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Full text of "The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography"

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,MVi;wNm<>i'\>\ic.i{,j.^,. 




CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXIV. 



FAOI 

Proceedings of the Historical Society of Pennsylyania on the 

Death of Charles Janeway Stills, LL.D., President of the 

Society. (Portrait,) i-xxviii 

''The American Society held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful 

Knowledge." By Mrs, W, Lane Verlendm .... 1 
"Old Mother Cumherland." By George 0, Seilhamer 17 

Friends' Burial-Ground, Burlington, New Jersey. By Rowland «/. 

Button, {niustrated,) 48, 149 

Pennsylvania and the English Government, 1699-1704. By Her- 
man V, Ames 61 

William Haige. By Mies White, Jr 81 

A Register of Marriages and Deaths, 1802 .... 101, 207 
Ship Registers for the Port of Philadelphia, 1726-1775. {Oon- 

Hnued,) 108, 212, 348, 500 

Notes and Queries 116, 230, 367, 520 

The Mother of Lincoln. By Howard M, Jenkins .129 

Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes of St. David's Church, Radnor, 

Pennsylvania, 1733-1736. By Benjamin F. Owen . 139 

The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates hy the Provincial 

Assembly. (Continued.) 165, 308, 479 

An Old Pennsylvania Royal Coat-of-Arms. By Thomas Allen 

Olenn 178 

^The Names of the Early Settlers of Darby Township, Chester 

County, Pennsylvania. By Morgan Bunting, (Map,) . .182 
^List of Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia, 1791-1792. By 

Luther R, Kelker 187, 884 

The two Rival Autobiographies of Franklin. By Richard Meade 

Bache 195 

An Itinerary to Niagara Falls in 1809 200 

Some of the Descendants of Evan Robert Lewis of Fron G6ch, 

Wales 208 

Record of the Descendants of James and Phebe Gillingham . 224 

Book Notices 252, 895, 527 

Life of j^Iargaret Shippen, wife of Benedict Arnold. By Leuns 

Burd Walker. (FortraU.) (QmHnued,) . 257, 401 

Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. By D, McN, Stauffer. 

(F&rtrait,) 267, 480 

(iii) 



iv Contents of Volume JlJlIV. 

A Letter of the Mother of Washington. (Fac-simiie.) . 290 

Colonel Elias Boudinot's Notes of two Conferences held by the 
American and British Commissioners to Settle a General 
Cartel for the Exchange of Pri^ners of War, 1778 . .291 
^.JThe First German Newspaper Published in America. (Fae-nmUe.) 806 
A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History. By Charles P. Keith . . 820 
DuCoudray's ''Observations on the Forts int^ded for the Defense 

of the two Passages of the Eiver Delaware," July, 1777 . 848 
Colonel Elias Boudinot in New York City, February, 1778. By 

JBielen Jordan 458 

Letters of Rev. Richard Locke and Rev. George Craig, Missionaries 
in Pennsylvania of the ''Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," London, 1747-1762. By Benjamin F. Owen 467 
^JLietter of Instructions of James Logan to James Steel on Proprie- 
tary AfBurs, 1727 495 

Minutes of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1900 529 
Officers of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania . . 581 
Extracts from the Report of the Treasurer to the Council, Decem- 
ber 81, 1900 584 

Annual Statement of the Trustees of the Gilpin Library of the 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1900 .... 586 
Index 587 



2 The American Society held at Philadelphia. 

''Charles Thomson, Edmund Physick, Isaac Paschal, John Morgan, 
Samuel Powel, Joseph Paschal, Owen Biddle, Clement Biddle, W" 
Betde, Isaac Bartram, Moses Bartram, John Dickinson, Cadwalader 
Eyans, Nicholas Wain, Benjamin Davis, John Lukens, Thomas Mifflin, 
David Evans, James Pearson. 

* * Corresponding Members, 
** David Rittenhouse, W" Henry, of Lancaster, W" Johnson, of Caro- 
lina, Sam* Bard, of New York. 

" On perusal of this paper, signifying the Desire of those 
Gentlemen of uniting our common Design for the more 
effectually promoting useful Knowledge — ^it was resolved, 

''That they be introduced among us by Election ; and on this Occa- 
sion to dJBpense with that Part of Bule made at the last meeting for 
members, which requires their being proposed at a previous meeting, 
and the List of their Names being read to the Society, it was agreed to 
proceed immediately to ballot for them, and they were accordingly chosen 
agreeably to said List. 

"N.B. Mr. Dickinson, Mr. Lukens, Charles Thomson 
and Dr. Evans, having been formerly chosen in this Society 
are left at Liberty to come in on this, or their former Elec- 
tion ; and Mr. Eittenhouse being only an honorary member 
in the above List and being a regular member of this 
Society, and having by Letter signified his Desire of joining 
it, any Election of Him, was thought unnecessary." 

Minutes of Febrmry 9, 1768. 
" Messrs Bond and Smith, reported that ' the Gentlemen 
of the American Society' had requested a copy of the min- 
utes, and had rec'd it with the following letter, viz. 

''Oent, — According to our Promise we send you the Minutes, tho' we 
believe our Authority was only to read it to you, but not to copy it, be- 
cause it was drawn up in Haste, and is not revised by any Order of the 
Society. However we give it, in Trust that will not think it proper to 
enter on your Books, till it is entered on ours ; for that might occasion 
Difficulty in making any alteration, should any be judged expedient by 
you and us. 

** We have only to add, that everything respecting you was conducted 
with the greatest marks of R^ard ; and that the same good Disposition 



4 The American Society held at Philadelphia, 

ciety concerning the plan of Union ; D' Smith and D' Ship- 
pen jun' were appointed to accompany the said members to 
lay before them the Proposed addition and alterations, who 
being returned, informed this Society that the same were 
cheerftilly agreed to by the other Society. Then ordered 
that the Report & Articles as now amended, be entered on 
the minutes as finally settled, as follows, viz. 

**The Committee appointed at last meeting of this Society to confer 
with the Committee of the American Society held at Philad* for pro- 
moting useful Knowledge do report that they had twice met the said 
Committee in order to prepare the way for uniting both Societies agree- 
able to the Instructions given them 

"That the first meeting was at Mr. Bryne's on Tuesday Evening, No- 
vember the 6"" ; and the whole Terms as then settled are as follows, viz. 

''Whereas two Societies subsist in this City, whose Views and Ends 
are the same, viz. The Advancement of useful Knowledge ; and it being 
judged that their Union would be of public Advantage ; it was agreed 
that such Union should take place, on Terms of perfect Equality ; & for 
that Purpose it was therefore reasonable — 

**That a new Name, made out of the former Names of both should be 
fixed for the United Society, and the following Name was accordingly 
agreed to, viz. 

"The American Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for pro- 
moting Useful Knowledge. 

** 2. That besides the members which stand proposed, no new Mem- 
bers be proposed or elected by either Society till this Treaty is finished. 

" 3. That the first meeting of the united Society be at the College on 
Monday the 2* of January next, at 6 o' Clock in the Evening. 

"4. That there shall be one Patron, one President, one Treasurer, 
four Secretaries & three Curators ; & that all the said Officers be 
chosen by Ballot, at the first meeting, viz. the said 2'* Day of January ; 
(excepting only that instead of electing a Patron, a Committee of the 
united Society be appointed at said meeting to wait on the Governor of 
the Province & to request him to be Patron) which Officers shall con- 
tinue in their Respective Offices till the first meeting of the United So- 
ciety which shall be in January 1770 ; when & at every first meeting 
of January which shall be in every Year there shall be a new Election of 
Officers, 

**5. That afler the Union a Committee be appointed to form a new 
Sett of Laws, taking in what may be thought proper out of the former 
Laws of both Societies. 

**6. That each Society, before the first of January pay off* their Re- 



The American Society held at PMladdphia. 5 

spective Debts and the Treasurers of the former Societies shall account 
& settle with the New Treasurer to be chosen <& pay him the Balances 
in their Hands. 

** 7. That the Books & all the Curiosities &c of the former Societies be 
deposited in the Cabinet or elsewhere as the United Society shall direct. 

** 8. That in the joint Publication which it may be thought proper to 
make of the Transactions of the former Societies, no preference shall be 
given to the Papers of either, but they shall be arranged & digested 
according to their Subjects & Dates. 

*' 9. That there shall be a New Book of the future Transactions of the 
United Society, beginning with the following Preface, or Declaration, viz. 

** Whereas [a repetition of the above] 

"This Book therefore is to contain only the Transactions of the 
United Society under the Name aforesaid. What further relates to the 
Terms of union, as, well as the former Transactions of each Society, being 
antecedent to the Commencement of this Book, may be found in the old 
Books deposited in the Cabinet." 

The united Societies met in January of 1769, upwards of 
eighty members being present. 

The " Rules and Statutes," together with " The Obligar 
tion," and a list of the " Fellows and Corresponding Mem- 
bers of the American Society," with fiic-similies of their 
autographs are taken from the original Minute Book at 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

[Tide page.] 
RULES AND STATUTES 

OF 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY 

HELD AT 

PHILADELPHIA 

FOR 

PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 

TOGETHER WITH 

A LIST OF THE FELLOWS AND CORRESPONDING 
MEMBERS. 



The American Society held at Philadelphia. 
RULES 

OF 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 
FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



1. This Society shall consist of a President, Fellows k 
corresponding Members. When any person is proposed for 
a fellow or corresponding member, his name shall be written 
on a card and hung up in the room, and his election shall 
be on the second evening after he is proposed. 

2. The Election of Fellows and corresponding members 
shall be by ballot. A majority of the members present 
shall be necessary for the election of a corresponding mem- 
ber, but the consent of four fifths of the company met shall 
be required to elect a fellow. 

8. Every fellow after he is elected shall subscribe the fol- 
lowing Obligation upon his being admitted into the Society 
or his election shall be void. 

We who have hereunto subscribed do promise each for himself to pro- 
mote the good of the American Society held at Philadelphia for promot- 
ing useful knowledge, and to pursue the ends, for which the same was 
£>unded ; we will be present at the meetings of the Society as oft as con- 
veniently we can and will observe the Statutes and Orders of the said 
Society, provided that whenever any of us shall signify to the President 
under his hand that he desires to withdraw from the Society, he shall be 
free from this Obligation. 

4. Every fellow shall pay the sum of Te)i shillings as ad- 
mission money and afterwards every year the sum of Ten 
Shillings as a contribution for defraying the charges of Ob- 
servations experiments &c of the Society. 



The American Socieiy held at Philadelphia,^ 7 

6. The ordinary Meetings of the Society shall be once a 
week, namely on friday evening, from the 22** of September 
to the 22** of march at 6 oclock, and from the 22"* of march 
to the 22"* of September at 7 oclock. Business to begin at 
half an hour after the time of meeting and not to be con- 
tinued aft;er 11 oclock. 

6. The Business of the weekly meetings shall be to order, 
take account, consider and discourse of philosophical experi- 
ments and observations ; to read, hear and discourse upon 
letters and reports, and other papers containing philosophical 
matters, as for instance the productions and varieties of 
nature and Art, all new discovered plants, herbs, trees, roots 
Ac, their natures, virtues, uses &c methods of propagating 
them and making such as are useful but peculiar to some 
plantations and countries, more general ; Improvements of 
vegetable juices as cyders, wines &c new methods of curing 
or preventing Diseases ; all new discovered fossils in different 
countries, particularly in America, as Mines Minerals, quar- 
ries &c new and useftil Improvements in any branch of 
mathematics ; new discoveries in chymestry viz in distilla- 
tion, brewing assaying of Ores &c ; new mechanical inven- 
tions for saving of labour, as mills, carriages &c and for 
raising and carrying off water, draining meadows &c, all new 
arts, trades, manufactures &c that may be proposed or thought 
of, and all improvements in those already known ; the best 
methods of improving our lands, recovering soils that are 
worn out guarding our fruits, trees, and plants from worms 
and insects ; improving the breed of useful Animals ; intro- 
ducing others from foreign countries, the best methods of 
making and mending highways ; improving inland naviga- 
tion, the course and junction of Bivers, surveys, charts and 
maps of particular parts of the seacoasts or inland coun- 
tries ; situation of lakes, mountains &c ; nature of the soil, 
productions &c, and in short every thing relating to the pro- 
moting of arts and Sciences, improving of agriculture, form- 
ing, gardening, trade, commerce, and the general advance- 
ment of useful knowledge. Experiments when necessary 



8 The American Society held at Philadelphia. 

to be made at the charge and defrayed out of the common 
Stock of the Society. — 

7. The standing officers of the Society shall be a President 
Vtcepresideiity two Secretaries three curators of natural history 
(viz one for each kingdom) & a Treasurer, 

8. The President or in his Absence the vice president or 
in the absence of both such fellow as the Society shall nomi- 
nate for the time being, shall preside in all meetings, regu- 
late all debates of the Society, state and put all questions, 
call for reports and accounts from committees and others, 
summon all extraordinary meetings upon urgent occasions 
and see to the Execution of the statutes and orders of the 
Society. In case the President or vicepresident during the 
term of his or their Office shall die, recede or be removed, 
then and so often it shall be lawftil for the Society met 
together to choose one of their number for president or vice- 
president, who shall have and exercise the Office of Presi- 
dent or vicepresident for the remainder of the year. 

9. The Vicepresident shall keep a Statute book, wherein 
are to be fairly written all the laws, Statutes and constitu- 
tions made or to be made concerning the government and 
regulation of the Society ; also a hst of the fellows & cor- 
responding members of the Society. 

10. Of the Secretaries one shall be called the Secretary 
and the other the corresponding Secretary. The Secretary 
shall keep a Register book, and enter therein all such dis- 
coveries. Inventions, Observations and histories of natural 
and artificial things as may be ordered. The corresponding 
Secretary shall keep a Letter book and fairly copy therein 
all letters from the Society, and all such letters and extracts 
of Letters to the Society as may be ordered. 

11. The Treasurer shall receive and keep account of all 
the Money due to the Society and discharge all money pay- 
able by the Society. He shall pay small sums by order of 
the President or vicepresident under his hand, but those 
that exceed ten shillings by order of the Society. The Ac- 
counts of the Treasurer shall be audited t\vice a year by a 



Ilie American Society held at Philadelphia. 9 

committee of the Society and a State of them laid before 
the Society at their last meetings in October and April. 
The treasurer shall give bond and security for the faithful 
performance of his duty and the trust reposed in him. 

12. Every Fellow except the President, Vicepresident and 
Secretaries for the time being shall serve as Journalist^ four 
weeks in his turn according to the order of his name in 
the Society's books. The Business of the Journalist shall 
be briefly to enter in a book to be provided for that pur- 
pose, the transactions of each meeting with the titles of 
such papers and specimens &c as shall be laid before the 
Society. 

18. The Mection of standing Officers, which shall be by 
ballot, shall be held once a year, viz at the last meeting of 
the month of April to enter upon their Offices on the anni- 
versary of the Society. 

14. The first day of May provided it fall not on a Sun- 
day, in which case the preceding day shall be celebrated as 
the anniversary of the Society ; on which day the Society 
shall dine or sup together the better to preserve that friend- 
ship, which is proposed by the Members. 

15. The causes of removing any officer or ejecting any 
member shall be for negligence in the affairs of the Society, 
after receiving three respective admonitions, for fraudulent 
dealing for contemptuous disobedience to the laws and orders 
of the Society or for defaming or maliciously damaging the 
same. 

16. The names of Boiefactors shall be honourably men- 
tioned in a book to be provided for that purpose, which book 
shall be kept by the Curators and in it shall be partic- 
ularized the respective donations of the Benefactors. 

17. In case of death or the recess of any fellow, the vice- 
president shall note it in the margin of the List in the statute 
book over against his name. 

18. When any matter comes before the Society, the fel- 
lows who speak to it, shall deliver their sentiments in as 
plain and concise a manner as they can. One only shall 



10 The American Society held at PkUaddphiOm 

speak at a time and none shall address the chair without 
standing. 

19. A Correspondence shall be attempted and kept up 
with other Societies of the same nature in Europe and else- 
where. 

20. To render this Society more and more serviceable to 
the community and to encourage every man to excel in his 
respective profession, calling, trade or occupation, and to 
promote industry and labour and to advance the manual 
arts, part of the stock of the Society shall be appropriated 
to be given in rewards and premiums to such merchants, 
artisans manufecturers and others as shall make any capital 
Improvements in their several branches, and likewise to such 
as shall make any important discovery and advancement in 
the arts of agriculture or anything relating thereto (as farm- 
ing, grazing &c) in minerology, metalurgy &c as the Society 
shall think proper from time to time. 

21. When any useful discoveries are made either by new 
Inventions or by the improvement of the old, these shall be 
published by the Society in the plainest and most intelli^ble 
manner and pains taken to introduce them into common 
practice, that all may reap benefit from them. 

22. To every corresponding member a certificate shall be 
sent in form as follows. 

A. B. is duly admitted a corresponding member of the 
American Society held at Philadelphia for promoting usefiil 

knowledge. Dated . . . Day of a.d Signed 

by order of the Society CD. corresponding Secty. 

23. Any corresponding member being in Philadelphia 
shall have liberty to attend the stated meetings of the Society, 
and if at any time he chuse to sign the Obligation, pay admis- 
sion money and the yearly contribution he shall be deemed 
a fellow. 

24. No corresponding member, who is not a fellow, shall 
have any voice in electing members, enacting or repealing 
laws, for the government of the Society, or in the disposal 
of any money or eflfects of the Society. 



The American Society held at Philadelphia. 11 

Zl)c Obligation. 

We who have hereunto subscribed do promise each for 
himself to promote the good of the American Society held 
at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge and to pur- 
sue the ends for which the same was tbunded ; we will be 
present at the meetings of the Society as often as conven- 
iently we can, and will observe the Statutes and orders of the 
said Society, provided that whenever any shall signify to the 
President under his hand, that he desires to withdraw from 
the Society, he shall be free from this Obligation. 




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12 The American Society held at Philadelphia. 



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The American Society held at Philadelphia. 13 




14 The American Society held at Philadelphia. 











The American Society hdd at PMaddphia. 15 



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16 



The American Society held at PhUaddphia. 








«0/rf Mother Cumberland:' 17 



"OLD MOTHEE CUMBEELAND." 

BY GEORGE O. 8EILHAMER, ESQ. 

[A paper read before the Eittochtinny Historical Society, at Cham- 
beisbargy Pennsylvania.] 

In the march of civilization westward from the Delaware 
the Indian trader was always in the van. First among the 
Indian traders who penetrated the wilderness in advance of 
the pioneer were three Frenchmen, — ^Pierre Bizailon, Martin 
Chartier, and Jacques Le Tort. At the beginning of the 
eighteenth century these Frenchmen were objects of suspi- 
cion. They were harassed in their trade, being often fined 
for alleged irregularities in their importations, and some- 
times sent to jail on frivolous charges. But within a year 
or two of his arrival in the province they found a friend in 
James Logan. From the outset Logan saw how they might 
be made useftil to the Proprietary, and he used and rewarded 
them. All of them were granted plantations on the Sus- 
quehanna, — ^Bizailon among the Indians of Pcshtang, Char- 
tier at Turkey Hill, near the Conestoga reservation, and 
Le Tort in Donegal, above Shawneetown. The only one of 
these to establish a trading-post in the Cumberland Valley 
was Le Tort, who built a cabin at Beaver Pond, near Car- 
lisle, as early as 1720. 

As the first white man to obtain a foothold in the valley, 
Jacques Le Tort becomes an object of interest for all of us. 
Unfortunately, nobody ever took the trouble to write his 
biography, and such allusions as the colonial annals contain 
relating to his personal and domestic aflTairs tell us more of 
the traits and characteristics of his wife, Ann Le Tort, than 
of the busy trader upon whom Logan depended for his 
knowledge of the vast region west of the Susquehanna. 
Madame Le Tort was a woman of intrepid spirit, and some- 

VOL. XXIV. — 2 



18 "OW Mother CuniAerlandJ' 

thing of a shrew withal. She seems to have remained at 
home and kept house while Jacques traded with the Indians. 
At a very early period, while she still lived on the Schuyl- 
kill, she was accused of threatening the Province with the 
vengeance of the French and the Indians of the upper Dela- 
ware. She showed that the only foundation for the accusar 
tion was the vigor with which she used her broomhandle 
upon the accusers. After she removed to the Susquehanna 
the Indians in the neighborhood complained that she turned 
them out of her house, and that her hogs despoiled their 
com. She answered vigorously that her house was her 
own, and the grievance concerning the rooters was smoothed 
over by the oleaginous Logan. These Indians were Shaw- 
anese, and it was probably owing to the madam's temper 
that Le Tort's first cabin at Beaver Pond was destroyed by 
these treacherous nomads. How many years Le Tort re- 
mained on the spring that now bears his name it is impossi- 
ble to say, but we know that before the wave of emigration 
began to flow up the Cumberland Valley in any considerable 
volume he had abeady established his trading-post on the 
Allegheny. 

At the time that Le Tort had his cabin at Beaver Pond 
the Shawanese were very uneasy. They were alien Indians 
on the Susquehanna, and at no time were they on terms of 
perfect amity with the white settlers. They were Ishmael- 
ites among the native races, and never for long had a per- 
manent settlement anywhere. They came among the Sus- 
quehanna Indians as refugees from the South, but proved 
troublesome from the outset. Their young men joined the 
hostile bands from the Five Nations in their incursions into 
Vir^nia, and when rebuked for their conduct the whole 
nation manifested a spirit of discontent that finally made the 
Shawanese the most relentless enemies of the Province. 
They forsook their towns on the Susquehanna and emigrated 
to the Allegheny, inducing many of the Delawares to go 
with them. Fearing that they would become the catspaws 
of the French, as afterwards happened, the provincial authori- 



20 "OW Mother CumberlandJ' 

modate the Shawanese, and defend them from encroach- 
ments ; and they added that they had orders to dispossess 
all persons settled on that side of the river, "that those 
woods may remain free to ye Indians for planting and hunt- 
ing." Chartier was asked to convey this information to 
the Indians at " AUeghening." As the Indian title had not 
yet been extinguished west of the Susquehanna, this was a 
promise to the Shawanese of what belonged to the Five 
Nations, and the promise was so worded that the Indians 
were expected to believe that they were to have the whole 
of the Cumberland Valley, while in reality they were re- 
stricted to the narrow strip five or six miles back from the 
river. The Indians refused to return and none of the squat- 
ters was dispossessed, but the whole valley was openly 
treated as a reservation, while the settlers were secretly en- 
couraged to possess themselves of holdings along the Cono- 
doguinet and Conococheague from the Susquehanna to the 
Potomac. 

It may be inferred from the fact that intruders were to be 
expelled from the valley by the agents of the Proprietary in 
1731 that actual settlement had already begun. A few femi- 
lies claim that their ancestors crossed the Susquehanna as 
early as 1725, and in many cases the date is put not later 
than 1730. I put little faith in mere family tradition, as in 
the cases of the four Chambers brothers, but we have some 
written proofe that are worthy of acceptance. In 1727 
Tobias Hendricks, the younger, wrote from some point in 
the valley to John Harris, of Peshtang, enclosing a letter for 
his father, Tobias Hendricks, of Donegal, one of the three 
men who laid out Lowther Manor, in which he spoke of 
" the grate numbers coming this side of ye Sasquehanna." 
It is likely that at that time young Hendricks was in the 
Indian trade, for he also spoke of buying skins from a trader 
at the Potomac. His brother John had charge of the 
Springettsbury Manor, opposite Columbia, where he owned 
a plantation. Tobias was given charge of the Lowther 
Manor. He settled at Oyster Point, where he kept a tavern 



«0W Mother Cumberland." 21 

at a later period. His son William was captain of one of 
the two companies that went from the Cumberiand Valley 
in 1775 to assist in the leaguer of Boston, and he was the 
first officer from Pennsylvania to fall in the Revolution. 

The only documentary evidence of actual settlement in 
the valley prior to 1730 of which I have knowledge was in 
the case of Andrew Ralston, of Big Spring.^ Ralston ob- 
tained a qualified Blunston warrant for two hundred acres 
of land, January 14, 1737. In his application for the war- 
rant in 1736 he said it was for a tract on which he had lived 
" for ye past eight years." This would make the year of his 
settlement 1728. The Ralston warrant contained a phrase 
that disturbs the tradition in regard to the four Chambers 
brothers. His land was described as situated " on the Great 
Spring, a branch of Conodogwainet, joyning to the Upper 
Side of a Tract granted to Randel Chambers, for the use of 
his son James Chambers." An eminent jurist of this valley 
is fond of relating a story, originally told by one of the lay 
judges who helped to give dignity to the court over which 
one of his predecessors presided, concerning a member of 
the bar who had previously been a preacher. In a sermon 
on the Prodigal Son the preacher said, " We know all about 
the prodigal, and about his father, and about his dissatisfied 
brother, and about the fatted calf, but we know nothing 
about the mother. Where was the mother ? My brethren, 
I have thought long and seriously over the silence of Scrip- 
ture in regard to the mother, and have been able to reach 
no other conclusion than that she was in the kitchen cook- 
ing the calf." We know something about the four Cham- 
bers brothers, and the three plantations at the three springs, 
— ^Big Spring, Middle Spring, and Falling Spring, — but we 
know nothing about the fiither. Where was the father ? If 

^ J. McAlliflter Ralston, of Mechanicsburg, has in his poesession the 
original warrant. I have seen similar claims in behalf of Richard Parker 
and Archibald McAllister that would place the date of their settlement 
even earlier, but I regard these claims as traditionary. There may, 
howeyer, be documentary proof to sustain them. 



22 ''Old Mother Cumberland.'' 

the description in the Ralston warrant was correct, he must 
have been on his plantation in Paxton fattening the calf for 
James, if not for Robert and Benjamin.^ 

It is clear from Hendricks's letter to Harris and from the 
Ralston claim, as well as from the averments of the letter to 
Chartier, that settlers began to pick out plantations west of 
the Susquehanna before 1730; but my own impression is 
that the wave of emigration did not obtain a steady flow be- 
fore 1733. In that year Shippensburg, the oldest town in 
the valley, began its existence.^ " We have eighteen cabbins 
bilt here now, and it looks a town, but we have no name 
for it," James Magaw T\Tote to his brother John, May 21, 
1733. Four years later Edward Shippen, of Lancaster, ob- 
tained a patent for the land on which the town was situated, 
and imposed upon it his quit-rents and his name. From 
that time the settlement of the valley was rapid and almost 
simultaneous. 

We have no way of measuring the increase in population 
and the material prosperity of the settlements except by 
events that we know are historical. We can infer, for ex- 
ample, that the valley had become politically important in 
1735 from the fact that in that year it was divided into two 
townships, — Pennsborough and Hopewell. The dividing 
line was at the Big Spring. In that year also the first road 
was laid out from the Susquehanna towards the Potomac. 

^ The names Randle, Ronald, and Rowland Chambers are of frequent 
occurrence in the early records. Randle was one of the viewers to lay 
out a road from Don^al Meeting-House to Lancaster in 1732. The name 
also occurs among the taxables of Milford Township, Juniata County, 
1769-93. Ronald died December 24, 1746, and was buried in Meeting- 
House Springs graveyard. Rowland was an Indian trader, and kept the 
ferry three miles below Harris's, afterwards Simpson's. James Chambers 
was still a taxable in Hopewell in 1762. There is no trace of his sons, 
if he had any, in the Revolution. A James Chambers obtained a war- 
rant for land at Thompsontown, Juniata County, in 1756. The occur- 
rence of the names of James and Ran(iLe in the Juniata Valley is sug- 
gestive, but proves nothing. 

'Some writers make the date 1730. 



"OW Mother Cumberland." 28 

The report of the viewers, which was made February 3, 
1736, was unsatisfactory to many of the inhabitants, — ^to 
those of the lower end of the valley because its course was 
almost as sinuous as that of the Conodoguinet, and to those 
along the North Mountain, above the Big Spring, because it 
passed through the Oakville Barrens to Shippensburg, in- 
stead of following the course of the creek to Middle Spring. 
Reviewers were appointed, and they reported. May 4, 1736, 
making many alterations below but none above the Big 
Spring. The inhabitants of Middle Spring held an indig- 
nation meeting at the tavern of the Widow Piper in Ship- 
pensburg in the spring of 1736, but the reviewers failed to 
see why they should straighten the course of the road below 
Newville and twist it above. In 1736 the provincial tax- 
collectors made their first appearance among the inhabitants 
of the valley. The fact that most of the early settlers were 
Scotch-Irish has been emphasized by every writer who 
treated the subject, but Jacob Snebly, or Snively, an honest 
Swiss, who lived near Shady Grove, in Franklin County, was 
a tax-collector for the south part of Hopewell as early as 
1739. Antrim Township, embracing the whole of what is 
now Franklin County, was detached from Hopewell in 1741, 
and Lurgan was carved out of Antrim in 1743. Penns- 
borough Township was not divided into East and West 
Pennsborough until 1745. The last of the Lancaster County 
townships to be created was Peters.^ Rupp fixes the number 
of taxables in the valley in 1748 at about eight hundred, 
and the population as rising three thousand. 

A better method of measuring the influx of immigrants 

^ This statement occasioned some discussion, as the date usually given 
is 1751. As a matter of fact, there is no known record of the creation 
of either Lurgan or Peters Township. In the case of Peters, the proof 
is stronger that it was created before 1750 than in 1751. It has always 
been customary to credit David McCoy, one of the commissioners to 
settle the bounds of the new county, and William Maxwell, one of the 
first justices, to Peters, and Benjamin Chambers, who filled both posi- 
tions, to Antrim. This seems to me conclusive of the existence of 
Peters Township at the time of the erection of the county. 



24 "OW Mother Curnberlaiidy 

and the character and conditi6n of the settlers than these 
references to the political history of the valley will be found 
in a study of the early churches. Wherever there were 
Presbyterians there was sure to be a church, and wherever 
there was a church there was pretty sure to be what James 
Magaw would have called " a good wheen" of Presbyterians. 
It is an interesting fact that the five earliest Presbyterian 
churches of the Cumberland Valley — ^those of Silvers's 
Spring, Meeting-House Springs, Big Spring, Middle Spring, 
and Falling Spring — date their actual history from 1737-38. 
The two Pennsborough churches claim an earlier origin, 
placing their beginnings as early as 1734. Although priority 
is often asserted for the church at Silvers's Spring, I am in- 
clined to accord it to the Meeting-House Springs Church. 
It seems to be clear that the first church edifice in the valley 
was built on the blufl[', on the south side of the Conodoguinet, 
near the head of the beautiful stream to which this early 
meeting-house gave the name of Meeting-House Springs. 
It was a wooden structure, situated about two miles north- 
west of Carlisle. It was erected as early as 1736. No 
vestige of the building remains, and only the old graveyard, 
with its neglected tombs, tells of the pioneers who wor- 
shipped within its walls. 

The first preaching in the Cumberland Valley was in 1734. 
As a part of Lancaster County, " the people of Conodoguinet" 
were under the care of the Presbytery of Donegal, organ- 
ized in 1732. On October 16, 1734, it was " ordered that 
Alexander Craighead supply over the river two or three Sab- 
baths in November." It is not known where he preached, but 
it is probable that he ministered both at Silvers's Spring and 
Meeting-House Springs. Craighead had been licensed by 
the Presbytery only eight days before. The next supply, in 
April, 1735, seems to have been the Rev. William Bertram, 
who was then settled at Paxton and Deny. In the autumn 
the Eev. Samuel Gelston, who had a varied career in New 
York and Pennsylvania, was directed by the Donegal Pres- 
bytery to visit the Presbyterians on the Conodoguinet The 



"OW Mother Cumberland:' 25 

next year, 1736, the Rev. Thomas Craighead, the father of 
Alexander,* was sent to the two congregations of Penna- 
borough, — Silvers's Spring and Meeting-House Springs. 
The Craigheads were a family of clergymen, and were iden- 
tified with the valley churches during the rest of the century. 
When he came over the river, Thomas Craighead was already 
an old man, and was reverently spoken of by his associates 
in the Presbytery as " Father" Craighead. This visit led to 
a call from the Presbyterian congregation that was organ- 
izing- at Big Spring. There was opposition to the new 
church from the older congregations at Meeting-House 
Springs and Silvers's Spring, but the Presbji:ery determined 
to authorize the charge, and " Father" Craighead accepted 
the call in 1737. This year the older congregations obtained 
a preacher that finally became their pastor. He was the 
Rev. Samuel Thomson, a licentiate of the Newcastle Presby- 
tery. It is a curious illustration of the eagerness of the 
pioneer churches of the valley to secure pastors in despite 
of the older congregations that Falling Spring attempted 
to obtain Mr. Thomson in 1738, as Big Spring obtained 
" Father" Craighead in 1737. The application of Benjamin 
Chambers and Thomas Brown on behalf of the people of 
Conococheague was not acceded to, and in 1739 Mr. Thom- 
son was ordained and installed pastor of the two Penns- 
borough churches. In 1745 he was released from the charge 
at Silvers's Spring "on account of bodily weakness," al- 
though directed " to be generous and industrious in preach- 
ing tiiere, according to his conscience and their necessity." 
He lived in the parsonage at Meeting-House Springs, and 
cultivated the glebe lands. His wife died there in 1744, and 
was buried in the old graveyard. Silvers's Spring Church 
was named after Silvers's Spring, which entered the Conodo- 
guinet near the site of the meeting-house, and the spring 
was named after James Silvers, who was one of the earliest 
settlers in what is now Silver Spring Township. 

"Father" Craighead's call in 1737 was made for Hope- 
^ The authorities are conflicting in regard to this statement. 



26 "OW Mother Chmierland." 

well, not simply for Big Spring; and, as it was presented to 
the Donegal Presbytery by Robert Henry, it is not unlikely 
that Middle Spring was included in the application. Henry 
was an elder at Middle Spring. One of the causes of the 
opposition to Craighead's installation, voiced by Anderson, 
the pastor in Donegal, and Thomson, of Pennsborough, was 
the venerable divine's fiamily troubles. For some reason 
Craighead's wife and his son John refused to live in the 
same house with him at Pequea. He suspended his wife 
from the communion, and declined giving his reason for iL 
The suspension occurred in the winter of 1735-86, and com- 
plaint was made to the Donegal Presbytery in April, 1736. 
An investigation was made in May, the charge being that 
the suspension was without the privity of the session. 
"Father" Craighead's answer was that, the reason being 
known only to himself, the session was not competent to 
advise, and that there was no time for consultation, as he 
had not resolved on the suspension until the Saturday night 
before the sacrament. The Presbytery judged that he was 
laboring imder a delusion, or delirium of the head, and 
directed him to restore Mrs. Craighead to church privileges, 
and not to insist that his wife and son should live under the 
same roof with him. As he was unyielding, his dismissal 
from Pequea followed, September 7, 1736, and barred his 
way to the acceptance of the call from Hopewell in 1737. 
Through Mrs. Craighead's representations to the Presbytery 
that she had no cause of complaint against her husband, the 
trouble was smoothed over in 1738, and the people of Hope- 
well were authorized to build a church at Great Spring. 
The Rev. Alexander Craighead was directed to install his 
fether. The femily dissensions do not seem to have been 
entirely healed, for Alexander, who was as inflexible as his 
parent, fidled to accept the duty, and the service was per- 
formed by Bertram in October, 1738. In the mean time, it 
is probable, the first church edifice at Big Spring had been 
erected. Like all the early churches in the valley, it was 
built of logs. It stood in the western part of the graveyard. 



''Old Mother Cumberland:' 27 

and was occupied until 1790, when the present stone edifice 
was erected. "Father" Craighead's pastorate lasted only 
six months, as his death occurred in the pulpit while pro- 
nouncing the benediction in April, 1739. His grave in the 
Big Spring graveyard is without a tablet, but it is said he 
was buried where the church now stands. 

The beginning of Middle Spring Church as an organiza- 
tion is involved in some obscurity. Its historians date ite 
start from 1738, because " Father" Craighead became pastor 
at Big Spring in that year, claiming him as the pastor of 
both congregations. It is not unlikely that he preached at 
Middle Spring while the questions relating to his call to Big 
Spring were pending before the Presbytery, and, perhaps, 
occasionally during the winter of 1738-39 ; but the history 
of Middle Spring Chruch cannot be said to begin until 1742, 
when the Rev. John Blair was called to the pastorate at the 
Three Springs, — ^Big, Middle, and Rocky. In the mean 
time, 1739-41, the Rev. Mr. Calls, of Ireland, and the Rev. 
Mr. Clarke, of Scotland, are named as preaching at Middle 
Spring. It has been assumed that the first church edifice — a 
log structure thirty-five feet square — ^was built in 1738, but 
there is no proof that the building was erected until the set- 
tlement of Mr. Blair. It is not unlikely, however, that the 
place was selected as a convenient locality for a meeting- 
house a number of years before the church was built. Meet- 
ings in the woods and in tents were not unusual at the period 
of the settlement of the Cumberland Valley. Indeed, there 
is a tradition in the Johnston femily that John Johnston, the 
settler, was accustomed to ride from his house, three and a 
half miles above Shippensburg, with his wife behind him, to 
Middle Spring to attend preaching in the woods before there 
was a church there. After the little church — ^not larger tlian 
one of the log school-houses that became so common in later 
years — ^was built, Mr. Blair preached in it to a people scarcely 
less noteworthy than their pastor. He came as the repre- 
sentative of the new and ardent element in the Presbyterian 
Church that was the result of the preaching of George 



28 "OW Mother Oumberland.'' 

Whitefield and the revolutionary policy of the Tennents 
and their fiery followers in the New Brunswick Presbytery. 
The way had been paved for him by the visits of Campbell 
and Rowland in 1741, and he was received by congregations 
folly in accord with the movement of which he was to be- 
come the exponent in the Cumberland Valley. He was 
ordained pastor of the Three Springs December 27, 1742, 
the ceremony taking place at Middle Spring. This is proved 
by an entry in the sessional records, which is still preserved. 
During Mr. Blair's pastorate of fifteen years Middle Spring 
was his place of residence and the centre of his activity. 

The eagerness to invest Rocky Spring Church with great 
antiquity, manifested in recent years, has not resulted in giv- 
ing it priority over Falling Spring, or in demonstrating that 
it was more than an adjunct of Middle Spring before 1768. 
That there was a controversy with the people of Conoco- 
cheague at a very early period is clear. The Hopewell 
charge — ^Big Spring and Middle Spring — manifested at the 
outset a determined opposition to the erection of a church 
at Falling Spring, Robert Henry going to the meeting of 
the Donegal Presbytery, in 1738, to complain that Falling 
Spring was about to encroach upon Hopewell. Henry was 
so strenuous in his opposition to the pretensions of Falling 
Spring that he got into trouble with the Presbytery in con- 
sequence of his zeal. That the people for whom Rocky 
Spring was a convenient point for a meeting-house w^ere with 
him in his contentions was a fact due as much to affinity 
with Middle Spring as to the superior claims of Rocky 
Spring. The two congregations were in fact one people, 
allied by close family ties. But, apart fi'om these considera- 
tions, the controversy finally turned upon a question that 
made Rocky Spring essential to Middle Spring and Dig 
Spring. When Mr. Blair was called by these churches in 
1742, the call was made to the Newcastle New Side Pres- 
bytery. The contentions now concerned not so much the 
encroachments of Falling Spring upon Hopewell as the ex- 
tension of the bounds of the new Presbytery of Newcastle 



«0W Mother Oumberland.'' 29 

in the territory of the old Presbytery of Donegal. Meeting- 
House Springs and Silvers's Spring adhered to the Old Side 
Presbytery, while Big Spring and Middle Spring repudiated 
its authority. The Rev. Samuel Caven, the pastor at Cono- 
eocheague, was in sympathy with the Old Side. The people 
of Moss Spring, Qreencastle, were of the same way of 
thinking, while those of Falling Spring, Chambersburg, 
were New Side. This enabled the New Side Presbyterians 
of Letterkenny and Hamilton to divert those of Falling 
Spring to Rocky Spring. Accordingly, Mr. Blair's authority 
was extended from mountain to mountain, and as far east- 
ward from Big Spring and as fiar westward from Middle 
Spring as was possible. The three congregations were made 
parts of one charge, and Mr. Blair's labors were divided 
equally between them, as the session-book of Middle Spring 
shows. The first Rocky Spring church was built about this 
time, not as early as 1738, as has been claimed. 

In 1739 there was a supplication to the Donegal Presby- 
tery for authority to build a church at Rocky Spring, but it 
was ordered that " the house for public worship be erected 
as near to the Falling Spring as conveniently may be." That 
it was erected at the Falling Spring the events that followed 
seem to prove. Disappointed in securing the services of 
Thomson in 1738, the Conococheague churches were com- 
pelled to content themselves with Caven. The records of 
the Donegal Presbytery distinctly show that when a supplica- 
tion was made in 1739 that Mr. Caven's ordination be has- 
tened, it was expressly declared that there was to be a meet- 
ing-house at Falling Spring. When Rocky Spring is next 
heard from it no longer acknowledges Donegal, but marches 
under the banner of Newcastle. That the Falling Spring 
and Rocky Spring Churches were built simultaneously is 
highly improbable; that the Falling Spring Church was 
built in 1739 in the romantic cedar grove where the present 
church stands need not be doubted. Tradition has given 
us a very ftill description of this primitive structure. It was 
built of logs, and was entered by doors on the eastern and 



80 "OW 3fo(her Cumberland:' 

southern sides. The windows were long and narrow, reach- 
ing from one end of the building to the other. Caven's 
pastorate was brief, lasting only two years, 1739-41. In 
1741 a part of the congregation accused him of immorality, 
and it was shown that he spoke of his sacred office as a 
trade, and talked of his " running to drive the devil." His 
dismissal, which followed, was granted at his own request. 
After that the Falling Spring Church was without a history 
until 1767. 

It does not follow that Caven's dismissal from Falling 
Spring was immediately followed by his withdrawal from 
East Conococheague, as the congregation at Moss Spring was 
called. The Moss Spring Church, known in local annals as 
the " Old Red Meeting-House," remained faithful to the Old 
Side, to which the pastor adhered. The relation, however, 
could have lasted only a short time, for he accepted a call to 
Silvers's Spring as the successor of Thomson in 1745, and 
died there, November 9, 1750, aged forty-nine years. Subse- 
quently East and West Conococheague were united, but this 
was not effected until 1754, when the Rev. John Steel, who 
had adhered to the Old Side, and who was an Indian fighter 
as well as preacher, became the pastor of the two churches. 
The upper church was on Church Hill, near Mercersburg, 
called in colonial annals, Mr. Steel's Meeting-House. 

The establishment of these seven churches at the seven 
springs within ten years of the beginning of the settlement 
of the valley shows that the pioneers, who had spread them- 
selves from the Susquehanna almost to the Potomac, pos- 
sessed a remarkable genius for organization. With such a 
people the reasons that influenced them to demand the cre- 
ation of a new county only twenty years after the erection 
of the county of Lancaster are not far to seek. It was a 
long journey to the county-seat at Hickorytown. Thieves, 
rascals, and disorderly persons made the valley and the adja- 
cent mountains a secure retreat from pursuit by the officers 
of the law. Lancaster County was German and Quaker, — 
that is, Quaker in rule through affiliation with the Mennon- 



82 «0W Mother Cumberland:' 

of the valley, he said that the great body of the people were 
loudly against its selection, as lying in a distant comer of the 
county. The principal advantage of Le Tort's Spring was 
that it was convenient to the new path to Allegheny, being 
only four miles from the Gap. Of Big Spring he said it 
was five miles from Cunning's and seven from Shippensburg. 
In both cases he must have included a " bittock," as the Scotch 
say. He did not overtook the fact that the Proprietary had 
four thousand acres of land on the north side of Conodoguinet, 
opposite the spring. He pointed' out what seems to have 
been the most important point in locating the county-seat, 
— ^that the road to Allegheny could be brought through a 
gap called McClure's Gap. He favored either Le Tort's or 
Big Spring, but he said, the situation of Conococheague, 
where the road crossed the stream, was very good. He gives 
us an intimation of what were Colonel Chambers's arguments 
for its selection, — ^that it was the most conveniently situated 
for the Indian trade, and opened a shorter and better passage 
through the mountains. As we all know, Le Tort's Spring 
— ^that is, Carhsle — was chosen. There was not a house in 
the neighborhood at the time, and the county-seat had only 
five buildings in 1753. 

Let us endeavor in imagination to follow in Cookson's 
footsteps, and to see with our mental vision what he saw 
with his eyes. In our journey we will use the modern no- 
menclature, so that we may know " where we are at" Our 
starting-point is Tobias Hendricks's tavern, at Oyster Point, 
on the Manor, where his son William is at play. A quarter 
of a century later this boy fell in the unsuccessful attack upon 
Quebec, and was buried in the same plat with the gallant 
General Montgomery. From Hendricks's we take the pub- 
lic road, laid out in 1736, to the house of James Silvers, 
where we can look about us. Silvers came " over the river" 

chosen by the Grovemor in defiance of the wishes of the majority of the 
people of the valley. Had Shippensburg been made the county-seat, 
there is no reason to doubt that Cumberland Ck)unty would still comprise 
the whole of the Cumberland Valley. 



"OM Mother Cumberland." 33 

about 1730, and took up lands in what is Silver Spring 
Township. His plantation, which comprised five hundred 
and twenty-five acres, was in one of the loops of the Cono- 
doguinet, nowhere more remarkable for its serpentine course 
than between Silver Spring, as it is now called, and the Sus- 
quehanna. This spring rises from a large fountain about a 
mile north' of the creek. K we stroll along its banks we 
shall come to the mill built by James Pollock at the conflu- 
ence of the two streams. Whether we shall find Pollock at 
the mill is more than I can say, and for his neighbor, Rob- 
ert Buchanan, we shall have to look farther up the Conodo- 
guinet, for he has already sold his lands on the creek, at the 
mouth of the spring, to George Croghan, the celebrated 
Indian agent. Croghan is probably at home, for he has just 
bought the lands adjacent, settled by William Walker, from 
William Trent. Walker was a captain under Marlborough 
in Queen Anne's wars, and was the great-great-grandfather 
of Eobert J. Walker, Secretary of the Treasury in Polk's 
Cabinet and Governor of Eiinsas under Buchanan. He was 
killed by the Indians at McCormick's Fort in 1757. Trent's 
Gap, Mount Holly, was called after William Trent. Trent 
and Silvers were both active in promoting the organization 
of the county, and were prominent in the affairs of the val- 
ley, but neither left descendants here to perpetuate his name. 
Before 1750 there were a dozen farmers on the Conodogui- 
net almost within sight of Pollock's mill. 

From the house of James Silvers the next stage in our 
journey is to the house of John Hoge. Hoge is on his 
death*bed, and Hogestown does not yet exist. The dwell- 
ing-house was not on the site of the village. Hoge's Kun 
rises on what was the Hoge tract and empties into the Cono- 
doguinet. John Hoge was bom at Perth Amboy, Kew Jer- 
sey, and settled in Lancaster County before becoming a 
Cumberland Valley pioneer. His wife was Gwenthlene 
Bowen, who claimed to belong to the royal family of Wales, 
and retained her maiden name after her marriage as due to 
her royal birth. A better reason, perhaps, was that the 

VOL. XXIV. — 3 




34 "OW Mother Cumberland:' 

Hoge name was generally pronounced Hogg. They had two 
sons, — ^David and Jonathan. David was sherijff of Cumber- 
land County, 1768-71, and Jonathan was a member of the 
Pennsylvania Convention of 1776, and of the Council of 
Safety and the Supreme Executive Council. Other descend- 
ants of John Hoge were distinguished as soldiers in the 
Revolution and as ministers in the Presbyterian Church. 

Before reaching Hoge's we passed the farm of Thomas 
McCormick, which was northeast of the village. He was 
the ancestor of the McCormick j&mily still represented in 
Silver Spring Township. His son John was one of the com- 
missioners to settle the boundaries of the new county and a 
trustee to buy the ground for a court-house. Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick, the millionaire inventor of Chicago, was of this 
fiamily. As your guide has not learned the place of resi- 
dence of James Mclntire, John McCormick's colleague from 
East Pennsborough on the County Commission, we shall not 
visit him on this trip. As we proceed on our journey we 
pass the house of John Oliver on the ridge west of Hoges- 
town. He was the ancestor of Isabella Oliver, the first poet 
of the Cumberland Valley. She celebrated a number of 
localities on the Conodoguinet in verse. Among her poems 
was one on the poisoning of the whole femily of John Ca- 
rothers by a jealous servant, Sallie Clark. Carothers was 
settled at the mouth of Hoge's Run. His son John became 
prominent in the affairs of the county ; was county lieuten- 
ant in 1777, and sheriff and a member of the Assembly 
afterwards. Another son, Andrew Carothers, who was always 
a cripple in consequence of the poisoning, became a distin- 
guished lawyer in Carlisle. We are now in a thickly popu- 
lated neighborhood, but we cannot stop to recount the virtues 
of the Armstrongs, Irwins, Mitchells, Clendennins, and the 
other Presbyterian fiathers who worshipped in the sanctuary 
at Silvers's Spring. I regret this all the more because 
Archibald Irwin, son of James, one of four pioneer brothers, 
was an ancestor of Governor Francis R. Shunk and Presi- 
dent Benjamin Harrison. 



"OM Mother Cumberland:' 85 

At New Kingston, or what was to be the site of New 
Engston, we shall find Joseph Junkin. Junkin was a 
Covenanter who would not sit under the ministrations of 
Thomson or Caven, but worshipped in the celebrated " Jun- 
kin tent" which stood on his land. He built a stone house 
that is still standing. His son Joseph was in the battle of 
Brandywine, and was wounded at the White Horse in Ches- 
ter County. One of his grandsons was the Rev. Dr. George 
Junkin, an eminent Presbyterian divine, and Judge Benja- 
min Junkin, of Perry County, is one of his descendants. 
One of Joseph Junkin's Covenanter neighbors was Robert 
Bell, whose son Samuel had a thrilling battle with three 
Indians on Shearman's Creek, in which he killed all of his 
red foes. 

I would like to carry you backward fi'om New Kingston 
for a visit to Samuel Lamb, the stone-mason, famous for his 
chimneys, of whom it was said " he plumbed his comers 
with spittle," — ^that is, he would spit down the comer to see 
if it was plumb, — and his patriotic daughter Peggy, who 
said to one of her brothers during the Revolution, " Go, and 
sooner come home a corpse than a coward;" and to the 
vigorous James Galbndth, whose son Andrew was major of 
Colonel Watts's battalion in 1776, and was captured at Fort 
Washington. James Qalbndth's wife was a daughter of 
Bertram, the pastor at Derry. Their descendants are still 
represented in many of the prominent families of the valley. 
From Gtalbraith's it would be pleasant to go to the mill built 
by the Rev. Richard Peters, the speculative secretary of the 
Province, and from there to make an excursion along the 
Yellow Breeches as fer as Craighead's and Mount Holly, but 
we must keep on the high-road to Meeting-House Springs, 
which is as near to the future county-seat as we shall be able 
to find shelter. 

As we stand among the few tombs, some of them with 
armorial bearings, in the new burial-groimd on the bluff 
above the Conodoguinet, a delightful panorama unrolls be* 
fore us. I Around us are the lands of John Davis, afterwards 



86 ''Old Mother Cumberland.'' 

colonel of a regiment of Associators that saw service in the 
Revolution ; William Dunbar, collector of taxes for West 
Pennsborough, who was still living at the close of the cen- 
tury ; Andrew Forbes, whom some of our early historians 
called Forbush ; David Williams, an elder of Meeting-House 
Springs Church; James Blaine, the father of Colonel 
Ephraim Blaine, of Revolutionary distinction, and immi- 
grant ancestor of James Gillespie Blaine ; Richard Parker, 
the grandfather of Alexander Parker, also a distinguished 
Revolutionary soldier ; William Armstrong's " settlement," 
between the springs and the cave ; and Thomas Wilson, one 
of the first justices of the county, on the Conodoguinet, 
near the mill-seat where Colonel Blaine built a mill in 1772, 
afterwards Henderson's, but no longer in existence. East of 
Blaine's mill, or rather mill-seat, is James Smith, by some 
writers believed to have been the signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, and at the mouth of Le Tort's Spring is 
the mill built by Roland Chambers, one of the first on the 
Conodoguinet. Jonathan Holmes, a lieutenant in Colonel 
Benjamin Chambers's battalion in 1748, is south of Smith, 
and Patrick and William Davidson, William Qillingham, 
James Kilgore, Peter Wilkie, and John McClure are on and 
around the site of Carlisle. It may be that William Thomp- 
son, a captain of horse in the French and Indian War, 
colonel of the First Pennsylvania Battalion of Riflemen in 
1775, and a brigadier-general in 1776, had already built his 
mill on the Conodoguinet, above the primitive church-yard 
where we are taking our survey of the valley. 

It is a striking attribute of our pioneers, wherever we find 
them, that most of them were the ancestors of a distinguished 
posterity. The Blaine example is too familiar to need am- 
plification. Alexander Parker served in the Pennsylvania 
Line throughout the Revolution and rose to the rank of 
major. He aft;erwards founded the town of Parkersburg, 
West Virginia. His sister Agnes married William Denny, 
and their son Ebenezer was the first mayor of Pittsburgh. 
William Armstrong was a brother of General John Arm- 



''Old Mother Cumberland:' 87 

strong, a lieutenant in Colonel John Armfltrong's battalion 
in 1755, and a captain in the Kittanning Expedition in 1764. 
John Armstrong was one of the founders of Carlisle, and 
the most distinguished of the Cumberland Valley leaders in 
the Indian wars. His son John, author of the femous New- 
burg letter in 1788, was Secretary of War in President 
Madison's Cabinet at the beginning of the War of 1812. 
Through him the Astor fiamily secured a Revolutionary an- 
cestry. Thomas Wilson's son, James Armstrong Wilson, 
was a captain in the Revolution and an eminent lawyer. 
Roland Chambers was the first settler at the village of Mid- 
dlesex. His son John inherited the mill property and 
founded the village. One of Patrick Davidson's sons, George, 
removed to North Carolina, and was the father of General 
William Davidson. William B. McClure, the eminent law- 
yer and jurist of Pittsburgh, was descended from John Mc- 
Clure, of Carlisle, and Charlfes McClure, another descendant, 
was a member of th^ Legislature in 1885, and Becretary of 
the Commonwealth, 1848-45. Probably no officer of the 
Revolution was more intensely American in his environment 
than General Thompson. Not only was his wife a sister of 
George Ross, one of the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, but one of her sisters married George Read, an- 
other signer, while one of his sisters became the wife of 
George Read, the son of the signer. 

If we were able to make a ditour into South Middleton 
Township we should find some families folly as interesting 
as those we have already met The most noteworthy of 
these are the Moore, Weakley, Craighead, and Denny fami- 
lies. James Moore came from Ireland by way of Maryland 
and took up several thousand acres of land on the Yellow 
Breeches soon after 1780. His eldest son, William, was 
active with the Cumberland County Associators in the Revo- 
lution, and was Associate Judge in 1800. Another son, 
John Robert, was with Wayne at Paoli and Washington at 
Valley Forge. John R. married Nancy, daughter of Colonel 
Thomas Johnston, of Greencastle. The venerable Johnston 



88 "OW Mother Cumberland." 

Moore, who lives at " Mooreland," in Carlisle, and is the 
owner of " Bonny Brook," one of the finest trout preserves 
in the State, is their son. James M. Weakley, Professor of 
Pleading in Dickinson Law School, and a State Senator, 
1871-74, is a son of the third James Weakley. The first 
James, it is claimed, settled on the Yellow Breeches as early 
as 1725. The Craigheads of Craighead's, who recently held 
a family reunion on the homestead, are descended fi'om 
John, a cousin of the Rev. Thomas Craighead. John was 
the father of the Rev. John Craighead, the celebrated pastor 
at Rocky Spring. William and Walter Denny, brothers, 
came firom Chester County in 1745. Walter was a captain 
in Colonel Davis's battalion, and was killed in the afifair at 
the Crooked Billet.^ One of his sons was with the company 
and was captured. Walter was the father of the Rev. David 
Denny, for thirty-eight years pastor of the Falling Spring 
Church. 

Resuming our journey and passing westward along the 
high-road, we come to a large tract of land, four miles fi-om 
Carlisle, owned by Archibald McAllister. He was the an- 
cestor of the fiamily of which the late Ward McAllister, the 
leader of the Four Hundred in New York city, was a scion. 
It has been claimed that he built the second mill west of the 
Susquehanna, on McAllister's Spring. His son Richard was 
the founder of McAUisters'-Town, now Hanover, in York 
County, and he was colonel of a battalion of York County 
Associators, which he carried to Amboy as part of the 
"Flying Camp" in the summer of 1776. Another son, 
Archibald, w^as a captain in Colonel Hartley's regiment, 

^ This is asserted in a memoir of Ebenezer Denny by William H. 
Denny, published by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania as an intro- 
duction to Ebenezer Denny's ''Journal.'' The statement is questioned 
because Captain Walter Denny's name is retained in the roster of the 
Associated Battalions, May 14, 1778, and in the incomplete roster, May 
11, 1779. As the affair at the Crooked Billet occurred May 1, 1778, it 
would have been easy to include his name two weeks later, through igno- 
rance of his death. The roster of 1779 seems to be mere guesswork. 
John Jordan was captain of the company in 1780. 



''Old Mother Cimberland:' 39 

Pennsylvania Line; he acquired the estate that had be- 
longed to Joseph Chambers, at Fort Hunter, and it is still 
in the possession of his descendants. The McAllister family 
is scattered all over the country. 

Among "Archy" McAllister's neighbors we must visit 
Robert Dunning, who was lieutenant-colonel of Colonel 
Chambers's battalion in the Indian alarm of 1748, and his 
brother Ezekiel, sheriflF, 1762-65. Robert was an Indian 
trader, and his trading-post, according to Cookson, was five 
miles from Big Spring. We shall also visit James McFar- 
lane at the " old fort," as the stockade on this tract is called 
in his warrant, and, perhaps, look over his " New Farm" 
adjoining. The " old fort" was built long before the Indian 
wars, and descended to the Laughlins, who had settled ou 
the site of Newville. One of the grandparents of the pres- 
ent generation of Laughlins was bom in the "old fort." 
William McFarlane, a son of James, was a captain in Colonel 
Watts's battalion, " Flying Camp," and was captured at Fort 
Washington in 1776. On Mount Rock Spring is the farm 
of John Davidson, which is still in possession of his de- 
scendants. 

Before proceeding farther westward it is only proper that 
we should make a ditour through Frankford Township to 
" ye Blue Mountains" to visit Thomas and Eleanor Butler, 
and their children, "the Fighting Butlers;" and also their 
neighbors, the Gibsons, scarcely less distinguished as soldiers. 
From the latter fiamily came the eminent jurist, John Ban- 
nister Gibson. 

It must have been at the mouth of Big Spring, and not 
at Newville, that Cookson designed to place the county-seat, 
if this locality was chosen instead of Le Tort's Spring. 
From here, instead of going up by the high-road, through 
the Barrens, to Shippensburg, we shall follow the Cono- 
doguinet to Maclay's Mill. This region was prolific in In- 
dian fighters and Revolutionary heroes. On the James Jack 
form near Green Spring, in Newton Township, Fort Carna- 
han was built It was the centre of a number of sanguinary 



40 "OW Mother Cumberland:' 

conflicts. On the opposite side of the Conodoguinet was 
the William Camahan tract, and James Camahan, a brother 
of William, bought lands on Green Spring. From William 
Came the Rev. J. A. Carnahan, a pioneer preacher in the 
West, and from James the Rev. Dr. Camahan, President of 
Princeton College. Robert Shannon, of Mifliin Township, 
was the ancestor of Wilson Shannon, of Ohio, Governor of 
Kansas. The Nicholsons on Whiskey Run, even at the time 
of our journey, were extensive slaveholders. This family was 
one of the first to be attacked by the Indians. While the 
men did the fighting the women moulded the bullets and 
loaded the guns. The Williamsons were another fiMnily in the 
neighborhood of Fort Camahan associated with the Indian 
massacres, but the story is only traditional. Still other 
fistmilies in Mifflin and Hopewell Townships connected with 
Indian history were the Aigers and Bradys. Joe Aiger, 
sometimes identified as Captain Jack, the wild hunter of 
the Juniata, and Samuel Brady, the foinous <^ Captain of the 
Spies" of the Revolutionary epoch, have both attributes that 
were borrowed by McHenry for his novel, " The Spectre of 
the Forest." We cannot stop to recount their romantic 
histories. 

In Hopewell, near Newburg, we shall find David Magaw, 
one of the five commissioners to settle the bounds of the 
new county. He was the fiither of three distinguished sons, 
— Colonel Robert Magaw, in command at Fort Washington 
at the time of its capture, November 16, 1776 ; Dr. William 
Magaw, a practising physician at Mercersburg, and surgeon 
of Colonel Thompson's Battalion of Riflemen, in 1775 ; and 
the Rev. Dr. Samuel Magaw, one of the first graduates of 
the College of Philadelphia, and Vice-Provost of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. The distinction of the sons is a me- 
morial of the fother. 

Along the North Mountain in Hopewell and Lurgan a 
sojourner at the middle of the last century would have heard 
some remarkable stories of early settlement For instance, 
there is a tradition that Thomas Pomeroy settled on a large 



42 "OW Mother Cumberland:' 

The Maclays have always been prominent in public affairs. 
William, a son of John, of Carpenters' Hall feme, was a 
member of Congress, 1815-19. John's son, David, was a 
member of the Legislature, 1812-14, and David's son, David, 
now living in Chambersburg at the age of ninety-two, in 
1851-52. The first David's grandson, David, is chairman 
of the Franklin County Republican Committee. John, a 
brother of William and David, sons of John, was sheriff of 
Franklin County, 1820-23. John Maclay, a brother of 
Charles the immigrant, and an elder in Middle Spring 
Church in 1747, had two sons, John and Charles. This 
Charles was a captain in Colonel Dunlop's battalion, and was 
killed in the affair at the Crooked Billet. The Maclays are 
descended from the Barons Fingal of Ireland. By inter- 
marriage the Maclay femily is one of the most extensive in 
its ramifications in this country. 

South of us is the Middle Spring Church, around and be- 
yond which are Robert Chambers, a brother of Benjamin ; 
John Williamson, the grandfather of the Rev. Dr. John 
Williamson Nevin, and the father of the celebrated Dr. 
Hugh Williamson, whose name was associated with that of 
Franklin in the matter of the Hutchinson letters ; the Mor- 
rows, of whom one Charles was a captain in Colonel Ben- 
jamin Chambers's battalion in 1748 ; the Hannas, from one 
of whom came General John Andrew Hanna, the lawyer of 
Carlisle and Harrisburg ; John Reynolds, an elder in Middle 
Spring Church, and the head of a family prominent down 
to our time; Colonel James Dunlop, father of Andrew 
Dunlop, of the Franklin Coimty Bar, who married Sarah 
Bella, daughter of General James Chambers, and grand- 
fether of James Dunlop, the compiler of Dunlop's " Digest ;" 
John Culbertson,^ the ancestor of the Culbertson families of 

^ This statement is vigorously denied by some of the descendants of 
the "three Irish brothers,*' Alexander, Joseph, and Samuel, who settled 
near one another in '' Culbertson' s Row," Franklin Ck)unty. But the 
denial involves the necessity of ignoring John, who was one of the orig- 
inal settlers of Shippensburg, 1780-38 ; James, who was a taxpayer in 



"OW Mother Cumberland:' 48 

Franklin County, and the father of Captain Alexander Cul- 
bertson, killed in battle with the Indians at Sidling Hill, in 
1756, with twenty of his command ; and John Bippey, whose 
son, William, was a captain in Colonel William Irvine's bat- 
talion in the second Canada Expedition, 1776-77. Captain 
Rippey's company, one of the most typical of the Scotch- 
Irish companies from the Cumberland Valley in the Revolu- 
tion, was almost wholly a Shippensburg and Middle Spring 
organization. 

Above Maclay's Mill emigration followed the course of 
the Conodoguinet to Roxbury Gap and into Path Valley, 
but the most important settlements were on Herron's Branch 
and its tributaries, on both sides of the ridge that marks the 
divide of the water-sheds of the Susquehanna and Potomac. 
At the mouth of the branch were the Herrons, from one of 
whom the Rev. Dr. Francis Herron was descended, and near 
them was William Linn, the fether of Rev. Dr. William 
Linn, pastor of a Dutch Reformed Church in New York city, 
and grandfather of the Rev. John Blair Linn, poet and 
dramatist as well as divine. Others equally noteworthy 
were the Irwins, Breckenridges, and Culbertsons, of Culbert- 
son's Row. The Irwin femily produced many prominent 
business-men; the Breckenridges were allied with the 

Hopewell and Lurgan, 1750 ; Oliver, also of Lurgan at the same time ; 
and Robert, who took up lands ia Peters as early as 1743. The first of 
the Culbertson name to come to America was John, who emigrated in 
1712 and settled in Chester County. His name disappeared from the 
tax records after 1726. The account of him and his descendants in the 
"Culbertson Genealogy" is very obscure. One son, John, died in 
Chester County in 1767. Robert, of Peters Township, may have been 
the elder John's son. In that case he is the ancestor of the Culbertsons 
of Virginia and North Carolina. All this brings us no nearer to John^ 
of Shippensburg, and leaves James and Oliver unaccounted for. Our 
information touching the antecedents of Alexander, Joseph, and Samuel 
of the "Row" is equally meagre. How I reached the conclusion that 
John, of Shippensburg, was the ancestor of the Culbertsons of Franklin 
County I do not remember ; but I found it in my notes, made a number 
of years ago, and I have concluded to let it stand until refuted. 



44 "OW Mother Cumberland:' 

Breckenridge families of Vir^nia and Kentucky; and of 
the Culbertsons, one, Samuel, was colonel of a battalion of 
Associators, while his cousin Bobert was lieutenant-colonel 
of Colonel Dunlop's battalion. 

Sweeping westward, north of the ridge were more Cul- 
bertsons, and the Cessna, Finley, Henderson, McConnell, 
and McCammont femilies. James McCammont, the younger, 
who lived near Upper Strasburg, was almost as celebrated an 
Indian fighter as the Bradys, and he had an interesting Rev- 
olutionary history. He was major of Colonel Culbertson's 
battalion, but, as a member of the Convention in 1788, he 
was opposed to the ratification of the Federal Constitution, 
and absented himself from the House to break a quorum. 
He was taken out of his bed by Captain John Barry and 
thrust into the Chamber, after which the doors were locked 
and the Constitution ratified. In what is now Hamilton 
Township we shall find Joseph Armstrong and Matthew 
Patton. That Armstrong was a very early settler we know 
from the fiBM5t that he joined with Benjamin Chambers and 
others, in 1788, in the agreement to pay the Rev. Samuel 
Thomson the arrearages due him for preaching to the people 
of Conococheague. He commanded a company in Colonel 
John Armstrong's battalion at the be^nning of the French 
and Indian War, and was a member of the Assembly in 
1758-59. His son, bom in 1739, known as Colonel Joseph, 
commanded a battalion of Cumberland County militia in 
1776, one of the battalions of which we have meagre knowl- 
edge. One of the companies in this almost unknown bat- 
talion was commanded by Captain Samuel Culbertson, with 
John Culbertson as lieutenant, and the Rev. John Craighead, 
Robert and Joseph Culbertson, and James Finley as privates. 
Another company was under Captwn James McConnell, 
with John McConnell as lieutenant Lieutenant Matthew 
McConnell, of Captain James Chambers's company in 1775, 
was of this femily. Matthew Patton was the ancestor of the 
Patton fkmily of Peters and Montgomery, prominent down 
to our time. Samuel Patton is quoted as a captain in Colo- 



''Old Mother Cumberland:' 45 

nel Joseph Armstrong's battalion, as well as Bobert Cul- 
bertson, Charles Maclay, and John Rea. 

In what is now St. Thomas Township we shall find Robert 
Cluggage, James Campbell, James McFarland, and John 
Holliday. Cluggage removed to the neighborhood of Shir- 
leysburg, and his son Robert was captain of the Bedford 
County company in Colonel Thompson's Battalion of Rifle- 
men in 1775. Campbell, a captain of horse of the house of 
Argyle in the Scottish rising of 1745, was the grandfather 
of General Charles T. Campbell. McFarland was the ances- 
tor of our McParlands, and Holliday was one of a family 
that was very active in the development of Southwestern 
Pennsylvania. All these are represented in the rosters of 
oflicers of the Revolution. St. Thomas was a part of Peters 
Township at the time of the organization of Cumberland 
County. In what is still Peters the earliest settler was Wil- 
liam McDowell. The McDowell tradition is that he settled 
on his farm near Bridgeport, where was McDowell's fort of 
Indian warfare, about a year after the settlement of Ben- 
jamin Chambers at Palling Spring. This was probably in 
1735. He was driven away by the Indians in 1759, and 
died at Wrightsville, in York County. He was buried in 
the graveyard at Donegal. Of his sons, William was an 
officer of the Pennsylvania Line in the Revolution, John 
became Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Thomas was the father of our venerable townsman, William 
H. McDowell. John was the first native of the county ad- 
mitted to the Franklin County Bar. Parnell's Knob, under 
the shadow of which the McDowells lived, has been so called 
beyond the memory of man in this section ; we know noth- 
ing of Parnell, not even his Christian name. Robert Mc- 
Coy, one of the commissioners to settle the bounds of the 
county, lived in what is now Montgomery Township. It is 
evident that he was a prominent man in the affairs of the 
valley, but we have entirely forgotten him. His neighbor, 
William Maxwell, was one of the first justices of the 
county. James Black was the first settler on the site of 



46 "OW Mother Cumberland:' 

Mercersburg. Black was quickly followed by William 
Smith, also one of the justices of the peace at a later period. 
William was the brother-in-law of James Smith, the hero of 
the opening chapter in " Border Life." Even at this early 
period Dr. Hugh Mercer was practising physic in the 
fiunilies of these pioneers. But the parents from whom 
came the two most distinguished of the sons of Franklin 
County were yet to come, — ^those of William Findlay, Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania, and James Buchanan, President of 
the United States. 

Swinging from West to East Conococheague, we cannot 
tarry long by the way. When we reach the crossing west 
of what is now Greencastle, we will find James Body settled 
on the tract which Andrew G. McLanahan sold to the Mor- 
mons more than half a century ago. The Kennedy settle- 
ment is not far away at the confluence of the two branches. 
Lazarus Kennedy, a descendant of John, the settler, died 
there within four years. Where Greencastle now stands is 
the fitrm of William Allison. It was many years later that 
the town was laid out by his son John. John Allison was a 
member of the Pennsylvania Convention of 1776 and of the 
convention to ratify the Federal Constitution of 1787. He 
was also colonel of one of the Cumberland Valley regiments 
of the " Flying Camp" in the Jersey campaign of 1776. A 
mile to the eastward is the " Old Red Meeting-House," and 
around it are some of the earliest settlers of Antrim, — Jacob 
Snively, James Johnston, and Joseph Crunkleton. Crunkle- 
ton attempted to found the town of Crunkleton, but it died 
<* arborning." The present Snively femily of Greencastle and 
its vicinity are descendants of the "honest Swiss," Jacob 
Snively, at whose house the Rev. Michael Schlatter was a 
guest in 1749. James Johnston was the ancestor of a dis- 
tinguished posterity. Three of his sons — James, John, and 
Thomas — ^were respectively lieutenantxiolonel, major, and 
adjutant of Colonel Abraham Smith's battalion of Cumber- 
land County Associators in 1777-78. In 1780 James Johns- 
ton commanded the battalion and Thomas was a captain. 



"OW Mother Ouviberland:' 47 

Another son, Dr. Bobert Johnston, was a distinguished sur- 
geon in the Revolution, and it was with him that President 
Washington stopped to dine when he was on his way to 
quell the Whiskey Insurrection in 1794. Thomas Johnston 
was an ancestor on the maternal side of Johnston Moore, 
of Carlisle, and Dr. Johnston McLanahan, of our Society. 
Abraham Smith, who commanded the battalion in which the 
Johnstons held such conspicuous rank, was in Antrim 
Township before 1747, and James McLanahan, the ancestor 
of the McLanahans, before 1742. One of James McLanar 
ban's grandsons was James X. McLanahan, member of 
Congress from this district, 1849-53. Others of the early 
settlers whose posterity I might trace for you if I had time 
were John Mitchell, David Scott, Joseph Alexander, Thomas 
Brown, and Henry Pawling. Near Brown's Mill was John 
Potter. He was the first sheriff of Cumberland County. 
One of his sons, Thomas, was killed by the Indians at the 
time the Bard family was captured in Adams County, where 
he was on a visit. Another son, James, was brigadier- 
general of the Pennsylvania militia with Washington's army 
in 1777. Whether he was a good fighter I cannot say, but 
I know that in his letters to Washington his spelling was 
execrable. 

But here we are at home. We have little knowledge of 
the early settlers near Palling Spring, outside of Colonel 
Benjamin Chambers, upon whom the Muse of History con- 
ferred her most precious gifts, to the exclusion even of his 
ovrvL son. Colonel James Chambers, who took a company of 
riflemen from this part of the valley to Cambridge in 1775, 
and was lieutenant-colonel and colonel of the First Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Line, 1776-81. James Chambers's son Benja- 
min bore a conspicuous part in the organization of Indiana 
as a State, but we have entirely forgotten him. 

Such were the men of whom " Old Mother Cumberland" 
was the mother. 



48 Friends'' BurialrGroundy Burlington^ New Jersey. 



FEIENDS' BUEIAL-GEOUND, BUELINGTON, NEW 

JEESEY. 

BY ROWLAND J. BUTTON. 

The writer has been requested to prepare a sketch of the 
title to thie Friends' Burial-Ground in Burlington, New 
Jersey, and to furnish a list of the interments therein, so far 
as a record of them has been kept, under the belief that 
there are many descendants and collateral relatives of those 
named upon the record who would be interested in such a 
paper. In colonial times Burlington was closely allied with 
Philadelphia in its social and business interests and inter- 
course; consequently, many families residing in Philadel- 
phia and its neighborhood are included in the above-men- 
tioned descendants. 

Charles IT. of England having granted to his brother, the 
Duke of York, his heirs and assigns, an extensive tract of 
land, part of which was what is now the State of New Jer- 
sey, the latter " by his deeds of lease and release bearing 
date 23rd and 24th day of June 1664" granted to John 
Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret the tract by which 
they became sole proprietors of New Jersey. About 1675 
Lord Berkley sold his half to John Fenwick in trust for 
Edward Byllinge and his assigns. There being some diflfer- 
ences between Fenwick and Byllinge, they were settled to 
their satisfaction by the offices of William Penn. The latter 
was prevailed upon by Byllinge to take the trust of said 
tract in connection with Gawen Laurie and Nicholas Lucas, 
two of Byllinge's creditors. 

Among the purchasers of portions of the above-named 
tract were two companies, one of Friends from Yorkshire, 
and the other of Friends from London, who together founded 
the town on the present site of the city of Burlington. 

The first deed found relating to the property upon which 



Friends' Burial^Groundj Burlington^ New Jersey. 49 

the Friends' Meeting-House stands, and which includes the 
burial-ground, is as follows, viz. : 

** UbfB f ndentUrCt Made the fourteenth day of the Twelfth Month 
Conunonly Called February, in the year of Our Lord, according to the 
Computation used in England, One thousand six hundred and ninety & 
two — Betweene Sarah Farr of Farrsfield in the County of Burlington, in 
the Province of West New Jersey, widdow, Belie & Executrix of Elias 
Farr late of Farrsfield afores'd yeoman, deceased, of one part And Thomas 
Gardner of Burlington in the said County of Burlington Yeoman, Rich- 
ard Bassnett of the same, Innholder, James Marshall of the same M'^ch* : 
Henry Grubb of the same Innhold", John Daye of the County of Bur- 
lington aforesaid, Yeoman, Isaac Marriott of Burlington aforesaid M^ch* : 
James Hill of the same, Cord wayner, and Peter Frettwell of the same, 
Tanner, of the other part. 

<< Whereas, the aforesaid Elias Farr (the late husband of the said 
Sarah Farr) by his last Will and Testament, bearing date the Five & 
Twentieth day of December Anno 1691 — after several sums of Money or 
Legacies by him therein given, and bequeathed, did nominate make and 
ordayne the said Sarah Farr (his wife) ftill and sole Executrix of his said 
Last Will and Testament, to whom he did therein give & bequeath (after 
sundry Charges, Debts and Legacies paid and discharged) all the residue 
of his Estate both reall and personall whatsoever and wheresoever not 
therein given and bequeathed As by this same Last Will & Testament 
(duly and legally proved att Burlington aforesaid, and remaining in the 
Registers office there) reference thereunto being had may fully and att 
large appear. 

''Now THI8 Indenture Witke88ETH, that as well for and in Con- 
sideration of Tenn shillings currant money within the Province aforesaid 
by the said Thomas Gardner, Richard Bassnett, James Marshall, Henry 
Grubb, John Daye, Isaac Marriott, James Hill & Peter Frettwell to her 
the said Sarah Farr, before the sealing and delivery thereof, in hand paid 
whereof and wherewith shee doth hereby acknowledge herself fully satis- 
fied, contented and paid — as also, and more especially for and in con- 
sideration of the love, £Eivor and affection which she hath and beareth 
towards that Society, Body or Congregation of Friends in Burlington 
aforesaid (commonly called Quakers) with whom shee doth now join in 
fellowshippe, congregate and walk : And to the intent therefor, that the 
land and premises hereinafter mentioned and expressed, shall and may 
from henceforth forever hereafter. Enure, continue, remain, and be to 
and for the peculiar benefit, accommodation, advantage, and behoofe, of 
the same society, or body of Friends, successively, shee the said Sarah 
Farr hath given, granted, and Sold, Allyened, Enfeoffed, and Confirmed, 
VOL. XXIV. — 4 



50 Friends^ Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ Nexo Jersey. 

and by these presents doth fnllv, clearly and absolutely give, grant, and 
Sell Alyen Enfeofie and Confirm unto the said Thomas G^dner, Richard 
Bassnett, James Marshall, Henry Grubb, John Daye, Isaac Marriott, 
James Hill & Peter Frettwell Feoffees in Trust and to their successors 
from time to time successively to be nominated, elected, and chosen upon 
the decease of any of the Feoffees by their surviving Feoffees or the major 
part of them forever — One peece or parcel of land fronting the High 
Street in Burlington aforesaid being part or parcell of the land to her the 
said Sarah Farr there laid forth and surveyed for her Towne Lot and to 
her apperteyning in right of her share or shares of Land in the said Prov- 
ince of West New Jersey which said granted or hereby mentioned to be 
granted peece or parcell of Land containes in Breadth Seaventy four foot 
and in Length extending to the next street called Wood Street Westerly 
and agjoyning southerly upon the other Parcell of Land to her the said 
Sarah Farr belonging, Conteyning Forty foot in Breadth (and which was 
with the said Seaventy foure foot of Land hereby granted also laid forth 
and surveyed to and for her the said Sarah) And adjoyning northerly 
upon the Land commonly called John Pennford's Land. — ^Together alsoe 
with all and singular wayes, waters, easements, priviledges, advantages, 
and appurtances whatsoever to the said granted or mentioned to be 
granted premises belonging or in anywise apperteyning — And all the 
Estate, Right, Tytle, Interest, use, possession, property, Clayme and de- 
mand whatsoever of her the said Sarah Farr as well in Law as in fruity, 
and either of them of in or unto the same, or any part or parcell thereof. 
— ^And the Reversion and Reversions Remainder and Remainders thereof 
— and of every part thereof — ^To have and to hold the said Lott of Land 
and granted Premises and every part and parcell thereof with the Ap- 
purtenances unto the said Feoffees and to their Successor and Successors, 
successively elected and chosen from time to time as aforesaid forever — 
In trust nevertheless to and for the onely use and uses hereinafter per- 
tdcularly mentioned and expressed and to or for noe other use intent, or 
purpose whatsoever — ^That is to say such part thereof for a convenient 
Burying place or burying ground and the other part thereof for the 
Erecting of such Building and Buildings thereupon with such suitable 
conveniences to the same As in the judgement and discretion of the said 
Feoffees and their successors for the time then being or the major part of 
them from time to time seem most meet and expedient — ^The same Bury- 
ing ground when laid forth, and Building and Buildings when erected 
with the Conveniences thereto as aforesaid, and the issues, profiitts and 
advantages thereof, to be, Continue and Remain to and for the use, 
benefit and advantage of the same Society or body of Friends as afore- 
said forevermore — ^And the said Sarah Farr for hereelfe, her Heirs Ex- 
ecutors and Administrators doth covenant, grant, and agree to and with 
the said Feoffees and their successors by these presents in manner and 



Friends^ JBurial-Groimdj Burlington^ New Jersey. 51 

forme following (That is to Bay) That shee the said Sarah Farr att the 
time of th' ensealing and delivery of those presents hath good right, full 
power, and absolute and lawfull authority to give grant Alyen, Convey 
and Confirm the said peece or parcell of Land and all other the said 
granted or mentioned to be granted with th' appurtenances (to and for 
the use and behoof aforesaid) unto the said Feoffees and their Successors, 
as aforesaid forever, according to the tenour true intent and meaning of 
these presents. And alsoe that shee the said Sarah Farr and her Heirs, 
Executors, and Administrators, the said peece or parcell of Land hereby 
given, granted and sold or mentioned or intended to be herein and hereby 
granted and sold with the rights priviledges advantages and Appurtances 
thereto belonging unto the said Feoffees and their successors forever 
(from time to time to be elected as aforesaid) against her the said Sarah 
Farr and her Heirs and against the Heirs of the aforesaid Elias Farr and 
against all and every other person and persons whatsoever lawftilly Claym- 
ing or to Claym by from or under her, them, or any of them, shall and 
will Warrant and forever defend by these presents — ^And further that the 
said Feoffees and their successors as aforesaid (for by and under the yearly 
Quit Bents accustomarily from henceforth issuing and payable forth of 
the said granted premises unto the Chiefe Lord or Lords of the said 
Province) shall or lawfully may from time to time and att all times for- 
ever hereafter peaceably and quietly have hold occupie posesse and injoy 
the said peece or parcel of Land and granted premises and every part and 
parcel thereof with th' appurtenances and take and receive the issues 
profittfi and advantages thereof to the onely use and uses in these pres- 
ents before declared without the Lawful Lett, Suit, Trouble, denyal, 
Eviction and Ejection, molestation or disturbance of her the said Sarah 
Farr, her Heirs, Executors or Administrators or of from or by the Heires 
of the aforesaid Elias Farr or of any other person or persons whatsoever 
lawfully Clayming or to Clayme by from or under her them or any of 
them, or by her, their, or any of their means assent, consent, act. Title 
privity or procurement. 

** And Lastly that shee the said Sarah Farr and her Heires, shall 
& will at all and every time and times, hereafter during the tyme and 
space of Seaven yeares next ensuing the date hereof, att the reasonable 
request, Costs and charges of the said Feoffees and their Successors afore- 
said or the major part of them, make doe, acknowledge, and execute or 
cause or procure to be made done, acknowledged and executed all and 
every or any such further and other lawful Act and Acts, Thing and 
Things Conveyances and Assurances in the Law whatsoever for the fur- 
ther, better, more full, and perfect Conveying Confirming, and Assuring 
the said granted premises and every and any part or parcell thereof with 
th' appurtenances unto the said Feoffees and their successors for the time 
being aforesaid forever to the use and uses aforesaid according to the 



52 Friends^ BurialrGroundj Bttrlingtmy New Jersey. 

purport, true intent and meaning of these presents As by the said Feoffees 
and their Successors for the tyme then being or the major part of them 
shall be reasonably devised, advised, or required Soe as the Person or 
Persons to whom such request shall be made be not Compelled or hereby 
or thereby Compellably to Travel or goe further than to the Town of 
Burlington aforesaid for the making doeing or Executing thereof And 
soe as such further Assurance Contained noe further or other Covenants 
or Warranty than according to the Tenour of these presents. 

'*In Witness whereof the said partie First above named to this 
present Indenture hath sett her hand and hereunto affixed her scale the 
day and yeare First above written. 

(Signed) "Sarah Fabb [seal] 

** Signed, sealed and delivered 
the day and yeare that 
is within written 

'' In the presence of us, 

** Edwabd Hukloke 

Dep. Oov^, 

**Tho. Revel Justice 
"Thomas Bibb 
"William W. Gill 

his 

"Michael X Bould." 

mark 

The next deed in order of date is the following, which 
conveys what is now the whole property occupied hy the 
meeting-house and burial-grounds, extending from High 
Street, uniform width, to Wood Street, which is as follows, 
viz.: 

** XCbiB f ndenttttCt Made the Twentieth third day of October in 
the Seventh yeare of the Reigne of Anne of Great Brittain, France & 
Ireland Queen &c and in the year of Our Lord One thousand Seven 
hundred and Eight 

"Between John Budyard of Perth Amboy within the Ck)unty of 
Middlesex & Province of New Jersey, Mariner, of the One part. And 
Samuel Bunton, of Chesterfield, Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, and 
Thomas Baper of the Town of Burlington, all of the County of Burling- 
ton and Province afibresaid, of the other part — ^Witnesseth 

<< Whereas Thomas Budyard Esq. did together with John Biges Cit- 
izen and Skinner of London Purches of William Penn of Bickmansworth, 
in the County of Hertford Esq, Gawen Laurie of London Merchant, 



Friends^ BurialrGrcmnd^ Burlingt(m^ New Jersey. 53 

Nicholas Lucas off Hertford in the County of Hertford, Malster, and 
Edward Bylling of Westminster, County of Midelses Gen", one equal 
and undivided hundredth part of that tract of land in America Called & 
known by the name of West New Jersey now the Westerly Devision of 
New Jersey, to be Equally Divided between the said Thomas Budyard 
& John Riges as tennants in Comon, as by theire Deed of Lease and 
Belease bareing Date the first and second days of March Anno y* 
Domi 1676 Relation thereunto being had it may & will more att Large 
Appear. 

'* And Whereas the Said Thomas Rudyard, Deceased, by his Last 
Will and testament bareing Date on or about the seventh day of Decem- 
ber in the year of Our Lord for One thousand Six hundred Eighty and 
five Did Give and Devise unto the said John Rudyard party to these 
presents by the Name of John Rudyard his Natural son, the above men- 
tioned and Recited halfe propriety or hundred part, but for want of Words 
of Inheritance, in the Said Last Will and testament doth only Extend to 
an Estate for Life, As by Said Last Will and testament may more att 
Large Appear. — ^Axd Whereas, Benjamin Rudyard Deceased, the Son 
and Heire of the Said Thomas Rudyard Deceased, Did by Good and 
Sufficient Conveyance in the Law Did Grant Bargaine Sell Release 
Assure Confirm unto George Willocks of Perth Amboy Within the Prov- 
ince, Marchant, And Margaret his Wife Daughter of the Said Thomas 
Rudyard Deceased, all the Lands, Proprietys, Plantations Reversions, 
Remainders, and Appurtenances Which Desended to him as heire 
abovesaid Within the Provinces of East and West New Jersey — ^now the 
Province of New Jersey to them and theire heirs forever, as in and by a 
Cartaine Deed or Instrument Remaining upon y* Publick Records of 
New Jersey and bareing Date the thirtenth day of Febuary Anna Domini 
1692 may more att Large Appear. Now the said Greorge Willocks and 
Margaret his Wife by their Indenture of Convayance bareing Dated the 
twelfe day of October Anno Domino 1708 hath in these Words Given 
Granted alleined Remised and Released (amongst other Lands) one tract 
of Land Lying and Being in Burlington aforesaid Containing One acre 
and halfe and Lyeth on y* West Side of the High Street, and so back- 
wards to the next Street. 

''WITNESSETH that the said G^rge Willocks and Margaret his Wife, 
the only surviving Child of the said Thomas Rudyard Deceased for the 
Love and Affection they bare unto the said John Rudyard as well as for 
and in Consideration of y* sume of five Shillings the Receipt Whereof 
they do hereby acknowledge Have Given Granted Alleined Remised Re- 
leased and forever Quited Clayme unto y* said John Rudyard his heirs 
and Assignes all the Estate, Right title Intrust Reversion Remainder 
Clayme and Demand that they the said G^rge Willocks and Margaret 
his Wife have or ought to have Either by vertue of the Above Mentioned 



54 Friends^ Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 

Conveyance from Benjamin Rudyard or by Right of Inheritance as being 
the only surviving Child of said Thomas Rudyard Deceased to y* Lands 
therein mentioned &c 

'*Now THIS Indenture Witnesseth that for and In Consideration 
of the Just and full Sume of Sixty pounds Curent silver money within 
the Westerly Division of said Province of New Jersey by them the said 
Samuel Bunton, Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, & Thomas Raper in 
hand paid att and befor the Ensealing and Delivery of these presents the 
Receipt whereof hee the said John Rudyard doth hereby acknowledge 
and therewith holdeth himselfe fully Sattisfied Contented and paid — doth 
hereby fully and Clearly and Absolutely Acquit Release and Discharge 
them the said Samuel Bunton Peter Frettwell Thomas Gardiner, and 
Thomas Raper, their and Every of their heirs, Executors Administrators 
and Assignes forever by these presents — ^by these presents Hath Granted 
Bargained and Sold Aliened Ekifeofed and Confirmed and by these pres- 
ents doth fully and Freely Grant bargaine and sell Enfeofe and Confirm 
unto them the said Samuel Bunton, Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gkrdiner 
and Thomas Raper theire heirs and Assigns forever — One tract of Land 
Lying and being on y* West Side of the High Street in Burlington afore- 
said Containing One acre and halfe and Runneth back to the Second 
Street and it that tract of Land whereon the people called Quakers hath 
Builded their Meeting house &c — 

** To Gether With all and singular the Ways Passages Yards Backsides 
Buildings Mines Mineralls and all other the Royalties Proffittes Comod- 
ities Hereditaments and appurtanances unto the Said One Acre and halfe 
of Land, belonging or in any Wise Appertaining. And all the Right 
title Intrust Possession Propriety Clayme and Demand Whatsoever of 
him the said John Rudyard both in Law or Equity of into or Out of the 
hereby Granted Land and Premises with their Appurtenances and Every 
part and parcell thereof and the Reversion and Reversions Remainder 
and Remainders thereof, and of Every part and parcell thereof. To 
Have and to hold the One Acre and halfe of Land and hereby Granted 
and Bargained Premises and Every part and parcell thereof unto them 
the said Samuel Bunton, Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, and Thomas 
Raper, their heirs and Assignes forevermore — And the said John Rud- 
yard for himself, his heirs Executors Administrators and Every of them 
doth Covenant and Grant to and with them the said Samuel Bunton, 
Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner and Thomas Raper, their heirs and 
Assigns by this presents, that att the time of the Ensealing and Delivery 
of these presents hee the said John Rudyard Hath Qood Right fiill 
Power Lawfull and Absolute Authority to Grant Bargaine and Sell the 
said One acre and halfe of Land and premises and Every part and par- 
cell thereof with appurtenances unto them the said Samuel Bunton, Peter 
Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, and Thomas Raper their heirs and Assignes 



Friends^ Burial-Ground^ Burlington, New Jersey. 55 

forever, — ^according to the purport true intent and Meaning of these 
presents. 

** And Alsoe that the said One acre and halfe of Land and premises, 
and Every part and parcell thereof with Appurtenances shall from hence- 
forth forevei: Kemaine and Continue unto the said Samuel Bunton, Peter 
Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner and Thomas Baper, their heirs and Assignee 
Freely and Clearly Acquitted Exonerated and Discharged of and from 
all and all manner of other and former Bargains, Sales, Gifts, Grants, 
Dowers, Joyntures, Leases, Rents, Charges of Bents Entails, Judgements, 
forfeitures, Executions and all or any other Incumbrances Whatsoever 
further than the Quitt Rents thereout Issueing to our Soveren Lady the 
Queen, her heirs and Successors, and the Arrerages thereof If any be. 

*'And Alsoe that them the said Samuel Bunton, Peter Frettwell, 
Thomas Grardiner, and Thomas Raper their heirs and Assignes Shall and 
May from henceforth forever Peaceably and Quietly have hold use occupy 
posses and Enjoy the Said One acre and halfe of Land and premises and 
every part and parcell thereof and Receave and take the Rents, Issues 
and Profitts thereof Without y* let or interuption Deniall or Contradic- 
tion of the said John Rudyard his heirs or assignes or the heirs of 
Thomas Rudyard Deceased or George Willocks or Margaret his Wife or 
their or Either of their heirs or of any other person or any other person 
Clayming or to Clayme under him her or any of them by these presents 
Shall forever be utterly Excluded and Debared 

** And Further, hee the said John Rudyard and all persons Claym- 
ing or to Clayme by from or under him Shall and Will att all times here- 
after During the Space of Seven Years next Following Date of these 
presents Shall and Will att the Reasionable Request Cost and Charge of 
them the said Samuel Bunton Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, and 
Thomas Raper their heirs and Assignes make doe and suffer or cause or 
procure to be made don or suffered all such Further and Other Lawfull 
Cost and Costs Matters or things Whatsoever for the further better more 
full and perfect Convaying and Assuring of the hereby Granted and bar- 
gained Land and premises and Every part and parcell thereof with Ap- 
purtenances unto them the said Samuel Bunton, Peter Frettwell, Thomas 
Gardiner and Thomas Raper, their heirs and Assignes forever, according 
to the true Intent and Meaning of these presents as by the said Samuel 
Bunton, Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, and Thomas Raper their heirs 
and Assignes shall be Reasionably devised, advised, or Required Soe as 
the person or persons to whom such Request shall be made be not hereby 
compelled or compelable to travill not above the Space of twenty miles 
from the place of his or her usual aboad for the Doeing and Executing 
thereof. 

''And soe as such Further Assurances Contain noe other nor Further 
Covenants than in these presents is comprised. 



56 Friends^ JBurialrGround^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 

''In Witness Whereof the party first above named to these present 
Indenture Hath Interchangably Sett his hand and Seale the Day month 
and year first above written &c — 1708. 

(Signed) **Jno. Rudyard [seal] 

** Sealed and Delivered 
in the presents off 
his 

**Geo. O Willing 

mark 

** Samuel Fbettwell 
"Emantjell Smith" 

'* October 2Srd 1708 

** Received then of y* above named Samuel Bunton Peter Frettwell, 
Thomas Gardiner and Thomas Raper y* above mentioned sume of sixty 
pounds being y* fiill consideration sume for me. 

**JoHN Rudyard 
Attest 

his 
"George Q Willing 

mark 

* * Samuel Frettwell 
"Emanuell Smith." 

The above deed is endorsed upon the back : 

*' October 2Srd 1708— 

"Then came before me Richard Ingoldsby Esq Left. Qoy* of the 
Provinces of New Jersey and New York the within named John Rud- 
yard and acknowledged the Within Deed to be his act and Deed therefor 
I allow y* same to be Recorded. 

''Richard Ingoldsby 
"January 4"" 1711 Entered in the Publique Records of New Jersey 
Lib. A. A. A. Fol. 385 & 386 by me 

"J. E. Bass'' 

[The Thomas Rudyard referred to in this deed was a lawyer of 
London, noted for his assistance at the trial of Penn and Mead. He was 
appointed by the Twelve Proprietors of East Jersey deputy-governor. 
Robert Barclay (author of the Apology) having been appointed for life 
the governor in 1683. — See "Smith's History of New Jersey."] 

On the 9th day of Fourth month, 1736, all the trustees, 
Samuel Bunting, Peter Frettwell, Thomas Gardiner, and 
Thomas Eaper, being deceased, — 



Friends' BurialrGround^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 57 

" John Bunting the Son and Heir of Samuel Bunting the 
surviving Feoffee who was the longest liver of the afore- 
mentioned Feoffees," conveyed the one acre and a half to 
William Morris, Eiehard Smith, Joshua Raper, Daniel 
Smith, Robert Smith, Joshua Barker, Thomas Pryor, John 
Buffin, Marmaduke Watson, in trust 

The declaration of trust being signed by all the above 
the same day. 

On the 28th day of Ninth month, 1770, William Morris, 
Robert Smith, and Thomas Pryor, surviving trustees under 
the deed of the 9th day of Fourth month, 1736, conveyed 
the one acre and a half in trust to John Hoskins, Daniel 
Smith, Samuel AUinson, Clayton Newbold, Stacy Potts, 
Caleb Newbold, Henry Burr, John White, Joseph Smith, 
William Dillwyn, Joseph Scholey, and Isaiah Robins. 

The declaration of trust is dated fifth day of Eleventh 
month, 1770, and signed by all the above-named trustees. 

On the 14th day of Twelftli month, 1810, John Hoskins, 
Clayton Newbold, Joseph Smith, Isaiah Robins, and Wil- 
liam Dillwyn, by his attorneys, Samuel Emlen and John 
Cox (W. D. at that time living in England), conveyed the 
one acre and a half (and defining the courses and distances 
and position of party lines for the first time, as agreed upon 
between a committee appointed by the Quarterly Meeting 
on the 19th day of 12th month, 1797, and the owners of 
the adjacent properties) to John Deacon, William AUinson, 
Caleb Gaskill, Richard M. Smith, Peter H. Ellis, Samuel 
Bunting, Benjamin Zelley, Charles Gaakill, Benjamin Sat- 
terthwait, and Benjamin Clark, Jr. 

All of them signed the declaration of trust, dated 26th 
day of Second month, 1811. 

On the 21st day of Sixtli month, 1837, John Deacon, 
William AUinson, Caleb Gaskill, Peter H. Ellis, Samuel 
Bunting, and Benjamin Satterthwaite conveyed the one acre 
and a half (defining the courses and distances) to Robert 
Thomas, Daniel WUls, Thomas Dutton, Joseph Borton, 
William J. AUinson, Joel H. Middleton, Samuel AUinson, 



68 Friends' Burial^Ground, Burlington^ New Jersey. 

Jr., Isaac Craft, Daniel Satterthwaite, and Watson New- 
bold. 

The declaration of trust was signed by all the above- 
named trustees on the 29th day of Eighth month, 1837. 

On the 27th day of Fifth month, 1890, Isaac Craft, being 
the only surviving trustee of the above, conveyed the premi- 
ses, defining lines and distances, to Rowland J. Dutton, 
Richard Mott, Thomas Lee Haines, William Bishop, George 
Wood, Samuel P. Bartlett, Merritt W. Pharo, Charles 
Wright, Jr., John B. Comfort, and John Dalziel, and the 
declaration of trust was signed by all of them at that date. 

The portion of tlie ground that was laid oft* for a burial 
ground contains about an acre. It was formerly enclosed 
by a paling fence on the east end and by a close board fence 
along the driveway to the carriage-sheds on the south side. 

About forty years ago the old fence was removed. 

It is to be regretted that there was no careful record kept 
of the interments there until about the year 1828, at which 
time Robert Thomas and Thomas Button, with the assist- 
ance of a former aged sexton, Joseph Pearce, and of John 
Weaver (acting in that capacity at that time), prepared the 
first map of the ground, and made a record of the inter- 
ments, so far as the sextons could locate them. 

The removing of the old fence took away some of the 
landmarks, which were guides in locating the graves and 
spaces upon the map, and it became necessary to make an- 
other plan, which was done principally by William F. New- 
bold in the year 1870. 

In the new map the plot is laid out in twenty-eight 
sections, — ^thirteen sections being on the north side of the 
cement walk and the remaining fifteen on the south side 
of said walk. 

The numbering of the sections commences at the west 
end on the north side and ends at the west end on the south 
side. 

Most of the corners of the sections on the south side have 
been marked by marble posts with section numbers upon 



Fiiends' Burial-Ghvund, Burlington^ New Jersey. 69 

them. The sections of the north side are designated by the 
panels of the brick wall, which extends the whole distance 
on that side from High to "Wood • Streets, excepting the 
eastern section, No. 13, which takes in one and a half panels. 

The large buttonwood-trees at the eastern end of the yard 
are supposed by many to be original forest trees. Henry 
Armitt Brown, in his oration on the occasion of the bi-cen- 
tennial of the settlement of Burlington, referred to them as 
follows: "The twin sycamores by yonder meeting-house 
stand guard above a soil enriched wath the bones of six 
generations of your kindred." 

It is believed that a portion of this ground was used for 
burials from the earliest settlement of the town, — 1678, — al- 
though the first deed is dated 1692. There has been a 
tradition that tlie ground occupied by a portion of this and 
where Broad and Wood Streets are was an Lidian burial- 
ground ; but the only evidence of burials has been the find- 
ing of portions of skeletons on the south side of Broad 
Street east of Wood Street when digging the trenches for 
the water-pipes. 

The first record of interment in Burlington is the follow- 
ing extract from " Smith's History of New Jersey" (see note 
foot of page 93) : 

" John Kinsey was one of the Commission sent in 1677 
by the Proprietors of West Jersey to buy the lands of the 
natives, &c. ; he died at Shackamaxon soon after his land- 
ing; his remains were interred in Burlington in ground 
appointed for a burying ground but now a street." 

It is reasonable to suppose that this interment was in the 
street at the western end of the present burial ground, and 
that the street referred to is Wood Street, as Broad Street 
and High Street were laid out immediately by the settlers. 

From the time of this interment up to that within the 
memory of the old sextons consulted in 1828, — a period of 
considerably over a century, — there must have been buried 
in^this ground many persons who were actively and usefiiUy 
prominent in the afeirs of the Province and State, such as 



60 Friends'* Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 

Gk)vernorB Samuel Jennings and Thomas Olive, and other 
leading men, as William Peachy, Thomas Gardiner, Eobert 
Staeye, and many others. 

The Indian king, " Ockaniekon," died about 1681. 
" Smith tlie Historian" states " he was attended to his grave 
in the Quakers' burial place in Burlington wdth solemnity 
by the Indians in their manner, and with great respect by 
many of the English settlers, to whom he had been a sure 
friend." 

For an interesting interview with his nephew shortly be- 
fore his death, see " Smith's History," pages 148 to 150. 

By reference to the memoir of John Smith, who married 
the daughter of James Logan, of Stenton, it appears that he 
was interred in this burial ground, but there is no record of 
the locality of his grave. 

In the early minutes of the meeting there is an entry, — 

" Peter Woolcott. is wilHng to make Graves — and Friends 
are willing to see him paid an Old English Shilling for such 
mens and womens graves y* may not be paid for by y* per- 
sons y* employ him." 

Bernard Davendish^ was sexton in 1689. James Sat- 
terthwaite succeeded him in 1695. 

John Jay Smith, in his " Recollections" (page 356), states 
that his great-grandfether, Richard Smith (No. 4), died at 
Amboy 11 mo. 9th, 1751, and was interred in Burlington^ 
New Jersey. 

The Pennsylvania Gazette of 11 mo. 21, 1751, records, — 

" Last week died Richard Smith Esq of Burlington West 
New Jersey, and was buried in Friends burial ground in 
that city ; in whom the character of a generous, good nar 
tured, hospitable man, of a true patriot, and a good Christian 
were so truly blended, that he lived beloved and esteemed 
by all that knew him, and his death is lamented as a public 
loss by the people of tliat province." 

' Spelled in some old documento **Devoni8h.*' 
(To be continued.) 



Pennsylvania and the English Government^ 1699-1704,. 61 



PENNSYLVANIA AND THE ENGLISH GOVERNMENT, 

1699-1704. 

BY HERMAN V. AMES, UNIVERSITY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

[The following tranBcriptB of manuscript documents in the British 
Record Office, London, were made by the undersigned during the past 
summer. These extracts are typical of the valuable unpublished ma- 
terial relating to the Colonial History of Pennsylvania, which is con- 
tained in two series of Colonial Entry Books, entitled ** Proprieties" and 
''Plantations General" respectively. A half a century ago the Histori- 
cal Society of Pennsylvania published in its series of Memoirs (Vol. IV., 
Part II., pp. 225-385) '* A Catalogue of Papers relating to Pennsylvania 
and Delaware, deposited at the State Paper Office," covering the period 
1670-1718. This catalogue is not complete, and the references cited 
have been to a considerable extent superseded, owing to the &ct that a 
few years after its publication all the papers were removed to the new 
Record Office, where they have been rearranged and reclassified. 

An excellent description of the number and classification of the docu- 
mentary material relative to America, preserved in the Record Office, is 
given by the late W. Noel Sainsbury, formerly Assistant Keeper of the 
Public Records, in an article entitled **The British Record Office, and 
Materials in it for Early American History," in American Antiquarian 
Society Publications, meeting held in Boston, April 26, 1893 ; Worces- 
ter, 1893 ; as also in a paper by Professor Charles M. Andrews on 
American Colonial History, 1690-1750, in the Annual Report of the 
American Historical Association, 1898, pp. 55-57. No more important 
contribution could be made to the Colonial History of this State than 
the publication of all the important documents calendared in the above- 
mentioned catalogue, as well as others now in the Record Office col- 
lections, relating to Pennsylvania. By so doing this State would be 
following the example of several of the other original States. 

The following documents fall into two groups, the first comprising a 
selection of Letters of Colonel Robert Quary, the second Letters and Re- 
ports of the Board of Trade. The author of these letters. Colonel Robert 
Quary, after having been Governor of South Carolina in 1684 and 1690, 
4md, at one period intervening. Secretary of the Province, was appointed 
Judge of the Admiralty in New York and Pennsylvania, where he is 
first met with about 1697. In 1704 he was promoted to the office of 
'Surveyor-General of the Customs of America to succeed Edward Ran- 



62 Fenrisylvania and (he English Govenimentj 1699-1704- 

dolph. In addition to filling these offices, he was a member of the Ck)un- 
cil of at least four of the Colonies at the same time. (New York Col. 
Doc., V. 471.) From the character of his voluminous correspondence 
it is apparent that he was an enemy of proprietary governments in gen- 
eral, and that of Pennsylvania in particular, and in consequence was 
very zealous in presenting accusations against both Penn and the people 
of Pennsylvania. His own character was not above suspicion, as he had 
been charged, at two different times, with complicity with pirates. Penn 
describes him as ** the greatest of villains and (rod will I believe, con- 
found him in this world for his lies, falsehood and supreme knavery." 
(Penn-Logan Corresp., II. 289.) The Board of Trade, however, seem 
to have relied quite fully upon his reports of the condition of the differ- 
ent colonies, as they frequently cite his letters in their reports to the 
Crown or to Parliament. His death occurred about the year 1712. 
New York Col. Doc, V. 199, note ; New Jersey Arch., II. 280, note ; 
Shepherd, Proprietary Government in Pennsylvania, 399, 502, note, 
503, ff. ; Bolles, Pennsylvania, I. 177-179. 

In the catalogue published in Memoirs of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania (Vol. IV. Part II.) forty letters and memorials (between 
1697-1709) of Colonel Quary are calendared. Six of these have been 
published, in whole or in part, as follows : 

1699, June 1. Cited Mem. IV., Part II. 289; published N. J. 
Arch., n. 277. 

1699, June 6. Ibid., 289, 290 ; N. J. Arch., II. 280. 

1703, October 15. Ibid,, 344 ; N. J. Arch., III. 7. 

1704, May 30. Ibid., 348; N. Y. Col. Doc., IV. 1082; N. J. 
Arch., III. 52. 

1707, June 28. Ibid,, 363 ; N. Y. Col. Doc., V. 17. 

1709, December 2. Ibid,, 372 ; N. Y. Col. Doc., V. 114. 

Five other letters of his, not cited in the above-mentioned catalogue, 
are in print, as follows : 

1702, June 17. To the Lords of Trade, opposing appointment of 
Andrew Hamilton as Governor of West New Jersey, N. J. Arch., 
II. 479. 

1703, June 16. To the Lords of Trade. An Account of the Condi- 
tion of the Colonies, N. Y. Col. Doc, FV. 1045. 

1707/8, January 10. To the Lords of Trade An Account of the 
Defences of the Colonies, N. Y. Col. Doc, V. 30; N. J. Arch., 
m. 271. 

1709 / 10, February 10. To the Lords of Trade An Account of the 
Maryland Assembly, N. Y. Col. Doc, V. 161. 

1710, July 5. Letter to Mr. Pulteney. An Account of GJovernor 
Hunter's Administration in New Jersey and New York, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, V. 165; N. J. Arch., FV. 6. 



Pennsylvania and the English Government^ 1699-1704. 63 

The following extracts from six letters of Colonel Quary are selected 
from the period 1700-1704, and, as far as known, have not been before 
published. All but the first are apparently cited in the catalogue, al- 
though in the case of the third under a different date. 

The second group of extracts are taken from Reports and Letters of 
the Board of Trade of the period 1699-1703, and relate to the affairs of 
Pennsylvania in particular, or to the Proprietary Colonies in general.] 



Extracts from a Letter of Colonel Robert Quary, June 19 j 1700} 

" The next thing that I will offer to your Honour consid- 
eration to the present State [of] this Province, it grows 
very Populous, and the people are generally very laborious 
k industrious, they have improved tilledge to that degree 
that they have made bread, flower and Beer a drugg in all 
the Markets in the West Indies, so that finding that Trade 
over done they resolve to go on with the planting of Tobacco 
in the three upper Countys where never any was planted as 
yett, the land is very proper for it and will produce very 
bright Tobacco, the number of people, and their Industry 
will produce vast quantitys, they find the necessity of going 
upon this Comodity for they have no other way of making 
returns home for England, the want of which makes this 
place at present very miserable ; I am sure there is more 
than six times the value of Goods imported than is exported 
which is the reason that the money is carried away, I can 
assure your Hon" that it will be as much for the Kings In- 
terest to secure the Trade of this Bay as that of Maryland, 
and in a little time they will vie with that Government." 

Extracts froni a Letter of Colonel JRobeii Quary, dated Phila- 
delphia, November 1^, 1700.^ 

" I do humbly beg your Lordships patience to lay before 
you the effects which this extraordinarj^ Inhibition or Com- 

1 Proprieties, B. 228, 229 ; Plantations General, B. 284 ; cf. Board 
of Trade Journal, E. 88. 
* Proprieties, B. 421-27. 



64 Pennsylvama and the English Grovenimenty 1699-1704-. 

mission hath already produced,^ and what the consequence 
of it will be, they have already raised all the reflections and 
aftronts tKey could devise on the Bangs Advocate and my 
self, giving out that we were sent for to England and there 
to be find to our ruin, and whatever we have or shall do 
wll be made void at home ; but all this noise made no im- 
pression on me, nor did I take any notice of it, till I found 
that they had prevailed on Gov. Penn, so far as to make him 
violate that Solemn promise which he was pleased to give 
me and so ofl:en confirm (ed), viz : That he would not in 
the least invade the Eights and Jurisdiction of the Admi- 
ralty, but that I should exercise all the powers of your Lord- 
ships Commission though he thought there were some things 
that bore hard on him, however he would content himself 
with a representation of it to your Lordships and Expect 
your opinion and directions in the Matter. I gave your 
Lordships an Account of this in my former, but now his 
Friends have so far prevailed on him that with out any re- 
gard to this promise he hath lately granted Commissions to 
all the Sheriffi of the Counties (a copy of which with the 
Decree I have here inclosed to your Lordships) by which 
you will see that in effect he hath broke into the Jurisdiction 
of the Admiralty, and invaded all most all the powers, I 
have discourst him about it, who is pleased to assert it as his 
right & that the Admiralty hath no jurisdiction within the 
body of the County, so that consequently, if I must not Exe- 
cute the powers of your Lordships Commission within the 
body of the County, then I must go out of the Capes, which 
is out of this Province, and that of West Jersey & beyond 
my Commission, I am empowered to Act within these Prov- 
inces but have no power to act without them, I was ex- 
tremely surprised to hear this Doctrine from Gov. Penn 
after so many promises to the contrary, and aft;er I had done 
him the Justice of representing all things home to your 
Lordships as much to his advantage as I could, all the dis- 

^ A deciBion of Sir Charles Hedges in the High Court of Admiralty 
releasing a vessel which had been seized in Pennsylvania. 



Pennsylvania and the English Grovemvwit, 1699-1704,. 65 

course of the Country is that the Admiralty Court is taken 
from this Province, and that now Gk)v. Penn hath appointed 
officers to Execute the powers of that Court, for my own 
part I have charity enough to believe that Gov. Penn would 
never have taken those measures were he not under a neces- 
sity of complying with his Quaker Friends especially at this 
Juncture when they are setting in Assembly & he expects 
considerable supply from them, I know the temper of those 
men so very well that I am sure that they will not part with 
their money unless they can govern as they please, so that 
Governor Penn is reduced to this great streight, if he com- 
plys wdth his here ; then he must violate all his promises 
which he hath made at home, for supporting the Bangs 
Authority in his Government, and if he doth not comply 
with them, then he must not expect any money from them. 
I doe heartily wnsh that silence in this case were consistent 
with my duty and the Trust which your Lordships have re- 
posed in me ; I am sure it would be far more satisfactory 
than to complain. I have a great regard for Mr. Penn and 
have not been wanting in my due respect to him, but I can 
not with out betraying your Lordships, omitt the Represen- 
tation of those Matters. I will beg leave farther to mind 
your Lordships, that there ought to be no time lost in re- 
establishing the King's Authority, and your Lordships powers 
in the Government, the proper method for effecting it is 
humbly submitted to your Lordships ^dsdome, and the effect 
these measures will have in the neighboring Colonys to the 
discouragement of the Admiralty (which is so much relied 
upon to secure the King's interests) is recommended to your 
Lordships thoughts, I have nothing farther to offer to your 
Lordships in relation to the Lihibition but to desire that you 
will be pleased to order that the King's Advocate and Coun- 
cill may attend this Cause to defend his Majesty's Literests 
k stop the reversall of this decree. 

" I do not question but that your Lordships will do us 
justice and not suffer the malicious underhand contrivances 

VOL. XXIV. — 5 



66 Pennsylvania and the English Govemmenty 1699-1704.. 

of our Enemies to take place. I have no favour to aak of 
them, being fiilly satisfied in my own conscience, that I have 
in all Matters that ever came before me Judged and Decreed 
betwixt the Eng and his Subjects according to Law and 
Justice, I am sure no Man in America ever took more pains 
to serve his Majesty than I have and perhaps with as good 
success, especially considering what a sort of perverse people 
I have had to struggle with ; I should not have found the 
effects of their Mallice could tliey have frightened or wheeded 
[wheedled] me from my Duty, and whenever I quitt the 
E3ngs service, I shall have their favour as much as any man, 
if I valued it." 

Extrojcts from a Letter of Colonel Quary, relating to Irregularities 
committed in the Plantation as also to the Trade and Defejice 
thereof March SI, 1702} 

" I now come to Pennsylvania, the circumstances of which 
place in relation to its illegal Trade would require a longer 
memorial, but this being designed only as General Heads, I 
shall at present confine my Self to the General Charge that 
an illegal Trade is carried on in that country and neighbor- 
hood rather w^orse than ever . . . 

" Mr Penn hath made a great noise about his Acts to pre- 
vent illegal Trade, but they have not been two pence advan- 
tage to the Queen, or so much as taken notice of since they 
were made, nor have they answered any one end, but that 
of his own, which was to make fair weatlier at home, and 
impose on the world, which point he hath gained. 

" I must now beg leave to lay before your Lordships the 
State and condition of these her Majesty's provinces as to 
their State of Defence. Should any Incursion or Livasion 
be made by the Lidians, and here I shall consider that the 
great number of her Majesty's subjects on the main are 
divided into a great many provinces, and in every one they 
are scattered and dispersed very wide asunder. So that it is 
1 Plantations General, C. 86, 90, 91, 98-106. 



Pennsylvania and the English Government^ 1699-1704.. 67 

impossible for any province to fortify the Frontiers against the 
Indians, nor can they maintain a constant Force in Arms to 
secure them. What then can hinder the Indians from falling 
into any of the plantations, and half mine them before they 
can be in a condition to defend themselves. I do very well 
know that Virginia and Maryland are under the best circum- 
stances, both in respect to the great number of men, and the 
advantage of having such experienced and vigilant Generals 
to command them on such Occasions, yet considering how 
they are dispersed and how badly most of them are armed ; 
Some have Guns, some none, but little amunition, and the 
most of them not fit for serWce, or action should there be 
Occasion ; All which considered, it is much to be feared, that 
should an Enemy fell into these Countries, it would be of 
fetal Consequence, many of the out Settlements must be cut 
off before the rest can be drawn into a Body to resist and 
repell the Force. Tho' I am sure at the same time nothing 
would be wanting in the Governour that is in the power of 
man to do. 

"Proprieties: — Now if we consider all the proprietary 
Governments, we shall find them in no wise capable to de- 
fend themselves. — Carolina nothing but anarchy and confu- 
sion. Some places perhaps have the name of a Militia, and 
that is all for they want arms and amunition and all things 
else for their defence, nor have they any act to enforce it. 
They wdll it may be once or twice in a year under the pre- 
tence of Exercise, when their buisness is wholly to be drunk. 
In some provinces there is neither Militia, arms nor amuni- 
tion, no not so much as a Military Commission, but the 
Queen's subjects are exposed to all the Miseries Imaginable 
both by Land and Sea, which is the Case of Pennsylvania. 
And yet Mr. Penn Endeavours all he can to invite all foreign 
Indians known to be Villains, and some French lately come 
from Canada, to come and settle in his Countey only for the 
benefit of a Trade with them, which he takes care wholy to 
ingross to himself by ordering the Indians not to permit any 
to trade with them, but such as can show an Indented 



68 Pennsylvania and the English Govemmenty 1699-170^. 

Lyoence and his Seal, What Mr. Perm's profit from this 
trade may be I know not, but am much afraid it will prove 
to be the loss of many thousands Subjects Lifes, if not 
speedely prevented by her Majesty's Care. I will now with 
all due submission to your Lordships better Judgment pro- 
ceed to show the Cure and remedy of all these Evils and 
mischeifs. 

" I do propose, as a most essential thing, that her Majesty 
do take all these proprietary governments into her own 
hands, That she will be pleased to appoint prudent Gover- 
nours and particularly in the province of Carolina. . . . That 
a law may be made to regulate the Indian Trade which will 
improve that Trade to a vast advantage, and may be a Fund 
to defray all the charge of the Government. ... I propose 
likewise that a Good Militia be settled in every province, so 
well fitted & armed, that they may be able and always in 
readiness to defend themselves and their neighbors. . . . 

" As for the other Governments to the Northward of Caro- 
lina, I can not for my part see any thing that can prevent 
great Destruction amongst them in Case of an Invasion by 
the Indians but a Considerable Garrison on the Frontiers of 
Albany, well supported and supplied. Nothing else can 
steady the five Nations to the English Interest. For when 
they find those Frontiers are so supported as that they may 
depend for security and Defence from thence, they will then 
continue firm and steadfiist which is of no small consequence, 
and if this was duly considered it ought (I think) to make 
the several Governments Sensible of their Danger, and exert 
their utmost endeavours to provide for their Common Se- 
curity, For whenever we loose those five Nations, it wall not 
only be the loss of so many Friends, but the adding so many 
powerful nations to our Enemies; There will be nothing 
then to hinder them from ranging over the Maine, and bring- 
ing ruine and destruction, on which Government they please. 

"Virginia and Maryland have often felt fatal and evil 
effects from these very Indians, even when they were 
Friends, and therefore ought to dread their Revolt. 



Pennsylvania and the English Govemnienty 1699-1704. 69 

" But 80 far are they from such necessary and reasonable 
consideration that the Present Assembly of Virginia are ot 
Opinion that the support of Albany doth no way concern 
them, which I must confess I could never have believed. 
Had I not been an Eye & an Ear Witness of it, and had 
I not seen those many powerful, significant and weighty 
reasons, which his Excellency the Gov' of Virginia made use 
of in his Several Speeches to show them their true Interest 
and Danger, and which he pressed with a generous and 
candid Temper and all the endearing calmness imaginable ; 
but all to no purpose. They were resolved neither to give 
any money nor send any Quota. Neither Reason, their own 
Safety, nor his late Majesty's Commands could prevaile. 
They were so possessed ^\dth these following mistaken 
notions 

" That the Government of New York had misinformed 
his majesty. 

