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Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. By John H. B. Latrobe . 1 

Military and Poetical Affairs in the Middle Colonies in 1755, described 
in a letter by Daniel Dulany 11 

Maryland Gossip in 1755, a postscript to the above .... 144 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. An Address read 
before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Nov. 11, 1878. By 
Rev. George Morgan Hills, D.D 32 

Spangenberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. Contributed by 
John W. Jordan. (Continued from page 432, vol. ii.) . . .56 

Computation of Time, and Changes of Style in the Calendar. By 
Spencer Bonsall (Concluded from vol. ii. page 394) . . .65 

Madame Montour. By John G. Freeze . 79 

The Descendants of Joran Kyn, the Founder of Upland. By Gregory 
B. Keen. (Continued from vol. ii. page 456) . . 88, 206, 331, 447 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. Biographical Sketches of its 
Members. By Wm. H. Egle, M.D 96, 194, 319, 438 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. Burials, 1709-1760. Con- 
tributed by Charles R. Hildebum. (Continued from page 462, vol. ii.) 102 

224, 342, 458 

Proceedings of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania . 107, 347, 461 

Notes and Queries 109, 230, 348, 462 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. By George Harrison Fisher . 121 
A Walk to Darby. By Townsend Ward 150, 250 

Sullivan's Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. Extract from the Diary 
of Captain Andrew Lee. Contributed by Stewart Pearce . .167 

iv Contents of Volume III. 



Eliphalet Dyer. By J. Hammond Trumbull 174 

Edmund Pendleton, of Va. By David 21. Strother (Porte Crayon) . 177 
Henry Middleton. By Constance Fenimore Woolson . . . 179 
Josiah Quincy, Senior. By Eliza Susan Quincy .... 182 
Christopher Gadsdeu. By George Stillman Hillard . . . .186 

Nathaniel Scudder. By William S. Stryker 189 

Elias Boudiuot. By Helen Boudinot Stryker 191 

William Burnet, M.D. By Joseph P. Bradley, LL.D. . .'. 308 

Arthur Middleton. By Samuel Adams Drake 314 

Cyrus Griffin. By Cornelia Frances Taylor 317 

Richard Dobbs Spaight. By John H. Wheeler 426 

William Patterson. By Abraham Messier, D.D 429 

General Joseph Spencer. By Prof. Benjamin Silliman . . . 435 

Notes on Sundry Calendars. By Alexander Wilcocks . . . 202 

Doctor John Cochran, Director-General of the Hospitals of the United 
States, 1781. By Walter L. C. Biddle 241 

The Founding of New Sweden, 1637-1642. By Professor C. T. Odhner, 
of the University of Lund. Translated by Professor G. B. Keen 269, 395 

John Penn's Journal of a Visit to Reading, Harrisburg, Carlisle, and 
Lancaster, in 1788 284 

Memorials of Col. Jehu Eyre. Contributed and edited by Peter D. 
Keyser, M.D 296, 412 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago, or the Reign of Conti- 
nental Money. By Frederick D. Stone. An Address read at the 
Meeting of the Historical Society, May 5, 1879 .... 361 

Report of Council to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, May 6, 
1879 477 

Officers of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania .... 479 
INDEX 481 

PENNSYLVANIA .... . 493 



VOL. III. 1879. No. 1. 



the great lawyers of Maryland are enumerated, the 
first in the order of time and in eminence is Daniel Dulany. 
Then follow Samuel Chase, Luther Martin, William Pinckney, 
"William Wirt, and Roger B. Taney ; and now, the name of 
Reverdy Johnson, so recently dead, connects the eminent 
Maryland lawyers of the past with their successors, still liv- 
ing, who may become historical in their time. Of those here 
named, the biographer has materials far more ample than any 
which the most careful research can discover in regard to him 
whom tradition places before them all a tradition so emphatic 
as to have justified the ablest of the historians of Maryland, 
himself a distinguished lawyer McMahon in his exalted 
eulogy. 1 The following brief sketch contains, however, all, 

1 After his eulogistic remarks, McMahon goes on to say : " Mr. Pinckney, 
himself the wonder of his age, who saw but the setting splendor of Mr. 
Dulany's talents, is reported to have said of him, 'That even amongst such 
men as Fox, Pitt, and Sheridan, he had not found his superior.' " McMa- 
hon's History of Maryland, pp. 356-7. 

VOL. III. 1 ( 1 ) 

2 Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 

it is believed, that can be considered as authentic in this 

Of the father of Daniel Dulany, " Daniel Dulany the elder," 
as he has been called by way of distinction, not much is 
known beyond what is to be found in the provincial records 
of Maryland. From these we learn that he was admitted to 
the bar in 1710, and filled, subsequently, the offices of Attor- 
ney-General, Judge of the Admiralty Court, Commissary- 
General, Agent, and Member of the Council, or upper house 
of the legislature, holding the latter office under the successive 
administrations of Governors Bladen, Ogle, and Sharpe. That 
he was an able lawyer there can be no question. The offices 
that he held sufficiently establish his professional reputation, 
and his social rank. He was, for many years, a member of 
the lower house of the legislature, and was prominent there 
as the leader of the Country Party, in the controversy about 
extending English Statute law to Maryland. He died at 
Annapolis, December 5, 1753, in the 68th year of his age. 1 

Daniel Dulany, the subject of this sketch, was the son of 
Daniel Dulany, above named, and Rebecca, his second wife, 
the daughter of Colonel Walter Smith of Calvert County. 
He was born at Annapolis, July 19, 1721, was educated at 
Eton, and at Clare Hall, Cambridge, England, was entered of 
the Temple, and, returning to America, was admitted to the 
bar of Maryland in 1747. He married Rebecca, daughter of 
Benjamin Tasker, Esq., of Annapolis, and died in Baltimore, 
on the 19th of July, 1797. His burial was in old St. Paul's 
church-yard, which was in the rear and around the site of the 

1 When the somewhat celebrated King of the Gypsies, Bamfylde-Moore 
Carew, was for the second time transported to America, the vessel in which 
he came landed at Kent Island. Carew was sold as an expert gardener to 
Mr. Dulany, who, finding that he could not mow, said he was no gardener, and 
refused to take him. Adventures, p. 293. 

William Black, in his Journal, 20th of May, 1744, speaks of Mr. Dulany 
calling on and spending the evening with the Virginia Commissioners, while 
they were at Annapolis. On the 25th of May the Commissioners, in their 
letter home, speak of him as having been changed for Jennings as one of the 
Maryland Commissioners for treating with the Six Nations at Lancaster. 
PEKNA. MAG., vol. i. pp. 130, 238. 

Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 3 

present church edifice. This ground was long since desecrated 
and built upon. 1 

Mr. Dulany filled the office of Secretary of the Province 
for many years, and until the close of the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment. The routine of his life seems to have been that of 
an eminent lawyer in commanding practice, devoted to the 
business of his profession, and but rarely interrupted by mat- 
ters of public concern. There were occasions, however, in 
which he was brought conspicuously before the people ; and 
it is in connection with these that we have the most authentic, 
indeed, almost the only authentic, testimony in regard to him. 
Hearsay evidence abounds, not relating, however, to those 
current incidents of daily life which afford materials for the 
biographer, but to the consideration in which he was held by 
his cotemporaries evidence of weight certainly, but, never- 
theless, like all tradition, secondary in its character, and of 
which it may be said, vires acquirit eundo. 

When the General Assembly of Maryland met on the 23d 
of September, 1765, among the first business that came before 
it was the circular from the Assembly of Massachusetts, in- 

1 The remains of Daniel Dulany were at the time removed to the present 
cemetery of St. Paul's, at the corner of Lombard and Fremont Streets, and, 
according to George L. L. Davis, the tombstone was there. His monument 
bore the following inscription : 

In memory of the HON : DANIEL DULANY, ESQ : 
barrister-at-law, who with great integrity and 
honour for many years, discharged the important 
appointment of Commissary-General, Secretary 
of Maryland, and one of the Proprietary Council. 
In private life he was beloved, and died regretted, 
March 19, 1797, aged 75 years and 8 months. 
Rebecca his wife, daughter of the late Benjamin 
Tasker, Esq., of Annapolis, caused this tomb to 
be erected. E. 

Memoirs of the Dead, and Tombs' Remembrancer, Baltimore, 1806. 

The children of Daniel Dulany were Daniel, who d. s. p. ; Rebecca Ann, 
who m., and had one daughter, who d. s. p. ; and Benjamin, who m. Elizabeth 
French, from whom are numerous descendants. 

4 Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 

viting the other colonies to unite in the appointment of com- 
missioners to a general congress, to be held in New York. 
The arrival of the Stamp paper was then momentarily ex- 
pected, and the Governor sought the advice of the Lower 
House as to the disposition to be made of it. This they 
declined to give; and the Upper House, when he turned to 
them, assured him that the only place of security against at- 
tempts to destroy it, would be one of his Majesty's ships on 
the Virginia station. 

The question of the Stamp Act was thus fairly before the 
people of Maryland, and the press teemed with essays in op- 
position. Of these, the ablest, unquestionably, was one en- 
titled, "Considerations on the propriety of imposing taxes in 
the British Colonies for the purpose of raising a revenue by 
Act of Parliament." It appeared in Annapolis on the 14th 
October, 1765; and although published anonymously, Daniel 
Dulauy was, at once, recognized as its author. It argued the 
question, not only as a lawyer dealing with the proper con- 
struction to be given to the Charter of Maryland, but as a 
statesman discussing the principles of the British Constitution. 
Nor did he confine himself to generalities, but narrowed down 
the argument to the exact power claimed by the Act the 
power to impose internal taxes on the Colonies, without their 
consent, for the single purpose of revenue viewed in the 
light of British authority and British precedent. 

The great interest that was felt in the subject throughout 
the Colonies ; the clear, perspicuous, and forcible manner in 
which the essay discussed it ; the moderation of its tone ; its 
appeal to reason and judgment, and not to feeling, and the 
free and fearless argumentation when the question of right 
was involved, attracted attention to the author, and placed 
Mr. Duiany at once upon an equality with, if not at the head 
of, the political essayists of the day. It is upon this essay, 
rather than upon tbe opinions in given cases, that are to be 
found in the law reports of Maryland, that the reputation of 
Mr. Dulany as an accomplished and powerful writer mainly 
rests. It may be fairly said, that it was owing, in a great 
degree, to his influence that "the Province of Maryland was 

Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 5 

never polluted even by an attempt to execute the Stamp 
Act." 1 

The next occasion, when Mr. Dulany was brought promi- 
nently before the people, was one in which his course was 
certainly open to the criticism of being inconsistent with the 
principles of his celebrated essay. 

From an early period in Maryland, public officers had been 
compensated, not by salaries, but by fees, which the legislature 
regulated from time to time. One of the regulating Acts 
came up for renewal in 1770, and was objected to on account 
of the exorbitance of the fees, especially of the Provincial 
Secretary, who was then Mr. Dulany, of the Commissary- 
General, Walter Dulany, who was his relative, and of the 
judges and members of the Upper House. In consequence 
of an invincible disagreement on the subject between the two 
Houses, Governor Eden prorogued the legislature; and, by 
virtue of his supposed prerogative, established the fees by 
proclamation, adopting the system tbat the Lower House had 
refused to sanction. 

Hitherto, the people of Maryland had objected to the taxa- 
tion of Parliament, not because of the amount of the tax, but 
of the principle involved. Now, the same principle was in- 
volved, and in the shape of actual oppression ; and it was only 
reasonable to believe that the author of the great essay would 
be as much opposed to the regulation of fees by proclamation, 
which was one form of taxation, as he had been to taxation 
without representation in the case of the Stamp Act. It was 
not so, however; and after a fruitless discussion for two years 
between the Upper and Lower Houses, the essayists took the 
matter in hand, and, over the signature of Antilon, Daniel 
Dulany attempted to vindicate the proclamation. On the 
other side, was Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who, adopting 
the pseudonym of "The First Citizen," turned against Mr. 
Dulany the argument of his own essay. The controversy 
was carried on for some months, brilliantly on both sides ; but, 
in the end, Mr. Carroll obtained a decided victory; the elec- 

1 McMahon. 

6 Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 

tions of 1773 resulted in favor of the anti-proclamation party, 
and the thanks of the people in several of the counties were 
presented to "The First Citizen" by their representatives. 

It is impossible to read the productions of Mr. Dulany, 
which are still to be perused by the curious in the time-worn 
volumes of the Maryland Gazette, without recognizing a man, 
"confident in his own resources, indignant at opposition, con- 
temptuous as if from conscious superiority, and yet sometimes 
affecting contempt, as the cover under which to escape from 
principles not to be resisted." 1 It was the fortune of the 
writer of this sketch to hear from Mr. Carroll's lips recollec- 
tions of the controversy, and to hear him bear witness to the 
rare talent, the distinguished abilities, and high position, 
socially and politically, of his opponent in 1773. 

In cases like the present, where the lives of individuals 
afford scant materials for the biographer, the testimony of 
cotemporaneous public opinion becomes important; and in 
the proclamation controversy we have a glimpse of Mr. Du- 
lany 's standing in Maryland. Mr. Carroll was a Catholic ; and, 
leaving the line of fair argument, one of Mr. Dulany 's friends 
assailed the former in a communication that furnishes evidence 
of the light in which the latter was regarded. u But, when 
I saw," says the writer, " the man from whom this country 
has reaped such solid advantages, the man who, but a few 
years ago, stood forth in vindication of our then undoubted 
rights to whom the whole continent hath paid its debt of 
gratitude, and to whom the illustrious Pitt was wholly in- 
debted for his famous enthusiastic speech in support of Ame- 
rica held up as an object of lawless fury, and that, too, princi- 
pally, by one who does not enjoy the privilege of offering his 
private vote at an election, I cannot describe what I then felt." 

Mr. Dulany was again made conspicuous in connection with 
public affairs by the part he took in the discussion of the 
Vestry Act, a measure which excited the Province of Mary- 
land not less than the proclamation had done. 

The Church of England was made the established Church 

1 McMahon, p. 390. 

Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 7 

of Maryland by the legislature in 1692, when its support was 
provided for by the imposition of a poll-tax of 40 Ibs. of 
tobacco, to be collected by the sheriff, and paid over to the 
clergy. The Act of 1763, which regulated the clergy's dues, 
as well as the fees of officers, reduced the tax to 30 Ibs., at 
which it continued until the disagreement of the two Houses, 
already referred to, permitted the Act of 1763 to expire, when 
the Act of 1701, which had fixed the tax at 40 Ibs., was held 
to be revived. The question was purely technical ; but the 
discussion to which it gave rise was intensely bitter. Mr. 
Dulany took part with the clergy, and his opinions sustaining 
the validity of the Act of 1701 have been preserved. They 
fully justify the reputation which the "considerations" gave. 

With the discussion of the Stamp Act, the Proclamation, 
and the Vestry Act, Mr. Dulany's prominence in public affairs 
ended, so far, at least, as can be gathered from the newspapers 
of the day, or anything deserving the name of authentic tes- 
timony. In October, 1774, when the angry discussions of the 
above measures were dying out, the Peggy Stewart, with a 
quantity of tea on board, arrived at Annapolis ; and, mainly, 
in consequence of the advice of Mr. Dulany's late opponent, 
Mr. Carroll, was burnt in the harbor as the only means of 
satisfying the exasperated community. The particulars of 
this transaction, and the names of the prominent persons en- 
gaged in it, have been preserved; but nowhere do we find any 
mention of Mr. Dulany. The author of the " Considerations" 
was now the upholder of the royal authority ; and it is not 
surprising that we next find his name in the list of persons 
whose property was confiscated, under the Act of 1780, as 
British subjects. 1 The Revolution found him in the retire- 
ment of private life, nor have we any proof that he afterwards 
emerged from it. 

"When Messrs. Harris and McHenry, in 1809, began the 
publication of the Maryland Law Reports, gathering from the 
records of preceding years whatever was regarded as authority, 
they completed their first volume by adding all the opinions 

1 Scharf s Chronicles of Baltimore, p. 189. 

8 Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 

of Daniel Dulany which they had been able to obtain. They 
could have paid no greater tribute to his memory ; and the 
use that succeeding generations of lawyers have made of the 
material thus afforded has fully justified its being placed side 
by side, and, as it were, upon a par with the decisions of the 
legal tribunals. If not the cotemporaries of Mr. Dulany, both 
reporters were old enough to have seen him in the courts, and 
listened to his arguments, and were, certainly, familiar with 
the judges who had had that advantage. 

The opinions in 1st Harris and McHenry are on various 
subjects; and those upon questions connected with slavery are 
curious reading in the light enjoyed to-day. 1 All are distin- 
guished by force of expression, logical directness, and clearness 
of statement, with no attempt at elegance of language or ex- 
tended illustration. 

We have thus given the tangible testimony, so to speak, 
upon which the reputation of Daniel Dulany rests ; and which, 
in connection with circumstances that cotemporaneous history 
authenticates, fully sustains it; and when we add to this the 
tradition already referred to, and which it is impossible to 
ignore, there can be no question that not only primus inter 
pares, but high above them all, was Daniel Dulany. 

If it should be said that his noble argument upon the Stamp 
Act was contradicted by his conduct when the carrying out 
of his doctrine resulted in separation from Great Britain, the 
answer is, that, in " The Considerations" he was vindicating 
the rights of English freemen, whose claim to exemption from 
taxation without representation was independent of their 
residence on this, or on the other side of the Atlantic ; and 
that he honestly preferred to seek redress under the crown 
itself, rather than to set up a Republic for the purpose ; and 
we are unjust judges, when we apply to him the experience 
and convictions of to-day, arid ignore the time when we were 
three millions only of people, scattered along the Atlantic 
coast from Maine to Florida. 2 And if it should be urged 

1 See particularly the opinion of 16th Dec. 1767. 

2 Comparing the power of Great Britain with the scanty means of the 
Provinces, both in men and the materials of war, Mr. Dulany was not the 

Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 9 

against Mr. Dulany now, as it was in 1773, that he supported 
the proclamation which fixed his own fees as Secretary of the 
Province, and those of his kinsman, the Commissary-General, 
it is only proper to refer to his vehement denial that he was 
influenced by any personal considerations. The proclamation, 
he solemnly asserted, "was the unbiased act of the Governor 
(Eden), which had received the approbation of the entire 
Council ; and the proceedings of that period certainly mani- 
fest the most hearty concurrence of the whole executive in 
its support. By the force of these circumstances he was 
identified with the measure ; and with a character too decided 
for neutrality, and an intellect that never feared the grapple 
of argument, he did not hesitate to avow, in the face of op- 
position, that, in nis opinion, it was both legal and expedient." 1 
Nor is it possible to read what he wrote upon the subject with- 
out admitting the force and reasonableness of his views ; al- 
though the popular judgment at the time, confirmed by the 
opinions now entertained, was adverse to his conclusions. 

On the wall of the Superior Court-room in the city of Bal- 
timore, there hang three portraits, of Daniel Dulany, 2 Luther 
Martin, and Roger B. Taney respectively. Of these, the most 
unrefined, perhaps, is Martin's, the most thoroughly lawyer- 
like and judicial is Taney's, the best by far of the three, as a 
work of art, is Dulany's. Martin's has the disadvantage of 
having been painted at a later period of his life than the 

only one who believed that victory in the impending strife was impossible ; 
and that with no prospect of it before them, humanity made it the duty of 
all good men to obviate suffering that was inevitable, and for which there 
would be no compensation. In his letter of 1755, when speaking of the 
sufferings of the French neutrals, of whom nine hundred and three had just 
been sent to Maryland, Mr. Dulany says : " The effects of war are so calami- 
tous, that give us peace on any terms is always part of my prayer." While, 
with our present views, we may regret the part that Mr. Dulany took in the 
Kevolutionary day, we should, in charity, remember that, after all, our judg. 
ment is formed after the event. 

1 McMahon, pp. 387-8. 

8 Since the above notice was written, the Dulany portrait has been re- 
moved from the court-room, and is now in the possession of Henry Grafton 
Dulany, Junior. 

10 Biographical Sketch of Daniel Dulany. 

others ; and the ability of the respective artists has, no doubt, 
something to do with the result; but, unquestionably, in the 
portrait of Dulany, we see a full justification of the character 
that tradition gives him, when it adds to the intellect and 
learning of a great lawyer the deportment and conscious dig- 
nity of an accomplished gentleman ; and we gaze on it with 
regret that, in fact, so little is known, except through tradi- 
tion, of the daily and inner life of Daniel Dulany. 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 




[Several years ago, Mr. Oswald Tilghman, of Easton, Maryland, discovered 
the following " News-Letter," written by Mr. Dulany. It is a fine specimen of 
that class of letter writing which the Telegraph, the Printing Press, and 
other modern improvements will soon cause to be numbered among the 
" Lost Arts." 

Before the era of newspapers and pamphlets, letters like that of Mr. 
Dulany were seldom reserved for the eyes of those alone to whom they were 
addressed, but received a wider circulation. Thus the views of prominent 
persons were disseminated, and commented npon by their associates, and the 
letters themselves not unfrequently copied. 

The one we print was found among the papers of Charles Carroll, " Bar- 
rister," as he was called, to distinguish him from Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton. The barrister married a daughter of the Hon. Matthew Tilghman, 
Mr. Oswald Tilghman's great-grandaunt. 

The views of one so eminent as Daniel Dulany, of the condition of the 
Colonies at such a critical period in their history as 1755, are deserving of 
no small weight, but it must be borne in mind in reading his arraignment of 
the Quakers in the Assembly of Pa., that it was written under circumstances 
that would have made it difficult for one, better acquainted with the tenets 
of the Friends than it was the fortune of Mr. Dulany to be, to do justice to 
their motives. 

The letter treats very fully of Braddock's Expedition and Defeat, a theme 
it would appear of lasting interest from the continued demand for the history 
of it written by the late Winthrop Sargent, and published by the Historical 
Society. ED.] 

ANNAPOLIS, 9th Dec. 1755. 

As the critical situation we are in, and your connections 
with this place, will, I presume, recommend to you any intel- 
ligence from hence, however imperfect, and as I have the 
strongest inclination to cultivate an acquaintance I found so 
much pleasure in, I have set myself down to scribble to you 

12 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

a long letter, which I am sure you'll at ]east excuse for the 
subject and motive. 

We, who were scarcely known out of our own country, 
have now the eyes of all Europe turned upon us, as our im- 
portance begins to be understood. Perhaps in less than a 
century, the ministers may know that we inhabit part of a 
vast continent, and the rural gentry hear that we are not all 
black, that we live in houses, speak English, wear clothes, and 
have some faint notions of Christianity. 

Have you any cows, or horses in Maryland, sir ? is a ques- 
tion I have been often asked, and when I have answered in 
the affirmative, the reply has been, Oh ! Oh ! you do not get 
them from Old England then ! But it is no wonder that 
such a question shou'd be asked twenty miles from London, 
when a certain committee during the application for the Salt 
Bill were wise enough to ask Have you any rivers? Pray, 
how many ? Have you any fish in them ? Pray, how many ? 
"Well, pray tell us, did you ever kill any fish in passing any 
of your rivers as you call them ? and if the answer happen 
to be in the affirmative, which it might be, and be very true, 
the witness was certainly dismissed. What man of prudence 
would venture to tell an English fox-hunter that there are 
some among us who hunt fish on horseback? 1 But yet, per- 
haps, this would be as easily believed, as that one set of people 
could be so infatuated as to declare against the right of self- 
defence, when barbarians the most cruel and merciless were 
in the heart of their country, or that another should be so 
tenacious of what they call Privilege as to expose themselves 
an easy prey to rapacious invaders, or many others their lives, 
as has really happened. To you who know what our politicks 
have been, I dare to write, but only to you, or such as you, 
in whom I may expect to raise some admiration at the ex- 
tremity of our folly and distractions, but as you have seen 
the symptoms of them, I may expect some belief. 

1 In 1856 I witnessed twenty or more men on horseback, with flambeaux 
and spears, fishing in the James River, about one hundred miles above Rich- 
mond. T. W. 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 13 

"When the English troops arrived at Alexandria, 1 having 
heard much of their gallant appearance, I was led by curiosity 
to pay them a visit ; but I had not been long in the place be- 
fore I had too much reason to apprehend an unhappy issue to 
the expedition. The greatest animosity appeared among some 
of the principal officers. I heard of young men being favor- 
ites, and of others, whose rank and age and character entitled 
them to respect, being in disgrace, and kept at a distance. As 
there always will be attachments from personal regard, or 
considerations of interest in every army, it can rarely happen 
that any animosity among officers of rank will be exclusively 
confined to themselves it soon becomes contagious, even pri- 
vate men catch. the disease. "When the two regiments left 
Alexandria, they took different routes, 2 Halkett's 3 through 
Virginia, and Dunbar's 4 through this Province. With all the 
care and prudence in the world, the march of the troops could 
not but prove burthensome. lN"o magazines of provisions had 
been established, and the counties being but thinly and poorly 
settled, were but little able to supply those necessaries and 
conveniences the troops might want. Many irregularities 

1 The house occupied by Gen. Braddock was the residence of Col. John 
Carlyle,* who tendered it for the General's use. It was built by Col. Carlyle, 
and is still standing, but in front of it modern buildings have been con- 
structed that conceal it from those who pass along the street. Its site ad- 
joins that of the Mansion House, which is at the corner of Fairfax and 
Cameron Streets. These names are yet preserved, and are historical for the 
Fairfaxes are the Barons of Cameron in the Peerage of Scotland. The 
family has continued its residence in this country ; the present Lord Fairfax 
residing in Maryland. At Col. Carlyle's house was a young colored servant 
girl, named Penny, to whom Gen. Braddock, on leaving, said, " You are only 
a penny now, but I hope on my return you will be two pence." And this is 
his only saying that is remembered. T. W. 

8 The routes are still called by the people of the country " Braddock's 
Eoads." T. W. 

Sir Peter Halkett, Colonel of the 44th Regt., who was killed at the 
Defeat of Braddock, see History of Braddock's Expedition, by Winthrop 
Sargent, p. 294. 

4 Col. Dunbar, of the 48th Regt. He succeeded Braddock in the com- 
mand of the expedition. 

* Not Carey, as stated in Lossing'a Mount Vernon and its Associations. 

14 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

were committed by the troops in this Province, which nothing 
can excuse our people were treated as slaves, and as arrogance 
unchecked knows no bounds, the military soon silenced the 
civil power, property became dependent on the moderation 
of a licentious soldiery triumphing over the sanction of laws, 
and the authority of magistracy. Soon after the General's 
arrival at Fredericktown, orders were issued to the recruiting 
officers to enlist all able-bodied men, servants not excepted. 
These orders were punctually executed by the officers of Dun- 
bar's Regiment, to the great injury and oppression of many 
poor people, whose livelihood depended in great measure upon 
their property in their servants. 

We had but one recruiting officer from Halkett's Regiment, 
and it is remarkable that he did not enlist, or offer to enlist, 
one servant, and I have been informed that the few servants 
who were enlisted in Virginia in pursuance of these orders 
by the officers of Halkett's Regiment, were discharged by the 
Colonel upon the application of the masters, and such was the 
prudence and humanity of that worthy gentleman, and Lieu- 
tenant-Col. Gage, that every one in Virginia is satisfied. 1 !Nb 
more inconvenience was suffered by the march of that regi- 
ment, than such a body of men must necessarily occasion in 
a young and thinly-settled country. It is doing Sir Peter 
Halkett's memory but mere justice, to say that his good sense, 
courteous behavior, and benevolence deservedly gained him 
universal esteem among us, and that it is more than probable 
if his advice had had the influence it merited, the most dis- 
graceful and scandalous defeat that ever was heard of, would 
have been prevented. We all wish that Mr. Gage's merit 
may be rewarded by his being appointed to succeed his late 
worthy colonel. 

1 To those of our readers who only associate the name of Gage with the 
troubles at Boston, and the siege of that Town, it may be of interest to 
know that his services in America were long and valuable. He was under 
Amherst in the expedition against Ticonderoga, was made Maj.-Gen. in 
1761, and Gov. of Montreal. Succeeded Amherst as Commander of the 
British troops in America in 1763. and was made Lieut.-Gen in 1770. He 
married. Pec. 1758, Margaret, daughter of Peter Kemble, President of the 
Council of N. J. 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 15 

General Braddock came to us with the character of a brave 
and experienced officer. His personal courage none can doubt 
of, and had his favorites been men of more experience and 
judgment, he might have gathered laurels where he and his 
army were cruelly butchered. He was too much directed by 
some hot-bloods about him, whose preferment depending upon 
the taking of Fort Du Quesne, they pushed him on, and in- 
flamed his natural temerity. He was fatally persuaded to 
believe that his very appearance would vanquish the foe, and 
that he would have it in his power to say, veni, vidi, vici. 

The plan for the campaign was framed by Mr. Shirley, 1 and 
with so much prudence, that there was the greatest reason to 
hope from it a lasting security to our Colonies. The scheme 
was to attack the enemy in four different places at the same 
time, in Nova Scotia, at Fort Du Quesne, Niagara, and Crown 
Point, and had it been as successfully executed on Mr. Brad- 
dock's part as it was in Nova Scotia, he would have had such 
a body of troops under his command, that, in case of a rup- 
ture with France, might well have alarmed all Canada. Shir- 
ley was obliged to attend the General at Alexandria to pro- 
pose his plan. No steps could be taken to the northward, 
except in regard to Nova Scotia, towards carrying it into ex- 
ecution, till it had received the General's approbation, and 
when it did, Shirley was to return home, his and Pepperell's 2 
Regiments were to be completed, the New England Troops to 
be assembled under Johnson, and provided with all necessaries, 
contracts to be made, magazines erected, provisions collected, 
batteaux built, in short everything to be prepared to the North- 
ward. No one imagined that Braddock would march from 

1 One of the ablest of the Colonial Governors of Massachusetts. He 
planned the expedition against Cape Breton in 1745, and at the time Mr. 
Dulany wrote was Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in N. A. In 
1759 he was made Lt.-Gen. His son was Secretary to Braddock, and was 
killed on the 8th of July, 1755. Drake, 

Mr. Bancroft states that Shirley was 4< a worn-out barrister, who knew 
nothing of war." 

2 See Life of Sir William Pepper ell, Bart., the only native of New Eng- 
land who was created a Baronet during our connection with the Mother 
Country. By Usher Parsons, Boston, 1856. 

16 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

Fort Cumberland to Fort Du Quesne through an inhospitable 
wilderness, over mountains, and through a thousand passes 
without the utmost caution, without building one fort, erect- 
ing one magazine, or taking one measure for preserving a 
communication with the country from whence he was to be 
supplied with provisions. But he unhappily did, and was 
severely punished for his imprudence. When the news of 
Braddock's defeat reached Mr. Shirley, he assured the officers, 
as it is said, that it could not be true, for the plan agreed upon 
was such as that Mr. Braddock could not be so far advanced. 
This blow disconcerted all their measures to the Northward. 
When the General was killed, and all his papers had fallen 
into the hands of the enemy, who was to find provisions, who 
to perform contracts? 

The ardor of the New England men was abated. Johnson, 
instead of six thousand men, had not half that number ; and 
they lived from hand to mouth. Mr. Shirley could not attack 
Niagara, the enemy were too strong there, when they were 
reinforced from Fort Du Quesne. Dunbar (some say by the 
General's orders) in the first panic fell lustily to work in de- 
stroying several pieces of artillery, and all the provisions, 
ammunition, and waggons that might in the least impede a 
hasty retreat, and one would think he did not think him- 
self safe at Wills's Creek, for he soon left that place, and lest 
he should not have men enough to share with him the disgrace 
of a precipitate flight, he took with him the independent 
companies that had been ordered before the arrival of General 
Braddock to the defence of our frontiers, and were subject to 
the direction of Governor Dinwiddie. 1 It seems he now pre- 
tends tbat he had orders from Mr. Shirley to march with all 
expedition to the Northward. ' Tis true he had such orders, 
but he marched before he received them, and he had no orders 
to take with him the Caroline Independent Companies, and 
leave us naked, and exposed to the fury of the Indians, who 
have since his flight cut off many hundred people, and are 
daily perpetrating the most horrid cruelties. The Provincial 

1 Of Virginia. 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 17 

troops had suffered so much in the action, that few who were 
in it returned to Fort Cumberland, and those who did, had 
been so severely harassed that one-half of them deserted, for 
which they had some pretence, as they were promised a dis- 
charge as soon as the expedition was over, which had been 
the case with a vengeance. However quick Dunbar was in 
his march to Philadelphia, he was in no great hurry to leave 

The list of the killed published here, fell greatly short of 
the real number, by omitting the Provincial troops who were 
slain. Whether this omission was owing to the lists being 
taken from the returns of the two regiments, or to an opinion 
that the loss of Americans was not worth notice, I don't 

We had a long and elaborate account of the action pub- 
lished here, which was wrote by Orme, one of the aids-de 
camp, and Col. Gage thought proper to contradict it in an 
advertisement he published. In that part of it where Orme 
says that the main body marched up to sustain the advanced 
party, who falling back put the main body into such confusion 
as rendered all the endeavors of the officers to form them in- 
effectual, Col. Gage says in his advertisement that this is a 
mistake, for that the main body were in confusion before they 
came up, and I believe it is very true that they were so, for 
it is allowed on all hands that they never were formed after 
they had passed the river Monongahela, and it was an odd 
conduct to make men march up to sustain a body that was 
attacked, and only to think of forming when they had marched 
up. Before the army had arrived at the river, where the 
men ought to have encamped, and waited till they were re- 
freshed, their spirits recruited, and Dunbar could come up, 
Col. Gage was sent before with two pieces of cannon to take 
possession of Frazier's plantation, in order to secure the pass 
where the army was attacked. This was executed with great 
prudence and success. When this party got to the river, they 
suspected the enemy had just passed it, from the muddiness 
of the water, and of this they saw evident signs, when they 
had passed the river, in the moisture of the earth, and the 
VOL. in. 2 

18 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

impressions of many feet. Mr. Gage drew up his men in 
order of battle, and marched without opposition to Frazier's 
house, which he took possession of, without doubt in the view 
of the enemy. He then sent to the General an account of 
what he had observed and done, and desired further orders, 
but the messenger returned without any answer. In this 
situation he, therefore, remained till the main body had passed 
the river, and was not far from him, when he received orders 
to fall into a long march, as the main body were, and in this 
march he was attacked, and the main body being hastened to 
sustain him without order, or disposition, the whole army had 
the appearance at once of a tumultuary mob. Our men shot 
one another, which, with the fire of the enemy, soon made a 
great slaughter. If any of the men ventured to ascend the 
eminence, which was often attempted by the Virginians, they 
were exposed to a double fire, from the enemy in front, and 
our men behind. The enemy, who could hardly trust to what 
they saw, were upon the point of leaving us, and ceased firing 
for some minutes, but our men remaining in the same confu- 
sion, and not advancing a step, and wildly firing without 
seeing a creature to fire at, they sounded the charge, and being 
sheltered by trees, and having a fair mark to shoot at, the 
action (if such it may be called) continued till two-thirds of 
our army were killed or wounded, and those who were able 
to run away, except a small guard in the rear, had expended 
all their ammunition the enemy pursued to the river with- 
out doing much execution, and then returned and put to death 
all the wounded who were left in the field, except one person, 
who, 'tis said, they spared. What mercy can those hell- 
hounds expect should they, in their turn, be vanquished. I 
hope they will meet with as much as they deserve, and no 
more. ' Tis a cruel method of war which excludes all hu- 
manity to the vanquished, but non lex equior ulla est. 

Quam necis artifices artt sud. 
Johnson treated 1 his prisoners with the greatest humanity, 

1 Subsequently Sir William Johnson, who, in 1755, was commissioned 
Maj.-Gen., and given command of the expedition against Crown Point. For 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 19 

but I believe the officers who were in the defeat at Mononga. 
hela are too much enraged at the infernal cruelty of the French 
to applaud his conduct. I heard a little story to the North- 
ward which seems an evidence of this. A gentleman there 
expressed his surprise that Johnson had not taken more pri- 
soners, and an officer of considerable rank in Braddock's Ex- 
pedition said, with some emotion, that he was surprised Mr. 
Johnson had taken one. 

It might seem strange that Mr. Braddock marched out with 
no more than sixty or seventy Indians. 'Tis said he might 
have been joined by five or six hundred of them, had he 
thought their friendship worth conciliating, and taken prompt 
measures for that purpose. It is said they had declared their 
attachment to the English, and that they were willing to 
attend the army. Upon these occasions the Indians expect 
some ceremony, and always require presents. One Gist, 1 a 
young man who had been a dabbler in the Indian trade, in 
which his father had been more largely concerned, was sent 
to invite the Indians to the camp, and notwithstanding they 
did not like the manner of the invitation, five hundred of 
them were preparing to return with him, but were prevented 
by the remonstrance of one Parris, who traded and had great 
influence with them. He represented to them that it did not 
appear Gist had any commission to invite them, but from 
what he said that he had brought with him no presents, 
that it was improbable one so young, and of such little ac- 
count should be sent alone upon a business of such great im- 
portance. That he did not doubt but that the English would 
be glad to see them, and would reward them well, if they 
would wait a little, but that they must expect only a slender 

his victory over Dieskan at Lake George, Sept. 8th, 1755, he received the 
thanks of Parliament, 5000, and a baronetcy. Life and Times of Sir 
William Johnson, Bart., by Wm. L. Stone, Albany, 1865. 

1 It is hard to say which one of the Gists is here referred to. Christopher 
Gist, the son of Richard, accompanied Washington to the Ohio in 1753. 
His father, Richard, was one of the surveyors employed to lay out the origi- 
nal Baltimore town, and may have been the elder of the name mentioned by 
Mr. Dulany. Christopher and his two sons were with Braddock. Biographi- 
cal Sketches of Distinguished Marylanders, Esmeralda Boyle, Bait., 1877. 

20 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

reward, if they returned with Gist that he would assume 
the merit of their services, and receive the reward of them. 
Upon these remonstrances they refused to go with Gist, and 
told him they expected to be treated with, and to see some 
person of authority, upon whose promises they might rely. 
I never heard that a second message was sent to these Indians, 
but that a reward was offered for the apprehension of Parris, 
though perhaps it would have been more prudent to have 
made him a present, as with his assistance the Indians might 
have been more easily managed. 

Of the sixty or seventy Indians who went out with Brad- 
dock, only thirteen attended him to the Monongahela. What 
was the reason of their defection, I have not certainly heard. 1 

As Orme is gone home, I take it for granted his account of 
the action will be published there, and, perhaps, may give the 
public a different impression of the conduct of the expedition 
than a disinterested and candid narrative would do. He ab- 
solutely governed Mr. Braddock, and his influence and inso- 
lence became so notorious that there is hardly any one in the 
army who cannot give instances of them. The General was 
a man of violent passions, of approved courage, and of clear 
honesty ; and, as it generally happens to men of his cast, very 
susceptible of obstinate resentment, and implicit confidence. 
His confidence in Orme was such, as that his favorite could 
make him smile or frown upon whom he pleased. Men of 
experience and military pretensions could not court the patron- 
age of a youngster, and it was his ambition, as well as interest, 
to guard all the avenues to the General's esteem or counte- 
nance, that no one might pass without his permission. His 
insolence (the inseparable vice of exalted worthlessness) in- 
creased with his influence, and every one was sure to suffer 
the former, who would not court the latter, and, therefore, as 
there is a pride in real merit which will not stoop for its re- 
ward to mean compliances, the more merit a man had the less 
countenance he received. The arrogance of this upstart was 
monstrous. He not only lorded it over and insulted the mili- 

1 Mr. Sargent, in his History of the BraddocJc Expedition, thinks that 
the blame rested with Gov. Dinwiddie, see pp. 168-69. 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 21 

tary men, but the country, and people of it wherever he went 
were calumniated, or oppressed by him. His influence all 
America has reason to deplore, his insolence to resent, and his 
enmity to fear, if he has yet the power of hurting us by his 
representations, for nothing makes a man of a bad disposition 
BO implacable, as the consideration of his having injured others 
without cause. 1 

The most scandalous and disgraceful defeat that ever was 
heard of, the defeat of an army of regular troops, well ap- 
pointed, with a good train of artillery, every instrument of 
war, all the necessaries and conveniences which could reason- 
ably be desired, by five or six hundred men, one-half of whom 
were naked barbarians, without one piece of artillery, or any 
advantage but of being possessed of a little eminence, and 
sheltered by growing trees, which might have been gained in 
a few minutes, was owing to the accursed influence of this 

In the account he gave of this action, he did all he could 
to excuse the General, which, indeed, was necessary to vindi- 
cate himself. Every one knew there was a fault somewhere, 
and his business was to impute it where the end might be 
answered, and the least contradiction given. The officers all 
behaved as well as men in their circumstances could do. Had 
the blame been thrown upon them, they would have wiped 
off the aspersion, and probably recriminated. They were, 
therefore, to be represented as attacking the enemy in a body 
and singly, to animate the men by their example ; but the 
men would not do their duty, listen to any exhortations, or 

1 From a note in Sargent's History of Braddock's Expedition, p. 283, 
it appears that the opinion expressed by Mr. Dulany, of Capt. Robt. Orme, 
does not agree with that formed by others with whom he came in contact. 
Shirly wrote that Orme was honest and capable, and thought it fortunate 
that the General was so much under his influence, and that when he returned 
to England he would put the affairs of the western campaign in a true light. 
Orme's commission was that of Lieutenant in the Coldstream Guards. 
He was wounded at the same time Braddock was killed, but recovered and 
returned to England. He died Feb. 1781. Mr. Sargent thought he was 
connected with the family of the same name, who seem through continued 
generations to be identified with the East India Company. 

22 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

obey any command even the officers themselves laugh at the 
fulsome flattery. I believe, since I have seen and conversed 
with many officers who were in the action, that the men did 
not behave so well as might have been wished, and that it was 
owing to the extreme and unnecessary hardships and fatigue 
they had suffered, to their being almost starved in the midst 
of plenty, to their not being formed, to their diffidence of the 
abilities of those who advised the General, and to the little 
weight they observed those officers to have whom they thought 
the most capable. 

After this defeat, and the precipitate flight of Dunbar to 
Philadelphia, 1 the enemy fell upon the Provinces of Virginia 
and Maryland, and have burnt and destroyed a great many 
plantations, and murdered the families upon them. All the 
plantations in this Province (except two or three) for near one 
hundred miles to the Eastward of Fort Cumberland have been 
destroyed, or deserted. The people of Pennsylvania had 
flattered themselves that the Indians would spare them, and, 
indeed, it was so late before they were attacked, that many 
people suspected they had some grounds to rely upon the 
mercy of the savages; 2 but the Virginians having granted a 
large sum of money for the defence of their country, and the 
Indians having laid waste so much of that and this country, 
and no measures having been taken in Pennsylvania for the 
defence of the back people, they have been attacked also, and, 
as they were quite defenceless, have suffered extremely. 

Political disputes have run as high in Pennsylvania as here 
and have been managed with greater bitterness against their 
Governor. 3 It seems he was suspected of being in an interest 
against the Quakers before his appointment to the govern- 
ment of that Province, and it having been reported that he 
was the author of a piece called the Present State of Penn- 

1 " On Friday, y 29th of Augt. 1755, came to Philada. with the remainder 
of Sr Peter Halket's and his own Kegimts., and of the 3 Independant Com- 
pany^." See Memorandum by Eobt. Strettell, PENNA. MAG., vol. ii. p. 110. 

2 The Indian incursions against the settlements in Pennsylvania did not 
take place until the month of Oct. 1755. 

8 Robert Hunter Morris. 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 23 

sylvania, in which the prevailing party of that Province have 
been roughly enough handled, 1 he soon became extremely ob- 
noxious to the Quakers, who are, I believe, the most teasing 
and pertinacious people upon earth. In the messages from 
the Lower House he has been most scurrilously and contempt- 
uously treated, all the ill-language they could collect has been 
used by them to express the most malevolent and malicious 
reflections. Franklin is said to have had a principal hand in 
these compositions, who is, from a private difference, a most 
malignant enemy to the Governor. 

The Quakers had managed the Germans, and dissenters of 
all denominations with so much address, as to attach them to 
their party. 2 Tte Germans, who had felt all the galling op- 
pressions of a military government in Europe, were glad to 
be governed by the professors of such pacifick principles, as 
the best security against the evils which had driven them 
from their own country, and the dread of an established clergy 
animated all dissenters with favorable sentiments towards the 
Quakers, whom they knew to be invincible enemies to such 
an establishment. But as property is the great idol of man- 
kind, however they may profess their regard for liberty and 
religion, when the Indians fell upon Pennsylvania, and had 
penetrated into the best-settled parts of that Province, the 
Germans complained that no measures had been taken to 
avert this calamity, cried out for protection, demanded arms, 
and finding the necessity of some legal means to compel men 
to join in the defence of their property, signed an application 
for a Militia Law. The Quakers on their part prepared an 
address intimating in an obscure and canting style (as their 
manner is), that even money ought not to be granted, which 
might, in the application of it, show that they rather depended 
upon the arm of the flesh, than the interposition of Provi- 
dence. This address had been presented, and lain in the 
Lower House for some time before the purport of it was pub- 
licly known. However, a copy of it having, by some means 

1 It was written by the Rev. William Smith, D.D. 

2 The true cause of this affiliation was that the M ennonites and other denom- 
inations among the Germans were averse to bearing arms. 

24 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

or other, got abroad (for which the Lower House discharged 
their door-keeper), and the members having expressed their 
dislike of the style of the application for a militia law, every 
one was enraged against the Quakers. The magistrates could 
hardly protect them from the insults of the mob. A number 
of people had gathered together at Philadelphia, and demanded 
protection in such manner as threatened outrage if it was 
denied, and, indeed, all the symptoms of a civil convulsion 
appeared. The Assembly were greatly embarrassed an effec- 
tual Militia Law would have destroyed all Quakerism, and 
the multitude were to be soothed. They did not know how 
to give up the point of taxing the Proprietary estate (which 
in reason and justice ought certainly to be taxed), yet nothing 
could be done without giving money. The affair of the 
Militia Law being the most important, consideration was for 
a long time postponed. They fell upon an expedient to ob- 
viate the difficulty they were under, in regard to the Money 
Bill. They inserted a clause in it by which the propriety of 
taxing the estate of the Penns was left to the decision of the 
Crown. This appeal was an extraordinary step, but, as it was 
to the Throne, the Governor could not speak plainly his ob- 
jection to it, though it did in effect give up the whole legis- 
lative power to the Crown, and implied an admission that this 
power, when the immediate safety of the people required it, 
could not be exercised according to the terms of the charter, 
and seemed to indicate a defect in the constitution requiring 
a remedy. Whilst this matter was depending, the embarrass- 
ment the Governor and the Assembly were equally under, was 
removed by the receipt of an instruction from Messrs. Penn, 
by which they bound themselves, though not in the way 
desired by the Assembly, to contribute the sum of 5000 
towards the defence of the Province. As this sum was ten 
times more than a taxation of this estate would have pro- 
duced, the point in dispute was effectually settled, and a Bill 
for 60,000 passed a Militia Law (such as it is) was also sent 
up and passed. The preamble to this Act shows what diffi- 
culties the Assembly were under. 

The behavior of the Quakers, and the pressing messages of 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 25 

the Governor sent them to comply with the reasonable requi- 
sitions of the people, have gained him much popularity, and 
the multitude are now as loud in his praise as they were be- 
fore in their clamours against his measures. They suppose that 
his representations induced the Messrs. Penn to contribute so 
largely to the defence of the Province. The Quakers, who 
are possessed of what Swift calls the most useful talent in 
politics, on their part, insinuate that this instruction had ar- 
rived long before he communicated it that he post-dated the 
copy he sent the Lower House, and would have interrupted 
this munificence to the Province, if he could have prevailed 
upon the Assembly to have given up the point, which for the 
interest of the" people they bad so obstinately maintained. 

God knows when there will be an end to our disputes. The 
late subject of contention between the Government 1 and the 
Lower House of Assembly has been the ordinary licenses, 2 and 
I believe the whole Province have such an opinion of the 
conduct of their representatives in insisting upon this matter, 
that they would hardly consent that it should be waived, if 
the enemy were in the heart of the Province. 

