, 257 
Sellers, 218 
Selwood, 229 
Sergant, 249 
Serjeant, 218 
Settlemeyer, 228 
Settlemirer, 232 
Shackler, 175 
Shade, 217 

Shaffer, 139, 229, 238 
Shambarriere, 137 
Shame, 217 
Shank, 213 
Shark, 228 
Sharpe, 112, 144, 145, 146, 147, 153, 

165, 168, 169, 170, 172 
Shatz, 231 
Shaw, 46, 206 
Sheaf er, 230, 231 
Sheales, 192 

Sheekels, 209 

Sheeler, 102 

Sheest, 233, 235 

Shehan, 213 

Sheitz, 263 

Shelby, 161, 170 

Shelman, 216 

Shenk, 217 

Sheppart, 211 

Sheredine, 188, 189, 190, 194, 268 

Shett, 268, 269 

Shields, 180, 206 

Shimor, 41 

Shirley, 147 

Shively, 228, 239 

Shiife, 238 

Shock, 174 

Shoemaker, 214, 226, 228, 231, 234, 

235, 239 
Sholly, 174 
Shopper, 230 
Short, 211 
Shotter, 230 
Shotts, 228 
Shotz, 231 
S hover, 206 
Showier, 40 
Shrantz, 230 
Shrawder, 236 
Shrayer, 228 
Shrayock, 228 
Shriber, 174 
Shriock, 237 
Shroop, 230 

Shryock, 83, 84, 105, 237, 263 
Shugart, 225, 237 
Shukels, 209 
Shuler, 240 
Shutz, 228 
Sides, 236 
Siegfried, 216 
Sigler, 40 
Sill, 215 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

silver, 218, 228 

Silvor, 213 

Simcock, 124 

Simmon, 218 

Simon, 218 

Sirams, 209 

Simpson, 193 

Sinn, 93, 98 

Sipherson, 18 

Six, 99 

Skaggs, 213 

Skiles, 221 

Skinner, 257 

Slagel, 215 

Slender, 231 

Slick, 218 

Slife, 228 

Slite, 228 

Slreiter, 228 

Sluys, 137 

Sluyter, 22, 23 

Sluyter-Vorstmann, 17 

Smadern, 239 

Small, 162 

Smallwood, 207, 242, 243, 244, 250, 
257, 262 

Smeltzer, 230 

Smith, 8, 40, 41, 115, 117, 121, 133, 
137, 139, 178, 180, 187, 188, 189, 
190, 191, 192, 194, 206, 211, 212, 
213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 222, 225, 
226, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 
235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 257, 258, 
266, 267 

Smitherd, 228 

Smithley, 236 

Smithly, 228, 229, 233, 234, 236, 

Smout, 46 

Smoute, 137 

Smyth, 267 

Snavely, 188, 190, 191 

Snebley, 185 

Snider, 174, 216, 229, 230, 231 

Snowdeigel, 217 

Snowdenge, 217 

Snowdens, 53 

Solamon, 210 

Soldner, 98 

Sollers, 110, 226, 238 

Sollom, 40 

Somervell, 258 

Spach, 98 

Sparks, 161 

Sparrow, 220 

Speak, 216 

Speake, 219 

Speck, 232, 237 

Spengel, 93 

Spires, 263 

Splise, 223 

Spottswood, 41 

Sprengle, 238 

Sprigg, 188, 189, 190, 212, 223 

Spright, 137 

Springer, 218 

Springle, 47 

Spunogle, 215 

Spycer, 210 

Spyker, 115, 210, 255 

St. Clair, 169, 170 

Stalion, 219 

Stallings, 219 

Stalter, 237 

Stanley, 216 

Stanly, 211 

Stanner, 137 

Stanton, 228, 239 

Stanty, 226 

Stantz, 134 

Startzman, 263 

Statler, 229, 234, 235 

Stauffer, 226, 238 

Steel, 53, 219 

Steiger, 61 

Stein, 232 

Index to Proper Names. 