" That the support of Albany was only to maintain an 
Indian Trade for that Government. 

"That considering the Distance. It did no way effect 
them ; whether the Frontiers of Albany were maintained or 
slighted. 

" That in Case of War they had enough to do to defend 
their own province, and that therefore their Country could 
not spare either Men or Money ; not considering that at the 
same time they put the Country to three times the Charge 
(in the time they spent in debating these matters) more than 
would have paid what the King required of them, and I find 
that this malignant humour is not confined to the Govern- 
ment of Virginia, but is diftused more or less through all the 
Settlements on the Maine. I have indeed spent some time 
and thoughts to find out the true Cause of this Strange Al- 
teration and Change, which is so remarkable in the humour 
and Tempers of the people in those parts. My long Ex- 
perience in the several Governments under her Majesty on 
the Maine gives me ye Advantage of knowing that no 
people could be more Loyal to their prince, more Obedient 



70 Pennsylvania and the English Grovernmentj 1699-1704,. 

to Law, more respectfiiU to Governour and more ready to 
Answer her Majesty's Commands. 

" That their Humours are of late Soured, and their Tem- 
pers in some respects changed, is Obvious to every Man. 
And for me to consider that it is (as indeed it is) the Interest 
and Security of all the Plantations on the Main to contribute 
towards the Support of Albany and its Frontiers, and that 
the Charge is so very inconsiderable. I say when I seriously 
consider all This, to see the Security and Unconcernedness 
of most Provinces on the Maine, and to see them so averse 
generally to the raising their respective Quota's, not only 
the proprietor Governments but those of the King Govts, it 
doth amaze and astonish me. I have sometimes believed 
that it might proceed from those late Licentious Common- 
wealth principles, too much improved in England and which 
hath been the Subject Matter of so many Scurrilous and 
Scandalous Pamphlets, enough to corrupt the Morals and 
Principles of good Men, if not well guarded against the per- 
nicious & subtle poison. But upon more Mature Considera- 
tion I have good reason to conclude that the Cause and Foun- 
dation of this Malignant humour is to be found near home ; I 
mean from the Several Neighbouring Charter Governments. 
And this may be easily demonstrated, if we consider that the 
people under the proprietors do very Seldom or never pay 
any Taxes for the Support of the Church or State. They 
entertain and encourage pirates. They carry on all Manner 
of Dlegal Trade, violate all the Acts made to prevent those 
Evnls. They affront the King, his Laws, Authority and 
Officers, and by all those Disloyall and unjust Actions they 
grow Rich and get Estates, and have hitherto escaped the 
punishment and just^reward of their Wickedness. This 
makes the people of the Queen's Government murmur and 
repine and puts them on thinking, what should be the reason 
that their next Neighbours and Fellow Subjects should enjoy 
more Ease, Liberty and Freedome, under the proprietor's 
Government than they do or can under her Majesty. 

"And that which aggravates their Discontents, these 



Pemisylvania and the English Government^ 1699-1704,, 71 

people of the proprietory Governments make it their Buis- 
ness to upbraid and reflect on them, as being Slaves and 
Miserable in Comparison of themselves. This I know to be 
a Constant Practice and produces ill Effects, I heartily wish 
proper and effectual Remedies may be applied before these 
discontented humours were improved to a greater height; 
and none other or better Expedient can be found than her 
Majesty's taking all the Governments into her own hands, 
Governing all, as near as possible may be, by One and the 
Same Law. This would make all Easy, Satisfied and Con- 
tented; And untill this can be effected and Compleated, I 
can propose a plain, Easy and Expeditious way for her 
Majesty to oblige all the provinces on the Maine, to pay 
their Several Quota's with out Murmur; But to do that, 
shall wait your Lordships Especial Commands. . . . 

" And since it is not possible for the Government of New 
York to support the Charge of all this alone, and as unrea- 
sonable that her Majesty should send money out of England 
for this purpose. There can be no better meanes or Expedient 
found out, that what his late Majesty hath already in his 
Wisdome proposed, that is by an equal proportion or Quota 
of the Several Governments in proportion to their Circum- 
stances ; than which nothing can be more just or reasonable. 
Especially since the titerest. Safety and Security of all the 
provinces depends so much upon the well guarding and de- 
fending those Frontiers. The Charge is very Easy and 
inconsiderable not to be felt by any of the people of the 
Government; I will give your Lordships a late Listance. 
The Assembly of Pennsylvania gave Mr. Penn at one Sitting 
two thousand pounds Clear of all Charges, Besides they have 
settled upon liim in Taxes to the Value of one Thousand 
pounds per Annum and upwards; And this was look'd 
upon as a very mean inconsiderable Present. He expected 
at least ten thousand pounds and perhaps in a little time will 
gdn his point. 

" Then please to consider how very inconsiderable their 
Quota is in Comparison of this, And as I am informed he 



72 Pennsylvania and the English Government^ 1699-1704,. 

has set on foot a Subscription for several thousands of pounds 
amongst the Quakers on his going home to prevent the Bill 
for Re-uniting the Charter Governments to the Crown, And 
sets forth that the Consequences of her Majesty's taking that 
Country into her hands will if not depopulate it, at leaat 
stint its Growth. So formidable is the Queen's Government 
rendred to these poor deludged people, and rendering her 
Majesty's other Subjects of Equal numbers inconsiderable, 
in the most depraviating Terms his Pen could invent, as I 
have it from some of themselves, that the Churche's Name 
is only taken in vain here. 

"But before I conclude I must beg Leave to tell your 
Lordships that I have been so happy as to see two Memo- 
rials relating to the proprietary Governments given by your 
Lordships to the Eight Honourable the House of Lords. — 
Nothing could bring greater Satisfaction to me than to find 
your Lordships so Zealous and Active for the Queen's Ser- 
vice in that particular, as to inform yourselves so fully of the 
illegal proceedings and abuses of these proprietary Govern- 
ments, and which indeed, may it please your Lordships, hath 
much encouraged me to lay this also before your Lordships 
and to assert that what was before by your Lordships laid 
before the Right Hon***® : the House of Lords, is plain Matter 
of Pact, and tlie Greatest part of all which is with in the 
compaas of my knowledge, besides abundance more of as 
great moment and consequence. I dare not in the least 
doubt but that your Lordships \vill make the proper use of 
this Memorial in and to her Majesty's service, which is the 
only End I aim at." 

Extracts from Letter from Colonel Qiuiry to Boards dated in 
Pennsylvania^ December 7, 170^.^ 

" ticlosed is a Copy of what I writt to your Lordships 
from Plymouth the very day that I sayled thence where you 
will find Some remarks on some of Mr. Penn's late grand 

1 Plantations General, C. 194, 200, 201, 208, 209. 



Pennsylvania and the English Grovenimmt^ 1699-170i. 78 

Charters which- he passed a few days before he left this 
Country ; As also on several other papers which I then did 
Inclose to your Lordships I did then promise your honours 
the attested Copy of the Several Charters. I was then afraid 
that I should meet with difficulty in procuring the said 
Coppys with out some order from your Lordships, which 
proves a certain truth. I have tryed all ways to purchase the 
said copys at any rate, but can not prevail, they Govern the 
Country by these Charters, and yet are afraid or ashamed to 
have them seen. Mr. Penn as it seems now having great 
assurance of Continuing his Government, then he had when 
he granted these extravagant Charters which Destroys the 
very being of Government, is now endeavouring by his 
Agents to recall or overthrow his late Charters, but the top- 
ping Quakers of this Corporation are resolved to hold their 
unbomided power as fast as they can ; So that all things is 
in a very great Confusion they flatter themselves that lett 
what Gt)vemment will Come they are above it all, having 
the Choice of all their Magistrates & Officers which can not 
be removed by any power or Assembly what ever. They 
have not only the Government of the City, but of the whole 
province, to that Degree that the Country is very uneasy 
what the Consequence will be time \\\\\ shew. 

" I have thought it had been Mr. Peun's duty to have layd 
those Charters before your hon**^® Board, the Members of 
the Lower Countys in their Address to your Lordships do 
sett forth that they cannot get Copys of them. I wait your 
Lordships directions in this point. 

" At my arrival here I found that Mr. Penn had filled the 
heads of all his friends with strange notions of his extra- 
ordinary great Literest at Court, & that her Majesty was 
pleased to blame him for not coming oftner to visit her & 
had given him.assurances of Continuing his Government, he 
hath given full encouragment to his Corporation to exercise 
the powers of the Amiralty ; so that her Majesty's Officers 
of the admiralty are but as so many Cyphers, nor doth the 
Custome house office signify much more. . . . 



74 Pennsylvayda and the English Government^ 1699-'170i. 

" I must not omitt to acquaint your Lordships there hath 
been a great deal of Art & Industry used to impose on your 
Lordships a Second Sham Militia to Serve a turn, great 
pains was taken to persuade the people to list themselves, 
great promises made abundance of Strong Liquor Spent & 
fine Speeches, but all amounted to no more than the gather- 
ing together about 30 or 40 men, to compleat which forces, 
they draind the Goal of Some borrowed — some Servants 
and others, and after all the Scandalous ragged Regiment 
had not above 6 Swords amongst them, no Shoes or Stock- 
ings & finding themselves exposed and ridiculed, the Lieu- 
tenant Governour was ashamed of his Militia, so they are 
dismist and never appeared Since, tho I expect to find an 
Account of them in the G^azett which is the least that Mr. 
Penn can do, to let the world know how formidable a Mili- 
tia he hath, to Defend her Majesty's good Subjects of this 
Province. I w^ill not trouble your Lordships with the 
Quakers Severe threats against me & all others Concerned for 
her Majesty's Literests, for my owti part I valine it not, but 
the hard Usage I met with in England by those Vexatious 
Actions brought ag^ me by Mr. Penn's Contrivance, one of 
w^ Actions is still depending doth very much Startle the 
Queen's Officers & makes them very unwilling to Act which 
is improved by the Constant Insults & threats of the Quakers, 
who endeavour to persuade all men that Mr. Penn is the 
Chief Steersman at the helm of Qx)vernment in England, I 
will deferr what doth fiirther concern the Government of 
this Province being obliged to give your Lordships Some 
account of New York where I have lately been. 

" It is hopes and hearty wishes of all good men that my 
Lord Cornbury ^vill (juickly be the happy instrument ot 
healing the Breaches & restoring tranquility to the Poor 
Destracted Inhabitants of the Jerseys, who are impatient till 
my Lords Commission comes, that so they may be freed 
from the tyranny of the Quakers, who are more inhuman 
then the Task Masters of Egypt, nor are we of this Province 



Pennsylvania and the English Grovemmenty 1699-1704,. 75 

with out some hopes in due time by your Lordships aide we 
may recover the Influence of her Majesty's Grace favour 
and protection. 

"Enclosed an address of the 3 lower Counties to the 
Board, praying that they may be recommended to her 
Majesty's immediate Government." [Bundle E, No. 55.] 

Extracts from Letter of Colonel Quary, of July 25 ^ 1703} 

"It is the Generall discourse of the Quakers, that the 
Lords of Trade & Plantation are Mr. Penn's Enemies but 
that he valines them not, having a greater Interest then all 
of them, and shall be able to carry on all of his designs in 
spite of them all ; This I am very well satisfied comes from 
Mr. Penn himself, for his Secretary Mr. Logan told a very 
worthy Gentleman in this Country, Mr. Jasper Yeats the 
very same words in effect. . . . But Mr. Penn and all his 
fidends have designed me for ruine, which they threaten 
hard." 

Extracts from Letter of Colonel Quary^ dated October 15 ^ 1704? 

[A letter thanking the board for recommending him to 
the office of surveyor-general,* and giving an account of the 
trouble in Pennsylvania.] 

" There is at present a very great Division and Confusion 
in this Government, Quaker against Quaker, the generality 
of the Country are very violent in opposing those that are 
for promoting Mr. Penn's Interest, the quarrell hath been 
Carryed on so far already, that the Military and Civill Offi- 
cers have been at Clubb-law. The Quakers have Indited 
the Officers of the Militia, not sparing the young Gentleman, 
Mr. Penn him self, who they have presented in their Courts, 
this hath so disobliged the Lieutenant Govern, that he then 

> Proprieties, D. 374. 
* Proprieties, E. 102. 

» See letter of October 15, 1703, to Board of Trade, seeking the office 
of surveyor-general, New Jersey Archives, III. 7. 



76 Pennsylvania and the English Grovernmentj 1699-1704,. 

resolved to put the Queen's Order in force, and by his Pro- 
clamation to declare the proceedings of their Court against 
one of their Militia Officers voyd, this hath so insensed the 
Quakers that they resolve on revenge on this occasion, the 
Lieutenant Gov. sent to me for the Queen's Order, liis Letter 
with my Answer is inclosed, all things are at present in great 
Confiision, and young Mr. Penn so very uneasy with the 
Quakers, that he hath publiquely renounced them all, and 
hath put on his sword, he goes home for England in the 
Jersey Man of Warr from New York, and resolves to per- 
suade his Father to resign up the Government to her 
Majesty, and indeed Considering how confused and disharted 
this Government is that they refiise to Comply \vith any 
thing that tends to Mr. Penn's Interest, but oppose him all 
they can, I am of opinion that Mr. Penn will now be \villing 
to part the Government on fiirr easyer Termes than formerly^ 
he hath quite lost the end of sending his Son over hither ; 
there was a proposal made by a great part of the Country, 
to raise a considerable Sum of Money for Mr. Penn, pro- 
vided that he or his Son came to settle amongst them in a 
certain Limitted time, in pursuance of which Agreement, 
the Young Gentleman came over, but they are now so in- 
censed against both Father and Son, that they will not ad- 
vance a peny. So that he hath lost his Labour, and returns 
empty, nor will the Quakers give Mr. Penn's Luiet^Gov. any 
thing to support him." 

II. 

Extracts from Letter of the Board of Trade to the Lord 
Justices, August 4, 1699} 

(After citing charges against Markham being guilty ot 
encouraging and aiding pirates they say : — ) " The whole 
body of the Qx)vemment of Pennsylvania do set themselves 
in direct opposition to the Court of Admiralty established 
there by his majesty, some further instances whereof are as 
follows : 

> Proprieties, B. 20. 



Pmnsylcama and the English Government^ ISdd-lJOIi,. 77 

" They have endeavoured to persuade all men to refuse 
obedience to that Court ; They have set up a sort of Ad- 
miralty Court of their own, or at least exercised a sort of 
Admiralty power, by arresting a ship and making proceed- 
ings against her at their sessions. The Justices of the Peace 
at a Session did all they could to present the officers of the 
Admiralty as Enemies to their Government. 

" David Lloyd (who stiles himself Attorney General and 
takes fees accordingly yet refuses to put any thing in suit for 
the King) insolently ridiculed the Admiralty Commission, 
and his Majesties effigies affixed to it, in open Court ; and 
also said in open Council that whoever incouraged the set- 
ting up of that Court were enemies to the Liberties and 
Properties of the People.^ 

" By these and many other such like means the officers of 
the Amiralty have been so discouraged, that Coll. Quary, 
Judge of the said Court, complains in his last letter to us, 
dated the 18th of May last,^ that he had great difficulty to 
persuade the officers to remain in their places, and therefore 
presses with great earnestness for some remedy. (Accord- 
ingly they propose) that some speedy and effectual remedy 
be put thereinto. (That Markham be removed that) We 
are humbly of Opinion that it is not fit, that the said David 
Lloyd should be continued in any Publick Luployment what 
soever in the said Province . . . That redress of these 
irregularities be recommended to Mr. Penn." 

Extracts from the Answer of the Commissioners of Trade and 
Plantations. 

To the Order of the House of Commons of the 2d of 
April, 1701, requiring from this Board " an account of what 
complaints have been made to us in relation to the Trade, or 
Courts of Justice in the several Plantations in America, 

> CJolonial Record, I. 541 ff, 565, 602, 603 ; Mem. Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society, Vol. IV., Part II. 283, 294. 

* 1699, Mem. Pennsylvania Historical Society, Vol. IV., Part II. 

287, 288. 



78 Pennsylvania and the English Government^ 1699-1704,. 

whether in the Proprietary GovernmentB or elsewhere, and 
what we have done thereupon. Presented to the House of 
Commons April 24, 1701.^ 

" Pennsylvania. 

"The complaints against Mr. Markham, Lieut-Gk)v. of 
Pennsylvania for Harbouring and protecting Pirates, and 
against the whole Government of that Colony, for their op- 
position to the court of Admiralty, erected there as in other 
places pursuant to the late Act of Parliament for preventing 
frauds and regulating abuses in the Plantation Trade, have 
been very great.^ 

" But directions having been given by their Excellencies 
the Lords Justices to Mr Penn * upon his going thither, for 
the reforming of those Disorders. We received afterwards 
an account from Col. Quary (Judge of her Majesty's Ad- 
miralty Court there) as well as from Mr. Penn himself, that 
he had made several advances in what had been required 
from him.* Nevertheless we have of late again received 
complaints from Col. Quary, that Mr Penn, by granting 
commissions to all the Sherifts of Counties to be Water 
Baylijffs, had broke into the Admiralty Jurisdiction and in- 
vaded the Powers thereof; and by denying the Admiralty 
any right of jurisdiction with in the Body of the Province, 
had in eftect taken it wholly away.* We have likewise had 
fresh information from Col. Quary of private Trade between 
Pennsylvania and Curassaw (a Dutch Plantation) carryed on 
chiefly by Scotchmen, who clandestinely and illegally export 
Tobacco, and Import such great quanties of Iron, Linnen, 
Wine, and other European Commodities, that they are sold 
there as cheap as in England.* As to Pirates : Several per- 

^ Plantations General, B. 448, 450-452. Board of Trade Journals, 
E. 487, 445, F. 1, 8. CJommons Journal, Vol. XIII. 502-505. (Ed. 
1808.) 

» Proprieties, B. 20, 66. • Ibid., B. 82, 83, 85. 

* Ibid, 224, 289, 271. * Ibid, 422. 

• Ibid, 427. 



Fennsylvama and the English Govemmenty 1699-1704. 79 

sons ^ who have themselves been formerly suspected of Pi- 
racy, are settled near the Capes of Delaware River. These 
persons when Kid was there received his Boats, and supplied 
him. They went on Board him constantly, and took on 
shore quantities of East India Goods. Mr Penn has im- 
prisoned these men, and seized some of the Goods, which 
(as he informs us) shall be sent over. . . . 

" As to the Propriety and Charter GovemmentB in Gen- 
eral ; no Governour whereof has qualified himself according 
to the late Act of Parliament (except the Gov. of the Ba- 
hama Islands for whose good Behaviour Security has been 
refused to be given by the Proprietors.) Their Independency 
making it absolutely necessary, that some speedy and eftec- 
tual care be taken to render them more subservient and use- 
fill to this Kingdom ; We humbly referr ourselves to our 
Report Dated the 27th March last,^ Wherein we humbly 
represented to the Honourable House, That the Charters of 
the several Proprietors, and Others Intitling them to abso- 
lute Government be reassumed to the Crown, and these 
Colonies put into the same State and Dependency as those 
of her Majesty's other Plantations, without prejudice to any 
man's fi^eehold or property; which we conceive can not 
otherwise be well effected, than by the Legislative Power 
of this Kingdom." 

Extracts from a Lettei* of tlie Board of Trade to the Queen, 
April 17, 1702? 

In regard to the General Defence of the Plantations, they 
write : — 

" And as your Majesty may please to observe by what we 
have before represented that the propriety Qx^vernments are 

* Proprieties, B. 271, 224, 289. 

* Trade, B. 173. 

* Plantations General, C. 143, 144. 



80 Penmylvania and the English Grovemmenty 1699-1704^ 

in a State wholy defenceless, and that the Proprietors have 
no way taken care of what has been demanded of them, or 
may be thought necessary for the common safety of your 
Majesty's subjects during a war. Tlie Govs, in contempt of 
an express Act of Parliament being likewise unqualified for 
those commands. We do humbly ofter that for the present 
your Royal Letters be sent to the Several Proprietor and 
Charter Govts, requiring them to put them selves into a 
posture of defence against an Enemy, from whence never- 
theless We can not hope for a due compliance, untill those 
colonies be reunited to the Crown according to our former 
opinions." 

Exttdcts from a Letter of the Board of Th\ide to the Queen 
relatice to Governors' SalarieSj April ^, 1703.^ 

"As to Proprietary and Charter Colonies, We can not 
propose any thing on this occasion. The Govs, of those 
Colonies not being appointed by your Majesty and depend- 
ing either upon the Proprietors or the people, from whom 
they have very mean and uncertain salaries. Which in- 
courages them to connive at unlawful trade and other irreg- 
ularities inconsistent with the interests of this Elngdome, 
which great mischief can only be remedyed, as we humbly 
conceive, by reducing those Colonies to an immediate de- 
pendence on the Crown." 

^ Plantations General, C. 240. 



William Haige, 81 



WILLIAM HAIGE. 

BY MILES WHITE, JR., BALTIMORE, MD. 

In his " Contributions to East Jersey History," W. A. 
Whitehead in speaking of William Haige, the Surveyor- 
General and Receiver-General of that Province, suggests* 
that he may have been the same person as the William 
Haige who, in 1683 and 1684, was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Council of Pennsylvania, and adds, " it is not known 
that he left children." Again, in his " East Jersey under 
the Proprietaries," he states^ that " nothing is known of the 
descendants of Mrs. Haige." 

Proud has informed us that William Haige, the member 
of Pennsylvania Council,* " had been a merchant in Lon- 
don ;" only one William Haige is mentioned in the early 
London records of the Society of Friends, and as will be 
hereafter noticed, he was styled " Merchant," and became 
Receiver-General of East Jersey. 

Li 1682 William Dyre was appointed Collector of Cus- 
toms for both Pennsylvania and New Jersey,* and there was 
no reason why William Haige could not have held positions 
in both Provinces, especially if appointed by his father-in-law 
to the office last filled. 

Li London, Pennsylvania, and Jersey we find William 
Haige connected with the business of the American Col- 
onies, and he appears to have been a man of influence and 
position. He was a member of the legislative bodies of 
the Provinces of Pennsylvania and East Jersey, and also 
acted in the capacity of a surveyor in both Provinces 
(though holding office as such only in East Jersey). 

»P. 14. 

»N. J. Hist. Soc. CJoll., Vol. I. p. 126. 
•Hist. Penna., Vol. I. p. 287. 
*Mulford'8 Hist. N. J., p. 226. 
VOL. XXIV. — 6 



82 WiUiam Haige. 

The following faxjts in regard to the William Haiges of 
these two Provinces appear to uphold Whitehead's supposi- 
tion and to show that they were the same ; and furthermore, 
that he left at least one surviving child, and probably more. 

From what part of England the Ilaige family originally 
came is uncertain. The Parish Registers of Cheshire show 
that persons of the name resided there in early times, and 
those of other shires probably convey similar information. 

In different accounts of the family, the name is variously 
given as Ilage, Hagge, Hague, Haig, Haige, Haigh, Haigue, 
Hauge, Hayg, Hayge, and Heage, and in the extracts given 
below the original manner of spelling is retained in each 
case. 

The first mention seen of William Haige is in Friends' 
Records at " Devonshire House," London, in which his name 
is spelt both Haig and Haige. We there learn that William 
Haige, of London, Merchant, and Mary Laurie, daughter of 
Gawen Laurie, of London, were married at Devonshire 
House, 12mo., 22°**, 1671;^ Haige's parentage not being 
given. 

The births of two children are recorded as follows : " Oba- 
diah, fe., 7mo., 1*^, 1674, son of William & Mary Haige, of 
King Edmund's Parish, Lombard St., London; Rebecca, ft., 
8 mo., 4^, 1681, dau. of William & Mary Haige, Golden 
Leg, Court, Cheapside, Parish of St Mary le Bow." 

When Edward Byllinge failed he agreed to present to his 
creditors his half interest in the Province of New Jersey, 
which he had acquired about 1674 or 1675 from Lord 
Berkeley, and persuaded William Penn to join Gawen 
Laurie and Nicholas Lucas (two of his creditors) as 
Trustees. They became Trustees for one-half part of the 
Province, which, though then undivided, subsequently 1 July 
1676 became the Province of West New Jersey; George 
Carteret's half becoming East New Jersey. These Trustees 
soon sold a considerable number of shares of their propriety 
to different purchasers, who thereupon became proprietors 
^ All dates in this article are old style. 



William Haige. 83 

(according to their different shares) in common with them.* 
William Penn, et al., August 29 and 30, 1676, deeded to 
William Haige, of London, merchant, one-ninetieth part of 
ninety fiiU equal undivided parts in West New Jersey, the 
same being one ftill share of propriety.^ 

It being necessary to agree upon some scheme to promote 
the settlement and ascertain a form of government, " The 
Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors Freeholders 
and Inhabitants of the Province of West New Jersey in 
America" were drawn up, mutually agreed upon and signed. 
They bear date of 3"* day of March 1676/7, and were signed 
by William Haig, as well as by Penn, Laurie, and others.* 

In the autumn of 1681 Penn appointed William Haige 
one of his four Commissioners for settling the colony of 
Pennsylvania, laying out a town, &c. ; and the commission 
which he issued to them, dated 25 Oct. 1681, has been pub- 
lished in Hazard's Annals. 

They took passage in either the " John and Sarah" or 
" Bristol Factor," which sailed for the colony in the autumn 
of this year, and arrived on or before 11 December,* except 
William Crispin, who went probably in the " Amity," and 
died in Barbadoes, where she was blown by adverse winds.* 
Thomas Holme, who probably acted as Crispin's successor, 
arrived in June 1682, and found the other three awaiting 
him.* 

William Haige's daughter Rebecca having been bom Oc- 
tober 4, 1681, he doubtless left his fiimily in England. Be- 
fore sailing he probably purchased 500 acres of land to be 
located in the colony, for his name appears in Philip Ford's 

^ Smith's Hist. N. J., p. 79. 

»W. J. DeedB, B, pt. 2, p. 624. 

•Smith's Hist. N. J., p. 621-89 ; N. J. Archives, Ist Ser., Vol. I. 
p. 269. 

*Scharf's Hist. Del., Vol. I. p. 82 ; Futhey & Copes, Hist. Chester 
Co., pp. 19 and 147 ; Janney's Wm. Penn, p. 180. 

* Penna. Mag., Vol. XXH. p. 44. 

• Ibid., Vol. XIX. p. 418. 



84 WUliam Haige. 

list of those to whom land had been granted prior to May 
22, 1682.^ 

Soon after arriving in America he seems to have pur- 
chased land in West Jersey, for Hannah Saltar, by deed 
dated April 15, 1682, conveyed two cottages and certain 
lots in Burlington to William Haig,^ no residence being 
mentioned for him in same, but as no other person of his 
name is known to have been in America at that date, he 
was probably the purchaser. 

At the first meeting of the Free Society of Traders, 
which owned large tracts of land in Pennsylvania, held in 
London, May 29, 1682, for choosing officers, William Haige 
was elected one of the committee of twelve to reside in 
Pennsylvania.^ 

Thomas Fairman appears to have had one of the best or 
most convenient houses on the site of the future Philadel- 
phia, and we are told that he boarded and lodged Mark- 
ham, Haige, and Holme and family at different times.* 

In the early part of the year 1682 reports came down to 
Lord Baltimore " that one W°* Hague, a quaker and much 
employed by Mr. Penn, had taken observations att the Head 
of the Bay wliich very much dissatisfied y® Said Hague and 
other friends ; for upon those observations it was given out 
by the Quakers that if the Degree of forty did not afford 
W"* Penn a harbour he would be forc't to buy one of Bal- 
temore or otherwise that their Shipps must Enter and Cleer 
in Maryland."* We are also fiirther told that "the Said 
Haigue in a short time after this came to the Lord Bal- 
temore's house on Patuxent River where amongst otlier dis- 
course the Lord Baltemore askt the Said Hague whether 
he had not taken Some observations att Elk River for his 
private satisfaction, wliich Haigue own'd, but with all pre- 

1 Hazard's Annals, p. 638 ; Pa. Arch., Ist Ser., Vol. I. p. 41. 

* W. J. Deeds, Book B, p. 8. 

' Hazard's Annals, p. 576. 

*Scharf & Westcott's Phila,, Vol. I. p. 94. 

*Penna. Mag., Vol. VI. p. 417. 



William Haige. 85 

tended that the Instrument was So Small that there could 
be no Certainty." 

Markham says that in July, 1682, he " sent Mr. Haig to 
Augustine Harman's in hopes to a found [Baltimore's Com- 
missioners] there, but they were gon before he came there." 

On September 23d Markham learned that Baltimore was 
at Upland, and tells us that he " the next Morning wayted 
on my Lord, but his lordshipp haveing a great reteinue with 
him and every one something to say to me, I Desired Mr. 
Haig he would take notice what passed between us and write 
it downe, for I feared they would hardly give me soe much 
time as to doe it ; about Three dayes after his Lordship was 
gon I Desired Mr Haig to give me in writeing, what he had 
noted passed at ye time afore said, the which he did as fFol- 
loweth," * and then gives Haig's notes. 

A new Listrument sent out by Penn had arrived by this 
time, " but for want of some small glasses which the said 
Markham said W°^ Haigue had taken away the instrument 
could not be made use of," Lord Baltimore tells us, and 
adds that he said it would be necessary to go up the 
Delaware River to see where 40° did cut said river, " but 
the said Markham by the advice of Haigue (who seem'd to 
Goveme more than Markham) declined that proposition 
giveing very Slight reasons for his reftiseall,"^ &c. 

A few days previous to the above interview Haige had 
been in Philadelphia, for on 19^** of 7 mo. 1682, a certificate 
of certain lots in Philadelphia having been drawn before 
them, by purchasers, was issued by Haige and others.^ 

William Penn arrived at New Castle 27 Oct., 1682, and 
the next day, appointed certain six persons as Justices for 
New Caatle, whose Commission is preserved in the Land 
(Mce at BUirrisburg,* and on the 29th he ordered a Court 
to be held November 2, but no mention is made by any his- 

»Penna. Mag., Vol. VL, p. 430. »Ibid., p. 420. 

•Ibid., Vol. XIX. p. 420 ; Hazard'8 Annals, p. 595. 
* Hazard's Annals, p. 598; Scharf's Del., Vol. I. p. 83; Smith's 
Delaware Ck)., Pa., p. 188 ; Pa. Arch., 1st Ser., Vol. I. p. 51. 



86 William Haige. 

torians, bo far as known, of his having appointed a Council, 
though Janney, Hazard, and Seharf seem to indicate the 
existence of such a body. 

Markham had, upon his arrival the previous year, under 
the authority given in his Commission, appointed a Council^ 
of nine members, which is always referred to as MarkhanCs 
Council. 

The first elective Council met at Philadelphia March 10, 
1683, and is spoken of as the first Provincial Council ; I be- 
lieve Penn at or shortly after landing appointed a Council 
which should be called Paints Council, of which William 
Haige was a member. 

The Records of New Castle Court after Penn's arrival 
open as follows :^ 

" Att a Cor' Held in the Towne of New Castle upon 
Delloware in the Name of O' Souvraigne Lord Charles the 
2^ by the Grace of God of England, Scotland, France & 
Ireland King defend' of the faith and by Commission and 
Appointment of Wilham Penn, Esq' ProprietT^ & Govemo' 
of Pensilvania etc on Thursday the 2*^ of Novemb' in y* 
85*** yeare of his Maij** Raighne annoq Dom 1682. 

The R' Hono'*»*« Propriety'y etc— 

Capt" Will Markham 
Mayo' Thom Holms 
M' William Haigh 
M' John Simkock 
Psent' M' Thomas Brasie 



> of the Councill 



Justices 
' of y Peace 



Mr John Moll 
Mr Johannes De Haes 
Mr William Semphill 
Mr Arnoldus De Lagrange 
Mr John Cann 

' Duke of York's Laws, p. 470 ; Hist. Del. Ck)., Pa., p. 129 ; Hist. 
Chester Co., Pa., p. 18. 
'BookC. 
» Vide Hazard's Annals, p. 600 ; Scharf's Delaware, Vol. I. p. 84. 



William Haige. 87 

Samuel M. Janney, in his life of Penn, gives an imagi- 
native description of his journey to meet the Indians at 
Shackamaxon, where the " Great Treaty" under the elm tree 
is supposed to have been made later in the month of No- 
vember, and says, " But see ! a barge is approaching bearing 
at itB masthead the broad pennant of the governor, the oars 
are plied with measured strokes, and near the helm sits 
William Penn, attended by his council. Among them are 
Markham, his secretary. Holmes, Surveyor-General, Simcox, 
Haigue, Taylor and Pearson." ^ 

As Penn would in all Ukehhood have appointed at least 
as many members of his Council as he had authorized 
Markham to appoint, it is probable that at least two others 
than those mentioned above were so appointed. 

The only record of Markham's Council that is preserved 
is their attestations upon entering office ;^ but even this is 
more than we have of Penn's Council ; a search of the 
records in the Land Office at Harrisburg did not disclose 
either a commission to, or the attestations of the members 
thereof. 

These two Councils were probably more of personal coun- 
cils to the Governors, than those that came after them, and 
probably met at his order, rather than at stated times. 

The Minutes of the Assembly held at Chester, December 
4-6, 1682, show that Committees were appointed to go to 
the Governor, but not to the Governor and Council, as in 
fixture Assemblies. From this it appears that this Council 
exercised no legislative function. 

The first elective Council met at Philadelphia on 10th 
day of 1st mo. (March), 1683, and William Haige was pres- 
ent as one of the members thereof fi*om Philadelphia 
County.* His name appears in the minutes on various occa- 
sions as Haigee, Haige, and Haigue. He served on commit- 

» P. 208. 

* Pa. Archives, lat Ser., Vol. I. p. 37 ; Hist Chester Co., Pa., p. 18. 
»Col. Rec., Vol. I. p. 1 ; Duke of York's Laws, p. 485; Proud's 
Penna., Vol. I. p. 235. 



88 William Haige. 

tees to propose bills relating to " the burning of woods and 
Marshes, to have Chattell marked, To erect Bounds of 
ffenees,"^ " Rules of County Courts, Bills of Exchange pro- 
tested. Possessions, Publique aftairs. Sailors Wracks, Act 
of Oblivion, Scoulds,"* and " Fees of Officers belonging to 
y* Custom house."* 

He was on several occasions appointed to convey messages 
to the Assembly, and was present 2 mo. 2d, 1688, when the 
" Great Charter" was adopted, and signed same.* 

On various occasions he requested leave of absence " for 
some time," either to go about his business or " to go about 
the Societies' business," and in each case* received permission 
to be absent, and the minutes show that he was not often 
present after 3d mo., 1683. 

He was also a member of the Provincial Council in 1684* 
as a representative of Philadelphia County, but again was 
frequently absent, having been present only a few times 
prior to 4th month. 

He was appointed one of a Committee of three " to draw 
up a Charter for Philadelphia to be made a Burrough con- 
sisting of a May' and six Aldermen,"' and also on a Com- 
mittee to inspect the bills of Benj. Acrod, deceased, before 
they are paid. He was present 8 mo. 25, 1684, the last day of 
the session, after which his name appears no more among 
the members. 

Subsequently, while the Council was not in session, and 
after he had probably removed to East Jersey, the follo\\ang 
entry appears under date of 5 mo. 24th, 1685. 

44 W" Haigue Request y* Secref^ that a hue & Cry from 
East Jersie after a servant of Mr. John White's, March* at 
New York might have some force and authority to pass this 

'Col. Rec., Vol. I. p. 6. 

"Ibid., p. 8. »Ibid., p. 11. 

* Ibid., p. 15 and xl. ; Duke of York's Laws, p. 490. 

»Col. Rec., Vol. I. pp. 3, 9, 10, 14. 

•Ibid., p. 39 ; Duke of York's Laws, p. 494. 

'Col. Rec., Vol. I. p. 64 ; Pa. Mag. Hist., Vol. XX. p. 129. 



WUUam Hedge. 89 

Province & Territoryes ; the Secretary Indorsed it and Sealed 
it with y* Seale of y* Province." ^ 

As previously stated, William Haige before leaving Eng- 
land had purchased 500 acres of land to be subsequently 
located ; I have found no record of any Patent for such land, 
and am not certain where it was located. Holmes' map shows 
a tract in Bristol Township, Bucks County, fronting on the 
Delaware River, in name of " W" Hauge," which adjoins the 
land of Christopher Taylor. The description of Christopher 
Taylor's land, as given in the "Minutes of the Board of 
Property" shows* that it was next to land of " W° Haig." 

Davis, in giving the names of original settlers in Bristol 
Township, includes that of William Hauge,^ but he probably 
meant by settlers, landowners^ and there is no evidence that 
Haige ever resided in Bucks County. 

Among the list of taxables within the Constabulary of 
the Town of New Castle, 1683, as shown by the records of 
New Castle Court,* appears the name of " William Haigh,' 
who was assessed 4 5., 4 t/., on " 400 Akres of Land;" and 
the next year we find " William Hauge" assessed for 436 
acres;* afterwards his name does not appear on the list. 
Whether or not the above two assessments were upon the 
same tract of land does not appear. The only deed recorded 
in New Castle County to William Haige is one dated 4th 
day of 2** mo. (April), 1685, sometime after both the above 
assessments were made. It is for a tract called Buswick, on 
south side of Christiana Creek, containing 486 acres, and was 
from " Henry Vandenburgh of New Castle in the Territories 
of the Province of Pennsilvania, merchant," who for " five 
and forty pounds current money" conveyed same to " Wil- 
liam Hauge of the Province of East New Jersey gentleman," 
whose name is also spelt Hague in other parts of the deed."* 

>Col. Rec., Vol. I. p. 96. 

»Pa. Archives, 2d Ser., Vol. XIX. p. 235. 

'Hist. Bucks Co., p. 128. 

* Liber C, fol. 141 ; Scharf's Hist. Delaware, Vol. I. p. 153. 

» Liber C, fol. 210. 

•New Castle Co. Deeds, Liber A, No. 1, fol. 109. 



90 William Haige. 

This deed was acknowledged in open Court April 24, 
1685, when the names of the parties thereto are given as 
Henrik Vand Burgh and William Hauge.^ This land ap- 
pears to have remained in the family for some years, for the 
" Minutes of the Board of Property" show that in 1701, 
John Richardson of Christiana Hundred requested leave to 
take up a small parcel of land on south side of Christiana 
Creek adjoining the lands of " Widow Haige" and others.* 

In addition to the above described tracts of land William 
Haige owTied a lot in Philadelphia, between the Swamp, 
Second Street, and the Delaware front, laid out 27 of 4 mo., 
1684, under a warrant to William Haig, purchaser, dated 
the previous day, the Patent for which was recorded 9 mo. 
12th 1684;' and which was sold 2 Oct. 1684 to Patrick Rob- 
inson by " William Haig of co. of Philadelphia, merchant"* 

Whitehead tells us that " when Rudyard suspended Groom 
from his offices of Surveyor-General and Receiver-General, he 
transferred them to William Haige, who was among the 
earUest settlers, and apparently a man much respected. The 
death of Groom havdng prevented his reinstatement, Haige 
continued to perform the duties conferred upon him until 
the arrival of George Keith, in 1685."^ 

Whitehead is apparently in error as to the time of Haige's 
appointment, for it is stated in the Journal of the Governor 
and Council of East Jersey, that when on August 30, 1683, 
it was found that Samuel Groom had refused to survey certain 
lands on Raritan River, or to appoint any Deputy Surveyor 
to do so, as ordered by the Council on 31 of 3** mo. last, it 
was ordered by the Governor and Council that "Philip 
Wells bee Deputed and appoint A Deputy Surveyor of this 
Province" and " that hee execute the Orders and Warr*" of 
the Governor and Councill the said Sam" Groome p'^emtorily 

» Records New Castle Court, Liber C, fol. 232. 
»Pa. Archives, 2d Ser., Vol. XIX. p. 210. 
•Phila. Deeds, A, No. 1, p. 56. 
*Ibid., E, No. 1, p. 48. 
^Contrib. to E. J. Hist, p. 14. 



William Haige. 91 

refuseing the same in Contempt of this Board."^ And De- 
cember 1, 1683, it is further stated that Samuel Groom the 
late Surveyor General deceased had not fully executed a war- 
rant of survey in the bounds of Elizabeth Towne and that " it 
was resolved and Ordered that the Governor issue out his 
warr' to Philip Wells the Deputy Surveyor to survey and lay 
out" said land.^ 

From the above entries it would appear that Rudyard had 
appointed Wells and not Haige in place of Groome. 

It is known that " the proprietaries in England however 
did not approve of Rudyard's conduct in the matter in dis- 
pute betw^een him and Groom and ordered the reinstate- 
ment of the latter, annulled all grants that had not been 
regularly surveyed by him and deemed it advisable to ap- 
point another deputy Governor, permitting Rudyard to 
retain the office of secretary and register."^ 

Gawen Laurie was then appointed Deputy Governor to 
succeed Rudyard, his commission being dated 27 July, 1688,* 
and certain instructions, dated London, 20 (5mo.) July, 1683, 
signed by William Dockwra and other Proprietaries, were 
given him ; in Art XIX. of which it is stated that* " in respect 
Samuel Grvoome, the younger, has shewn so great an Inclina- 
tion to sell his Father's Propriety, which he has already a 
Right to, and that thereby Samuel Groomej the elder, may 
either come back or be indisposed to serve in the Imploy- 
ment of Surveyor General and Receiver of our Rents, 
therefore we do herewith send a Blank Commission for Sur- 
veyor General and another for General Receiver, to be filled 
up by him to such Persons as he shall find most proper upon 
the Place for that Use." 

In February, 1683/4, Gawen Laurie arrived in East Jersey 
as Deputy Governor and brought wdth him his family,^ con- 

»N. J. Archives, let Ser., Vol. XIU, p. 105. * Ibid., p. 111. 

»N. J. Hist. Coll., Vol. I. p. 99 ; Cont. to E. J. Hist., p. 13. 
* N. J. Archives, 1st Ser., Vol. I. p. 423 and 489. *Ibid., p. 432. 
•N. J. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. I. pp. 6 and 126; N. J. Arch., Ist 
Ser., Vol. Xni. p. 120 ; Proud's Hist. Pa., Vol. I. p. 155. 



92 William Haige. 

sisting of his wife Mary, his son James and his tvvo daugh- 
ters Mary and Rebecca, and eight servants, according to Rev. 
E. D. Hatfield ; who, however, also says that William Ilaige 
with eight servants also accompanied him.^ It is evident 
that he is in error as to William Haige having accompanied 
Laurie from England, but doubtless Haige's wife and daugh- 
ter did so, and Haige himself probably then removed from 
Philadelphia to East Jersey, as his name disappears from the 
records of Pennsylvania this year and appears prominently 
in those of New Jersey from this time on. 

Under the heading " The names of such Psons as were 
imported into this Province and brought to bee Registered 
in the Secretary's books of Records are as ffoUowes, Dated 
5"* Decenib. Anno Dom 1684" appears this entry " Upon 
Account of William Haige, vizt. Mary Haige, his wife: 
Mary Beck, by Lidentures for ffour years : Rebecca Haige, 
his daughter: Benj* Curie, by Indenture untill hee be of 
the age of 21 : Robin Hind, negro : Sambo, his wife, negro : 
Harry Mubuaber, negro : flrances Cango, negro."* 

Laurie served as Deputy Qovemor until October, 1686, 
when he surrendered the office to Lord Neil Campbell and 
became one of his Council, and so continued until his death, 
which occurred at Elizabethtown in the autumn of 1687.* 
Upon his arrival in East Jersey, finding that Groome was dead, 
he evidently appointed his son-in-law, William Haige, to suc- 
ceed to both the vacant offices, for East Jersey Records show 
two commissions for William Haige, signed by Governor Bar- 
cUiy and dated 27th day of July, 1683, one as Surveyor Gen- 
eral and the other as Receiver General,* and further show 
that on April 14th, 1684, William Haige promised alle- 
giance to the King and to faithfiilly discharge the duties of 
each of the above-named offices. On this last-named day 
Haige with consent of Gawen Laurie appointed Miles 

^Hiflt. of Elizabeth, N. J., pp. 218 and 221. 
« E. J. Deeds, Liber A, fol. 154. 
»N. J. Hist. Coll., Vol. I. p. 216. 
* Liber C, fol. 80 and 81. 



WiUiam Haige. 98 

fforster (who afterwards married Rebecca Laurie) Deputy 
Surveyor and also his Attorney, Deputy and substitute to 
transact the office of Receiver General.^ These appoint- 
ments were probably rendered necessary by Haige's absence 
from the Province while serving as Councillor in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

On April 30, 1685, we find the following appointment, 
" I, William Haige of Elizabethtown, Essex Co., receiver 
generall of the Lords proprietors Quit Rents of this prov- 
ince of East New Jersey, in my absence have appointed 
Ghi,wen Laurie, Esq. our deputy Gov' to receive all Quit 
Rents & Arrears and to give Receipts" Ac* 

William Dockwra, who was appointed Receiver General 
and Treasurer July 6, 1688, on the death of William Haige,* 
seems either to have forgotten that he signed the instructions 
to Laurie of July 20, 1683, heretofore alluded to, or to have 
subsequently entertained doubts as to the validity of com- 
missions signed in blank by Barclay in England and filled 
up in America, for upon the commission to Groom as Re- 
ceiver General he wrote the following : 

" Quae What blank commission G. L. had, for if he had no 
power to make a dep*^, his exceeding his power invalidates 
y* commission especially if y* patent was Signed & sealed here 
by y* Gov' Ac. for after that thing be added or any materiall 
alteration it makes it void. 

W"* Haige never was concerned to direct anythinge 

& quae : what deputation was made by him to G. L. and 
where 

" Consider y* G. L. being dismist by publique order from 
y* propr. vnder their province scale."* 

The Proprietaries in England appointed George Keith 
Surveyor General on the 31st July, 1684,* but he did not 

» Liber C, fol. 82 and 83. 

« E. J. Deeds, Liber A, fol. 430. 

•Cont. to E. J. Hist., p. 15. 

* N. J. Archives, let Series, Vol. I. p. 379. 

* E. J. Records, Book C, p. 95. 



94 William Haige. 

reach the province until the spring of the following year. 
Whitehead tells us that^ " on the 9"* April he presented his 
credentials to the council of proprietors, but as the office to 
which he had been appointed was already filled by William 
Haige, under a commission emanating from Dept.-Govemor 
Rudyard,* they found themselves delicately situated, and 
postponed the consideration of Mr. Keith's commission 
until their next meeting." 

The Council at the time appointed were urged by Keith 
to decide in his favor, and they finally desired both of the 
applicants to appear before them on June 12th, when the 
office in consequence of the absence of Mr. Haige, and the 
inability, from some cause, of his deputy Miles Forster was 
declared vacant and Mr. Keith authorized to take the oaths 
and assume the duties (" Proprietary Minutes, A.B. p. 6"), 
which he did that day in presence of Gawen Laurie,^ and 
on 13th 8mo., 1685, appointed John Reid of Perth Amboy 
to survey any lands in E. K. J. and report to him.* 

As both the commissions to Haige were " for soe long 
tyme as thou shalt well and faithfully behave thyselfe there- 
in," he was quite disappointed when Keith assumed the 
position of Surveyor General, and therefore the Proprietaries 
of East New Jersey conveyed to " William Haige of the 
towne of Amboy Perth, Middlesex Co., late Surveyor Gen- 
eral of sd. province," a tract of 500 acres of land in Mon- 
mouth county known as Cooper's Neck, as expressed in the 
patent dated August 24, 1686,* " in consequence of the sudden 

* Cont. to E. J. Hist., p. 17. 

* The Registrar of Board of E. J. Proprietors says that the Minutes of 
April 9, 1685, Book I. p. 6, state, "Then also was read a commission 
dated the 27th July 1683 under the seale of the province to William 
Haige for the Surveyor Generalls place still in force not voyded Ac." 
As stated herein before this Commission came not from Rudyard but from 
Barclay through Laurie. 

* E. J. <:k)m's., Book C, p. 96. 

* E. J. Patents, Book C, p. 1. 

» E. J. Deeds, Liber A, fol. 889 ; Ck)ll. N. J. Hist. Soc, Vol. V. p. 
11. 



WiUiam Haige, 95 

disappointment in being so quickly dispossest of the office 
of Surveyor General!." 

In 1686 and again in 1688 we find William Haige a 
member of the Legislature, being a Deputy from Perth Am- 
boy, and as such he twice, in May, 1688, brought messages 
from the House of Deputies to the Council.^ 

This is the last public service that I have learned of 
William Haige having performed, and as the Minutes of 
these sessions of the House of Deputies appear not to have 
been published, I am unable to ascertain how prominent a 
part he took in the actions of that body. 

The exact date of his death is not known, but it must 
have been in the Summer of 1688, for William Dockwra was 
appointed July 6, 1688, to succeed him as Receiver-General. 

Sir Edmund Andros appointed "on Jany. 14, 1688/9, 
Myles fforster of Amboy Perth, merchant. Administrator 
of the Estate of William Haige of same place, deceased. In- 
testate ;" ^ and we find that by Indenture dated December 20, 
1698, " Obadiah Haig, late of the Citty of New York in 
America, Merchant, Son & Heir of William Haig late of y* 
town of Amboy-perth" &c., conveyed to John Bowne of 
Monmouth county, Merchant, the 500 acres in said county 
called " Coopers Neck" heretofore alluded to, stating that 
William Haig died intestate in 1688, and that the right to 
this land devolved legally unto said Obadiah Haig, who No- 
vember 5, 1698, deputed Miles Forster of the City of New 
York, Merchant, his attorney to sell this tract, and the latter 
signed the deed.* 

Among the unrecorded wills of Burlington, N. J., 
preserved at Trenton, is the bond for "one Hundred 
pounds Currant money" given May 5, 1694, by Richard 
Basnitt, merchant, and James Hill and Samuell flftimis, yeo- 
men, all of Burlington, which shows that on that day Rich- 
ard Basnitt was admitted administrator of the estate of 

> N. J. Archivee, lat Series, Vol. Xm. pp. 143, 176, 180, 185. 
» E. J. Deeds, Liber D, fol. 28. 
•Ibid., liber F, fol. 688, Ac. 



96 ^ViUiam Haige. 

" William Haigh (late of Philadelphia in the Province of 
Pennsilvania, Gent, deceased) within the said Province of 
West Jersey." 

There is nothing to indicate upon whose application this 
appointment was made, and no distribution by the adminis- 
trator is shown. It does not appear from the records in 
Philadelphia that the estate of any William Haighe was ad- 
ministered upon there, but this appointment may have been 
made for the purpose of passing title to the two cottages and 
certain lots in Burlington purchased in 1682 by William 
Haige, and a resident of Burlington, rather than Obadiah 
Haige or Miles Forster, who were non-residents, was ap- 
pointed as a matter of convenience ; still the fact that at this 
late date his residence is given as Philadelphia, renders it 
uncertain that the subject of this sketch was intended. 

The tract of land at " Coopers Neck" was not the only one 
William Haige owned in East Jersey. The map of Perth 
Amboy, published by Whitehead, shows that he owned a 
large lot back of Gawen Laurie's 20-acre tract on Earitan 
Eiver, and that his wife, Mary Haige, had a lot in the town 
fronting on the Sound. This large lot was patented to Wil- 
liam Haige September 80, 1686, as 13 acres in the bounds of 
the towne of Amboy-perth,^ and he conveyed same to Myles 
flforster July 4, 1687,w^hen the residence of both is given as 
Amboy-perth.^ 

There are two deeds dated August 10, 1696, one to Rooliph 
Vanderlinda and the other to Cornelius Christianse, both of 
Hackensack,' which were made by " Miles fforster of Citty 
of New Yorke Merchant and Rebecca his wife, Mary Hayg 
widdow & Relict of William Hayge Merchant deceased and 
Obadiah Hayg his eldest sone & Heire at law of them the 
said William & Marie Hayge." These deeds each convey a 
tract of 700 acres, which had been patented to Q^wen Lau- 
rie August 17, 1686. 

» E. J. Deeds, Liber A, fol. 413. 

«Ibid., Liber B, fol. 152. 

•Ibid., Liber F, fols. 411 and 413. 



William Haige. 97 

Mary Haige owned other tracts of land which she also 
acquired through the rights of her &ther, some of which 
were Patented to her as late as 1701/ but it is not necessary 
to allude to them any further. 

October 14, 1696, we find a deed stating that " I, Mary 
Haige widow of W"* Haige deceased, daughter of Gawen 
Laurie, and sister of Rebecca fforster wife of Myles fforster 
of the Citty of New Yorke, merchant, being about to take a 
voyage to England, appoint my brother in law Miles fforster 
my attorney."* And it appears from deeds dated March 10, 

1697, and April 14, 1702, that at those dates Mary Haige 
was living in London,' and it is believed that she did not 
return to America- 
No mention of her daughter Rebecca has been found after 

the registry of her arrival in 1684, and it is uncertain 
whether she died in youth, married in America, or returned 
to England with her mother. 

Obadiah Haige apparently left the City of New York in 

1698, but it is not certain whether he also returned to Eng- 
land or settled elsewhere in America, and I have seen no 
evidence that he married. 

The records of Perth Amboy and Woodbridge meetings 
show that Miles Forster and Rebecca Laurie were granted 
permission to marry 12 mo. 9th., 1686/7 : but no mention of 
any Haiges, I am informed, is to be foimd in the Registers 
of Philadelphia, Burlington, Rahway and Plainfield, Perth 
Amboy and Woodbridge, or New York Monthly Meetings, 
and neither Gawen Laurie nor Miles Forster mentioned any 
of William Haige's children in their wills. 

The fiict that there was an interval of seven years between 
the births of Obadiah and Rebecca Haige, and that in the 
deeds dated August 10, 1696, Obadiah is described as " eldest 
sone" of William Haige, raises the presumption that William 
Haige had one or more other sons, though of course the 

> E. J. Deeds, Liber C, fols. 221, 246, Ac. 
•Ibid., Liber F, fol. 108. 
» Ibid., Liber G, fols. 93 and 359. 
VOL. xxrv. — 7 



98 WiUiam Hedge. 

words " eldest sone" may have been simply a legal form, to 
show that there being no elder son, he was the heir. 

The records of Falls Mo. Mtg., Pa., show that 11 mo. 8*^, 
1700, " Francis Haige of Makefield Twp. Bucks Co. hus- 
bandman, and Pleassent late wife of Joseph Millner, of same 
place" were married at Falls Meeting, William Penn, William 
Biles, and other prominent residents of the Colony being wit- 
nesses thereto, but no persons named Haige, Laurie, or Forster 
signed the certificate. Mrs. Haige being in England, Gawen 
Laurie deceased, and Miles Forster and wife residing in 
New York, their absence has no bearing on the question of 
relationship. No conclusive evidence of Francis being a 
son of William has been found, but as no other &mily of 
Haiges is known to have been in the Colonies at that time, 
and his eldest daughter was named Rebecca, as was William 
Haige's daughter, such relationship does not seem improb- 
able, Penn and Biles both having been intimately associated 
with William Haige. 

The records of Falls Mo. Mtg. show that Pleasant Milner 
was the daughter of Henry Pawlin, one of the early settlers 
of Pennsylvania, and married Joseph Milner, 5 mo. lO*'*, 
1690, at Phineas Pemberton's house, and that after the 
death of Francis Haige she married George Clough, wid- 
ower, at Samuel Baker's House, 9 mo. 13, 1712. 

Francis Haige, or Hague, as his name was usually spelled, 
both forms being found in his marriage certificate, was an 
overseer of Falls Mo. Mtg., fi*om which office he was re- 
leased 2 mo. 2nd, 1707. He does not seem to have pur- 
chased any land in Bucks County, the only deed to him 
which is recorded being for the ten acres^ on which Buck- 
ingham Meeting House was built, he being one of the six 
trustees. 

Though described in his marriage certificate as of Bucks 
County, he appears to have lived in Hopewell Township, Bur- 
lington County, N. J. There were very few Friends at that 
time in Hopewell, and most of them belonged to Chester- 
> Bucks County Deeds, Book 3, p. 250. 



William Haige. 99 

field Mo. Mtg., but a few who resided on the river probably 
belonged to Falls Mo. Mtg., as did Francis Hague. 

His children were Francis, 6., 9-11-1701, who married 
Jane, dau. of Thomas and Ann (Biles) Yardley ; Rebecca, 
6. 1-19-1703; Pleasant, /;. 4-5-1705; Hannah, b. 7-23- 
1707; and Isaac, h. 2-10-1711. 

The exact date of Francis Haige's death is unknown. The 
records of Falls Mo. Mtg. state that he was buried 8-10- 
1711; perhaps this should be 8-16-1711, for his will is 
dated October 13, 1711, and was probated March 25, 1712.* 
In it he is described as " Frances Hagge of Hopewell Town- 
ship Borlington County," but signed his name as Frances 
Hage, and appointed his wife and son Francess his Execu- 
tors, and mentions his wife Pllesant, his daus. Rebecca and 
Pllesant, and his sons Frances and Isack, the names of some 
being spelt Hag and others Hagge. 

His plantation seems to have bordered on the Delaware 
River and to have been divided by Jacob's Creek. He left 
the upper part, containing 500 acres, with the house and 
barn, to his son Frances ; and the lower part, containing 340 
acres, to his son Isack. 

His son Francis, though named as executor, was only 
ten years old, and from the irregular spelling of the family 
name and the duplication of letters in other names, it would 
appear that he either was quite ill when he made his will, 
or had an illiterate neighbor to prepare it for him. 

When his widow married George Clough, her residence 
is stated to have been Hopewell Township, Burlington 
County. 

The records of Flushing Mo. Mtg., Long Island, refer to 
the only other Haig that I have found in America at this 
time, stating that " 7 mo. 1st, 1702, at Flushing Mtg.,William 
Haig, merchant, of Antigua, and Mary Masters of New York, 
dau. of Mary Masters, were married." No parentage of 
William is given, and no Haiges, Lauries, or Forsters signed 
the certificate. William and his bride went to Antigua, 
> W. J. Wills, Liber I, fol. 342. 



100 William Hedge. 

whence, as stated in The Frieml^^ they removed to North 
Carolina. A son of Miles Forster also removed to the West 
Indies and settled in the island of Barbadoes.^ 

Tlie wills of Mary and William Haig, both dated Janu- 
ary 28, 1718, are recorded in the office of the Secretary of 
State at Raleigh, N. C. ;' the former ha\nng been probated 
January 20, 1718/9, and the latter March 2, 1718/9 ; from the 
latter it appears that their children were William, Mary, 
Sarah, and Ann. 

Any evidence tending either to uphold or disprove the 
supposition that either Francis or William Haige was a son 
of William, will be gladly received. 

1 Vol. XXVm. p. 825. Jannej's Hist, of Friends, Vol. lU. p. 191. 

«N. J. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. I. p. 127. 

»The N. G. Hist. & Geneal. Register, Vol. I. No. 1, p. 51. 



A Begister of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 101 



A EEGISTEE OF MAEEIAGES AND DEATHS, 1802. 

(Ck)ntinued from Vol. XXIII. page 626.) 

Marriages. 

On December 24th 1801, in this city, by Rev. Dr. Green, John M. 
Bradford, of New York, to Abigail Field of this city. 

In this City on Dec. 31 1801, by Rev. Mr. Milledollar, Jesse March- 
ment to Elizabeth Maclain, both of Southwark. 

On Dec. Slst., by Rev. C. Potts, Robert Jackson to Phebe Parker. 

By the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Capt. William Taylor, of New York, 
to Esther daughter of Emanuel Rhinedollar of Southwark. 

On Jany 7th., by Bishop White, John Jones Esq., of Montgomery 
Co., to Rebecca Jones, daughter of the late Owen Jones Esq., of this 
city. 

In this City on Jany 9th., by Rev. Mr. Milledollar, Major James 
Ralph to Mrs. Florinda Borger. 

On Jany. 7th., by Rev. Mr. Helmuth, Martin Reese to Elizabeth 
Beard. 

On the same day, John G. Harder, late of Germany, to Hannah 
Holmes. 

In this city Jany 21st, by Rev. Mr. Milledollar, Thomas Pickands to 
Miss Rebecca Jones. 

On Jany 19th by Rev. Slater Clay, John Ewing Esq. to Miss M. 
Johnson. 

On Jany 21st by Bishop White, Thomas Hope to Catherine Auner. 

Same evening by Rev. Mr. Car, Matthew Kelly to Eliza Hope. 

Same evening by Moses Kemper Esq. Abraham Merret to Rebecca 
Lamb, all of Springfield N. J. 

In this city, on Feby 2d, by Rev. William Marshall, William Young 
of this city, to Rachel Anderson, daughter of Capt. E. Anderson of 
Trenton N. J. 

Same evening by Rev. Mr. Turner, Robert Hicks to Mrs. Margaret 
Starkey. 

On 27th ulto., by Joseph Hart Esq. Mahlon Longstreth of Bucks Co.^ 
Pa., to Eliza Walley, daughter of James Walley of New Jersey. 

On Feby 14, by Rev. Mr. Helfenstine, Robert Mars to Elizabeth Hoot 

On Feb. IV^ by the Rev. Mr. Green, Mr. U. G. Garret of Delaware, 
to Miss Elizabeth Brooks, of this city. 



102 A Register of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 

On Feby 13^'', by the Rev. Mr. Ustick, Mr. Israel Jones, to Mias 
Susannah Bell. 

Same day, by the Rev. Mr. Helmuth, Mr. Adolph Eringhaus, merch- 
ant of Hamburgh, to Mrs. Susannah Lauffer, of this city. 

At Mr. Breton's place, on Feby 17th, by the Rev. Mr. Smith, Mr. B. 
Cenas, to Miss Catharine Paulina Baker, both of this city. 

At Woodbury, (N.J.) on Feby 12th by Jonathan Harker, Esq. Mr. 
William Marchon, aged sixty-seven years, to Miss Ann Walters, aged 
sixteen I 

On Feby 7th by the Rev. Mr. Jones, Mr. John Trump, to Miss Rachel 
Whitton, both of Lower Dublin Township. 

On Feby 18th by the Rev. Mr. Smith, Mr. Isaac Adleman, to Miss 
Maria Thompson. 

In this City ... On March 4th, by the Rt. Rev. Dr. White, Mr. 
Henry Nixon, to Miss Morris, daughter of Robert Morris, Esq. 

In this City On March 18th by the Rev. Mr. Jones, Mr. John Evans, 
to Mrs. Sarah Pamcut. 

In this City ... On March 20th, by the Rev. Mr. Potts, Mr. Henry 
Bedinger, to Miss Cathrine Bostwick. 

On March 25th, by the Rev. Mr. Ustick, Mr. Stephen Clayton, to 
Miss Elizabeth Haydon. 

At New Kent County, (Vir.) Feb. 27, Mr. Michael Sherman, aged 97 
years and 4 days, to the amiable and accomplished Miss Eliza Poindexter, 
aged 14. 

In this City, on March 29th by the Rev. William Marshall, Mr. Rob- 
ert Craig, merchant, of Great Britain, to Miss Agnes Young, daughter 
of William Young, wholesale stationer, of this city. 

On March 31st by the Rev. J. Abercrombie, Mr. Elisha Smith, to 
Miss Sarah Paul, daughter of Mr. Jer. Paul. 

On April 1st at Friend's Meeting, Joseph Richardson, of Bucks 
County, to Mary Dixon, daughter of John Dixon, merchant. 

On April 8th by the Rev. Dr. Rogers, Mr. Charles Jones, to Miss 
Mary Alloway, both of Lower Merion, Montgomery county. 

Same day at Friends Meeting, Mr. Robert Smith, of Burlington, to 
Miss Mary Bacon, daughter of the late Job Bacon of this city. 

On April 10th, by the Rev. Mr. Helfenstein, Mr. Michael Baker, to 
Miss Elizabeth Wilt, both of this city. 

On April 11th, Mr. John Johnston, of the Northern Liberties, to 
Miss Elizabeth Price of Chester county. 

On April 18th by the Rev. Mr. Blackwell, Mr. John Dove, of Ports- 
mouth, (Eng.) to Miss Eliza Mee, of this city. 

Same day by the Rev. Mr. Turner, Mr. George Heisler, to Miss Ann 



A Register of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 108 

On April 20th, by the Rev. Ezekiel Cooper, Mr. Ralph Smith, of this 
city, to Mrs. Catharine Justice, of the Northern Liberties. 

On April 22d, by the Rev. Dr. Helmuth, Mr. John L. Baker, to Mias 
Mehetabel Loveland. 

On April 22d by the Rt. Rev. W. White, Mr. W. Morrel, son of John 
Morrel, esq, to Miss Lohra, daughter of Peter Lohra, esq. 

On April 15th by the Rev. Mr. Green, Mr. William Mendenhall, of 
Milesborough, Centre County, to Miss Eliza Kiemer, of Chester County. 

On April 22d, by the Rev. Mr. Linn, Mr. Robert Ritchie, merchant 
of this city, to Miss Mary Kelley, of New Jersey. 

On April 24th, by the Rev. Mr. Linn, Mr. Thomas Humphreys, 
merchant, to Miss Eliza Irwine. 

Same day, by the Rev. Mr. Ustick, Mr. Joseph Sutton, to Miss 
Hannah Ritter Tomlin. 

On May 2d by the Rev. Mr. Turner, Capt. Charles Eleonard le 
Barron, of Honfleur, in Normandy, to the amiable Miss Mary Weaver, 
of this city. 

At the Lazaretto, on May 2d, by the Rev. Dr. Collin, Thomas Smith, 
esq. of Tinicum, to Miss Maria Mifflin, of this city. 

On May 4th, by the Rev. Dr. Rogers, Mr. John Ferguson, to Miaa 
Rebecca Jones, daughter of Mr. David Jones, of this city. 

On May 6th by the Rev. Mr. Ustick, Mr. William Hedges, to Miss 
Lydia Worrell. 

At Bensalem, Bucks County, by the Rev. Mr. Lazaleer, Mr. Joseph 
Willet, son of Col. Willet, of that place, to the amiable and accomplished 
Miss Magaret Maria Van Horn, daughter of Col. Van Horn, of Maryland. 

On May 9th by the Rev. Dr. Rogers, Mr. William Richers, a native 
of Hamburgh, to Miss Mary Wallace, of this city. 

On May 11th, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop White, Dr. Tobias Watkins, of 
Annapolis, Maryland, to Miss Mary Simpson, daughter of Ceorge Simp- 
son, Esq. of this city. 

On May 12th, at Friend's Meeting, in Pine street, Mr. Timothy 
Abbott, to Miss Rebecca Howard, both of this city. 

On May 13th, by the Rev. Ashbel Green, Mr. George Helmboldt, jun. 
to Miss Sarah Maxin. 

On May 12th., at Friends' Meeting, Buckingham, Mr. John Paxon, 
of Bensalem, to Miss Sally Pickering, daughter of Jonathan Pickering, 
of Solebury. 

On May 13th by the Rev. Henry Helmuth, Mr. G^eorge Pepper, to 
Miss Seckle, daughter of Mr. David Seckle, all of this city. 

On May 8th, by Mr. Isaac Hicke, Esq. Mr. John Ryan, to Miss Eliza 
Jackson, both of Attleborough, Bucks Co. 

On May 9th at the City of Washington, the Hon. John P. Vanness, 



104 A Register of Marriages and Deaths, 1802. 

Member of Oongrees, from the state of New York, to Miss Marcia Burns 
of that city. 

On May 17th, at New-Brunswick, Stephen Van Renssalaer, Esq. late 
Lieut. Gov. of the state of New York, to Miss Cornelia Patterson, only 
daughter of the Hon. William Patterson, one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 

In this city, on May 21st by the Rev. Mr. Turner, Mr. Richard 
Harding, to Miss Maria Sheridan. 

On May 25th, by the Rev. Mr. Cotton, Mr. James Bover, to Miss 
Elizabeth Hart, all of Philadelphia County. 

On May 27th by the Rev. John Greer, Dr. Samuel Anderson, of 
Chester, (Delaware County) to Mrs. Sarah Moore, of Marcus Hook. 

On May 29th by the Rev. Dr. Rogers, Mr. Benjamin Harrison, to 
Miss Margaret Bickley, both of this city. 

Same day, by the Rev. Mr. Turner, Mr. David Tomson, to the amiable 
Mrs. Ann G^rge, both of this city. 

On June 1st by the Rev. John Ewing, of Chesterville, at the seat of 
Israel Ellicot, Esq. Wm. Ewing, Esq, to Miss M. Ellicot. 

On May 29th by the Rev. Mr. Milledolar, Mr. Joseph Barker, to 
Miss Ann Barclay, daughter of Mr. Samuel Barclay, Hatter of South- 
wark. 

On June 6th by the Rev. Dr. Green, Mr. Silas E. Weir, Merchant, 
to Miss Elizabeth Bamhill, both of this city. 

In this City, on June 15th Mr. Francis Renshaw, to Miss Frances 
Budden. 

New York, Mr. Samuel Palmer, of Philadelphia, to Miss Elizabeth 
Allaire. 

On June 19th by the Rev. Mr. Helfenstein, Mr. Alexander Stewart, 
Merchant, to Miss Eliza May, daughter of Mr. Adam May, all of this 
city. 

On June 22d, by the Rev. Mr. Janeway, Mr. Robert Burkhard, to 
Miss Sarah Sharp, both of this city. 

At Newport, Mr. John A. Shaw, to Miss Elizabeth Muchmore. 

If John had happiness before, 

By marriage ho has g:aiiid Much-more. 

On July 3d by the Rev. Mr. Annan, Capt. Peter Bell, to Miss Han- 
nah Forder, both of Southwark. 

Same day, by the Rev. Mr. Ustick, Mr. Lawrence Brown, to Miss 
Rebecca Webb, both of this city. 

On July 10th by the Rev. George Potts, Mr. Samuel Park, to Miss 
Christiana Johnson, both of this city. 

On July 11th by the Rev. Thomas Ustick, Mr. Jacob Warren, to Miss 
EUzabeth Taylor. 



A Register of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 106 

On July 15th by Alderman Wharton, Walter Franklin, Esq. Attorney 
and Counsellor at Law, to Miss Ann Emlin, daughter of the late Mr. 
James Emlin. 

Same day, by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Mr. Samuel Evans, to Miss 
Hannah Oldfield, both of this city. 

On July 17th by the Rev. Mr. Smith, Mr. Samuel Cox, to Miss Lucy 
Eden, both of this city. 

On July 21st by the Rev. Mr. Potts, Mr. William F. McLaughlin, 
printer, of this city, to Miss Sarah Fromberger, daughter of John From- 
berger, Esq. of G^rmantown. 

At Staten Island, Mr. Journey, aged 80, to Miss Cole aged 60. 

A fellow-tray'ler, and a friend, 

Ib found towards the Journey's end. 

On July 24th by Robert Wharton Esq. Mr. Klinken Johnson, of G^er- 
mantown, to Miss Lydia Tybout, daughter of Andrew Tybout, of this 
city. 

On July 27th by Peter Brown, Esq. Mr. George Shiras of Mount 
Holly, to the amible Miss Elizabeth Munns, daughter of Thomas Munns, 
innkeeper of this city. 

On July 27th by the Rev. Dr. Rogers, Mr. John Cummins, to Mrs. 
Cathrine Kelchne, both of this city. 

On July 29th by the Rev. Thomas Ustick, Mr. John Thaw, to Miss 
Eliza Thomas, both of this city. 

On Sept. 21st by the Rev. Mr. Carr, Mr. John Keley, to Miss Maria 
Keehoe, all of this city. 

On Sept. 22d, at Springfield, (N. J.) Mr. Anthony Taylor, merchant, 
of this city, to Miss Mary Newbold, daughter of the late Caleb Newbold, 
of Burlington County, (N. J.) 

At Frankford, on Oct. 6th, by the Rev. Mr. Janeway, Mr. Benjamin 
Stille, to Miss Ann D. Silver, both of this city. 

On Oct. 21st Mr. John Lisle, jun, merchant of this City, to Miss 
Margaret Mark, daughter of Mr. John Mark, of Jefferson County, 
Virginia. 

At Albany, Mr. Henry Weaver, to Miss Margaret Ruby. 

The web that he wove caught her heart, 

'Twas Hymen bid Henry to smile, 
'Twas Cupid that pointed the dart, 

And a Ruby that crowned all his toil. 

On Oct. 18th, by the Rev. Dr. Blackwell, Mr. Benjamin Britton, of 
this city, to Miss Rebecca Smith of Tinicum. 

On Oct. 18th by the Rev. Mr. Turner, Capt. William Whitehead, to 
Miss Rebecca Keemhle, both of Southwark. 



106 A JRegistei* of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 

On Oct. 2l8t, by the Rev. Mr. Smith, Mr. Richard Lampley, to the 
amiable Miss Jane Newton, both of this city. 

On Oct. 21 St by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Dr. Nicolas Wyncoop, 
of Newton, Bucks County, to Miss Sarah Campbell, daughter of George 
Campbell, esq. of this city. 

On Oct. 18th by the Rev. Mr. Greor, Mr. George Maxwell, of Marple 
Township, Del. Co. to Miss Elizabeth Cunningham, of the same place. 

On Oct. 24th by the Rev. Dr. Collin, Dr. Joseph Dill, of this city, 
to the amiable Miss Sarah dayman, of Easton, Pennsylvania. 

On Oct. 28 in the county of Newcastle, by the Rev. Mr. Wallace, 
Doct. George Logan, of S. Carolina, to Miss Margaret White Poalk, of 
Delaware. 

On Nov. 2d by the Rev. Mr. Linn, Mr. Jacob Lippincott, of Glouces- 
ter county. New Jersey, to Miss Jane Ann Sykes, of Charleston, S. C. 

On Nov. 6th Mr. Charles Mercier, to Miss Rebecca Summers, both of 
this city. 

On Nov. 9th by Samuel Benezet, esq. Mr. Jacob Waterman, mer- 
chant, of Philadelphia county, to Miss Mary Wimer, of Bensalem, Bucks 
County. 

On Nov. 13th by George Budd, esq ; Mr. Andrew Jackson, to Miaa 
Mary Innes, both of this City. 

On Nov. 21st by the Rev. Mr. Milledoler, Mr. John Vallance, to 
Miss Margaret Pratt, both of this city. 

On Nov. 25th by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Mr. Alexander J. Mil- 
ler, merchant, to Miss Anna Maria Bass, daughter of the late Dr. Bass, 
of this city. 

On Nov. 25th by the Rev. Mr. Ustick, Mr. Henry Parmar, to Miss 
Jane Ellison, both of Concord, Delaware. 

On Nov. 27th by Bishop White, Mr. John Harrison, to Miss Lydia 
Leib, both of this city. 

On Nov. 30th by the Rev. Mr. Milledoler, Dr. Zachariah Hoffman, 
of Ulster county, state of New- York to Miss Mary Johns, of Southwark. 

On Nov. 30th by the Rev. Mr. Greer, Mr. Andrew Lindsey, esq. to 
Miss Christiana Vanleer, both of Delaware County. 

On Nov. 30th by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Doctor Shaw, of Ger- 
mantown, to Mrs. Anne Sayre, of this city. 

On De<j. 2d by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Mr. John Bioren, printer, 
of this city, to Miss Hannah Barker. 

On Dec. 4th. by the Rev. Mr. Helfenstine, Mr. Rudolph Neff, to 
Miss Margaret Rugan, both of this city. 

On Dec. 5th. at Rose Hill, near Trenton, by the Rev. Dr. Armstrong, 
Mr. Manuel Eyre, jun. of this city, to Miss Juliet Phillips, daughter of 
Mr. Ralph Phillips, of that place. 



A Registei* of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 107 

On Dec. 7th by the Rev. Dr. Green, Capt. Jonas Warren, to Mrs. 
Martha Smith, of this city. 

Same day, by the Rev. Philip Milledoler, Mr. Thomas Peacon, mer- 
chant, to the amiable Miss Susannah Sadler, both of this city. 

On Dec. 8th by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Mr. Patrick Carson, to 
the amiable Miss Elizabeth Monroy, both of this city. 

Same day, by the Rev. Mr. Cooper, Mr. David Brown, of Lancaster, 
to the amiable Miss Mary Beck of the Northern Liberties. 

On Dec. 13th, by the Rev. Thomas Ustick, Mr. John Herts, to Miss 
Ruth Browne, both of this city. 

On Dec. 9th by Michael Hilligas, esq. Mr. Ezra Hains, to Miss Ann 
Johns, both of Chester County. 

On Dec. 18th by the Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, Mr. John C. Otto to 
Miss Eliza Tod, both of this City. 

(To be continued. ) 



108 Ship Registers for the Port of PhUadelphia, 1796-1775. 



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116 Notes and Queries. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 
flote0. 

Items of News, Bethlehem, July, 1755. — Early in the morning of 
July 19, 1755, Mr. Scull, who had left Philadelphia the day before, 
reached Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, en route to Albany, New York, with 
dispatches for General Shirley from the Council, informing him of the 
defeat of Braddock's army near Fort Duquesne. In virtue of the follow- 
ing letter, a fresh mount and a guide were provided by the Moravians : 

*'To THE Moravians at Bethlehem and Nazareth, 
*' Gentlemen, 
**The bearer is sent by the Council, in the absence of the Governor, 
with dispatches of the utmost consequence to General Shirley at Albany. 
I earnestly entreat you will furnish him with a good horse, if he wants 
one, and a guide to show the nearest way. If he arrives time enough, it 
may be of infinite service to his Majestys arms, and if you assist, it will 
be much for your honour. 

Philada.. Grentlemen, 

18 July I7a5. Your humble Servant, 

Richard Peters, 
by order of the Council.'' 

The day following, an express reached Bethlehem from Frederick Town- 
ship, bringing word of the death of Henry Antes, and preparations were 
immediately made to attend his funeral. The services were conducted by 
Bishop A. G. S])angenberg and Rev. A. Reinke, and it was estimated 
that six hundred persons were present. Two days later. Justice of the 
Peace Daniel Brodhead, of Dansbury (now Monroe County), died at the 
Bumside Mansion, near Bethlehem, from a boil on the neck. He had 
come to Bethlehem for treatment by Dr. J. M. Otto, a skilful surgeon 
and physician, but the case had been delayed too long. His funeral was 
attended by Justices Craig and Willson, and a large concourse of people 
from the vicinity. A widow, five sons, and one daughter survived him. 

Dunton Genealogical Notes. — William Dunton, of Philadelphia, 
was married to Mary Stadler, May 14, 1772, and had issue : 
Jacob, b. Aug. 14, 1773. 
Thovujuf, b. Dec. 14, 1774. 
miliam, b. May 18, 1776. 
Sarah, b. May 14, 1778 ; md. Francis Hunt. 
George, b. Aug. 23, 1780. 
Elizabeth, b. March 31, 1783. 
Margaretha, b. Feb. 25, 1785. 
Amelia, b. Oct. 22, 1787. 
Maria, b. April 4, 1790. 
miliam, b. Dec. 13, 1792. 
Anna, b. Nov. 28, 1794. 



Notes and Queries. 117 

Jacob, son of William and Mary Dunton, md. first Bridget , and 

had issue : 

miliam, b. Feby. 28, 1796. 
John, b. June 24, 1797. 
Jacob, b. April 27, 1800. 
Isaac, b. May 26, 1802. 

Married second, Ann McCarty, Oct. 2, 1806, and had issue : 
Anna Maria, b. June 8, 1807. 
Abraham, b. July 29, 1808. 
Wilson, b. March 30, 1812. 

George, son of William and Mary Dunton, md. Mary , and had 

issue : 
John Leiois, b. Feby. 19, 1807 ; md. Susan B. Pierson, 1830. 
Sarah Ann, b. Sept. 14, 1808 ; md. John E. Murray, 1828. 
William Washington, b. Dec. 9, 1810. 
Mary Amanda, b. May 22, 1813. 

Margaret Stisan, b. Aug. 11, 1815 ; md. Joseph H. Gr^ory. 
Joseph R, b. March 13, 1818 ) . . „ 

Susannah Elizabeth, b. March 13, 1818 j ^^^^^• 
Amanda Amelia, b. May 9, 1821. 

Copy of Warrant for Arrest of John Roberts for High 
Treason, 1778.— 

PmLADA. ss. 

To THE Sheriff of the City and County of Philadelphia or 
ANY OF his Deputies or to any Constable. 

Whereas John Roberts, miller, now or late of the Township of Lower 
Merion is this Day charged before me James Young Esq. one of the 
Justices &c., on the Oaths of Michael Smith, yeoman, and Mary his 
wife, of said Township with High Treason, by aiding and assisting the 
Enemies of this State and of the United States of America and joining 
their armies at Philadelphia in the month of December last. 

[seal] These are therefore to command you in the behalf of this 
Commonwealth forwith to apprehend the said John Roberts and convey 
him to the Jail of this County and the Keeper of said Jail is hereby 
requested to receive into his Custody the Body of said John Roberts and 
him safely to keep till he be delivered to the due course of the Law. 

Given under my hand and seal this 27th. day of July 1778. 

James Young. 

Gerhard Genealogical Notes. — Frederick Gerhard, born March 
26, 1714, at Langcnselbot, Hesse Darmstadt, was married January 23, 
1737, to Elizabeth Fisher. In the Summer of 1739, they sailed 'from 
Rotterdam on the ship Samuel, Captain Hugh Percy, for Philadelphia, 
where they made their home. Mrs. Gerhard died there, leaving a son, 
Peter, bom October 28, 1737. Soon after the death of his wife, Fred- 
erick Grerhard removed to Heidelberg Township, I^rks County, where, 
February 14, 1740, he married a widow, whose maiden name had l>een 
Barbara Rieger, and with her had five sons and four daughters. 

Conrad, son of Frederick and Barbara Gerhard, was born November 
22, 1740. In 1768, he married Rachel, daughter of Isaac Martens and 



118 Notes and Queries. 

Rachel (Bogart) Ysselstein, bom in Bucks County, June 8, 1741. She ' 
died at Philadelphia, May 31, 1801. They had issue : 

Rachel, b. Jany. 15, 1770. 

Elizabeth, b. March 2, 1772. 

William, b. April 10, 1774. 

Mary, b. Feby. 4, 1776. 

John, b. Oct. 17, 1778. 

Eltanora, b. Nov. 17, 1780. 

Thomas, b. Jany. 31, 1782. 

After the death of his wife, Conrad Gerhard married second, Elizabeth 
Jungman, November 9, 1802. 

William, son of Conrad and Rachel Grerhard, b. April 10, 1774, 
married Sarah Wood, Oct. 6, 1808, and had issue : 

William Wood, b. July 23, 1809. 

Benjamin, b. June 3, 1811. 

Thomas, b. Oct. 2, 1813. 

Louisa, b. Sept. 25, 1816. 

Dung AN Genealogical Notes, from Bible in possession of Ethel 
Duval, Philadelphia. — 

Thomas Dungan, was born the 16th day of March, 1738. 

Elizabeth Dungan, was bom the 22d. day of January, 1740. 

Sarah Dungan, was born the 25th day of August, 1742. 

[Tom] Dungan, was bom the 3rd. day of March, 1745. 

John Dungan, was born the 12th day of March, 1747. 

[Tom] Dungan, was bom the 24th of September 1749. 

William Dungan, son of Thomas Dungan and Elizabeth his wife, bom 
17 May 1766. 

Thomas Dungan, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Dungan, was bom 
23rd March 1794. 

Price-Shute-Courtney-Cooper-Rudolph Genealogical Notes, 
from Bible in possession of Mrs. Edward Esher. — 

Mary Price the Daughter of Joseph and Sarah Price, was Bom Sun- 
day July y« 3^* 1743, about a Quarter after Six of the Clock. 

The 27 Day of 7 month 1755, about 10 minita after 10, it being the 
first Day of the weak, was bom Sammuel Shute Son of Henry and Mary 
Shute. 

John Shute, the son of Henry & Mary Shute, was bom the 8"* day of 
July 1758. 

Sarah Shute, the Daughter of Henry Shute was born April the 8rd 
day in 1760. 

Hannah a/icw Anne Shute, the Daughter of Henry and Mary Shute, 
was bom January 18, 1762. 

Elizabeth Shute, the Daughter of Henry and Mary Shute, was bom 
the 18th day of Febmary 1764. 

Mary Courtney, the Daughter of Hercules and Mary Courtney, was 
bom the 24*^ day of March 1767. 

G^eorge Cooper and Elizabeth Shute were married Oct. 3, 1780, by 
W°» White, Rector of Christ Church & St. Peters. 



Notes and Queries. 119 

John Rudolph was Married to Elizabeth Shute, by the Eev M' 
Eeaton, the 16th. day of September 1794, at St Mary's C^iurch, on 
Fourth Street Philadelphia. 

** Thomas Griffiths his Booke." — ^The following interesting in- 
scription is copied verboHm et literatim from a fly-le^ in a rare and 
curious book entitled : 

*'The HISTORY of all RELIGIONS 
In the World : From the Oreation 
Down to this prefent Time.'* 



In Two parts. 



By WILLIAM TURNER, M.A. 

LONDON, printed for John Dunton, 
at the Raven in Jewm-ftreet, 1696, 8^° 

*' Thomas GrifSths his Booke, 
God give him Grace theirin to loock, 
Not only loock but understand, 
Laming is bater than Hous & land. 
When Hous and land is gon &, spent, 
Laming is most excelent." 



G. P. P. 



Record of the Ormsby Family. — 

1. Gteorge Ormsby, was bora August 1, 1773. 

2. Sarah Ormsby, was bora Aprail 11, 1777. 
8. John Ormsby, was bora Oct. 3*> 1789. 

4. Catharine Ormsby, was bora Aug. 27, 1791. 

5. William Ormsby, was bora Feb. 18, 1794. 

6. Edward Ormsby, and Rachel, was bora January 2, 1797. 

7. Eleanor Ormsby, was bora June 1, 1799. 

8. Henry Ormsby, was bora Febraary 18, 1801. 

9. Margaret Ormsby, was bora Aug. 4, 1802. 

G. P. P. 

Revised Rules op Court, Philadelphia County. — ^Whearas 
many disorders have hithertwo been Committed In the Courts of this 
County Partly through the Ignorance and partly through the Negligence 
of— Otherwise (we hope) well Meaning Persons, which if Continued in 
without Remedie may be a meanes to bring Majestracie (which is gods 
Ordinance) and Court of Justice Into Scorne and Contempt. 

The Court of Justices have thearfore thought fitt for Prevention of the 
like for the ^ture to make these Rules of Court following & additnall 
rules to y* former order of Counsell 

flSrst that the high Shreif or his lawfuU and approved of deputy, Clark 
of the Court, & Cryer, and att least one of the Towne Constables (by 
tomes) doe Constantly attend the Court att the preiice houres of Sitting 
and that thay depart not the Court without leave and Penalty of a fine 

2^1y that noe pson that is not Imediatly Concerned In the Busineis In 
agitation psume to Speak in Court w"* out leave und' paine of a fine ; 



120 Notes and Queries. 

3^7 that plaintifk defendants and all other psona Speak dyrectly to the 
poynt in Question and that thay put In their pleas In writing (thu being 
a Court of Record) and that thay forbear Reflections and RecriminationB 
Either on the Court Jurys or on One & another und' Penalty of a fine 

4^1y that all fines Imposed upon any Person for totall absence untimely 
coming to Court or breach of these or Other Rules of Court already made 
then or hearafi«r to be Made shall be levyed on the Party's Qoods and 
Chattells by way of Distreis and that the Executions thearfore be signed 
In Open Court before the Riseing of such a Court that Imposed the fine. 

The Glooms of Lioonieb. — ^A song by an ofScer of the Pennsylvania 
regiment stationed at Ligonier (formerly Loyalhanning) in the winter 
of 1759. 

From climes deformed with frost severe, 

From mountains wrapt in snow, 
Where surly winter rules the year, 
And howling tempests blow : 

To you, whose modest charms improve 

The lightning of your eyes ; 
Still conscious of the force of love, 

We soldiers wafi; our sighs. 

Though fortune calls us here, beyond 

Each gay engaging view. 
Yet, pleased, we do our duty, fond 

To serve our prince and you. 

Our prince, to merit ever just, 

Rewards the soldier's toil. 
You too will deign, we humbly trust. 

To pay us wit£ a smile. 

While happy thus the scene shall shift, 

We've nothing more to ask ; 
Honour, the king's peculiar gift, 

And love, your tender task. 

Of these possest, at fate we'll smile, 

Defy the surly year. 
Honour and love shall reconcile 

The glooms of Ligonier. 

Letters of Peletiah Webster, Sr., and Peletiah Webster, Jr. 

l^iijiDSLPHiA 16 Septem. 1777. 

Dear Ruthy, 

. . . Our armies have begun to fight below ; there is very much de- 
pending on which side the Victory may turn ; we are all big with 
Anxiety & flatter ourselves that Our prospects of success are now much 
greater than they have been since the War first commenced. People 
vary much in their Opinion, some think that Lord Howe will get to the 
City, but I believe very few except those that wish for it. We most 
generally think that he will get a much more severe Drubbing than ever 



Notes ajid Queries. 121 

he had. We have men enough & they are sufficiently spirited. God 
only knows what the event may be I , . . DonH know when I shall 
come to see you, but not before the fate of the City is Determined ; ex- 
pect to go to Camp in a day or tw^o as a volunteer, so that if Howe gets 
here he wont find me. O Ruthy I am almost tired of this World — may 
you live to see better times is the sincere prayer of 

Your most affectionate Brother, 

P WEB8TER Jr. 
Friday, 27 Feby. 1778. 

Dear Althy, 

. . . Send by next oppor*' one paper Tobacco and one clean cap, also 
Euclid's Elements, a small book which stands in my book-case. I am 
not yet made acquainted with the Cause of my confinement nor can I 
guess at the Reason of it. Am pretty well ; my leg is almost well, my 
room and company are agreeable. 

We had one night the Company of Gen. Irvine, Col. Coats, Major 
Giles and Capt. Swift, but they were removed to y* New Goal since which 
have not heard of them . . . 

I am &c 

P. W. 

Monday, March 9, 1778. 

Dear Althy, 

I much want to see you and your Sister but this habitation is so 
gloomy & full of horrible objects that it will only increase your trouble 
to come here, besides I am not sure that you can be admitted. Most 
people that apply are denyed, therefore I rather chuse to forego the 
pleasure of seeing you than subject you to the pains & perhaps mortifica- 
tions of coming to see me. 

I eat no meat & drink no spirits or wine, except bitters now & then ; 
a Tankard ftiU of Chocolate will any time last me two days. Keep up 
your fortitude, presence of mind in Distress lightens afflictions much . . . 

P. Webster. 



Letter of Rev. Francis Alison to Benjamin Alison, his 
Nephew.— r 

Philad* Feb. >•• 22«» 1777. 

Dear Benja 

I received yours by M*". Alexander Hunter, and am glad that you keep 
y*" Health, & are safe as yet from y* dangers of War. I think y* some- 
times it is mens honor and duty to commit themselves to Grod & to shun 
no danger, & this is y' duty of Gknerals A leaders, but was neither Mr. 
Hunters duty nor yours ; & to be in y* field in an Engagement, & to 
continue there, after it was Judged to be duty to retreat, is rather fool- 
hardiness, than Courage. I complain that many battalions have neither 
a Doctor nor a surgeon to take care of their sick & wounded ; I complain 
y^ men of no great skill are sometimes appointed to fill these Important 
offices ; and I complain that when men of skill are appointed they will 
do other business, & neglect their own place & poet. You know y* your 
duty was to be in a known place, to receive and help the wounded ; this 
was to do more publick service than any private or volunteer could do in 
an engagement. I beg that while you stay in y" army, that no false 



122 Notes and Queries, 

notions of Courage or Bravery may ever tempt y' to neglect y* duty of a 
surgeon, a brave man may bleed to death while you are not to be found 
for his relief. We have no news. Your mother & Bob are still at Fort 
Augusta. Anny & Bob have both had long & severe sickness & y* Doctor 
without Medicines, or (?) to releive them, they are mending. I have 
some notion of Removing either to y* Fort or to Munsey to settle for life, 
for provisions «& all things are so dear that we cannot live on our salaries 
and we have no hopes of getting them Enlarged, on one or the other of 
these places I can, by farming, have y* necessaries of life while I live, A 
I cannot get more nor so much, as things now go in Philad'. Besides I 
expect that this city will be y* seat of war next summer, & that y* College 
must be broken up a^ well as in Jerseys, & If this should happen, this 
new Countr}' will be my only retreat. If you or any of the officers be 
here about y* 20* of March, & if the wether be good, & if they or you 
will then go to Fort Augusta, I had some notion then to go back, but 
cannot venture without company ; then I may determine what I will do. 
Bob Alison lay at my house three weeks in a low state, by y* sickness he 
got in Prison at New York, but my brother John came for him, & he is 
gone home. Many of these miserable captives have died in this city, A 
many of them in New York, & many have died on their way home. 
Cozen Robert lives from day to day on hopes, & Promises, but nothing 
is yet done for him as far as I know. I fear General Washington will 
not have his army complected, when all y* militia have served their time. 
Mens wages I am told is now three pounds to encourage them to Enlist. 
I expect you in town about y* 10*** or fifteenth of March ; The femily as 
£sir as I know are well. I Pray you to serve God, & prepare for a better 
state ; you are in y* way of danger & unfit to die. I wish you a long, 
sober & Religious life, & am with sincere affection yours 

Fra : Alison. 



Some Items from the Accx)unt of the Executors of John 
LuKENs, Deceased. — 

1778, 8 mo: 11, By Cash of Catherine Wiltberger for 1 

year's Rent of the George Taveme, (the English 

had -Jill the Stable & part of house) . . . £65 - - 

1779, 2 mo : 12, By Do. of Ruth Engles for a Quarter's 

Rent of Wooden House (no rent while the English 

were here & long after) 3 15 

The Estate of Mr. John Lukens To Dr. Benj'n Rush Dr. 

1773 Feb. To sundry medicines & attendance administered 
to Child & Inoculation of Child .... 
1776 Sept. To Do. in consultation with Dr. Kuhn . 

The Estate of John Lukens dec'd to Caleb Jones. 
1767 -10 mo: 12-To Buckrum & Stays .... 

'* making a Sute of Cloaths 
1768 - 6 mo. 8 — ** making a pair breeches . 
1769-10 mo. 29 ** making a Coat .... 

The Estate of John Lukens to John Howard Dr : 

1776 Sept'r 4 To a mahogany Coffing for his Wife . . £8,0,0 



£2-0- 
6-14- 


-0 
-0 


£0,3, 
1, 8, 
0, 6, 
0,15, 


. 8 
, 
, 
, 



Notes and Queries. 



123 



Pension Notice, 1790. — 

war office of the united states. 

Information is hereby given to all the Invalid Pensioners of the United 
States, residing within the States respectively, that one moiety of their 
annual pension, commencing on the fifth day of March last, will be paid 
at the places and by the persons herein after mentioned, on the fiftii day 
of March ensuing, and that the second moiety of the said annual pension 
will be paid at the same places and by the same persons, on the fifth day 
of June ensuing. 

Places, 



The States, 

New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, 
New York, 
New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, 
Maryland, 
Virginia, 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
Georgia, 



Portsmouth, 

Boston, 

Providence, 

New London, 

New York, 

Perth Amboy, 

Philadelphia, 

Wilmington, 

Baltimore, 

B. Hundred, 

Hillsborough, 

Charleston, 

Savannah, 



and persons by whom the 
pctmon will be paid, 
Joseph Whipple. 
Benjamin Lincoln. 
Jeremiah Olney. 
Jedidiah Huntington. 
John Lamb. 
John Halsted. 
Sharj) Delaney. 
George Bush. 
Otho II. Williams. 
William Heth. 
John Haywood. 
George Abbott Hall. 
John Habersham. 



jBnuar>' the 28th, 1790. 

By order of the President of the United States. 

H. Knox, 
Secretary for the Department of War. 

Value of a Negro Slave in Pennsylvania, in Continental 

currency. — 

Philada 10* Jany. 1781. 

Mr. Richard Keye8 

Bo* of Thomas Jones. 
A Negro man by the name of Jack, which was purchased of Col. 
Ephraim Blaine, Commissary General of Purchases, aged about Nine- 
teen years, which said Blaine warranted sound & free from any Impedi- 
ments & State Charges, to said Jones &c. , and upon said Conditions is 
now Delivered up to Mr. Keyes Price Ten Thousand Pounds Cont* 
Currency. Thomas Jones. 

Deaths of American Interest, announced in The Pocket Magazine^ 
London, January to December, 1795. — 

[January.'] — *'At Merton, after a long and painful illness, Mrs. 
Lackington, wife of Mr. Lackington, bookseller, Finsbury Square. '* 
[London.] 

IMarch.] — ''In Merrion Square, Dublin, Amos Strettel Esq', one of 
the Directors of the Bank of England.'* 

'*At Terry, near Alloa, Sir William Erskine, who had received hia 
Majesty's commission to go to Ireland as commander-in-chief.*' 

lApril.] — *' At his lodgings in Maddox Street, Capt. Payne Gal way, 
nephew to Sir Ralph Payne, only son of Mr. Galway of Norfolk, and 



124 Notes and Queries. 

Aid-du-Camp to (General Sloper. He had been to the Masquerade at the 
Opera House ; and, in attempting to subdue the flames occasioned by 
his candle's having caught the bed-curtains, he was so schockingly burnt 
that he died at five o'clock the next morning.*' 

[August^ — **0n his way to Brighthelmstone, Peter Livius Esq' late 
Chief Justice of Canada." H. 

An Interesting Bill. — 

The Exc*" to the Estate of Mr. Andrew Kennedy, Merch*, 

To James Pearson, Dr. 

1795 

March IG"* For Surveying the House and Lot bought of Robert 
Morris Esq' in tenure of the President of the U. 

States $2.00 

20"* For a resurvey and delineation of the lot on which 
the said House stands & the East lot as per Ace* 
delivered $3.00 

$5.00 

PmLADA August 10*l> 1800 

James Pearson, 

Surveyor. 

Funeral of Colonel Robert Magaw, of the Pennsylvania 
Continental Line. — From The Carlule Gazette and the Western Repos- 
itory of Knowledge, for January 13, 1790, we copy the account of the 
burial of Colonel Robert Magaw]i who commanded the Fifth Pennsylvania 
Battalion when Fort Washington was captured by Sir William Howe, 
November 16, 1776. He was appointed colonel of the Fifth Pennsyl- 
vania Line ; but, owing to his exchange not being effected until October 
26, 1780, he was prevented from taking command, and retired from the 
service January 1, 1781. On January 7, 1790, he died at Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, and his remains were interred in Meeting-House Spring 
Cemetery. 

**0n Wednesday evening last, the remains of the late Robert Magaw 
Esq. was entered at the burial place near this town. The ftineral was 
perhaps the most respectable ever seen here. The following was the 
order of procession. 

Troop of Horse dismounted, 

^ Music, 

Corps of Infantry, lately commanded by Col. Magaw, 

Clergy, 

Physicians 

The Body. Pall supported by six gentlemen, 

late officers of the American Army 

Trustees and Faculty of Dickinson College, 

Justices of the Court of Common Pleas, 

Attorneys at I-aw 

Students of Dickinson College, 

Officers of the County, and Principal Officers 

of the Borough of Carlisle, 

Citizens. 

Minute guns were fired by the Artillery during the Procession. At the 

grave a pathetic discourse was delivered by the Rev. Dr. Davidson. 

Three vollies from the Infantrj', closed the scene." 



Notes and Queries. 



125 



School Billb, 1802-^.— 

young ladies* academy of philadelphia. 

Maich 21, 1802 
D. C. 

For the Tuition of Miss R. Risk from Dec. 21st to this day . 5 

Quills and Ink 50 

Copy Books 10 

Ciphering Books 50 



Mb. 



Oct. 19 









$6.10 


Received Payment 






James A. 


Neal. 


Kennedy, 

To Mrs. Mallon Dr. 








. 1803. To 8 Months Tuition & Board of Miss 






McCoy @ £70 ^ ann . 


£17 


10 




*^ 3 months tuition in Music 


5 


1 


3 


** do Embroidery 


2 


5 




*' do Washing 


2 


5 




*^ use of Instruments & tuning . 




15 




** Paper Quills & Ink 




11 


3 


** Camb'' for Sleeves & piece of tape 




3 


4 


*' Cash making a stuff & white dress 




18 


9 


'' 82i yds Shinielle (o) 5^ d 


1 


17 


9 


** 3t yds Dimitv 






17 


6 


'* 5 yds Muslin'® 7/(5 




1 


17 


6 


** body lining . 






2 


6 


'' do for frock . 






3 


9 


** making frock, tape & thread 






12 


5 


** pair white silk gloves . 






8 


5 


'* a pencil 






1 


10* 


** hair cutting & soap 






6 


7* 



£35. 16. 11 

Part of a Letter of James Logan to Letitia Aubrey, 1708-10. — 
The following letter was found among some old papers at the home of 
Mrs. Owen Jones, at Wynnewood. It is without date, is neither signed 
nor addressed, and has on it, apparently in the handwriting of Mary 
Jones, this memorandum : ''An old letter supposed to be from James 
Logan to Letitia Aubrey, which was sent by Maria Logan to her friend, 
Mary Jones." The date is probably about 1708-10. 

Howard Williams Lloyd. 

''As it was no small pleasure to me to see a line from thy hand by 
Ed: Shippen, so it was a no less disturbance to find by it how much I 
have suflered in thy thoughts since our last parting, for which I can by 
no means imagine the occasion. My style it seems has been so unhappy 
as to displease. I assure thee I never affected any thing particular in it, 
and if at any time when thou was single, I took the accustomed freedom, 
that, had not been blamed before. Yet since thy marriage I find (upon 
examination of all the copies of my lett's that I have by me) not one 
syllable but what might become a piece of gravity of twice my age nor 



126 Notes and Queries. 

any expression but what the plainest might reasonably use. Give me 
leave to say that whatever right I may have to them, I have never yet 
been observed to use hard words or affect any speech but what is com- 
mon, and therefore cannot but ye more admire all the severity of thy 
censure. 

** But there is another charge that comes much more home, for the 
form of words is but a trifle, and that is thy belief of my being in with 
some very deceitful people here who are prejudiced against thee that I 
am alter^ in my friendship to thee, and further that thou hast seen my 
name among a list of those that speak sleightingly of thy husband, as to 
the first part I can boldly say that if I am altered at all in any respect it 
is but very little, & that I hope not for the worst, and therefore if thou 
ever knew me thou must own the deceitful are none of my companions. 
Our friendship I once hoped would never alter, and on my side it has 
not begun to do so yet, nor ever shall while I can have room to exercise 
it, and as to the latter I shall only say thy, as it was never my business, 
so I never concerned myself in it. Thy displeasure with me at New 
Castle at parting, upon another occasion was a sufScient lesson to me not 
to meddle in affairs of that nature. Indeed Mrs Letitia it has never yet 
been my temper to lessen any person without a very just occasion. I 
have never had cause hitherto, nor I hope ever shall to speak the least 
unkind syllable that way, and without cause I am sure I shall never 
begin with any man. But one piece of justice I must claim & desire 
that is to know what worthy person that was that put my name in that 
list among the detractors. 

*' What I request is due to me and then if I do not prove the party, 
be who they will, as arrant a hypocrite & false deceitful pickthank as 
any of the Province when the very worst that thou canst imagine in it I 
will readily fall under the imputation & not speak one syllable in my 
own defence. This is down right barbarity in my accuser & I admit 
thou couldsH suffer it to enter thy thought I could be guilty of the base- 
ness, but pray give me their name, and if I cannot do myself justice I 
shall crave it of another. 

'*As to thy complaint concerning the Estate here, thou seems one 
fiiUy acquainted with what I have in charge from thy father and others 
in desiring me to make returns directly to thy husband & then I cannot 
send them thou sayest to the wrong person. But the orders that I now 
have are as follows. 

**Thy father I understand has mortgaged an Estate in Kent or Sussex 
to thy husband for the payment of two thousand pounds on thy acct' 
out of thy lands (or otherwise) in this Province and obliged himself to 
pay £120 the interest of it yearly till that sum be paid or proportion- 
ably as it is paid off. To enable thy father to have this money raised 
thy husband and thee have joyntly made over your whole Estate by 
joint deed to certain Trustees, viz., thy Uncle Wharley Goldney & Swal- 
denfiel in & to all thy Manor on Schuylkill all the town lotts appurten- 
ant, which Trustees have appointed Sfunl Carpenter and me their Attor- 
neys to dispose of their lands and have ordered the Effects to be remitted 
directly to them, and for the interest of thy money thy father and hus- 
band have joyned in a power of attorney to R*d Hill and thy brother R. 
Thomas, appointed them to receive of me here, so that both principal 
and interest is ordered from me into other hands to whom I must remitt 
and pay it, and to no other. 



Notes and Queries. 127 

**I wish I could as well justify myself in applying some of thy 
money viz between 3 & 400 to thy father* s Use the first summer Afl^ 
you went over *tis now his Last, as well as my great trouble, but I will 
retrieve it as soon as possible, tho the miserable poor condition of the 
country for want of money to what it was when thou was here makes it 
exceeding difficult, there lies 500 Us more in good secure hands upon 
interest but such as can not yet raise the money. When I can find wayes 
to get it in and return it I have many reasons to urge me on not to be 
backward & thou may assure thy self I shall not, for I shall strain to my 
utmost, but you that abound thus with plenty can scarce judge of our 
circumstances, especially how hard a thing it is to sell land now for 
money. Thy brother has sold all his Manor on Schuylkill for less than 
12 lis p cen* only for the sake of money, and yet must trust all most one 
half 6 months & the rest 12 Mo'ths except one hundred pounds that has 
rec'd. 

Thy father's bleeding circumstances require the speediest supplies. 
Yet seeing he is so very hard tied, both for his ease and thy satis£Eu;tion 
my first endeavours shall be to clear off that incumbrance which were 
money as it had been amongst us would not be difficult. What thou 
canst doe further to facilitate the matter it will very much behoove thee 
to contribute what is in thy power. I spoke to Rees Thomas about the 
money for the crops, but he says he will stay for his brother's answer to 
his letter for he thought he was to be called on for it. Rees is really an 
honest man & deserves favour. 

*'And now I think I have answered thy whole letter the unkindest 
thing I ever saw come from thy hands. Tho I think in my own breast 
I deserved it as little as ever. Time was when thou thought me true if 
thou art deceived now, thou wast then, for as I said before I am not 
changed. I know not whether thou wilt think thy brother so or not, by 
whom this comes, many have thought him so about 3 weeks ago, when 
he put on his sword with a resolution to wear it ever hereafter. The 
country has been too unkind to him, especially our New Ck)rporation, for 
they have treated him barbarously and he resents it, as highly, but I 
will leave it to himself to be more particular. I thank thee for the con- 
tinuance of thy good wishes with my ancient acquaintances & good f 'r 
A. S. but I have received an entire balk in all my inclinations of that 
kind, of w'ch thou wilt hear more from thy brother. A. S. was still 
right well she thanks thee for thy lett' and would gladly have wrote but 
could find . . . ." 

'Replied. 

Sons of Washington.— (Penna. Mag., Vol. XXIII., p. 412.) The 

following notes, answering this query, were prepared by Mr. Stewart 

Culin, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

** February 22, 1810. The First and Second City Troops celebrated 

Washington's Birthday at Bamum's Hotel. On that day, also, the Society 

of the Sons of Washiiagton dined at Renshaw's Mansion House. The 

members wore their badges, containing an excellent miniature likeness 

of Washington set in gold and accompanied by suitable inscriptions. 

The president was James Mil nor ; vice-presidents, Jonathan B. Smith 

and Samuel F. Bradford ; secretary, Robert S. Stevenson ; and treasurer, 

Samuel Realf. Civilities were also exchanged between the Society and the 



128 Notes and Queries. 

First and Second Troops and Independent Volunteers, all of which were 
dining on the 22d of February. The founding of the Society seems to 
date from this time. Long accounts of the dinner appear in the daily 
papers of the day. We read that over the president was suspended an 
elegant emblematic painting, the centre of which was embellished with 
a striking bust of Washington in transparency, surrounded with a scroll, 
containing the following passages from his Farewell Address : ' The 
name of American must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism.' 
The decorations of the room were by Mr. Bobbins, of the theatre. In 
the course of the evening the full-length transparency of Washington 
was Axed to the front of the Mansion House, to the gratification of a 
large concourse of people. The final toast of the evening 'The last 
Prayer of Washington for his Country,' was drunk standing. During 
the evening a deputation of three gentlemen waited on Captain Price's 
Third Troop of City Cavalry, and i3ler felicitating them on the joyous 
occasion which they were mutually celebrating, drank ' The Volunteer 
Companies of Horse of the City of Philadelphia, — in peace its greatest 
ornament, in war its best defense.' The Troop afterwards reciprocated 
the compliment by deputing three of its members to wait on the com- 
pany, and on their bcJialf gave the following toast : ' The Hero whose 
nativity we are celebrating, — First in peace, first in war, and first in 
the hearts of his countrymen.' By the President, — *The Society of 
American Bepublicans, — Washington their guide, they cannot err.' 

** February 22, 1812. The Sons of Washington celebrated the 22d 
of February at the Mansion House. James Milner was president; 
Jonathan Bayard Smith and Samuel F. Bradford, vice-presidents ; Bobert 
S. Stevenson, secretary ; and Samuel Bealf, treasurer. The Society had 
a banquet and the toasts were patriotic rather than partisan. Bishop 
White, Jonathan Williams, Chief-Justice Tilghman, and Captain Charles 
Stewart, U.S.N., were present. It would be interesting to learn further 
particulars as to its history, and how long its members continued to cele- 
brate its anniversary with a dinner." 

Sons of Washington. — The badge worn by each member was a gold 
medallion containing a bust portrait of Washington, engraved in stipple, 
after Stuart's Athenaeum head, apparently by David Edwin. At the top 
is engraved the name of the member ; at the bottom, ** Feb. 22, 1810 ;" 
on the back, **Sons of Washington." I know of four of these badges 
bearing, respectively, the names of Thomas C. Wharton, Eli Canby, 
John F. Mifflin, and William Bethel. 

Charles Henry Hart. 

Warnick. — Ann Warnick married Charles Peters November 17, 1821. 
Children of Albert and Mary A. Warnick : Conrad Z, J"., b, April 16, 
1813 ; Mary Ann, 6. March 27, 1815 ; Albert B,, b. February 27, 1817 ; 
Charles Ulmer, b. May 27, 1821 ; William Zorn, b, November 25, 1828. 

Ed. Penna. Mag. 



IN MEMORY 

OF 

CHARLES JANEWAY STILLE, LLD. 







\ 



PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESS. 



A Special Meeting of the Society was held in the As- 
sembly Room on Monday evening, May 21, 1900, the Presi- 
dent, the Hon. Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker, LL.D., in 
the chair, and Hampton L. Carson, Esq., Recording Secre- 
tary. A large and sympathetic audience was in attendance. 
The President, on opening the meeting, said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Since the organization of this Society in the early part of 
the present century down to the time of Dr. Charles J. 
Stille, and including that time, it has been unusually fortu- 
nate in the character of the men who have been called 
upon to preside over its deliberations. William Rawle, 
Peter S. Du Ponceau, Thomas Sergeant, George W. Norris, 
Joseph R. Ingersoll, John William Wallace, Brinton Coxe, 
and Charles J. Stille, were all of them not only of high 
position in the community, but of great intellectual vigor. 
Of them all, however. Dr. Stille has done the most to ex- 
plore and elucidate the history of Pennsylvania, and in this 
respect to advance the purposes of the Society. 

It gives me pleasure to present to you Professor Robert 
Ellis Thompson, President of the Central High School, who 
\vill depict to you the life and career of this learned his- 
torian and eminent scholar. 

Professor Thompson then said : 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It has been the glory of our city in every period of its 
history to have been the mother of men. From the time 



vi In Memory of Charles Janeway StilUy LL,D. 

of Story and Benezet to the present there has been an un- 
broken succession of citizens, whose names adorn the annals 
and add to the lustre of her good name — men of great 
abilities, fine achievement, distinct personal flavor, and 
above all of that sterling social quality our fathers called 
" public spirit." Such a man was the late President of this 
Society, in whose honor we are assembled this evening, 
and of whom I am to speak to you at the request of its 
managers. 

Charles Janeway Still6 was born in this city on tlie 23d 
of September, 1819. He was descended on his father's 
side from Olof Stille, a member of the third Swedish 
colony which reached the shores of the Delaware in 1641. 
He came from the parish of Lanna in Roslagen, and settled 
at a place known to the Indians as Techoherassi, and to the 
Swedes as " Olof Stille's land," on the Delaware, just above 
Upland, now Chester, Pennsylvania, and afterwards re- 
moved to Passyunk, near the old sit^ of the United States 
Navy Yard. Olof Still6 was a person of note, occupjdng 
high offices in the Swedish colony, and his descendants 
became prominent merchants of Philadelphia, at a time 
when commerce was the leading business interest, and 
when the city clung to the Delaware front. This traditional 
employment continued in the family down to John Stille, 
the father of our deceased friend, who lived in the opening 
decades of the present century. 

While Dr. Still6's descent on the fiither's side thus re- 
minds us of the era which preceded Penn's acquisition of 
the colony, and the settlement of Philadelphia proper, that 
on his mother's side carries us back to ancestors still more 
widely known. His mother, Maria Wagner, was the 
descendant of the Rev. Tobias Wagner, an eminent Lu- 



Proceedings and Address. vii 

theran clergyman of Reading, who represented in America 
the Wagner family of Wurtemberg, eminent in both the 
clerical and the legal annals of that kingdom. The best 
known member of it was Tobias Wagner, Chancellor of 
the University of Tubingen in the seventeenth century, 
and a learned champion of Lutheran orthodoxy, as well as 
a prolific author. 

The marriage of John Stille and Maria Wagner was un- 
usually felicitous. She was a lady of rare domestic virtues, 
and active in all good works; and she left the impress of 
her character upon her children. Charles Janeway Still6 
was their second son. 

His education was at the best schools accessible at the 
time, when the succession of Scotch-Irish clerical teachers 
waa still unbroken, and the excellent tradition of classical 
training they had brought to the New World enjoyed unim- 
paired credit. He studied under one of these. Rev. Dr. 
Steele, in his academy at Abington, Pennsylvania, and then 
at Edge Hill School near Princeton, New Jersey. From 
this he proceeded to Yale in 1835, and graduated there in 
1839. To be a student of Yale was his ambition from an 
early age. In letters to his older brother, written when 
he was but eight years old, he expresses this wish. 

Yale was then under the government of Rev. Jeremiah 
Day, the successor of the first President Dwight He was 
a man of less inspiring influence, but a faithful guardian of 
the traditions of this great college. Mr. Stille produced 
a marked impression on his fellow-students both by the 
character of his mental powers and the lofty ideals which 
controlled his conduct. Their respect for him was shown 
by his being chosen the president of their literary society, 
Brothers in Unity ; and on his graduation in 1839 he pro- 



viii In Memory of Charles Jane way StilU, LL.D. 

nounced a valedictory oration on The Social Spirit/ which 
was the first of his pubhshed writings, but which exemplifies 
the conservative and ethical spirit that pervades them all. 

He returned to his Alma Mater again in 1863, to address 
her Alumni on the Historical Development of American 
Civilization;^ and at her hands, in 1868, he received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, in recognition of his 
services to his country, and of the eminent and responsible 
place to which he had just been called in his native city. 
And in his last will he bequeathed to his Alma Mater a 
third of his residuary estate. 

After his graduation in 1839 he entered upon the study 
of the law in the office of Joseph R. Ingersoll, Esq., then 
among the leaders of our citj-'s bar, and afterwards Presi- 
dent of this Society. He completed his course and was ad- 
mitted to practice, but his inclination led him rather to the 
fields of literature and of history. He gratified his tastes 
for both these by repeated visits to Europe. One of these 
took him as far as Moskow. He t\vice visited Sweden, 
and on the second of these visits, which occurred in 1888, 
he pursued important historical researches in her archives 
relating to the history of the colonists on the Delaware. 
He thus obtained and translated the records of the colony, 
which he afterwards presented to this Society. 

In 1845 he was commissioned by the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania Second Lieutenant of the "Junior Artillerists" 

* The Social Spirit. A Valedictory Oration pronounced on the de- 
parture of the Senior Class from the Society of Brothers in Unity, Yale 
College, June 28, 1839. By Charles Janeway Still6. Pp. 31. New 
Haven: 1839. 

' The Historical Development of American Civilization. An address 
before the Society of Graduates of Yale College, July 29, 1863. By 
Charles J. Stills. Pp. 38. New Haven: 1863. 



X In Memory of Charles Janeway StUU^ LL.D. 

Exactly proportional to this foolish confidence were the 
disappointment and disheartenment which grew and gathered 
as the years went by. One hero of the hour after another 
failed the Nation. Capable leadership was slowly evolved 
by survival of the fittest. The armies learned but slowly 
the necessary lessons of discipline and obedience. The 
waste of life and the suffering of our soldiers through the 
inexperience and incompetence of the bureaus subsidary to 
the army were terrible. At times it seemed as if the 
struggle must collapse through the inability of the country 
to become really efficient for military purposes. Even in 
the army itself, and among its officers, there was a loss of 
heart at critical moments. 

It was when this depression was at its worst that Mr. 
Stille published his pamphlet of less than forty pages \vith 
the title: "How a Free People Conduct a Long War.'^ 
(Philadelphia : 1862). Never was historical scholarship em- 
ployed more finely for a patriotic purpose. As I have been 
assured by some whom it reached as they labored or fought 
at the front, that pamphlet itself was an event of the war. 
It passed from hand to hand among the officers, and was 
read aloud by the more intelUgent of the common soldiers. 
It was translated into several of the languages spoken by 
our soldiers, and half a million copies were distributed. 
President Lincoln wrote to its author : 

**The pamphlet is far the beet production upon the subject it treats 
that I have seen. The reading and re-reading of it has afforded me great 
pleasure, and I believe also some profit. May I express the hope that 
you will not allow your pen to resf 

**I have often wished to thank you/' writes Dr. H. Clay Trumbull, 
** for the service you rendered to us all in the dark days of war, by your 
impressive story of *How a Free People Conduct a Long War.* My 



Proceedings and Address. xi 

command was on one of the islands of Port Royal harbor when first I 
saw that work. Everything seemed against us at that time, and our 
officers and men were alike despondent. I felt it my duty to speak only 
words of cheer. Your book furnished me with the idea and the inspi- 
ration of a sermon for the encouragement of those whom I might influ- 
ence, and I had reason to be profoundly glad in the results of the appeal 
then made to the soldiers who had but lately been on the verge of despair. 
I am sure that that work was a moral tonic to many others also. You 
can never know how much it did for the cause you espoused so heartily. 
It has occurred to me that it may be pleasant for you to know of one 
isolated case of the peculiar advantages of your story to those then in 
peculiar need.*' 

Its picture of England in her twenty years' struggle with 
the imperialism of revolutionary France, and of the final 
triumph of the national principle in the liberation of Spain 
from Napoleon's yoke, was told in terms which made that 
great chapter of history vivid and near to us. The story 
was the more eftective because of the spirit which per- 
vaded it. It was the voice of a sober, dispassionate, conser- 
vative patriotism w^hich made itself heard. The freedom 
of this and the supplementary pamphlet * from the spirit of 
bitterness and recrimination which characterized so much of 
the writing of that time, was especially notable. In a note 
to the latter pamphlet he says : 

** We differ fi-om Mr. Reed in many things, but we cordially join him 
in his protest against dragging the private life and personal motives of 
our opponents into the arena of party strife. Many, in these unhappy 
days, have reached conclusions directly opposite to those of Mr. Reed, 
through a path of duty beset with sore trials ; and their remembrance 
of the sacrifices they have made of life-long friendships, and even of 
tenderer ties, is too firesh to permit them to judge, with indiscriminate 
harshness, the motives of those who may not agree with them." 