When it first was proposed to apply the revenue arising 
from ordinary Licences as a mean to sink the last item of 
money the Assembly offered, I think it was so plainly impro- 
per, and might have been so clearly shown that the former 
iricumbrances upon it were so heavy, as that nothing could be 
expected from it towards sinking the money in a reasonable 
time, that the Lower House might have been prevailed upon 
to have waived it, but the Upper House insisting that it be- 
longed to the Proprietary's (rational) Prerogative, the whole 
dispute turned upon that, and though it was most egregiously 
mismanaged on both sides, yet towards the conclusion of the 
controversy, some of the members having got into their hands 
the case of Inns Hutt, 100, and Dr. Carroll's informing the 
House that he had seen the Secretary's commission in the 
Provincial office (of a date subsequent to the first dispute 
about the ordinary Licenses) in which there was a grant of or- 

1 Of Maryland. Tavern Licenses? 

26 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

dinary Licenses to that officer, the uproar was so great that the 
House had very near prorogued itself. They voted this grant 
illegal, a monopoly, etc., and in an address to the Governor, 
declared they would not be wearied out by frequent meetings, 
and desired that he would not call them together till he found 
the Council in a disposition to act with candor, and do justice 
to the country. All this happened before Braddock's defeat, 
and the Assembly have not met since, which I can't but 
think an ill-advised step. The Indians have laid waste the 
country, murdered many of the inhabitants, who, having no 
arms or ammunition, could not resist them. The Govern- 
ment can't protect the country without the concurrence of 
the Assembly they have had no opportunity of giving it. 
Perhaps had they met, nothing would have been done, but 
that would have been their fault. If they have been wrong 
in contending for the ordinary Licenses, as they have not had 
an opportunity of taking the proper measures for the defence 
of the country, they may say what they please that they 
would have joined in any measures, and waived all disputes, 
that, however they might have insisted upon what they ap- 
prehended to be their right when Braddock's Army protected 
the country, they would have given up small matters when 
their country was attacked. 

Nothing has been done for the defence of the Province but 
by private subscription, principally among the merchants, and 
in two or three counties, and the sum raised thereby was so 
small as to be of very little service, and is now nearly ex- 
pended; and the burthen and inequality of this sort of con- 
tribution is so great, that, I believe, it will not be solicited a 
second time. 

The Proprietary has lost a vast country by our unhappy 
disputes, and the business of the Land Office has greatly de- 
creased, and if some method is not speedily fallen upon to 
settle matters,! can foresee that this Province will be brought 
to the greatest distress, and the Proprietary's revenue con- 
siderably diminished. A subscription paper is handed about 
for the support of an agent, and 'tis said that a large sum 
is already subscribed. I believe the people don't know 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 27 

whom to send home upon this business, and that if they could 
get a person to undertake it in whom they could confide, they 
would be more liberal on this occasion than ever they were 
in any instance. Everything tends to confusion, and the 
bitterness and malignity of party is such that I wish myself 
somewhere else. 

Dr. Carroll is dead, and died as he lived, an extraordinary 
man. He took no other sustenance for a considerable time 
before he died than spring water. He has directed his son by 
his will to plead the Act of Limitation to all claims that may 
be barred by it, and after declaring himself a sound Protes- 
tant, and a true member of the Church of England, as by law 
established, h$ concludes thus : "Now to God the Father, God 
the Son, and God the Holy Ghost be all Honor and Glory, 
forever and ever, Amen." 

The clamors against Popery are as loud as ever. One of 
our priests had like to have fallen into the hands of the army 
when the troops were at Alexandria, and if he had, I believe 
he would have been hanged as a spy. The man had been 
sauntering about in the camp, and some one from Maryland 
whispered that he was a priest. This was soon noised about, 
and the priest thinking himself not very safe on the South 
side of the Potomack, made all the haste he could to a boat 
which was waiting for him, and had but just put off, when 
he discovered a party of soldiers running to the place where 
the boat had waited for him. The officer who commanded 
this party called to the boatsmen to return, but the priest 
prevailed upon them to make all the expedition they could 
to the opposite shore. Something ought to be done in regard 
to these priests, but the present heat and ferment of the times 
are such that nothing short of a total extermination of them, 
and an absolute confiscation of all their estates will be heard 
of with temper, and that the Romish laity might be laid 
under some restraints in the education of their children is 
greatly to be wished, but all moderate and reasonable pro- 
positions for this end would now be at once rejected. 

It has always been my opinion that the Romish laity ought 
inviolably to enjoy their property, and the full benefit and 

28 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

participation of those laws by which the subject is protected, 
and also to be indulged in a modest and peaceable exercise of 
their religion, and that, therefore, in imposing restrictions on 
their clergy, care ought to be taken not absolutely to exclude 
them, though the greatest care ought to be taken lest they (as 
they are wont to do) transgress the proper business of their 
functions by subjecting them to such restraints as may deter 
them from a conduct tending to the mischief and disturbance 
of the society. The extreme severities some among us pro- 
pose are, I think, unnecessary, and, therefore, persecuting, and 
inconsistent with that lenity and benevolence which unde- 
praved humanity, and the mild religion we profess, inspire 
and enjoin. There is, in the nature of things, an essential 
difference between right and wrong, which no power on earth 
can alter, however it may enforce an acquiescence and sub- 
mission to its mandates, and words may be abused to stigma- 
tize justice, or varnish over and sanctify oppression. Perse- 
cution is so horrible that human nature starts at it, even the 
bloody Inquisitor, whose occupation is murder, disavows per- 
secution, and usurps the venerable name of religion to palliate 
his infernal cruelty, whilst he butchers and mangles the 
unhappy victim to it. But why is this persecution, and not 
every deprivation of property, life, or liberty in its degree 
persecution, which necessity, the preservation, or the welfare 
of the community does not indispensably demand? 

If the defeat of Braddock was unexpected, the defeat of 
Dieskau was as little apprehended by the enemy. Had the 
enemy succeeded in this attack, New York must have been 
in the most imminent danger Albany would have been re- 
duced, Oswego fallen, of course, and Shirley's Army have 
surrendered at discretion. When this defeat happened, Dun- 
bar was at, or in his flight to Philadelphia. Indeed, if he 
had been at New York, I confess my expectations from his 
conduct are not such as to incline me to think he would have 
been of any great service, had that Province needed his as- 

I believe he would not be sorry to be recalled, nor would any 
one else, especially if he were to be succeeded in his command 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 29 

by his Lt.-Col., Mr. Burton, who is a man of good sense, and 
on all hands acknowledged to be an excellent officer, though 
his contempt for the enemy, and eagerness to get a regiment 
('tis said) contributed somewhat to the late sad disaster. 
'Tis a pity he saw his fault so late, that all a man of courage 
could do proved of very little effect. 

There has not yet been any account published of Johnson's 
victory which may be depended upon. I am but just returned 
from New York, whither I went to accompany our Governor 
at his request, and by all that I could collect there, the ISTew 
England people did not behave so well as might have been 
wished, and nothing but the cowardice of the enemy saved 
them. Mr. Johnson having received intelligence that a large 
body of the enemy were in motion, sent out a party of one 
thousand or twelve hundred men under the command of the 
Colonels Williams and Whiting to reconnoitre them. The 
enemy, also, having intelligence of the march of this body 
of men, formed in an ambuscade, into which our people would 
have inevitable fallen, had it not been for the following ex- 
traordinary accident. Among this party under the command 
of Williams and Whiting were several of the Mohocks, as 
there were of the Potmewagoes among the French. When 
our Indians who were in front were within gunshot of the 
French Indians, they discovered themselves by rising up, and 
discharging their pieces in the air in token of friendship to 
our Indians, and immediately proposed to them to withdraw 
themselves from the English and French Troops, and leave it 
to them to decide their own quarrel. To this proposition 
many of the Mohocks began to listen, when old Hendrick 
fearing the consequence, if this treaty was not interrupted, 
immediately shot one of the French Indians, and thus the 
engagement began. Many of our people ran away as soon as 
the Indians discovered themselves, but another party being 
sent from the camp to support Williams and Whiting, they 
maintained a sort of running fight back again to the camp, the 
French pursuing them in order of battle. Had the enemy 
not been discovered by the above accident, our people must 
have been surrounded and cut to pieces, for the enemy were 

30 The Middle Colonies in 1755. 

three to their one. As the fugitives who first returned to the 
camp magnified greatly the number of the enemy, and our 
people had been very roughly handled, there was a great con- 
sternation there when the enemy began their attack, and had 
they pushed it with vigor they must have prevailed, but the 
Indians and Canadians being greatly alarmed at the noise of 
our cannon, soon broke and betook themselves to trees for 
shelter, from whence they fired with very little effect, as they 
were at a great distance. This gave our people some spirits, 
and they had in reality none but the French regulars to en- 
gage, with the advantage of some artillery, and a good breast- 
work. However, as they were not used to a regular platoon 
fire, I am inclined to believe that if the regulars had not been 
seized with a panick, they alone would have defeated us. Mr. 
Johnson behaved extremely well, and did all that could be 
expected from a man of spirit unacquainted with the art of 
war. Lyman hid himself, and many other of the officers did 
not show that resolution so requisite in a soldier. Johnson 
had about twenty-two hundred men, and Dieskau three 
thousand, of whom eight hundred at least were regulars. 
The victory consisted in repelling the enemy. "We lost three 
hundred men, and they about two hundred. Our loss within 
the breastwork was trifling most of our men were killed in 
the party under the command of Williams and Whiting. 
We took but few prisoners, among whom was Dieskau, the 
General, who is now at New York, languishing under an in- 
curable wound. 1 No people puff more than the New England 
men. In one of their accounts 'tis said that Dieskau paid 
them compliments for their gallant behavior, but that was so 
far from the case, that I have been well-informed he is ex- 
tremely mortified by the defeat, and has declared that if he 
had had three hundred regulars to have stood by him, he 
might easily have forced Johnson's camp. He might easily 
have escaped, and his motive for not going off is somewhat 
mysterious. Some say he resented the behavior of his men 
so much, as to declare to them, when they were running away, 
that if they did fly, they should leave him. Perhaps he tried 

1 Baron Dieskau recovered and returned to France. He died Sept. 8, 

The Middle Colonies in 1755. 31 

this expedient to recall his men to their duty, which not suc- 
ceeding, he was taken prisoner. He might without all doubt 
have escaped, for the wound that now threatens his life he 
did not receive till some time after the action. He had re- 
ceived in the action a slight wound in his arm, but when his 
men had betaken themselves to a precipitate flight, he laid 
himself upon the ground, and was first met with by a party 
of our Indians to whom he gave his purse, and they passed 
him without doing, or offering to him the least injury. After- 
wards a party of seven men came up to him, among whom was 
a French deserter, and when he was taking his sword in the 
scabbard out of the belt, to deliver it up to them, the French- 
man shot him* This, Dieskau complained of to Johnson, who 
sent for the man and examined him, and he alleged in his 
excuse that he apprehended Dieskau intended to draw his 
sword, and stand upon his defence. 

One of his Aids-de-camp is also a prisoner at New York. 
He calls himself Monsieur Obrien, but ' tis strongly suspected 
that he was called Paddy O'Brien in his own country. 

I wish that the ill-success of Mr. Braddock, and the defeat 
of Dieskau, may not induce the ministry into the mistake 
that regulars are of no great use in our woods, than which 
nothing can be more detrimental to America. Should we not 
have the assistance of regulars from England, I am afraid we 
shall be little able to withstand the French, who have sent 
in, and will continue every year to pour troops from old France 
into America. 

I am now called upon for my letters, which obliges me to 
break off sooner than I otherwise should have done, though 
when I come to turn over the number of sheets I have scrib- 
bled, I fear you may wish I had done it long ago. 

Please to make my compliments to Mr. and Mrs. Anderson. 
I intended to write to Mrs. Anderson, but have trespassed so 
much upon your patience that I have not time. 

I am, Sir, Your Most Ob't & Humble Servant, 

DAN'L DULANY, 9th Dec. 1755. 

[A Postscript to this letter, more social in its character than the letter 
itself, will be printed in our next number. ED.] 

32 John Talbot, tlie First Bishop in North America. 


Read before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Monday Evening, Nov. 11, 1878. 

Some three years since 1 1 discovered in the office of the 
Register of Wills in this city, an instrument which was admit- 
ted to probate an hundred and fifty years ago, having for its seal 
a mitre, and, in monogram, all the letters of the name " JOHN 
TALBOT." This is a culminating evidence of what has been 
wrapped in mysterious obscurity. Tradition, indeed, had 
vaguely whispered that there were Bishops in America in Colo- 
nial times. Documentary proofs of this were brought from 
Great Britain to this country in 1836, by the late Rev. Dr. Fran- 
cis L. Hawks. Percival, in the appendix to his work entitled, 
"An Apology for the Doctrine of Apostolical Succession," 
gives a table of English Conjuring Bishops, naming among 
them Welton and Talbot, with the remark, "They both went 
to the Colonies in North America (the former to Philadelphia), 
and exercised the Episcopal functions." Lathbury, in his 
"History of the Conjurors," makes a similar, though less 
definite statement. Hawkins's "Mission of the Church of 
England," and Anderson's "History of the Church of Eng- 
land in the Colonies," both enlarge upon it, taking, of course, 
the Establishmentarian view. 

Encouraged by the invitation of this distinguished Society, 
and with the further materials in my possession, 2 1 shall at- 
tempt a monograph of him whom chronological accuracy 
must designate as " The First Bishop in North America." 

JOHN TALBOT, Master of Arts, and Priest of the Church of 
England, had been in the Colony of Virginia as early as 

1 September, 1875. 

2 Chiefly, the Lambeth, Fulham, and S. P. G. MSS., copied in extenso 
in History of the Church in Burlington, New Jersey. 


Founder of this Church 1703 


By Nonjuror Consecration 1722 
Died in Burlington Nov. 29 th 1727- 

fy , Beloved and Lamented- 

St: John II - 17- 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 33 

about the year 1693 ; but whether he was in Holy Orders at 
that time, or not, we cannot say. Ten years afterwards, we 
find him Chaplain of the ship Centurion, Capt. Herne, Com- 
mander, during that memorable voyage, when, on the 28th 
of April, 1702, she sailed from Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, 
bound for Boston, in New England ; and freighted with a 
group of rare prominence, Col. Dudley, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, Col. Povie, Deputy Governor, and Mr. Morris, after- 
wards Governor of New Jersey, together with the first two 
missionaries of the newly-incorporated "Society for Propa- 
gating the Gospel in Foreign Parts." 1 

So generous were these Governors to their clerical com- 
panions, that they extended to them the hospitality of their 
table throughout the entire voyage. Judge Sewall's Diary, 
a MS. in the Library of the Historical Society of Massachu- 
setts, says, that such deference was paid to the senior mis- 
sionary that he was called upon to say Grace, although the 
Chaplain was on board. How intensely interesting, at this 
period, would be notes of the conversations between these 
three Colonial statesmen, and three intelligent clergymen, 
during that long voyage of six weeks and a day ! Must they 
not have been largely interspersed with the political, moral, 
and religious condition of the Colonies, and the imperative 
needs of the hour? No wonder that an ardent, devout, and 
energetic man, like John Talbot, expressed a desire to ex- 
change the service of the Admiralty for the harder service 
of the adventurous missionary. 

It was a great event when that ship arrived. Prominent 
colonists went on board to welcome their political ofiicials, 
while the two ministers of the Church of England congrega- 
tion in Boston greeted their brethren in the Holy Ministry. 
This was on the llth of June. 

On Sunday, the 28th of June, the Rev. Mr. Talbot took 
his turn in preaching in the Queen's Chapel, Boston; and the 
journal of the senior missionary adds, in connection with this 

1 Rev. George Keith, and Rev. Patrick Gordon. 
VOL. III. 3 

34 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

entry, "By the advice of my good Friends at Boston, and 
especially of Col. Joseph Dudley, Governour of Boston Colony, 
I chose the above-named Mr. John Talbot to be my Assistant 
and Associate in my Missionary Travels and Services, he 
having freely and kindly offered himself, and whom I freely 
and kindly received, and with the first occasion I wrote to 
the Society, praying them to allow of him to be my Fellow 
Companion and Associate in Travels, &c., which they accord- 
ingly did." Mr. Talbot began at once his missionary work, 
although his appointment by the Society bears date the 18th 
of September. His was a spirit which could not brook delay ; 
and in the intervening three months much could be accom- 
plished by those who leaped rather than ran. On the 1st of 
July he was present at the commencement of the College at 
Cambridge, Mass.; and, on the 9th, was at Lynn; and thence 
proceeded on an extensive missionary exploration. The tour 
was made on horseback, except where occasion demanded 
that both men and beasts should be shipped upon sloops. 
From twenty to fifty miles a day were thus accomplished. 
Churches, meeting houses, town houses, and private houses, 
were used for Divine Service, and the prayers of the Church 
of England were duly read before each sermon. 

The continual change of scene, the cordial welcomes, the 
thronged attendance, the politeness of every Colonial Gover- 
nor, the exhilarating mode of travel, the crisp air, and sweet 
odors of autumn, as they passed through Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, Long Island, and East and West Jersey kept the 
missionaries in high spirits. LAUS DEO APUD AMERICANOS! is 
the outburst of the full heart of Talbot, inscribed at the top 
of this page of his register, in bold and beautiful letters. 

On the 5th of November, the travellers arrived in Philadel- 
phia, and were kindly received by the two ministers, and all 
the Church of England people here. On the following Sun- 
day morning, the 8th, Mr. Talbot preached in Christ Church. 
The congregation was so large that the building could not 
hold them. Many staid outside and listened. 

The same week, at the instance and charge of Col. Nichol- 
son, Governor of Virginia, the missionaries joined five other 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 35 

clergymen, "in the little Town of New York," where they 
were a week in session, "considering of ways and means to 
propagate the Gospel." On the 22d, being Sunday, Mr. Tal- 
bot preached in New York, where he enjoyed the hospitality 
of Lord Cornbury, Governor of New York and the Jerseys. 
Five hundred miles of travel had now been made ; and, to 
use Talbot's own language, "In all places where we come, we 
find a great ripeness and inclination amongst all sorts of people 
to embrace the Gospel. Even the Indians themselves have 
promised obedience to the Faith, as appears by a conference 
that my Lord Cornbury, the Governor here, has had with 
them at Albany. . . . If I had their language, or where- 
with to maintain an Interpreter," continues the fearless Talbot, 
" it should be the first thing I should do, to go among the 
thickest of 'em." 

In the same letter, after alluding to the Convocation of 
seven clergy, he writes, " We have great need of a Bishop 
here, to visit all the churches, to ordain some, to confirm 
others, and bless all." This expression, with scarcely any 
alteration, was transferred to a conspicuous position in the 
first report of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
and has been a classic sentence, repeated in ecclesiastical 
accounts of the Colonies ever since. 

On the 10th of the next April, Mr. Talbot writes from New 
Castle, " Here is little or no Government, and people in many 
places take the liberty to say there be three Gods, or no God, 
and nothing is done to them .... God bless Queen 
Anne, and defend her that she may defend the Faith ; and 
her Faithful Councellours, if they have any piety or policy, 
I'm sure will take some course with these Heathens and Here- 
ticks, for if they be let alone to take the sword (which they 
certainly will when they think they are strong enough), we 
shall perish with it, for not opposing them in due time." 

When we reflect that this utterance was made seventy years 
before the outbreak of the American Revolution, we must 
credit Mr. Talbot with the ken of a prophet. Temporizing 
continued, with regard to the Colonies, and shameful neglect 

36 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

in manning the Church. Neither the mace of the law, nor 
the trumpet of the Gospel was adequately employed; and 
the power of Britain was swept from its transatlantic Colo- 
nies, according to the minute prediction of this man of God. 

For a closer insight into Mr. Talbot's character, let further 
extracts be cited from his correspondence. 

"It grieves me much," he writes, "to see so many People 
here without the benefit of serving God in the wilderness. 
I believe I have been solicited to tarry at twenty Places, where 
they want much, and are able to maintain a minister, so that 
he should want nothing; they send to New England and call 
any sorry young man, purely for want of some good honest 
clergyman of the Church of England." 

His filial piety appears like a modest flower: "Pray re- 
member my duty and Love to my Good Mother; I hope she 
is alive and well, let her not want 10 per annum, as long as 
I have 60 coming to me." And he repeats, before a month 
is over, "I shall be glad to hear how all our Friends do, es- 
pecially my good mother. Pray let me know where she is, 
and how she does, let her have decem minas upon my account 
as long as she lives." 

His abundant labors are recounted in these lines, "I have 
sent the present state of the Church apud Americanos as far 
as we have gone ; the first year from Dover, eighty miles 
eastward from Boston in New England, to Philadelphia in 
Pennsylvania; since that scheme was finished, I have gone 
up and down in E. and "W". Jersey preaching and baptizing, 
and preparing the way for several Churches there. At Amboy 
they are going to build one, at Hopewell another, and at 
Shrewsbury, Coll. Morris is going to build one at his own 
cost and charge, and he will endow it as he says, which I 
don't doubt, for he is an honest Gentleman, and a member of 
the Honorable Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts. I was at Burlington last Lady day, and after prayers 
we went to the Ground where they were going to build a 
Church, and I laid the first stone, which I hope will be none 
other than the House of God and Gate of Heaven to the 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 37 

People." .' .- . " God bless this Church and let them pros- 
per that love it. We called this Church St. Mary's, it being 
upon her day. January last I was at the opening of a Church 
at Chester ; I preached the first sermon that ever was there, 
on Sunday, the day before the Conversion of St. Paul, and 
after much debate what to call it, I named it St. Paul's. This 
is one of the best Churches in these American Parts, and a 
very pleasant place; but they have no minister as yet, but 
Mr. Evans, of Philadelphia, officiated there once in three 

He describes the soil and climate in these quaint words, 
"The country is a good land in all parts of it, bating the 
sudden change gf Heat and Cold, which, if people be not 
careful, they are many times the worse for. The air is gene- 
rally clear and pure. Nobody complains here of the spleen, 
unless he has also an evil conscience attending." His poverty, 
and humor withal, are shown when he says, "I am but poor 
at present, being robbed by a negro of all my money out of 
my Portmanteau ; the young slut did not leave me one Token 
for myself, only I got the bag again. But, blessed be God, 
I never wanted meat nor drink, nor cloaths neither as yet; 
but if you don't send me some cloaths next shipping, instead 
of going as they do in White Hall, I shall go as the Indians 
do. I shall be content, let it be as it will." 

The same spirit pervades the next letter: "I believe I have 
done the Church more service since I came hither than I 
would in seven years in England. Perhaps when I have been 
here six or seven years, I may make a Trip home to see some 
Friends (for they won't come to me), but then it will be 
Ammo Revertendi, for I have given myself up to the service 
of God and his Church apud Americanos ; and I had rather 
dye in the service than desert it." 

He pleads for books, explanatory of the doctrine and liturgy 
of the Church of England, to distribute in his travels. 

" I use to take a wallet full of Books, and carry them 100 
miles about, and disperse them abroad, and give them to all 
that desired them; 'tis a comfort to the people in the Wil- 
derness to see that somebody takes care of them. There is 

38 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

a time to sow and a time to reap, which last I don't desire in 
this world. I might have money enough of the people in 
many places, but I would never take any of those that we goe 
to proselyte . . I resolved to work with my hands rather 
than they should say I was a hireling, and come for money, 
which they are very apt to do." 

In strict correspondence with this declaration, we find in 
the treasurer's book where he has returned payments made 
to him. 

The earnestness with which he pleads for a bishop, is 
heightened by his intelligence on the subject. "It seems 
the strangest thing in the world, and 'tis thought History 
cannot parallel it, that any place has received the Word of 
God so many years . . and still remain altogether in the 
wilderness, as sheep without a shepherd. The poor Church 
of America is worse off in this respect than any of her ad- 
versaries. . . . We count ourselves happy, and, indeed, so 
we are, under the protection and Fatherly Care of the Eight 
Eev. Father in God, Henry, Lord Bishop of London, and we 
are all satisfied that we can't have a greater Friend and Patron 
than himself. But alas I there is such a great Gulph fixt 
between us, that we can't pass to him nor he to us; but may 
he not send a Suffragan? I believe I am sure there are a 
great many learned and Good men in England, and I believe 
also did our Gracious Queen Anne but know the necessities 
of her many good subjects in these parts of the world, she 
would allow 1000 per annum, rather than so many souls 
should suffer; and then it would be a hard case if there should 
not be found one amongst so many pastors and Doctors (de 
tot millibus unus qui transiens, adjuvet nos) ; meanwhile I 
don't doubt but some learned and good man would go further, 
and do the Church more service with 100 per annum than 
with a coach and six, 100 years hence." 

Oil the 2d of April, 1704, the churchmen of Burlington 
drew up a formal petition, to which they affixed their signa- 
tures, praying the honorable Society that Mr. Talbot might 
settle with them. The petition was granted, and he became 
the Rector of St. Mary's Church ; but never gave over his 

John lalbot) the First Bishop in North America. 39 

activity as a general missionary. His horse, and his man 
Philip, were in constant requisition. To lose one's missionary 
horse would discourage some temperaments. Mr. Talbot thus 
cheerfully alludes to it: "My horse you know dyed at Bur- 
lington, and y e Quakers recorded it as a judgment upon me. 
Ben. Wheat set it down in his Almanack, such a day of y e 1st 
month John Talbot's horse dyed, and Barnet Lane haled him 
into the river." 

"As for a Suffragan," he continues, referring to the need 
seldom out of his mind, "we are all sensible of y e want we 
have of one, and pray God send us a man of peace, for other- 
wise he will do more harm than good." 

That he aspired to this office himself, is nowhere apparent. 
The reverse is sometimes revealed; notably in these words, 
"Mr. John Lillingston designs, it seems, to go for England 
next year; he seems to be the fittest person that America af- 
fords for the office of a Suffragan, and several persons, both 
of the Laity and Clergy, have wished he were the man ; and 
if my Lord of London thought fit to authorize him, several 
of the Clergy both of this Province and of Maryland have 
said they would pay their tenths unto him, as my Lord of 
London's Vicegerent, whereby the Bishop of America might 
have as honorable provision as some in Europe." 

This letter was written in New York; and, on the 2d of 
November, 1705 not a month afterwards the Clergy of New 
York, the Jerseys, and Pennsylvania convened at Burlington; 
drew up and signed three important papers : (1) an address to 
the Society, petitioning for a Suffragan Bishop ; (2) a petition 
to the Queen to the same purport ; and (3) a letter to the 
Bishop of London, commending Mr. Talbot, who was deputed 
to present them in person. The language in these letters is 
very strong: " Our inexpressible wants of one to represent 
your Lordship here, make us use all the means we can think 
of towards the obtaining that blessing. Indeed, our case upon 
that Account is very lamentable, and no words are sufficient 
to express it. "We shall have the less need to lay before your 
Lordship the further want of Ministers for West Jersey, Long 
Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, &c., in regard our Rev. 

40 John Talbot, the First Hishop in North America. 

Brother Mr. Talbot, who has been an Itinerant Missionary, 
is very capable of giving your Lordship a particular account 
of all our church affairs." 

The following March, Mr. Talbot was in London, soliciting 
for a Suffragan, books, and ministers. In the same year, 
doubtless to maintain himself, and have some priestly work 
while in England, he was presented to the living of Freethern 
in the county and diocese of Gloucester, and province 'of 
Canterbury. Two years afterwards he returned to America, 
with a heavy heart, to find that scandals had increased in 
Church and State. These, he avers, might have been avoided, 
by proper overseers, civil and ecclesiastical. The Secretary 
of the Society replies, that he should use greater moderation, 
and await the legal steps for the accomplishment of his desires. 
To this, he retorts, " You that live at home in ease and plenty, 
little do you know what they and we do bear and suffer here, 
and how many thousand souls are legally lost whilst they at 
home are legally supplying them." "I have got possession 
of the best house in America for a Bishop's seat; the Arch- 
bishop told me he would contribute towards it, and so I hope 
will others ; pray let me know your mind in this matter, as 
soon as may be, for if they slip this opportunity, there is not 
such another to be had." 

Three months afterwards, he writes in great depression, 
that ten missionaries have been lost, and not one has been 
sent in their stead. " Wherefore," says he, " my advice is, 
with humble submission to my superiors, to keep their money, 
and give us leave to come home, and send no more till they 
think fit to send a propagator of the Gospel; for otherwise 
their planting the Gospel is like the Indians planting gun- 
powder, which can never take root, but is blown away by 
every wind." 

Another year came, and it seemed, at last, as though Mr. 
Talbot's exertions were about to be rewarded. The Society 
empowered the Hon. Col. Hunter, Gov. of New York and 
the Jerseys, to treat with its owner, for the house recommen- 
ded by Talbot, for the residence of a Bishop. At this time, 
and for a year after, the Governor and he were friends. The 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 41 

Governor writes, " Mr. Talbot I have found a perfect honest 
man, and an indefatigable Laborer: If he had less warmth, he 
might have more success, but that's the effect of constitution." 

A war in which Great Britain was engaged produced in 
Mr. Talbot conscientious scruples, which caused him to omit 
that suffrage in the Litany for victory over her Majesty's 
enemies, and the prayer appointed to be said in time of war. 
Moreover, he went as far as New York in pursuance of a 
resolution to sail for England again, but changed his mind 
and returned to Burlington, where he bought a house and lot 
on the east side of what is now called Talbot street. The 
autumn following, Gov. Hunter, in behalf of the Society, 
consummated tfce purchase of the " mansion-house and lands" 
in Burlington, for 600 sterling of England, or 900 current 
money of New York, for a Bishop's seat. This famous pro- 
perty, only a few years previous, was described by Gabriel 
Thomas, in his quaint way, as " The Great and Stately Palace 
of John Tateham, Esq.," "pleasantly situated on the north 
side of the town, having a fine and delightful Garden and 
Orchard adjoyning to it." Its domain, of fifteen acres, was 
bounded on the north by the Delaware river, on the east by 
Assiscunk creek, on the south by Broad at., and on the west 
by St. Mary st. It was as level as a bowling green. The 
posts of its fences were cedar ; the covering of its roof, lead ; 
and there were offices, and a coach house, and stables, and 
every appointment to make it at once the grandest, and for 
want of a purchaser the cheapest establishment in America. 

A Bill was ordered to be drafted, to be offered in Parlia- 
ment, for establishing Bishoprics in America ; and Burling- 
ton was designated as the first American See. Everything 
presaged success, but before the Bill was introduced, its great 
patroness, Queen Anne, died. 

On the accession of George the First, a different complexion 
was given to American affairs. The feud between the Jacob- 
ites and the House of Hanover was reopened. All who held 
office were required to take the oath of allegiance afresh. 
This Mr. Talbot declined. Such a political offence, together 
with his plainness of speech, were made the ground for Gov. 

42 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

Hunter to charge him, in a very scurrilous letter, with " incor- 
porating the Jacobites in the Jerseys." And three of the 
most distinguished men in the Province Ex-Gov. Bass, the 
Attorney-General, Mr. Alex. Griffiths, and the Hon. Col. 
Daniel Coxe were included as his main abettors. The alle- 
gation was sent to England, and returned to Mr. Talbot. 
His vestry, who had known him for twelve years, united in 
pronouncing it "a calumnious and groundless scandal." Tal- 
bot, in his reply to the Bishop of London, says that he was 
a Williamite from the beginning, and took all the oaths at 
the admiralty office before first leaving England. Mingled 
with his indignation, he cannot resist a pun upon the Gover- 
nor's name. " I suffer like my Lord and Master between two 
at Philadelphia and New York, but God has been my succour, 
and I doubt not but he will still deliver me from the snare 
of the Hunter." 

On the 2d of June 1718, the Yestry of Christ Church, 
Philadelphia, united with that of St. Mary's Church, Bur- 
lington, in an humble petition to the Archbishops and Bishops 
of England, u to accomplish the evidently necessary work" of 
sending a Bishop to the Colonies. The next year, in April, 
1719, Mr. Talbot laid before the Yestry of Christ Church 
another address to the same purport, to the same dignitaries. 
This was signed by the Governor, the Yestry, and Mr. Talbot. 

Eighteen years had now passed, during which entire period 
Mr. Talbot had been incessant in toils, and importunate in 
appeals, for what he deemed the chief need of the Provinces. 

On the 22d of June, 1720, he sells a portion of his land in 
Burlington, doubtless to defray the expenses of the voyage, 
and sails for England, uncertain as to whether he will ever 

In April, 1721, he applied to the Lord High Chancellor, 
and received the interest on Archbishop Tenison's legacy, as 
the oldest missionary. He was absent two years and a half, 
and became intimate with Dr. Ralph Taylor, 1 a Conjuring 

1 A letter written from London, 7th January, 1722-3, contains these words : 
11 A few dayes agoe dyed the Rev. Dr. Ralph Taylor, who not conforming at 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 43 

Bishop. The original Nonjuring Bishops, Sancroft,Ken, and 
others, were deprived of their Sees, as Talbot well knew, on 
purely political grounds. They held to the doctrine of here- 
ditary right. They held further, that when the State perse- 
cuted the Church, the union of Church and State was dis- 
solved ; and that there was no validity in lay deprivations of 
Bishops and Clergy. In sympathy with such views, charged 
with Jacobitism when it was a false accusation, and despairing 
of an Episcopate for the Colonies in any other way, Talbot 
was induced to unite with Dr. Robert Welton, in receiving 
consecration from this source. The Conjurors were in un- 
doubted possession of the historical Episcopate. Yet, poli- 
tically, they w6re under the ban; and they had recently had 
a division among themselves on the ground of "usages." 
These things made the venture desperate. Still, there were 
arguments that overbalanced them. The American Colonies 
were not in any diocese, nor, at that time, in any jurisdiction. 
From the middle of Charles II. 's reign until the close of that 
of Queen Anne, the Bishops of London had exercised Epis- 
copal powers over America under a special seal the arms of 
the See of London, surrounded by the inscription : "SiGiLLUM. 


In George the First's reign, however, the question was re- 
ferred to the Attorney and Solicitor-General, "Whether 
America was so far to be deemed within the Diocese of 
London, that the Bishop thereof had all power in America?" 
The law-officers gave it as their opinion that letters-patent 
from the Crown were necessary to constitute such Episcopal 
powers, which Dr. Gibson, the then Bishop of London, re- 
fusing to take out, the seal became no longer an object for use. 1 
A well-informed ecclesiastic as Talbot was, a firm believer in 
the Divine right of Bishops, and that, without them, the 
gifts of ordination and confirmation could not be received, 
his mind was made up. And, previous to the month of 

the Revolution to the terms of the Government, followed King James the 
2d into France, and for some years was Chaplain to the Protestants of the 
Court of that unhappy Prince." 

1 " Notes and Queries," 3d Series, vol. iv. Aug. 1, 1863, p. 84. 

44 John Talbot) the First Bishop in North America. 

October, some time in the year of our Lord 1722, both Robert 
Welton and himself were consecrated to the office of Bishops, 
by Bishop Ralph Taylor. Percival brackets Taylor and 
Welton as uniting in the consecration of Talbot, but Ravvlin- 
son's MSS., in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, say Wei ton 
"was consecrated by Dr. Taylor alone, in a clandestine man- 
ner," and Talbot " was consecrated by the same person at the 
same time." 1 This Rawlinson was himself admitted to the 
Conjuring Episcopate five or six years afterwards, although 
he took the utmost pains to conceal it, using stars to indicate 
his own name in the very entry of his consecration; yet his 
MS. must be regarded as very high authority. 

Intent upon offering to his beloved America a purely primi- 
tive Episcopate, independent of the Civil Power, Talbot pro- 
cured his Episcopal ring, and embarked, reaching this port 
with great joy. 

" I and Mr. Skinner arrived safe," says he naming himself 
first, a thing which he never did before, and perhaps indicat- 
ing his superior office " in six weeks at Philadelphia, never 
better weather, nor so good a Passage, as the Captain said 
(who was a Quaker) ; they and the sailors used to say, they 
had no luck when the Priests were on Board, but now they 
are both prettily convinced, and finally converted, to say no 
more. All sorts and conditions of men, women, and children 
were glad to see us return, for they had given me over. I 
was yesterday at New Bristol, in Pennsylvania, to call the 
people to Church, but they had almost lost the way ; it was 
so overgrown with Bushes, they could hardly find the Church, 
having had nothing to do there for two years and a half." 
The Bishop's house at Burlington, he remarks, has suffered 
most of all, being un tenanted and uncared for. "I have a 
house of my own," he adds, "just by the Church, and I would 
not live in the point House, if they would give it to me, but 

1 The first Bishop of the Church of Rome in this country, Dr. John Car- 
roll, of Baltimore, was consecrated by a Bishop " in partibus," viz., Dr. 
Charles Walmesley, Bishop of Rama, senior Vicar Apostolical, etc., no 
other Bishop being present, The event took place in the chapel of Lulworth 
Castle, England, on Sunday, Aug. 15, 1790. 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 45 

I am loath to see it fall down." . . " This is the last time 
of asking," he significantly observes. 

Up to this writing, his letters had seldom failed to contain 
some allusion to a Bishop for the Colonies. Now, and hence- 
forth, he never, so much as once, mentions the subject. On 
the contrary, he recommends, in this letter, that the House at 
the Point be made " a Free School or College, the sooner the 

The following December, in addition to the care of his 
parish at Burlington, we find Talbot taking supervision of 
Christ Church, this city. Under date " Philadelphia, 9th 
December, 1723," he writes: "This place is my headquarters. 
. . When* I can get any help I send them to Burlington, 
but 'tis a thousand pities this place should be destitute. Here 
are much people, and tho' they are poor, they ought not to be 
lost for lack of looking after. ... I am not fallen out 
with my first love, Dear Bur: but I have some pity of poor 

Two months before the date of this letter, there had been 
a " Convention of the Clergy" in Philadelphia, at which Tal- 
bot presided. The Vestry of Christ Church were anxious to 
have their incumbent, named Urmston, removed for good 
reasons. He was one of those waifs who are always to be 
found in a new country, seeking what they are too well known 
at home to get. He had sought every opening from Boston 
to Philadelphia, and finally settled himself upon Christ 
Church. The Vestry desired the moral support and concur- 
rence of the Clergy in Convention in his removal. This they 
gave willingly ; and were requested to supply the place in 
rotation, until it could be otherwise provided. Urmston, in 
a letter from Cecil County, Maryland, written in June, 1724, 
vents his spleen on the Vestry and people of Christ Church, 
and on Talbot in particular; and, in doing so, makes some 

" Mr. Talbot, the famous Rector of Burlington, in the Jer- 
seys, supplanted me here. Governor Burnet had been long 
displeased with him by reason he is a notorious Jacobite, and 
will not pray for the King and Eoyal Family by name, only 

46 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

says the King and Prince, by which 'tis obvious whom he 
means . . . He hath poisoned all the neighbouring clergy 
with his rebellious principles; they dare not pray otherwise 
than he does when he is present. He caused many of my 
hearers to leave the Church ; at last he gained his point, was 
accepted, and I kicked out very dirtily by the Vestry, who 
pretend that the Bishop of London is no Diocesan, nor hath 
anything to do there more than another Bishop, so that any 
one that is lawfully ordained and licenced by any Bishop, it 
matters not who . . is capable of taking upon him any 
cure in America . . . About three months after Talbot 
was gotten into his kingdom, some had the courage to go to 
Sir William Keith, who otherwise was well-enough pleased 
with Talbot, and to tell his Excellency that it was a shame 
such a fellow should be allowed to officiate in the Church, 
and that if his Excellency suffered him, they would write to 
England against them both, whereupon Talbot was sent away, 
and the place hath been vacant there four months. What 
has become of this great Apostle I know not ; certainly Gov. 
Burnet will not suffer him to return to Burlington. Some of 
his confidants have discovered that he is in [blank in MS.] 
orders. ... I have heard of no ordinations he has made 
as yet." 

The September after, Urmston being written to, to verify his 
statements, says : " Mr. Talbot did me no unkindness in caus- 
ing me to be turned out of Philadelphia to make room for 
himself. He convened all the clergy to meet, put on his 
robes and demanded Episcopal obedience from them ; one, 
wiser than the rest, refused, acquainted the Governor with 
the ill consequences thereof, the danger he would run of 
losing his Government, whereupon the Governor ordered the 
Church to be shut up." 

In striking contrast with such a coloring of Talbot's con- 
duct, we find the latter zealously engaged in endowing his 
parish. The deprived Conjuror of his home Diocese of 
Gloucester, England, Dr. Frampton, had left a legacy of 100 
" for the Encouragement of Ministers to propagate the Gospell 
in the western plantations, according to the direction of the 

John Talbot, the First Jtishop in North America. 47 

Bishop of London, Dr. Compton." Upon Talbot's solicita- 
tions, Corapton had consented, and the money had been paid, 
and Talbot is executing a deed of gift to his successors, the 
Rectors of St. Mary's Church, Burlington, of more than two 
hundred acres of land. This bequest of Frampton, Talbot 
says in the deed, was for " the advancement of true Religion 
and y e propagation of the Catholick and Apostolick Church, 
and (particularly) as a further Encouragement to the ministers 
of that pure branch of it planted here in America." The 
conditions, which Talbot makes for the enjoyment of the 
revenues of this land, are Episcopal ordination ; admission to 
the Cure by the Vestry or the Bishop ; performing Divine 
Service according to the Liturgy of the Church of England ; 
complying with the rubrics and canons of the same ; and, 
lastly, on the Monday following the Easter or Whitsunday, 
after such admission, publicly, after Divine Service in the 
forenoon, reading the 39 Articles, and testifying his assent 
thereto. All which provisions are exactly the reverse of any- 
thing unsound in doctrine, or schismatical in spirit. 

Nearly two years passed, and, had it not been for another 
arrival, Talbot might have gone on unmolested. That arrival 
was Dr. Welton, who was consecrated at the same time with 
Talbot. He had been deprived of the rectorship of White- 
chapel, London, for being a Conjuror ; had so far defied the 
law as to assemble 250 Conjurors in a private house for 
Divine Service, and been imprisoned in consequence. Em- 
bittered by such severity he had come to Philadelphia, and 
was gladly received at Christ Church, in the room of the 
displaced Urmston. That Wei ton was a Conjuror was well 
known. That he was in their Episcopate soon transpired. Sir 
Wm. Keith, the Governor of Pennsylvania, became alarmed, 
and wrote to the Bishop of London, July 24, 1724, "It is 
confidently reported here that some of these nonjuring 
Clergymen pretend to the authority and office of Bishops in 
the Church, which, however, they do not own, and I believe 
will not dare to practice, for I have publickly declared my 
resolution to prosecute with effect all those who, either in 
doctrine or conversation, shall attempt to debauch any of the 

48 John lalbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

people with schismatical, disloyal principles of that nature." 
The Governor of New York and New Jersey, under date 
Aug. 3, 1724, lodges similar complaints against Talbot, and 
concludes with, "He is seldom in Jersey when I happen to 
be there, hut avoids me and goes to Phila., where he has al- 
ways officiated in the same indecent manner, and has had the 
folly to confess to some, who have published it, that he is a 
Bishop." A letter from Maryland, two weeks after, from the 
Rev. Mr. Henderson, shows that the excitement over the two 
Bishops was growing. "Mr. Talbot, Minister of Burlington, 
returned from England, about two years ago in Episcopal 
orders, though his orders, till now of late, have been kept as 
a great secret, and Dr. Wei ton is arrived there about six 
weeks ago, as I'm credibly informed, in the same capacity, 
and the people of Philadelphia are so fond of him that they 
will have him right or wrong for their minister. I am much 
afraid these gentlemen will poison the people of that province. 
I cannot see what can prevent it but the speedy arrival of a 
Bishop there, one of the same order to confront them, for the 
people will rather take confirmation from them than have 
none at all, and by that means they'll hook them into the 
schism." Meanwhile Talbot was increasing his parochial 
work in Burlington. He instituted the daily service, morn- 
ing and evening, with frequent celebrations of the Holy Com- 
munion, preaching on Sunday mornings, and catechising or 
homilizing in the afternoons. His zeal, industry, and devo- 
tion made him all the less vulnerable. Welton was of such 
a different spirit from Talbot, that they soon avoided each 
other's company. Yet how to deal with either of them was 
a problem for the Governors. " So long as the Vestry here," 
writes Sir Wm. Keith, " take upon them to be wholly inde- 
pendent on the Governor's authority . . I hope I cannot 
be accountable for irregularities." 

In London, too, the fire caught. The Rev. John Berriman 
wrote to the Rev. Samuel Johnson, of Connecticut, under 
date Feb. 17,1725, "We hear of two Conjuring Bishops (Dr. 
"Welton for one), who are gone into America; and it is said 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 49 

the Bishop of London will send one or more of a different 
stamp as an antidote against them." 

Information of Welton's privily exercising the functions of 
a Bishop in Pennsylvania was sent to the Lords-Justices of 
Great Britain, who ordered a writ of privy seal to be served 
on him, commanding his return forthwith to England. He 
left Philadelphia in March, 1726 ; and, rather than obey the 
writ, retired to Lisbon, Portugal, where, in the August fol- 
lowing, he died, refusing to commune with the English 
clergyman. Among his effects was found an Episcopal seal. 

Talbot was discharged from the service of the Society, and 
ordered to " surcease officiating." True to the doctrines of 
non-resistance an/1 passive obedience, he went to Maryland ; 
where Commissary Wilkinson reports, that he "behaved very 
modestly, avoided talking very much, and resolved to submit 
quietly to the orders sent from England to prohibit his public 
officiating in any of the Churches, or to set up separate 

The friends of Talbot, and they were pretty much every- 
body that knew him, lost no time nor opportunity to remon- 
strate. The Rev. Mr. Cummings had no sooner arrived in 
Philadelphia, than he was importuned by numbers of people 
from Burlington, and by some of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania, to write to the Bishop of London in favor of Talbot. 
" They made me," he says, " promise to mention him, other- 
wise I would not presume to do it. He is universally be- 
loved, even by the Dissenters here, and has done a great deal 
of good. "Welton and he had differed, and broke off corre- 
spondence, by reason of the rash chimerical projects of the 
former, long before the Government took notice of them. If 
he were connived at, and could be assisted by the Society (for 
I am told the old man's circumstances are very mean), he 
promises by his friends to be peaceable and easy, and to do all 
the good he can for the future." The following winter, a 
most urgent memorial was addressed to the Society by the 
leading laymen of Philadelphia, Bristol, and Burlington, in 
which occurs this testimony: "Mr. Talbot, who for nigh 
thirty years past, has behaved himself with indefatigable 
VOL. in. 4 

50 John Talbot ) the First Bishop in North America. 

pains, and good success in his Ministry among us, under your 
Honour's care, has by some late conduct (nowise privy to us), 
rendered himself disagreeable to his superiors, and departed 
from us. "We cannot, without violence to the principles of 
our Religion, approve of any acts, or give in to any measures 
inconsistent with our duty and Loyalty to his Majesty, whom 
God long preserve ; yet in gratitude to this unhappy Gentle- 
man, we humbly beg leave to say, that by his exemplary life 
and ministry, he has been the greatest advocate for the Church 
of England, by Law Established, that ever appeared on this 

!N"o response, so far as we can learn, was ever returned to 
this memorial. 

Talbot, who hitherto had been wedded only to the Church, 
and lived with great frugality, married a widow with some 
property. The age, position, and character of Mrs. Anne 
Herbert, made her, in every way, a suitable companion for 
him. "Her civil deportment and courteous behavior," re- 
marks her biographer, "bespoake her a Gentlewoman in all 
respects." " She had so much goodness as justly rendered her 
an Example worthy of Imitation." " She always lived in the 
fear of God, and had nothing more at heart than to please 
Him, so that by her Christian life and sober conversation she 
honored the holy religion she professed, and gave no occasion 
for the enemies of God to blaspheme." " She delighted al- 
ways to be near God's altar, was constant in her attendance 
on the Divine ordinances, and had a great esteem and respect 
for the Clergy. She was a good ISTeighbour, pitiful, compas- 
sionate, and merciful to the needy." 

The venerable couple went to Burlington, where they lived 
in refined simplicity. This serene retirement did not last 
long. The American Weekly Mercury contains the following : 
"Philadelphia, Nov. 30, 1727. Yesterday, died at Burling- 
ton, the Reverend Mr. John Talbot, formerly Minister of that 
Place, who was a Pious, good man, and much lamented." 
How like the record of the protomartyr! "Devout men 
carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation 
over him." The weeds which his widow wore till the day 

John Talbotj the First Bishop in North America. 51 

of her death, and her request to be buried by his side, showed 
the strength of her affection for him. She removed to Phila- 
delphia, where she met her final sickness. She sent for a 
scribe, and dictated a will, whose value as a historical paper 
cannot be overestimated. Almost every line of it throws 
light on some important point otherwise unknown. She 
desires to be " buryed by the Body of her late Husband," in 
the Church at Burlington, and " that a Decent plain Monu- 
ment be erected in the sd Church with a proper inscription, 
to be composed by the Reverend Mr. Yaughan, of Elizabeth 
Town, & the Rev d . Mr. Skinner, of Amboy, or either of 
them." She bequeaths 20 each, to Samuel Hasel and 
Charles Read,* merchants of Philadelphia, whom she ap- 
pointed her Executors ; and, after the payment of her funeral 
expenses, debts, and legacies, she bequeaths all her estate, 
goods, and effects whatsoever, to her " Dutyfull & well-be- 
loved Son, Thomas Herbert, of the Island of Mevis N"evis?] 
Planter." George Roth and Mary Jacob united with Ed- 
ward Warner, who drafted it, in witnessing this will. The 
testatrix was too weak to do more than make the first letter 
of her Christian name, but her husband's privy signet was 
produced, and on the warm surface of the black wax there 
an impression made, which brings us here to-night a mitre, 
with flowing ribbons, and beneath it, in large script letters, 
ingeniously intertwining one another in bold relief, the full 
name " JOHN TALBOT." 