Steincyfer, 105 

Steiner, 59, 91, 100, 195 

Stempel, 105 

Stephenson, 200 

Steret, 250 

Steuart, 212 

Stevens, 216 

Stewart, 158, 180, 186, 210, 221 

Stiener, 231 
Stiles, 239 
Stille, 18 
Stirling (Lord), 242, 243, 244, 245, 

Stockbridge, 164, 172 
Stoddert, 149, 151, 152 
Stoever, 93 
Stoferd, 41 
Stogdon, 220 
Stoll, 98 
Stolmeyer, 98 
Stone, 13, 90, 240, 250 
Stonebraker, 229, 236 
Stonebreaker, 233, 235 
Stoner, 40, 190, 216, 222, 229, 232 
Storam, 223 
Stouder, 230 
Stout, 240 
Stover, 106 
Stowford, 40 
Stoyle, 229 
Straam, 236 
Strayley, 236 
Strayly, 234 
Strecher, 115 
Streib, 233 
Strieker, 61, 188, 190, 192, 225, 238, 

Stricklaer, 137 
Strider, 232 
Stringfellow, 32 
Striser, 217 
Striter, 237 

Stroam, 233, 235 
Strome, 228 
Stuart, 174 
Studdlemeier, 230 
Studer, 228 
Stuffle, 216 

Stuli, 115, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 
190, 192, 193, 194, 217, 222, 263 
Stuyvesant, 15, 16, 20 
Sueman, 268, 269 
Sulivane, 220 
Sullivan, 243 
Sumraerfield, 127 
Summers, 212, 238 
Sutton, 212 

Swan, 185, 188, 190, 193 
Swartz, 225 
Swearengen, 188, 189 
Swearingen, 185, 190, 192, 263 
Swimley, 192 
Swingly, 263 
Switzer, 229, 234, 236 
Swope, 103, 104, 137 
Sybert, 175, 210 
Sydey, 174 
Syphers, 207 

Tabler, 230 

Taeter, 221 

Talbort, 219 

Talbot, 123, 219 

Tamlane, 219 

Tandre, 137 

Taney, 180 

Tannehill, 214 

Tanner, 46, 127, 134, 137 

Tasker, 53, 130 

Tawney, 229 

Taylor, 47, 210, 214, 229, 232, 236 

Teagard, 154, 155 

Teemer, 217 

Tennaly, 216 

Test, 213, 216 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Teuferbiss, 93 
Thatcher, 200 
Theid, 257 

Thomas, 139, 182, 183, 187, 188, 
189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 215, 244, 
Thompson, 155, 214, 219, 220, 221 
Thornbourgh, 221 
Threlkeld, 187, 190 
Tice, 191 

Tilghman, 64, 195 
Tille, 123 
Tiller, 234 
Tilly, 28 
Timblin, 229 
Timken, 239 
Tite, 229 
Tobing, 217 
Tombleson, 218 
Tomkins, 221 
Tomlin, 219 
Tomm, 233, 235 
Tongue, 214 
Toreson, 18 
Toughman, 215 

Trace, 215 

Tracy, 219 

Trail, 211 

Traill, 211 

Traut, 93, 232 

Trent, 143 

Tressel, 174 

Trout, 139, 210 

Troxal, 175 

Troxel, 222, 223 

Troxell, 180 

Trubb, 117 

Truck, 226 

Trucks, 217 

Trueman, 257 

Trux, 217, 233 

Tucker, 208, 209 

Tudderow, 230 

Tumbleson, 218 
Turenne, 28 
Turner, 211, 216 
Tyce, 174 
Tysher, 175 
Tyson, 40 

Unsult, 99 
Urinson, 18 
Utie, 20, 123 
Utley, 61 

Valentine, 180, 207 

Vandernorte, 18 

Van Lear, 105 

Van Meter, 42 

Van Swearengen, 188, 190 

Varglass, 137 

Vaudreuil, 150 

Vaughan, 161, 215, 239 

Veach, 178 

Veatch, 210, 219 

Veazy, 249 

Verdries, 98 

Verdriess, 93 

Vincent, 238 

Visinger, 231 

Vogler, 98 

Volks, 118 

Von Graffenried, 41 

Vorstman, 22 

Wachtel, 230, 231 

Wade, 220, 229, 232, 239 

Waggoner, 118, 218, 229, 237 

Wagner, 105, 232, 233, 234, 235 

Wagoner, 217, 229 

Waker, 212 

Waldon, 240 

Walker, 210, 220, 221, 223, 229, 257 

Wallace, 207, 212 

Wallack, 137 

Wallauer, 104 

Index to Proper Names. 