^ Northern Interests and Southern Independence : A Plea for United 
Action. Philadelphia: 1868. 



xii la Memory of Charles Janeway Stilliy LL.D. 

But in both the note was one of confidence in the Nation's 
power to maintain its unity, and in its high and resohite 
purpose to re-establish its authority over the wliole land. 
The very sobriety of manner lent added force to the strenu- 
ousness of plea for heroic endurance for an end worthy of 
any sacrifice. 

It was no doubt the admirable quality and influence of 
the pamphlet which led to Mr. Still6's being invited to a 
place on the Standing Committee of the United States 
Sanitary Commission, after having served for some time 
first as secretary of its Philadelphia branch. This excellent 
organization took its name from the Sanitary Commission 
created by the British government in 1855 ta check the 
abuses and retrieve the blunders of the medical and com- 
missary department of the British army in the Crimean 
War. It had a similar aim in that it labored to supple- 
ment the imperfect organization and spasmodic action of 
our medical bureau in the opening years of the war. 
But it was given by the oflicial class much less than even 
the modest scope it asked for, and was forced to turn to 
the people for the moral and material support which it 
needed in its eflbrts to abate the sufferings, diminish the 
the mortaUty, and guard against the diseases which attend 
militarj^ operations on a large scale. It was the fij^t fore- 
runner of the Geneva Commission and its humane labors 
on the battle-field. As the work finally shaped itself, the 
Commission was obliged to ask large contributions in money 
and supplies for the supi>ort of its agents at the front and in 
the hospitals ; and no city was more prompt than our own in 
response to this. The crowning effort was in the great Fair 
of 1863, which occupied Logan Square for a month, and 
secured more than a million dollars for the relief and pro- 



Proceedings and Address. xiii 

tection of our soldiers. In the management of the Fair, 
which had the co-operation of our two adjacent States as 
well as our own, Mr. Stille, as corresponding secretary of 
the Executive Committee, took an active and most useful 
part, and afterwards prepared a history of it, which enables 
many of us to recall the stirring days of popular enthusiasm, 
through which we were then passing.* It was therefore 
natural that he was chosen by the national Commission to 
write the history of its labors, when the victory of the 
national cause brought these to a close. His volume on 
this subject* is admirable in both spirit and execution. 
Although written and published at a time when the 
national exultation in the triumph of the Union cause had 
made the public indifferent to the blunders which made 
that triumph costly far beyond need, it is pervaded by the 
judicious criticism which was the truest patriotism. The 
purpose was to warn the nation and its rulers against the re- 
currence of such mistakes. As Dr. Stille says in the preface : 

**He who, at the termination of a successful war, bestows indiscrimi- 
nate eulogy on all the measures adopted for the prosecution, is not the 
best friend of his country ; but rather he, who, having clearly seen its 
shortcomings, does not hesitate to expose the evils which have flowed 
from them, and raises a voice of warning against their recurrence/' 

Can we say that the warning was not needed, or that it was 
heeded when the occasion came ? The book constitutes a 

^ Memorial of the Great Central Fair for the United States Sanitary 
Commission, held in Philadelphia, June, 1864. By Charles J. Still6. 
Quarto, pp. 211, with three photographic illustrations. Philadelphia; 
United States Sanitary Commission, 1864. 

* History of the United States Sanitary Commission, being the Greneral 
Report of its Work during the War of the Rebellion. By Charles J. 
Still4. Octavo, pp. 555. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. , 1866. 



xiv In Memory of Charles Janeioay StOUy LL.D. 

solid and important addition to the historical literature of 
that great struggle, and a corrective of much that has been 
hastily and eulogisticallj written of it. 

Another matter, in which Dr. Stille took great interest 
about this time, was the erection of the statue in honor of 
President Lincoln in Fairmount Park, and, as President of 
the Lincoln Monument Association, he had a principal part 
at the unveiling of it in 1871. 

The resignation of Professor Henry Coppee, who in 1886 
left the Chair of History and Belles Lettres in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania to become President of the newly 
founded Lehigh University, led to Mr. Stille's being invited 
to fill that place, — a chair consecrated by the memory of 
Henry Reed. He accepted and entered upon its duties 
wdth characteristic zest, but was at once impressed with the 
unsatisfactory condition of the University in its collegiate 
department. In its earUest years the College of Philadel- 
delphia — aft;erwards the University of Pennsylvania — ^liad 
taken the foremost place among the higher institutions 
of learning in America. Its first provost. Dr. William 
Smith, of whose career our friend published an account in 
1869,* had attracted students from other colonies, including 
the British West Indies. The curriculum of study is now 
recognized by the historians of higher education as the most 
liberal then known in America, and especially as the first 
in which time was given to the sciences of nature. But in 
later years the institution fell upon q\\\ days and declined in 
importance and efliciency, while its medical school increased 
in both. At last in 1829 — ^tradition says — one Freshman 

^ A Memoir of the Rev. William Smith, D.D., Provost of the College, 
Academy and Charitable School of Philadelphia. By Charles J. Still6. 
Pp. 63. Philadelphia : 1869. 



Proceedings and Address. xv 

presented himself for admission. The trustees set them- 
selves to restore its fortunes by a complete change of the 
teaching force, and under Provosts De Lancey, Ludlow, 
Vethake, and Goodwin there was a slow but steady advance. 
Dr. Daniel R Goodwin, under whom Professor Stille labored 
for two years, was especially usefiil in re-establishing college 
discipline and elevating the tone of the institution. 

Professor Stille found, however, that no change had been 
made in the course of study for two generations, and no ad- 
dition to its endowment except a single gift of five thousand 
dollars. An eftbrt made by Bishop Alonzo Potter in 1842 to 
enlarge and reform the course of study, had come to nothing. 
The later attempt to establish a " School of Mines, Arts, and 
Manufactures" had resulted in nothing but the erection of a 
sign-board over the door of an unused room, no money being 
forthcoming in this manufacturing city to set the school on 
foot, and both Trustees and Faculty had come to acquiesce 
in this condition of affairs as inevitable and permanent. It 
was assured that the City wanted nothing more or better, 
and that any attempt to go farther would result in disaster. 

The resignation of Dr. Goodwin in 1868, to devote him- 
self entirely to the duties of his chair in the Di\anity School 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, left a vacancy, which the 
Trustees promj^tly filled bj'' the election of Dr. Stille as the 
tenth in the succession of the Provosts. He was inaugurated 
on the 30th of September, 1868, in the Academy of Music, 
and delivered an address ^ in which he exhibited the needs 
of tlie University, and of the city as regarded the higher 

^ The Claims of Liberal Culture in Philadelphia. An address de- 
livered on the occasion of his public inauguration as Provost of the 
University of Penasylvania. By Charles J. Stills, LL.D. Pp. 40. 
Philadelphia: 1868. 



xvi In Memory of Charles Janeway StilUj LL.D. 

education. He had already been trying to stir the dry 
bones of conservative passivity, and his election was an in- 
dication that the Trustees were awakening to the fact that 
a new era was dawning for higher education in America. 

The American college had been a copy of the English 
college, when that was at its worst and lowest. The College 
of Philadelphia had avoided many of these defects through 
the fortunate circumstances of its first Provost being a 
Scotchman, and a graduate of the University of Aberdeen. 
But both English and Scotch models had ceased to satisfy 
American educators, who had their attention drawn to Ger- 
many by long contact vnth the scholarship of that country. 
This new influence became eftective in the decade after the 
close of the war, leading to the establishment of elective 
courses of study in place of the old uniform curriculum, 
which presented the same mental food for all. In this gen- 
eral movement the University began to share before Provost 
Stille's administration, when, in 1867, electives were intro- 
duced into the Junior and Senior years of the college course 
in Arts. But now new departments were created within the 
College, — ^that of Science in 1872 ; that of Music in 1877 ; 
that of Dentistry in 1878. To meet the needs of tlie new 
system two things were necessary. The first was more room. 
The two ugly bams on Ninth Street, which had replaced the 
old residence of the President of the United States in 1826, 
were now inadequate in size, and misplaced as surrounded 
by the city. By purchase on very low terms fi-om the city, 
ten acres of ground were procured through his assiduous 
endeavors, in West Philadelphia, and the College building, 
the medical building, the dental building, and the hospital 
were erected during the provostship of Dr. Stille. The 
Ninth Street property was resold to the national govern- 



Proceedings and Address. xvii 

ment, at a much higher figure than it got for it in 1801. 
By these changes the University obtained adequate accom- 
modation for its expansion, in a desirable quarter of the 
city, and was launched upon a new career. When Dr. 
Btill6 became Provost it was an institution of little note or 
prominence, being often mentioned by residents of our own 
city as " that medical college on Ninth Street" Under his 
rule it moved rapidly to its rightftil place as a leading Amer- 
ican university, in touch wth the throbbing life of the new 
time, and doing its share in the scientific and scholarly 
labors of an active generation. 

Its professors were given the stimulus of publicity and 
recognition. Its work was no longer eminent merely 
through the individual labors of a Hare, a Reed, or a Leidy, 
but the outflow of a new esprit de corps within the institution. 
Great as have been the changes since Dr. Stille resigned the 
provostship, they are not to be compared with those he 
eftected, in reach and value. 

It would be pleasant to be able to add that the city rose 
to the needs of the new era in the University by an adequate 
endowment. But it is impossible to say that it did. One 
splendid gift, the reversion of the estate of Mr. Henry 
Towne, promised to place the Scientific School above want 
forever. But the great collapse of the iron business, aft^r 
the introduction of Bessemer Steel, caused a calamitous re- 
duction of the value of wliat he had bequeathed, although 
it still remains one of the largest additions to the University's 
resources. Other gifts were obtained, notably the endow- 
ment of the John Welsh chair by the people of the city in 
recognition of that gentleman's grand ser\'ices to the city 
during the Centennial year, the gift of ten thousand dollars 
from Mrs. Bloomfield Moore for the education of women. 



xviii In Merrwry of Charles Jaiieway StilUj LL.D. 

and the same amount to found the Tobias Wagner Library. 
But neither then nor since has Philadelphia shown the 
generosity needed for the adequate endowment of a great 
university. The spirit which made Leyden prefer a charter 
for a university to an exemption from taxes, is not largely 
poured out upon our wealthy citizens. There is readiness 
enough in the community to call for an elective and varied 
system of the higher education, and to scorn that which it 
replaced ; but not the correspondent readiness to pay for it. 
I speak of this frankly, because his pamphlet on his pro- 
vostship shows this to have been one of the disappointments 
Dr. Still6 felt very keenly.^ 

In the internal administration of the University, Dr. Stille 
was unwearied in his efforts for its welfare. Besides his 
own work as professor of history and literature, and at first 
Political Economy, he had direct charge of the discipline, 
oversight and care of the grounds and buildings, the reception 
of visitors, and the general care of Faculty business. In 
his ideas of discipline he differed widely from his prede- 
cessor, perhaps not appreciating the condition of affairs 
which Dr. Goodwin found there in 1860. He leaned to the 
side of mercy and patience, laboring to win the confidence of 
the pupils and to influence tliem for good through kindness. 

"To a singular extent," writes one of his pupils, **Dr. Stills lived 
in and for the University. ... In History and English Literature, 
his peculiar branches of instruction, he was an inspiring teacher, but 
more than that — perhaps unconsciously to himself — ^he so aroused the 
affections of his pupils, and so impressed upon them a sense of the 
reality of goodness, that this impression vividly survives long years of 
separation and the frictions of active life.*' 

^Reminiscences of a Provost, 1866-1880. ''Forsan olim et nos 
meminissejuvabit.^' Pp. 58. Philadelphia. Privately printed, n. d. 



Proceedings and Address. xix 

He showed a personal interest in them, especially in 
those who were struggling for an education in the face of 
difficulties which would have deterred less stout hearts. It 
came out quite incidentally that he visited some of them in 
their homes, when they were kept from their work by 
serious illness, and he showed a similar concern in the health 
of his associates in the Faculty. He was always the first to 
recognize any evidence of ability in tlie younger members 
of the Faculty, and to rejoice in their promise of usefiilness. 
He took a personal interest in their welfare which evinced 
his sincere regard for their success and happiness. When 
any publication of theirs attracted favorable attention, he 
was among the first to praise it. His colleagues were to 
him not mere instruments to an end, even though that were 
the success of the University. They were human beings, 
to be thought for and considered as such. 

For those of his colleagues who were his seniors in the 
Faculty, he showed an esteem which amounted to reverence, 
— for John F. Frazer, the versatile and encyclopedic pro- 
fessor of natural science ; for George Allen, the gentle and 
cultivated professor of Greek, who won the love of all his 
pupils; for E. Otis Kendall, the high-toned Christian gentle- 
man, at whose funeral I last met Dr. Stille; for Charles 
Porterfield Krauth, the superb scholar in philosophy and 
theology, whose vast attainments even were less impressive 
than his courtesy, his friendliness, and his unwearied kind- 
ness ; for Francis A. Jackson, last 8ur\avor of a noble group, 
and not less worthy than any. 

One feature of Dr. Stille's policy as Provost was to bring 
the University into relation with the school system of the 
city by the establishment of city scholarships for graduates 
of the public schools, his interest in which is established 



XX In Memory of Charles Janeway Stille, LL.D. 

by his service as President of the Board of Directors of 
the Eighth School Section of Philadelphia. Under his 
provostship, as well as that of his successor, this has been 
effected and extended as a matter of compensation to the 
city for grants of land to the University. He moved in this 
matter with hearty interest in the class thus benefitted, 
being convinced that the University must be broadly based 
in popular esteem before it could attain its proper place in 
the hierarchy of our educational institutions. For the same 
reason he took the first of the few steps which have been 
taken to extend facilities for the higher education of women. 
The Centennial Exhibition, which occurred during his 
occupancy of the office, and after whose success he labored 
in many ways, laid especial claims on him, which he met 
more than amply. Scholars and educators of eminence, 
who \i8ited our city during that memorable summer, found 
in him a cordial and hospitable representative of the city's 
intellectual life, and many of them entered into friendly 
correspondence with him which lasted the rest of his life. 
The Swedish Commissioner, Herr Dannefeldt, was especially 
his welcome guest, as coming from the original home of the 
Stille family. Also Baron Hermelin, who had charge of 
the exliibit of Fine Arts sent out by Sweden, a very charm- 
ing man and an accomplished painter in oils, who became a 
dear and intimate friend of Dr. Stille. It was in taking the 
Swedish Commissioners to the anniversary of Gloria Dei 
Church, that he acquired his own interest in that venerable 
parish, founded by Swedish Lutherans, in whose church- 
yard rest the remains of several of his ancestors. He gave 
generously from that time to its support, and left to it a 
tliird of his residuary estate, to preserve intact the venerable 
building in which his forefathers had worshipped. 



Proceedings and Address. xxi 

The University kept open house that year and the noble 
and cultivated Emperor of Brazil was one of thousands 
who visited the University, but the only one who had the 
indiscretion to select seven o'clock in the morning for his 
visit Nor was it only during the Centennial year that Dr. 
StiUe's hospitable home was open to such visitors. He loved 
to gather around his hospitable table whatever was most 
individual in intellect, most representative of the best in the 
life of the city, and especially men of a somewhat earlier 
generation than his own, on whom he looked with rever- 
ence. His annual birthday dinner to Mr. Henry C. Carey 
was an especially notable occasion, when such men as Joseph 
R. Chandler, General Eobert Patterson, Morton McMichael, 
William D. Le\vi8, George W. Childs, John Welsh, and 
John W. Forney gathered to do honor to the greatest of 
American economists, and to express their hope that he 
might add many more years to those he had used so well. 

His provostehip ceased in 1880, and his occupancy of the 
John Welsh professorship a year later. His resignation 
grew out of his disagreement with the Board of Trustees 
on tliree important points. The first of these was his con- 
viction that the Provost should be a member of the board, 
as in our other universities. The second was his contention 
that discipline over the students should be vested abso- 
lutely in the Faculty, without allowing any appeal from 
their decisions. The third was the necessity of a united 
eflFort to place the finances of the University on such a foot- 
ing as would lift the burden of debt and put an end to 
annual deficits in the income. When his resignation was 
announced his colleagues in the Faculty spontaneously and 
formally expressed their regret at its occurrence, and their 
hope that some way might be found to meet his wishes on 



xxii In Memory of Charles Janeway StiUi^ LL.D. 

the tw'o first points. But no such basis of agreement was 
found possible. 

His successor in the office of Provost, in his Inaugural 
delivered in February of the following year, bore just testi- 
mony to the character and worth of Dr. Stille's services to 
the University. 

'*It ifl impofisible/' said Dr. William Pepper, "to pass from this 
hasty summary of the advances in the strength and organization of the 
yarious departments of the University without pausing to pay a tribute 
of hearty admiration to the leader in this onward movement, to whose 
sustained enthusiasm and ceaseless energy its success is largely due. The 
task of inaugurating extensive changes in a long-established institution, 
—of arousing wide-spread interest and zeal at a time when they had 
flagged, ^-of organizing a complicated and yet thoroughly practicable 
system of education in two of the most important departments of the 
University,— of collecting a corps of highly competent teachers, imbued 
with earnestness and lofty aims similar to his own,— of winning the con- 
fidence of the community, the cordial co-operation of his colleagues, 
and the respect and affection of the students, — ^this task was indeed one 
requiring rare qualities as an organizer, a leader, a teacher, and a man. 
As an alumnus of the University, as a teacher in one of its departments 
during the period referred to, and now as the representative of the Board 
of Trustees, I can testify to the general feeling of admiration for the 
work done, and for him who bore so large a share of the burden. Well 
for our beloved University was it that at such a crisis in her history, so 
able and devoted a leader was found. The good work he has done will 
long survive his departure from his official position ; and when, in the 
distant future, the historian of this University shall record the services 
of those who have most contributed to her proud position, among the 
foremost must stand the name of Charles J. Stills." 

The retirement of Dr. Stille from the provostship, after 
twelve years of memorable service, left him free for those 
historical studies, which had long been the favorite employ- 
ment of his leisure. The years of his provostship naturally 



Proceedings and Address. xxiii 

were not those of great production. A biographical sketch 
of Horace Binney, Jr., in 1870/ a criticism of a plan to 
import the Harvard Examination of Girl's Schools into our 
City,^ and a volume of studies in medieval history (dedicated 
to his life-long friend, the Hon. John I. Clark Hare),* which 
grew out of the lectures of his professorship, constitutes the 
scanty harvest of his years as a teacher and provost He 
now took the study of American history, especially of the 
colonial and revolutionary periods of Pennsylvania history, 
in a manner both \ngorous and fruitful of good results. 
There was need of such labors, if our State was to obtain 
the proper share of recognition for services rendered in that 
great struggle. Up to the appearance of Mr. Bancroft's 
History of the United States, in 1834 and the years follow- 
ing, the early story of the country had been told mostly in 
a spirit hostile to New England, and with an evident pur- 
pose to make the most of the faults and the unhappy occur- 
rences of that section. Mr. Bancroft, with laudable devo- 
tion to his native State, set himself to redeem the balance, 
but, as is not unusual, went much too far in the other direc- 
tion. In the first edition of his history a brief was held for 
nearly everji:hing that had been done by the colonists and 
the patriot leaders of that section. Men like Samuel Adams 
were not only awarded their full meed of praise for their 
real ser^dce3, but were set up as a standard by which the 

' A Memoir of Horace Binney, Jr., read at a Meeting of the Union 
League of Philadelphia, Juno 1, 1870. Pp. 24. Philadelphia : Henry 
B. Ashniead, 1870. 

' The Higher Education of Women and the Harvard Examination. 
In the Penn Monthly for February, 1878. Pp. 93-104. 

' Studies in Medieval History. Pp. 475. Philadelphia : J. B. Lip- 
pincott&Co., 1882. 



xxiv In Memory of Charles Janeway StUU^ LL.D. 

popular leaders in other parts of the country, and especially 
in Philadelphia, were to be judged. The Boston method of 
procedure was the ideal method for Mr. Bancroft, and the 
more cautious and conservative course taken by the trained 
lawyers of Philadelphia, was contrasted with it as tending 
to the pusillanimous. And what Mr. Bancroft did his 
successors in New England outdid, until an impression 
had been created that American history had been trans- 
acted in Boston and its vicinity, and that Washington and 
Franklin were the only men of real leadership in that time 
who were not residents of that favored section. Thanks to 
the judicious editing of Mr. Bancroft's great work by Presi- 
dent Scott of Rutgers, the most of these unfair judgments 
have been eliminated ft-om the book, but their echoes are 
heard in every work on that period which emanates from 
the New England press. Even our own writers have caught 
the infection, and one of these quite recently, in an otherwise 
excellent history of our city, expresses a judgment of our 
revolutionary patriots which is as unjust as it is unfortunate. 
To set our colonial revolutionary history in its proper 
light was the chief purpose of Dr. Stille's literary activity 
in his later years. In 1885 he contributed to the Proceed- 
ings of this Society a paper on " Religious Tests in Penn- 
sylvania," showing the limits set by English law to the 
policy of religious equality inaugurated by Penn. In 1887 
he contributed a striking paper on " Beaumarchais and the 
* Lost Million' " to the Pennsylvania Magazine of History 
AND Biography (April number: pp. 1-36, with portrait), 
and in 1888 he wrote for it " The Life and Services of Joel 
R. Poinsett," the Confidential Agent in South Carolina of 
President Jackson during the Nullification Troubles of 1832 
(pp. 84). In 1888 he also contributed to the Papers of the 



Proceedings and Address. xxv 

American Historical Association one in which he disputed the 
claim of "Virginia to have been in advance of Pennsylvania in 
adopting in 1796 the principle of entire religious toleration. 
In 1890 he gave the Pennsylvania Magazine a paper on 
" Pennsylvania and the Declaration of Independence" (pp. 
47) in which he began his vindication of our revolutionary 
patriots from the unjust aspersions which had been cast upon 
them, of " timidity," " weakness," and " want of patriotism." 
This was the forerunner of the edition of the works of John 
Dickinson, undertaken by this Society, to which Dr. Still6 
furnished the first or biographical volume,* leaving the edit- 
ing of Dickinson's writings to another hand. The work 
is one of the greatest importance for the understanding of 
the time, dealing as it does, with the career of the ablest po- 
litical ^vrit«r in defence of the patriotic cause, — a man whose 
state papers were praised by Lord Chatham in terms almost 
of hyberbole. It shows the complications which existed in 
the situation of affairs in this commonwealth, and which 
presented difficulties that only the finest sagacity could deal 
with. And it sets the work not only of Dickinson, but of 
General Mifflin, Charles Thomson, Benjamin Rush, and other 
patriots of the time, in the right light for historic judgment. 
A fit complement to this important work is presented by 
his biography of Major-General Anthony Wayne.' The 
popular impression of this brave man and true patriot has 
been derived not from any acquaintance with his career, but 

1 The Life and Times of John Dickinson, 1732-1808. Prepared at 
the Request of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Pp. 438, with 
portrait. Philadelphia : 1892. 

' Major-General Anthony Wayne and the Pennsylvania Line in the 
Continental Army. By Charles J. Still4, President of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. Pp. 10 and 441, with Portrait. Philadelphia : 
J. B. Lippincott Company, 1893. 



xxvi In Memory of Charles Jaiieway StUUy LL.D. 

from a stray epithet applied to him by a drunken soldier in a 
moment of irritation. But he whom men have called " Mad 
Anthony Wayne" was one of the most cautious and capable 
commanders of the Continental army, and as such enjoyed 
the confidence of the Commander-in-chief in an unusual 
degree. As he showed at the capture of Stony Point, he 
wafl ready for the most perilous task to which duty called 
him; but in every situation he exhibited the forethought 
and the steadiness of a bom soldier. In Dr. 8till6's work 
he becomes intelligible to us in his true character and his 
solid worth, as a conservative citizen, a capable commander, 
and a gentlemen of the finest instincts. 

Dr. Still6's last important piece of work was his historical 
introduction to the biography of Dr. George Logan of Sten- 
ton, the grandson of the Secretary of our Quaker Founder, 
and himself the friend and supporter of Thomas Jeflferson. 
The biography is by Dr. Logan's brilliant and estimable 
wife, and was published by this Society at the instance of 
their grandchild. ' It was Dr. Stille's part to embody what 
we know of its subjects from memoirs and letters pubHshed 
since it was written, and this he has done amply and well. 

These books and a few pamphlets ^ of less importance con- 
stitute the literary and historical labors of his later years, 
during eight of which he served this Society as its President. 
By his example, by his publications, and by his generous 
bequests, he encourages this Society to proceed with the 

^ Silas Deane, Diplomatist of the Revolution. A paper read before 
the Society of the Colonial Dames of Pennsylvania. Pp. 20. Phila- 
delphia : 1894. 

The Historical Relations of Christ Church, Philadelphia, with the 
Province of Pennsylvania. An address delivered at the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of Christ Church, November 19, 1895. Pp. 27. Phila- 
delphia: 1895. 



Proceedmgs and Address. xxvii 

good work of setting in fair light the work of the fathers 
and founders of the Commonwealth. 

In private life Dr. Stille was an example of the solid Chris- 
tian virtues which are at once the ornament and the best 
support of society. He was a devoted and tender husband 
to the honored wife, who survives to mourn her loss in his 
death, and who encouraged him in his labors for the public 
good. Especially beautiful was his relation to his niece and 
adopted daughter Miss Anna Dulles, daughter of the Rev. 
John Welsh Dulles, and his wife, tlie noted missionary, 
Harriet L. Winslow. Her fine intellect and her beautifiil 
spiritual character matured in the atmosphere of his home, 
and became to him at once a delight and an aid in his 
labors. To her he read his works in manuscript, relying on 
her fine tact and judgment for suggestion and correction. 
To her he turned for the playfiil gaiety, wath which youth 
cheers our age. Her death some three years ago was a 
blow which he never ceased to feel. No less strong and 
tender were the aftections which bound him to his kindred, 
especially his older and surviving brother. For more than 
fifty years, no matter what the weather might be, he paid 
his weekly visit to Dr. Alfred Stille, until his failing heahh 
made exposure dangerous to him. And even then he often 
scanned the wanter skies in hope of a break in their threat- 
enings, which would permit of his going. He was not a 
man who starved the affections of the inner circle, to give 
his strengh to public objects, but one who found in that 
circle the best stimulus to public duty. 

Of his religious life, I need only say that it was sincere, 
devout, and earnest, burning with a quiet and unchecked 
fervor through all his years. His life was always pure and 
upright. He loved whatever was excellent and of good re- 



xxviii In Memory of Charles Janeway StilUj LL.D. 

port, and he thought on these things. His copy of the 
Bible and of the Imitation of Christ, always on his desk, 
gave indication of his constant and loving use. 

He was sincerely loyal to the Protestant Episcopal com- " 
munion, and his attachment to the venerable Dr. Morton, 
vir mdla non donandus laiiray a Trustee of the University, I 
always thought one of the most beautiful things in his life 
as I saw it. His intimacy with his rector, Mr. Philhps 
Brooks, was very close, and the latter frequently visited 
him at his home. For many years he was a member of 
the Council of the " Church Home for Children," and was 
greatly interested in the "Home of the Merciful Saviour 
for Crippled Children," to both of which institutions he 
left liberal bequests. But his churchmanship involved no 
narrowing of his sympathies, as was shown by his warm 
friendship for Rev. Dr. Henry W. Bellows of New York, 
whom he learned to know and to esteem in their labors in 
; the Sanitary Commission. For twenty-five years he was a 

* sojourner during the summer at* Lake Mohonk, and passed 
.' much of his time there in pleasant intercourse with Doctors 
y Philip Schaff and Theodore L. Cuyler, constant visitors at 
j^ that place. 

* When at last the end came, he had reached the four score 
' years which the Psalmist specifies as the fiirther bound of 
r human life. He died at the Hotel Brighton in Atlantic 
f City, on the morning of August 11, 1899. But those who 

i mourned his loss looked back upon those eighty years with 

^ the knowledge that they had been spent for useftil ends, 

and were stained by nothing base. 
f So we add his name to the list of the worthies of Phila- 

delphia, — a long and noble series, among whom he takes 
1^ an honored place through his labors, his influence, and his 

L character, all of which told for social good. 



THE 

PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE 

OP 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Vol. XXIV. 1900. No. 2. 

THE MOTHER OF LINCOLN. 

BY HOWARD M. JENKINS. 

From time to time the superiority of record evidence 
over tradition, and of documentary proof over gossip and 
legend, is strikingly presented. We have now an interest- 
ing instance in the case of Abraham Lincoln's parentage. 
There has been extant, ever since the career of Lincoln and 
everj'^ detail connected with him became the subject of 
sympathetic interest on the part of his countrymen, a suppo- 
sition that his mother was not of legitimate birth. This, 
indeed, has not been treated as a supposition : it has been 
circumstantially and positively asserted in some of the most 
authoritative biographies. Li W. H. Herndon's " Life" of 
Lincoln he relates the story of illegitimacy as coming 
from Lincoln himself in an isolated and notable conversa- 
tion, and J. T. Morse has cited this with full assurance in 
his "Life," in the "American Statesmen" series. Other 
biographers allude to and recognize the tale, and it has no 
doubt been generally received and credited. 

Now, it is plain that there is no truth whatever in this 
story. Nancy Hanks was not the daughter of "Lucy" 
VOL. XXIV.— 9 (129) 



130 The Mother of Lincoln. 

Hanks, as Herndon so positively says ; in fact, it is not clear 
that there ever was such a person as Lucy Hanks. Nor 
was Nancy the (laughter of any unmarried woman. On 
the contrary, her family record is unimpeachable, her birth 
is without a cloud, the evil story concerning her is appar- 
ently a pure invention — not a pure invention, either, but an 
impure, a base slander, derived from some vulgar and 
scandalous source. If Lincoln ever told such a story to 
Herndon — ^w^hich may be confidently disbelieved — he waff 
mistaken, and must have been misled by some evil whisper 
that had been unhappily brought to his ears.^ 

The little book, " Nancy Hanks," by Mrs. Caroline Hanks 
r Hitchcock, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, published in 1899 

\ (New York : Doubleday & McClure Co.), is the source of 

the knowledge which sets right this story of illegitimacy. 
It distinctly and conclusively shows who the mother of Lin- 
coln was. It identifies both her parents. It proves them 
reputable people. It places her in the list of their children, 
with full title to respect. 

There is other matter in Mrs. Hitchcock's book, some of 
which is entitled to our consideration also, but this in rela- 
tion to the parentage of Abraham Lincoln's mother is by 
far the most important^ Mrs. Hitchcock has found (at Bards- 
town, Kentucky, the introduction to her book states) a 
document, heretofore unprinted, which is conclusive as to 
this point She gives complete, both in type and in photo- 
graphic fac-simile, the will of Joseph Hanks. He was of 
Nelson County, Kentucky. His will is dated January 9, 
1798, and was duly probated in that county. May 14, of the 
same year. In his will Joseph Hanks names his eight 
children. There were five sons, Thomas, Joshua, William, 
Charles, and Joseph, and three daughters, Elizabeth, Polly, 
and Nancy, The will provides for them all, and remembers 
equally the three girls. It thus records the father's impar- 
tial gifts : 

^ The genesis of the idea of illegitimate birth was made easier by im- 
perfect knowledge of the relationsliips of Nancy Hanks' s family. 



The Mother of Lincoln. 131 

*'Item. — ^I give and bequeath unto my daughter Elizabeth one heifer 
yearling called Grentle. Item. — I give and bequeath unto my daughter 
Polly one heifer yearling called I-iady. Item. — ^I give and bequeath 
unto my daughter Nancy one heifer yearling called Peidy.'* 

We have here in Nelson County, Kentucky, in the year 
1793, Nancy Hanks, daughter of Joseph. Tliat she was 
the same who thirteen years later, June 12, 1806, was 
married by the Rev. Jesse Head, the Methodist preacher, 
to Thomas Lincoln, is not open to question. She is fiilly 
identified by abundant proof. 

Joseph Hanks had been in Kentucky, prior to his death, 
only about four years. He had come, it is said, from Amelia 
County, Virginia. Following now Mrs. Hitchcock's general 
account, his wife was Nancy (she is called " Nanny" in the 
will), and she was the daughter of Eobert Shipley.^ The 
w^fe of Robert Shipley, Mrs. Hitchcock says, was named 
Sarah Rachael. They were in Lunenburg County, Virginia, 
in 1765, where Robert Shipley bought land, three hundred 
and fourteen acres, September 16, of that year. Lunenburg 
County is near to Amelia County,' in which Joseph Hanks 
is said to have lived before his removal to Kentucky. 

The Shipleys had five daughters. These and their mar- 
riages, as given by Mrs. Hitchcock, were : 

1. Mary. She married Abraham Lincoln, of Rocking- 
ham County, Virginia (son of John Lincoln, who had come 
from Berks County, Pennsylvania). She was thus the 
mother of Thomas Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln removed 
to Kentucky with his family, and was killed there by 
Indians, 1784. 

2. Lucy. She married Richard Berr}\ Tliey removed 
to Kentucky, probably in 1789, with Joseph Hanks and 

^ This is the statement also of Mr. Samuel Shackford, in his paper on 
Lincoln's ancestry, in the New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register^ April, 1887. He describes Robert Shipley, however, as of 
North Carolina. 

"Mrs. Hitchcock says *'the next county." It is not now so, Notto- 
way County lying between. 



132 The Mother of Lincoln. 

others. Lucy Berry, after the death of her sister Nancy, 
the wife of Joseph Hanks, which occurred soon after the 
death of Joseph, " brought up" her niece, Nancy Hanks. 
Kichard Berry was the bondsman for Thomas Lincoln in his 
marriage to Nancy Hanks. The marriage took place at Bich- 
ard Berry's house, at Beechland, near Springfield, in Wash- 
ington County, Kentucky. It is this Lucy — ^Berry — who 
has been called in several of the biographies of Lincoln 
"Lucy Hanks," it being supposed, through the mists of 
dim recollection, that Nancy Hanks was actually her daugh- 
ter by blood, and not merely by adoption. 

8. Sarah. She married Robert Mitchell ; they removed 
to Kentucky. 

4. Elizabeth. She married Thomas Sparrow. This 
femily also went to Kentucky, and in the accounts of those 
who remembered the Lincolns and the Hankses there are 
many allusions to the Sparrows. 

5. Nancy. She married Joseph Hanks, referred to 
above. His will identifies her. " I give and bequeath to 
my wife Nanny all and singular my whole estate during 
her life, afterward to be equally divided between all my 
children .... I constitute, ordain, and appoint my ^^^fe 
Nanny and my son William as executrix and executor to 
this my last wdll and testament." 



j DESCENT OF NANCY HANKS. 

j Robert Shipley — Sarah Rachael 

\ Mhry Lucy Sarah Elizabeth Nancy 

' m. m. m. m. m. 

Abraham Llucoln Richard Berrj' Robert Mitchell Thoe. Sparrow Joseph Hanks 

I 
Thomas 
Jotthua 

William, m. Elizabeth Uall 
Charles 

Joseph, m. Polly Young 
Elizaljeth, m. Levi Hall 
Polly, TO. Jesse Friend 



Thomas Lincoln — Nancy 

Abbaham Lincoln 



The Mother of Lincoln. 188 

It will be observed that ThomaB Lincoln and Nancy 
Ilanks were first cousins — he the son of Mary Shipley, and 
she the daughter of Nancy Shipley. I am not aware that 
this feet has heretofore been distinctly brought out. 

Mrs. Hitchcock's book not only gives in fac-simile the 
will of Joseph Hanks, but also, in fac-simile, three docu- 
ments which relate to the marriage of Thomas Lincoln and 
Nancy Hanks, and which fix the time and the place, as well 
as the fact, beyond cavil. These are (1) the marriage bond 
given by Thomas Lincoln and Richard Berry, June 10, 

1806, two days before the marriage; (2) the marriage cer- 
tificate of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, signed by 
Eev. Jesse Head; (8) the "return list" of marriages sent 
in to the court clerk by Rev. Jesse Head, dated April 22, 

1807, and containing with fifteen others the marriage of 
Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, on the date already 
given. 

The second of these documents, as numbered above, is 
new, so far as I am aware. The marriage bond and the 
" return list" were both printed in fac-simile in Nicolay and 
Hay's "Life" of Lincoln, biit not the ^certificate. Mrs. 
Hitchcock does not state where or when it was brought 
to light; she mentions that "gradually the documents [re- 
lating to the marriage] were unearthed, owing largely to 
the eftbrtfl of Mrs. Vauter [? Vawter] and Mr. Thompson, of 
Louisville, Kentucky." The certificate is, of course, cumu- 
lative testimony ; the return list, taken with the bond, was 
already conclusive on the fact of the marriage. 

The relationship of Nancy Hanks to Joseph Hanks, the 
carpenter, of Elizabethtown, \nth whom Thomas Lincoln 
" learned his trade," is made clear by the list of children 
in the will' of the Joseph Hanks of 1793. The Joseph of 
1806 wafl evidently his son, the youngest of the five in the 
will. He was the brother of Nancy, and, like her, first 
cousin to Thomas Lincoln..^ 

* Nicolay and Hay Bay (Vol. I., p. 23), ''he [Thomas Lincoln] mar- 
ried Nancy Hanks, a niece of his employer/' They add that "Mrs. 



134 The Mother of Lincoln. 

Mrs. Hitchcock gives a page or two to a defence of the 
character of Thomas Lincohi. Probably this will be unavail- 
ing, but it is no doubt just. The figure of Thomas Lincoln, 
as presented in most of the biographies of his son, is a 
caricature. In the earlier ones he appears as a good- 
humored, indolent, and incapable person, but later ones, 
enlarging and dilating upon this, represent him as coarse, 
uncouth, and altogether worthless. Out of this there gi*ew 
a vulgar and scandalous idea that Thomas Lincoln could not 
' have been the father of so great a son.^ 

A very moderate application of common sense to the sub- 
ject will show that the ordinary notion adverse to Thomas 
Lincoln is unreasonable. The known facts concerning him 
show him to have been a man of his class, a hardy and 
energetic pioneer, meeting resolutely the trials and difliicul- 
ties that faced him, and contending with them mth fair 
success. Let us consider briefly some of these. (1) He 
learned a trade, that of a carpenter. (2) He took up a 

Lincohi' 8 mother was named Lucy Hanks ; her sistere were Betty, 
Polly, and Nancy, who married Thomas Sparrow, Jesse Friend, and 
Levi Hall." There is no little confusion in these statements, but it 
may be readily corrected by a reference to the diagram given above with 

' the text. The foster mother of Nancy Hanks was Lucy (Shipley) Berry, 

her aunt. Betty Sparrow was her aunt as stated ; Polly Friend was her 
sister ; Nancy, sister of Lucy Berry, was her own mother, not the wife 
of Levi Hall, but of Joseph Hanks ; Levi Hall's wife was the Elizabeth 

^ of the younger generation, Nancy's sister. 

I The confusion in Nicolay and Hay at this point is presented also in 

* Hemdon, who pretended to have such a competent knowledge. He 
1 says in a foot-note, ** Dennis and John Hanks have always insisted that 
) Lincoln's mother was not a Hanks but a Sparrow. Both of them wrote 

to me that such was the fact. Their object in insisting on this is appar- 
t. ent when it is shown that Nancy Hanks was the daughter of Lucy 

^ Hanks, who afterwards married Henry Sparrow. It will be observed 

i [however] that Mr. Lincoln claimed that his mother was a Hanks." 

* This myth, not much admitted into print, exists orally and in manu- 
, script. A lady prominent in literature, and otherwise well known, 

r earnestly cautioned the writer of this, some years ago, not to investigate 

the parentage of Lincoln. Yet, as we see, investigation was precisely 

• the thing needed. 



The Mother of Lincoln, 135 

quarter section of land (on Nolin's Creek), which it is testi- 
fied waa " a fair representative section of the land in the 
immediate region." Coffin, who saw it in 1890, says it was 
then under cultivation, and yielding an average crop. (3) 
His second purchase of land (Knob's Creek) had "many 
acres that are very fertile." * (4) He resolved to move to a 
State with free labor. (5) He sold out his Kentucky land 
without loss. (6) Though his boat was overset in the river, 
he recovered his property. (7) He sought out good land in 
Indiana. (8) He travelled seventy miles to Vincennes to 
enter his new claim. (9) Through the winter he hewed the 
timber for his new cabin. 

As to his acuteness and his perception of character, cer- 
tainly the selections he made when seeking both his first and 
second wives stand to his credit Both Nancy Hanks and 
Sally Bush are described by all as women of exceptional 
qualities. There were, it may be added, a Bible and other 
books in the Indiana cabin, and Thomas apparently wrote 
his own name, without a " mark," to the marriage bond of 
1806. 

The temptation to " heighten the effect," to paint with 
vivid colors, in popular biographies, is very strong, and it 
results in most unjustified and misleading — often very unfair 
— work. In the case of Thomas Lincoln I have not a par- 
ticle of doubt that the received picture of him is thoroughly 
wrong. 

Mrs. Hitchcock announces that a full genealogy of the 
Hanks family is in preparation. In her present volume she 
sketches what she believes to be the ancestry of Joseph 
Hanks, the father of Lincoln's mother, and in this I am 
obliged to confess a particular interest. It was suggested in 
my book relating to the township of Gwynedd, Pennsylvar 
nia, that it might very probably be that Nancy Hanks was 
descended from a family of Hanke, or Hank, in the region 

* C. C. Coffin, — ^who adds : **It would seem that his selections of land 
cannot with justice be cited as evidence of inefficiency or want of judg- 
ment.'* 



136 The Mother of Lincoln. 

near Philadelphia, one of whom, John, died in Whitemarsh, 
1730-31, another of whom was in Berks County, in the 
neighborhood of the Lincolns, about 1754, and one of 
whom, perhaps Joseph, is said to have gone to Virginia with 
John Lincoln, grandfiather of the President This theory 
was supported by a number of facts, and seemed to me very 
reasonable. I had hoped that in time the finding of further 
documentary evidence might establish its correctness. Mean- 
while, Nicolay and Hay have recognized its probability in 
their work, and Coflin has adopted it more completely than 
anything I had said on the subject would quite justify. 

Mrs. Hitchcock has, however, an entirely different line of 
descent She does not come back to Pennsylvania at all ; 
she has a Massachusetts immigrant ancestor for the Ken- 
tucky Hankses. Here is the line she offers : 

L Benjamin Hanks, from England (probably Malmes- 
bury, in Wilts), who, with others, landed in Plymouth, Mas- 
sachusetts, 1699, and settled in Pembroke, Plymouth County. 
" Among the parish records of Rev. Daniel Lewis," Mrs. 
Hitchcock has found the list of his children, eleven by a first 
wife and one by a second. The third one was — 

n. William, born in Pembroke, Plymouth County, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1704. Of him, beyond his birth, there is no fur- 
ther record. Mrs. Hitchcock accepts fiamily tradition that 
he went on a sailing-vessel to Virginia, and settled " near 
the mouth of the Rappahannock Biver, where his sons, 
Abraham, Bichard, James, John, and Joseph, were bom." 

HL Joseph. Mrs. Hitchcock says all of William's chil- 
dren, named above, " with the exception of John, moved to 
Amelia County, Virginia, where they bought large planta- 
tions near each other," and adds that " Joseph must have 
moved to Amelia County, with the rest, about 1740." She 
proceeds then to identify him as the same Joseph Hanks 
who was in Nelson County, Kentucky, in 1793, and who 
made his will and died there that year. 

We must see more of the evidence which Mrs. Hitchcock 
may be presumed to have, and which we suppose she will 



The Mother of Lincoln. 137 

print in her larger book, before a definite judgment can be 
passed on this Massachusetts derivation of Lincoln's mother. 
But we may fairiy examine a moment what is now offered. 

There is record e\ndence, it seems, that a Joseph Hanks 
was in Amelia County, Virginia, much earlier than the time 
of the removal to Kentucky. A person of that name sold 
land there in 1747, and bought other land in 1754. The 
records of these transactions Mrs. Hitchcock found in 
Richmond. The sale in 1747 was 284 acres " on the lower 
side of Seller Creek," to Abraham Hanks, presumed to be 
Joseph's brother. The purchase in 1754 was a Crown 
grant of 246 acres "on the upper side of Sweathouse 
Creek," adjoining land of Abraham Hanks and others. 

There are some weak places, certainly, in this chain. The 
" family traditions" concerning William need support. His 
migration from Plymouth to tidewater Virginia, and his 
location "near the mouth of the Eappahannock Elver," 
seem vague and uncertain. But, accepting them as correct, 
was William's son, Joseph, the same person as he whose 
will showed him to be Nancy Hanks's father ? It is a long 
gap in time — and a long distance as well — ^between an 
authenticated date in Massachusetts in 1704 and another in 
Kentucky in 1793. 

One thing seems tolerably plain. The Joseph Hanks who 
sold land in Amelia County in 1747 cannot have been the 
son of William, born in 1704. There is not enough time. 
Forty-three years is not sufficient for William to grow up, 
marry, and have a fifth child of competent age for making 
title to land. If we suppose William to marry at the early 
age of twenty, in 1724, and suppose his fifth child to be bom 
in six years, — most unlikely, — that would make Joseph's 
birth in 1730, and in 1747 he would legally only be an 
"infant," seventeen years old. Certainly, unless some of 
Mrs. Hitchcock's dates, or other of her data, are wrong, it is 
very difficult to suppose that the Joseph Hanks of 1747 is 
the son of William Hanks, born in 1704. And, if this be 
conceded, the question follows. Was the Joseph of 1754 



138 The Mother of Lincoln. 

William's son? The two Josephs who sold and bought 
land in the one county, 1747 and 1754, were probably the 
the same person, so if one was not William's son the other 
was not. 

K, however, these difficulties are disposed of, the question 
next arises, Can the Joseph Hanks of 1754 be the same 
whose daughter, Nancy, was born in 1784 ? In such a case 
thirty years is a good while. Mrs. Hitchcock says that it 
was on the tract bought in 1754 "he [Joseph] then settled, 
and all his children were born." If he acquired it for a 
home, being then married, or about to marry, it is unlikely, 
though possible, that even his youngest child would be bom 
thirty years after — of one wife. Again, Robert Shipley is 
stated to have bought his land in Lunenburg County in 
1765 — eleven years after Joseph Hanks's purchase of 1754 
in Amelia County. Are we to infer that Joseph did not 
marry Mary Shipley until her father bought this land? 
Joseph would be in 1765, if of age in 1754, a bachelor of 
at least thirty-one years — quite a contrast to the early mar- 
riage of his father which we are obliged to assume in order 
to make Joseph of age in 1754. 

I have no desire to argue any question with Mrs. Hitch- 
cock, nor to throw discredit on her work, in which all who 
care for the Lincoln family-tree are interested. The con- 
tribution she makes concerning Joseph Hanks of 1793 is — 
as has been said — ^highly important It is to be hoped that 
her full account of the Hanks family in America will make 
all the now obscure points perfectly plain. I cannot entirely 
give up, as yet, the idea of the connection of the Hanke 
people in Pennsylvania with the Lincolns. That appears to 
rest on a good foundation at some points, if it should prove 
to be unfounded as to the vital one — ^the parentage of Nancy 
Hanks. 



Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 1733-1736. 139 



LETTEES OF THE REV. GKIPFITH HUGHES, OF ST. 
DAVID'S CHURCH, RADNOR, PENNA., 1733-173G. 

BY BENJAMIN F. OWEN. 

[While examining the records pertaining to the early settlement of 
Comru Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, the abandoned site of 
an Anglican Church and graveyard was discovered, which had been 
used by the Welsh settlers of the district. A personal inspection of the 
ground led to the finding of two gravestones, one to the memory of 
Hugh Jones, an early settler and large land-owner, who died in 1784, 
and the other to his daughter Jane, who died in 1730. It was further 
developed that Jones had, by will, bequeathed the land in Comru and 
also a horse to the Rev. Griffith Hughes, a missionary of the ** Society 
for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts," who was in charge of 
St. Da\nd's Church at Radnor. As the ** Historical Collections relative 
to the American Colonial Church," by the late Bishop Perry, contains 
but very little data relating to the Rev. Mr. Hughes, researches were 
made in the Archives of the **S. P. G." Society, in London, and the 
following interesting and valuable letters and documents covering the 
period of his labors in Pennsylvania were found. 

Griffith Hughes, son of Edward Hughes, of Towyn, Merionethshire, 
Wales, was born about 1707. He matriculated at St. John's College, 
Oxford, in 1729, and receivetl the degrees of B.A. and M.A. in 1748. 
In 1788 he was sent by the Society to Pennsylvania, where he labored 
at St. David's, Radnor, and also among the Welsh settlers in Lancaster 
and what is now Berks counties. His health fJEiiling, he left for the 
Island of Barbadoes, where he became Rector of St. Lucy's Parish. In 
1750 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society and published his 
** Natural History of Barbadoes," a royal folio of three hundred and 
twenty-four pages, illustrated with twenty-nine plates and dedicated to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Library Company of Philadelphia 
appears among the names of American subscribers to the work, and 
possesses several copies. He also prepared for the Philosophical Society 
(England) a paper on ** A Zoophyton resembling the flower of the Mari- 
gold." The date of death of Mr. Hughes has not been ascertained.] 



140 Letters of tJie Rev. Griffith Hughes, 17SS-1736. 

Tlic Testimonials of Mr. Griffith Hughes. 
Sir: 

Our Statutes do not suppose any person of y' Society to 
be in holy orders before he has taken his degrees of Bache- 
lor of Arts and therefore letters Testimonial under our 
College Seal cannot regularly be granted to Mr. Hughes, 
for that purpose ; But as a Certificate of his good behaviour 
is necessary at present, before a particular occasion, I beg 
leave to acquaint you, that during the time he has been 
with us, which is fourteen terms, he has behaved well, and 
seems worthy of any favours, w*^ the Bishop of London or 
the Honorable Society may confer upon him. 

I am Sir — ^you most humbe serv* 

W. Holmes 
St. John's Collg* 
OxoN, July 29^ 1732. 

This is to Certify whom it may concern that Griffith 
Hughs of St Johns CoUg* in the University of Oxford, 
hath for these 3 years last past behaved himself soberly 
and regularly, according to the Statutes of the said College, 
and as j&ir as we apprehend, is a person perfectly qualified 
to stand Candidate for Holy Orders, and holds nothing Con- 
trary to the Doctrines of the Church of England. 

Augt y* !•' 1782 ] Witness our hands 

F. West, D. D. I Wm. Holmes, President 

J. Dry, B. D J Wm. Bridge, D:D : 

Rob. Pemberton A:D : Bee. Art. Winch. Holdsworth, D:D: 
Ja' Suck, A.M. Dec. Art. S. Bignell, D:D : 

Mr. HuffJtes to the Secretary of " S. P. G.'' 

St. John's College, Oxford, July 1" 1732. 
Rever" Sir 

I had the honour of being Recommended to you by Doc' 
Pardo, to succeed in the vacancy in Pensilvania and by his 
advice I have since done myself the pleasure of writing to 



Letta^s of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 1733^1736. 141 

you, in order to be inforra'd of the particular encouragm* 
& how soon the vacancy must be supplyed, and whether it 
will serve for a Title to go to orders, I can't persuade myself 
that you have rece'vd my last, therefore I beg that you would 
honour me with an expeditious answer to this which \vill 

Reverend Sir 
very much oblige your very 
Humble serv* to Command 

Gri: Hughes 
Direct for me at 

St. Johns College, Oxon, 

and let me know when the next Society ^vill meet. 



Mr. Hughes to the Setretary " S. P. G.'' 

Radnor ; Pensilvania, Mar : 2*"* 1788. 
Revered Sir : 

I have the pleasure of acquainting the honorable Society 
at my first entry upon my mission. I was very kindly 
Received especially by the Welch in my Immediate proceed- 
ings after my arrival I endeavourd at those methods y* 
would best answer the Trust reposed in me, and to y* end 
besides performing those duties y* particularly belong to my 
office I have visited all my Parishioners at their respected 
houses, and found a great many of them much neglected in 
their Education & Ignorant of the very fundamentalls of 
Religion. Others whose principles were very much \ntiated 
with false doctrines I endeavoured to rectifye the mistakes 
of the Latter and to Instruct the fonner what was necessary 
to be believed and practised ; I had no sooner finished this 
task then I found a great necessity of visiting a great many 
Welch and English Gent" y* lived far back in the Woods, 
where I found a great number of well Disposed persons 
But Intirely Destitute of a Minister at their earnest request 
I have gone there severall times since, and for a hmg time 
had no other place to preach but under the Shade of a 
Large tree their houses being too small to contain the great 



142 Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 1733-1736. 

number that resorted there, my last Journey to them Com- 
pleated in all one Thousand one Hundred and five miles 
besides my weekly attendance at Radnor, & Perquihoma, 
at either of which Churches, I preach and Catechize every 
Sunday : The number of Communicants in Radnor at my 
first Comeing was 48 now Increased to 55 at Perquihoma 
19 Encreased to 21 I have Christened in all near 100, Ten 
of them being adults. This being all that oflfers at present 
fi'om the Hon^^' Society in Generall and your most 
Obedient humble Servant 

Geo: Hughes. 

Chiirchicardens ^ Vestry to \f SecreV^ " S. P. G,'' 

Radnor, Pensilvania SepS 25"» 1734. 

We the Vestrymen & Ch*^ Wardens of St. David, Church 
at Radnor in ye Province of Pensilvania, do beg leave to 
Return the Hon^^* Society for the propogation of the Gospell 
in foreign parts ; our Sincere thanks for their favour & great 
goodness, in sending the ReV* Mr. Hughes, to be our Mis- 
sionary who not only, so well officiates in ye Welch tongue, 
but also by his great care, learning and Piety sufficiently 
demonstrates the Honorable Society's most prudent Choice 

We all remain as in duty bound the Honourable Society's 
most obedient and most obliged Humble Servants. 
Tho'. Godfi'ey, Wm. Owen, Thos : James, Joseph Jones, 
Wm. Jones, John Currey, Hugh Hughes, James David, 
Evan David, Morrifs Griffith, Wm. Evans, Peter EUiot. 
Jacob Jones, John Hughes, Hugh David, 

Mr. Hughes to the Secretary " S. P. G.'' 

Badnob Pensilvania, Decenb' 3* 1734. 
Rev^ Sir 

Since my last I have nothing worth notice to acquaint 
you and the Hon. Society except that I have made severall 
Journeys to visit the back Inhabitants. Sometimes 60 or 



Letters of the Bev. Griffith Hughes, 173S-1736. 143 

70 miles from home where I Cristened a great number 
But in more particular at Canistoga where for some time 
past I preached botli in Welch & English, on the first 
Tuesday in every month : and have at present the pleasure 
of seeing the number of Communicants there from Twelve 
Increased to Twenty Six all sober well Disposed persons — 
The greatest Inconveniency that we labour under is the 
greatest scarcity of Welch Books, myself being the only 
person that officiates in that Language my Best endeavour 
can bear no proportion to the generall want of so many 
Thousands of that nation who are scattered in this province, 
& dayly Importune me to Supply them with Welch Books 
and most of them are both able & willing to purchase y°* : 
and I humbly conceive that their Expectations were 
answered it would be (especially where Orthodox ministers 
are wanting) the only means to keep our Religion in its 
purity among so many disadvantages I would rather be 
thought Impertinent in troubling the Honourable Society 
with my Sentiments upon this Head — than Blame myself, 
for not endeavouring at so great an act of Charity that 
may with the Blefsing of God put a stop to those fatal 
consequencys, which by Daily Experience we find to be 
Occasioned in a Great Measure, by the want of Good Books 
and if the Honourable Society who have hitherto distin- 
guished themselves by a Continuell series of benevolent k 
Charitable actions will so fer encourage This as to permit me 
to Come to London ye Latter end of next Sumer I doubt 
not but in a short time with the assistance of a worthy 
Gentleman now In Jesus College we shall be able to reprint 
or Translate a sufficient number to answer ye present 
necessity. The favour of Hearing from you early in the 
Spring ^^'ill very much oblige 

Sir — ^yours and the Honoura"* Societys 

most Humble and obedient Servant 

Griffith Hughes. 



144 Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 17SS-17S6. 

The Inhabitants of Canestogoe to the " S. P. G^." 

Pensilvania. 1734 

May it please the Hon : Society for propagating the Qospell 
in foreign parts. 

The Petition of the underneath subscribers at Canestogoe 
Humbly Sheweth. 

That we being well affected to the Church of England 
tho: Destitute for severall years of an Orthodox minister 
until the Comeing of our Dear Countryman Mr. Hughes, 
who hath undergone great Hardship to come and preach to 
us once a month to our great comfort ; we are Increased very 
much in members since his Comeing, and since we can't as 
yet expect the Happinefe of a Missionary we humbly pray 
to be supplied with some Welch Books, the want of which 
has been our greatest unhappinefi, an unhappy experience 
of this we have had, in ye number of Forty Families that 
were Educated in the principles of the Church of England, 
that came in together yet for the want of Good Books in 
their own Language, they at last yielded to the General 
Coruption of Quakerism — ^would the Honourable Society 
be pleased to Bestow on us a Welch Bible and Common 
prayer for the use of our Church, your Petitioners should 
esteem it as a great favour ; At Mr. Hughes first arrivall 
we had no other Conveniency than the shade of any Large 
Tree to preach under, but now we have built a Handsome 
Church — as for the other Welch books we are willing to 
purchase them at any Reasonable rate we have entrusted 
the ReV* Mr. Hughes, to take the trouble upon him to 
Come over, and get us such a quantity as will be answerable 
to our want — ^if this be agreable to the Hon: Society's 
pleasure it will be a great Encouragement to our pure doc- 
trine & be a means in the hand of Providence to preserve 
many Souls from fialse Doctrine and Schism which unhappi- 
nefe we have to often Experienced. 

We hope that your Charity which hath already Dis- 
tinguished itself, for the Eternal Welfere of so many Souls, 



Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes^ 17SS-17S6. 145 

will encourage this one humble request and until we Can 
hope for a Missionary beg to be supplyed at any rate with 
Welch Books, which is the earnest Request and the Hum- 
ble petition of the undernamed, and indeed of our whole 
Church here in generall. 

And your Petitioners as in Duty bound shall ever pray 
George Hudson, Jenkin David, John Edwards, 

John Davies, John Brown, Badam David, 

Edward Davies, Morgan John, John David, 

Evan Hughes, Solomon Thomas, Zacheus David, 

Edward Nicholas, Gab* Davies, W" Willy, 

Roger Parry, Phillip David, Edward Thomas, 

Morgan-Morgans, Hugh David, John Jones, 

John Evans, Nathan* Evans, Morife Richard. 

Mr. Hughes to ye Lord Bp : of London. 

RA.DNOB IN Pensilvania, Sep : 10"* 1735. 
My Lord 

When I consider that your Lordships with the rest of the 
Hon : Society have already so remarkably distinguished y' 
Selves by acts of Universal benevolence & Charity I hope 
the same goodnefs will excuse the trouble of receiving this 
w*** comes to Liform your lordshipp in my 2 last Letters to 
the Society unanswered I have Petitioned in the name of 
some hundreds of my Countrymen to be permitted for a 
very short time to return home to reprint and at their ex- 
pence to supply them with Welch Books y* want of which 
is so universal that it has been the Chief occasion of the 
Increase of so many Dissenters nothing but such an abso- 
lute necessity c* come in Competition w*** y* due regard I 
always had for y' Lordship : could have obliged me to give 
you this trouble tho I would almost chuse to trespafe upon 
y' Lship's goodness then be in the least wanting to promote 
an Act ^y''^ w*** the Blessing of God may be of so happy a 
consequence & were not my Comeing to England without 
the previous Consent of y' Lordship & y* Hon^ Society to 
great a presumption y* present would be the most proper 
VOL. xxrv.— 10 



146 Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 1733-17S6. 

opportunity if my absence would be Dispenced with for 
lately in my way to perquihoma Church I had the misfor- 
tune to break my knee pan, which Continues tho upon the 
mending hand very weak so that it is Impossible, for me in 
my present Condition to serve that Church in a Regular 
order this present winter, that and severall other hardshipps 
which I have with pleasure almost endured in my severall 
Journeys to preach among the Back Inhabitants hath very 
much Impaired my health being often obliged in the day 
to want the Common necessaries of Life, and in the night 
to be contented the shade of a Large tree for a Lodging as 
for my Congregation at Radnor it is in a very flourishing 
Condition, and as to my own Conduct in Generall I appeal 
to my reverend Commifsary who is a Gent*" equally beloved 
and admired for his behaviour Piety and good Conduct, I 
hope your Lordshipp will Excuse this presumption and 
believe me to be w*** all respect Imaginable 

My Lord y' Lordship's most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 

Griffith Hughes. 

Mr. Hughes to the Secretary " S. P. GJ' 

Radnob, June 25**" 1736. 
ReV^ Sir. 

I hope by this time the Hon^^* Society are Informed by 
the hands, of the Rev^ M. Commifsary Johnson, of my 
being at Barbadoes, the Chief Reason of my going there 
was as unexpected aa unavoidable, and nothing but an 
absolute necessity, would have oblig'd me to quit my Mis- 
sion without the Previous Consent of the Society. At the 
Earnest Request of a very considerable number of both 
Welch & English that live near Tolpaliockin 70 miles from 
Town I ofliciated there & at Canestogo, at Sundry times ; 
But the Fatigue of returning home by Saturday night to 
take Care of the Churches more particularly under my 
care, & the great Difficulty of travailing into so Remote a 
part of the Country, with severall Inconveniences too 



Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 17SS-1736. 147 

tedious to be mentioned, threw me into a very HI state of 
health, my Physicians were of opinion that a Sudden 
change of air would be absolutely necessary for me, especi- 
ally to one of the Leeward Islands, and if I found no benefit 
there to return to England, av*** I resolved upon rather then 
Run the hazard of my Life by staying. And as it has 
always been my greatest ambition, to have my conduct 
approv'd on by the Hon* Socy I hope they are too Indul- 
gent to be Displeased at a fault (if it be such) not in my 
Power to prevent without Immenent Danger. — I had no 
sooner arrived at Bbds but I found great Benefit by the 
Change of air, soon after the Rectory of S* Lucy's Parish 
became vacant w*** by the Earnest Request of the ReV* M. 
Commy Johnson I was prevailed upon to accept. I enjoy'd 
it for near three months, & then obtained a Lycence fi'om 
the Honourable James Dottin Esq' our Commander in Chief 
to Return to Pensilvania : for 4 months, where I now offici- 
ate at Radnor & Perquihoma — at the expiration of which 
time I design with the Hon* Society, to return to Barbadoes, 
then beg leave to Resign my Mission, praying that the 
Hon^^' Society ^vill be pleased to supply it w"* another as 
soon afi possible : whether my Diligence to assist at severall 
other places, besides my Churches at Radnor & Perquihoma 
will in the least entitle me, to that part of my Salary due 
in my absence must be left to the Generosity of the Honor- 
able Society, I hope I can say without vanity that whilst I 
continued in the Province I have Discharged my Duty to 
the utmost of my Power, & I believe to the Generall Satis- 
faction of all under my care; To make my unavoidable 
absence more Easy to them some time in the Fall before I 
went to Barbadoes, I have been at a very great Expence in 
Publishing a Welch Pamphlett, upon Death, Judgment, 
Heaven & Hell; and have Distributed near 150 Coppies 
Gratis among the poorer sort, upon my arrival at Pensilva- 
nia I received from M. Commis^ Cummings The favour of 
Hon* Societies 2 Letters, with the Books as Specified ; and 
most humbly beg Leave to put the Hon* Society in mind. 



148 Letters of the Rev. Griffith Hughes, 17S3-17S6. 

that some time agoe they were pleased to supply us Gratis, 
with a very considerable number of such small Tracts 
which render these allmost entirely needless. The Welch 
Books which we so much wanted here are some small Com- 
pendium of Divinity, such as the Practice of Piety, the 
whole Duty of Man the Rev^ Mr. Pritchard's Divine Poems, 
& Common Prayer Books. The Bibles W** the Hon* Society 
were pleased to send, shall be Distributed according to 
Direction — In hopes of being favoured with an Answer I 
Remain with all due Respects, The Hon* Societies most 
obedient and most Humble Servant 

Griffith Hughes. 

[Same to same,'] 

Radnob in Pensilvania, Nov. 19*** 1736. 
May it Please the Honorable Society : 

In my laat, I have done myself the pleasure of acquaint- 
ing the Hon* Society of my unexpected, as well as una- 
voidable necessity of being at Barbadoes, and and of my 
Return To this Province, where I have officiated, not only 
at Radnor, but at severall other places, for these five months 
past — ^whether this without mentioning the Severall Ex- 
traordinary fatigues, I have had & undergone mil entitle me 
to at least three months Salary I Leave to the Hon* Socie- 
ties Discretion & pleasure — I am now preparing for the 
Barbadoes & humbly beg Leave to Resign my Mission not 
without a grateftiU sence of the Generous support I have 
so Long enjoyed, wishing the Hon"* Society all Success 
Lnaginable I remain their most Humble & obedient Servant 

Griffith Hughes. 



Friends^ BuriaUGround^ Burlington^ Neio Jersey. 149 



FRIENDS* BURIAL-GROUND, BURLINGTON, NEW 
JERSEY. 

BY ROWLAND J. BUTTON. 

(Continued from page 60.) 

Tlie following extract is from the edition of the Dis- 
cipline of the Societj'- published in 1834 : 

'' It is the sense of this Meeting, that no monuments either of wood or 
stone be affixed to graves in any of our burial-grounds ; and if any yet 
remain therein that these be forthwith removed, so that no cause of 
uneasiness on this account may exist or partiality be justly chargeable 
upon us.''— 1706-1733. 

By virtue of the above conclusion of the Yearly Meeting, 
a number of gravestones must have been removed from the 
burial-ground, and also a number buried beneath the sur- 
face, as during the past forty years or more there has been 
found a number of gravestones which the sextons put in 
position as nearly as possible to the spot where found, as 
curious mementos of the past. 

The largest one was allowed to remain in the position it 
was found in, — excepting the earth being removed from the 
top, — ^it being about eight inches below the general level of 
the ground. Those found and accessible are as follows : 

Li Section "VJJUL., an old marble stone about twelve inches 
wide and two inches thick, marked 

Jacob Heulings 
1770 

About on the di\Ti8ion-line between Sections X. and XI. 
is a large, flat, marble slab, which must have stood quite 
high above the ground, but is now about eight inches below 
the general level. It is about five feet long by two feet 
broad and is inscribed as follows : 



150 Friends^ Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey, 

On the 30th day of July 1754 died 

Joseph Scattergood Esq. 

aged 40 years 

And the next day was interred here 

He was a Husband Loving & Beloved 

A. Tender parent A. Kind Relative 

A. Sincere & fidthful Friend a Grood Master 

an Honest Man 
This Stone is placed over his Grave 
by his Moumfull Widow as a Tribute 
Justly due to his Memory 

In Section Xm. there are three. One, browTi sandstone, 
rough edges, six inches wide, one and one-half inches thick, 

marked 

D B . 
1726 

One of soapstone, ten inches wide, two inches thick, 

marked 

S. S.» 

One of marble, about twenty inches ^vide and two inches 

thick: 

Here Was Laid jr* 
Body of Abagel : y* 
Daughter of Joshua : 
and Sarah Raper, Who 
Dyed y* 3-day o.f. 
Feb'y 172J Aged 
6 Years. 

In Section XXL is a soapstone about twelve inches wide, 
one and one-half inches thick : 

Here Lyeth the 
Body of Amar . . . 
Brown, who depa 
rtd this Life No' 
yc iith 1744 Aged 17 

years. 

^Samuel Smith, ''the Historian of New Jersey,'* it is supposed, was 
buried in this ground, but no record of such interment can be found. 
It may be possible that this old soapstone may have been placed to mark 
his grave. 



Frimds' Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 151 

The Friends of the present day, having realized the de- 
sirability of being able to locate the various places of in- 
terments of their relatives and friends, have modified the 
instructions as to the placing of stones at graves by adopt- 
ing the follo^^^ng clause in the last edition of the Book of 
Discipline, viz : 

''This Caution is not understood as prohibiting the marking of graves 
by simple unomamented stones at the head and foot of a grave, rising not 
more than six inches above the general level of the ground, and contain- 
ing only the name and age or date of birth and death of the person there 
interred inscribed upon the top of the stone/' 



As to funds for the keeping up of the graves, this burial- 
ground is similarly situated, in that respect, to most, if not 
all, of the burial-grounds within the limits of the Yearly 
Meeting ; that is to say, there is no fund existing to be used 
for that especial purpose, therefore the friends and relatives 
of those interred there usually arrange with the sexton to 
see after keeping the graves in order, subject to the rules of 
the committee in charge. 

By reference to the photograph of the rear of the meet- 
ing-house, a considerable portion of the burial-ground will 
be found included in the picture. 

The first row in the foreground is in Section VI., and is 
known as the " Deacon Row." One of the four graves in 
front of the buttonwood tree on the left near the meeting- 
house is that of Dr. Joseph W. Taylor, the founder of Bryn 
Mawr College. The group of graves on the right in the 
foreground is in Section XXI., and are of the Gummere 
families. The t^vo rows in the centre, in front of the large 
buttonwood tree, are the Allinson, Mott, and Smith graves. 
Stephen Grellet and his wife are buried in the same row as 
the Allinson family. Samuel and Margaret H. Hilles are in 
the group near the centre of the wall on the left. Quite a 
number of graves are not seen in the space included in the 
picture, being obstructed from view by a rise in the ground 



152 Friends^ Burial-Groujid^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 

about midway. The panels on the wall, that are visible, 
designate Sections Vii. to XIlL, inclusive.^ 

Among those interred in these grounds, in whom there is 
perhaps more than a local interest, are the following : 

Samuel Hilles was a resident of Wilmington, Delaware. 
He was the first superintendent of Haverford School, now 
Haverford College, afterwards, with his elder brother, Eli, 
conducting a popular and successful boarding-school for 
girls in Wilmington. He was remarkably courteous and 
aftable in his manners and conversation. His wife, Mar- 
garet H., was the great-granddaughter of James Logan, of 
Stenton, near Philadelphia. They, at their request, were 
interred in the same grave. — Section IX. No. 37. 

Grace Buchanan. — ^An English nurse in the family of 
John Smith, fiither of John Jay Smith and Margaret H. 
Hilles, and who later carried on the business of druggist in 
Burlington, which business she had learned in England. — 
Section IX. No. 4. 

John Cox. — A prominent minister of the Society of 
Friends. His first wife was a sister of John Smith, and a 
granddaughter of James Logan, of Stenton. His second 
wife, Ann Dillwyn, was a sister of George Dillwyn. — Section 
IX. No. 23. 

Margaret (Hill) Morris. — ^Was the wife of William 
Morris and daughter of Dr. Richard Hill, and sister of 
Henry Hill, a prominent merchant. — Section VIII. No. 10. 

MiLCAH Martha Moore. — A sister of Margaret (Hill) 
Morris and daughter of Dr. Richard Hill. Her husband 
was Dr. Charles Moore. — Section III. No. 13. 

Samuel Emlbn. — ^A son of Samuel Emlen, the eminent 
minister of the Society in the latter part of the eighteenth 
centm-y. His wife was a daughter of William Dillwyn. — 
Section IX. No. 16. 

^ The writer is indebted to William H. Roberts, of Moorestown, New 
Jersey, for his kindly interest in preparing and Aimishing the photo- 
graph accompanying this paper. 



Friends' Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 153 

John Griscom. — A prominent educator during most of 
his active life ; at one period being Professor of Chemistry 
in Columbia College, New York. His first ^v^fe was the 
youngest daughter of John Hoskins. Her oldest sister 
married " Thomas Scattergood, the minister." — Section XV. 
No. 12. 

Margaret M. Smith. — A single woman, remarkably 
active in benevolent work in the community. She was a 
sister of Daniel B. Smith, formerly a prominent merchant 
of Philadelphia, and sacrificed her life through the nervous 
strain and exertions incident to her great kindness and 
hospitality to some entire strangers, who were injured at 
the time of tlie great railroad accident in Burlington, in 
the year \%bb.— Section VIII. No. £3. 

Samuel J. Smith. — ^A poet of some reputation. He was 
a grandson of Samuel Smith, whose name is well known 
as the author of " Smith's History of New Jersey." — Sec- 
tion IX. No. 20. 

Richard Mott. — An eminent minister of Friends, for- 
merly residing at Mamaroneck, N. Y., but passed the latter 
years of his life with his grandson, Richard F. Mott. — Sec- 
tion IX. No. SO. 

Isaac Collins. — Printer and publisher. Was appointed 
printer to King George HL for the Province of New Jersey 
in the year 1770. He was the publisher of the New Jersey 
Gazette^ and also of many works, and a printer of the Pro- 
vincial Currency. — Section VIII. No. 9. 

Nathaniel Coleman. — A silversmith in the early part of 
this century. There are doubtless quite a number of arti- 
cles of silverware still to be found in the families whose 
ancestors formerly lived in Burlington and \'icinity stamped 

N. COLEMAN. 

—Section VI. No 17. 

John Hoskins, Sen. — A prominent elder of the Society 
of Friends. Was father-in-law of Thomas Scattergood (the 
minister) and of John Griscom. — Section XV. No 1. 



154 Friends' BurialrGround^ Burlington, New Jersey. 

James Kinsey. — Chief Justice of New Jersey. Was a 
member of Burlington Meeting. His usual seat in the 
meeting-house being in what is known as the "second 
gallery." He married Hannah Decou, whose sister was the 
wife of Jonathan Odell, rector of the Episcopal Church. — 
Section XVIL No. 1. 

Stephen Grellet. — ^An eminent minister of the Society 
of Friends, who travelled extensively in this country and 
in Europe, and whose missionary labors are fully recorded 
in his published memoirs. — Section VIII. No 24- 

Rebecca Grellet. — ^Wife of the above ; w^as daughter of 
Isaac Collins, the printer and publisher. — Section VIII 
No. 30. 

George Dillwyn. — ^A prominent minister in the early part 
of this century. — Section IX. No. 2. 

Susannah R. Smith. — ^A minister, daughter of Isaac 
Collins, the colonial printer and publisher. — Seetion IX. 
No. 38. 

Richard M. Smith. — Her husband, was a great-grandson 
of James Logan, of Stenton. — Section IX. No. 17. 

Abigail Barker. — ^A highly esteemed minister, and the 
mother of Elizabeth B. Gummere, the wife of Samuel R. 
Gummere. — Section XXI. No. 1. 

John Gummere. — The proprietor of a widely known and 
popular boarding-school at Burlington, in fore part of this 
century. Among his pupils were numbers from the Island 
of Cuba, South America, as well as from various sections 
of the Union. In 1834 he became Superintendent of 
Haverford College. He was not only eminent as a teacher, 
but w^as a prominent mathematician, being the author of 
" Gummere's Astronomy and Surveying," as well as of 
other similar works. — Section XXI. No. 20. 

Samuel R. Gummere. — ^A brother of John ; was also a 
leading educator in his early and middle life, his board- 
ing-school for girls being very popular. He built and 
occupied w^hat is now the central part of St. Mary's Hall, 
which has for many years been under the management of 



Friends' Burial-Gronndy Burlington^ Neio Jersey. 155 

the Episcopal Diocese of New Jersey as a young ladies' 
seminary. He also was the author of various works, and 
for many years Clerk in Chancery at Trenton, N. J. — Sec- 
tion XXL No. 29. 

Stephen Pike. — ^A teacher and the author of "Pike's 
Arithmetic," formerly used in schools. In earlier life he 
was a bookseller, but being conscientiously opposed to deal- 
ing in works of fiction, and finding his business unprofitable 
without keeping a stock of such works, he relinquished it 
and pursued the vocation of teaching. A painting by Wil- 
liam Strickland, in the " Jordan Annex" of the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Society, representing "Christ Church," 
includes his store, showing the sign " Stephen Pike, Book- 
seller."— &(?fto?i XXVI. No. 5. 

Eliza Paul Gurney. — The widow of Joseph John Gur- 
ney, of Norwich, England, an eminent minister of the 
Society of Friends, was a woman of great personal worth, 
a generous benefactor, and a lovely Christian character.^ — 
Section XXVII. No. 10. 

William Gummerb. — ^A son of John Gummere, the 
mathematician. He was an officer of the National Bank of 
the Northern Liberties, Philadelphia, for over fifty years ; 
having entered the bank as a clerk, he rose successively to 
the office of president. At the close of his fift;y years of 
service he was appointed president emeritus, which position 
he occupied until his death. — Section XXI. No. 50. 

Peter Hill. — Was a " Colored Clockmaker." He was 
in the employ of the " Hollingsheads," who were prominent 
clockmakers in Burlington, and they taught him the trade. 
AAer their retirement fi-om business he succeeded them. 
A number of his clocks are still in the neighborhood. His 
shop was on High Street, nearly opposite Friends' Meeting- 
-Ro\x9^^.— Section XXVIII. No. 1. 

Caroline Loango. — ^A young African girl, was brought 
from Loango, having been kidnapped by slave-traders in 

^ A note addressed to her, from Abraham Lincoln, written during the 
Rebellion, is in the possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 



156 Friends^ BuriaJr Ground j Burlington, New Jersey. 

the interior. She was purchased from them by the super- 
cargo of a vessel consigned to New York, as a waiting-maid 
for his wife, but he having died on the passage, she was 
sent to friends of the owners of the vessel living near Bur- 
lington.— ^^2o?i XXVIL No. S. 

Samuel E. Wetherill {Section IV. No. 20\ and others of 
the same name upon the record, were descendents of Christo- 
pher Wetherill, one of the early proprietors of West Jersey. 

William Ridgway. — A minister of the Society. In 
early life he was a searcaptain; at one period, trading to 
Europe and West Indies, in the interest of Smith & Ridg- 
way, of Philadelphia. — Section VII. No. 3. 

Thomas Dutton. — Was a public-spirited man, upright 
and amiable in character. His useful life was cut short in 
early middle age. — Section VII. No. 15. 

Burr Woolman. — ^Was Surveyor-General of West Jersey 
for a period of nearly forty years. — Section V. No. 21. 

George B. Deacon. — In early life an educator, connected 
with the young ladies' school of Samuel R. Gummere, and 
later prominently known in Horticultural and Pomological 
Societies. — Section VII. No. 35. 

William J. Allinson. — Was a man of versatile talent. 
He located in Burlington as a druggist, but the latter part 
of his life was devoted to literary pursuits, and was for a 
number of years editor of the ^^ Friends^ Review,^' since 
changed to the ^'American Friend" published in Philadel- 
phia.— &c^?V)7i VIII. No. 36. 

The following is a list of the intermente from about the 
the year 1828, as well as of those whose names the old sex- 
tons were able to give who were interred before that date. 
Prior to that date, they are numbered in each section as they 
were obtained from the old sextons, but, subsequently, they 
have been put down as they were entered upon the " Book 
of Record," without attention to their position upon the 
plan, so far as regards the order of the numbers.^ 

* A copy of the plan has been placed in the Record-room at Friends* 
Library, on Sixteenth Street above Cherry Street, for preservation. 



Friends' Burial-Ground^ Burlington, Nav Jersey. 157 



8ECTI0X I 


No 1 Sarah Woolman 


2 Huldah Williams 


3 Lydia Bullock 


4 Stokes 


5 Mary Buckman 


8ECTI0X II 


No 1 Aaron Quicksall 


2 Mary Milnes 


3 Margaret Quicksall 


4 Child of John BirkeyJr 


5 '* '* Chas W Gunnel 


6 Charles Sinclair 


7 Patience Ashburn 


8 Lydia Harris 


9 Hannah Hartshorn 


10 John Hartshorn 


11 Benjamin Quicksall 


12 Rebecca Quicksall 


13 Sarah Sinclair 


14 Sarah Quicksall 


15 Rebecca Quicksall Jr 


10 Chas Gunnell 


17 John Quickr*all 


18 John Birkey 


19 Job Remington 


20 William Quicksall 


21 Mary Ann Knight 


22 Keturah Gunnell 


23 John Q Birkey 


24 Eliza}>eth H Birkey 


25 E<lward B Gunnell 


26 Jonathan Knight 


27 p:iiziibeth W Sellars 


&ECTIOX III 


No 1 Marj' King 


2 Anna King 


3 Rhea King 


4 Joshua R Smith 


5 Abram Stockton 



6 John Antrim 

7 Abram Stockton Jr 

8 Seth Gibbs 

9 Wife of No 8 

10 Henrietta Swiggett 

1 1 Mary Elizabeth Swiggett 

12 Deborah Hicks 

13 Milcah Martha Moore 

14 Margaret Smith wife of W° 

15 Elizabeth Hicks 

16 Deborah Prosser 

17 Barzilla Prosser 

18 Child of Chas Atherton 

19 Christopher Wetherill 

20 Isaac Wetherill 

21 Margaret Wetherill 

22 Joseph R King 

23 Thomas Wetherill 

24 Sarah Earl 

25 Raper Smith 

26 Elizabeth Fennimore 

27 Alfred L Smith 

28 Susan J Smith 

29 Mary Atherton 

30 Martha Prosser 

31 Elizabeth Protti^er 

32 William W King 

33 George G King 

34 Esther R Smith 

35 Edward Smith 

36 John Miller 

37 Anna M Miller 

38 Marj' A Cummings 

39 RolHjrt J Smith 

40 Joseph H Smith 

41 Catharine Smith 

42 Elizabeth Cummings 

43 Lucy King 

44 William G King 

45 William W Miller 

46 Susan D Smith 

47 Eleanor K Shotwell 

48 Sarah C Miller 

49 Sarah R Smith 



158 Friciuls' Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 



SECTION IV 

No 1 Child of Saml K Wetherill 

2 Mary Wetherill 

3 Joseph Wetherill 

4 Mercy Wetherill 

5 Jacob Myers Jr (Capt) 

6 Wife of Peter Sitman 

7 Wife of Jacob Myers Sen 

8 Jacob Myers Sen 

9 Thomas Deacon (fiarmer) 

10 Mother of do 

1 1 Same family 

12 Henry Burr Sen 

13 Amy Wilson 

14 No one 

15 Sarah Pittman 

16 Thomas Deacon (mason) 

17 Marj- Pittman 

18 Robert Pittman 

19 Catharine Pittman 

20 Samuel R Wetherill 

21 Ann E Wetherill 

22 Samuel Shreeve 

23 Fanny Pittman 



SECTION V 

No 1 John H Fennimore 

2 William Myers 

3 Elizabeth Walton 

4 Barzilla Deacon 

5 Job Deacon 

6 Samuel Norcross 

7 James Deacon 

8 Child of Henry Ridgway 

9 Abraham Scott 

10 Wife of do 

11 Daughter of do 

12 Catharine Deacon 

13 Sister of No 12 

14 John Deacon (Carpenter) 

15 Wife of No 14 



16 Robert Newton 

17 Samuel Newton 

18 W^illiam Gaskill 

19 Samuel Rogers (Caq)enter) 

20 Amy Rogers & Grand Child 

21 Burr W^oolman 

22 Rebecca G Gaskill 

23 Charles H Paste 

24 W^illiam Deacon (Captain) 

25 Amos H Deacon 

26 William Deacon 

27 Elizabeth Deacon 

28 Parmelia Deacon 

29 George Deacon (Joiner) 

30 Hannah Newton 

31 Rebecca Deacon 

32 David Deacon 

33 Rachel Woolman 

34 Elizabeth Gaskill 

35 George Gaskill 

36 Abby Deacon 

37 Elizabeth Woolman 

38 Hannah Norcross 

39 Martha Deacon 

40 Caleb Gaekill 

41 Thomas B Woolman 

42 Achsah Deacon 
A Mercy Deacon 

43 Priscilla H Lloyd 

44 Ann Williams 

45 Phebe Williams 

46 Anna H Gaskill 

47 Mary G King 

48 William C Woolman 

49 Anna Wilson King 
Infant child of 
Dr J Hunter Robb 

50 i (Thomas Woolman 
Robb) interred between 
Nos 37 & 41 



NoTB.— In this section the west rows are 
irregular, and Nos. 43, 38, C. 7, and 8 over- 
lap the row in wliich are Nos. 41, 87, 33, and 
21. No. 48 runs over the last row. 



Friends' Burial-Ground^ Burlington^ New Jersey. 169 



SECTION VI 

No 1 Child of John Deacon 

2 Gulielma Deacon 

3 Widow Shiner 

4 Caleb Stevenson 

5 Benjamin Stevenson 

6 Samuel G Deacon 

7 Lydia M Deacon 

8 Keturah Deacon 

9 Charles T Deacon 

10 John Elton 

11 Wife of John Elton 

12 Henry Dowell 

13 Susan Nicholson 

14 John Taylor 

15 Wife of John Taylor 

16 Elizabeth Coleman 

17 Nathaniel Coleman 

18 Hannah E Deacon 

19 John Deacon 

20 Child of Ezra Stevenson 

21 Thomas Smith 

22 Seth Smith 

23 Martha Smith 

24 George Sidney Deacon 

25 Not found 

26 Mary Lippincott 

27 Rebecca E Deacon 

28 Carrie Deacon 

29 Hannah Deacon 

30 Elizabeth W Deacon 

31 Ann B Deacon 

32 John C Deacon 

33 Kesiah Deacon 

34 Grace Smith 

34 J Mary Deacon 

35 George B Deacon 

36 Maria W Deacon 

37 Eliza A Ellis 

SECTION VII 

No 1 Hannah Ellison 

2 Elizabeth Ellison 

3 William Ridgway 



4 Deborah D Ridgway 

5 Hannah Elton Dutton 

6 Charles Ridgway Dutton 

7 Edith Laurie Jr 

8 Edith Laurie 

9 Mary Ridgway 

10 Eliza R Bishop 

11 Mary L Thomas 

12 Amelia Thomas 

13 Joseph M Laurie 

14 George Dutton 

15 Thomas Dutton 

16 Child of Elton Thomas 

17 Elton Thomas 

18 William E Thomas 

19 Rebecca Thomas 

20 Hannah D Ellis & Child 

21 Susan N Wistar 

22 Lucy Ann Laurie 

23 William R Dutton 

24 Robert Thomas 

25 Louisa H Bishop 

26 Mary M Bishop 

27 William Bishop 

28 Sarah J Dutton 

SECTION VIII 

No 1 William Allinson 

2 Martha Allinson 

3 John Allinson 

4 James Allinson 

5 Richard Hill Morris 

6 Thomas A Collins 

7 Charles Collins 

8 Deborah Collins 

9 Isaac Collins 

2Q ( Margaret (Hill) Morris 
Ijj Mother of Richard Hill 

^ Morris 

i Supposed William Morris 

12 "j husband of Margaret 
^ (Hill) Morris 

13 Ann Collins 

14 Child of Edmund Morris 



160 Friends' BurialrGround, Burlington^ Neic Jerrsey. 



; i 



15 Mary 8 Morris wife of Rich* 

Hill Morris 

16 William Allinson son of 

W J Allinson 
17£Alfred A Trimble 

18 Mehetable Herbert 

19 Samuel Hilles Howland 

20 William P Trimble 
21 'Albert Collins 

22 Sibyl Allinson 

23 Margaret M Smith 

24 Stephen Grellet 

25 Elizabeth Allinson 

26 Margaret Parker 

27 David Allinson 

28 Thomas Collins 

29 William Albert Collins 

30 Rebecca Grellet 

31 Fanny Collins 

32 Mary Allinson 

33 Lucy Allinson 

34 Eliza W Hinchman 

35 Edmund Morris 

36 William J Allinson 

37 Mary P Morris widow of 

Edmund 

38 Rebecca W Allinson widow 

ofWJ 

39 Margaret E Morris 

40 Elizabeth M Smith 

41 Lucy Allinson 

42 Dillwyn Smith 

Note.— Dill \iTn 8mith, No. 42, was first 
interred in Section IX., but his remains 
were afterwards removed and placed by 
his wife, No. 40, which accounts for his 
name being entered after that of his wife, 
she having outlived him. 



SECTION IX 
No 1 Sarah Dillwyn 
2 Greorge Dillwyn 
8 Susan Emlen 
4 Grace Buchanan 



5 Susan Allinson 

6 John Smith fether of Rich* 

M 

7 Gulielma Smith 

8 Wife of Daniel Smith sen^ 

9 Daniel Smith sen' 

10 Robert Smith 

11 Sarah Smith sister of No 10 

12 Daniel Smith &ther of Caleb 

R 

13 Mary Smith sister of No 12 

14 Ann CJox 

15 Joseph & John Parrish's 

Children 

16 Samuel Emlen 

17 Richard M Smith 

18 Gulielma Stewardson 

19 Hannah Smith 

20 Samuel J Smith 

21 Martha Smith 

22 Joseph Smith &ther of Sam 

J 

23 John Cox 

24 Jane B Smith 

25 Joseph R Smith 

26 Hannah D Smith 

27 Catharine Smith 

28 Deborah Parrish 

29 Abigail Mott 

30 Richard Mott 

31 Amelia Smith 

32 Robert T Mott 

33 Anna B MoU 

34 Hannah B Mott 

35 Caleb R Smith 

36 Barzilla C Smith 
Samuel Hilles 

& 

37 \ his wife 
Margaret S 

Hilles 

38 Susannah R Smith 

39 Susan T Mott 

40 Richard F MoU 



interred 
in the 
same 
grave 



f ■ 



Friends' BurialrGroimd, Burlington, Neio Jersey. 161 



SBCnONX 


SECTION XIV 


No 1 Joseph Scattergood 


No 1 LydiaHoskins 


2 Paul Jenness 


2 Bachel Hoskins 


3 Mary H Jenneas 


8 Susan D Griscom 


4 Not found 


4 Edward Dennis 


5 John T Troth 


5 Charles Hoskins 


6 Elizabeth T Troth 


6 Mary Griscom 


7 Mark Jenneas 


7 Amos George 


8 Child of Charles Gifford 


8 Mary H George wife of No 7 


9 Helen Boyd 


9 William Dennis 


10 Mary Morrison 


SECTION XV 


11 Susan Boyd 


No 1 John Hoskins sen 


12 Mary Morgan 


2 Wife of No 1 


13 Anna £ Morrison 


3 Child of John Hoskins Jr 




4 John Hoskins Jr 


SECTION XI 






5 Martha Hoskins 


No 1 Beulah West 


6 Elizabeth Griscom 




7 John Wilson 


SECTION XII 






8 Joseph Pearce 


No 1 Joseph D Drinker 


9 Rachel Pearce 


2 Wife of No 1 


10 Hannah Pearce 


3 Daughter of do 


11 Mary Pearce 


4 Thomas Pancoast 


12 John Griscom 


5 Stephen Morris 


13 Joseph W. Griffith 


6 Bersheba Morris 


14 Susan Griffith wife of No 18 


7 William Letchworth 


15 Martha Taylor 


8 Wife of No 7 


16 Eliza Taylor 


9 Mary James 




10 Daniel Drinker 


SECTION XVI 


11 Wife of No 10 


No 1 Martha Jones 


12 Ruth Morris 


2 Sarah S Jones 


18 Mary Butcher 


3 Rowland Jones 


14 Samuel Butcher 


4 Unknown 


15 Infant child of Joshua Eyre 


5 Unknown 


16 Martha Butcher 


g f Charlotte N Shreeve 
I Child of Joseph Shreeve 


17 Joshua W Eyre 




SECTION XVII 


SECTION XIII 




No 1 Isaac Shoemaker 


No 1 James Kinsey 


2 Dr Joseph W Taylor 


SECTION XVIII 


3 Elizabeth C Taylor dau of 


No 1 Joseph Antrim 


W C Taylor 


2 Hannah Antrim 


4 Hannah Taylor 


3 Wife of James Craft 


5 Nathan Taylor 


4 James Craft 


VOL. XXIV.— 11 





162 Fricfids' BuriaUGround, Burlington, Neio Jersey. 



5 (Jerehom Craft 

6 Hannah Antrim 

7 Child of Dr Howard 



16 Mary Ann Vanhom 

17 Rachel Cost ill wife of Benj° 

18 Isaac S Haines M D 

19 Okey H Co«till M D 





SECTION XIX 


20 


Benjamin Costill 


No 1 Jf^iah HauBe 


21 Mary Costill 


2 Wife of No 1 


22 Ann B Griffith 


8 Wife of Robert Grubb Sen' 


23 Anna S Griffith 


4 Robert Grubb Sen' 


24 Hannah Vivian 


6 Lydia Brown 


25 Hannah Leaver 


6 Thomas Booth 


26 Hannah Atkinson 


7 Mary Grubb 


27 Mary Risley 


8 Mary Brown 


28 Lydia Ellis 


9 Sarah Eustis 


29 Uriah Costill 


10 George S Booth 


30 William Sleeper 


11 Child of Benj"* Gauntt 


31 Susan W Burr 


\2 ** << << it 


32 Joseph R Haines » 


X3 tt It n n 


33 Edith A Sleeper 


14 Benjamin Gauntt 


34 John S Griffith 


15 Thomas E Antrim 


»The rtmaiiwof Joseph R. Haines. No. 


16 William Brown 


32, have been removed to the Odd Fellows 


17 Susan W Gauntt 


Ccmeterj'. 

SECTION XXI 


SECTION XX 


No 1 Abagail Barker 




' Hannah P Morris wife of 
Samuel B Morris her re- 


2 Peter Barker 

3 Isabella Gummere 

4 Rachel Gummere {j'2!'^^ 

5 Name not known 


^0 1. 


mains were afterward re- 


moved to Friends Western 




B Ground 16th & Race 


( widow of 




. StsPhila 


1 
6 Rachel Gummere < Saml G 


2 Not known 


i Sen' 


3 <' << 


7 Samuel Gummere Sen' 


4 n 11 


8 Joseph Lewis 


6 ** ** 


9 Jacob Lewis 


6 Ellis Haines 


10 r 


7 Wife of No 6 


11 




8 Sarah Farmington 


12 


Formerly 


9 Sister of No 8 


13 


John Folwell 


10 Phebe Farmington 


14 


family 


11 Joseph Costill 


15^ 


and 


12 Wife of No 11 


16 


now in 


18 Samuel Costill 


17 


Section XXII 


14 Rachel Costill 


18 


by new division 


15 A 


Vife of Uriah Costill 


19 





Friends" Burial- Growidy Burlington^ New Jersey. 163 



No 



20 John Gummere 




7 William BorroughdaU 


21 William son of Wm Dennis 


8 Wife of No 7 




daugh 


9 Hannah King 


22 Elizabeth Gummere « 


of 
John 


lOJ Elizabeth English 
11} Nathan English 


I G. 


10 John Folwell 


23 Charles son of Wm Dennis 


11 Wife of No 10 


24 Maybeny McVaugh 


12 




25 Abby Redmond 


13 




26 Edward Gummere 


14 




27 Lydia McVaugh 

28 Elizabeth B Gummere 


15 

16 


* Same Family 


29 Samuel R Gummere 


17 




QQ 1 is in Section XXII and 
1 numbered 11 J 


18 




19 , 




31 Abigail Costill 


20 Rebecca W Buzby 


32 Mary W Bunting 


21 Susan Abbott 


33 Martha M Gummere 


22 Lydia Stokes 


34 Philip M Redmond 




35 Rachel W Buzby 


SECTION xxin 


36 Martha Costill 


No 1 Susan Cox 


37 Elizabeth D Gummere 


2 Rachel Cox 


38 Howard A Hunt 


3 Wife of Thomas Hall 


39 Frances G Marsh 


4 John Hall 


40 Abel Buzby 


5 Meribah Hall 


41 Amy R Vanhom 


6 Church family 


42 Charles J Gummere 


y it ti 


43 Christianna Marsh 


8 Not found 


44 Susan B Dennis 


9 Fennimore family 


45 Hannah Haines 


10 Wife of Samuel Rodman 


46 Benjamin V. Marsh 


11 Rodman family 


47 Henrietta E Buzby 


12 


48 Mary Gummere 


13 


49 Mary Ann Barton 


14 


50 William Gummere 


15 


51 John G Gummere 


16 *' " 

17 

18 


SECTION XXII 


1 Theodocia Craig 


19 Robert Coe 


2 Andrew Craig 


20 Jane Coe 


3 John Buzby 


21 William Coe 


4 William Buzby 


22 Thomas Hall 


5 Ann Ogburn 


23 Richard Heaton 


6 Hannah Randolph 


, 


24 Ann M Cox 



164 



Friends' BurmUGround, Burlinffton, Neiv Jersey. 



25 Alexander Craft 

26 Emlen Craft 

27 Francis Asbury Reed 

28 Joseph Sholl 

29 A Lincoln Sholl 

SECTION XXIV 

No 1 Abel James 

2 Daughter of No 1 

8 Daughter of Robert Annon 

4 Amos Annon 

5 Robert Annon 

6 Thomas Hutchin 

7 James Hutchin 

8 Amos Hutchin 

9 Ann Tyson 

10 Hannah Hutchin 

11 Ann Moon 

12 Benjamin Moon 
18 Jasper Moon 

14 Wife of No 13 

15 Peter Dowell 

SECTION XXV 

No 1 Isaac Archer 
2 Son of No 1 

8 Elizabeth Smith 

4 Same family 

5 Elizabeth Newbold 

6 Anthony N Taylor 

7 Cattell 

g f is in Section XXVI and 
(numbered 15 

9 Susannah Newbold 

10 Mary N Stroud 

11 Elizabeth P Newbold 

j2 f is in Section XXVI and 
( numbered 14 



jg f is in Section XXVI and 

1 numbered 18 
14 William F. Newbold 

Not. 8, 12, and IS were changed by present 
dlYUon of lots in li$70. 



SECTION XXVI 

No 1 Samuel Emlen's Englishman 
2 Elizabeth Sloan 
8 Child of J M Bacon 

4 Sarah Scattergood wife of 

Thomas (the minister) 

5 Stephen Pike 

6 Child of Stephen Pike 

7 Sarah Burgess 

8 Esther E Taylor 

9 Child of Samuel W Taylor 

10 Hannah Child of Samuel 

W Taylor 

11 Mary Potts 

12 Edward Taylor 
18 Sarah W Dugdale 

14 Thomas Dugdale 

15 Ann Bacon 

16 EUza Y Taylor 

17 Amy Richardson 

18 Sarah M Dugdale 

19 Elizabeth D Taylor 

20 Eliza P Yardley 

21 George Eugene Yardley 

22 Mary E Taylor 

23 Samuel W Taylor 

24 Mercianna Y Taylor 

SECTION XXVII 

No 1 Thomas Winner 
2 Thomas Allinson 
8 Julia K Clarke 

4 Richard M Kirkbride 

5 Mary Ann Williams 

6 Charles R Cloud M D 

7 Ann Eliza Kirkbride 

8 Elsie Cloud 

9 Eleanor G Kirkbride 
10 Eliza Paul Gumey 

SECTION XXVIII 

No 1 Peter Hill 

2 Grand Child of Edith Green 
8 Caroline Loango 
4 Joseph K Williams 



The Pemis and the Taxation of their Estates. 166 



THE PENNS AND THE TAXATION OF THEIE ESTATES 
BY THE PEOVINCIAL ASSEMBLY. 

(Continued from Vol. XXIII. page 448.) 

Two branches therefore of the proprietary es- 
tate consist of: 

1 That purchase money which persons pay Pa«*«® 
to the proprietaries to purchase a grant in fee 

of any parcel of lands they desire to have 
granted to them ; and — 

2 The quit-rent of an half penny per acre Q^*-"«*»- 
reserved on those grants in fee and as the com- 
mon run of grants do not one with another 
exceed 200 acres (which is a good farm) each, 

such purchasers may be to pay eight shillings 
and four pence per annum quit-rent. 

3 And the proprietaries have a third sort of ^MoWtodi. 
estate there, I mean all the unsold lands within 

the province. The charter granted to Mr. Penn 
all the lands and soil within the bounds therein 
mentioned. But Messrs. Penns have considered 
that grant rather as a licence from the Crown 
to purchase in those lands from the Indian 
natives and proprietors than as a title to the 
Indian lands and therefore have constantly and 
honestly and in some cases twice or three times 
over bought in from the Indians and paid them 
for every inch of the country which the Indians 
have been \villing to sell before ever they have 
occupied or granted out any part thereof. 

Out of that land, thus purchased from the 
Indians, the proprietaries sometimes survey some 
parts tliereof to reserve as a demesne for their 



166 The Petws and tlie Taxation of their Estates. 

o\\Ti use, either to occupy themselves or to 
lease out or to sell for the most they can. 

These lands tlms surveyed and reserved for 
the proprietaries own future disposition are in 
three different circumstances which are neces- 
sary to be distinctly stated in order to show 
what the question between the proprietaries 
and the Assembly as to these lands is. 

Leaaed lands. 1 Some part of these lands are actually let 
out on leases for years to the tenants and occu- 
piers of the same at the best rents that can be 
got and as to those the proprietaries consented 
by their instructions that they should be taxed, 
duly they contend to raise the tax upon the 
annual value and distrain the possession as in 
England and let him deduct a proportionable 
part thereof from his rent payable to the pro- 
prietaries. 

Surveyed and 2 A sccond part of these lands surveyed and 
lands settled reserved for the proprieturies is not leased or 
by Indians, granted out by them to any persons whatsoever, 
nor yield them a single farthing of annual rent 
or profit notwithstanding which it happens that 
numbers of intruders seat themselves down upon 
them from time to time at their own pleasure 
and make some little improvements, but are not 
yet brought under any 'lease or pay any rent 
for their settlements and there are so many set- 
tlers upon those reserved lands that for every 
three hundred (300) a<;res of them there is at 
least one tenant or family, now these surveyed 
and reser\'^ed lands will certainly be called, at 
least by the peoples' assessor improved lands for 
tlie tenants and intruders have actually made 
some sort of improvement upon the same and 
tliey may be called the proprietaries improved 
lands ; the taxing these sort of lands at all and 



The Penns and (he Taxation of their Estates. 167 

the manner of taxing the same make the great 
and grievous oppression, for as to lands which 
are let out at certain rents the value may be 
known by the rent payable for the same. And 
as to the lands located but not improved or 
occupied at all the Act lays thus far : a limited 
value upon them that they shall be valued 
from 5 to 15 shillings the hundred acres but as 
to these sort of lands reserved for the proprie- 
taries and not granted to but occupied by these 
intruders, the assessor is to set whatever value 
he thinks fit upon them at his arbitrary will and 
pleasure and assess so much in the pound upon 
that imaginary value, and this without any possi- 
bOity of redress, suppose he should value them 
at £300 per hundred acres, for so the Assembly 
in some of their papers most ridiculously imagine 
them to be. Then the estimated value of 100.000 
acres of such land would be £300.000, and four 
shillings in the pound upon that value would 
be £60.000 tax per annum for land which does 
not pay or produce to the proprietories one sin- 
gle farthing of rent or profit. The iniquity and 
injustice of this proposition glares one in the face. 
For by this means the proprietaries alone may 
be taxed to the amount of nine-tenths or even 
to a greater proportion of any land-tax which 
the Assembly may lay upon the whole province 
and that for such land only as yeilds them no 
rent or profit whatsoever. This therefor the 
proprietaries never will submit to. The As- 
sembly say that these lands are kept in hand 
undisposed of by the proprietories in order that 
by other persons improving circumjacent lands 
these may grow more valuable and may fetch 
a higher price and that therefore though they 
yeild now no rent or profit they may grow more 



occupied. 



168 The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

advantageous and may sell for a better price by 
and by, but that is all eventual, they may as 
well, nay they have decreased in value, there is 
no want of other lands for people to take up at 
pleasure in other places upon the common terms 
and the proprietaries are judges of their own 
interest and their own property and it cannot 
be imagined that they are so very blind to their 
own interest aa to keep these lands unlet, unsold 
and to yield them no kind of profit whatever, 
rather than to sell or let them for considerable 
value if they could find tenants or purchasers 
for them. And all this for fear that the lands 
(after that they have sold or let them) should be 
taxed. 

Surveyed lands 3 The third and last part of these surveyed 
and reserved lands are such small parts (not 
very considerable) aa lie wholly untennanted 
and unoccupied and unimproved. 

As to other lands in the province bought from 
the Indians but not surveyed or reserved for the 
proprietaries' use, they are in the like circum- 
stances with those which are reserved for the 
proprietaries' use, viz. some granted out, some 
not granted out but yet intruded upon and 
other parts wholely vacant and unoccupied and 
open for any person that pleases to take up any 
part of them on the known common and usual 
tenms of purchase and of these there is always 
a sufiicient quantity for the settlers that offer. 

The purport of Thcsc lands would all in general have been 
Artpaasedin taxed by the Land-Tax Acts of 1755 and 1757 
Pexmayivania gome of them in One manner, others of them in 

in NoTember ' 

1756. another manner had not the propnetarye's's 

estates been excepted out of the tax on account 
of their then gift of £5000 to the King's use, 
for the first enacting words of the Act are that 



The Petins and the Taxation of their Estates. 169 

the tax shall be levied upon all the estates real 
and personal within this province of all all and 
every person and persons. 

As to such of these reserved lands as yeild 
rent the proprietaries consented as aforesaid 
that they might be taxed. But as to the far 
greatest part which yield no rent or profit at all 
to the proprietaries those also must, by these 
Acts, have been taxed as follows : 

Where owners of land whereon improvements 
are made don't reside in the district where the 
land lies, not only the goods of the tenant but 
those of the landlord also shall be destrained 
for the tax and if the tenant prays it he shall 
have an action of debt for the same wdth costs 
against the owner of the land : proviso, not to 
alter contracts between landlord and tenant. 

Another sort of provision is made by the same 
Act for other lands, viz. whereas large tracts 
of valuable land have been located and held 
without intention of improvement but merely in 
expectation of receiving hereafter higher prices 
for private advantage, by means whereof those 
lands remain uncultivated and the which lands 
were exempted by the County Levy Act and 
cannot by the laws now in being be taxed, it is 
thought reasonable on this occasion to settle the 
manner by which those lands shall be assessed 
and rated : Ergo it is enacted that all such located 
and unimproved lands shall be valued at not 
exceeding £15 or under £5 per hundred acres 
and such lands shall be sold for payment of the 
tax thereon. Who is to judge what lands are 
located and held with such intention and with 
such expectation ? The infallible assessor ? This 
must include all the lands purchased from the 
Indians and actually surveyed and reserved for 



170 The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

the proprietaries' use. It also includes all the 
lands ever bought from the Indians and not 
granted away although not reserved for the pro- 
prietaries' use, for every foot of those lands are 
in the terms of the Act located, the Indians sell 
the lands from such a place to such another 
place, they are held by the proprietaries and they 
remain uncultivated. Wherefore by the Act, 
although vacant lands are not taxed in other 
provinces as yielding no profit yet these shall be 
taxed at the assessors' discretion as of the value 
from £5 to £15 the hundred acres. And if the 
proprietaries do not pay that tax sell the land 
itself to pay it. This is thought to be very un- 
just and oppressive. 

There is in the Act a pretended reason ^ven 
for taxing these sort of lands now for that by 
means of these lands being so kept up they re- 
main uncultivated and great numbers of people 
have been necessitated to leave the province and 
settle in other colonies where lands are more 
easily purchased to the manifest injury and 
charge of the public. Now there cannot be a 
more shameless and abominable falsehood in- 
vented than this is, which this Assembly have 
audaciously inserted in their Act against known, 
notorious and manifest facts. For there is not 
in all America any pro^-ince that is for its size 
so populously and thickly settled as Pennsyl- 
vania and the Land Office is always open with 
land to supply persons who desire to settle upon 
the constant knowni terms. With this addi- 
tional circumstance in favor of this province that 
by bujnng in the land from time to time of the 
Indians and by reserving a quit-rent per acre 
from settlers. Here are no great stragling 
grants made of large territories and great tracts 



The Penns and ike Taxation of their Estates, 171 

of land (as in some other provinces) whereby 
the tenants and settlements are stretched and ex- 
tended wide from each other, here a tenant and 
a mile or two off another tenant, but the grants 
are made duly of mere improvable farms of t\vo 
hundred or at most three hundred acres ea<;h and 
those united and compacted close together in a 
body as farasthesettlements hitherto made extend. 

And another provision is made by the same 
Act that persons residing in the provinces who 
have seated themselves on large tracts of land 
and neither have property therein or pay rent 
for the same but yet hold and occupy parts 
thereof shall pay taxes for the same in like man- 
ner as the freeholders are liable to do by virtue 
of this Act and for non-payment shall be liable 
to distress and imprisonment as the freeholders 
were by virture of this Act or of the County 
Levy Act. 

These lands before mentioned made the third 
branch of the proprietaries' estate. 

But the Assembly have found out a fourth The ptoprietar 
kind of estate therefor the proprietaries and if idndofptop- 
it was so have taxed it with a vengeance. They ^by Sw a^ 
say in some of their long-winded messages or "embiy. 
reports that the proprietaries have vast sums of 
money due to them and standing out on mort- 
gages there. And they tax by the self same 
Acts personal as well as real estates, indeed so 
does every Land-Tax Act in England do, but we 
shall find the Assembly's pretence is not true, 
and if ever so true that no such tax as they say 
was ever laid anywhere. And first as to the 
fact itself the proprietaries have no mortgages 
in the province. AVliat the Assembly mean is 
this : A man sets down of his own head upon 
a piece of land, when the proprietaries find him 



¥ 



172 The Pe/nis and the Taxation of their Estates. 

out they threaten to eject him if he will not buy 
or take a lease of it. He is poor yet and cannot 
pay his whole £10 for a hundred acres but pays 
£3 or more or less in i)art. of his purchase money. 
Thereupon the proprietaries issue out a warrant 
to their surveyor reciting that A. B. desiring to 
purchase so many acres at such a place at the 
f usual purchase and quit-rent has paid down so 

I much money in part of his purchase therefore 

ordering the surveyer to survey and lay out a 
( plot of such a quantity of lands at such a place 

for the intending purchasor they give him no 
grant or estate in that land. He does not exe- 
cute any counterpart of the warrant or any con- 
tract or agreement whatsoever to pay the money 
or complete his purchase. But having done 
thus much the proprietaries suffer him to con- 
! tinue as tenant at will on the land but give him 

i no sort of title to it. By and by he picks up 

■ money and pays in the residue of his money if 

he pleases and interest for it from the time he 
began to pay for it, when he has done this com- 
pletely then and not before the proprietaries give 
him a grant for his land in fee ; this residue of 
the purchase money is no mortgage, he did not 

' first pay down the money, and then the proprie- 

; taries lend it him back again, he could give no 

t mortgage for he himself had no interest in the 

■ lands to make a mortgage of them. He has 

given no bond, note or contract to pay the resi- 
due of money nor can ever be compelled to pay 
it. He may not like to complete his purchase 
and may leave it and never make his purchase 
and the proprietaries have no remedy to com- 
pell him to pay it, they may turn him off the 
land and that is all they can do so that this is 
no mortgage either in name or in substance and 



The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 173 

it would be most unconscionable to lay any 
present tax whatever upon money which a man 
may or may not at many years distance happen 
to receive but never has received or seen and 
has no title to or security for at the time you 
lay a tax upon it this is the purchase money 
paid or to be paid for the land and is in the 
same case ^^ith the fines before treated of. You 
tax the land itself, would you also tax the money 
too ? And even before it is received or receiva- 
ble : this is doubly taxing the same thing. But 
secondly, if this was a mortgage or was anything 
that is proper to be taxed, after what rate would 
you tax it ? Why, say the Assembly, you must 
pay four shillings in the pound, that is one fifth 
part of the capital for what you have no security 
at all but which may or may not many years 
hence be paid to you. So I must pay tax 
Twenty pounds this year for every hundred 
pounds personal estate which I am no way in- 
titled to receive (and most certainly shall not re- 
ceive these ten or fifteen years or longer). This 
is most enormous and unjust and the English 
Acts of Parliament in lajnng a four shilling tiix 
upon personal estates consisting of ready money, 
real debts, actual mortgages, &c. lay it upon the 
interest only (not upon the capital) of such cer- 
tain personal estate and say in exj^ress terms that 
for every £100. of such personal estate, the per- 
son taxed shall pay twenty shillings. The 
Pennsylvania Act says per contra for everj' one 
hundred pounds which you are not nor ever 
may be entitled to, you shall pay twenty shillings 
— such is their justice and way of proceeding 
to rob their proprietaries for such estates as this 
and such money as this falls within no other per- 
son's case but the proprietaries in any degree. 






174 The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

Having now given you an account of the nature and kind 
of all the proprietaries' estates in Pennsylvania and which 
in the whole are of infinitely less value and bear no kind 
of proportion to what is generally imagined and also an 
account of the nature and purport of the Land-Tax Act 
passed by the Assembly there in November 1755 out of 
which Act they did then vouchsafe to exempt the proprie- 
taries' estate on account of their free gift of £5000. to the 
King's use, it comes next in course to show what commands 
and instnictions the proprietaries afterwards gave in May 

'; 1756 to Col Denny their present Lieutenant Governor, viz. : 

V 

f commiflsion to u Thomas Pcnu and Richard Penn true and 

\ Lieut. Gov- . . .,./»/. 

i; emor Denny, absolutc proprietaries and governors-m-chief of 

ji ^^^ ^*^ ^^^* the Pro\'ince of Pennsylvania and Counties of 

i Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware, — To 

Ir ... 

; William Denny, Esquire, Greeting. Whereas 

the late King Charles the Second by his letters 
■ patent under the Great Seal of England bearing 

'; date the fourth day of March in the 23d year of 

; his reign was graciously pleased to grant unto 

i William Penn, Esq. (the late father of the said 

Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, and since de- 
ceased,) his heirs and assigns the said Province of 
Pennsylvania, with large powers, jurisdictions and 
j authorities for the well governing, safety, defense 

f and preservation of the said province and the 

j people residing therein ; and more particularly to 

'j do and perform sundrj' matters and things therein 

mentioned either by himself or his deputies or 
} lieutenants as by the said letters patent, relation 

J being thereunto had, may more fully appear." 

^ " And whereas the late King James the Sec- 

,\ ond before he came to the Crown, by the name 

'■ of James Duke of York and Albany, being 

i rightftilly possessed of a certain tract of land 

j ly"^o ^f ^^^ v^Q^t side of the Bay and River River 



The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 176 

of Delaware now commonly called or known by 
the name or names of the Counties of Newcas- 
tle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware and being 
likewise invested with sundry royalties, privi- 
leges, immunities, powers, jurisdictions and au- 
thorities for the defense, safety, preservation and 
well-governing of the said tract of land and the 
inhabitants thereof, did by certain deeds duly 
executed and bearing date as therein mentioned. 
Give and Grant unto the said William Penn, his 
heirs and assigns the said tract of land lying on 
the west side of the Bay and River of Delaware, 
with all and every the said royalties, privileges, 
immunities, powers, jurisdictions and authorities 
which he, the said Duke of York stood, then in- 
vested ^vith as aforesaid ; as by such deeds, rela- 
tion being thereunto had may now fully appear." 

"Now know you that We reposing special 
trust and confidence in your loyalty to the King 
and in your prudence, conduct and integrity do 
by virtue of the said Letters Patent and deeds 
depute, constitute, nominate and appoint you the 
said William Denny, to be Lieutenant-Governor 
of tlie said province and counties." 

" Giving and hereby granting unto you fiill 
power and authority to exercise, execute and put 
in practice in ample manner all and every the 
powers, jurisdictions and authorities so granted 
unto the said William Penn, his heirs and 
assigns by the said Letters Patent and deeds as 
shall be necessary and convenient fur the safety, 
well-being, defence, preserN-ation and well govern- 
ing of the said province and counties and the 
people thereof hereby committed and intrusted 
to your care and charge." 

" And generally at all times and upon all occa- 
sions when proper and convenient to exercise. 



176 The Pmiis and the Taxation of their Estates. 

do, execute, act and perform all and all manner 
of powers, authorities, acts military and all other 
matters and things whatsoever requisite and 
necessary for the good order of government, for 
the administering, maintaining and executing of 
justice, and for the safety, peace, defense and 
preservation of the said province and counties 
and the people under your government and 
direction, as fully and amply to all intents, con- 
structions and purposes as We ourselves might 
or could do by virtue of the said Letters Patent 
and deeds or any otherwise howsoever were We 
personally present." 

"You following and observing such orders, 
instructions and directions as you now have or 
hereafter from time to time shall receive from us 
or our heirs." 

" To have, hold, execute, exercise and enjoy 
the said office or post of Lieutenant-Governor of 
the said pro\'ince and counties wth all and every 
the said powers, jurisdictions and authorities 
hereinbefore granted and all titles, pri\aleges, pre- 
eminence, profits and advantages to a Lieutenant- 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the said 
province and counties belonging and therewith 
usually held and enjoyed, unto you the said Wil- 
liam Denny, for and during the good pleasure of 
us, or the survivor of us and until further order." 

" Provided always that nothing herein con- 
tained shall extend or be construed to extend to 
give you any power or authority to do, perform, 
act, sufter, acquiesce in or consent or agree unto 
any act, matter or thing whatsoever, by means 
or reason w^hereof we or either of us or the heirs 
of us or of either of us may be hurt, prejudiced, 
impeached or incumbered in our or their or 
either of our or their royalties, jurisdictions, 



The Penjis and the Taxation of their Estates. 177 

properties, estate, right, title or interest of, in or 
to the said province or counties or any part of 
them ; nor to set, let, lease-out, grant, demise, 
receive, possess, occupy or dispose of any manors, 
messuages, lands, tenements, houses, gardens, 
royalties, rents, issues or profits arising, belong- 
ing or accruing to us or either of us in the prov- 
ince and counties aforesaid or otherwise ; nor to 
intermeddle or concern yourself therewith or 
with any part of the property thereof or with 
any officer or officers appointed for the manage- 
ment thereof, either by placing, displacing, inter- 
rupting or hindering any of them in the just 
execution of their offices. But in case your aid 
or assistance shall be wanted by them and de- 
sired for our service, then and in such case you 
are hereby required to assist them by all lawful 
ways and means to the utmost of your power, 
anything hereinbefore contained to tlie to the 
contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. 

" And we do hereby strictly command, charge 
and require all persons within the said province 
and counties, of what degree, quality, state or 
condition soever to yield, give and pay unto you 
all respect, submission and obedience as Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the said province and coun- 
ties so appointed as aforesaid as they will answer 
to the contrary at their peril." 

" Given under our hands and seals-at-arms the 
seventeenth day of May in the twenty-ninth year 
of the reign of our sovereign Lord George the 
Second, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, 
and so forth and in the year of our Lord 1756. 
(Signed) Thomas Penn, 

RiciiAKi) Penn." 
(To be continued.) 
VOL. XXIV. — 12 



178 



An Old Pennsykania Royal Coatrof-Arms, 



AN OLD PENNSYLVANIA EOYAL COAT-OF-AEMS. 

BY THOMAS ALLEN GLENN. 




Recent investigation in Virginia proves that many of the 
first settlers of the Old Dominion caused their arms to be 
chiselled on their tombs or graven on their seals; but it 
remains for Pennsylvania to show the first use by an indi- 
vidual in private life in the American Plantations, so far as 
known, of coat armor marshalling the Royal Arms of Eng- 
land, and thus asserting a royal lineage nearly two gener- 
ations before the Revolution. 