This act, famous henceforth in American history, was on 
the 30th of July, 1730. Ten weary months she yet survived. 
And when she spoke of her departure as very near, " it was," 
says one who saw and heard her, " with all the Chearfulness 
of a Christian who earnestly desired to die y e death of the 
Righteous, & had made it the business of her whole life to 
make her latter end like his." 

Within the octave of Ascensiontide her soul was released 
from the burden of the flesh. And, on Whitsunday, June 
6, 1731, her remains were placed in the Church at Burling- 
ton. A funeral sermon was preached, the original MS. of 
which is now in my possession. It is a mingled strain of 

52 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

courage and caution. The preacher said : " I shall only make 
mention of such things as I am sure all that knew her will 
Justify, for those y* knew her not, I am sure it will be 
highly uncharitable in them to Contradict. Therefore, I 
hope it will not be thought that I have other than a pious 
end in being Just to this our Sister's memory so far as it is 
Consistent with my own knowledge and good Acquaintance 
with her." 

But where is the spot in which this holy pair repose? 
"Where is the " decent plain monument" which Mrs. Talbot 
ordered in her will? Her assets were ample to cover its 
cost. But no monument can be found, and no grave ! Of 
Talbot it may be said, " No man knoweth of his sepulchre 
unto this day." 

Mrs. Talbot's son by her former marriage, Thomas Herbert, 
it is believed, from the records of Christ Church, this city, 
came here to settle her estate, and died the September follow- 
ing his mother. This may account for inattention to her 
will ; while the circumstances attending the last years of 
Talbot would raise the suspicion of disloyalty to the Estab- 
lishment in any to do him honor. Though, it is reported that 
he took the oaths and submitted, there was no unclasping of 
his fetters. 

The cold shackles of Hanoverianism were imposed upon 
him, and he was buried with them on. 

Thirty letters, besides many other documents, to which his 
signature is attached, are now before me, and no one can study 
these, and weigh them in all their bearings, and point out in 
them any vanity, self-seeking, or personal ambition. Nor 
can any one dispassionately consider his career, and not reach 
the conclusion that in being secretly consecrated, he was 
actuated by the purest desire to advance the real interests 
of religion in the colonies. His motives, scrutinized through 
the most powerful lenses, fail to furnish him with a harsher 
epitapli than "The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." 

But what, it will be asked, were his Episcopal acts? Where 
did he confirm? Whom did he ordain? These points are 
involved in profound obscurity. The parish register which 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 53 

Talbot kept from 1702 to 1720, has no entries in his hand 
after he became a Bishop. Yet he officiated for two years 
and a half. He baptized many during that time nineteen 
in one day, he writes in a letter but any acts, even these 
baptisms, if recorded, must have been in a book as secret as 
his office, and may yet be traced through the legal represent- 
atives of his widow. There is absolutely nothing, that can 
be shown beyond question, to have been on his part an Epis- 
copal act. 

In one of his letters there is this announcement, " I have 
set up one Mr. Searle, a schoolmaster, to read prayers, and 
preach on Sundays, at Springfield ; I lent him some sermons 
of Drs. Tillotsen and Beveridge ; se.veral Quakers came to 
hear him, and are much taken with him ; they say they never 
thought the Priests had so much Good Doctrine. I am sure 

he is a much better Clerk than Mr. II n, saving his orders, 

therefore, I commend him to the Society for their encourage- 
ment, and hope they will count him worthy to be a half-pay 
officer in their service." Was this the appointment of a lay- 
reader, or an ordination? 

There is a tradition which is thus given by Hawks, in his 
"History of the Church in Maryland:" "The venerable pre- 
late, who was so long our Presiding Bishop [Bishop White, of 
Pennsylvania 1 ], was accustomed to relate a story which he 
heard from his elder brethren, when he was but a youth. The 
story was this : A gentleman who had been ordained among 
the Congregational ists of New England [Mr. Whittlesey, of 
Connecticut, perhaps "Wallingford, says The Churchman's 
Magazine, vol. v. p. 40], and who had officiated among them 
as a minister for many years, at length, to the surprise of his 
friends, began to express doubts about the validity of his 
ordination, and manifested no small trouble of mind on the 
subject. Suddenly, about the time of the arrival of Talbot 
and Welton, he left home without declaring the place of his 

1 Drs. William White and Samuel Provoost were consecrated in the chapel 
of Lambeth palace, England, Feb. 4, 1787, by Dr. John Moore, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, assisted by three other Bishops of the Church of England. 

54 John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 

destination, or purpose of his journey. After an interval of 
a few weeks he returned, and gave no further information of 
his movements than that he had been to some of the Southern 
Colonies ; he also said on his return that he was now perfectly 
satisfied with his ordination, and from that day never mani- 
fested the least solicitude on the subject, but continued until 
he died to preach to his congregation. It was soon whis- 
pered by those whose curiosity here found materials for its 
exercise, that the minister had been on a visit to the non- 
juring Bishops, and obtained ordination from one of them. 
He never said so; but, among Churchmen, it was believed 
that such was the fact." 

Admitting the accuracy of this tradition, and the confer- 
ring of Holy Orders, was the ordination performed by Talbot 
or by Welton ? 

The late Hugh Davey Evans, of Baltimore, in his " Essay 
on the Episcopate of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America," published in this city in 1855, 
speaking of Samuel Seabury, of Connecticut, as " the first 
diocesan Bishop of the Anglican Communion, in North Ame- 
rica," 1 adds, " He would have been the first Bishop, as well 
as the first diocesan Bishop, but for one fact. In the early 
part of the century, two Bishops of the line of English Non- 
jurors had for a time resided in this country. One of them 
lived in New Jersey, and the other in Pennsylvania. They, 
however, claimed no diocesan jurisdiction ; or, if they did, the 
claim was neither allowed, nor well founded. The fact that 
they were in the Episcopate was not generally known, and 
their existence has left no consequences in the history of the 
American Church." 

Had I access to cartularies and archives in England, I could 
no doubt glean additional particulars respecting Bishop Tal- 
bot. I have only to say in conclusion, that the impression 
of his seal has been photographed, and enlarged in ecclesias- 

1 Dr. Seabury was consecrated in Aberdeen, Scotland, Nov. 14, 1784, by 
Robert Kilgour, Bishop of Aberdeen, assisted by two other Scottish Bishops. 

John Talbot, the First Bishop in North America. 55 

tical brass, and is here to be seen this evening. It is intended 
to place it on a mural monument in the old Church at Bur- 

NOTE. The brass fac-simile above referred to, fifteen by twenty inches 
in proportions, and weighing more than forty pounds, after remaining for 
several days at the rooms of the Historical Society, was affixed to a mural 
tablet. The tablet is of blue clouded Vermont marble, about six and a 
half by three feet in dimensions, with a rosette of brass in each of its four 
corners, and a cross, overlaid with brass, at the top. Around the oval signet 
run the words in red, "Enlarged fac-simile of the seal of;" and below, in 
black and red letters, as follows : " John Talbot, Founder of this Church, 
1703 : A Bishop by Nonjuror Consecration, 1722 : Died in Burlington, Nov. 
29th, 1727 : Beloved and lamented. St. John II. 17." 

This memorial, erected in old St. Mary's Church, Burlington, N. J., was, 
on the evening of Nov. 29, 1878 the 151st anniversary of Talbot's death 
unveiled with commemorative services by the Rev. Dr. Hills ; who, in the 
presence of a large assemblage, presented it as a gift to the corporation of 
St. Mary's Church, from John William Wallace, Esq., President of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

56 Spangenberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 


IN 1T45. 

(Continued from page 432, Vol. II.) 

June 9. Conrad Weiser sent the Onondaga warrior, who 
has been travelling with us thus far, ahead, to inform the 
Council of our coming. "We gave him flint, steel, knife, and 
provisions for the journey. Last night our horses strayed 
back to Ots ton waken, hence we were compelled to lay by until 
noon. After dinner we resumed our journey, and entered the 
wilderness. Our course was !N". Our path lay through the 
valley between the " Ant Hills," 1 one hill resembling another 
side by side, and so high that we could scarcely see to the 
summit. They are all peaked, and resemble Ant Hills. In 
the evening we lodged at the " Coffee House," 2 on Diadachton 

JtWtflO. It rained hard all day. Our course was 1ST. for ten 
miles, then we turned IN". E. We are still between the Ant 
Hills, and follow the Diadachton. The forest is so dense, that 
for a day the sun could not be seen, and so thick that you 
could not see twenty feet before. The path, too, is so bad 
that the horses often were stuck, and had to be extricated 
from the bogs; and, at other points, it lay full of trees, that 
had been blown down by the wind, and heaped so high that 
we were at a loss whether to turn to the right or to the left. 3 
In the evening we came to a salt-lick, where elks frequent, and 
camped for the night. 4 At this place once three Indians lost 
their lives. Two of the Six Nations had two Flatheads priso- 

1 Dismal Yale, marked on Lewis Evans's map of 1749. Burnet's Hills. 

2 So named by Bishop Spangenberg. 

8 Weiser in his journal of 1737 states : " The woods were altogether of 
the kind called by the English spruce, and so thick that we could not gene- 
rally see the sun shine." 

4 Probably in Lewis Township, Lycoming County. 

Spang enberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 57 

ners, whom they were taking to Onondaga. As their priso- 
ners had deported themselves quietly, they were no longer 
bound. While the Maguas were preparing their meal, their 
prisoners seized their guns, and killed one on the spot. The 
other was chased among the trees and killed, not, however, 
before he had mortally wounded one of his prisoners with his 
tomahawk. The other escaped. The marks of the toma- 
hawk cuts are still to be seen on the trees. 

Our guides, Shikellmy, and his son, and Andrew Sattelihu 
saw fit to give us Magua names, as they said ours were too 
difficult for them to pronounce. Bro. Spangenberg they 
named T'gerhitonti (i. e., a row of trees)', John Joseph, Hajin- 
gonis (i. e., one who twists tobacco)', and David Zeisberger, Ga- 
nonsseracheri (i. e., on the pumpkin). Observations: At the salt- 
lick we found the tracks of Elks, who came there to lick the 
salt. The Elk is a species of deer, like horses without a 

June 11. Set off from the salt-lick, and travelled K". E. ; 
reached the end of the Diadachton, and left the Ant Hills be- 
hind us. 1 The path was very bad, so that one of our horses 
almost broke his leg, by getting into a hole between the roots 
of a tree. In the afternoon we found a cold roast of bear, 
which Indians had left on the hunt. As the meat was good 
we prepared it for dinner. In the evening we came to the 
" Bear's Claws" and camped. 2 The Indians took the claws 
from the bear, and nailed them to a tree, hence the name. 
Here an Indian from Tioga lodged with us. From him we 
learned that our messenger was already one day journey 
ahead of us. 

June 12. Our course was K E. During the afternoon we 
left the wilderness, in which we were four days, and had 
scarce seen the sun. Even our horses were quite inspirited 
once again to leave the woods. We crossed a creek called 
Osgdchgo, 3 and then came to the North Branch of the Susque- 

1 Probably in Mclntire Township, Lycoming County. 
* Probably in Leroy Township, Bradford County. 

1 TVeiser calls it Oscahu, i.e. the fierce. Now Sugar Creek, an affluent 
of the North Branch, above Towanda, in Bradford County. 

58 Spangenberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 

hanna. Here we found the trees curiously painted by the 
Indians, representing their wars, the number that had fallen 
in battle, and the number they had killed. From this point 
our course was N.W. We went up the Susquehanna to Tioga, 
by the narrow path on the mountain by the river. 1 Crossed 
the branch that is called Tioga, 2 and here empties into the 
Susquehanna. Here we found a Mohican town. We proposed 
to pitch our tent near by, but the Indians came and urged us 
to lodge with them, as they had prepared a house and beds 
for us. We accepted their invitation with many thanks. 
This spot is about 180 miles from Shamokin, and in a charm- 
ing region of country. 

June 13. Our course was again IN". E. We kept up along 
the Susquehanna, and nooned about fifteen miles above Tioga, 
on the river bank. We hobbled our horses, and led them to 
pasture. One of them got into the river beyond his depth, 
and being hobbled could not swim, consequently was drowned. 
We hurried to his rescue, but could not find a canoe in time 
to save him. Hence this place was called " G-ashnecariorum" 
i. e., " the dear spring." 3 

June 14. Set off from the " Dear Spring," and passed three 
islands, which we called John Penn, Thomas Penn, and 
Richard Perm. In the afternoon we came to a stream called 
Owego, which empties into the Susquehanna. There is an 
old Indian settlement here, 4 which was deserted last spring. 
We left the river to our right, and proceeded up the stream. 
Here and there in the woods, we found posts set up, painted 
red, around which the Indians had danced ; and others, at the 
feet of which there were holes, where they tie their prisoners 

1 Break Neck Narrows. 

8 Now called the Chemung. Heckewelder states, " that Tioga is corrupted 
from Tia6ga, an Iroquois word, signifying a gate. This name was given by 
the Six Nations to the wedge of land lying within the forks of the Tioga 
(or Chemung) and North Branch in passing which streams the traveller 
entered their territory as through a gate. The country south of the forks 
was Delaware Country." 

8 In Tioga Township, Tioga County, New York. 

4 Near the site of the present village of Owego. 

Spangenberg' } s Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 59 

when they return from a maraud fixing their feet into the 
holes so they cannot escape. "We encamped to-night on the 
banks of a creek called the Tiatachschiunge, 1 which empties 
into the Ovvego. In the forenoon our course was ST. E., and 
in the afternoon !N". W. 

June 15. Followed the Tiatachschiunge Creek. Our course 
was IN". W. After dinner we left the creek, 2 and crossed an- 
other called Ganowtachgerage. 3 Hence we crossed Prospect 
Hill. 4 At the foot of the hill we crossed a creek, 5 which runs 
into the St. Lawrence. 6 Camped in the " Dry Wilderness," 7 
where we had but little water. 

June 16. To-day our course was E. N". E. Early in the 
morning we passed the first lake, which is called Ganiataraga- 
chrachat, 8 and also five others, 9 which empty into the Susque- 
hanna. Kooned at Lake Ganneratareske. 10 Journeyed fur- 
ther, and came at night to the large lake, Oserigooch, 11 where 
we encamped. 

June 17. Our horses strayed back in pasture to Lake Gan- 
neratareske, hence we were compelled to lay by until near 
noon. The road was worse to-day than we have had before 
on the whole trip. Soon after starting we got the first Onon- 
daga water to drink, which tastes salty. 12 Our course was 
ET. W. After dinner we reached Onondaga, 13 where we were 

Cattatong Creek, probably in Candor Township, Tioga County. 

Probably a few miles above Candor. 

West Creek, probably in Richford Township, Tioga County. 

In Harford Township, Cortland County. 

Virgil Creek, in Virgil Township. 

Virgil Creek is a tributary of Falls Creek, the main inlet of Cayuga Lake. 

In Virgil and Cortlandville Townships. 

In Courtlandville Township, probably now known as Crandall's Pond. 

One is called Swains, and another Chatterdens. 

10 Big Lake in Preble Township. 

11 In Tully Township, Onondaga County. All these lakes noted are on 
the headwaters of the Tioughnioga River. 

11 Weiser, in his journal of 1737, states: " I went with my host and an- 
other old friend to see a salt spring, of which there are great numbers, so 
that a person cannot drink of every stream, on account of the salt water. 
The Indians boil handsome salt for use." 

18 Onondaga, at this date, was situated on both sides of Onondaga Creek 

60 Spangeriberg' 's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 

heartily and courteously received, and invited into the King's 
house, which we accepted. 1 

June 19. In the evening, the Indians paraded through the 
town to the music of a couple of violins, flutes, and a drum; 
and also around the house where we lodged. 

Jane 20. Bro. Spangenherg bled our host. There came, 
also, many sick, and asked for medicine, which he gave them, 
and the use of which the Lord blessed. Conrad Weiser in- 
formed the Council of the object of his visit, and laid his 
propositions before them. 2 Having done this, the Indians 
placed a kettle of boiled corn before him and his companions, 
and what was left they ate. The Council then retired into 
another house, where they counselled until in the evening. 
Then the Black Prince 3 came and informed Conrad, that as it 
was so late, the reply of the Council would be given to-morrow. 
The Indians to-night had a dance in our house. One beat a 
drum, and about twenty danced around the fire. The leader 
was distinguished by having rattles hanging to his legs. All 
yelled savagely, and, after having danced a quarter of an 
hour, the sweat ran down as if water had been poured over 
them. The dance lasted three hours, and it appeared impos- 
sible for them to hold out so long. The men dance abreast, 
and the women follow, and whoever can appear the most gro- 
tesque, and leap the highest, receive the most praise. Obser- 

(Zinochsa), and was two or three miles in length. It consisted of about 
forty cabins (many of them containing two or more families), but generally 
standing single, rarely more than four or five were near each other. The 
Council House was about five miles from Onondaga Lake. 

1 Probably Cannassatego, alias " The Word ;" Sachem of the Onondagas. 
His name figures in all the principal transactions of the Six Nations from 
1734 to 1750. Died September 6, 1750. 

2 See Colonial Records, vol. iv. p. 778. 

8 Loskiel states, " that Tocanontie, an Iroquois Sachem, was called the 
' Black Prince,' because his chest was literally black with a network of de- 
vices and designs, tatooed into the skin with gunpowder." Zinzendorf in 
his narrative of a " Journey from Bethlehem to Shamokin," in September, 
1742, also states: "The Black Prince of Onondaga is a terrible savage. 
On one occasion he broke into the stockaded castle of the enemy, scalped 
the inhabitants, and escaped unhurt." He died in the jail at Montreal. 

Spangenberg *s Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 61 

vations: Our new host's name is Aschanchtioni ; the chief men 
are Cannassatego, the Black Prince, and Caxhayn. 1 

June 21. Bro. Spangenberg bled two Indians. The Council 
again met, but owing to the absence of some of the chiefs, 
Conrad's propositions were only partly acted upon. They 
suggested that they be deferred until Spring, when all the 
chiefs will meet in Philadelphia at the Treaty. Their war- 
riors, nevertheless, would be instructed to discontinue hostili- 
ties, and the Governor of Canada informed that the Shawa- 
nese had been unfaithful to Brother Onas, and that he had, 
therefore, struck them on the head with a hatchet. After 
this a kettle of food was placed before Conrad and his com- 
panions. The Black Prince invited the whole Council and us 
to a feast. On this occasion they returned the strings of 
wampum to Conrad Weiser which he had sent from the 
" Limping Messenger" to announce our advent. In the even- 
ing the Indians again had a dance of three hours. 

June 22. Bro. Spangenberg bled an Indian, and then with 
Conrad Weiser, Shikellmy, and Andrew Sattelihu set out for 
Oswego. 2 Bro. John Joseph accompanied them to the lake 
(Onondaga), to bring back the horses. Six bark-canoe loads 
of Indians went along. 

June 27. Bro. Spangenberg returned from Oswego. While 
yet far out upon the lake, Cannassatego spied them, built a 
fire, and prepared food. When Bro. Spangenberg landed, he 
requested him to bleed him. 

June 28. Made preparations for our return journey to-day. 

June 29. Began our return journey. Our first halt was 
made at Tiatachtont, 8 where Bro. Spangenberg bled Carmassa- 
tego's brother, and conversed with the young Indian Bro. 
Zinzendorf found sick at Wyoming, and recommended to 

1 Caxhayton, counsellor of Cannassatego, came to Philadelphia in February 
of 1742 to announce the intention of the Six Nations to meet the Governor 
in conference there in the course of the following summer. During his 
sojourn of two weeks, he lodged at the Moravian parsonage with his wife and 
children, and there made the acquaintance of Zinzendorf. Died in the 
autumn of 1749. 

f At tho mouth of the Oswego River, on Lake Ontario. 

Near the northwestern line of Lafayette Township, Onondaga County. 

62 Spang 'enberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 

our notice. Here, also, we parted with Conrad Weiser and 
Andrew Sattelihu, who travel by the path to the left, while 
we, with Shikellmy and his son, go to the right. At noon it 
began to rain in torrents, and we were soon wet to the skin. 
We left the large Lake Osterigooch to the right, and by night 
reached Lake Gannenatareske, where we encamped. Our 
course was S. 

June 30. The rain continuing, we kept our tent until noon. 
Then our course was S. W. for twelve miles, and then E. until 
near night. Passed Lake Ganiateragacbraetont, and came to 
the Dry Wilderness, where we encamped. 

July 1. Set out early to-day. Our course for one hour was 
S. E., and then S. until noon. Crossed the creek that flows 
into Canada, and came to Prospect Hill, at the base of which 
runs the Ganontachorage, which we crossed. At noon we 
reached the Tiatachtschumge Creek, where we rested. Bro. 
Joseph, who has been sick all day, took drops to sweat. After 
dinner we travelled S. S. E.,and at evening encamped on the 
last-named creek. While Bro. Joseph and a Catawba were 
cutting down a rotten tree, with which to make a smoke to 
protect ourselves against the gnats, Shikellmy came on the 
other side, and narrowly escaped receiving Bro. Joseph's axe 
in his body. 

July 2. Our course was S. S. E. until 3 o'clock, and S. W. 
until evening. At noon we reached Owego, the site of the 
old Indian town. Passed the three islands in the North 
Branch, and came to the " Dear Spring," where we lost our 
horse, and encamped for the night. In the evening, two 
canoes filled with Indian women from Tioga, came up to hunt 
for wild beans. Bro. Spangenberg cut his foot while gather- 
ing brush. 

July 3. To Tioga, which we reached at noon, our course 
was S. W. Here the Indians supplied us with some provi- 
sions, but not sufficient for our journey they had but little 
to spare. Below Tioga we took the narrow path along the 
Susquehanna. Towards evening we left the river to our left, 
and at night camped on the Osgdchgo. It rained hard all 

Spang enberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 63 

July 4. Our course was S. until noon. Passed the " Bear's 
Claws," and camped at the "Cold Roast." 1 

July 5. At noon we came to the salt-lick whence the Dia- 
dachton Creek issues. Towards night we found two old In- 
dian lodges, which we entered, as it was raining hard. Our 
course until 10 o'clock was S. W., then W. until 12 o'clock, 
and afterwards S. W. We are now between the "Ant Hills." 

July 6. Our course from 4 to 7 A. M. was S., then S. W. 
till 9, then W. until noon. The Lord preserved us to-day 
from two accidents. Early this morning, while riding along 
the Diadachton Creek, Bro. Zeisberger fell with his horse 
into the water, and struck his cheek on a stick he had in his 
hand. For some time he lay unconscious. A little further 
on lay a snake (a blower), as thick as the arm, in the middle 
of the path. Bro. Spangenberg, Shikellmy, and his son rode 
over it, and Bro. Zeisberger, who was leading his horse, 
walked over it without seeing it. Last came Bro. John 
Joseph on him the snake turned, and attempted to bite him 
and his horse twice. After our noon halt our course was S., 
when we passed the " Coffee House," and left the hill country. 
Three hours before night we reached the " Limping Messen- 
ger," and the end of the wilderness, and thence S. W. to Ots- 
tonwaken, where we lodged. As it had rained all day, we 
were wet to the skin, and as the Indians had neither fire nor 
wood, we went to bed wet, and arose next morning wet. For 
supper we had some fish, which had been caught during the 
afternoon, for the Indians had nothing to give us. We tra- 
velled 50 miles to-day. 

July 7. Leaving Otstonwaken, we came again to the West 
Branch ; passed the Ganachrirage, and rested at noon by the 
river. Our provisions were nearly exhausted. In this strait 
an old Indian joined us, undid his pack, and took out a smoked 
turkey, and told us to boil it when we ate and were satisfied. 
In the afternoon passed the " Streiter Lage" (Warrior's Camp), 
and encamped by the river. For supper we cooked a handful 
of rice for seven persons, which the old Indian seeing, he got 

1 The place where the bear meat was found June llth. 

64 Spangenberg' s Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745. 

out some pieces of venison and put them in the kettle, and 
we had plenty. 

July 8. This morning passed the place where Shikellmy 
formerly lived, next the Shawanese town and creek, and at 
noon reached Shainokin. Bro. Spangenberg and Zeisberger 
immediately crossed over to the island to visit Andrew Satta- 
lihu's family, to deliver a message to his wife. On returning^ 
we found an Indian trader, from whom we purchased some 
flour. Continued on our journey, and at night reached 
" Marienborn." 

July 9. Eested part of the clay at " Marienborn," as the horses 
were much fatigued. Later in the day, when in " Joseph's Val- 
ley," we were overtaken by a fearful hail-storm. Hurried 
on, and when on the mountain the sun broke forth, and a 
beautiful rainbow spanned the valley back of us. Passed 
" Cool Bank," on the Susquehanna, and encamped on the Me- 
chana Creek. 

July 10. During the morning passed " Jacob's Heights," and 
came to the "Double Eagle." Here we found encamped a 
family of Indians, who on learning from whence we had come, 
said we must be tired ; and the man said to his wife, " give 
them some spits full of venison." In return Bro. Spangenberg 
gave them knives and thimbles. Mooned at " Benigna's Creek," 
and at nightfall came to the "Thiirnstein." As we were lead- 
ing our horses down, Bro. Spangenberg, who was in advance, 
heard the rattle of a rattlesnake, and called to us to come 
kill it, but it could not be found. Encamped at the base of 
the " Thiirnstein," on the Swatara. 

July 11. Our course was S. E. We early entered "Anton's 
Wilderness," thence over the Kittatiny Mountain, and nooned 
on the Little Swatara. 1 From thence we proceeded to Chris- 
topher Weiser's. 

1 Bethel Township, Berks County. 

Computation of Time. 65 



(Concluded from Vol. II. page 394.) 

In the preparation of this article it was necessary to con- 
sult a number of works of reference for the purpose of com- 
paring the statements of the best authorities on the subject. 
Information of great importance, to the student of history, 
in fixing and verifying dates, was found scattered in the 
volumes consulted, and, for convenience of reference, the 
notes taken are now given in a more condensed form. 

The "New Style," or Gregorian calendar, was adopted 
generally, in Roman Catholic countries, immediately after 
its promulgation, A. D. 1582. Most Protestant countries, 
however, continued for a longer or shorter period to use the 
"Old Style," or Julian calendar. It is necessary, therefore, 
in dealing critically with dates after 1582, to ascertain what 
"Style" was in use, at the time and place in question. The 
following table, compiled principally from "L'Art de verifier 
Ics Dates," by M. de Saint- Allais, Paris, 1818, "The Chro- 
nology of History," by Sir Harris Nicolas, K.C.M.G., London, 
1852, and " Handy-Book of Rules and Tables for Verifying 
Dates with the Christian Era," etc., by John J. Bond, Assist- 
ant Keeper of the Public Records, London, 1869, will serve 
to show when the chief States of Europe adopted the "N"ew 
Style." As Mr. Bond had peculiar facilities for procuring 
correct information regarding the changes in many of the 
countries, and as his book is the latest authority to which I 
have had access, I have, when any doubt existed, preferred 
his dates to those of others. 

VOL. in. 5 


Computation of Time. 

In Spain, 1 Portugal, and the 
greater part of Italy, the 
same day as at Rome and 

In France 2 and Lorraine. 3 

In Germany 4 and Switzerland 5 
(by Roman Catholics). 

In Savoy. 6 

In the Roman Catholic Ne- 
therlands, 7 viz., Brabant, 
Limbourg, Luxembourg, 
Gelderland ( in part ) 
Duchies. Flanders, Artois, 
Hainault, Namur Coun- 
ties. Antwerp {called the 
Marquisate of the Holy 
Empire). Malines Lord- 

In the Protestant Nether- 
lands, 8 Holland and Zea- 
land, viz., Rotterdam, Am- 
sterdam, Leyden, Delft, 
Haerlem, and the Hague. 

In Prussia 9 (date of introduc- 
tion not fixed). 

In Poland. 10 

In Hungary 11 (date of intro- 
duction not fixed). 

In Strasbourg. 12 

In Denmark, 13 and Protestant 
States of Germany. 14 

In Overyssel 15 or Overijsel 
(date not fixed). 

In Gelderland 16 or Guelder- 

In Utrecht. 17 

In Friesland 18 or Yriesland. 

In Groningen, 19 and Protest- 
ant parts of Switzerland. 20 

In Tuscany 21 (date of intro- 
duction not fixed). 

In Great Britain, 22 Ireland, 
and the Colonies. 

In Sweden. 23 

Old Style ended 

Tiro. 4 Oct. 1582. 
Sun. 9 Dec. 1582. 

Fri. 21 Dec. 1582. 

Tue. 21 Dec. 1585. 

Sat. 18 Feb. 1682. 
Sun. 18 Feb. 1700. 

Wed. 19 June, 1700. 

Tue. 19 Nov. 1700. 
Fri. 20 Dec. 1700. 

Tue. 31 Dec. 1700. 

Wed. 2 Dec. 1752. 
Sun. 28 Feb. 1753. 

Ke\v Style began 
next day 

Fri. 15 Oct. 1582. 
Mon. 20 Dec. 1582. 

Sat. Uan. 1583. 


Wed. IJan. 1586. 


Sun. 1 Mar. 1682. 

Mon. 1 Mar. 1700. 

Thu. 1 July 

Wed. 1 Dec. 
Sat. 1 Jan. 

Wed. 12 Jan. 





Thu. 14 Sept. 1752. 
Mon. 12 Mar. 1753. 

1 Spain, etc. Bull of Pope Gregory XIII., 24th Feb. 1582. 

3 France. Pursuant to edict of Henry III., dated 3d Nov. 1582. 

* Lorraine. Orders of those who had the spiritual authority in the name 
of the Bishop, Charles de Lorraine, Nov. 24th, 1582. See L'Art de verifier les 

* Germany. * Switzerland. Savoy. Authority not given. See Bond's 

7 Roman Catholic Netherlands. Proclamation of the Court 22d December, 

* Protestant Netherlands. By edict or PlaTcaet of 10 Dec. 1582 (entered in 

Computation of Time. 67 


YEAR (Moeso-Gothicj^r; Anglo-Saxon, gear; Dutch, jarr; 
Friesic, jer; German, jahr; Danish, aar; Swedish, ar; Ice- 

the Great Plakaet boek, I. 395, in the Record Office of the Hague), the intro- 
duction of the New Style was fixed for the 15th of December, 1582 ; but 
afterwards settled, by a resolution of the States of Holland, to begin on the 
1st of January, 1583. 

The other provinces only adopted the measure about the year 1700. 
Prussia. "State Papers. Prussian, 1586." 

10 Poland. " State Papers, Cracow, 3 January, 1586, Stylo novo." 

" Hungary. The Diet of Presburg, held in the presence of the Archduke 
Ernest, 1587. 

la Strasbourg. Through the exertions of M. de la Grange, inteudant of 
Alsace, Feb. 5th, 1682. L'Art de vfrifier les Dates. 

11 Denmark. "State Papers, Copenhagen, 2d May, 1702, S. N." (Stylo 

14 Protestant States of Germany. On the 15th Nov. 1699, the old Calendar 
was universally abandoned within the empire ; and a new one, framed by a 
celebrated mathematician named Weigel, was adopted, which differed only 
from the Gregorian as to the mode of fixing Easter and the Movable Feasts, 
BO that it sometimes happened that the Protestants and Catholics celebrated 
that feast on a different day. 

14 Overyssel (date of introduction not fixed). By resolution, dated 4 April, 

18 Gelderland. In accordance with a resolution of the States, dated 26 
May, 1700. (Geld. Plakaet boek, III. 27.) 

11 Utrecht. By the resolution dated 24 July, 1700. ( Utrecht Plakaet boek, 
I. 457.) 

11 Friesland. By resolution dated 11 and 12 October, 1700. 
11 Groningen. In consequence of a resolution of the States General, of 6 
February, 17CO. 

50 Protestant parts of Switzerland refused the New Style until 1700, when 
Weigel's Calendar was received by those of the cantons of Zurich, Berne, 
Basle, and Schaffhausen, who commenced the year 1701 on the 12th Jan. 
N. S. 

11 Tuscany. By the Emperor of Germany, as grand-duke of Tuscany. 
(Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xxi. p. 93.) 

* Great Britain, &c. Pursuant to Statute 24 Geo. II. c. 23, 1751. 
** By edict of the King 24th Feb. 1752. L'Art de vfrifier les Dates. 

Bond states, that "The Gregorian, or New Style, was adopted gradu- 
ally after 1696. The King of Sweden, fearing that striking off ten 
days at once, might prove prejudicial to commercial transactions, 
adopted the New Style gradually, by making no Leap-year after 1696 
until 1744, by which plan 11 days were dropped. The eleven inter- 
mediate 'fourth years' having thus only 365 days each, made the 
year 1744 the same as other countries where the New Style had been 
adopted." According to this arrangement, New Style would have 
commenced on Tuesday, 1 March, 1740. 

68 Computation of Time. 

landic, ar; Sanscrit, ,/aAran, a course, or circle, to move in a 

Year, in the full extent of the word, is a system, or cycle 
of several months, usually twelve. Some writers define it as 
a period or space of time, measured by the revolution of some 
celestial body in its orbit. Thus the time in which the fixed 
stars make a revolution is called the great year ; and the 
times in which Jupiter, Saturn, the Sun, Moon, etc. complete 
their courses, and return to the same point of the zodiac, are 
respectively called the years of Jupiter, and Saturn, and the 
Solar and Lunar years, etc. 1 

It is stated in Button's " Philosophical and Mathematical 
Dictionary/' that a year, originally, denoted a revolution, and 
was not limited to that of the sun. Accordingly, we find by 
the oldest accounts, that people have, at different times, ex- 
pressed other revolutions by it, particularly that of the moon ; 
and consequently, that the years of some accounts are to be 
reckoned only months, and sometimes periods of two, or 
three, or four months. This will assist us greatly in under- 
standing the traditions that certain nations give of their own 
antiquity, and perhaps also of the great age of men. We 
read expressly in several of the old Greek writers, that the 
Egyptian year, at one period, was only a month ; and we are 
also told that at other periods it was three months, or four 
months ; and it is probable that the children of Israel fol- 
lowed the Egyptian mode of computing their years. The 
Egyptians boasted, nearly two thousand years ago, that 
they had historical records of events, happening forty-eight 
thousand years before that period. This statement was evi- 
dently intended to deceive the Greeks, with the design of 
making them believe that they, the Egyptians, were the most- 
ancient nation, an ambition which the Chinese attempt, at 
present, to imitate, striving to impress us with the idea that 
they are the oldest people on the earth. Both the present 
and the early imposters have pretended to ancient observa- 
tions of the heavenly bodies, and recounted eclipses, in par- 
ticular, to vouch for the truth of their statements. Since the 

1 Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia, 1741. 

Computation of Time. 69 

time in which the solar year, or period of the earth's revo- 
lution round the sun, has been received, we may calculate 
with certainty ; but, in regard to those remote ages, in which 
we do not precisely know what is meant by the term year, it 
is impossible to form any satisfactory conjecture of the dura- 
tion of time, as computed by the ancients in their chronicles. 
The Babylonians pretend to an antiquity of the same fabu- 
lous kind ; they boast of forty-seven thousand years in which 
they had kept observations ; but we may judge of these as 
of the others. The Egyptians speak of the stars having four 
times altered their courses in that period which they claim 
for their history, and that the sun set twice in the east. They 
were not such perfect astronomers but that, after a round- 
about voyage, they might perhaps mistake the east for the 
west, when they came in again, particularly as the use of the 
mariner's compass was unknown to them. 

The tropical or solar year, properly, and by way of emi- 
nence so-called, is the space of time in which the sun moves 
through the twelve signs of the zodiac. This, by observa- 
tions of the best modern astronomers, contains 365 d. 5 h. 
48 m. 46.14912 seconds. The quantity assumed by the au- 
thors of the Gregorian calendar was 365 d. 5 h. 49 m., which 
corresponds exactly with the observations of Bianchini, and 
de La Hire, in the hext century. In the civil, or popular 
account, the year contains 365 days, with an additional day 
every four years. 

The excess of the solar year over 365 days has been given 
by different astronomers as follows: 

Melon and Euctemon 5th Century B.C. 6 h. 18m. 57 sec. 
HIpparchus . 2d " 5 h. 55m. 12 " 

Sosigenes . . . 1st 6 h. m. " 

Albategnius . . 9th " A.D. 5 h. 46m. 24 " 

Alphonsine Tables . 13th " " 5 h. 49 m. 16 " 

Copernicus . . . 16th " " 5h. 49m. 6 " 

Tycho Braho . " 5 h. 48 m. 45.5 " 

Kepler . . . 17th " 5h. 48m. 57.65 

Halle 7 5 h. 48 m. 54.691 

Lalande . . . 18th " 5 h. 48 m. 35.5 

Delambre ..." 5 h. 48 m. 51.6 

Laplace ..." 5 h. 48 m. 49.7 

Hind, 1850 . . ,19th " " 5 h. 41 m. 46.2 

70 Computation of Time. 

MONTH (Gothic, menath; Anglo-Saxon, monath, from mona, 
the moon; German, monat; Dutch, maand; Danish, maaned; 
Swedish, manad). 

The next convenient division of time, which is marked 
out hy the revolutions of the heavenly bodies, is the month. 
The astronomical month is the period of time in which the 
moon performs a complete revolution round the heavens, 
and is either periodical or synodical. The periodical month is 
the time in which the moon moves from one point of the 
heavens to the same point again, and is equal to 27 d. 7 h. 
43 m. 47 seconds ; and the synodical month, or lunation, as it 
is sometimes called, is that portion of time which elapses be- 
tween two successive new moons, or between two successive 
conjunctions of the moon with the sun, and is equal to 29 d. 
12 h. 44 m. 3.19 seconds. The solar month is that portion of 
time in which the sun moves through one entire sign of the 
zodiac, the mean quantity of which is 30 d. 10 h. 29 m. 
3.84576 seconds, being the twelfth part of the solar year. 

WEEK (Anglo-Saxon, weoc; Dutch, week; German woche; 
Danish, uge; Swedish, vecka). 

The subdivision of the month into weeks is very ancient, 
and has been adopted by almost all nations, excepting the 
ancient Greeks, the inhabitants . of the north of China, the 
Persians, and the Mexicans. It originated with the ancient 
Chaldeans, who gave the name of one of the seven planets to 
each hour of the day, and designated each day by the name 
of that planet which corresponded with the first hour of the 
day. In order to understand this, the order of the planets 
must be given upon the Ptolemaic system, that is, in the 
order of their distances from the earth, beginning with the 
most distant: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mer- 
cury, and the Moon. Commencing with Saturn, on the first 
hour of the first day, and allotting to each hour a planet, in 
the order named, the first hour of the second day, it is found, 
would fall to the Sun; of the third day, to the Moon; of the 
fourth, to Mars ; of the fifth, to Mercury ; of the sixth, to 
Jupiter ; and of the seventh, to Venus. 1 

1 Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 

Computation of Time. 71 

The Latins adopted these designations in their names of 
the days of the week. They are to be found in old law books 
and MSS., and are still used by the learned professions through- 
out Europe. 

Occasionally, the signs only of the planets were used, for 
the sake of brevity, particularly in diaries and journals. This 
is notably the case in the original MS. field-book of Mason 
and Dixon's survey of the boundary line between Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland, 1763 to 1768, in possession of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. In this book the name of 
each day of the week is represented by the sign, in addition 
to the usual dates, for a period of over four years. See, also, 
" Minutes of t],ie Provincial Council of Pennsylvania" (Colo- 
nial Records), vol. ii. pages 90 to 96, etc. etc. In the latter 
part of vol i. (same Records) the Latin names of the days 
were used. 

Our Saxon ancestors, before their conversion to Christianity, 
named the seven days of the week from the sun and moon, 
and some of their deified heroes, to whom they were pecu- 
liarly consecrated, and representing the ancient gods or planets ; 
which names we have received, and still retain. 

Latin. Signs. English. Anglo-Saxon. Presided over by 

Dies Saturnl 





Dies Solis 



The Sun 

Dies LunsB 




The Moon 

Dies Martis 




Dies Mercurii 





Dies Jovis 





Dies Veneris 





In some ancient documents we find the equivalent terms, 
Dies Sabbati for Saturday, and Dies Dominica for Sunday. 
Tiw, Tyw, Tuisto or Tuesco, the Saxon Mars, or God of war. 
Woden or Odin, a Scandinavian chief or deity, the reputed 
author of magic, and the inventor of all the arts, and was 
thought to answer to the Mercury of the Greeks and Romans. 
Thor was the god of thunder, as well as the ancient Jove. 
Friga, Freya, or Freja was the Scandinavian Venus ; she was 
the wife of Thor, and goddess of peace, fertility, and riches. 

This order of the days, first adopted by the Chaldeans, was 

72 Computation of Time. 

preserved by the Mosaic law. The Christians, however, began 
their week on Sunday, and the Mahometans on Friday. 


Although Encyclopaedias and other works mention the 
French Republican Calendar, and in some cases attempt to 
give copies of it, I have yet to find, in the English language, 
a correct exemplar, or one that can be used for practical pur- 
poses. The Calendar here given may be relied on for perfect 
accuracy in every particular, as it has been prepared directly 
from the "Almanach National de France," and the " Gazette 
Rationale, ou Le Moniteur Universel." 

The zeal for innovation which accompanied the French 
revolution, induced the rulers to change their calendar along 
with their government. It was decreed by the National 
Convention, in the autumn of 1793, that the vulgar era 
should be abolished in all civil concerns; that the new French 
era should be reckoned from the foundation of the republic, 
September 22, 1792, of the vulgar era, on the day of the true 
autumnal equinox ; that each year should begin on the mid- 
night of the day on which the autumnal equinox falls ; and 
that the first year of the French republic had begun imme- 
diately after 12 o'clock P. M. of the 21st of September, 1792, 
and had terminated on the midnight between the 21st and 22d 
of September, 1793. In order to effect a correspondence be- 
tween the seasons and the civil year, it was decreed that the 
fourth year of the republic should be the first sextile, or leap 
year, that a sixth complementary day should be added to it, and 
that it should terminate the first Franciade; that the sextile, 
or leap year, should take place every four years, and should 
mark the close of each Franciade ; that the first, second, and 
third centesimal years, viz. 100, 200, and 300 of the republic, 
should be common, and that the fourth, viz. 400, should be 
sextile ; and this should be the case every four centuries until 
the fortieth, which should terminate with a common year. 

It was intended that the year should have been divided 
into ten parts, conformably to the decimal system : but, in 
taking the divisions of the months, the twelve revolutions of 

Computation of Time. 73 

the moon round the earth made it absolutely necessary to 
admit twelve months. These were named after the seasons 

to which they belonged. 

a f Vend6miaire 
5 { Brumaire 
* I Frimaire 

Vintage month 
Foggy month 
Frosty month 

September 22 
October 22 
November 21 

to October 
" Nov. 
" Dec. 






^ t Nivose 
a 4 Pluviose 

Snowy month 
Rainy month 
Windy month 

December 21 
January 20 
February 19 

" Jan. 
" Feb. 
" March 



^ f Germinal 
| \ Floreal 
( Prairial 

Germinating month 
Flowery month 
Meadow month 

March 21 
April 20 
May 20 

" April 
" May 
" June 




g r Messidor 
j] J Thermidor 
w I Fructidor 

Harvest month 
Il^ot month 
Fruit month 

June 19 
July 19 

August 18 

" July 
" August 
" Sept. 



As the French months consisted of 80 days each, making 
in all 360 days, the remaining five days required to complete 
the year were called complementary days and sans-culottides. 
They were named as follows : 

1. Primedi FSte de la Yertu The Virtues Sept. 17th 

2. Duodi Fete du Genie Genius " 18th 

3. Tridi Fte du Travail Labor " 19th 

4. Quartidi F6te de 1'Opinion Opinion 1 " 20th 

5. Quintidi Fete des Recompenses Rewards " 21st 

The intercalary day of every fourth year was called La 
sans-culottide, and was to be the Festival of the Revolution, 
to be dedicated to a grand solemnity, in which the French 
should celebrate the period of their enfranchisement, and the 
institution of the Republic. The National oath, "To live 
free or die," was to be renewed. 

Each day was divided according to the decimal system, 
into ten parts or hours, and these into ten others, and so on. 

Each month was divided into three decades, each consist- 

1 "This festival, absolutely original, and perfectly adapted to the French 
character, was to be a sort of political carnival of twenty-four hours, during 
which people should be allowed to say or to write with impunity, whatever 
they pleased concerning every public man. It was for opinion to do justice 
upon opinion itself; and it behooved all magistrates to defend themselves by 
their virtues against the truths and the calumnies of that day." Thiers' 
History of the French Revolution. 


Computation of Time. 

ing of ten days ; the names of which, were taken from the 
Latin numerals. The first was called Primedi, 2d Duodi, 3d 
Iridi, 4th Quartidi, 5th Quintidi, 6th Scxtidi, 7th Septidi, 8th 
Octidi, 9th Nonidi, and 10th Decadi. The last was the day 
of rest, and superseded the former Sunday. 

This decimal arrangement did not appear to give general 
satisfaction, the French Republicans rarely adopting the new 
names of the days, in dating their letters, or in conversation, 
but using the number of the day of each month of their 
calendar. Thus: the 6th, 17th, 28th, or 30th Nivose, the 
9th Fructidor, the 12th Germinal, the 16th Frimaire, the 
23d Prairial, etc. The system was abandoned, and religious 
worship restored after SeptidiJ- 27th Germinal, year X. (17th 
April, 1802), and the next day, Sunday, commenced with the 
usual names of the days of the week: Dimanche, Lundi, 
Mardi, Mercredi, Jeudi, Vendredi, and Samedi. 

This calendar existed until the 10th Nlvose, year XIV. 
(the 31st December, 1805). The next day, January 1, 1806, 
the Gregorian mode of computation was restored. 

"With the aid of the preceding and following tables, a com- 
plete calendar for any month, or year, of the French Repub- 
lic can easily be constructed. 

From 22 Sept. 1792 ). 
To 21 " 1793 J * 

From 23 Sept. 1800 ) 1Y 
To 22 " 1801 j IA 

From 23 " 1793 ) ,. 

From 23 " 1801 ) Y 

To 21 " 1794 f 11 

To 22 " 1802 f A 

From 22 " 1794),,,* 
To 22 " 1795 j 11 

From 23 " 1802 \ YI# 
To 23 " 1803 ) AI 

From 23 * 
To 21 

1 1795 1 v 
1796 f IV 

From 24 " 1803 ) YII 
To 22 " 1804 f Ali 

From 22 

1796 ) ., 

From 23 " 1804) YIII 

To 21 

1797 f V 

To 22 " 1805 f AI " 

From 22 
To 21 

1797 1 VI 
1798) Vl 

From 23 u 1805 ) YIV 
To 31 Dec. 1805 | AIV 

From 22 

1798) .,..* 

To 22 

1799 } VIS 

* Sextile or leap-years, 

From 23 " 1799 ) vn , 

To 22 " 1800 J VUI 

The calendar, although reckoned from the 22d of September, 
1792, was not introduced until the 8th of Brumaire, year II. 
(9th of October, 1793). See Le Moniteur of that date. 

1 See Gazette Nationals ou Le Moniteur Universal, 18, 20 Germinal, 
year X. (8, 10 April, 1802) for act of the Corps-Legislatif, and speech of 
Lucien Bonaparte. 

Computation of Time. 


Years of the Republic. 

IV. 1795-6.* 

1. 1792-3 V. 1706-7 
11. 171)3-4 VI. 1707-8 

VII. 1799-18001 XI. 1802-3 
IX. 1800-1 XIII. 1804-5 

XII. 1803-4. 

III. 1794-5 VII. 1798-9 

X. 1801-3 XIV. 1805 

1 Vendemiaire 22 Sept. 

1 Vendemiaire 23 Sept. 

1 Vendemiaire 24 Sept. 

9 " 30 

8 " 30 " 

7 u 30 k4 

10 " 1 Oct. 

9 " 1 Oct. 

8 1 Oct. 

30 " 21 " 

30 " 22 " 

30 " 23 " 

1 Brumaire 22 " 

1 Brumaire 23 " 

1 Brumaire 24 " 

10 " 31 " 

9 " 31 " 

8 " 31 " 

11 " 1 Nov. 

10 " 1 Nov. 

9 1 Nov. 

30 " 20 " 

30 " 21 " 

30 " 22 " 

1 Frimaire 21 " 

1 Frimaire 22 " 

1 Frimaire 23 * 

10 " 30 " 

9 " 30 " 

8 " 30 " 

11 1 Dec. 