Wallis, 209, 222 

Waltenback, 221 

Walters, 219 

Walts, 216 

Waltz, 137 

Ward, 143, 215, 222, 243, 246 

Ware, 162, 242, 245, 250 

Warfield, 188, 190, 192, 258 

Warman, 212 

Warren, 188, 190, 198 

Wart, 215 

Washington, 54, 64, 143, 144, 151, 

154, 163, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 

251, 253 
Waters, 191, 192, 193, 209 
Watkins, 231, 257 
Watson, 152 
Wayne, 49 
Weakley, 219 

Weaver, 215, 229, 231, 234, 235, 237 
Weber, 40 
Weeguel, 240 
Weger, 238 
Weidman, 225 
Weier, 218 
Weinmer, 93 
Weirich, 220 
Weiser, 105, 225 
Weishaar, 16, 25 
Wcisong, 221 
Welch, 124 

Weller, 87, 180, 206, 232 
Wells, 76, 188, 190, 213, 221, 263 
Welsh, 221, 222 
Welshoffer, 134, 137 
Weltner, 98, 193, 225, 231, 236, 254 
Welty, 229, 238 
Wershler, 103 
Wesinger, 232 

West, 178, 192, 211, 219, 220, 222 
Westfall, 180 
Wetzel, 93, 98 
Weygand, 105 

Weyman, 105 

Wheelen, 213 

Wheeler, 18, 209, 213 

Wherfield, 139 

Whistler, 46 

Whitaker, 193 

White, 124, 209, 212, 215, 216, 218, 

220, 222, 239 
Whitesides, 105 
Whitman, 52 
Wicks, 222 
Wiesenthall, 103 
Wilcocks, 162 
Wilcoxen, 209 
Wildbahn, 99, 105 
Wilder, 160 
Wilhelm, 233, 235, 236 
Wilhelme, 229 
Wilhite, 230 
Wilkins, 132, 221 
Willhaut, 98 

Williams, 127, 147, 148, 162, 167, 
175, 185, 186, 188, 190, 192, 193, 
198, 200, 205, 210, 217, 219, 220, 

221, 229, 238, 257, 258 
Williard, 61 
Willsdaugh, 237 
Wilmott, 257 

Willson, 209 

Wilson, 188, 190, 210, 211 

Wilstock, 229, 237 

Wimer, 215 

Winchester, 188, 190, 193 

Windham, 219 

Windom, 212 

Windred, 139 

Windsor, 212 

Wink, 229, 232 

Wintz, 230 

Wirley, 175 

Wise, 139, 210, 233, 235 

Wisell, 139 

Wistar, 34 


The Pennsylvania-Gertnan Society. 

Witsinger, 229 

Woelpper, 225 

Wolf, 216, 220 

Wolford, 257 

Wolgamot, 174 

Wolgamott, 161, 162 

Woller, 218 

Wolly Bergy, 41 

Wolstenholme, 53 

Woltz, 105 

Wood, 188, 190, 193, 208, 209, 211 

Wooler, 218 

Woolford, 229, 239, 257 

Wooten, 182 

Wooton, 187, 188, 189, 190 

Wootton, 190 

Worley, 46, 134, 137 

Woulds, 258 

Wright, 46, 47, 129, 131, 132, 137, 

229, 250 
Wyonge, 220 

Yakely, 229 

Yates, 210 

Yaulet, 216 

Yeakly, 234 

Yockley, 235, 236 

Young, 40, 105, 106, 137, 167, 188, 

190, 206, 234, 235 
Younger, 218 

Zahn, 61 

Ziegler, 230 

Zimmerman, 52, 229, 230, 232 

Zorah, 104 


Allotment of land, 10 
Almanac, Hagerstown, 88 
Annapolis, Germans arriving at, 56 
Antietam church, 106 
Avalon, colony of, 6 

Bake-oven, 72 

Baker, Isaac, letter from, 151 

Baltimore laid out, 60 

Bayer, Captain Michael, 231 

Blankets contributed for the army, 

Blunston, Samuel, to issue licenses 
to settle, 127 ; letter from, regard- 
ing Thomas Cresap, 129; reward 
offered for his arrest, 137 