That the user of tliese arms was a man of importance, if 
not of wealth, and that he was actually entitled to bear upon 
his escutcheon the lions of England, quartered with the 
lilies of France, and not a mere pretender, or a person 
ignorant of heraldry, cannot be questioned. 

The use of arms in early days in the colonies was not, 
indeed, uncommon, and in many cases persons were not too 
careftil or scrupulous as to their right to the arms upon 
their seals, coaches, or plate ; but to assume the Royal Arms 
at that time was a dififerent and dangerous proceeding, and 



An Old Pennsylvania Royal Coat-of-Arms. 179 

few English engravers, we think, would have ventured to 
cut such a seal unless well assured of the identity of the 
applicant and the validity of his claim. 

The workmanship is of about 1640, or earlier, and it was 
but little over a century and a half before that the head of 
one of Englands greatest nobles rolled upon the block for 
a similar vanity. 

The seal under consideration is in the possession of Hon. 
Samuel W. Pennypacker, President of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, and a descendant of John Bevan, whose 
arms, or a coat identical Avith his, occupy the first quarter of 
the shield. 

It appears on two documents, Lease and Release, dated 
28th and 29th of December, 1727, Indentures Tripartite, 
between William Branson, of Philadelphia, merchant, Cas- 
par Wist^r, of Philadelphia, brass-button maker, and Wil- 
liam Monington, of Philadelphia, merchant The property 
conveyed was a furnace and one acre of land in Penkadoer 
Hundred, New Castle County, " upon Delaware," called 
Abbetinkton Furnace. The previous title is recited, but is 
not interesting, except so far that a number of the company 
who originally operated the furnace, including Evan Owen, 
the Councillor, were Welsh Friends. 

The deeds were drawn and executed in Philadelphia, and 
the conveyancer who drew them was, doubtless, the owner 
of the seal, or at least had it in his possession at that time. 
It is known positively that it did not belong to Branson, 
Wister, or Monington, or to the witnesses, who were Joseph 
England and William Tidmarsh. 

The seal is about one-half inch in diameter (there are 
several impressions), and eWdently made by a finger ring. 
The cutting has been well done, but the impressions are not 
so clear as they might be, and the lines indicating the tmcture 
of the various charges are not clearly defined. Tlie first or 
paternal coat on the shield is three chevronells, with a label 
for difference, and the tinctures appear to be f/ules and 
artjcnt. This was the paternal coat of John Bevan, of 



180 An Old Pennsylvania Royal Coat-of-Arms. 

Treverig, Glamorganshire, a Welsh Quaker, who came to 
Pemisylvania in 1684, and who returned to Glamorgan- 
shire, dying upon his estate at Treverig, but whose younger 
children remained in this country and left issue. 

As John Bevan was descended from the royal Une of 
England, being seventh in descent from Eleanor, daughter 
of Henry Somerset, second Earl of Worcester (Meriony 
Glenn, 169), and as one or more of Bevan's descendants 
are known to have been scriveners or conveyancers in Penn- 
sylvania, it seems reasonable to suggest that the seal was 
his. A careful study of the various other arms upon the 
shield does not indicate, if this be correct, that the royal 
line above mentioned was the one intended to be exempli- 
fied when the coats were marshalled. 

The pedigree of John Bevan shows, however, so much 
in the way of royal lineage that the theory that these arms 
were his is considerably strengthened by an examination of 
the descent of the various families from which he came. 

The second coat upon the shield is j^er pale a saltire en- 
grailedy countercharged^ the bearings of the great house of de 
la Pole, and the third, the Royal Arms of England, with 
a label for difference. 

Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of George, Duke of 
Clarence, married Sir Richard Pole, K. G., and had many 
children. A son. Sir Henry Pole, was beheaded in 1539 ; 
he married Jean, daughter of George Ne\dlle, Lord Aber- 
gavenny. The next coat may be that of K'e\dlle, gules a 
saltire argent ^ and the second Montacute, argent three lozenges 
in fess gules. The sixth and last coat is more doubtful. 

All of the families above named intermarried continually, 
and left many descendants, some in high walks of life who 
aspired to the throne, and others, in more humble stations, 
who went about their life work contentedly, \\'itli seemingly 
no ambition to pose as martyrs in a lost cause. 

From any of these, as well as from Henrj^ of Somerset, 
through the houses of Miscin, Neath, Tredomen, or Porth- 
mal, John Bevan may have come. 



An Old Penmylmnia Royal Coat-of-Anns. 181 

Certain it is that the first coat marshalled with the Royal 
Arms is apparently identical wdth his, and unless it can be 
shown that some other person residing near Philadelphia 
in 1727 bore for his paternal coat, gules, the three chei^ 
ronelh argent of lestyn ap Gwrgan, Prince of Glamorgan, 
or of the Earls of Clare {or three cheirons gules)^ it seems 
feirly certain that the seal was that of Bevan. No such 
person is known to our genealogists. 

Be this as it may, tliat the Royal Arms were used by a 
settler in Pennsylvania at that early day is the most inter- 
esting fact in the records of early American heraldry, and 
it is hoped that the above notes may lead to a further in- 
vestigation of the subject. 



182 Names of Early Settlers of Darby Township^ Pa. 



THE NAMES OF THE EAELY SETTLERS OF DARBY 
TOWNSHIP, CHESTER COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 

CONTRIBUTED BY MORGAN BUNTING. 

[The recent recovery of the '* Darby Township Book*' has enabled 
Mr. Bunting to extract from it the names of the early settlers of the 
township. For the copy of the map of 1683, by Charles Ashcom, sur- 
veyor, we are indebted to Mrs. William B. Middleton. — Ed. Penna. 
Mag.] 

The Originall Record of the Township of Darby in the 
County of Chester and pro\'ince of Pensilvania as it was 
setteled by The English under William Penn Esquire Pro- 
prioter and Governor in Cheif of the said Province in the 
Year of our Lord one Thousand Six hundred and Eighty 
Two ; Giving an Account when Each Settelment was begun, 
tfor the better Regulating the Inhabitants in Serving the 
Respective offices of the said Township as Constables Super- 
visors overseers of the poor Veiwers of fences &c. 

Samuel Bradshaw and 

Thomas Worth came from Oxton in the County of Nottingham 
John Blunston and 

Michael Blunston from Littel Hallam in the County of Darby 
George Wood from Bonsall in ye County of Darby 
Joshua ffeame from Darley in ye County of Darby 
Henry Gibbins from Parwidge in ye County of Darby 
Samuel Sellers from Belper in ye County of Darby 
These cavie in the year 1682. 

Richard Bonsall from Mouldrige in ye County of Darby 
Edmund Cartlidge from Ridings in ye County of Darby 
Thomas Hood from Brason in the County of Darby 
John Hallowel from Hucknall in ye County of Nottingham 
John Bartram from Ashburn in ye County of Darby 
William Wood from Nottingham. 



1h$ coontu of- CM5t»r /«* phiSilvaivi^ 

art* S^'^^ ^^ what: ^i^tait£.»^ dfhdv 
itaw. oth^t* AaS ivfutt* /port" ir^Tftb- 
toafi 1A^ Ani^tf* i/ipoTC and >vfto 

^ CAarf^ v/Is^o/it Q^urvBLdur 







rixn/curfl^ )ru/## 



^^<^r5dy ^i^ 



Navies of Early Settlers of Darby Toionship, Pa. 183 

Thomas Bradshaw from Oxton in ye County of Nottingham 
Robert Naylor from Manniash in the County of Darby 
Richard Tucker from Warinister in ye County of Wilts 
These came in the year 1683. 

Robert Scorthorne from Oxton in ye County of Nottingham 

James Cooper from Bolton in the County of Lancaster in [ ] 

and from Mayfeild in the County of Stafford in ye ye[ar 1 

John Hood from Casteldunington in ye County of Leic [ester] 
William Garratt from harby in the County of Leice8[ter] 
Samuel Levis from harby in ye County of Leices[ter] 
John Smith from harby in The County of Leice8t[er] 
William Smith from Croxton in ye County of Leiceste[r] 
Robert ClifFe from harby in the County of Leicester 
Thomas Smith from Croxton in The County of Leiceste[r] 
Richard Parker from upper broughton in ye County of Nottingham 
Adam Roades from Codnor in The County of Darby 
Thomas ffox from Sutton uppon Trent in ye County of Nottingham 
These caitie in the year 1684' 

Thomas Coates from Sprixton in the County of Leicester 
William Gabitas from East Markham in ye County of Nottingham 
Joseph Need from Arnold in The County of Nottingham 
These came in the year 1686 

Edward Peirson from Wimslow in ye County of Chester 
John Kirke from Allfreetown in The County of Darby 
John Marshall from Elton in The County of Darby 
These settled in the year 1687, 

Thomas Collier from Nottingham 
John Ball from Darley in the County Darby 
John Wood from Nottingham 

Nicholas Ireland from Laxton in the County of Nottingham 
These settled in the year 1689, 



Note that Calconhook was added to Darby in ye year 1686 
Containing Six Settlement viz. 
Morton Mortonson Peter Peterson 

Hance Urine Swan Boone 

Hance Boone Mathias Natsilas 



184 Names of Early Settlers of Darby Township ^ Pa. 

Anthony Morgan from Cardife in Clamorganshire 

John Hood, Jun"" from Casteldunington in ye County of Leicester 

Robert Smith from Sawley in the County of Darby 

Lewis David ) 

Ralph Lewis i 

These settled in the year 1691. 

John Bethell Setteled in the year 1694 

James Cooper Setteled in the year 1695 

William Bartram Setteled in the year 1696 

Samuel Garret Setteled in the year 1696 

Josiah Hibbard Setteled in the year 1697 

John Dawson Setteled in The year 1697 

Christopher Spray Setteled in the year 1698 

Obadiah Bonsall Setteled in the year 1698 

Josiah ffearne Setteled in The year 1700 

Peter Petersons new Settelment in the year 1698 

Anthony Morgans new Settelment in the year 1700 

Samuel Hood Setteled in the year 1700 

John Bethell Jun' Setteled in the year 1704 

John Bown Setteled in the year 1706 

Job Harvey Setteled in the year 1707 

John Blunston, Jun' Setteled in the year 1707 

Lawrance Morton Setteled in the year 1708 

John Broom Setteled in the year 1708 

John Test Setteled in the year 1711 

« Thomas Paschall Setteled in the year 1711 

Joshua Calvert Setteled in the year 1712 

Samuel Bradshaw Setteled in the year 1712 

Mathias Morton Setteled in the year 1712 

David Thomas Setteled in the year 1714 

James Whitacer Setteled in the year 1716 

George Wood Setteled in the year 1715 

Job Harvey's new Settelment in the year 1715 

Joshua Johnson Setteled in the year 1715 

John ]Marshall Setteled in the year 1716 

Thomas Broom Setteled in The year 1716 

William Preist Setteled in the year 1716 

William Wood Setteled in the year 1719 

Joseph Hibbard Setteled in the year 1725 

Charles Justis Setteled in the year 1725 

Samuel Bunting Setteled in the year 1725 

Thomas (Medwier) ? Setteled in the year 1725 

Awbray Wood Setteled in the year 1726 



Names of Early Settlers of Darby Township^ Pa. 185 

Benjamin Lobb Settled in the year 1726 

Enoch Eliot Settled in the year 1727 

Isaac Lea Settled in the year 1728 

John Marshall Jun' Settled in the year 1727 

John Wallis Settled in the year 1729 

Everard Ellis Settled in the year 1729 

Benjamin Peirson Jun' Settled in ye year 1729 

Th : Tatnalls new Settelment in ye year 1780 

John Marshalls new Settelment in ye year 1780 

Andrew Boons new Settelment in ye year 1730 

Benjamin Bonsall's new Settelment in ye year 1731 

Josiah ffeam's Settelment made in Lower Darby in The year 1732 

Thomas Peirson Settled in the year 1733 

David Mortons new Settelment made in ye year 1783 

Joseph Bonsalls Settelment made in ye year 1783 

Benjamin Lobbs Settelment in Lower Darby in ye year 1734 

William Kirks Settelment made in ye year 1734 

ffrancis Pullin Setteled in the year 1734 

James Hunts Settelment made in Lower Darby In the year 1735 

John Ball Settled in the year 1735 

Benjamin BonsalPs settilment in Ijower Darby 1736 

John Koades settelment in the year 1737 

Isaac Leas settlement in the year 1788 

Samuell Garratte new Settlement in y* year 1738 

Joseph Bonsalls new Settlement in water street in ye year 1734 

* John Paschalls new settlement in front street in ye year 1739 
Elizabeth Hibberds Settlement in front street in ye year 1789 
Evered Ellis's new Settlement in upper Darby in ye year 1789 
Swan Boons Settlement in upper Darby in y* year 1789 
Soloman Humphry settled in Lower Darby in ye year 1740 
Edward Waldron settled in Lower Darby in ye year 1740 
Isaac Pearson settled in Lower Darby in the year 1741 
Edward Waldron settled in Lower Darby in ye year 1749 
Jacob Webber settled in Lower Darby in ye year 1742 

• Stephen Paschall settlement in Upper Darby in ye year 1743 
Matthew Ash settled in Upper Darby in ye year 1744 
Enoch BonsalPs new settlement in Lower Darby 1744 
Thomas TatnePs new settlement in Upper Darby in ye year 1744 
Ambrose Wilkcocks settled in Lower Darby in year 1745 
John Davis's new Settlement in Upper Darby in ye year 1745 
Cunrod Nethermark's new settlement in Calconhook in ye year 1745 
Andrew Urin new Settlement in Calconhook in the year 1746 
Abraham Lewis Jun'r settled in Upper Darby in ye year 1750 
Samuel Kirk Settled in Upper Darby in ye year 1751 



186 Names of Early Settlers of Darby Township^ Pa, 

William Gkurret settled in Upper Darby in ye year 1751 

Abraham Johnson Settled in Upper Darby in ye year 1751 

Swan Boons new Settlement in Lower Darby 1752 

Tobias Mortens new Settlement in Lower Darby 1762 

Enoch Bonsalls new Settlement in Lower Darby 1755 

William Parker new Settlement in Lower Darby 1760 

Abraham Bonsalls new Settlement in Upper Darby 1760 

Abraham Johnson's new settlement in Upper Darby 1760 

Benjamin Lobbs new Settlement in Upper Darby 1760 

John Kirk's new settlement in upper Darby 1760 



Foreigners toko airived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792. 187 



LISTS OF FOREIGNERS WHO ARRIVED AT PHIL A- 
DELPHIA, 1791-1792. 

CONTRIBUTED BY LUTHER R. KELKER, ESQ. 

[The following certified lists of foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia, 
1791-1792, are additional to those printed in Pennsylvania Archives, 
Second Series, Vol. XVIL] 

List of Passengers on Board the Ship "Philadelphia 
Packet," Edward Rice, Master, from Amsterdam. 
Phila. Jany. 18, 1791. 

Marie Jacobs. Barnhard Driesbach & wife. 

Henry Richards. John Gottfideden Markt. 

Sussaneh Koam. Abral Geerman. 

J. G. Meyers, his \vife & two John Valentine, 

children. Jacob Whitcomb. 

I do hereby certify that the above is a true list of Pas- 
sengers on board of the above ship under my command. 

Edward Kicb. 

His Excellency Thomas Mifflin Esq. 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

Sir 

I take the liberty to transmit to your Excellency the Lists 
of Names of German Passengers who arrived at this Port 
from June 30**^ 1791 to June 29^ 1792, and were permitted 
to Land agreeably to Law. 

I am with the greatest respect, your Excellency's most 
obedient and very humble Servant 
Philadelphia July 9, 1792 Lewis Farmer, 

Register of German. 



188 Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792. 

List of Passengers, who arrived in tue Brigantinb 
"Mary" from Amsterdam at the Port of Philadela. 
June 30'^ 1791. 

Stephanus Clauss. George Ernst Fries. 

Johannes Balde. Regina Dorethea Ileningin. 

Johan Henry Balde. William Balde. 

I do hereby certify the above being a True List of the 
Passengers on sailing Vessel above mentioned. 

K. FiTZPATRICK. 



A List of German Passengers on board the Ship 
" Diana," Ozias Goodman, Commander. 



Heinrick Jnllig. 
Dorothea, his wife. 
George Peter, 
Henrick, 
Parble, 



] 



3 
children. 



Peter Grail. 

Barbara, his wife. 

Catharina, 

Georg, 

Peter, 

Barbara, 



4 

children. 



Daniel Guntar. 

Anna Margaret, his wife. 

Daniel, 

Hans Daniel, 

Catharine, 

Caroline, 

Hans Jacob, 

Hans William, 

Conrad, 



7 

children. 



Conrad Schmeltzer. 
Margaret, his wife. 



Francis Rame. 
Catharine, his wife. 
Frederick, 1 2 

John Daniel, J children. 



Daniel Stier. 
Catharine, his wife. 



Catharine Marg*. Rippart. 

George, 

Christian, 

Catharine, I 6 

Elizabeth, f children. 

Margaret, 

Sophia, 



Casper Hein. 

Margaret, his ^vife. 

Peter, 

Hans, 

Lews, 



er, -k 
ins. J 



3 

children. 



Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792. 189 



Jacob Snell. 
Sophia, his wife. 
Joh. Henry, ^ 
Catharine, 
Hano Mary, 
Jacob, 



4 

children. 



Peter Blanch 
Dorothy, his wife 
Sophia, 
Margaret 
Magdalene, 



7 ' " — ^' 

*' I Chi 
ne. J 



3 

children. 



George More. 
Catharine, his v^dfe. 
George, ^ 3 

George Henry, > children. 
Peter, ) 



Daniel Weisborin. 
Barbara, his wdfe. 
Laurens, their child. 



Magdalena Eidelnieinin. 
Magdalena, her child. 



Christina Weisbornin. 
Margaret, her child. 



Michel Bauer. 
Catharine, his \nfe. 
Philip Jerry, 
Philip Jacob, 
Hans Michael, 
Catharine Debora, 
Hans Peter, 



0) 



Peter Durenburgh 

Eliza, his wife. 

Solima, 

Philip, 

Jerry Frederick, 

Hans Jerry, 



4 

children. 



Salima van der Gros. 
Urelina, her child. 



Margaret Rippart. 

Lewis, 

Martin, 

George, 

Jacob, 



4 

children. 



Christian Woltz. 
Catharine, his \\nfe. 
Christian, ^ 
Catharine, 4 

Regina, children. 

Maretia, 



George Sifz. 

Anna Elizabeth, his wife, 

Hans Jerry. 

Catharine Eliza. 

Hans Jacob. 

Maria Magdalene 



► rji rg 






George Henry Mortel. 
Catharine, his wife. 



Martin Rapp. 

John George, his son. 



190 Fordgiiers who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792. 



Peter Durenbaugh 
Margaret, his wife, 
Hans Jerry, 
Magdalene 






children. 



Joh Gettinger. 
Johan Titius. 
Fred^. Granram. 
Carl Granram. 
Valentine Weindling. 
George Klein. 
George Wolf. 
Joh. Christ". WeinmuUer. 
Christian Fritz. 
Nichol Hang. 
Johanna Jost. 
Nichol Hauter. 
Nicholas Schworer. 
Theobald Schmidt. 
Jacob Baith. 
Conrath Schultz. 
Johan Lewis Urban. 
Catharina Wagnarin. 

I do certify the \vithin 
sengers on board my ship, 
of August 1791. 



Joh Justus Kersten. 
Charl Fred. Huguenin. 
Georg L. ramur. 
Johan Matthias Simon. 
Joh Hoehn. 
Frantz Arforg. 
Carl Hend*'. Schmadhtaha. 
Joh Leonard Bloeser. 
M. Schneider. 
Phi Ander-man. 
Georg Fred. Krauss. 
Dan Fred Ley. 
Loisa Linnerin. 
Susan Mertlen. 



Fred Brecheisen. 
Catharine, his wife. 
Frederich, ^ 

Catharine Eliza, > 3 children. 
Johan George, J 



Barbara Weindling. 
being a True List of the Pas- 
Witness my hand this tenth day 

OziAS Goodwin. 



List of Passengers on board the Ship " Philadelphia 
Packet" from Amsterdam. 



Ph. Jac. Bretry. 

Jacob G. Pofie. 

Jacob Stohr. 

J. Fred. D. Fanholtz. 

Ant. Ilartmann. 

J. G. Hartzog. 

Salamarina Hartzog — wife. 



George Hartzog. 
Frederick Hartzog. 
Coen Juiter. 
J. J. Hause. 
Francis Hause, wife. 
Jacob Hause. 
Francisco Hause. 



Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792. 191 



Barbara Hause. G. C. Lux. 

J. I. Hadelmaker. Elizabeth Herman. 

J. S. Eder. J.P.Echhard,Ch6mPa55e/i^er. 

I do hereby certify the within Being a True List of the 
Passengers on board my ship. Witness my hand this 
twenty-third day of August 1791. ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

Passengers on board the Ship "Fair American," Capt. 
Benjamin Lee, from Amsterdam, arrived in Philadel- 
phia, 12 September 1791. 



Georg Ludwig Anschutz. 
Catharine Elizabeth An- 
schutz. 
Johan George Anschutz. 
Christian Anschutz. 
Elizabetha Anschutz. 
Dorothea Anschutz. 
Johan Jacob Anschutz. 
Heinrich Jully. 
Catharina Barbera Jully. 
Maria Magdalena Jully. 
Heinrich Jully. 
Adam Jully. 
Johann Jacob Giinther. 
Maria Barbara Giinther. 
Jacob Giinther. 
Johanna Giinther. 
Frantz Breiner. 
Friederieh Weirzsacker. 
Johan Martin Klein. 
Maria Magdalena Schmucken 
Margarethe Schmucken. 
Peter Koch. 

Johan Wilhelm Versbach. 
Wilhelm Versbach. 
Conradt Lysinger. 



Jacob Hermann Hein. 
Anne Catharine Hein. 
Margaretta Phillippina Hein. 
Bernhart Hein. 
CatharinePhillipin Guntzing. 
Johana Elenberger. 
Maria Elenberger. 
Elizabeth Elenberger. 
Magdalen Elenberger. 
Friederieh Hiun. 
Friederieh Jonas. 
Anna Maria Jonas. 
Johan Wilhelm Jonas. 
Phillippina Jonas. 
Jacob Jonas. 
Ann Catharina Jonas. 
Juliana Jonas. 
Heronomus Ecker. 
Henrich Golzen. 
Phillipp Linder. 
Phillipp Bosler. 
Johan Jacob Hartmann. 
Christian Kutscher. 
Jacob Mesmer. 
Johanna Ginder. 
Elizabeth Ginder. 



192 Foreigners loho arrived at Fhiladelphiay 1791-1792. 



Frederick Ginder. 
Anne Marie Ginder. 
Johanna Louisa Ginder. 
Johanna Ginder. 
Casper Fallen. 
Peter Fallen. 
Anna Catharina Fallen. 
Mietzie Josephs. 
Gustav Frederic Goetz. 
Johan Christov Geil. 



Johan Peter Diring. 
Adam Henrich. 
Jacob friederick Roller. 
Johan Bernhardt Schiiler. 
Johan Gotfined Dieterich. 
Scintje Obisan. 
Caroline Christiana Gainer. 
Phillip Schimper. 
Bernhart Schulles. 



Cabin Passengers, 
Christopf Ludwig Albertz. Johann Jacob Bronner. 



Maria Catherina Albertz. 
Maria Dorothea Bronner. 



Christian GodMed Elsacher. 



I do hereby certify, the above being a True List of all 
the Passengers on board the Ship within mentioned. 

Witness my hand this thirteenth day of September 1791. 

B. Lee. 



Joh. G. Nertwig and Elizar 

beth Netwig. 
John George Dickhout. 
Anna Clara Dickhout. 
Peter Bare with wife and two 

children, Peter Catharine 

& Catharina. 
Casper Hill. 
John Steim Strauel. 
Jacob Echtemoel. 
Charles Bosbishel. 
Nicholas Hoflman. 
Andrew Schneider. 
Cornelius Barthemel. 
Abraham Kelder. 

Dichman. 

John Muller. 



Cor. Gott Saur. 
Joh. Hen Hugel. 
G. W"» Hugel. 
Mart Browner. 
John Morgenthal. 
John Cappers. 
John Cline. 
George Notting. 
Catharine Meyer. 
Mar Strooms. 
Paul Smith. 
Philip Schmidt. 
Died. Petts. 
Andreas Egternoel. 
Nic Leigle. 

Christian Cable & wife. Chris- 
tian & Mary. 



ForeiffiitT;* icho arrived at PkilmMphin, 1791-1792. 19S 



Frederick Snyder. 
John Valentine Heir. 
Elizabeth Sohmitt. 
John Ostreith. 
John Peter Kern. 
Ant* Bousorum. 
Philip Stubenitzhe. 
John Peter Blende. 
Gen* Sehlicht. 



John Mason, with wife A two 
children, Mary, Jcvjieph 
Gei>r<re Mechil. 

Andrew Scron^^ 

Charles EgteriuH^l. 

John R«.K>n. 

Laniber Robereon. 

B:irhout Butlinger, wife & 
daughter Marpirctho. 



I do hereby certify this to be a True List of the Passen- 
gers on Board the Ship Pallas, under my command, Sojw 
tember 27, 1791. 

CiiARLKs Collins. 



A List of Passengers Brovo.ht over in the Ship "Van- 
stophorst" from Amsterdam, James Porter, Master. 



John W. Starag F(?) 
John Conrad Bniii. 
Friederich Duisbe. 
John H. Rosenburg. 
Daniel Carboum. 
Elizabeth Carboum. 
Daniel Carboum. 



Charles Carboum. 

Maria Elizabeth Carboum. 

Maria Susjuina Carboum. 

Maria Margarethe Carboum. 

Simon Hippie. 

Addam " 



These are to certify, the above being a True List of the 
Passengers on Board my Ship. Philadcl*. October 22. 1791. 

James Porter. 



List of German Passengers, who arrived in the Ship 
"Philadelphia Packet" Capt. P^dward Rice, from 
Amsterdam, Philadelphia April 26, 1792. 



Henry frautz IFenstead. 
Jacobina Colpin. 

VOL. XXIV. — 13 



Tuniss Tunece. 



194 Foreigners toho arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792, 



A List of Passengers by the Ship "Betsey Rutledge'' 
FROM Hamburg, Danl. McPherson, Master. 



Freiderich Wilhelm Kung- 

oldt. 
Freiderich Ludwag Albert. 
Johanii Christian Bartel. 
Johann Christian Loehr. 



Johann Christopher Lange. 
Carol Schumaker. 
Johann Dedrich Smith. 
George Rex his wife Maria 
& one child. 



I do hereby Certify that the above are the names of all 
the Passengers on Board the Vessel above named. Philad* 
May 25- 1792. ^^^,^ McPherson. 

List of Passengers on board the Ship " America," William 

Campbell Master last from Amsterdam. 
Mrs. Pet van Hage & 3 child- J. E. D. Himroth. 

ren. 
Christ" Strohm & wife. 
John Strohm. 
Barbara Strohm. 
Elizabeth Strohm. 
George Hoft* & wife & 4 

children. 

Philad' 29»»' June 1792. 



Heronemus Lesh. 
J. V. D. Muhlen. 
Anthony Regel. 
Casper Zollinger & wife & 2 
children. 

Benjamin. 

William Campbell. 



List of Passengers & Servants by the Brig " Union" from 
Hamburg arrived the 28"* day of June 1792. 



Johan Valentine Schel- ' 
lard. 

Martha Eliz*» Schellard. 

Johan Jurgen Schel- 
lard. 

Peter Andre Langan- 
hargen. 

Carl Ilarbermeier. 

Christian Adeler. 

Caterina Eliz*" Casterins. 



•3 

e 

(V 

bo 
Q 

(V 



Children. 



Johan Francis 

Christian 5 

years old. 
Johan Hendrick 

Daniel 3 years 

old. 
Johan Wilhelm Storck. 
Christo Cloudy. 
Christian Henderick Lando- 

wick. 

James Dryburgh. 
(To be continued.) 



The Two Rival Autobiographies of Franklin. 195 



THE TWO EIVAL AUTOBIOGRAPHIES OF 
FRANKLIN. 

BY RICHARD MEADE BACHE. 

The question is, Whether or not William Temple Frank- 
lin, grandson and secretary of Dr. Franklin, and inheritor 
of his papers, was justified in printing the Autobiography of 
his grandfather from the manuscript which he employed for 
that purpose in lieu of the other at his disposal, which some 
persons have deemed the one that he should have adopted. 
It has even been charged that he suppressed in the original 
manuscript that last portion of the Autobiography which 
appears in one of the published versions of these two manu- 
scripts and not in the other. 

Nevertheless, although this looks suspicious, in connec- 
tion with the fact that the manuscript which William Tem- 
ple Franklin discarded really contained supplementary 
matter which the other did not possess, a fiill understanding 
of the case must exonerate him from blame, except as to 
carelessness, and conclusively prove that he was merely un- 
qualified for the task committed to him. He printed the 
Autobiography from a manuscript which any one, without 
due care, would have regarded as even more authentic than 
the autograph of it in his possession. The mistake he made 
was in not collating them, to ascertain which should take 
precedence of the other as the work, par excellence^ of Frank- 
lin. Without this examination, however, he exchanged the 
autograph of the Autobiography for what was ostensibly a 
perfect copy of it held by Madame le Viellard as the heir to 
it from her husband, the former Mayor of Passy, and an in- 
timate friend of Franklin's, having been in 1794 guillotined 
during the French Revolution. Doubtless, William Temple 
Franklin, having hundreds of pages of his graudfiither's 
handwriting in his possession, did not regard this particular 



196 The Two Rival Autobiographies of Franklin. 

autograph as peculiarly sacred, and besides, in giving it to 
Madame le Viellard he was bestowing it upon the widow of 
one of Franklin's dearest friends. 

The Hon. John Bigelow was in 1867 presented with the 
autograph of the Autobiography by Monsieur P. de Senar- 
mont, a collateral member of the family of Monsieur le 
Viellard, to whom it had descended by inheritance. It then 
seemed obvious to many persons that William Temple 
Franklin had not compared with the original the copy 
which he had acquired through Madame le Viellard, and 
had not otherwise come to know that this copy lacked some 
concluding matter written in the last year of Franklin's 
life, and that it sometimes differed in phraseology. It 
seemed to them that he had used the copy instead of the 
autograph he had held, on account of its being, as he stated 
at the time, better adapted, from the fact of its legibility, to 
the printer's use. The concluding matter which was there- 
by lost to William Temple Franklin's printed version of the 
Autobiography is of such a character, however, that there 
could have been no motive for its suppression, and as for 
verbal alterations, it will be shown that they were in all 
probability made by Franklin himself 

Mr. Bigelow, however, took a very different view of these 
matters. Having discovered that the text of William 
Temple Franklin's printed Autobiography of the doctor 
does not always agree with that of the doctor's autograph 
of the work, with respect to many verbal particulars and 
with respect to the omission of a part at the end, he re- 
garded it as thereby conclusively proved that William 
Temple Franklin was guiltily responsible for those differ- 
ences. I submit, however, that the evidence extant does 
not justify this as the natural conclusion. 

Divesting the question of all feeling regarding the wretched 
manner in which William Temple Franklin performed his 
general editorial duties in printing the papers of his grand- 
father, and confining ourselves strictly to the facts of the 
case, we are brought to tlie simple consideration of whether 



The Two Rival Autobiographies of Franklin. 197 

or not William Temple Franklin designedly omitted a por- 
tion of his grandfather's work and otherwise changed it by 
verbal alterations. 

The copy of the Autobiography from which William 
Temple Franklin printed is probably not in existence. En- 
quiry for it at the State Department in Washington has 
been fruitlessly made. It probably went into the waste- 
paper basket after having served the purpose of the printer. 
If it had been in existence, it might possibly have been 
(but it was not) among the papers lost in London and ac- 
quired by Mr. Henry Stevens, the papers which are now in 
the State Department in Washington. Were we in posses- 
sion of that paper, the question under consideration would be 
settled at once by examining it. If changes had been made 
in that draft, they would be in the handwriting of Franklin 
himself, in that of William Temple Franklin, or in that of 
Benjamin Franklin Bache. It is not in the least likely that 
petty changes were made in the paper by Franklin, for it was 
prepared as a present to Monsieur le Viellard. There are 
two other ways, however, in which the text that purported to 
be derived from it might have been changed. One is by 
alterations in the matter made by William Temple Franklin 
before the paper was given to the printer, or his alterations 
in the " proof" from it It is highly improbable, however, 
that William Temple Franklin, after having secured, aa such, 
a fair copy of the Autobiography, would then have pro- 
ceeded to cut it up with corrections. He was not fond of 
work, and he was no stickler for accuracy. 

There remains the last person to whom it was possible to 
alter the text, the copyist, Benjamin Franklin Bache, the 
eldest of the legitimate grandsons of Dr. Franklin. But 
such a supposition is incredible. Between 1788 and 1790, 
the interval when the Autobiography was revised, Benjamin 
Franklin Bache was a youth of twenty years of age, and his 
grandfather used him simply as an amanuensis in making a 
feir copy of the Autobiography sent to Monsieur le Viellard. 
He wrote a beautifully clear hand, and was otherwise admi- 



198 The Tico Rival Autobiographies of Franklin. 

rably fitted to perform this duty for his dying grandfather, 
who, as he himself says in a letter to Monsieur le Viellard, 
got one of his grandsons (presumably this one, as the eldest) 
to make the copy of the Autobiography under his direction.^ 
It is not credible that this youth, devoted to his grand&ther, 
living in an age when young men did not presume to know 
more than their fathers and grandfathers, would have 
changed the text of the Autobiography as prescribed by 
his bedridden relative. 

I conclude from all the evidence that what William Temple 
Franklin received from Madame le Viellard as the fair copy 
of the Autobiography was such in the estimation of Frank- 
lin himself; that it lacked the concluding part only perforce 
of the fa<;t that it was sent to Monsieur le Viellard as a pres- 
ent before the original manuscript received a perhaps un- 
contemplated addition; and that it remained a fair copy 
from beginning to end, until it found repose in the waste- 
paper basket. The evidence, I think, clearly points, not to 
Mr. Bigelow's conclusion, but to that of Mr. Henry Stevens, 
the former possessor of the lost Franklin papers, where he 
says in an essay descriptive of them, — 

**It [the autograph of the Autobiography] is an important relic of 
the great American statesman and philosopher, but it would manifestly 
have been wrong, under all the circumstances, for Temple Franklin to 
print the original draft (though somewhat corrected) instead of the copy 
revised and corrected by the author. Franklin himself may have erred 
in judgment sometimes and chosen a secondary word ; but, in almost 
every instance, the last construction of the sentence and the word sub- 
stituted rest on good foundations. Temple Franklin, therefore, may be 
discharged as not guilty.*' 

On his dying bed, often racked wnth pain, the old phi- 
losoplior btruggled against the advance of death to keep up 
communication with his friends and to complete his task in 

* William Temple Franklin, the doctor's former amanuensis, was 
then living on a farm in New Jersey which his father, the ex-Grovemor, 
had given him. 



The Two Rival Autobiographies of Franklin. 199 

the revision of the Autobiography, doubtful himself, as he 
wrote, if his condition permitted him to exercise in the 
latter undertaking the best discrimination. Under these 
circumstances it would not be at all surprising that he 
should not always have made judicious changes in his 
work, but Mr. Stevens says truly, so far as I also am enabled 
to judge from examples of changes given by Mr. Bigelow, 
that " in almost every instance the last construction of the 
sentence and the word substituted rest on good foundations." 
Some, in fact, can be pointed out where the condensation 
and the relative propriety of the amended phrase are indis- 
putable. 

It follows, from what has been said, that short as the 
Autobiography of Franklin is, there is no unequivocally-to- 
be-accepted version of it. It should be obvious, too, that 
the best, as the most authentic, version of the work would 
be represented by the printed text of it in William Temple 
Franklin's edition of his grandfather's works, with the addi- 
tion of its lacking matter as published for the first time by 
Mr. Bigelow as its last chapter. The first of these elements 
represents almost the whole of the work as revised and cor- 
rected by Franklin himself; the second, only a brief addi- 
tion, apparently left by him without a copy. 



200 An Itinerary to Niagara Falls in 1809. 



AN ITINERARY TO NIAGARA FALLS IN 1809. 

Trenton to dinner at the City Hotel, good; thence to 
Woodbridge to lodge, — a miserable hovel and plenty of 
bugs. Newark to breakfast, New York to dinner, seventy 
miles to Hudson; breakfast at Nicholas, miserable; 130 
miles to Lebanon Springs, to supper ; here you visit the set- 
tlement of the Shakers ; to Albany, at Gregory's (Tontine) 
very good, 30 m., Balstown Springs (you stop at Schenec- 
tady half-way to breakfast at the Tontine — ^tolerable) at the 
Springs up at Aldridge's, very good, Schenectady to Break- 
fiwt, Amsterdam at Prides to dinner, this house belonged to 
Sir William Johnson before the Revolution, to Palestine, to 
lodge, at Shepherd's, here you must take care or they'll 
lodge a dozen of you in one room, thence to Little Falls 
to breakfast, at Carr's, very excellent. Here is a canal wdth 
six locks and an iron bridge across the Mohawk River. Utica 
to dinner and lodge. Four miles after you leave the Little 
Falls you come into the German Flats, a very fertile coun- 
try and if you have occasion to stop at Herkimer, you will 
find a good house. At Utica quarter at the Hotel, a large 
Brick house very good fare, this place is half-way from 
Albany to Geneva, Taylor's to breakfast, — ^bad enough. 
This is at the commencement of the Oneida Lidian Reserva- 
tion, which extends 6 miles along the road and contains 
about 80,000 acres ; the tribe consists of about 1000 persons ; 
you pass through their town. There is a good tavern about 
11 miles from Utica, where you had better breakfast; 
stop at Warner's 18 miles from Taylor's as good a house 
as you'll meet wdth on the road. Stop at the 37-mile stone 
to see the deep spring about 50 yards from the road ; at the 
45-mile stone is a newly discovered cave close to the road- 
side. Fobes's to lodge 10 miles from Warner's; table tol- 
erable but you must look sharp for good lodging. Ten 



An Itinerary to Niagara Falls in 1809. 201 

miles to Skeneatles Lake; breakfast at Andrews, good. 
Cayuga Lake to dinner at Harris's, a poor looking house 
but pretty good table; 16 miles to Geneva, to lodge at 
Powel's, the best you can get in the place. Thence to the 
Sulphur Springs, to breakfast, good accommodations, from 
the Springs you go to Canandaiqua, here you bait and pro- 
ceed to Gen. Hall's to dinner & lodge— ^tolerable accom- 
modations 12 m. Genesee River to breakfast at Lovejoy's — 
good; the landlord will give you plenty of tongue for 
breakfast ! Lnmediately after passing the river you enter 
the Genesee plains, where there is a settlement of the 
Seneca Lidians ; they own 2 miles along the road & one in 
width. Stoddards to dinner, but the next place you stop 
at is Marvins 4 miles from Stoddards, — the road very bad. 
This is at the commencement of the Holland Company's 
purchase. From Marvin's to Batavia where you lodge at 
Keyls's, table middling but the beds miserable. Here you 
come on the bad roads, but by all means take the Old road 
altho it's 6 miles fiirther, which if you do you must take 
one meal with you, as you see no house for 18 miles. 
You leave Batavia in the morning & come to Ven- 
deventer's 24 miles to lodge ; here you meet with petrifac- 
tions & old Lidian fortifications. Ransom's, 14 miles to 
breakfiist, tolerable fare — from here ; you pass on to Black 
Rock on the American side of the river where you will 
find a pretty good table ; here you cross the Niagara River 
into Canada & travel 16 miles to Chippawaw — ^here you put 
up at Fanning's a pretty good house. Here, if you intend 
going under the falls you must prepare yourselves with a 
change of cloaths, as you will get a complete drenching — for 
the purpose of changing, there is a house at the Falls, 
where you are permitted the use of a room, & if you choose 
can have a cold snack. One thing you must not forget at 
Chippaway & that is to see the inflammable air spring, in 
the river, the landlord will furnish you with a boat, fire 
&c., & you may set the river on fire. 

After you have viewed the falls you proceed to Newark 



202 An Itinerary to Niagara Falls in 1809. 

or Niagara on Lake Ontario, on the way you stop at an 
excellent house kept by Rorback, to dine. Pass through 
Queenstown where you see the King's stores and arrive at 
Newark in the evening — stop at the Niagara Coffee house 
kept by S. Powis where you will find excellent accommoda- 
tions. Opposite the town on the American side is Fort 
Niagara where you will find Dr. Westof, a Philadelphian, 
who will treat you with a great deal of politeness. 



Some of the Descendants of Evan Robert Leiois. 203 



SOME OF THE DESCENDANTS OF EVAN ROBERT 
LEWIS, OF FRON GOCH, WALES. 

[The following is a copy of a manuscript genealogy of the descendants 
of Evan Robert Lewis (i.«., Evan son of Robert son of Lewis), of Fron 
Gr6ch, a large ferm near Bala, Merionethshire. It exemplifies very well 
the Welsh system of surnames, by which the son took his fether's Chris- 
tian name as his surname, so that a number of persons bearing different 
surnames were frequently descended from a common ancestor in the male 
line. Thus the descendants in the male line from Evan Robert Lewis, 
no later than 1750, were known by the surnames of Owen, Evan, Jones, 
Williams, and Griffiths ; but such surnames indicated no relationship to 
families of the same name. The genealogy here printed was presented 
to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania by Mr. George Vaux in 1891, 
having been found among the papers of Eleanor Long in 1887. It is 
a copy of one of those compiled about the year 1797 by Cadwalader 
Evans from data furnished him by older members of the family and 
from family papers, some of which were brought from Wales in 1698. 
There are several copies of this genealogy extant, which vary more or 
less in information. The one here printed is the most accurate that 
the writer has seen, except that in possession of Rowland Evans, Esq., 
which has been added to from time to time, and also has appended the 
pedigree of Evan Robert Lewis from papers brought from Wales, and 
which was amplified by the late Rowland E. Evans. The pedigree runs 
thus : Evan (i.e., Evan Robert Lewis) ap Robert ap Lewis ap Griffith 
ap Howell ap Enion ap Deikws Ddu ap Madog ap Evan Gdch ap David 
GAch ap Trahaim GAch O'Lyn. Additional information regarding the 
families descended from Evan Robert Lewis may be found in Jenkins's 
Omynedd and Glenn's Merion. The genealogy here presented also gives 
the Pennsylvania descendants (in the female line) of Ellis Williams, of 
Cai Fadog.] 

Ellis Williams of Cai fadog had four Daughters, viz: 

a e i o 

Margaret, Douse, Gwenu & Ellin. 

o 

The said Ellin married John Morris of Brin Gwin in 
Denbighshire, by her had one daughter named Ellin who 
married Cadwalader ab Evan late of Qwynedd deceased. 



204 Some of the Descendants of Evan Robert Lewis. 



i 



Gwenn, another daughter of the said Ellis Williams had 
three children who came to Pennsylvania v\z : 

1. Ellis Pugh late of Gwynedd deceased. 

2. Ellin, married to Edward Foulke, late of Gwynedd, 
dec^ 

3. Jane, married to W" John of Gwynedd, also deceased. 
Hence it appears that Thomas Foulke & John Evans w^ere 

Second Cousins, as being each of them great grand children 
of Ellis Williams abovenamed. 

Evan Robert Lewis was an honest sober man — ^lived in 
Fron Gooh [Fron Goch] . He had five Sons, viz* 1. John 
ab Evan. 2. Cadw' ab Evan. 3. Owen ab. Evan. 4. Griffith 
ab Evan and 5. Evan ab Evan. 

John ab Evan had three sons and three daughters by his 
first wife, viz* (a.) Cadwalader. (b.) Robert (c.) Grift', (d.) 
Margiiret (e.) Gwen. (f.) Catharine. 

The Second Son (b.) Robert came to Pennsylvania and 
settled at Abington and left Issue. 

(c.) Griffith, the youngest son of the said John ab Evan 
came also to Pennsylvania, had issue two Sons and one 
Daughter, viz : Evan Griffith late of Gwynedd dec** and John 
Griffith late of Merion dec"*. Their sister married Thomas 
Jones, late of Merion deceased. 

The said (1) John ab Evan had issue by a second wife 
viz* (g.) William John, (h.) Rowland John and (i.) Gainor 
John. William the eldest Son settled in Gwynedd and left 
issue, (d.) Margaret their sister died on Sea and left issue 
t\vo daughters, viz : Gwen who married Thomas Foulke of 
Gwynedd and Gainor who married Robert Humphrey also 
of Gwynedd. 

Hence it appears that the said Gwen & Gainor were second 
cousins to John Evans of Gwynedd late deceased, as he was 
Grandson to Evan ab Evan (5) they Grand daughters of 
John ab Evan (1) who was a Brother of the said Evan ab 
Evan (5). 

(2.) Cadw' ab Evan son of the said Evan Robert Le>vis 
died without issue. 



Some of the Descendants of Evan Robert Lewis. 205 
(3.) Owen ab Evan had three Sons and two Daughters viz* 

12 3 4 5 1 

Robert, Owen and Evan, Jane and Ellin. Robert, one of 
the Sons, came to Pennsylvania and settled in Merion, and 
left Issue four Sons and tw' o daughters, viz : Robert, Owen, 
Evan and John, Gainor & Elizabeth. 

4 

Jane, one of the Daughters of the said Owen ab Evan 
came here married Hugh Roberts who had issue three Sons 
viz* Robert, Owen, and Edward — The two latter lived and 
died in Philadelphia. Robert settled in Maryland. Each 
of them left Issue. 

5 

Ellin, one of the Daughters of the said Owen ab Evan 
[wife of Cadwalader Thomas] died in Wales, but her Son 
John Cadwalader lived and died in Philad*, the late Doctor 
Cadwalader being his Son and the present John Dickinson 
his Grandson. 

(4.) Griffith ab Evan had four Sons and one Daughter 

12 3 4 5 1 

\nz: Hugh, Edward, Robert, David, & Catharine. Hugh, 
one of the Sons, came here, settled in Gwj'nedd, died there, 
and left a numerous issue. 

2 

Edward, second son of the said Griffith ab Evan, died in 
Wales. His son Griffith Edward came here with two of his 
Sisters viz : Jane and Margaret. Jane married to John 
Jones of Montgomery and Margaret to David George of 
Blockley. 

3 

Robert, another son of the said Griffith ab Evan died at 
Sea. Two of his Daughters arrived here. Catharine one of 
them was married to William Morgan of Montgomery. The 
other sister died single. 

5 

Catharine, the only daughter of the said Griffith ab Evan, 
came here, was married to Jn° Williams of Montgomery, 
left issue, died at a very advanced age. 

(5.) Evan ab Evan, youngest Son of the said Evan Robert 

Lewis, had issue by his first Wife two Daughters and by 



206 Some of the Descendants of Evan Robert Lewis. 

1 
the latter wife four Sons and one Daughter viz. Thomas, 

2 3 4 5 a. 

Robert, Owen, Cadwalader & Sarah. One of his Daughters 
by the first wife had issue two Sons. Robert Jones, one of 
the Sons settled in Gwynedd and was a County Magistrate 
many years and left issue. His Brother Cadw' died at Sea 
and left issue. 

Thomas, eldest Son of the said Evan ab Evan arrived in 

2.3.4. 5 

Pennsylvania with his Brethren k Sister with many other of 
their Relations in July 1698, and settled in Gwynedd, hav- 
ing taken up the whole township between them. The said 

1 
Thomas lived to a very advanced age, and left issue four 

Sons and two Daughters, viz. Robert, Evan, Owen & Hugh, 
Lowry and Sarah. 

2 

Robert, the second Son of Evan ab Evan died in Gwyn- 
edd, had two Sons Evan and Hugh and three daughters, viz. 
Lowry, Ann and Mary, who were all married and left issue. 

3 

Owen ab Evan, third Son of Evan ab Evan did not arrive 
to great age, left issue Evan, Robert, Thomas, John, Cadw', 
and Elizabeth, who have all left issue except John and 
Cadw'. 

4 

Cadwalader ab Evan, youngest Son of the said Evan ab 
Evan, arrived to great age and left issue one Son and one 
Daughter, viz. John Evans, late of Gwynedd, deceased, and 
Sarah married to John Hank. 

5 

Sarah the Daughter of the said Evan ab Evan had issue 
by Evan Pugh two Sons and four Daughters. 



A Register of Marriages and Deaths^ 1802. 207 



A REGISTER OF MARRIAGES AND DEATHS, 1802. 

(Continued from page 107.) 

Deaths. 

In this city Jan. 2 Benjamin Brown, of Massachusetts. 

At Bethlehem Pa., Jany 2 Bishop John Ettwein, aged 81 years, 
Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Unitas Fratnim. 

At Burlington Jany 4 John Kinsey Esq LL.D., Chief Justice of the 
State, aged 70 years. 

At his house in Bristol twp. Bucks Co., on Jany. 1, in the 77th year 
of his age, John Brown, for many years a Representative under the old 
Constitution, for that county. 

In this city, Jany. 14, Alderman John Jennings, aged 75 years. 

On Jany. 17th, John Herst aged 90 years. 

In this city, Jany. 22, John Maxwell Nesbit, in his 75th year. 

On Jany 27, Samuel Miles, house-carpenter. 

In this city Jany 28, John Cooper, house carpenter, aged 59 years. 

At Dover, Del., Jany. 27, Mrs. Lavinia Rodney Fisher, wife of John 
Fisher Esq. and daughter of Col. Thomas Rodney. 

On Feb. 6, at Pennsylvania Hospital, George Lee, a student of medi- 
cine in the University of Pennsylvania. 

At Nixington N. C, Mrs Joanna Shaw, wife of John Shaw, and 
daughter of James Stuart, of this city. 

At Dover, Feby. 4th, John Vining, Esq., member of the Senate of 
Delaware. 

At Fort- James (Georgia) on Jany 1, Dr. William A. M'Crea, late 
from Philadelphia. 

At his seat in Andover, Massachusetts, after a lingering and painful 
illness, the Hon. Samuel Philips, Lieut. Governor of that Common- 
wealth. 

At Barbadoes, on December 25th last, Mrs. Hustler, wife of Mr. Wil- 
liam Hustler, and daughter of G«orge Mead, Esq., all of this city. 

At Georgetown, on the night of Feby. 10, Mrs. Rebecca Stoddart, the 
wife of Major Benjamin Stoddart, late Secretary of the Navy of the 
United States. 



208 A Register of Marrku/es and Deaths^ 1802. 

At Baltimore, on Feby. 15, Mrs. Ann Eleanor Williamer, aged one 
hundred and three years, three months, and fourteen days. 

In this city on Feb. 17 Mr. John Lynn, in the 84th year of his age. 
He was a native of this city, and son of Mr. Joseph Lynn, one of the 
first shipwrights that arrived here with the Proprietary. 

On Feb. 27, Mr. William Clifton, an ancient and respectable inhab- 
itant of the District of Southwark. 

At Lancaster Borough, on Feb. 13 James Alexander, sergeant-at- 
arms for the Senate of this 8tat€. 

At Port Republican, [on November 13, 1801,] of a bilious fever, Capt 
James Smith, of this city. 

On Feb. 27, after a lingering and very afflictive illness, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Chalk, wife of Mr. John Chalk, proprietor of ** Chalk's Circulating 
library. " 

The same day, Mr. Peter Knight ML 80. 

In this City, on March 15, Mr. Charles Young, Merchant, Mi, 51. 

On March 17, one of the Indian Chiefs of the Shawanee Tribe, who 
lately arrived here on their return from the seat of government. His 
remains were interred with military honours, and his ftineral attended by 
the Tammany Society. 

On March 4, the Hon. John Sitgreaves, Esq. Judge of the Court of 
the United States for the North-Carolina district. He served some time, 
as an officer in the Revolutionary war. After the peace he was chosen 
a Member of Congress under the Confederation. He was repeatedly 
elected a member of the Legislature of North Carolina for his native 
town, Newbem ; and for several years past he held the office of which 
he died possessed. 

On March 28 Gunning Bedford, Esq. one of the alderman of this city, 
^t. 83. 

Suddenly, on March 31, in the 73d year of his age, James Moore, 
Esq., Associate Judge for Chester Co. 

On April 26 of a sudden illness, Mr. John Stille, sen. an old and 
respectable inhabitant. 

Same day Capt. Philip HoUock, ^t. 54. 

On April 28 Col. William Coats, Esq. of the Northern Liberties. 

On Saturday, May 22, at 12 o'clock p. m., Mrs. Martha Washington 
terminated her well-spent life. Composure and resignation were uni- 
form during seventeen days' depredation of a severe fever. From the 
commencement she declared that she was undergoing the final trial, and 
had long been prepared for her dissolution. She took the sacrament 
from Dr. Davis, imparted her last advice and benedictions to her weep- 
ing relations, and sent for a white gown, which she had previously laid 
by for her last dress — ^Thus in the closing scene, as in all the preceding 



A Register of Marriages and Deaths, 180S. 209 

ones, nothing was omitted. The coiyagal, maternal, and domestic 
duties had all been fulfilled, in an exemplary manner. She was the 
worthy partner of the worthiest of men, and those who witnessed their 
conduct, could not determine which excelled in their different char- 
acters, both were so well sustained on every occasion. They lived an 
honour and a pattern to their country, and are taken firom us to receive 
the rewards promised to the fidthful and just. 

On May 81, Mrs. Deborah Field, wife of Mr. John Field of this city. 

On May 4, aged 40 years, Andrew Douglas, esq. of the house of 
Morgan and Douglas, of this city. 

Suddenly, on May 8, Mr. Robert McEean, son of his Excellency the 
Gk)vemor of this Commonwealth. 

At Charleston, June 5, William Logan, Esq., a native of the State of 
South Carolina, aged 75 years and 6 months. Mr. William Logan, was 
a grandson of George Logan, Esq. one of the first settlers in this State, 
who came firom Aberdeen, Scotland, a colonel in the British army then 
stationed in Charleston. 

In this city, on June 29, Mr. Thomas Poultney, ironmonger, in the 
26th year of his age. 

On July 7, Mr. John Bartholomew, for many years a respectable sugar 
refiner of this city. 

Suddenly, in New- York, on July 4, in the 78th year of his age, Mr. 
James Bivington, an old and truly respectable inhabitant of that city — 
a native of Great Britain — ^but many years an eminent printer and book- 
seller in New- York. 

Died at Winchester, Virginia, on July 6, Gen. Daniel Morgan, in the 
66th year of his age. To enumerate his heroic exploits during the con- 
test with Great Britain, which ended in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States, would require the pen of a more able 
panegyrist. Should the writer of this article make the attempt, the 
subject would be too copious for a newspaper. History has done justice 
to his name, and will hand it to posterity as an example of cool, 
undaunted and determinate bravery. Suffice it to say that his expedi* 
tion to Quebec, in which he surmounted, with his brave associate, to the 
astonishment of his country, every difficulty and danger which human 
nature can be exposed to ; and the battle of the Cowpens, in which he 
completely routed and captured a superior force, will long be themes on 
which an American tongue will delight to dwell. No man knew better 
how to gain the love and esteem of his men ; where he led they always 
followed with alacrity and confidence. For his victory at the Cowpens, 
Congress presented him with a medal of Gold, and the Legislature of 
Virginia an elegant sword and a pair of pistols, as testimonials of the 
exalted opinion they entertained of his great military genius. 
VOL. XXIV. — 14 



210 A Register of Marriages and Deaths^ 1809. 

On July 15, Mr. Robert Aiken, Printer and Bookseller, an old and 
much respected citizen. 

On Sept. 4, after a few hours' sickness, of a cholera morbus, at his 
seat on the Conestoga, in the vicinity of Lancaster, Penna., Gen. Edward 
Hand in the 58th year of his age — ^This gentleman was a native of Ire- 
land. He arrived in this country before the Revolution ; and during 
that period entered the Continental Army and rose to the rank of 
Adjutant-Greneral. In this character he rendered important services to 
his country. Aft«r the war he retired to the practice of physic, a pro- 
fession in which he had been brought up. In the year 1798, he wag 
appointed a Major-Greneral in the Provisional army of the United States. 
As a physician he was eminently useftil ; ever ready to the calls of neces- 
sity and distress, neither poverty nor condition were consulted in his 
visits. The benevolence and humanity he evinced in gratuitously giving 
his professional aid to the poor and sick, crown all the distinguished acts 
of his life ; and will cause his name to be long revered, and long lamented, 
by those who have experienced his assistance, and who may stand in 
need of medical aid — ^Affectionate as a husband, tender as a parent, and 
useful as a citizen and physician, he has left a disconsolate widow and 
six small children, with a numerous circle of friends and acquaintances, 
to bewail his decease. MultU ille bonis flebUlis occidit 

On Oct. 7, in the 42d year of his age, Isaac Norris, Esq. a native of 
this city. 

On Oct. 24 Mr. Camless Wharton, son of the late John Wharton, 
Esq., of this city. 

At Burlington, Oct. 20, in the 82d year of her age, Rachel Offley, 
widow of Daniel Offley, deceased — She was a native of Philadelphia, 
and much respected as an elder of the Women's Meeting of Friends in 
this city. 

On Oct. 26, of the prevailing fever, in the 57th year of her age, 
Hannah Jackson, wife of Caleb Jackson of this city. 

On Oct 27, Mrs. Lucy Yard, wife of Captain Edward Yard, of this 
city ; she fell a victim to the prevailing fever ; she was a bride and a 
corps in the short space of five days. 

On Oct. 29, at his seat in the County of Philadelphia, Samuel Howell, 
Jun., Esq. 

On Oct. 30, of the prevailing fever, Mrs. Catharine Dacosta, wife of 
Capt. Joseph Dacosta, of the Northern Liberties, in the 30th year of her 
age. 

On Nov. 7, Mi, 40, Mrs. Mary C. Lohra, wife of Peter Lohra, esq, 
of this city. 

On Nov. 16, aft^r a long and tedious illness, John Leacock, esq. in 
the 78d year of his age. He was a native of this city, and Coroner for 



A Register of Marriages and Deaths^ 1809. 211 

the city and county of Philadelphia for the space of 17 yeara, and has 
uniformly testified his gratitude by executing the duties of his ofiice with 
the strictest fidelity. 

On the 25th ult, of a lingering consumption, Mr. Michael Immel, 
aged 67 years. 

On Dec. 1, in the 37th year of his age, Thomas Parr ^Vharton. 

Very suddenly, on Dec 7 in Berks County, Mrs. Mary Clymer, wife 
of Daniel Clymer, Esq. Attorney at Law. 



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224 Descendants of James and Phebe GHUiiigham. 



RECORD OF THE DESCENDANTS OF JAMES AND 
PHEBE GILLINGHAM. 

Births, 

John Hallowell, son of James and Phebe Gillingham, was bom the 
11th month (November) 1763. Died in infancy. 

Martha, daughter of James and Phebe Gillingham, was bom the 2nd 
of 2nd month (Febraary) 1765. 

Hannah Lewis, daughter of James and Phebe Gillingham, was born 
the 14th of 6th month (June) 1767. 

James, son of James and Phebe Gillingham, was bom the 14th of 5th 
month (May) 1768. 

Esther, daughter of James and Phebe Gillingham, was bom 1771. 

One infant, the date of birth unknown, died in infancy. 

Mary Gillingham, daughter of James and Sarah Gillingham, was 
born the 30th of the 6th month (June) in the year 1791, at 7 minutes 
before 12 o'clock at noon. 

James Gillingham, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, was bom on 
the 11th of the tenth month (October) 1795 at 5 o'clock in the morning. 

Esther Gillingham, daughter of James and Sarah Gillingham, was 
bom the 17th of the third month (March) 1798, at \ past 12 o'clock 
noon. 

G^rge Washington Gillingham, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, 
was bom the 17th of the 4th month (April) 1800, at 12 o'clock at noon. 

William Cliffton Gillingham, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, 
was bom the 10th of the 5th month (May) 1802 at 15 minutes before 12 
o'clock at night. 

Henry Bailie Gillingham, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, was 
bom the 16th of the 2nd month (February) 1804, at \ past 9 o'clock 
in the morning. 

Sarah Ann Gillingham, daughter of James and Sarah Gillingham, 
was bom the 10th of the 2nd month (February) 1806 at \ past 2 o'clock 
afternoon. 

Lewis Gillingham, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, was bom the 
5th of the nth month (November) 1808 at 7 o'clock in the evening. 

Elizabeth Waring Gillingham, daughter of James and Sarah Gilling- 
ham, was bom the 12th of the 8th month (August) 1810 at 15 minutes 
before 8 o'clock morning. 

Charles Gillingham, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, was bom 




De.scendants of James and Phebe Gillingham. 225 

the 6th of the 8th month (August) 1812 at 15 minutes past 1 o'clock in 
the morning. 

Mary Anna, daughter of John and Mary Hardwick, was bom on the 
4th of June, 1823. 

Sarah Elizabeth, daughter of John and Mary Hardwick, was bom on 
the 26th of Febmary, 1825. 

Charles, son of Mary Nicholson, was bom on the SOth of June, 1831. 

James, son of G^rge W. and Maria Gillingham, was bom on the 8th 
of November, 1823. 

William, son of (George W. and Maria Gillingham, was bom No- 
vember 29th, 1825. 

Catharine Rapp, daughter of George W. and Maria Gillingham, was 
bora December 8th, 1827. 

Ann Maria, daughter of George W. and Maria Gillingham, was bora 
June 2nd, 1830. 

Still bora daughter of Gtorge W. and Maria Gillingham, was bom 
September, 1831. 

George W., son of George W. and Maria Gillingham, was born 
August 8th, 1832. 

Sarah, daughter of George W. and Maria Gillingham, was bora May, 
1834. 

John D. Gillingham, son of G^rge W. and Maria Gillingham, was 
bora November 12th, 1835. 

Still bora child of Greorge W. and Maria Gillingham bora. 

Caroline E., daughter of Gtorge W. and Maria Gillingham, was bora 
November 1st, 1839. 

Josephine, daughter of Qeorge W. and Maria Gillingham, was born 
March 10th, 1841. 

Catharine Rapp, daughter of George W. and Maria Gillingham, was 
born March 1st, 1846. 

William Clifiton, son of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bora 
September Ist, 1826. 

Henry D., son of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bora March 
Ist, 1828. 

George W. , son of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bora Decem- 
ber 9th, 1829. 

James, son of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bora November 
29th, 1831. 

Elizabeth Rich, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was 
bora October 15th, 1833. 

Lewis, son of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bora October 8th, 
1835. 

Sarah Anna, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bora 
July 29th, 1837. 

VOL. XXIV. — 15 



226 Descendants of James and Phebe OiUingham. 

Maria LouiBa, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bom 
May — , 1839. 

Esther, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was born Sep- 
tember, 1840. 

Emma Matilda, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was 
born November 6th, 1842. 

Thomas Conner, son of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, was bom 
May 29th, 1845. 

Charles Wood Gillingham, son of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, 
was bom March 20th, 1834. 

Margaret Thompson, daughter of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, 
was bom Febraary seventh, 1836. 

Robert Raybum, son of I^wis and Margaret Gillingham, was bom 
Febmary 6th, 1838. 

Albert Bell, son of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, was born Febru- 
ary 6th, 1841. 

Edward Augustus, son of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, was bom 
November 27th, 1842. 

Anna Holbrook, daughter of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, was 
bom May 8th, 1845. 

George G., son of John H. and Anne M. Geyer, was bom December 
3rd, 1855. 

William, son of John H. and Anne M. Geyer, was bora August, 
1859. 

John, son of John H. and Anne M. Geyer, was bom . 

Harry B., son of G. W. and Anne Gillingham, was bom January, '57. 

Sal lie, daughter of G. W. and Anne Gillingham, was bom January, '59. 

Gtorge, son of G. W. and Anne Gillingham was bom . 

Harry B., son of H. D. and Mary A. Gillingham, was born Decem- 
ber 5th, 1855 

Lizzie, daughter of H. D. and Mary A. Gillingham, was bom Decem- 
ber 3rd, 1859. 

Sallie, daughter of H. D. and Mary A. Gillingham, was bom Decem- 
ber, 1861. 

Lewis G., son of Frank and Maggie Carey, was bom May 3l8t, 1859. 

Robert, son of Frank and Maggie Carey, was bom June 10th, 1862. 

George F. L., son of Frank and Maggie Carey, was bom August 29th, 
1864. 

James Jun', son of H. D. and Mary A. Gillingham, was bom April, 
1862. 

Laura, daughter of Joseph and Lizzie R. Casper, was born October 
2l8t, 1865. 

Anne Gillingham, daughter of John A. and Anne H. Granville, was 
bom August 12th, 1866. 



Descendants of Janies and Phebe GiUvngham. 227 

Harry B. and T. Jefferson, twin children of Joseph and Lizzie R. 
Casper, were born February 28th, 1868. 

Charles Arrison, son of Lewis and Addie Qillingham, was born March 
8rd, 186G. 

Wilbur, son of John H. and Anne M. Geyer, was bom July 19th, 
1868. 

Sarah Maria, daughter of John D. and Sally Gillingham, was bom 
October 2nd, 1871. 

Lewis, son of Lewis and Addy Gillingham, was bora June 10th, 1872. 

T. Reeves, son of Ely and Caroline E. I^wrence, was born August 
8th, 1872. 

Anna M., daughter of John D. and Sally Gillingham, was bom . 

Anna Morgan, daughter of Ely and Caroline E. Law^rence, was bom 
March 12th, 1874. 

E. M., daughter of J. D. and Sally Gillingham, was born June, 1876. 

Lewie, son of Albert B. and Jenny Gillingham, was bom August 
29th, 1877. 

Emily B., daughter of General John G. and Ellen Palmer [Park], 
was born at Washington, D.C., December, 1868. 

William Gillingham, son of Ely and Caroline E. Lawrence, was bom 
November 17th, 1877. 

Josei)hine, daughter of Joseph and Lizzie R. Casper, was born De- 
cember 9th, 1877. Died December 11th, 1877. 

Marriages, 

John Hardwick and Mary Gillingham, married the 22nd of Septem- 
ber, 1813. 

George Washington Gillingham and Maria Doman were married the 
2nd of January, 1823. 

Henry Bailie Gillingham and Sarah Rich were married the 13th of 
November, 1825. 

Lewis Gillingham and Margaret Thornton were married the 2nd of 
June, 1833. 

John H. Geyer and Anna Maria, daughter of G. W. and Maria Gil- 
lingham, were married November 30th, 1854. 

Frank Carey and Margaret T. , daughter of Lewis and Margaret Gil- 
lingham, were married July 29th, 1858. 

Joseph Casper and Pl^lizabeth Rich, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah 
Gillingham, were married January Ist, 1862. 

Deaths, 

Phebe, widow of James Gillingham and daughter of John and Hannah 
Hallowell, died on the morning of the 4th of 4th month (April) 1819, 
aged 80 years and 9 months. 



228 Descendants of James and Phebe GiUingham. 

William Clifiloii, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, died at St. 
Francisville, Louisiana, on the 13th of the 8th month (August) 1825, 
aged 23 years, 3 months, and 3 days. 

Esther, daughter of James and Phebe Gillingham, died on the morn- 
ing of the 5th of the 7th month (July) 1831, aged 60 years. 

Martha, widow of Peter Blight and daughter of James and Phebe 
Gillingham, died on the 18th of the 3rd month (March) 1832, aged 67 
years, 2 months, and 16 days. 

Josephine, daughter of G. W. and Maria Gillingham, died 1841, 

aged weeks. 

James, son of James and Phebe Gillingham, died on the morning of the 
22nd of the 1st month (January) 1833, aged 64 years, 8 months, and 8 days. 

Sarah, widow of James Gillingham and daughter of Henry and Jane 
Bailie, died on the evening of the 6th of 5th month (May) 1843, aged 
72 years. 

Mary Nicholson, daughter of James and Sarah Gillingham, died the 
15th of November, 1849, aged 58 years. 

George Washington, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, died on the 
1st of December, 1864, between 11 and 12 o'clock at night, aged 64 
years, 7 months, and 14 days. 

Maria Gillingham, widow of George W. Gillingham, died on the 
evening of the 16th of November, 1865, in the 62nd year or her age. 

Sarah Gillingham, wife of Henry B. Gillingham, died on the 6th of 
July, 1860, in the 57th year of her age. 

Robert Raybum, son of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham died July 
5th, 1838. 

Edward Augustus, son of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, died 
August 24th, 1843. 

Charles Wood, son of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham, died August 
8th, 1852, aged 18 years. 

James, son of G. W. and Maria Gillingham, died March 20th, 1844, 
aged 20 years. 

Catharine Rapp, daughter of G. W. and Maria Gillingham, died 
November 25th, 1845, aged 17 years and 11 months. 

Catharine Rapp, daughter of G. W. and Maria Gillingham, died 
Sept. 1846, aged 6 months. 

Esther, daughter of Henry B. and Sarah Gillingham, died January, 
184 [3], aged 2 years and 4 months. 

Josephine, daughter of G. W. and Maria Gillingham, died May, 
1841, aged 10 weeks. 

Lizzie, daughter of H. D. and Mary A. Gillingham, died February, 
1860. 

Sallie, daughter of H. D. and Mary A. Gillingham, died December, 
1861. 



Descendants of James and Phebe GilUngham. 229 

Willie, son of John H. and Anne M. Geyer, died May, 1860, aged 
9 months. 

James, son of H. D. and Mary A., died June 19th, 1864, aged 14 
months. 

Edward Conch Cowden, died June 5th, 1864, aged 87 years. 

John, son of John H. and Anne M. Geyer, died 1862, aged 

months. 

Anne H., wife of John A. Granville, died August 80th, 1866, aged 
21 years, daughter of Lewis and Margaret Gillingham. 

T. Jefferson, infant son of Joseph and Lizzie R. Casper, died April 
4, 1868. 

Harry B., infant son of Joseph and [Lizzie] R. Casper, died August 
11, '68. 

Henry D., son of H. B. and Sarah Gillingham, died May 28rd, 1869, 
aged 42 years. 

Lewis, son of James and Sarah Gillingham, died Sept. 13th, 1870, 
aged 61 years and 10 months. 

Sarah A., widow of the late E. C. Cowden and daughter of H. B. 
Gillingham, died November 6th, 1873, aged 36 years. 

George W., son of George W. and Maria Gillingham, died May 3rd, 
1876, aged 43 years. 

Esther, daughter of James and Sarah Gillingham, died March 10, 
1882, aged 83 years, 11 mos., 24 days. 

Henry B., son of James and Sarah Gillingham died August 25, 
1882, aged 78 years, 6 mos., 10 days. 

T. Reeves, son of Ely and Caroline E. Lawrence died July 20th, 
1873, at Bridegton, New Jersey. 

Eliz. R. Casper, daughter of H. B. and Sarah Gillingham, died Sept. 
26, 1886, aged 52 years. 

Anna Morgan, daughter of Ely and Caroline E. Lawrence, died 
January 26th, 1876. 

Sarah, wife of H. B. Gillingham, died July 6th, 1860, aged 57 years. 

Sarah Ann, daughter of James and Sarah Gillingham, died Jan. 
18, 1892, aged 85 years, 11 mos., 9 days. 

Emma M., daughter of H. B. and Sarah Gillingham, died Nov. 14/88, 
aged 46 years, 8 days. 

Mary A., daughter of John and Mary Hardwick, died Oct. 10, 1887, 
aged 64 years, 4 mos., 7 days. 

Thomas C. Gillingham, son of H. B. and Sarah Gillingham, died 
4-18-99. 



230 Notes and Queries, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

looted. 

Younger Branches of some Noble English Families living in 
America. — The following genealogical notes relating to the younger 
branches of some noble English families living in America have been 
copied Irom an original paper in the collection of Mr. Ferdinand J. 
Dreer. 

Edw** Lord Leigh of Stoneley Abbey in the County of Warwick (n' 
Coventry) died ab» 1787 & left his great E8tat€s abt £40000 p' Ann^ in 
Warwickshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, & Lancashire, to his Sister Mary 
for life & after her death with* Issue, then to the first & nearest of his 
kindred, being a male of his Name & Blood, & in default of such heir, 
then to his own right heir forever — ^Mary Leigh succeeded her Brother 
& died abt 1807 Unm*, whereupon the Party intitled to the Inheritance 
under the limitation of Lord Leigh's Will, is such as can prove a 
descent from his family in the Male Line — ^This party is sui>po8ed to be 
some one descended from the Honorable Xopher Leigh 4"' Son of Thomas 
the 1"* Lord Leigh. This Xopher was bom in 1(520 & was baptized at 
Hampstall Ridware in Staffordshire, & had two Sons viz Roger & Ferdi- 
nand, whose representatives in the male line w* be now heirs to the 
Title of Lord L^igh, & to the great Estates aforesaid. 

Sir Frank Standish of Duxbury died abt 8 or 9 years ago seised of 
very great Estates in Lancashire, unm**. His Estates are supposed to 
be descendable to his heirs male, of whom the representative is also 
supposed to be one Capt. Miles Standish, who founded a colony, called 
after the family Estate Duxbury in America. 

The family of Willoughby, descended from a younger Son of the I*' 
Lord Willoughby of Parham, is wanted as heir to that Title. The last 
Lord who died abt 1767 came from America. 

The family of Carey Baron Hunsdon in England is also supposed to 
have the heir descended from a younger Branch living somewhere in 
America. 

The family of Percy, descended from the ancient Earls of North- 
umberland is also wanted — A younger branch went from Ireland to 
America. 

The family of Savage, formerly Earl Rivers, is similarly wanted. 

The family of Rich, formerly Earls of Warwick & Holland in Eng- 
land, is imagined to have the heir derived from a younger Branch living 
in America. 

So the families of Tracy Visct. Tracy of Ireland, & Pierrepont Earl 
of Kingston in England. 

Other families there are viz Montague Lord Montague of Boughton 
in Northamptonshire, Seymour, Duke of Somerset & Earl of Hertford 
descended from the prior Branch of the Seymours before the present 
Duke. 



Notes Olid Queries. 231 

Johnstone Marquess of Annandale in Scotland, Barry Viscount Butte- 
vant in Ireland, Sheffield Lord Sheffield & afterwards Earl of Mulgrave 
in England. 

Booth Lord Delamere in Cheshire afterw*** Earl of Warrington. 

Leman & Long — Both English Baronets. 

An Account of a Dinner given to Granville John Penn, in 
Philadelphia, January 31, 1852. — ^Thie account was found in a 
memorandum book at Wynne Wood. It is in the hand-writing of Mary 
Jones, and signed by her, dat^d Homeworth, 9th month, 15th, 1852. 
She was a daughter of William Thomas and Naomi Walker. She 
married for her first husband Charles McClenachan, son of Robert 
McClenachan and Amelia Sophia Harrison. For her second husband 
she married Jonathan Jones. He was a son of Owen Jones, Sr., Pro- 
vincial Treasurer of Pennsylvania, and Susannah, daughter of Hugh 
Evans, of Merion. The late Colonel Owen Jones, M. C, of Wynne 
Wood, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was a son of Jonathan and 
Mary Thomas Jones, the latter the writer of the account of the dinner. 

Howard Williams Lloyd. 

'' 1852, 1st month 31st. Qranville John Penn (a lineal descendent 
of William Penn the fir»t Proprietor of Pennsylvania, through his sec- 
ond wife Hannah Callowhill) arrived in Philadelphia from England on 
a visit to this country, his friends, relations &c. 

''Mary Penn Gaskell having invited him to dine with her, at her 
residence the beautiful Penn Cottage, on the evening of the date above, 
the kind invitation was also extended to the family of her brother-in- 
law Peter Penn Gaskell & his sister's children. All of whom are the 
descendents of William Penn the founder & proprietor of Penna, through 
his first wife Gulielma Maria Springet. The others invited were Pris- 
cilla Tunis, her niece Sarah McKeever (myself & children, Naomi Morris 
& her husband Levi Morris, Owen Jones and his wife Mary B. Jones) 
with our friends Patty Humphreys & Mary Bowman. We assembled 
according to appointment at 5 O'clock, for those that were to dine. 
Those that were to sup came later. 

''The first named guest (Granville John Penn) was accompanied by 
William Wister & John J. Smith of Germantown. The whole enter- 
tainment was conducted in a very elegant & expensive manner. The 
collected company seeming to enjoy & participate in pleasurable feel- 
ings. My mind at the time was particulary interested, upon taking a 
retrospective view of the first settlement of this state, by our persever- 
ing and noble spirited ancestors, and whilst reflecting on the subject, 
my thoughts were arrested by the very peculiar circumstance which I 
then in conversation with Granville John Penn mentioned. Of (that) 
so many of the most conspicious characters amongst those, who com- 
menced the settlement and administering the Government at the first 
outset in this the then Province of Penna., should be here represented 
by their descendents being assembled on this occasion. It being now 
169 years since they came to this favoured land, then a wilderness. And 
though few in numbers, there were then present in that parlor, the 
descendents of William Penn by each of his wives, & of their near con- 
nections the Aubreys, & Rees Thomas, also of Thomas Lloyd, the First 
President of Council, & first Governor appointed by William Penn, 



232 Notes and Queries. 

after his arrival in the Province, he was also the first foreman of the 
first grand jury therein convened. 

**The descendants of Thomas Wynne, the first Speaker of the first 
legislative assembly voted for in the Province and convened in Philada. 
Of James Logan the Corresponding Secretary of William Penn. Also 
descendents of Isaac Norris one of the most conspicuous & worthy men 
of his day & the Chief Justice of Penna., during his time. Also Wil- 
liam Biles one of the members of the first Council, likewise Valentine 
Hollingsworth one that assembled as a member of the first grand-jury, 
Anthony Morris the first Mayor of Philada., 
" Hon EWORTH, 9th Mo : 15th 1852. 

*'Mary Jones.'* 

[The following has been added, altho' of the same date, apparently 
an afi^r-thought.] 

** Having been requested to state in writing, who amongst the com- 
pany assembled at Mary Penn GraskelPs dinner, on the 1st month 3l8t 
1852 were descended from those eminent men mentioned as the con- 
temporaries of William Penn during the establishment of the govern- 
ment of Pennsylvania, and his assistants in that eventful and arduous 
task (they I believe were all members of the Religious Society of Friends) 
natures noblemen, who loved & feared, honoured & obeyed the Lord 
God of Heaven and Earth, & through the redeeming love of our blessed 
Saviour were enabled to forsake iniquity, and live righteously through- 
out the time appointed for them to labour, working out their souls salva- 
tion according to the will of their adorable Creator, according to the most 
authentic account in my possession (they were) myself Mary Jones, my 
cousin Priscilla Tunis with her niece Sarah McKeever (who) are lineal 
descendents of Rees Thomas & his wife Martha Aubrey, she being the 
sister of William Aubrey the son-in-law of William Penn the founder 
of Penna. Their son Aubrey Thomas went to England and married 
Gulielma Maria the grand daughter of the said William Penn. Naomi 
Morris (the daughter of Mary Jones) through her father Charles !iIcClen- 
achan, is a lineal descendant of Thomas Lloyd, and also of Isaac Nor- 
ris. Levi Morris the husband of Naomi Morris is a lineal descendant 
of Valentine Hollingsworth, also of Anthony Morris. 

**Owen Jones the son of the above named M. Jones, with his wife 
Mary R. Jones, lineal descendants of Thomas Wynne & Dr. Edward 
Jones. Patty Humphreys, lineal descendant of Thomas Wynne, William 
Wister a lineal descendant of Thomas Wynne, as also I have been in- 
formed that his mother was descended firom William Biles. John J. 
Smith a lineal descendant of James Logan. 

**Mary Jones.*' 

Letter of James Ikvinb on Indian Affairs, 1763, in Collec- 
tion OF Mr. Charles Roberts, Philadelphia. — 

" Bethlehem Novemlicr 24. 1763. 

"Sir 

**0n the 16th Inst. Job Chilliway arrived at Ensign Kerns near Fort 
Allen & informed that Papunehay & about Twenty five Indians Women 
& children inclus were on their way down, and, that there were 15 
Warriors who for three nights had incamped close by them, what was 
their intentions he could not find out from them, but heard from other 



Notes and Queries. 233 

Indians that they had threatened them (Papunehay &c*^) severely. On 
receiving the above Intilligence Colonel Clayton marched on the 20* 
Inst, with fifty men in hopes of supprizing the Warriors. We were 
out three days, but could not meet with either Papunehay or the War- 
riors : The Roads were excessive bad and covered with snow two feet 
deep. — Job is returned to see what hath detained Papunehay and re- 
quested me to wait a few days longer for them. I arrived here last night 
in Company with Colonel Clayton & received your Letter by the Persons 
who brought up the Horses. I should have returned to Kern's to day, 
but the Horses the men brought up are not able to travel which obliges 
me to stay till tomorrow. 

''Job brought a message which I have sent to the Governor, the sub- 
stance of which is only, to thank him for taking Pity on them ; request 
that he would keep the Road open, & appoint a place for them to reside at. 

** You may depend upon it, that on their arrival I shall conduct them 
in the best and most convenient manner I am able. 
**I remain. Sir 

** Your Humble Servant 

*' James Irvine." 

Dr. Benjamin Rush to Hon. James Wilson, on the Death of 
HIS Wife. — 

**My dear friend, 

''I lament that a return of my fever has prevented my waiting upon 
you, in order to lessen by Sympathy that Sorrow which our art could 
not prevent. 

''The resources of your own mind, I know will suggest more conso- 
lation to you than you will be able to draw from any other quarter ; I 
shall only add, that among your dear departed Mrs. Wilson's female 
acquaintances, none lament her death with more distress than Mrs.. 
Rush, and among your friends, none can feel more (for none knew her 
worth better) than Dear Sir 

** Your truly afflicted friend & 
'* humble Servant 

'^Benjn Rush." 

" Fbiday 

April 14, 1786." 

General Sullivan on his trial after the battle of Brandywine said, 
'' I would not exchange the privilege of an Irish inheritance for all the 
paltry honors of the Western Hemisphere." 

Lord Chatham to Samuel Wharton, 1774. — 

•• Hates Sunday Evening, 
♦•July 10, 1774. 

**Lord Chatham presents many Compliments to M' AVharton, and 
desires to return Him more Thanks and Acknowledgments, Than the 
Compass of this Note can convey. He warmly feels the flattering and 
kind Testimony, Mr. Wharton does Him the Honor to bear to his Zeal 
for the Rights of our American fellow Subjects. May their Sufferings 
be short, and their Freedom & Prosperity immortal I — Pax est tranquilla 
Libertas. Lord Pitt is gone to take Leave of Sir Piercy Brett, or He 



234 Notes and Queries. 

would have done Himself the Honor To express for Himself — ^his grate- 
ful Acknowledgments. He leaves this Place, on Tuesday Morning, to 
go to Portsmouth — Where He is to embark. Lord Chatham hopes, 
That it will not be long, before Mr. Wharton does Him the Honor, To 
eat some mutton with Him at Hayes, — Where He will always be 
extremely glad to see Him.'* 

The Steam Frigate Fulton, U. 8. N. — ^The following extracts 
from a letter dated New York City, October 80, 1814, refer to the Ful- 
ton, the first steamship built for the Navy of the United Stetes. Plans for 
her construction were furnished by Robert Fulton in 1813 ; a law was 
passed authorizing her being built, and she was launched October 29, 
1814. In June of 1815, she made her trial trip under Captain David 
Porter, U. 8. N. After peace being ratified with Great Britain, she 
became a Receiving Ship at New York, where she blew up in 1829 : 

** . . . On my return from Flushing I was presented with a very 
polite invitation . . . to go on board the Fulton 8team boat at Court- 
landt Street wharf, to attend the launch of the Steam Frigate ... we 
lay our steamboat along side and boarded her, through her ports . . . 
was ushered into the presence of Captain Porter, ... he, with Fulton, 
appeared well i)leased with the success of the experiment, so far, and I 
also shall be very glad if Judge Cooper's expectations be realized, that 
she will be the means of * putting an end to Naval Warfare.' '* 

Reply of the Montgomery County Militia Officers to Cir- 
cular Letter of Governor Mifflin, 1798. — When war between 
the United States and France was imminent in 1798, Grovemor Mifliin, of 
Pennsylvania, addressed circular letters to the Brigade Commanders of 
the Militia. The following is the reply of the Brigadier-Gteneral and 
Officers of Montgomery County, who met at Col. John Wentz's, June 
23, 1798 : 

'^ToHis Excellency 

'* Thomas Mifflin, 

** Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. 

*'SlR. 

'* Your Circular Letter addressed to us is not only a confirmation but 
an additional Testimony of your well known Patriotism. We have 
beheld with anxious concern the predicament in which our Country is 
placed by the Arrogance and Insolence of a Foreign Nation ; and with 
one voice join to declare that should an appeal to Arms by our Executive 
be considered as the only alternative to preserve our Honor and Inde- 
pendence we will endeavor to be ready at a moments warning, and we 
are confident that the united Forces of America under the auspices of 
the God of Armies will evince to the World that the Liberty and Inde- 
pendence, secured to us at the expense of so much Blood and Treasure 
cannot be wrested from us. 

** Consistent with the idea we entertain of the prevailing sentiments 
of the Citizens of this Country we undertake to say, that they view in 
its true color the conduct of the French Government towards us, and 
conceive that if it does not meet with a Manly opposition will ultimately 
hazard the Independence of the United States. Considering such to be 
the sentiments of the Mass of the Citizens of Montgomery County we 



Notes and Queries. 235 

are bold to say, that notwithstanding the defects of the Militia Law 
they will step forward with Alacrity and endeavor Manfully to repel 
every effort which may tend directly or indirectly to affect our National 
Honor. Being thus supported we will never submit to have our Liber- 
ties trampled upon whilst we have strength left to go to War, for we 
would rather resign our existence than our Liberty and Independence. 

** Permit us to conclude with Expressing our wish that your life may 
be spared with health and that your Country may once more be Bene- 
fited by those Energies of Mind you possess and so well know how to 
bring into action. 

** Signed by order and on behalf of the officers of Montgomery 
County Brigade, 

** Francis Nichoi-s, 

'^Brig. Gen». 

'* Resolved unanimously ^ That General Nichols be requested to present 
the above answer to his Excellency the Governor.*' 

Letter of Coix)xel Thomas Hartley to Colonel William 
Irvine, 17 70. — 

" Ticondaroga Oct : y« : 15«* : 1776 
**DB Coll 

** I arrived here Yesterday from Crown Point with the remains of the 
Regiment — our Fleet has been beat only five vessels left. My possitive 
orders were to retreat from Crown Point should such an Accident happen. 
I send on your papers. Your Money is in the publick Treasury ; we 
shall have warm work soon. The Enmy are approaching we shall be at 
it in a few Minutes — Crown Point is in their Possession. Should any 
Accident happen to me — I have put my Money in the Treasury except 
about 200 Dollars which must run the Chance with myself and Baggage 
should I be killed — I make no Doubt but my Friends and Country will 
do justice to my Family. The important Hour for America is near at 
Hand — I make no Doubt but our officers and men will do their Duty — 
I send this Letter and your Papers to the Care of Doctor Potts at Fort 
George. I hope you will receive them Safe. 

I am D^ Col' 
**Coll Irvine. " your real Friend 

*'& most humble Serv* 

'*Thos Hartley. 

** The Enemy were in Sight all the Morning before I left Crown Point. 
I did not loose any Thing and brought off my Guns.'* 

Letter of President John McKinley, of Delaware, 1778. — 

President McKinley, of Delaware, was taken prisoner by the British, the 

day after the Battle of Brandy^vine, and confined at various places until 

the evacuation of Philadelphia, when he was taken by sea to New York, 

and then quartered with other prisoners at Flatbush, Long Island. He 

was exchanged in September of 1778. We are indebted to Mr. Charles 

Roberts for copy of the following letter : 

" Flat Bush on Long Island 
••8«k July 1778. 

*'I had my Health very well on the Voyage, not even the least Sea- 
sickness, & here, I thank God, I enjoy it perfectly, & have a pretty large 



236 Notes and Queries, 

District around allowed me to walk or ride about in, which affords hand- 
some prospects of a very fine & well cultivated Country & of the Ocean ; 
& I am placed at my own desire, with Brigad^ Greneral Irvine as a Com- 
panion, in a very decent, orderly & obliging Family, where we have 
plenty of very good Country Fare, & at a very low rate. 

'*Jno. MgKinley.*' 

Toby Leech, of Cheltenham, England, and of Philadelphia and 
vicinity, has so large a number of descendants in and about Philadel- 
phia, that it may be a matter of interest to know he was baptized Toln/ 
in the Parish Church of Cheltenham, England, January 1, 1662, and 
that the record there shows him to have been the son of ib%, thus estab- 
lishing his descent one generation further than it is recorded anywhere 
to my knowledge. These facts are substantiated in a letter to me from 
Mr. Sier, Parish Clerk, accompanied by a tracing of the original entry 
upon the raster of the Cheltenham Parish Church. 

P. R. P. 

Toby Leech's Wife. — One of my friends found in the Gloucester 
meeting-books, in Devonshire House, England, the following register 
of marriage : 

*'Toby Leech, of Chelteham, m. 10. 26. 1679, Esther Ashmeade." 

B. H. S. 

Western Colonization in America. — 

" London, May 21»«, 1774. 
"As I just learn that the ship for Philadelphia is not sailed, — I send 
you, (as they will give you a good Account of publick affairs) — a Con- 
tinuation of the News Papers. Upon the fhird Beading of the Quebeck 
Bill, in the House of Lords, as Lord Hillsborough had opposed it, 
merely on Account of his absurd objection to Colonization, Wentward of 
the Allegany Mountains ; and had taken that Opportunity of saying, 
that He had resigned his office, of American Minister, because He could 
not adopt the Idea of a new Colony upon the Ohio, — ^The principal 
Lords of the Minority, Vidzt — ^The Duke of Richmond, The Marquis 
of Rockingham, and Lord Shelbume, likewise seized that Occasion, To 
express their Opinions upon this Point and they aU observed, — ^that 
wherever the King's Subjects settled in North America, (If there was a 
Communication by Rivers & a small Land Carriage to the Sea) They 
ought to be governed, And that the Establishment of New Colonies, 
was indispensably necessary, to hinder Manufacturies from being set up ; 
and more especially, as it was impos^Ibie to prevent the Americans, 
(whose Increase by Population, & by an Accession of People from 
Europe, was beyond all historical Example) — from travelling & settling 
Westward ; and as a very curious Fact respecting this Business, — Suffer 
me also to inform you, — ^That Lord Hillsborough was so obstinately 
foolish, — ^as to divide the House of Lords^ upon his ridiculous Idea, rela- 
tive to Colonization Westward ; and to his extreme Mortification, — He 
had not Even one single Lord in the Division with Him, Lord Dartmouth 
& his Lordship, in the Course of the Debate, expressed some angry 
words towards each other, — But Lord Hillsborough in his Pride & Pas- 
sion, gave rise to it ; — And you may be assured, Lord Dartmouth will 
not soon forget it. — ^This free Communication of Opinions, upon Coloni- 



Notes and Queries. 237 

zation Westward, & all the Lords in Opposition concurring in the 
Fitness of establishing of the Colony of Vandalia, will, you may fiiUy 
rely on it, {I speak from Authority) occasion our business to be taken up 
& finished, as soon as Parliament is risen/' 

Letter of Jasper Yeates to Benjamin Franklin and James 
Wilson, 1776.— 

•• LAKCA8TRB July 6, 1776. 

"Gentlemen 

* ' I have received your Favour of the 4"* Instant this afternoon, and 
conceive it my indispensible Duty to inform you without delay that I 
chearfuUy acquiesce with the Appointment of the Honourable Congress. 
My Company's being under marching Orders to Trenton, makes my 
Separation from them somewhat uneasy to me ; but I submit, and shall 
be very happy in rendering my Country any Services, however small, 
in the Station assign' d to me. Be so good, Cfentlemen, as to express my 
most grateful acknowledgments to the Congress for the Honour — ^they 
have done me. I shall expect to hear from you again as soon as your 
more Important Business will admit ; and am 
'^Gentlemen : 

** Your most Obed & Hum»»»« Serv* 

"J. Yeates. 
'*Honble. Benjamin Franklin & James Wilson Esq"*' 

Letter of William Penn to Robert Harley. — 

** 1706, July 14 — My son has sent me so melencholy a story upon our 
friend's answer to him I must break out into complaints upon him after 
many promises of providing for my son here, and Booth in Ireland, and 
speaking of nothing less than 600/. per annum for reasons he knows and 
thou mayst guess, he talks now of speaking of my son to the Duke of 
Ormond for a foot company in Ireland, which to say no more, is mean. 
Ned Southwell secret [ary] of that kingdom, and my son captain of a 
foot company, he shall go dig potatoes first. He is entitled to a better 
estate in that kingdom than to take up with so mean an employment. 
Besides, it was a civil employment he chose for him and promised him, 
showing his aversion to a military employment as well as myself. I beg 
of thee to urge for a ci\'il employment though in Ireland, of 5 or 600/. 
per annum or give him 1000/. to pay his two years expenses in fruitless 
waiting, and let him go live of his own. If my steady — and secret and 
public — regards for the Queen's ser^'ice, divers wajrs — ^that every body 
had not the i>ower or talent to do beside myself — have so mean a con- 
clusion — to say nothing of the worrj' the Lords Commissioners for Trade 
&c. have brought upon me, by a long and fruitless attendance and ex- 
pense — from my country, to keep it — it is high time to retire, and lament 
our unhappiness. But my poor son may have this just reflection, and 
I the satisfaction, of his seeing his conformity to the world to be his 
ruin, instead of his advancement, and I can forgive our great friend, if 
that could be his reason for slighting him. I have opened myself very 
freely to thee, bear it, perhaps it will be the last time, and thy easy 
methods, so much thy honour and wisdom, have given me the presump- 
tion to believe thou wilt both help and forgive. Thy most fieiithful and 
unhappy friend." 



238 



Notes and Queries. 



HUMPHBEY-OWEN — EXTRACTS FROM A WeU3H TrACT CONVEY- 
ANCE. — 

Know all men by this present writing that John Humphrey of the 
Welsh Tract, County of Philadelphia, Province of Pennsylvania for 
the natural affection that he beareth to Joshua Owen^iutf nephew, and 
also in peribrmance of a covenant by him made at or before the mar- 
riage between the said Joshua Owen and Martha ms now wedded wife, 
Hath given granted . . . unto the said Joshua Owen a certain tract of 
land bounded on the north side by the land line of Rowland [Ellis ?] 
and Philip Price, and soe to a comer post by the land of Llewleyn [?], 
and bounded on the south side . . . land of Benjamin Humphrey to a 
comer post of maple tree markt with David Rhydderch, and so east- 
ward bound by said David Rhydderch to place of banning ^containing 
100 acres . . . under the yearly Quit Rent to the Chief Proprietor of 
the land and the said John Humphreys and his heirs, to the use of the 
said Joshua Owen his heirs &c. ... 

Pennsylvania Continental Officers at Close of the Revo- 
lution. — After our War for Independence the Department for War 
made up lists of ** Officers of the Continental Army who served to the 
end of the War and acquired the right to Commutation Pay and Bounty 
Land,*' from which the following names of Pennsylvania officers have 
been copied. The original spelling has been retained. 

Alexander, William, Major. Butler, Percival, Lieutenant. 

Armstrong, John, Major A. D. C. Bluer, George, 



Armstrong, James, Captain. 
Ashton, Joseph, Lieutenant. 
Armstrong, John, '* 
Alison, Robert, ** 

Adams, William, Surgeon. 
Alison, Richard, Surg. Mate. 

Butler, Richard, Colonel. 
Brodhead, Daniel, ** 
Butler, William, Lt. Col. 
Bayard, Stephen, ** 
Butler, Thomas, Captain. 
Bartholomew, Benj. ** 
Burke, Edmund, ** 
Bush, John, *' 

Becker, Henry, ** 

Brady, Samuel, *' 

Bowen, Thos. B., '' 
Boude, Thomas, ** 

Bankson, John, ** 

Bowen, Jacob, ** 

Bush, George, '* 

Bunner, Jacob, ** 

Boyce, John, ** 

Boyer, Peter, ** 

Bond, Thomas, Purveyor. 
Butler, Edward, Lieutenant. 
Beatty, Ekuries, '' 

Bull,BlackallW., *' 



Bevins, Wilder, 

Barclay, John, 

Boyd, John, 

Benstead, Alex., 

Bryson, Samuel, 

Binney, Barnabas, Hosp. Surgeon. 

Beatty, Reading, Surgeon. 

Brown, Joseph, ** 

Chambers, Thomas, Colonel. 
Craig, Thomas, ** 

Church, Thomas, Major. 
Craig, Isaac, ** 

Carnahan, James, Captain. 
Christie, James, ** 

Campbell, James, ** 
Claypoole, Abr'mG., '' 
Coltman, Robert, ** 

Craig, Samuel, ** 

Cobea, John, ** 

Carbem% Henry, *' 

Crawford, William, '' 
Craig, John, ** 

Christie, John, ** 

Clark, John, '' 

Collier, Joseph, Lieutenant. 
Cramer, Jacob, " 

Crosley, Jesse, ** 

Crawford, Edward, ** 



Notes and Queries, 



239 



Campbell, Jamee, Lieutenant. 
Crawford, John, ** 

Clockner, Christian, Ensign. 
Cowell, John, Hosp. Mate. 
Coventry, John, *' 

Dunn, Isaac Budd, Capt. A. D. C. 
Davis, John, Captain. 
Doyle, John, ** 

Douglass, Thomas, '' 
Duncan, James, '* 

Donnell, Nathaniel, *' 
Doyle, Thomas, Lieutenant. 
Dungan, Thomas, ** 
Denny, £bcnezer, *' 
Dunn, Abner M., '* 
Dover, Andrew, ** 

Dixon, Sankey, '* 

Davis, Llewellyn, ** 
DeMarcellin, A. C, ** 
Doty, Samuel, ** 

Davidson, James, Surgeon. 
Darcey, John, Hosp. Mate. 
Detrick, Michael, '* 

Edwards, Evan, Major. 
Emcs, Woreley, Captain. 
Erwin, James, Lieutenant. 
Everley, Michael, ** 

Frank, David S., Major A. D. C. 
Fontleroy, More, Major. 
Fishboume, Benj., Capt. A. D. C. 
Finney, Walter, Captain. 
Finley, John, '* 

Finley, Joseph L., ** 
Freeman, Jeremiah, '* 
Ferguson, William, ** 
Fick, David, Lieutenant. 
Fullerton, Richard, ** 

Grier, James, Major. 

Gonnor, Peter, Captain. 

(iray, William, ** 

Gill, Erasmus, ** 

Gamble, James, Lieutenant. 

Greer, Henry, 

Guthrey, (reorge, 

Griffith, Levi, 

Glentworth, James, 

Gilchrist, James, 

Graham, Stephen, Hosp. Mate. 



Hand, Edward, Brig. Gen. 
Humpton, Richard, Colonel 
Harmar, Josiah, Lieut Col. 
Hubley, Adam, ** 

Hay, Samuel, ** 

Hamilton, James, Major. 
Hubley, Bernard, Captain. 
Hopkins, David, ** 
Heard, John, " 

Humphrey, Jacob, ** 
Henderson, William, '* 
Honeyman, William, Lieutenant 
Hallett, Josiah, <* 

Howell, Ezekiel '< 

Huston, William, ** 

Herbert, Stewart, ** 

Henderson, Andrew, ** 

Hughes, John, ** 

Hicks, Jacob, <* 

Hughes, John, ** 

Harper, John, '* 

Humphreys, John, ** 

Henley, Henry, *< 

Hammond, David, ** 

Harris, Robert, Surg. Mate. 
Henderson, Gustavus, ** 

Irvine, William, Brig. Gen. 
Irwin, John, Captain. 
Ir>'ine, Andrew, ** 
Irvine, Matthew, Surgeon. 

Johnston, Francis, Colonel. 
Jackson, Jeremiah, Captain. 
Janney, Thomas, Lieutenant 
Jones, James Moses, ** 
Johnston, Andrew, ** 
Johnston, Robert, Phy. and Sur- 
geon. 
Jones, James, Surgeon. 
Jones, David, Chaplain. 

Keen, I^wrence, Capt. A. D. C. 
Kennedy, Samuel, Captain. 

Lusk, William, Captain. 
Lee, Andrew, Lieutenant 
Lambert, Chevalier, ** 
Lnle, Andrew, '* 

Ix)dge, lienj., '* 

LeRoy, George, " 

Lloyd, James, '* 



240 



Notes and Queries, 



Moylan, Stephen, Colonel. 
Magaw, Robert, ** 

MentgeH, Francis, Lieut. Col. 
Murray, John, ** 

Moore, Jamea, Major. 
Moore, Thomaa, ** 
Murray, Francis, ** 
Miller, William, Captain. 
Martin, William, '* 

Montgomer}-, Samuel, ** 
Marfthall, John, ** 

Marshall, David, Lieutenant 
Milligan, James, ** 

Markland, John, ** 

Moore, William, ** 

Martin, Robert, ** 

Murran, William, *' 
Mahon, John, *' 

Morrison, Samuel, ** 
Marshall, Benj., ** 

Manning, Lawrence, ** 
Maus, Matthew, Surgeon. 
Martin, Hugh, 
Magaw, William, ** 
Morrison, James, Ensign. 

McPherson, William, Major. 
McUowen, John, Captain. 
McConnell, Matthew, ** 
McKey, William, '' 

McClure, James, *' 

McCullev, George, ** 

McClellan, John, *' 

McCurdy, William, " 
McLean, James, Lieutenant. 
McEllhatton, Wm., 
McCfuire, Matthew^, ** 
McFarlane, James, ** 
McPherson, James F., ** 
McCollum, John, " 

McMichacI, James, ** 
McKinney, John, ** 

McKnight, David, *' 

McDowell, William, *' 
McConnell, liobert, 
McDowell, John, Surgeon. 
McCalla, Thomas, 
McCoskey, Alexander, ** 
McMordie, Robert, Chaplain. 

Nicola, Lewis, Colonel. 
North. Caleb. Lieut. Col. 
Nice, John, Captain. 



Neely, Benjamin, Lieutenant. 
North, (Jeorge, ** 

Porter, Andrew, Lieut. Col. 
Parr, James, Major. 
Proctor, Francis, ** 
Prj'e, Thomas, Captain. 
Paulient, Antoine, ** 
Patterson, John, ** 
Patton, Robert, ** 

Pierson, John, ** 

Patton, Robert, '* 

Pike, Zebulon, *' 

Parker, Alexander, ** 
Power, William, " 
Pugh, Jonathan, Lieutenant. 
Peaseley, Zachaeus, ** 
Piercy, Henrv, '* 

Purcell, Henry D., '* 
Pettigrew, James, ** 
Pratt, John, '' 

Peebles, Robert, *' 

Peterson, Gabriel, ** 
Parker, Robert, ** 

Porter, Robert, '' 

Peres, Peter, Surgeon. 
Piatt, Samuel, Surg. Mate. 

Robinson, Thomas, Lieut. Col. 
Reed, James R., Major. 
Rice, William, Chaplain. 
Riley, John, '* 

Robinson, Ajidrew, Lieutenant. 
Reed, Archibald, " 

Robbins, John, ** 

Reeves, Enos, '* 

Reed, Samuel, " 

Rose, John, '* 

Rogers, John R. R., Lieut. A. D. C. 
Rogue, John, Surgeon. 
Rogers, William, Surg. Mate. 

St. Clair, Arthur, Maj. Gen. 
Stewart, Walter, Colonel. 
Stewart, Christopher, Lieut. Col. 
Sproat, William, Capt. A. D. C. 
Simpson, Michael, Captain. 
Sample, Robert, 
Steel, John, 
Stott^bury, John, 
Smith, Samuel, 
Stevenson, Stephen, 
Seely, Isaac, 



Notes and Queries. 



241 



Stake, Jacob, Captain. 
SimondB, Jonas, ** 
Stewart, William, Lieutenant 
Shrander, Philip, *' 

Strieker, John, ** 

Smith, James, '' 

Sullivan, John, '' 

St. Clair, Daniel, *' 

Smith, Nathaniel, '< 

Spear, Edward, " 

Strieker, John, ** 

Smith, Peter, ** 

Story, John, *' 

Stuart, Alexander, Surgeon. 
Smith, Wm. Hooker, Surg. Mate. 
Saple, John A., *' 

Stevenson, (George, Hosp. Mate. 

Tilghman, Tench, Lieut. Col. A. 

D. C. 
Talbot, Jeremiah, Major. 
Tudor, George, *' 

Tumbull, Charles, Captain. 
Talbert, Samuel, '* 

Tilden, John B., Lieutenant 
Thombury, Francis, '* 
Thompson, William, ** 



Taylor, Christopher, Surg. Mate. 
Thompson, Joseph, *^ 

Vernon, Frederick, Miyor. 
Van Horn, Isaac, Captain. 
Vernon, Job, ** 

Van Lear, William, *' 
Van Court, John, Lieutenant. 

Wayne, Anthony, Brig. Qen. 
Walker, Andrew, Captain. 
Wilkin, Robert, '* 
Wilson, William, " 
Weaver, Jacob, ** 

Wilson, James, ** 

Woelper, John D., " 
Wigton, John, Lieutenant 
Weitzel, Jacob, *' 

White, Francis, *' 

Ward, John, " 

Webster, John B., *' 
Weidman, John (1"), '* 
Weidman, John (2*»), " 
Wharry, Robert, Surg. Mate. 
WiUdns, John, " 

Young, Marcus, Lieutenant 



" Fish House Punoh," as brewed at the " Commercial Booms/' 
Philadelphia. — 



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Islands in the Riveb Delawabe. — Extract from the Report of 
the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, dated "Whitehall 
March 17th, 1772, on the Petition of the Bight Honorable the Earl of 
Bochford, One of his Majesties principal Secretarys of State &c. Ac &c." 

VOL. XXIV. — 16 



242 Notes and Queries. 

''As to the Objection stated in the Report of 1756, against making 
''any Grant of the Islands in the River Delaware, until a Determina- 
"tion had been had upon the dormant Claims of the Proprietaries of 
" Pennsylvania, it does appear to us, from the fullest Consideration of 
"the Evidence laid before us to support that Claim, that it is of such a 
"Nature, that it ought not, either in Justice or Reason, any longer to 
"restrain your Majesty from the Exercise of your Majesty's Right in 
"those Islands, in such manner, as your Majesty shall think fit, and the 
"just and reasonable objections stated in the same Report, that the Peti- 
"tioner^ had no Foundation to entitle Him to ask or expect a Bounty 
"fr^m the Crown, can have no Weight in the present Case." 

Meade Family. — ^Mrs. Ellis, niece of General George G. Meade, 
furnished the following record in a recent letter to one of our members. 

Robert Meade, h, in Ireland, d, Phila., Aug., 1754; md, Mary . 

Their children were : 
Garrett, George, and Catherine: the last d, June 20, 1810; md. 
Nov. 23, 1761, Thomas Fitzsimons, who was b, in Ireland in 1741, 
d,m Phila., Aug. 26, 1811 (no issue). 
George Meade son of Robert Meade, 6. Feb. 29, 1741, d, Philada. 
Nov. 9, 1808 ; md. May 5, 1768, Henrietta Constantia Worsam, dau. of 
Hon. Richard Worsam, member of the King's Council for the Island 
of Barbadoes. She was b. in England in 1748, d. Aug. 27, 1822, bu. in 
Edgebarton, England. Their children were : 
Catherine, b. Feb. 20, 1769, d, Jan. 17, 1799, in London, unmarried. 
Elizabeth, 6. Jan. 20, 1770 ; md, Thomas Ketland, Jr., of Birming- 
ham, England. She d, 1837, in Leamington, England. 
Henrietta Constantia, 6. Aug. 15, 1772, md. Dec. 22, 1796, John 
Ketland, of Birmingham, England, d. June 27, 1801. He d. 1801, 
in Philadelphia. 
Richard Worsam, b. June 23, 1778, d. June 25, 1828 ; md. Jan. 

1801, Margaret Coats Butler. 
Charlotte, b. Sept. 9, 1781, d. Dec. 25, 1801 ; md. Oct. 2, 1800, 
William Hustler ; left one son Thomas Hustler, of Ackland Hall, 
England, and left issue (see Burke's '' Landed Gentry"). 

Oeorge Meade had four other children, who died young and unmar- 
ried, so that Richard Worsam Meade and Charlotte Hustler are the only 
two leaving issue. 

Richard Woream Meade's children were : 
Henrietta, md, Alexander J. Dallas ; no living issue. 
Charlotte Hustler, md. Col. James D. Graham, had issue. Col. 

William M. Graham, Duncan Graham, U.S.N., and Mrs. John G. 

George. 
Elizabeth, md. Alfred Ingraham, and had issue, three sons, Francis, 

PMward, Thos. Rockhill, and Mrs. Maury, Mrs. Brunson, Mrs. 

Ellis, Mrs. Lyman. 
Richard W., U.S.N., md, Clara F. Meigs, and had issue. Admiral R. 

W. Meade, Robert Meade, Mrs. Sands, Mrs. Clara Meade. 
Maria, md. Gen. Hartman Bache, and had issue, Mrs. Albert Bache, 

R. Meade Bache, and Henrietta Borie, who left son Hartman. 

* Dr. Cadwalader Evans. 



Notes and Queries. 243 

Salvadora, ind, 1" Thomas McLaughlin, U.8.N. ; 2*. Judge Peter- 
son, issue : Mrs. Van Wyck, Mrs. Canell, Emily Paterson. 
Gen. George G. Meade, md, Margaretta Sergeant and had issue, 
John Sergeant Meade, Col. George Meade, Margaret Butler Meade, 
Spencer Meade, Sarah Wise Meade {md. John B. Large), Henrietta 
Meade, William Meade. 
Mariamine, md, Capt. Thomas Huger of South Carolina, and had 
issue, Thomas, Chapman, Charlotte (Mrs. Parker), Mrs. Lafitte, 
Mrs. Prioleau. 
I find that Elizabeth Meade married Thomas Ketland in 1790 ; he re- 
turned to England about 1811 ; he died some years before his wife at 
Ackland Hall, the seat of the Hustlers ; she died at Leamington, Eng- 
land. Genersd Meade's son George might have known more about the 
Ketlands, but I believe he said very little was known of them except that 
two of them married Meades and left no children. 

Letter of Major Thomas Proctor to the Council op Safety 
IN Philadelphia, 1776. — 

'* I have ordered all the regular soldiers that were taken Prisoners and 
entered with me to be taken to Goal as I fear'd future Consequences 
that might attend their staying at this place in case of an Invasion 
believing from what I have seen, and heard, that Correspondence 
is held up between L* How, and them, by means of M" White wife of 
one [of] my People. I have given Cap* Courtnay orders to seize her 
and her papers and Commit her to Confinement till you are pleas* to 
hear the matter alledged against her. 

'^ I hope the Councill will pardon my Inadvertancy in first Inlisting 
them, as I shall forbid myself such pleasure as [I] Expected to have 
had from their services, in future. 

''Two flatts is Imediately wanted to Carry stone from here to the piers 
as there S& little security for the Chain and Trunk being Quite open 
without they are Covered with stone also more men if Possible to be 
had. 
" Fort Island Dec 8th ' ' Yours most respectfiilly, 

"1776 ''Tho« Proctor.'* 

Letter of Colonel Alexander Hamilton, of Washington's 
Staff, to Colonel Pickering, Q. M. G. — 

''DB Sir, 

"The General has anticipated the Subject of your letter of this day, 
by ordering the greater part of the Jersey troops to Morris Town to 
occupy the huts there. 

" He nevertheless continues in the desire that that place may not be 
the depositary of any large quantity of stores. 

**The situation of the two artificers can only be pitied not redressed. 
The families of men in the service cannot be the object of military pro- 
vision, and it will be impossible to discriminate. This is the General's 
sentiment and has governed 'v. all former applications of the same kind. 
"Sincerely D' Sir y' Obed Serv. 

"A. Hamilton 

" H*» Q" Feby-9-81. ' ' Aide De Camp' ' 



244 Notes and Queries, 

Limerick [Montgomery County, Pennsylvania] Chuboh Lottsbt 
Ticket. — 



No. 3241. Limerick Church Lottery. 

(Authorised by Law. J ^ 

THIS ticket will entitle the bearer to such prize as 
may be drawn to its number, if demanded within 
one year after drawing. 

OWEN EVANS Commiss'r. 
Limerick, Jan. 24th, 1810. 



The Van Wickle Memorial Library, Lafayette College, 
Easton, Pennsylvania. — By the will of Augustus S. Van Wickle, of 
Hazleton, Pennsylvania, who died on June 8, 1898, Lafayette College 
received a l^acy of thirty thousand dollars for the erection of a 
Memorial Library Building, which has been completed. 

It consists of a high basement cellar of buff stone, and a story and a 
half of mottled Pompeiian brick with ornamental terra-cotta trimmings. 
The roof is made of tea-pot brown Spanish tiles. 

Passing through the ample archway of the entrance the visitor finds 
the main section of the building prepared for the reception of the books 
of reference and the general administration of the library. The interior 
is finished in Flemish oak, with prettily moulded capitals and cornices 
in the plaster, which is frescoed in a warm yellow. On the right and 
left of the entrance are the librarian's room and a coat-room. The large 
east wing is one lofty room frescoed in a light Pompeiian red, and pro- 
vided with steel book-stacks. It is separate from the rest of the build- 
ing by brick walls pierced by a single fire-door, and in so far as pos- 
sible made fire-proof. In this room the general library is placed. 

The west wing contains the reading-room. It is finished in Flemish 
oak, with wainscot and panelled ceiling. The walls are a faint orange, 
giving a warm tone to the brightly lighted room without being trying to 
the eyes of readers. 

The second story contains two rooms, on the north and south, which 
will be set apart for special research and the use of the Faculty. The 
other rooms are to be the store-rooms for books, magazines, and other 
things not in immediate use. 

A book-lift from the packing-room in the basement passes through 
the librarian's room to the main storage-room. A large card-catalogue 
case occupies a prominent place in the vestibule. 

The library will be in charge of Mr. Walter G. Forsyth, a graduate of 
Harvard University, and of the New York State Library School. 



Notes and Queries. 245 

Proclamation and Letter op William Markham, 1687. — ^The 
following is a copy of the original draft of a letter and proclamation 
relating to the settlement and occupancy of land in Pennsylvania, in 
the Manuscript Collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

A Proclamation by the Propy Deputy. 

Since y* Proprietary had no other thing in his Eye in y* settlement of 
this Province next to y* advancem^ of vertue y" y* Comfortable situation 
of y* Inhabitants therein, and for y* End with y* Advice & Consent of 
y« most Eminent of y* first purchasers ordained y* Every Township Con- 
sisting of fiye thousand acres should have tenn fEUuilies at y* Least to y* 
End y* y* Province might not lie like a Wilderness as some others yett 
doe by vast vacant tracts of Land but be Regularly Improved for y* 
benifitt of socyety in helpe [of] Trade Education Goverm*. Also Roads 
Travell Entertainement &c. and finding that this single Constitution is y* 
w*** Eminently prefers y* Province in y* Esteem A Choyce of persons 
of great Judgment Ability and Quallity to Embarque with us & second 
our beginnings We do hereby publish & give notice that y* Commis- 
sio" will inspect w^ tracts of Land taken up lie vacant and unseated A, 
if any of y* said Tracts Lying vacant and unseated shall not be seated 
according to y* Regulation aforesaid within three months after y* Date 
hereoff provided y* usuall time allowed for seating y* Land be already 
Expired the said Tract will be Disposed off to those that are able and 
Ready to seat y* same. Dated at Philad y* Twenty Sixth Day of y* fifth 
month in y* third year of y* Reigne of King James y* Second & Sev- 
enth off y* Proprietary s Goverment anoque Dom 1687. 

W" Markham 

Jo" GOODBON 

Two of these were sett up in Philadelphia y« 27 of y* 6** 1687 one 
was sent in a letter to y* Sheriff of Chester County an other to James 
Harrison of y* same date both Letters being Dated y* 28^ 5 month 
1687. 

ffiiends J C. R T. W S. J G. B W. D P. J C. I S. all and Every one 
of y- 

I thought my selfe obliged to send you y* Inclosed w'* is a Coppy of a 
Proclamation ffrom y* Gover' and Request not only y* Reading it in y* open 
Court and to Consult amongst yo' selves of some Course ffor y* accom- 
plishing what therein is, but also that Each of you when separated may 
use that Authority the Proprietary Gov' hath invested you with to ffur- 
ther and Carry on his Will and pleasure therein Expressed so fiar forth 
as you are Concerned. In this I am y* more Ernest and Pressing 
because I have observed a great backwardness in people in yeilding 
obedience to his just and Lawfull Commands. So not doubting any one 
of yo' Ready Compliances herein, I remaine 

Yo' ffaithfiill 

Philad ^ ^ ffriend 

ye4thofye«hmo W" MarkiiAM. 

Dr. John Adolph Meyer, who for ten dajrs relieved the Surgeons 
in charge of the Continental Hospital at Lititz, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1778, was bom March 15, 1714, in Saxony, Germany. 



246 Notes and Qumes. 

He was licensed to practise in August of 1732, and in 1742 came to 
Pennsylvania, where he continued his profession in Bucks and Lancaster 
Counties, to a few years prior to his death at Lititz, on October 6, 1781. 
He was married in Philadelphia, in 1745, to Justina Kraft, 

Our French Allies. — 

Rece* 26 Aug* 1779 of T. Matlack one hundred Dollars for the Band 
of Music on the 23** celebrating the birth day of Lewis 16th. 

St. Forraoe. 

Rec* Sept. 2nd, 1779 of Timothy Matlack the sum of four hundred 
pounds for the fire works on the birth day of the King of France. £400. 

Jean Laugery. 

Rece* Sept. 25. 1779 of Timothy Matlack, one hundred and twenty 
dollars for ringing the bells on the entering of the Minister of France 
into this city. 

120 Dol" 

Joseph Dolby. 

Petition of some Inhabitants of Lancaster CJounty, Penn- 
sylvania, December, 1777, praying that the whole strength of the 
State might be called into active service. — 

To the honorable, the General Assembly of Representatives 
OF THE State of Pennsylvania. 

Gentlemen, 

We have with the highest concern, as well as wonder, looked on, while 
an Army of about Ten Thousand Men have taken from the Continent, 
the Capital of this State : and have seated themselves down in the (all- 
most) quiet possession thereoff. 

And our breasts allready antissipate those scenes of Wo and Desola- 
tion which must be the probable consequences of next summers Cam- 
pain, in case the Enemy now here should not onely remain unsubdued, 
but be made strong by large Reinforcements. 

For a time we hoped that before the end of the Campain, some good 
improvement would have been made of our great Successes at the North- 
ward ; which put it in the power of the Continent to turn their united 
force against the remaining Army of the Enemy. When this hope failed : 
We then looked forward to that Season, wherein, it is expected, the 
Enemy, with a large part of their Fleet, will be shut up in the heart of 
our Country : and flattered ourselves that some effectual blow would then 
be struck. That Season now draws near — and we see no preparation 
makeing for that purpose ; which constrains us to speak out ; and look 
up to you Sirs, as the Guardians of our devoted State. 

And Gentlemen, What we devoutly wish for, and pray you to consider 
off; is, that the most immediate and effectual measures be taken, to call 
forth (as near as possible) the whole strength of this, and the neighbor- 
ing States, against our Enemys : and especially to improve the fevour- 
able opportunity which Nature, or rather the God of nature, may afford, 
while the Schuylkill is froze, and the navigation of Deleware obstructed ; 



Notes and Queries. 247 

to make the most vigorous efforts, to destroy or get into our hands, both 
the Army and Fleet of our Enemys. 