10 " 1 Dec. 

9 1 Dec. 

30 " 20 " 

30 " 21 " 

30 " 22 ** 

1 Nivose 21 " 

1 Nivose 22 " 

1 Nivose 23 " 

H 31 " 

10 " 31 " 

9 " 31 " 

12 " 1 Jan. 

11 " 1 Jan. 

10 " 1 Jan. 

30 " 19 * 

30 " 20 " 

30 " 21 " 

1 Pluviose 20 " 

1 Pluviose 21 " 

1 Pluviose 22 " 

12 " 31 " 

11 " 31 " 

10 " 31 " 

13 " 1 Feb. 

12 " 1 Feb. 

13 " 1 Feb. 

30 " 18 " 

30 " 19 " 

30 " 20 " 

1 Ventose 19 " 

1 Ventose 20 " 

1 Yentose 21 " 

10 " 28 " 

9 " 28 " 

9 " 29 " 

11 " 1 March 

10 " 1 March 

10 " 1 March 

30 " 20 " 

30 " 21 " 

30 " 21 " 

1 Germinal 21 " 

1 Germinal 22 " 

1 Germinal 22 " 

11 " 31 " 

10 " 31 " 

10 " 31 " 

12 " 1 April 

11 " 1 April 

11 " 1 April 

30 " 19 " 

30 " 20 " 

30 " 20 44 

1 Floreal 20 " 

1 Floreal 21 " 

1 Floreal 21 

11 " 30 " 

10 " 30 " 

10 " 30 

12 " 1 May 

11 1 May 

11 " 1 May 

30 " 19 " 

30 " 20 " 

30 " 20 " 

1 Prairial 20 " 

1 Prairial 21 " 

1 Prairial 21 " 

12 " 31 " 

11 " 31 " 

11 " 31 " 

13 " 1 June 

12 " 1 June 

12 " 1 June 

30 " 18 " 

30 " 19 " 

30 " 19 4t 

1 Messidor 19 " 

1 Mcssidor 20 " 

1 Messidor 20 " 

12 " 30 " 

11 " 30 " 

11 " 30 

13 " 1 July 

12 " 1 July 

12 " 1 July 

30 " 18 " 

30 19 " 

30 " 19 * 

1 Thermidor 19 " 

1 Thermidor 20 " 

1 Thermidor 20 " 

13 " 31 " 

12 " 31 " 

12 " 31 

14 " 1 Aug. 

13 1 Aug. 

13 " 1 Aug. 

30 " 17 " 

30 " 18 " 

30 " 18 ' 

1 Fructidor 18 " 

1 Fructidor 19 " 

1 Fructidor 19 " 

14 " 31 " 

13 " 31 " 

13 " 31 " 

15 " 1 Sept. 

14 " 1 Sept. 

14 1 Sept. 

30 " 16 " 

30 " 17 " 

30 " 17 

b (I. 17 " 

b fl. 18 " 

3 2. 18 " 
108. 19 " 
1 & { 4 20 " 

-p^ \ 5. 21 " 

2 19 " 
2Q The 6th Complementary 

i > J / 91 " day was use( * on ' y f r tne 

-Ml 5 22 " sextilc years III.,VII., and 
1" ' XI. 

O 22 " 

16. 23 " 

* For the year IV of the Republic, after the 28th of February, use the first column under the 
year I, as 1793 was a Gregorian leap year. The 10th Ventose was the 29th of February. 

76 Computation of Time. 


In connection with this subject, it seems proper that some 
mention should be made of dates and numbers, such as are 
found in old books and MSS., and on ancient sculptures and 
monuments. The Roman numerals, with which we are all 
familiar, are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M- Some of the others 
are rather more difficult to understand. 

When the Eomans wrote several units, following each 
other, the first and last were longer than the rest, thus 1 1 1 1 1 1 
In ancient MSS. four is written Nil, and not IV; nine thus 
VMM, and not IX, etc. Instead of V, five units |(||| were 
sometimes used in the eighth century. Half was expressed 
by an S at the end of the figures, CMS was one hundred 
two and a half. This S sometimes appeared in the form of 
our 5. In some old MSS. the figures L X L are used to ex- 
press ninety. 

Q was sometimes used for 500, being the initial of Quin- 

When O (a reversed C) is annexed to |Q, it makes the value 
ten times greater, and in like manner, the annexing of O, and 
prefixing of C, increases its value tenfold. It has the power 
of the cipher annexed to an Arabic numeral, and repeated. 

Thousands were also expressed by a small line drawn over 
any numeral, thus T signifies 1000; VTT 7000 ; LX 60,000; 
likewise M" 1,000,000; MM 2,000,000, etc. 

The Roman numerals were generally used in England, 
France, Italy, Germany, and Spain, from the earliest times, 
to the middle of the 15th century. 

"The College accounts in the English universities were 
generally kept in the Roman numerals till the early part of 
the sixteenth century; nor in the parish registers were the 
Arabic characters adopted before the year 1600. The oldest 
date we have met with, in Scotland, is that of 1490, which 
occurs in the rent-roll of the diocese of St. Andrew's; the 
change from Roman to Arabic numerals occurring, with a 
corresponding alteration in the form of writing, near the end 
of the volume." 1 

1 Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Computation of lime. 77 

"With respect to the dates of charters, the use of Roman 
ciphers was universal in all countries ; but to avoid falling 
into error, it must be observed that in such dates, as well as 
those other muniments of France and Spain, the number for 
a thousand was sametimes omitted, the date beginning by 
hundreds ; in others, the thousands were set down, and the 
hundreds left out; and in latter ages both thousands and 
hundreds were alike suppressed, and people began with the 
tens, as if 78 was put for 1778, a practice still followed in 
letters, and in affairs of trifling consequence. 

u The numeral figures which have for some centuries pre- 
vailed in Eurgpe are certainly Indian [East Indian]. The 
Arabians do not pretend to have been the inventors of them, 
but they ascribe their invention to the Indians, from whom 
they borrowed them. The numerals used by the Bramins, the 
Persians, the Arabians, and some other eastern nations are 
similar to each other, and the same characters were introduced 
into Europe, where they prevailed in the fifteenth century. 

"The learned Dr. Wallis, of Oxford, delivers it as his 
opinion that the Indian or Arabic numerals were brought 
into Europe, together with other Arabic learning, about the 
middle of the tenth century, if not sooner." 1 

"The Saxon dates" on the table " are taken from the Danish 
and Norwegian registers, preserved in Suhm's Northern Col- 

" The oldest numerals are from a very curious Almanac, 
beautifully written on vellum, and belonging to the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh. It is calculated especially for the year 

"Fac-similes from Caxton's Mirrour of the 'World. Shir- 
wood's Ludus Arithmomachice, given in Dibdin's Bibliotheca 
Spencer iana." 2 

1 Astle's Origin and Progress of Writing London, 1794. 
* Encyclopaedia Britaunica. 


Computation of I ime. 



1 1 

UK or IV A 
hnlorV 5. 
X 10 

XXor# 20 
XXXor^ 30 

L 50 
LX 60 
L*orLXX 70 

D or 10 or Q, 
DC or bC 
DCCor bcc 




00 k> or Nil or I VcrX LOO or CBO or CCCCD 4-,OOO 


cr QO or lOD or- L^ or fcv ork cr ^<r or 
or fa or A*, .or ><O or cJli> or CClOO 
or/*\fc\ o^-Ak orCCloolDO 
or /*\/*v or V& GlD or CClOOCClOO 
L or 100O .or boo or QOO 
C or ^ or CCCIOOO orCCClOOO 
D^ or lOOOO or QODO 


i irx'l cbrtt OOcccxcvm Iccoooam Qx 

1 5 JO SO 100500 1000 1398 1334 &TQ 

U3 ^ ^ AS 910 Oldest xiss. 

S 9 \0 

\ Z$ 15 

The atove table is a compilation, 'from BoiS-' 

PEDIA BRITANNICA^aiidniaii^r o 

lay Spencer BonsalU 

Madame Montour. 79 




A sketch of this celebrated woman and her family will be 
properly introduced by a short description of the magnificent 
mountain ridge which bears her name. 

Montour's Ridge rises somewhat abruptly on the "West 
Branch of the Susquehanna, near the mouth of Chillisquaque 
Creek, in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, and start- 
ing out in a northeast course becomes the boundary between 
the townships of Point and Chillisquaque in Northumberland 
County, and between Point and the townships of Liberty and 
Mahoning in Montour County, near Danville, where Mahon- 
ing Creek breaks through to the North Branch of the Susque- 
hanna thence becoming the boundary between Valley and 
Mahoning, and West Hemlock and Cooper, in Montour 
County ; and between Hemlock and Montour in Columbia 
County ; breaking down again where Hemlock Creek flows 
through into Fishing Creek, and again a short distance be- 
yond where Fishing Creek rolls between its precipitous sides 
north of Bloomsburg off into the North Branch ; then rising 
again and throwing toward the surface its rich iron deposits 
north and east of Bloomsburg, and sinking forever, after 
developing millions of tons of limestone, north and east of 
the town of Espy. 

A geological axis of elevation passes nearly along the 
middle of the ridge, composed of hard gray and reddish 
sandstone, which are covered along both sides, sometimes 
nearly and sometimes quite to the top, by elates and shales 
of overlying series, the lower part of which consists of yel- 
lowish or greenish slates, containing thin strata of limestone, 
in which are impressions of shells and other fossils ; and near 
these is a very valuable layer of brownish-red iron ore, from 
six inches to over two feet in thickness, also containing fossil 

Madame Montour. 

impressions. This ore is fouiid on both sides of the ridge as 
far east as the vicinity of Bloomsburg, where the strata con- 
verge over its top as it sinks away on the east, and finally 
disappears under the overlying red shale in the neighborhood 
of Espy town. In the slates above the iron ore are some thin 
layers of dark-colored limestone, succeeded by a thick bed of 
red shale, which forms the upper portion of the series. Over- 
lying this red shale is a limestone formation, which' encircles 
the ridge outside of the red shale, and which may be seen 
not far from the river above Northumberland, and along the 
railroad from Danville to Bloomsburg; dipping under the 
Fishing Creek above its mouth, and passing under Blooms- 
burg, it rises again near Espy, and extends nearly to Berwick, 
where it sinks away beneath the overlying slate. A fine 
deposit of mantle and roofing slate of the very best quality 
develops itself on Little Fishing Creek about a mile above 
Bloomsburg. It has been wrought and approved by compe- 
tent workmen and judges, arid needs only capital and enter- 
prise to become a recognized industry of the county. 

Thus it will be seen that Montour's ridge is useful as well 
as ornamental, rich as well as rugged ; yielding right at our 
doors iron ore, limestone, slate, and building stone in almost 
unlimited quantities. 

Madame Montour, who gave her name to this beautiful 
range of hills, is a personage of considerable importance in 
the early history of Pennsylvania, and especially of the Sus- 
quehanna region. Her birth, her character, and her actions 
have been the subject of romance and of history. She has 
been the victim of vituperation as well as the heroine of 
eulogy. Her name has been used to dignify and horrify the 
"Wyoming massacre. But neither romance nor history, neither 
vituperation nor eulogy, seems to have done her justice. 

Madame Montour makes her first appearance in our his- 
tory at a council held at Philadelphia on the 3d of July, 
1727, between the Hon. Patrick Gordon, Lieutenant-Governor, 
and his council on one side, and divers Chiefs of the Five 
Nations, the Conestogoes, Gangawese, and Susquehanna In- 
dians, on the other. The council being met and seated : u The 

Madame Montour. 81 

Governor told them by M. Montour, a French woman who 
had lived long among these people, and is now interpretress, 
that he was glad to see them all well after so long a journey, 
and was now ready with his council to receive what they 
have to say." The meetings continued several days, Madame 
Montour making the interpretations between the parties. 
She was at this time married to her second husband, Robert 
Hunter, alias Carondawana, a Chief of the Oneidas. 1 It is 
agreed on all hands that her first husband was Roland Mon- 
tour, a brave of the Senecas. She had no children by her 
second husband, who was killed in a war with the Catawbas 
as early as the year 1729. 

Madame Montour is by some writers alleged to have been 
the daughter of one of the French Governors of Canada, and 
to have been a lady in manners, style, and education. That 
she mingled in the best society of Philadelphia, and possessed 
great attractions of mind and person. But when we remem- 
ber that she had a sister married to a brave of the Miamis, 
and was herself twice married to Indians of the Five Nations, 
it is more than likely that her claims to beauty, education, 
and refinement were not so positive as her admirers have as- 
serted, yet, perhaps, they were far in advance of her husbands' 
and her swarthy companions. 

An examination of the authorities seems to bring us to the 
conclusion that Madame Montour was a French Canadian 
without any admixture of Indian blood that she was edu- 
cated that she preferred the Indian custom, and a roving and 
unsettled habit of life and that the family into which she 
married were the French half-breeds who had a French Gov- 

1 And this statement of her marriage with Carondawana is repeated 
in 1728 in a communication of the Governor to the Board through 
James Le Tort of " a matter he had been informed of by Mistress Montour, 
who had married the Indian called Robert Hunter, & was here with her said 
husband last summer in company with those of the Five Nations," etc. 
Le Tort said, " That intending last fall to take a journey as far as the Mia- 
mis Indians, or Twechtweys, to trade with them, he had consulted Mrs. 
Montour, a French woman, wife to Carondawana, about his journey thither, 
who having lived amongst & having a sister married to one of that nation," &c. 
VOL. III. 6 

82 Madame Montour. 

ernor of Canada for their father, if, indeed, they were entitled 
to make any such claim. That in early life she married 
Roland Montour, a brave of the Senecas, who had a brother 
John, and a sister who was variously known as Catharine, 
Kate, Catrina, Catreen, and Queen Esther. 

By her husband Roland Montour she had certainly four, 
and possibly five children. Andrew, Henry, and Robert are 
well known. We hear of Lewis also ; and at a council in 
Philadelphia, June 18, 1733, before Thomas Penn, Esquire, 
Shekallamy, then at Shamokin as the head of the tribes, 
speaks of an Indian "named Katarioniecha, who is married 
to one Margaret, a daughter of Mrs. Montour," as living " in 
that neighborhood." 

Whatever Roland Montour may have been, Madame had 
always been the friend of the Proprietary Government. And 
that reputation is enhanced, if possible, after her second mar- 
riage. In some instructions given in 1728 by Gov. Gordon 
to Henry Smith and John Petty, then about to visit the Sus- 
quehanna Indians, the Governor says : " Give my kind love 
also to Carundowana and his wife and speak to them to the 
same purpose. Lett him know I expect of him, that as he 
is a great Captain, he will take Care that all the People about 
him shall show themselves good Men & truehearted, as he is 
himself, and that I hope to see him at the Treaty." And 
again, in the same year, there is the following memorandum : 
"It was afterward considered by the Board what Present 
might be proper to be made to Mistress Montour & her hus- 
band, Carandowana, & likewise to Shikellima, of the Five 
Nations, appointed to reside among the Shanese, whose ser- 
vices had been and may yet be of great advantage to this 
Government ; And it was agreed that Five Pounds in Bills 
of Credit should be given to Mistress Montour and her hus- 

After the death of her second husband in 1729 she probably 
spent a good deal of her time in Philadelphia; and in 1734 
several of the Oneidas and others coming to town, "Mrs. 
Montour, now in town but not a member of the delegation," 
was inquired of as to their standing and importance, and they 

Madame Montour. 83 

were entertained and rewarded with some reference to her 
information concerning them. 

That such was the uniform character of the family of 
Madame Montour is further evidenced by the fact that at 
least two of her sons received large grants of "donation 
lands" from the Government. Henry's lay on the Chillis- 
quaque, and Andrew's on the Loyal Sock, where Montours- 
ville now stands. 

In September, 1742, Shikellimy, the great Cayuga Chief, 
was living at Shamokin, and was there then visited by Conrad 
Weiser, Count Zirizendorf, Martin Mack and his wife, and 
several other persons. After spending some time at Shamokin, 
the " Count and*part of his company forded the Susquehanna, 
and went to Ostonwackin on the West Branch. This place 
was then inhabited, not only by Indians, of different tribes, 
but by Europeans, who had adopted the Indian manner of 
life. Among the latter was a Frenchwoman, Madame Mon- 
tour, who had married an Indian warrior (Carondowaua, 
alias Robert Hunter), but lost him in a war against the Ca- 
tawbas. She kindly entertained the Count for two days. 
The Count went soon after to Wyoming." 

The authorities seem to locate the town of Otstonwakin at 
the mouth of the Loyal Sock Creek, now in Ly coming County. 
Hupp, in his History of Eight Counties, has the following 
remark : " When Count Zinzendorff visited Ostonwackin (or 
French town) he was met (July 30, 1742) by an Indian who 
understood French and English." Conrad Weiser, in a letter 
under date of March 1, 1755, to Governor Morris, speaking 
of some Shawanese Indians, who had lately come from the 
Ohio, says : "They jointly intend to make a town next spring, 
on the West Branch of Susquehanna, commonly called Otzin- 
zachson, at a place called Otstuagy, or French town, about 
forty miles above Shamokin." And the Indians desired the 
Governor to send up some industrious people to fence a corn- 
field for them. Under date of June 12, 1755, Mr. Weiser 
says he has just returned from Otstuacky, an Indian town 
about forty-five miles above Shamokin, on the Korth West 
Branch of the Susquehanna River, "where I have been with 

84 Madame Montour. 

ten hired men to fence in a cornfield, for the Indians, accord- 
ing to your Honor's order." He says he left them a sack of 
flour, and that he left another at Canasoragy, about ten miles 
below Otstuacky. In the Journal of Mack and Grubd from 
Bethlehem to Quenischaschachki, they say: "In the after- 
noon of Sunday, Aug. 26, 1753, we launched our canoe and 
paddled up the river. Four miles above Shamokin we came 
to Logan's place .... On the 27th we arrived at John 

Shikellimy's hunting-lodge After dinner we 

came to the mouth of Muncy Creek, forty miles above Sha- 
mokin. As the Susquehanna was high, and current rapid, 
we left our canoe in care of an Indian acquaintance, shoul- 
dered our packs, and keeping along the banks of the river, 
arrived at Otstonwakin in the evening." The distances are 
not to be depended upon, but a town at the mouth of Loyal 
Sock, now called Montoursville, and known over a hundred 
years ago as Otstuagy or Otstuacky or Otstonwakin, was in 
1742 the residence of Madame Montour. She was with the 
Indians in June, 1744, at Lancaster at the treaty there made, 
and stated to Mr. Marsh that she was a daughter of a French 
Governor of Canada, that she was captured by the Five 
Nations at about the tenth year of her age, that she had 
married a famous Captain of those nations, by whom she had 
several children, and that her husband had been killed about 
fifteen years before, being about 1729. And that since his 
death she has not been married. She also stated that it was 
then near fifty years since she had been captured, making her 
in 1744 near sixty years of age. Spangenberg visited her at 
Shamokin in 1745, but after that I find no mention of her, 
and the time and place of her death are unknown. There is 
no authority for believing that she was alive, much less pre- 
sent, thirty-six years later, at the massacre of "Wyoming. No 
history or authentic tradition connects Madame Montour 
with the shedding of any blood white or Indian ; the whole 
tenor of her life forbids it, and the attempt to enhance the 
romance of a locality or a tragedy by naming her in connec- 
tion with it, must be a failure. 

That there was at the massacre of Wyoming an Indian 

Madame Montour. 85 

woman of consequence, who was known as " Queen Esther," 
is so confidently and widely asserted that it may scarcely be 
doubted that she was the bloody and brutal executioner 
Beems also certain, if the statements of escaped prisoners are 
trustworthy. She is alleged to have been old, is called by 
Mr. Miner "The Old Fury," and it is said that in 1779, her 
place and village on the banks of the Susquehanna was burned 
by Sullivan's expedition. The Montours were at the battle 
of Wyoming. Twenty-five years afterward a couple of In- 
dians, known as Stuttering John and Roland Montour, ad- 
mitted that, in a denial as to the participation of Brant in 
that massacre. But these Montours were not descendants of 
Madame Montoifr. The name Roland seems to have been a 
favorite,' and it is entirely possible, therefore, that a Capt. 
Roland Montour may have been at that celebrated massacre. 
When we learn, also, that the Chief, wounded fatally at Free- 
land's Fort, and buried at Painted Post, was a son of Queen 
Esther, we may pretty safely conclude that the Queen Esther 
of the massacre may have been Madame Mon tour's sister-in- 
law. John and Catrina were all their lives unrelenting ene- 
mies of the English Colonists. Mr. Day speaks of " the cele- 
brated Catharine Montour, sometimes called Queen Esther, 
whose more permanent residence was at Catharinestown, at 
the head of Seneca Lake, as being a half-breed, who had been 
well educated in Canada. Her reputed father was one of the 
French Governors of that Province, and she herself was a 
lady of comparative refinement. She was much caressed in 
Philadelphia, and mingled in the best society. She exercised 
a controlling influence among the Indians, and resided in this 
quarter [Tioga Point, Bradford County] while they were 
making their incursions upon the Wyoming settlements. It 
has been even suspected that she presided at the bloody sacri- 
fice of the Wyoming prisoners after the battle; but Col. 
Stone, who is good authority upon the history of the Six 
Nations, utterly discredits the story." 

Madame Montour did spend a good deal of her time in 
Philadelphia between the years 1729 and 1734, or even later, 
but how much she was caressed, and how much she mingled 

86 Madame Montour. 

in the best society is unknown. She was then a widow for 
the second time, according to some authorities, and if French, 
or of French extraction, she may have been a dashing one. Of 
her age we can only conjecture ; but her son Andrew was a 
man with a family in 1748, and in 1733 her daughter Mar- 
garet is spoken of as being then married. Madame was pro- 
bably born before the year 1690, and was no longer young at 
her first appearance in our history. 

That the Montours, Roland, John, and Catharine were 
half-breeds, children of a French Governor of Canada, is alto- 
gether probable ; but that Catharine, the sister of Roland, 
ever was the educated and refined and caressed lady of the 
best society of Philadelphia, is an entire misapprehension. 
There is no evidence that Catharine ever was in Philadelphia. 
Mr. Pearce asserts, notwithstanding Col. Stone's denial, that 
" Queen Esther" was at the massacre. If he means by u Queen 
Esther," Madame Montour, the French woman, the wife of 
Roland Montour, he is mistaken ; but if he means Catrina 
Montour, the sister of Roland and John, then he may be 
right. The authority from whom Mr. Day quotes, has evi- 
dently confounded the two women. Madame Montour and 
Catharine Montour were very different persons. The Christian 
name of Madame Montour is not given in any authority which 
has come under my observation; and the person who had her 
castle at Tioga Point, and her town at the head of Seneca 
Lake was not the wife or widow of Roland Montour. Madame 
Montour had a daughter Margaret ; might not that have 
been, too, the name of the mother ? Between her and John 
and Catrina, there seems to have been no intercourse, at least 
they are never mentioned in connection with her, nor named 
as of her family. It is alleged that John and Catreen were 
both at the taking of Fort Freeland in July, 1779, that 
John received a wound there which proved fatal, and that he 
was buried at the " Painted Post." 1 The probabilities of this 

1 Judge McMaster, in his History of Steuben County, says that " Captain 
Montour, the Chief who was buried at the Painted Post, was a son of Queen 
Catharine, of Seneca Lake ; and that he died of wounds received at Free- 

Madame Montour. 87 

story being true are increased when we remember the num- 
ber of persons taken prisoners at that time, and that many 
of them returned from captivity, to whom the facts must 
have been well known, and by whom they would be correctly 
and graphically related. 

In view of all the evidence now attainable, it seems possible 
that Madame Montour may have been of pure French extrac- 
tion, and that Roland and his brother and sister may have 
been half-breeds. At any rate Madame is always spoken of 
as a French woman, and never as a half-breed, while Catharine 
is always distinguished as half-breed, although the brothers 
are seldom if ever so designated. 

So much it has seemed necessary to say, that the truth of 
history might be vindicated, and the confusion or error which 
the authorities leave upon the mind might be dispelled that 
the good reputation of Madame Montour might be as im- 
movable as the rocks that underlie the beautiful Ridge which 
perpetuates her name, and that her memory should be as green 
and grateful as the pines that clothe its sides and wave over 
its summit. 

N. B. The spelling of the proper names is in accordance to my authori- 
ties, scarcely any two spelling the Indian names alike. J. G. F. 

land's Fort." He does not give the first name, and we are unable to tell 
whether it was John or Roland. It seems impossible to arrive at any cer- 
tainty in these matters. Mr. Miner, in a note in his History of Wyoming, 
says that " Roland Montour, a half-blood," was at the massacre in 1778 ; but 
Mr. Carey, his informant, does not tell who Roland was. It is altogether 
probable that the same young warrior was at Freeland's Fort in July, 1779. 

88 The Descendants of Joran Kyn. 


(Continued from Vol. IL, page 456.) 

6. ERICK KEEN, S son of Hans and "Willemka Keen, was 
born at Upland, and removed with his father's family up the 
Delaware, where he grew to manhood, and married Catharine, 
daughter of Jan Claassen, younger sister of his hrother Mat- 
thias Keen's wife. Through her he inherited fifty acres of 
land in Bristol Township, Bucks Co., Pa., part of his father- 
in-law's estate. He purchased, March 4, 1702-3, from his 
cousin Maons Keen three acres of land and meadow in Ches- 
ter Township, Burlington Co., "N. J., hut whether he ever re- 
sided there cannot now be ascertained. On the 25th of Janu- 
ary, 1706-7, his mother and brothers deeded to him a hundred 
acres acquired by Matthias Keen from Erick Mollicka, origi- 
nally one of his father Hans Keen's tracts (the lower one of 
the two ascribed to " Enock and Keene" upon Holme's Map), 
situated on the Delaware River, at the mouth and along the 
eastern side of Wissinoming Creek. Erick Keen was already 
in possession of it, and he continued to dwell on it, engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, the rest of his life. His name appears 
in Pastor Andrew Rudman's list of the Lutheran congregation 
of Wicacoa in 1697-8, and in the first list of pewholders in 
Gloria Dei Church in 1705, and among contributors to the 
salaries of the Swedish clergy at sundry times. He subscribed 
to the erection of the present Church edifice in 1700, and lived 
to contribute to the repair of it in 1738, and aided in 1717 in 
building the parsonage at Passyunk, and was for many years 
Vestryman and Warden of the Congregation of Wicacoa. He 
was one of the gentlemen who made the present of American 
fur to Mr. Secretary Lilljeblad, spoken of in the account of 
Matthias Keen, and signed the petition, also there referred 

The Descendants of Jbran Kyn. 89 

to, addressed to the General Assembly of the Province on 
occasion of certain grievances inflicted on the Swedes by the 
Proprietary Government. After the death of his first wife 
he married Brigitta (her surname unknown to us), who sur- 
vived him. His will is dated January 7, 1741-2, and was 
admitted to probate on the 28th of the same month. He was, 
without doubt, buried in Gloria Dei Churchyard, although no 
tombstone marks the position of his grave. 
By his first wife he had five children : 

25. HANS, m. Mary Laican. 

26. PETER, b. February 26, 1703 ; m., 1st, Margaret ; 2dly, Ann. 

27. JOHN. 

28. MATTHIAS, ^n. Sarah Harper. 

29. CATHARINE, m. Robert Glen. 

By his second wife he had three children: 

30. DANIEL, b. 1722-3 ; m. Elizabeth McCarty. 

31. JONAS, b. 1725-6, resided on his father's farm in Oxford Township 

(bequeathed to his brother Daniel Keen and him) at least until the 
spring of 1753. He married (his wife's name not known), and had 
issue living in 1765, and was killed by a stroke of lightning. 

32. MARY, in her father's will directed " to be brought up by her mother 

and brothers," Daniel and Jonas, " till of age or married." 

10. MANS, MOUNCE, or MOSES KEEN,* "son and heir of Jonas 
Keen," was born at Upland, October, 1664,* and in his youth 
removed with his father to West New Jersey, where he lived 
on the banks of the river Delaware, at the mouth of Pompes- 
sion Creek. After his father's death he sold this land, and 
in one of the deeds for it, dated December 24, 1719, is styled 
44 of Pittsgrove Precinct, Co. Salem." He was one of the 
most active Vestrymen and Wardens of the Swedish Lutheran 
Church on Raccoon Creek (now Trinity Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Swedesboro, K J.), and, doubtless, one of the con- 
tributors to the first building of it, in 1703-4, as he certainly 
was to the purchase of the pastor's dwelling some years after- 
wards. With regard to the latter, Acreliusf says: "The 

' The only evidences for this date are the statements of his age at the 
time of his death. 

t "History of New Sweden," p. 323. 

90 I he Descendants of Joran Kyn. 

congregation deliberated about this for eight years, and it 
was discussed in every Parish meeting, until Mr. Jesper Sved- 
berg* and Mans Kyn took it upon themselves to go from 
house to house, and urge the people to unite and bind them- 
selves for the purchase of a suitable Parsonage. Goran Kyn'sf 

* He was the son of Dr. Jesper Svedberg, the Bishop of Skara (who had 
jurisdiction over the Swedish Lutheran Congregations on the Delaware), and 
brother to the noted heresiarch, Emmanuel Swedenborg. Re was at this 
time acting as teacher of the school near Raccoon Church, a post he filled 
for over a year. 

f The Goran Kyn, or George Keen, here referred to, was a Warden of 
the Lutheran Congregation at Kaccoon, and either a brother, or a cousin- 
german of Maons Keen in the latter case, of course, the person elsewhere 
mentioned as the son of Hans and Willemka Keen. He m., 1st, October 30, 
1705, Anna or Annika, second child of Nils and Maria Giistenberg, of Lower 
Dublin Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa., and granddaughter of Olof Nilsson 
Gastenberg, an early settler on the Delaware, b. 1C83, d. 1706 (leaving one 
child, Annika, who m. Andrew Toy, son, doubtless of Elias Toy, of Sena- 
mensiug, New Jersey) ; and, 2dly, November, 1706, Helena, daughter of 
Erick Palsson Mollicka, a native of Mora Parish, in the Province of Hel- 
singland, Sweden, an early emigrant to our river, by his wife Ingeborg, 
daughter of Captain Israel Helm, of Sweden (by whom he had several 
children, most of whom died in infancy). According to a note made fully 
fifty years afterwards by the Rev. Nicholas Collin to an entry in the Parish 
Register, he d. in April, 1736, and was buried the 10th in Raccoon Swedish 
Cemetery. Perhaps, however, this was his son, of the same name, b. October 
14, 1717, and he may, possibly, be the person whose marriage (in that case 
his third one) is thus described in " Abraham Reincke's private record of 
official acts in the Brethren's mission of New Jersey" (see Appendix to 
Acrelius's " History," p. 444) : " Married, June 8, 1745, George Kyn, a 
widower, aged 64, to Margaret Justis, a widow, aged 53, after the banns had 
been thrice published first in Raccoon, next in Penn's Neck, and for the 
last time in Maurice River. The ceremony was performed in the groom's 
house on Maurice River, in the presence of the entire Swedish Congregation 
of said neighbourhood." This George Keen had laud surveyed to him on 
the east side of Maurice River, July 14, 1737 ; and purchased, September 
20, the same year, ninety acres of land in Gloucester County, on the east 
side of Oldman's Creek. He left a son Erick, styled in 1750 his " only sur- 
viving heir-at-law," who m. (Raccoon Swedish Church Register) November 
17, 1736, Catharine Denny, with issue several children, who intermarried 
with the families of Lippincott, Hickman, Ecard, and Chester, and left pos- 
terity. And he may have been the father of Catharine Keen, who m. (ibid.), 
December 11, 1734, Samuel Cabb, of Maurice River, a son, doubtless, or 

The Descendants of Joran Kyn. 91 

place was found suitable for this purpose, at the distance of 
about a Swedish mile from Raccoon, and a mile and a half 
from Pennsneck. It lies in Pilesgrove township, consists of 
one hundred and seventeen acres of land, and cost 145. The 
purchase was made on the 21st of March, 1720. A fine build- 
ing was erected upon it, with sleeping-rooms in the upper 
part ; and more land for grain was cleared." Mr. Keen ap- 
pears to have retained his knowledge of the Swedish language, 
in spite of the gradually encroaching influences of English 
settlers on the Delaware, for in the following spring he is 
spoken of in the Parish Records as receiving from Sweden 
two Bibles, three Hymn-books, and a Catechism. On the re- 
turn to Europe of the Reverend Samuel Hesselius, pastor of 
the congregation at Christina,* he signed an address, in com- 
pany with Peter Rambo, as members of the Church Council 
of Raccoon, October 31, 1731, commending that clergyman 
to the consideration of King Frederick, of Sweden. He was 
visited by Peter Kalm during the prolonged sojourn of the 
celebrated botanist in the neighbourhood of Raccoon Creek, 
and some of their conversations are recorded in the interesting 
journal of the great naturalist's " Travels into !N"orth Ame- 
rica."! He is personally referred to by Professor Kalm, 

grandson of William Cabb or Cobb, of Amasland, Pa., an owner of the 
old Swedes' mill erected by Governoj Printz upon the creek which bears 
Cobb's name, and one of the four Wardens, who, in 1703, received convey- 
ance of the ground on which Raccoon Swedish Lutheran Church was built. 

* Successor to his brother, Provost Andreas Hesselius. He arrived in 
this country December 3, 1719, and officiated in the beginning as Pastor 
Extraordinary to the Congregation of Wicacoa, with special charge of the 
people who resided at Neshaminy, Manathanim, and Matzong (the present 
Conshohocken). He married, first (Christina Swedish Lutheran Church 
Register), June 9, 1720, Brita Laican, and, secondly, Gertrude Stille, both 
relatives of descendants of Joran Kyn. The latter wife, according to Acre- 
lius, "died upon the voyage between America and England, and was buried 
in the ocean. The children, who returned home, were Andrew, Christina, 
Sarah, and Samuel." 

f Translated into English by John Reinhold Forster, F.A.S., and pub- 
lished at Warrington, 1770. One of these, vol. i. pp. 355-6, relates to 
certain geological evidences of the former submergence of that portion of 
New Jersey under the sea ; and another, vol. ii. pp. 31-33, refers to strange 

92 I he Descendants of Joran Kyn. 

December 7,1748, in the following terms: "Maons Keen, 
one of the Swedes in Raccoon, was now near seventy years old : 
he had many children, grandchildren, and great-grandchil- 
dren ; so that, of those who were yet alive, he could muster 
up forty-five persons. Besides them, several of his children 
and grandchildren died young, and some in a mature age. 
He was, therefore, uncommonly blessed." In 1751 Mr. Keen 
acted as sponsor for a son of the Reverend Erick and. Maria 
Unander, in company with "Provost Israel Acrelius, Pastor 
Olof Parlin, Ilerr Adolph Benzel, Elizabeth Parlin, Madam 
Sarah Porter, and Helena Van ETeeman." Mr. Keen's first 
wife was Magdalena Hoppman or Hoffman.* She died Octo- 
ber 19, 1721, and was buried in the Swedish Lutheran Ceme- 
tery on Raccoon Creek. He married, secondly, August 15, 
1722, Elizabeth, daughter of Nils Laican or Lycon, eldest 
son of Peter Nilsson Laykan, a native, it is presumed, of 
Sweden,f whose name is given in the Raccoon Church Register 

discoveries of deep-buried earthen vessels and walls of brick at " Helsingburg, 
somewhat below the place where Salem is now situated," indicating the pre- 
sence of a more civilized people than the American Indians on the river 
Delaware before the arrival of the Swedish Colonists. The extract in the 
text occurs in volume ii., page 4. The phrase " near seventy years old" is 
to be explained or corrected in accordance with the first of the previously 
mentioned passages, where Mr. Keen is described as "a Swede above seventy 
years old." 

* Granddaughter, probably, of Sergeant Hans Hopman, a resident on the 
river Delaware at least as early as 1656, and one of the " Tydables" of the 
t% Eastern Shore" in 1677, whose son, Frederick Hopman, was one of the four 
Wardens of Raccoon Swedish Lutheran Church referred to in a former note. 

f Niece of Hans Laican, who m. Gertrude, daughter of Jan Claassen, of 
Bucks County, Pa., and sister-in-law to Maons Keen's cousins-german, Mat- 
thias and Erick Keen. Mrs. Keen's sister, Anna Laican, m. John Rambo, 
a kinsman of Peter Rambo, who m. (v. inf.) Christina Keen ; and her young- 
est sister, Mary Laican, m. Hans Keen, son of Erick and Catharine (Claassen) 
Keen. Nils Laican d. in the Northern Liberties, Philadelphia Co., December 
4, 1721, aged 55 years, and is buried in Gloria Dei Churchyard, Philadelphia, 
by the side of William Williams, son of Donck and Walborg Williams, of 
Bensalem Township, Bucks Co., Pa. (d. December 25, 1721, aged 42 years), 
who m. Elizabeth, another daughter of Jan Claassen, of Bucks County, and 
sister-in-law to Hans Laican and Matthias and Erick Keen. 

7 he Descendants of Joran Kyn. 93 

as Elizabeth Georgen, from whence we may infer that at the 
time of her nuptials with Maons Keen she was a widow. 
Mrs. Keen inherited from her father an interest in certain land 
in the Northern Liberties, Philadelphia Co., Pa., known as 
" Poor Island" (surveyed to her grandfather by virtue of a 
warrant dated March 10, 1679-80), which she conveyed, 
December 21, 1744, to her stepsons, John and Nicholas Keen. 
She is mentioned in the Records of Raccoon Parish as god- 
parent, in 1730, with Colonel Rolf, Captain Yining, and Mrs. 
Ilollbrook, for a daughter of the Reverend Peter and Anna 
Catharina Tranberg, and she was still living during the pas- 
torate of the Reverend John "Wicksell, who gives her name 
in the list of communicants of that church. The latter thus 
records her husband's death: "Moses Keen, Senior, died June 
3, 1770, in a kind of pleurisie,* about 105 years old, and was 
buried, June 5, at Raccoon." Less accurate as to the date of 
death, but more precise as to the age, " The Pennsylvania 
Gazette" for October 11, 1770, prints the following obituary 
notice of the long-lived gentleman : " The beginning of August 
last departed this Life at Pilesgrove, in West New Jersey, Mr. 
Mounce Keen, aged 105 Years, and 8 Months. He was born 
of Swedish Parents, at Chester, in Pennsylvania, and always 
enjoyed his Health and Understanding well till within the 

* An interesting account of this malady is given by Kalm in the work 
already cited, vol. i. pp. 376-9. " The pleurisy," he says, "is a disease which 
the people of this country are much subject to. The Swedes in this province 
call it stitches and burning (stick och brdnna). Many people die every year 
of it. In the autumn of the year 1728 it swept away many at Penn's Neck. 
Almost all the Swedes there died of it, though they were very numerous. 
The autumn of the year 1748 it began to make dreadful havock, and every 
week six or ten of the old people died. The disease was so violent that, 
when it attacked a person, he seldom lived above two or three days; and of 
those who were taken ill with it very few recovered. It was a true pleurisy, 
but it had a peculiarity with it, for it commonly began with a great swelling 
under the throat and in the neck, and with a difficulty of swallowing. Some 
people looked upon it as contagious. The physicians did not know what to 
make of it, nor how to remedy it." It is, probably, the disease referred to 
in the Parish Register by Pastor TVicksell, who, after giving a list of the 
"permanent communicants" in his time (1762-74), explains "these few, 
owing to great sickness taking off so many of the old Swedes." 

94 The Descendants of Joran Kyn. 

few last Years of his Life. About three Years before his 
Death, he rode alone three Miles, and home again." He is, 
it is believed, the only centenarian descendant of Joran Kyn, 
although there are several nonagenarian descendants, and off- 
spring of at least four centenarians* have intermarried with 
the family. 

Of his children by his first wife three ha^e been iden- 

* Nicolas de la Plaine, aged 105 years (see Kev. Timothy Alden's " Col- 
lection of American Epitaphs," pentade i. vol. v. pp. 174-5) ; Mrs. Hannah 
Milner, aged 100 years and 10 months (" The Pennsylvania Gazette," July 
13, 1769) ; Arthur Strangeways, aged 101 years (Watson's "Annals of Phila- 
delphia," 1st ed. p. 511) ; and John Strangeways Hutton, aged 108 years and 
4 months (ibid. pp. 510-11, and " The Inscriptions in St. Peter's Church 
Yard, Philadelphia," p. 313). 

f Another child, most probably, was Christina Keen, who m. (Raccoon 
Swedish Church Register), December 2, 1724, Peter Rambo, of Gloucester 
County, N. J. (b. January 6, 1694; d. April-May, 1753), a Warden of the 
Church on Raccoon Creek (at whose house Professor Kalm on one occasion 
(" Travels," vol. i. p. 334) " staid the night"), son of John Rambo, described 
in " The Breviate, Penn v. Lord Baltimore," f. 103, in 1740, as " of New 
Jersey, Farmer, aged 79, born in the Place now called Pensilvania, near 
where the City of Philadelphia now stands, where he resided for above the 
first 20 Years of his Life, and since resided in the Jerseys." The latter was 
the youngest brother of Gunnar and Peter Rambo, Members of the Assembly 
of the Province of Pennsylvania for Philadelphia County, and the son of 
Peter Gunnarsson Rambo, of Sweden (who came to America with Minuit 
or Hollender), a Magistrate of the Swedish Colony, appointed Commissary 
by Gov. Stuyvesant, Member of Captain Carr's Council by Gov. Lovelace, 
and finally, by Gov. Andros, one of the " Justices for the River." Peter 
Rambo's mother was Brita Cock, sister of Capt. Lawrence Cock, Justice of 
Upland Court, and Member of Gov. Markham's and subsequent Provincial 
Councils, and of the Assembly of Pennsylvania for Philadelphia County, 
Penn's first Interpreter with the Indians, and daughter of Peter Larsson 
Kock (by his wife Margaret), who was sent out from Sweden in 1641, in the 
service of the West India Company, and settled on a tobacco plantation on 
the Schuylkill, but some years afterwards received his freedom, and occupied 
the same offices as are above accredited to Peter Gunnarsson Rambo, besides 
being " Collector of Tolls on Imports and Exports for the Colony of the 
City of Amsterdam on the South River" (the Delaware). Peter and 
Christina (Keen) Rambo had seven children : of whom two sons, John (b. 
November, 1725), and Benjamin (b. March 3, 1732), each married twice, and 

1 he Descendants of Joran Kyn. 95 

33. MOUNCE, b. August 18, 1715 ; m. Sarah Seeley. 

34. JOHN, b. September 25, 1718 ; m. Rachel Chandler. 

35. NICHOLAS, b. May 11, 1720 ; m. Elizabeth Lock. 

By his second wife he had at least five children, born in 
Salem County, New Jersey : 

36. PETER, b. March 21, 1723; m. 1st, ; 2dly, Catharine. 

37. MARY, b. April 6, 1727. 

38. DAVID, b. April 28, 1735. 

39. MOUNCE, b. October 8, 1737. 

40. JONAS, b. April 7, 1739. 

left numerous descendants ; and a daughter, Elizabeth (b. January 2, 1728), 
m. Thomas Denny, Sheriff of Gloucester Co., N. J., whose daughter, Rachel 
(b. October 30, 1^9), m., March 25, 1772, Robert Brown, Esq., Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the First Battalion of Gloucester County Militia, and of Colonel 
Nicholas Stilwell's Regiment of New Jersey State Troops, in the War of the 
Revolution, and chief contributor to, and trustee of, the fund for building 
the present Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church in Swedesboro, N. J. 

Another child may, possibly, have been Annika Keen, who m. (Raccoon 
Swedish Church Register), December 7, 1726, Gustaf Gustafsson (or Justis), 
of West New Jersey (d. July 15, 1762, aged 65 years), grandson, doubtless, 
of Jons Gostafsson Illack, of Sweden, who " bought a piece of ground," says 
the aged son of the latter, Nils Gustafsson, in the course of a long conver- 
sation with Professor Kalm on the customs of the early Swedish settlers on 
our river (Kalm's " Travels," vol. ii. p. 118), " from the Indians in New 
Jersey." They had several children, who intermarried with the families of 
Dahlbo, String, and Cox, and left posterity. 

(To be continued.) 

96 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 




[From the time of William Perm to the Declaration of Independence, the 
government of Pennsylvania was administered under the Royal Charter 
granted to the founder, and the several concessions made by him to the 
settlers. The prosperity which was attained under this form of government 
endeared it to the majority of those living in the Province, and all attempts 
failed to change it in any of its vital points. 

The most perilous period of its existence was the decade of years follow- 
ing the defeat of Braddock. At the time of that event, the inhabitants of 
the western frontier counties, having no scruples about bearing arms, were 
clamorous for the adoption of measures to prevent the incursions of the 
French and Indians. The Assembly, however, was under the influence of 
the Friends, and an anti-proprietary party, which opposed the expenditure 
of money for any purpose unless the estates of the Penns were subjected to 
the same taxation as those of others. Under these circumstances it was 
with the greatest difficulty that the Province was placed upon a war foot- 
ing, and a feeling of uneasiness and anxiety was awakened that could not 
be allayed even by retreat of the Proprietaries from the stand they had 
taken, or the successful close of the war the confidence of many having 
been shaken in the belief that the existing form of government was the best 
that could be devised for the Province. 

By 1774, quiet had in a great measure returned to the legislative councils 
of Pennsylvania. In that year the conduct of Tories in the Assembly, under 
the lead of Galloway, awakened the ill feeling against the Proprietary 
Charter, which had well nigh died out, and the sins of those who acted under it 
were visited upon the instrument itself. The people lent a more willing ear 
to the dictates of the Committees of Safety, and to the wishes of the Conti- 
nental Congress than to the Assembly, and the government soon became a 
mere semblance of authority. 

The advice of Congress, in May, 1776, that governments sufficient to 
the exigencies of affairs should be established in such Colonies as they 
did not already exist, was seized upon by the zealous Whigs of Pennsyl- 
vania as the excuse for the abrogation of the old government. A conven 
tion to form a new Constitution was called early in July, and it is to the 
biographical sketches of the members of that body, that we now invite the 
attention of our readers. We will not attempt to say aught regarding the 
merits of their labors, as opinions regarding them could probably be debated 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 97 

with as much warmth to-day as they were during the last century. That 
the necessity for some change in the government was thought indispensable 
is obvious from the faint resistance that was made to the choosing of delegates. 

When the work of the Convention was made public, it called forth the 
opposition of a number of Whigs, who had not lost faith in the old govern- 
ment. While giving a hearty support to the cause of the Revolution, they 
thought the true interests of Pennsylvania could be best served by the 
election of men of undoubted patriotism to office under its original charter. 
The views of this class will be found expressed in Charles Thomson's letters 
to William Henry Drayton (?ENNA. MAO., vol. ii. p. 420), and they never 
appear to have changed their opinions in the case. Gen. John Cadwalader, 
one of the number, was so opposed to the constitution of '76, that he became 
a citizen of Maryland rather than live under it. 

The motives of the men who formed the Convention have remained un- 
questioned. Unlearned in statecraft, they framed what they thought the 
best form of government for the people they represented, and as their lives 
will show gave many anxious days for its protection and support. ED.] 

ALEXANDER, HUGH, of Cumberland Co., the eldest son of 
John Alexander and Margaret Glasson, was born near Glas- 
gow, Scotland, in the year 1 724. His parents came to America 
in 1736, and settled in West Nottingham, Chester County 
but prior to 1753 removed and took up land in Sherman's 
Valley, now Perry County. Mr. Alexander was a deputy to 
the Provincial Conference of June, 1776, and a member of 
the Convention which met on July 15 of that year. Under 
the first Constitution he was chosen a Member of the As- 
sembly, taking his seat on November 28th. His public life 
was brief, for he died while a member of that body, in the 
early part of the year 1777, in Philadelphia, and was in- 
terred in the Spruce Street burying-ground. He married, 
first, in 1753, Martha Edmeston, daughter of Dr. David Ed- 
meston, of Fagg's Manor, by whom they had Margaret, b. 
1754-, m. Capt. John Hamilton, of Fermanagh, in 1772 ; John, 
b. 1756, m. Margaret Clark, of Sherman's Valley, in 1780 ; 
Mary, b. 1760, m. Robert Clark in 1780; David, b. 1762, m. 
Margaret Miller in 1780; Hugh, b. 1765, m. Jemima Patter- 
son, of Juniata Co., in 1787. Secondly, Mr. Alexander mar- 
ried Mrs. Lettice Thompson, and had James, b. 1775, lived 
and died at McKeesport, Pennsylvania ; William and Emily, 
b. 1777. Mr. Alexander was a staunch Whig, and took 
VOL. in. 7 

98 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

a very active part in the organization of the Associators of 
Cumberland County. A rigid Presbyterian of the Rev. 
George Duffield's congregation ; he was a man of pure and 
high character, and his memory is held in esteem by numer- 
ous descendants, scattered through the West and South. 