Border troubles, 123, 124 

Boston Port Bill, resolutions against 
passed in Frederick county, 182, 
183, 184 

Boundary controversy, 121 

Bouquet, Colonel Henry, 156, 157 

Braddock's campaign, 146 

Brethren church, 106 

Brewery established in Baltimore, 

Burgess, Captain Edward, 208 

Cabins, construction of, 67 

Campbell, Captain ^neas, 218 

Chance, Samuel, capture of, 129 
Charter of Maryland, 7 
Church, established, 91 
Church, First Lutheran in Mary- 
land, 92 
Clauson, Jacob, naturalized, 21 

Clementson, Andrew, naturalized, 

Clothing, 78 

Cold winter of 1740-1, 44 
Cold winter in Germany, 29 
Commegys, Cornelius, naturalized, 

16, 18 
Committee of correspondence for 

Frederick county, 188, 191 
Committee of Observation for Fred- 
erick county, 190 
Company rolls — 

Capt. Michael Bayer's company, 

Capt. Edward Burgess' company, 

Capt. .^neas Campbell's com- 
pany, 218 
Capt. Vallentine Creager's com- 
pany, 217 
Capt. Leonard Deakins' company, 

Capt. Henry Fister's company, 230 
Capt. Jacob Good's company, 214 
Capt. Philip Graybell's company, 

Capt. Henry Hardman's company, 

Capt. William Heyser's company, 

233, 234 
Capt. Geo. P. Keeport's company, 

Capt. Peter Maroney's company, 

Capt. John Reynold's company, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Company, Capt. Richard Smith's, 
Capt. Benjamin Spyker's com- 
pany, 210 
Lt.-Col. Ludwig Weltner's com- 
pany, 236 

Conditions of plantation, 13, 14 

Connolly's conspiracy, 263 

Conococheague settlement aban- 
doned, 153 

Conococheague, village of, 54 

Cooking utensils, 71 

Costumes, 78 

Creager, Captain Vallentlne, 217 

Creagerstown laid out, 53 

Cresap, Thomas, settles on the Sus- 
quehanna, 128; warrant issued 
for arrest of, 133 

Daunt, Knowles, killed, 130 
Deakins, Captain Leonard, 210 
Declaration of the Provincial Con- 
vention, 201, 203 
Delaware colony, deserters from, 15 
Dutch settlers on the Delaware, 20 

Education of the Germans, 108 
Elizabeth-town laid out, 54 
Emigration, German, causes of, 27 
Established church, 91 

First colonists, the, 12 

First German settlement in Mary- 
land, 51 

First German settler, 16 

First Lutheran church in Maryland, 

First visitor to Maryland, 8 

Fister, Captain Henry, 230 

Flax, preparation of, 85 

Flying Camp organized, 208 

Capt. Edward Burgess' company, 

Capt. ^neas Campbell's com- 
pany, 218 
Capt. Vallentine Creager's com- 

panj', 217 
Capt. Leonard Deakins' company, 

Capt. Jacob Good's company, 214 
Capt. Henry Hardman's company, 

Capt. Peter Mantz's company, 216 
Capt. Philip Maroney's company, 

Capt. John Reynold's company, 

Capt. Richard Smith's company, 

Capt. Benjamin Spyker's com- 
pany, 210 
Food, 74 

Forbes, General, campaign of, 156 
Foreigners allowed to take up land, 

Foreigners not desired, 12 
Foreigners, petition from, 19 
Fort Cumberland erected, 146, 164 
Fort Duquesne built, 143 ; expedi- 
tion against, 156, 158 
Fort Frederick erected, 153, 165; 

Revolutionary prisoners at, 175 
Fort Pitt erected, 158 
Fort Mount Pleasant erected, 163 
Fort Necessity, surrender of, 144 
Fort Washington, surrender of, 251 
Franklin's opinion of the Germans, 

Frederick county troops at Cam- 
bridge, 196, 200; two companies 
to be raised in, 197 

Frederick, German Reformed church 
in, 99 

Frederick, town laid out, 56; growth 
of, 59 

French, designs of, 142 

Index to Subjects. 