This, in our opinion, is an Event, at once so practicable, so great in 
itself, so happy and Glorious in its consequences, and at the same time, 
so much danger in the neglecting of it ; as to be highly worthy of the 
most immediate and vigorous pursuits even in the face of all the inclem- 
ency of the Season, and every other difficulty which stands in the way. 

Should this appear eligable to the honorable House, their Wisdom 
will determine what steps are regular, in order to set it on foot in gen- 
eral : and carry it into execution in their own Provence in particular. 

Praying that he who is infinite in Wisdom may preside in your Goun- 
sils ; and in this trying Crisis, direct you to such measures as he will 
own and succeed We remain, with all due Respects, your dutifiill 

and anxious Petitioners — 

John Smith Will" Skiles 

John Cuthb^rtson R* Cunningham 

James Kenney John Bresler (?) 

Matthew McClung Matthias Slaymaker 

James Cooper James Scott 

Christian Wirtz Henry Fultz 

W. Montgomery John Rowland 

John Woods Rich* Woods 

James Woods John Craig 

John Woods, J' Casper Singer 

John Scott William Henry 

Sam' Turbett Christopher Marshall 

W" Hamilton Benj" Harbeson 

Geo. Ross Dorington Wilson 

Fred. Lauman Joseph Park 

Geo. Ross, J' Rob' Thoibpson 

Henry Slaymaker Greorge Graham 

John Woodhull W- ~ 



Stewart Herbert Tho* Cuthbert 

James Crawford Robert Taggart 

James Mercer Jedidiah Snowden 

Stewart Herbert, J' Fred Phile 

Letteb op Isaac Griffith to his Wife, 1777. — ^The writer of 
the following letter was bom in Kent County, Delaware. He enlisted, 
January, 1776, in Col. Haslet's Regiment, for one year. At the expi- 
ration of this term of service, he re-enlisted in Kirkwood's Battalion, 
Delaware Line, for the war. After independence was established, he 
moved to the western part of Pennsylvania, and served in Congress as 
Representative from Fayette County, 1811-13. He married Mary Morris, 
a descendant of Anthony Morris, the second Mayor of Philadelphia. 

MoBBinowN , Feb. 1, 1777. 
My Dear Wife — 

I cannot neglect the opportunity of informing you where I am, and 
likewise concerning my health. We arrived at Morristown Sunday 
evening, Jan. 26th, after a most fatiguing March and have remained 
here since. Our time is now out and our people are returning home. I 



248 Notes and Queries. 

shall stay a few days longer with Benny Hazen who is extremely bad, 
and has been sick about a week. Notwithstanding the desire I have 
to come home and see my dear little girls, I could not leave Hazen so 
fax from home, at the point of death, without friends or relatives. As 
soon as he is able to travel we shall proceed homeward. 

We have very little news at Headquarters. To-day was heard a very 
heavy firing toward Brunswick, but we have no particulars. Our Militia 
gets no honour by this tramp. The General was very angry at their 
going home without rendering any benefit to the Colonies. I have been 
very hearty since I left home — ^have sometimes a little of the Sdataka 
and quickstep, as we call it here, but nothing to hurt me. 

I shall conclude by wishing you all manner of health and happiness 
until my return, which I hope will be shortly. Remember me to all 
enquiring friends and accept my love. 

frt>m your Husband, 

Isaac Geiffith. 

To Polly Geiffith. 

"Our Militia," which Isaac GriflSth mentions in this letter, was 
undoubtedly Colonel Collins' Battalion, concerning which Washington 
wrote to its Colonel, under date of January 21, 1777, 

"Sie: 

"To my great surprise I was applied to this morning to discharge 

your Battalion What service have they been of? None — 

unless marching from home, where they had nothing to do, and staying 

four weeks on tiie way can be called service " — " More Colonifd 

Homesteads." 

We learn from the same source that the militia did remain with 
Washington all winter. It would appear from Isaac Griffith's letter 
that this statement is incorrect. T. H. S. 

Fbench Neutrals in Philadelphia. — Copied from the original 
manuscript in the Manuscript Collection of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania. 

To the Honourable the Representatives of the Freemen of the Province 
of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met The Remonstrance of the 
Overseers of the Poor of the City of Philad' most Respectfully sheweth 

That in the year 1756 Certain Inhabitants of Nova Scotia Commonly 
called French Neutralls were sent into this Province, many of Whom, 
through Age Sickness & Infirmity are rendered incapable of supporting 
themselves & Families, during the Winter Season especially 

That your Remonstrants not knowing of any monies appropriated by 
Law for the Relief of the s* Neutrals, did, during your Adjournment, 
take the Liberty of administering to their several necessities in as sparing 
a Manner as possible, with a full Reliance of being reimbursed out of 
such Monies as your Honourable House may order for their use, as you 
have heretofore done. 

Your Remonstrants think it their indispensible Duty, as Overseers of 
the Poor, to lay before you the distresses of said People, and Pray in 
their Behalf that you may order such Relief as in your Wisdom you 
deem necessary, and for your Honour's Judgment therein have annexed 
a List of such of said Neutrals as they on a carefiill Examination found 
in a Situation demanding Assistance. 



Notes and Queries. 



249 



An Ace* of such of the NeatraLs 

Examination Judge Worthy of Relief 

Dan* Le Blane 



as the Overseers on a Careful! 



The Widow Ancoin 



Susanna Landry i 

wife of Peter Landry f 






Margaret Bajo 
Mary Breso 
h Sister 

The Widow Bourg: 

Widow Recule A 
Widow Lucy 

Joseph Vincort 
& his Son in Law 

Ann Bryald 



James Lecompte 



Widow Landry 

Bruno Trahan 
& Daughter 



— has a large fiunily, Wife A 5 Children, 
and when sick stand in need of assistance. 

— A striking Object of Charity, being very 
weakly with a large Family, one of which 
is foolish. 

has 2 young Children, receives no help 
from her husband, as she cannot tell 
where he is, being from her some time, 
she is also sickly, 
live in one house, they are weakly 

Women and without assistance, incapable 

of supporting themselves during the 
Winter Season. 

an Industrious yet sickly Woman, fre- 
quently requires assistance. 

during the Winter Season stand in need 

of help. 

both live in one house, their Families 

are very Large, one almost Blind, & in 

the opinion of the Overseers very help- 
less, and deserving of Relief. 

— a Woman who acts as Schoolmistress to 
the Children and on that acct in need of 
assistance, as she cannot work for a live- 
lihood her whole time being taken up in 
the Care of them. 

— a man very low & Weak & seemingly 
in a Consumption, unable to earn a full 
maintenance. 

— Old infirm h Blind, in consequence 
unable in any respect to earn a living, 
has a Grown Son an Ideot, Old also h 
Infirm & in most respects true objects 
of Charity. 

The above are the Neutrals which want help, the others being capable 
of maintaining themselves. 



A Wife 



I- 



Account of the Numbeb A Situation of the French Neutral 

FaMILYS Now IN THIS CiTY. 

Joseph Laboue & Wife 2 in family 

Widow Burke has two daughters 3 d"" 

James L^ Count Taylor, has his Mother in Law to Support | 4 jo 
who is Blind, himself his Wife & daughter are all sick J 

KZe^'e" Woodrow } ^^^^ Yeomen who Live together 2 d- 
Peter Vansin, has a Wife h four Children, one Child is 
Blind 6 d' 



250 Notes and Queries. 

Joseph Ribbau Image Maker a Wife & 3 Children 5 d" 
Widow Bacln^ard, has 4 Daughters & 1 Son, daughters all 

Sickly 6 d«» 

Widow Mullowny Burke has 2 daughters 3 d* 
Margaret Besyau ] 

Rose Bressau \ young Weomen who Live together 3 d* 
Susanna Daurong ) 
Widow Laundree, has 2 daughters & 1 son (one Daughter 

is Foolish) 4 d* 
Simon Babin, has a Wife & 1 Child ; he received a hurt ] 

in his side Sometime ago Which often Renders him I 3 d** 

Unable to Work, (his Child is sick) ) 

Daniel Letzlon, has a Wife & 5 Children 7 d** 

Charles Minyau, has a Wife & 3 Children 5 d* 

Charles Strahan, has a Wife & 1 Child bom foolish 3 d'* 

Joseph Welcomb, has a Wife 2 d® 

Peter Savoy, has a Wife 2 d*» 

Placid Laundree has a Wife, who is Mostly Sick 2 d*' 

Widow White has 3 Children 4 d'* 

Charles Laundree, has a Wife 2 d® 

Francis Backward has a Wife & 1 Child 3 d« 

John Brow has 3 Children, (he has been Sick a Long time) 4 d*' 

Susanna Laundree has 2 daughters 3 d"* 



Twenty two Familys 78 Individuals 

Philadelphia 2* Novemb^ 1771. 

The above account was taken in Consequence of an Order of the Board 
of Overseers of the Poor By 

John Phillips 
James Reed 

British Protection given to George Hesse, Pennington, 
New Jersey, 1776. — 

Pennington 13th Deem 1776. 
It's his Excellencys Lieut. Oen^ Earl Comwallis his orders that no 
person presume to molest or Injure the property of George Hesse. 
By his Excellencjrs orders. 

J. Tinker 
Aid de Camp. 

Bequest and Gifts of the Late Mrs. Esther F. Wistar to 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. — ^The executors of the 
will of the late Mrs. Esther F. Wistar, widow of Dr. Mifflin Wistar, of 
this city, have notified the Historical Society of the following bequest ; 

" Item. I give and bequeath unto the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania, the sum of Five thousand dollars : I also bequeath unto the 
said Historical Society of Pennsylvania, in the name of my dear husband 
Dr. Mifflin Wistar, four portraits, viz : One of the Abbe Correa da Serra, 
(the distinguished botanist who named the plant called ^ Wistaria ' in 
honor of my dear husband's father), which was painted by Peale ; an- 
other of Governor Mifflin and his wife Sarah Morris, which was painted 



Notes and Queries, 251 

by Copley, and presented to my beloved husband by Susanna Morris, 
the sister of his wife — Governor Mifflin being a great uncle of my hus- 
band ; and the others of my husband's parents painted by Waugh. . . " 
[The portraits are on exhibition in the " Jordan Annex " of the His- 
torical Society.] 

Mrs. Wistar also left a memorandum of instructions to her executors, 
directing that the following articles be given to the Historical Society : 
" Portugal Illustrated in a Series of Letters." By Rev. W. M. Kinsey, 
B.D., London, 1829, containing an account of the Abbe Correa da 
Serra ; and his letter of condolence (framed) to Mrs. Caspar Wistar on 
the death of her husband ; also, marriage certificates of Dr. Mifflin 
Wistar and Esther Fisher Smith; Dr. Casper Wistar and Elizabeth 
Mifflin ; and Thomas Mifflin and Sarah Morris. 

The above gifts have also been received. 

Letter of Lieutenant-Colonel Leven Powell of the Virginia 
Continental Line, to General Washington, 1778. — 

May it please youb Excellency, 

If I could be persuaded that the Service really required my stay in 
the army, the application for leave to resign the commission you were 
pleased to honor me with, would be exceedingly painful to me, but when 
I consider the peculiar Situation of the Service in which I am placed, I 
am lead to conclude that such an application will not be disagreeable, 
& to a person under my particular circumstances, hope will not be 
denied. I shall beg leave to mention one reason which is considered 
as sufficient by many at any rate to Justifie the step. 

Rank in the army is a matter which is universally agreed cannot be 
given up with honor. The vacancys in the other lines being filled up, 
that of Virginia alone places four Gentlemen over me whom I com- 
manded last November, nor can it be otherwise except there was the same 
means to fill up our Regim^ as in the others. If notwithstanding it 
could be your Excellency's wish for me to continue in the army, that 
consideration should be got over provided my state of Health would 
admit of it. It has been my misfortune that hitherto, I have not been 
able to render my country any or but very little Service, and not having 
yet recovered the last winter's illness, I must own myself afiraid to 
make another tryal. The probability of my being able to stand it, I 
think by no means equal to the risque of becoming an incumbrance not 
only on my country but family. My request therefore is Sir, that you 
will please to permit me to resign, & believe me to be with all due 
respects. 

Your Excellencys Ob* & 

very Hble Serv* 

Leven Powell 
28«»» Nov 1778. 

XJNiVERsnY OF Pennsylvania Faculty. — Genealogical and bio- 
graphical information is requested of the following Trustee, Rector, 
Provost, and Professors of the College of Philadelphia, now the Univer- 



252 Notes and Queries. 

sity of Pennsylvania : Philip Syng, William Coleman ; Rev. David 
Martin, Rector ; John McDowell, Provoet ; Professors James Cannon, 
Theophilus Grew, and Rev. Ebenezer Kinnersley. 

E. J. 

A Tract by Rev. Griffith Hughes. — ^The Rev. Griffith Hughes, in 
a letter to the *^ Society for Propagating the Gospel,'' refers to his having 
published a tract in Welsh, while living in Pennsylvania, 1732-36, on 
"Death, Judgement, Heaven and Hell,'' and that he had distributed 
upward of one hundred and fifty copies gratuitously. Are copies extant? 

O. 

Brooks. — ^Information is requested of the family of John Brooks and 
Mary, his wife, who were residing in Southampton Township, Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1744. 

Wait. 

A Tract* by Rev. Griffiths Hughes. — Mr. Hildebum had- not 
met with a copy of this tract when he published *' Issues of the Press 
in Pennsylvania," but mentions an advertisement referring to it in Brad- 
ford's Weekly Mercury of August 14, 1735. 



JSooli Vloticee* 

Diary of a German Officer in the Hessian Forces in the 
American Revolution. 
The diary of a Hessian officer, Freiherr von Domberg, who served 
under the British flag in the War for American Independence, has been 
recently printed by Professor Marseille, Head-Master of the Bismarck 
Gymnasium, at Pyritz, in Pommerania, Germany. It is a capital exam- 
ple of the renewed interest in Germany in publishing the records still pre- 
served in the flEunilies of the officers and men who came from Germany, 
by order of their Princes, to take the English side in the American 
Revolutionary War. Eelking, both in his history of the ** German 
Allied Troops in America" and in his **Life of Riedesel," drew largely 
from the public records and from family papers. Bancroft, and Lowell, 
and Kapp fathered much original material from these and other sources, 
and quite a number of journals and diaries have been translated and 
printed by Stone, and Bierstadt, and others. In the pages of the 
''Pennsylvania Magazine of History" there have been some contribu- 
tions of the same kind. In Germany quite a sharp fillip was given to 
the subject by the claim made by the present Emperor for a share of 
honors won by German soldiers in America. Colonel Von Werthem 
printed a lecture to his regiment, one of those that had served here, 
in which he urged the families of those who had left diaries and 
letters written during their American campaigns to print them. It was 
the heads of the present families of Knyphausen and Lossberg that fur- 
nished their portraits, for the first time reproduced by the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania in the ** Pennsylvania Magazine of History." 
Professor Marseille found a diary of young Domberg who had served 
here, in possession of his descendant, and he has printed it with quite 




Notes and Queries. 258 

an array of notes, historical and biographical, enhancing its value and 
interest. He points out the contempt expressed by Frederick the Great 
for the zeal with which the petty German princes sold their troops to 
Great Britain to take part in a war which, as he said, was none of their 
business. He quotes the sharp criticism of Lessing and Schiller for 
such an abuse of the power of the Brunswick, and Hessian, and Anhalt, 
and Bayreuth rulers to dispose of their soldiers, and to increase their 
own incomes at the expense of the lives of their unfortunate subjects. 

He points out, however, the lessons learned in America and applied 
by Ewald and other German officers in showing Germany how to con- 
duct its long war againt Napoleon to a successful issue. Of the seventeen 
thousand men sent here by the Elector of Hesse, at least six thousand 
five hundred never saw their homes again, many of them became good 
American citizens, and all of them brought home the advantages of 
emigration to the new world, and thus helped to give it one of the best 
elements of its population. 

Ddmberg belonged to a family that traced its origin back to the year 
1006, and had supplied many good soldiers and civil officers ; he, him- 
self, afterwards became Hessian Minister in London, and died in Cassel 
in 1819, full of years and honors. Enough of a scholar to cite Horace, 
and enough of an artist to make sketches that were eagerly seized by 
both English and German comrades, it is characteristic that his diary 
and his letters home were mainly written in French, for that was the 
court language of the time. Beginning with the gathering of the 
regiment on March 28, 1779, he gives a brief account of its successive 
movements, of his voyage, of the daily rations on board ship, peas and 
pork, butter, cheese, meat, meal ; of the piety of the soldiers, with 
their little pocket Bibles and prayer-books, and of their arrival in New 
York harbor on September 23. In December he took part in the 
expedition to the south, under Sir Henry Clinton, well liked by the 
Germans for his services in the Seven Years' War, and his knowledge 
of Germany, its people and their language. The voyage was almost 
as trying as that across the ocean, but the novelty of the country around 
Charleston and Savannah, and the hard work of the siege operations 
gave him and his comrades plenty of employment. The condition of 
the slaves awoke the sympathy of the young German, and the wealth 
of the country made him regret the ravages of war. He breaks out in 
anger at the news that the officers who have served at the risk of life 
and health are passed over to give promotion to court &vorites at home, 
and that the rank and file are but a mass of rags, justifying the reproach 
that the Hessian soldiers were a lot of vagabonds, for otherwise their 
prince would not have sold them like sheep. 

He contrasts the English clothed and equipped to suit the country 
and the kind of service they were forced to undertake, and his poor 
Germans neglected and left without care from home. He describes in 
detail the hardships, and discomforts, and privations, and losses during 
the protracted siege of Charleston, paying tribute to the skill of the 
English engineers, the energy of the English fleet, admiral and sailors 
alike showing characteristic courage and ability, and the success of 
Tarleton's Light Horse against Pulaski's Legion in the battle in which 
its leader fell and Colonel Washington and many others were captured. 
He repeats Ewald's report of the praise of the English officers for the 
excellence of his own Hessian Grenadiers in the trenches. He describes 



254 Notes and Queries. 

his interview with the chief of eome Indian allies, and has little praise 
for them. Finally he reports the surrender of Charleston by General 
Lincoln, and the entry of the city so long and so gallantly defended 
against large odds of land forces and the strong British fleet. He finds 
many evidences of elegance characteristic of Charleston, and describes 
its curious population of native families of wealth, of G^mans, among 
them many Jews, all traders, and of n^roes. The forces, of which 
Ddmberg was an officer, re-embarked and reached New York again ; 
there he reports on July 22, 1780, that he had been appointed an aid 
of General Knyphausen, with whom he served until the end of the war 
in America. 

One of the notes to Domberg's diary holds out the promise of the 
early publication of a series of valuable letters from Captain Greilly 
of the Hessian forces, dealing particularly with Donop's misfortunes at 
Bed Bank. Professor Marseille does not tell us where he found them, 
but it is very satisfactory thus to have an intelligent German of our own 
day diligently adding to our slender stock of material for a better knowl- 
edge of the part taken by the German officers and soldiers in their cam- 
paigns in this country. Professor Marseille has set a capital example 
that may well be commended to others who have access to other such 
family records. 

In a paper recently read before the American Philosophical Society 
and printed in its proceedings, there is a very fiill account of the wealth 
of unprinted material relating to the American War of Independence, 
in the German archives and in private hands. Every addition from 
these sources is heartily welcomed. The large collection made by the 
historian Bancroft, is now freely accessible to students in the Lenox 
Branch of the New York Public Library, and from it some valuable 
•papers have been contributed to print. Mr. LowelPs valuable material 
for his capital book, **The Hessians in America,^' is still in possession of 
his family ; it is to be hoped that it may yet be placed in one of the 
great libraries in Boston as his best memorial. 

General Stryker's exhaustive ** History of the Battle of Trenton," 
derives much of its value from the large number of original papers re- 
lating to that event which he procured from the German archives. 
Much yet remains there, and it would be a great advantage if there 
could be made descriptive catalogues of such of their contents as relate 
to American affisiirs, for they contain a mass of unprinted reports, letters, 
etc., written by the German officers during their service here. It would 
not be a very expensive thing to do, and an appeal from the Historical 
Societies of this country, supported by our Ambassador in Berlin, 
would no doubt secure the necessary authorization to enable some of the 
able men engaged in these archives thus to supply a wholly new array 
of original documents. 

The intelligent zeal of Professor Marseille has put in print, and there- 
fore accessible to students, this hitherto unknown diary of Captain 
DSmberg, and no doubt other families in Germany in possession of 
similar interesting diaries and letters written during the campaigns in 
America, will now be ready to make them public. Indeed it might be 
well to ask the German Government to do what the French Government 
did through the publication of DonioPs splendid series of volumes, 
containing all the official papers in the French War and State Offices, 
relating to the relations of France and America during the American 



Notes and Queries. 255 

War of Independence, a lasting monument of the great help rendered 
by France to the establishment of this Republic. 

J. G. R. 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. 

Published Quarterly by the South Carolina Historical Society. 

Charleston. Vol. I., No. 1.; pp. 118, 8vo. 
We extend our greetings and best wishes to this new quarterly, which 
is attractive typographically and filled with valuable historical and 
genealogical matter. ** The Mission of Colonel John Laurens to Europe 
in 1781,'* and ** Papers of the First Council of Safety of the Revolu- 
tionary Party in South Carolina, June-November, 1775," will especially 
claim the attention of historians. The genealogical contribution, ''The 
Bull Family of South Carolina,*' compiled by Langdon Cheves, Esq., is 
enriched with valuable annotations by the editor. 

The membership fee in the Society is $3.00 per annum, which includes 
the Magazine ; to non-members the price of the Quarterly is $1.00 per 
number. Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr., the editor, is also secretary and treas- 
urer of the Society, to whom all communications should be addressed. 

Historical Sketches. A Collection of Papers prepared for 
THE Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Norristown, Pennsylvania, 1900. 8vo, pp. 386. 
The Montgomery County Historical Society is probably the most 
active and enterprising of idl our local societies. It owns the building 
in which its valuable library and collection are deposited, and five years 
ago published its first volume of local historical papers and sketches. 
So cordial and substantial a reception was given to this volume, that the 
Society was encouraged to issue this second volume. It has also inaugu- 
rated the marking of important historical places within the limits of the 
county, and has erected memorial stones at Barren Hill, indicating the 
location of Lafayette's camp there in May of 1778, and near Penny- 
packer's Mills, on the Perkiomen Creek, to commemorate the encamp- 
ment of the Continental Army there in 1777. Among the valuable 
historical papers contributed to the volume under notice are the '* Battle 
of the Crooked Billet," by General W. W. H. Davis ; ** Washington at 
Pennypacker's Mills," by Hon. H. W. Kratz ; ** Washington's Head- 
quarters at Whitpain," by Dr. Morris J. Lewis; ** Fort Washington's 
Historic Environs," by C. S. Mann ; '*The Battle of Edge Hill," by 
W. J. Buck ; *' Lafayette's Retreat from Barren Hill," by Levi Streeper ; 
** Lafayette at Barren Hill," by Irvin C. Williams ; and ** Valley Forge 
Camp," by Ell wood Roberts. The work is well printed and bound, and 
illustrated by upward of thirty portraits, old buildings, and maps. 
Price, $2.00, postpaid. Address Joseph Fomance, Esq., Norristown, 
Pennsylvania. 

The North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register. 
The first number of this quarterly, which enters upon a comparatively 
new and undeveloped field, contains abstracts of the public records in 
the office of the Secretary of State at Raleigh, comprising Land Grants 
for Chowan County ; Wills probated prior to 1760 ; Conveyances, Court 
Records beginning in 1670, and other valuable data. It is an octavo 
of 160 pages, neatly printed, and the terms of subscription $3.00 per 



256 Notes and Queries, 

annum. Address the editor, J. B. B. Hathaway, Edenton, North 
Carolina. 

The Storming of Stony Point on the Hudson, Midnight, July 
16, 1779. Its Importance in the Light of Unpublished 
Documents. By Henry P. Johnston, A. M. New York : James 
T. White & Co., 1900. Pp. 28k 
The storming and capture of Stony Point hy the gallant and magnetic 
Wayne, of Pennsylvania, and his fjajnous Corps of Light Infantry, has 
often been written about in history and story, but in the work under 
notice we are given by far the fullest and most interesting account of that 
brilliant historic event that has been published. In the campaign of 
1779, Sir Henry Clinton strove to handle **Mr. Washington'' by 
enticing him from his stronghold at West Point, but Mled, and the 
American Commander-in-Chief determined to achieve some needed in- 
spiriting success li]ce that at Trenton, and selected Stony Point for the 
enterprise. It proved a success ; Tryon's raiders were recalled, New 
Jersey was spared, and the campaign closed in midsummer, for Clinton's 
operations had been paralyzed, and the prestige of the American soldier 
gained immensely. Professor Johnston's previous contributions to our 
Bevolutionary history, particularly in the vicinity of the City of New 
York and along the Hudson, in which the troops from Pennsylvania 
bore a creditable part, prepared us to expect the present exhaustive 
work on Stony Point, but we are more than gratified at the richness of 
the new material his researches have developed. Among the fifty-six 
documents made public are two hitherto unpublished letters from Wash- 
ington ; four from Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander ; two from 
Lord George Oermaine, in charge of the War Office^ London (one of 
which contains the king's regrets and alarm at the capture of Stony Point) ; 
one from the British Peace Commissioner, William Eden ; and over 
twenty-five others from Oenerals Heath, McDougall, and G^rge Clinton ; 
Colonels Febiger, Scammell, and Putnam, and Lieutenant John Gibbon, 
of the forlorn hope. The remaining documents have been utilized in a 
few instances by other historians. The illustrations and authentic maps 
are valuable and of historical interest, and were prepared specially for 
this work. The photogravure of Wayne is much to be commended. 
Every library and school in this commonwealth should possess a copy 
of this excellent and valuable work. 

The First Moravian Missionary Society in America. By Bight 
Reverend J. M. Levering. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1899. 8vo, 
pp. 48. 
This venerable missionary society, organized in the year 1745, stands 
first in the history of religious activity in the American Colonies, because 
all other missionary efforts prior to that date were undertaken only by 
societies in Europe. The reverend gentleman presents many interesting 
details of the first fifty years of its history, during which period it not 
only aided in the foreign mission work of the church, but supported a 
domestic mission in nine of the thirteen colonies. The monograph, with 
the proceedings of the annual meeting, constitution and by-laws, 
ofiicers, and list of members, comprises Part V., of Volume V., Trans- 
actions of the Moravian Historical Society, which is completed. 



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MARGARET SHIPPEN. 

From the original pencil sketch by Major John Andre, in the possession 
of Edward Shippen, Esq., Philadelphia. 



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THE 



PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE 



OF 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 



Vol. XXIY. 1900. No. 3. 



LIFE OF MARGAEET SHIPPEN, WIFE OF BENEDICT 

ARNOLD. 

BT LEWIS BCRD WALKER. 
SOME OF THE SHIPPENS. 

We shall not imitate that account of the Washington 
genealogy which carries George Washington's ancestral line 
back to Odin, nor adopt Lord Chesterfield's plan, and assert 
that this family is descended from Adam Shippen and Eve 
Shippen. Consequently, though Edward Shippen, of Lan- 
caster, has written that he was informed that his ancestors 
held possession of a certain copyhold estate in England for 
five hundred years, and though one of the Flemish Ship- 
pens is mentioned as being a vice-chanceUor of Charles the 
Fifth of Spain about 1530, we will not attempt to grope 
among these traditions of the past, but will simply ask the 
reader's indulgence to accept as a fact the statement that 
there lived in Yorkshire, in England, in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, a gentleman of good fimiily, 
William Shippen by name. 

A son of this William Shippen, named Edward (born in 
1639), came to Boston in 1668, and, after undergoing perse- 
VOL. XXIV.— 17 ( 257 ) 



258 Life of Margaret ShippeUy Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

cution as a Quaker, removed to Philadelphia about 1694. He 
was then considered worth more than ten thousand pounds 
sterling, and almost immediately became a prominent man in 
Pennsylvania, being chosen as speaker of the Assembly on 
July 9, 1695. He was named mayor of Philadelphia by Wil- 
liam Penn in the charter of October 25, 1701, was president 
of the Pro\nncial Council, and as such was acting governor of 
Pennsylvania for a period of about seven months in 1708. 
He surpassed his contemporaries in the style and grandeur 
of his edifice and . . . located himself in that venerable 
building afterwards called " The Governor's House," . . . 
in South Second Street. Its site was then on the hill near 
the town. There he had his great and famous orchard. 
In the lawn before the house, descending to the Dock 
Creek, reposed his herd of tranquil deer. He had the big- 
gest person, the biggest house, and the biggest coach in the 
province, and his property stretched, unbroken, from Six- 
teenth Street to the Delaware River. 

Among the entries made in his Bible by Edward Ship- 
pen's son, Joseph (born in Boston, 1678-9), he states: "My 
relations in England are my Uncle William Shippen's (son 
of the first William Shippen) children : 

" 1. Robert Shippen, Doctor of Divinity. 

" 2. William Shippen, Doctor of Laws & a Parliament 
man. 

" 3. Edward Shippen, a Physician. 

" 4. John Shippen, a Spanish merchant." 

A few sentences culled from various works will show 
what sort of a Parliament man William Shippen was in the 
reign of King George, and the simple statement of the fiicte 
is his best eulogy both as a patriot and as a man : 

''Mr. Shippen in the course of the debate said the second paragraph 
of the King's speech seemed rather to be calculated for the meridian of 
Grermany than for Great Britain ; and it was a great misfortune that the 
king was a stranger to our language and constitution. Mr. Lechmere 
aflirmed this was a scandalous invective against the king's person and 
government, and moved that he who uttered it should be sent to the 



Life of Margaret Shipperty Wife of Benedict Arnold. 269 

Tower. Mr. Shippen refriBing to retract or excuse what he had said, 
was voted to the Tower by a great majority." — Smolldfs ** History of 
Unglandy** Chap. ILj Oeorge L 

"Shippen upbraided Walpole terribly in the Debate. ... He spoke 
long and very well — ^the better for being in the Right" — " Diary of Lady 
Cowper,'' 160; May 5, 1720. 

"Some are corrupt" Sir Robert Walpole said ; "but I will tell you 
of one who is not ; Shippen is not." — " Walpoliana,*' L 38. 

" The Prince of Wales, to justify his satisfaction with a speech which 
the sturdy old Jacobite had made, sent him £1. 000. by General Churchill, 
Groom to his Bedchamber. Shippen refiised it." — ** Century of Anec- 
dote,'' 111, " Chandos Classics.'* 

" Mr. Shippen was calm, intrepid, shrewd, and sarcastic." — Smolktfs 
** History of England,'' Chap. 11. , Oeorge II. 

Pope says : 

"I love to pour out all myself, as plain 
As downright Shippen, or as old Montaigne ; 
In them, as certain to be loved as seen, 
The soul stood forth, nor kept a thought within." 

Upon his silver cup, weighing over thirteen pounds, was 
inscribed, "A Legacy from the Duke of Buckingham & 
Normandy to the worthy Mr. Shippen." 

Joseph Shippen was associated with Dr. Franklin in 
founding a society called the " Junto." Among his chil- 
dren who arrived at maturity were : 

Edward Shippen, of Lancaster; 

Dr. William Shippen, the elder, a member of Congress in 
1778; 

Anne Shippen, married to Charles Willing. 

As but few memorials of Joseph Shippen are knovm, we 
give the following letter to his wife, Abigail (Grosse), who 
was \'i8iting relatives in Boston, which will also serve to 
show the epistolary style in that day : 

** Philadelphia, June 5th, 1711. 
"My Dear: 

" These are to let thee know that I got well home, and that I found the 
Children all well, Betty would not Stay at her Sister Shippens but went 
to her Grand Mothers, where Shee and Neddy is, and both well pleased 
Considering their Condition, wanting their Mother, but as for Jo, though 



260 Life of Margaret Shippaij Wife of Benedict ArnoUL 

Father and Mother both Came downe to fetch him, he was reeolved not 
quit his possession of the house ; as for Sister Shippen when She Game 
for him he fought her fairly and Could not get him along ; he is my bed- 
fellow, as for Nanny, She is full fatt and verry well used : as for Boston 
I have not seen his face since I came home, which Is Six dayes, but I 
hear he Is near Capt. Finnyes, I verry much want him. Mary Trent 
has got a boye with as little warning as thou used to have, She took but 
half an hours time to Consider of it. 

** Sister Murray has given me orders to put a bill on the house she lives 
in. all the Endeavours that Could be used, Could not get Jo to the 
Taylors till Just before I came home. Mol Got him up to Margrets to be 
taken measure of. I know no body that will set a Stich for the Children ; 
neither do I know what thou will want to have done ; I heard thee talk 
of Frocks for Nanny, but I don*t hear any body talk of them now I am 
come home. Thou knows what the Children wants more than (I). I hope a 
fortnight or three weeks time at Farthest will Content thee and all thy 
friends to tarrio In the Towne of Boston. I told Ann Parsons that I 
thought I must go In the fall to meet thee. **In the Fair*, said Shee 
Clapping her hands, ** Surely She wont Stay so long from her Children." 
as I came home I met Father near her house, where he told me that 
Neddy and betty were att his house till I come home. So that I do 
Expect their Companyes quickly. Pray my dear make as little Stay as 
possible thou Can for their Sakes : thy relations knowes verry well what 
naturale affections to Children meane, so that I think they wont desire 
thee to tarry long from them ; and In three weeks time, one may give an 
ample Acct. of all ones transactions for Seven years past ; and Vissit 
ones friends till they are Tired of one. 

" my dear though I much miss thy Company, yet I can truly Say that 
it is not upon my owne Accot. that I would have thee make as little 
Stay as thou Can, but for thy dear babes Sake, of whome I Shall take 
Care as much as In me lyes. In thy Absence, if thy flriends think me 
Seveere, tell them I would have thee Come the Sooner, now that thou 
may the sooner get leave to Come an Other time ; that if we and they 
live two or three year longer I intend to bring them all to See their re- 
lations, if I find they will be acceptable to them. Give my Duty to 
Father and Mother, my love to Amit Rodman and all our relations, if 
Joseph Rodman Comes by way of Road Island it will be a good oppor- 
tunity for thee to return with him, and Doubtless he will tarrie eight or 
ten (laves for thee. I conclude with my Intire regard for thee. Expect- 
ing per next Poet to know when I may Expect thee, I rest thy most 
Affectionate Companion, 

*'Jos. Shippen. 

'*If thou should omit that Oi>portuiiity, I know not when thou will 
have another.*' 



Life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Baudict Arnold. 261 

Edward Sliippeu (of Lancaster) was born in Boston, July 
9, 1703, and died at Lancaster on September 25, 1781. 

He, in truth, was a many-sided man. When he is found 
regretting that he did not see the " contacts of Venus," in 
June, 1769; enjoying reading Telemachus in the French; 
quoting Latin verses in his correspondence with Robert 
Cooper, the minister ; ordering a bust of Pope in London in 
1749, and Ovid's "Epistles," "with ye best notes;" a sub- 
scriber to the Philadelphia Academy, afterwards the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania; a founder of Princeton in 1746, 
and a trustee down to 1767, it seems as if he were a scholar, 
or perhaps a professor. 

When we see him a judge of the Common Pleas in Phil- 
adelphia, and afterwards at Lancaster, under both Provincial 
and State governments, we might regard him as a lawyer. 
As prothonotary, as member of Council, and as mayor ot 
Philadelphia, he seemed like a politician. He was a pay- 
master of army supplies, and his accounts were so satisfac- 
tory that he received the public thanks in 1760, and in the 
Revolution he was on the Lancaster County committee. 

He was the agent in charge of Qovernor Hamilton's 
estate, consisting of the town plot of Lancaster and the land 
adjacent; and he discharged his duties with fidelity, not 
only in matters of moment, but also in small and vexatious 
affairs ; and when two sturdy rogues, David Schrock and 
Peter Osmus, " with cross-cut saws and several axes," had 
cut down two great oaks on Hamilton's uninclosed wood- 
land, they found that they had to step up to Edward Ship- 
pen's office and settle, even though they had sworn " that 
neither Devil nor Man could hurt them for what they had 
done." 

When he became a landed proprietor and laid out Ship- 
pensburg, he found there were many troubles and w^orries. 
Hoopes claimed that he had an earlier warrant, and threat- 
ened to make deeds for Shippen's land. Some purchasers 
appeared to have the feculty of always building their fences 
outside of their lines. Andrew^ Boyd, for some reason or 



262 Life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

other, has dammed up the stream ; and " Robert Hamel has 
begun to blow up the Rocks amongst ye Wahiut Trees, 
before your door, which has in some measure injured them." 
One letter advised him to get rid of Mathias Campble, who, 
in Pro\dncial writing, is a " verrey youseless tennant ;" and 
another letter from his agent conveyed the intelligence that 
he had in hand seventy pounds collected from ground rents, 
with which to pay a tax of six hundred and eighteen pounds, 
and that the commissioners had refiised to reduce his assess- 
ment. And even " Johnny" Piper's promise of a " Karcass 
of A Bear worth notice" next fall was made conditional 
upon the bear getting plenty of acorns to fatten him up. 

And yet the business of Edward Shippen was to import 
thread, gunpowder, silk hose, guns, gaudy gartering, hats, 
rum, ribbons, knives, lead, fishing-lines, flints, Jew's harps, 
looking-glasses, trunks, beads, tol)acco - tongs, brass wire, 
handkerchiefs, medals, hatchets, vermilion, brass kettles, 
red lead, and rings at twelve shillings a gross. Such goods 
were delivered to men who went among the Indians, and 
traded for furs, and afterwards made settlement with the 
merchants with the skins. And it sometimes happened that 
some unscrupulous rival would inveigle the trader into part- 
ing with the skins, and the rightfiil owner would be left 
with a lawsuit, instead of a bundle of furs ready for the 
London market. 

As far back as February 20, 1788, an " umberrella" was im- 
ported in the good ship Constantine, as shown by the in- 
voice, " for the proper account and risque" of Edward Ship- 
pen, who, for aught we know, might have worn that nine- 
shilling "umberrella" completely out years before Jonas 
Hanway excited the ire of the London cabmen. Other 
items of that invoice, such as " silver tea-spoons," " gloves," 
and " lace" at six shillings per yard, show the beginning of 
what was then regarded as extravagance and luxury. 

He was the first corporator mentioned in the charter of 
the Julianna Library of Lancaster, and was one of the com- 
mittee appointed to obtain, if possible, a picture of Lady 



lAfe of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 268 

Penn to be painted by Benjamin West. In striking con- 
trast to the quiet and seclusion of this library, we next be- 
hold him as a member of the Union Fire Company. But 
here this record ends, and we leave it to the reader's imagi- 
nation to picture Edward Shippen hastening to the scene of 
conflagration. Li the old letters we have momentary ac- 
counts of him ; at one time in the woods to collect skins, at 
another he has gone to " Wioming" to try to make some set- 
tlement with those troublesome people from the East, who 
claimed that in some manner Connecticut took a flying leap 
over New York and New Jersey, and then continued west- 
ward to the Pacific Ocean. After Braddock's defeat, the 
province was in such a state of apprehension that he sent 
his account books and papers from Lancaster to Philadelphia 
for safe keeping. And he was at church upon that fatal 
Tuesday, at the time when the " Paxton Boys" came down 
to Lancaster and killed the Lidians in the Work-House, and 
thereby threw the whole pro\'ince into confiision. In his 
own home he gave his grandson, Allen Burd, instruction in 
addition to his regular schooling, and writes to Colonel Burd 
as follows : " Allen improves greatly . . . under my Tuition," 
and naively adds, " & you know the great opinion I have of 
myself." Perhaps it was for the amusement of this bright 
boy (who died at the age of ten) that he perpetrated the fol- 
lowing : 

" A cibo biacocto, a Medico indocto, 

Ab inimico reconciliato, a mal& Muliere, 

Libera nos, Domine/' 

which we venture to translate as follows : 

From food, when it is hash, 
From a young doctor who is rash. 
From foe reconciled, 
And from woman wild. 
Lord, keep this child. 

We have before us a curious old memorandum of tilings 
to be done, dated March 31, 1759, which exhibits the daily 
occupations of Edward Shippen with an accuracy almost 



264 Life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

photographic. It includes nearly everything from the pas- 
ture bars and bake-oven shed to Mr. Burd's calf and the 
cover of the church wall ; to graft the apple-trees and weed 
the cabbages ; to buy a barrel of sand and a pair of spec- 
tacles, a curry-comb and a chest for his deeds, a piece of 
linen and two whitewash brushes, as well as the " History of 
England." But we leave the reader to consult this memo- 
randum for himself in the Appendix, where it will be found 
printed in full, only we cannot help wondering whether the 
" White Silk Hat from Mrs. Arthur for my Wife" was Mrs. 
Shippen's Easter bonnet, and whether she got it in time 
and wore it on Easter, which, in 1759, fell on April 15. 

Though we have seen him amid all the pressure and 
hurry of busuiess, yet we may wonder what sort of a lover, 
husband, and fiither he was. A few of the old letters shall 
tell their own story, and throw light upon this side of his 
character. 

On August 2, 1725, shortly after he had set out for 
Boston, Sarah Plumley (whom he married on September 
20, 1725) writes to him aa follows : 

"Dear Neddy, 

"As soon as you left me I went up stairs with a sorrowful heart & laid 
me down endeavouring to sleep but could not for you was so deep in 
my thoughts that I could not do any thing all that day, but think of 
you and the dear parting expressions, & the next day I went and sat 
with Cousin Baynton all day to divert myself. Wednesday night I sent 
billy to see if the post was come he was not come then and I sent him 
up next morning and the post was come but there was no letter. Satur- 
day when your Father was out of town John Rearsey brought the letters 
& Josey was here & I could not be easy till he had opened it, & I took 
mine out with abundance of joy & am glad to hear you are well & that 
you like your horse & the opinion I have of your sincere love makes me 
easy & nothing but Death shall put an end to it & dont forget her who 
shall ever continue to be your most sincere and affectionate friend 

"Sarah Plumly." 

And " Neddy" got up at five o'clock in the morning to 
commence the following letter from Boston : 



Ufe of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 265 

''After a pretty fatiguing journey last night about ten o^ clock in good 
health I reached this place, where my relations were overjoyed to receive 
me. My Grandmother tells me she heard I waa going to have my 
Mother-in-law's daughter. I told her it was true enough, and that she 
waa a very deserving pretty young lady, * welP says she, * make haste 
and marry, and bring her to live in Boston.' * Well, well,' says I. 

"My dear soul I beg you to be choice of your health. I am not (as I 
told you at parting) at all afraid of my Father's slighting you, for I 
know he always respected you, and will show it more in my absence 
than presence. I desire earnestly that you may provide some of the 
necessary things for our settling. 

'* What signifies fretting my dear pretty soul at things that can not be 
helped, you and I love one another dearly and I hope as it hath pleased 
God to conduct me safely here, so He will extend His love further by 
guarding me safe home again. 

'' I am visiting my firiends who are ready to set me up. I believe there 
never was a more loving and kind people in ye world, my Grand-mother 
lives handsomely but has nothing to spare, only good- will and kindness 
till she dies — All my Aunts and their daughters are exceedingly well 
married. They gett me to dinner at one place to-day — ^then make me 
promise to dine at another place tomorrow and to sup at another and so 
they carry me about. I have a maiden Aunt lives with my Grandmother 
ye very image of my own Mother ; both of them bid me remember 
their kind love to you. 

''If the vessel would but come I would soon dispatch her and myself 
too. No danger of Indians however my Grandmother has given me a 
pr. of Pistles worth £6 or £7 and I fear no man. I had no Comp.y all 
the way except the last 50 miles. I am not one bitt worse for riding nor 
have hardly had a touch of that pain since. 

" Lett me beg of you honey to take as much care of your health as I 
do of mine. So conclude with dear love to my Dearest Sally, 

** her sincere friend 

Edw.d Shippen." 

Twenty-four years later he wrote to his son, Edward 
Shippen (afterwards cliief justice), then completing his 
legal studies in the Temple at London, as follows : 

"I take notice of the Relation you give me concerning your Afiairs at 
the Temple, & the Expenses you have been in it & in going about to see 
the Rarities of England, & in keeping Comp. with Gentlemen of Sense, 
& tho' some People here, of high conceit will condemn you, for spend- 
ing any time from your Studies, excepting sometimes of an Evening, 
Yet I much approve of your Conduct for you will have an opportunity 



266 lAfe of Margaret Shippm^ Wife of Benedict Arnold, 

of Reading Books at your Betum, but not so good an one to read Men; 
You may remember my advice to you at Parting (among other things) 
was to rise early & to study hard till Dinner time that you might have 
the afternoons to look about you ; and notwithstanding you will cost me 
a good deal, yet if I had money to spare I would send you as much 
more." 

Happy the sou with such a father, and fortunate the 
father whose son would not abuse the Ucense so given ! 

He was a genial man; rose early; was fond of good, 
hearty living, but temperate. He cultivated his asparagus 
garden, and was proud of his peaches ; and as far back as 
1766 we come across the information that a little >vine upon 
the strawberries improves them very much. He writes that 
he hopes Colonel Burd "will be home on December 25 
(1759) to eat a roast Turkey;" and he knew about turkeys 
ah ovo^ for his advice is to " keep ye young ones in ye barn 
for a week & put them up when it rains while they are very 
young." 

In 1764, Jasper Yeates drew the pen-portrait of Edward 
Shippen, of Lancaster, as follows : 

** But peculiarities out of the question, I know none happier in their 
temper & disposition, or any who have a greater fund of pleasantry & 
good humour than the old Gentleman. In a minute, he relates to me ten 
diflerent stories, interlarding each narrative with choice scraps of Latin, 
Greek & French.'* . . . ** Scarce a moment of the day passes over, but 
I receive some new piece of instruction, either for the regulating my 
judgment or conduct, & even when I take a walk with the old Don, 
seldom fail getting a lesson from him, tho' it be only to teach me to 
mount a rail fence with safety and dexterity. ' ' 

His silver tankard, bought in 1771 of Philip Syng for four- 
teen pounds sterling, shows the marks of use, for the hinge 
of the lid is almost worn through ; and a letter of Neddy 
Burd gives us this ghmpse of him in his sixty-ninth year : 
" Mr. Sanders told me he heard from Mr. Barton Tou was 
as merry as any at the Wedd [ing] & surprized him by 
your activity in dancing the Cobbler's Jig." 

(To be continued.) 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 267 



LITHOGRAPHIC PORTEAITS OF ALBERT NEWSAM 

BY D. M^N. STAUFPER. 

Lithography, or the art of drawing upon and printing 
from a peculiar limestone, chiefly found in Solenhofen, Ba- 
varia, was discovered by Aloys Senefelder about 1796. It 
was commercially introduced into Rome and London about 
1809, into Paris in 1814, and was apparently first experi- 
mented ^vith in the United States in 1819. Li any event, 
w^e find in the Analectic Magazine, published in Philadelphia 
in 1819, two examples of lithographic work by the portrait- 
painter, Bass Otis. The text tells us that the stone used 
wsi8 brought from Munich, and the examples referred to are 
really etchings upon stone, though one of them, signed 
" Bass Otis, lithographic," plainly shows the lithographic 
grain in the shadows. 

As to the time and place of the commercial introduction 
of lithography into the United States there is considerable 
dispute, Philadelphia, Boston, and New York each claim- 
ing that honor. As near as can be now learned the race 
was very close between the two latter cities. The Boston 
Magazine for December, 1825, contains an account of Sene- 
felder's discovery, and then remarks that " nothing has been 
done to introduce lithography into this country, unless a few 
attempts in New York can be verified, until within a few 
months, when John Pendleton commenced an establishment 
for lithography in this city." This John Pendleton was 
born in New York State ; visited Paris, and there becoming 
interested in lithography, he studied the art under the French 
masters, and brought back with him to America the stones 
and other materials necessary. He established himself in 
business in Boston along wnth his brother, a copper-plate 
printer. The magazine referred to contains some examples 
of the work of his press, the drawings on stone being chiefly 



268 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam, 

made by Thomas Edwards. Among the early Boston li- 
thographers, or at least those who drew upon stone, may be 
mentioned the artists F. Alexander, D. C. Johnston, William 
Hoagland, and J. K Penniman, besides Mr. Edwards men- 
tioned above. 

The claim of New York rests upon the lithographic es- 
tablishment started in that city by A. Imbert, who was cer- 
tainly publishing prints of this character as early as 1826. 
He thus illustrated the " Account of the Grand Canal Cele- 
bration," and published music and miscellaneous litho- 
graphic prints. The names appended to this work are those 
of foreigners, — ^F. Duponchel, Bauncou, and Canova, — and 
Mr. Imbert doubtless imported his draughtsmen along with 
his plant. It is interesting to note, however, that the vign- 
ette on the title-page of the " Account" is seemingly drawn 
upon the stone by the artist Archibald Robertson ; and an- 
other lithograph, published by Mr. Imbert in 1826, is signed 
as "Drawn upon stone by a young lady." Some time pre- 
vious to 1830 Peter Maverick, of New York, added lithog- 
raphy to his business of copper-plate engraving and printing. 
In Philadelphia the dates are somewhat uncertain, but about 
1829-30 Cephas G. Childs did the same thing there that 
Maverick did in New York, and produced the best litho- 
graphic work seen in the United States up to that date. 
Other early Philadelphia lithographers were Childs & In- 
man, Kennedy & Lucas, Lehman & Duval, and Pendleton, 
Kearny & Childs. 

Lithography was peculiarly adapted to the reproduction 
of portraits; and the first man in the United States to 
achieve any considerable reputation as a delineator of por- 
traits upon stone was Albert Newsam, the subject of the 
present sketch. His work was characterized by an absolute 
faithfulness of likeness and by an artistic finish peculiarly 
its own ; and his portraits have an added historical value in 
being, in many cases, the only published portraits of persons 
prominent in the political, professional, social, and business 
life of the first half of the last century. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Neicsain. 269 

In tardy justice to the man and the artist, and in the in- 
terest of those to whom his portraits have value, a begin- 
ning is here made in what it is hoped may some time 
result in a complete and systematic record of the litho- 
gi'aphic work of Albert. Newsam. The list given includes 
only such examples as have actually been examined by the 
compiler, and he is well aware of its incompleteness. The 
larger portion of the unlettered impressions noted were found 
in a collection which at one time belonged to Mr. Newsam 
himself, and was then presented to the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania by the late John A. McAllister. The full titles 
to these may be supplied from lettered prints when these 
are found. A large number of portraits made by Mr. 
Newsam were also intended for private use only ; for dis- 
tribution in the family and among friends. As these were 
issued in very limited editions, a number of them may well 
have escaped record. 

The life of Albert Newsam had a somewhat romantic and 
interesting beginning, and the following brief sketch is 
largely taken from a memoir, published in 1868, by Mr. Jo- 
seph I). Pyott, one time an instructor in tlie Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, where Newsam received 
his early training. 

Albert Newsam, the son of a boatman on the Ohio River 
and a deaf-mute from birth, was bom in Stcubenville, Ohio, 
on May 20, 1809. His father, William Newsam, was acci- 
<lentally drowned while Albert was still very young, and 
William Hamilton, an innkeeper of the town, assumed 
charge of the orphan. Deprived of both hearing and speech, 
the boy began early to express his wants and his ideas by 
rudely tracing the outlines of objects ; and local tradition 
has it that by the time he was ten years of age these draw- 
ings of his were so remarkable for their accuracy of form 
and proportion that they attracted much attention. 

About this time there appeared at Steubenville one Wil- 
liam P. Davis, also a deaf-mute, who lodged with Mr. Ham- 
ilton. Da\ns noted the budding talent of young Newsam, 



270 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

and he determined to utilize it for his own profit, and to this 
end he professed to take great interest in the orphan on the 
ground of their common affliction. He finally succeeded in 
obtaining possession of the boy by promising to have liim 
educated and permanently cared for, and he started eastward 
with his prize. 

As soon as he had left Steubenville Davis began to develop 
his scheme by using the boy to attract attention and charity. 
He made Albert exhibit his skill in drawing, and then inti- 
mated to his audience that he was collecting money for the 
purpose of having his " little brother" educated at a school 
recently founded for the training of the deaf and dumb. He 
collected considerable money in this way, and early in 1820 
the pair reached Philadelphia, and it was while young 
Newsam was making a drawnng with chalk upon the side of 
one of the old city watch-boxes that he attracted the atten- 
tion of Bishop William White, the first president of the 
newly founded Institution for the Deaf and Dumb in Phila- 
delphia. 

Bishop White called the attention of the managers of the 
institution to the presence in the city of two deaf-mutes who 
were seemingly in need of assistance, and William Mere- 
dith, Esq., one of the managers, sought out and found Davis 
and his protigi. The older man told a pathetic tale of the 
various misfortunes that had brought himself and "his 
brother" to their then condition, and he stated that they 
were on their way to Richmond, Virginia, in search of assist- 
ance fi'om relations. His story was believed, and money 
waa given him for his journey; but he was finally per- 
suaded to leave the boy at the institution until he returned. 

For reasons which can be guessed at, Da\ns failed to re- 
appear, and the records of the institution show that Albert 
Newsam, or Davis, as he was then called, was regularly ad- 
mitted as a State pupil on May 15, 1820. The managers 
soon discovered that he was no relation of Davis, but his 
true name was only found out by accident several years after 
his admission. It then happened that a Mr. Wright, of 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 271 

Steubenville, visited the institution with some Philadelphia 
friends, and upon his appearance in the school-room Albert 
exhibited great excitement. Attracting the attention of the 
visitor, the boy rapidly sketched upon a blackboard the view 
of a house, which Mr. Wright at once recognized as his 
own. The boy then drew a plan of certain streets and 
another house, and plainly indicated that he had once lived 
in this second house. Mr. Wright finally remembered the 
deaf and dumb boy who had disappeared from the home of 
William Hamilton, and recalled the name of Newsam. 

The artistic talent of Newsam continued to develop at the 
institution to such an extent that the managers placed him 
for a time under the tuition of George Catlin, well known 
for his representations of Indian life, and under that of 
Hugh Bridport, a clever miniature painter and engraver. 
His regular course at the institution ended in 1826, and in 
the following year Newsam was apprenticed to Cephas G. 
Childs, of Philadelphia, to be taught the art of engraving 
upon copper, and in the mean time he was to continue his art 
studies by attending the evening classes of the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts. 

While Newsam was in the service of Mr. Childs the lat- 
ter added lithography to his previous business of engraver 
and print publisher; and here the peculiar ability of the 
young man found a new field of activity. Under the in- 
struction of Mr. P. S. Duval, who came from Europe to take 
charge of the lithographic department in Mr. Childs's estab- 
lishment, Newsam made rapid progress in acquiring the art 
of drawing upon stone, and he soon founded his reputation 
as a lithographer of portraits. As early as 1830 he made at 
least two excellent portraits of this character, those of De 
Witt Clinton and Dugald Stewart. In 1831, Henry Inman, 
the artist, was associated in business with Mr. Childs, and 
for this firm of Childs & Inman Newsam did much of his 
earlier and best work. Later, Mr. Duval succeeded to the 
business of this firm, and was for many years the employer 
of the deaf-mute artist. 



272 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

Mr. Duval says that Newsam was a faithful copyist rather 
than an artist ; and this opinion is borne out by the fact that 
the merit of Newsam's portraits depends largely upon the 
character and excellence of the painting or daguerreotype 
used as copy. The prints signed by him as " dra>\Ti from 
life" are not, as a rule, examples of his best work, and his 
biographer explains this as follows: "As Newsam could 
neither speak nor hear others speak, he was unable to en- 
gage his sitter in conversation, and thus impart some animar 
tion to the face. The enforced silence on the part of the 
model was apt to be reflected in a semi-bored expression, 
and this expression Newsam faithfully copied. This same 
disability aflFected his success as a portrait-painter, when he 
attempted that branch of art in 1855, under the tuition of 
Mr. Lambdin ; but he signally failed in producing accept- 
able portraits. 

According to his contemporaries, Mr. Newsam had an 
exceptionally correct eye for form, and a memory of such 
remarkable power that he could always draw whatever he 
had once seen. Personally, he had good sense and pleasing 
manners and made many warm friends. Though in receipt 
of an income considered large at that time, he was care- 
less of acquiring wealth, and he spent his money about as 
fast as he made it in buying fine illustrated books, expen- 
sive engravings, and especially the lithographic work of the 
French and English masters of the art. The collections of 
books and prints thus accumulated was partly lost through 
a false friend and partly destroyed in the burning of the 
Duval establishment, wherein Newsam had his studio. 

Until 1857 Mr. Newsam was in the most robust health ; 
but in that year the sight of his right eye became affected, 
and to save the other he was compelled to abandon work. 
He partly recovered from this threatened loss of sight ; but, in 
October, 1859, a greater affliction befell him, for one side of 
his body was completely paralyzed. He was admitted to the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, where he remained one year ; at the 
end of that time the physicians declared his case incurable. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 278 

and under the rules of the institution he was forced to seek 
refuge elsewhere. 

Mr. Newsam was without accumulated fiinds and totally 
unahle to perform any professional work, and he was at last 
compelled to seek admittance to the Blockley Almshouse, 
where he remained until 1862. In this year some of his old 
finends met at the house of John A. McAllister to devise 
means of placing Mr. Newsam in a more comfortable and 
respectable institution ; and as a result of this meeting a 
fund was raised, to which the chief subscribers were Francis 
H. Duftee, Ferdinand J. Dreer, Edwin Greble, Julius Lee, 
John A. McAllister, and Charles Grobe. With the money 
thus obtained Mr. Newsam was placed in the Living 
Home, near Wilmington, Delaware, a pleasantly situated 
and thoroughly respectable institution, founded by Dr. John 
A. Browne, of New England. Here Mr. Newsam died on 
November 20, 1864, and he was buried in Laurel Hill 
Cemetery, the funeral being held from the house of his 
fidthful friend, John A. McAllister. 

Note. — In the list here given the dimensions of prints are measured, 
vertically and horizontally, from the confining rectangle or oval, or from 
the extreme limits of the drawing ; the title is not included in these 
measurements. The dimensions are in inches and to the nearest six- 
teenths of an inch ; and for convenience, these sixteenths are written 
"decimally ;'' so that 7} inn., or 7H ins., is set down as 7.12 ins. 

Those comparing j^rints by measurements alone are cautioned that 
all paper does not shrink alike in drying, and impressions from the 
same plate do not always measure exactly the same. And in using the 
shaded background as the limits of measurement slight discrepancies in 
measurement may again occur, as the impression is light or strong. 

The compiler would a»k that those having Newsam portraits not here 
noted should send descriptions of these to the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania ; adhering as closely as possible, in these descriptions, to the 
form here adopted. In this manner only can a complete record be 
made of the lithographic work of Albert Newsam. 

Abd-bl-Kader. 

Half-length ; face almost profile to right From Parlour 
Review, No. 2. Size, 6x5 ins. 

VOL. XXIV. — 18 



274 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

John Adams. 
Rectangular; bust; face f to right. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Size, 6.8 X 8.14 ins. 

Ibid. 

• Full bust; face f to left. P. S. Duval, lith. Size, 5.9 x 4 
ins. 

Ibid. 

Oval in an ornamented rectangular frame ; bust ; face | 
right. A. Newsam, del., after Stuart. Published by C. S. 
Williams, Philadelphia, 1846. Full title— John Adams | 
2nd. President of the United States. Size, 10.6 x 8.15 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, full bust, face f to left. " Drawn & printed 
by Childs & Inman" — but unsigned by Newsam. Unlet- 
tered example. Size, 6x5 ins. 

J. Q. Adams. 
Rectangular; bust; face f to left. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Size, 6.8 X 3.14 ins. 

James Allen. 

Half length ; fiice f to right. From a daguerreotype. P. 
S. Duval, lith., for Edward Clarkson, Philadelphia. Full 
title — Signature | Rev'd James Allen | of the M. E. Church. 
Size, 8.12x9.4 ins. 

Thomas G. Allen. 

Oval ; half-length ; face slightly to left, in robes. From 
a photograph by M. P. Simons ; P. S. Duval, lith. Title — 
Yours in the Gospel | Thos. G. Allen. Size, 7.14 x 5.12 ins. 

William J. B. Andrews. 
Full length in uniform ; tace | to right ; standing by a 
horse. A. Newsam from life. Published in U. S. Military 
Magazine, Huddy & Duval, Philadelphia. Title — To Lieut. 
Col. Wm. J. B. Andrews, Aid to his | Excellency David R. 
Porter | this plate is most respectfully dedicated | by Iluddy 
& Duval. Size, 8.10 x 8.4 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 276 

R. Arthur. 
Full bust; face f to right. P. 8. Duval & Son, lith. 
Title— Tours truly | R Arthur. Size, 9.12 x 7.6 ins. 

John W. Baer. 

Pull bust ; face | to left. J. Eicholtz, pinxt. Published 
by Wm. M. Huddy, Philadelphia, 1840. Title— John W. 
Bear | The Buckeye Blacksmith of Ohio. Size, 7.2 x 6.8 
ins. 

Ibid. 

Half-length ; fiice f to left. A. Newsam from life. P. S. 
Duval, lith. for Daniel McGinley, Philadelphia, 1844. Title 
— Signature | J. W. Baer | The Buckeye Blacksmith of 
Ohio I " I am in favor of extending, etc." Size 10.8 x 8.8 
ins. 

John Banks. 

Rectangular ; half-length ; face f to left. J. B. Schoener, 
pinxt. P. S. Duval, lith. Philadelphia, 1840. Title— Hon. 
John Banks | President Judge of the Third Judicial Dis- 
trict. Size, 7.4 X 6.4 ins. 

William Badger. 
Three-quarter length ; right hand on book ; face f to right. 
P. S. Duval & Co. lith. Title— Wm. Badger. Size 8.10 x 
6.12 ins. 

John C. Baker. 
Half-length, seated ; face f to left. From a daguerreotype 
by Johnson. P. S. Duval, lith., for Spangler & Bro. Lan- 
caster, Pa. Title — Rev'd John C. Baker | Pastor of Ev. 
Luth. Church of the Holy Trinity | Lancaster, Pa. Size, 
9.10x8 ins. 

W. Baker. 
Half-length ; face slightly to right. A. Newsam, del. P. 
S. Duval, lith., Philadelphia. Title — as above. Size, 4.8 x 
3.9 ins. 



! 276 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

\ Albert Barnes. 

I Half-length, seated; face f to right. A. Newsam from 

I life. P. S. Duval, lith., for The U. 8. Ecclesiastical Portrait 

I Gallery, published by Thomas S. Wagner, Philadelphia. 

Title — Rev'd. Albert Barnes. Size, 7x6 ins. 

Ibid. 
' Full bust; face | to left. J. Neagle, pinxt. Childs & 

I Inman, lith., for R. H. Hobson, Philadelphia. Title— Rev'd 

Albert Barnes | Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, 
I Philadelphia. Size, 5 x 4.9 ins. 

J. Beechbr. 
Half-length, right hand holding a Bible ; face f to left. 
Brewster, pinxt. P. S. Duval, lith., Philadelphia. Title — 
as above. Size, 9x8 ins. 

L. VON Beethoven. 

Half-length, face f to right. Published in Parlour Re- 
view, No. 1, Philadelphia. Title — ^L. v. Beethoven. 
Size, 5.6 X 5.6 ins. 

Alen Beith. 

Half-length, in robes; fiill face. From a photograph. 
P. S. Duval, lith., for Joseph M. Wilson. Title— Alen 
Beith I Pastor of the North Presbyterian Church, Stirling, 
Scotland | Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free 
Church of Scotland, 1858. Size, 6.2 x 5 ins. 

Bellini. 
Three-quarter length, standing; face | to right. P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title — as above. Size, 6 x 5.4 ins. 

John D. Bemo. 
Full length, standing, Bible in right hand ; face | to left. 
A. Newsam from life. P. S. Duval, lith. Title— John D. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 277 

Bemo I or Husti-Coluc-Chee | Nephew of the celebrated 
Seminole Chief Oceola | Converted to Christianity at sea, 
etc. Size, 15.7 x 10 ins. 

J. F. Berg. 
Half-length, seated ; face | to left. A. Newsam, del. P. 
S. Duval, lith., for Thos. S. Wagner, Philadelphia. Title— 
Rev'd J. F. Berg. Size 6.8 x 5.3 ins. 

John M. Berrien. 
Rectangular; half-length; face } to left. King, pinxt 
Pendleton, Kearny & Childs, lith., Philadelphia. Title- 
John M. Berrien | of Georgia | Attorney General. Size, 
3.7 X 8 ins. Not signed, but ascribed to Newsam. 

J. Porter Bewley. 
Full bust, face slightly to right A. Newsam, del. P. 8. 
Duval, lith. Title — as above. Size, 4.3 x 3.6 ins. 

William Bigler. 
Half-length; face f to left. From daguerreotype by 
McClees & Germon. Published by Harrison, Philadelphia. 
Title— Wm. Bigler | Clearfield | Pennsylvania. Size, 9.12 
X 8.12 ins. 

Horace Binney. 

Full bust; face f to left. Childs A Inman, lith., Phila- 
delphia — Size, 7.15 X 8.6 ins. The only copy seen is unlet- 
tered and is not signed by Newsam ; but it is evidently his 
work. 

Robert M. Bird. 

Full bust, front face. From a daguerreotype by M. A. 
Root. P. S. Duval, lith. Title cut oft' in copy seen. Size, 
10.4 X 7.15 ins. 

Andrew Blair. 

Half-length ; face | to left. A. Newsam from life. P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title — Your affectionate father | And'w Blair. 
Size, 8.14 X 8.4 ins. 



278 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

Will A. Blount. 
Half-length; front face. P. S. Duval & Co., lith., Phila- 
delphia. Title — as above. Size, 10.6 x 7.8 ins. 

A. BOLMAR. 

Full bust, foce i to left. P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. Title 
— signature as above. Size, 7.9 x 5.10 ins. 

Jambs C. Booth. 
Bust ; face | to right. From a daguerreotype by M. A. 
Root. P. S. Duval & Co. lith. Title— Jas. C. Booth. Size 
7.3 X 6.5 ins. 

F. J. BONDUEL. 

Halt-length; face f to right. Title— L'Abbe F. J 
Bonduel | Pretre Missionaire en Amerique (Etats Unis) | 
ordonne au Detroit, le 9 Fevrier 1834. Size, 5.8 x 4.14 ins. 

George Boyd. 
Full bust; face | to right; Jos. B. Ord pinxt. ; Childs & 
Inman, lith., Philadelphia. Title — Rev. Geo. Boyd. | Rector 
of Saint Johns Episcopal Church | in the Northern Liberties 
of Philadelphia. Size — 7 x 7.4 ins. 

John Breckinridge. 
Half-length, face } to right. J. Sartain, pinxt. P. S. 
Duval, lith., for TJ. S. Ecclesiastical Portrait Gallery, pub- 
lished by Thos. S. Wagner, Phila. Title— R«v. Jno. 
Breckinridge D.D. Size, 5.12 x 5.7 ins. 

A. G, Broadhbad, Jr. 
Half-length ; face | to left. Title : A. G. Broadhead Jr. 
I Superintendent of Beaver Meadow Rail Road. Size — 6 
X 4.8 ins. 

William Francis Brough. 
Full bust; face f to right, P. S. Duval, lith. Title- 
signature as above. Size, 8.4 x 8.5 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 279 

David Paul Brown. 
Half-length, to right; face | to left. Neagle, pinxt., P. 8. 
Duval lith. Title. David Paul Brown | From a portrait 
painted by Neagle for the Junior Members of the Phila. 
Bar I and presented by them to the Law Library of Phila- 
delphia. Size, 8 X 7.12 ins. 

W. H. Brown. 
Half length ; face | to right. A. Newsam from life ; P. 
S. Duval, lith. Title — signature as above. Size, 8.8 x 
7.10 ins. 

James Buchanan. 

Half-length; face | to right Painted by J. Henry 
Brown ; drawn on stone by A. Newsam ; P. S. Duval Steam 
lith. Press, Phila. Published by Harrison, 89 South 
Eighth St., Phila. Title. — signature as above. Size, 11.4 x 
7.8 in. 

William E. Burton. 

Half length; hat on head; face f to right. T. Sully, 
pinxt. ; P. S. Duval, lith. Title— Mr. William E. Burton | 
Li the character of " Bob Acres" in Sheridan's Comedy of 
The Rivals. Size 9.10 x 8.8 ins. 

James R. Campbell. 
Full bust, fiice slightly to left; wearing glasses. Mr. 
Brewster, pinxt. ; published by Juvenile Foreign Missionary 
Society, Philadelphia. Title — as above. Size 4.9 x 4.4 ins. 

W. S. Campbell. 
Half length, fiice | to right. A. Newsam from life ; P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title — as above. Size, 6.1 x 5.4 ins. 

Matthew Carey. 
Half length, face | to left ; J. Neagle, pinxt Lehman & 
Duval, lith. Philadelphia. Not signed but ascribed to 
Newsam. Title — M. Carey. Size 5.2 x 5.8 ins. 



280 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
Full bust, front face. T. Sully, pinxt. 1826; published 
by T. Sully, Childs & Inman; Philadelphia, 1832. Title— 
Ch. Carroll, of Carrollton. Size 9.4 x 7.12 ins. 

D. L. Carroll. 
Full bust, face | to right. A. Newsam, del. ; P. S. Duval 
lith., for U. S. Ecclesiastical Portrait Gallery, published by 
Thos. S. Wagner, Philadelphia. Title— Rev'd D. L. Car- 
roll, D.D. Size, 5.12 x 4.15 ins, 

Mrs. Catalina. 
Half length, face front. Published in Parlour Review, 
No. 4, Philadelphia, — Title— -as above. Size 5.8 x 4.10 ins. 

Joseph R. Chandler. 
Half length, face f to left. From daguerreotype by 
McClees & Germon; P. S. Duval, lith. Title— Jos. R. 
Chandler. Size 9.12 x 9 ins. 

Ibid. 
Three-quarter length, face f to left; with Masonic re- 
galia. P. S. Duval, lith. Title — Yours fraternally | Jos. R. 
Chandler. Size, 5.12 x 3.12 ins. 

Ibid. 

Three-quarter length, standing, in Masonic regalia ; face 
f to left " From life on stone by A. Newsam ;" P. 8. 
Duval, lith. Title. — ^Yours Fraternally | Jos. R. Chandler. 
Size, 5.10 X 4.4 ins. 

Thomas M. Clark. 

Three-quarter length, face | to left ; with robes. From 
a daguerreotype by T. P. & D. C. Collins, and published by 
the same, Philadelphia, 1847. Title — ^Very truly Yours | 
Thomas M. Clark | Rev'd Thomas M. Clark | Late Rector 
of St. Andrews Church, Philada — etc. Size — 11.3 x 11.8 
ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 281 

Henry Clay. 
Full bust, face f to left. John Neagle, pinxt., P. 8. 
Duval, lith., Philadelphia— 1844. Title— H. Clay | Henry 
Clay I From Neagles original painting | Executed by A. 
Newsam under the immediate supervision of the Painter 
from the full length Portrait | in the Hall of the National 
Clay Club, painted at Ashland by John Neagle for the 
Whigs of Philadelphia. Size— 10.4 x 9.6 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, face } to right. J. Wood, pinxt, Pendleton, 
Kearny & Childs, lith., for D. Mallory, New York. Title- 
Henry Clay. Size 9.5 x 7.3 ins. 

Cassius M. Clay. 
Three-quarter length, seated to right; face f to right 
From daguerreotype by T. P. Collins, and published by 
him ; Philadelphia, 1846. Title — signature as above. Size 
—10.6 X 11.8 ins. 

De Witt Clinton. 

Half-length; face f to left. H. Inman, N.A., pinxt; 
published by C. G. Childs, Phila., and H. Inman, New York, 
1830. Title — as above. Size — 5.2 x 5.2 ins. 

Isaac Collins. 
Half length, face f to left. Jarvis, pinxt. Title — Unlet- 
tered proof. Size 5.10 x 6 ins. 

Ibid. 
Oval ; half-length, face } to left. From photograph by 
James McClees; P. S. Duval, lith., Philadelphia. Title- 
Isaac Collins. Size 10 x 8 ins. 

George W. Colloday. 
Full bust, face f to right Daguerreotype by M. A. Root 
1855; P. S. Duval & Co. Steam lith. Unlettered example. 
Size 10 X 8.13 ins. 



282 Lithoffi-aphic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

John Colt. 
Half-length, face f to right. Henry Inman, pinxt., P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title— Yours truly | Jno. Colt. Size 11.12 x 
9.6 ins. 

Alexander Cook. 
Silhouette ; full length, profile to right. W. H. Brown, 
del., P. S. Duval, lith. Title — signature as above. Size, 
9.2 X 6.14 ins. 

Joseph T. Cooper. 
Half-length, front face. From a daguerreotype. P. 8. 
Duval, lith., for Joseph M. Wilson, Philadelphia. Title — 
Joseph T. Cooper | Pastor of the Second Associate Presby- 
terian Church, Philadelphia, Pa. | Moderator of the Asso- 
ciate Synod for 1858. Size, 5.8 x 4.4 ins. 

Edmon S. Conner. 
Half-length, face f right. T. Sully, pinxt., P. S. Duval, 
lith. Title— Edmon S. Conner | of the Philadelphia Theatre 
I as, I Romeo. Size 10 x 9.6 ins. 

Com. Creighton, U.S.K 
Half-length, face slightly to left. Childs & Inman, lith. 
Philadelphia. Title — unlettered proof in Newsam Collec- 
tion. Size 5.8 X 5.8 ins. 

David Crockett. 
Rectangular, half-length, almost front face. S. S. Osgood, 
pinxt, Childs & Inman, lith. Phila., 1834. Title— David 
Crockett | with three lines in autograph below and signa- 
ture. Size 9.5 X 7.8 ins. 

George M. Dallas. 
Head only, face f to left. Wliolly unlettered, but ascribed 
to Newsam. Size 4.4 x 4.2 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 283 

William Darlington. 
Half-length, face f -to right. P. S. Duval lith. Title— 
Wm. Darlington, M.D. | Anno ^tatis LXV. Size 8 x 
5.12 ins. 

Samuel B. Davis. 
Half-length in uniform, face f to left. T. Sully, pinxt. 
Title — unlettered proof. Size — 9.4 x 8 ins. 

C. R Demme. 
Rectangular, half-length, face | to left. From daguerreo- 
type by W. & F. Langenheim. Title — signature as above | 
Itev'd. C. R. Demme. D.D. | Pastor of St. Michael & Zion 
Churches, Phila. Size— 12.6 x 9.7 ins. 

E. A. Douglas. 
Half-length, face | to left. P. S. Duval & Sons, lith. 
Title— Yours truly | E. A. Douglas | Supt. & Eng. Lehigh 
Canal. Size 5.6 x 4.6 ins. 

Jesse D. Elliott. 
Half-length, in uniform, hands on a sword, face f to right 
Title — Unlettered proof in Newsam Collection. Size — 4.10 
X 3.14 ins. 

Fanny Elssler. 
Half-length, face } to left. From a daguerreotype by 
Cornelius. Title — Mille Fanny Elssler. Size 5.10 x 4.10 ins. 

John England. 
Half-length, seated to left ; profile left. P. S. Duval, lith. 
for Eugene Cammisky, Philadelphia. Title — Rt. Rev. John 
England D.D. | Signature. Size 11.12 x 9.2 ins. 

Isaac Ferris. 
Half-length in clerical robes to fi*ont, face | to left. A. 
Newsam fi-om life; P. S. Duval, lith. Title — as above — 
Size, 9.12 x 9.10 ins. 



284 Littiographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

TnoMAs B. Florence. 
Oval, three-quarter length, standing, face f to right. 
From photograph by Brady. Lithographed by Thos. S. 
Wagner, Phila. Title — Thomas B. Florence | Represent- 
ative from Pennsylvania | Truly Yr. friend | Thomas B. 
Florence. Size, 17.14 x 13.10 ins. 

L. FORNARARI. 

Full bust face f to left. G. Riboni, pinxt., P. S. Duval, 
lith. Title — as above. Size— 9.5 x 9.10 ins. 

Edwin Forrest. 
Full bust &ce I to right. T. Sully, pinxt., Lehman A 
Duval, lith. for C. Alexander, Phila. 1836. Title — signa- 
ture as above. Size — 7.8 x 7.4 ins. 

George Fox. 

Full bust, face f to left. Title. George Fox | Founder 

of Society of Friends, usually called Quakers. Size, 7.11 x 

7 ins. 

Peter Fritz. 

Half-length, standing, in uniform, face f to right. Free- 
land, pinxt., P. S. Duval lith. Title— Maj'r Peter Fritz | 
National Grays, Philada. Size 11.12 x 12.6 ins. 

Henry M. Fuller. 
Full bust, front face. P. S. Duval, lith. Title— as above. 
Size 4.6 X 3.14 ins. 

James Gardette. 

Half-length, front face. Vanderlyn, pinxt. Title — Your 
very obedient Servant | Jas. Gardette. Size, 4.12 x 4.2 ins. 

Francis Xavier Gartland. 
Three-quarter length, seated, face f to right. From a 
daguerreotype, P. S. Duval, lith. Title— Right Rev'd Fran- 
cis Xavier Gartland | First Bishop of Savannah, Ga. Size 
11.8 X 10.12 ins. 



Lithographie Portraits of Albert Newsam. 285 

Robert Gerry. 

Full bust, fece f to right. A. Newsam, del. P. 8. Duval, 
lith. for Thos. S. Wagner's U. S. Ecclesiastical Portrait Gte-l- 
lery, Philada. Title— E^v'd Robert Gerry | Pastor of St. 
George's Methodist Episl Church | Phila. Size, 5.6 x 4.9 
ins. 

E. W. Gilbert. 

Half-length ; face } to right. A. B. Rocky, pinxt Childs 
& Lehman, lith. Phila. Title— E. W. Gilbert | Pastor of 
Hanover St. Presbyterian Church | Wilmington. Del. Size, 
6.12 X 6 ins. 

Capt. Gillis. 

Three-quarter length in uniform, standing to front, face 
I to left ; right hand on hip, sword in left hand. Title — 
Unlettered proof from Newsam Collection, but marked as 
" Capt. Gillis, of Delaware." Size 8.10 x 7.8 ins. 

Stephen Girard. 
Rectangular, ftill length, statue, face | to left. From a 
sketch by Leon Noel after the statue by Gevelot. P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title, as above — Size 5.10 x 3.9 ins. 

Ibid. 
Same as above, but different size. Size, 7.16 x 5.6 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, seated, face | to left. B. Otis, pinxt, Childs 
& Inman, lith. for John Y. Clark, Phila., 1832. Title.— 
Stephen Girard | From the original portrait painted by Bass 
Otis. Size, 9.14 x 10.4 ins. 

John D. Godman. 
Full bust, face | to right. II. Inman, pinxt. C. G. 
Childs, direx. Not signed by Newsam, but ascribed to him. 
Title— John D. Godman, M.D. | Philadelphia. Size— 5 x 4 
ins. 



286 lAthographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

W. Gordon. 
Bust on pedestal ; face f to left, P. 8. Duval, lith., Phila. 
Title— Yours truly | W. Gordon. Size 4.4 x 2.12 ins. 

John L. Grant. 
Full bust, face | to left. Childs & Inman, lith. Not 
signed by Newsam, but ascribed to him. Title — ^Rev. John 
L. Grant | Pastor of the 11th Presbyterian Church, Phila- 
delphia. Size 5.6 X 4.8 ins. 

Stephen Grellet. 
Oval in tint, ftill length silhouette, face profile, to right 
P. 8. Duval, lith. Title — as above. Size, 12.5 x 9.4 ins. 

Robert C. Grier. 
Full bust, face f to right. From an ambrotype. P. 8. 
Duval, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson. Title— Robt. 0. Grier | 
Due West, South Carolina | Moderator of the Associate Re- 
formed Synod of the South, 1858. Size, 5.5 x 4.2 ins. 

Charles Grobe. 
Half-length, front face. P. S. Duval & Son, lith. Title 
— as above. Size 5.14 x 4.8 ins. 

Felix Grundy. 
Full bust, fece f to right. W. B. Cooper, pinxt Leh- 
man & Duval, lith. Phila. Title. — Signature as above. Size, 

5.7 X 4.12 ins. 

Reuben Haines. 

Half-length seated, face | to left. J. Wood, pinxt. P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title — Reuben Haines | Originator of the Hose 
Companies of Philadelphia | 1803 | nat. 1785 | ob. 1831. 
Size 8.2 X 7.2 ins. 

F. G. Halleck. 

Full bust, face f to right. Childs & Inman Press, Phila. 
Unsigned by Newsam, but apparently his work. Title. — 
Signature as above. Size 4 x 4.11 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 287 

Robert Hamilton. 
Full bust, face f to left. T. Sully, pinxt. P. S. Duval, 
lith. Title — as above. Size, 9.12 x 9 ins. 

Wm. Henry Harrison. 
Rectangular, half-length in uniform, sword in left hand, 
face f to left. R Peale, pinxt. Lehman & Duval, lith., 
Phila. Title — General Harrison. Size— 12.7 x 10.4 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, face | to right. T. Sully, pinxt. published 
by W. E. Tucker & Chas. W. Bender, Phila. 1841. Title— 
Genl. Wm. H. Harrison | President of the United States | 
Inaugurated March 4th, 1841. Size — 11.4 x 11.4 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, ftiU bust, face f to left. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title.— W. H. Harrison. Size 6.8 x 3.14 ins. 

James B. Hardenbergh. 
Half-length, face | to right. A. Newsam, del., P. S. Du- 
val, lith. Title, Jas. B. Hardenbergh. Size, 9.8 x 8.2 ins. 

Erskine Hazard. 
Full bust, face slightly to left. From an ambrotyjDC by 
J. Brown, Mauch Chunk; P. S. Duval & Son, lith. Title— 
Yours I Erskine Hazard. Size 4 x 3.14 ins. 

J. P. K. Henshaw. 
Half-length in clerical robes ; face | to right. " From life 
on stone by A. Newsam." P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. " Pub- 
lished by request." Title— J. P. K. Henshaw D.D. | Rector 
of Saint Peters Church, Bait. Size 5.8 x 4.14 ins. 

CONSTANTIN HeRING. 

Half length, reading book, face | to right. From a da- 
guerreotype by W. & F. Langcnheim. Title — ^Die milde 
Macht is gross. | Constantin Hering. Size, 3x3 ins. 



288 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

George Higoins. 
Half-length, face | to left. A. Newsam from life, Thos. 
S. Wagner, publisher, in TJ. S. Ecclesiastical Portrait Gal- 
lery. Title — ^Rev'd Geo. Higgins. Size, 4.6 x 6 ins. 

Henry Hill. 
Oval; bust; face | to right. P. S. Duval, Steam lith., 
Phila. Note made from a process plate of the original and 
size not known. 

James Hoban. 

Full bust; face f to right. Daguerreotype by Wm. J. 
Corcoran. P. S. Duval, lith. Phila. 1846. Title.— Signar 
ture as above | James Hoban Esqr. | Late U. S. Attorney 
for the District of Columbia | Three lines beneath. Size 
10.12 X 8.12 ins. 

Joseph Hopkinson. 

Bust, face | to left. T. Sully, pinxt., Childs & Inman, 
lith. Not signed by Newsam, but ascribed to liim. Unlet- 
tered proof — Size 5.9 x 5.6 ins. 

Ibid. 

Half-length, face | to left. Title — Jos. Hopkinson, LL.D. 

I Late Judge of the U. S. Court for the Eastern District of 

Penna. | President of the Penna. Academy of Fine Arts, 

Vice President of the | American Philosphical Society, etc. 

etc. Size 11 x 8.2 ins. 

W. B. Hubbard. 
Three-quarter length in Masonic regalia, face front. P. 
S. Duval & Son, lith. for " Mirror & Keystone," Philada., 
1852. Title.— Yours Fraternally | W. B. Hubbard | M. W. 
G. M. of. the Grand Lodge of Ohio. Size 10 x 6.10 ins. 

John Hughes. 
Full bust, in robes, face | to right. A. Newsam from life ; 
published by John Kenedy, New York, 1841. Title — Sig- 



Ldthographie Portraits of Albert Newsam. 289 

nature | Right Rev'd John Hughes D.D. | Coadjutor to the 
Bishop of New York. Size, 9 x 9.8 ins. 

Mr. Huidekopkr. 
Half length, face | to left. J. Neagle, pinxt. Childs & 
Inman, lith. From unlettered proof in Newsam Collection. 
Size 7.8 X 7 ins. 

Hunt. 

Half length, face | to right. A. Newsam from life. P. 8. 

Duval, lith. Title— M Hunt. | Genl. Hunt | First 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the | 
Republic of Texas. (Signature obscure.) Size : 11 x 9.8 ins. 

Thomas P. Hunt. 
Half-length, holding a book entitled "The Drunkard's 
Friend," face f to right. Wm. E. Winner, pinxt., P. 8. 
Duval, lith. Title— Thos. P. Hunt. Size, 9.10 x 8.12 (?) 

George B. Ide. 
Full bust, face slightly to left. A. Newsam, del., P. S. 
Duval, lith., for Thos. S. Wagner. Title.— Rev'd Geo. B. 
Ide, A.M. I Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Phila. 
Size, 5.4 X 4.2 ins. 

J. R. Ingersoll. 
Full bust, face | to right. H. Inman, pinxt. Childs & 
Inman, lith. Not signed by Newsam, but it is his work. 
Title— J. R Ingersoll | From the original picture painted 
for his students and presented to | the Law Library of Phil- 
adelphia. Size, 8.13 X 8.12 ins. 



(To be continutHl.) 



VOL. XXIV. — 19 



290 



A Letter of the Mother of Washington. 



A LETTER OF THE MOTHER OF WASHINGTON. 

Original in the Manuscript Collection of the Historical Society of 

Pennsylvania. 






t/H'Ct ^?g<>e '29^'^yX 










j^^t<y ^ 







/^^^^Z/^ 



Colmd BoucUnofs Notes on the Cartel, 1778. 291 



COLONEL BLIAS BOUDINOT'S NOTES OF TWO CON- 
FBEBNCBS HELD BY THE AMEEICAN AND BEITISH 
COMMISSIONERS TO SETTLE A GENERAL CARTEL 
FOR THE EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS .OF WAR, 1778. 

[The exchange of civil and military prisoners of war was a matter 
which continued in a very unsatisfactory state until the appointment by 
Congress in June of 1777 of Elias Boudinot, Esq., as Commissary Gen- 
eral of Prisoners. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania in its manu- 
script collection haa much of the correspondence and many notes of 
conferences of Colonel Boudinot on the subject, and we have selected one 
of the latter, for the interesting account it gives of the attempt to settle 
on a general cartel for the exchange of prisoners of war. The American 
Commissioners were Colonel William Grayson, Lieutenant-Colonels Alex- 
ander Hamilton and Robert Hanson Harrison, of Washington's staff, and 
Colonel Elias Boudinot, and the British, Colonel Charles G'Hara, of the 
Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, Colonel Humphry Stephens, of the 
Third Regiment of Foot Guards, and Captain the Hon. Richard Fitzpat- 
rick, of the First Raiment of Foot Guards. Their meetings took place 
in the Benezet mansion, on Main street near the Square, Germantown,. 
and in the inn of Amos Strickland, at Newtown, in Bucks County.] 

On Tuesday the 31'* March 1778 Col. W» Grayson, Lieut. 
Col. Rob* H. Harrison & Alex' Hamilton and Eliaa Boudinot 
Commissioners appointed by his Exc^ Gen. Washington^ 
(for meeting Commissioners of like Bank from Gen* Howe 
to sett k agree upon a general Cartel for the Exchange of 
Prisoners &c.) set out from the Camp at the Valley Forge, and 
proceeded to German Town, and arrived at 11 o'clock in 
the forenoon, where they met Col. Charles O'Hara, Col. 
Humphrey Stephens & Capt Bich** Pitzpatrick, Commission- 
ers from Sir William Howe. The Commissioners on each side 
were attended by an Escort of 12 light Dragoons under the 
command of a Cap. of light Dragoons — ^Americans by Capt 
[Bobert] Smith of Baylor's reg*. 

After the usual Litroduction, Col. O'Hara mentioned their 
coming with the most upright Intentions of acting with 



292 Oolond Boudinofa Notes on the Cartd, 1778. 

Candour & Openess. That they doubted not of our eomhig 
witlj the same resolutions, and that therefore, they hoped for 
a favourable Issue. Col. O'Hara presented their Commis- 
sion from Sir William Howe dated the 5'** Inst, for meeting 
on the 10***, whereupon Col. Grayson produced the Commis- 
sion from Gkn' Washington and Com* were examined & ex- 
changed. Col. O'Hara previously observed, that he under- 
stood the two Generals meant the negotiations to proceed 
between the military Gent" and if necessity required to call in 
Mess' Boudinot & Loring for Information occasionally, but 
on seeing that Mr. Boudinot was mentioned in the Commis- 
sion, waived the Matter and proceeded to introduce rough 
Notes of their Ideas of the principal Parts of a general Cartel, 
leaving them and desiring they might be considered by to- 
morrow. Then proposed their going to Town this Evening, 
& returning by Ten o'Clock tomorrow Morning.* Col. 
Harrison mentioned the necessary attendants passing k 
repassing to the respective Camps under Passes from 
each other. Col. O'Hara agreed for this Day & promised to 
obtain proper Authority for the purpose by tomorrow. It 
was mentioned that German Town should be a place of neu- 
trality k no Troops besides the mutual Escorts to enter. 
Col. O'Hara also proposed at the Introduction, that we should 
take up the matter of our Business in the first Place by set- 
tling a general Cartel, to answer the Purposes of our Com- 
missions and afterwards to settle all other disputes as second- 
ary Matters, to which we assented, provided nothing was 
considered as binding on either Party until the whole was 
settled. 

* In another communication Colonel Boudinot states : " The British 
Commissioners after dinner told us, that they had engaged to attend a 
grand Ball that was to be given that evening in the City, and earnestly 
solicited that we should gratify them by consenting to their going into 
the City, when they would mention our Objections to their powers and 
they would be out early in the morning. They accordingly went and I 
suppose reported to Gen. Howe. The next morning, they came out in 
good time. . . In granting this request, we were guilty of a great 
Blunder." 



Colonel BoudinoVs Notes on the Cartel^ 1778. 293 

Dined altogether at Benezet's ; spent the Evening in con- 
sidering the rough Minutes left with us & preparing our 
Objections for the morning. 

Wednesday^ April 1. — After settling our Minds on the 
rough Notes of a general Cartel, & making the proper 
Notes, we attended at the Place of Meeting, where after 
waiting an Hour, we were joined by the Commissipners on 
the Part of Gen* Howe. 

After making our Objections to Gen* Howe's Commission 
to the Gent" viz. Tliat it did not contain an Averment ot 
Gen* Howe's Power and that it was restricted to the 10*** 
March, which was past, we proceeded, (through Col. 
Grayson) to examine the rough Notes Paragraph by Para- 
graph, and after discussing tlie several propositions sepa- 
rately, we agreed in our general Ideas on the most material 
of them making Notes thereof. The Gentlemen then pro- 
posed amplifying the rough Notes & reducing them to the 
form of a Cartel before the next meeting, but as this must be 
the work of Time they agreed to adjourn till Friday morning. 

Having finished Business, they informed us that they had 
rec'd orders to acquaint us that it was Gen* Howe's intention 
that as German Town was within 4J miles of their Posts, 
the Truce should be considered to be in force no longer 
than we were actually sitting excepting that when his Com- 
missioners went oft' towards Philadelphia every Evening 
we should immediately set oflf towards our Posts, and that 
we should be mutually protected in going & coming. On 
this we immediately demanded to know if these were their 
positive orders fi*om Gen* Howe, they answered, that how 
ever they might consider this matter themselves, that these 
were the orders they had rec'd fi*om S' W" Howe, to which 
we ans** that we should depart to our Camp as soon as pos- 
sible, and that they could not expect our attendance again 
until a farther Agreement between our Gen** respecting this 
matter. 

It is to be remembered, that in the Notes we made of our 
agreement of Ideas on the rough Proposition, we went no 



294 Oylond Boudinofs Notes on the Cartel^ 1778. 

farther than the general Principle of each, which we agreed 
was to be mutually modified & enlarged with such restric- 
tions k Conditions & applied to such purposes as per 
measure to be adopted on our part, as we conceived it to be 
an extraordinary step on their side to start such doubt on so 
clear a point and which had been so fully settled by the two 
commanders in chief: & at the same time looking upon it 
as derogatory to the dignity of the States, & a reflection 
on our own personal honor. We informed them we should 
set out in the morning to give an account to Gen^ Wash- 
ington of the reasons which suspended the negotiation. 

April If,. — Gen' Washington having informed us that he 
had rec'd a Letter from Gen' Howe on the Subject of our 
negotiation & leaving German Town, in Consequence of 
which he had appointed another Meeting of the Commis- 
sioners at New Town in Bucks County on Monday next, 
which was to be the Place of our residence till the negotia- 
tion was finished, unless an adjournment should take Place 
to any other Place, by mutual Consent, we agreed to set oft 
early on Monday Morning. 

Monday^ April 6, — We arrived at New Town about 6 
o'clock in the afternoon Escorted as before, where we met 
Gen* Howe's Commissioners just arrived, with the addition 
of a Commissary & Subaltern oflicer. Lodgings were 
provided for the English Commissioners, & their Escort 
It appearing that they were unprovided with either Provi- 
sions or Forage, we agreed to make the necessary Provision 
for their Escort, & to keep one Table for the Commis- 
sioners, they having provided Liquors. It was agreed to 
adjourn all Business till to-morrow morning. 

April 7. — The Commissioners met at the house of Mr. 
Strickland, and pre^dous to opening the Business, Col. 
O'Hara informed us, that Sir W™ Howe had been made 
acquainted with the objection taken to their Commission, 
when at German Town. That his wish & desire was to 
treat in the present Business wdth Gen' Washington in the 
personal characters of the two Generals. That however, he 



Colonel Boudinofs Notes on the Cartdy 1778. 295 

thought himself justifiable in exceeding his express Powers, 
in negotiating an Exchange from the necessity & mutual 
convenience of the measure and would take the risque upon 
himself, yet he could not think or consent to setting forth 
any Assertion in the Powers or Commission that would 
convey the Idea of a national compact or Agreement, and 
therefore the English Commissioners desired our Considera- 
tion of the question, whether we thought ourselves author- 
ized to treat with them under the Commission as it now 
stands as otherwise they could not proceed in the Business. 
That if we could not think ourselves thus authorized as to 
the Cartel at large, because of such want of Powers, that 
there could be no just Objection to our going into an Ex- 
change of the Prisoners now actually in Possession, as this 
would be merely a personal Business to be executed 
immediately. 

After some altercation on the subject, they proposed to 
adjourn till tomorrow morning, when they would expect 
our final answer. 

April 8. — On meeting this morning we desired the Gent' 
would give us an answer to a previous Question, viz. 
Whether they considered their Proposition as a positive 
Term on the Compliance to which, we could only proceed 
to Business, or whether they considered it as a point of dis- 
cussion, and therefore that they were ready to hear our 
Arguments on the subject. On a little disputation we in- 
formed them that we considered ourselves as unauthorized 
either to treat under the Idea of representing our General 
in his personal character, or of negotiating partially for the 
exchange of the present Prisoners only. They replied, that 
they considered it at present as a positive preliminary, and 
that none but Sir W" Howe could fiilly answer the Question 
and authorize them to proceed, and that to settle this Dis- 
pute, two of them Col. O'Hara & Capt. Fitzpatrick would 
immediately go to Philadelphia & take his further Instruc- 
tions on the subject, and return tomorrow morning. To 
this we agreed and adjourned till tomorrow morning. 



! 296 Colmel Boudinofs Notes m the Cartel, 1778. 

\ As they chose to take their Waggon to the City to return 

{ with some necessaries, a Passport was signed by Col. Grayson 

' & Col. Hamilton for the purpose. 

{ April 9, — The Gent"* returning from Philadelphia so late, 

that no Business could be done. 
I April 10. — On meeting this morning Gen^ Howe's Com- 

I missioners informed us, that they were ready to treat with 

!: US on the Commission as it stood, but it could not be altered. 

{ Having had a great deal of private confidential conversation 

'\ on the subject, we proposed, that our objections should be 

put into writing, and that they should give us an official 
;{ answer in writing, to prevent mistakes, to which after some 

•I dispute they consented. We retired, and drew up our olv 

jections to their Powers (for state of objections see appendix) 
; and delivered it to them, which they refused to read, and 

il returned back, all edging that having considered the matter, 

J they did not think themselves authorized to give any other 

than a verbal answer. This altercation put off the Business 
J for this day. 

I April 11. — ^Having corrected & amended our State of 

i Objections, we insisted on Gcn^ Howe's Commissioners re- 

i ceiving them, which they did with great difficulty, and in 

I the afternoon returned us a written Paper (see appendix) 

' declaring that it was no answer to our Objections but only 

a declaration of their readiness to treat. To this we imme- 
diately prepared a reply, and delivered it to Col. O'Hara, 
who refused to read it, alledging that if we could not meet 
them on that Commission the negotiation was at an end, and 
■■ after keeping it some time, he returned it to us, on which 

{ Col. Grayson read the Paper aloud to them. They insisted 

that we had gone out of the present Business with our 
Objections, which ought to have been confined to their Com- 
mission, in which there was nothing contained relative to 
any thing civil but was altogether military. That the Ex- 
change of Citizens was a ground they never could meet us 
on, as the inhabitants were all their Citizens, and the Terms 
were unequal — and that with regard to the publick Faith, if 



Colonel Boudimfs Notes on the Cartel^ 1778. 297 

we held up Language of that kind it must forever prevent 
any negotiation, as it could not be pledged with People in 
our situation. On this we replied, that Citizens were an 
express object of our negotiation — that they were mentioned 
in the most positive Terms in the Correspondence between 
Gen^ Washington & Gen* Howe, and that if they considered 
them excluded from their Commission, it was a new Objec- 
tion to the sufficiency of their Powers, which we could never 
give up. That with regard to the publick Faith, we relied 
on our reasoning upon that subject being conclusive, and 
desired to know officially from them, whether they consid- 
ered their Powers as enabling them to hold the Conference 
as a personal Treaty between the two Generals only, or 
whether the publick were also to be concerned in it. They 
answered that they could agree only on a personal Treaty as 
between the two Generals only, and that the publick faith 
could not be pledged or concerned in the matter, and that 
the Cartel if settled would be binding but during Sir W" 
Howe's administration and on him alone. 

In the course of the conversation it was added, that Citi- 
zens were expressly mentioned in our Powers, which being 
interchanged, pointed them out as one object of our nego- 
tiation, that we conceived them to be comprehended in theirs, 
under the general description of Prisoners of War, since we 
know no other light in which Citizens could be made the 
subjects of Captivity, that Sir W"" Howe in his correspond- 
ence with Gen* Washington expressly refers the affairs of 
Citizens to a personal description between the Commission- 
ers, and that their own proposition to us, contained a clause 
respecting Persons in Civil Employment, which we looked 
upon as only the words for Citizens in office. Gen* Howe's 
Commissioners answered that they considered the negotia- 
tion as at an end, and therefore to dispute further on the 
subject was vain. On this we broke off Business and agreed 
to return tomorrow.* 

* In a letter of Colonel Boudinot, he writes of the British Ck)mmi88ion- 
ers : ** We were very sociable, but had previously obtained the character 



I 



298 Colonel Boudinofs Notes on the Cartel^ 1778. 

•; Ap])endix No. 1. 

;* The Commissioners appointed by his Exc^ Gen* Washing- 

\ ton to confer, determine & agree upon a Treaty & Convention 

*^ for the exchancre of Prisoners of War, and for all matters 

.1 whatsoever that may be properly contained therein. 

;| Having examined the Papers on the part of Gen* Sir W"" 

% Howe to his Commissioners and compared them with their 

! own, observe a difterence, which in their apprehension, is 

^ very essential and important. 

General Washington in his Commission expressly declared 
it to be given in Virtue of full Powers to him delegated. 
Gen* Sir W™ Howe in his Commission makes no acknowl- 
edgement of any authority by which he acts, 
i It appears to be the Intention of the respective Generals, 

I mutually expressed in their Powers to do an extensive & per- 

manent Act, which shall not only effect a settlement of past 
diflFerences & a general Exchange of Prisoners for the present, 
■j but shall extend to the establishment of a regular and ex- 

f plicit Cartel in the future. The objects of this Cartel will 

f not be wholly of a Military nature, but will include matters 

\ of very interesting civil concern. It is apprehended that 

4 the Power of entering into a Treaty of such importance is 

not naturally inherent in military command, and that it can- 
not be exercised by cither of the Generals as an official Act, 
merely in virtue of their military capacities, but must be 
^' founded on special Authority according to reason & universal 

Practice ought to be declared, otherwise it will not appear nor 
? have the least efficiency or operation. That if this authority 

■', does not exist, the negotiation can have no sufficient founda- 

\ tion. It must rest solely on the footing of personal Confidence. 

The publick faith cannot be considered as pledged for the 

* 

of our opponents, and were convinced that they depended much on out- 
f drinking us. We knew that Col. Grayson was a match for them, and 

^ therefore left all that part of the business to him . . . They sat down 

often with Grayson while we were preparing to go off, 'till they could 
scarcely sit upright. Just before sundown they were put on their horses 
' and went for the city.'* 



u 



Colonel Boudinofs Notes on the Cartel^ 1778. 299 

performance of any engagements in consequence of it, and 
then may of course be overruled at pleasure. 

Could the credit of individuals be supposed great enough, 
in preservation of personal honor, to prevent the interference 
of superior authority, their influence could not at any rate 
extend beyond their own Command, and should the Caus- 
alities of war remove them, their successors would not be in 
any manner bound by their engagements. 

In fine it is conceived, there would be a manifest impro- 
priety in conducting a Business of this nature on personal 
ground, as such a measure would be destitute of that Validity 
wHch the solemnity of a publick Act alone can give, and 
which the magnitude of the objects it is intended to com- 
prehend indispensibly requires. Personal confidence or the 
mutual credit of individuals, is too slender & unsubstantial 
a basis for concerns of so great variety & extent as the Treaty 
in contemplation must necessarily involve. 
New Town, April 10, 1778. 

WiLLM. Grayson, 
RoBT. H. Harrison, 
A. Hamilton, 
Elias Boudinot. 
To CoL. Charles O'Hara, 
Col. Humphrey Stevens, 
Capt. Richd. Fitzpatrick. 

Appe:tidix No. 2. 

The Commissioners appointed by his Exc^ Sir W" Howe 
to take into consideration all past transactions relative to the 
Exchange of Prisoners, to adjust the difterences that have 
so long subsisted in regard to them, to remove all diflicul- 
ties that may arise in carrying into execution a general Ex- 
change of Prisoners with both parties at this time, and finally 
to establish a regular & explicit Cartel for the future. 

Having rec** the objections made to the Commission under 
which they act, fi'om the Commissioners appointed to meet 



a 



300 Coland Boudimfs Notes on the Cartel, 1778. 

them for similar purposes by General Washington, are much 
concerned to find they are likely to prove an obstruction to 
the execution of so desirable a purpose they conceive the 
Powers delegated to them by their Commission to be suffi- 
cient and simple for effectually accomplishing the purposes 
8 therein contiiined, and hereby declare themselves ready & 

I desirous of immediately entering upon a Treaty ^vith the 

I Commissioners appointed by General Washington for carry- 

^ ing into execution the different objects of their Commission, 

f New Town, April 11, 1778. 

b Chas. O'Hara, 

I HuMPHY. Stephens, 

.*j RiCHD. FiTZPATRICK. 

if To Col. Grayson, 
[^; Lt. Col. Harrison, 

'|4 Lt. Col. Hamilton, 

^ Elias Boudinot, Esq. 

.-; Appendix No. 3. 

p The Commissioners appointed by his Excellency General 

fi Washington to confer, determine & agree upon a Treaty & 

i: Convention for the exchange of Prisoners of War, and for 

*; all matters whatsoever, that may be properly contained 

therein — 
■'.' Are inexpressly concerned to find that the Commissioners on 

the part of Gen^ Sir W™ Howe should think it necessary to 
.^ make the objections stated in their Powers, and supported 

; as they apprehend, by the most conclusive reasons, an insur- 

' ; mountable obstacle to the progress of a negotiation intended 

' \ to answer the most benevolent and estimable purposes. As 

^ Gen* Sir W"" Howe, must be supposed fully empowered to 

^ enter into the Treaty, his commission imports, they can con- 

ceive no suflicient reason for not declaring his Powers, and 
would flatter themselves that nothing can be easier than to 
remove the cause of their objections, and to proceed on the 
business on admissible terms. They are ready and solicitous 
to treat on fair, proper & equal ground, such as will give 



Colonel BoudinoVs Notes on the Cartel, 1778. 301 

efficiency to their proceedings and place a publick Act on 
the foundation of publick authority. 
New Town, Ap' 11, 1778. 

Wm. Grayson, 
RoBT. H. Harrison, 
To CoL. Cn. O'Hara, Albxr. Hamilton, 

Col. Humphy Stephens, Elias Boudinot. 

Capt. Richd. Fitzpatrick. 

Appendix No, 4- 

[L.8.] By his Exc'^^ Geo. Washington Esq' Gen* & Com- 
mander in Chief of the Forces of the United States of 
America. 

To Col. William Grayson, Lieut. Cols. Robert Hanson 
Harrison & Alex' Hamilton and Elias Boudinot Esq' 
Commissary General of Prisoners. 

Whereas a proposition was made by me on the 30"* day 
of July 1776 to his Exc^ Sir W" Howe, and acceeded to by 
him on the first day of August following, stipulating an Ex- 
change of Prisoners, officer for officer of equal rank, soldier 
for soldier and Citizen for Citizen. And whereas diffisr- 
ences have arisen in the construction & execution of this 
Agreement, and it has been found by experience to be 
inadequate to all the desirable purposes for which it was in- 
tended, not being sufficiently extensive & definite to compre- 
hend the diversity of circumstances incident to the State of 
Captivity, or to ascertain the various modes of reUef 
applicable to all. 

In order to adjust all such diflferences, to prevent others 
in future, so far as may be practicable, and to fix the Ex- 
change and accommodation of Prisoners of War, upon a 
more certain, liberal & ample foundation, you are in virtue 
of full Powers to me delegated, to meet such Commis- 
sioners of suitable rank as are or shall be appointed on the 
part of Gen* Sir W" Howe, and who shall come duly author- 
ized to treat on the subject at German Town on the 31'* day 



4 

I 



f 



i 



802 Oolond Baudinofs Notes on the Cartel, 1778. 

of March Inst., with them to confer, determine & agree upon 
a Treaty & Convention for the Exchange of Prisoners of 
War, and for all matters whatsoever which may be properly 
contained therein, on principles of Justice, Humanity k 
mutual advantage, and agreeable to tlie customary rules & 
practices of War among Civilized Nations. For all which 
this shall be your sufficient Warrant and your engagements 
being mutually interchanged shall be ratified and confirmed 
by me. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at Head Quarters at Valley 
Forge this — day of March 1778. 

Go. Washington. 

By his Exc^* Command, 
John Laurens, A.D.C. 

Appaulix No. 5. 

By his Exc^ Sir William Howe, Knight of the most 
Hon"' Order of the Bath, Gen^ & Commander in Chief of all 
his Majesties Forces within the Colonies lajdng on the 
Atlantic Ocean from Nova Scotia to West Florida inclusive, 
&c., &c. 

To CoL. Charles O'Hara, 
Col. Humphry Stephens, 
Capt. Richd. Fitzpatrick. 



In pursuance of an Agreement entered into ^vith Gen. 
Washington for the Appointment of Commissioners on his 
Part and on mine to meet at German Town on Tuesday the 
10*** day of March 1778 \nth full Powers to take under their 
consideration all past Transactions relative to the Exchange 
of Prisoners, to adjust the differences which have so long 
subsisted in regard to them, to remove all difficulties that 
1 may arise in carrying into Execution a general Exchange of 

J the Prisoners of both Parties at this time, and finally to 

establish a regular & explicit Cartel for the future — 

I do hereby nominate & appoint you Col. Charles O'Hara, 
Col. Humphry Stephens & Captain Rich* Fitzpatrick Com- 



ii 



Oobnd BoucUnofs Notes on the Gartely 1778. 803 

missioners on my part for the purpose af ■*, and you or any 
two of you are accordingly to repair to German Town on 
the Day abovementioned and there to treat, determine & 
agree with a like number of Commissioners of suitable 
rank on the part of Gen* Washington vested with similar 
Powers to those herein contained, upon all Matters whatso- 
ever relative to Prisoners. For all which this shall be to 
you Col. Charles O'Hara, Col. Humphry Stephens & Cap* 
Eich'* Pitzpatrick or to any two of you a sufficient Warrant, 
and your Engagements so concluded upon, will upon condi- 
tion of their being mutually interchanged be finally ratified 
& Confirmed on my part.. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at Head Quarters at 
Philadelphia the 5"^ day of March 1778. 

Wm. Howe. [L.S.] 
By his Exc^* Command 

RoBT. Mackenzie, Sec^. 

{Appendix.) 

Copy of rough Propositions made by Gen* Howe's Com- 
missioners for Consideration, with our answers. 

A General Exchange of Prisoners to take place Agreed, 
according to the following form viz. officer for 
officer, soldier for soldier, as far as number and 
rank will apply. 

In Case there should not be an equality in the Agreed to the 
rank of Officers to be exchanged IjtOTattve!** 

Lt General equal to 1 Major Getf & 1 Briff' ^^ i»incipie 

. "^ ^ tobepanued 

Gen' — or to one Brig' Gen* & two Colonels. thro* out thm 

Major Gen* equal to 1 Brig* Gen* k 1 Col., or En«ign 
to 1 Col & two L* Cols. 

Brig* Gen* equal to 1 Col. & 1 L* Col., or to 
1 L* Col. & 2 Majors. 

Colonel equal to 1 L* Col. & 1 Major, or to 1 
Major & two Captains 

L* Col. equal to 1 Major & 1 Captain, or to 8 
Captains. 



Enslgii 


. . 1 


Lieut. 


. . 2 


cap*. . 


. . 8 


Mi^or. 


. . 5 


L»Col. 


. . 8 


Col . . 


. .18 


Brig' . 


. .a 


MAjQen 


. .84 


L* Qen 


. .66 


CaptOei 


\ . .89 



304 Oolojiel BoKdinofs Notes on the Cartel^ 1778. 



The ratio of 
this calculA- 
tion to be 
governed by 
the preceed- 
ing, and the 
value of an 
Ensign In pri- 
vates to be 
considered 
hereafter. 



Major equal to 2 Captains or 4 Subalterns. 

Captain equal to 2 Subalterns. 

In Case it should at any Time, from a defi- 
ciency of Officers, be found necessary to exchange 
them for men the following propositions are sub- 
mitted to consideration. 

L* Gen* equal to 1500 rank & file 



Referred .for 
considera- 
tion. 



The gen> Idea 
to be adopted 
with a more 
enlarged ex- 
planative. 

Agreed to the 
gen» Princi- 
ple & those 
who have no 
rank to be 
provided for. 

This proposi- 
tion to be 
more fully 
explained. 

Agreed to <& to 
be defined. 

Agreed to & the 
time to be 
fixed. 
Agreed. 



Major Gen* 
Brig' Gen* 
Colonel 
L* Col. 
Major 
Captain 
Subaltern 
Sergeant 



750 

375 

187 

93 

46 

23 

12 

3 



In Case it should be found expedient to stipu- 
late a certain Rate of Exchange to be paid in 
Money for Prisoners, when there happens to be 
no Prisoners on one side to return, — proposed 
that each man not disabled by wounds or other- 
wise fi-om bearing arms, be rated at Sterl- 
ing, and the Ransom for Oflicers to be appor- 
tioned accordingly, agreeable to the foregoing 
Proposition. 

Commissioned Officers to be treated with re- 
spect & admitted to such Liberty upon Parole, as 
the nature of the situation may permit. 

Military Officers acting upon the Staff to be 
considered only according to their Ranks in the 
respective Armies. 

Persons in civil Employment to be exchanged 
for their equal, or otherwise as may be agreed 
upon at the time of Exchange. 

Deserters not to be included in the Cartel. 

Prisoners in general to be exchanged as soon 
after Capture, as circumstances may admit. 

Returns of Prisoners and the Places of their 



Cohnd BaudimVs Notes an the Cartel^ 1778. 305 

Confinement to be transmitted by the respective 
Commissaries to each other on the 1** day of 
every month specifying the Causalities since the 
preceeding return. 

Permission to be given by both Parties for the Agreed in aid 
purchase of Provisions, and small necessaries at \^^ ^ 
the market prices. "^^^^ p">p«' 

reetrictions. 

Clothing k Money to be supplyed by each Each party to 
Party, to their respective Troops, and passports ^orto^wnd 
to be given accordingly. clothing & 

Surgeons with Medicines to visit their Pris- th^ Maon- 
oners in their different Stations, at stated periods . ®"- ^ 

' ^ Agreed upon 

& upon previous notice. proper re- 

Hospitals — regulations for them. The protec- Agre^to be 
tion of the sick & wounded, and those attending explained, 
upon them, to be considered by the Commis- 
sioners. 

Provisions — ^The quantity, quality & price of Agreed, 
the Ration p day to be ascertained as well as the 
manner of supply & the mode of payment 

Accounts to be settled by Commissioners at Agreed 
stated periods and the balances to be paid ac- 
cordingly. 

The troops now in Captivity & such as may be Agreed -to be 
taken before these Articles are void by mutual further ex- 
consent, are to be exchanged bona fide agreeable 
to them. 



VOL. XXIV. — 20 



306 The First German Neicspaper Published in America. 



) 

\ 



THE PIEST GERMAN NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED IN 

AMERICA. 

The first newspaper printed in the German language in 
America, was the Philaddphische Zeitung, published by Ben- 
jamin Franklin in the year 1732. The Pennsylvania Gazette 
for June 8 to June 15, 1732, contains the follo%\ing an- 

(nouncement : 
^ Gazette will come out again on Monday mxt^ asd coMh 
nmto befuhlifiedon Mondays. 
I, ,4nd en the Saturday followhig Vfill be fubllfked Philadelphi" 

i (che Z»eitung» of Ni^vspaper in Hifif)-D§tUb^ wbicb noill cmn 

t, tbrne to be fMified on Saturdays once a Fortni/(he^ teadf to be 

% delivered at Tea a Clock, to Cnoitry Suibfcrtiters. AdvervUc* 

) ments are taken in by the Printer hnecf^ orby Ah. Louis Timo-> 

i' thee. Language Mafiet^ a;ho trarjlates tlem. 

J In undertaking this new enterprise FrankUn expected to 

j- secure a liberal support from the German population of the 

5 Province, for whom he had been doing considerable printing, 

I but in this he was disappointed, and the publication of the 

Zeitwng was discontinued after a few numbers had been 
issued. 

The Zeitung was a small sheet of four pages six and a half 
i by nine inches, the text printed in double columns with 

/. Roman type, and at the bottom of the fourth page bore the 

i imprint, Philadelphia : Gedruckt bey JB. Francklin in der 

* Marck-straflse, wo diese Zeitungen vor 5 Shillinge des Jahrs 

I zu bekommen, und Advertissemente zu bestellen sind. The 

first number was issued June 10, 1732, and the second, 
" Sonnabend den 24 Jun, 1732." (A facsimile of the latter 
is herewith presented.) The publication of the Zeitung 
therefore, antedates by seven years the Hoch-Dcutsch Penn- 
; sglvanische Geschicht-Schreiber^ pubUshed by Christopher Saur. 

In the editorial of No. 2 two important announcements 
are made; that not over fifty subscribers had been se- 
cured to support the enterprise, and that in deference to 



^( No. II. ) Si» 



Philadelphifche 

Z E I T U N G. 



S O N N A B E N D, den 24 Jun, 1732. 



WIEwohl ich geglaubec hScte, dafi 
fich unter <feiieii ccotfchen £in- 
wobnem didesLandcs mdu Lieb- 
haber fbtteo nfiioden haben ^ die 
diefet zumahivor juoge Peribhnen 
fb nOltlichs wcrciC| die aingabe der Z^kungen 
nehmlich, bcfTddcm, imd' daxq roit anftcben 
wfirden ; fo erftrecket (ich doch die anzahl de- 
fer die iich daui unteKchrieben haben vor jeczo 
nicht fber 50. Nichts defto wenig^ hJbfi auf 
meifier feiten nichr eRTvingcln wollen damir ei'^ 
nen anfang zu roachen/ der hoffiiuiig lebende, 
dafs fich noch mehrere eiofiodeh wecden felbi- 

Estu.brfSrdern^ Ibnften kh mich geoAchiget 
hen wffrde , bald wieder damic aurtu horen. 
Ich hatte zwar in meiner erften Zdtung ver- 
ibrochcn dicfelbe allc & tage zu publiciren/loch 
rtie meiftcn fttminen habeaeniyShlei dicfelbe lie* 
ber vor 5. Schillingc das gantze Jahr alk 14 
tage cinmahl ^u haben ; weilen alsdann fffgli- 
cher zwey und'xweyeine zcimng halteoy und 
icde perioQ ffemachUebef die hejifite bexahlen 
&6nte ; Weldiesioh mirdann anch ^efidlen laf- 
<e, .und fcibige iron nun an alle 14. tage einmal 
lieraus geben will. Die Anfprache des K&iiges 
von England, welcheichinmeinem voiigenvcr* 
fi>fOcfaen, well (ie allziilang, urxl ich etnen an* 
^rn vorivth von Neuigkeiten bekoromeo, habe 
lieber woUen auslaflfcn, wie ich aoch um derur- 
(achcn wtUen mei ne erklahrun|en, die wohl il- 
ber etni^ (achen nSrhie gewelen wfren, lieber 
aufeine aoidere g^legenhcit yerfpahre, pnd imr 
die biieffe von wort.zu wort jetzorhittheile. 
Cmfidmimpii Decemb. 1 5/ 

HIcr id em Courier angekommen^ tnic der 
Copey^incs Priedens^Tlafiats, wekben 
dexK&% Yoo PoKficn dem fi»& In BahilonieD 



xugefandr ; nacbdem fcibige \'on dem Croft- VI* 
zier denen andern Miniftern in dem Seraglio ift 
communtcircr worden, hat'manfie in eincm ge- 
neral l^ivan, welcher am 12. dielcs moiutlis zia 
dem ende expresaft gehalten wordch, geleien^ 
und nur wemge verandeningen daiiaeemachr, 
Man lagr da& vermSge diefes Trsfiats der grof> 
fi: Sultan verj^chtet fev, alle df eVon Periien 
eroberte Provintzien wicderum zu geben, au«ge- 
nommen Georgia un(l die alte Provintz. vop &-> 
bilonien : Dageftan (bile dem Printzen wiedcc 
eingerSumet werden, dSr deflcD* bou^^erainefi 
Herr cigentlich ift, und welcher alhierlchon aii« 
derthalb Jahr um diefc refiinitioo angehairen ; 
Dafi die zwey durch diden Prieden verettiigtc 
Machten ihre kraSre ftoCinunen fpamien ibllcn^ 
die Molcowicer %utwingehallaBwas(ievohPdr* 
fien genommen haben , aucb wiedcr zu Mben ; 
doch dafi lie disfalsu keiner thSlslichkeit kom- 
inen ibllen , Jbifi 6c yorheio alle mitte! der un-' 
terhandlung verfuchet habeo ; im.fall die Cxa- 
rrn aber fblches weigem (blte^ fie ibre wa&n 
nicht niederlegen wollen, bi(s alle die Lander 
wiedet erobeit leyn. Was eine jdde von diefca 
sweycn Machten wShrendcQ didem Krieg^ cr- 
obem werdcf iblle derielben verUeibeu. 