ANTES, PHILIP FKEDEKICK, of Philadelphia Co., the third 
child of Henry Antes and Christina De Weesin^ was born 
near Falkner's Swamp, Philadelphia, now Montgomery 
County, Pa., July 2, 1730. He received a good German educa- 
tion, and learned the trade of an iron-founder. In 1764 he was 
appointed one of his Majesty's Justices for the county of Phila- 
delphia. Early espousing the cause of the Colonies, in Novem- 
ber, 1774, he was chosen a member of the first Committee of 
Inspection for Philadelphia. He was a member of the Con- 
vention of July 15, 1776, and under the government it formed 
was twice elected member of the Assembly. At the request 
of the Committee of Safety, early in 1775, Mr. Antes suc- 
cessfully cast at "Warwick furnace, for the Revolutionary 
Army, the first four-pound cannons made on this side of the 
Atlantic. During the occupancy of Philadelphia by the 
British, his situation among the Tories of the locality was 
insecure, and by the advice of his friends he removed to 
Northumberland County, of which he became presiding jus- 
tice of the peace, and from 1784 to 1787 served in the As- 
sembly. Col. Antes followed the business of gunsmith at 
Northumberland, and Dr. Priestley in his memoirs speaks of 
the great aid he received from him in making his philosophi- 
cal instruments. He was appointed by Gov. Mifflin as one 
of the Commissioners in exploration of the Susquehanna, and 
while acting in that capacity he took cold at Columbia, and 
repairing to Lancaster, died there Sept. 20, 1801. He was 
buried in the Reformed Church grave-yard. Col. Antes's 
daughter, Catharine, was the second wife of Gov. Simon 
Snyder. She died March 15, 1810, at Lancaster, then the 
seat of State Government, and is buried by the side of her 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 99 

ARNDT, JACOB, of Northampton Co., native of Langeudorf, 
Upper Silesia, Germany, the son of Bernhardt Arndt, was 
born about the year 1728, emigrating with some of the Mo- 
ravian brethren to Pennsylvania in 1743, and settled in Bucks, 
now Northampton County. He was naturalized under the 
kws of the Province Sept. 24, 1753, having taken the sacra- 
ment on the 9th of the same month. At the breaking out 
of the French and Indian War he raised a company of volun- 
teers, and was stationed on the frontiers. In 1755 was in 
command at Gnadenhiitten, April 19, 1756, he was commis- 
sioned Captain in the 1st Battalion of the Penn'a Regiment, 
and during that and the following year was assigned to the 
command respectively of Forts Allen and Norris. He was 
promoted major of the 1st Battalion June 2, 1758, and sta- 
tioned at Fort Augusta. During the Indian marauds of 1764, 
he was captain of an independent company raised in his 
neighborhood for self-defence. Major Arndt was chosen a 
member of the Provincial Conference, held at Philadelphia 
July 15, 1774, and of that of January 23, 1775. He served 
as member of the Convention of July, 1776 ; of the first As- 
sembly under the new Constitution ; of the Committee of 
Safety Oct. 17, 1777, and was elected a member of the Supreme 
Executive Council Nov. 5, 1777, serving until Oct. 14, 1780. 
He was appointed Commissioner of Excise for Northampton 
County April 5, 1779, a position which he held for several 
years. From 1782 to 1784 he again served in the General 
Assembly. In 1760 Major Arndt purchased a mill-seat 
three miles above Easton, on the Bush-kill, where the cele- 
brated millwright of Bethlehem, and the projector of the 
first water- works at that place, Christensen, erected a mill 
for him. He was a member of the Council of Censors, and 
one of the justices for Northampton County. For half a 
century Major Arndt was in active public life. He died at 
Easton in the year 1805. His son John, a captain in the 
Revolutionary Army, was wounded and taken prisoner at 
Long Island. 

100 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

BARR, JAMES, of Westmoreland Co., was born in Lancaster 
County in 1749. He removed to Westmoreland County prior 
to its organization, and located in Deny township. At the 
outset of the Revolution he was energetic in assisting the 
formation of the associated battalions both for general and 
frontier defence ; was chosen a member of the Convention of 
July 15, 1776 ; served as justice of the peace subsequent 
thereto, and from 1787 to 1790 was a member of the General 
Assembly, in which he opposed the calling of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1790. He was, however, an associate- 
judge of Westmoreland County under that Constitution, and 
in 1802 signed a remonstrance against the impeachment of 
Judge Addison, then president-judge of the district. On the 
organization of Armstrong County, Judge Barr was in the 
new county, and was appointed one of the commissioners for 
laying out the town of Kittanning, the county seat. He was 
appointed one of the first associate-judges of Armstrong 
County, an office which he filled until his death, which oc- 
curred May 11, 1824. 

BARTHOLOMEW, BENJAMIN, of Chester Co., was born Febru- 
ary 16, 1752, in the Great Valley, Chester County, Penn- 
sylvania. He was a descendant of the Bartholomew family 
of France, many of whom, and among them the great-grand- 
father of Benjamin Bartholomew, emigrated to Great Britain 
to escape religious persecution. From England the family 
sailed to America, with the first settlers under William Penn, 
one of whom, Joseph Bartholomew, was an agriculturist 
of distinction and wealth, and allotted to his son Benjamin 
a valuable farm. From 1772 to 1775 this son was a member 
of Assembly from Chester County, and of the Committee of 
Safety from June 30, 1775, to March 13, 1777. He was a 
member of the Convention of July 15, 1776, and subsequently 
commissioned as captain in the Penn'a Line of the Revolution, 
continuing in service several years. After the close of the 
Revolutionary contest Capt. Bartholomew married Rachel, 
daughter of William Dewees, and settled on an extensive 
farm in East Whiteland township, Chester County, in the 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 101 

vicinity of his birthplace. He died on his well-cultivated 
estate March 31,1812,and his remains are interred in the bury- 
ing-ground of the Baptist Church, Tredyftrin. His descend- 
ants still occupy the ancestral farm. His daughter, Mary, 
married Col. Cromwell Pearce of the U. S. Army. 

BARTHOLOMEW, EDWARD, of Philadelphia Co., the son of 
John Bartholomew, and cousin of Benjamin, was born 
in Montgomery township, Philadelphia, now Montgomery 
County, in 1751, and brought up as a farmer. He was one of 
the Committee of Inspection of the county in 1774, member 
of the Provincial Conference at Carpenter's Hall June 18, 
1775, and member of the Convention of July 15, 1776. He 
commanded a battalion of Associators serving in the Jerseys 
during that year. In 1778 he was one of the County Com- 
missioners, and in 1785 Collector of Excise for the city and 
county. To the latter office he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Mifflin Sept. 1, 1791. On the 13th of November, 1802, while 
returning from a visit to his daughter at Huntingdon, he 
called to see his old friend, Dr. Robert Johnston, a skilful 
surgeon of the Penn'a Line of the Revolution, at his residence 
near Greencastle, Franklin County. In attempting to mount 
his horse on leaving for Chambersburg, en route home, one 
of his loaded pistols went off by accident, and he was fatally 
wounded, expiring in a few hours. His body was embalmed 
by Dr. Johnston, and taken to Philadelphia for interment. 
One of Col. Bartholomew's daughters married Andrew Hen- 


derson, a distinguished lawyer of Huntingdon, and the first 
recorder, etc., of that county upon its organization. Gen. H. 
was a member of the Convention which framed the Consti- 
tution of 1790. 


Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

BURIALS, 1709-1760. 


(Continued from page 462, Yol. II.) 

Sept. 8, 
Dec. 5, 
Dec. 13, 
July 23, 
July 20, 
Aug. 17, 
Jan. 1, 
April 22, 
Jan. 22, 
Sept. 17, 
Aug. 25, 
Feb. 27, 
June 2, 
April 8, 
Aug. 1, 
Aug. 1, 
Aug. 6, 
July 31, 
Sept. 29, 
Nov. 26, 
July 3, 
Sept. 21, 
April 17, 
July 29, 
Jan. 19, 
July 9, 
Jan. 16, 
July 2, 
Feb. 5, 
June 25, 
Feb. 17, 
Aug. 28, 
-Nov. 19, 
Dec. 14, 
Oct. 23, 

1728. Dennis, 

1732. " 
1736. " 

1738. " 
1731. Denton, 
1755. " 
1753. Depuy, 

1718. Derickson, 

1759. Dervis, 

1729. Deval, 
1731. Devall, 
1742. " 

1742. " 

1739. Deverill, 
1734. Devoll, 
1736. Dewberry, 

1746. " 

1749. Dewsberry, 

1747. Dewsbury, 
1722. Dexter, 
1729. " 

1734-5. " 

1743. " 
1749-50. " 

1750. " 
1747-8. Dicas, 
1752. Dickey, 

1748. Dickinson, 
1750. " 
1759. " 

Elizabeth, dau. of John. 

Rachel, wife of John. 

Susannah, dau. of John. 

John, son of John. 





Eleanor, dau. of Daniel. 

dau. of Daniel. 

Sarah, dau. of Swan and Sarah. 

- dau. of Joseph. 
"William, son of John. P. 
Mary, dau. of John. 
John. Poor. 
John, son of John. Poor. 
John, son of John. 
John, son of John. 

George, son of George. 
Sarah, dau. of George. 
Sarah, dau. of George. 

Mary, dau. of John. 
Lettice, wife of Henry. Pall. 
Mary, dau. of John. 
Mary, wife of Henry. 
Richard, son of Henry. 

George, -km of Elianor. 

Sarah, dau. of Charles. 
Nathaniel, son of Charles. 
dau. of William. 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


Dec. 28,1732. 

June 6, 1756. 

Aug. 22, 1759. 

Sept. 5, 1728. 

Sept. 22, 1728. 

Aug. 15, 1717. 

Aug. 9,1746. 

July 18,1747. 

June 28, 1753. 

June 14, 1755. 

Sept. 17, 1711. 

Jan. 20,1736- 

Aug. 26, 1754. 

Oct. 8, 1754. 

Oct. 31,1748. 

June 4, 1728. 

Oct. 18,1743. 

Oct. 6, 1747. 

Dec. 17,1752. 

Feb. 1, 1756. 

Nov. 26, 1755. 

Dec. 8, 1756. 

April 3,1758. 

Jan. 25,1718- 

Sept. 30, 1721. 

June 17, 1746. 

Aug. 13, 1717. 

Dec. 28, 1736. 

July 21, 1738. 

July 2, 1740. 

Dec. 4, 1743. 

June 22, 1750. 

July 27,1752. 

Dec. 3, 1753. 

Oct. 18,1756. 

Aug. 15, 1757. 

Dec. 10,1745. 

Mar. 17, 1759. 

Mar. 27, 1711- 

Dec. 26,1754. 

Nov. 27, 1757. 

June 27, 1759, 

Mar. 27,1736- 

Dec. 28,1715, 

Dec. 26,1756, 

Dickson, William. 

" dau. of Robert. 

" Damaris. 

Dilling, Ruth, dau. of John. 

" Anne, dau. of John. 

Dilworth, John. 

" Hannah, dau. of James. 

" Mary, dau. of James. 

" Mary, dau. of James. 

" James. 

Dirixon, Mary, dau. of Swan and Sarah. 

7. Dixon, Sarah. 

" Francis, son of James. 

" James, son of James. 

Dod, Thomas. 

Dodd, William. Strangers' Ground. 

" Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas. 

" William, son of Thomas. 

" Alice. 

" Elizabeth. 

Dodge, Susannah, dau. of Thomas. 

" Thomas. 


Jane, dau. of Thomas and 
Elizabeth. [Mary. 

William, son of Abram. 
Jane, dau. of James. 
Mary, dau. of James. 
" Anne, dau. of James. 

Dolmarsh, Jane. Widow 
Donaldson, Nathaniel, son of Nathaniel. 
" Elizabeth, wife of James. 

" William. 

" son of Joseph. 

" Sarah, dau. of Joseph. 

Donalon, Elizabeth, wife of John. Poor. 

Dordon, dau. of Henry. 

12. Douce, Living. 

Dougherty, George, son of George. 

dau. of James. 

" James. 

-7. Douglas, John, son of Archibald. 
Douglass, John. 
Dothwite, John. 

9. Dodson, 




Records of Christ Church^ Philadelphia. 

April 6,1732. 
June 1, 1747. 
July 29,1751. 
Aug. 18, 1752. 
July 13,1753. 
July 19,1739. 
July 26,1742. 
July 24,1743. 
Aug. 1, 1746. 
Sept. 8, 1747. 
Oct. 5, 1748. 
July 14,1749. 
Jan. 24,1750-1 
June 15, 1755. 
Aug. 8,1759. 
Aug. 24, 1759. 
July 5, 1746. 
Dec. 6, 1756. 
May 22,1744. 
Jan. 20,1747-8, 
Jan. 3, 1752. 
Dec. 29,1746. 
July 27,1733. 
Feb. 17,1741-2, 
Jan. 3, 1755. 
Oct. 19,1744. 
June 12, 1741. 
Aug. 17, 1741. 
Sept. 10, 1732. 
Sept. 26, 1753. 
Aug. 20, 1758. 
July 5, 1743. 
Sept. 25, 1735. 
Sept. 17, 1736. 
Jan. 1, 1750-1 
Oct. 7, 1731. 
June 7, 1753. 
May 3, 1741. 
Feb. 7, 1746-7, 
Sept. 29, 1745. 
April 21, 1731. 
Dec. 13,1759. 
Nov. 10, 1756. 
Nov. 29, 1717. 
Oct. 15,1710. 
Oct. 28,1747. 

Dover, Richard, son of Thomas. 

Dowel, John, son of William. 

" Mary, wife of Capt. 

" Mary, dau. of William. 

" William, son of William. 

Dowers, Edward, son of Edward. 

Susannah, dau. of Capt. Edw'd. 
Mary, dau. of Edward. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Capt. Edw'd. 
Martha, dau. of Edward. 
Amelia, dau. of Edward. 
William, son of Edward. 

" Catherine, wife of Capt. 

" Oliver. 

Downer, Hannah, dau. of Thomas. 

" George, son of Thomas. 

Downey, Elizabeth, dau. of Simon. 

" Simon. 

Downs, John, son of Thomas. 

" William, son of Thomas. 

" John, son of Thomas. 

Dowthait, Henrietta, dau. of Samuel. 

Doyle, John, son of James. 

" Thomas. 

" John. 

Drinkerhoff, Daniel. 

Drothite, William, son of Samuel. 

" Eliza, wife of Samuel. 

Drury, John, son of William. 

Drydel, Felix, son of William. 

Dubery, Hannah. 

Duche*, Mary, dau. of Jacob. 

Duchee, Sarah, dau. of Jacob. 

" Spence, son of Jacob. 

" James. 

Duchey, Hannah, wife of Andrew. 

Duffield, Mary, dau. of Edward. 

Duffil, Benjamin. 

" Joseph. 

Duffils, Abraham. 

Dugan, John, son of Matthew. 

Dugdale, Margaret. 

Dulap, Mary. 

Dumbard, John. Serv't to Daniel Jones. 

Dun, William, son of John and 

" John, son of William. [Mary. 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


July 19, 
Sept. 4, 
Dec. 18, 
Aug. 9, 
Dec. 5, 
July 22, 
July 22, 
Sept. 18, 
Aug. 3, 
April 10, 
Oct. 8, 
Oct. 10, 
July 6, 
July 24, 
Dec. 11, 
Mar. 12, 
Jan. 5, 
Mar. 13, 
Nov. 26, 
Feb. 18, 
Sept. 27, 
June 21, 
Dec. 12, 





































July 12,1746. Eades, 

Sept. 12, 1742. Eagle, 
July 6, 1747. " 

July 4, 1712. Earl, 
Aug. 25, 1712. " 

Sept. 24, 1752. Earle, 

June 27, 1751. Eastburn, 
Jan. 26, 1733-4. Eastleeck, 













3. 1758. 
25, 1759. 

8, 1735. 
26, 1744. 
12, 1755. 

1, 1727. 

6. 1759. 
13, 1741. 
10, 1755. 
21, 1731- 
17, 1731- 
21, 1732. 







2. Edwards, 


son of Thomas. 

William. [gers' Ground. 

Eloner, wife of James. Stran- 
Jeremiah, son of John. 

Jane, dau. of Peter, deceased. 
John, son of Peter, deceased. 
John, son of William. 
Sarah, dau. of William. 
Thomas, son of William. 
Martha, wife of William. 
John, son of William. 

son of William. 


Hannah, dau. of Moses. 

Sarah, dau. of Moses. 





John. Strangers' Ground. 

Robert, son of Robert. 


Mary, dau. of Robert. 
Margaret, dau. of Richard. 
James, son of Richard. 
Rachel, dau. of John and Noah. 
John, son of John and Noah. 

Hannah, dau. of Charles. 
Mary, wife of William. 

Strangers' Ground. 
Thomas, son of Thomas. 

Charles, son of Charles. 
Mary, dau. of Alexander. 

dau. of Charles. 



Joseph, son of Nathaniel. 


Lettice, dau. of Thomas. 

Thomas, son of Mary. 



Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 





















5, 1736. 

22, 1739. 
27, 1744-5 
13, 1746. 
25, 1747. 

4, 1749. 
1, 1751. 

23, 1752. 
25, 1753. 
19, 1755. 
21, 1726. 
21, 1716. 

24, 1737. 
19, 1722-3 

3, 1754. 
23, 1746. 

6, 1738. 
3, 1727. 





, Elkinton, 





2, 1745-6. 
20, 1756. " 
31, 1714. Ellis, 
30, 1716. 

3, 1721. 

12, 1721. 
2, 1721. 

22, 1723. 

8, 1727. 

27, 1730. 

13, 1732. 
10, 1735. 
11,1736-7. " 

June 5, 1737. " 
Oct. 6, 1741. 
May 26,1743. " 
Dec. 31,1743. 
Feb. 4,1745-6. 
Sept. 17, 1747. 
Mar. 17,1747-8. " 
July 10,1749. 
Feb. 18, 1749-50. " 
Sept. 16, 1756. " 
Aug. 30, 1756. Elton, 

Peter, son of Thomas. 

Mary. Poor. 

Thomas. [widow. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Elizabeth, 

Margret, dau. of Thomas. 

Robert, son of Coney. 

Mary, dau. of Conie. 

Mary, dau. of "William. 

Anne, dau. of Thomas. 


Grant, of Barbadoes, Gent. 


Sarah, dau. of John. 



Hannah. Widow. 


Jonathan, son of Robert and 

Johannah. Strangers' Gr'd. 
Anne, wife of Capt. John. 
Eleanor, wife of Andrew. 
Jane, wife of John. 

Jane, wife of Robert. 
Benjamin, of Kent Co. 

Priscilla, wife of Mr. Robert. 
Abraham, son of Robert. 
Katharine, dau. of Robert. 
Hannah, dau. of Robert. 
Elizabeth, wife of William, 


Jane, dau. of Richard. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Richard. 
Jane, wife of Richard. 
George. [Cooper. 
Sarah, wife of Richard, ye 
Jane, dau. of Richard. 
William, son of John. 
dau. of Anthony. 

(To be continued.) 

Proceedings of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 107 


A special meeting of the Society was held on Friday evening, Jan. 10, 
1879, the President (Mr. Wallace) in the chair. 

Mr. Horatio Gates Jones, one of the V ice-Presidents of the Society, in- 
troduced the Hon. Henry M. Hoyt, Governor-elect of Pennsylvania, who 
was received by the President, to whose remarks he replied as follows : 

MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN. I owe you my sincere thanks 
for this opportunity to visit your Hall, and for the kindness and cordiality 
with which my presence here to-night has been greeted. In a general way 
I have been aware of the work you have been doing and propose to do, in 
order fittingly and. gratefully to preserve the records and actions of those 
who founded the Province and organized the Republic, and who have con- 
ducted the aflairs of so great and so free a Commonwealth. With much 
reluctance, I must confess that I had inadequately conceived the full scope 
of your purpose and work. I appreciate well the care, scholarship, and 
conscience involved in your scheme. A loving and patriotic regard lor the 
memory of those who have done so much for us could alone hold you up to 
the continuous and thorough labors you have for half a century been bestow- 
ing upon the precious records you possess. It should be a source of pride 
and glory to the membership here that it has grown out of the private and 
cheerful* contributions of time and money by yourselves. 

Judging from my own immature knowledge of your plans, I do not err 
when I say you have conducted your business too modestly, and that you 
have a right to call your fellow-citizens of the whole State to a more gener- 
ous co-operation. I cheerfully pledge what of personal or official influence 
I may have to further your designs, in any way you may suggest. 

There are scattered through all the counties of our State gentlemen of 
leisure and culture, who are interesting themselves in the collection and 
preservation of the local records, letters, manuscripts, etc., which constitute 
the basis of accurate history. The Centennial Exhibition here, and the 
recently celebrated Centennials at Valley Forge and Wyoming have been 
rich in developing enthusiasm in this direction. We are reminded of the 
virtues practised by those who have gone before us. Speaking personally, 
and out of local experience, I may say, as I had occasion to remark to our 
Valley Forge friends some days since, that in the wonderful material interests 
organized in the Wyoming Valley, the tremendous energies we handled, 
mostly expended in money making* and in seeking prosperity, we had about 
forgotten that we had any ancestry to whom we owed anything forgotten 
that there had been any past and, I am sorry to pay, acted as though there 
was no hereafter. The present price of coal stocks has reminded us of the 
latter, and has taken much of the former out of us. 

By tradition I fear my people in Northeastern Pennsylvania are regarded 
by most of you here as "intruders" so the statutes of the State used to 
call the Connecticut settlers in " the seventeen townships." A record in 
your vaults shown me to-night calls our Yankee friend, John Franklin, 
"the chief of the banditti." Well, that is long agon,e. While the Con- 
necticut settler was assailed in turn by the Pennamite, the Indian, and the 
Tory, the equity of his title as the se'ttler and improver of the wilderness 
was finally recognized, and we owe it to the wisdom and the justice of 

108 Proceedings of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Quaker and Pennamite lawyers of Philadelphia that statutes were framed 
which meted fair play out to them. 

But I am violating the law of the evening, that there is to be no speech- 
making. I am grateful for this occasion, and again thank you for your 
consideration of me. 

The regular order of proceedings was then resumed. William H. Ruddi- 
man, Esquire, read a sketch written by Mr. Charles Rich6 Hildeburn of the 
Reverend Thomas Coombe, D. D., an assistant minister of Christ Church 
and St. Peter's, Philadelphia, from November 30, 1772, to July 7, 1778. 

The Hon. Peter McCall read three graphic and interesting letters from 
Dr. Benjamin Rush to Elias Boudinot, dated respectively Philadelphia, 
September 25, 1793, October 2, 1793, and October 28, 1793, describing the 
yellow fever then prevailing in that city. 

At the request of the President, the Secretary read an interesting letter 
from the Reverend Benjamin Dorr, D.D., late Rector of Christ Church, 
dated April 13, 1860, giving an account of the distinguished persons who 
were pew holders of that Church, and who were interred in the burial ground 
connected with it. 

The President read three entertaining letters, one of them from Lewis 
Morris, dated 3d Fourth month (June), 1681, and the others from Deputy- 
Governor Markham, dated 7 December, 1681, giving glowing, and, to us, 
amusing descriptions of the country, climate, and inhabitants of Pennsyl- 
vania at that period. These were printed in London in 1682 in a pamphlet, 
entitled " Plantation Work, the Work of this Generation." 

The Hon. Wayne MacYeagh then in a few remarks expressed the grati- 
fication felt by the members of the Society in having the Governor-elect to 
visit the Hall, and nominated him for membership in the Society. The 
nomination was seconded by Horatio N. Burroughs, Esquire. By unanimous 
consent the rules were suspended, and the Governor-elect, General Henry M. 
Hoyt, was unanimously elected a member of the Society by a viva voce vote. 

The meeting thereupon adjourned. 

A stated meeting of the Society held at the Hall on the evening of Jan. 
13, 1879, the President in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read, and, on motion, approved. 

The President introduced Professor Oswald Seidensticker, who read an 
interesting memoir of Israel Daniel Rupp, deceased, the author of various 
county histories of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel W. Pennypacker read a letter from Dr. Benjamin Rush to James 
Searle, January 21, 1778, in relation to Burgoyne's surrender. 

The Secretary read an interesting letter from the Reverend C. P. Wing, 
of Carlisle, giving a sketch of the life of Mrs. John Hays, well known in 
connection with the history of the battle of Monmouth, as " Moll Pitcher." 

The death of the Hon. Morton McMichael was announced to the Society 
by the President with some suitable remarks. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Notes and Queries. 109 


MOLL PITCHER. [It is so often the unpleasant duty of Historical Societies 
to destroy traditions which have found favor in the public mind, that we 
gladly print the following letter from the Rev. C. P. Wing, of Carlisle, 
which confirms so much that has been told of " Molly Pitcher," the heroine 
of Monmouth. ED.] 

CARLISLE, June 15, 1878. 

DEAR SIR: Your letter of t^e 13th inst. reached me yesterday P. M., and I 
immediately set about some inquiries for the purpose of verifying the received 
traditions regarding ^he subject of your inquiry. I visited the President of 
the Monument Committee, and the granddaughter of Mrs. Hays, and took 
notice of some contemporary files of the newspapers. The amount of what I 
obtained, with what I had before, is the following : 

The original name before marriage was Mary Ludwig (so recorded in the 
family Bible). She herself came probably from Germany. The first we 
discover of her was at Trenton, N. J., where she had quarters with Gen. 
Irvine. Her husband was John Hays, a barber, a sergeant in a company 
of artillery. He was an Irishman, or an Englishman, lie was in the battle 
of Monmouth, and is said to have had. at least for a while, the direction of a 
cannon. When he was struck down she was coming on the ground with a 
pitcher of water for him and others. It was a very hot day, and the soldiers 
suffered much from heat and thirst. Her husband had been borne from the 
ground, and she instantly took his place by the gun, and some say served 
several rounds, but others say only loaded and fired once, and insisted on con- 
tinuing at the post, and was induced very reluctantly to retire. It is also said 
that she was seen at this service by Gen Washington, but we only know that 
he was informed of her conduct, and gave her a commission as sergeant by 
brevet. She was very active in various ways, for she was excitable, being 
then about 30 years of age, and confident and prompt when she saw anything 
to be done. She had a friend also in the battle, who was rendered insensible, 
and was thrown with many others into a p.t for dead, and to be buried but 
she went the morning after the battle and found him alive, bore him in her 
arms to the hospital, and took care of him until his recovery. At some time 
late in life she received a box of presents from this friend, with an invitation 
to come to him and make her home with him. where he promised to keep her 
in luxury. Her friend wrote that he had only just heard through the pension 
office of her residence. After the battle she served with her husband in the 
army. In all. she was in the tinny seven years and nine months. 

Soon after ihe disbanding of the army, she came to reside in Carlisle, Pa., 
where her husband died and was buried. She remained a widow for a while, 
and was employed as a nurse in many families. She was very fond of chil- 
dren, and loved to stop them nnd telf them stories. But when having the 
charge of them, she was considered byfhnse of whom she had charge, to be 
very strict and severe. She was to all persons very communicative and 
talkative, rather rough in manners, sometimes, when excited, even profane, 
but well understood to be at heart tender and kind. She never turned away 
any who were in trouble, and enjoined it on her children never to do eo. 
Much against the remonstrances of her friends and kindred she married 

110 Notes and Queries. 

Sergeant John McAuley, a worthless fellow, who made her subsequent life 
miserable by his drunkenness and personal abuse. He did nothing but live 
on her earnings, how many years I never heard. She, however, lived for 
some time after his death, and died January, 1832, at the age of eighty-nine. 
She was buried with military honors, several companies attended her remains 
to the grave, where she was buried under a deep snow, with her first husband. 
A military salute was fired at the interment. She seldom if ever attended 
any place of worship, though she always treated religion and religious people 
with great respect. She never received any pension except forty dollars a 
year, as the widow of Mr. Hays. It is said by her granddaughter, that on 
the last week of her life, a pension was granted to her in her own right. 

She had a son John, who was born at Trenton, who also had children who 
reside now in Carlisle. One of the daughters of this John still lives, and 
unveiled the monument which the citizens of Carlisle erected over " Molly 
Pitcher's" grave, on the fourth of July in the centennial year (1876). The 
name of Pitcher was given her with reference to her services by her com- 
panions in the army in 1778. This monument is a very appropriate one in 
the old cemetery of Carlisle, where lie so many of the heroes of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 

It may be that some purist of the Niebuhr school may yet demolish 
some of the romance of this story. By searching the records of the Pension 
Office at Washington, perhaps something might be learned. But the sub- 
stantial facts are well established, and the whole story now constitutes a part 
of what is dear and true to the national heart. 

Yours very truly, 

0. P. WING. 

BATHSHEBA BOWERS. The authoress of "An Alarm Sounded To prepare 
the Inhabitants of the World To meet the Lord in the way of his judgement. 
By Bath. Bowers [17091. Sm. 4to. pp. 23." 

This very rare book (probably unique) is thus mentioned by Sabin, in his 
admirable Dictionary of Books Relating to America. He says, " Dated at 
the end Philadelphia but probably printed by Bradford, at New York." 
The list of Bradford's books in the Historical Magazine, vol. iii. p. 176 (N. 
Y., 1859), says " dated at the end, Philadelphia, July 17, 1709." The only 
copy I have known of was that sold at Menzie's sale in New York, in 1875, 
which brought $16.00. As the writer was a singular character in the early 
days of Philadelphia, and is said to have written other books, a few facts in 
her history are worthy of being preserved, especially as none of them have 
ever appeared in print. All that is known of her life (except what may be 
in her printed history not known to exist) is described very graphically by 
her niece, Mrs. Ann Bolton, of Philadelphia, the daughter of her sister 
Elizabeth, who married Wenlock Curtis of this city. Prof. James Curtis 
Booth, a descendant who possesses the original MS. diary, has very kindly 
allowed me to take these extracts. This diary is in the form of letters ad- 
dressed to her physician, Dr. Anderson, of Maryland, the first of which was 
written in 1739. It begins as follows : 

" For some reason perhaps Dr. not unknown to you I step out of the com- 
mon Road and first Mention my family on my Mother's side. 

My Grand ffather Benanuel Bowers was Born in England of honnest 
Parents, but his ffather being 1 a Man of a Stern temper, and a rigid Oli- 
verian Obliged my Grandfather (who out of a Pious zeal turned to the 
religion of the Quakers) to flee for succor into New England. 

My Grandmother's name was Elizabeth Dunster. She was Born in Lan- 
cashire in Old England, but her Parents dying when she was Young her 
Uukle Dunster, who was himself at that time President of the College in 

Notes and Queries. Ill 

New England, sent for her thither and discharged his Duty to her not only 
in that of a kind Unkle but a good Christian and tender ffather. By all 
reports he was a man of Great Wisdom, exemplary Piety, and peculiar 
sweetness of temper. 

My Grandfather not long after his coming to New England purchased a 
farm near Boston, and then married my Grandmother, tho' they had but a 
small beginning yet God So blest them that they increased in substance, 
were both Devout Quakers and ffamous for their Christian Charity and 
Liberality to people of all perswasions on religion who to Escape the Stormy 
Wind and tempest that raged horribly in England fflockt thither." 

The writer also speaking of her grandparents mentions " the outrage and 
violence of ffiery zealots of the Presbyterian Party who then had the ruling 
power in their own hands, however they slept with their Lives tho' not with- 
out Cruel whippings and imprisonment and the loss of part of their worldly 

Benanuel Bowers and his wife had twelve children, some of whom died in 
infancy, but most of tfiem grew to be men and women. " Hearing a great 
character of the City of Philadelphia, with my grandmother's consent ho 
sent four of his eldest daughters hither whilst the youngest remained with 
themselves. The eldest was married to Timothy Hanson and settled upon 
a plantation near Frankford." The youngest married George Lownes, in 
Springfield, Chester County. " The other remained single all the days of 
her Life, of whom I shall speak more hereafter." This was Bathsheba 
Bowers, the writer of the above-mentioned work, of whom Mrs. Bolton says 
" she was crossed in love when she was about eighteen." * * * " She 
seemed to have little regard for riches, but her thirst for knowledge being 
boundless after she had finished her house and Garden, and they were as 
beautiful as her hands cou'd make them, or heart could wish, she retired 
herself in them free from Society as if she had lived in a Cave under Ground 
or on the top of a high mountain, but as nothing ever satisfied her so about 
half a mile distant under Society Hill She built a Small house close by the 
best Spring of Water perhaps as was in our City. This house she furnished 
with books a Table a Cup in w h she or any that visited her (but they were 
few, and seldom drank of that Spring). What name she gave her new 
house I know not but some People gave it the name of Bathsheba's Bower 
(for you must know her Name was Bathsheba Bowers) but some a little ill 
Natured called it Bathsheba's folly. As for the place it has ever since bore 
the name of Bathsheba's Spring or Well for like Absalom I suppose she 
was willing to have something to bear np her Name, and being too Strict a 
virtuoso cou'd not expect fame and favour here by any methods than such 
of her own raising and spreading. Those motives I suppose led her about 
the same time to write the History of her Life (in w ch she freely declared 
her failings) with her own hand which was no sooner finished than Printed 
and distributed about the world Gratis. Though I little regarded her Book 
at that time yet I have since often wished for one, but if a thousand Pounds 
would purchase one of them it could scarce be found, for I believe one of 
them has not been seen in America these twenty years past however I 
know not but my short account may serve for as much as is necessary con- 
cerning her, as well as hers that was longer. She was a Quaker by profes- 
sion but so Wild in her Notions it was hard to find out of what religion she 
really was of. She read her Bible much but I think sometimes to no better 
purpose than to afford matter for dispute in w** she was always positive. 
She wrote many Letters to Thomas Story who as tis said was a Learned 
Man and was then our head Preacher. Some of her Letters he answered, 
but I suppose growing weary of arguing he soon left off." * * * 

112 Notes and Queries. 

" Tho' my Aunt as I told you before was very religious yet very whimsical 
and thus were her Books suited to her humour Tryon was one of her 
favorites in w ch was represented the hideousness of our Cannibal Natures in 
eating flesh fish or anything that had life in it." " She tasted nothing [of 
this kind] for twenty years before she died." * 

" But I must now proceed with the account of her Books. She had 
several wrote by a female band filled with dreams and visions and a thousand 
Romantic Notions of her seeing Various sorts of Beasts and Bulls in the 
Heavens." ************ 
" She had a belief she could never die. She removed to South Carolina 
where the Indians Early one morning surprised the place killed and took 
Prisoners several in the house adjoining to her. Yet she moved not out of 
her Bed, but when two Men offered their assistance to carry her away, she 
said Providence would protect her, and indeed so it proved at that time, for 
those two men no doubt by the Direction of providence took her in her Bed 
for she could not rise, conveyed her into their Boat and carried her away in 
Safety tho' the Indians pursued and shot after them." 

Mrs. Bolton describes Bathsheba Bowers to have been of "middle stature," 
" beautiful when young " but singularly stern and morose. She lived with 
her until thirteen years of age, and suffered much from her cruel treatment. 
It is said she sold her house in Philadelphia and removed twelve miles dis- 
tant into the country, and after some years removed into South Carolina, 
where she died in 1718, in her 46th year. 

Watson in his Annals of Philadelphia has given an illustration of the 
house of " Bathsheba's Bower," which was of singular construction, and was 
standing at the junction of Little Dock and Second Streets, with the tradi- 
tions derived from aged persons concerning it. Whitefield preached from the 

Paige in his History of Cambridge confirms in part the family sketch 
above given. Benanuel Bowers was a resolute and much persecuted Quaker 
of that place, who owned twenty acres in Charlestown. He suffered fines 
repeatedly and imprisonment for various offences, such as absenting himself 
from meeting, and giving a cup of milk to a poor Quakeress who had been 
whipped and imprisoned two days and nights without food or water. His 
wife Elizabeth, and his daughters Barbara and Elizabeth, shared his faith 
and his sufferings. Like his daughter Bathsheba, he indulged himself with 
his pen, and some doggerel autograph lines of his are yet preserved in the 
files of Middlesex County Court, addressed to Thomas Dan forth the magis- 
trate, in 1677. Henry Durister, first President of Harvard College, was a 
remarkable man, as his Life by the Rev. Jeremiah Chapin shows. Both 
Chapin and Paige have noticed the confusion in the pedigree of the Dunsters 
which this extract partially clears up. Dunster in his will in 1658 leaves to 
his "cousin Bowers and her children, five shillings apeece." Taking the 
word " cousin" in a modern sense has occasioned this trouble. It was very 
common in the 17th century to apply the term " cousin" to both niece and 
nephew as well as other relations further removed in kinship. 

Camden, New Jersey. WILLIAM JOHN POTTS. 

volume of the MAGAZINE, page 327, line 10, on the word " Printzhof" add 
this foot-note : " The dilapidated remains of what was said to be the chimney 
of this ' mansion,' " says Dr. George Smith in his excellent " History of 
Delaware County, Pennsylvania," " were standing within the recollection of 
the author, and up to this time one of the small foreign-made bricks, of a 
pale yellow colour, of which it was partly constructed, may be occasionally 
picked up in the vicinity. Its site was a short distance above the present 

Notes and Queries. 113 

Tinicnm hotel, and on the opposite side of the road " Benjamin Ferris, in 
his "History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware, says: " Ihis 
Hall stood more than 1GO years, and was at last burnt down by accident, 
since the commencement of the present century." Page 328, line 7 from 
the foot, add as follows : Acrelius is mistaken in giving as the date ot Prmtz s 
return home " the year 1652 ;" in company with his wife and children, 
Henrik Huyghen, and some of the colonists, the Governor left the Delaware 
in the beginning of November, 1653, and, crossing the ocean in a Dutch 
vessel, reached Bochelle by the 1st of December, and Holland by the new 
year, and arrived in Sweden in April, 1654. (See the admirable " Akade- 
misk Af handling," entitled ' Kolonien Nya Sveriges Historia," by Carl 
K. S. Sprinchorn, Stockholm, 1878.) Page 331, line 12, for the dash sub- 
stitute the words : meeting of. Page 448, at the close of the first foot-note, 
for" 1746" read 1744, and add as follows : The tombstone of Peter Baynton, 
the younger still to be seen in St. Mary's Churchyard, Burlington, N. J. 
displays a coat of arms (an engraving of which appears in " The Heraldic 
Journal," vol. iii. p. 119) resembling that of the Bayntuns, of Wiltshire, 
England, described in Burke's " Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies," under 
Bayntuu-Rolt, as " fable, a bend lozengy argent" Pages 447, 449, and 
450, for " Foreman" read Forman. So Mr. George Forman himself wrote 
his name in a fair English hand. Page 449, line 7 from the foot, after 
"County" add: of which he was elected Sheriff for 1689. Page 450, line 
13, for "m. Jasper Yeates," read m., 1st, Alexander Creker; 2dly,. Jasper 
Yeates. Page 454, line 10, between the words " Proprietor" and " Matthias 
Keen" insert as follows : Mr. Keen was a Member of this Assembly of the 
Province, being one of eight Representatives of Philadelphia County from 
October, 1713, until his death the following year. Page 456, last line, add 
as follows: This person died February 24, 1784, aged 75 years, and his 
widow Mary Keen, July 12, 1791, at the same age. They are buried in St. 
Paul's Protestant Episcopal Churchyard, Philadelphia. Beside them lie 
Matthias Valentine Keen, doubtless their son, who died October 20, 1806, 
aged 59 years, and his widow Elizabeth (Hood) Keen, whom he married 
(Register of Swedish Lutheran Chucrh on Raccoon Creek, New Jersey) 
February 1, 1777, who died May 10, 1830, aged 80 years. The latter had 
several children, who died young, and a daughter, Rebecca, who survived 
her father. G. B. K. 

REV. WILLIAM SMITH, D.D. The first volume of the Life and Correspond- 
ence of the Rev. William Smith, D.D., by his great-grandson, has been pub- 
lished by S. A. George $ Co., 15 North 1th St., Philadelphia. 

It would be impossible to condense the thoughts which are suggested in 
reading the 595 royal octavo pages of this volume into the limits of an 
ordinary Book Notice, and as it is not our custom to review publications, we 
will not make the attempt. We cannot, however, forbear calling the atten- 
tion of our readers to a book in which they will find so much Pennsylvania 
History, and asking for it a support that will insure its completion. 

Dr. Smith exercised a leading influence in almost every question which 
agitated the minds of Pennsylvanians during the quarter of a century pre- 
ceding the Revolution. In our ecclesiastical, political, and literary history, 
it will be seen that his ready pen and cultivated mind must have been con- 
stantly employed. The history of the Episcopal Church in Pennsylvania, 
and the story of his life, are so closely connected, that the one would be in- 
complete without the other. In political controversy he was constantly 
pitted against Franklin, whose powers he taxed to the utmost. But it is for 
his literary efforts and for his untiring zeal to promote the means of educa- 
VOL. III. 8 

114 Notes and Queries, 

tion in Pennsylvania, that his name will be most frequently remembered with 
reverence and gratitude. 

The Academy of Philadelphia, which has since grown into the University 
of Pennsylvania, in which all Philadelphians can take pride, had not been 
established five years when it was placed under his care, and we cannot over- 
estimate the labor that from the first he devoted to his charge. The large 
sum of money he collected in England, in 1764, for the benefit of the College, 
was the means which placed it on sure foundation. 

The views expressed in one chapter of the book are so different from those 
usually entertained of a most distinguished character, that we cannot indorse 
them unless there is better ground for the charge than that which is given. 
We allude to an attack on the character of Dr. Benjamin Franklin, which 
will be found on pages 335-347. 

AQUILA ROSE. The volume of poems by Aquila Rose is of such rarity as 
to have led to the doubt of its ever having been printed. The following 
letter written to Jacob Taylor, formerly Surveyor-General, of Chester County, 
then residing with his nephew, John Taylor, in Thornbury, will, however, 
dispel all doubt on the subject. G. C. 

PHILADELPHIA, Nov. 11, 1741. 

Mr. TAYLOR : Your intimate acquaintance with my deceased father, Aquila 
Rose, embolden me to intrude a few lines on you, and to make a small present 
of an inconsiderable part of his Poems, which I have printed by leave of 
my kind master, Mr. Benjamin Franklin. I lament much, that those who 
borrowed his manuscript Works of my mother, deceased, should be so un- 
generous, and forget to return them to his son. This collection is so small, 
that 1 was almost asham'd to publish it; but, as it is, I hope it may meet 
with a favourable reception. I have done a dutiful son's Endeavour to sur- 
vive his Father's name, whose Wit was so much admir'd by those of sense 
and Judgment. 

Sir I'm become Intersessor to you for my younger Apprentices ; They are 
much necessiated for want of Yearly verses ; Mr. Joseph Brientnall, their 
former Bard, is now so fatigued with business, that he can't perform his 
usual Kindnesses that way. They know that you're in years and the muse 
may not be so free as formerly ; but promise, if you'll be so favourable to 
comply this once, they'll trouble you no more hereafter. 

I have made bold to set the Theme of the following Heads of Articles of 
News. No doubt you have read the Articles they refer to ; or if not, any 
subject you may think proper. You will see the method heretofore used by 
the inclosed. 

The Heads are as follows, to wit.: 1. The Death of the Czarina. 2. The 
Joy Russia expressed in their Regent the Duke of Courland ; and its sudden 
Changes, in a few days on his Downfall. 3. The critical situation of affairs 
in Europe occasion'd by the death of the Emperor. 4. The King of Prussia's 
sudden march to take possession of Silesia after his Death. 5. The Re-es- 
tablishment of the fortifications at Dunkirk. The French's Squadron of 
Observation, in the American seas, returning home without success, for want 
of Provisions, in a distress'd condition. 6. Their Distress in Politicks, in 
the Present Conjuncture. 7. Vernon's Actions and Bravery in Demolishing 
the Forts, &c. at Carthagena. 8. The Raising the siege of that Place, the 
season being against us, &c. 

If there is anything else you may think of, and I have omitted, please to 
insert it. 

Notes and Queries. 115 

Be so good to let them know by a few lines to me whether you'll comply 
with their Request. I am your young 

Friend and Humble servant, 

Direct to me at JOSEPH ROSE. 


UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF DR. FRANKLIN. The following letter is one of 
the most caustic specimens of Franklin's correspondence that has been pre- 
served. The original draft is in the Franklin Papers lately presented to 
The Historical Society ef Pennsylvania by Miss Mary D. Fox. It has not, 
we believe, ever appeared in print : 

"Dr. Franklin presents his Compliments to Mr. Meyer, and prays him not 
to detain any longer the Picture from which he was to make a Miniature, 
but return it by the Bearer. Hopes Mr. Meyer will not think him impa- 
tient, as he has waited full Five Years, and seen many of his Acquaintances, 
tho' applying later, served before him. Wishes Mr. Meyer not to give him- 
self the Trouble of making any more Apologies, or to feel the least Pain on 
Act. of his disappointing Dr. Franklin, who assures him, he never was dis- 
appointed by him but once, not having for several Years past since he has 
known the Character of his Veracity, had the smallest dependence upon it." 

ING COUNTRY. Major E. M. Woodward, of Ellesdale, N. J., will issue in a 
short time, two volumes under the above titles. They will contain the inter- 
esting sketches which he has published from time to time in the Bordentown 

The first named work (275 pages) will contain the histories of upwards of 
sixty-three families. The facts have been collected from the Chesterfield 
(Crbsswick's) Monthly Meeting records, the Township records, deeds, wills, 
probates, and letters of administration on file or recorded in the Secretary of 
State's office at Trenton, etc. etc. The papers have been carefully revised, 
and in many cases added to since their publication in the Register. 

The second book (470 pages) will contain a number of Biographical 
Sketches, and a History of Bonaparte's Park. The price will be $3.00 per 
volume, or the two bound in one for $5.00. Orders should be addressed to 
James D. Flynn, Bordentown, N. J. 

FRANCES SLOCUM. In Pa. Archives (2d series, vol. 4, p. 560), under date 
of March 28, 1791, Col. Proctor, commissioner to the North Western Indians, 
enters in his journal. " Took breakfast at Wm. Dunns. From thence we 
proceeded to the Painted Post or Cohocton in the Indian language; Here 
I was joined company by a Mr. George Slocum, who followed us from Wyom- 
ing, to place himself under our protection and assistance until we reach the 
Cornplanters settlement on the head waters of the Allegheny to the redeem- 
ing of his sister from an unpleasing captivity of twelve years, to which end 
he begged our immediate interposition." This can refer to no other than 
the Indian captive Frances Slocum, and to one of her brothers, of whom she 
had seven Giles, William, Ebenezer, Benjamin, Isaac, Joseph, and Jona- 
than and beyond doubt the brother here referred to was her oldest brother, 
Giles, who was in the battle or Wyoming Massacre, and for which the Indians 

116 Notes and Queries. 

visited upon the family the most inhuman cruelties. In copying the journal 
of Col. Proctor, George has been substituted for Giles, or the name was not 
understood, or correctly entered by the Col. in his journal; Frances Slocum 
had no brother by the name of George. 

On April 22d, same year and journal, p. 579, Col. Proctor makes the fol- 
lowing remarkable entries: "Paid Indian Peter for services from Newtown 
Point to O'Beelstown, 22s. 6d. to mess expenses from the 16th to the 23d, 
including horse feed 6. 18s. 6d. to cash paid Francis Slocum, a white 
prisoner, 7s. 6d. Do. a white prisoner at Cattaragus 11s. 3d." Now who 
was this Francis Slocum ? The name Francis in the Archives is spelt with an i, 
which would be the proper spelling for the name of a man. But as Francis 
is an unusual name for a man, and Slocum not a common one, it would seem 
rather improbable that at that time there should be a white male prisoner 
remaining among the Indians bearing that name, and a brother searching for 
a lost sister, a white prisoner among the Indians, bearing the same name, 
differing only in the spelling of Francis. 

Col. Proctor no whore else in his journal (per Archives) refers again to 
the Mr. Slocum, who joined him at the Painted Post ; nor does he say any- 
thing of the white prisoner, Francis Slocum, to whom he paid his bill beyond 
the entry of the payment. But he gives quite a history of the white prisoner 
to whom he paid a bill at Cattaragus. He makes the entry that he may 
inform his friends in Philadelphia. If the white prisoner, Slocum, was 
Frances, and not Francis, the child taken by the Indians from Wilkesbarre 
in 1778, when five years old, how can the silence of Col. Proctor be accounted 
for ? Why did he not learn her history ? Why did he not take active measures 
to inform her friends of his discovery ? Where was the brother who joined 
him at the Painted Post ? If it was not Frances, but Francis ; who was 
he ? Has the journal of Col. Proctor been fully and correctly copied by the 
Editor of the Archives ? 