Furniture of the settlers, 70; manu- 
facture of, 81 

German colony in North Carolina, 

German emigrants in London, 30; 
lists of to be kept, 31; hardships 
endured on the voyage, 35 

German emigration, causes of, 27 

German Reformed church at Fred- 
erick, 99; at Baltimore, 103; at 
Hagerstown, 105 

German Regiment, organization of, 
224; roster of, 226; list of re- 
cruits in, 238 

German Regiment — 

Capt. Michael Bayer's company, 

Capt. Henry Fister's company, 230 
Capt. Philip Graybell's company, 

Capt. Wm. Heyser's company, 

233, 234 
Capt. Geo. P. Keeport's company, 

Lt.-Col. Weltner's company, 236 

German settlement, first, in Mary- 
land, 51 

German settlers in Maryland, 25, 
39, 50 

Germans arriving at Annapolis, 56; 
education of, 108 

Good, Captain Jacob, 214 

Graceham settled, 61 

Graybell, Captain Philip, 237 

Growth of the colony of Maryland, 

Hack, George, naturalized, 21 
Hager, Jonathan, arrives in Penn- 
sylvania, 54 
Hagerstown almanac, 88 
Hagerstown laid out, 54 

Hagerstown, Lutheran church at, 
105 ; German Reformed church 
at, 105 
Hardman, Captain Henry, 222 
Harmer, Gothofrid, naturalized, 18 
Haussegger, Col. Nicholas, 225 
Hendrickson, Bartholomew, natural- 
ized, 18 
Hendrickson, Hendrik, naturalized, 

Herman, Augustine, naturalized, 21 
Heyser, William, letter from, 260 
Heyser, Captain William, 233, 234 
Hite, Jost, starts movement south- 
ward, 41 
Home building, 67 

Illiteracy of the settlers, 109 
Indian massacres, 147, 148, 152 
Indians, expedition against, 161 
Indians, treatment of, 9 
Ireland, German emigrants sent to, 

Jacobson, Peter, naturalized, 18 
Johnson, Paul, naturalized, 18 
Jumonville, defeat of, 143 

Keeport, Captain Geo. P., 232 
Kershner, Captain John, 174 
Kocherthal's settlement, 31 

Labadist doctrine, 24 

Labadist settlement, 21 

Land, liberal offer of from Lord 
Baltimore, 43 

Landis, Samuel, complains of the 
Marylanders, 123 

Log cabins, building of, 69 

Long Island, battle of, 242 

Lutheran church, the first in Mary- 
land, 92 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Lutheran church at Hagerstown, 
105; at Middletown, 104; at 
Sharpsburg, 100 

Lutheran church at Monocacy, rules 
for the government of, 96 

McCIellan, Captain William, 161 
Magistrates of Frederick county, 

address of, 195 
Mantz, Captain Peter, 216 
Map of the colony made, 20 
Marie, Edmund, killed by Indians, 

Maroney, Captain Philip, 213 
Maryland, charter of, 7 
Maryland colony, growth of, 10, 37; 

population of, 38 
Maryland, German settlers in, 39 
Maryland officers, rank of, 252; ad- 
dress of, 255 
Maryland, the settlement of, 5, 8 
Maryland troops on Long Island, 

242; conduct of, 250 
Mason and Dixon's Line, 140 
Mathiason, Hendrick, naturalized, 

Meyer, Peter, naturalized, 18 
Micheelson, Clement, naturalized, 

Micheelson, Jacob, naturalized, 18 
Middletown, Lutheran church at, 

Ministers, difficulty in securing, 92 
Monocacy, church at, 93; Michael 
Schlatter visits, 94; H. M. Muhl- 
enberg visits, 95 
Monocacy road surveyed, 46 
Monocacy, settlement of, 51 
Monocacy, site of, 52 
Montson, Peter, naturalized, 18 
Muhlenberg, Henry M., visits Mon- 
ocacy, 95 

Naturalization of foreigners, 17, 18 
Newspapers, 87 

North Carolina, German colony in, 

Ohio Company, grant to, 142 

Palatinate, devastation of, 28 

Paper-making, 83 

Parnell, Edward, driven off by 

Pennsylvania authorities, 127 
" Peggy Stewart," destruction of, 

Petition of settlers near Falckner's 

Swamp, 39 
Petition from some settlers in Lan- 
caster county, 134 
Pon-hoss, 75 
Pontiac's war, 158 
Presque Isle, fort erected at, 142 
Proclamation of Lord Baltimore 

offering land to settlers, 43 
Provincial convention, declaration 

of, 201, 203 
Provincial convention, Frederick 

county delegates to, 189, 194 

Rank of the Maryland officers, 252 
Redemptioners, 117 
Religious toleration in Maryland, 89 
Reynolds, Captain John, 220 
Road to Fort Cumberland surveyed, 