Weiters wird verficherr, dafs der Grofi VioSff 
gewiflen fremden Mfniftem ein Memorial hat 
ra(rencinhandigcn,worinncn er tracbttt die ooch* 
wcndigkeie mu oebiiupten, dafiman fich der all- 
w gfoiTen Anwachiong d(r MoG:owitiichea 
macht emgegen ietze ; wid von wainoflemee- 
i^icht c^vor dat OttomannUche Rdcb icf , die- 
fclben von der Oifpifchen See xu ycmeiben. 
Es werdott verfidiiedieiie Kri^^Scbiflfe vom et-^ 
ften und zwcyten ranggcbauet, und grofie Ma** 
gasflca fW geftbfiu UIkI nwid piovifion auf- 

lerick^ 



^rmchtet : Auch hat ictoe Hbhcit in die Baft 
las der See Piovinttkn ordre gdandt, ihm cine 
gewifle anzidil Matrofen uod Traafporc-Schifte 
lu lumirea. Der groiTe SvAtkn hat fich nuD 3. 
monach liiiffin fcinero SerrailfehrveiborgeQ^' 
halccii, uncTlaft fich ichr iclten vod fcinem Vol- 
ckc uad Trouppcn feh«n, welches cinige gcle- 
genbcit xu murmuriren unter ihnen gidbc. 
Fk^reme Fdmiiir. 2. 
Wir vemehmen von Gorfica, dafs die Rebel- 
len, nach dem vortheil welchen fie tu Olmiano 

Ewonnen hatccn,den Fleckcn BigugliaVoahc bc^ 
Ilia, mic folchem murh angegrifien babcn,dal$ 
fie denen Soldaten, fo durchdic^maurcn auf Ae 
gefeuert, .die Flintcn ius den hftn'dcn £enooi- 
men. In dem erftcn anfaU becnachrigcen fie fich 
eincs Polleas worinnen ein QMporal u; 1^ Mana 
war, fie wurdenaber vondemdapftaiBibindcm 
Flecken mit 1 50 manncofnmandirete,v^icder »i* 
rfick gerricben, doch fohenfie ficK noch Meifter 
dicies orts gemacht haben, ta welchca ficT firhon 
an xwey uncerichiedlicben octen eined erngang 
gewonnen hatrcn,weunQicbccicr Colonel Wach- 
tendoock einen iuccours voa 400 Mann gefundt 
und felbft mis 1060 Mann gefblget ware, ihoQn 
den pafi ab tU ichneiden, wddics fie dennoch 
vor^ekbrnmen, uod in ihre gebijrge, iivelche for* 
lificiret, und faft vor unfioerwindlich gehalten 
iverden»iich bey zeiten reucircr hStcen. Siedro- 
Imh in kmt^en einen neuen anfsiU auf fiaftiaund 
Sr. FicNrenit zu uncernehmen. 

fFkn J ^tirxAt. la. 
£s werden zukfinflltige woche erliche Dodo- 
xes uud Baibierer n^ch den Tfirckiichen GrSn- 
tteii gefchicket die ansbreicung der ccmtagion 
und anfteckenden ieuche in htebcnbilrgcn, allwo, 
beretts einige D8rfier inficiret find., zti vcrhio-' 
4dcin. Der Graf von Levoidi, General Leiitenaht 
der Czarifi:hen Armee , wcicher hier oncer depi 
tiail eioes M inifters derbefagten Keyferin aQge- 
Icommen ift; hat drey privac Audientien b^m 
Kevler gehabt, ond iFim die auf dem ta^ ify- 
chde Hcyrath des K.r(Mi|>rtntzen vonPreufTeii nut 
def . Prinfteflfm von Mecklenburg , Tochter.des 
HoETCogs dicfcs namens, bekandc geidacbt 
^fWFebruar. 
Hier wird unter(chtedchtlich gefprochcn von 
dem neuen Eyde welchen die unterthanen der 
Czarin von M^fcautiaben muflen ablegen, den- 
tenigen vor den lechtmsUItgei^ Auifelger ziur 
iCrone zu erkenkien, welchen die Cxarirf datu in 
ibrem Teftamente benehnen (oil. Durchgehcndi 

S^laubet man dafs die wafal wol aufdie PrintzeT 
in von Mecklenbure, die deo i8.Deeemb.17 18. 
gebohrcn ift, unducfa Aon ireiheyrathcn will^ 
Ldlen dSidtc. 



^tfr/fff Januar. f.- 
Dicfcn fflorgen gicug dot KSnig nach Potfi 
dam, die ankunift dc^ Herttogea von Lorhrin« 

fen alda abzuwartcn. Die KfSnigin mic denen 
Vinttcflen Chariocta und Sophia follcn kfinffci* 
gen 5onntag auch dahin gchen, ncblt der Marck** 
graffin Gemahihi des Erbprtnrccn, von Baxdth 
wciche den ff dicfes mic ihrem Gemahl die Kei« 
fe auf Leip:dg, und von da weiter pach Barath 
fortfccten wcidcn. Ziwey Dcpucierce von dcncn 
Sali^bucgiichenProceitancen haben eine Audicnc 
bey dem Kdnige ^ehabc, welchcr fie fchr licb« 
ieich empUngen und ihnen 100 D^cacen vcreh* 
ret hat,dabey aiich vcrfprcKzhen ihnen l«and und 
aqdere grofle. yprtheile zu^bcn^ i'l. faH.einige 
von ihren brftde^ fich in ieiiKm rerriroiio iiol* 
teaniederlaflcn. Der Ki$nig.iclK intulehr bok^ 
gen zu feyn wegen des clendcs (b dieic arme leu« 
re der Religion wegen ausftehen, auch kan ihic 
feiiigkeic und beftindigkeit unrer (blchem dmck* 
niche genilgfitm bev^underc ueiden. 

In dicier Scadc and VuiftUdcen find imverwi- 
chenen Jahrc 841. paar ehjellch zufammen ge* 
geben, 30^4. kinder beydeHey^cTchlechcs, imd 
336. Hurkinder gebohren, und *3 153. maoner^ 
weiber und kinder seftorben. 

Frofkifun Januar. 6, 
Mit lectten bnefen von Berlin har man» dais 
derKonig am iSblichen eiifer vor die artntlivef^- 
folgtenSahiburgcr, diczwcy Depurieite welche 
nach Berlin gekommen (eine vorfprache vor ih* 
re gefangene Mitbruder zu eifuchen, durch den 
Confiftorial RathReinbeck und einen audernJie- 
rffhmten der Augsburgifi:hen Coiifetkfion zuge- 
thanen Prediger, ihre& Glaubens-bekantniflcs 
halbeo hatexamintrcnlaflen, aus deren amuort 
erhedet, datifieweder Arianer,Schwf!mer.Y)i>ch 
i^nthufiafteii ieyn, wie ihre feinde die Papiften 
von ihnen aUsftreuen fie verhaft zu machcn, und 
fie der jEmmerlicheo* Freyheic aas ihrem Vater- 
lande tu liehen , damic (te ihre Religion andcr- 
werts ausdl^ m6chren, zu beraubeo. 
Framcifitri Januar. 1^. 
VoaRegensburg vernimc man, dafi derChuf 
jflirft voii Beyern endlich denen verrriebencn 
Saltzburgem eine freyc PaiTage durch fcin land 
vergonnet, auch fo| " * 
(9 bendrhiget zu (cry 
tcer hat laflen austhejlen, uesv^egcc 
gclifchen Sttnde begriftn; find cine danckft- 
gungf-ichriflt an gcd>chrehXhurfiiiften au^zu-** 
ftcllen. Befam'ScKnde haben aiiifs neue esne 
conferenrc gehalten, in v^eleher refiriviiet wor- 
den an den Minifter von Saltzbarg ein andci^ 
werttges Memorial zu fibergcberi, und darinnen 
angumigen ; dafi der bcrahmte teimio bifs auf 

ncch- 




nechften April torAitHk dtt dngefeflcneo Pro* 
tcftanren in Saltxibuig nieht genu|gfiuii icy , oad 
dais der Weftpfuiiilciie Friede cine zcit von drey 
,«hrcn.ietx^; diSk derowegea die Printtcn'von 
Saiuburg kcinemacbt habendic Keichs-Conf(i - 
lucioaes «u Indero, ohne xuf^immung dcr andem 
Sutcn. Wir habeo alhier nachrichr , dafs den 
14. dieles die £rb Printzcflin yon \baden-Dur* 
li ch einen Sohn zur welt gebracht. 
Hamharg FcbfuSLr. i. 

Es gchet cin geipcin gerficht,. dafi'der regie- 
rende Hert<bg vop Meclcienburg dio.Catholiiche 
Religion ahxunehi^en willcns icy.' ^arciculiere 
briettc von Berim berichren, dais dbr Kronprinrc 
von Preuflcn, 'oachdem mad vicle beredungcn 
4laA.u gebraucher, endlich rc&lvirer ill die junge 
Printtenin voo Mecklenburg xur GK^mahlin xu 
nehmen, und d^fs die liictanon des Rufiiichen 
Reich&y in anlehang deflen^ wol auf leine K6* 
nigl. Hoheit nvffchre ^eft geftellec woden. 
^mjUfdftm Februar. '4 

Man fehvciber aus dem Uaag, dafi der Fran* 
tz6(ilche Ambafladeur, Marquis de Fenelon den 
3 dieles cinclange confereiii mil einicea Her* 
ten voD der Regierung gehabt » worant den 4. 
ein congrefi voo fremden Miniikm we^en aus- 
erordeni lichen afiai.eo ift gehalten worden. Von 
Venrdag wird mnelder, dafr die ausilndtfche 
proMf&ntifchc KaufiSeutbc allda jlblchergdlalc 
durch das elend. der Saltcburgcr find bewwen 
woiden« dafs fie eine college gpthan, und mo. 
Gulden nach Augsburg fibermaciiec haben. Wir 
haben jftngfthin alhier cinen groQen Scurmwind 
gehabt, wetcher vielen fihadenjgcchao, und un> 
ter andern das dach eines hauies nebeo dem Fran- 
tt&fchen Coffee iuuiie abgeworfien» wodurch ^ 
menlchcn , unrcr welchen eta Vaccr und fqjiio, 
aeiiichniettert find : Des folgenden* rages ift das 
ivaflrr hoher als jetpahls b^ menlchen g^en- 
cken gcwelen, weiches wofernecs nicfait vor der 
zuiAckkun6Ft der Pluth gefallen wire, die dam^ 
me Iblte^ durchbrochen und das g|Sfte theil des 
larKles folre flberlchwemnet habeo. Vier gela" 
dene Ichiflfe find in didem fturm zu grunde ge- 
gingen, uud 2 menfchen vertruncken*. 
haag Februar. 19. 

BrielTe von Wicn melden , dafi an dafoem 
hofe ins geheim gehandeic Mrd 2 neoe Qn^ 
fuiftenthilnler auf zu richcen^eincsvor dtO H^i- 
rt'Mg von Lochringen*^ und d^s andere vor den 
Konig von Schwedcn^ als XjKQd^^Sxxx voo Hef- 
fen CafTei, dafs dadnrcl^ da^ gleithgewicht zwi- 
fchen ^fXi Proteftanten undCfrholiichentndeiD 
Churfffrftlichen CoUegio nAs^ he«ahrtt wer- 
den. Und diefcs^ lagt roan, ley die vomehfiifte 
urfiKii gewefen^ wanw ficb der Hcrtios too 



Ix^hnngen, welehcrnaebFranckfeich,EngTand 
und den vomehmften Hfiffenin Tcurfchlfirf ei- 
ne rcife eethan, fich an eiuigen derfeiben lb lan- 

fcaufg^lten. Die pl8tiCche xurfickarife des 
Loutgs von Polen in feme Brblande fchreibet 
man der fehr groBen geneigtheic xu, die er vor 
die Pfrnttcffin von Holftein, vor dielero GiSfin 
voiiOi^eUka, und natftrUche tochcer des Ktfnigs^ 
alleteic geh^ hat und tiocfa higet^ und dafs er 
hat wolleo gegenw2rtig feyn\bey ihrer deder- 
kunllt : Doch andere vermnthen mtt mehi i^ahr* 
fchcinlichkeit, dafi diefe zurOckrcife eiaer fiber- 
xeugung, dafi die Paney des KSnigs Stanislaus 
in Polen zu grofs geworden, htf xu meflen fey; 
U fo ferp, dafs da die affiure der Ibeccllion zuc 
Poluilchen Krone letxllich auFs taper gebracht 
wurde, man jeroand in voller Verf ammlung aua* 
rurten hdrae: Kihmt Omffirilkhin PwmiUn €im 
Sficc JfT.Hicbs find auswfirckiuigcn derFraMcft* 
fiichcn Louis d'ors ,^dche nicht kaiKlkh ontcf 
die GrolTeo in Polen ausgefticurt find. Untcr- 
delfen %i\\ man verfiehem, dafi dit Reile dca 
KSnigsnach Warlchau auf den 2tf. dadeino* 
nath^ feft.geftellet fey. 

Man glaubet hier durch^hends , dafi ficK 
Franckreich emftlich turn kriege rftfie, und die 
Otrpmannilche Pfofte verpAichrer babe, fich ge- 
gen einige Chriftlkhe Pocematen xu deelarircQ^ 
und im tall es xu einer rupiur kommen mSchre^ 
eiae diverfion xu machen. Deswegen aueh die 
ICeylerlichen Trouppen nichr ¥€nmndert« wxh 
wieman fich in den iCIylerlichen Landen flad* 
let hat, die Taxeo und hnpciften etleichteft wof* 
den , Ibndem es werden vielmehr dieielbe xa 
wafler und land ^ dem letxt disfals gemachieii 
eotwurf xu felge vermehret ; und fagt man^dafi 
xu jeder Compogniexu fiifi und pferd 5. matm 
Ibllen hinzu gefttget weidea, Wretches gewtfi 
"keine Jdeine aozaht' ausmachen wird. Aoch bar 
man nachricht, dafi der KSnig von Preuflen zn 
Marienw^fder; Landsberg an der Warteund an« 
dern Oertem anftalt macnet , rine Armee voa 
45000. mahn xu fbrmiren, und verlchiedene R^ 

Simenrer ludi den Lirthauilchen und Chuflfiw 
lichen Grakitz^n abmarichiren xu laflcn. Dtr 
Grofi-Mdfter von Maltha hat drculair brie& 
ausgelchickctf jtUe xom Matthefir Orden f^ehS* 
rige Ritrer aufzufordein, dafi fie fich in dir In* 
ful rinllellen^ und beidtfeyo. Ibllen dieielbe tti 
defendiren, im fall die Torcken, welche groflc 
curflftungeo^ znr See madien , didellMge atta- 
quiivn mochten. 

Die Keyferin von Molcau tft den c< Jan. xu 
PeterAur? aogekommen« and hat den fofgendcn 
tag ihien^fienclidien ebxuc in diefcr Stadt mit 
giwem ^tack t^balttn, He ibU vot Uucr ab- 

rei<b 



fcUe von Molbm einaiiTtaCKat mit dcmR&iii* 
fchcnKi^ergeutchocc haben, dkiesinnhaits: 
jyifi un tail emwc^cr der Kjeyler oder Mofcau 
y<m dcm Torcken (bice attaquirec verdco, dann 
die Cxarip mit ctner Anoee voo looooo. roatto 
iitvdea grSncieii yqa ^er Ukitioe foltc ajgiren, 
uud dnrXeyfef nuccvm Aanee an dco graocica 

P^r/i Mart. ^tf. 

Am tcrwidiene^ Sonotage nachmittag onge- 
fchr eiac viertel ftunde voc fOnf Uhr, wurde die 
fCoiiigia in P^anckieich gllllcklich von 'eiiier 
Vdtxtztffm ciUCec. Der Kootg war den 4.Febr. 
fix. Tahr ait, und Iiat nun zweySShne ondvicr 
Tochtcr l^nfef Hoff hat ordrc gcgcbcn , .die 
Siisraflun^ der i2. Kriegsrchifife zu Breft und 
Toalon io viel tmmtr mSglich zu befchlcuni* 
geii^ wclche ' beftimmct find , wie vorgegeben 
ivird , .von denm zu Algier fatisfa£bion zu for- 
dcm wcgcn dcsTrieden^-biuches. 

PHILADELPHIA Jun. 03. 

Mitdem ktCceitSchiffvon London, Capt. 
Jlecvea; hat umii bier die nachricht bekommeb^ 
<ia($ unfer Pioprietor vor der AbtciTe be&gim 
^rhifis intc eidem Capitain in London accmli- 
yer, und tick verbunden liabe den etften Mw 
an bord dec Schi£k$ zu leyn , und feine Retu^ 
tuich Penni^lvanien an m tieten > fo da&felbi- 
gcr^nunmcnco mit dcm erffen SchiBfe tifglicb er- 
wartet wird 

In einer Gazette* vOU Boflon v<HA 29. Mey. ift 
folgeodes AdvertiiTement publlcirecworden,wo- 
raus man fthen kan, dafi die 5. aneftirtePer- 
fohnen (SbA geoug daran find , und vielleicht 
nochy nach fo vieleni' ausgeflandeoeu elend, das 
t^clacb woden bezahlen roSiTeu , fo ficb ihier 
•liemand annimmt. 

Nachdem auf anftifiung und eingebun^ ver« 
fchiedener Perfohnen, welche den Kapitaiu des 
N;h]frs Liebe und Einigkeit, Jacob llobb, mit 
f^ioffct Barbarey gegcn gewi0e Pfltltser in feinem 
^cliific, auf ihrec Paflage von Holland zu Mar- 
tba*s Vineyard t beleget baben , die EhrCime 
Kiehtcr des KKnIgliohen Obe^erichts gut ge- 
fiindcn habeh, den&lben zu verpflichten dais er 
vor dem Obeiti;^chte von Rccnts-fiichen , 8cc. 
welches den vKidten Dienftag im Mert£ letct. 
Iiin zu Bamilabie vor die County von Bamftabie 
gehalten woiden, ericheioen-, und dasjcnigeib 
von des Konigs wegen gegen iha eingcbracht 
werden mSclite, beantworten folle ; da er dann 



die&Bi «a folge erichSenent und wegen zweyer 
nnceiiohiedenen fielchuidi^ngen des Mords 
von der gfoflCen Jury dicfei Cxiunty gegen ihn 
gefunden, examinir^ worden, und uach einem 
tf Stundcn Lang {jewahrctem Wortwechfel die 
kleine Jury .ihr urtheil gieiehwind einbraciuen 
lb u»(chuldig von der erften anUagc, und '%re« 
nig ininutttfiietnacK ein gleiches w^en der an^ 
dem belclmMigung. MB. Bs wume (x^ der 
xxaminirang oblerviret, daft daseiend (bdietcn 
Pa0a|^eTen begefi;ncc , nicht jron einer gewinn- 
fSchtigen begierde des Capitains , oder voriett* 
lichen Imenjtioo die Retfe in veilaogem herge« 
kommen , fondero die latige derfclben mdfte , 
wie aus'demTag-fegifter dcsCapiuins, und der 
Eydiicdcn ausCige aller Matroien erhellete,deni 
contrairem Winde und der Wind-ftitle zugc* 
fchrieben wecden : Und konten die .'Gezeugen 
von des Knnigs feiten den Capitain mit Icciner 
etnttigen ausAbong einer HSmgkeit wShreuder 
leiie belegen. Weswegcn der Capitain fich zu 
rechtfertjgeo gut gefunden feinen verlettten ca« 
ra^er flfl^Uch tu defendiren ; inlbndeilieit in 
anTehung der fid&ben und (chsbdiichen advert 
tiflfementen, welche find puUiciret woiden Hen? 
felben zu bc fl eck e n, und die gemfirher des volcka 
mk vomrtheilen g^eo ihn cin zvi nehmen« ehe 
er eiaminiret worden und fich felbft fechtmlffi^ 
befreyen konte. Weittrs ift er nun darauf aus.^ 
dieienifi;en ^richtlich zu verfol^en^ wclche ihn! 
{b bolshafiftig verlcuiridet und eincn Procc&vcr- 
uriachet. habea , der nach unrerfiichung gant« 
phnegrn'nd gefimdcn wordcn. 

Prdfsfpigemkr Gitar. Weit^en a fch 7 p. Fein 
Mchl, 7 ich. 9 p. Mittel brod 12 (ch. gcmcn^c 
lafch. braun,9(ch. Rum* 2 fclrr4 p. Mclloiles 
itf p. 

ADVERTISSEMENT 

ES cpjfif hkmH hehmdt gem^Kbi , dafs Hcndrick 
van Bebber , wekhtr ^M€ jabrt her ahhfy- 
Stot Medicinas rnHguthft/mcpefsfraifkiret bat.Jtcb 
bkr XMf vnhn niejei^fetzit : £s find hey ihm Mm 
befie tmd ficherfie (^mifihe Arizj^eyen Zm hekom" 
men dk er filbften vi^ert^^. mnter andern das vor* 
treftfebe fo genannie. Englifche 5altz , oder Sal mi- 
rabile, mlcbes Ofne tforjedtrnum dienlkbe fmrftMhn 
pnd auch ein- hewJtbttfS mhtel- ift mt Fmer mid 
ffaferfitcbi. fTer feiner bedarf, hmficb^anibna- 
dreffiren /» Last itia Court, akvo er fpoMafi.tfi mi$ 
Arent Haflcrt, Kaftffnmm in PMndtiphin. 



^HILjiDEL^HlA: Gcdruckt bey B. Fr^wA/i» in der Marck-ftrafle, 
ivo dicfc icitUDgcn vor 5 vShillinge des Jahrs zu bckommen , ond Ad^ 

vcrtiflcmcQCe zu bcilcUco fiad> 



^ 



The First German Newspaper Publislied in America. 307 

the wishes of a majority of its patrons the paper would be 
issued every two weeks instead of every eight days. Ab- 
stracts of eleven foreign letters are printed, and an account 
of the trial and acquittal of Captain Jacob Lobb, of the ship 
" Love and Unity," at Barnstiible, Massachusetta, charged 
with brutally killing two Palatine passengers during the voy- 
age from Eotterdam to Martha's Vineyard. The accusers 
and witnesses were fined and imprisoned ! A single adver- 
tisement appears, that of Ilendrick van Bebber, a name 
familiar in the history of Germantown. 

Louis Timothee, the translator for the Zeitung^ was a man 
skilled in languages and the printer's art. He was a jrrotigi 
of Franklin, who made him librarian of tlie new Philadel- 
phia Library, and after the death of Tliomas Whitemarsh 
put him in charge of his printing office in Charleston, South 
Carolina. Until recently, all that was known concerning 
the PhiladelpMselie Zeitimg was contained in the announce- 
ment made in the Pemhvjlcania Gazette^ already quoted, for 
no copy of the paper had been seen by any of our anti- 
quarians. By the merest accident, the Rev. Amon Staple- 
ton, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, whose antiquarian researches 
are well known, discovered a copy of the second number 
among some old deeds during one of his ministerial jour- 
neys, and through the exertions of Mr. Julius F. Sachse 
this rare Franklin imprint has been added to the collection 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



808 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 



THE PENNS AND THE TAXATION OF THEIE ESTATES 
BY THE PKOVINCIAL ASSEMBLY. 

(Continued from page 177.) 

Three inatnic- j^q^ h^ Whereas the interest money arisinff 

tions to lieu- *^ ° 

tenant Gov- tVom the loan of Bills of Credit in the said 
7th May HM P^ovince is intended by us and the House of 
Representatives to be applied for the public ser- 
vice of the province and of the inhabitanta 
thereof, and should therefore under the direction 
of the same power that raise it be mo^t care- 
fully applied to those purposes as a greater se- 
curity to the people against misapplication than 
if it was intrusted to only one branch of the 
legislature and such was the ancient practice in 
our said pro\dnce : you shall therefore not give 
your assent to any Bill or Act of Assembly for 
the emitting or re-emitting and continuing any 
l)aper currency or Bills of Credit in the said 
province, unless every such Bill or Act of As- 
sembly do contain one or more enacting clauses 
whereby it shall be eftectually enacted. That the 
whole of the interest money to accrue, arise and 
become payable from the loan of all such paper 
currency or Bills of Credit hereafter to be issued, 
emitted continued or re-emitted shall be disposed 
of only to the very purposes to be mentioned 
and expressed in the same Act in such cases 
where the purposes may conveniently be men- 
tioned and expressed therein, or, where that can- 
not conveniently be done then to such purposes 
only as shall be mentioned and expressed in 
some future Act of the governor and assembly 
or in some future vote or resolution of assembly 
approved of and signed by the Governor or com- 



The Penns and the Taxatmi of their Estates. 309 

mander-in-chief of the said province for the time 
being. And whereas there is the same good 
reason for securing to the use of the inhabitants 
any moneys raised on them by excise or any 
other method you shall not give your assent to 
any law for prolonging the present excise or lay- 
ing any other excise or raising any money on 
the inhabitants of the said province of Pennsyl- 
vania unless there be the like enacting clause, 
that all money arising from the said excise or 
other duties shall be disposed of only to the very 
purposes to be mentioned and expressed in the 
same Act, in such cases where the purposes may 
conveniently be mentioned and exj^ressed therein 
or where that cannot conveniently be done then 
to such purposes only as shall be mentioned and 
expressed in some future Act of the Governor 
and Assembly or in some future vote or resolu- 
tion of Assembly approved of and signed by the 
Governor or Commander-in-chief of the said 
province for the time being. 

12. Whereas by an Act of Assembly passed 
in the said province in the 12th year of his 
present Majesty's reign, entitled An Act for Ee- 
printing. Exchanging and Reemitting all the 
Bills of Credit of this province and for striking 
the further sum of eleven thousand one hundred 
and ten pounds, five shillings, to be emitted upon 
loan, the paper Bills or Bills of Credit of the 
said province amounted unto fourscore thousand 
pounds proclamation money or thereabouts and 
although a reasonable and moderate quantity of 
paper money or Bills of Credit in the said prov- 
ince tends greatly to the service and benefit of 
the said province and its inhabitants as well as 
to the trade of Great Britain, yet the making, 
emitting or continuing too large a quantity 



310 The Fenns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

•> 

thereof has in other colonies and would in the 
said province be prejudicial and would greatly 
affect the exchange and trade of the said province. 
And whereas it hath been represented to us that 
it will be of advantage to the trade of the said 
province to reemit and continue the said four- 
score thousand pounds and even to enlarge and 
encrease the quantity of paper money, you are 
therefore diligently and carefully to enquire 
whether it is necessary and will be convenient 
to reemit the said fourscore thousand pounds and 
also whether it is really necessary to create and 
issue any further sum in paper currency or Bills 
of Credit in the said province. And in case 
upon your best enquiry you shall find it to be 
really convenient and necessary and of advantage 
to the said province, then, but in no other case 
you may pass and give your assent to any Act 
or Acts of Assembly in the said province for re- 
emitting or continuing the said fourscore thou- 
sand pounds for such time as you shall judge 
proper and also for raising and issuing any fur- 
ther sum or sums in paper currency or Bills of 
Credit which you shall think necessary not to 
exceed the sum of forty thousand pounds proclar 
mation money. Always provided that on every 
such Bill strict regard be had to our foregoing in- 
struction Number Eleven as to the disposal of all 
the interest to arise from such paper money so to 
be reemitted or continued or to be new raised or 
issued. And also provided that the very Acts 
for reemitting, continuing or issuing such paper 
currency or in some other distinct Act or Acts 
to be passed at the same time it be effectually 
enacted that all rents and quit-rents in the said 
province due or to be due and payable to the 
proprietories for the time being, be always paid 



The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 811 

according to the rate of exchange at the times 
of payment between the cities of Philadelphia 
and London or some other sufficient provision 
be enacted in lieu thereof in as eftectual a man- 
ner as was done by a separate Act at the time 
when the said act of the 12th year of his 
majesty's reign was passed. 

13. " Whereas the making, emitting or con- 
tinuing too large a quantity of paper money on 
[sic] Bills of Credit within the said colony may 
greatly affect the exchange and trade of the 
same, you shall not therefore on any pretence 
whatsoever pass or give your assent to any law 
or Act of Assembly within the said counties for 
enlarging or increasing the present amount or 
quantity of paper currency or Bills of Credit 
there. But in case you shall find it convenient 
and necessary to reemit or continue any paper 
currency or Bills of Credit already issued there 
you shall cause to be inserted in each and every 
law or Act of the said counties for that purpose 
one or more enacting clauses whereby it shall 
be effectually enacted that the whole of the in- 
terest moneys from time to time to accrue, arise 
and become payable for the loan of all such 
paper currency or Bills of Credit so to be 
reemitted or continued shall be disposed of only 
to the very purposes to be mentioned and ex- 
pressed in the same Act in such cases where the 
purposes may conveniently be mentioned and 
expressed therein or where that cannot conve- 
niently be done then to such purposes only as 
shall be mentioned and expressed in some future 
Act of the Governor and Assembly or in some 
fiiture vote or resolution of Assembly approved 
of and signed by the Governor or Com- 
mander-in-chief for the time being. And in 



812 The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates, 

every such Act for reemitting or continuing or 
in some other distinct and separate Act to be 
passed at the same time you shall also cause to 
be inserted one or more enacting clause or 
clauses effectually to secure that the quit-rents 
and other rents due and to be due to the pro- 
prietaries shall be paid from time to time ac- 
cording to the true rate of exchange between 
the cities of Philadelphia and London at the 
times of payment or to secure such other suffi- 
cient provision in that respect as was done by 
the province of Pennsylvania by Act passed in 
the twelfth year of his present Majesty's reign. 

20. "Whereas in our said commission ap- 
pointing you to be our Lieutenant-Governor as 
aforesaid there is contained a general proviso 
that nothing therein contained shall extend to 
give you any power to do, perform, act, suffer, 
acquiesce in or consent or agree unto any Act 
by means whereof we or either of us or our or 
either of our heirs may be prejudiced in our 
royalties, jurisdictions, properties, estate, right, 
title or interest of, in or to the said province 
or counties or any part of them. Now for your 
better understanding what you are thereby re- 
strained from, we think fit to particularize some 
of the matters which you are not to do by virtue 
of any of the powers contained in the said com- 
mission, namely you are not to pass or give 
your assent unto any law or Act of Assem- 
bly by which any of our manors, lands, rents, 
quit-rents or other estate may be affected to our 
prejudice or by which our right and power in 
the appointment of any officers whatsoever shall 
be taken away or lessened or by which any 
ferry or ferries shall be established to any per- 
son or persons, nevertheless in case the House 



The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 313 

of Representatives of the said province will con- 
sent to pass a general law for the regulation of 
ferries which have been or shall be established, 
declaring the right of granting such ferries to 
be in the proprietaries as one of the royalties 
granted to them by the charter for the said 
province and for the fixing of the rates to be 
paid at such ferries and for the laying penal- 
ties on persons who shall keep any ferry for hire 
within the limits of our grants and for directing 
the form of proceeding against such persons, 
you are at liberty to give your consent to and to 
pass such a bill and we recommend to you to 
take any favorable opportunity which may offer 
to procure such a law in order to put an end to 
all disputes on that head, which was proposed to 
be done by the first of us and the Assembly in 
the year 1735 as may be seen in the Minutes of 
Assembly of that year; you are not to give 
your assent to the passing of any Act of As- 
sembly for the establishment of any Court 
of Chancery, the same having been estab- 
lished there long since by virtue of the 
powers granted in the Royal Charter and 
the said court at the request of the House of 
Representatives, by their resolve of the fourth 
of May 1720 was opened by proclamation of 
the tenth of August following as may be seen 
by the minutes of Assembly. However in case 
the Assembly shall be willing to pass a law for 
the further regulating of the proceedings in 
such court and the fees of the officers, such 
court to consist of the proprietaries and mem- 
bers of the Council or the Lieutenant-Governor 
or Commander-in-chief and members of the 
Council for the time being and to provide that 
neither the proprietiiries or their Lieutenant- 



814 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates, 

Governor or any other of the members respec- 
tively shall sit in court in any cause wherein 
their own particular interest is concerned you 
may give your assent to such a law and in the 
meantime as any applications shall be made to 
you for justice in a course of equity you are to 
administer the same in the said Court of Chan- 
cery as has been formerly done. You are also 
to be especially careful never to ask the aid of 
the House of Representatives of the said prov- 
ince nor to give your assent to the passing of 
any Act of Assembly for the doing or perform- 
ing of any matter or thing whatsoever which 
the proprietaries are lawfully impowered by the 
Royal Charter to do or execute of themselves. 

21. Whereas from the first settlement of the 
said province several Acts of Assembly have from 
time to time been passed for raising provincial 
taxes, in all which as well when the government 
was for some time in the hands of the Crown as 
when executed by commissions from our late 
father the estates of the proprietary himself and 
in some of the said Acts those of his children 
and deputies also were exempted from paying 
toward such taxes over and besides which ex- 
emption several Acts were passed giving to the 
said proprietary a support by duties and other 
impositions as may appear on examination of 
the several Acts of Assembly. And whereas 
since the expiration of those former laws no aid 
hath ever been granted by the Assembly to us 
as proprietaries, notwithstanding which we have 
on several occasions shown our regard to the 
pubUc service of the said province by voluntarily 
and cheerfully expending several considerable 
sums of our own money for the advancement 
thereof although no provincial tax hath been laid 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 316 

upon the people within our time for any purpose 
whatsoever until the last year, so that we had no 
reason to suspect that the Assembly of the said 
province would deviate so much from the former 
usage as to pretend by any act of theirs to charge 
our estates in the said province with the burthen 
of any taxes. We had not therefore given 
to your predecessor any particular instructions 
on that head. And whereas the Assembly of 
the said province taking occasion of the troubles 
in America to represent us in a very untrue light 
as if we were unwilling to assist the public by 
contributing towards the defence of the country 
though no application had ever once been made 
to either of us for that purpose, did in the last 
year prepare and send to our Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor a Bill of a most unjust and extraordinary 
nature and import, intitled " An Act for raising 
£50.000 for the King's use by a tax of twelve 
pence per pound and twenty shillings per head 
yearly for two years on all the estates real and 
personal and taxables within this province. By 
which Bill it was proposed to be enacted that 
there should be le%'ied and raised upon all the 
estates real and personal within the said province 
of all and every person and persons the estate of 
us the proprietaries not excepted the sum of 
twelve pence for every pound clear value of the 
same yearly for the space of bvo years to be 
paid by the owners or possessors thereof and 
that all located and unimproved lands should be 
rated according to their situation and value at Particularly 

,. ,rt , Land Tax. 

any prices not exceeding fifteen pounds nor 
under five pounds for every hundred acres of 
such unimproved lands, that part of such lands 
should be sold to discharge such taxes in case 
the owners of the same or some person for them 



316 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

neglected or refused to pay the rates assessed 
thereon and that the commissioners and assessors 
of the county of Philadelphia should acquaint 
themselves with and procure the amount as near 
as they were able of our estate in quit-rents 
throughout the province and thereon assess and 
tax the same in the same manner as other estates 
were assessed and taxed the respective counties 
by virtue of that Bill. And whereas there are 
many other ways of raising a tax of £50.000 in 
the said province without resorting to a land tax 
for that purpose but if a land tax waa necessary 
for raising any supply it should be founded on 
justice and, conformable to the Royal Charter, 
be consonant to reason and not repugnant or 
contrary but as near as conveniently may be 
agreeable to the laws, statutes and rights of the 
Kingdom of England. But the said Bill was 
framed so contrary to justice and tlie laws of the 
same kind in the kingdom that by it one shill- 
ing in the pound for two years was laid on the 
whole value in fee simple of every estate, which 
supposing the same computed at tw^enty-five 
years purchase only, is a charge of a quarter 
part more than the whole gross rent without 
allowing for any charges or repairs, a tax which 
never was laid nor can possibly be paid in any 
country, a part of the estate only being taken 
for the preservation of the whole, nor was so 
hea%7^ a tax necessary to be laid in Pennsylvania 
for raising the sum of fifty thousand pounds, for 
if that tax had been truly and fiilly assessed and 
paid it must have amounted to many times that 
sum. But the laying such a large nominal tax 
appears to us to have been most unjustly calcu- 
lated for the purpose of putting it in the power 
of persons wholly chosen by the people to tax 



The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 317 

our estates up to the ftill value therein mentioned 
and to ease other persons by taxing them so 
lightly as only to make up the residue that 
might be wanted to complete the fifty thousand 
pounds. In which case the persons chosen by 
the people might have laid by much the greater 
part of the burthen upon our own estates alone, 
which by former usage had never been taxed at 
all. And whereas the laying of taxes on the 
real value of the fee simple and not on the 
yearly income of estates, and upon unimproved 
lands which yield no annual profit or rent to the 
owner, and the sale of the land itself and the 
inheritance thereof for payment of the tax im- 
posed thereon appears to us highly unreasonable 
and not to be the practice in Great Britain and 
no way agreeable but quite contrary to the laws 
and statutes of this kingdom. And whereas 
upon the best enquiries we have made, we can- 
not find that the quitrrents reserved to the Crown 
or to the proprietaries in any other of the Amer- 
ican colonies have ever been taxed towards the 
raising any supplies granted in those colonies, 
and indeed those quit-rents are generally so 
small that little or no land-tax would be due or 
payable on them if arising in Great Britain, 
where land-tax acts are annually passed. And 
the grantors or owners of such farms and plan- 
tations on which such very small quit-rents or 
acknowledgments are reserved to us, do in 
case of a land-tax, pay tax for the value of such 
their said farms. And whereas our Lieutenant- 
Governor proposed to the Assembly to except 
or exempt our estates out of the tax to be raised 
by the said £50.000 Bill, which they reftising to 
do, he never gave his assent to the said Bill, but 
acquainted the Assembly (as the truth was) that 



818 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

we were so far from desiring not to contribute 
to the defence and support of his Majesty's rights 
and dominions, that immediately on the first 
notice sent us of the defeat of General Brad- 
dock, we had sent over an order upon our Re- 
ceiver-General to pay out of the arrears of our 
quitrrents the sum of £5000 as a free gift towards 
the defence of the said province, desiring at the 
same time that all disputes might be laid aside, 
and that the Governor and Assembly would join 
together in measures to oppose the common 
enemy. And whereas we believe that such 
£5000. so by us given, was about twenty times 
more than the tax upon all our estates there if 
truly and proportionably rated according to all 
other persons' estates in the said province would 
amount to towards raising a sum of 50.000 
pounds. And whereas the Assembly afterwards 
prepared and sent up to the said Lieutenant- 
Governor another Bill entitled An Act for grant- 
ing the sum of £60,000 to the King's use, and 
for striking £55,000 thereof in Bills of Credit 
and to provide a fund for sinking the same, 
whereby they proposed to enact that there should 
be levied upon all the estates real and personal 
within that province of all and every person and 
persons (our estates only excepted in consequence 
of our free gift herein before and in the said 
Bill afterwards mentioned) the sum of six pence 
for every pound clear value of the said estates 
yearly for the space of four years and also that 
all located and unimproved lands in the said 
province should be rated in such a manner and 
at such values as had been proposed in the said 
former Bill, and that part of such lands should 
be sold in case of neglect or refusal to pay the 
tax thereon. And whereas his Majesty's service 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 319 

and the defence of the said province then re- 
quiring money to be immediately raised, and our 
said Lieutenant-Governor not being provided 
with our particular instructions relating to any 
such Bill he assented to the same in the month 
of November last. And when the said Act was 
sent over hither for the approbation of his 
Majesty, we tendering as we ought to do to the 
then exigency of aflGairs and the necessity of an 
immediate supply for his Majesty's service did 
not make any application to his Majesty for his 
royal disallowance of the said Act as we should 
have done at another time and on a less occa- 
sion. And whereas the said Assembly in order 
to raise the said tax had by both their said Bills 
appointed Commissioners and Assessors (persons 
chosen by the people only and not any one of 
them by us) and those but very few in number 
to assess or fix the quotas which each estate 
should pay, which persons if ever so well dis- 
posed to act fairly and uprightly therein can 
have no knowledge of the true value of all the 
several estates to be taxed, and yet are made 
final and absolute judges without appeal what 
sum each estate shall pay towards raising the 
said tax ; whereby and by laying so great a tax 
to raise so sm^l a sum, such persons may have 
it in their power to commit great irregularities 
in taxing some estates to their utmost value and 
easing others which would be unequal and un- 
just. We having been informed that in assess- 
ing the ordinary county levies on the like plan 
with that whereon the said Bills were formed, 
many persons instead of being rated to their foil 
worth were not rated at one-fiftieth part of their 
supposed worth. And whereas the said Assem- 
bly appear to us to have been inclined not only 



to aoad and burtLeii o'zr <j5:a£t<5? -wtlL tiiits> Inr 
tij^-'jr a-TrtbcffitT. dir^'.t j y c-.-ntnirT to f :»mitrr OBag^i, 
but *n'frrj v^ '.-Liirir*: Ti-;*: -iaiLir -ii^j-r •T»:»rdv»iiai»lir 
a-'id hi 2t:j uiie-^uji] n^ti^ijer. :i. •.•rdtrr M' eas^* ibe 
«3Ktatt* ',»f rrtLers- wLivL > 2i nea^TiTv wr ape bjr 
ijo iii«Liuj wiiliiiiT v.» 'x-iLriieiiT to. Aiid as the 
pr^^fe-Dt iijvaeon of Lii Mij^sry'r Aiiieriv;aii do- 
ixjjiiioijiij lujav mak*: it ije:-ewaary to rair<r farther 
tuj.plitt for Lie serried in out said province, the 
AbHriiibly may Lereaiter pr»ji":»5<r and offer Bilk 
or Ac-tfc of Aflgeinbly to lay additional taxes on 
f'A vj wumaa real eiiXjaXeB there, you are therefore hereby p&- 

jLVVjt otit 'J'^i*'^ ®^^^ directed not to give your aaeent to 

74«rgciJ7 aiiv Bill or Act of Ai»emblv of that &»3rt, unless 

the Act >>e rnade t/> continue for one single year 

AM MrrwftU^; onlv and no longer : nor unless the same be 

iLhK'^. ina/le ai* agreeable as jy^ble to the general 
tenor of the Acte of Parliament annually piassed 
for raining the land-txix in that part of Great 
Britain calle^l England (especially by laying the 
tax with rei;[>ect to the real estates upon the par- 
ticular houses or lands in the respective countries 
or districts V>y which the rate of it may at any 
time l>e seen. Nor unless the tax as to real es- 
Au/i on UiH «!' tates be laid ur>on the true annual rent or vearlv 

i«iid. value only (such yearly value, where persons 

occupy their own lands or houses to be ascer- 
tained in some such manner as hereinafter men- 
tioned) and not upon the real value of the fee- 
simple of the real estate, nor unless the tax as to 
And inurrwitof personal estate be laid upon the annual interest 

uu;. or jirofit and not upon the whole capital thereofi 

Nor unless the whole method of assessing, col- 
lecting and paying in of the same be particularly 
M«!ihrM of ux- *^"*^ specially laid down in the body of such Bill 

Htion utii to or Act itself and not by reference to any other 

A(!u.^"""'' Bill or Act. Nor unless, in order that such Bill 



The Peims and the Taxation of their Estates. 821 

or Act may be founded in equal justice there be 
eftectual clauses therein to ascertain the true and 
real rent or yearly value of every estate in lands 
or houses in the province, first, by having a good 
number of the most considerable inhabitants out 
of every township in the several counties inserted 
in the Bill aa commissioners. Such commission- 
ers before they act to be solemnly sworn or 
affirmed to do impartial justice and to have 
power in them to cite and compel to appear and 
be sworn or affirmed before them all tenants and 
other persons in order to discover what rents are 
really and truly paid in cases where land or 
houses are let out at rack-renta. And in other 
cases, or when persons occupy their own land or 
reside in their own houses the commissioners to 
have power to enquire by the means aforesaid or 
by any other lawfiiU and reasonable ways and 
means, what the inheritance of such lands and 
houses is worth to be sold at the utmost, and 
then to estimate and tax such houses and lands 
as of the yearly value of so much as the interest 
of such sum at the low rate of £8 per cent per 
annum amounts to. Nor unless all unoccupied unoccupied 
and unimproved lands whatsoever, and also all emut. 
our quit-rents in the said province be expressly 
excepted and exempted from such tax. But in 
case the Assembly shall propose to raise supplies 
by a land-tax Bill and such Bill shall be clear of 
every of the foregoing objections or prohibitions, 
and shall not contain any tax fiirther than after 
the rate of one, two, three or at the utmost four 
shillings in the pound for any one year upon the 
annual rent or yearly value so to be ascertained 
as aforesaid of houses, lands or tenements in the 
said pro\ince and also to tax the personal es- 
tates in the said province, subject to the fore- 
VOL. XXIV. — 21 



822 The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

going regulations. Then and in such case you 
may give your assent to the same if you think 
the same a reasonable, just and necessary Bill in 
all other respects. And you shall take care that 
every such Bill or Act which you shall assent to 
shall contain clauses for the tenants of real es- 
tates paying such tax and deducting the same 
out of the yearly rent payable to the landlord 
provided such yearly rent amounts to the sum of 
twenty shillings and upwards according to the 
Acts for laying a land-tax in England and clauses 
for distress upon any matters distrainable being 
upon the taxed premises, but no clause or power 
to distrain or sell the house or land itself or any 
part thereof in any case for satisfaction of the 
tax and unless such clauses be inserted you shall 
not give your assent to any such Bill or Act. 
And whereas we are and always have been most 
ready and willing to bear a just proportion 
along with our tenants in any necessary tax for 
the defence of the said province which shall be 
equally laid upon the lands of the inhabitants, 
and also upon any of our manors or lands which 
are actually let out on lease, either for lives or 
May tax the y^ars as being estates in some degree like to 
leasehold &r ^^Qg^ of which the inhabitants are possessed, 

tates of the , . 

proprietaries, therefore you are at liberty to give your consent 
to any reasonable Bill or Act for that purpose. 
Provided the tax to [sic] paid for such our last 
mentioned estates shall be payable by the tenants 
and occupants who shall deduct the same out of 
the rents payable by them to us. And you shall 
not consent to any Bill or Act for taxing the fine 
No fines. ^^ purchase moneys to be paid to us by any per- 

son on purchase from us of any estate in fee 
simple or for life or lives, as the tax is to be laid 
on the land, and the taxing the money paid for 



8th Aug. 1766. 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 323 

purchase of the lands, or of a freehold or inher- 
itance therein, would be in effect to pay two 
taxes for the same thing, and that landlords in 
this kingdom do not pay any land tax for such 
purchase money, but only for the reserved rent 
when it amounts to above twenty shillings per 
annum, the residue of the tax for such land being 
paid by the purchaser. 

The LieutenantrGovemor Denny arrived in 
Pennsylvania and immediately, upon the Assem- 
bly's request, he, pursuant to the orders he had 
received, laid those five foregoing instructions 
before the Assembly ; and thereupon they have 
sent over their great leader in the Assembly, 
Benjamin Franklin, to represent their pretended 
grievances either to the King or to the Parliament. 

This Mr. Franklin professes to wish, on his 
part, an amicable agreement and composure and 
in order thereto, has delivered to proprietaries 
no address, representation or remonstrance whatever 
from the Assembly, but only a paper, signed by 
himself, in the following words : 

HEADS OF COMPLAINT. 

1. That the reasonable and necessary power Hea^'lo' «>m- 

, _ _, n ^ \ . plaint, 20 Au- 

given to the Deputy Governors of Pennsylvama gust 1757. 
by the Royal Charter, Sect. 4 and 5, of making Here'thTiironu 
laws with the advice and consent of the Assem- o' ^e Royal 
bly for raising money for the safety of the coun- artfully 
try and other public uses " according to their ^"^^*^,J^ 
best discretion" is taken away by proprietary in- Assembly's 
structions, enforced by penal bonds and restrain- 
ing the deputy from the use of his best discre- pwBed, 
tion; though being on the spot he can better 
judge of the emergency, state and necessity of 
affairs, than proprietaries residing at a great dis- 
tance, by means of which restraints sundry sums 



discretion as 
to laws to be 



824 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

of money grauted by the Assembly for the de- 
fence of the province have been rejected by the 
deputy, to the great injury of his Majesty's ser- 
vice in time of war and danger of the loss of 
the colony. 

2. That the indubitable right of the Assembly 
to judge of the mode, manner and time of grant- 
ing supplies, is infringed by instructions that 
enjoin the Deputy to refuse his assent to any Bill 
for raising money unless certain modes, measures 
and times in such instructions directed, make a 
part of the Bill, whereby the Assembly in time 
of war are reduced to the necessity of either 
loosing the country to the enemy or giving up 
the liberties of the people and receiving law 
from the proprietaries. And if they should do 
the latter in the present case it will not prevent 
the former, the instructions being such as if 
complied with it is impossible to raise a sum 
sufficient to defend the country. 

3. That the proprietaries have enjoined their 
deputy by such instructions to refuse his assent 
to any law for raising money by a tax, though 
ever so necessary for the defence of the country 
unless the greatest part of their estate is exempt 
from such tax. This to the Assembly and people 
of Pennsylvania appears both unjust and cruel. 

The proprietaries are now requested seriously 
to consider these complaints and redress the ag- 
grievances complained of in the most speedy and 
effectual manner, that harmony may be restored 
between the several branches of the legislature, 
and the public service be hereafter readily and 
fully provided for. B. Franklin, Agent for 
the Province of Pennsylvania, London, August 
20th. 1757. 

(To be continued.) 



A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History, 325 



A SYNOPSIS OF PENNSYLVANIA HISTORY.^ 

BY CHARLES P. KEITH. 

When I was honored with the invitation to address this 
assemblage, the question, almost forbidding, was, what should 
be my topic. Not having the ability of Mark Twain, I could 
not do as he did, when, as he declares, he began a series ot 
magazine articles upon agriculture, because he knew noth- 
ing about it, and therefore would not be embarrassed by 
facts. I could not rise to flights of oratory which would 
make you forget the subject-matter — ^I must confine myself 
to the scope of my knowledge. I came to the conclusion 
that it would not be a waste of time for the active members 
of this society at this stage of their education to listen to a 
synopsis of the history of Pennsylvania. This I present to 
you, as elementary and short as the occasion requires, hoping 
to point out some features w^hich you might overlook in your 
reading. 

I will not begin with the red man, although the Lenni 
Lenape are really the " old families " of Philadelphia ; nor 
will I narrate the early attempts to settle on the Delaware by 
those hardy na\ngators who gave the names to Capes May 
and Henlopen, and who, if successful, would have made the 
region now known as the Middle States a Boer republic. 
Henry Hudson, the discoverer, was in the ser\'ice of the 
Dutch East India Company, and the builders of the fort at 
Beversrede on the Schuylkill, the first white men apparently 
who resided within the limits of Pennsylvania, the first pur- 
chasers probably of any of its soil from the Indians, were 

1 An addreas delivert»d June 8, 1900, before the Philoniathean Society 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 



326 A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History. 

agents of the Dutch West India Company, chartered in 1621 
to colonize and trade with Southern Africa and America. 

But the figure which looms up as the founder of European 
civilization west of the Delaware is Gustavus Adolphus of 
Sw^eden. Fresh from the history of the Thirty Years War, 
you recognize that the figure is majestic and heroic, although 
in this drama it plays a short part. At the suggestion of 
Usselinx, who had organized the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, this King of the Swedes, Goths, and Wends and Prince 
of Finnland chartered in 1626 the South Company with the 
exclusive right to trade with Africa and America below the 
latitude of Gibraltar, and in 1632 approved of extending the 
territorial Umits of its operation, and of opening its member- 
ship to his German allies ; but with this new charter await- 
ing his signature, he was killed in battle. He was succeeded 
on the throne by a character even more interesting, his 
daughter Christina, who has been called " the Semiramis of 
the North." She being then a little child, the government 
was carried on mainly by the great Chancellor Oxenstiema, 
who in 1638 planted a Swedish colony on Christiana Creek. 
The country was called New Sweden, and before long all 
the land from Cape Henlopen to Morrisville, Bucks County, 
was bought from the Indians. Peter Minuet, the captain of 
the first expedition, was a native of Cleves, and at one time 
director of New Netherlands; the chaplain who accom- 
panied him or the next expedition was a native of West 
Gothland, and had been a professor in Gothenburg. In the 
course of a few years came many colonists from Sweden, 
spreading along the Delaware and Schuylkill, even crossing 
the bay to New Jersey. After the conquest by England, 
intercourse was still maintained with their old home, learned 
men from Sweden coming to visit this part of the New World, 
and down to the American Revolution the clergymen of the 
Swedish churches here being appointed by the Swedish 
Crown. Yet as the English increased in numbers, the 
Swedish part of the population was speedily absorbed with- 
out apparently affecting the rest ; those bearing the patrony- 



A Sj/nopsis of Pennsylvania History, 827 

mics of these old settlers declined in importance, their lan- 
guage ceased to be spoken, and while there are many per- 
sons descended from them in the female line, there is little 
to remind us of their time but a few churches, now united, 
moreover, to the ecclesiastical body which here represents the 
Church of England, L e., the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
Among the settlers during Queen Christina's reign was Olof 
Persson Stille, ancestor of the late Charles J. Stille, LL. D., 
who was Provost of this University from 1868 to 1880, who 
moved the institution to its present home, and started its 
new life. It was my privilege to pass my college days 
under his provostship, and during his professorship. In 
later years he was the hardworking President of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. I hardly think I can be 
contradicted in calling him the most eminent of our citizens 
of Swedish blood and name. 

The Swedes were conquered in 1655 by the Dutch, and 
the latter have left fewer traces than the Swedes. The storm- 
ing of the fort at New Amstel, now New Castle, Delaware, 
by the English in 1664 gave the Swansons and other inhab- 
itants of the site of Philadelphia a change of masters ; but 
the Dutch retook New York and its dependency in 1678, 
and held both a few months, when the treaty of Westminster 
restored them to the English. 

During the one hundred years and more of English rule 
the people of this region were accustomed to an intermediary 
between their resident chief officer, or even their captain 
general at New York, and the King. Charles IL's brother, 
the Duke of York, he who afterwards came to the throne as 
James 11., appointed the actual governors, and was treated 
as owner of the soil prior to the vesting of such powers and 
rights in William Penn. I sometimes feel that the principle 
of proprietary government thus established is looked upon 
as natural by the majority of the voters of Pennsylvania even 
at the present day, however inconsistent it was with mon- 
archy, however inconsistent it is with " government of the 
people, by the people, and for the people." 



328 A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History. 

When the Dutch first surrendered the New Netherlands, 
the father of William Penn had already risen so high in the 
service of Charles 11. and the Duke of York as probably to 
look forward to a peerage for himself or his son. At the 
time William Penn sat for the portrait which represents him 
in armor, he was a young man of more position in the gay 
world than anybody else who ever joined the Society of 
Friends. His embracing Quakerism did not entirely deprive 
him of royal fiiendship, nor eradicate from his own heart a 
certain feeling for the Stuarts, which probably lasted through 
his life. At the death of his father a claim for money from 
the Crown survived, and in satisfaction of this a princely 
domain of over forty thousand square miles bearing his 
name was granted to William Penn by Charles 11., and the 
lower counties, now called the State of Delaware, were re- 
leased by the Duke of York. Of all this Penn and his 
heirs, with the title of Proprietary, were to be feudal lords ; 
even when they parted with a piece of land in fee simple, 
their feudal interest in it was not extinguished, as would 
have been the case in England, but they became an inter- 
mediate lord between the purchaser and the King. Rent 
called quit-rent was reserved out of all the lands sold. It 
was by the advice of Henry Compton, Bishop of London, 
that Penn bought the country from the Indians. Thus he 
did like the Dutch and Swedes. 

Penn and his heirs bore the title of Governor until the 
Aiherican Revolution ; and although we popularly speak of 
Governor Gordon, Governor Thomas, Governor Hamilton, 
and others, they were merely lieutenant-governors admin- 
istering the office as deputies of the Penns. It was owing 
to this and the disinclination of the Assembly to vote good 
salaries that the position was never held by a person of qual- 
ity, except one penniless baronet, but generally by a well-to- 
do provincial or an inferior military officer, while we find 
noblemen and generals as the royal governors of other colo- 
nies. The binding of our lieutenant-governors by instruc- 
tions, the expectation that they would be controlled by cer- 



A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History. 329 

tain persons in whom the proprietary family had more con- 
fidence, made the office still less attractive. Ability and 
character were not secured, to command the respect which 
in that day would have been paid to rank. May I not say 
that from then until now, except at intervals, " bossism " has 
closed the way of political preferment to such men of ability 
as have taken for their own the motto of our Commonwealth, 
" Virtue, Liberty, and Independence "? Statesmen came to 
the front during the Revolutionary period. Two P«nnsyl- 
vanians, Mifflin and St. Clair, held the presidency of the 
Continental Congress. It would be easy to turn my remarks 
into a panegj'ric upon Robert Morris and others, and then, 
after a notice of some persons and events in the next gener- 
ation, give a scandalous chronicle of later politics. But I 
must confine myself to the less familiar and less inspiring 
theme of earlier times. In speaking of Pennsylvania prior 
to the incorporation among its citizens of the Connecticut 
claimants who had settled on the north branch of the Susque- 
hanna, but had never recognized the Penns, and prior to the 
growth of Pittsburgh, and the prosperity of the Scotch-Irish, 
and prior to the long political ascendency of the German 
element called the " Pennsylvania Dutch," we may disregard 
all but the southeastern section of the State, and treat only 
of the English and Welsh part of the population. 

Penn sent over for various positions in the government a 
number of his kinsmen and connections, and these were, so 
to speak, the patricians of the earlier emigration. But no 
enormous grants of land nor laws of primogeniture made 
or preserved distinctions. Excepting for the position and 
rights of the proprietary family, at one time looked upon as 
a bulwark of liberty, Pennsylvania was a democracy where 
English Quakers of the industrial classes were making the 
" Holy Exj)eriment" of a state founded upon equality as well 
as peace. They fined an almanac-maker for styling William 
Penn " Lord Penn;" they appealed to Quakers in England 
to coerce their great co-religionist ; they allowed a Court of 
Chancery only a few years ; they contended for the right to 



330 A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History, 

tax the lands of the Proprietaries, and finally asked the 
Crown to abolish the Proprietaries' share in the govern- 
ment ; and when the American Revolution made the people 
supreme, they forced the family to sell to the State all unsold 
land not embraced in the manors, and to forego all quit- 
rents except from manor lands. 

The Quakers maintaining their influence in the Assembly 
of the Province until in 1766 a number of them were in- 
duced -to retire from that body, money for war was for a 
long period obtained from the provincial treasury only by 
such casuistry as that they were bound in conscience to give 
" to the King's use," or by such subterfiige as that an appro- 
priation for " grain" meant gunpowder. The Scotch-Irish 
on the frontiers were naturally belligerent, bore the brunt of 
the conflicts with the French and Indians, and with their 
kinsmen in other colonies were mainly the backbone of 
America in the struggle for independence. But it is remark- 
able that suddenly at the Revolution the Quaker region pro- 
duced military leaders. I have in mind two who had had no 
previous experience, Anthony Wayne from his farm, and 
John Cadwalader from his store. The fame of the former 
is transcendent. The Commander-in-Chief leaned much on 
the advice of the latter. As a little thing has sometimes 
changed the course of history, it is possible that Cadwala- 
der's duel with Conway was a more important event than 
has appeared to historians, for the wounded Conway apolo- 
gized to Washington, and the Cabal to deprive us of him 
who was " First in War, First in Peace, and First in the 
Hearts of his Countrymen" dissolved. Pennsylvania has 
continued to produce her heroes of the battle-field, some 
fresh from peaceful avocations, some trained in tactics, some 
educated at West Point. Many of us think that there should 
have been a higher appreciation of Meade. At any rate, in 
the war to preserve the Union, the critical battle or series of 
battles in which the " high-water mark" of the Confederacy 
was reached, and the tide was driven back, was fought on 
Pennsylvania soil, and the result accomplished largely by 



A Sifnopsis of Pennsylvania History. 331 

Pennsylvania troops, commanded by Pennsylvania generals, 
Meade and Gregg, Reynolds and Hancock, the Wellington 
of the Waterloo being the Philadelphian, Meade. 

I must caution you against describing those who made 
Pennsylvania as Boeotian and unlettered. Early Quakers 
took their pride in controversy, and their pleasure in Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew. The schoolmasters and the practi- 
tioners of physic were numerous. Wealthy non-Quakers 
sent sons to London to the Inns of Court. The pre-eminent 
scholar among those not born here was James Logan, a 
matriculate of no university, reared to no learned pro- 
fession, whose earlier literary advantages lay in his being the 
son of a Scotch dominie turned Quaker, in whose school he 
assisted for a short time. From mercantile life in Bristol 
he was taken by Penn as secretary, and came over in 1699, 
and for years was the business agent of the Proprietary, 
with all which it involved — real estate agent, merchant, 
negotiator with the Lidians, and politician. But you can 
see under the care of the Library Company of Philadelphia 
the many books in various languages which he imported and 
read. He was deemed fit to be chief justice of the Prov- 
ince. He investigated natural phenomena; he published a 
translation of Cicero's De Senectute^ and one in verse of 
Dionysius Cato's DiMicha de Moribus. Some of his commu- 
nications to the learned world were printed at Leyden and 
Amsterdam. We sons of the University of Pennsylvania, 
perhaps most fittingly describing ourselves, in view of the 
history of our Alma Mater, as grandsons of the College of 
Philadelphia and great-grandsons of the Academy of Philar 
delphia, are fully appreciative of our debt to a greater natu- 
ral philosopher than Logan, to him who a few months after 
Logan's death snatched the lightning from the clouds, and 
a quarter of a century later, by his negotiations with France, 
snatched the sceptre from tyrants, — ^Benjamin Franklin, the 
best remembered Pennsylvanian (for he lived here from his 
youth) of our Revolutionary period, the second most impor- 
tant American in that struggle, — ^but we should be proud of 



332 A Synopsis of Pennsylvania Msiory. 

the fact that James Logan, more of an universal scholar, 
headed the list of the trustees of the Academy in 1749. 
The Republic of Letters was extended to our forests and 
mountains by German sectarians, whose learning, to be sure, 
was mainly theological, and whose philosophy ran to mys- 
ticism. Pietists, Moravians, Lutherans, who had had the 
best education afforded in that day, graduated from German 
universities, and trained for a career in law, diplomacy, the 
lecture-room, or the pulpit, established communities, printed 
books, and preached to the Indians ; while the more utilita- 
rian English-speaking inhabitants found, perhaps for all 
time, their highest intellectual practice in law and medicine. 
The Philadelphia lawyer, as the unraveller of the intricate, 
has been proverbial throughout the United States: to be 
taught by the Philadelphia doctor, students have come from 
the entire hemisphere. 

Philadelphia, within a few decades from its founding, out- 
stripped all the other cities in the colonies in population and 
trade. Its philanthropy kept pace with its prosperity. It 
opened its doors to all religions. Although the Quaker 
City, it has been called the home of Presbyterianism in 
America, and the Church of England flourished here with- 
out tithes, transmitting to her daughter Church a position 
in some respects leading. Non-jurors and Whitefield and 
Zinzendorf came here on missions. Jews, at least those 
with the blood of Israel, mingled in the most exclusive 
society. 

When the natural advantages of other places diverted its 
commerce, and made it secondary in those matters follow- 
ing in the train of wealth, historic association became the 
essential importance of Philadelphia. It will always attract 
as the Mecca of American liberty, with Independence Hall 
as its Kaaba. This national interest in our past, I would 
have you bear in mind in all consideration of the wants ot 
our city. Cherish the fame and the foot-prints of those who 
have preceded us. I do not mean build monuments: it 
mementoes be needed, the endowment of a fellowship or 



A Synopsis of Pennsylvania History, 333 

professorship will serve the double purpose of honoring the 
dead and benefitting the living. Let your influence be 
strong for the preservation of such landmarks as teach or 
illustrate history, whether they be such as Old Swedes' 
Church, or Logan's dwelling-house (called " Stenton"), or 
even the name of Swanson Street. Nor do I wish to spur 
you to over-restoration, whereby posterity will not know 
what is old, and what only pretends to be old. With these 
suggestions I close my address to you Philomatheans, for I 
suppose that, like the members of our society in my college 
days, the majority of you are natives and prospective resi- 
dents of this city. In late years it has become a home for 
all races, colors, and tongues, making it well to remember 
its name and the Scriptural injunction which its founder 
had at heart: 'H 4>iXa5eX4)ta (iBvercd. Abounding with 
Quaker comfort and with Christian love of God, may the 
wish expressed in the paronomastic motto of the corporation 
have its fruition : Philadelphia maneto ! 



334 Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia, 1791-1792. 



LISTS OF FOEBIGNBKS WHO AEEIVBD AT PHILA- 
DELPHIA, 1791-1792. 



CONTRIBUTED BY LUTHER R. KELKER, ESQ. 

(Continued from page 194.) 

To His Excellency Thomas Mifflin Esquire, 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

Sir : I take the Liberty to Transmit to your Excellency 

the Lists of Names of German Passengers who arrived at the 

Port of Philadelphia from August 13^ to September 25*^ 

I A : C : I I further more add that nothing Occurred in 

the Proceedings of my Office which wants any alteration. 

I have the Honor to be 

with the greatest respect 

Your Excellency's most Obedient 
and Very Humble Servant 

Lewis Farmer Register of 
Phila Nov. !■* 1792 German Passengers. 

En ; List van de Manschaft in hett Schief Db Frau Cath- 
RiNA Capt. Hendrick Trautman gekommen von Hamburg 

GBDISTENNT (?) NA. PhILADELFE MET PaSSASIERIN. 

Her Berze unt sein frau und Kindt. 

Dochter alt 26 Jahr 
Hlarigette alt 26 Jahr • . 
Mars'* Peamor mit Frau and Sohn 
Jacob Evars alt 29 Jahr . 
Friedrick Oldwick Westfall 
Johann Loraun alt 22 Jahr 
Westfiillen unt Frau und 4 Kinder 
Johan Hendrick Olsen alt 29 Jahr 
Hendrick Tiel alt 20 Jahr 
Friedrich Scheyder mit sein Frau 



1 Person 







. 1 dito 






. 3 dito 






. 1 dito 






. 1 dito 






1 dito 






6 dito 






1 dito 






1 dito 






. 2 dito 



Fordgners who arrived at PhUaddphiay 1791-1792. 335 



Stubbe mit Frau und 5 Kinder 

Linderman mit Frau und 2 Kinder . 

Anna Leimslack 38 Jahr 

Johan Bonsa 28 Jahr 

Melgert Qwans mit Frau und 2 Kinder 

Johan Schmelsen mit Frau und 2 Kinder 

Johan Bauer mit Frau 

Danniel Wittschief mit Braiit . 

Jochim Hitter mit Frau und Kindt . 

Johan Wittschief unt Braiit 

Johan Sparer mit Frau und 2 Kinder 

Hendrik Dirks alt 32 Jahr 

Michel Broan alt 24 Jahr 

Johan Gasan alt 30 Jahr . 

Franz Bronstedt alt 22 Jahr 

Johan Somerfeldt alt 28 Jahr 

Martien Tiel und Sohn 8 Jahr . 

Margretha Casiens und Sohn 3 Jahr 

Paul Husing alt 34 Jahr . 

Christienn Schroder alt 42 Jahr 

Johan Bohr Mestar mit Frau und Kindt 

Cathrine Kromron alt 22 Jahr . 

Peter Pien alt 28 Jahr 

Jochim Piole alt 37 Jahr . 

Christina Tempel alt 32 Jahr 

Hans Schultz alt 25 Jahr . 

Johann Mosemann alt 34 Jahr . 

Johann Waggner mit Frau und Kindt 

Carlel Dell mit Frau 

Pieter Holtz mit Frau 

Jochim Lorentz mit Frau 

Christina Westen mit 3 Kinder 

Peter Bokkendall mit Frau und 2 Kinder 

Hans Beyter mit Frau und Kindt 

Jochim Hagemann mit Frau und 2 Kinders 

Jochim van Netten alt 44 Jahr . 

Martin Schaefl&ier alt 24 Jahr . 



7 persons 



4 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


4 


dito 


4 


dito 


2 


dito 


2 


dito 


3 


dito 


2 


dito 


2 


dito? 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


2 


dito 


2 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


3 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 


8 


dito 


2 


dito 


2 


dito 


2 


dito 


4 


dito 


4 


dito 


3 


dito 


4 


dito 


1 


dito 


1 


dito 



336 Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792, 



Pilip Ekhart alt 24 Jahr . 

Johan Reymers - alt 23 Jahr 

Johann Kramer alt 42 Jahr 

Johan Hagh mit Frau und 2 Kinders 

Paul Schiitt alt 32 Jahr . 

Franz Schmitt mit Frau und Kindt . 

Jochim Pingel mit Frau und 5 Kinders 

Glaus Koppman mit Frau und 5 kinders 

Clas Hipner mit sein Braut 

Anna Catherine Stieffen . 
Torbann alt 20 Jahr . 
Helmke mit Sohn alt 5 Jahr 
Beyter .... 
Rasch und Bruder 
Siek .... 

August 3, 1792. 



1 person 
1 dito 
1 dito 
4 dito 
1 dito 
3 dito 



7 
7 
2 

1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 



dito 
dito 
dito 
dito 
dito 
dito 
dito 
dito 
dito 



List of Passengers on board the Ship " Rainbow," Richard 
Salter, Master, from Amsterdam, 1792. 



Henry Bart. 

Cethnet Bart. 

Gasp Kuhnzick. 

Ann Kuhnzick. 

Cathnet Kuhnzick a child. 

Barr Bart. 

Margret Bart. 

Cathrine Bart. 

Cathrine Bart. 

Johann Bart. 

Ilein. Bart. 

John Tungent. 

Barbry Tungent. 

Anne Susannye Tungent. 

Cath. Tungent. 

Susanne Tungent. 

Barbry Tungent. 

Niclos Tungent a child. 



Nichols Guddermouth. 
Catharine Guddermouth. 
Hans Gudermouth. 
Lau' Gudermouth. 
Philip Gudermuth. 
Nichlos Gudermuth. 
Dorety Gudermuth child, 
Johan Zittle. 
Barbry Zittle. 
Johann Zittle. 
Nichlos Zittle. 
Eliz'*^ Zittle. 
Geo. Zittle. 
Gertrute Zittle. 
John Geo. Zittle a child. 
William Walter. 
Margret Walter. 
Susana Walter. 



Ibreiffners who arrived at PhUaddphiaj 1791-1799. 337 



Jacob Walter. 
Peter Walter. 
Johanna Walter a child. 
Michel Marten. 
NicholuB Burkhart. 
Philada. Sept. 7, 1792 



Johanna Gudemuth. 
Catharine Hartmannia. 
Law' Schleising. 
B. G. Schneek 
John M Senft. 

EiCHD Saltbr 



List of all the Passengers on board the Ship " Columbia," 
Capt. Wm. Maley. 



Andres Hennisch. 
George Storck. 
Phillipp Q^ist. 
Henric Nerthwein. 
Georg Nenzenhoeffer. 
Franz Dunne. 
Conrad Weigand. 
Conrad Ekhart 
Christian Fahler. 
George Weistenbach. 
Hartmann Scheer. 
Johan Schirmer. 
Anna Schirmer, his wife. 
Conrad Schirmer, his son. 
Fetter Emig. 
Ludwig Schewkel 
Anne Elisabeth, his wife. 
Anna Catharine,hiB daughter 
Kunigunda Simonin. 
George Albrecht 
Heinrick Albrecht 
Catharine Mdller. 
John Wernet Esert 
Marie Magdalene, his wife. 
. Gabriel Ament 
Joseph Knobelbasch. 
Michel Dobler. 

VOL. XXIV. — 22 



Valentin Ekhart. 
Frederic Freutley. 
George Meyer. 
Christopher Brume. 
Wilhelmine Fiehr. 
Ludwig Eiedy. 
Christina Schildin. 
Felter Fischborn. 
Adam Schetzel. 
Adan Euer. 
Christine Dilleman. 
Elisabetha Dilleman. 
Catherine Rotterin. 
Elisabetha Heidlinger. 
Matthieu Grunnenwald. 
John Meyer. 

Anne Marie Meyer, his wife. 
John Adam, his son. 
Nicholas Hetterrich. 
Eva Elizabetli Hetterich, his 

wife. 
John Adam, his son. 
Casper Werner. 
Margretha Werner, his wife. 
Conrad Werner and 1 his 
John Werner / sons. 

John Larch. 



338 Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1799. 



John Oblinger. 
Barbara, his wife. 
Christian, his son, 13. 
Narbara, his daughter, 12. 
John, his son, 10. 
Carl, his son, 8. 
Jacob, his son, 3J. 
Lorenz Hoflinan. 
Louis Dueomena. 
Hennes Roulett. 
Frederic Pitscher. 
Narbara, his wife. 
Frederic, his son. 
Barbara, his daughter. 
Abraham, his son. 
Rodolph Pitscher. 
Maria Margaretha,his daugh- 
ter. 
Jacob Hug. 
John Prussel. 
Catherina, his wife. 
Jacob Felmy, his son, 
John Miiller. 
Andrae Miiller. 
Jacob Miiller. 
Jacob Gerster. 
John Gerster. 
Martin Gass. 
Heinrich Scheffers. 
Christian Burger. 
Barbara Wurt^. 
Elisabetha Keller. 
Michel Schnertzinger. 
Samuel Gentsch. 
Ludwig Koch. 
Frederick Geiler. 
Jacob Knapp. 



George Preisach. 

Catharina Schallerin. 

Petter Werner. 

Philip Strohe. 

John Hartmann. 

Narbara, his wife. 

Anne Marie,his daughter, 11 

years. 
Elizabctha, his daughter, 8 

years. 
Narbara, his daughter, 5 

years. 
Nicholas, his son, 3 years. 
Margaretha, his daughter, 

J year. 

Daniel K'ast. 

George Renner. 

Dorothee Reissenach. 

Philip Emee. 

Wilhelm Kohler. 

George Nauer. 

Charlotta, his wife. 

Charlotta & 1 i • ^ i . 
__ , Vhis daughters. 

iSarbara, J 

Jacob Naue. 

Christina, his wife. 

Jacob, his son. 

Daniel Daw Nieda. 

Christoph Shmitt. 

John Shmitt. 

Narbara Hammin. 

Frederic Erbes. 

Magdalina Pfeiffe 

Beutomiiller. 

Ferdinant Loewenstcrn. 

John Muller. 

Louisa Ellenberger. 



Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia, 1791-1799. 339 



George Ludwig. 

George Ludwig, his son. 

Ma^daline & 1 t . -i i . 
^ ^ . > his daughtei 

Cathanna, J 

John Weiss. 

Maria Notemius. 

Gottliebe & 1 r . i i . 
_ , ., y his daughters. 
Fredenka, j ^ 

Heinrieh Huckard. 

Wendelina Dormick. 

Catharine Lexin. 

George Weimann. 

John Gast. 

Marie Eilserin. 

Jacob, her son. 

Caroline Iloehstein. 

Jacob Schuster. 

Margarethe Baldin. 

Dorothee Rohrscheid. 

Potter Oymer. 

Sept. 8, 1792. 



irs 



Frederic Schneider. 
Jacob Klein. 
Phillip Frey. 
Michel Zeyley. 
Catharina Griininger. 
Barbara Wacherin. 
Andres Barthels. 
Justus Barthels. 
George Schiebelhuth. 
Henriet Dugenhart 
Nicolas Schmitt. 
Frantz Petter Remann. 
Jacob Wibbeling. 
Ludwig Mierg. 
John Van Grtinningen. 

Conrad Seypart. 
John Keller. 
Jacob Frey. 

John Gottlieb Berg- 
mann. 






List of Passengers on board Brig "IIenricus," Capt. 
Martin Jayer, from Amsterdam. Philadelphia, Sept. 22, 
1792. 



1 — Johannes Theodorus 

Bartlain. 
2 — George Schutz. 
3 — Margarethe Schultz. 
4 — Johannes Anspach. 
5 — Christine Sachsen. 
6 — her child 4 weeks old. 
7 — Catharine Damen. 
8 — Sibella Damen. 
9 — Godfrey Rerch. 
10 — Johann Schmaltz. 



11 — Johannes Rude. 
12 — Johannes Grebill. 
13— Nicholas Miller. 
14 — ^frederich "Walder. 
15 — Christine Striekler. 
16 — Johannes Reiffendorflf. 
17— Peter Reiffendorf. 
18— frederick^ Brunt (?) 
19 — George Kraust 
20— Philipp Dalen. 
21 — Margarethe Dalen. 



840 Fcyreigners who arrived at Philaddphiay 1791-1799. 



22 — ^Nicholaus Dalen. 
23 — ^Barbara Heratien. 
24— Jacob Ebel. 
25 — Jacob Nickolaus. 
26 — Gertrout Eabert^u. 
27 — ^Phillipine Zerwiine. 
28 — Christina Otenheimer. 
29 — Margarethe Becker. 
80 — Carl Hollenberger. 
31 — ^Wilhelmina Hollenber- 
ger. 



32 — Anna Bolman. 
33 — Catharine lefiber. 
34 — ^Eaa^e lefieber. 
35 — Booje van Aaken. 
36 — Carolina Gk)tie. 
37 — Alepin de lentunte. 
38 — George Struckler. 
39 — ^Bernard Spier. 
40 — Christian Ernst Lax. 



Johannes Haslein. 
August Braun. 
September 22, 1792. 



Americans. 

Wendel Serwin. 
Christ*" Schneider. 

Martin Jager. 



List of Passengers on board the Brig " Martha," Capt. 
Ebenezer Hoyt, from Amsterdam. 

Mr. Charles Whanbert, Cabin Passenger. 
Charles Lewis Baumann, Steerage do 
Heinrich Abelmann, do do 

Hermann Diedrich Biemar do do 
Franz Lasser, do do 

Bohe Bohlens | American — 
Sept. 22, 1792 Ebbnr Hoyt. 



List of Passengers on Board the Ship "Fame/' 
Alexr. Frasbr, from Botterdam. 



Capt. 



Barbara Jungedius. 

Andrew Schusler. 

Eliza Schusler & two children 

Nicholas Schleyger. 

Ann Margaret Schusler. 

Margaret Schusler. 

John Stuff. 

John Frederick. 

Valentine Schusler. 



Eliza Godmaning. 

John Schlough. 

Andrew Zehn. 

Catharine Margaret Trunk- 

ing. 
Catharine Uring. 
George Schiever. 
Christopher Hofoagel. 
Andreas Dieterick. 



Fordgners who arrived at PhUaddphiaj 1791-1799. 341 



John Beum & his wife Beum 

& one child. 
John Beyer. 
Casper Zuler. 
John Quilman. 
Balzar Hartmann. 
Valentine Beyer. 
John Beyer. 
John Keitznor & his wife & 

two children. 
Nicholas Juger & his wife 

Anna Marie one child. 
Dolly Woodmakerin. 
John Schanbergen. 
Christian Hoffinan. 
John Hoffman. 
Nicholas Loresch & his wife 

& one child. 
Melchoir Hock & his wife. 
Ann Margarethe Hock. 
Michal Hock. 
Henry Hock. 
Valentine Hock. 
Casper Hock. 
John Andrew Hock. 
John Ziner & his wife. 
John Ziner Jun'. 
Ann Margarett Ziner. 
Zigmond Zener. 
Catherin Zener. 
Eberharden Zener. 
John Zener. 
John Zener. 

Nicholas Jordon &, his wife. 
Eliza Jordon. 
Ann Margarett Jordon. 
John Jordon. 



Dorothy Jordon. 

Susan Jordon. 

Henry Jordon. 

John Merchelin & his wife. 

John Merchelin, Jun'. 

Christian Merchelin. 

Ann Junkin. 

John Mum. 

Valentine Vatholt. 

Casper Vatholt. 

Dorothy Vatholt 

Maria Vatholt. 

Ann Eichterin. 

Andrew Krumlich. 

John Neuman. 

Margarett Burgedin & one 

child. 
Catharin Croming. 
Jacob Slayger. 
William B. Euler. 
Ann Catherin Euler. 
Berder Slauch & his wife. 
John Slauch. 
John William Slauch. 
John Eiticher & his wife. 
Catharin Riticher. 
John Riticher. 
Eva Evertine. 
Margarett Hartmann. 
George Junger k wife. 
Barbara Junger. 
Casper Junger. 
John Sleygar k wife. 
Catliarin Sleygar. 
Valentine Sleygar. 
Michael Hincken. 
Andrew Scherck. 



842 Foreigners who arrived at Philadelphia^ 1791-1792. 

John Adam Beuni. Christian Frederick. 

Christian Bonnet. John David Kesler. 

Eliza Mocdine. Christopher Walker. 

Barbara Lossin & child. Ludwig Simmons & his wife 

John Wytzel & his wife. Eve. 

John Wytzel. John Simmons. 

Conrad Wytzel. Frederick Simmons. 

John Anton Brand. Peter Simmons. 

Conrad Killman. Melchoir Simmons. 

Antron Truppertin. Gabriel Simmons. 

John Ludwig Giphart. Catherin Simmons. 
Sept. 23, 1792. 



Da Coudray^s ^^Observations on the Delaware Forts" 343 



DU COUDEAY'S "OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORTS IN- 
TENDED FOR THE DEFENSE OF THE TWO PAS- 
SAGES OF THE RIVER DELAWARE," JULY, 1777.* 

Fort at BiUingsport. 

1. As to the Situation, it is well-chosen, it commands the 
River in the narrowest Part I have seen, and is the most 
capable of Defence. 

2. As to the Plan or Projection, it is very bad. The Ob- 
ject in View ought to have been to defend the Chain of 
Chevaux de Frize, which bar the River. For that Purpose 
30 or 40 Cannon, well placed, would have been sufficient 
The Edge of the Scarp would have afforded room enough ; 
it was therefore necessary to shut the Gorge of the Battery, 
so that the Enemy might be obliged to land and open 
Trenches, in order to take Possession of it And in the 
particular Circumstances in which this Fort was begun, it 
was necessary in 6 weeks or 2 months to have had some- 
thing finished to answer the End proposed. But to com- 
plete it agreeable to the present Circumstance, and to finish 
the Half-moon necessary to command the Highth on the 
opposite side of the River, would require at least four or 
five Months, provided it were well constructed and a great 
number of Men were employed, in as much as the Soil is 
the most unfavourable that can be met with. 

Besides the Length of Time, which the Plan of this Work 
would require in the present situation of Affairs, another Li- 
convenience attends it, which is, that it would require for its 
Defense, a more numerous Garrison than could be spared from 
the Army. For it would require at least 2000 Men ; as, 
from the Badness of the soil, the Enemy's Cannon would 

* Manuscript in collection HiBtoiical Society of Pennsylvania. 



344 Da Covdray^s ^^Observations on the Delaware Forts.^^ 

soon make great Destruction, which must be repaired every 
!Nlght, to prevent the works from being stormed. 

3. As to the execution of these Works, I find it to be 
without Judgment. The Planks and Piles to support the 
sand are not half thick enough. The Piles instead of being 
inclined to bear against the Bank, have been fixed perpen- 
dicular and are already overturned. Instead of placing 
the Batteries destined to fire on the River, on the Border of 
the Scarp, they have placed them 7 or 8 Fathoms back, 
which removes them farther from their Object, and exposes 
them to the Enemy's attempt at the Bottom of the Scarp. 
And suppose the Works completed, only one Piece of 
Cannon can do Execution. Instead of making use of the 
Ground which forms the Border of the Scarp and which is 
firm on the superfices, and supported at least for some 
Depth by the Roots of Trees which grew there, they have 
raised a great Part of the Breastwork with loose Sand in 
the manner before mentioned, and have taken the Trouble 
to sink a Ditch, which might have been spared, as the Scarp 
answered the Purpose. From whence it appears that no 
Dependence can be put upon this Work, as it cannot be 
finished in Time and requires too great a Number of Men 
and Artillery for its Defense. 

To defend the Chain of Chevaux de Frize which bars the 
River opposite to the Port, all dependence for the present 
must be on the Floating-Batteries and Gondolas which are 
ready, or which can soon be so. Some use, however, can be 
made of a Part of the Fort, of which we have been speak- 
ing : and for this Purpose there should be a Battery fixed 
in each of the two Demi-Bastions on the side of the River. 
And by cutting those two Demi-Bastions by the Gorge and 
the angle of the Flank, they will each be transformed into 
a Redoubt with four Fronts. Each of these Redoubts 
may be secured against a Coup de Main by covering them 
with a double Ditch and Pallisades in the Bottom of the 
Ditch. It will then be necessary to level all those Parts of 
the Fort which may serve to cover the Enemy. These two 



Du Coudray^s ^'Observations on the Delaware Forts J^ 345 

Works by means of 1500 or 2000 Labourers well directed 
may be executed in 20 Days : and in my Opinion this is 
all that can be done in the present situation of affairs. 

I would advise to hazard in those Redoubts only 400 or 
500 Men with 25 or 30 Pieces of Cannon, still observing 
that it is not upon them, but on the Floating Batteries sup- 
ported by these Redoubts that the Defense of the Chevaux 
de Frize depends. 

In times less urgent than the present, a better use might 
be made of this Place, but by reason of the Badness of the 
Soil nothing solid can be constructed but by extreme 
expense. 

Unless shoal Water prevents the Enemy from going to the 
opposite side of the River, it will be necessary to construct 
on the opposite Island another Battery of 15 or 20 Guns 
which must also be fortified. This may be performed with 
little Expense on account of the Goodness of the Soil and 
the Facility of making use of the River to cover it by wide 
and deep Ditches. 

The Fart. 

The Fort is badly situated ; the Battery which forms its 
principal object is improperly directed, which renders Half 
the Guns useless. The Embrazures are badly constructed, 
too open on the inside, and not sufficiently open without : 
some are directed obliquely without any motive ; the inte- 
rior Slopings are too straight, and by this means begin 
already to tumble down. 

This Fort cannot prevent the Passage of the Enemy, and 
when they have passed, it can be of no use ; consequently it 
can answer no valuable Purpose. 

Fort of Red-bank. 

This Fort is better conceived, directed, and executed than 
either of those above mentioned. It does the more Honour 
to Colonel Bull, as he had no other assistance than natural 
good sence unenlightened by Theory. This is perceivable 



346 Du Goudray's ^^Observations on the Delaware Farts J' 

from a View of it. There are indeed Faults in the Plan, 
and in the Execution, but they do not render it useless as 
the two former Forts. If we may judge by the Proportion 
of the work already finished, it is reasonable to expect the 
whole will be in a State of Defence in the course of a Fort- 
night. What unfortunately renders this Fort of little or no 
Consequence is this ; its object is, and can be, no other than 
to prevent the Enemy from taking possession of the Highth 
upon which it is placed, in order to establish Batteries and 
thereby oblige the Gallies and Floating Batteries employed 
in supporting the Chain of Chevaux de Frize, to retreat. 
But this case could never happen, unless the Enemy should 
be exposed to a Fire from the Floating Batteries and Gal- 
lies, which they could not silence with their ships. This 
would oblige them to land Men and Artillery, to occupy by 
Force the Highth in question, and then fire on the Floating 
Batteries and Gallies occupied in supporting the Chain. 
But the situation of the Place will not permit such an idea; 
for the River is here so wide that if the States had four 
times as many Gallies, Ships and Batteries as they have at 
this place and above it, the Enemy, we must think, would 
still have a superior Fire, as the ^vidth of the River would 
allow them to employ a greater number of Ships. If by 
this means, they succeed in beating oflT the Gallies and 
Floating Batteries, it cannot be supposed they ^vill put them- 
selves to the Trouble of landing to attack Colonel Bull's 
Fort Therefore I look upon this Fort as useless with re- 
spect to the Object for which it was intended, viz., to con- 
tribute in obstructing the Passage of the River, and pre- 
venting the Enemy from possessing the Highth it commands. 
This Passage is much too wide to be defended by the present 
means. I would therefore advise to carry all the means of 
Defense to the Passage at Billingsport. This place is in- 
comparably more capable of support, and it is better to make 
a respectable stand in one place than to defend two in an 
indiflferent manner. The Gallies and Floating Batteries 
removed thither, will make up for the insufficiency of the 



Du Goudray's '^ Observations on the Delaware Forts.'' 347 

intrenched Battery, which I would propose to substitute in 
place of the present Fort, and of that which I shall think 
ought to be erected at the Point of the Island, the River 
being much narrower in this place than in that of which we 
have been speaking. The Q^llies and Batteries may more 
easily make Head against the Enemy who will not be able 
to make so great a Fire, and will be obliged to bear a much 
nearer one, and better supported, than could be opposed to 
them at Red Bank. The Cannon at this Fort might partly 
serve for the Batteries at Billingsport. I would not, how- 
ever, advise to demolish the Battery at Red Bank, but to 
leave there two or three of the poorest of the Cannon. 

I would also advise to remove from this Line no more 
Chevaux de Frize than would be judged necessary to secure 
by three Rows, the Passage of Billingsport. 

I also advise to preserve Colonel Bull's Fort. Thereby you 
may induce the Enemy to believe they would have a second 
Line of obstacles to encounter, after they had surmounted 
the first ; and besides for another Reason, which appears to 
me a very important one especially in the present Circum- 
stances of Affairs, the Government would escape the Censure 
inconsideration and mistakes, which the evil-minded are 
always ready to pass, and the People to adopt, when they 
see Works which have been erected with much Labour and 
Expense pulled down. For the same Reason I would pro- 
pose to preserve in Colonel Jones's Fort, all that will not be 
of service to the Enemy in case they should attack the R^ 
doubts, which I think ought to be substituted in place of 
this Fort. 

My Thoughts on the above subjects as here expressed, 
seem the better founded, as they appeared to conform with 
the Ideas of General Arnold, to whom I had the Honour to 
communicate them, as far as the difference of Language 
would permit; and also with those of Mr. Duer and Mr. 
Shea by whom I had the advantage of being understood. 

[1777.] Du COUDRAY. 



848 Ship Registers far the Part of Philadelphia, 1796-1775. 











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VOL. XXIV. — 23 






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Notes and Queries. 867 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

notes. 

Election op Officebs of the Historical Society. — ^The Hon. 
Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker, LL.D., was elected President, and 
William Brooke Rawle, Esq., a Vice-President, at the annual meeting, 
in May last, of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Judge Penny- 
packer succeeds the late Charles J. Still6, LL.D., and Colonel Rawle, 
Judge Pennypacker, for many years the senior Vice-President of the 
Society. 

Letteb of Mrs. Sally Peters to General Anthony Wayne. 

Philada. July 26»»» 1777. 
You know not my very worthy freind how much I felt at reading the 
paragraph in Miss Griffitts's letter relating to me that you could think 
I slighted you or that any thing more agreeable shou'd prevent my not 
writing paind me beyond expression, I flatterd myselfe I had so high a 
place in your good opinion that nothing could displace me, can you not 
forgive your careless freind I alow I ought to have wrote long before 
this and thanked you for your kind enquiry about my flight last winter 
which you have been informd was to the House of my late good 
Gaurdain, where his substitute acted as he would have done himselfe, 
receive with every mark of Hospitality and treated us with all that 
frendship could dictate, but I will say no more about it untill I have an 
oppertunity of acquainting you personaly of all our peregrinations 
which ware better than could be expected recolecting the time of year 
them savages drove us from our peaceful Happy fire sides, to encounter 
hardships we had never known before, (but God tempers the Wind 
said Maria to the shorn Lamb) I anxiously look for that time to arrive 
when I may welcome my friend, to a House where I preside the Happy 
Mistress, and where the Master would equaly rejoice at seeing you his 
Guest — I have sent you in the Waggon a jar of Pickled Oysters I hope 
they may get safe to you as I fancy they will be a rearity with you, as 
they are so with us. Brother Tom will inform you of what little News 
there is Miss Griffitts is well ; knows not of this Conveyance or I am 
sure she would have wrote, I expected her here this Evening but the 
weather prevented and I dare say lost you an agreeable letter, M' Peters 
has a violent Headack otherways would have wrote in the lein of those 
two you must be content with this stupid scrible of you affectionate 
fi^ind 

Sallie Peters. 

Benedict Arnold was interested in the following privateers, 1777- 
1779 : Ship Mars, one thirty-second ; ship Jonathan, subsequently the 
McDougal, one-twelfth ; schooner Charming Nancy, one-quarter ; 
schooner General Arnold, one-quarter ; sloop York, one-quarter ; and 
sloop Active. 



868 



Notes and Queries. 



Two entries appear in his business Journal while stationed in Philadel- 
phia, relating to purchases he made for Greneral Washington : 

1778, July 20. 4n>8. Green Tea for Gen Washington, £7.10 £30. 0. 
Sept. 18. 1 piece Irish Linnen 21 yds 18 18.18. 

1 ** do 25 yds 29 36. 5. 

18J yds Diaper 9 8. 7. 7} 



General Bendict Arnold's 
selected from his private ledger. — 



Family Expenses, 1778-1779, 



Ben Provost's Bill 

Samuel Sauel's '' 

Abr'm Smith's " 

Seagrove ** 



Jacob Harman ** 

Jos. Stanbury ** 

D & H Mitchell '* 

Sauel's 

Jas. Bringhurst ** 

Major Clarksons ** 

Margaret Griffiths ** 

John Grodfrey 

2 Maids, 

Cook Maid 

Miss Clifton, 



to July 1, 1778, [Steward.] 

Hams, 

Cheese, . 

2 pipes Wine, 
20 Loaves Sugar, 
261b Green Tea, 

4 Cases Pickles, 

2 doz Sweet Oyl, 

7 doz Porter, 
Table Furniture 
Glasses & Dishes 
Almonds & Raisins . 
Knives & P^orks 

Market expenses 1 July to Feb 2 
Housekeeper £8. per mo. 
Coachman, 3 mo. 
28 weeks to Jany 1 1779 . 
Cash sundry times 
hire of her maid Jenny 8 mo 



£ 114.11. 7 

41. 0. 

4. 9. 4 

1000. 0. 

274. 0. 

195. 0. 



160.12. 

24.18. 

14 5. 

6. 0. 

1363.16.10 

30. 0. 
56. 0. 
25. 0. 



Hall — Hartley. — Bradford's Pennsylvania Journal of July 11, 
1787, contains the following marriage notice : 

** Married July 5, at Yorktown, D^ James Hall, late of this City to 
Miss Hartley only daughter of Mr. Thomas Hartley of York County." 



The Oxford Township (Philadelphia County) School, 1771. — 
To the Beneficent Citizens of Philadelphia. 

The Subscribers Freeholders and Inhabitants of the Township of 
Bristol in the County of Philadelphia beg leave to prefer. 

That from a pure desire to promote Learning and Christian Knowl- 
edge amongst their Brethren, they became Principals in causing to be 
Erected a neat and commodious School House in the said Township for 
the common use of the said Township and the Townships of Oxford and 
the Northern Liberties, open indifferently to every Keligious Society ; 
without the least Distinction or Preference whatsoever, upon half an 
Acre of Ground conveyed (Gratis) to them and their Successors forever 
in Trust for the said Purpose. 

That notwithstanding their greatest Assiduity and Earnestness in 
applying for Assistance from the Neighbors, many of whom have been 
very liberal, according to their several Abilities — And That themselves 
have been at so much labour and expense as their respective Circum- 



Notes and Queries. 869 

stances would admit, yet they are so very unfortunate as to find them- 
selves involved in Difficulties thro' means of the undertaking, and have 
cause to apprehend that their good Intentions may be entirely frustrated. 
Wherefore the said Subscribers have thought it expedient to appoint 
John Roberts and Henry Funk, two of the Surviving Trustees a Ck)m- 
mittee to wait upon such Persons in the City of Philadelphia as they 
shall see meet and to sollicit their Bounty on behalf of the said School, 
and they flatter themselves that from those with whom useful Learning 
hath its due Estimation, and especially from the Illustrious Sons of 
Science, their Design will be most generously Patronized : And they do 
hereby desire of the said Committee to present their sincere and gratefril 
Thanks to any Person who may be pleased to grant a Favour to them 
upon this Petition. Dated at Bristol aforesaid this Eleventh Day of 
April Anno Domini 1771. 

John Roberts, 
James Dilworth, 
Matthew Ingram, 
Henry Funk, 
Thomas Roberts. 
Subscriptions, 
John Dickinson, 15/ paid. 
Nicholas Wain, 15/ paid. 
James Tilghman, 15/ paid. 
John Foxcroft, 15/ paid. 

My Dear Sir, 

I now beg leave to enclose the Petition ; I do not desire anything from 
the Governor, — he may please to subscribe what he thinks proper and as 
paid. The Room left has been filled up contrary to our Intention and 
therefore must beg the Favour that the subscriptions may be on the 
back of the Petition. I know too well how much he has been harrassed 
with such Papers to ask a real Gift from him — I know none but M' W" 
Logan likely to object & that a very narrow soul'd one because its open 
to every society : I am afraid he forgets his Bountifiil Gift to the Union 
School, Germantown, which was upon the same Plan and I am sorry I 
have it not in my Power now to inclose a CJopy of the Establishment and 
of that which was [torn] to me. But this aJfair I leave altogether to D' 
Peters' s Management. 

This day at the Anniversary Diet of the Philosophical Society — Smith 
took me aside concerning the 20/ — ^his Apology was no less nor no more 
than what I expected. Integrity of Heart is a primary Virtue in my Es- 
teem. Poor Fellow I pitied him, I felt for him — ^if any Man ever went 
thro' a Purgatory I am sure he did this Day. The Toasts in general were 
flimsy and foreign — some obscene if polite People are supposed to under- 
stand double Entendres. But I will do him the Justice to say that he 
sometimes absconded frx)m the most reprobate. I am extremely sorry 
ever to see Divine Grace condescend to grace Licentiousness — the 
greatest Honor of the Repast was the Presence of Doct' Graeme and the 
Modesty of M' Rittenhouso — ^these are my sentiments for the Present, 
when we have the Pleasure of conversing I shall acquaint you more 
particularly : this in Confidence. 

If I had not so good an opinion of D' Auchmuty I might have a 
better one of D' Smith, but it is ditto repeated every day in my Ears ; 

VOL. XXIV. — 24 



870 Notes and Queries. 

extorted Charity and I don't know what else I don't hear that I am 
sorry for. — It is not for the Value of the Sum nor the Merit of the Gift 
that I want to be satisfied. 

D' Smith gave an Intimation that the Governor would esteem it a 
Eespect to sail from Philad. in the White Oak Barge. Doct' Thos. 
Bond, our Vice President gave his Promise that he would use his 
Influence to obtain it — I make not the least Question that that Gent" 
w'ld perform it with the greatest Punctuality, provided he retained it in 
Mind : But least he should omit, I have this Evening anticipated his 
Application and I have the Promise of it suitably equipped both as to 
Rigging and Men for the Reception of his Honour and his Company 
when and where he pleases, of which I should be glad to have the 
earliest Intelligence from D' Peters provided it is his Inclination. I 
have so much Veneration for his Goverance & other valuable Qualifica- 
tions as well as those of M' Penn that I am perhaps too impertinently 
ready to gratify and honour him with every genteel Respect that is due 
to his Merit within the small Compass of my Abilities. 

I am 
D-^Sir 

Yours most affty 

John Mukgatroyd. 
Wednesday Evg. 

Wakrant of Survey, *'Pemmapecka Road," Dublin Town- 
ship, Philadelphia County, 1701. — 

By the Proprietary and Govemour of the province of Penmilvania dc 

Counties Ann, 

Whereaa there has been a Controversey for some time past depending 
between Joseph Ashton and Geo. Northrop on the one hand and the In- 
habitants in and about Dublin Township in ye County of Philadelphia 
on the other hand Concerning a Road laid out between Pemmapecka 
Mill and Peters Leisters Brought before mee and ye Councill and severall 
times Debated but not yet Determined. These therfore are to Require 
you Thomas ffairman David Powell and Peter Taylor in order to a finall 
Determination of ye said Difference to survey all the parts in Contro- 
versy of ye said Road and the other adjacent Road or Roads upon which 
the said Controversy does in some measure depend, and to view and duly 
Consider the Conveniency of ye said Roads both w^ Respect to the 
Plantations and Settlem^ of ye s** Joseph Ashton and Geo. Northrop and 
y* Generall Accomodation of y' s** Inhabitants, as also the Authority 
and Method by which they were at first laid out and make report thereof 
under your hands to mee in writing. Given under my hand and seal at 
Philadelphia y** 21" day of the first month 1701. 

William Penn. 
To Tho" Fairman, David Powell 

and Peter Taylor. 



Letters of Hon. Jasper Yeates to William Hamilton, of the 
"Woodlands," advocating Lancaster for the location of the National 
capital. Copied from Letter Book of Judge Yeates, in the Collection 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania : 



Notes and Queries. 371 

Lamoaotxb, March 10, 1789. 

Dear Sir, 

... Do you not think it worth while to make some arrangements so 
as to throw this Borough at least into the view of Congress, when they 
come to fix on a permanent place of residence ? A letter to some friends 
in that body expressive of your intentions in such a case would do no 
possible injury. I am far from being sanguine naturally, but I by no 
means conceive Lancaster quite out of the Chapter of Accidents. Con- 
gress will scarcely pitch on a sea-port, or a city whose trade is consider- 
ably advanced. The jealousy of other States against a Metropolis 
founded on the peculiar advantages and benefits which must be desired 
from such a situation, in exclusion to their own favorite city, will have 
powerful effect. Add to this, they have scarcely forgot the treatment 
which they received in Philadelphia when insulted by the soldiery. I 
have barely suggested the matter for your consideration ; it is worth a 
thought. Col. Hartley has promised to write me fully whenever any- 
thing of the kind occurs. But as to him, his interests and inclinations 
naturally lean to having the place of Congress fixed beyond the Susque- 
hanna. Next to York, I am thoroughly persuaded he would prefer this 
Borough. 

I am dear Sir with much Truth 

Your affect, humble Serv' 

Jasper Yeates. 



LmcAfiTER 18 March 1789, 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you eight days ago by D' Slough. Since that period the cor- 
poration of this Borough called a meeting of some of the principal citi- 
zens and it was determined that letters should be wrote to our Senators 
and Representatives in Congress, stating our peculiar situation and in- 
viting them to fix their permanent residence amongst us. I was ap- 
pointed one of a Committee to draft such a letter, which I accordingly 
did, and send you a copy of it. If it answers no other purpose than 
showing the state of the country and the improvements about us, the 
distance to a few remarkable places and the trades exercised by the in- 
habitants of the Borough immediately, it will still I flatter myself, afford 
you some satisfaction. 

Two letters will be directed to our Senators and Representatives in 
Congress, each accompanied with a draft of the Ten Miles Square, laying 
down the courses of the water mills, adjacent towns, roads &c., and . . . 
of the Susquehanna. This draft has been made by Mr. William Reich- 
enbach on actual mensuration, and is executed with much correctness. 
The letters will be forwarded by the next post, and I shall write to Mr. 
Hartly by the same conveyance. 

You will observe the liberty we have taken with your name. It will 
be proper therefore, in my idea, that you should write to some of your 
friends in Congress, confirming the sentiments thrown out, in case you 
approve of them. If you can learn when the measure will be called up, 
I should think that your personal attendance at New York might pro- 
duce happy effects. You would have an opportunity of doing much on 
the spot while the subject is canvassing and the different manoeuvres 



372 Notes and Queries. 

played by the several parties. It is an object of the greatest magnitude 
to your own immediate interests. 

I am dear Sir, 

Your fiaithful & Affect Serv' 

Jasper Yeates. 

Lanoasteb, 22 March 1789. 

Dear Sir, 

... I beg you will wait on Messrs Clymer and Fitzsimmons. A let- 
ter from you to our friends in Congress and particularly to some if not 
all of our Eepresentatives should express the same matter fully and at 
large. In one word, my dear Sir, I would almost, if not quite, give 
them a Charte Blanche. 

Mr. John Hubley tells me, that by a letter which Parson Muhlenberg 
has received from his brother Frederick, he is informed that Congress 
will in all probability settle at some place between Delaware and Sus- 
quehanna. This is very encouraging. Do ask of Clymer and Fitzsim- 
mons to see our Map forwarded to them, and let me know your sentiments. 
I am dear Sir, 

Very affectionately yours 

Jasper Yeates. 

Lancaster will most probably be the flavored place says Mr. Fred^ 
Muhlenberg 1 1 

Letter of Margaretta Wayne to her Father, General An- 
thony Wayne. — 

Naaxan'8 C— k June IS"" 
My Dear & Honored Papa 

In the first place let me congratulate you, & be thankful for your 
recovery after being so long confined with a bad state of health, which 
I hope is perfectly restored & that you enjoy every happiness this life 
can afford is the first wish of your affectionate daughter. 

I thank my Dear Papa for the good advice he gives me in every letter 
respecting my conduct in this life ; I shall in every respect behave my- 
self in such a manner as to gain the good opinion of all my friends and 
acquaintances ; and hope at a latter day to resign myself without fear. 
I hope my Dear Papa will not be displeased with me in being so long 
absent from Mrs. Kearney's. It was with friends advice. You write me 
Papa to speak my sentiments therefore shall informe you that every per- 
sone thinks M" K — board is very expensive, and I thought I wou'd 
have Papa's opinion it is a Guinea a week. 

I have no new's worth writing only that Miss Hartly is to be Married 
next week to D' Hall in partnership with D'' Rush.* 

Aunt Robinson is in the Room & desires her beat wishes to you. I 
have been down at Naaman's C — k a few days — IVIr. Delany is here at 
present & is so polite as take charge of my letter. 

I have seen my Brother, he is very harty & comes on fast in his learn- 
ing he is at present studying Greek. I think your letter Papa will en- 
courage him to learn, as he often wished he cou'd receive a letter from 
you. I made free to open it. 

Before a conclusion I must once again shew Papa how greatly I am in 
gratitude & in duty bound to thank him for his kind protection and how 
devoid of understanding should I be if I was not to follow his advice 
and example & try to make myself worthy of his paternal Friendship. 



Notes and Queries. 378 

... It makes me look back with sorrow, when I think what a great 
loss a Father, is, for example Aunt Sally's Family what a loss as them 
poor Orphans meet with, to loose a Father just when they had come to 
know the good of one. Papa we can't Prize health too much, it is a 
very valuable Blessing, & I hope you have a reasonable share of it. I 
have time to write a much longer letter but cannot with this pen, I shall 
in a few day's write you a much longer one. 

With every mark of respect I am my Dear Papa's Dutiful & affec- 
tionate Daughter 

Margarita Wayne. 

Letter of Judge Richard Peters to Jonathan Jones. — 

Belmont Feby. 12, 1814. 
Dear Sir. 

At our last Meeting you were so good as to promise you would see 
Mr. Hager & procure his Account of the Shad caught in Schuylkill after 
having been marked in a preceeding Season. The Fact is singular, & I 
had it well ascertained to me, that similar Facts had before happened. 
I wish to be fortified in my communication of it to the Philadelphia 
Society, by Testimony so respectable as that of Mr. Hager, who perhaps 
is reluctant at writing, tho' I only want a plain Narrative. I must beg 
of you to take an early opportunity of calling on him, & in a letter com- 
municate to me the Facts. I think 35 were marked h 25 caught — so I 
understood him to say. 
Eelate all circumstances — ^how marked — when and at what time caught t 
Mr. Hughes was to inform about the S Busheh of Chimney Swallows 
which were smothered & measured at a Mr. J. William's near the Gulph. 
Can you get the Facts on this subject? But one at a time you will 
think enough. Yrs. truly, 

R. Peters. 

.Quaker ** Exiles in Virginia," 1777-1778. — Copied from the 
original documents in the "Jones Papers," in the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania : 

WINOHXSTEB Novm» 4** 1777. 
Mr. David Franks, 

Sir. 

On sight hereof be pleased to pay to Mr. Isaac Wharton or order the 
sum of twelve pounds three shillings Stg. in five half Johannes & three 
English Guineas, the same being to repay the like number of half 
Johannes and English Guineas now received here from Mr. Thomas 
Wharton and others. Place this sum to account of pay due to us, hav- 
ing drawn two Bills of this tenor h date — the payment of the one voids 
the others. de Terry Lieutenant, 

To David Franks Esq' Commissary Fuurer, [Ensign.] 

of Prisoners or to any other in the regiment Knyphausen, 

Commissary or Pay master of the Hessian Service. 

Hessian Troops in the 

Service of Great Brittain. 

Winchester November 26**. 1777 Received of Thomas Wharton 
Senior the sum of Eleven pounds fourteen shillings Virginia Currency 
(reckoning Dollars at six shillings each) in full of my Demand against 



874 



Notes and Queries. 



Him for Five Weeks & four days Board and Lodging at my House be- 
ginning the 29th of September last when he was brought with other 
Prisoners to my House by Daniel Levan of Berks County in Pennsylva- 
nia, the said Thomas Wharton having found (at his own expense exclu- 
sive of the above) the following articles to wit. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate, 
Sugar, Wine, Spirits, Beer, and Cyder. Witness my Hand 
£11. 14. 0. Philip Bush. 

Rec** April 18, 1778, of Thomas Wharton Twenty four pounds twelve 
shillings & 7d Virginia Currency, in Gold valuing a half Joe at 48/ this 
Currency the same being in full for my Demand on him for his Board & 
keeping his Horse during his being at my House on his Banishment 
into Virginia. 

£24. 12. 7. Virg. Curr^. Elizabeth Jolliffe. 

Permit Thomas Wharton and Charles Eddy to pass from hence to 
Frederick Town in Maryland without Molestation we being authorized 
to conduct them & others to Lancaster in Pennsylvania. 

F. Bailey, 
Ja8 Lang, Capt. 

WiNOHEsriB, 18 April 1778. iQth p^ Reg*. 

Certificate of Allegiance and Fidelity of Jonathan 
Jones. — 



r DO hereby CERT I FT, That 

•^ Jonathan Jones was not of age when the 

Law passed 
Hath voluntarily taken and fubfcribed the affirma- 
tion of Allegiance and Fidelity^ as directed by an Act 
of General Affembly of Pennsylvania^ fciff^d the 
thirteenth Bay of June, A. D. 1777. 
Witnefs my Hand and Seal, the Eighth Day of 
October A.D. 1785. 



No. ig2 



L.S. 



Isaac Howell. 



Letter of William Strickland to Jonathan Jones, 1814. — 

Phila Sept' 7«» 1814. 

Sir, 

The Topographical Corps of Engineers under the direction of (Jen* 
Jonathan Williams are requested to call upon the information of Mr. 



Notes and Queries. 875 

Jonathan Jonea relative to the grounds soitahle for military positions 
near the City. They will be at the Falls of Schuylkill this aitemoon at 
4 o'clock, when you will please to attend if possible. 
Jonathan Jones Esq. W. Strickland. 

Counhei^General John Holker's Claim against General Ben- 
edict Arnold. — 

Mr. Holker has a bond of Gen' Arnold's for £8000 of January 1779 ; 
as this is the last day of Entering Claims, he would take it as a particu- 
lar favor if Mr. Nicholson would let him know if there is any thing left 
of his Estate to answer said demand in whole or in part. 

Wednesday b"-^ July 1786. 

Estimated Expenses United States Mint, for first quarter of 
1795, under the Directorship of David Rittenhouse. — 

An Estimate of the probable Expenses of the Mint of the United 
States for the present quarter commencing the first day of January 1795 

Dollftn. 
For Salaries of the officers and clerks . . . 2350.00 
For wages of Labourers including the pay of an assist- 
ant Engraver and a melter 1500.00 

For Incidental and contingent Expences and re- 
pairs of the Mint vizt. 

Wages of Mechanics including millwright work . 750.00 
For Ironmongery, lead, wood, coals, stationery office 

furniture & other contingent expenses . . 1650.00 

Amount of bills remaining unsatisfied from last quarter 1750. 00 

4150.00 



Dollars 8000.00 
Mint of the United States 
12 January 1795. 
David Rittenhouse Director 
To Edmund Randolph Esq* 
Secretary of State 
of the United States 

Proclamation of Council op Safety. — 
To All Militia Officers and Others. 

By Intelligence just received, we find his Excellency Oeneral Wash- 
ington by a master-stroke of Oeneralship has got between a considerable 
Body of the Enemy and New York, has attacked several posts with suc- 
cess, made many prisoners and taken a great deal of Stores. His situa- 
tion appears Critical, unless immediately supported by the Pennsylvania 
Militia. Oen' Putnam has marched with a considerable number to 
Bristol and only waits for a Good reinforcement, in order to enable him 
to attack the Enemy on this side. 

Contractors to the Council of Safety, Pennsylvania. — 
May SOy 1776, Powdermakers, William Thompson, Thomas Heim- 
berger, Jacob Losh, and Henry Huber. 

June 12 J 1776, *'Prover of Cannons," Daniel Joy. 



Specie. 




£222. 


12. 





4. 


10. 





156. 


0. 





15. 


0. 





L6408. 


0. 





8204. 


0. 






876 Notes and Queries. 

Benedict Arnold's Debts. — 

List of Debts claimed in the Supreme Court of the Ck)mmonwealth of 
Pennsylvania to be due to the claimants from Oeneral Benedict Arnold 
at the time of his Attainder of Treason against the said Commonwealth. 

Thomas Cooper, Administrator of Jesse Jordan, decree for 

John Torrence, Claim not determined, filed for 

D' John Jones, do do 

Edward Shippen Esq., Decree for 

John Holker Esq. aaim filed 24 Apr* 1781, of a Debt 
due on a Bond dated 11^ Day of May 
1779 for the penalty of 
conditioned for the payment of 
on the first day of September then next 
ensuing with lawfiil Interest for the same. 
Not yet determined. 

Claims to specific property made and filed in the said Court against 
the said Benedict Arnold : 

Edward Shippen Esq., a few Articles of personal property which had 
been seized as the property of the said Benedict Arnold. Decreed. 

Edward Shippen, Joseph Shippen junior and Samuel Powel claim a 
Trust, in consideration of an intended Marriage between Margaret 
Shippen (Daughter of the said Edward Shippen) and the said Ben- 
edict Arnold in a certain Messuage and Tenement commonly called 
and known by the name of Mount Pleasant on the River Schuylkill 
in the Northern Liberties of the City of Philadelphia, with four 
Tracts of Land thereto belonging containing in the whole ninety 
nine Acres and ninety seven perches of Land or thereabouts with the 
Appurtenances in Trust to permit the said Benedict Arnold to enjoy 
and receive the Rents Issues and profits thereof during his natural 
life and after Ms death to convey the legal Estate in the said Mes- 
suages Lands &c. to the said Margaret Shippen the intended wife of 
the said Benedict Arnold or to such Trustees as she should appoint, 
to the following uses to the use of the said Margaret for and during 
the Term of her natural life without Impeachment of Waste and 
after the death of the said Margaret to the use and behoof as well 
of such child or children of the said Margaret as should by the said 
Benedict Arnold on the body of the said Margaret be begotten as 
of the three sons of the said Benedict Arnold by his former wife 
and to the use of the Heirs and Assigns of every such child or 
children and of the said three sons forever to be (tivided in equal 
proportions &c in severalty as Tenants in common &c and not as 
Jointments, praying the Court to confirm and save the Right of the 
Claimants in the premises so as to enable them to perform the Trust 
reposed in them so far as regards the Rights and Estates of the said 
Margaret Arnold and the child or children of the said Margaret 
bom or to be born and of the three sons of the said Benedict Arnold 
by his former wife. 

Decreed agreeably to the prayer of the Claim. 
The claims and decrees against the forfeited estate of Benedict Arnold 

certified by Edward Burd, Prothonotary, December 1, 1786. 



Notes and Queries. 



377 



Muster Roll of Captain Jebehiah Talbot's CJompany, of 
Colonel William Irvine's Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion, 1776. 
— The original of the following Muster Roll is in the Collection of the 
Vermont Historical Society, and we print it from a certified copy of T. 
C. Phinney, Esq., Deputy Secretary of State, Vt., and contributed by 
Luther R. Kelker, Esq. , as an additional muster to that given in Penn- 
sylvania Archives, Second Series (Second Edition), Vol. x. p. 184. 

A Muster Roll of Captain Jeremiah Talbot's Company, in Col. Irvin's 
Battalion of Forces in the State of Pennsylvania, and now in the service 
of the United States of America commencing Oct. 1, 1776. Dated in 
Camp on Mount Independence November 28 1776. 



OoxnmiBsioned 
Officers. 



When 
Appointed. 

1776. 
January 9, Jeremiah Talbot, Capt. 



Casualties. 



*' 9 John McDonnald, 1st Lieut. 
*' 9 Alex'r Brown, 2nd. Ldeut. 
** 9 William Graham, Ens'r 
Sergeants. 
Oct. 1, John M. Cullam, 
1, John Wilson, 
1, Ja's Cuppels, 
1, Samuel Mitchell, 
Corporals. 
Oct. 1, William Campbell, 

1, Robert Hunter, 
1, John Chain, 
1, John Peniston, 
Drummer. 
Oct. 1, John Melton. 

Fifer. 
Oct. 1, John Killan. 

Privates. 
Oct. 1. Asten, Robert 
Bradley, John 
Black, William 
Church, John 
Coghren, Geoige 
Clark, Francis 
CamfLhan, Robert 
Conner, Charles 
Campbell, John 
Chambers, Joseph 
Dinning, John 
Dinning, Jan'r 
Evens, WiUiam 
Faulkner, John 
Fairess, Hugh 
Gkudner, James 
Gibson, David 



On Furlow Pennsylvania by 
G. Gates, Nov. 17th. 



Sick m G. Hospital. 
Sick in Camp. 



Sick in Camp. 
Sick in G. Hospital. 



Sick in Camp. 
Sick in G. Hospital. 



Sick in G. Hospital. 

Sick in G. Hospital. 

Sick in Mt. Indp't Hospital 



378 



Notes and Queries. 



Heaftlet, William 
Heathena^on, John 
Handlon, Duke 
HiggiiLs, John 
Kelley, Kern 

Lyon, Stephen 
Lewis, Jacob 
Lilley, Hugh 
McFarlen, James 
Marten, John 
Mellen, Robert 
Morrison, Benjamin 
McCown, Jas. 
McDonnald, Archibald 
Mitchel, Thomas 
Murry, Charles 
Murry, Patrick 
McConnel, Mathe'a 
McCreerg, Thomas 
McCrady, Larana 
Morgan, Abel 
McMillan, Charles 
Niekel, Archibald 
Pinkerton, Andrew 

Power, Samuel 
Pollock, John 

Quarre, Jas. 
Shaw, William 
Swalo, Mick 
Shoomaker, John 

Sloan, James 
Tatton, John 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, Hugh 
White, William 



Sick in Mt. Independ't Hos- 
pital. 
Sick in G. Hospital. 

Sick in G. Hospital. 
Sick in G. Hospital. 
Sick in G. Hospital. 
Sick in Camp. 



Sick in G. Hospital. 
Sick in Camp. 
Sick in Camp. 



Sick in Camp. 
Sick in Camp. 
Sick in G. Hospital. 
Sick in Mt. Independent Hos- 
pital. 

Sick in Mt. Independent Hos- 
pital. 
Sick in Camp. 

On furlough with Capt'n. 
Sick in Mt. Independ't Hos- 
pital. 
Sick in Camp. 
Sick in G. Hospital 



Sick in Mt. Independ't Hos- 
pital 
Sick in G. Hospital. 