Brownsville, Pa., Jan. 17, 1879. 

lately appeared in the New York Tribune. Can any of the readers of the 
PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE inform us where we will find the letters in full, or 
furnish copies of them ? 

" President Washington once wrote a letter to J. F. Mercer, which has 
just been printed for the first time. He says in it : 'I never mean (unless 
some particular circumstance should compel me to it) to possess another 
slave by purchase, it being among my first wishes to see some plan adopted 
by the Legislature whereby slavery in this country may be abolished by 
slow, sure, and imperceptible degrees.' " 

"Lafayette, writing in 1791 to J. F. Mercer, of Virginia, in a letter just 
published, gives a curious picture of the condition of post and papers then. 
'Should you/ he says, 'have something to communicate to me, rather than 
to the Postmaster-General, give it with a recommendation to my children, 
Hue Daujon, No. 12. The public papers say nothing of Parliamentary de- 
bates, nor of interior politics. The only way to be kept au courant is 
through the correspondence of friends.' " M. 

BROWNE FAMILY IN AMERICA. A correspondent in Tasmania writes me, 
asking for information concerning the family of Browne in America. He 
says : " Various families of Browne who bear my coat of arms (sable, 3 lions 
passant in bend between two double cottises argent) may be presumed to 
have been at one time allied to each other. Should you know of any pedi- 
grees of Browne in the United States and find them coupled with these arms, 

Notes and Queries. 117 

I shall be glad if you will forward me any information you can obtain con- 
cerning them. Some years ago I met a Mr. Vincent Browne, an appraiser 
in the U. S. Customs, who said that his family had been nearly two hundred 
years engaged in the cod-fisheries, and that the family was the same as that 
of Mrs. Hemans (ne6 Browne) the poetess ; I have since learnt that Mrs. 
llemans's family, though latterly of the Co. Flint in Wales, and of Liverpool 
in England, is actually a Co. Cork family, and more than likely an immediate 
junior of my own, I being the actual head of the Brownes of Balimoker, Co. 
Cork. So far I find Brownes of the same kindred in Kent, Surrey, 'Betch- 
worth,' Sussex, ' Cowdray,' Devon, Norfolk, Berkshire, Oxford, York (and 
St. Vincent, West Indies), Chester, Shropshire, and Gloucester ; while in 
Ireland they are in Cork, Mayo, Down, and Wicklow." 
Can any of your readers aid me in answering this query? 


SLOOP OF WAR WARREN. While lying off Panama, S. A., in 1874, I was 
shown an old hulk, beached on Flamingo, or Dead man's Island, and now used 
by the Pacific Mail S. S. Co. as a store-ship. The mate of my ship told me 
she was all that remained of the American Sloop of War Warren ; upon 
hearing this I, with much difficulty (at low water), extracted a copper bolt 
from the forw'd part of the keelson: this I prized very highly, until recently, 
when looking over "Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution," who, quoting 
from Cooper (1st, 247), writes, "'Warren,' 32 guns, burned in the Penob- 
scott, in 1779, to prevent her falling into the enemy's hands." 

If this is true I must have been misinformed. Can you tell me which 
statement is correct ? 

And oblige, respectfully, 


PEARSON. Information is wanted respecting the names of the children 
of Thomas and Grace Pearson, who emigrated from Lancashire, England, 
with their parents, who brought a certificate from the Monthly Meeting at 
Marsden dated the 16 th of 12 th month, 1698 ; said certificate recorded at 
Middletown Meeting, Bucks Co., Pennsylvania. J. 

any information of the original engrossed copy of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence prior to the removal of the Government to Washington what 
was done with it after all the signatures were attached, and in whose charge, 
and where was it placed before and after the members had all signed it? 

M. S. 

TITE BEXEZKT FAMILY. All persons possessing information in regard to 
the descendants of John Stephen Benezet, who came to Philadelphia about 
1731, are requested to communicate with the undersigned, who is engaged 
in preparing an historical and genealogical sketch of the family. 

REV. W. J. HOLLAND, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

" APPLELEY MANOR." Recently I came across an advertisement of the 
sale of the estate of Mr. Duncan, of Carlisle, in which are included, " three 
most excellent farms located in Applelcy Manor." Further on the statement 
is made that the farms are eligibly situated on the Allegheny River three 
miles from fl ittanning, Armstrong County. The query is, by whose order 
was this Manor surveyed, and whnt was its extent ? Could it possihlvhave 
been a portion of the Manor of Kittanning ? "yV H E 

118 Notes and Queries. 


there is a query as to the authorship of a very rare pamphlet, " Some 
Eemedies proposed for the Eestoring the sunk credit of the Province of 
Pennsylvania, with some Remarks on its Trade. Humbly offered to the 
consideration of the worthy Representatives in the General Assembly of 
this Province, by a lover of this country. Printed in the year 1721 " (pp. 
20). A copy, unique perhaps, is in the Philadelphia Library, bound up 
with other curious relics of the early literature of colonial days. The general 
"get up" of the pamphlet, as well as the ideas it contains, and their form 
and expression, lead one almost irresistibly to the conclusion that the work 
was written by the author of another pamphlet (which has lately been re- 
printed), entitled "Ways and Means for the Inhabitants of Delaware to 
become rich," published in Philadelphia in 1725, of the original of which 
the only known copy is in the Loganian Library. That author was Francis 
Rawle, of Philadelphia. 

The pamphlet first mentioned was supposed to have been printed by 
Andrew Bradford, and for so doing he was summoned before the Provincial 
Council on January 19th, 1721 (3 Colonial Records, 143). 1 The matter 
was heard on February 1st, 1721 (id. p. 145), 2 but no case having been 
made out against him, he was discharged with a reprimand. The pamphlet 
was referred to by Hon. Peter McCall in his address before the Law Aca- 
demy of Philadelphia, delivered September 5, 1838, and by John Win. Wal- 
lace, Esq., in his pamphlet, " Pennsylvania as a Borrower," Philadelphia, 

1 Minutes of a meeting of the Provincial Council held January 19th, 1721 : 
"Upon a motion made, that Andrew Bradford, Printer, be Examined before 
this Board concerning the publishing of a late Pamphlet, entituled ' Some 
Kemedies proposed for the restoring the Sunk Credit of the Province of 
Pennsvlvania,' as also of the Weekly Mercury of the 2d of January instant, 
the last paragraph whereof seems to have been intended cs a Reflection upon 
the Credit of this province ; it is ordered That He, the said Printer, have No- 
tice to attend this Board at the next meeting of Council. 

The objectionable paragraph in the American Weekly Mercury is as fol- 
lows : "Our General Assembly are now sitting, and we have great Expect^ 
tions from them at this Juncture, that they will find some effectual Remedy 
to revive the dying Credit of this Province, and restore us to our former happy 
Circumstances." . . 

3 Minutes of same, February 1st, 1721 : "The Board being informed that 
Andrew Bradford, the Printer, attended according to order, He was called 
in and examined concerning a late Pamphlet, entituled Some Remedies pro- 
posed for restoring the Sunk Credit of the Province of Pennsylvania ; Where- 
upon, He declared that He knew nothing of the printing or publishing the 
said Pamphlet; And being reprimanded by the Governour for publishing a 
certain paragraph in his News-Paper, called the American Weekly Mercury 
of the 2d of January last, He said it was inserted by his Journey-Man, whc 
composed the said Paper, without his Knowledge, and that He was very sorry 
for it, and for which he humbly submitted himself and ask'd Pardon of the 
Govr. and the Board ; Whereupon the Govornour told him, That He must not 
for the future presume to publish any thing relating to or concerning the 
Affairs of this Government, or the Government, of any other of his Majesty's 
Colonies, without the permission of the Governour or Secretary of this pro- 
vince, for the time being, And then He was dismissed." 

Notes and Queries. 119 

The authorship of Francis Rawle is the more likely, inasmuch as he was 
a strong advocate of the very views expressed in the work, and was a man 
far above the average of his contemporaries in education and breadth of views. 
He was moreover a strenuous opponent of the policy of the Proprietary 
party. In this latter respect Franklin followed his example, as well as in 
some of his views, as is shown in the pamphlet, written by the former, entitled 
" A Modest Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency" 
(Philadelphia, 1729), of which a copy is bound up in the same volume with 
' Some Remedies Proposed." 

Francis Rawle was a prominent member of the " popular" or anti-proprie- 
tary party in the Colonial Assembly, to which he was elected in the years 1704, 
1706, 1707, 1708, and again in 1719, 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1725, and 1726. 
He served until his death, indeed, for he died on March 5th, 1726-7. His 
name appears on most of the important committees of the House, and as 
one of those active in all matters under discussion during his long tenure of 

There had been great distress in Philadelphia and throughout the Pro- 
vince before and at the time of the publication in 1721, of the pamphlet in 
question, owing to the depression in trade and scarcity of money. On 
January 4th, 1722XJ, petitions from Chester, Bucks and Philadelphia coun- 
ties were presented to the Assembly, complaining of the great decay of trade 
and credit, and requesting an issue of paper currency (2 Votes of Assembly, 
337). On the 8th of same month (id. p. 338) it was resolved that it was 
necessary that a quantity of paper money founded on a good scheme be 
struck. On the llth (id. p. 341) several amounts were discussed, and 
12,000 at last agreed upon. On the 22d (id. p. 344) the sum was increased 
to 15,000, and on the 23d (id. p. 344), " it was ordered that the drawing up 
of the bill for issuing bills of credit be committed to Francis Rawle, Isaac 
Taylor, and Charles Read, being appointed a former committee; and that 
William Biles and John Kearsley be added to them." The bill itself, which 
was prepared by this committee and which is printed in Bradford's Laws 
(1728), page 217, contains many of the suggestions made in the pamphlet, 
" Some Remedies Proposed," &c., in regard to the manner of issuing the paper 
money (which was first suggested therein), and of securing, protecting, and 
redeeming it. On February 8th, 1722-3 (2 Votes, p. 355), "The House 
entered on the consideration of proper persons to be appointed signers of the 
Bills of Credit to be emitted; and, after some time, Resolved, that Charles 
Read, Franci* Rawle, Benjamin Vining, and Anthony Morris be appointed 
signers accordingly." One of the bills thus signed by Francis Rawle and 
two others, is still in existence, in the valuable collection of Colonial and 
Continental paper money belonging to the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania. This was the first issue of paper money in Pennsylvania, and was 
known as that issued under the act approved March 2, 1722-3. 

Francis Rawle belonged to the family of that name which was seated at 
Hennett, in the Parish of St. Juliot, in Cornwall, England, as early as the 
reign of Edward the Fourth (Lysons's Magna Britannia, p. cxiii.), in which 
county it possessed several manors. Prior to his emigration he styled him- 
self as of Plymouth, in the County of Devon, and as this was in a deed 
executed in England, he must have been of man's estate, and master of a 
good estate too, before he left his native land. He was a Quaker, and emi- 
grated with his aged father (who died here in 1697), on account of the perse- 
cution of that sect both father and son having been imprisoned in 1683, in 
the High Gaol of Devonshire, at Exon. (Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers, 
vol. i. p. 163.) They arrived in Philadelphia on June 23d, 1686 (MS. 
Book of Arrivals in Hist. Soc. Pa.), and the son brought with him a Patent 
from William Penn, describing the former as one of the Signers of the Con- 

120 Notes and Queries. 

cessions to the First Purchasers. He afterwards located his twenty-five 
hundred acres in Plymouth Township, then Philadelphia, now Montgomery 
County, and with a few others founded the settlement known as "The 
Plymouth Friends." (3 Friends Misc., 379, and Buck's Hist. Montgomery 
County, p. 82.) In 1689 he married an heiress, the daughter of Robert 
Turner, one of Peun's Commissioners of State and his intimate friend and 
confidential adviser. On May 6, 1724, Francis Eawle was appointed by 
Governor Sir William Keith a member of his Provincial Council, an office 
held only by the most prominent men in the Province, to fill the vacancy in 
the Quaker representation caused by the death of Thomas Masters (3 Colonial 
Records, 232). There is no record, however, of his taking or declining his 
seat, but it is likely that his consistent opposition to the principles of the 
Proprietary party was the cause of his not accepting the office. 

These two works, "Some Remedies Proposed" and " Ways and Means," 
were the first writings on the general subject of political economy, and its 
application to local requirements, published in Pennsylvania, or indeed in 
any of the British Colonies in America. The earlier pamphlet deserves in 
itself the well-merited compliment paid to the later one of being reprinted 
and we hope some day to see this done, with a sketch of the author and his 
times. J. G. R. 

COLONEL JOHN BUTLER (vol. ii. p. 349 and p. 473). B. C. S. is referred 
to R. R. H inman's Catalogue of the First Puritan Settlers, p. 458. " Walter 
Butler was in the east division of lands in Greenwich, Conn., in 1672. Miss 
Caulkins says Walter Butler, of N. London, was probably a son of Thomas, 
of N. London, and m. Mary, only child of Thomas Harris, and an heiress, 
and that Lieut. Butler m. in 1727 Deborah, relict of Ebenezer Dennis, and 
had a son, John Cap, April 28, 1728. That the name of Walter Butler is 
associated with the annals of Tryon County, N. Y., as well as with N. Lon- 
don ; that he received a military appointment in the Mohawk country in 
1728, and removed his family there fourteen years after, where he was 
several years captain of the Fort. That Capt. Butler was ancestor of Col. 
John and Walter, who were associated with the Johnsons as royalists in the 
beginning of the War of the Revolution and few of this family or descend- 
ants are now found at N. London." 

It has been erroneously stated that Col. John Butler who commanded the 
Indians and Tories at the massacre of Wyoming, July 3, 1778, was a cousin 
of Col. Zebulon Butler, who commanded the Americans on that unfortunate 
day. But my great-grandfather, Matthias Hallenback, who was an ensign 
under Col. Zebulon, and who met Col. John in Canada after the war, stated 
that he had heard them both deny any relationship whatever. 

Col. Zebulon was a son of John of Lyme. H. W., WiMces Barrt. 

" LOST GOVERNORS or PENN'A" (ii. p. 110 and 231). After a careful ex- 
amination of the individuals named, I have ascertained that nearly all, if 
not all, were simply acting as Presidents of the Provincial Council pro tern- 
pore, and have no more right to a place on the roll of Provincial Executives 
than the persons who may temporarily fill the office of Speaker of the Penn'a 
House of Representatives during the absence, by illness or otherwise, of that 
presiding officer, to the title of an ex-speaker of that body. Filling these 
positions for the time being, signing bills, etc., do not make them Governors 
of the Province in the general acceptance of that term. DAUPHIN. 





VOL. III. 1879. No. 2. 



MR. C. G. F. DUMAS, in presenting to the public his French 
translation of the Account of Bouquet's Expedition against 
the Ohio Indians, published at Amsterdam in 1769, says he 
had had the intention of writing Bouquet's life, and for that 
purpose had counted upon securing many of his private letters. 
Bouquet, says Dumas, 1 " managed his pen as well as he wielded 
his arms, and that is saying a great deal. I did not despair, 
in making use of his own colors, of painting his portrait in a 
manner worthy of him. But the very circumstance which 
has preserved to posterity the papers of so many other great 
men, their intrinsic value, has been the misfortune of those of 
Mr. Bouquet. Everybody was anxious to read his letters ; 
whenever they arrived they were laid hands upon, and were 
widely circulated. They to whom they were addressed could 

1 The Historical Society of Pennsylvania has in its Library, besides the 
French edition of Bouquet's Expedition, the original edition published at 
Philadelphia in 1765 by Bradford, the London reprint of 1766, and an 
edition published at Cincinnati in 1868 by R. Clarke & Co., with an intro- 
duction by Mr. Parkman. The original Philadelphia edition is very rare. 
A copy was sold last year for $52.50. 

VOL. in. 9 ( 121 ) 

122 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

not get them again ; in fact they have disappeared, and with 
all the stir I have made I have not been able to recover a 
single one of them. I have only been able to procure some 
dates of the principal events of his life, and I add the little I 
can remember having heard related in company by several of 
his friends." 

Dumas then gives, in three or four pages, an outline of 
Bouquet's life, fortunately giving the larger space to his 
career in Europe, for of this we know nothing from any other 
source. We should like to have fuller details of the course 
of training which enabled Bouquet to cope successfully with 
the Indians, in a field where so few European generals added 
anything to their reputation, and how it was that he, a for- 
eigner, learned to understand the politics of the American 
colonists better than most of their English kinsmen. The 
sketch by Dumas is well known through Mr. Parkman's 
translation, published in the recent Cincinnati edition of 
Bouquet's Expedition against the Ohio Indians, before re- 
ferred to. To this translation Mr. Parkman has added some 
valuable explanatory notes, but as to Bouquet's life in Europe, 
no new matter. If Dumas, living in Holland among Bou- 
quet's friends, and within four years of his death, has told us 
all he could ascertain about Bouquet's European career, it is 
not to be expected that research at the present day can lead 
to new information. For the benefit of those who have not 
access to Mr. Parkman's translation I shall briefly recapitu- 
late the main facts therein contained. In America, Bouquet's 
military services against the French, and afterwards against 
the Indians, have been so fully described in the general history 
of the colonies, that I shall not relate them in detail. More 
fortunate than Dumas, I have in my possession a few confi- 
dential letters from Bouquet, at various posts in Pennsylvania, 
to a lady in Philadelphia. I shall state a few facts and make 
a few observations to introduce and explain these letters 
which are now printed for the first time. 

Henry Bouquet was born at Eolle, a small Swiss town on 
the northern shore of the Lake of Geneva, in 1719. At the 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 123 

age of seventeen he entered the army of the Low Countries, 
and at nineteen was commissioned an ensign. After that, he 
served with distinction under the King of Sardinia in the 
war against France and Spain. In 1748 he re-entered the 
Dutch service, and was employed by the Prince of Orange in 
occupying the posts in the Low Countries lately evacuated 
by the French under the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, and in 
arranging the return of prisoners. He then travelled in Italy 
in company with Lord Middleton, and it is probably to this 
association that he owed his surprising knowledge of English. 
The letters that I shall transcribe would hardly be supposed 
to be the composition of a foreigner, who probably never left 
the continent of Europe till he was approaching middle age. 
On his return from Italy Bouquet lived several years at the 
Hague, industriously studying his profession and cultivating 
the friendship of the learned men of that place. 

The war between England and France, in America, opened 
disastrously for the English in 1755. It was necessary for 
the English government to send out reinforcements, and Par- 
liament passed the Act of 29 Geo. II., c. v. Under this act 
a corps was organized styled the "Royal American Regi- 
ment," for service in the colonies. This body was to consist 
of four battalions of 1000 men each. Fifty of the officers 
might be foreign Protestants, while the enlisted men were to 
be raised principally from among the German settlers in 
America. It was probably hoped that by this means some 
military enthusiasm might be excited among an apathetic 
population. Sir Joseph Yorke, the English Ambassador at 
,the Hague, persuaded Bouquet and his friend and compatriot 
Frederick Haldimand to join this corps with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. Bouquet sailed for America in the sum- 
mer of 1756, and here, where the most brilliant portion of his 
life was beginning, the sketch by Dumas practically closes. 

While the native English officers, engaged in America, often 
owed their advancement to exterior influence, Bouquet seems 
to have gained his promotions by merit and hard service 
under various commanders. Dumas tells us nothing of his 
family. His name is not distinguished, and in his will he 

124 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

disposed of a large landed estate without naming a single 

Bouquet, with several other officers of the Royal Ameri- 
cans, arrived in New York in June. The Earl of Loudoun, 
who had heen appointed colonel of the corps, and commander- 
in-chief of the army in America, preceded him by some 
weeks. Lord Loudoun seems to have been as incapable of 
understanding the temper of the Colonies as was Braddock, 
and without Braddock's personal courage. Franklin says a 
friend of his remarked that Loudoun was like St. George on 
the sign boards, being always on horseback and never riding 
on. On Nov. 24, 1756, Loudoun informed Governor Denny, 
of Pennsylvania, that quarters in Philadelphia must be pro- 
vided for a battalion of the Royal Americans, and two inde- 
pendent companies, and the Governor transmitted the message 
to the Assembly, requesting them to act. The Assembly 
passed a bill providing for billets for the troops on the public 
houses of Philadelphia, which bill the Governor signed. 

The troops now arrived in Philadelphia under the command 
of Bouquet, who complained bitterly to the Governor that 
the quarters assigned to him were inadequate to his needs, 1 
that his men were suffering severely from the cold, that the 
smallpox was increasing among them, and that he was "cruelly 
and barbarously treated." Bouquet went on to write that, 
as a foreigner, he was loath to take violent measures, but that 
if something were not instantly done, he hoped the Governor 
would issue to the sheriff a warrant to assign him quarters 
in private houses. The Governor, in accordance with Bou- 
quet's request, gave him a warrant directed to the sheriff, 
with a blank for the number of soldiers to be provided for 
in private houses. Bouquet afterwards stated that he did 
not wish this warrant to be used, but that he hoped that the 
Assembly would be stimulated to do something for him by 
the knowledge that such an instrument had issued. He lent 
the warrant to the sheriff, who promised to return it imme- 
diately, but who nevertheless took it directly to the Assembly, 

1 Col. Records, vol. vii. p. 358. 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 125 

who were highly enraged. The Governor they said, a few 
days after assenting to a bill under which ample accommoda- 
tions for the troops were assured, had grossly exceeded his 
authority. 1 They sent an angry message to Denny, who 
replied as angrily, and an agreement seemed impossible, when 
the Assembly undertook to house that portion of the troops 
that could not be lodged in the taverns, and Denny happily 
forbore to apply for aid to Loudouu, who would have had no 
compunction in marching his whole army to Philadelphia. 

I do not attempt to pass upon the merits of this controversy. 
Quarrels between the Assembly and the Executive were occur- 
ring almost from Penn's first arrival until the Eevolution. 
I have though t^it worth while to describe this quarrel, because 
Pennsylvania's reception of Bouquet may have had something 
to do in creating his unfavorable impressions of the Province 
which we discover in his letters. He seems to have acted 
fairly in the matter. Though he was, of course, anxious that 
his soldiers should be properly cared for, he recognized the 
delicacy of his position as a foreign officer under an unpopu- 
lar law ; and there is no reason to doubt that he intended to 
use the warrant, as he declared, only in terrorem. 

During the remainder of the winter 1756-7, Bouquet had 
no further difficulties with the civil authorities. Few Eng- 
lish commanders lived so long in America so free from the 
censure of the people. Tradition tells us that he became a 
great favorite in society, and we know that he was a friend 
of Chief Justice Allen, of Benjamin Chew the Attorney- 
General, of Dr. Wm. Smith Provost of the University, and 
.afterwards his historian, and of Bartram the botanist. He 
became intimate with the Shippen family, and through it, no 
doubt, with his future correspondent. In May, 1757, he was 
ordered to South Carolina with a detachment of the Royal 
Americans. The change of stations could not have been 
agreeable, for in September he wrote that his men were fast 

1 The number of officers and men to be provided for was about 550. A 
committee of the Assembly reported that there were in Philadelphia, ex- 
cluding the suburbs, 117 licensed public houses. 

126 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

dying of the fever. 1 The experience he gained from the 
Philadelphia quarrel about quarters seems now to have been 
useful to him, for in a similar quarrel between Governor Lyt- 
tleton, of South Carolina, and the Assembly, Mr. Bancroft 
tells us that Bouquet successfully acted the part of a con- 
ciliator. 8 

In 1756 and 1757 the arms of England made no progress 
in America. The French were undisturbed not only in Can- 
ada, but in northern New York, and at all the western forts. 
But in July, 1757, the great Pitt again came into power, and 
in little more than a year all was changed. Pitt understood 
the causes of American discontent. Among the grievances 
of which the Colonies most complained was their constant 
uncertainty how much, and for what particular military 
objects, they would be called upon to contribute. It was now 
announced that while New England, New York, and New 
Jersey would be expected to assist in the northern campaigns, 
Pennsylvania and the South would be looked to for help in 
the conquest of the West. It was promised that England 
should provide arms, ammunition, and tents, while nothing 
would be required of the Colonies but the levying, and cloth- 
ing, and pay of their troops, and even for these expenses, 
Parliament was to be urged to reimburse the Colonies. Re- 
lying on these promises, Pennsylvania went into the campaign 
of 1758 with greatly increased ardor, and raised 2700 men for 
the expedition against Fort Duquesne. 

This expedition was put under the command of Brigadier- 
General John Forbes, a Scotch officer of merit. Bouquet, 
recalled from Charleston with the Royal Americans, was 
second in command. The army was to consist of about 7000 
men, including 2600 Virginians, under Colonel George "Wash- 
ington. Bouquet with a portion of the forces, in advance of 
the main body, reached Fort Bedford, about 100 miles to the 
east of Duquesne, early in July. On July 3, Washington 
was at Fort Cumberland, about 30 miles south of Bedford. 

1 Pennsylvania Archives, iii. 266. 
8 History of the U. S. iv. 270. 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 127 

On July 25, he wrote to Bouquet strenuously advising that 
the expedition should at once proceed to Duquesne by Brad- 
dock's old road from Cumberland. 1 

Bouquet was strongly in favor of cutting a new road to 
extend from Bedford, through Pennsylvania, nearly in a 
straight line, crossing the Loyal Hanna Creek at about fifty 
miles from Bedford. "Washington urged the following of the 
old road on the ground that it would not be possible to make 
a new one that season ; but Bouquet carried his point with 
Forbes, and sent forward Colonel James Burd to cut a way 
through the forest to the Loyal Hanna, and erect a stockade 
there. His instructions to Burd, in which he enjoins the 
utmost silence ajid caution, forbidding him to beat a drum, 
or fire an unnecessary shot, show that the lesson of Braddock's 
defeat was not forgotten. 2 On September 1, Washington 
writes: " All is dwindled into ease, sloth, and fatal inactivity." 
" Nothing but a miracle can bring this campaign to a happy 
issue." 3 

But Bouquet was not idle. "Every afternoon," writes 
Joseph Shippen at Bedford to his father, " he exercises his 
men in the woods and bushes in a particular manner of his 
own invention, which will be of great service in an engage- 
ment with the Indians." 4 

Forbes was long delayed by illness and by other causes, and 
Bouquet left Bedford before he arrived. We do not know 
with certainty what were Bouquet's reasons for his tenacity 
of purpose about the roads. Washington himself states that 
the distance from Bedford to Duquesne by way of Cumber- 
land was 145 miles, while the new road would be but 100 
miles long. It has been suggested that Bouquet dreaded the 
moral effect which might be produced upon his men by the 
associations of Braddock's route, that he wished to open and 
maintain the most direct communication with Philadelphia, 

1 Sparks's "Washington, ii. 307, etc. 

2 Bouquet to Burd. Shippen MSS. (Historical Society of Pennsylvania), 
vol. iii. p. 189. 

Sparks's Washington, ii. 311. 

4 Shippen MSS. iii. 187 (Aug. 15, 1758). 

128 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet 

his chief hase of supplies, and that he feared that the Penn- 
sylvania farmers would be unwilling to leave their own pro- 
vince. 1 We know that he had the greatest difficulty in pro- 
curing the wagons necessary for the march. 2 The farmers 
with whom he had to deal were, for the most part, Germans, 
who took little interest in a war between the English and 
the French, but were anxious to have all the security from 
Indian incursions that the establishment of new military 
posts could afibrd. Bouquet afterwards attributed the suc- 
cess of the expedition, in great part, to the adoption of his 
route. 3 

A reconnoitering party, which set out from the fort at the 
Loyal Hanna, and reached a point within a mile or two of 
Duquesne, was surprised and driven back with great loss, but 
afterwards an attack by the French and Indians on the fort 
at the Loyal Hanna was easily repulsed. Forbes, who was 
so ill that he had to be carried on a litter swung between two 
horses, had reached Bedford on September 15, where he was 
joined by Washington. He did not reach Loyal Hanna un- 
til about November 1, and the expedition would, perhaps, 
as Washington feared, have gone no further, but for informa- 
tion gained from some prisoners that the French were in very 
small force at Duquesne. 4 A great portion of the Indians 
had gone away for their winter's hunting. 5 They were, no 
doubt, in part influenced by the promises made to them at 
the treaty of Easton, alluded to in Bouquet's first letter, partly 
by the cutting off of supplies which was the result of Brad- 
street's recent capture of Fort Frontenac, and partly by the 
repulse at Loyal Hanna. Washington was sent forward to 
open the fifty miles of road that remained, and the army 
reached the smoking ruins of Fort Duquesne on November 
25. The French had set it on fire and deserted it, and the 
last of their troops were seen hurrying down the Ohio in 

1 Craig's Olden Time, i. 264. 

8 Shippen MSS. iii. 175. Et passim. 

3 Bouquet to Chief Justice Allen, Nov. 25, 1758. 

4 Sparks's Washington, ii. 316. 

6 Rupp's Western Pennsylvania, 139. 

Brigadier-G-eneral Henry Bouquet. 129 

boats as the advance of the English rushed to the works 
swearing vengeance. 1 The confluence of the Monongahela 
and the Allegheny was immediately selected as the site of a 
city to be called PITTSBURGH, but Fort Pitt was not built on 
the ruins of the old fort by General Stanwix until the fol- 
lowing year. 

The capture of Fort Duquesne proved as great a blessing to 
the people of Pennsylvania as Bouquet and others had foretold. 
Forbes returned almost immediately to Philadelphia, where 
he died a few weeks later, and was buried with great honors 
in Christ Church. Bouquet, being left in command, held a 
conference with the Delaware Indians, in which he assured 
them that the only object of the English in maintaining 
armed forces in tlie Indian hunting country was the protection 
of their traders from the French, who alone, he said, had any 
hostile intentions against the Indians. It is hardly likely 
the Delawares believed all this, but they were thoroughly 
frightened, and they promised to throw the French over, 
and to live peaceably with their new invaders. These pro- 
mises were, in the main, kept for several years. During the 
remainder of the French war, the frontier settlements were 
generally free from Indian molestation, and it is stated in 
Smollett's History of England, that four thousand settlers, 
who had left their homes in terror during the last few years, 
now returned. 2 

Nor did the French ever after seriously trouble the people 
of Pennsylvania. They did not evacuate their forts at Presqu' 
Isle and Venango until the following year, but these forts 
were out of the line of emigration. While the crowning 
victories of the English in Canada were yet to be won, the 

1 Craig's Olden Time, i. 182. 

' Whether Bouquet was right or wrong in his judgment as to the best 
military road to Duquesne, the selection of a road entirely through Penn. 
sylvania must have proved of great advantage to that province, and no 
doubt influenced many of the settlers who returned. Mr. Hildreth says the 
choice was made in the interest of Pennsylvania land speculators, but for 
this he cites no authority, and the probable motives of Bouquet, suggested 
above, are sufficient to justify his decision at the time. 

130 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

conquest of the Ohio valley was now assured, and under the 
liberal policy of Pitt no further aid was to be asked from 

Bouquet remained in the province generally at the outlying 
posts. This garrison duty was naturally irksome to a man of 
his active temperament, and we shall see by his letters that 
he found himself very much alone among his fellow officers, 
who as a rule were far inferior to himself in general cultiva- 
tion. Mr. Dumas tells us "he made no claim to the good 
opinion of others, neither did he solicit it. All were com- 
pelled to esteem him, and hence there were many of his pro- 
fession who thought they could dispense with loving him." 
But that he was a man capable of the warmest feelings no 
reader of his letters can deny. 

I do not possess the answers of Bouquet's correspondent 
Anne Willing. She was the daughter of Charles Willing, 
a well-known merchant of Philadelphia, by his wife Anne 
Shippen. She was twenty-five years old when the corre- 
spondence began, and her portrait represents a graceful, hand- 
some, and intelligent-looking young woman. In the society 
in which she lived she was considered highly accomplished, 
and she had had the unusual advantage of a visit to her 
father's relations in England. According to a tradition in 
her family, she was very much in love with Bouquet, was 
engaged to him, and would have married him had he been 
willing to leave the army, but she declined to follow the drum. 
Bouquet's letters are consistent with this hypothesis, but 
they do not exclude every other. It would appear that at 
least what is called an understanding existed between the 
parties to the correspondence. If they seriously thought of 
marriage, they were not so young and foolish as to be unable 
to consider all the circumstances which would or would not 
make their happiness probable, and they were not crushed by 
their ultimate determination. A year after Bouquet's last 
letter here printed, Miss Willing married Tench Francis, and 
made him an admirable and most loving wife. Bouquet re- 
mained in the army, where his greatest services to Pennsyl- 
vania were still to be performed. His friend seems to have 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 131 

continued to write to him, after her marriage. Her sister 
writes to her, "remember me to Bouquet when you next 
write; he is a good creature." Four years later Bouquet, by 
his will, left his farm in Huntingdon County, to which one 
of his letters alludes, to Thomas Willing, the brother of 
Anne, and thus showed that he had no ill feeling against the 

Bouquet's criticisms upon the state of society in Pennsyl- 
vania require little comment. They are valuable as coming 
from a cool-headed foreign observer. Common courtesy would 
have restrained him from intentionally over-drawing the un- 
flattering picture, intended for the eyes of a lady living among 
the surroundings he described. We owe much to the Quakers 
for their efforts in the establishment of civil and religious 
liberty, for their steady industry which enriched the province ; 
for their benevolence in founding charitable institutions. But 
their influence was unquestionably unfavorable to learning. 
They held that their teachers of religion required no training, 
and they discouraged all litigation, as worldly. In the other 
colonies, the Church and the Bar offered attractions to liber- 
ally educated men, which did not exist here. The reputation 
of Philadelphia lawyers was acquired much later. As the 
Quakers held even defensive wars sinful, it was impossible for 
them to remain in public affairs when the danger of foreign 
invasion was imminent. Thus it happened that not only in 
the learned professions, but in politics, the Quakers lost influ- 
ence, and men of broader views but of less property and re- 
spectability gave their tone to society. Bouquet saw Penn- 
sylvania in perhaps its worst days, while this social transition 
was in progress. 

I have said that Bouquet's greatest acts remained to be 
performed, but I set out merely to edit his letters, though I 
have been tempted to mention some of the less known events 
of his life, not alluded to in his correspondence. The History 
of Bouquet's Expedition against the Ohio Indians, by Dr. 
William Smith, describes two of the most important cam- 
paigns that had ever been fought on this continent, and Mr. 

132 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet 

Parkman, in writing his History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac, 
has elaborated Dr. Smith's narrative, and so enriched it by 
his researches that I could only abridge and spoil it. I need 
only say that after the peace with France in 1763, all the 
western Indians united in an attempt to expel the English 
from their country, and they nearly succeeded, for they cap- 
tured all the frontier forts except at Niagara, Pittsburgh, and 
Detroit. Fort Pitt was fiercely assailed and for weeks block- 
aded, but it was most gallantly defended by Ecuyer, a country- 
man of Bouquet's. The Indians overran Pennsylvania, burn- 
ing villages, and murdering settlers, and scalping parties came 
within a few miles of Lancaster. Upon Bouquet, then in 
command at Philadelphia, all hopes were centred, and his 
commander-in-chief, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, directed him to re- 
lieve Fort Pitt. No provincial troops could be raised with 
sufficient speed, and Bouquet set out in July, with 500 regu- 
lars, on what Mr. Parkman justly calls an almost desperate 
undertaking. Bouquet's little army toiled though the forest 
to Bushy Run, within twenty miles of Fort Pitt, when they 
were attacked by an equal number of savages. While Bou- 
quet had experience in Indian warfare his men had none, and 
the victory remained in doubt for a whole day, but on the 
second day Bouquet, by feigning a retreat, succeeded in what 
few commanders have ever succeeded, in drawing the savages 
from their cover into a mass, when he charged and routed 
them. Fort Pitt was saved, and the settlers of Pennsylvania 
escaped perhaps years of suffering. In the following year 
Bouquet made his victory complete. He led a small force, 
now increased by provincial levies from Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and Virginia, through the wilderness of Ohio to the 
forks of the river Muskingum, about 150 miles west of Pitts- 
burgh. The Delawares, Shawanoes, and Mingoes were so 
over-awed by the recollection of his victory, and by his dis- 
play of power in penetrating to the heart of a country which 
they had thought inaccessible to white men, that they begged 
for peace, and agreed to restore all their white prisoners, 
whether English or French ; giving hostages for those that 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 133 

they could not immediately deliver up. 1 On these terms 
Bouquet granted the Indians an armistice and permission to 
send delegates to the King's Indian Agent, Sir Wm. Johnson, 
who after exacting some further conditions agreed to a peace, 
and Pontiac's war soon came to an end. 

In summing up Bouquet's character, Dumas says: "Re- 
spected by the soldiers, in credit with all those who had a 
share in the internal government of the Provinces, universally 
esteemed and loved, he had but to ask and he obtained all 
that it was possible to grant, because it was believed that he 
asked nothing but what was necessary and proper, and that 
all would be faithfully employed for the services of the King 
and the Provinces. This good understanding between the 
civil and militarjf authorities contributed to his success quite 
as much as his ability." 2 We have seen that Bouquet was 
much annoyed, on his arrival in Philadelphia, by the back- 
wardness of the Assembly in providing quarters for his 
troops. We have seen that he had great difficulty in obtain- 
ing transportation for Forbes's expedition, and that he fought 
the campaign of 1763 without any troops at all from the 
Province most deeply concerned. We shall see that his 
opinion of the state of society in Pennsylvania was, at least 
a little while before the dates last mentioned, highly unfavor- 
able. But that he deserves the credit Dumas gives him for 
maintaining amicable relations with the local government is 
proved not only by the general absence of complaint which 
was lavished upon most of the British officers of his time, 
but by the address of the Assembly delivered to him on his 
return to Philadelphia in January, 1765. In this address 
Bouquet is specially praised for his " constant attention to 
the civil rights of his majesty's subjects," as deserving the 

1 On Nov. 15, 1764, Bouquet wrote to Gov. Penn from the forks of the 
Muskingura : " We have already upwards of 200 captives delivered, and many 
of them have remained so many years among the Indians that they part 
from them with the greatest reluctance. We are obliged to keep guards to 
prevent their escape, and unless they are treated with indulgence and tender- 
ness by their relatives, they will certainly return to their savage masters." 

8 The translation is here Mr. Parkman's. 

134 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

gratitude of the Province, no less than his victories. In the 
course of his answer to this address Bouquet observes : " Your 
kind testimony of my constant attention to the civil rights 
of his majesty's subjects in this Province, does me singular 
honor, and calls for the return of my warmest acknowledg- 
ments." I have given, perhaps, too much space to the con- 
sideration of Bouquet's relations with the government of the 
Province, but it is striking that so much praise for his respect 
for civil rights should have heen given to a soldier of fortune. 

The Assembly recommended Bouquet to the king for pro- 
motion, but there was great doubt whether, as an alien, he 
was capable by law of holding higher rank. It was probably 
for this reason that on March 3, 1765, he was naturalized by 
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in accordance with a 
late Act of Parliament. 1 Still he hardly hoped for pro 
motion, as appears from the following letter to Benjamin 
Chew, the Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, which must 
have been written some time in March. 

" Private. My good friend must be the first to know the 
unexpected favor said to have been conferred upon me by 
his majesty, in appointing me Brigadier-General, as I have it 
not from authority, but by private letters of my friends, dated 
Feb. 13. I would not choose any one but you should be 
acquainted with it." 

The good news was confirmed, to everybody's satisfaction. 

Bouquet expected to be called to England, but be was or- 
dered to Pensacola, to take command of the king's forces in 
the Southern Department of America. He arrived at this 
most unhealthy post on August 23,1765, the deadliest season 
ot the year. He took the fever, and on September 2 he was 
dead. 2 

1 In vol. ii. of the 2d series of Pennsylvania Archives we find among the 
names of those naturalized Henry Bougriet, Colonel of the Royal American 
Regiment. I have not seen the original document, but the variation in the 
name, if not a misprint, must be due to a clerical error. 

2 Pennsylvania Journal, Oct. 24, 1765, where the following obituary 
notice appears : " This gentleman had served his majesty all the last war 
with great distinction. He was promoted from merit not only unenvied, 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 135 


FORT DUQUESNE, Nov. 25, 1758. 

DEAR NANCY : I have the satisfaction to give you the agree- 
able news of the conquest of this terrible Fort. The French 
seized with a panic at our approach have destroyed them- 
selves that nest of Pirates which has so long harboured the 
murderers and destructors of our poor People. 

They have burned and destroyed to the ground their forti- 
fications, houses, and magazines, and left us no other cover 
than the heavens a very cold one for an army without Tents 
or Equipages. We bear all this hardship with alacrity by 
the consideration of the immense advantage of this important 

The glory of our success must after God be allowed to our 
General, who from the beginning took those wise measures 
which deprived the French of their chief strength, and by 
the treaty of Easton kept such a number of Indians idle 
during the whole campaign, and procured a peace with those 
inveterate enemies, more necessary and beneficial to the safety 
and welfare of the Provinces than the driving the French 
from the Ohio. His prudence in all his measures, in the 
numberless difficulties he had to surmount, deserves the high- 
est praises. I hope that glorious advantage will be improved, 
and this conquest properly supported by speedy and vigorous 
measures of the Provinces concerned. I wish sincerely that 
for their interest and happiness they may agree on that point, 
but I will not speak politics to a young lady. 

I hope to have soon the pleasure to see you, and give you 
a more particular account of what may deserve your curiosity: 

but with the approbation of all who knew him. His superior judgment and 
knowledge of military matters, his experienced abilities, known humanity, 
and remarkable politeness, and constant attention to the civil rights of his 
majesty's subjects, rendered him an honor to his country, and a loss to man- 
kind." I am indebted for this reference, and for much other help in the pre- 
paration of this article, to Mr. F. D. Stone, Librarian of the Hist. Soc. of 
Pa., to whom, and to Mr. Townsend Ward, who has also kindly assisted 
me, I make the warmest acknowledgments. 

136 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

chiefly about the beauty of this situation, which appears to 
me beyond my description. 

Farewell, my dear Nancy. My compliments to the family, 
and believe me most sincerely, 

Your most devoted hble. Sert., 


BEDFORD, 17th Sept. 1759. 

Our post has been so irregular that I received only a few 
days ago your kind favour of the 24th August. I was in no 
hurry to answer it, supposing that at this time you are at the 
Capes. I shall say nothing of the occasion of that journey. 
I know how sensible a sorrow your parting with so dear a 
Sister must have been to you. Poor Dolly ! she is gone 1 
My most sincere wishes for her safety and happiness will 
constantly attend her. You made me very easy in obtaining 
the positive assurance that she should come back, for I con- 
fess that any separation in your family would be a flaw in my 

You give a description of your retreat that awakes the 
strong inclination I had for a country life. But few people 
are so well qualified as my dear Nancy to enjoy all the sweets 
of it ; an easy and cheerful mind, open to the agreeable im- 
pressions of Natural Beauties, a lively and pliable imagina- 
tion, which you can manage at pleasure, and a heart full of 
the most tender affection for your friends. No wonder that 
with so many amiable qualifications you can make a Paradise 
of a Solitude. 

How different is my situation, continually among a crowd, 
but without friends, I can say that I also live in a solitude, 
and of the worst kind. You are very right to hate war it is 
an odious thing, tho' if considered in a proper light we could 
discover many advantages arising from that very calamity. 
Is it not a fact that a long and uninterrupted peace corrupts 

1 Miss Willing's sister Dolly had several years before married Captain, 
afterwards Sir "Walter Sterling, R. N. She had now gone to join her hus- 
band in England, and her mother and sister had accompanied her as far as 
the Capes of Delaware. 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 137 

the manners, and breeds all sorts of vices? Like a stagnated 
air we require then the agitation of winds, and even storms 
to prevent a general infection, and to destroy a multitude of 
insects equally troublesome and dangerous to society. The 
necessity of action gives a new spring to our souls, real merits 
and virtues are no longer trampled upon by the arrogant pride 
of wealth and Place. The prejudice in favour of Birth, For- 
tune, Rank, vanishes. We cease to value people who have 
nothing more considerable than such frivolous and exteriour 
advantages, we discover their emptiness, and esteem them in 

I would go further if I were not afraid to shock the temder- 
ness of your concern for mankind in general. You would 
perhaps judge it cruel and inhuman to reckon among the 
advantages to be derived from "War, the destruction of beings 
who, by their vices or circumstances, would be a nuisance to 
Society ; I suppose that it was upon that principle that the 
most shocking scenes of barbarity, including the scalping of 
your inhabitants, were not much lamented by some of your 
own people who are charged to have said, that it was no great 
matter if a parcel of such wretches were swept away. It is 
true enough that numbers of the inhabitants of the frontiers 
are a worthless breed, and that the public did not suffer a 
great loss in getting rid of that vermin, which in time would 
have perverted the few good ones among them. To judge by 
what remains, they were no better than the savages, and their 
children brought up in the Woods like Brutes, without any 
notion of Religion, Government, Justice, or Honesty would 
not have improved the Breed. 

Forgive this nonsence occasioned by your pity for the poor , 
Inhabitants of Quebec. I would reconcile you a little to my 
profession which has really no more cruelty in it than what 
we see daily without concern in the World Lawsuits, Quar- 
rels," Contentions, &c., what are they but wars between indi- 
viduals? It is true they don't kill one another for fear of 
being hanged, but they go as far as they can safely venture, 
in hurting their enemies to the utmost of their power in their 
Fortune and reputation. 
VOL. in. 10 

138 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

The adventure of poor Jack F. will hinder a war of that 
kind. I have heard something of it and was glad to know 
some more particulars from you. Not that I have any con- 
cern for either of the parties, I was only pleased to notice on 
that occasion your generous sentiments of humanity. I have 
felt too much the power of Love to be insensible to the Pains 
of a disappointed swain. I pity him, though I cannot help 
being surprised that having had for a whole year free and 
undisturbed access to the young thief, he could not make an 
agreeable impression upon her novice heart. Both sexes have 
an equal tendency to Love, and opportunity fixes that natural 
disposition to one object. A sincere passion supported by 
some little arts will always succeed when your pride is not 
in the way, and since he has miscarried with most of those 
advantages, it must certainly be his fault. "What must he do 
now? Sure no girl will listen to him, and he must either shift 
his stage or hang himself, for there is no living in my opinion 
without Love, and Love without return is of all the miseries 
of life the most intolerable. Let him then go over the seas, 
I have done with him. 

I am much obliged by your offer o. Tea, &c. I shall make 
free to apply to you when I want anything. Our affairs are 
at last in a tolerable way, and I expect to go to Pittsburgh at 
the end of this month. I recommend my little Hut to your 
protection. It will be infinitely more agreeable to me if I 
know that you have been in it. There is no appearance that 
I shall enjoy the pleasure of your neighbourhood this year. 

Farewell, my dear Nancy. My respects to Maman and the 
family. We have no news, and shall have none on this side. 
Therefore, if you favour me so much as to continue this cor- 
respondence it will be pure generosity without the least grain 
of Curiosity. 

LANCASTER, 28th Feb. 1760. 

Your extremely kind favour without date came last night 
to my hands, I should say to my heart, for I assure you it 
gave me the greatest pleasure. 

I had imagined that you had either forgotten me or that I 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 139 

had disobliged you, though I could not guess how that could 
be, either in deeds or thoughts. That fancy made me uneasy 
until I was so agreeably deceived by your letter. I have 
sincerely felt with you that natural joy of a well-meaning 
heart in the prosperity of our cause. But as to any private 
news of consequence to me only I had no reason to be pleased. 
It is now probable I shall quit the service as soon as I can 
decently. I will not trouble you with my reasons for it, 
tho' if you have any curiosity to know them you will be 
satisfied when we meet, as I have no secrets from you. But 
no more of this. 

You have written to me with more openness than usual, 
and I thank you for that favour. 

You found at last a certain way of pleasing me in speaking 
of yourself, a subject of all the most interesting to me; but 
you wrong me in supposing that I only pay you a compliment 
when I say I do prefer your conversation to any other 
pleasure. That is literally true, and I beg you will for once 
believe me, and if that persuasion can make you scribble, Pray 
do scribble away, sure to oblige me infinitely. It is very true 
that I told you that the letters you used to write to me were 
stiff and precise, it was indeed so. Now you have mended 
your style, and I indeed acknowledge it with gratitude. 
Should I grant indeed that you had no design in it, I must 
take it to be so still, which I am unwilling to allow, choosing 
rather to be agreeably deceived than to suppose that you do 
not intend to oblige me. 

Poor Dolly! how kind it was to think of me in the hurry 
of her first letter, I hardly can believe it, and I must read 
again that Paragraph to be persuaded. I hope she will find 
London as disagreeable as I do, and for the same reason 
parting us from our best friends The news of her safe arrival 
was not the least agreeable this Packet brought. 