Rocky Hill church, 104 
Rogers, Benjamin, killed by Indians, 

Roll of 

Capt. Michael Bayer's company 
in the German regiment, 231 

Capt. Edward Burgess' company 
in the Flying Camp, 208 

Capt. ^neas Campbell's com- 
pany in the Flying Camp, 218 

Index to Subjects. 


Roll, Capt. Vallentine Creager's 
company in the Flying Camp, 217 
Capt. Leonard Deakins' company 

in the Flying Camp, 210 
Capt. Henry Fister's company in 

the German regiment, 230 
Capt. Jacob Good's company in 

the Flying Camp, 214 
Capt. Philip Graybell's company 

in the German regiment, 237 
Capt. Henry Hardman's company 

in the Flying Camp, 222 
Capt. William Heyser's company 

in the German regiment, 233, 

Capt. Geo. P. Keeport's company 

in the German regiment, 232 
Capt. John Kershner's company, 

Capt. William McClellan's com- 
pany, 161 
Capt. Peter Mantz's company in 

the Flying Camp, 216 
Capt. Philip Maroney's company 

in the Flying Camp, 213 
Capt. John Reynold's company in 

the Flying Camp, 220 
Capt. Richard Smith's company 

in the Flying Camp, 212 
Capt. Benjamin Spyker's company 

in the Flying Camp, 210 
Lt.-Col. Weltner's company in the 

German regiment, 236 
Royal American regiment, 156 
Ruttzn, Garrett, naturalized, 21 

Schlatter, Michael, visits Monocacy, 

Schley, Thomas, schoolmaster, 114 
Schoolmaster, 109; German, 113 
Schools, establishment of, 109, 110, 

Sharpsburg, Lutheran church at, 100 

Sharpsburg settled, 61 
Shrawder, Capt. Philip, 236 
Sipherson, Marcus, naturalized, 18 
Slavery among the Germans, 118 
Smallwood, Col. Wm., account of 

the battle of Long Island, 244 
Smith, Capt. John, visits the country, 

Smith, Capt. Richard, 212 
Soap-making, 82 

Springettsbury Manor surveyed, 127 
Spring-house, 73 
Spyker, Benjamin, Jr., schoolmaster, 

115; Capt. Benjamin, 210 
Stamp Act passed, 177; opposition 

to, 178 
Stille, Axell, naturalized, 118 
Stoves, 72 

Straw-board, manufacture of, 83 
Summerfield, Jerry, driven oflf by 

the Pennsylvania authorities, 127 
Susquehanna, lands west of, 125 
Swedish colonists on the Delaware 

ordered to submit to the authority 

of Maryland, 123 

Tanner, Michael, driven off by the 

Pennsylvania authorities, 127 
Tanning, 82 
Tea, destruction of at Hagerstown, 

Thirty Years War, 28 
Tobacco, culture of, 11, Z7 
Toreson, Andrew, naturalized, 18 
Tories, execution of, 268 
Trade, German boys taught a, 80 

Urinson, Cornelius, naturalized, 18; 
John, naturalized, 18 

Utie, Col. Nathaniel, visits the Del- 
aware colony, 123 

Vandernorte, Michaell, naturalized, 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Wagon-making, 81 

War, Thirty-Years', 28; of the 

Spanish succession, 29 
Ward, Ensign, surrender of, 143 
Wheeler, John, naturalized, 18 
Williams, John, killed by Indians, 

Williams, Paul, driven off by the 

Pennsylvania authorities, 177 

Wister, Casper, letter of, 34 
Wolgamott, Capt. John, 162 
Women, part taken by, 66 
Wright, John, letter from concern- 
ing Thomas Cresap, 129; letter 
from describing an invasion, 131 ; 
reward offered for the arrest of, 


(Form L-9) 

) 198 01934 6860 



Cuni>ille, Pi 
Ocl ■ Oc 1995