White, John 
Welch, John 
Watson, Robert Sick in Camp. 

Wiley, Isaac 
Mustered then in Captain Jeremiah Talbot's company, in Colonel 
Irvine's Battalion of the forces of the United States of America, raised in 
the State of Pennsylvania, the first & second Lieutenants & Ensign, two 
Serjents, two Corporals one Drum & thirty one Privates. 

Allowing the Captain, two Serjenta, two Corporals & one Fife to pass 
unrespited, they being Certified Effectives on the back of the roll. 

Rich'd Varick, Dep'y M. M. Genl. 

This Muster is taken from the 9th of Jany. for the Officers & from 
the 1st of October, 1776 for the non Commissioned Officers & Privates to 
the 28th of Nov. 1776. 



Notes and Queries, 379 

[On the back of the Roll,'] 
Whereas Captain Jeremiah Tabot is absent & hath not furnished me 
with the Papers of his Company in Col. Irvin's Battallion so that It is 
Impossible for me to Account for the Date of the Enlistment of the non 
Commissioned Officers & Privates ; I do hereby certifye on Honor that 
the Officers non Commissioned officers and Privates who appeared this 
Day under Arms in the said Company in Col. Irvin's Battallion are Bona 
Fide Engaged in service of the United States of America before the days 
set opix)site to their respective names & that they receive pay According to 
the Rank they hold in the roll. I do also Certifye that the absentees are 
to the Best of my Knowledge Effectives and absent for the reasons set 
opposite to their respective mimes. 

John McDonnald, Lieut. 

Letter of Captain Thomas Hazelwood, of the Pennsyl- 
vania Navy, to Joseph Read, Esq. — 
Sir. 

As the season of the Year is advancing that the part of the Fleet 
now in Commission can be of no further service during the Winter 
Months, I would wish to obtain of your Excellency a Furlow to make 
a Voyage to the West Indies, as the Pay is by no means sufficient to 
support an Officer in the City, tho' I would give the preference to serving 
my Country. But if your Excellency thinks my further Service will not 
be wanted in the Spring, would choose to resign my Commission now. 

Your Excellencys complying with either will be thankfully acknowl- 
edged by 

Your Excellencys most Obedient & Humb* Serv' 

Thomas Hazelwood. 

Philada. Decemb. \V^, 1778. 

Letter of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Hartley, of the 
Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion, 1776. — 

Camp— Tioondarooa, Oct^ y» 25*>» 1776. 

DR Sirs, 

When you left us I told you I would write to you in a few Days, if 
I remained among the Number of the Living. 

Since you left us, we have had all Hands at work — ^Redoubt upon Re- 
doubt raising — strengthening the old works — mounting guns — making a 
Boom and Bridge across the Lake — and making every other Disposition 
necessary to receive the E^emy. The wind has been very unfavourable 
to them for this week. Several Bodies of Militia are coming this way — 
some will be in this Evening. We shall then be able to spare .... 
men to attack the Enemies advanced Partys at Putnam's Creek. The 
grejit number of Sick among us you know leaves barely a sufficiency to 
man the Lines. At any Rate should the Enemy not attack us tomorrow, 
we shall I am pretty confident attack their Party's tomorrow Night or 
the next Morning. If the wind continues South we can do it safely. 
Officers and Men are in high Spirits, and make no doubt but they will 
give the Enemy a flogging. 

The Proceedings of Congress of the 8** of October have been received 
by the Qeneral ; some Men will enlist again, but many have an Inclina- 
tion to see their Homes before they Engage. 

In Justice to some Gentlemen of Merit in this Battalion I beg leave 



: 380 Notes and Queries. 

W to recommend them for Advancement, in some of the new Battalions (or 

others should there by Preferments be any vacancies in it) 

* i Majors Dunlap and Grier to Lieut' Colonels. 

Captains Hay and Bush to Majors. 

Lieut' McDonald, Mr. Hops, Lieut' Alexander, Edie and McAllister 
. ' to be Captains, Lieut. Montgomery a 2^ to be a first Lieut, also Ensign 

, . Miller to the like. Mr. Walker, Mr. Beaty & Mr. Parker for Ensigns. 

; Mr. McDowell, Mate, to be a Surgeon. Doctor Johnston, would will- 

1 ingly exchange his present Employment for a Majority ; should he be 

'{ appointed a Major the publick will find him qualified for that ofi&ce. 

i,' Perhaps you may think my Demands, rather unreasonable, but as you 

■| are now modling an Army, upon which the Liberties of America so 

much depends and in which I consider myself interested, I use the 
Freedom. I know the Gentlemen recommended to be Persons of good 

* ; Understanding and men of Honour. They have improved as much as 
y' possibly would be expected from their Ebcperience. 

From the great number of Officers which this Regiment lost in Canada, 
this Battalion was allowed to keep the two Majors which had been ap- 
'^ pointed ; in the new Establishment it can only have one, so that we have 

- . a Field Officer too many. 

; , A resignation or an Advancement must take place. I cheerfully en- 

gaged in the Service with a real desire of serving my Country a Year, in 

* ,. 3ie best Manner my Abilities would admit ; how fer I have executed my 

• ' Office with Propriety my Country will determine. If I merit a Begi- 

1' ment I make no doubt, but it will be granted me. Should another have 

' : superior Merit it will be given him. I shall not repine at the latter, 

because I shall suppose that my Country will be the better served and I 
i shall be justifiable in retiring from the Army, till the Demands of my 

{ Country shall make it necessary to join it again. I wish Wisdom to 

your Councils, and a happy and free Constitution to the Province of 
' ■ Pennsylvania. You may lay these Recommendations before your Con- 

* vention or Council of Safety. 

I ' I am Gentlemen 

' ^ with great Regard 

your most obed' 
' humble Serv* 

CoLONEUs Potter and Clark Tho^ Hartley. 

& John Morris Esq* 

High Constable Carlisle, of Philadelphia, was an important 
functionary during the administration of President Washington. He 
was a remarkable character, of gigantic form, and as well Uie peace- 
maker and terror of all rowdies. His dress was a black velvet coat, flap 
** waistcoat, small clothes, shoes with old-fashioned buckles, and a cocked 

bat. He carried a large black stick, with the arms of Pennsylvania on 
a silver head, and when on the street was generally followed by a large 
Newfoundland dog. 

P. B. C. 

"A List of those persons that refuse to go to Camp, 'till 
they are Compelled," is addressed to Colonel Timothy Matlack, 
1776. 

'' Baltes Emerick, Baker, in Market street the comer of Seventh street. 



Notes and Queries. 381 

* * John Heyl, in fourth Street, near Market Street. 

'* George Michael Heck, Cooper, the Comer of Appletree alley in 
fourth street. 

''John Bach, gunsmith, in second street above Vine street. 

** Daniel Frishmuth, in fifth street oposite the 14 Chemneys. 

''John Schneider, in New street between Second and third street. 

" John Quantle, in Vine street between fourth and fifth street. 

"Peter Draiss, in third street near Church Ally. 

"Niclass Hartsback, in Water street near Walnut street, Ceder 
Cooper." 

Letter of Charles Wiluson Peale to Joseph Beed. — 

Sir, 

Tlie Bearer — ^Macklemarra, lost his Arm in the Engagement of the 
white plains, he belongs to Capf* Ramsay's Company of Smallwood's 
Batf* of Maryland Troops, and has been in Town several Days and can- 
not get a Surgeon to dress his Arm, he has applyed to several who says 
they were not appointed for that purpose besides he dont know where to 
get his Rasions — ^he has a man to attend him of the same Company, 
pray give them amediate assistance to oblige. 

Cha» W. Peale 

they have no place to put their Heads in. I am just going, adieu. 

Beavers in Upper Northampton County, 1766. — ^The John 
Okely mentioned in the following letter of Samuel Wallis to the firm 
of James & Drinker, of the City of Philadelphia, was for many years 
the scrivener and land agent for the Moravian estates in Pennsylvania. 
Robert Levers was a resident of Easton : 

Bethlkhkm, Ap. 6, 1756. 

Pursuant to your instructions I have proceeded over the Blue Hills in 
company with your friend John Okely, who has agreeable to your re- 
quest accompanyed me with the greatest cheerfiillness and whose opinion 
on the sundry Tracts which we have been able to see I expect accom- 
panys this Letter. On our advising with Rob* Levers & sundry other 
{)ersons who were w^ell acquainted with the Shawhollock Lands, we find 
that the obtaining a perfect knowledge of that Tract at this season is 
impracticable by reason of the waters being high and no conveniency 
in crossing them, as well as that (at least) one third of the land (the 
most valuable part thereof) is covered with water by the Beaver Dams, 
which canH be expected (they say) to be clear untill about the middle of 
May. 

Royal Barracks, Philadelphia. — Joseph Fox, Barracks Master, 
wad paid the following sums for the quartering of troops, etc., daring 
the year 1769 : 

Aug. 8 Quartering the Troops, £800.0.0 

Sept. 14 do. do 119.8.0 

Oct. 20 Acct. building house for Colonel on West side of 

Barracks 600.0.0 

Nov. 11 Quartering the Troops, 100.0.0 

Dec 5 do. do 100.0.0 



882 



Notes and Queries. 





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Letter of President Joseph Reed to Captain Tuomas Cluq- 
OAOE, of Bedford County. — 

Philadelphia. June 27»>» 1779. 

Sir, 

Your letter of the eleventh instant haa been duely received, and Mr. 
Donnelly is appointed your Second Lieutenant agreeably to your desire. 
When M' Piper and yourself have fixed ujwn your first Lieutenant and 



Notes and Queries. 888 

made him known to us we shall readilly appoint him. We were appre- 
hensive that the encouragement given to the boat service, and other 
inferior branches of the Susqu^anna expedition would injure the 
recruiting, but as it eventually promotes the same object, viz* the safety 
of the frontiers we can submit to it with more chearfullness. 

We hope that you will be able to recruit near your compliment, the 
you may not fully reach it. It would have been very agreeable to us 
to have been informed of the exact state of the company and we request 
you will do it as soon as possible. 

Mr. Carson at Carlisle has undertook the supply of the articles prom- 
ised in the recruiting instructions, and has actually supplied Captain 
Irwin's company. We have forwarded some money to him for this pur- 
pose and shall supply him with more when necessary, we would there- 
fore have you apply to him. 

The favourable reports received on all hands from the westward of the 
disposition of the savages since the capture of Governor Hamilton gives 
us hopes that you may be able to co-operate with (General Sullivan, who 
is very anxious to have a body of good woodsmen. There will not only 
be an opportimity of acquiring more [torn] there, than remaining 
merely defensive ; but in such case it would be in our power to send yon 
supplies from the City which the scattered state of the troops and diffi- 
culty of carriage now in a great measure prevents. We shall forward a 
supply of money by the first safe opportunity, and if any one is coming 
down you will do well to direct him to wait on us for this purpose. 

I am Sir 

Your obedient and very humble 

Servant, 

Jos. Beed, 
Pretident, 
To Captain Thomas Cluooage, 

of Bedford County. 

Lady Washington Entertained in Philadelphia, May, 1789. — 
On Thursday, May 21, 1789, an express reached Philadelphia with the 
intelligence that Lady Washington, en route from Mount Vernon to join 
the President in New York, would breakfast the next morning at 
Chester. Early on Friday morning the two troops of Light Horse com- 
manded by Captains Miles and Bingham, the Qovemor of the State, the 
Speaker of the Assembly, and a number of gentlemen mounted, pro- 
ceeded to a point ten miles from the city to await her coming. Near 
Darby, Mrs. Robert Morris Tvith a distinguished company of ladies, in 
carriages, joined the escort, and when Gray*s Gardens were reached, an 
elegant cold luncheon was ser\'ed. From the bill of expenses, presented 
by Simon Gratz, Esq., to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, weobtian 
a partial list of those who were present : Governor Thomas Miffiin, 
Richard Peters, Temple Franklin, Henry Hill, Clement Biddle, John 
Mifflin, Benjamin Chew, Jr., Robert Morris, Jr., William Morris, 
Richard Bache, John Ross, Robert Hare, George Harrison, Samuel 
Meredith, Captain Miles and thirty-nine ''gentlemen troopers," four 
Continental officers, and Lady Washington and twenty ladies. The 
seventy-nine participants consumed 10 bottles of Madeira Wine, 1 
bottle Champagne, 2 bottles Claret, 45 bowls Punch, 10 bottles Ameri- 
can Porter, 1 bottle Taunton Ale, and 2 bottles Crab Cider. After Uie 



384 Notes and Queries. 

luncheon the company proceeded to the residence of Mrs. Morris, whose 
guest Lady Washington was to be, amid the applause of the citizenB, 
the ringing of bells, and a salute of thirteen guns from the artillery 
commanded by Captain Fisher. On Monday morning Lady Wash- 
ington in company with Mrs. Morris set out for New York, in the midst 
of a rain and with an escort of light horse, and on Wednesday was met 
by the President and several gentlemen at Elizabethtown Point, and 
conducted over the bay in the President's barge to Peck's Slip, where 
she was welcomed by crowds of citizens. 

Two Letteks of General Washington to the Ck)UNCiL of 
Safety of Pennsylvania, 1776. — 

Head Quarters Trenton Falls 
10«»» December 1776 

Sir, 

Yours of last evening reached me at 4 o'clock this morning. I im- 
mediately sent Orders to CJommodore Seymour to despatch one of his 
Oallies down to Dunk's Ferry, and I shall dispose of the Remainder in 
such manner, and at such places as will be most likely, not only to annoy 
the Enemy in their Passage, but to give the earliest Information of any 
attempt of that kind. 

Parties of the Enemy have been reconnoitering both up and down 
Biver, and I imagine that it has been one of those parties that have ap- 
peared near Burlington, for as they have not found the least opposition 
from the People of Jersey, they venture very far from their main Body, 
which for the best Information still lays about Trenton and above it. 

I have desired Col* Humpton, who is the bearer of this, to apply for 
a party of men, to go up Cooper's and Ancocus Creeks, and bringdown 
all the Craft he may find there, for it is in vain to cut down Bridges, if 
the Boats are left. They cannot be trusted to the care of the owners, 
for if an Enemy was to appear, such is their Fear, that they would 
deliver them up upon the first demand. 

I think that the Fort b^an at Billingsport should be attended to, if 
there is not a party already there, one should be sent under a good Offi- 
cer, who would not too readily take the Alarm and come off, for you may 
depend that only small Bodies will be sent to that Distance. But I have 
always found that the intelligence brought by people not used to see 
Men in Arms, has always magnified numbers exce^ingly, and on this 
Head the Officer should be guarded, not to trust to Report, but be well 
satisfied himself, before he gives up his Post. 

Having sent down Major General Putnam to throw up necessary 
Works for the Defence of your City, I hope you will co-operate with 
him, and give him every Assistance in your power to expedite so neces- 
sary an Operation. 

I have the Honour to be Sir 

Your most ob* Serv* 

Go Washington 
To Honble Thomas Wharton jun» EsqR- 
President of the Council of Safety 
Philadelphia. 

Head Quarters Bucks County, 
17*»« Decern' 1776. 

Getn, 

Since I wrote you yesterday, I have received Information that the 
Enemy are still moving downwards, and by their making Facines, they 



Notes and Queries. 886 

either have not yet laid aside their Designs upon Philadelphia, or they 
mean to Quarter in the small Towns along tiie Biver, in which case I 
suppose they would throw up small Works to prevent a surprize. In 
either case, if there are any Artillery or Stores at Billingsport, they 
should be immediately removed, as I find, fi*om a late Letter from you, 
that you have not a sufficient Force to protect the Works that have been 
erected. I am Gentlemen 

with the greatest Respect 

Y' most ob' Serv' 
Go Washington. 
Hon*»»« Council of Safety of 

Pennsylvania. 

Death and Burial op Owen Jones, Provincial Treasurer of 
Pennsylvania. — ^Through the kindness of Mrs. George B. Roberts and 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts, I have had in my possession for some days 
several old manuscript books found in the home of the late Colonel Owen 
Jones at Wynnewood. Susanna, one of the daughters of the Provincial 
Treasurer, married John Nancarrow. In one of these old books she 
gives the following account of the death and burial of her father, which 
occurred during the prevalence of the yellow fever in 1793: 

'^In the b^inning of August 1793 it pleased the wise Disposer of 
human events, to visit Philadelphia with a disease, which in many of 
its symptoms so nearly resembled the Plague, that the Physicians were 
at a loss for a name, less alarming, to the afflicted citizens when they 
were called upon to denominate a disorder, which made so awful a prog- 
ress in our city, it was a time of deep trial, and caused great searching 
of heart, none knowing what instant the contagion would reach them. 
Our friends and neighbours were hourly carried to their silent habita- 
tions, and dismay so seized the people that there were but very few, who 
had sufficient resolution to attend their nearest relations, either during 
their illness, or to their graves. Persons of the first distinction were 
without attendance except a black man who led the hearse, there were 
none to see that they were decently committed to the earth, and those 
who possessed the means to procure every comfort, suffered for want of 
a glass of water. There was a serious desertion of parents from, chil- 
dren, children from parents, husbands fi*om wives, and wives from. 
husbands, thousands fled into the country for safety. 

''My father and mother with several of their children, staid in the 
city, and were favoured to escape the disorder, except my fieither, who 
was attacked with the prevailing malady on the 3rd of October, and on 
the 9th resigned his pure spirit into the hands of his maker. My 
mother and brothers with my sisters, Ann, Martha, Rebecca, and myself 
were present at this awfiil seen. He seemed to have nothing to do but 
to die, was sensible to the last, and altho speechless, he frequently until 
the last half hour, cast his eyes upon each one of us, then mildly fixed 
them upon mother, and with her hand clasped in his ^which he had held 
the last three hours) finished his valuable life. We aid not commit his 
remains to the hands of strangers but performed every necessary duty for 
our fieither without even the presence of a servant (yet they did not, as 
many did, desert us, but most affectionately performed all that was re- 
quired of them). An attempt to describe our dear mother's fortitude is 
altogether vain, she was helped with strength not her own, and per- 

voL. XXIV. — 26 



I': 



. i ■ 

I- 



886 Notes and Queries. 



|< ■ fonned wonders. When her earthly treasure waa placed in his coffin^ 

she put hia winding sheet about him, and when all things were ready 
accompanied his remains to its silent mansion. A few of the neigh- 
bours attended the funeral to the gate of the burial ground. On the 
way from the corner of Market along Fourth, many of the inhabitants, 
who were afraid to venture out, stood at their windows, in which they 
placed candles, (it was night) with a friendly view, not only to throw 
light on the pavement but to pay the last mark of attention to one who 
90 deservedly commanded their esteem.'' 

Howard Williams Lloyd. 

4. 

*5* Order of Brigadier-General William Maxwell to Major 

i / . Abraham Labar, 1776. — 

.J . EA8T0N 10*»« Decern. 1776 

■»' Sir, 

;^ ' You are hereby requested to furnish eight soldiers to be commanded 

^i- Alternately by two Serg** of the Continental Troops & the whole to be 

* , , under your Direction, to guard the Ferry and Water-craft at Easton till 

*j ; further Orders, for which they shall be allowed the usual pay & Provi- 

' \ * sions of the Continental Troops. Given under my hand 

^!^' WM Maxwell 

Brig* Gen* 
To Major Abrm Labar. 



State House Items. — From the accounts of Owen Jones, Treasurer 
of the Province of Pennsylvania, the following items relating to the 
State House are extracted : 



1769. 


Aug. 


8. 


Repairs, .... 


£200. 0.0 




Nov. 


1. 


do. A building Wall, . 


100. 0.0 






22 


do. do. 


600. 0.0 




Dec. 


6 


do 


400. 0.0 


1770. 


Feb. 


3 


do 


180. 0.0 


1772. 


March 21 


Pumps & Fire Buckets, 


90. 2.3^ 






21 


E. Duffield care of clock, 


20.16.0 


1773 


Feb. 


6 


Painting Fire Buckets, . 


16. 0.0 


1774 


Sep. 


26 


Glazing Windows 

Mending do. ' . . 


7. 6.0 
1. 6.0 


1776 


Sept. 


27 


E Duffield care of clock. 
Repairing Pump 


20.16.0 
12.6 



Letter of Joseph Shippen, Jr., to Edward Shippen. — 

Philadelphia 18»»» November 1775. 
(Saturday evening.) 

Dear & honoured Sir, 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you with my brother's & my safe re- 
turn home on Tuesday evening to our Families, whom we found per- 
fectly well. On the road within 6 miles of Town we were met by Capt. 
Housecker who very agreeably surprised us with the great News of the 
taking of St. Johns & the repulse of General Carleton, the particular 
Acct* of which with the Articles of Capitulation you will see in the 
papers. We are daily in expectation of receiving News of the further 
success of the Continental Forces at Montreal & Quebec. I would fiun 
hope these fortunate enterprizes will tend rather to induce the Ministry 
to bring about an Accommodation, than to irritate the Mother Country 



Notes and Queries. 887 

y 

& provoke its further Vengence against us. But if the latter should 
unhappily prove to be the Case, our having possession of Canada, with 
the Canadians and Indians in our Interest will be of immense advantage 
to us, as thereby the Ministry will be deprived of the great addition of 
strength they expected to derive from that Country, and the Forces 
from Great Britain must necessarily be much divided in their operations 
next year. . . Letters from New York by the Post say that 25 Trans- 
ports are just arrived at Boston with Troops, but the number of them 
is not known. It was a false Bumor that a Ship of War was in our 
River, or at our Capes, and we have no reason to expect any will come 
here this Winter, so that I think we need not be under any uneasiness 
or apprehension about our Safety here, at least before next Spring. But 
I hope a Cessation of Hostilities will take place in the course of the 
Winter . . . Cousin P^gy Willing was married last Thursday night to 
Mr. Hare, and there was a very merry Wedding, at which my neice 
Miss Betsy Shippen was one of the Brides Maids. 

Jenny & my children join me in Love to Mammy & yourself, and we 
desire also to be affectionately remembered to Mr. & Mrs Yeates & 
family, & to Mias Patty Gray. 

I am Dear Sir 
Your very affectionate 
& dutiful Son 

Joseph Shippen Jk 

Letter of General Anthony Wayne to President Thomas 
Wharton, Jr., of Pennsylvania, 1778. — 

Mount Joy April \Q^ 1778. 

Dear Sir, 

Agreeable to your desire, I have ordered up an additional number of 
Recruiting officers, who are all well recommended for their Industry 
and Sobriety, and who I wish were tolerated to enlist in any Quarter 
where it is most possible they may meet with success, as confining them 
to particular Counties will rather retard than expedite or facilitate the 
Becruiting Service. I communicated your Idea to his Excellency of 
constantly employing some Officers in that Business, in order to keep the 
Raiments & Corps complete, which meet his warmest approbation ; and 
he requests through me that your Excellency would adopt so salutory a 
Measure as its of the first Consequence, to have Veterans in place of 
raw raised troops, which will always be the case if the Recruiting busi- 
ness is put off till the Spring of the year ; and then the Time is so short that 
we can't hope either to complete or Manoeuvre our Corps before they take 
the field. I wish your Elxcellency to order the Recruits to be clothed & 
appointed before they leave Lancaster as they can't be supplied here, the 
Sixteen additional Regiments and the Carolina troops being ordered to 
be supplied previous to any others, so that we have little prospect of 
receiving any benefit firom the Clothier Generals Store in this Quarter ; 
and altho' tolerable with regard to shoes Stockings & Hats, we are wretch- 
edly provided in other Respects, particularly as to Shirts. I do assure 
your Excellency that there are near one third of my men that have no kind 
of Shirt under Heaven, and scarcely a man in the Division, with more 
than one, nor have I been able to draw any during this whole winter. 
For Gk>d's sake endeavour to do something for us, the Season is near 
arrived that requires every attention to keep the Troops healthy, and 



388 Notes cmd Queries. 

nothing will be more Condusive to it than clean linnen — in this article 
we are in a worse Condition than any troops on the ground, nay worse 
than Falstaff 's Recruite ; they had a shirt and a half to a Company. 
You'll pardon me for dwelling so long on this subject, but upon my Soul, 
I cannot help it — ^my feelings as a man, are so much hurt by the Com- 
plainings and misery of the poor Fellows, who have no shirts at ailf that 
I can have no peace of mind until they are provided. 

A Quantity of superfine Cloth and about 12 or 1500 yards of Linnen 
were purchased by Col. Miller and left in the hands of Mr. Jacob Eich- 
elberger at York, for the use of our Troops ; will you be kind enough to 
order Mr. Howell to send for it least other Troops should receive the 
Benefit of that which we are in so much want of. A Woman who has 
been in Philada. for three or four days, and this moment returned says, 
that the general Report there is that in the Course of two weeks ike 
Enemy intend to take the Field, but at the Quarters of some principal 
Officers, they have been frequently overheard talking in a Desponding 
style, and that they can't move until they receive Reinforcements, wit£ 
severe sarcasm against their General, who they wish to be mated, and 
who I hope will not until we have an opportunity to Burgoyne him. 
But this will depend upon the exertions of the States — at present he out- 
numbers us — and by the best accounts New England is so absorbed in 
accumulating Wealth that they have become totally Insensible to our 
suflerings and Danger, and sunk into a torpid Supineness, from which 
its difficult to arouse them. 

I am your Excellency's most Obd't 
and very Humb* Servant 
By order of General Wayne 

Ben. Fishbourn A. D. C. 

James Mitchell, of Donegal Township, Lancaster County, 
writing to James Logan under date of May 13, 1723, states : 

** I give you to know that there is fifteen famileys of Dutch come from 
Alboney & are now settling upp Swattarra. I send an account of it to 
the Governour & Councile by Conay Thorn & an address from the upper 
Savages to the Governour and Councile & I have heard they are Impa- 
tient for the answer & for me to send an Express on such ocaaions att my 
own charge will not answer. 

" Ja. Patterson is not yeet come out of the woods but is expected 
every day — his wife is likely to Dy." 

Wanted: a Rector for Chestertown, Maryland. — 

June »i 1789 
D' S', 

As you have once more embarked in public Business, for the good of 
your Fellow Citizens, in their temporal Concerns, I take it for granted 
you will excuse, the Trouble I am about to give you, in a matter of fisur 
greater Importance. We are in immediate want of a Parson. I could . 
describe the kind of Man who would suit us in few Words; as for 
Distance, he must be unlike some we have had, in every thing but abil- 
ities. He must be a good Preacher, a sound Divine and if a zealoua 
High Church Man, so much the better. We want one, who will not only 
preach, but live down, the Methodists. One who will think it his Duty, 
to lead the Asses to water, you know what I allude to, and not one who 



Notes and Queries. 389 

thinks of the Stipend only. In short, we want a Man who has a great 
deal of the Church in his heart and a good deal of the Gentleman in his 
Behaviour. A Person whose name is Behn, has been strongly recom- 
mended to us, and I wish you to make some inquiries about him of Doc- 
tor White. If the Doctor hesitates, I shall govern myself accordingly, 
without bringing him into View, in the least. K he can venture to write 
in his Favour, an application will be made directly. The Living, 
including Perquisites, will I apprehend not Ml much, if any, short of 
$300 per Ann. Be pleased to let me have an answer soon, as I suspect 
another Person, who is by no means the Thing, is thought of by some 
People. 

I wish poor Betsey's Affair was well over, that we might know when 
to expect the pleasure of your Ck>mpany. 

Yours Aff»y 

Sam. Chew. 
To Benjamin Chew Ebq» 
Philadelphia. 

Franklin. — 
To Bn. Franklin Ebqr. 
Sir, 
The Associates of Dr. Bray, for establishing Parochial Libraries, and 
instructing the Negroes in the British Plantations, meet on Thursday ihe 
7 day of April at Tbi o'Clock, at their Office at the Angel and Bible, in 
Ave-Mary Lane, 
Associates Oppice, 
1768. 

Items of American Interest in the New London Magazine, Vol. 
I., July to December 1786. — 

ObUuaries, 

July, — ^William Strahan Esq. his Majesty's printer, who was mem- 
ber in the last two parliaments, first for Malmsbury, and after for Woot- 
ten Bassets, both in Wiltshire. 

In Cork St., Burlington-gardens [Xondon], Thomas Fozcroft Esq. 
last postmaster-general [sic] of Philadelphia. 

At Cranham Hall, Essex, General James Oglethorpe, aged 102 years. 
He was the oldest general in England. 

August In New Street [London], in her 67th year Mrs. Strahan, 
widow of the late William Strahan. 

September. At Septisbury, in Dorsetshire, Miss Ann Jekyell, second 
daughter of the late Bev. Dr. Jekyll, Dean of St. David's. 

At his brother's house, in Southampton-Bow [London] David 
Thompson, M.D., of Jamaica. 

October^ In the 80th. year of his age, at Bath, Anthony Stainsby 
Esq. a gentleman possessed of a large fortune in the islands of Antigua 
and Jamaica. 

At Charlton, in Kent, Mrs. Anne McCulloh, wife of Robert McCul- 
loh Esq. of the plac^, and daughter of George Boupell Esq. of Charles- 
town [sic] South Carolina. 

November. At Beverly in Yorkshire, in the 69th. year of his age. 
Brigadier Genend Oliver de Lancey, late of New York in North America. 



890 Notes and Queries. 

Marriages, 

Septetnber, George Levins Esq. of Haywood, in Herefordshire, to Miss 
Mary Barham daughter of Joseph Foster Barham Esq. of the island of 
Jamaica, 

Promotions. 

December. William Stafford from half pay of the Maryland Loyalists, 
to be surgeon of the 27th. Foot. 

Obititary and Marriage Notices of American interest contained 
in the Town and Country Magazine^ January to June 1782. — 

January (recently) Sir George Egeton Leigh, Bart., at Savannah in 
Georgia, and formerly Attorney Greneral of that Pronnce. 

February 3. The Right Hon. Lord Colville of Ochiltree, in Villiars 
street, York Bundings. 

March (recently) The Right Hon. Lord Fairfax, at his Proprietary in 
Virginia. 

April 27. The Right Hon. John, Earl of Loudoun, one of the sixteen 
peers of Scotland, General in the Army, Colonel of the 3rd. Regiment 
of Foot Guards and Governor of Edinburgh Castle. 

May 14. The Right Hon. Edward, Earl Ligonier, Lieutenant General 
of his Majesty's Forces, and Colonel of the 9th Regiment of Foot in 
America. 

May 21. Lieutenant General [Robert?] Monckton, Governor of Ports- 
mouth and Colonel of the 17th. Regiment of Foot. 

July 28. The Abbe Reynal at Berlin. 

September 27. Colonel Jonathan Furlong, of the 14th Regiment of 
Foot. 

Marriages. 

April — Captain Christie of the 3d Regiment of Foot Guards, son of 
General Christie to Miss Burton, daughter of the late General Burton. 

May 10. Lloyd Hill Esq. of the 43d Regiment to Miss Charlotte 
Malcombe, daughter of the late John Malcombe Esq. surgeon to the 
West Fencibles. 

May 24. Mr. Edward Bouverie to Miss Murray daughter of the Earl 
of Dunmore. 

May 29. Charles Graham Esq. late of the Island of Jamaica, to Misa 
Janet Yeaman, second daughter of the late James Yeaman Esq. of 
Archinlock. 

June 26. Robert C. Dallas Esq. at Sutton in Suffolk to Miss Harding 
of Petesten Hall in the same county. 

September [prior to] Captain Don of the 51st. Regiment of Foot to 
Miss Murray niece to the Hon. Lieutenant General Murray. 

Letters of Robert L. Hooper, Jr., to Owen Biddle, of Board 
OF War, Pennsylvania, 1777. — 

EAflTON April 9«>» 1777 

Sir, 

In obedience to your orders of the 3 Inst. I have sent Expresses thro' 
the greatest part of this County to procure Teams, and have the pleasure 
to inform you that I have been pretty successfull, as you will see by this 
inclosed Return, which is but a part of the number engaged, for aJl my 
Expresses are not yet returned. — I have reason to believe there is now 



Notes and Queries. 391 

gone, and geting ready to go about eighty Teams from County, and if 
your Honorable Board thinks more Teams will be wanted, I shall be 
glad to receive your positive Commands. 

I found it absolutely necessary to promise the people that they might 
expect to draw Rations, for they were backward in going, fearing it 
would be impossible for them to supply themselves. 

The people go in full expectation of my paying them on their Return 
to this County, if it is proper I am very willing to undertake that trouble. 

I am with great respect 

Sir your hum* Serv* 

RofiT L. Hooper, Jb. 

Saucon April 9"» 1777 

Dear Owen, 

Tell me by a line if I have acted right — ^I live about 5 Miles South of 
Bethlehem near the Great Road & it is best to order your Express (if 
you send) directly to me — ^Tell me all the news, and what you think of 
the talked of Invasion — Has France actually lent us 5 Million of LdverB? 
in haist I am 

Yours 

R. L. Hooper, jr, 
It will be best for me 

to pay the people. 

Letter of the Wife of Ex-Deputy-Governor George Thomas 
TO Richard Peters, 1753. — 

Sir, 

I rec** your obliging Letter since my Arrival here, & am very glad to 
hear you have Injoyed your health, so well, for these 2 years past, may 
it Continue for many Years, I am now Settled in my own Country 
where, I hope I shall Continue for Life, as I am realy tired of Crossing 
the Seas & Travelling about the World. I was much afflicted with the 
Gout in my Stomack & feet in England but have been pretty well since 
I came here, that was the Indisposition I Lay with when Cap*" Budden 
Left London, I had it so bad at that time in my Stomack that I expected 
Death every moment, but the fatigue of Setting up with my Little Girl 
in her illness I believe, made me worse for she was so ill for three months 
with the S* Vitus' s Dance that her Life was Dispaired of she had fever 
for 25 Days & nights & her speech Left her, she lost all the use of her 
Limbs & every Joynt in her body was in perpetual motion, but the Cold 
Bath with Grods assistance restored her to health. She is perfectly well 
now and is realy a sensible fine Child but is very Tender. I have a very 
Clever, woman coming over to be a Governess to her for I can never 
think of parting with her so purpose to have her Educated under my own 
Eye. She reads & Dances & speaks french very prettyly & has began 
to learn to write, so I hope she will be as Clever as if I sent her To Eng- 
land. Mr. Thomas injoys his health very well, he is now visiting the 
other Islands under his Government & is not yet returned. I am glad 
to hear you have so good an Assembly, I am surprised the Governor 
does not marry some agreable Lady, I think it is a great Pitty he does 
not get a good wife. I beg my Compliments to all Mrs. A's Family, 
Mrs. Plumstead & Mrs. Taylor & family. My Poppetts often talks of 



392 Notes and Queries. 

Philadelphia, she & her Sisters Desire their Compliments to 70U & firom 
Sir 

Your most obedient 

Humb»« Serv* 

Eliz. Thomas. 

Antigua Feb y 8»»» 1753 

Letter of Captain Jabies Irvine, commanding officer at Fort 
Allen, to the Indian missionary, Christian Frederick Post, at Bethle- 
hem, concerning his contemplated journey to Ohio, with Teedyuscung, 
the Delaware Chief : 

Fort Allen February 9*^ 17eo 
Sir 

I have been with Teedenscung & agreeable to your desire, have en- 
quired of him, whether it was the Bequest of the Indians that you 
should accompany him to Allegheny? he said it was: I then desired 
him to let me know the Time, when he intended to sett off, that you 
might get ready against then & his answer was in Ten weeks Time — He 
was very sorry you went away before he had spoke with you, & would 
have come to Bethlehem himself, but is Prevented by sickness. 

This morning he sent for me & desired I would Write you word, that 
he has not gott Wampum enough &, that, neither he nor the Young 
Men that is to goe with him have Cloathing sufficient for the Journey ; 
he therefore Bc^ you would intercede with the Gk)vemor for a supply 
of each. Please to send me the Paper by the Bearer of this & you will 
much Oblige, 

Your humble Servant, 

James Ibyike. 

Form of Marriage License in Pennsylvania, 1777. — 

Know all Men by these Presents, That we 

are held and firmly bound unto Es- 

quire, President of the Supreme Executive Council of the Common- 
wealth of Pmiisylvaniay Captain Ceneral and Commander in Chief in 
and over the same, in the Sum of Pounds, to be paid to the 

said Esquire, his certain Attorney, Executors, Administrators 

or Assigns, or his Successors in the said Office : To the which Payment 
well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves jointly and severally for 
and in the Whole, our Heirs, Executors, and Administrators, firmly by 
these Presents — Sealed with our Seals. Dated the Day of 
in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and 

The Condition of this Obligation is such. That if there shall not 
hereafter appear any lawful Let or Impediment, by Reason of any Pre- 
contract, Consanguinity, Affinity, or any other just Cause whatsoever, 
but that the above-mentioned 

may lawfully Marry ; and there is not any 
Suit depending before any Judge, for or concerning any such Pre-con- 
tract ; and also if the said Parties, and each of them are of the full Age 
of Twenty-one Years, and are not under the Tuition of his or her 
Parents, or have the full Consent of his or her Parents or Guardians 
respectively to the said Marriage ; and if they, or either of them, are 
not indented Servants, and do and shall save harmless and keep indem- 
nified the above-mentioned Esquire, his Heirs, Executors, 



Notes and Queries. 393 

and Administrators, or his Successors in the said Office, for and con- 
cerning the Premises ; and shall likewise save harmless and keep in- 
demnified the Clergyman, Minister, or Person who shall join the said 
Parties in Matrimony, for, or by Reason of, his so doing ; then this Ob- 
ligation to be Void and of none Effect, or else to stand in full Force and 
Virtue. 

Sealed and Delivered 
in the Presence of 

The Supreme Executive CJouncil of | the Commonwealth of 
Pe7msi/lvaniaj 

To any Protestant Minister 

Whereas Application has been made 
to Us by 

to be joined together in holy Matrimony, and there appearing no lawftil 
Let or Impediment by Reason of Pre-Contract, Consanguinity,' Affinity, 
or any just Cause whatsoever, to hinder the said Marriage : These are 
therefore to license and authorize you to join the said 

in the holy Bonds of Matri- 
mony, and them to pronounce Man and Wife. 

Given under the lesser Seal of the said CommonweaUh, at Philadelphia, 
the Day of in the Year of our Lord One Thousand 

Seven Hundred and 

Achey-Stiegel Genealogical Notes. — Copied by Luther B. 
Eelker, of Harrisburg, Penna., from an old German Hymn Book. 

Thomas Achey, Heidelberg Twp. Lancaster Co., Penna. Born Nov. 9, 

1769. Witnesses present at his baptism were Thomas Filbert and 

his wife Catherine. He died Nov. 20, 1838. 
Christine Stiegei^ his wife, (daughter of Anthony Sti^el and Christine 

Neip), bom Oct 27, 1771. Witnesses present at her baptism, 

were her grandparents John Neip and his wife Agatha. 
They were married August 9, 1789, and had issue : 

Christine, b. Dec. 21, 1790, d. Feby. 23, 1821. 

John, b. March 26, 1792. 

Catherine, b. March — 1793, d. Dec. 16, 1821. 

Samuel, b. May — 1796. 

Thomas, b. May — 1797. 

Henry, b. Aug. 20, 1799, d. Nov. 12, 1881. 

Peter, b. March 26, 1802, d. March 9, 1827. 

Charles, b. June 10, 1806, d. March 28, 1889. 

Anthony, b. Oct 20, 1807, d. July 12, 1826. 

FredeHck, b. May 12, 1809. 

Filbert, b. March 14, 1812, d. Feb. 4, 1832. 

Lydia, b. Aug. 14, 1816. 

Letter of Samuel Wharton to his Brother Thomas Whar- 
ton, 1775. — 

Dear Brother, 

Under cover I send you a copy of my 9^ instruction to Miyor Trent, 
and as I see very little Prospect of true Harmony being speedily, if ever, 
restored between this Kingdom and America ; No 1 really being a per- 



394 Notes and Queries, 

feet Despot, and for other reasons mentioned in my letters, by our New 
Castle friend's brother, — joined to a well grounded apprehension, that 
the Terms of granting Aids, as prepared by the Congress (the heads of 
which are come to hand) — although completely equal, and just, — ^will not 
be approved — And this being an important & peculiar Period, when 
the General Congress are honorably and fitly employed in considering 
and stating all the Rights of Americans. I hope you will be of opinion 
with my ingenious friend D' Bancroft & myself, That no time ought 
to be lost before Major Trent & you, heartily co-operate with us, in pre- 
vailing on D' Franklin & other members of the Congress, to procure a 
Resolve or Declaration (to be entered in their Minutes) of that body, 
expressive of the validity & sufficiency of a Title to Lands, fairly bought 
of the Aborigines, and held under Grants (only) from them. 

I would fain flatter myself, that before this Letter is received by you, 
the Western Purchase is either made, or is in such favourable train, that 
there is a moral certainty of its completion, and that therefore, there 
would be no danger in your immediately exercising every method in 
your Power, to have the foregoing Resolution passed by the Congress. 
Indeed to obtain it, {if you are certain y that the purchase tvill be made) 
as it would forever render our Title a safe and popular one. I would 
even consent to enlarge the number of Shares to four more than men- 
tioned to Major Trent, so as to take into partnership, eight of the mem- 
bers of the Congress (exclusive of Mr. Henry) and assign to each oi 
them haff a share ; and for this purpose, I give you Liberty in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. Trent, if in Philadelphia, — ^To promise such eight Mem- 
bers of the Congress (of which number, my friend George Read to be one 
of them) when you shall be satisfied, will assiduously & faithfully unite 
with you, — half a share respectively to them. 

A thousand political reasons concur to excite the Congress, imme- 
diately to adopt this measure, some of which are mentioned in the 
within letter to D^ Franklin, which is left open for your perusal, and for 
your taking a copy of it and showing it, if you shall think proper, in a 
confidential manner^ to any of the members of the Congress. But I be- 
seach of you to take care to do it in a way so as not to offend D*" Frank- 
lin. Seal it before you deliver it. Herewith you will receive four ot 
the Pamphlets respecting the Rights of the Indians to their [torn] soil 
of North America, which I commit to your discretion, only earnestly 
desiring that they may not be given to any person (not even of the Con- 
gress), except upon a solemn promise, of being returned as soon as 
perused. 

Inclosed you have a few lines for Mr. Trent, which you will be so 
good as to deliver to him, and shew him this & the within Letter, as I 
have referred him to it. 

With respect to Politicks — the same Plan is persuing, as I mentioned 
in my letter by Capt. Read. Adieu. 

Y" affectionately 

S. W. 
London August 7 1775. 

P. 8. D*" F. is grown old and is not so active as he was twenty years 
ago, and, however, well-disposed as I know he is, to establish in America, 
the Rights of the Six Nations &c. to their Territories, and all fair Grants 
obtained from them, yet \ivdll be necessary for you & Major Trent, with 
his concurrance, to take an active part with the other members of the 



Notes and Queries. 395 

Congress. Be so good as to deliver IK Franklin one of the Pamphlets 
with his letter. S. W. 



Daniel Dulany the Elder. — Mr. Latrobe, in his " Biographical 
Sketch of Daniel Dulany" in the Pennsylvania Magazine, Vol. 
III., p. 1, says : " Of the Father of Daniel Dulany, * Daniel Dulany the 
elder,' as he has been called by way of distinction, not much is known 
beyond what is to be found in the provincial records of Maryland.'* 

This can measurably be supplied by the local obituary notice of him 
in the Maryland Qazette of December 6, 1753, namely : 

** Yesterday, about Ten o'clock in the Evening, died, at his House in 
this City, in the 68th Year of his Age, after a long and lingering Ill- 
ness, the Honourable Daniel Dulany, Esq : Commissary General of 
this Province, one of his Lordship's Council of State, and Recorder of this 
City. During fifty years Residence in Maryland, he always maintained 
an excellent Character, strictly agreeable to the Rules of Honour, Jus- 
tice and Integrity. He came into the Country very young, but by the 
Strength of his natural Parts (which were extraordinary) and his diligent 
Application, particularly to the Law, he became very eminent in that 
Profession. He formerly served this Country and City many Years, as 
a Member of the Lower House of Assembly ; and possessed several of 
the Greatest offices of Honour and Trust in the Gk)vemment ; specially 
that of Attorney General, and Judge of the Admiralty ; and in all his 
several Stations he acquitted himself with strict Equity and unwearied 
Diligence. Ho was an humane generous and charitable Gentleman, and 
a great Promoter of the Public Good, by encouraging all kinds of In- 
dustry, towards which he largely contributed, and was very Instrumental 
in settling the back Parts of this Province. He was a tender Husband, 
the best of Fathers, a good Provider and Lover of his Family, a steady 
Friend and kind Neighbour, and truly deserved the Love and Esteem of 
all Mankind. The Loss of such a Gentleman, to his Family in particu- 
lar, and the Country in general, is greatly to be Regretted." 

The records of St. Anne's Church, Annapolis, are incomplete, owing 
to the incidents of frequent changes in the incumbency and to the acci- 
dents of time, and no entry of his death and burial can there be found. 
But in Green* s paper of the follo^ivang week is found this notice of his 
funeral, which points to his burial place. No inscription, however, 
marks this : 

** Tuesday last the Body of the Honourable Daniel Dulany, Esq : Com- 
missarj'-Gencral of this Province, whose Death we mentioned last 
Week, was honourably Interred in a Vault, prepared for that Purpose, 
near the North Entrance of the Church ; his Pall being supported by 
his Excellency the Governor, Four of his Honourable Council, and the 
Worshipful Mayor of the City. "—A/ary/anrf Qazette, December 18, 1753. 

Sixteen years before, in 1737, he had buried his wife, Rebecca, in the 
graveyard north of the church, and shortly erected over her remains a 
handsome altar tomb, covered with an Italian marble slab, which is in 
&ir preservation to this day. On this he had placed a loving inscription 
of fourteen lines, recording his loss and her many virtues. Reference to 
this is found in the Pennsylvania Magazine, Vol. IH., p. 239. 
These lines do not fill the sur&ce, a space having been left at the foot 
of the stone, designedly, doubtless, to receive his own commendatory 



396 Notes and Queries. 

notice when he died. But this £Edled of accomplishment for reasons 
now unknown. 

A descendant of his was moved to supply this omission, and obtaining 
the consent of St. Anne's Vestry in November last ** to place an in- 
scription on the tombstone of Mrs. Rebecca Dulany/' has directed the 
following to be inscribed to his memory thereon : 

** Here lie also the Remains of 

The Honourable Daniel Dulany, Esquire 

Commissary G^eral of this Province 

one of his Lordship's Council of 8tate 

and Recorder of this City 

who died 

6 December 1753 

in the LXVIII"» Year of his Age" 

T. H. M. 

dtuetice. 

Allen Genealogy. — ^The progenitor of the femily, Walter Allen, 
settled in Newbury, Essex County, Massachusetts, about 1640, but after 
1652 lived in Charlestown and Watertown FarmS|. now the town of Wes- 
ton, in the adjoining county of Middlesex. Descendants settled in Sud- 
bury, Way land, Lancaster, Hopkinton, Shrewsbury, Dedham, Concord, 
Lincoln, Acton, Royalston, Hardwick, Sutton, Northboro, Milford, 
Rutland, Barre, Petersham, Fitchburg, Hubbardston, Groton, Spencer, 
Brookfield, and Palmer, Massachusetts ; Dublin, Hillsboro, Mason, and 
Peterboro, New Hampshire, and Stonington and Montville, Connecticut. 
So many Aliens are numbered among the early settlers of New England 
that the task of locating their descendants is daily increasing in diffi- 
culty, any one, therefore, believing himself to be a descendant of the 
above is invited to correspond with 

Allen H. Bent, 
22 Williams Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

LoLLER. — Genealogical information is requested of the ancestors of 
Robert Loller, founder of Loller Academy, Hatboro, Penna., a delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1776, an officer of the Continental 
Army, and Member of the Assembly. 

John W. Townsend. 
Bbyk Mawb, Penna. 

Suydam-Bennett. — Geertrineor Charity Suydam, daughter of Ryck 
Suydam of Flatbush, L. I., married William Bennett ; she died 1748, aged 
seventy-seven ; he died 1775, aged seventy-three. Can any one give me 
the date of their marriage, and tell me who Bennett's parents were? 

A. Melvina Miles, 

Southampton, 

Bucks County, 

Penna. 

Jonathan Smalley (see Penna. Magazine, April, 1897, p. 126). 
— Born in Piscataway, Middlesex County, New Jersey, April 10, 1683; 



Notes and Queries. 397 

died 1763; married after June, 1707, Sarah Fitz Randolph, bom in 
Piscataway, April 25, 168J ; died before July 27, 1762. 
Children, 

Isaac, bom October 5, 1708. 

John, bom June 24, 1712. 

Jonathan, bom October 27, 1714. 

Mary, bom May 6, 1716. 

Sarah, bora June 20, 1717. 

Hannah married Mollison Fitz Randolph. 

Andrew married Agnes Coriell, February 26, 174f. 

Martha, bom June 21, 1721, married Comelius Clawson. 

Elizabeth, bom February 19, 172 J, married Lawrence Ruth Septem- 
ber 19, 1745. 

Anna married William Shreave, January 6, 174|. 

Whom did John and Jonathan marry ? 

Isaac, Sarah, and Mary are not named in their father's will. Did 
they die young and unmarried ? 

Much information relating to the Smalley family can be obtained 
from records in State Department, Trenton, County offices at New Bruns- 
wick, Piscataway Township Minutes, Seventh Day Baptist Church 
records at New Market, and among fiunilies of descendants. 

R. R C. 

Ohl Family. — Information is desired as to the father and brothers ot 
Henry Ohl, bom in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, March 21, 1762 ; 
also Andrew Ohl, who came from Hanover about 1750, and John Nich- 
olas Ohl, whose son, William, was bom March 4, 1796. The ancestor 
of the Ohls emigrated from Germany about 1740, and settled in North- 
ampton County, Pennsylvania. 

Henby G. Ohl, M.D. 
Chioaoo, Illinois. 

Delany-We8T. — Information is requested as to the parentage of 
Lydia West, who, December 4, 1780, was married to Dr. William 
Delany (a brother of Sharp Delany) by the Rev. Dr. John Ewing, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. A tradition 
exists that she was a cousin of Benjamin West, who painted a portrait 
of one of her children. 

Francis M. Hutchinson. 

Hewes. — James Hewes, bom November 4, 1734; Abram Hews, son 
of James, bom February 3, 1768 ; James Abram Hewes, son of James 
Abram Hewes, bom May 18, 1808. Is Joseph Hewes, bom Kingston, 
New Jersey, 1730, settl^ at Edenton, NorUi Carolina, 1760, any rela- 
tion to any of the above ? 

Telescope. — In April of 1769 Joseph Richardson purchased, by 
order of the Assembly, a telescope costing £170. 6. 9. What became of it T 

T. 

Philip Sebfass. — Qenealogical information is requested relating to 
the family of Philip Serfass, who settled in Pennsylvania prior to 1760. 



398 Notes and Queries. 

Vepltce. 

Philip Serfass. — A Johann Philip Serfaes arrived at Philadelphia 
on the ship ** Samuel," Captain Hugh Percy, from Rotterdam, in August 
of 1739. With his wife, Mary Catherine, he lived in the vicinity ot 
Second and Race Streets until about the year 1754, when he removed to 
a plantation purchased in Chestnut Hill Township, now Monroe County. 
He died there in 1786 ; the date of his wife's death is not ascertained* 
Descendants of the name are living in the county. 

JSooli Vloticee. 

Northampton County, Pennsylvania, in the War for Amer- 
ican Independence. By Ethan Allen Weaver. 
There is no county of this Commonwealth whose history has been 
more neglected, notwithstanding the richness of the field, than old North- 
ampton, and but one work has been published within the last half cen- 
tury with any pretensions to its being a history. Mr. Weaver has 
devoted many years to general researches in its history, and no person is 
better qualified for the work he has in hand. The Revolutionary history 
of the county has never been developed, but now it will be given its just 
due for patriotism, to which it is entitled, for its soldiery participated in 
all the important battles of the war from Canada to South Carolina. 
Easton was a strategic point of much importance and the seat of a mili- 
tary prison and hospital, and in its suburbs was organized Sullivan's 
expedition against the Indians. Bethlehem, more inland, has also a 
history no less interesting. The muster rolls of militia companies, orderly 
books, and registers of prisoners of war, and much other matter, never 
before printed, will be some of the important and valuable features of 
this forthcoming volume. 

The Perkiomen Region, Past and Present. Vol. II. — Edited by 
Henry S. Dotterer, 1605 N. Thirteenth Street, Philadelphia. Bound 
copies, $2.00. 

There is no region in Eastern Pennsylvania so rich in historical 
antiquities as the valley of the Perkiomen, and no worker has wrought 
80 industriously in it as the eminently qualified editor of this excellent 
serial. Much of its early history he has collected with great labor and 
unflagging industry, and published it in the two volumes which have 
been issued. In addition to his local researches, which comprise church 
records, biographies, and genealogies of early settlers, land grants, and 
the names of purchasers, assessment lists and reprints of original docu- 
ments, the results of his investigations in Europe are presented. For 
authentic data and variety of matter, therefore, the antiquary and his- 
torical student cannot fail to find much information that is new and 
valuable relating to this historic region. We must also refer, with com- 
mendation, to the typography and general make-up of the magazine. It 
is issued monthly at $1.00 per annum. 

Annual Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Society Sons of the 
Revolution, 1899-1900. Edited by Ethan Allen Weaver, Secre- 
retary. 8vo., 64 pages. 
From tiie report before us we find that this influential Society with a 

membership of upward of eleven hundred descendants of Revolutionary 



Notes and Queries. 399 

heroes continues annually to celebrate the anniversaries of prominent 
events connected with the war for independence in this State. On June 
16 the Society visited Paoli, where Hampton L. Carson, Esq., delivered 
an excellent historical address on the military services of General Wayne, 
which is printed in the proceedings. The Society also contemplates 
placing a tablet in the courtyard of the City Hall, to mark a part of the 
camp site of Rochambeau's army when en route to Yorktown, and one 
on the school building on Third Street above Noble, which stands on the 
western bounds of the army barracks of Colonial and Revolutionary 
days. A fund is also being raised to erect a statue of General Anthony 
Wayne that will be an honor to the Society and to the Commonwealth. 

Physic and Its Practisers ix Old Northampton. An Historical 
Sketch for the Jubilee Meeting of the Medical Society of North- 
ampton County. By Charles Mclntire, A.M., M.D. Easton, 
Penna., 1900. Pp. 64. 
This monograph of Dr. Mclntire covers the medical history of North- 
ampton County from 1742 to 1800, and contains biographical sketches of 
the twenty-five surgeons and physicians who practised their profession 
during that period. The reputation of Doctors John Frederick and 
John Matthew Otto, and Andrew Ledlie, during the Provincial and Rev- 
olutionary periods, and John Cooper, John F. Rudolphi, and others of a 
later date, extended beyond the confines of the county, not only for their 
medical but scientific attainments. Dr. Mclntire has devoted much 
patient research to his work, which is not only a valuable contribution 
to local history, but also to the medical history of the Commonwealth. 

Historical Collections relating to the Potts Family in Great 
Britain and America, Including a Historic-Genealogy op 
the Descendants of David Potts, an Early Anglo-Welsh 
Settler of Pennsylvania. 
The above work, which will be a handsome octavo of over five hun- 
dred pages and illustrated with portraits, homesteads, coats-of-arms, auto- 
graphs, and ancient documents, is now in press. The first part, **The 
Potts Family in Great Britain," is by the late William John Potts, whose 
geneological researches are so well known. Part second, **The Potts 
Family in America," and part third, ** David Potts of Philadelphia 
County and his Descendants," to the eleventh generation, are by the 
compiler. The price of the work is fixed at $5.00 per copy. Address 
Thomas Maxwell Potts, Canonsburg, Penna. 

The Historical Record. A Quarterly Publication devoted princi- 
pally to the Early History of the Wyoming Valley and Contiguous 
Territory, with Notes and Queries, Biographical, Antiquarian, and 
Geneological. Edited by F. C. Johnson, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsyl- 
vania. 
The special aim of the ** Historical Record" is indicated in its title- 
page, and Volume VIII., bound, which has been recently received, 
maintains the reputation which it has so long enjoyed. No valley in 
this Commonwealth is so rich in its historical associations as the Wyom- 
ing Valley, and through Dr. Johnson's researches we are statedly pre- 
sented with data, historical and genealogical, that would otherwise be 
lost. Orders for copies should be forwarded to the editor. 



400 Notes and Queries. 

The Ck>NSTiTUTiON and Register of Membership of the General 
Society of the War of 1812, to October 1, 1899. Compiled 
by Captain Henry Hobart Bellas, U.S.A., Secretary-General. 
Philadelphia, 1899, pp. 231. 
This Society was organized September 14, 1814 ; reorganized January 
9, 1854, and instituted April 14, 1894. Among its members are seven- 
teen veterans of the war ; Daniel Mickley, aged over 103 years, who 
served in the defence of Baltimore, being a resident of Pennsylvania. 
In nine States societies have been organized, Pennsylvania leading with a 
membership of about three hundred. The book is very attractive in 
appearance, and the data valuable and interesting. 

The Wade Genealogy. By Stuart C. Wade. New York, 1900. 
Part I. 8vo, pp. 96, illustrated. Price, $1.00. Apply to com- 
piler, 146 W. Thirty-fourth Street, New York City. 
This work gives some account of the origin of the name, and of the 
lost folk-story of the famous hero, Wade ; particulars and pedigrees ot 
famous Englishmen of the name and genealogies of the ^Eunilies ot 
Wade of Massachusetts and New Jersey, to which are added many mis- 
cellaneous pedigrees ; also a roll of honor of the Wades who went to 
war. It is illustrated with portraits, coats-of-arms, and fac-similes of old 
documents and family papers. 

On the Frontier with Colonel Antes, or the Struggle for 
Supremacy of the Red and White Race in Pennsylvania. 
By Edwin MacMinn. Camden, 1900. Price, $3.00. 
The Rev. Mr. McMinn some years ago wrote a life of Henry Antes, a 
prominent figure in the religious movement among the Germans of East- 
em Pennsylvania, 1735-1750. The subject of his present work, a son 
of the former, was an active participant in the civil and military history 
of the Commonwealth, particularly on the Susquehanna and its branches. 
It is liberally illustrated. 

History of the People of the United States. By John Bach 

McMaster. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Volume V., with 

map. 

The fifth volume of Professor McMaster' s history covers the time of 

the administration of John Quincy Adams, and to the verge of the great 

anti-slavery conflict in that of Andrew Jackson. In some respects the 

volume is historically more valuable than several of the preceding ones, 

but the same scientific skill in arrangement and succinct style of writing 

are characteristic as in the others. 

Notes on the Families of Wager, Wirtz, Houser, Baker, 

SCHRIENER, AND POTTER, OF PHILADELPHIA, by Thomas Allen 

Glenn, is the last contribution to local genealogy which has been re- 
ceived. It has been carefully compiled and is neatly printed. The 
edition is limited. 




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THE 



PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE 



OF 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 



Vol. XXIV. 1900. No. 4. 



LIFE OF MAEGAEET SHIPPEN, WIFE OF BENEDICT 

ARNOLD. 

BY LKWI8 BURD WALKER. 

(Continued from page 266.) 

After the death of William Allen, and a few months 
before his own death, in a hand trembling with age, he 
penned the following to his sons, who were absent : 

"Edward Shippen of Lancaster Esquire, To his Sons Edward and 
Joseph, Lancaster the 28 May 1781. 

"This may inform You that before I came to live here William 
(Allen) Esq, made me a present of a small tract of Land in Bucks 
County in the Proyinoe of Pennsylrania, on Acct of my AiaiiM^Tig him 
in the Location of his Land, but on my letting him know that I had 
rather have some Lots opposite to the New Market to the South of the 
City of Philadelphia he exchanged with me, and Signed me a Deed for 
ye Lots opposite to the New Market, but I dont remember that ever I 
delivered up to him ye said Deed for the said Small Tract of Land in 
Bucks County aforesaid which I lately looked for, but could not find 
it ; but found whenevef it may be, it must in Conscience be cancelled." 

He died at Lancaster, September 25, 1781, before the 
news of the surrender of Cornwallis reached him, though his 
£uth in the ultimate triumph of America never wavered. 
VOL. xziy.— 26 ( 401 ) 



402 liife of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

His monument stands in the rear of the church of St. 
James at Lancaster, where his remains have, in the course 
of time, been surrounded by those of his descendants. 

EDWARD SHIPPEN AND THE FAMILT OF TENCH FRANCIS. 

Edward Shippen (afterwards chief-justice) was born in 
the city of Philadelphia on February 16, 1729. As it was 
determined that he should become a lawyer, in 1743 he 
entered the office of Tench Francis, then and for many years 
afterwards Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, and there 
acquired a practical knowledge of law and legal forms from 
the best of all teachers. Experience. 

But inasmuch as Edward Shippen was destined to follow 
an old custom, and marry his preceptor's daughter, the 
following brief account of Tench Francis and his fitmily 
will not be inappropriate. 

Tench Francis, though of English parentage, was bom in 
Ireland, and emigrated to Maryland shortly after the year 
1700. His brother Philip was the father of the celebrated 
Sir Philip Francis. From Maryland, Tench Francis re- 
moved to Philadelphia, where he became the leading lawyer 
of his time. He was counsel for the Proprietors from 1740 
to 1744; attorney-general from November 5, 1742, to 
January 14, 1755, and was recorder of Philadelphia from 
1750 to 1754. As a frightful example of the fees of 
lawyers in those days, we quote the following extract from 
his letter dated February 21, 1744, to Thomas Penn. 

** I lately had the fEiYOur of youn of the 8th of August last and soon 
after the Qovernour was pleased to mention a sum for my seryices in 
general for three years ending in October (as I kept no account nor could 
be particular in any charges for that time) which I received and am 
satisfied. According to what you mention in your Letter he named 50L 
for an annual Sallary to which I submitted without objection. As I 
cant possibly foresee with what trouble my Duty may be attended I 
should full as willingly have left it entirely to your own consideration at 
the end of every year, but perhaps that might have been less agreeable 
to you, and therefore I am contented as it is." 



lAfe of Margaret Shippea^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 408 

In 1724 Tench Francis married Elizabeth Turbutt, of 
Maryland, and had the following children : 
John, bom 1726; died unmarried. 
Annb, bom 1727, married to James Tilghman; had, 
among others, the following children, viz. : 

Tench Tilohman, who was aide-de-camp to Washington. 
Elizabeth Tilqhman. 

"William Tilghman, afterwards Chief-Justice of Penn- 
sylvania. 
Anne (Francis) Tilghman died in 1771. 
Mary, born 1729, married William Coxe. 
Tench, born 1730, married February 8, 1762, to Ann Wil- 
ling, who was born July 16, 1733. Concerning this match 
Edward Shippen (C.-J.) wrote to his £Ei>ther as follows, on 
January 11, 1762 : 

''When you find my Mother, Sister, & Miss Patty laughing by the 
fire Side and inclinable to hear News, tell them Cousin Nancy Willing 
is just going off the Stage ; a Decree of perpetual Virginity seemed to 
have been passed against her, When a gay young Fellow just arrived 
firom London having sett up a Chariot with five & twenty thousand 
Pounds in his Pockett^ laid Siege to CasUe h in three days the Qarrison 
surrendered upon honourable Terms; in short, a Match is concluded 
between her h Tenny Francis, and I suppose All will be over in as many 
weeks as the Courtship has taken up Days." 

Elizabeth, born 1788, married John Lawrence; died 
1800. 

Marqarbt, bom 1785, married to Edward Shippen 
November 29, 1753 ; died 1794. 

Rachabl, born 1787, married John Relfe March, 1760^ 
and afterwards to Matthew Pearce. 

Turbutt, born 1740 ; died 1797. 

Philip, born 1748. 

Afi;er this short digression we return to Edward Shippen, 
who, at the end of five years' apprenticeship in the ofiice, 
felt that a course of study in London would not only benefit 
him intellectually, but would also ^ve him prestige in his 
profession. He accordingly sailed firom Philadelphia, and. 



404 lift of Margaret Shipperiy Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

after experiencing a storm which almost sunk the ship, 
reached London in February, 1749, and entered the Temple. 
In the summer of 1749 he visited Versailles and Paris, and 
was greatly impressed with the grandeur and elegance 
which he beheld. He spent some little time in travelling in 
England, and returned home in the summer of 1760, after 
having been made a barrister of the Middle Temple. 

Whether or not it be true that " absence makes the heart 
grow fonder," certain it is that it did not take him long to 
send the following letter to his father : 

Philadilphia, June 8. 1760. 
''Hon'dSir: 

'<My Mind has been much employed for about a Twelvemonth past 
about an affair, which, tho' often mentioned to you by others, has never 
been revealed by myself, and, aa I can now no longer bear the anxiety of 
mind which a state of suspense in matters of consequence is always 
attended with, I must open myself to you and beg your best advice and 
assistance. Miss P^gy Francis has for a long time appeared to me the 
most amiable of her Sex, and tho' I might have paid my Addresses, pos- 
sibly with success, where it would have been more agreeable to you, yet 
as Our Affections are not always in our Power to command, ever since my 
Acquaintance with this young Lady I have been utterly incapable of 
entertaining a thought of any other. I know. Sir, your Sentiments of 
these matters are more than usually generous and therefore I can with 
the greater Confidence ask your consent in this Affair, especially when I 
assure you 'tis the only Thing can make me happy. If I had obtained 
a Girl with a considerable Fortune, no doubt the world would have pro- 
nounced me happier, but, as in my own Notion, Happiness does not con- 
sist in being thought happy by the World, but in the internal SatisfiEus- 
tion and Contentment of the Mind, I must beg leave to say I am a 
better Judge for myself of what will procure it than they : yet I am not 
so carried away by my Passion as to exclude the consideration of 
money matters altogether ; without a Prospect of a comfortable subsiBt- 
ence, 'tis madness to marry. That Prospect I think I have. With a 
little Assistance in setting out, my Business, with Frugality, cant fail to 
maintain me, and a bare support with one I love is to me a much pref- 
erable State to great affluence with a Person one r^ards with indiffer- 
ence. Be pleased. Sir, to let me know your sentiments of this affair aa 
soon as possible. For tho' I might not press a very speedy conclusion 
of it, yet I am anxious to know my Fate. I am Dear Sir 
** Your Very affectionate and dutiful Son 

** Edward Shippen, Junr." 



Life of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 405 

The reply to this letter was fiivorable, and his father gave 
him a house on Walnut Street in anticipation of his mar- 
riage to Margaret Francis, which took place November 29, 
1753. 

In 1755 the defeat of Braddock caused great alarm 
throughout the Province, but the danger eventually roused 
the military spirit of the people, and we find that cool- 
headed Edward Shippen was also infected by it, for the re- 
ceipt for his regimental suit, as it is called, is now before us, 
as well as the receipt for a sword, which is curiously item- 
ized, being divided into charges for the hilt, the blade, the 
lining of the hilt, and the scabbard. A striking figure, no 
doubt, was he, when, clad in his scarlet regimental suit 
ornamented with five and one-half dozen double ^It but- 
tons (no less), and his beaver hat trimmed with a yard and 
a half of gold lace, he mounted that wonderful saddle, 
which is described in the bill as, "A Demipeick Sadie, 
with a Buckskin Seat Quilted, & Morocco Leather burrs & 
bolsters, & a Bivited tree, & a Sadie Cloath, & a Double 
Bain'd Bridle, Silver washed buckels, k Green k Red Frunt, 
and a Green Cloath housings fring'd, & a Large Flower 
Embroidered in Each Comer of ye housings with Gold 
Thread, & a pair of Brass Stirrups," and, with the aforesaid 
hilt, blade, and scabbard all at his side, was prepared to. 
defend his country as a private soldier in the Lidependent 
Troop of Horse. 

But his brother, Colonel Joseph Shippen, and his brother- 
in-law, Colonel James Burd, did the actual military service 
for the family in this war, and Edward Shippen returned to 
his duties as judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court, to which 
ofiice he had been appointed on November 22, 1752, and 
which he held till the Revolution. 

Evidently he was not insensible to the good things of life, 
for when he gave a dinner in 1755 to the court officials, at 
the tavern kept by Mary Jones, he provided a turtle him- 
self, and such was its size that the oven had to be taken 
down " to dress the tortle," and " Mr. McCalFs wench" was 



406 Life of Margaret S/dppeny Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

called in to help with the cooking ; all of which is set down 
in the bill, along with the "Punch" and "Wine" and 
" Clarett" and the " English Beer." 

In the ten years that followed Edward Shippen's return 
from England his business had increased, honors had been 
bestowed upon him, and, having chosen the woman he 
loved, his marriage had been blessed with children : 

Elizabeth, bom September 15, 1754. 

Sarah, born February 1, 1766. 

Mart, born August 15, 1757. 

Edward, bom December 11, 1758. 

And now, at the commencement of the second decade 
since his return to America, with heart elated, he writes as 
follows to his father : 

" Pkilada. 11th June 1760. 
"HoN.D Sir: 

" Mr. Dow brought me the Acct & Letter you sent to General Stanwix 

and he informed me he would at any time pay me (for your Aoct) the 

fall sum carried out by you ; But desires that you will immediately send 

me down the several Vouchers, as he will certainly sail for England 

next Week. 

" My Peggy this morning nuuie me a Present of a fine Baby, which 

tho' of the worst Sex, is yet entirely welcome ; You see my Family 

encreases apace ; I am however in no fear by the Blessing of God but 

I shall be able to do them all tolerable Justice. It is but staying a few 

years longer before I ride in my Coach 

''My kind Love to Mammy, Sister &c. ; 

''I am dear Sir; 

*' Your very dutiful Affect. Son, 

"Edw. Shippen jr." 

And this the record of her birth, on June 11, 1760, is the 
first mention of " Peggy Shippen." 

A few years longer, and this fond and doting father did 
in truth ride in his coach ; and in after-years he was called 
upon to administer justice to many, but none of all who 
came before him stood more in need of justice than his best 
beloved daughter, who, though her body has been com- 
mitted to earth for nearly a century, is yet the victim of 
calumny and injustice. 



lAfe of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 407 

But, as Peggy lay in her cradle, where were the lovers 
who would cherish, and the fiiends who would aid and pro- 
tect her ? Par, fiEir away were they, and the enemy who 
would most foully injure her was, perhaps, under the same 
roof with her. 

In the old Chateau of Chavigniac in Auvergne, an orphan 
boy nearly three years old, in June, 1760, was in charge of 
his nurse, perhaps gazing at the Allier, flowing first north 
and, after joining the Loire, then westward to the Atlantic ; 
and had some astrologer been there to prognosticate the 
future of La&yette, he might have likened it to the river, 
for he went first northward to Paris, and then westward 
across the Atlantic to achieve &me. 

But over the mountidns, eastward fi-om Chavigniac, there 
is another river, called the Rhone, and in the town of 
Geneva, where the river issues firom Lake Leman, a lad of 
nine years, John Andre by name, was going to school. 
And if by chance he wandered down to the edge of the 
tongue of land between the Arve and the Rhone he could 
have seen the clear water of the Rhone flowing side by side 
with the muddy water of the Arve, but not polluted by it 
And had he been able to read the future he might have 
found in the river an emblem of his own fate ; for the dis- 
grace of the gibbet was to touch him, yet not to sully his 
fame. 

Li Norwich, Connecticut, a young man not quite twenty 
years of age was finishing his career as an apprentice in a 
drug store, and as soon as he was of age he began business 
for himself mth the sign : 

B. Arnold, 

Druggist, Bookseller, &c., 

Sibi Totique. 

Frederick von Steuben, wounded in the battle of Kuners- 
dorf, was shortly afterwards taken prisoner and confined in 
a Russian prison. 



408 Lift of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

Down in the West Indies, Alexander Hamilton, three 
years old, was still in the lap of his Huguenot mother. 

While strolling over his grounds on the banks of the 
Potomac, with a little stepson of seven at his heels, was 
George Washington, in his twenty-ninth year, the happiest 
bridegroom in America. So happy was he, that we cannot 
but smile when we read of the problem he was endeavoring 
to solve. " Would any one believe," he writes, " that with 
one hundred and one cows ... I must still buy butter for 
my family ?" 

Nathanael Greene had just completed his eighteenth year, 
and it might have been at this very period when, according 
to the story of one biographer, he stole away from his bed- 
room to attend a ball in the neighborhood. If he thought 
that his father, the Quaker preacher, was asleep when he 
made his exit through the window, he found him awaiting 
his return with a horse-whip; and after slipping some 
shingles under his coat he submitted to the castigation 
without a murmur. 

Who would have thought that all these men, so widely 
separated, would ever meet together ? Yet, through many 
strange adventures, through dangers on land and perils by 
sea, through storms, through prisons, and through battles, 
were they to pass for twenty years, and, with the unerring 
certainty of fate, they each and all took their places on the 
stage in the great tragedy of the American Revolution, the 
treason of Arnold, in the fall of 1780. 

But there is one more character who claims our attention. 
Aaron Burr, born February 6, 1756, was, in the year 1760, 
an inmate of the house of Dr. William Shippen, whither he 
had been taken aft;er the death of his parents. Perhaps 
he was even taken to Edward Shippen's residence, and saw 
the new-bom baby in her cradle. And how did Aaron 
Burr show his gratitude to that family the members of 
which had been friends of his father, that family whose 
roof had sheltered him, of whose food he had partaken, 
and under whose protection he had lived when an orphan 



Life of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 409 

boy ? He repaid these benefits by inflicting upon Margaret 
Arnold, when she was in deepest distress, the worst insult 
man can offer to woman, and thirty years after she was laid 
in her grave he still sought to injure her reputation. 

EARLY LIFE OF MARGARET SHIPPEN. 

Of Peggy Shippen's childhood we have no direct accounts. 
However, her first cousin, " Neddy" Burd (who afterwards 
married her eldest sister, Elizabeth), came down from Lan- 
caster to finish his education and study law under her 
fiither, Edward Shippen ; and " Neddy's" letters to his sister 
and grandfather give us some insight into the circumstances 
of the family, as well as the news and customs of the town. 
First is a letter dated April 28, 1765 (he was bom February 
5, 1751), descriptive of his admission to college, as follows: 

'' About three weeks ago our Clafls was alarmed with the news of being 
examined by the Trustees. Luckily we had three days to prepare for it. 
All which time we were much afraid of the Issue. I sat up until eleven 
o'clock h rose before five studying very hard. At length the much 
dreaded day arrived. We were conducted into the Electricity room, 
Where the Bevd. Mr. Duchee, Mr. Stedman, Dr. Alison, h Mr. 
Beveridge were assembled. You may inform Grandpapa that we were 
first desired to translate a piece out of English into Latin, then we were 
examined in Horace h lastly in Homer. The public Examination ot 
the Senior Class was next day ; When we were again desired to attend 
at the Electricity Room. Mr. Stedman spoke as follows, viz — On 
account of your Yesterday's extraordinary performance Ye are admitted 
into Colledge." 

Next comes a letter dated January 14, 1767, ^ving an 
account of some robhers, and concluding with theatrical 
intelligence, as follows : 

"There is a nest of Robbers here which makes People more carefbl 
about their Houses. Two Fellows Hagarty k Morrison at Noon Day 
went into the Street Door of the Gov'rs House & stole two Silver Candle- 
sticks out of the Pantry at the other End of the House they were happily 
detected &. have received their Punishment. The same Morrison went 
into a Tavemkeepers House (before the other Theft) & bore off a Man's 
great Coat from the Back of his Chair while He wanned himself at the 



410 life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

Fire, but was not catched. The same two Fellows &, Ck>Dsiglio &, Bow- 
man went into a Tavemkeeper's House & carried off a Mahogany Chest 
full of Player's Cloaths from a Boom up two Pair of Stairs while the 
Family were at Supper. 

*' Uncle J. S. made me a present of a Ticket to see the Play. Mr. 
Hallam is the best Actor according to the common Opinion, but I am 
fonder of Mr. AUyn. Miss Cheer & Miss Wainwright are the best 
Actresses ; the Latter is the best Woman Singer &, Mr. Wools is their 
excellent Man Singer. James Codwin who used to be Mr. Tioli's 
dancing Boy dances &, acts upon the Stage. They say He gets £4 per 
Week." 

Next comes some fashionable intelligence in a letter of 
November 17, 1767 (to properly appreciate this we must 
keep in mind the fact that J. Willing was not seventeen 
years old when the letter was written), together with some 
more dramatic news, as follows : 

'*Some young Gentlemen have subscribed to an Assembly for this 
Season. Among the Principal Managers are Billy Allen &, Jemmy 
Willing. The Subscribers may send a Ticket to any Young Lady for the 
Evening; Notwithstanding which Priviledge J. Willing tells me that 
He is almost tired of it because the Girls are so little. 

" The Players must soon leave off here & will not be again permitted 
to act these two Years. They are going to New York but it is believed 
that the Opposition will be strong enough to prevent their acting there.'' 

The Assembly managed to continue without J. Willing's 
approval, for in a letter dated December 15, 1768, it is said : 

'^ The Dutchess of Gordon is to appear to Night at the Assembly & 
is to be richly deckt with Diamonds & other Jewels & dressed most 
splendidly in Silver Silks. Neither She or Ck)ll. Morris chuse to dance 
whenever they can avoid it, and therefore the Company will be deprived 
of the Honour of dancing with a Dutchess. She has nothing to boast 
of with Regard to her Face or Person. Yet she is well esteemed as She 
is pretty sociable and dont seem to require that Pre-eminence over other 
Ladies which the York Ladies are so ambitious of." 

Another lively picture is found in " Neddy's" account of 
how Brittannia did not win the race, — \\z. : 

**1 was yesterday at the Baces, when four Horses viz, Lath, Nonpa- 
reil, (jh)vr. Sharp's Mare called Brittannia & ye Lish Horse started for a 



Life of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold, 411 

puree of One hundred Pounds; — ^the first Heat the Irish Horee was 
almost distanced & was lamed so much that he was taken off the Field. 
At his firet setting out, upon his gaining a little Advantage, the Irish 
set up such a Halloo as almost stunned me, but at his coming in they 
disowned him intirely, that he was an Irish Horse but only an english 
One imported here by Way of Ireland. 

''Lath won the purse in two Heats ; ye first Heat followed closely by 
Brittannia, & ye second Heat by Nonpareil. 

''The Keeper of Brittannia, after the Race, said with a very confident 
Air, that Brittannia was very well able to beat either Lath or Nonpareil ; 
— ^that he hod purposely desired the Rider to lose the firet Heat to Lath, 
that he had no doubt of Nonpareil's getting the second heat from Lath 
& therefore he ordered his Jockey to permit Nonpareil to win the second 
Heat ; — & then Brittannia would gain the third and fourth Heats by 
which Means more Sport might be afforded to the Ladies and Gtotlemen. 
This is a Specimen of what lengths these honest Jockeys will give to 
their Tongue to save the Credit of a Horee or cozen a simple Fellow out 
of his Money. 

"The Ck>mmons is a mere Camp; I believe there are 100 Booths 
erected there for the Entertainment of the Lower Class of People ; from 
which frequent Battles ensue ; as those People think it a Time of Merri- 
ment & consequently they must get drunk; when being like Ships 
without Helms they unavoidably run foul of each other." 

Next we find him with some homespun, which he had 
made up into a coat, concerning which he says : 

"I shall be very proud of wearing a Coat which was spun in our 
Family & for that Reason think I had better wear it while ye Revenue 
Act remains unrepealed." 

But soon " Neddy" was overwhelmed with commissions 
to execute for the folks at home. After buying for Granny 
yam " as near the Colour of the sample as could be got," 
and lemons and the last Gloucester cheese in Philadelphia, 
^< but unless this had been procured You must have waited 
for English Cheese until! the Agreement of our Merchants 
about Non-Importation should be dissolved by a Repeal of 
the Revenue Act," and for his grand&ther nearly every- 
thing from a bottle of red ink to twenty-five gallons of 
molasses, and from salmon to saddle-bags, ^< Neddy" gives a 
complete list of Philadelphia booksellers who have not got a 



412 hife of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

% 

copy of " Sententiee Pueriles/* but says he thinks he can get 
one with the first two leaves torn out, from a boy ! This boy 
was one who studied his books so hard that there was noth- 
ing left when he got through, for when " Neddy" went for 
the book two more leaves were gone. 

Molly Burd's marriage to Peter Qrubb, the Cornwall 
iron-master, was the occasion of the following message : " Li 
the Box Aunt Shippen says she has sent Thread Lace in- 
stead of Blond Lace because it will wash and be very ser- 
viceable — Handkerchiefs She says, are quite out of Fashion, 
in the Room of which She has sent a Tippet & Tucker, 
which is the present Mode." 

The follo\ving account for the bride's trousseau will form 
an interesting subject for comparison with similar accounts 
at the present day. The total was £31 Ss. 8d., made up as 
follows : 



< 14 Yards Mantua Silk . 
1 Ps Irish Linnen 25 Yds at 5/9 
1 Silk Cloak .... 
3 Yds Cambrick at 16 . 
A Necklace .... 
For a laced Cap, Ruffles, Tippet h tucker 



£8 


8 





7 


3 


9 


3 


6 


6 


2 


8 







9 





9 


10 


5, 



Then, in place of Adams Express, we have the receipt of 
Robert Gordon, who promised to carry and deliver to the 
bride's father, " two wooden Chests one Box with a Padlock 
and two Small Boxes without a lock a Gammon of Bacon 
k three Neats Tungs a Hair Portmanteau Trunk two Small 
Cags all which Chests k Boxes are filled with Goods and 
received one Barrel of Malt Beer." 

In truth, " Neddy's" folks seemed to want everything from 
citron for " minced peyes" to the Bishop of Llandaffs sermon, 
and from basket salt to French newspapers and English 
leather, not omitting water-dogs and black-eyed rabbits. So 
busy was he with these various commissions, and his legal 
studies and law writings, when ^< 2650 Germans were natu- 
ralized at one Court;" that he had no time for anything 



Life of Margaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 418 

else. No, we are mistaken ; he did manage to find time to 
follow a good precedent, and fell heels over head in love 
with Elizabeth Shippen. We think that this fact had some- 
thing to do with the pleasing alacrity with which he exe- 
cuted commissions which sometimes have an irritating effect 
upon the masculine temper. For when Granny's quilted 
silk petticoat was sent to him to be dyed yellow, it was of 
course necessary to hold various consultations with " Aunt 
Shippen," which always gave him an excuse to see " Betsy." 
That silk petticoat has quite a history in " Neddy's" letters. 
First, " Aunt Shippen says that there is a very good Dyer 
in Town lately from Scotland that she has seen Things dyed 
by him Green & blue but has never seen any Thing dyed 
yellow by him — that she thinks he excels in dying (?) green 
And that he also dyes a very good blue." Next we hear 
that the dyer has no yellow dye. Then Aunt Shippen 
orders it to be dyed blue, as a compromise. But that dyer 
has the failing (not yet wholly eradicated in his trade) of 
not being as prompt as his word ; for, a month later we are 
told : " Notwithstanding the promises of the Dyer, he has 
not dyed it yet." It is while "Neddy" is wrestling with this 
not living but dyeing question that we hear the first words 
of little Peggy. He is writing to his grandfetther, Edward 
Shippen, and says : " Cousin Peggy Shippen stands over my 
Shoulder & particularly desires her Love to Grandmama & 
yourself." 

During these passing years "Peggy" Shippen was not 
idle. She had become an expert with her needle; had 
been instructed in drawing, dancing, and music; which 
merely constituted her accomplishments; in addition to 
which, we have her own words, written when she was forty- 
two, that she had received " the most useful and best educsr 
tion that America at that time aftbrded." 

Though our opportunities of examining the correspondence 
of ladies who were contemporary with her are limited, 
yet we can without hesitation say, that for beautiful penman- 
ship, correct expression, and literary style and interest the 



414 lAft of Margaret Shipperij Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

letters of Margaret Arnold are hi superior to those of her 
sisters and cousins, or " Becky" Franks and Ann Penn. 

Mrs. Gibson says (Shippen Papers, li.) : '' I may add my recoUectioiis 
of my mother's general opinion of Mrs. Arnold, often expressed to others 
as well as to mysel£ Being intimately acquainted with Mr. Shippen's 
family, she well understood their several characteristics, and would dwell 
with pleasure on the affectionate and exemplary conduct of Mrs. Arnold, 
both before and after her marriage. She used to say that Miss P^gy 
Shippen was particularly devoted to her father, making his comfort her 
leading thought, often preferring to remain with him when evening par- 
ties and amusements would attract her sisters from home. She was the 
darling of the family circle, and never fond of gadding. There was 
nothing of frivolity either in her dress, demeanor, or conduct, and though 
deservedly admired, she had too much good sense to be vain. ... I 
have often heard her speak with deep feeling of the sad {site of this most 
excellent woman ; of her great purity of mind and principles, Ac," 

In this constant companionship with her father she in- 
sensibly imbibed correct principles of business which were 
of the greatest use in the settlement of her husband's estate. 

Next to her father, her sister Elizabeth exercised most 
influence over her. Indeed she seems to have regarded 
Elizabeth as a pattern for her to follow, and in one letter 
she writes to her sister, " I can never do better than to 
follow your example." 



The clouds of the Revolution had gathered, and soon the 
storm was to burst. The first Congress had met, and great 
was the hubbub and controversy. On September 28, 1774, 
Edward Shippen brought home to dinner a tall, grave pro- 
vincial officer, who was a delegate from Virginia, and thus 
Mistress Peggy, then in her fifteenth year, first met that 
great man of whom she afterwards wrote: "Nobody in 
America could revere his character more than I did." And 
we may be sure that the beautiftil girl, in the bloom of 
opening womanhood, listening attentively to the conversa- 
tion, attracted the notice of George Washington, for he was 
the guest at that Wednesday's dinner. It was her grace 



Life of Margaret Sfdppeyij Wife of Benedict Arnold. 415 

and loveliness that, six years later, drew forth one of the 
pleasantries he so seldom uttered. << Ah, marquis !" said he 
to Lafayette, " you young men are all in love with Mrs. 
Arnold. Go you and breakfast with her, and tell her not 
to wait for me." 

Soon the news of Lexington and Concord inflamed the 
spirit of the people, and Betsy Shippen's lover shared the 
enthusiasm. Li an answer to his request for a drum from 
the Lancaster Barracks, Jasper Yeates replied that " there 
were but three or four old Shells here without heads, which 
have already been made Use of by the Towns People." 

And on June 80, 1776, Edward Shippen wrote to hier 
father at Lancaster : 

" I find Neddy Burd has taken a Resolution to go Ldeutenant to one 
of the Companys of Riflemen to Boston. I wrote him my Sentiments 
upon this step the other day, and represented to him that not having 
been used to the Woods ; nor to hunting, nor the Use of Rifles, he 
would be deemed a very unfit person for that Service, and that it would 
appear to all the world a ridiculous thing for a young Man bred in an 
Office to attempt to command Riflemen, who are expected to be men 
bred in the Woods and enured to Hardships. I suppose however Neddy 
will consider himself as too far engaged now to retract" 

Li spite of ridicule, so hard for a spirited young man to 
bear, " Neddy" stuck to his determination, and joined the 
army. No doubt Betsey thought of him as a knight of old, 
and Peggy regarded him as a veritable paladin. If he had 
performed unheard-of feats of bravery, and put the whole 
British army to flight, it would have been no more than the 
fond hearts of Peggy and her sister had hoped. 

But alas ! for their hopes, the fatal battle of Long Island 
sent dismay throughout America. Then came the report 
that " Neddy" had been killed, and we may imagine how the 
sisters wept together. Later tidings raised their hopes once 
more, for a message was received that he had been captured 
by the British, and was unii\jured, though in prison. After 
a little more than three months' captivity he was exchanged, 
and we may be very sure that he received a hearty welcome 



416 IJfe of 3Iargaret Shippen, Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

when he arrived in Philadelphia. Hardly had the excite- 
ment caused by << Neddy" Burd's return subsided before the 
capture of young Edward 'Shippen in the British lines caused 
another season of disquietude. 

These constantly recurring scenes of anxiety and danger 
developed in Peggy Shippen a susceptibility to fiEiinting- 
spells, to which she was subject whenever perturbation of 
mind reacted upon a delicately organized body, and which 
continued all through her life. Otherwise, Peggy Shippen's 
early life w^ould have been considered an uneventful one. 
We have found no account of her leaving Philadelphia 
prior to her marriage. But this, perhaps, is not to be 
wondered at, when we reflect that travelling in the country 
was accompanied by danger. Even the pleasures of travel- 
ling would be greatly lessened by accidents such as 'Mies 
Kitty Ewing (afterwards married to General Edward Hand) 
describes in her letter to her aunt, Mrs. Jasper Yeates, viz.: 

"Dear Aunt 

'^ I had not long lyt out of the Chaire before I received your accepttable 
favour for you must know that I am grown a greate traveller rince I 
left Lancaster. Mr. Johnston took us up to Carlile & whe had a very 
pleasant ride of it. Mr. anders & I whare in one Chaire Fanny & her 
dady in the other, our Chare only overset twiste the first place that 
Mr anders overset in was as even as the flower I now stand on Fanny 
& I whaire obligd to walk the fore miles as that was all whe had to go. 
our Chare was brok all to peacess & Mr. Johnstons hors whas fonte to 
carry all all the burden that was in our Chaire. whe took pitty on the 
poor hors & would walk. I entende to write to you aga when I can get 
a better pen for this is so bad I could hardly write.'' 

Reading matter likely to interest young ladies was limited 
during the revohitionary epoch, for Sarah Shippen says : 

'' I can not have the pleasure of sending Miss Johnston any books 
that she will like, she may read the 1st vol of Ricoboni till we can get 
the 2nd which she shall have immediately as we get it she may divert 
herself with the memoirs of a Lady of Quality which if she has never 
read will not be unentertaining. Adieu and that a couple of smart 
Beaus may drop in to amuse you is the wish of Yours, S. S.'' 



Lift of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 417 

Who reads Riccoboni now ? Is there any one who desires 
to peruse his second volume? And we fancy that the 
" Memoirs of a Lady of Quality" are not of such a nature 
as to be specially recommended for perusal by young ladies 
nowadays. 

As books were scarce, it is not surprising that the beaux 
were in great request, and dull indeed must it have been at 
times, when even so sprightly a maiden as "Becky" Franks 
writes to Miss E. Shippen, " Whats become of all our Beaux ? 
Tm aflfraid they've quite deserted this road." 

After the British army evacuated Philadelphia, she wrote 
as follows : 

''Poor Nancy I know how she must have felt I should have lov'd 
of all things to have seen her she shou'dent hare staid up stairs till the 
company assembled had I been with her. I wonder if she looked 
Handsome. I forgot to ask Mr. White, you desire to know when he 
returns I believe that is quite uncertain but a (Gentleman (who he is I 
dont know) goes a Saturday I have wrote to Mrs. Paca by him & if 
you'll write 111 send y'r letters with mine to Mr. White to go with him. 

''Joesy must have looked perfectly Cha'ming in the Character of 
Father. I wish he'd pay us a Vis as I make no doubt he's much im- 
proved by being so long in Maryland. Mr White tells me his present 
flame is > Miss Peggy Spear of Baltimore you may remember her she 
lived at Mrs Smith's a pretty little girl enough. What think you of 
the Weather, wont it be a bar to our Hopes? I much fear it will Hi 
Ho I cant hip sighing when I think of it. Oh I the Ball, not a lady 
there the Committee of real Whigs met in the Afternoon &, frightened 
the Beaux so much that they went round to all the ladiea that meant to 
go to desire they'd stay at home, tho' it seems the Committee had no 
thoughts of molesting being all of their own Kidney. I'm delighted 
that it came to nothing as they had the impudence to laugh at US." 

We have omitted an incident which took even Miss 
Becky aback, and also her complaint about her pen, which 
must have been very bad, for it even affected her spelling; 
and give the conclusion as follows : 

"I heard Mr. Imlay say he intends paying you a Vis soon, so look 

out for him th first fine day. when the roads will permit my return 

God knows. I begin to grow Home sick tis very dull such Weather for I 

hant a soul to speak to except Aunt nor a Book to read. I'm determined 

VOL. XXTV. — 27 



418 lift of Margaret Shipperij Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

to send to Imlay for one this Afternoon. I kant seen a Bean since the 
day before yesterday where can the Wretches keep. I'm tired, so Adiea. 
love to all friends, write me to Morrow. 

"B. Franks. 
'' Union Castle Thursday noon, 
does Moses often pay you a Vis. 
for my part tis so long since I've 
seen (him I) hardly think I 
sho(uld know) him 
" To Miss Shippen 
"at The Cottage." 

EDWARD SHIPPBN'S POLITICAL SENTIMENTS AND ENVIRONMENT. 

As it has been asserted (though never proved) that Mar- 
garet Shippen had imbibed from her father sentiments dis- 
loyal to America, we deem it advisable to define as well as 
we can Edward Shippen's political sentiments prior to and 
during the eventful period of the Revolution, together with 
some of the circumstances which influenced his conduct 

In the first place, we must remember that he received his 
legal education in England, and the idea of resorting to 
armed resistance to acts of Parliament was repugnant to 
every principle which he had learned. In addition, he knew 
that, in the grant to William Penn of the Province oY Penn- 
sylvania, Charles the Second had expressly reserved the right 
and power to collect the duties and taxes levied by act of 
Parliament. The Charter of Pennsylvania is to be found 
in volume first of the Colonial Records, published by the 
State of Pennsylvania, and some sentences pertinent in this 
connection are as follows, viz. : 

'* WEE DOE grant unto the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns 
may . . . forever, have and enjoy the customs and subsidies . . . rea- 
sonably assessed, . . . saveing unto us, our heires and successors, such 
imposcons and customes as by act of parliament are and shall be ap- 
pointed.*' [i OoL Rec, xiv,'] 

''WEE doe Covenant . . . with the said William Penn, and his 
heires and assigns, that WEE, . . . shall att no time hereafter sett, or 
make, or cause to be sett, any imposicon, custome or other taxacon, rate 
or contribucon whatsoever, . . . unles the same be with the consent of 



lift of Margaret Shipperiy Wife of Benedict Arnold. 419 

the pprietary, or chiefe Qovemor and Aflsembly, or by act of parliament 
in England." [/d. xvii,'] 

If his legal training interposed such obstacles to violent 
measures, we must remember that his position as a member 
of an old and honored family, and as an office-holder who 
had taken an oath of allegiance to George the Third, also 
exercised an influence no less potent over him. 

Such were the reasons (and who shall say they were not 
valid ?) which prevented him from countenancing armed re- 
sistance to the Crown. 

But, on the other hand, he was a native American rejoicing 
in the achievements of the colonists, while he deeply felt 
the hardships of the British rule. The following extracts 
from his correspondence will clearly show this. In a letter 
to his father, of March 18, 1766--66,* he says : 

''The New England men are now esteemed the champions of the 
American world.** 

In a letter to his father, of September 10, 1765, he says: 

"You observe by the public papers that great Riots & Disturbances 
are going forward in New England in Opposition to the Stamp Act A 
Stamp Officers. I think the Act an oppressive one, and I wish any 
Scheme for a Repeal of it could be &llen on ; but I am afraid these 
violent Methods will only tend to fix Chains upon us sooner than they 
would otherwise come. There is a general Threat thro' out America of 
destroying the Stamp Paper as soon as it shall arrive ; what will be the 
(Consequence of such a Step I tremble to think of. Two Gentlemen in 
Rhode Island, whose Houses were pulled down (for maintaining in Argu- 
ment that the Parliament had a right to tax us) are gone home to Eng- 
land to make their Complaint Poor America I It has seen its best 
days," 

In another letter, of October 17, 1765, he says: 

" On the 9th Inst Peggy presented me with a Son, bom just time 
enough to breath about three weeks the Air of Freedom ; for after the 
first of November we may call ourselves the Slaves of England. 

" The Lawyers &, Officers had a Meeting last night to consult on the 
Steps they must take if no Stamps are to be obtained ; A Variety of 

* Shippen Papers, p. 84. 



420 liife of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

Sentiments at first appeared, but after some Debate it was carried by a 
Majority That tho' we might perhaps be justified in America in prac- 
tising in our usual way without stampt Paper when none is to be had ; 
Yet if the Parliament of England Should determine to force the Act 
down our Throats, they would immediately set Prosecutions on foot 
against the principal Ciyil Officers who had ventured to risque the 
Penalties, in order to strike a Terror into the other Inhabitants ; and in 
that Case they would undoubtedly make Equity & Law give way to 
Policy in their Determinations. And what American Fortune could 
withstand them ? So that upon the whole we determined to do no Act 
whatsoever after the first of November in our several Offices to hazard 
the penalties. However we are shortly after that to have another 
Meeting, When we cannot say what the Distresses of the Country may 
oblige us to.'' 

On April 6, 1766, he writes : ^ 

''I am Btopt with the joyful news of the Stamp Act being repealed. 
I wish you and all America joy." 

On April 8, 1766, he writes : 

'* Our Joy on the News of the Stamp Act being repealed is dampt by 
Letters from Virginia giving an Account of the Arrival of a Vessel 
from London in five weeks bringing News that the Stamp Act will either 
not be repealed, or else on such terms as will be grievous for America." 

On April 16, 1766, he writes to his brother : 

'*The bad Acc't from Virginia proves no^ to be true, as the Vessel 
which was said to have brought it left England the 8rd Febry. A Vessel 
arrived here the day before yesterday in 31 days from Londonderry. 
She brings Lrish News Papers of the 7th March and a London Chronicle 
of the 25th of February, by which it appears that the Debate was 
opened in the House of Commons by Secretary Conway who made a 
warm Speech in favour of the Repeal, he was seconded by one Mr. Burke, 
who it seems made a remarkable shining figure ; they were answered by 
Chas. Jenkinson, who acknowledged the Imperfection of the Act, but 
contended it should only be altered not repealed. He was seconded 
by one whose name I forget; Then arose in great Glory our Patron 
Pitt, who with his legs muffled in flannels and resting upon Crutches 
delivered a noble and patriotic Harangue in our favour, he payed great 
Compliments to Mr. Conway and Mr. Burke, inveighed vehemently 

^ Manuscript, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 421 

against the Stamp Act, said he had many times wished his Friends had 
brought him to the House of Commons in his bed (to which he was then 
confined) that tho' groaning in misery he might have bom his Testimony 
against so impolitic & grievous an Act. Mr. Pitt was answered by G* 
Greenville who tho' against us and in a bad Cause seems to have given 
Entertainment. There were many other Speakers, but upon the whole 
about 2 in the morning the Question was called for, and on the Division 
there appeared 275 Votes for the Repeal and 167 against it The next 
day Bow Church Bells as well as many other Bells in the City shouted 
the whole day & in the Evening many Houses were illuminated.'* 

Such were his sentiments, deploring but not resisting the 
aggressions of the British government But it is important 
to remember the part taken by his relatives in the Revolution. 

His fether was Chairman of the Lancaster County Com- 
mittee of Correspondence and Inspection during the Revo- 
lution,' and was always devoted to the cause of liberty, 
though debarred by age (born in 1703) from active service. 

James Burd (who married his sister) was a colonel, com- 
manding a battalion of militia, in the army of the Revo- 
lution.^ 

Tench Francis, brother of Edward Shippen's wife, was a 
captain in the Philadelphia militia.' 

Edward Burd, nephew and afterwards son-in-law of Ed- 
ward Shippen, was a major in the American Army, and was 
taken prisoner by the British at the battle of Long Island. 

Dr. William Shippen, " the elder,^^ a member of Congress 
in 1778 and 1779,* was Edward Shippen's uncle ; while his 
first cousin. Dr. William Shippen, " the younger," was from 
1777 to 1781 "Director-General of all the Military Hos- 
pitals for the Armies of the United States." * 

Another first cousin, Thomas Willing, was actively as- 
sociated with Robert Morris in upholding the credit of the 

* See Pennaylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. XIII. pp. 276, 281, 
286, 289, and 291. 

* Ibid., p. 807. 

» Ibid., pp. 556, 606, and 787. 

* See Colonial Records, Vol. XII. p. 172. 

* See Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. XI. p. 807. 



422 Life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

United States ; and James Willing, still another first cousin, 
was a captain of marines^ in the American army until 
taken prisoner and confined in a British prison-ship; and 
still another first cousin, Richard Willing, was captain in 
the Philadelphia Associators in the Revolution.* 

Tench Tilghman, nephew of Mrs. Edward Shippen, was 
aide-de-camp to General Washington firom 1776 to 1781, 
when he was the messenger sent to announce to Congress 
the surrender of Cornwallis. 

Jasper Yeates (married to Edward Shippen's niece, Sarah 
Burd, December 30, 1767) was a captain in the Lancaster 
militia.* 

Peter Grubb (married to Edward Shippen's niece, Mary 
Shippen Burd, November 28, 1771) was a colonel com- 
manding a battalion of Lancaster County militia in 1776/ 

Under such circumstances, we think that the most exact 
account of Edward Shippen's conduct is to say that he 
intended to, and did as far as possible, preserve a strict 
neutrality between the two contending parties in the revo- 
lutionary struggle. Li a letter to his father, dated March 11, 
1777,* he says : 

** In these timee I shall consider a priyate station as a post of honor, 
and if I cannot raise my fortune as high as my desires, I can bring down 
my desires to my fortune." 

K this is correct, a comparison with the views of the 
leading American patriots in the earliest stages of the con- 
test will surprise us by showing what a little difference there 
was bet^veen their views at that time and his subsequent 
conduct. We quote the following from page 67 of Sabine's 
" American Loyalists," first edition : 

*' All, both Whigs and Tories, were bom and had grown up under a 
monarchy ; and the abstract question of renouncing it or continuing it 
was one on which men of undoubted patriotism differed widely. Very 

' See Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. XV. p. 668. 

« Ibid., Vol. Xin. p. 556. » Ibid., p. 886. 

* Ibid., p. 840. * Shippen Papers, p. 257. 



life of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 428 

many of the Whig8 came into the final measure of separating from the 
mother country with great reluctance, and doubt and hesitation prevailed 
even in Congress. Besides, the Whig leaders uniformly denied that 
Independence was embraced in their plans, and constantly aflirmed that 
their sole object was to obtain concessions, and to continue the connexion 
with England as hitherto ; and John Adams goes further than this, for, 
says he, * there was not a moment during the revolution, when I would not 
have given everything I possessed for a restoration to the state of things 
brfore the contest began, provided we could have had a sufficient security for 
its continuance,' " 

If Mr. Adams be regarded as expressing the sentiments 
of the Whigs, they were willing to remain colonists, provided 
they could have had their rights secured to them; while 
the Tories were contented thus to continue without such 
security. Such, as it appears to me, was the only difier- 
ence between the two parties prior to hostilities, and many 
Whigs, like Mr. Adams, would have been willing to rescind 
the Declaration of Independence, and to forget the past, 
upon proper guarantees for the fiiture. This mode of stating 
the question, and of defining the difference between the two 
parties — down to a certain period at least — cannot be ob- 
jected to, unless the sincerity and truthfulness of some of 
the most eminent men in our history are directly impeached ; 
and if any are prepared to dispute their veracity, it may 
still be asked whether the Tories ought not to be excused for 
believing them. What, then, has been said by men whom 
we most justly reverence ? Franklin's testimony, a few days 
before the affair at Lexington, was, that he had << more than 
once travelled almost from one end of the continent to the 
other, and kept a variety of company, eating, drinking, and 
conversing with them freely, and never had heard in any con- 
versation from any persany drunk or sober ^ the least expression of 
a wish for a separation^ or a hint that such a thing would be 
advantageous to America.'^ Mr. Jay is quite as explicit. 
" During the course of my life," said he, " and until the 
second petition of Congress, in 1775, / never did hear an 
American of any class or any description express a unsh for the 
Independence of the Colonies.'' " It has always been, and still b 



424 lAfe of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

my opinion and belief, that our country was prompted and 
impelled to independence by necessiti/j and not by choice.^* 
Mr. Jefterson affirmed, " What, eastward of New York, 
might have been the dispositions towards England before 
the commencement of hostilities, I know not ; but before that 
I never heard a whisper of a disposition to separate from 
Great Britain ; and after that^ its possibility was contemplated 
with affliction by alV Washington, in 1774, folly sustains 
these declarations, and in the " Fairfax County Resolves," 
it was complained that " ynalevolejit falsehoods" were propa- 
gated by the ministry to prejudice the mind of the king, 
^^particularly that there is an intention in the American Colonies 
to set up for indepetident states." Mr. Madison was not in 
public life until May, 1776, but he says, that " It has always 
been my impression that a re-establishment of the CoUmial re-- 
lations to tlie parent country j as they were previous to the contro- 
versy, was the real object of every class of the people, till the 
despair of obtaining it," etc. 

If such were the sentiments of the leading American 
patriots, surely Edward Shippen should not be censured for 
maintaining a position of neutrality, and not becoming a 
partisan of either side. However, his office as Judge of 
the Vice- Admiralty Court caused him to be suspected by 
the revolutionary authorities of Tory sentiments, because 
the extension of the jurisdiction of that court had been a 
matter of warm complaint. In a pamphlet entitled " Ob- 
servations on the American Revolution," published by order 
of Congress in 1779, in enumerating the grounds of com- 
plaint, the following statement occurs on page 5 : 

*'The penalties and forfeitures incurred here arc to be recovered in 
any court of record, or in any court of admiralty, or vice-adiniralty, at 
the election of the informer, or prosecutor. 

'' The inhabitants of these colonics, confiding in the justice of Great 
Britain, were scarcely allowed sufficient time to receive and consider 
this act before another, well known by the name of the stamp act, passed 
in the fifth year of this reign, engrossed Iheir whole attention. By this 
statute the British Parliament exercised in the most explicit manner a 
power of taxing us, and extending the jurisdiction of courts of admiralty 



lAfe of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 425 

and vice-admiralty in the colonies to matters arising within the body of 
a county, and directed the numerous penalties and forfeitures thereby 
inflicted to be recovered in the said courts." 

On December 7, 1776, the Council of Safety passed the 
following resolutions : ^ 

* * Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Board, that every person who 
is so void of Honor, virtue and Love of his Country as to refiise his 
assistance at this time of eminent public danger, may justly be suspected 
of designs Inimical to the Freedom of America ; And, Where such 
designs are very apparent from the Ck>nduct of Particular persons, such 
persons ought to be confined during the absence of the Militia, and the 
Officers of this State to have particular regard to the above resolve and 
act accordingly, with vigour, Prudence and discretion. Reserving appeals 
to this Council, or a Committee thereof, where the same is requested." 

In consequence of this or some other order, Edward 
Shippen must have been compelled to give some parole to 
stay within a certain district, because we find that on August 
15, 1777,^ the Supreme Executive Council, "On Motion, 
Agreed, That James Hamilton, John Lawrence, Edward 
Shippen, junr," and others, " have the bounds prescribed in 
their respective Paroles enlarged to the whole State of 
Pennsylvania." 

After this he seems to have lived undisturbed, though a 
great deal of anxiety was caused by an escapade of his son 
Edward, the particulars of which are thus related in a letter 
to his father, dated January 18, 1777 : * 

*' My son Neddy was sent on an errand by his master into Jersey, 
where he stayed longer than his business required. In order to avoid 
being pressed into the militia service, when General Howe had advanced 
as far as Trenton, and it was thought he was making his way to Phila- 
delphia, Neddy (aged 18) was prevailed upon by Johnny, (aged 88) 
Andrew, (aged 37) and Billy Allen (aged about 25) to go in with them 
to the British army, which he accordingly did, and was civilly received 
there by General Howe and the British officers. His companions soon 
after went to New York, and Neddy remained at Trenton. When the 
attack was made on the Hessians there, he was accordingly taken 

1 See Colonial Records, Vol. XI. p. 88. 

« Ibid., p. 269. 

' Shippen Papers, p. 255. 



426 lAft of Margaret Shipperiy Wife of Benedict ArnoUL 

prisoner by our army, and carried, with others, to General Washington, 
who after examining his case, and finding he had taken no commission, 
nor done any act that showed him inimical, yery kindly discharged him, 
and he is now with us. Though I highly disapprove of what he had 
done, yet I could not condemn him as much as I should have done, if 
he had not been enticed to it by those who are much older, and ought 
to have judged better than himself." 

Calling Washington's force "our army" in this letter 
seems to indicate that his feelings were decidedly in fevor 
of the success of the Americans. 

One circumstance, showing that the Shippens enjoyed no 
particular favor from the British, is related in a letter dated 
November 1, 1780, from Bichard Peters to "Neddy" Burd, 
as follows : 

" You may remember I spoke to you on the subject of the Repairs 
necessary to be done to Mr. Shippen's Stable. I find these Repairs are 
more considerable than I at first (considered. The whole Boo/ of the 
Front Stable is every Moment in Danger cu the British cut away the Ties 
which bound the Ba/ters together, I wish you to view the Stable and let 
something be done." 

It must be borne in mind that no aet of disloyalty to 
America has ever been charged against Edward Shippen ; 
but, on the contrary, he was called upon early to assist in 
the administration of public afiairs, and was made a judge 
in Pennsylvania in less than eight months after the treaty of 
peace with Great Britain was signed in France. 

From what has been said we feel justified in stating that, 
though Edward Shippen took no part in the revolutionary 
contest, he was not a Loyalist ; but, on the contrary, when 
there was no alternative between abject submission and in- 
dependence, he preferred the success of the Americans. 

And we have the recorded testimony of Thomas McKean, 
one of the most sterling and uncompromising patriots 
among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, that 
he had " special trust and confidence" in the patriotism ot 
Edward Shippen. 



LAft of Margaret Shipperij Wife of Benedict Arnold. 427 

THE MESCHIANZi^. 

The Meechianza was a fSte given by the British officers 
in Philadelphia to General Howe upon the occasion of hb 
retiring from command. From the accounts which have 
come down to us, it seems to have been the most elaborate 
celebration ever held in America up to that time. 

It has been stated that Margaret Shippen, as well as her 
sisters, took part in the performance as Ladies of the 
Blended Rose and Burning Mountain ; and, as Andre was 
mainly instrumental in getting up the Meschianza, it has 
also been alleged that this fete formed in some way a link 
in a chain of evidence that was to show that Margaret 
Arnold participated in her husband's treason. Though we 
cannot see how this matter can have any weight whatever 
upon the question, yet, for the information of those who 
might think otherwise, we deem it right to call their atten- 
tion to the fact that it has been stated on good authority 
that these ladies did not take the parts attributed to them. 

In a paper read before the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania on May 5, 1879, it was stated that " Peggy" Shippen 
and her sisters had been << Knight's Ladies" at tliis festival. 
When the paper was published^ the following note was 
appended : 

** In making the statement that the Miss Shippens were present at the 
MeBchianza I followed the accounts written by Mq*or Andr6 and others. 
Since the paper was read I have received a letter from Mr. Lawrence 
Lewis, Jr., from which I extract the following, that will be new to those 
interested in the history of that celebration : * I would like to communi- 
cate to you a suggestion in reference to one part of your address. You 
stated that Mrs. Arnold and her two sisters (daughters of Shippen, C. J.), 
were present at the Meschianza. Although all the printed and pub- 
lished accounts of that festivity have made a similar statement, the 
tradition in the Shippen family has always been to the contrary. The 
young ladies had been invited, and had arranged to go ; their names 
were upon the programmes, and their dresses actually prepared, but at 
the last moment their father was visited by some of his friends, promi- 

* Pekna. Mao., Vol. III. p. 866. 



428 life of Margaret Shipperij Wife of Benedict Arnold. 

nent members of the Society of Friends, who persuaded him that it 
would be by no means seemly that his daughters should appear in 
public in the Turkish dresses designed for the occasion. Consequently, 
although they are said to have been in a dancing fury, they were obliged 
to stay away. This same story has, I know, come down independently 
through several branches of the fiimily, and was told me repeatedly, the 
last time not more than two years ago, by an old lady of the £sunily, 
who was the niece of Mrs. Arnold and her sisters, and who has since 
died.' " 

In Keith's "Provincial Councillors of Pennsylvania," 
page 57, it is positively stated that Margaret Shippen and 
her sisters were not present at the Meschianza. 

In fiirther corroboration of this statement, and bs explain- 
ing how the report of their presence probably arose, we 
quote the following sentences from an article called " Major 
Andre's Story of the Mischianza," by Sophie Howard Ward, 
published in the Century Magazine for March, 1894. We 
quote from Vol. XLYIL pages 684 and 685 : 

" Mr. Fiake tells us in his History of the American Revolution : ' It 
was a strange medley, combining the modem parade with the mediseyal 
tournament, and was interesting on account of the prominent parts 
haying been taken by the ill-starred Major Andr6, and the beautiful 
Margaret Shippen, who so soon afterward became the wife of Benedict 
Arnold.' Strangely enough, Mr. Fiske was unaware of the fact that for 
some reason Chief Justice Shippen had forbidden his daughters to 
appear, and that, although their dresses were prepared, they were not 
allowed to be present. ..." 

'' . . . In this description Andr6 is careful to omit the names of the 
Shippen girls, leaving a blank before the name of Mr. Sloper, who was 
to ride for Margaret Shippen, and Mr. Winiard, who should have been 
the knight of her sister. This confirms the story, which Mrs. Wharton 
tells us has come down from the Shippen family, that although in a 
'dancing fury,' they were not in the Mischianza. As Andr6 includes 
them in his only other description until now printed, which appeared 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1778, we must accept Mrs. Whar- 
ton's suggestion that, like the modem reporter, Andr6 sent off hb copy 
before the ball had taken place." 

Watson, in his " Annals of Philadelphia," gives a good 
description of this celebrated fete. 



Lift of Margaret Shippen^ Wife of Benedict Arnold. 429 

Apropos to Watson's account, a curious incident is re- 
lated in Harpei's' Magazine for May, 1876, in an article called 
" Old Philadelphia." It is there stated that a scene in the 
old Southwark Theatre, representing a woodland glade, was 
painted and signed by Andr6 ; and that upon one occasion 
when a play founded upon Andre's capture was presented, 
the scene which he had painted was set upon the stage to 
represent the place of his capture by Paulding, Williams, 
and Van Wart, near Tarrytown. 

(To be continued.) 



480 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 



LITHOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS OP ALBERT NEWSAM. 

BT D. HON. STAUFFER. 

(Ck)ncluded from page 289.) 

Andrew Jackson. 
Half-length, full face. W. J. Hubard, pinxt Childs & 
Liman, lith., Phila. Title— as above. Size 7 x 6.12 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, full length, seated, front face. W. J. Hub- 
ard, pinxt. Childs k Liman, lith., Phila., 1884. Title- 
Andrew Jackson | President of the United States. Size 
19.2 X 13.12 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, bust, fitce | to left. P. S. Duval, lith. Title 
— Andrew Jackson. Size 6.8 x 3.14 ins. 

Jamison. 



Three-quarter length, standing, face f to left. From a 
daguerreotype by J. E. Mayall, and published by him, Phila., 
1846. Title— Signature | Jamison as Macbeth | "The 
Prince of Cumberland " | That is a step, etc. Size 12 x 
9.2 ins. 

Thomas Jefferson. 

Oval, in ornamented rectangular frame, full bust, face | to 
left. Published by C. S. Williams, Phila., 1846. Title- 
Thomas Jefferson | 3rd President of the United States. 
Size 10.4 X 8.15 ins. 

Ibid. 

Rectangular, bust, face | to left. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title— Th. Jefferson. Size 6.8 x 3.14 ins. 



IMhjographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 481 

Felix Johnson. 
£[alf-lengthy front face. From an ambrotype. P. S. Du- 
val, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title— Felix Johnson | 
President of the Bethel College, McLemoresville, Tennessee 
I Moderator of the Genl. Assembly of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, 1858. Size 5.8 x 4.5 ins. 

Richard M. Johnson. 
Half-length, face | to right H. Inman, pinxt. Childs k 
Inman, lith., Phila., 1832. Title — ^Richard M. Johnson | 
of Kentucky. Size 8.12 x 8.8 ins. 

John Johnston. 
Half-length, face f to right From a photograph. P. S. 
Duval, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title— John John- 
ston I Pastor of TuUylish Presbyterian Church, Banbridge, 
Ireland | Moderator of the General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Ireland, 1858. Size 6.4 x 4.8 ins. 

William F. Johnston. 
Half-length, face f to left. From a daguerreotype by 
England & Gunn, and published by same. P. S. Duval, 
lith., Phila. Title— Signature | William F. Johnston | 
Governor of Penna. Size 10 x 9.2 ins. 

Walter Jonbs. 
Half-length, face f to right Unlettered proof in New- 
sam collection. Size 6.2 x 5.12 ins. 

Fannt Kemble. 
Head only, face J to right T. Sully, pinxt Childs k 
Inman, lith., Phila., 1888. Unlettered proof from Newsam 
collection. Size 10.5 x 9 ins. 

Miss F. A. Kemble. 
Half-length, front £Etce. Sir Thos. Lawrence, pinxt 
Childs & Inman and S. M. Stewart, lith., Phila., 1882. Title 
— Miss F. A. Kemble. Size 8.4 x 8 ins. 



432 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

J. K^ENNADAY. 

Half-length, face f to right. A. Newsam from life ; pub- 
lished by Thos. S. Wagner in U. S. Ecclesiastical Portrait 
Gallery. Title — Rev'd J. Kennaday. Size 6.15 x 5.18 ins. 

Joseph H. Kennard. 
BWf-length, front fitce. A. Newsam, from life; pub- 
lished by Thos. S. Wagner in U. S. Ecclesiastical Portrait 
Qtillery. Title — ^Rev. Joseph H. Kennard. Size 6.12 x 
4.15 ins. 

Henry King. 
Full bust, face J to left. P. S. Duval & Son, lith., Phila. 
Title — Truly yours | Henry King. Size 4.5 x 8.6 ins. 

William R. King. 
Rectangular, half-length, face | to left. Unlettered proof 
from Newsam collection. Size 9.2 x 7.14 ins. 

James Kitchen. 
Half-length, face | to right. Title — James Kitchen, M.D. 
I Professor in Clinical Department of the | Pennsylvania 
Homoepathic College. Size 9.4 x 7.4 ins. 

Madame Lafarge. 
Bust, profile to left ; bonnet and veil. A. Newsam, del. 
P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. Title— Madame Laferge. Size 
4.6 X 3.6 ins. 

John Lane. 
Half-length, seated to front, face front. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title — ^Yours truly | John Lane. Size 10.8 x 8.12 ins. 

William D. Lewis. 
Oval, hall-length, face | to right. From a daguerreotype 
by Broadbent. P. S. Duval, lith. Title— Wm. D. Lewis, 
Esq. I Collector of Customs, Philada., 1851. Size 9.11 x 
7.6 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 488 

Margarbt Lislb. 
Half-length, fiill face, cap on head. From a daguerreo- 
type by J. Mayall. P. S. Duval, lith. Title — as above. 
Size 10 X 7 ins. 

R R Little. 
Pull bust, fieice f to right A. Newsam, del. P. S. Duval, 
lith. Title — as above. Size 4.8 x 8.7 ins. 

John C. Lowbbr. 
Half-length, £Etce | to left. J. Wood, pinxt. Lehman & 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title— Jno. C. Lowber. Size 6.8 x 
5.4 ins. 

Charles Ltell. 
Half-length, full face. Prom a daguerreotype by J. E. 
Mayall, and published by the same, Phila., 1846. Title — 
Charles Lyell, Esq., P.RS., F.G.S. Size 12.8 x 11.9 ins. 