Why did you not go to the Assembly? upon such a brilliant 
night. I am afraid you were not well, tell me I am mistaken. 
To see two such Brides at once in Philadelphia is a novelty 
worth looking for. And you say you did not envy them. 
Pray, is it their new state in general, or any particular cir- 

140 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

cumstance you don't like? for my part, I cannot help wishing 
to be as happy as people are generally in that station when 
matrimony, as in the present case, is the effect of your choice, 
and attended with the Public's approbation. 

Can you not imagine that there is a real happiness, in being 
united for life, to the person we esteem and love best, and as 
a true, honest girl, answer fairly the other question. Don't 
you know any such thing in the world as the man who could 
make you think so? But this is diving too deeply into the 
recesses of your heart. Therefore, I stop and beg you will 
only believe that nobody deserves more your confidence by 
his sentiments, than your most devoted and faithful friend. 

H. B. 

PITTSBURGH, 4th July, 1760. 

MY DEAREST !N"ANCY: I acknowledge with the greatest 
pleasure and truth that you are in every respect the honour 
of your sex, and tho : you tax me with having a cold heart, 
I can assure you it is full of gratitude and love for you. I 
deserve reproaches less gentle than yours, but I hope you will 
forgive me, when I tell my reasons for not writing to you. 
I was vexed at several things that made me so cross and peev- 
ish that I found myself completely unqualified to address you 
in any shape. I have not the useful art to dissemble, I must 
appear what in reality I am, and in that disposition of mind 
I was certain that my letters would only be disagreeable, or 
at best insipid to you. This is true, and I think you ought 
rather to thank than to blame me. But if I did not write I 
am conscious not to have spent one day without thinking of 
you, and to those thoughts I owe the only happy moments I 
have enjoyed. If the tide of my affection is near spent it 
must be the tide of my inconstancy, for I am entirely devoted 
to you. 

As to the new farm, I think I owe the possession of it to 
the obliging care of your brother. I was fond of that ac- 
quisition as long as I considered it in point of interest. But 
in reflecting that every day I might spend there would keep 
me absent from you, I felt my fancy much cooled. 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 141 

It is a mere wilderness, capable indeed of improvement, and 
if a distance of 140 miles from Philadelphia were an incon- 
venience to be removed I would be entirely satisfied with the 

I am anxious to hear of Mrs. Sterling, and beg to be re- 
membered to her every time you write. 

I was told that she was to come back with her husband. 
I wish it may be so, she will certainly be happier at home 
than in England. 

Tho'I may receive news from Philadelphia, you know very 
well that from you they would be more interesting but pro- 
vided you tell me what passes in your heart I acquit you of 
all the rest. In four days I am to march to Presqu' Isle with 
some troops. You ihay safely write to me. Your letters shall 
be carefully forwarded ; if I could not so regularly write to 
you, I hope you will not judge of my affection for you by the 
number of my letters, nor defer writing until you can do it 
in answer. I request this favour most earnestly. 

Farewell, my dearest, I love you most sincerely. The same 
sentiments from you would secure my happiness. 

H. B. 

FORT PITT, 15th Jan'y, 1761. 

The judicious reflections contained in your letter of the 14th 
Dec'r do an equal honour to your understanding and the 
goodness of your heart. You are of opinion that (the first 
place excepted) there is nothing in our profession worth the 
thoughts of a man of sense. You may suppose that being so 
nearly concerned in that subject, I must often have weighed 
every argument Pro and Con. But yet I cannot determine 
which way the scale may turn at last. Born and educated in 
Europe, where I was used to a variety of agreeable and im- 
proving conversations, I must confess that I don't find it 
easy to satisfy my taste in that way. In this Country, the 
Gentlemen are so much taken up with the narrow sphere of 
their Politicks or their private affairs that a Loiterer has no 
chance with them. The ladies who are settled in the world 
are commonly involved and buried in the details of their 

142 Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 

families, and when they have given you the anecdotes of their 
days work, and the pretty sayings of their children, with a 
dish of tea, you may go about your business, unless you choose 
to have the tale over again. The young ones having little or 
nothing in their heads, have only their pretty faces to shew, 
and leave you to wish for the more agreeable endowments 
of a well-bred Woman, who can charm your mind as well as 
your eyes, and soften by the irrepressible enchantment of her 
conversation the Toils and Anxieties attending our Stations 
in Life. This being the case in general (no matter whether 
real or imaginary), I say that if I should get rid of the con- 
tinual occupation of a military life, I should of course feel a 
weariness of which I see nothing that would relieve me. We 
must have some object in view, what could be mine? I have 
no turn or capacity for Agriculture, or any kind of business. 
How could I spend my time in a manner satisfactory to 
myself or useful to others ? From being something I should 
fall to nothing, and become a sort of incumbrance in the 

How could I brook the supercilious look and the surly 
pride of the Humble Quaker? or the insulting rudeness of an 
Assembly-man, who, picked up from a dunghill, thinks him- 
self raised to a Being of a Superior nature? How submit to 
the insolent Rusticity of the free Pennsylvania Boor, who 
knows no distinction among mankind, and from a vile Slavery 
in his native country takes his newly acquired Liberty for a 
right to run into all the Excesses of Licentiousness and Arro- 

In civilized countries reciprocal regards are paid by one 
individual to another, which are the chief ingredients of 
happiness. They arise generally from Power, Richesses, or 
personal Merit. Here the two first are only known and re- 
spected, the third despised as a thing of no use. Making the 
application to myself, who am far from being rich, if I resign 
the power I possess by virtue of my rank in the Army I must 
be alert to get out of anybodys way for fear of being trampled 
upon and crushed as a crawling insect. Now what do you 
think preferable, to be under the command of one or two 

Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet. 143 

gentlemen, or exposed to be insulted with impunity by the 
majority of a People of such a strange mixture. 

I know this is exaggerated, and that plausible answers can 
be given to each Argument. It is the very thing I want. I 
would choose to be convinced that a full Liberty with some 
inconveniences is preferable to an honourable Slavery attended 
with real advantages. 

Now, my dear Nancy, try your persuasive eloquence. If I 
sim to be persuaded it must be by you for whom I have that 
powerful prepossession which enforces the weight of reason, 
solves difficulties, and finds a ready access to the heart. 

This is too long a dissertation, which must tire you, but I 
am half joking, half in earnest, and I really do not know what 
will be the best for me to do, to quit the service or continue 
in it. 

I expect in a few days some of the Royal Welsh, and hope 

when all is set to rights that I shall have a 

chance to go down. 

Farewell, my dearest, 

I am Sincerely yours, 

H. 13. 

144 Maryland Gossip in 1755. 


(A postscript to Daniel Dulany's letter in the last number of this 
1 MAGAZINE, vol. iii. p. 31.) 

I have sent you in this Packet the application for a Militia- 
Law, the Address of the Quakers, and Colonel Coles's letter. 

Will Bordley lately married a virgin of fifty, one Miss 
Pearce. One Belchior, a clergyman who was chaplain to a 
man of war, and had not even religion and discretion enough 
for that station, came to this Province some little time ago, 
hearing no doubt that it was the asylum for men of his pro- 
fession and character. He published proposals for writing 
the history of America, in which he was to prove the extreme 
politeness and hospitality of the inhabitants. These proposals 
made him welcome almost everywhere, especially on the East- 
ern Shore, where he principally lived. I remember the man 
at the University, a circumstance he availed himself of by 
adding that we had been intimate, and this though I don't 
remember that we were even upon the terms of common 
academical acquaintance. 

He borrowed money of every one who would lend it, and 
practised almost every art of deceit, but with so much close- 
ness and secrecy that his villainy was not fully detected till 
he had ruined poor Miss B . . . The fellow had the im- 
pudence to ask Mr. Goldsborough for his consent to make his 
addresses to Miss Robins. He pretended to be in no hurry 
for an answer, that if the young lady was not engaged, and 
there were no personal objections to him, he would make it 
appear that he was a man of character, family, and fortune 
by ample testimonials from England. But Mr. Goldsborough 
assuring him that his addresses would be fruitless, he at once 
gave up all pretensions. He is a man of some letters, insinu- 
ating in his address, and has the semblance of great good 
nature and modesty, when he has his points to carry. He 
came to this town and made himself known to me, and re- 

Maryland Gossip in 1755. 145 

membering his face at college I was civil to him, and intro- 
duced him to the Governor and other gentlemen here. He 
told me that he had a living at Barton, in Norfolk, that hav- 
ing labored under a disorder which his physicians advised 
him might be cured by two or three voyages, by the interest 
of a friend he procured an appointment to be chaplain to the 
'Norwich man of war, but that this kind of life being very 
disagreeable, he had prevailed upon Captain Barrington (who 
commands the Norwich) to give him leave to travel over 
the continent, till the Norwich should be ordered from her 
station to England. It seems the man had a living in Eng- 
land, which is now under sequestration. This story was 
plausibly told, and he having been most respectfully enter- 
tained by Mr. Cam, the Professor of Divinity at Williams- 
burg, who knew him at Cambridge, I did not question the 
man's veracity. He made his addresses to Miss B., and mar- 
ried her, and very soon after the ceremony was performed he 
declared he would return immediately to England, and pre- 
tending he had received advice that a ship was ready to 
sail from Philadelphia, he set oft' for that place with his wife. 
There were many claims against him, which he was obliged 
to pay out of his wife's little fortune, and he had hardly left 
the Province before his character was fully known. There 
was hardly ever so great a rascal he had imposed upon al- 
most as many people as Tom Bell. He was turned out of the 
Norwich for his excessive wickedness. He has a wife and 
family in England, and his behavior to his wife in their jour- 
ney to Philadelphia was such as alarmed her extremely before 
she knew his character, and since his villainies have been 
fully detected, I am told, she is persuaded that he had an 
accursed design upon her life. He has been advertised for 
horse stealing. When the poor girl got to Philadelphia, she 
heard of his being married before, and that his wife was alive. 
This threw her into the greatest imaginable distress. She 
could not live with him, and did not know how she could 
leave him, as he had determined in a day or two to leave 
Philadelphia, and was very watchful of her; and, as she was 
a stranger to every one in that place, she did not know to 

146 Maryland Gossip in 1755. 

whom to apply for protection. It Had. luckily happened that 
Col. Harrison, of Virginia, was then at Philadelphia. He 
had heard an indistinct account of a young lady from Mary- 
land w r hose name was Belchior, and the wife of a clergyman, 
being ill used by her husband. He had heard a good deal of 
Belchior's fame in Virginia, and suspecting he had married 
this young lady, he found out her lodgings, and hearing her 
story from her own mouth, he took her away to his own 
lodgings, where Belchior demanded her, but Harrison being 
a man of spirit, and having great compassion for the girl's 
distress, refused to give her up, or suffer Belchior even to see 
her. When Mr. Harrison had done his business at Philadel- 
phia he left that place, taking the girl with him in his chaise. 
At Chester Belchior attempted to break into the room, where 
she lodged, and intended to seize and carry her away by force, 
having two men whom he had hired, ready to assist him. In 
attempting to force the door, the girl being disturbed of her 
sleep, screamed out for help, and Harrison hearing the outcry, 
flew to the door of her chamber with a sword and pistol, and 
threatening Belchior that he would instantly dispatch him, 
if he did not desist from his attempt, he thought it prudent 
to retire, and Harrison brought her back to her friends. This 
behavior of Harrison was very generous and humane. One 
would be almost tempted to hope that this, with other in- 
stances of the same nature, would make our girls more cautious 
and prudent in marrying strangers, but as women, as well as 
men, show more violent symptoms of distraction in their im- 
pulses towards the other sex than in any other article, I should 
not wonder much if even this girl should be again ensnared 
in the same manner. 

Jemmy Tilghman was for some time extremely fond of 
Belchior, who stuck close by him, till he drank out all his 
claret, a liquor he was particularly fond of, but this being 
only vitium clerici was not much noticed. As he had not an 
opportunity of debottling my cellar by coming to my house, 
he fell upon an expedient to do it in another way, which, 
however, failed him. He wrote to me that he was married, 
that he intended to return immediately to England, that Mrs. 

Maryland Gossip in 1755. 147 

Belchior was of a delicate constitution, might suffer much by 
a winter's passage, especially if he could not provide a little 
wine that he had not been able to procure any, and that he 
should ever acknowledge it as a singular obligation if I would 
spare him a small quantity of the wine he drank at my house 
five or six dozen bottles would be sufficient, with a few gallons 
of spirits. As Mrs. Belchior had not been married long enough 
to be in a longing condition, I apprehended that a less quan- 
tity, and a different sort of wine might do, and, therefore, I 
informed him that a merchant at this place could supply him 
with any quantity of good Madeira and spirits he might want, 
and heard no more from him. 

All the French in Nova Scotia, whom they call Neutrals, 
have been disarmed and seized by Col. Lawrence and Col. 
Winslow. As they are very numerous (being near fifteen 
thousand souls), it was thought proper at a council of war, 
at which were present Boscawen, Mostyn, Lawrence, Winslow, 
and Monckton, to send to each colony a proportion of these 
people. Our proportion being nine hundred and three are 
already arrived at this place, and have almost eat us up. 
"What is to be done with these people, God knows! They 
insist on being treated as prisoners of war. It was proposed 
to them to sign indentures for a short term, which they have 
refused. As there is no provision for them, they have been 
supported by private subscription. Political considerations 
may make this a prudent step, for anything I know, and per- 
haps their behavior may have deservedly brought their suffer- 
ings upon them ; but 'tis impossible not to compassionate 
their distress. 

The ancestors of some of these people were settled in Nova 
Scotia before the Treaty of Utrecht. It is, I believe, one of 
the Articles of that Treaty in the cession of this place to 
England, that these people should retain their possessions 
upon the terms of their taking the oath of allegiance. This 
assurance of their fidelity they have never given. Governor 
Phipps had agreed to accept of an oath of neutrality from 
them ('tis said), but this concession being disapproved of, they 
were called upon to take the oath of allegiance, which they 

148 Maryland Gossip in 1755. 

refused to do, and have, therefore, been dispossessed, etc. It 
is some time since I have seen the treaty, and I may, there- 
fore, be mistaken. The effects of war are so calamitous that, 
"Give us peace in our times," is always part of my prayer. 

We have been told that an Act of Parliament will soon be 
made to tax the Colonies for the support of an American 
war. If the dispute is to be continued, and our Mother 
Country does expect that we should bear our part of the 
burthen, which, indeed, seems reasonable, such an Act 
seems necessary, but so many things are to be considered in 
making a regulation of this sort just and effectual, that I 
dread the consequence of the Parliament's undertaking it. 
The circumstances of many of the Colonies are not sufficiently 
understood, and how they can be properly represented till we 
have an intimation that such a representation would be pro- 
per, I don't know. 

If the Parliament should only ascertain the proportions of 
aid to be given by the several Colonies, and leave to our re- 
spective Legislatures the mode of raising money upon the 
people, every subject of contention would be revived, and it 
would become a trial of skill to gain as many points as pos- 
sible upon each other. I am confident this Province could do 
but very little, our staple will hardly pay an additional duty, 
a poll tax, and a land tax would in effect be a tax upon to- 
bacco. A tax upon our labor and our soil is the same with a 
tax upon the produce of both. We do already pay a very 
high duty upon tobacco, we take off in return for our tobacco 
the manufactures of our mother country, and by this duty, 
and the consumption of British commodities it may be demon- 
strated that the tobacco Colonies of Virginia and Maryland 
contribute more to the revenue of the crown, and to the em- 
ployment of the British manufactories than all the Colonies 
to the Northward. The poorest sort of people to the North- 
ward make all their clothes. 

The 30 p. poll to the clergy is a grievous burthen. A 
family of ten persons that would be taxed in this Province 
300 Ibs. tobacco would not pay above the value of 50 Ibs. to- 
bacco to the Northward, which in this article alone, supposing 

Maryland Gossip in 1755. 149 

tobacco at Id. per pound sterling, makes a difference of 1, 
0, 10 sterling, and if they were to pay a tax equal to this 
difference, supposing only three hundred thousand taxables 
to the Northward, it wcruld be a considerable sum to fall into 
the common stock. 

As I have now quite tired my fingers with writing, I shall 
end in earnest, and take my leave of you, begging the favor 
of you to deliver the enclosed as it is directed, to Mr. Ander- 
son, and to request Mr. Anderson to send me in by the first 
opportunity Strange's Reports, and in the line of Magazines 
and newspapers, to send me in the Monthly Review as it is 
published, I mean those which shall hereafter be published. 
As you will, I presume, communicate to him all the news I 
have wrote to you (and I have wrote to you all I have heard), 
I shall postpone writing to Mr. Anderson till another oppor- 
tunity shall offer. 

150 A Walk to Darby. 



It is not surprising that Mr. Watson, living as he did at 
Germantown, should have given more space, in his " Annals 
of Philadelphia," to the city itself, and to the country north 
of it, than to the region south and west, whose history conse- 
quently is much less understood. Reflecting on this I decided 
to walk the road to Darby, not doubting that the story of its 
past was well worth knowing. Such a walk, however, re- 
quired the companionship of one well acquainted with the 
road, and with the names, at least, of the people living on it, 
and so with such a friend I set out on my pilgrimage. The 
notes taken at the time lay for eight years untouched, but 
have now been revised with considerable care. 

In the colonial time distances were measured from the old 
Provincial Hall, that until 1837 stood in the middle of Market 
Street on the west side of Second. There, in early days, were 
the elections held ; and there, too, was the place of meeting 
of the Provincial Councils. They sat in sight of that emblem 
of sovereignty, the Royal Arms of England, of the time of 
Queen Anne, for they bear her initials, and the motto peculiar 
to her alone of all the sovereigns of that mighty island. 
These arms escaped the fury of our Revolution, and now 
hang on the walls of our Historical Society. The site of the 
Hall was, therefore, the point from which, we started, but 
before doing so we listened for a moment to the bells of old 
Christ Church chiming, as they did when in that distant time 
the vicinity of the old London Coffee House, at the southwest 
corner of Front and Market Streets, was the busiest scene in all 
the city. That ancient structure yet stands, but it is no longer 
the central point of the capital of Pennsylvania, as it was in 
the time of its proprietor, William Bradford. William 

A Walk to Darby. 151 

Penn's house, erected in 1683, is also standing, but at some 
distance back from the street, and concealed from view by 
houses built on the northern part of the lot. Access to the 
house was provided for by a passageway left between them, 
called Letitia Court. Going out Market, or High Street, as 
it was formerly called, we soon passed the site of the house, 
on the south side below Sixth Street, once the residence of 
Richard Penn, and where Sir William Howe had his quarters 
when the British occupied the city, and where, afterwards, 
Washington lived while President. But we must not antici- 
pate, for there must needs be much of history connected with 
a street in which Penn and Franklin and Washington have 

In its former da^ys disorderly and unruly persons must have 
greatly disturbed the street, for it is recorded that "William 
Hill, the Beadle of the city, had lately in a heat broke his 
bell, and had given out that he would no longer continue at 
the place." Sorely as the tramps of the time provoked him, 
he, however, relented, and afterwards " expressed a great deal 
of sorrow, desiring to be continued during his good beha- 
viour." Fairs were provided for, and they were opened with 
a proclamation that "All were to keep the King's peace, and 
that none were to presume to bear or carry any unlawful 
weapons to the terrour or annoyance of His Majesty's subjects, 
or to gallop or strain horses within the built parts of the 
city." This, no doubt, for a while, had its effect, and kept 
the street quiet, but not for any great length of time, as sub- 
sequently there is the appointment of Daniel Pellito as Public 
Whipper, at a salary of ten pounds per annum. It may be 
he was selected as a more efficient practitioner than his pre- 
decessors, and, perhaps, with a view to make the office of 
beadle an easier one. The whipping was performed at Second 
and Market Streets, and there, also, were to be seen the stocks 
and pillory. These were not agreeable objects in the sight of 
those who occasionally ornamented them, and so, on the first 
of October, 1726, tliey were burned by evil-minded persons. 
Of course they were soon rebuilt, and for many years con- 
tinued to inspire terror to evil doers. A daughter of Dr. 

152 A Walk to Darby. 

Henry Paschall, Mrs. Mary P. Hopkins, whose protracted life 
closing near Paschallville in 1869 or 1870, at the great age of 
ninety-nine years and six months, connects that distant era 
with our own, often spoke of having seen a man in the stocks 
at that place. She would tell, too, of having seen her father 
shoot wild ducks at Fourth and Market Streets. 

The "Great Meeting House of Friends," erected in 1695, 
was on the southwest corner of Second and High Streets. On 
the front of a house on the north side, just above Second 
Street, there was placed for the convenience of the people, a 
large sun-dial, that remained there until ahout forty years 
ago. The market houses, at the time that Silas Deane came 
here, 1775, were of the extent of about twelve hundred feet, 
situated along the middle of the street. They were gradually 
extended to Eighth Street, to be finally removed about 1860. 
Burton, the comedian, when he appeared before our audiences, 
sang of 

" The Mint where they make money, 

lawk, what a pile ; 
And a market that reaches 
For nearly a mile." 

The three days' fairs of May and November, only abolished 
about 1787, made the street at times an enlivening and impres- 
sive scene ; but it was from an early day a thoroughfare of 
note. Franklin, on his arrival here, entered it to buy his loaf 
of bread, and afterwards lived in it. In 1744, the Virginia 
Commissioners, and their Secretary, William Black, " took a 
turn to the Center House, where is a Billiard Table and 
Bowling Green," the date of whose disappearance, unfortu- 
nately, has not been recorded. It was here that Captain Scull 
was killed by Bruleman, formerly an officer in the British 
Army, who had gone out that day with the intention to shoot 
the first man he met, that he might be hung for it, in which 
he succeeded. The first happened to be Dr. Cadwalader, who 
so politely raised his hat to him that Bruleman was disarmed 
by the courtesy. In August, 1755, after Braddock's defeat, 
the regiments of Halket and Dunbar crossed the Schuylkill, 
and came down the street, mere shattered remnants, to find 

A Walk to Darby. 153 

in Philadelphia a welcome shelter. Dunbar proved anew the 
justice of his designation of "The Tardy," by not settling 
with his landlady ; for the City Councils, two years after- 
wards, paid the Widow Howell her claim of twenty-five 
pounds for his board and lodging. Meanwhile the bones of 
the gallant Sir Peter Halket, of Pitfirrane, lay bleaching on 
the shores of the Monongahela, only to be accorded funeral 
rites when, in 1758, General Forbes, the "Head of Iron," as 
the Indians called him, proved successful where Braddock 
had failed, and gave to Fort Du Quesne the enduring na*ne of 
one of England's greatest ministers. The army of Forbes was 
gathered in Philadelphia, and as his Royal Americans, under 
Bouquet, in their dark scarlet coats faced with blue, and the 
Highlanders in kilts and belted plaids, and the Pennsylvania 
Provincials in their fringed hunting shirts, passed westward 
up the street, to cross the river, and to sweep onward to vic- 
tory, the scene must have gladdened the hearts so long made 
sad by the terrible defeat that had laid one-half of Pennsyl- 
vania open to the ravages of the relentless Indian foe. General 
Forbes returned in triumph, a short-lived triumph, however, 
for him, as a mortal disease, then wasting his form, soon ter- 
minated his life. He was buried in the chancel of Christ 

Passing on, we spoke of the time when Sir "William Howe 
occupied the city, and of the 15th Regiment of the Royal 
Army being in quarters in Market Street in and about Fifth, 
and then of the post and rail fences, beginning, at the time 
when Philadelphia was the seat of the Federal Government, 
somewhere about Ninth Street ; and of the feeble light of the 
old oil lamps, that hardly did more than make darkness 
visible. Feeble as their light was, the imagination seems to 
have been quite as much excited by the display, as in our time 
it can be by the more brilliant gaslights that now stretch for 
miles along the not wider, but vastly longer avenue. The 
novelist, of whom Philadelphia has such good reason to be 
proud, Charles Brockden Brown, in his Arthur Mervyn, a 
Tale of the Yellow Fever of 1793, brings his hero across the 
Upper Ferry, and then makes him say: "I adhered to the 
VOL. in. 11 

154 A Walk to Darby. 

crossways, till I reached Market Street. Night had fallen, 
and a triple row of lamps presented a spectacle enchanting 
and new. I reached the Market House, and entering it, in- 
dulged myself in new delight and new wonder. I need not 
remark that our ideas of magnificence and splendor are 
merely comparative ; yet you may be prompted to smile when 
I tell you that, in walking through this avenue, I, for a mo- 
ment, conceived myself transported to the hall 'pendant with 
many a row of starry lamps, and blazing cressets fed by 
naptha and asphaltos.' That this transition from my homely 
and quiet retreat had been effected in so few hours wore the 
aspect of miracle or magic." 

When the war of the Revolution came, Market Street, no 
doubt, was often the theatre of striking scenes. Silas Deane 
writes to his wife on the 12th of May, 1775, "I seriously be- 
lieve Pennsylvania will in one month, have more than twenty 
thousand disciplined troops ready to take the field. They 
exercise here twice every day, at five in the morning, and five 
in the afternoon, and are extremely well armed. . . . The 
Commons West of the city is every morning and afternoon 
full of troops and spectators of all ranks." Washington on 
his way to the ill-starred field of Brandywine, marched down 
Front Street to Chestnut, and thence out to "the common." 
From that place, the vicinity of Centre Square, he must have 
marched out this street, and crossed the Schuylkill at the 
Middle Ferry. Rochambeau's army of six thousand French- 
men, in their beautiful uniform of white, though it passed 
out Vine Street, soon reached it, for they encamped at Centre 
Square, and, therefore, from that point, also marched along 
the western part of the street on their way to Yorktown. 
When the work of that army had been accomplished, the 
great procession in honor of the Federal Constitution passed 
the street westward from Fourth. Louis Philippe, Duke of 
Orleans, and his brothers, Montpensier and Beaujolais, when 
they started on their equestrian tour of the West, rode along 
it to cross the Meneyackse, or the "Noisy Stream" the Gan- 
show-hanne', as some call the river now named the Schuylkill. 
The old "Water Works" which were once at Centre Square 


A Walk to Darby. 155 

were erected not long after the imaginary walk of Arthur 
Mervyn. In his time, too, the direct road to Gray's Ferry, 
no doubt, began there, but that part of it between the Centre 
Square and South or Cedar Street, was afterwards foolishly 
offered up as a sacrifice to our inconvenient and inelegant 
system of rectangular streets. Long after the time of Arthur 
Mervyn, indeed but fifty years ago, Indians were still occa- 
sionally to be seen in the street, clad in the picturesque cos- 
tume of the forest. On these later visits, as they were no 
longer provided with quarters at the State House, which was 
the custom when Burnaby, the English traveller, wrote, they 
paid their way by earning such pennies as we might be per- 
suaded to set upright in the crevices between the bricks in 
the pavement, by snooting at them with their bows and ar- 
rows. Such as they hit became theirs, and very few, indeed, 
were missed. The Squaw took up the pennies, but she was 
never encumbered by the papoose, for that she would hang to 
the bough of a tree. Lingering, even after the children of 
the forest had ceased their visits, were yet to be met survivors 
of those exiles, who coming here had escaped the guillotine 
of France. With a politeness not less pleasing than the ex- 
cellent confectionery and lemonade they vended along the 
street, they won the esteem of all who knew them. Another 
stranger, too, should be remembered. It is Krimmel, the 
artist, who, in 1818, painted the really striking scene of the 
Fourth of July of that year, of Centre Square, that hangs in 
our Hall. 

Our distance from the river Delaware is now a little more 
than one mile. !N"ear here, at Fifteenth Street, in quite recent 
times, stood the Western Exchange, the western terminus of 
the old omnibus route. About three-fourths of a mile further 
on we come to the Schuylkill. The passage over the river at 
this point is ancient. The proprietary " granted the Old Ferry 
to Philip England," of whom complaint is soon made, for in 
1685 he was ordered to expedite a sufficient ferry boat. On 
the first of July, 1700, the Provincial Council "Ordered yt ye 

Secrie give notice to Benj. Chambers & powell, keepers 

of ye ferries over Schuilkill, yt they do not after Light is 

156 A Walk to Darby. 

shutt in, transport anie persons yt if not well known to you, 
or yt cannot give a good acco't of ymselves." In 1722, the 
City Council, having obtained authority therefor, from the 
Provincial Council, leased it for the term of twenty-one years 
to Aquila Rose, he to have a sufficient boat ; and it was or- 
dered that the street be at once laid out to the river. Rose 
* was the poet, and the Clerk of the Assembly whose fine torch- 
light funeral, in 1723, is described in the verses of Samuel 
Keimer. In 1744 the lease of the ferry was to James Coultas, 
and afterwards, in 1755, to Evan Evans, and in 1756 to Joshua 
Byrne. In 1762 it was to Jonathan Humphries. James 
Coultas, in 1757, brings a charge of 12 against Council, for 
ferriage, in 1755, of Halket and Dunbar's regiments. In 
1769 the Assembly appointed a committee to consider the 
matter of making the ferry free. The Council also appointed 
a committee on the subject, but it appears to have fallen 
through. In 1771 Joseph Coultas was the lessee. 

It was at this ferry that one of the French officers who had 
joined the Revolutionary Army, Du Coudray, Inspector Gene- 
ral of Ordnance, in attempting to cross the river, was drowned 
by his horse, on which he was mounted, leaping into the water 
just as they approached the western shore. 

On the day of the battle of Germantown, October the 4th, 
three columns of Americans, with two field pieces, appeared 
on the western bank of the river, opposite this point, with 
the design to effect such a diversion as would prevent rein- 
forcements being sent to the field of battle, but they came too 
late. A few shots were exchanged with some thirty English 
dragoons who were on the city side, and who at once sent for 
aid. The Continentals had one man wounded. The British 
works to protect the northern part of the city extended from 
Poplar Street wharf westward to the Schuylkill, where at 
Fair Mount, on the hill where the basin now is, was Redoubt 
No. 10. But the western approaches to the city were also to 
be guarded, and consequently the earthworks were extended 
southwardly from Fair Mount along the eastern side of the 
Schuylkill to a point south of the Middle Ferry, and this 
portion was protected by a redoubt, which, according to 

A Walk to Darby. 157 

Varle*'s map, was at the intersection of 22d and Chestnut 
Streets. Major John Clark, Jr., who had been detailed by 
Washington to watch the operations of the English, wrote to 
his chief on the 3d of November, 1777, that "a refugee as- 
sured him they were preparing three bridges of boats with 
timber laid on them ; and on the 8th that the enemy say their 
bridge will be complete by the following Tuesday." This 
was at the Middle Ferry, Market Street. Major Clark sub- 
sequently writes that it had draws in two places. Another 
of the bridges, as he writes, was at Gray's Ferry, also with 
a draw, and the third at Province Island. On the 18th "Five 
thousand of the enemy crossed from Philadelphia, at the 
Middle Ferry." On the 30th of December it was reported 
that as soon as the^ hauled their wood from the western side 
of the river, they would take up the bridge. This they, no 
doubt, did, for the only ordinary means of transit over the 
river until the end of the last century was a raft of logs, pro- 
bably that made by General Putnam, moored to either side 
of the stream, and detached at one of its ends and floated up 
or down the current with the tide, to admit of the passage 
of such craft as challenged the right of way. It was kept in 
order, and its movements were regulated by a certain Joseph 
Ogden, and others who dwelt in what was known as the old 
Fish Tavern, near the northwest corner of Market and 30th 
Streets, still standing, and now occupied for offices of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The canal around the 
western end of the bridge, hardly ever used, and now forgotten, 
passed by this house. 

By 1801, however, trade had so increased in amount, that 
the city fathers determined to erect a more substantial struc- 
ture, and during that year was built the well-known bridge 
styled "Permanent." The monument to its constructors, 
situated at the eastern end, is yet remembered. It now stands 
to the north, within the inclosure of the Gas Works. Mr. 
Joseph Swift Keen, the oldest living resident of West Phila- 
delphia, whose memory recalls clays when he attended wor- 
ship at Christ Church with President Washington, witnessed 
the putting of the pieces together, on ground on the north 

158 A 'Walk to Darby. 

side of Market Street near the river, purchased by the muni- 
cipal authorities as a site for a Yellow Fever Hospital, never 
erected for fear the farmers of neighboring counties might 
decline to pass it with their very indispensable provender. 
The timber for it was selected in adjoining forests with ex- 
quisite judgment, and gave evidence of its excellent quality 
1 under the ruthless blows of modern axes in the day of demo- 
lition. It was covered, and lay on arches of unequal height, 
causing an elevation in the middle. On the same piles and 
abutments, founded on rock most solidly at -a time when 
coffer-dams were not so readily kept free of water as recent 
devices render possible, was built a second bridge, suited for 
car-travel, whose magnificent conflagration constituted the 
grandest feu d 'artifice set off in our city during the Centen- 
nial season. And now stands the third, a wonder of twenty 
days' construction, to be accomplished only through mechanics 
of this decade, and the energetic will of such Presidents of 
railroad companies as he who ordered the framing of it. The 
importance of the first of these bridges may be very truly 
estimated by attending to Edmund Burke's pertinent state- 
ment in his European Settlements, in 1757. In speaking of 
the great wealth of Pennsylvania, he says: "Besides the 
quantity of all kinds of the produce of this Province, which 
is brought down the rivers Delaware and Schuylkill . . ^ 
the Dutch employ between eight and nine thousand wagons, 
drawn each by four horses, in bringing the product of their 
farms to this market." These wagons were large, but when 
the bridge came to be erected there soon appeared those huge 
structures, the Conestoga wagons, not inaptly called the India- 
men of the road. Gathering as they sometimes did, in hun- 
dreds along Market Street, they presented a scene to be found 
nowhere else on earth, unless, indeed, the assemblage of some 
vast caravan in Asia might be likened thereto. "With their 
six and eight mammoth horses, surmounted with bells, these 
wagons were so imposing in their appearance, that, on their 
disuse, when the railroad and canal were built, an innkeeper 
in Somerset County told the writer of this, that "Philadelphia 

A Walk to Darby. 159 

was ruined. No railroad," said he, "can carry the freight 
the old Conestogas did." 

We are now beyond the Schuylkill, and to the right is what 
once was Powelton. The ample mansion house erected by 
John Hare Powel had become the residence of the late E. 
Spencer Miller. Most of the western portion of the estate is 
covered with beautiful villas, while, however, much the 
greater part, even down to the water's edge, is used by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad for its vast business. Market Street, 
here formerly called Conestoga Road, in its course nearly due 
west, extends to the county line at 63d Street, a distance of 
about five and a half miles from the Delaware River. An 
account of the survey of that part of it west of the Schuyl- 
kill, may be found^in the minutes of the Provincial Council, 
Nov. 23, 1741. It ought to be mentioned here, that extend- 
ing along Market Street from 42d to 49th Street, and north- 
wardly to the Haverford Avenue, are the grounds of the 
Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane. On this place is the 
house of Paul Busti, an Italian gentleman, who was agent of 
the Holland Land Company. His house is now occupied by 
Dr. Thomas S. Kirkbride. At 32d Street the Lancaster Turn- 
pike leaves Market Street, trending rather northwardly, while 
the road to Darby leaves it obliquely, in a southwestwardly 
direction, which is continued with little deviation. 

At the southeast corner of 32d and Market Streets stands 
the fine architectural monument of the season it commemo- 
rates, the new Centennial Bank. It replaces what was much 
the oldest house for miles around, an oddly -fashioned hip- 
roofed dwelling, in earlier days a home of farmers, and at 
the opening of this century a kindly hostelry. Ancient deeds 
speak of it as "The Mansion," and from that title was derived 
the first name of the street which passes by its former site. 
One other house in this vicinity is worthy of notice, that on 
the northeast corner of Mansion and Chestnut Streets, built 
in 1820 by an Englishman of eccentric tastes, lighted by 
Gothic windows, and adorned with parapetted roof in days 
of yore, from the dark shades of its coloring dubbed by 
neighbors " The Black Castle." For nearly fifty years it was 

160 A Walk to Darby. 

the residence of Mr. Keen, before referred to, who added to 
the garden an acre of ground, and planted it with flowers and 
fruit trees of domestic and foreign growth. But two wit- 
nesses of its earlier occupancy survive, one a noble English 
walnut tree now tending to decay, the other, still luxurious, 
a superb specimen of that kingly French pear, the St. Ger- 
main, imported for Mr. Keen by Colonel Carr, the successor 
of Bartram, and pronounced by connoisseurs to be the oldest 
and best of the variety in our land. At 34th and Locust 
Streets the imposing buildings of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania make their appearance. Its ample grounds, compared 
with its former contracted quarters, give room for the schools 
of art, of medicine, of law, and of mines, and also for the 
excellent hospital, so recently projected and well established. 
These grounds were the northern end of the Almshouse pro- 
perty, which now extends from the Darby Road to the Schuyl- 
kill, and southwardly to Woodlands Cemetery. 

Inclosed by a high stone wall, and stretching for a great 
distance along the road to Darby, its eastern front washed by 
the Schuylkill, is that famous place the Woodlands. The 
first purchase of property here by the Hamiltons was about 
the year 1734. Later members of the family made subsequent 
purchases, and a part probably came from an intermarriage 
with a Till. The celebrated Andrew Hamilton, "Planter," 
who came from the Province of Maryland, and who soon rose 
to great eminence in the profession of the law, was a man of 
varied powers, and of fine taste, too, as may be judged from 
the fact that he furnished the designs, and entirely carried out 
the construction of the venerable, and even yet imposing 
building, the State House, thus rivalling that other amateur 
architect, Dr. Kearsley, who designed Christ Church. At 
one time Hamilton visited 'New York to defend, as he did 
with success, John Peter Zenger, in the libel case, so well 
known to every lawyer. He had offered to go "without 
fee or reward, under the weight of many years and great in- 
firmities of body," to be the advocate of the great cause of 
civil liberty. Conceiving the same line of argument that 
Erskine adopted half a century afterwards, it can well be 

A Walk to Darby. 161 

understood how his successful conduct of this case at once 
obtained for him a celebrity that has never been lost, and 
earned for him such admiration on the part of the people of 
New York, that their public authorities voted him the free- 
dom of the town in a gold box, still prized by his descendants. 
A graceful memoir of him was written by the late J. Francis 
Fisher. His portrait, a fine copy by Wertmuller, is among the 
treasures of the gallery of our Historical Society. James 
Hamilton, a son, was twice Governor of this Province under 
the Penns. A portrait of him, after West, in a rich court dress, 
also adorns our Hall. Another son, Andrew the second, who 
married Miss Till, was the father of William Hamilton of the 
Woodlands, which estate in the time of the latter included 
the Almshouse property, and extended far to the west of the 
Darby Road. The full extent reached to six hundred acres, all 
of which was to the south of Market Street, except that the 
northeastern corner, when near the river, bordered on Mar- 
shall's Road, which was seventy feet north of Market Street. 
The whole tract was north of the present line of Maylands- 
ville. The country seat proper comprised the present Wood- 
lands, extending no further down the river than to the present 
boundary, for Gray's property then included the land lying 
between Gray's Ferry Road and the cemetery. The fine 
mansion house, erected about the time of the Revolution, to 
replace the first one, yet stands, and is looked upon with inte- 
rest by all who pass the place. 

The Woodlands was one of the most noted seats in the Pro- 
vince. The entrance to it was by a gateway flanked by 
imposing lodges. Its ample grounds and beautiful gardens, 
abounding in rare and foreign trees, and luscious fruits and 
exquisite flowers, attracted the attention of the cultivated of 
all the Colonies and States, and never did such come to Phila- 
delphia without a visit to it. A little prior to the Revolu- 
tionary War the property fell by inheritance to William 
Hamilton. This gentleman's brother Andrew, the third of 
the name, had some years previously married Miss Abigail 
Franks, a sister of the celebrated Miss Rebecca Franks, who 
once encountered General Charles Lee in a contest of wit, for 

162 A Walk to Darby. 

which she was not less distinguished than for her heauty. 
She married Lt.-Col. Henry Johnson, the British officer who 
was surprised by Wayne at Stony Point. She accompanied 
him on his return to England, where in time he inherited his 
father's estate and baronetcy, becoming also a General, and 
where they both lived until near 1830. General W infield 
Scott, in his autobiography, gives an account of his visit to 
this lady. In the year 1781 it happened that Miss Eebecca 
Franks was in New York, and at Flat Bush, whence she 
wrote to her sister at the Woodlands a letter that never 
reached its destination, for it was intercepted, and fell into 
the hands of the American Commissary of Prisoners, Col. 
Thomas Bradford. The papers of this gentleman ultimately 
came into the possession of our Society, and were, for the 
first time, examined about the year 1855, when at last did 
this, the most sprightly and graphic letter of the era of the 
Revolution, see the light. In it she speaks of Mr. Hamilton's 
Thursday Parties at the Woodlands, and gives a striking 
picture of New York society. 

During the years of Revolutionary trouble, William Hamil- 
ton led the agreeable life of a country gentleman at his hos- 
pitable mansion. He had served for a while in the army at 
the beginning of the war, opposing the unconstitutional acts 
of the Ministry, but when separation from the mother country 
was aimed at, he shrank from a step to which neither inclina- 
tion nor ambition impelled him. He did not, however, escape 
the suspicion that his heart inclined to a government of which 
he had nothing to complain; or perhaps there were patriots 
who believed they could grace as well as he did so fine a pro- 
perty; and so, under the charge that he had held intercourse 
with officers of the invading army, he was tried on a charge 
of treason, but was acquitted. After the close of the war he 
made the tour of Europe, and he did so with the advantages 
of an easy manner, a good taste well cultivated, and a thor- 
ough knowledge of society. When in England , his full-length 
portrait on a canvas, containing also that of his niece, Miss 
Ann Hamilton, was executed by Benjamin West, and is one 
of the best of the productions of that artist. It attracts the 

A Walk to Darby. 163 

attention of all who visit the Hall of the Historical Society. 
The place Mr. Hamilton loved was not forgotten by him, for 
abroad he gathered for and sent to it rare plants and flowers. 
The Lombardy Poplar was one of the trees that he obtained, 
but it was only the male, that tall tapering tree that for so 
many years was so great a favorite in all the surrounding 
country. It seemed like a freak of poetic justice to bring it 
here, that it might sympathize with that other unfortunate, 
the Weeping Willow, of which, strangely enough, we have 
in this country only the female. Two noble specimens of the 
female Ginko, or Salisburia, a tree from Japan, undoubtedly 
the first introduced here, are to be seen, and also numerous 
specimens of the Magnolia, for which the place was especially 
noted. About twenty years ago there was another Ginko, 
but on the very night of the arrival in this city of the first 
Japanese Embassy, it was struck by lightning. 

Near the city in which is situated the Society entrusted with 
Michaux's bequest, intended for fostering his favorite. pursuit, 
and where his Sylva of North America has twice been pub- 
lished, and where, too, the valuable continuation by Nuttall, 
who long lived here, made its appearance, it was but natural 
there should have been an unusual fondness for arboriculture ; 
and no doubt these scientific men were drawn hither by the 
fame that justly crowned the earnest labors of Bartram and 
Marshall, with both of whom Mr. Hamilton had frequent in- 
tercourse. Michaux, for a time, was in his service. A natu- 
ral style of landscape gardening, that had then so recently 
been the product of a healthy English taste, found an apt 
pupil in Mr. Hamilton. The Woodlands, therefore, soon be- 
came noted as the best example of it that this country pos- 
sessed, and it may almost be claimed that it had no superior 
in England. The lesson of the labor has not been lost, for 
when but a youth the late J. Francis Fisher was a frequent 
and cherished visitor at the Woodlands, and was so deeply 
impressed by the charming scenes presented there, that he 
became a devoted student of such effects. In his after years 
on the beautiful grounds of Alvethorpe, he consummated a col- 
lection of trees, displayed with a taste and judgment that can 

184 A Walk to Darby. 

nowhere be excelled. Others, too, have been lured to the same 
pursuit. Mr. Eli K. Price has brought about the Michaux 
Grove of Oaks, in the Park, to the northwest of Horticultural 
Hall, and on every Saturday in the season, Mr. Joseph T. 
Rothrock, Professor of Botany in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, delivers a public lecture there. In connection with Mr. 
Fisher it ought also to be mentioned that his tastes led him, boy 
as he was, to appreciate in some degree the great value of the 
manuscripts stored at the Woodlands, but his modesty led 
him to shrink from accepting a gift of all of them. Those 
he did accept are of inestimable value in our early history, as 
may be judged from one that occupies a conspicuous place in 
our Hall the original of the Instructions of Penn to his 
Commissioners for Settling the Colony in 1681. 

The trees that adorned the Woodlands were not only fine 
specimens, but they were arranged with rare and skilful art 
as to the effects to be produced. "Walks unexpectedly ended 
where, as one stood, the vision beyond was through a square 
or oval opening of leaves, that seemed a picture frame, so 
nicely were the boughs trimmed with the view to secure the 
charming vistas afforded by the beautiful Schuylkill. It was 
not alone in trees, however, that the place excelled. Professor 
Benjamin Smith Barton, of the University, by the courteous 
permission of the owner, would, after the winter lectures 
were ended, take his class there, as was long remembered by 
the late Dr. Samuel Jackson, who seventy years ago listened 
to his lectures on botany, illustrated by the exotics and other 
plants in the well-filled green-houses. 

With the lapse of years all of the name of Hamilton passed 
away. The family, however, was represented among us 
through the female line by the late Mrs. Hartman Kuhn and 
Mrs. Henry Becket. It is yet remembered that the number 
of books at the Woodlands was large and of unusual excel- 
lence, while the numerous paintings were of remarkable 
beauty and of considerable value ; Benjamin West aided in 
their selection. The fine furniture of the drawing rooms 
once adorned those of the unfortunate Marie Antoinette. 
Mirrors with frames of cut glass are not forgotten, nor still 

A Walk to Darby. 165 

other mirrors set in the doors of communicating rooms. The 
establishment was quite a full one; the grand coach had its 
four horses, and Riley, the English coachman, is yet held to 
have been, by those who have seen him, the grandest whip of 
his day. The requirements of the coach of state were not ? 
however, at the expense of horses designed for other uses, for 
"the stables were always filled. Nor was the train of servants 
more restricted in its numbers. Every household duty was 
well performed, yet there was no lack of a nice care that de- 
pendants should have every privilege consistent with their 
position, and the success in life of Pursh the florist, and of 
McArran, who were gardeners there, no less than that of the 
humble, but most worthy colored man, the late Stephen Pur- 
nell, present a striking evidence that perhaps the best possible 
education to be had is that acquired in the service of a com- 
petent master. 

In 1804, Mr. Hamilton laid out on a goodly part of his 
estate the beautiful suburb of our city still called by residents 
of "West Philadelphia Hamiltonville. In pursuance of Penn's 
design he disposed the streets at right angles to each other, 
and gave them names drawn from those of his family. Walnut 
Street continued he styled Andrew, Chestnut James, and the 
cross streets he called "William, Mary, Margaretta, and Till. 
In a few years several houses were erected by French emi- 
grants, who had come to our country to escape the perils of 
revolution which so sorely distracted their native land; and 
these were followed, presently, by citizens of Philadelphia 
desirous of the enjoyments of country homes. By provision 
of Mr. Hamilton ground was assigned for educational uses 
on the south side of Chestnut Street between Thirty-ninth 
and Fortieth, where a school-house was constructed when the 
need of it was felt, a building which served also as a village 
hall and a place of worship for divers sects. A similar lot, 
just back of this, on the north side of Walnut Street, was 
granted to Presbyterians, and a church edifice was erected by 
them at that spot. In 1824, through the zeal of three staunch 
churchmen, Messrs. Joseph S. Keen, Chandler Price, and 
Christian Wiltberger, all West Philadelphians, was built the 

166 A Walk to Darby. 

Protestant Episcopal church on Locust Street, named St. 
Mary's in conformity with Mr. Hamilton's request. Since 
then other churches and other schools, other homes and other 
halls have arisen where fifty years ago were field and forest, 
and to-day a very city of inhabitants reside on the estate of 
Hamilton. In the contemplation of such changes, wrought 
within remembrance, even of the comparatively youthful, 
let us pause in our endeavor to revive thoughts of the past. 
Let us once more enter the gates of Woodland, and avoiding 
the sad emblems which replace the tokens of gay life of former 
occupants, repose ourselves upon the sward overlooking the 
Schuylkill, awaiting the sunset, and planning a brisk renewal 
of our walk to Darby another day, 

Sullivan's Expedition to Statm Island in 1777. 167 

IN 1777. 