John McDowell. 
Half-length, seated, right hand on book, face front. A. 
Newsam, del. P. S. Duval, lith. Thos. S. Wagner's U. S. 
Ecclesiastical Portrait Gallery, Phila., 1841. Title— Rev'd 
John McDowell, D.D. Size 7.8 x 8.2 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, half-length, &ce | to right A. Newsam, 
del. P. S. Duval, lith., for G. P. Gordon, Editor of The 
Christian, Phila. Titie— Rev. John McDowell, D.D. | 
Pastor of the Spring Gkirden Presbyterian Church | Philada. 
Size 5.6 X 4.7 ins. 

Charles McIlvainb. 
Rectangular, half-length, in robes, front fistce. H. Liman, 
pinxt Lehman & Duval, lith., Phila. Titie— The Right 
Reverend Charles Mcllvaine, D.D. | Bishop of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church | in the Diocese of Ohio. Size 10.18 
X 8.12 ins. 

VOL. XXIV. — 28 



484 lAthographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

Donald C. McLaren. 
Half-length, front face. From a daguerreotype. P. S. 
Duval, for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title— Donald C. 
McLaren | Moderator of the Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian Church, 1858. Size 5.14 x 4.1 ins. 

John McLean. 
Half-length, fitce f to right T. Sully, pinxt Childs & 
Liman, lith., for Benjamin Matthias, Phila., 1882. Title — 
John McLean | of Ohio. Size 8.13 x 8.10 ins. 

William Maclure. 
Rectangular, half-length, right hand to head, fe^e | to 
right Thos. Sully, pinxt. P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. Title 
— Wm. Maclure | ^tat 60. Size 4.7 x 3.13 ins. 

James Madison. 
Oval, in ornamented rectangular frame, bust, face | to 
right. Published by C. S. Williams for his " Portraits of 
the Presidents," Phila., 1846. Title— James Madison | 4th 
President of the United States. Size 10.6 x 9 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, bust, face f to right. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title— James Madison. Size 6.8 x 8.14 ins. 

John N. Maffitt. 
Full bust, face f to left. From miniature by E. Well- 
more. Title — Rev^d John N. Maffitt. Not signed by New- 
sam, but ascribed to him. Size 5.8 x 5.4 ins. 

Dost Mahomed. . 
Half-length, profile to left. Gen. Harlan, del. P. 8. Du- 
val, lith., Phila. Title— Ex Ameer Dost Mahomed. Size 
5.7 X 8.6 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 48& 

Madame Malibran. 
Three-quarter length, seated, right hand to face, fitce front. 
Publighed by Fiot, Meignen A Co., Phila. Title— The late | 
Madame Malibran de Beriot. Size 7.10 x 6.12 ins. 

Joseph Markle. 
Rectangular, ornamental firame, with residence in base ; 
three-quarter length, sword in left hand, fieice f to left. Pub- 
lished by J. W. Siddall, Phila., 1844. Title— Joseph Mar- 
kle I Democratic Whig Principles | signature. Size 17.8 
X 14.1 ins. 

John Markoe. 
Half-length, face | to right. On stone by A. Newsam ; 
Lehman & Duval, lith., Philadelphia. Unlettered example, 
but identified by a photograph of this lithograph in the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Size 6 x 5.2 ins. 

John Marshall. 
Full bust, front fiskce. H. Inman, pinxt Childs & In- 
man, lith., Phila., 1881. Title— J. Marshall | From the 
original portndt painted by order of the Bar of Philadel- 
phia. Size 12.6 X 10.2 ins. 

Theobald Matthew. 
Rectangular, fall length, face f to left. Title— The 
very Rev'd Theobald Matthew | Administering the Temper- 
ance Pledge I etc. Size 12.11 x 9.11 ins. 

J. Gk)RDON Maxwell. 
Half-length, in robes, face f to left. A. Newsam, del. T. 
S. Wagner, lith., Phila. Title— J. Gordon Maxwell (signa- 
ture) I Rev*d J. Gordon Maxwell | Rector of the Emanuel 
Episcopal Church | Kensington, Philadelphia. Size 10.4 x 
10.6 ins. 



486 LUhoffraphic PortraUa of Albert Newsam. 

Robert Campbrll Matwood. 
Half-length, fece f to right T. Sully, pinxt P. S.*" 
Duval, lith., PhUa. Title— Rob. Campbell Maywood | aa 
Tarn O'Shanter. Size 9.9 x 9 ins. 

Thomas Mellon. 
Half-length, cane in left hand, &ce | to left. P. S. Du- 
val, lith., Phila. Title — Signature as above. Size 10.1 x 
8.13 ins. 

Santiago Mendez de Vigo. 
Half-length, in uniform, face front A. H. Wallace, pinxt 
P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. Title— El Exmo Sos D'^ Santiago 
Mendez de Vigo | Qobernador Cap' General de la Tela 
de I Puerto Rico. Size 8.4 x 7.8 ins. 

James Monroe. 
Rectangular, bust, fieice f to left. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title — as above. Size 6.8 x 3.14 ins. 

P. E. MORIARTY. 

Half-length, in robes, front face. A. Newsam, del., P. S. 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title— Very Rev'd P. E. Moriarly, 
D.D. I Pastor of St Augustine's Church, Phila. Size 6.4 
X 6 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, in robes, fieice f to right A. Newsam, from 
life. Titie— Very Rev'd P. E. Moriarty, D.D. | Pastor of 
St. Augustine's Church, Philadelphia. Size 9.8 x 10 ins. 

Edward Joy Morris. 
Oval, half-length, fietce f to right From a photograph. 
P. S. Duval, lith. ; printed with a tint Titie— Edward Joy 
Morris | with 4 lines from his Speech in Congress against 
Lecompton Swindle. Size 7.15 x 6.1 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 487 

Napoleon Bonapartb. 
Oval in rectangle, bust, fitce | to right P. S. Duval, 
lith., Phila. Title— K | Post Mortem | St Helena, May 5, 
1821. Size 8.11 x 7.8 ins. 

Henry Neill. 
Half-length, full face. From a daguerreotype by W. & 
F. Langenheim. P. S. Duval, lith. Title — as above. Size 
11.2 X 7.14 ins. 

Richard Newton. 

Half-length, in robes, hands on open book in front, face 
f to left. From a daguerreotype by McClees & Gtermon. 
P. S. Duval, Uth., for H. E. Howard, Phila., 1850. Title— 
Trs. affectionately | Eich'd Newton (signature) | Rev'd 
Bichard Newton, D.D. | Rector of St Paul Church, Philada. 
Size 13.2 X 10.4 ins. 

Paqanini. 

Full bust, fieice f to right Published in The Parlour 
Review, No. 8. Title — as above. Size 4.12 x 4.4 ins. 

Jambs Page. 
Half-length, j&ce | to right H. Inman, pinxt C. G. 
Childs " direx on stone." Not signed by Newsam. Un- 
lettered proof. Size 4.4 x 4.8 ins. 

Ibid. (?) 

Full length, in uniform, fitce | to left; to right a private, 

full length, face front; in background, three privates, tents, 

etc. A. Newsam, " from life on stone." P. S. Duval, lith., 

Phila. Title— cut off, if there was one. Size 9.4 x 9 ins. (?) 

Ely Parry. 
Full bust, &ce to left Lith. of P. S. Duval A Son, Phila. 
Ambrotyped by Gutekunst & Brother. Title— (Signature) 
Ely Parry, M.D., D.D.S., Prof of Chemistry, Mat Med. ft 
Therapeutics Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. Size 
9x7 ins. 



438 LUhographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

Mme. Pasta. 
Half-length, with harp, fiice f to left. PubliBhed in The 
Parlour Review, No. 5, Gteo. Caretensen, Editor. Title- 
as above. Size 5.10 x 4.14 ins. 

Pedro L 
Full bust, in gorgeous uniform and many decorations, face 
f to right. Childs & Inman, lith., for S. M. Stewart Title 
— ^D. Pedro I | Emperador do Brazil. Size 10.6 x 8.8 ins. 

Empress of Brazil. 
Pull bust, to left, fieice front Childs A Inman, lith., Phila., 
for S. M. Stewart, Chestnut St, Phila. Title— Amelia | 
Imperatriz do Brazil. Size 10.2 x 8 ins. 

John Pemberton. 
Half-length, front jGace, with glasses. P. S. Duval, lith., 
Phila. Title— as above. Size 8 x 6.14 ins. 

David Pepper. 
Half-length, face f to right John Neagle, pinxt Leh- 
man & Duval, lith., Phila. Unlettered proof from Newsam 
Collection. Size 5.10 x 5.6 ins. 

Philip Syng Physick. 
Half-length, face | to right. H. Inman, pinxt Childs 
A Inman, lith., Phila., Dec, 1881. Titie— Philip Syng 
Physick, M.D. Size 7.8 x 6.4 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, to right, face J to right Inman, pinxt P. 
S. Duval, lith., Phila. Titie— Philip Syng Physick, M.D. | 
signature. Size 5.9 x 4.2 ins. 

A. L. Pickering. 
Full bust, face f to right, civilian dress. On stone by 
A. Newsam. Painted by Parker. P. S. Duval, lith.. No. 7 
Bank Alley, Phila. Title — as above. Size (of figure only) 
9.14 X 8.8 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsanu 489 

George Pointdbxter. 
Rectangular, three-quarter length, seated, to right, fiu^e j 
to right. 0. B. King, pinxt. Lehman k Duval, lith., Phila. 
Title— Gteo. Pointdexter. Size 11.13 x 9.7 ins. 

James Pollock. 
Half-length, front face. P. S. Duval A Co., lith., for 
Martin E. Harmstead, 116 Chestnut St., Phila. Title- 
Tours Truly I Jas. Pollock (signature) | James Pollock. 
Size— 9 X 6.12 ins. 

David R. Porter. 
Full bust, front fiice. John F. Francis, pinxt P. S. 
Duval, lith., for Jno. F. Francis, Phila., 1838. Title— David 
R Porter (signature) | Gen'l David R Porter. Size 9.2 x 
8.12 ins. 

Ibid. 

Full length, in uniform, on horseback, moving to left, 
face I to right. Horse and landscape by A. Koellner ; uni- 
form sketched by Huddy, portrait by Newsam. Huddy & 
Duval, publishers, Phila., 1841. Title— David R Porter 
(signature) | Gten'l David R Porter | Governor of Penn- 
sylvania. Size 9.10 X 9 ins. 

Porter, U. S. Senate. 

Rectangular, half-length, front j&ce. S. S. Osgood, pinxt 
Childs k Lehman, lith., Phila. Unlettered proof from 
Newsam collection. Size 9.6 x 7.14 ins. 

D. Powell. 
Half-length, ftiU face. P. S. Duval, lith. Title— Signar 
tures as above, one written with the right, and the other 
with the left hand. Size 4.14 x 3.14 ins. 

Tyrone Powers. 
Rectangular, half-length, with hat and cane in right hand, 
face f to left;. XJnlettered proof in Newsam collection. 
Size 10.8 X 8.14 ins. 



440 Uihographie PartraUa of Albert Newsam. 

John T. Pressly. 
Half-length, front fieice. From photograph by Geo. W. 
Taylor. P. S. Duval, lith., for Job. M. Wilson. Title- 
John T. Pressly | Pastor of the First United Presbyterian 
Church, Allegheny City, Pa. | Moderator of the United 
Presbyterian Synod 1858. Size 6.12 x 4.8 ins. 

William C. Preston. 
Rectangular, half-length, front &ce. S. S. Osgood, pinxt 
Childs & Lehman, lith., Phila. Title— Wm. C. Preston. 
Size 9.8 X 7.11 ins. 

Patrick Rapferty. 
Three-quarter length, seated to left, fieice | to left; tinted 
background. From a photograph by Willard. Title — 
Yours truly | Patrick Eaflferty | Pastor of St Francis Xavier 
Church I and President of the Literary Listitute | Fwr- 
mount, Philadelphia | Published by the Institute. Size 11 
X 9.8 ins. 

William Rawle. 
Full bust, front face. H. Inman, pinxt Childs & Inman, 
lith., Phila., 1882. Title— W. Rawle | From the Original 
Portrait Painted by order of the Bar of Philadelphia. 
Size 10 X 8.8 ins. 

Charles H. Read. 
Half-length, &ce slightly to right From a daguerreo- 
type. P. S. Duval, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title— 
Chas. H. Read | Pastor of the United Presbyterian Church, 
Richmond, Va. | Moderator of the United Synod, 1858. 
Size 6.2 X 4.7 ins. 

Philip Ricketts. 
Half-length, face f to right G. Freeman, pinxt P. S. 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title — as above. Size 5.12 x 6.13 ins. 



LUfiographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 441 

Joseph Bitnek. 
Rectangular, full-length, standing with right hand on 
plow and in his shirt sleeves, front face. J. F. Francis, 
pinxt P. S. Duval, lith., for J. F. Francis, Phila., 1888. 
Title— Joseph Ritner | Governor of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. Size 14.15 X 12.4 ins. 

Ibid. 
Full bust, &ce I to left. A. T. Lee, pinxt Lehman & 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title — Joseph Ritner | Governor of 
Pennsylvania. Size 8.8 x 8.6 ins. 

Charles Roberts. 
Full bust, front face. From a daguerreotype by R. Cor- 
naro. P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. Title — as above. Size 
10.12 X 7.14 ins. 

Joseph Roberts. 

Rectangular, half-length, seated, with head resting on left 
hand, face | to right. M. J. de Francia, pinxt Lehman 
& Duval, lith. Title — Jos. Roberts | Late Actuary of the 
Penn. Company for Insurance on Lives and Granting Annu- 
ities I Born March 22nd 1798, Died Aug. 25th, 1835. Size 
12.18 X 14.5 ins. 

Solomon W. Roberts. 

Full bust, &ce f to right M. J. de Francia, pinxt 
Lehman & Duval, lith., Phila. Unlettered proof. Size 8.2 
X 7.8 ins. 

M. B. Roche. 

Half-length, in robes, face f to right B. Otis, pinxt 
Childs & Inman, lith., Phila., 1831. Unsigned by Newsam. 
Titie— Rev'd M. B. Roche. Size 6.9 x 6.12 ins. 

TuoMAs Say. 
Half-length, front face. Title— Thomas Say | One of the 
founders of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila* | 
Bom in Philadelphia, July 27th, 1787. Died at New Har- 
mony, Oct 10th, 1887. Size 7.6 x 6.12 ins. 



442 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

Robert H. Satbe. 
Full bust, fietce f to left. From an ambrolype by H. P. 
Osborn. P. S. Duval & Son, lith., Phila. Title— Toutb 
Respectfully | Robt H. Sayre | Supt. & Eng. Lehigh Valley 
Rail Road. Size 5.13 x 4.11 ins. 

Lewis db Schweinitz. 
Full bust, face f to left;. A. Newsam, del. Lehman & 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title — signature as above. Size 8.1 x 
2.18 ins. 

John R Scott. 

Half-length, fece f to right T. Sully, pinxt P. S. 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title— Jno. R. Scott | as | St Pierre. 
Size 10.7 X 9.6 ins. 

W. A. ScoTT. 

Half-length, face f to left. P. S. Duval, lith., for Jos. M. 
Wilson. Title— W. A. Scott | Pastor of Calvary Presby- 
terian Church, San Francisco, Cal*. | Moderator of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1858. Size 6.12 x 5.8 ins. 

John Sergeant. 
Half-length, face | to right Childs & Inman, lith., Phila. 
Not signed by Newsam, but ascribed to him. Title — ^as 
above. Size 4.2 x 3.14 ins. 

Francis R. Shunk. 
Full bust, fieice f to right Thos. Sully, pinxt., Pittsburg, 
1844. Published by a Committee of his friends in the 
City and County of Phila. Title— signature as above. Size 

10.12 X 10.6 ins. 

Adele Sigoigne. 

Rectangular, three-quarter length, seated to right, face f 
to left;. Lehman & Duval, lith., Phila. Title— The Misses 
Delia Costa, as a mark of gratitude to | Miss Adele Sigoigne 
I present her with this portrait taken from one pidnted 
by M. Riboni, in the possession of Dr. Le Roche. Size 
12.9 X 10.3 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 448 

J. 8. SiLSBEE. 

Half-length, seated to right, front fieice. From a dagaerreo- 
type. P. 8. Duval, lith., Phila. Title — 8ignature as above. 
8ize 9.8 x 9.4 ins. 

Ibid. 
Full length to front, cap in left hand, fitce | to right 
P. 8. Duval, lith. Title— J. 8. 8ilsbee | in the character of | 
Sam 81ick, the Clockmaker. 8ize 12 x 8.6 ins. 

Thomas H. 8kinner. 
Half-length, front fitce. T. Sully, pinxt Ohilds & Inman, 
lith., Phila. Not signed by Newsam. Title— Rev. Thos. 
H. Skinner. Size 8.8 x 7.14 ins. 

Jonathan Smith. 
Full bust, face f to left. Unlettered proof from Newsam 
Collection. Title — Jon'a Smith, signature. Size 9.14 x 
7.8 ins. 

Jared Sparks. 
Half-lengih, fece f to left. T. Sully, pinxt From Childa 
& Inman Press. Not signed by Newsam, but ascribed to 
him. XJnlettered proof. Size 7.8 x 5.8 ins. 

Charles Stewart. 

Half-length, face f to left;. A. Newsam from life. P. S. 

Duval, lith. Title — Signature | Commodore Ch's Stewart | 

below is a view of the " Capture of H. M. Ships Cyane ft 

Levant by XJ. S. Frigate Constitution." Size 13 x 8.14 ins. 

DuGALD Stewart. 
Rectangular, three-quarter length seated to front, fiace f 
to left. Sir H. Eaeburn, pinxt C. G. Childs, lith., Phila., 
Sept. 1, 1880. Titie— Dugald Stewart | Drawn from the 
original picture presented by Dr. Tidyman to the Penna. 
Academy of the Fine Arts. Size 12 x 9.10 ins. 



444 lAthographic Portraits of Albert Newsanu 

William Strickland. 
Half-length, fiice f to right J. Neagle, pinxt C. G. 
Childfl, direx., Phila. Not signed by Newsam. Title — 
William Strickland, Esq. | Architect Size 4.12 x 6 ins. 

Samuel A. Talcott. 
Half-length, face f to right C. G. Childs, direx., Phila. 
Title — Samuel A. Talcott, Esq. | Attorney General of New 
York. Size 8.10 x 4 ins. 

Maurice de Tallatrand. 
Bust, front face. Joffi*oy, del. Childs & Inman, lith., 
Phila. Title — ^as above. Size 4.15 x 4.8 ins. 

Talma. 

Full bust, with furs and cap on head, face | to left. P. S. 
Duval, lith., for The Parlour Review, Phila. Title — as 
above. Size 6 x 5.11 ins. 

David Thomas. 
Half-length, ftill face. A Newsam, del. P. S. Duval A 
Son, lith., Phila. Title— Tours truly | David Thomas. 
Size 4.5 X 4 ins. 

M. L. P. Thompson. 

Half-length, face | to left;. Prom a photograph. P. S. 

Duval, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title— M. L. P. 

Thompson | Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, 

BuffiJo, New York | Moderator of the General Assembly, 

^1858. Size 6x5 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, face | to right From an ambrotype. P. S. 
Duval, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title — same as 
above. Size 6.4 x 4.15 ins. 

Samuel Thompson. 
Full bust, face f to left. Thos. Sully, pinxt P.S.Duval, 
lith. Title — as above. Size 5.4 x 4.11 ins. 



LUhographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 446 

James Thorne. 
Half-length, right hand holding purse to ear, &ce front 
Joseph Bushe, pinxt P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. THtle— 
James Thome | as Figaro | in the Barber of Seville. Size 
9 X 11.8 ins. 

John Tyler. 

Rectangular, &ce | to right P. S. Duval, lith., for Dan' 
Richardson. Title — as above. Size 6.8 x 8.14 ins. 

Stephen H. Tynq. 
Half-length, in robes, &Lce | to left. Thos. Wagner, lith., 
Phila., 1841. Title— Rev* Stephen H. Tyng, D.D. | U. S. 
Ecclesiastical Gkdlery | Published by Thos. S. Wagner, Phila. 
Size 7.4 X 6.10 ins. 

Martin Van Buren. 
Rectangular, bust, fitce | to right P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title— M. Van Buren. Size 6.8 x 8.14 ins. 

Roberts Vaux. 

Half-lengtb, face | to left. H. Inman, N. A., pinxt 
Childs & Inman, lith., Phila. Title — Roberts Vaux | Drawn 
on stone by Albert Newsam, one of the first mutes | edu- 
cated in the Penna^ Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 
Size 4.14 x 5.2 ins. 

Ibid. 

Half-length, ihce | to left. Henry Inman, pinxt P. 8. 
Duval, lith. Titie — I am with great truth | thy affectionate 
friend | Roberts Vaux. Size 5.2 x 4.18 ins. 

Mr. WAGGABfAN. 

Rectangular, half-length, &ce | to left. S. S. Osgood, 
pinxt Childs & Lehman, lith. Unlettered proof in New- 
sam collection. This is probably George A. Waggamann, 
XJ. S. Senator from Louisiana in 1831-36. Size 9.2 x 
7.11 ins. 



446 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

James William Wallace. 
Full bust, fiice f to right Published in Burton's Gentle- 
man's Magazine, Phila. Title — J. W. Wallack. Size 4.14 x 
4.4 ins. 

Reuben H. Walworth. 

Half-length, face f to right Rem. Peale, pinxt. P. S. 
Duval, lith., Phila., 1842. Title— Reuben H. Walworth | 
Chancellor of the State of New York. Size 11.8 x 10 ins. 

Robert Walsh, Jr. 
Full bust, left hand to head, faxje f to left. T. Sully, 
pinxt C. G. Childs, direx. Not signed by Newsam. Title 
— R Walsh, Jr. | Philad*. Published by C. Q. Childs, 80 
Wahiut St Size 3.12 x 4.14 ins. 

Thomas U. Walter. 
Half-length, seated, drawing-scale in hand, face | to right. 
John Neagle, pinxt Lehman & Duval, lith., Phila., 1886. 
Unlettered proof, given to the compiler by Mr. Walter. 
Size 6 X 6.4 ins. « 

Thomas Wardrope. 
Half-length, front face. From an ambrotype. P. S. Duval, 
lith., for Jos. M. Wilson, Phila. Title— Thomas Ward- 
rope I Pastor of the Enox Presbyterian Church, Ottawa, 
Canada West | Moderator of the Presbyterian Church of 
Canada, 1858. Size 6.10 x 4.8 ins. 

George Washington. 
Rectangular, ftiU bust, face | to left. Stuart, pinxt 
Childs & Inman, Phila., and Peabody & Co., New York, 
lith. Title— Washington. Size 6.1 x 5.1 ins. 

Ibid. 
Rectangular, bust, face | to left. Stuart, pinxt P. S. 
Duval, lith. Title— G. Washington. Size 6.8 x 8.14 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 447 

Ibid. 
Bust, profile to right From Houdon's bust by A. New- 
sam. P. 8. Duval, lith., Phila. On title-page of " Tomb 
of Waahington at Mount Vernon." Phila., Carey & Hart, 
1840. Size 8.9 x 2.7 ins. 

John G. Watmough. 
Half-length, seated to front, fieice f to left. Pidnted by 
Henry Inman, K A. & P. A. ; " Drawan" on stone by A. 
Newsam, a Deaf & Dumb pupil of C. G. Childs. Pub- 
lished for the Proprietors by C. G. Childs, Walnut Street, 
Philadelphia, 1881. Title— Signature Jn'o G. Watmough. 
Size 12.5 X 12.4 ins. 

Thomas Webb. 
Three-quarter length, in uniform, right hand on breast, 
left on Bible ; sword on table, face nearly profile to left, 
patch over right eye. P. S. Duval A Sons, lith., Phila. 
A. Newsam on stone. Title — Captain Thomas Webb | who 
introduced Methodism | into Pennsylvania, Delaware and 
New Jersey. Size 3.8 x 8 ins. 

Francis C. Wemyss. 
Half-length, face f to right T. Sully, pinxt Lehman 
& Duval, Uth., Phila. Title — ^Francis C. Wemyss | Mana- 
ger of the American Theatres | Philadelphia & Pittsburg, 
Pa. Size 7.12 x 6.14 ins. 

Robert M. Wharton. 
Full bust, face f to left. C. G. Childs, lith. Not signed 
by Newsam. Unlettered proof. Size 4.6 x 4.8 ins. 

Daniel Wheeler. 
Full bust, profile to left. P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. 
Title— Dan'l Wheeler. Size 4.2 x 8.8 ins. 



448 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

JosiAH White. 

Half-length, face | to left. P. 8. Duval & Sons, lith., 
Phila. Title— Thy friend | Josiah White. Size 4.10 x 4.8 
ins. 

J. D. White. 

Half-length, face f to left. From a daguerreotype by 
McClees & Germon. P. 8. Duval, lith., Phila. Title— Sig- 
nature I J. D. White, M.D., D.D.S. | Professor of Anatomy 
and Physiology in Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery ( 
Dr. W. W. Fouehe | C. C. WilUams | J. H. M^Qmllin ( 
to Dr. J. D. White. Size 9.4 x 7.8 ins. 

William White. 
Full-length silhouette, with cane in hand and hat on 
head, profile to right P. 8. Duval, lith., for Thomas Latimer, 
Phila., 1838. Title— R* Rev* William White, D.D. Size 
10 X 7.12 ins. 

Ibid. 

Full bust, in robes, fece f to right. A. Newsam, del. 
P. 8. Duval, lith., Phila. Title— R* Rev* William White, 
D.D. I First President of the Penn. Institution for the Deaf 
& Dumb. I Drawn on stone by | Albert Newsam | Late 
Pupil of the Inst*. Size 4.10 x 4.3 ins. 

George Willio. 
Half-length, seated, with cane, face f to right P. 8. 
Duval, lith., Phila. Title— George Willig. (Print cut 
down.) Size about 11.12 x 10.14 ins. 

John G. Wilson. 
Half-length, face f to left. P. 8. Duval, lith. Title- 
John G. Wilson, V.D.M. | Age 82. Size 6.12 x 5.5 ins. 

William Wirt. 
Full bust, face | to right A. Dickinson, pinxt Childs 
A Inman, lith., Phila. Title — ^as above. Size 7.14 x 6.8 ins. 



lAthographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 449 

William R. db Witt. 
Half-length, seated to left, front &ce. J. F. Francis, 
pinxt Published for Sunday School Teachers of Presby. 
Ch., Harrisburg, Pa. Title— William R de Witt, D.D. 

Size 9.6 X 9 ins. 

Gborgb Wolp. 

Full bust, front fieice. A. B. Eockey, pinxt Ohilds A 
Inman, lith., Phila., 1888. Title— George Wolf | Governor 
of Pennsylvania. Size 10.8 x 8 ins. 

Ibid. 
Half-length, full fieice. On a sheet of music. Title — 
George Wolf, Esq., etc. Size 6.4 x 5.2 ins. 

JosBPH Wolff. 
Full bust, face | to left. Lehman & Duval, lith., Phila., 
1887. Title— Rev. Joseph Wolff | Missionary | to Pales- 
tine, Armenia, Persia, Khorassaun, Taerkestaun, Bokkara, 
Balkh, Bimmalayah Mountains | Oashmear, ffindostaon, 
Abyssinia, Yemen, etc. Size 7.4 x 7.8 ins. 

Mrs. Wood. 
Bust, cap on head, &ce f to left. Neagle, pinxt Leh- 
man & Duval, lith., Phila. Title— Mrs. Wood as Amina | 
in the Opera | La Sonnambula. Size 9.8 x 10 ins. 

Andrew Gifford Wylib. 
Half-length, face front. From an ambrolype. P. 8. 
Duval, lith., for Jos. M. Wilson. Title — Andrew Gifford 
Wylie I Pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
Duanesburg, New York | Moderator of the Gen. Synod of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church in N. America, 1858. 
Size 5.15 X 4.7 ins. 

John Young. 
Full bust, fece f to left;. A. Newsam, del. P. S. Duval 
A Co., lith. Title^ — ^Yours sincerely | John Young (signa- 
ture) I John Young. Size 5.6 x 3.10 ins. 
VOL. xxrv. — 29 



450 " IMhographic Portraits of Albert New$€mL 

Ibid. 
Full bust, &ce I to right Gilbert Stuart, pinxt P. S. 
Duval & Co., lith., Phila. Title— Judge Young | when a 
young man | From a painting by Gilbert Stuart Size 
5.8 X 3.12 ins. 

Some Miscellaneous LiTHoaRAPHS by Newbam. 

Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb | Drawn 
on stone by Albert Newsam, a former pupil of the Institu- 
tion. From a daguerreotype by Collins. Size 7.1 x 4.1 ins. 

Frigate Constitution | Bearing the Pennant of Commo- 
dore Jesse Duncan Elliott | Malta, February, 1888. From 
a painting by J. Evans; published in the U. S. Military 
Magazine, Phila. Size 7.7 x 10.3 ins. 

Banner of the "Repeal Association.'' Published by John 
Kennedy, New York, 1842. Size 12.4 x 8.14 ins. 

" The Chinese Collection," in the Chinese Museum, 9th 
and George Sts., Phila. A large colored lithograph, with a 
Chinese scene at top and four others in ovals in the 
ornamented border. P. S. Duval, lith., Phila. Size of 
whole card 20.6 x 14.8 ins. 

The White Plume. 
Woman with plumed hat, | length, fiace nearly profile to 
right C. G. Childs, lith., Phila. Title — as above. Size 
10.8 X 8.8 ins. 

Manner op Holding the Guitar. 
Rectangular, a man seated, full length, holding a guitar. 
P. S. Duval, lith. Title — as above. Size 8.11 x 6.6 ins. 

William Norris Loco. Works. 
View of a locomotive. Title— as above. Size 8 x 
5.8 ins. 



Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 451 

Tomb op Washington at Mount Vbrnon. 
View of tomb. W. Strickland, del. P. S. Duval, liih. 
Title— as above. Size 7 x 4.5 ins. 
" The Sarcophagus, Top view." Size 7.7 x 8.7 ins. 
" Side view." Size 8 x 2.7 ins. 

Clarisse Harlowe. 
Title to sheet music. P. S. Duval, liih. Figure size 

6.12 X 6.6 ins. 

Blue Eyes. 

Title to sheet music. Female figure. P. S. Duval, lith. 
Title— A Mme. Sabatier | Blue Eyes | (Les Yeux Bleus) etc. 
Figure size 5.10 x 6.2. 

AlLEEN MaVOURNBEN. 

Title to sheet music. Female figure. Published by A. 
Fiot, Phila. Figure size 5.4 x 5.14 ins. 

BosE Atherton. 
Title to sheet music. Published by E. Ferrett & Co., 
Phila. Figure size 7.18 x 7.7 ins. 

Julien's Chimes Quadrille. 
Title to sheet music. Published by E. Ferrett, Phila. 
Size 6.8 X 9 ins. 



Mr. F. E. Marshall, of Philadelphia, has kindly supplied 
the missing title on the R M. Bird lithograph, as follows : 

Robert M. Bird. 
" On stone by A. Newsam. | From a daguerreotype by 
A. M. Soot I P. S. Duval & Co., steam lith. press, PhiL | 
Robert M. Bird (autograph)." 

Mr. Wendell P. Garrison, of Orange, N. J., gives the 
following description of a Newsam lithographic portrait of 
his father : 



452 Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam. 

William Lloyd Garrison. 
Vignette, full bust, foce slightly turned to right From a 
daguerreotype by T. B. Shew. On stone by Albert New- 
sam, P. S. Duval, lith. Title— Wm. Lloyd Garrison (auto- 
graph). Size 7 X 4.8 ins. 

Archbishops of Baltimore. 

A large colored lithograph containing the portraits of — 

Title — The Most Rev : John Carroll, 1st Archbishop of 
Baltimore. Born in Maryland 1735 consecrated on the 
15th of August 1790, died on the 3d Dec. 1815. 

Title — The Most Rev : Leonard Neale 2d Archbishop of 
Baltimore. Bom in Maryland the 15th Oct: 1746, suc- 
ceeded Archbishop Carroll in 1815, died 18th June 1818. 

Title — The Most Rev : Ambrose Marechal 3d Archbishop 
of Baltimore. Bom in France on the 5th Dec. 1768, con- 
secrated the 14th Dec. 1817, died the 29th Jany 1828. 

Title— The Most Rev. James Whitfield 4th Archbishop 
of Baltimore. Born in England the 8d of Nov. 1770. Con- 
secrated the 25th of May 1828, died the 19th Oct 1884. 

Title— the Most Rev. Samuel Eccleston 5th Archbishop 
of Baltimore. Born in Maryland the 27th of June 1801, 
Consecrated the 14th of Sept. 1884. 

Published by John T. Green, Chambersburg, Pa. En- 
tered according to act of Congress in the year 1887 by John 
T. Green in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Size 19.8 x 18 ins. 



Colcml EUas Bmtdmot in New York Gty, February^ 1778. 468 



COLONEL BLIAS BOUDINOT IN NEW YORK CITY, 
FEBRUARY, 1778. 

CONTRIBUTED BY HELEN JORDAN. 

[The following intereBting journal waa kept by Colonel Eliaa Boudi- 
not, Commissary-Gtoeral of Prifionen, while sojourning in the city of 
New York, in February of 1778, looking after the welfare of the Amer- 
ican prisoners and arranging exchanges. The original manuscript is 
among the Boudinot Papers of the Historical Society of Pennsylyania. — 
Ed. Penna. Mag.] 

Tuesday S^ Feby. 1778. — ^Arrived at sundown k sent a 
Sergeant to Gen. Robinson,^ who sent him back with a 
demand of my Commission and business. He sent a Ser- 
geant to conduct me to Mr. Loring's : * was rec'd very po- 
litely k waited on to Gen. Robinson's, who behaved with 
great kindness k invited me to Break&st next morning. 
Sent for Lord D * [rummond] . Gen. R and Mr. Loring 
assured me that they wished every indulgence to Prisoners, 
that could consistently be granted. Was told I might 
Lodge where most convenient, — went to Mr. Ppntard's?]. 
Gen. [Charles] Lee came in k denied having wrote but once 
to Col. Seely about Mrs. B [attier ?] k had received no answer. 

Feby ith. — ^Breakfasted with Gen. Robinson, who ap- 
peared candid k polite. Mr. Loring met me here. See a 
Mr. Webb,* who came from Connecticut as a flag from 
Gov. Trumbull for the exchange of Prisoners, k brought 
some with him. I was much surprised at this measure k 

' Perhaps it is unnecessary to call attention to the error in spelling the 
name of the British general in command of the city of New York, 
which occurs throughout the journal of Colonel Boudinot, but for 
*' Robinson" read Robertson (Major-General James Robertson). 

' Joshua Loring, the British Commissary of Prisoners. 

* Lord Drummond, son of the Earl of Perth, who was in America 
looking after his father's interests. After the peace Colonel Boudinot 
was the attorney of the feunily. 

* Joseph Webb, brother of Colonel Samuel B. Webb, of the Con- 
necticut Continental Line. 



454 (Mmel Elias Baudinot in New York Gty, Februan/y 1778. 

opposed it. Arranged to exchange on Parole, Col. Law- 
rence for Col. Holden and Col. DeLancey for Col. Swoop. ^ 
Went to two Hospitals & Sugar House, found everything as 
decent as could be expected. Mr. Loring mentioned Camp- 
bell & Haring breaking their Paroles. 191 Prisoners in 
Sugar House ; in two Hospitals 102 k 109. Prisoners re- 
ceive f d allowance — £1 from Mr. P [intard] twice a week. 
See Mr. [Andrew] Elliott, Mr. Chief Justice [Smith], Mr. 
Kemp.* Waited on Mr. Fell * at his lodgings & promised 
to hear his story when Mr. Loring could attend. 

Febry 5. — ^Waited on Mr. Loring and went to Qen. Bobin- 
son, from thence to the Provost See Col. [Ethan] Allen, 
Major Payne,* Capt Flahaven,* Mr. Van Zant* Col. 

^ Colonel Michael Swope, of the York County, PennBylvania, Associa- 
tora, captured at Fort Washington November 16, 1776, and not ex- 
changed until January 26, 1781. 

' John Taber Kempe, Attorney-General of New York. 

•Judge John Fell, of New Jersey, **the great Tory hunter," who 
was captured near Tappan in April of 1777. Colonel Boudinot, in his 
** Observations relating to the prisoners confined in the Provost," states, 
''Judge Fell was refused a Doctor or Medicine when sick," and fur- 
thermore, ''the officers make great complaints of the cruelty of the ser- 
geant in locking them up on the most trifling occasion in the Dungeon, 
where some of them have been for several weeks ; one in particular with 
a wound in the leg, which he never could get dressed." 

^ " Major B. Payne was accused of killing Capt. Campbell at the time 
of his capture, and with having no commission. . . . Miyor Payne sol- 
emnly denies the charge, and states that he did not hear of his death 
until after he had been taken prisoner. He has acted under a commis- 
sion and his rank has always been acknowledged by the American army." 
— Botidinofs Observations, etc. 

^ Captain John Flahaven, of Colonel Ogden's New Jersey regiment, 
captured at Amboy April 20, 1777. "The charge against Capt Fla- 
haven, that he broke the thigh of a soldier with the butt of a gun, after 
he was shot, is positively denied by him, and D' Loring acknowledged 
the man's 1^ was broken by a ball. . . . Capt. Flahaven was surrounded 
and did not surrender, and was constantly fighting for fifteen minutes 
after the soldier was struck by the ball." — Boudinofs ObservoHons, etc, 

* Wynant Van Zant, "a volunteer in active service, accused of rob- 
bing Mr. Wallace and firing on the Asia. . . . denies the whole charge 



Cclond Elias Boudinot in New York Cityy Febrvjory^ 1778. 455 

Allen is confined for going to New York contrary to hia 
Parole, which he acknowledges, but that it was done by 
others k he returned again three weeks before he was con- 
fined ; M^jor Payne for want of Commission k killing Mr. 
Campbell, which he positively denies; Capt Flahaven for 
breaking a man's thigh after taking him ; this he denies and 
says there is no proof against him ; Mr. Van Zant, a volun- 
teer, and confined for formerly taking Mr. Wallace's plate. 
They acknowledge they receive proper Provision but, com- 
plain of close confinement k harsh Treatment Went to 
Commissioner's Stores k see the Provisions dealt out and 
got ace* of rations — ^the Pork good. Biscuit rather musty. 
Went to Sugar House ^ k see the Provisions divided, k 
called up Prisoners k examined them about complaint 
against the Sergeant, sent me in writing. They all denied 
it with great resentment k threatened vengeance on the 
author if he could be found. I am very suspicious that the 
greater part of these fellows are great Villians and rob each 
other. Ordered them a gill of rum a man. 

Mr. Loring informed me that Mr. W [ebb] came to ex- 
change Prisoners k would take off all fi-om Connecticut ; 
that Col. Lawrence was to be exchanged for Col. Holden ; 
Col. DeLancey for Col. Ely * and 13 soldiers brought in for 
so many taken lately in the Sound. All this I objected to. 
Agreed to let Col. Lawrence go on Parole for Col. Holden, 
and also Col. DeLancey for Col. Magaw,* k directed 18 sol- 
diers longest in captivity to be discharged for those sent in. 

by insistiiig that he never did anything of the kind, but by ezpreas orders 
of his superior officer, for which he cannot be held accountable." — 
Boudinofs ObservaUanSf etc. 

^ The troops captured at Fort Montgomery were confined in the Sugar 
House prison, and not allowed to have victuals or drink for two days 
and two nights, and sixty of them were forced to enlist in the British 
service to save their lives. 

' Col(mel John Ely, of the Connecticut militia ; he was not finally 
exchanged until December 5, 1780. 

* Colonel Robert Magaw, of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion, cap- 
tured at Fort Washington, and finally exchanged October 25, 1780. 



456 Oolond EUas Boudmot in New York C%, February^ 1778. 

Mr. Loring promises if Col. DeLancey is let out for a Lieut 
Col., he will accept of a Lieut Col. for a Col. Have de- 
sired that no Exchange may take place but according to 
order, unless special reason. Must send receipt for 18 
maimed Prisoners to get 13 of ours. Ordered soap to be 
sent to Sugar House; paid Mr. Canfield^ a little bag of 
money sent from Nash. Visited Mr. Fell at his lod^ng ; he 
is sickly k begs for his Parole being enlarged. 

Febry 6. — ^Waited on Mr. Loring & went to the Provost, 
visited the rest of the Prisoners. It is acknowledged by 
Dr. Loring that the man's leg charged to be broke by Capt. 
Flahaven with the butt of a Musket, was broke by a Ball. 
We found Capt Van Dyke confined on suspicion of aiding 
k abetting the setting fire to the Town.* It is agreed that 
he was secreted in a House & found four days before it & 
confined in the Provost, but it is asserted that sometime 
before we evacuated the Town, he said he would bum it — 
this he denies. Capt. Bissel is confined for going 2} miles 
out of his Bounds to court a woman he afterwards married.* 
Capt. Randall for not having a Commission with him & 
therefore treated as a Robber.* Capt. Smock & Whit- 

^ Thomas Canfield, a commiesioner for Belling Tory property, in Eesex 
County, New Jersey. ''His office has been mistaken. The property of 
people who had taken part against us, was in many instances left with- 
out an owner. Proper persons in every county were then authorized to 
take possession of all said property, to sell what was perishable, and 
were thereafter to be responsible for the proceeds. Mr. Canfield is 
known to Mr. Boudinot to be a simple, honest man, of good character." 
— BoudinofB ObBervaHons^ etc. 

' "Capt. Van Dyke denies having ever said anything on this head. 
That when the city was taken, his retreat was cut off; he sought refuge 
in a house, and was employed by the women of it ; and that he sent 
word to Col. Brewerton to come and take him. His confinement has 
been close and severe, and he is now entitled to his exchange according 
to the time of his capture." — Boudinofs ObservcUiona, etc. 

* ''The charge is rather hard, as it is confirmed to the contrary — ^he 
courted his wife near the bounds of his parole." — Boudinofs Observor 
tiofu, etc. 

^ Captain Nathaniel Randall, captured at Woodbridge, was not then 
in the service or on command. 



Colonel JEHas Boudinot in New York City, February, 1778. 457 

lock ^ for taking arms after the Oath of Allegiance. Capt 
Traverse of Navy for a suspicion of having wrote a letter by 
a Deserter out of the Sugar House, who charged him with it, 
but now denies it Lieut. Mercer,' not known for what; 
Lieut. Skinner for taking up Wallace k others.* Lieut 
Sitcher sent there for a night & forgot* Lieut Foster * no 
Commission. Capt Nathaniel Van Zant for stealing spoons 
— ^he says he can produce the man he bought them of. 
Capt John Chatason of a Merchant ship. Dr. Minime for 
going from his parole & speaking against the Government 
I found the Prisoners here tolerably comfortable as to pro- 
visions, but they are sickly & complain of the stench of the 
air arising from the close rooms and numbers imprisoned ; 
also that they have been formerly cruelly treated by the 
Sergeant, put into the Dungeon for the most trifling things, 
such as insisting on more water than usual in hot weather. 
That many of them have laid 10-12 & 14 weeks in the 
Dungeon without any aid or assistance, particularly Sichem 
who was wounded in the Thigh & left to cure himself in 
the Dungeon. I had the Sergeant before the Prisoners who 
accused him with the Treatment, which he acknowledged, 

^ '' Capt Smock and Whitlock acknowledge the fact, and declare faiihr 
fill adherence to their oaths as long as they were protected, but when the 
British army left the Jerseys, they took the benefit of Gen. Washington's 
proclamation." — BoudinoVs Observatians, etc. These officers belonged 
to the First New Jersey Militia, and were captured at the Light House, 
February 18, 1777. 

' Lieutenant John Mercer, of New Jersey, captured near Bound 
Brook, March 7, 1777. '' He is charged with speaking contrary to his 
parole. This is denied, but as he has suffered long, it is hardly worth 
while to examine particulars.'' — BoudinoVB ObservaUanSf etc. 

* " Lieut Skinner knows of no accusations against him, and has long 
been confined without any being suggested. ' ' — Boudinofs ObtervaHofu, etc. 

* Lieutenant William Sitcher, of Spencer's New Jersey Continental 
Line. 

^ "Lieut. Foster had no commission with him, and is charged with 
oppressing the friends of the Government. He claims that being an offi- 
cer of that rank, like charges might be brought against every lieutenant 
of Col. Spencer's regiment." — Boudinot' 8 Observations, etc. 



458 Colonel EUas Boudinot in New York Gty, Fdmwry^ 1778. 

alledging Provocation. Mr. Loring offered to have him 
tried by a Court Martial if it was thought necessary. There 
was also in the Provost a number of Inhabitants, Committee 
Men & others, all of whom suffer exceedingly k beg for 
relief or they must perish. 

Called on Gen. Lee & Col. Butler; promised Major Grif- 
fith Williams ^ to get him permission for going to Canada via 
the Lakes. Called on Mr. Sherbrook. ' Dined with Mr. 
Loring in company of Gen. Robinson, Capt Murray* & 
Major Weems * his Aids, Lord D [rummond] & Mr. Webb 
&c., treated with great civility & candor. In evening see 
Com. Hotham, Lord Rodan [liawdon] & others. 

Dr. Mallet* informs me that he has received accounts 
fi-om Albany that his Deputy there, is obliged to find every- 
thing for the Hospital or to pay the Cash for it immediately, 
which he complains of as a great hardship. 

Went to see Lady Mary Watt,* Mrs. Maturin ^ and others. 

Febry 7. — ^Waited on Gen. Robinson with Mr. Loring k 
related what we had done, expressing my satis&ction with all 
but the Provost. The General declared himself ready to do 
every reasonable thing to soften the rigors of War ; that he 
never should make Prisoners of peaceable Inhabitants k 
therefore did not understand what exchange could be ad- 

^ Major Griffith Williams, of the Royal Artillery, captured with Bur- 
goyne's army at Stillwater. 

' Miles Sherbrooke, merchant. Colonel Samuel B. Webb, of the Con- 
necticut Line, was a guest at his house during his captivity. 

* Captain Murray was the secretary of General Bobertson. He was a 
son of the Pretender's secretary in the rebellion of 1745. 

"N. YoBKaO*Fely78. 
** Capt Murray presents his Comp^ to Mr Pintard k informs him that 
every paper relative to the Prisoners should be sent to Mr Loring who will 
present it to the G^eral." MS. Boudinot Pupers^ H, S, P, 

* Miyor James Wemys, of the Fortieth Regiment of Foot 

^ Dr. Jonathan Mallet, chief surgeon and purveyor to the hos- 
pitals. 

* Wife of Robert Watts, and daughter of General Lord Stirling. 

^ Mary Livingston Maturin, a sister of Colonel Livingston, of the 
Continental army. 



Colond EUas Boudinot in New York Gty^ February ^ 1778. 459 

mitted of Citizens. I represented that many of the Pris- 
oners in the Provost were confined as they alledge on unjust 
Charges, many on Charges of facts done by order of proper 
authority & others as officers of Justice. He agreed that 
I should reduce the matter to writing k give it to him this 
evening.^ I mentioned the propriety of my formal appli- 
cation to Gen. Clinton for Gen. Lee's Parole. He alledged 
no necessity, for the answer I would receive would be, that 
he had not received any Instructions on this head fi-om Q^n. 
Howe. Consented to Mr. Webb's sending out a private 
asked by Mr. Loring, for one he takes out. I asked of Gen. 
Robinson, Mr. Fell being admitted to the Liberty of the 
Town, he agreed, on the Doctor's certificate of the neces- 
sity. Promised Dr. Mallet to let Dr. Minime have what he 
wants on his Acct. Dined with Gen. Lee & then waited on 
Gen. Bobinson. I found him alone & had a long chat on 
American subjects. He alledges that no sensible man in 
England thinks it right to tax us ; all wish reconciliation, k 
that a man would make his Country happy to bring it about 
&c. Mr. Loring k Lord Drummond came in k supped with 
us. Gen. Robinson proposed the subject of Prisoners; 
thinks 1700 ought to be sent in, being admitted to their 
Paroles, at the request of our officers, and therefore at our 
risque. He thinks it right if we find all our k their Pris- 
oners with Provisions, they should find us with Clothing ; 

' Agreeably to the suggestion of General Robertson, Colonel Boudinot 
prepared a report of his inyestigations at the Provost, the rough draft of 
which is among the Boudinot Papers of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. The preamble of the report reads: ''Mr. Boudinot having 
visited the Provost in the city of New York by permission of Gen. Rob- 
inson k finding the following American Prisoners confined there (some 
of them many months) on the several charges under-motioned as they 
alledge, begs leave to suggest a few Ob^ervatiom on each of them in 
hopes that some general line of conduct may be humanely agreed upon 
mutually to soften the unnecessary severities of captivity.'' Then fi>l- 
low the names of the officers, with observations on the charges against 
them, much of which has been used in annotating the text of the 
journal. 



460 Colonel Elias JBoudinot in New York Gh/y February^ 1778. 

consents to pay all arrears of their officers, provided we paid 
the whole Board on Long Island. I gave him my Obser- 
vations on the Prisoners in the Provost — ^he promises to 
remedy every thing he conveniently can. 

Febry 8. — ^Went with Mr. Loring to Long Island & visited 
our Prisoners. They received me with great Joy. Found 
them very comfortably situated. Col. Atlee ^ & Magaw in- 
formed me of their request to Gen. Howe for the release of 
the sick Prisoners, but that it was first asked by Mr. Loring, 
but that they thought it the best thing that could possibly 
be done, and now wish that some generous compensation 
could be given to settle the matter. They complain heavily 
of partial Exchanges. Col. Ely was sent for last night after 
dark, unknown to Mr. Loring or myself Promised Col. 
Antile [Antill] to forward his Chest See Mr. D[avid] 
Clarkson, must remember [torn]. Was sorry to find many 
of the officers had been very extravagant in their Clothes, 
getting Laces &c., by which their Accounts are raised and 
I much perplexed. 

Febry 9th. — ^Waited on Mr. Loring & with him on Commo- 
dore Hotham, to whom I represented the state of Sea Pris- 
oners, & that Mr. Pintard was refused permission to clothe or 
send them additional Provisions. He informed me that all the 
Prisoners were kept on board Prison Ships ; that they received 
the King's allowance §d rations; that he could not know 
Mr. Pintard or any other person not of his appointment. 
That if anything was sent firom us to his Commissary, they 
should be distributed, but not by Mr. Pintard. But that he 
could not admit of the distribution of clothes purchased 
here, without Gen. Howe's orders. I proposed the case of 
Capt Flynn,' & offered him in Exchange for Capt. Traverse. 
He said he being only Captain of a Paquet, Lord Howe 
would not exchange him for more than a Merchantman, 

^ Colonel Samuel J. Atlee, of the Pennsylvania Musketry Battalion, 
captured at the battle of Long Island, and exchanged August 6, 1778. 

• Captain Flynn was British **Superintendant of Crafts &c" for the 
city of New York. 



Colonel EUas Boiidi/iot in New York Gty^ Februxxnfy 1778. 461 

and that as Capt Judd was going home with him as a Paa- 
senger for his Health, he could not be considered as a Mili- 
tary man. I then applied to him for the enlargement of 
Capt Traverse & others in the Provost He insisted that 
no Sea Officers could be admitted to their Parole, as they 
had no place to keep them but on board of Vessels. At 
last in Consideration of Capt Traverse k the others being 
confined so long on Land, he consented to their Parole on 
Long Island. He also consented to Mr. Pintard sending 
some Beef on board. 

Entered into several Exchanges with Mr. Loring, as per 
list Gtet liberty from Mr. Loring for Capt Boyle's going 
home with me, and Capt Bissel k Lieut Sitcher to go on 
Parole on Long Island. I visited Mr. Fell k got a Certifi- 
cate of his want of health from which it became necessary 
to have the liberty of the City. 

Visited Chief Justice Smith, who expressed his pleasure 
at hearing that my conduct since I had been in Town, had 
been greatly approved. Gen. Lee came in the evening. 
Mr. Loring proposes to be charged with French officers k 
to write to Canada for their rank. 

Febry 10th. — Spent the morning with Gen. Bobinson on 
the subject of my Observations and on the whole he sub- 
mitted to my reasoning, except the case of Capt Van Dyke, 
who he said could not be liberated without Gen. Howe, there 
being full evidence of his being concerned in burning the 
Town. Ethan Allen who having once behaved unworthy 
of his character could not again be trusted, and the People 
were violent ; as to the rest, he believed might be enlarged, 
unless N. Van Zant who is accused of stealing. See Lord 
Drummond k conversed on subject of Gen. Washington. 

Febry 11th. — ^Waited on Mr. Loring and exchanged sev- 
eral Prisoners. Went to Gen Robinson, who gave me an- 
swers to my Observations as per list Obtained the discharge 
of Major Payne, Capt Flahaven, Capt Bissel k many others 
from the Provost; obtained John Fell enlargement &c. 
Promised to send to Boston for mate k midshipmen of Capt 



462 Oohnd Elias Boudinoi in New York GYy, February y 1778. 

[torn]. The Officers admitted to Parole are Migor B. 
Payne, Capt Flahaven, Capt Biasel (exchg'd), Capt N. Pitz 
Bimdolph/ Lieut Mercer, Lieut Sitcher, Foster, A. Q. M., N. 
Kelly,' Ensign John Okely, Surgeon Van Zant, a volunteer 
(exchg'd), Mr Kennedy, a volunteer [no charge]. The 
answer to Col. Ethan Allen was, that having broke his 
Parole he was not entitled to, the General could not think 
of letting out a man so disagreeable to the People, without 
Gen. Howe's orders. To Capt Van Dyke, that being fiilly 
convinced that he had planned and encouraged the burning 
of the Town, altho' he was taken up previously to it, yet 
being found secreted in a house for that purpose, he could 
not admit of his enlargement, lest the remainder of the 
Town should be endangered. To Capt Van Zant, the Gen- 
eral will enquire into the charge. To Capt Smock & Whit- 
lock, that having broke their faith three times, not to be 
trusted. To Lieut Skinner, that the people look upon him 
so bad a man, that he is not to be trusted, the Towns people 
would murder him. Canfield and other Committeemen, 
cannot discharge them without Gen. Howe.* 

Made application for Lieut Skinner & Br Minime, Smock 

^ Captain N. Fitz Randolph, confined for want of a oommiBsion. ** At 
the time of Capt Randolph's capture commissions were not granted 
to militia officers, but only certificates of their election. He has always 
been acknowledged of that rank since his captivity." — BoudinaPa Ob- 
iervatiorUf etc, 

' Assistant Quartermaster Kelly had no commission with him. 

* With regard to "Committee men," Colonel Boudinot winds up his 
report to General Robertson as follows : ** These are obnoxious from 
their offices. It is rather hard that a man duly appointed to a Civil 
office should be punished so severely, for the proper excuse of it is that 
every man must support some €k)vemment. A Committee man is dif- 
ferent from what it formerly was, it being now in the nature of an over- 
seer. If public officers in the Civil department, on both sides of the 
question, are all to be made close prisoners, without redemption, it will 
rather anihilate all Government whatever, and the jails everywhere 
must be filled with unhappy men. I cannot understand why a Civil 
officer should be more obnoxious than a military officer, if both keep 
within the line of their duty." 



>f^ ''""*"" **'——^——^—— iM^——^^^^^—^^—— ■^^—^i^IMM 



Goland Mias Baudinot in New York CSiy^ February^ 1778. 468 

and Whitlock. G^n. Bobinson objects to Skinner, that he 
has tried to get out and bribe the sentinel. That Dr. Minime 
has broke his Parole by coming to New York and rebelling 
to make an Insurrection — ^Minime denies it all. Gen Lee 
mentions the [torn] mode of shoemaking. 

Febry 19th. — ^Bad weather. 

Febry ISth. — ^Went again about Skinner &c. Gen Bobin- 
son still objects and cannot consent to their enlargement, on 
which I left him know that Van Boskirk and others were in 
the like situation, which he said he could not help. I imme- 
diately went to Mr. Loring and objected to the exchange 
of Van Boskirk, which had been proposed by Sir H. Clinton. 

Took Parole of officers from Boston on new agreement 

Febry l^th. — ^Breakfasted with Mr. Loring, and he in- 
formed me of letters being received from Gen. Howe. 
Took Hugh Campbell's Parole and discharged him from one 
given to Council. Exchanged two officers. Went to Gten. 
Bobinson who informed me of letters from G^n. Howe, 
show them and objected to impropriety of preventing their 
purchasing provisions. I stated the question and he assented 
to propriety of a mutual Barter, but said those things should 
be settled by the two Generals. He was afraid matters 
would be perplexed at one place while we settied them at 
another. I promised him that all would be well if a mutual 
interchange of these civilities were admitted. He alledged 
the rectitude of supplying our Prisoners with bare neces- 
saries to make them comfortable, but not to fit them for a 
campaign. I again pressed him on the subject of the Pris- 
oners in the Provost, but he did not think it right in him 
to agree to their discharge— assured me that at any time he 
would do every civil thing to oblige me and offered me any 
asedstance to forward me home. He mentioned the Board 
of the Officers agree and I assured him of my paying it 
with the deduction of our charge with their officers. 

Went again to Mr. Loring and settled Exchange again 
and received copy. Left with him a copy of officers appear- 
ing to be due on my Books and desired him to furnish 



464 (Mmd EUas Bovdinot m New York Gtyj Febrvmy^ 1778. 

the Canada prisoners out of them. Promised to send his 
Brother in as soon as possible. He waited with me on the 
Commissary of Sea Prisoners, Mr. [Titus] Levy, who con- 
sented to let Provisions go aboard, but informed me that 
the Commodore would not consent to an exchange of Capt. 
Manley for Capt. Furnum or Capt. Traverse for Capt 
Plynn. The Commodore agreed to the enlargement of 
Capt. Traverse, Capt. Chetham, Lieut Kempt, and Master 
Baret Gen. Robinson also agreed to it. The Commissary 
of Sea Prisoners promises to send me return of them, and 
also to exchange merchant captains and sailors as fast as 
we can send them in. I offered Capt Zoodnet for Capt 
Traverse, but was refiised. 

Gten. Robinson informed me that Gen. Howe had sent 
orders to send Gen. Lee by first man of war to Philadel- 
phia, that he might take his Parole. I objected to this 
Sea passage, but he alledged the General's order — proposed 
writing to Gen. Howe by me. 

See Gen. Lee, Lord Drummond and others. Promised 
Lord D. to pay bill. In the evening sent to Mr. Loring for 
Capt Traverse's discharge ; received answer some difficulties 
prevented and believed it would not be done. Mr. French 
and Mr. Miller called. 

This morning met Mr. Troup at Gen. Robinson before 
Mr. Loring who acknowledged what I had said, but ascer- 
tained his narrative did not amount to what I supposed — of 
dead in one Hospital 120 from November 2d. 

Febry 15th, — ^Waited on Mr. Loring and got returns. He 
promises officers names by first opportunity. Got Rev. Mr. 
[Robert ?] Keith on parole. Went to Gen. Robinson, who 
informed me he was writing to Gen. Clinton his opinion on 
G^n. Howe's letters. He was convinced Gen. Howe was 
wrong in his supposition of Gen. Washington's order extend- 
ing East of Pennsylvania. He wrote his letter to Gen. Clin- 
ton while I was by and read each sentence as it was wrote. He 
supposes the whole a mistake and that matters may be easily 
settled if rightly understood. Thinks if necessary clothing 



Colonel JEUas Boudinot in New York CWy, February ^ 1778. 465 

only 18 only purchased by us, it is but reasonable Barter 
especially if the Blankets are not taken away but left with 
American agent. He supposes it possible Gen. Howe may 
permit the scheme, but thinks it highly improbable if rightly 
understood. He proposed a matter relative to the Board, 
and I repeated what I had often mentioned before, that all 
the Board since they left the Prison Ships, I looked upon 
myself bound to pay, but before that time, it must be set- 
tled mutually. After the General had finished his letter, I 
proposed stating the facts in my own way, that no mistake 
might be occasioned and that Gen. Washington might have 
a copy to know what I have done. I immediately went 
home and when finished sent it to the General. Waited on 
the Commodore and again solicited the enlargement of Capt 
Traverse and several other Sea Officers from the Provost, 
which I at last accomplished and agreed to the exchange 
of a midshipman and 9 seamen from Monmouth, belonging 
to the Mermaid. Obtained permission to see Capt. Manley on 
board the Preston, man of war. Went on board & see him. 
He appears dejected and longs for an Exchange. He is kept 
close, except walking the Quarter Deck at times. See Gen. 
Lee who proposes writing to Gen. Howe and Washington. 

Promised Mr. Loring to send evideiwe of the mem, who tdtled 
J. BichardSy being a soldier and on duty. J. Troup to be 
charged. See Lord Drummond who gave me state of hcts 
which I am to copy. 

Febry 16th. — ^Waited again on Q^n. Robinson who called 
me into his chamber and informed me that he had some 
business of importance with me. That Mr. Wallace and 
others had been to Sir H. Clinton, and objected to Mr. Van 
Zant's exchange, he having been guilty of stealing Mr. Wal- 
lace's plate, and that he had no other security for it, than 
keeping him a Prisoner. He said he could wish to have 
this matter settled, if I would send in the Plate, then he 
could be sent out, and in the mean time he should be on 
parole. Li answer I informed him, that Mr. Wallace had 
been a prisoner, was admitted to his Parole in a generous 
VOL. xxrv.— 30 



466 Oolond EUas Boudmot in New York Gty, February ^ 1778. 

manner, and had refused to keep it or being summoned. 
That previous to this an order was given to send the Plate, 
but on the breach of his Parole, it was countermanded. 
That what Mr. Van Zant did was by orders from his com- 
manding officer, he being a volunteer. That I considered 
him aa regularly exchanged by a proper officer, and if private 
people were allowed to intervene or their clamours attended 
to, we would do the same, and then there would be no end 
to it That I could not undertake that the Plate would be 
returned unless Mr. Wallace returned to his Parole. That 
I know no crime in taking goods according to orders, and 
that I did not desire Mr. Van Zant should be admitted to 
his Parole, as I knew he would be immediately locked up 
again, aa he would speak his mind to any man living. That 
I insisted on his exchange. Gen. Robinson told me that 
he thought the taking of the King's goods a much higher 
crime (if any) than taking Mr. Wallace's. He told me he 
would send for Mr. Wallace. 

I again called on him, when he gave up the point, but 
told me aa a friend he would beg the fevour of returning 
the Plate and absolving Mr. Wallace from his Parole, he 
would in some way or other discharge Mr. Fell. I answered 
that I could only represent the matter and let him know the 
issue. He politely offered me Sea stores and gave me a 
special Passport at my desire. 

I waited on the Commodore and exchanged Capt Tra- 
verse, two Prize Masters and 9 seamen for 2 midshipmen 
and 9 sailors of the Mermaid, to be sent in, and a promise 
in writing to send in Capt. Goodrich to Philadelphia. See 
Gen. Lee who presses an answer from Gen. Washington and 
Gen. Howe. Set off for home in company with the officers 
and privates exchanged and on Parole. By means of the 
ice, obliged to remain at Boskirk's Point all night 

Fehry 17ih. — Set off up the Ellis, and after beating some 
time, with the wind boisterous and ahead, and aft;er loosing 
an anchor and cable with the ice, returned back to our laat 
lodging. G^n. Campbell sent us a Passport to go on. 



Letters of JRev. Richard Locke and Rev. George Oraig. 467 



LETTEES OF REV. RICHARD LOCKE AND REV. 
GEORGE CRAIG, MISSIONARIES IN PENNSYLVANIA 
OF THE "SOCIETY FOR PROPAGATING THE GOSPEL 
IN FOREIGN PARTS," LONDON, 1746-1762. 

BY BENJAMIN F. OWEN. 

[The Rev. Richard Locke, who succeeded the Rev. William Lindsay 
as missionary of the '' S. P. G." in Pennsylvania, resided most of the time 
at Lancaster. In a letter to the secretary of the society he describes 
some of his experiences prior to and after his arrival in the province. 
" I was sent," he writes, "by my L' B^ of London to Barmudas under a 
notion of £100. a year — ^when I came there it was but £60. A perquisites ft 
all about £60. their currency w^ is about £40 stg. — ^they have neither 
Bread nor Water only Bain Water ft we gave 5d p' p' for coarse Sea 
bisquits ft every other thing in Proportion. I staid there 8 months and 
scarce got enough to pay my Passage. By advice of y* Gk>vernor, I took 
my passage to Charle's Town in South Carolina — ^have a Letter of En- 
couragement from the Secretary there, a former acquaintance, with a Letter 
of Recommendation from y* Governor to the Governor of that Province, 
but the Captain a villain carryed me to Philadelphia — ^the French Wars 
breaking out, and my wife being a weak woman, would not be pursuaded 
to go home— she was bom in London, her mother was a Clavering, first 
cousin to Robert L' B^ of Peterburough, and had it not been for this 
most charitable assistance of the Society, we must have been expoe'd to 
great Difficulties, the Jesuits, New Lights, Quakers, Moravians, Cove- 
nanters, Dutch and Irish prevail for much here, that an English Clergy- 
man meets with very little Protection ft much less Charity. I preached 
in the Court House in Lancaster every other Sunday for 8 years ft have 
not received £20. ft have had neither surplis or Common Prayer Book, 
but what I carry in my pocket" 

In a postscript he states, "I hope it will not be an unacceptable curi- 
osity to you to have an account of the Eclipse of the Moon, that was 
here the 18th day of February last. I was very exact in the Observa- 
tion ; it began just in the same manner at 10 h. p.m. as it ended at S 
the next morning, that as near as was possible for Observation to be 
made ; the Opposition or ftill moon was within a minute of 12 a clock, 
and by the Tables made for y* meridian of London, I find the Opposition 
or full moon was Feb 14, 26* a ... 4 by 84* in Time sss 8^ 80*" for 
that reckoning is 6 hours = 75' that in a strait line Lancaster from 
London by this eclipse is 2552 miles distant" 



468 Letters of Bev. Bichard Locke and Bev. Qtorge Craig. 

The Rev. George Craig, the successor of Mr. Locke, arrived at Phila- 
delphia May 17, 1751, and before taking up his residence at Lancaster, 
visited the congregation at Trenton, New Jersey, which he found in 
charge of a " Frenchman from Canada, '^ and preached there June 2d.] 

May it please the Society : 

I return my humble thanks for the favour you have done 
me in appointing me one of your Missionary's, whose Letters 
I received the 21 of July 1746, and as you have been pleased 
to appoint me Itinerary Missionary of Pensilvania and ye 
Jerseys I obey the Order of the Society in reading ye Letter, 
that waa sent to me at Trent Town, tho it was 100 miles 
distant jBrom the place where I lived. I read the Service of 
the Church of England and preached there the 23 of July, 
where there had been no Service for 2 years before, nor any 
Church Wardens, for they have no Church there, in any 
part of that Mission, since Bristol is taken away, I was in- 
formed that a thirds of that Town were Dissenters, they 
have a Presbyterian Teacher bred in New England, as well 
aa Teachers of all other Dissenters, who have all the Same 
Power to Marry by ye Governor's License that any regular 
Clergyman hath for they are directed in General to any 
Protestant Teacher, tho they have opportunitys of Assist- 
ance aa they have Clergy very near them ; the expenses are 
so extravagant to a stranger and no offer of assistance, that 
I am not able at present to settle there, but as the Mission 
is in general for Pensilvania and the Jerseys, I hope I shall 
not be thought to disobey y* Order of the Society, by re- 
siding for some time at Lancaster who have not a Clergy- 
man within 60 or 70 miles of them, before I hear the further 
pleasure of the Society. 

As for the Notitia Parochialis, I shall give the best 
account I can of the Place where I have resided, for more 
than two yeai*s, it was a new County in Pensilvania called 
Lancaster, the County Town goes by the same name, of 
about 15 years standing & 65 miles to y* West from Phila- 
delphia; the Lihabitants are mostly Dutch, reckoned about 
a thirds, k about 300 houses, which increase to near 20 



Letters of Rev. Richard Locke and Rev. George Oraig. 469 

every year, here are about 30 familys English & L-ish, moBtly 
poor, their Subscriptions will amount to £5. a year they 
have no Church here of any Denomination. I have con- 
stantly read Prayers and preached once a fortnight in the 
Court house they have begun a Church, but by mismanage- 
ment y* leading men being too much inclined to the new 
Lights, that they have run the Parish in Debt, for we have 
21 Justices in this Country who are either Presbyterians, 
New Lights or Moravians & but 2 or 8 who profess the Re- 
ligion of the Church of England the Dutch have two 
Churches here, a Lutheran and Calvinist besides private 
Conventicles of Menists and Moravians; here is a Popish 
Chappel commonly supplyed once a month by a Jesuite, k 
a great many Papists about the country. I have had nine 
Communicants at one time, and have baptised abundance 
brought from y* Country, several whole Families, 8 negros 
in one Family ; but we have no Re^ster. From the Oppo- 
sition, about 20 miles to the N. E. of this Town I have sup- 
plyed once a fortnight, a Congregation of mostly Welsh 
very regular, & I believe near 100, I have commonly 20 
Communicants 3 times a year, but we have neither Church 
Bible nor Common Prayer Book, and for the number of 
baptized we have no Register tho I have several times 
mentioned it, but I believe near 100, there are 50 Acres of 
Land purchased for the repairing of y* Church w** is built 
of square Logs, and I am informed 100 more hath been left 
for a Clergyman, their Subscriptions will amount to between 
£20. & 15. a year, there is another larger Congregation 
mostly of Lish about 8 miles to the South of the Welsh 
church or Bangor, k about 20 miles E from Lancaster 
called Pickquay k I am told by some of y* heads of the 
Parish that there Subscriptions might arise to about £20 a 
year, this place may very well be supplyed by the Parson 
who supply s the Welsh ; but Mr. Backhouse supplys it at 
present tho forty miles distant from them, some times on 
Week Days. 

I had not been long in Lancaster, before there came a 



470 Letters of Rev. Bichard Locke and Bev. Greorge Oraig. 

Person from Contwager, about 50 miles to the westward 
from Lancaster telling me how much they stood in want of 
a Clergyman, and that they were about 100 miles distant 
from any, they had made a purchase of 180 Acres of Land 
for the maintainance of a Clergyman, after some time I con- 
sented to go with him, and at the first Sermon, they 
reckoned about 150, but there were general Dissenters, 
they count about 100 for some miles round that belong to 
the Church of England, we choose Church Wardens k 
settled a vestry, they immediately fell to work to raise a 
Log house Church k the third time, I administered the 
Sacrament to 13, having baptized 3 Lifants k Adults the 
first time and several since, they have neither Church Bible 
or Common Prayer Book & I believe very poor, for they 
could not raise 208 to bear my expenses for mony is very 
scarce in those Parts, 10 years ago there was not a white- 
man in all those parts, but all Indians, w^ are all gone back, 
& tis surprizing to them how the white People have since 
increased, that there is little or no Land now to be taken 
up at the first Purchase, there is a publick Popish Chappel 
supplied by the same Jesuite as supplys Lancaster with 
abundance of Papists, but as the whole Country is one con- 
tinued wood, tis impossible to find out the numbers of y". 
I went to a place from thence about 25 or 30 miles to the 
N.E. where are several Church of England People, but 
the Country is so overrun with Presbyterians, New Lights 
and Covenanters, that they are very much fallen off 
from their Principles. I have preached twice there to 
about 30 or 40 People, and baptized a father and six chil- 
dren besides several others, from thence I went to a place 
called Paxton about 9 miles further to the E. upon the 
River Susquehana, where I preached to about 40, but I was 
told there were about 30 familys of y* Church of England, 
but for want of proper assistance they were much fallen 
away. I have been at two places besides just over y* great 
River Susquihana about 14 miles from Lancaster, where we 
had about 70 or 80 in each place k I baptized 14 in one 



Letters of Rev. Rkkard Locke and Rev. Qtorge Crcdg. 471 

place, and 11 in the other, & they are talking of building a 
Church but they have neither a Church Bible or Common 
Prayer Book k but young beginners, consequently very 
poor, here are several places besides where I have been in- 
vited to, about 20 or 30 miles distant to y* northward and 
some 100 miles for tis a very large Country k not a Clergy- 
man within 50 miles of the nearest part k some 150 miles 
distant, tis a great Pity but that there was an order made to 
provide for a Clergyman in every County, as it is in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, the Country is sufficiently able to bear 
it, but the Clergy of the Church of England seem to be the 
only People persecuted here, unless' it be those who are 
supported by the Society, for the first settlers here were 
those who opposed paying of Tithes k the new comers now 
are mostly Dutch, Irish Papists or Presbyterians, that a 
Clergyman hath but a poor chance amongst them. 

I shall endeavour to get down the Notitis Parochialis as 
near as I can, for so large a compass k for the time that I 
have been here, for the future I shall endeavour to ^ve the 
account according to the directions of the Society. 

N® of Inh", tis impossible to guess for so large a Compass. 

N* of Baptized, upwards of 800 in two years time, this 
half year 20. 

N® of Adults, upwards of 20 this half year 6. 

N^ of Com", in the several places between 40 k 50. 

N"* of Pros"* between 4 k 500 in the several places. 

N* of Dis" Innumerable of all sorts k abundance of 
Papists. 

N"" of Heathens k Infidels, but few, but I am afiraid too 
many Free thinkers. 

N** of Con" I believe about 20 that seem to be better 
settled in the Principles of Religion. 

I am, may it please the Society, your most humble most 
obedient k Dutifull 

Servant 

RlCH'^ LOOKB. 

Lancaster in Pcnsilvania 
Oct. 16, 1746. 



472 Letters of Ra\ Bichard Locke and Rev. George Oraig. 

Lancaster April 11, 1747. 
May it please the Society 

I sent the last October a large account of my proceedings 
and where I was and am still resident. As the Mission is 
for Pensilvania and the Jerseys, and have received no Order 
to the contrary, and as I mentioned than here is the greatest 
want of a Clergyman of any in the whole Province ; it is a 
very large County tho vcfry poor at present, and I must 
own I have met w*** very severe and hard usage ; I hope I 
shall not give offense by representing the true state of the 
Mission, as I found it here, since I have not the least design 
to reflect upon any one, but only to mention the matters of 
fact, the chief tho the poor support that I have had here 
waa by marriages ; I have had a great many Christnings, 
but I never took any thing for them, because I would en- 
courage that Sacrament as much as possible ; and yet not- 
withstanding here is but little, they have endeavoured to cut 
me off from that Benefit; for after I had been arrested in 
a fiilse action by the Governor's Clerk, I had a very threat- 
ning Letter sent me by the Commissary Mr. Jenny, who is 
an Irishman, and hath a very mean opinion of the Eng- 
lish Clergy: that the Governor would persecute me for 
marrying without his License ; w*** was a false accusation ; 
there is a small perquisite that belongs to those, who fill up 
the licenses; I desired the Governor that he would be 
pleased to grant me the favour of doing it; he told me that 
he would trust no Clergyman, where he had a Clerk, for he 
had found them all deceitfull, his Clerk here hath above 
£600 a year coming in, and had the Probate of Wills worth 
about £60 or 70 a year conferred on him the other day ; w^ 
in all Christian Countrys was ever a perquisite of the 
Church ; and as he hath the sole disposal of Licenses, I can 
scarce get one in ten of some few who will only be marryed 
by a Clergyman of the Church of England, for he gives to 
Jesuites, Moravians, New Lights etc. & especially Dutch 
Calvinists not naturalliz'd and can scarce speak English who 
marry abundance of Lnsh New Lights, & here are 21 Jus- 



Letters of Rev. Eichard Locke and Rev. Greorge Craig. 478 

tices in this County, that marry more than any. I doe not 
writ this aa a private Complaint, for blessed be Gk>d, by the 
gratious fevour of y* Society I have a good support, k am 
not compeird to remain in this Place, but as it is a great 
hinderance to the Propagation of the Religion of y* Church 
of England k for any Clergyman that may come after me ; 
they have no regard to the Charter of King Charles 2* 
where it is provided that a Clergyman Licenced by the W of 
London k 20 Subscribers shall enjoy the Priviledge of a 
Clergyman, they say tliat all Religions are free in this Prov- 
ince & by Pen's Charter the B^ of London hath no Power 
here ; and hinders the most Christian k Charitable Design 
of the Society to keep up Decency k Order in the true Wor- 
ship of God here is a large Field and a great deal of good 
may be done by a Sober prudent Clergyman, here was a 
Church begun above 2 years agoe, but the Clerk would not 
suffer any Clergyman to be present at the laying the Foun- 
dation and is still unfinished, it is about half an Acre of 
Ground given for that use ; here was near £100 subscribed 
k large Collections made since but no one knows what is 
become of the money. We cannot right ourselves, for we 
have not the least Protection of Law to favour us. There 
is not one act made by the Assembly to favour the support 
or Propogation of the Christian Religion by much the greater 
part of y* Assembly men being Quakers. Their Speaker k 
Supreme Judge of y* Province is an House Carpenter .& 
Quaker. 

If I have done amiss by representing these things in y* 
true light, I hope I shall be pardoned, for I think it my duty 
to endeavour as much as possible the Propogation of the 
Religion of the Church of England, w'** I think the most 
perfect Religion upon Earth ; or if I am any way irregular 
in residing still in Lancaster the Center of a large Mission, 
I hope I shall have notice of it and I shall readily obey 
Orders. 

According to the Order of the Society, I shall endeavour 
to ^ve y* best account of the Mission that I can, for this 



474 Letters of Rev. Rkhard Locke and Rev. Oeiorge Orcdg. 



half year, it hath been the most severe winter for cold that 
was known in this Province ; that there hath been very little 
or no travelling, tho I went one round in the fall of 180 
miles and gave the Sacrament to 12 People k baptized several 
a commonly once a fortnight to the Welsh Church 80 miles 
from Lancaster. 

Notitis Parochialis. 



Number of Inhabi- 
tants 

N» of y^ Baptized 
N* of Adult persons 
baptz'd ye half year 
N* of actual Com- 
municants 

N** of those who pro- 
fess y"*selves of y* 
CofE. 

N® of Dissenters of 
all sorts parts; Pa- 
pists 



tis impossible to guess here are 
many thousands in this Country 
but they are mostly Dutch 
59 

6 & 1 negro 

33 

about 300 y^ I attend as often as I 
can & some hundreds scattered 
about the Country. 
A great many Papists, but the 
Country is so much covered with 
woods, & some hundred miles round 
y* tis impossible to know, but it is 
very much over spread with New 
Lights Whitefield'sPoUowers; Cove- 
nanters who receive their Sacra- 
ment with a gun charg'd and drawn 
sword; & profess they'l fight for 
Christ against civil Magistrates — 
the Moravians seem to live in com- 
mon & hold a very odd notion of 
election that those are only sav'd 
who have a drop of Christ's blood 
drop'd into their hearts; they in- 
crease very much for want of proper 
assistance from regular Clergymen 
& some encouragement for their 



Letters of Sev. Bichard Locke and Bev. Charge Oraig. 475 



N' of Heathen & In- 
fidels 



N** of converts from 
prophane disorderly 
k unchristian course 
of life to a life of 
purity meekness & 
charity 



Support as it is in Mary Land k 
Virginia; Mr. Whitefield hast been 
here twice, invited by the Morar 
vians, but he did not seem to an- 
swer their expectations. The Dutch 
have several odd sects of Religion, 
the MenistB that are something re- 
formed from Jn* of Leyden they 
somewhat resemble y* Quakers for 
they'l bear no arms & have a sort 
of Community. The Dumsslers 
w'** seem in their way of living to 
be much like ye antient Essenes 
amongst y* Jews — ^they observe y* 
Saturday k have all things in Com- 
mon — ^there is another sort amongst 
them who have only their Assem- 
blys every full moon. 
Here are less Quakers than in many 
other Countys and but very few 
Indians appear — ^here are ten 
families of Jews. 

Gk>d only knows the heart; but 
here are a great many new ones 
y^ frequent our Services and some 
Communicants. 



I am may it please the Society your most obedient Dutiful 
k humble 

Servant, 

RiCHAKD LOCKB. 



476 Letters of Rev. Rkhard Locke and Rev. George Orcdg. 

Lancaster for ye Province 
OF Pensylvania June 16"» 1762 
Rev» Sir. 

I could not send a Notitia Parochialis till after Whitsun- 
day tor Reasons wrote you y* eight of November last, 
for aa I am an itinerant & thereby have several Congregar 
lions to attend, I cannot as regularly observe y* Society's 
Instructions as One who has a settled Mission; yet shall 
always endeavour to do my best whilst I have y* Honour to 
be employed in their services. 

I acquainted you aft«r my Arrival at Philadelphia that 
the Members of our Church in y* Borough of Lancaster 
sent an Invitation requesting me to make their Town y* 
Chief place of my Residence, which I have hitherto com- 
plied with finding it most Centrical to several vacant Con- 
gregations ; it is where my Predecessor Mr. Locke resided. 
There is a very good Stone Church which will be com- 
pleately finished this Summer, I hope. It would have been 
so before now, but y* want of a Minister discouraged y* 
people, which is a common Case in this province, and I am 
very sorry y* Society's Income cannot remedy y* Evil. 
There being but one way left of removing (to use y* com- 
mon expression of y* people), such a Famine of y* Word, 
and y* is by sending a Bishop to America. For y* Expence 
of going to England from hence, and which is worse, the 
repeated Intimations of y* Society 's low Circumstances deter 
many young men fi'om y* attempt & determine them another 
way tho' well disposed towards us. Who I'm persuaded 
would be satisfied with such encouragement as some Con- 
gregations could give y" by voluntary Subscription, aa there 
is no legal provision in this province for any I hope y* Hon- 
ourable y* Society well excuse this Digression as it proceeds 
from a zeal for y* Cause in which I am engaged. 

I now acquaint y* Society that I administered y* Sacra- 
ment in this Town on Christmas Day, where were Twenty 
four Commun**. In S* John's Ch. Pequay on Easter Sun- 
day, where were Twenty six Comm**. In Bangor Ch. Car- 



Letters of Rev. Richard Locke and Rev. Gkorge Orcdg. 477 

narvon y* 19"* of April where were Twenty seven Comm*. 
In Christ's Ch. Huntingdon on Whitsunday, where were 
Twenty two Comm" and in Carlisle ye 24"* May, where were 
Eighteen Communicants. This last is a place where they 
have no Church & no Missionary ever was before, so y* I 
was suprised to find so many disposed to our Chh. in a place 
where there never had been any but Dissenting Teachers. 
It stands in y* Western County of ye Province called Cum- 
berland. It is about 50 miles from ye Town of Lancaster, 
having several Rivers to cross, so y* I cannot propose visiting 
them above twice a year, Spring & Fall. In my way to 
Huntingdon I have preached twice in y* County town of 
York called York Town. There are but a few English 
Families in y* Town, its chief Inhabitants being Ger- 
mans. 

I have catechized y* Children in y* different Churches 
I have attended to, & to do them Justice they answered be- 
yond Expectation. And in this Town, in Advent I lectured 
on Sunday afternoons from our Catechism, after examining 
y* Children, and shall continue so to do until I go through 
y* whole. I cannot help observing, there are at present five 
large Counties in different parts of this province in which 
there are not one Chh. Clergyman, & how many more there 
will be in time I cannot determine. It being a province 
daily increasing its Number from different parts of y* World. 
I have found no Maletreatment from any Denomination 
hitherto, nothing but civility as &,r as I have been conser- 
vant with any of y". 

I wrote in my last for some Church Bibles k Prayer 
Books, at least three of each, for y* Churches of Lancaster, 
Carnarvon, & Huntingdon k for some Catechisms to dis- 
tribute among Children. I have received some of y* 
Itinerants' Library from Mr. Lindsay, after a great deal of 
Trouble and Threatening, perhaps an order from you may 
make him produce what is wanting. 

I have now drawn on y* Honb* y* Society for \ year 
Salary due last X^mas. 



478 Letters of Sev. Bichard Locke and Rev. Grtorge Craig. 

These with my hearty prayers for y* wel&re of every 
Member of your venerable Body come from 
Rev* Sir 

The Societys & 

your most obliged 
Humble Serv* 

Gbo. Craio. 
Attached to this letter is the << Notitia Parochialis from 
June y^ 16 1751 to June y^ 16, 1752," with the « Explanar 
tion" thereto. 



BaptittM, 



OommunioimUt 



Lancaster, 


67. 


Lancaster, 


24. 


Pequay, 


22. 


Pequay, 


26. 


Camaryon, 


16. 


Carnarvon, 


27. 


Huntingdon, 


66. 


Huntingdon, 


22. 


Carliale, 


21. 


Carlisle, 


18. 




170. 




117. 




Number 


of SouU. 






Lancaster, 


116. 






Pequay, 


201. 






Carnarvon, 


240. 






Huntingdon, 


869. 






Carlisle, . . 







916. 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 479 



THE PBNNS AND THE TAXATION OF THEIE ESTATES 
BY THE PKOVINCIAL ASSEMBLY. 

(Oontmued from page 824.) 

These proprietary instructions are either of a 
private nature concerning the private property 
of the proprietaries or they are of a public one. 

The powers granted to the proprietaries by 
the Royal charter are of a high and extraordi- 
nary nature. They are derived from the Crown 
and the proprietaries conceive themselves answer- 
able to the Crown for the due and lawful use of 
them. They are indeed the rights and powers 
of the Crown itself only delegated to and in- 
trusted into the hands of the proprietaries who 
are resolved to support them as the rights of the 
Crown; many of the points now in difference 
have been heretofore claimed by other Assem- 
blies in America against the Crown, but ineffect- 
ually many powers were given up to this Assem- 
bly by the Charter of Privileges in 1701, " so 
fiEir as in the then Proprietary lay," which far 
from satisfying, has made them desirous of new 
and more and frirther powers, and some such as 
no assembly whatever under the British Consti- 
tution ever once enjoyed or claimed. If the 
Proprietary, who was at that time in America 
dealt out powers to them with too liberal a hand 
on his part, it is to be remembered that the As- 
sembly enacted to themselves every one of those 
powers in 1705 and gained the royal tacit appro- 
bation of such their act. 



480 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

^n ^ru^tf ^" ^^^ king gives to every one of his governors 
to au gover- in all his colonies and provinces in America large 
"°"' and ample powers by his commissions to them, 

I but he as constantly gives to every one [of] 

i them a large body of instructions. The Lords 

I Lieutenants of the kingdom of teland, nay the 

I Lords Justices of this kingdom, in cases of the 

king's absence have many royal powers granted 

to them, but they are all restrained by sets of 

; instructions. The proprietaries of Pennsylvania 

have no voice or negative in the passing of acts 
there as the proprietor of Maryland has, but by 
their Lieutenant-Governor only on the spot He 
might (if uninstructed and unrestrained) give up 
[ all their estate by an Act of Assembly, or pre- 

r judice it to a very great degree, he might give 

1 up to the people every power and prerogative of 

the Crown or do many other Acts by which the 
proprietaries (who may be responsible for their 
deputy-governor's acts) might forfeit their char- 
ter and franchise, as well as their estate or prop- 
erty. The royal charter in express terms subjects 
the proprietary to damages (and even to the re- 
sumption of the government if the damages are 
not paid in a year) upon any breach committed 
or by neglect or default permitted by the propri- 
etary of any of the Acts of Trade or Navigation. 
And the Crown constantly takes a bond not only 
from the governors which [it] itself appoints in 
its own immediate colonies but also from all 
proprietary lieutenant-governors, whom the king 
approves, for their due observance of the Acts of 
Trade and Navigation and of instructions relat- 
ing to those Acts of Trade. Upon the Crown's 
approbation of every lieutenant-governor nomi- 
nated by Lords Proprietaries it constantly gives a 
body of instructions to the proprietaries and par- 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 481 

ticularly to Messrs Penns; in the first line of which 
the Crown uses these words — Yoti shall give di- 
rections and take special care that William Denny, 
Esq. Lieutenant-Governor of our Province of 
Pennsylvania, in the first place informs himself 
of the principal laws relating to the plantation 
trade, viz. (and then the instructions enumerates 
a very long list of such) and that the said Wil- 
liam Denny shall take a solemn oath to do his ut- 
most that the same be performed, &c. &c. &c. 

The Heads of Complaint delivered by the As- 
sembly's agent are ushered in with a pretended 
description of the words of the charter, but 
which are there transposed to make the expres- 
sion seem doubtfiil or ambiguous, whether laws 
were to be made according to the discretion of 
the proprietary or his deputy or the Assembly, 
but the charter itself liaa no such doubt or 
ambiguity in it that requires the discretion of 
the proprietary or his deputy in making laws 
(before ever the word Assembly is once men- 
tioned) as it only requires the advice, assent and 
approbation of the Assembly. 

The Heads of Complaint are also conceived 
in such general t^rms, that without some expla- 
nation by referring to the five particular instruc- 
tions which were communicated to the Assembly 
and which were the ground of the present com- 
plaint, it would be next to impossible to judge 
of the matters that are complained of. 

Two of the instructions that are now com- RaWngMMiap- 
plained of do contain in themselves the reasons not by the as- 
or motives for giving these instructions, but the JJ^^e qot- 
reaaons for giving the eleventh instruction are «niOTMidAi. 
not as fiilly expressed as in the others : They 
are these, in some former Acts of Assembly the 
application of moneys granted for public uses 
VOL. XXIV. — 31 



sembly. 



482 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

waa not reserved to the Assembly (that single 
branch of the legislature) alone, but was reserved 
to the Governor and the Assembly jointly. Bince 
the Assembly has been so fond of power they 
have in some of their Bills or grants of money, 
reserved the application of the money to their 
own sole application. This is assuming to them- 
selves the executive part of the government, and 
is not enjoyed or claimed by the Commons of 
Great Britain. It has, indeed, often been con- 
tended for but always denied to several other 
American Assemblies. The Crown did not 
think fit to give up all powers into the hands of 
American Assemblies. The proprietaries did 
not think it constitutional, nor for their own in- 
terest to give up all power (entrusted to them by 
the Crown) into the hands of the Assembly and 
believed they could not answer the doing so to 
the Crown. They therefore intended to bring 
this matter back again, at least so &r as to 
where it had formerly stood, but before ever 
they framed or issued this eleventh instruction, 
they communicated such their intention to his 
Majesty's ministers, who entirely approved of the 
same, one great minister in particular said that 
the proprietaries were contented with a very 
small matter indeed to have their lieutenant- 
governor only join in that application and to let 
the Assembly join in that application of the 
money along with him, but it was what had been 
done there before and the proprietaries were con- 
tented with that only. And this is indeed a re- 
strictive instruction, that the Assembly shall not 
assume to themselves the whole executive pow- 
ers of government, but it allows them a much 
greater share therein (if that would content 
them) than even the Commons of Great Britain 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 488 

have or claim to have, and contains a very plain 
and simple proposition, viz. you and the Assem- 
bly pass what laws you will, raise what money 
you will, appropriate the money to what uses 
you will, that must be all done by the joint voice 
of the Lieutenant-Governor and the Assembly. 
But in all such cases the same joint persons (the 
governor and assembly) who jointly pass the Act 
to raise the money and appropriate the uses, 
shall also jointly see it applied to those very uses, 
otherwise you, the Lieutenant-Governor, shall 
not assent to the Bill. 

This very matter has lately received a Parlia- ^^S^^^IlS^ 
mentary determination, for the Assembly of of oommoM 
Jamaica (also fond of assuming the executive ^^ <^m of 
power in their own hands) resolved on 29th *^*^^^^^ 
October 1758, " That it is the inherent and un- 
doubted right of the representatives of the people 
to raise and apply moneys for the services and 
exigences of government and to appoint such 
person or persons for the receiving and issuing 
thereof as they shall think proper, which rights 
this House hath exerted and will always exert 
in such manner as they shall judge most condu- 
sive to the service of his Majesty and the interest 
of his people." 

But the House of Commons here on 28d May ^ ^^ mn 
1767, resolved That the said resolution of the 
Jamaica Assembly <^ so fiEur as the same imports 
a claim of right to raise and apply public money 
without the consent of the Governor and Coun- 
cil is illegal, repugnant to the terms of his Ma- 
jesty's commission to his governor of the said 
island and derogatory of the rights of the Crown 
and people of Great Britain." 

And by a second resolution, resolved " That 
the claim in the said resolution of a right in the 



484 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

Assembly to appoint such person or persons for 
the receiving and issuing of public money as the 
said Assembly shall think proper is illegal, re- 
pugnant to the terms of his majesty's commis- 
sion to his governor of the said island and de- 
rogatory of tiiie rights of the Crown of Great 
Britwn." 

Therefore it is apprehended that the eleventh 
instruction in this respect is not only justifiable 
but commendable in the proprietaries whose 
duty it is to preserve the executive and legisla- 
tive powers distinct according to the great plan 
and model of government established in this 
country. Who by their Charter are accountable 
to the Crown, who are answerable for the con- 
duct of their Lieutenant-Governor and who may 
forfeit their charter if they voluntarily permit 
the Assembly to encroach on the rights of the 
Crown. 
Pftper money. The twelfth instruction now complained of 
relates to paper money, an invention which the 
people throughout all America are vastly fond 
of, and which in a moderate and proper quan- 
tity is certainly usefiil and beneficial to them- 
selves and to their mother country also, but if 
extended too far is ruinous to both, destroys 
credit, is more or less a sponge upon all credi- 
tors and ruins the trade and traders of the 
mother country. It had been encreased to an 
enormous degree in others of the colonies and 
had produced the loudest complaints and severe 
and repeated animadversions of the Parliament 
of Great Britain. By the making prodigious 
large emissions of it, and those to be called in 
at very remote periods and without any interest 
in the meantime it came to that pass and was so 
depreciated in the Massachusetts-Bay and some 



The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 486 

other provinces that eleven hundred pounds or 
more in their paper money (which was enacted 
to be good tender as proclamation money in all 
payments) would produce but one hundred 
pounds sterling ; consequently the English trader 
was to take one shilling sterling in fiill for his 
debt of eleven shillings proclamation money. 
At last the Parliament here enacted that no 
paper money should be issued in the four New 
England colonies (where the mischief and in- 
deed the firauds had been the greatest) but such 
as should if for ordinary services be called in 
and paid off within two years ; if upon emer- 
gencies to be called in and sunk within five 
years. That Bill was at first brought into Par- 
liament more general and extensive and to pro- 
hibit it in all the colonies, but as the mischief and 
the frauds had been the greatest in those four 
New England colonies, it was at last confined 
to those four New England colonies only. Penn- 
sylvania had already outstanding eighty thou- 
sand pounds paper money, which was calling in 
and sinking by degrees yearly. The exchange 
there was brought already to £167. 10. Penn- 
sylvania Currency for £100 Sterling. The people 
had expressed great desire to have that eighty 
thousand pounds reemitted and issued out again 
as fast as it was ori^ually appointed to be called 
in and sunk by installments (so to keep up the 
whole £80.000) and even to have more and 
further sums of that paper currency created and 
issued. The same causes will always produce 
the same effects. And Pennsylvania had (but 
very lately) been exempted out of the parlia- 
mentary prohibition which some other colonies 
had been laid under. The first part of this 
twelfth instruction is much rather directory to 



486 The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

the Lieutenant-Governor to reemit the £80.000 
and to issue more, in case upon his best enquiry 
he should find it really convenient and necessary 
and of advantage to the province, than any way 
restrictive that he should not do it And it left 
that matter to the lieutenant governor's own dis- 
cretion to be exercised by him upon the spot 
The only restriction (in that first part of the in- 
struction) being that he should not create more 
than £40.000 new paper currency. The propri- 
etors are governors as well aa proprietors of the 
province and are highly interested in the welfare 
of it The charter gives to themselves and to 
i their Lieutenant Governor power to enact laws 

j according to their discretion, not according to 

! the Assembly's discretion. The proprietaries 

had seen and even the Parliament here had re- 
j peatedly animadverted upon the frauds and mis- 

chiefe and ruin that had attended the excess and 
I abuse of paper money in other colonies. This 

! instruction allowed the Assembly to keep up the 

i whole quantity of £80.000 (though that was 

\ originally to have been gradually sunk and 

lessened) which £80.000 had been suflicient for 
eighteen or nineteen years before giving the 
present instruction, and even to add half as 
much more, viz. £40.000 more to that quantity. 
This part of the twelfth instruction is there- 
fore apprehended to be not only justifiable but 
commendable also. It enforces the intent of the 
legislature of Great Britain to restrain paper 
currency in North America and imitates the 
royal instructions given to all governors imme- 
diately appointed by the king, which instruc- 
tions became more necessary because Pennsyl- 
vania had been omitted out of the Parliamentary 
prohibition and therefore stood for the future 



21 Avgut 1740 
•ddltknuJin- 



it 



The Perms and the Taxation of thar Estates. 487 

from various circumstances more exposed to the 
temptation of abusing the paper currency. 

And moreover in 1789 or 1740 the Commons Addpe««gainrt 

p^permooey. 

addressed the King that he would be pleased 
to command the governors of his colonies in 
America not to paas any more Bills for paper 
money without a suspending clause. 

The Lords Justices sent an additional instruc- 
'tion to George Thomas Esq. Lieutenant Gov- ^^HLVl^^* 
emor of Pennsylvania, wherein they required 
him upon pain of his Majesty's highest displeas- 
ure not to Assent to any Act for paper money 
without a suspending clause. 

And yet the Pennsylvania Assembly insisted 
that though his Majesty might give such in- 
structions to his own immediate governors, yet 
in Pennsylvania such instructions were of no 
force, for that they had a right for passing all 
laws whatsoever ^ven them by the charter, and 
that the Crown having granted such full powers 
could never upon an Address of the House 
of Commons resume them again, and though 
Sir Dudley Ryder's opinion was produced, 
wherein he said it was neither safe, nor advisa- 
ble nor consistent with the Governor's duty to 
pass such Bill without a suspending clause, yet 
all did not signify, the Assembly persisted and 
no suspending clause was ever inserted in any 
one of these paper money Bills. 

The twelfth instruction contains two other 
provisoes or restrictions in the latter end of it; 
the first of them : That in all such new Acts 
the foregoing eleventh instruction should have 
strict regard paid to it, that is, as the whole 
legislature enacts these paper Bills and the pub- 
lic lends them out to borrowers at an interest, 
and that interest is public money and applicable 



488 The Pmns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

to public UBes. Let the Acts of General Assem- 
bly appropriate that interest money to whatever 
uses they please, but don't let the Assembly 
singly pay and apply it to those uses, but you 
shall join in that application, and this part has 
been already considered under the eleventh in- 
struction to which it relates. 

The only other restriction upon the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor in this twelfth instruction is, that 
it must be enacted in the same Act which con- 
tinues or reemits or new creates paper money 
(or in some other Act to be passed at the same 
time) that all rents and quit-rents due or to be 
due to the proprietaries be always paid accord- 
ing to the rate of exchange between Philadel- 
phia and London, or some other sufficient pro- 
vision be enacted in lieu thereof in as effectual a 
manner as was done heretofore by a separate 
Act at the time when the £80.000 Act of the 
twelfth of his present Majesty was passed. 
Proprietary "pj^^ rents and quit-rents due to the proprieta- 

qult rent! . ^ . , , , 

payable In nes are their property, they are m the old grants 
iterung. ^^^ lease, made before 1732 reserved and pay- 
able within Pennsylvania but in Sterling money 
of England ; much the greater number of grants 
have been made in and since the year 1732 and 
in all these grants for now twenty five years 
passed the reservation of the rents is to be paid 
one half penny per acre sterling, or the value 
thereof in coin current according to the course 
of exchange between Pennsylvania and London. 
If you coin paper money and make that a tender 
your cash and specie is remitted to England to 
pay the balance of trade due to the mother 
country and you have no Sterling money there 
to pay our rents and quit-rents, according to the 
express reservation of the former rents and quit- 



r\ 



The Pmns and the Taxation of their Estates. 489 

rents, but must pay us in paper currency. Your 
paper currency is so much depreciated that 
£167. 10. 0. Pennsylvania currency must be paid 
for £100. Sterling. K you make more it will 
in all probability (it has hitherto done so in other 
provinces where they coined large sums of it) 
make the exchange higher and we shall suffer 
still more in the receipt of our rents and quit- 
rents. It may come to that pass (as in New 
England it came) that we as creditors may re- 
ceive £1 sterling only instead of £11 ; we will 
not consent that you shall thus in any degree or 
proportion whatsoever lessen the payments justly 
due to us and reserved upon our grants to you : 
We of all people are the most hurt by the de- 
preciation of paper money if you coin it, and 
are absolutely remediless. A merchant or trader 
who deals with you and knows what your pay- 
ments are, or may be made to be, will and can 
indemnify himself, for he can and will raise the 
price of his goods accordingly, but we cannot 
raise the price of our quit-rents, and if a man 
who owes us eleven shillings Sterling here to fore 
reserved for quit-rent pays us in your paper 
money (made a legal tender) which may not be 
worth one shilling, we have almost the whole of 
our money reduced and taken away from us; 
and indeed this is the very intent of making 
the same in order to prejudice and take away 
the proprietaries property. 

The restriction with regard to the payment of 
quit rent according to the course of exchange 
between Pennsylvania and London is appre- 
hended to be agreeable to the plainest justice, 
as the proprietaries cannot secure the real value 
of their rents, as merchants may do their com- 
modities, who will increase the nominal price of 



\ 



1 



490 ITie Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 

their goods in proportion to the depreciated 
value of the currency in which they are paid, 
but the proprietaries can insist only on the rents 
expressly reserved, and if paper money be a 
legal tender (by the laws of Pennsylvania) ac- 
cording to its nominal not its real value, they 
may be defrauded of nine parts in ten of their 
rents without a possibility of relief. 

As to the several parts of the twenty first in- 
struction which are complained of, many of the 
reasons for giving such instruction are contained 
in the recitals of that instruction : 
J The ppoprie- 1. As to restrainiuff the ffovernors from con- 

' tary'g quit- . , . ° . ° ^ . 

i rent! not tax- sentmg to tax their quit-rents. Qmt-rents were . 

mJe proprie^ reserved and made payable upon grants, even 

, taries have before any government or legislature was at all 

,!■-'—- — up*ttito^and established there. The proprietaries have no 

■ submitted to yoicc in the choice of any one assemblyman, 

! ,.v have them j j ^ 

taxed. and no man ought to be taxed under a British 

» constitution but by his representative. But for 

j No tax« with* a number of tenants to meet together of their 

i own heads contrary to all usage, tax (and so fisur 

reduce and take away) the rents reserved and 
payable from themselves to their landlord, is for 
one party to alter the terms of the contract 
entered into by both ; where you have formerly 
raised supplies, you have exempted the proprie- 
tary estates from taxes. The proprietary quit- 
rents are mostly less than twenty, nay less than 
ten shillings per annum each. The English 
land-tax acts enact that the subject shall not 
allow for land-tax if his rent does not amount to 
twenty shillings; and provides in cases of the 
Crown that its Receivers shall allow a proportion 
of the land-tax upon rents amounting to ten 
shillings or more. 

This matter of taxing quit-rents is of great 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 491 

consequence to the Crown. No Assembly yet 
has taxed quit-rents whether payable to the pro- 
prietaries or to the Crown itself, but this attempt 
made to tax the proprietary quit-rents in Penn- 
sylvania is to lay one step towards taxing the 
King's own quit-rents in other colonies, for as 
soon as this had been made to tax the proprie- 
tary quit-rents in Pennsylvania, Mr. Franklin, 
who is their leading man and a printer and now 
their Agent, published an article as from New 
York in a newspaper weekly printed by him 
and dated . • • That it was hoped the Assem- 
bly of New York would apply some of the E3ng's 
quit-rents to the service of Albany, so that the 
endeavor really is to take the Eing's own prop- 
erty next, but to begin with Mr. Penn's property 
first, as that may be easiest attacked and is of 
the same nature. 

However reasonable it might be in the pro- 
prietaries to insist that their quit-rents should 
not be taxed, yet, since the people of Pennsyl- 
vania in times of public distress are not willing 
to accept free gifts in lieu of such tax. In order 
to remove every objection made to the willing- 
ness of the proprietaries to assist the public they 
have ^ven up this point and are willing that 
their quit-rents should be taxed. But this taxar 
tion should be just and equal, and it is appre- 
hended that the objections made by the proprie- 
taries to the Assembly's method of taxing as 
arbitrary and unequal and tending to leave a 
power in themselves or their assessors of throw- 
ing the burthen upon the proprietary's estates 
in case of other landowners, are unanswerable. 

2. As to other rents reserved to the proprie- 
taries upon leases for lives or for years, the pro- 
prietaries have consented by their instructions 



492 The Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

that those should be equally and duly taxed, so 
that no complaint can remain under that head. 

3. As to the vast imaginary sums which the 
Assembly pretends to imagine the proprietaries 
have lent out on mortgages there, it is a mere piece 
of invention. The proprietaries do not and can- 
not lend their money out there upon mortgages 
but want it and have it sent over to them for their 
support as fast as it comes in, and have no mort- 
gages in the whole province to be taxed either 
as real estate or as personal estate, so that this is 
a mere non-entity as has been before explained. 

The instructions and restraints therein are 
confined to Tax-Bills on real and personal estates, 
so that if the Assembly in any other manner 
raise money, the restrictions do not relate to 
such other taxes. 

I would now pursue all the other parts of the 
twenty-first instruction which restrain the gover- 
nor from passing Land-Tax Acts to affect the 
proprietary estates (for those possibly the Assem- 
bly mean most to complain of) before I go to 
any restrictions of any other kind. 
Unoccupied 4^ Bv the twentv-first instruction the Lieu- 

lAndB produ- , , 

cing no profit tenaut-Qovemor is restrained from consenting 
to a tax upon any [of] the proprietaries unoc- 
cupied and unimproved land, whether they are 
or are not such as they have had surveyed and 
reserved to themselves the state of these lands 
wholely unoccupied and unimproved (for the 
restriction goes no further than to such) and 
indeed the state of all their lands has been ex- 
plained pretty fully already ; they are what the 
Crown has granted, what the proprietaries have 
purchased from the Indians and paid for, and 
yield not one farthing of rent or profit to the 
proprietaries, and there is always much more 



The Perms and the Taxation of their Estates. 498 

than land enough ready for every person that 
wants to take up, on the known and ordinary 
terms. 

These being the property (though wholly un- 
profitable property) of the proprietaries they 
certainly would not consent to tax them if they 
exercised the government in their own persons, 
tlierefore they have used their own discretion 
here and have restrained the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor that he should not assent to any Bill to tax 
them. 

It is apprehended that the proprietaries objec- 
tions against taxing their unimproved land are 
conclusive, it being contrary to all common 
sense and common justice that the proprieta- 
ries' lands which produce no profit whether 
surveyed and reserved or not should be taxable. 

3. The only other parts of the proprietary's ^^^ <» v^r- 
estate in Pennsylvania which they have restrained 
their Lieutenant-Governor from passing Bills to 
tax, is the fines or purchase-money paid by a 
purchasor to buy a grant of lands in fee or other 
estate or interest in the same from the proprie- 
taries. 

Now this is thought to be agreeable to the 
constant method in the mother country here 
where the vendor of an estate in fee, or for lives 
or years, never pays land-tax for the fine or pur- 
chase-money which he has received (but still the 
estate itself, in the purchasor's hands, or in the 
lessee's hands, pays land-tax according to its 
yearly value) and is thought to be very just and 
reasonable in itself, for the purchase money is 
not laid out or left in Pennsylvania, but must be 
and is sent home directly for the necessary sub- 
sistance and support of the proprietaries. 

It is apprehended the objection to the taxing 



494 Ttie Penns and the Taxation of their Estates. 

the proprietaries' fines and purchase-money is 
not to be contended with, for if the land pays 
the public taxes in proportion to the subsequent 
improved value, it bears its full burthen. The 
sum of £10 paid on making the grant, is only 
an acknowledgment for the grant, if it were to 
be considered as the purchase-money bearing a 
proportion to the value of the land, it seems 
strange to make the vendor first pay the tax out 
of his purchase-money and then make the ven- 
dor pay it a second time out of the land. 

(To be continued.) 



Letter of Instructions of James Logan to James Steel. 495 



LETTER OF INSTRUCTIONS OF JAMES LOGAN TO 
JAMES STEEL, ON PROPRIETARY AFFAIRS, 1727.— 

My ffriend James Stebl. 

As thou art now on a Voyage to London, undertaken for ye 
Service of our Proprietors, I shall here give thee some hints or 
memd"^ of such heads as thou art cheerfVilly to represent, & as 
far as possible procure to be managed or gett orde'd there. 

No man can be more sensible than thyself of ye Confbsed 
Conditions of all Propriatary affairs here. The reasons of w^ 
are very plain viz. That after our late Proprietors Decease, a 
Dispute arising in ye family about ye Right to y* Estate we y* 
agents could not venture to grant any more Lands, than would 
answer y* mortgage, & therefore Issued very few wan* after y« 
year 1720, unless in some particular cases, where y* Pay was 
better than common, about that time considerable numbers of 
good Sober People came in from Irel* who wanted to be Settled, 
at y* same time also it happened that we were under some appre- 
hensions from 3^ northern Indians of whose Claims to 3^ Lands 
on Susquehannah I was not then sensible, having always till 3^ 
year 1722 depended on Dongan's Purchase from y* acco^ I had 
rece'd of it from y* Prop' both here & in Engl* I therefore 
thought it might bo prudent to plant a Settlem^ of such men as 
those who formerly had so bravely defended Deny k Inniskillen 
as a frontier in case of any Disturbance. Accordingly y* Town- 
ship of Donegal was settled, some few by warr^ at y* certain 
price 10' per hund* but more so, w**out any, those People how- 
ever if kindly used, will I believe be orderly, as they have 
hitherto been, k easily dealt w^, they will also, I expect, be a 
leading example to others. 

But ye vast Crowds that followed both of Palatines k Irish, 
who wanted, k would have some place to sitt down on, broke all 
measures, y* Encouragement given to those Palatines from albany 
by S' W" Keith, whom he placed by his own authority on y* 
Lands of our own Indians about y* same time was a pernicious 
Example to others, k as he made it his Endeavours to animate 
3^ People ag* 3^ Prop' k those Concerned for him, while 3^ family 
Dispute was at 3^* highest in Engl* It was impossible for us 
w'^out more Power to fall on any measures to settle such vast 
numbers as daily thronged upon us, many of whom were well 



496 Letter of Instructions of James Logan to James Sted. 

pleased w*»» 3^ pretence of 3^ want of such Powers that they 
might have some appearance of an Excuse, for not purchasing 
what in reality they were not able to pay for. 

Yet there was still a deeper Cause, viz. y* Claims of maryl* for 
most of the Irish passing through Newcastle County into the 
lower parts of Chester, & Choosing to sitt down on those Lands 
that we could not have granted, had there been no other Dispute 
but that w** maryl* subsisting, as being contrary to y agreem* 
^,ih y« jji Bait, a much greater Dificulty arose from hence, & 
till that Dispute is adjusted, those affairs will always labour 
under y* most embarassing Perplexity. Others perhaps may or 
have been blamed, that nothing but a continued Series of Com- 
plaints, & acco** of Troubles should arise from the Province. 
But in a Lett' wrote some years since to Tho. Penn w^ on occa- 
sion thou may quote, & by hints in some others, y* causes of 
them all were radical from our first Prop'*' own managem^ viz. 
his taking the Lower Counties on so imperfect a Title, & Claim- 
ing that as a good one : His settling y* Province w"* out knowing 
ye Boundaries of it, or fixing them at ye Beginning, and his 
Granting to y* People as his particular fr** then in unity w** 
them, such Privleges as perhaps might be suitable for those 
individual People at that time w"* out Considering what strangers 
might come in amongst them, or of what Disposition their Chil- 
dren or Successors bred up in an air of Liberty w** out any 
thing to habituate their minds to an awe & Keverence for y 
Powers of Govemm* might prove as every man fitted for such 
speculations on a due observation of human nature w^ in all ages 
is 3^ same must absolutely conclude & from hence have those 
unerring Eules in true Politicks, been formed of a just & equal 
Ballance between Liberty & Power, all Innovations on w«*» have 
proved, & ever will prove dangerous to y* undertaker. Its not 
therefore strange that such Seeds should produce their proper 
Seeds, or that on wrong or weak foundations all Superstructures 
should be infirm & tottering. Its truly much more to be ad- 
mired how wo have thus long subsisted, especially considering 
y« Concourse of foreigners, & are now in no worse a Condition. 
I must ever Conclude that a most indulgent Eye of Providence 
has hitherto watch 'd over us & a success beyond any reasonable 
expectation has manifestly attended y^ endeavours that have 
been used. There will therefore be very little room found to 
blame y Conduct of those intrusted in Property affairs here tho 



Letter of Instructions of James Logan to James Steel. 497 

I am very sensible there is some due, but not on those occasions. 
Thus I have choose to sum up what is justly to be said on these 
heads, whenever 3^ Discourse requires it. 

As to Maryl* There is no Subject whatever has more closely 
exercised my thoughts than that has done w** in these 2 years. 
I have mentioned it in divers Lett" to J. P. as all jr* Trustees 
also did in theirs, but nothing I can think appears Satisfactory 
even to myself, or at least it does not long. I once proposed 
that we should survey, & lease out for 3 years, I again thought 
of Surveying all those tow^' Susquehanna w** out any kind of 
Grant that y* People may know what they are to purchase in 
time. But to both these there are strong objections, & there is 
no other right way in Nature I believe but to Settle w"* y* L* 
Bait, and if he will not come to an agreement w"* out a Trail, I 
have fancied y* best way will be at y* first of it to tell him 
freely and openly that there are such vast Crowds sate down on 
those Lands, to y« Northw* of Octararre Line that there is an 
absolute unavoidable necessity to give them some Boundaries to 
their Lands, that they have flock'd thither w"* out any Leave 
either Granted or ask'd or any manner of Encouragement what- 
soever, but that they settle as on Pensilv*' Lands, & no Tempta- 
tion whatsoever can prevail with them to go to MaryFd, they 
have such an abhorrence to y* 408 p. poll many of them having 
left Irel* on acco* of y* severe Tithes there, that w"* out a speedy 
Begulation w*** will admit of no Delay, they will quarrel amongst 
themselves & commit such outrages as no force ag^ them will be 
sufficient to quell or appease being not only very numerous but 
resolute & animated w** y* same Spirit w"* w**» their Country-men 
acted ag^ K. James, when all his Regular Troops, assisted by 
those from ffrance could not reduce those two small towns of 
Derry and Inniskillen. Then to tell him plainly that it can be 
clearly proved his ancestor Coecilius first Baron of Baltimore, & 
L* Prop' never ask*d more than that part of y* Peninsula on y* 
Eastern side of Chesapeak, & has evidently bounded himself by 
that Bay, in w«*» they may proceed such lengths as they find 
proper, in acquainting him w** y^ old map or otherwise. Lastly 
it may be tried whether some Compensation in Lands on Patow- 
meck would prevail, but this must be moved very cautiously, & 
w"" out Witnesses w*"* will be very difficult for if ho appears will- 
ing to treat on that head, it may possibly be w** a Design only 
to have Witnesses of y* offer and y* Truth is, I am for giving as 

VOL. XXIV. — 32 



498 Letter of Instructions of James Logan to James Steel. 

little as possible. But by some very dextrous managem^ in y* 
case this might be attempted by some mediatour who could not 
prove an authority for it unless it would certainly take & might be 
depended on, and it should no other wayes be talked of than as a 
Cession of their Eight for Peace Sake, & to have y* Country settled 
th« w*** a Loss in giving of their Eeal Due. Happy had it been if 
our Proprietor & theirs in 1684 had agreed to run y* Line from 
Apoquinimy, & to have surrendered all below it to Maryland. 

On these heads I have wrote so much in my several past Lett", 
that I can add very little, if they would give themselves y* 
trouble to look all those over & to extract from them, all y* hints 
that may be thought useful they will amount to much more than 
I can possibly say at this time, those last thoughts that I have 
expressed above only excepted. And here I shall say no more 
on y* subject. 

The next great point is Purchases to be made of y* Indians, 
both from our own, & to gett a Eelease from 3^ 5 Nations for Sus- 
quehannah, but on this head I have been so particular in y* Lett' 
now sent by thee, that I know nothing necessary to be added, 
save that it is not only Sassoonon our very good f^ & his People 
of our own Indians that we have to deal w*** but y* Lands also on 
Delaware above Tohickon Creek must be purchased of others. 

But 3^ main business of all is, to induce Jno. Penn himself to 
come over. The Indians all expect him next Spring, every body 
expects him, & *tis in vain for him to expect that others will doe 
his business for him. As for me I can assure him that when 
once I am retired into y* Country, he is to expect no further 
from me, than if I were laid in y* Ground w** our dear departed 
fr* R. Hill, whom I must certainly follow, & probably ere long 
for Life now to mo has nothing in it worth lengthening out w** 
a wish, were that in my power, only if still living at y* time, 
because of my acquaintance w** y* Indians I should be ready if 
able to assist any Indian Treaty if near me, or to advise in points 
where I may be useful. But I here possitively declare I will 
accept of no Trust whatever. Not that I have not occasion to 
gett Money (Would their business help me to it) for y support of 
my growing family, but I have spent my strength for their 
family, while I was obliged to maintain my own by other Methods, 
& 1 am now under a necessity to retire both through weakness 
of Body, & a sensible prevailing decay another way. 

But when John comes, Comm" will even then be necessary. S. 



Letter of Instructums of James Logan to James Steel. 499 

Preston is still active & lively, & designs shortly to remove into 
Town, I can therefore think of no one person more proper to be 
head at y* Commission. I mention him in a late Lett' on that 
acco* to J. P. & have proposed it to himself I believe he will 
accept, but y* Consideration must be made worth his while for 
its in vain to expect that their Business w*** is y* most trouble- 
some in y* Country will be carried on as it has been or for less 
than it merits. I have thought also of Tho : Griffiths who was 
in y last Commission, & phaps Peter Lloyd might not think 
amiss of it, but still on y* Conditions I have mentioned as to thy 
self thou wilt be on y* Spott, & cannot be forgotten. 

Nor must I forget to mention here y« Reversion of y^ Bank 
Lotts, w*** thou art sensible. 

A Hamilton thinks ought by all means to be sold wholly off 
to y* Quittr* in time. All 3^ Trustees have mention'd this in our 
former or last Lett' y* price Sett by y* Prop' was 20 Shills. of 
old Currency for each foot of a whole Lott, that is both bank & 
water and if y* Possessors would now give 40 sh. for 3^ best, & 
less in a due Proportion at y* upper end of 3^ town 3^ Composi- 
tion were not to be rejected. TJio : Lawrence my Partner has 
purchased between 30 & 40 of a Water Lott only, & would 
forthw"* build if he could clear it of that Incumbrance, otherwise 
he will decline it, or else stay till y* term expires to see y* Issue. 
But as such a Purchase cannot immediately be made, I have 
proposed that 3^ Prop" should now give it under their hands 
that in case he proceeded to build he may notw*^standing redeem 
3^* Eeversion of that half or Water Lott at any time w**in 2 
years at fifteen shilling Sterl. Bill for every foot of it in front, or 
for so much less as such shall in that time be sold to others & 
having promised him to write about it, I now earnestly desire 
thee to gett this transacted as soon as possible, if they agree to 
it, & by y* very first w** perhaps will be our own ship, transmit 
3^ Instrum* over to me when obtained or at least get their ftill 
answer upon it. 

There are divers other heads that it might be proper to men- 
tion, but I must recommend them to thy self to think of, for I 
am now really tired, & can doe no more than heartily wish thee 
a good Voyage Success & safe Eetum to thy family & friends, & 
amongst the rest to 

Thy affectionate Well-wisher 

Philadia 18»* Nov*' 1729. J. L. 



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