After the close of the Revolutionary War, Capt. Andrew 
Lee, from whose diary the following extract is taken, settled 
at Nanticoke, in the Wyoming Valley, six miles below Wilkes- 
Barre', Pennsylvania, where he died. In a letter from Lan- 
caster, dated February 5, 1807, Judge John Joseph Henry 
thus wrote to Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War, regarding 
Captain Lee: 

Washington Lee, esq., the gentleman who makes the ap- 
plication, is the eldest son of Capt. Andrew Lee, who, accord- 
ing to my best remembrance, served in Hazen's regiment from 
its origin in the previous part of the war on the northern 
frontier. Our knowledge of each other happened in 1779. 
My military friends uniformly spoke of him (then, as now, I 
was disabled from service, and cannot, therefore, speak from 
my own knowledge) as an active and valiant officer. He was 
particularly useful, it was said, as a partisan in that species 
of warfare which you know at that time and in that quarter 
was necessary and peculiarly hazardous. Capt. A. Lee pos- 
sessed a handsome estate in Pennsylvania. There was another 
Capt. Lee (I think William) of Hazen's regiment, a cousin of 
A. Lee, a native of Vermont or New York State, who did 
good service to our cause in instances which required shrewd 
address, and undaunted courage to execute. Men in a sub- 
altern station, such as these gentlemen held, are not histori- 
cally blazoned. Their merits live only in the memories of 
their compatriots. This family of the Lees, which is numer- 
ous and very extended, had their principal seats on the heads 
of the Susquehanna within Pennsylvania, and the Mohawk 
in New York State. A third Capt. Lee of this family known 

168 Sullivan's Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. 

to me at an early age, who in the course of the war, as sub- 
sequently informed, evinced much patriotic resolution, resided 
on the west branch of the Susquehanna some miles above 
Sunbury, the county town of Northumberland. He was 
named John, and was the uncle of Andrew. His dwelling 
was not very distant from a place formerly known as " Free- 
land's mills." The infamous and bloody incursion of Butler 
and Brandt at the head of a banditti, composed principally 
of Tories and Indians, in 1778, had not only wasted, but de- 
populated the charming district of "Wyoming, the exterior 
settlement of the whites, but its effects extended down to 
Freeland's. Even the inhabitants of Sunbury, which was 
populous, panic struck, if they had the means, deserted their 
homes for the security of the interior. John Lee stood firm. 
Freeland's, known since as Freeland, fort was tolerably well 
stockaded. Here the dwellers of the vicinity, from various 
causes unable to fly, sought refuge. In the best of my recol- 
lection Freeland's fort was attacked and taken in the winter 
of 1779-80 by a horde of some hundreds of such as formed 
the mass which invaded Wyoming in the preceding year. 
On this occasion, however, it is said the party was commanded 
by a gentleman of humane feelings, clothed in British uni- 
form, who did all that could be done with such troops to 
restrain their savage brutality, but in vain. There was some- 
thing like an armistice and accord of protection. A despicable 
and indiscriminate plunder ensued, which was succeeded by 
a massacre of the aged and young men, women and children, 
as base and dastardly as that of "Wyoming, though of less 
import as to numbers. Thence these savages proceeded to the 
house of Capt. John Lee. His money chest, which was not 
empty, was the primary object. The enemy, guided, it is 

likely, by the instructions of the or tory neighbors, on 

entering made directly for the apartment (through the midst 
of the family) where the chest lay without injury to any one. 
Marauding followed. Capt. John Lee, as the story goes, re- 
turning from his labor in the woods or fields, unawares was 
shot down near the house. Two of his sons, beardless boys, 
were slaughtered at the threshold. His wife, an amiable 

Sullivan's Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. 169 

woman, with a suckling in her arms, and four other children 
were led away captives. Two miles from the house the babe's 
brains were dashed against a tree, the tears and wailings of 
Mrs. Lee for her infant, in that or the next day, caused a 
silence to her grief the application of the barbarous hatchet. 
The survivors of this miserable and forlorn family (two girls 
and two boys, none of them above twelve years old), were 
held in Indian bondage till 1784-85. The two latter, Robert 
and Thomas, I have been informed have of late years been 
honored by the general government with military command. 
The particulars of this story, which are numerous, very pa- 
thetic, and interesting, derived to me from Rebecca, one of the 
children. My father, when a delegate to Congress, in 1784-5 
(I cannot recollect date exactly), coming homeward from New 
York to Lancaster, found the returning captive desolate, un- 
friended, and moneyless. He brought her to his own house, 
and the kindness of my blessed mother in a few months re- 
stored her to society, and her relations. I am fearful this 
hint may convey to you an idea disadvantageous to the father 
of my young friend. It should not, though in those hard 
times the charges of travelling were exorbitant, and money 
Hot easily obtained, that benevolent and kind-hearted man, 
Capt. A. Lee, made three journeys into the country of the 
Senecas, &c., in search of his uncle's children. The first jour- 
ney produced the recovery of Rebecca (my informant), whom 
he brought to Albany, clothed her, and furnished her with 
money, perhaps from the paucity of his own funds, too scantily 
to travel to the Susquehanna. He retrode his way from Al- 
bany, and by a considerable ransom redeemed another of the 
children. A third voyage throughout the extent of the 
Mohawk River, Oneida, Ontario, and Erie Lakes, in pursuit 
of the wandering owner of the captives, at a great charge, 
obtained a third of these orphans. Thomas,, the youngest and 
last, came in a few years later. 

Extract from Diary of Captain Andrew Lee. 
On the 21st of August, 1777, Gen. Sullivan at the head of 
a detachment of about 1000 men of his division marched 
VOL. in. 12 

170 Sullivan's Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. 

from his encampment near Morristown at 2 o'clock p. m.,and 

crossed the river over to Staten Island, by sunrise on 

the 22d inst. at Decker's ferry, and dividing his corps into two 
brigades, one under the command of Brig.-Gen. Smallwood, 
the other commanded by Brig.-Gen. De Borre headed by him- 
self, that detachment under Smallwood he ordered to suppress 
and take Gen. Skinner in his quarters on the upper end of the 
island, but the guide deceiving them they did not succeed in 
their main design. Nevertheless, they took several prisoners, 
and some valuable stores, and it is said his military chest. 
That part of the army commanded by De Borre, after marching 
two miles up into the island, filed off to the right, and pro- 
ceeded down to the New Blazing Star [ferry], where they sur- 
prised and took Col. Bartin, with some other prisoners of the 
new corps, who made no stand after discharging their pieces, 
but took to their heels and ran into the marshes, where many 
of them concealed themselves. Whilst this business was per- 
forming, Gen. Smallwood bent his course downwards, and 
passing De Borre took to the forks of the road, and passed him 
in the rear, and proceeded down through Richmond to the Old 
Blazing Star [ferry] in order to repass the river, leaving many 
of his men behind, who were incapable by fatigue to keep up, 
many of whom afterwards fell into the hands of the enemy. 
Maj. Powell, who was in the rear, Capt. Herrin, Lieut. Camp- 
bell, Lieut. Anderson, Ensign Hall, and Mr. Hall, a sergeant 
major, being in a house, were surprised by the enemy and 
made prisoners, except Powell, who was slain. Lieut. Camp- 
bell wounded and lost his arm. Gen. Sullivan, having given 
the necessary orders respecting the removal of the boats from 
Decker's ferry down to the Old Blazing Star, resolved imme- 
diately to follow the first division of his army to that place, 
and embark the troops on board of the boats which he ex- 
pected to meet him in consequence of his orders to that effect. 
But some accident happening the boats they did not arrive, 
and he was obliged to wait the tedious opportunity of three 
boats which lay at the ferry for the crossing of both divisions. 
This delay he justly apprehended would be attended with ill 
consequences, as he had received information of the enemy 

Sullivan s Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. 171 

being in motion, and would undoubtedly harass his rear. 
He, therefore, ordered a picket of 100 men taken from the 
rear, commanded by Maj. Tillard, and Capt. Carlisle and my- 
self to secure the boats and cover the embarkation of the 
troops. About 5 o'clock p. m. the troops being nearly all 
over except our picket, a wagon was ordered back to take any 
of the men that might be still on the road, with directions to 
proceed as far back as Richmond. But before he had gone 
half a mile he espied the van of the English army in full 
march. I immediately returned and informed Captain Car- 
lisle, upon which he formed the picket as quick as possible to 
form troops as much fatigued as they were, they having 
marched 30 miles without any refreshment. In the mean 
time Maj. Tillard went forward in order to view the number 
of the enemy, and finding them to exceed ours ran to the 
place of embarkation, in order to stop the boats which were 
just then leaving the shore. Col. Smith, who was in one of 
them, did not think proper to reland, upon which Maj. Tillard 
applied to Maj. Stewart to know if he would support the 
picket with what force of his remained on shore. But not re- 
ceiving any answer from him he returned to the picket which 
he [had ?] represented to Maj. Stewart must unavoidably be 
cut off by superior numbers, without his assistance. On his 
arrival he found the picket disposed in a manner he did not 
think proper to alter. The enemy immediately heaving in 
sight the firing began, but the ground not favoring our small 
party, we were compelled to retreat in disorder, as the enemy 
had outstretched us on the right, and must have surrounded 
us had we kept our position. On our right we fell in with 
Maj. Stewart, who had, without giving Maj. Tillard notice, 
formed his party in our rear, upon which Maj. Tillard en- 
deavoring to collect our men again, many of which had made 
their escape, but the firing now began from Stewart's party, 
who also retreating before superior numbers precipitately fell 
in with the remainder of the picket, which was collected and 
forming on an eminence having a small valley in our front. 
Here Maj. Stewart having formed his men on our right made 
a line of about 200 yards, with a three-rail fence before us. 

172 Sullivan's Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. 

The fire now began general from left to right, at the distance 
of about 90 yards, for the space of half an hour, in the course 
of which time the enemy were more than once broke. They 
endeavored continually to force our front, but finding it im- 
possible, they extended their lines beyond our right, and 
doubling in at the same time pressing on in front with two 
pieces of artillery forced us from our fence, and finding it 
impossible to hold out against five times our numbers with 
the advantage of artillery, it was thought advisable to sur- 
render. Our loss in killed was incredible, not exceeding five 
men. That of the enemy uncertain to me, but was informed 
by one of their officers that they had killed and wounded 
about 20, among whom Lieut.-Col. Durgan and Maj. Barren 
were slain. The enemy acknowledged we made a brave de- 
fence, and were surprised at the smallness of our party when 
they saw us come in. Our number taken in action, and on the 
road that had not come up through fatigue was about 260, of 
whom 22 were officers. Our usage was rather cruel than other- 
wise from this to the 28th inst., having never eaten but four 
times in seven days, and lodging two nights in the open field, 
without blankets or the least kind of shelter from the weather. 
On Saturday the 23d, we were delivered to thellanspac [An- 
spach?] guard, the officers of whom behaved with the utmost 
politeness to us, and showed a tenderness which the British 
seemed strangers to. On Sunday we were put on board a 
ship and transported to New York, where we were landed the 
next morning, and conducted to the city hall through a mul- 
titude of insulting spectators. "We remained in this place 
until the 28th inst., when we removed to Frankfort Street on 
parol, with the liberty of said street being 200 yards in length. 
Here we continued upon two-thirds allowance until the 4th 
Nov., when we were removed to Long Island to flatlands, upon 
condition that we would pay our board. Nothing material 
happened until the 27th Nov., when the appearance of part 
of the American Army on Staten Island caused such fears in 
the General commanding New York as to determine him for 
our better safety to remove us on board a ship. Accordingly 
two transports being ready, we were the next day put on 

Sullivan's Expedition to Staten Island in 1777. 173 

board under guard, being in numbers about 255. Here we 
expected a greater hardship than we had yet undergone, hav- 
ing a scant allowance of provisions, and badly cooked as rea- 
sonably may be supposed for the want of materials to do it 
with, there being but one fire and one kettle to a ship, which 
being fixed on the deck, rendered it very difficult to cook at 
all. On Wednesday, which happened very often at this 
season of the year, on account of bannard days, 1 as they term 
it, we drew musty oaten meal. When we could spare time 
from the cittel, we used to pass the evenings in walking the 
deck, and playing a game at whist, and sometimes with danc- 
ing on the quarter deck, as some of the gentlemen were per- 
formers on the violin. Our evenings were generally ended 
in singing, which always began upon blowing out the light, 
immediately after turning into our berths. Our situation 
here was truly pitiable on many accounts, but more especially 
of provisions, which being altogether salt, without any kind 
of vegetables, must infallibly have brought on sickness and 
disorder had we stayed long on board. But the General's 
fears in regard to the prisoners having subsided, on the twelfth 
day of our confinement he issued orders that we should return 
to Long Island, and accordingly on the 10th Dec. we relanded 
at Brooklyn. During our confinement, Cols. Rollins, Living- 
ston, and Maj. Stewart 2 found means to elude the vigilance 
of the guard, and make their escape in a boat from alongside 
the ship Martel. 

1 Banyan days; those on which no meat is issued to sailors. Grose's 
Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. 

8 Major Jack Stewart, of Maryland ; an account of his escape will be found 
in Graydon's Memoirs, page 314, Phila. 1846. 

174 Eliphakt Dyer. 



(Centennial Collection.) 

Eliphalet Dyer, first-named of the three delegates sent by 
Connecticut to the Congress of 1774, was born in Windham, 
Sept. 14, 1721 (0. 8.). His father, Thomas Dyer, a native of 
Weymouth, Mass., settled at Windham about 1715, married 
Lydia, daughter of John Backus, gathered a good estate, was 
a deputy to the General Assembly in several sessions, and 
major of a Windham County regiment. His only son, Eli- 
phalet, was sent to Yale College, graduated in 1740, studied 
law, and began practice in his native town. In 1745 (May 
9th), he married Miss Huldah Bowen, one of the daughters 
of Col. Jabez Bowen, of Providence, R. I. 

He was chosen deputy to the General Assembly in May, 
1747, and again in 1752; but his real entry to public life was 
through his connection with the project of establishing a 
Connecticut Colony in the valley of the Susquehanna. Mr. 
Dyer was an active and influential promoter of this enterprise, 
an original member of the Susquehanna Company formed in 
1753, one of the committee to purchase the Indian title to 
the lands selected for the proposed colony, at Wyoming, and 
one of the Company's agents to petition the General Assembly, 
in 1755, for permission to settle on these lands, which were 
then believed to be within the chartered limits of Connecti- 
cut. The operations of the Susquehanna Company were 
interrupted by the war with France. In August, 1755, 
Mr. Dyer was appointed lieutenant-colonel of one of the 
regiments sent by Connecticut to assist in the reduction of 
Crown Point, and in 1758 he was made colonel of a regiment 
in the expedition against Canada. In 1759 and 1760, he was 
a member of the General Assembly, and in 1762 was elected 
an Assistant (or member of the Upper House), and was con- 
tinued in that office, by annual re-election, until 1784. 

Eliphakt Dyer. 175 

In 1763, Colonel Dyer went to England as the agent of the 
Susquehanna Company, to solicit from the Crown a confirma- 
tion of their title to the tract purchased of the Indians at 
Wyoming, and permission to settle a colony there. The ap- 
plication was resisted by Pennsylvania, and was still pending 
when war broke out between Great Britain and her American 

In September, 1765, he was appointed one (the first named) 
of the delegates from Connecticut to the "Stamp Act Con- 
gress" at New York "the first great step towards Inde- 
pendence." A few days after the dissolution of this Congress, 
Col. Dyer was present at a meeting of the Connecticut Council 
in Hartford, called by Governor Fitch, Nov. 1st, to administer 
to him the oath required of all colonial governors, to enforce 
the Stamp Act. After a long debate, Jonathan Trumbull, 
refusing to witness a ceremony which he regarded as a sur- 
render of the liberty of the Colonies, withdrew from the 
Council chamber. Colonel Dyer accompanied or promptly 
followed him, and with them went a majority all but four 
of the Board of Assistants. "I immediately arose, took my 
hat, and declared openly and publicly," wrote Col. Dyer to a 
friend, "that the oath about to be administered was in my 
opinion directly contrary to the oath the Governor and Coun- 
cil had before taken to maintain the rights and privileges of the 
people. It was an oath I myself could not take, neither could 
I be present aiding and assisting therein." At the next elec- 
tion, in May, 1766, the votes of the freemen manifested their 
approval of the course taken by the withdrawers. Governor 
Fitch and the four Assistants who remained to administer 
the Stamp- Act oath were left out of office. 

Through the ten years' struggle against the exactions of 
Great Britain, to the actual outbreak of revolution, Colonel 
Dyer never wavered in his devotion to the popular cause. 
AVhen the Connecticut Committee of Correspondence met at 
New London, July 13, 1774, authorized by the General As- 
sembly to appoint delegates to the Congress at Philadelphia, 
their first choice fell upon Colonel Dyer, and he unhesita- 
tingly accepted the appointment. He was present at the 

176 Eliphalct Dyer. 

opening of the Congress, Sept. 5th, and was a member of the 
Committee on the Rights of the Colonies, appointed on the 
7th of September. He was re-elected to the Congress of 1775, 
and to each succeeding Congress till 1783, except those of 
1776 and 1779. 

In the spring of 1775, he was named one of the " Council 
of Safety," to assist the Governor in the management of all 
public affairs, when the General Assembly was not in session ; 
and the Journals of this body show that he was continually 
employed in arduous duties, and in the discharge of impor- 
tant trusts. He had been appointed a judge of the superior 
court in 1766, and retained his seat on the bench until 1793, 
becoming Chief Judge in 1789. In 1787, Yale College con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

He appeared as one of the agents for Connecticut, before 
the Court of Commissioners appointed by Congress to finally 
determine the controversy with Pennsylvania respecting the 
Susquehanna lands, at the hearing in Trenton, in November, 

After his resignation of the office of Chief Judge, he re- 
tired from public life. He died at Windham, May 13, 1807, 
aetatis 86. 

Connecticut had no delegate in the Colonial Congress who 
surpassed Col. Dyer in zeal and devotion, in early compre- 
hension of the magnitude of the issue involved in the con- 
troversy between Great Britain and her Colonies, or in un- 
flinching determination to accept the issue, at all hazards, 
sooner than to submit to any infringement of the political 
rights of freemen. His judgment was sound and discrimi- 
nating, and his integrity was so far beyond question that he 
retained, through more than half a century of public life, the 
unbounded confidence of his fellow-citizens. Even John 
Adams chary as he was of praise commended Col. Dyer 
as u an honest, worthy man," one who u means and judges 
well" though, naturally, Mr. Adams thought he spoke in 
Congress "too frequently and too long." A few brief notes 
of one of his speeches, when the non-importation resolves 
were under discussion, in September, 1774, are preserved in 


Edmund Pendkton of Virginia. 177 

Adams's diary. They do not give the impression of a " long- 
winded and round-about speaker." " They have now drawn 
the sword," said Colonel Dyer, "in order to execute their plan 
of subduing America; and I imagine they will not sheath it, 
but that next summer will decide the fate of America . . 
. . We are struggling for the liberties of the West Indies 
and of the people of Great Britain, as well as our own and, 
perhaps, of Europe I" 



(Centennial Collection.) 

Edmund Pendleton was born in Caroline County, Virginia, 
in 1721. His father dying before the son's birth, left the 
family in comparative poverty, so that in his earlier years, 
the boy had little opportunity for schooling, or instruction of 
any kind. At the age of fourteen he was placed in the office 
of Benjamin Robinson, clerk of Caroline County, a most effi- 
cient training school for a youth looking forward to the pro- 
fession of the law. 

Young Pendleton made the best use of the opportunities 
thus afforded, applying himself diligently to the business in 
hand, and at the same time, by working outside of his regular 
clerical duties, obtained the means of purchasing books, which 
enabled him to supply, in a measure, his lack of general 

At the age of twenty-one he was duly licensed to practise 
law in the courts, and pursued his professional career with 
flattering success, and increasing reputation until these courts 
were closed by the coming storm of revolution in 1774. He 
had been elected to the House of Burgesses in 1752, and con- 
tinued to serve in that body until it also became extinct. 

Pendletori's views on the great question which then agi- 

178 Edmund Pendleton of Virginia. 

tated men's minds have come down to us in Iris own hand- 

" When the dispute with Great Britain began, a redress of 
grievances, and not a Revolution of Government, was my 

The moderation of his views, and the unequalled ability 
with which he defended them against such assailants as Lee, 
Jefferson, and Henry, drew around him those of all shades of 
opinion opposed to the Revolution, and while uninfluenced 
by their peculiar personal interests, and entirely superior to 
the prejudices of their caste, he soon became the recognized 
leader of the cavalier, or conservative party of that period. 

Although the conflict of opinion between men of com- 
manding abilities and strong convictions was necessarily sharp, 
earnest, and exciting, yet the greatness of the occasion, with 
the sincere and lofty patriotism common to all the leading 
contestants, prevented these disputes from ever degenerating 
into personal rancor or unfriendliness. With all the leaders 
of the Revolutionary party Pendleton ever lived in mutual 
respect and lifelong friendship, while Jefferson, in his memoirs 
(vol. i. p. 30), says of him, "taken all in all, he was the ablest 
man in debate I ever met with." 

But when the momentous question was at length decided, 
and the time for discussion past, pride of opinion readily 
yielded to a sense of patriotic duty, and his recent opponents 
in debate paid the highest tribute to his great character by 
calling him to fill the most arduous and responsible positions 
in the Revolutionary Government. Thereafter we find him 
sustaining the cause (now that of his people and his country) 
with a devotion surpassed by none of those who had from the 
beginning been most zealous for separation from the Mother 

By resolution of the Virginia Convention he was made 
Chairman of the Committee of Safety, virtually the legisla- 
tive, judicial, and executive head of the Colony, in the crisis 
of its stormy transition irom dependent vassalage to untried 
freedom. He was elected to the General Congress in 1774, 
and again in 1775, but was prevented by indisposition from 


Henry Middleton. 179 

attending the latter session. He was President of the Con- 
vention of December, 1775, and also that of May, 1776, and 
author of the resolutions which instructed its Representatives 
in Congress to declare for "Independence." 

He was the intimate friend of Washington, who tendered 
him high judicial and political position in the Federal Govern- 
ment, all of which he modestly but firmly declined. He was 
President of the Virginia Convention of 1788, which met to 
deliberate on the new Federal Constitution, and ably advo- 
cau-d its adoption. He was for a quarter of a century the 
Presiding Judge of the Virginia Court of Appeals, and died 
in that office on the 28th of October, 1803, in the eighty- 
third year of his age. 

In person, Edmund Pendleton was eminently handsome, 
graceful, and prepossessing, with manners so fascinating as to 
win all who came within their influence, and these natural 
advantages doubtless served to enhance the value of his hisrh 
mental and moral qualities. He was twice married, but died 
childless, leaving his good works and spotless name to the 
gratitude and admiration of posterity. 




(Centennial Collection.) 

Henry Middleton, of South Carolina, was one of three 
sons of Arthur Middleton, who, in 1719, headed the revolu- 
tion against the Lords Proprietors. The eldest son, William, 
went to England to take possession of the family estate of 
" Crowfi eld," in Suffolk, and his descendant, Sir George Broke 
Middleton, admiral in the royal navy, has now in his posses- 
sion at Shrubland Park, Suffolk, a portrait of Henry Mid- 
dleton, the subject of this sketch. Thomas Middleton, the 

180 Henry Middleton. 

youngest son, commanded the provincial forces sent against 
the Indians, in conjunction with the royal troops under 
Colonel Grant. His daughter and heiress married Major 
Pierce Butler of the British army, who left descendants well 
known and distinguished in Philadelphia. 

Henry Middleton ^was born in 1717, and, according to the 
custom of South Carolina families of distinction, was edu- 
cated in England. On his return, and w^hile still a very young 
man, he entered actively into public life, receiving the ap- 
pointment of Justice of the Peace at the age of twenty-two 
years. In 1748 he was elected to the Commons House of 
Assembly for St. George's, Dorchester; in 1754 he was Speaker 
of the Lower House; in 1756 he found himself appointed a 
member of His Majesty's Council for the Province of South 
Carolina ; and, in 1770, he declined to continue longer of the 
Council. In July, 1774, he was elected a delegate to the 
General Congress of the Provinces, the first Continental 
Congress, which met in Philadelphia in September. Peyton 
Randolph, of Virginia, was unanimously chosen President, 
but upon the 22d of October, being unable to attend to the 
duties of the office, Henry Middleton was chosen his succes- 
sor, and as President, signed the "Petition of Grievances." 
In January, 1775, he was a member of the Provincial Con- 
gress of South Carolina, and, nine days later, was elected a 
delegate to the second Continental Congress. In September, 
1775, he was elected to the South Carolina Congress, and, 
in February, 1776, was President of the Provincial Con- 
gress of South Carolina. The last public office he held, at 
the ag;e of sixty, was that of member of the South Carolina 

O / 7 

Council of Safety. 

During the long period of his public career, he was regarded 
on all sides as a man of singular probity and sound judgment, 
ever to be relied upon in times of trouble, and firmly attached 
to his country, in whose behalf he readily hazarded his life 
and fortune. As an instance of the confidence in his integ- 
rity, it may be mentioned that he was the first man in the 
Colony to issue paper promises to pay, which were generally 
accepted as currency. 

Henry Middkton. 181 

Henry Middleton occupied himself, during his intervals of 
leisure, in laying out, with the aid of a Dutch gardener whom 
he had brought from Holland for that purpose, the walks and 
terraces of "Middleton Place" on the Ashley River, in the 
neighborhood of Charleston. The first camellias introduced 
into America were planted here. It was here, also, that he 
began the education of his son Arthur, the future signer of 
the Declaration of Independence ; he sent to England for a 
tutor, and young John Rutledge, afterwards called " the Dic- 
tator," came over to Middleton Place to share the lessons with 
Arthur. John Rutledge 's brother Edward, six years his 
junior, affixed his signature to the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, in 1776, by the side of the name of Arthur Middleton. 

Henry Middletor* was married three times. His last wife 
was Lady Mary, widow of John Anislie,.and daughter of the 
Earl of Cromartie. Concerning this marriage the following 
story has been handed down: Lady Mary at first refused Mr. 
Middleton, but yielded finally to the intercession of his chil- 
dren, who are said to have gone to her in a body, and urged 
her to reconsider her decision, because they felt sure he would 
marry somebody, and they thought she would be a safe step- 
mother. Lady Mary Middleton survived her husband four 
years ; there is a tablet to her memory in the old Scotch 
Church in Charleston. 

The last years of Henry Middleton's life were full of phy- 
sical suffering. Hence it was that Dr. Duche*, in his letter 
conjuring Washington to abandon the contest with Great 
Britain, says, among other things, "the elder Middleton has 
retired from the contest." One of those fearful maladies that 
strike at the springs of life, while the heart is still warm, and 
the brain clear, constrained Mr. Middleton to ask permission 
from Corn wall is to retire to his plantation. This was in 
1780, after the fall of Charleston. This has been the cause of a 
mistaken report that Henry Middleton took protection. The 
South Carolina patriot never took protection. General Charles 
Cotesworth Pinckney, the friend of Washington, emphatically 
assured the Honorable John I. Middleton, that his grandfather, 

182 Josiah Quincy, Senior. 

Henry Middleton, never took protection ; and the British were 
so far from considering him as protected from their attacks, 
that in 1782, an expedition, which was fitted out to make a 
raid through Prince Williams County, burned and pillaged 
much of his property, which was in various localities in the 
neighborhood. It was during this raid that the famous John 
Laurens met his death. 

Henry Middleton died on the 13th of June, 1784, aged 
sixty-seven years, at Middleton Place on the Ashley, and was 
buried in the family vault. 



(Centennial Collection.) 

Josiah Quincy, Senior, was born in Braintree, Massachu- 
setts Bay, 1709, in the house of his great-grandfather, Edmund 
Quincy, of England, yet standing on the estate purchased in 
1635 of the Sachem of Mos-Wechusett. He derived his 
Christian name from his maternal grandfather, the Rev. 
Josiah Flynt, of Dorchester, Massachusetts Bay (H. C. 1644). 
His father, Edmund Quincy (H. C. 1699), held the commission 
of a Judge of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts Bay for 
nineteen years, from 1718 until his appointment as agent for 
the Colony at the Court of Great Britain, 1737. 

Josiah Quincy graduated at Harvard College 1728, and in 
1733 married Hannah Sturgis, of Yarmouth, Massachusetts 
Bay. He removed from Braintree to Boston in 1735, and 
engaged in commerce and shipbuilding, and the firm of Ed- 
mund & Josiah Quincy, & Edward Jackson soon ranked high 
among the enterprising merchants of New England. In 
December, 1735, he accompanied his father, Judge Quincy, to 

Josiah Quincy, Senior. 183 

England. 1 In 1738 he travelled in Europe, and established 
correspondences in Paris and Cadiz, in Amsterdam with the 
Messrs. Hope, in England with Slingsby Bethel 2 (Lord Mayor 
1756). He revisited Europe in 1740 and 1742, and in 1748, 
in Paris, applied for a contract to supply the French Govern- 
ment at Louisburg when it should be restored to them. 
'Count Maurepas, who gave him an audience, favored his 
proposals. In London he solicited a contract to supply the 
English Government, for their intended settlement at Cape 

In 1748 the ship Bethel, named by Mr. Quincy's firm after 
their English partner, was sent on a voyage to the Mediter- 
ranean, taking for protection against Spanish privateers 14 
guns, and a letter o marque. Encountering in the Atlantic, 
at night-fall, a large ship under Spanish colors, her Captain, 
in self-defence, displayed lanterns in the rigging, made his 
ship appear full of men by disposing hats and cloaks on sticks, 
bore down on the Spaniard, and ordered him to surrender. 
The Captain of the Jesu Maria & Joseph, with 117 men and 
26 guns, mistaking the Bethel for an English sloop of war, 
struck his colors, and surrendered a register ship, with 161 
chests of silver, and two of gold registered, and a most valu- 
able cargo, to a vessel carrying 14 guns, and 37 men. The 
rage of the Spaniard and his crew, on discovering the strata- 
gem to which they were victims, was great but unavailing. 
The prize was duly condemned, and brought safely to Boston, 
and the proceeds, upwards of $300,000, were divided among 
the owners of the Bethel. Soon after this unexpected success 
Mr. Quincy dissolved this partnership, retired to Braintree, 

1 Judge Edmund Quincy died in London, February 23, 1738. A tribute 
to his virtues and public services, from the Legislature of Massachusetts 
Bay, thus closes: "He departed the delight of his own people, but of none 
more than the Senate, who, as a testimony of their love and gratitude, have 
ordered this Epitaph to be inscribed on the Monument, erected over his 
grave, in Bunhill Fields, London, at the expense of the Colony." The 
General Court of the Colony, also gave to his heirs one thousand acres of 
land in the town of Lenox, Massachusetts Bay. 

8 Ancestor of the late Lord Westbury, Lord Chancellor of England. 

184 Josiah Quincy, Senior. 

formed another firm, and established spermaceti works, and 
the first manufacture of glass ever set up in America. 

In February, 1755, Mr. Quincy was commissioned by Gov. 
Shirley 1 to solicit the Government of Pennsylvania to join 
their forces with those of Massachusetts Bay, in an expedition 
to erect a strong fortress, upon His Majesty's lands, near the 
French Fort at Crown Point. On arriving in Philadelphia, 
Mr. Quincy applied to his friend, Dr. Franklin, then a Mem. 
ber of the Pennsylvania Assembly, for aid, and by his advice 
and assistance presented a memorial to the Assembly, in the 
State House, Philadelphia, on the 31st of March, 1755, urging 
the importance of his mission. " After some debate, the 
Assembly voted to raise 10,000, on the credit of the Pro- 
vince, to answer the request of the Massachusetts Government, 
so earnestly enforced by Mr. Quincy, who, after a handsome 
acknowledgment in behalf of Massachusetts, returned to 
Boston, highly gratified by the success of his mission." 2 This 
transaction exerted an important influence over the affairs of 
the Colonies. By promoting mutual interest, respect, and 
confidence between Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Bay, a 
union was formed, which remained firm, through the conflicts 
of the Revolution, and finally ensured their Independence. 

Mrs. Hannah Sturgis Quincy died in August, 1755, leaving 
three sons, all eminent men and graduates of Harvard, and 
one daughter. Mr. Quincy subsequently married Elizabeth 
Waldron, daughter of the Rev. William Waldron, of Boston, 
who died in 1759, leaving one daughter. In 1761, Mr. Quincy 
married Ann Marsh, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Marsh, of 
Braintree ; an intimate friend of Mrs. Abigail Adams, and a 
woman of uncommon excellence and animation, and energy 
of character, who proved a most valvable companion during 
the remainder of his life. 

During his residence in Braintree, Mr. Quincy was chiefly 

1 This commission, with the autograph signature of Governor Shirley, 
dated February 22, 1755, in 1876 is in the possession of the author of this 

2 Sparks's Franklin, vol. i. pp. 181-2 ; vol. iii. pp. 235-238. 


Josiah Quincy, Senior. 185 

employed in civil and military affairs. Commissioned by 
Governor Bernard 1 in 1762 Colonel of the Suffolk Regiment, 
hisfriend, John Adams, often described his splendid appearance 
as an officer, the elegance of his dress and appointments, and 
his graceful and polished manners. 

In 1768, Mr. Quincy's eldest son, Edmund, died at sea, on 
his return from the West Indies. A graduate of Harvard in 
1752, a man of fine talents, a leading Whig, and a political 
writer, he would have been a powerful advocate for the liberty 
of the Colonies had his life been prolonged. Samuel Quincy 
(H. C. 1754), the second son of Colonel Quincy, became an emi- 
nent lawyer, and held the office of Solicitor-General under 
the crown. He left Boston with other loyalists, went to Eng- 
land, from thence to Antigua, was appointed attorney-general, 
and never returned to his native land. 

After the loss of two houses by fire, in Braintree, in 1770 
he erected, on an estate he inherited, bounding on Boston 
Harbor, a mansion where he resided the rest of his life. 
There he was visited by Franklin and Adams, and corre- 
sponded with them, and with Bowdoin. In 1775 he endured 
the loss of his youngest son, Josiah Quincy, Jr., whose patriotic 
eloquence and exertions caused his death at the age of 31 
years. Colonel Quincy bequeathed to his grandson, Josiah 
Quincy, the only surviving child of his youngest son, the 
estate of several hundred acres on which he resided, and his 
mansion house, justly regarding him as the future supporter 
of his name and his principles. In a letter to him at school, 
at the age of 10 years, he tells him that "it is indispensably 
requisite to the forming a distinguished character in public 
life, that Truth should be the invariable object of your pur- 
suit, and your end the public good." To these maxims his 
grandson adhered through forty years of public service, as 
Mayor of Boston, President of Harvard University, and 
many other offices. The estate he inherited became his sum- 
mer residence, and he died in the house, and the apartment 
of his grandfather, July 1, 1864, at the age of 93 years. 

1 This commission, signed by Governor Bernard, also remains (1876) in 
the possession of the writer. 

VOL. in. 13 

186 Christopher Gadsden. 

During the siege of Boston, Colonel Quincy gave notice to 
General Washington of the movements of the British fleet, 
which he watched from his window, commanding a view of 
the harbor down to Point Alderton. He had the happiness 
to record on one of its panes, "October 10, 1775, Governor 
Gage sailed for England with a fair wind." 

On the 20th of March, 1776, he wrote to congratulate 
Washington on the evacuation of Boston, and continued to 
correspond with him until 1780, and with Franklin till 1783. 
Several Essays designed for publication on " Taxation," " Pa- 
per Money," and other financial topics, written in 1780-1783, 
remain among his manuscripts. 

After a short illness Mr. Quincy died at the age of seventy- 
five years, at his residence in Braintree, March 3, 1784. Hav- 
ing lived through an important historical period, and wit- 
nessed the American Revolution, he survived to see the 
Independence of the Colonies firmly established, and left his 
descendants the free citizens of a Great Republic. 



(Centennial Collection.) 

Christopher Gadsden was born in Charleston in the year 
1724. He was the son of Thomas Gadsden, a lieutenant in 
the British Navy, and Collector of the Port of Charleston 
under the royal government. Like many of the sons of 
wealthy Carolinans, he was sent to England for his education. 
He returned home in his seventeenth year, and being destined 
to a commercial career, he was sent to Philadelphia, and 
placed in a counting room there. After a second visit to 
England, he engaged in mercantile business in Charleston, to 
which he afterwards added the occupation of a planter. Unit- 
ing energy and enterprise to a sound judgment, he was early 

Christopher Gadsden. 187 

successful, and was able from his own resources to purchase 
back an estate which his father had lost. He was one of the 
earliest and most uncompromising of South Carolinans in op- 
position to British oppression, and in resistance to the Stamp 
Act As the Revolution advanced, he became one of the 
most conspicuous leaders in the State, both in civil and mili- 
tary affairs. He warmly promoted the project of a General 
Congress before the popular branch of the legislature of South 
Carolina, and was chosen delegate to the Stamp Act Congress 
in .New York in 1765. His talents for public speaking were 
but moderate, but he soon acquired commanding influence in 
that body from his sound judgment, and his ardent and en- 
lightened zeal for liberty. When the British Government re- 
newed their scheme for a revenue in 1769, he was one of the 
firmest supporters of the plan for a suspension of all commer- 
cial intercourse with Great Britain, though such a measure 
was peculiarly injurious to his own interest. He was a delegate 
to the first Continental Congress in 1774, in which he urged 
an attack on General Gage in Boston. In June, 1775, when 
the Provincial Congress had determined to raise troops, Mr. 
Gadsden, though absent on public duty in Philadelphia, was, 
without his knowledge, elected Colonel of the first regiment 
of South Carolina. He left Congress, and repaired to the 
camp, declaring, that "Wherever his country placed him, 
whether in the civil or military department, and if in the 
latter, whether as Corporal or Colonel, he would cheerfully 
serve to the utmost of his ability." He was made Brigadier- 
General the next year by Congress. Though not educated 
as a soldier, such was the confidence inspired by his character 
that he was placed at the head of the military establishment 
of the State. He commanded at Fort Johnson, when the 
Fort on Sullivan's Island was attacked by the British. He 
was actively engaged at the siege of Charleston in 1776, was 
one of the framers of the Constitution of South Carolina, 
adopted in 1778, resigned his military commission 1779, and 
as Lieut.-Governor of the State signed the capitulation when 
Charleston was taken by Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. On the 
defeat of Gates in August, 1780, he, with several other of his 

188 Christopher Gadsden. 

countrymen, was sent by the British authorities to St. Augus- 
tine, then a British garrison. He alone of the prisoners re- 
fused to enter into any engagements by which a partial free- 
dom might be secured, and was, therefore, imprisoned for ten 
months. One of his biographers says: "Mr. Gadsden im- 
proved his solitude by close application to study, and came 
out much more learned than he entered." Being exchanged, 
he was sent to Philadelphia, and there released. He hastened 
back to Carolina, and was elected a member of the Assembly 
which met at Jacksonburgh in 1782. He was chosen Gover- 
nor, but declined on account of age and infirmity, but he 
continued his services in the Assembly and Council. In spite 
of the great personal losses the war had occasioned, and of 
his imprisonment in St. Augustine, he had the magnanimity 
to oppose the law which was proposed for confiscating the 
estates of the Tories, and earnestly contended for the policy 
of oblivion of the past, and forgiveness of all wrongs. He 
was an influential member of the Convention which ratified 
the National Constitution in 1788, and of that which revised 
the State Constitution in 1790. He died in his 82d year. 
He had a sound constitution, and always enjoyed vigorous 
health, and his death was occasioned more by an accidental 
fall than from disease or natural decay. He was a friend and 
correspondent of Samuel Adams, whose character in many re- 
spects resembled his own. He was a man of religious prin- 
ciples, and a zealous, though not bigoted, member of the 
Episcopal Church. He was remarkable for his disinterested- 
ness in money matters, declining all offices of profit, and re- 
fusing to take the salaries of such trusts as were conferred 
upon him. Dr. Ramsay closes a biographical sketch of him 
as follows: " His character was impressed with the hardihood 
of antiquity, and he possessed an erect, firm, and intrepid 
mind, which was well calculated for buffeting with revolu- 
tionary storms." In a letter dated Charleston, December 2, 
1765, addressed to Charles Garth, agent of the Colony of 
South Carolina, he says: "I wish that the Charters being 
different in different Colonies, may not be the political trap 
that will ensnare us at last, by drawing different Colonies 

Nathaniel Scudder. 189 

upon that account to act differently in this great and common 
cause, and whenever that is the case all will be over with the 
whole. There ought to be no New England men, no New 
Yorker, &c., known on the Continent, but all of us Ameri- 


(Centennial Collection.) 

Two brothers, the ancestors of Dr. Nathaniel Scudder, of 
New Jersey, emigrated to this country from Scotland about 
the year 1625. One of the brothers remained near where he 
landed in Massachusetts, and the other finally settled on Long 
Island in 1630. From the Long Island branch of the family 
came Jacob Scudder, the father of the subject of this sketch. 
Jacob and Abia Scudder had three sons and three daughters, 
Nathaniel being the eldest. He was born near Monmouth 
Court House, New Jersey, May 10, 1733. He graduated at 
the College of New Jersey in the Class of 1751, and imme- 
diately commenced the study of medicine. For many years 
he had an extensive practice in the county of Monmouth, and 
enjoyed the respect and confidence of the people of that part 
of the State on account of his varied learning, strong powers 
of mind, genial disposition, and purity of life. He married 
Isabella Anderson, only daughter of Colonel Kenneth Ander- 
son, March 23, 1752. His eldest son, John Anderson Scudder, 
born in 1759, was a graduate of Princeton College in 1775, 
and adopted his father's profession, and like him was also a 
Member of Congress in 1810. At the breaking out of the 
Revolutionary "War, Nathaniel Scudder was made Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the First Regiment of the Monmouth Militia, 
Colonel George Taylor being its commanding officer. About 
the time the Howe brothers issued their proclamation offering 

190 Nathaniel Scudder. 

protection to all who would renew their allegiance to the 
British King, Colonel Taylor made his submission, and de- 
serted to the enemy. Lieutenant-Colonel Scudder was imme- 
diately appointed by the Joint Meeting of the Legislature to 
fill the vacancy. During the contest no two men were more 
true, none more vigilant and active than Nathaniel and his 
brother William, who was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Third 
Eegiment of Middlesex County. During the year 1777, in 
addition to the duties of his profession and his military com- 
mand, we find him in prompt attendance upon the meetings 
of the Council of Safety. 

On the 30th of November, 1777, he was elected a delegate to 
Congress, and took his seat the beginning of the following year. 
In the labors and responsibilities of legislation he took an 
active part. His powerful appeal to the Legislature of his 
native State, as expressed in his letter to the Speaker, dated 
July 13, 1778, and published in a work entitled "New Jersey 
Revolutionary Correspondence," stamps him at once as a 
strong writer, a clear thinker, and a whole-hearted patriot. 
It will be remembered that at that time authority had not 
been given to the delegates from Maryland, Delaware, and 
New Jersey to sign the Articles of Confederation, which had 
been framed four days previous, and this appeal brought the 
required authority, and Dr. Scudder and his colleagues had 
the pleasure of signing their names to the Articles in behalf 
of their State. He was again elected to Congress November 
6, 1778, and served until the close of the year 1779. In the 
list of Trustees of Nassau Hall we find him serving from the 
years 1678 to 1782. He was also an elder in the church of 
the celebrated Rev. William Tennent, on the old Monmouth 
battle-ground, and tradition says his Christian life was pure, 
and above reproach. During all the years of the Revolu- 
tionary War, Monmouth County was frequently excited by 
the incursions of forage parties of the British, and the attacks 
of tories. In an engagement, October 17, 1781, with a party 
of refugees at Black Point, near Shrewsbury, Colonel Scudder 
was killed while leading a battalion of his regiment. It has 
been stated, and probably with truth, that the bullet was in- 

Elias Boudinot. 191 

tended for Brigadier-General David Forman, the terrible, 
unrelenting foe of every traitor of that day. Colonel Scud- 
der was buried with all the honors of war in the old grave- 
yard of Tennent Church, and his tomb stands until this day. 
Thus died a gentleman whose pure character adorned the 
profession of medicine, whose clear mind and honest purpose 
were often shown in the councils of his State and the Govern- 
ment, whose good sword was freely drawn in the hour of 
national peril, and who at last, in the very heat of battle, 
gave his patriot life to death a martyr for the liberties of 
his country. 


(Centennial Collection.) 

The great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, who 
bore the same name, was a Huguenot emigrant from France, 
and came to America in 1686, shortly after the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes. Elias Boudinot was born in Philadel- 
phia, April 21, 1740. Having received the best advantages 
of earlier education which the Colonies could afford, he 
studied law with Richard Stockton at Princeton, and com- 
menced the practice of his profession at Elizabeth town, N. J., 
in 1760. In 1762 he married Hannah, sister of Richard 
Stockton, who also married Annis Boudinot, the sister of 
Elias so there was a double marriage between the families. 
The high position which he immediately attained in local 
circles is shown by the fact that, at the age of twenty-five he 
was chosen President of the Board of Trustees of the Presbyte- 
rian Church of Elizabeth town, which embraced not a few men 
prominent in political and social life. Alexander Hamilton, 
who was also of Huguenot descent on his mother's side, was 
sent at the age of fifteen from his home in Santa Cruz to obtain 
an education, and entered the Grammar School at Elizabeth- 

192 Elias BoidinoL 

town, of which Mr. Boudinot was one of the Trustees, and 
was admitted into that intimate friendship with the Boudi- 
nots, and other prominent patriot families, which exerted a 
most important influence upon his subsequent career, and 
which was maintained through life. Mr. Boudinot early 
became a devoted advocate of the patriot cause. The passing 
by the British Parliament of the Boston Port Bill in retalia- 
tion for the so-called Boston tea party, enkindled a furious 
flame of patriotism over the whole country. Town and 
county meetings were everywhere held to consider what 
should be done. The tidings reached this country May 10, 
1774. On June llth a meeting was held at the court house 
in Newark, at which resolutions were adopted calling on the 
people to stand firm in maintaining their rights, and inviting a 
Provincial Convention for the purpose of choosing delegates to 
a general Congress. Mr. Boudinot was a member of this Con- 
vention, which took the control of the State out of the hands 
of Governor Franklin. On the 15th of May, 1777, he was 
appointed by Congress Commissary-General of Prisoners, with 
the rank of Colonel. On November 30th of the same year he 
was elected to Congress, but continuing to serve as Commis- 
sary-General until the appointment of his successor, he did 
not take his seat in Congress until July 7, 1778. He was re- 
appointed to Congress in 1780, and again in 1781 and 1782, 
and on the 4th of November of that year was chosen Presi- 
dent of that body. In this capacity he had the honor on the 
15th April, 1783, of affixing his signature to the treaty of 
peace with Great Britain. In 1789 he resumed the practice 
of law at Elizabethtown, and in 1790 received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Yale College. In 1795 he was appointed 
by Washington Director of the Mint at Philadelphia, and 
removed his residence thither. In 1805 he resigned his office, 
and retired to private life at Burlington, N. J., where pos- 
sessed of ample means he exercised an elegant hospitality, 
and devoted the rest of his life to the pursuits of literature 
and benevolence. His wife dying in 1808, his household was 
presided over by his daughter and only child, the widow of 
William Bradford, who, at the time of his death, was Attor- 

Elias Boudinot 193 

ney-General of the United States under Washington. Mrs. 
Bradford was a lady of remarkable dignity of manner, pos- 
sessed of many talents and virtues, and was one of the most 
influential female characters that graced the society of that 
period. From 1772 to 1805 Dr. Boudinot was a Trustee of 
the College of New Jersey, and founded its Cabinet of Natural 
History with a liberal contribution. In 1812 he was chosen 
a corporate member of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions. He was active in the organization of 
the American Bible Society, becoming in 1816 its first Presi- 
dent, endowing it with a gift of $10,000, and aiding also in 
the erection of the first Bible House. He wrote and published 
in 1790 "The Age of Revelation," to counteract Paine's "Age 
of Reason ;" in 1793, a Fourth of July oration before the New 
Jersey Society of Cincinnati ; in 1811, an address before the New 
Jersey Bible Society ; in 1815, a work on the Second Advent of 
the Messiah ; in 1816, " The Star of the West," an attempt to 
identify the North American Indians with the descendants 
of the lost tribes of Israel. He died at Burlington, October 
24, 1821. He left by his will the bulk of his large estate to 
various institutions and charities. Elias Boudinot was the 
trusted friend and counsellor of Washington, and was on 
terms of intimate intercourse with Hamilton and many other 
illustrious men who bore conspicuous part in the annals of 
our country during the eventful period of the Revolution, and 
the laying the foundations of the Republic. He was a person 
of great dignity, and at the same time of eminent courtesy 
of manner. He was exact in his habits of thought and ex- 
pression, cool in judgment, prompt and decided in action. 
He was sought and trusted as a friend and counsellor by the 
poor as well as the rich. He was an earnest and consistent 
Christian, a man of prayer, a diligent student of the Bible. 

194 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 



BY WM. H. EGLE, M. D. 

(Continued from page 101.) 

BIDDLE, OWEN, of the city of Philadelphia, a great-grand- 
son of William Biddle one of the Proprietors of West Jer- 
sey, and for many years of the Governor's Council of that 
Colony was born in Philadelphia in the year 1737. He was 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, and with his brother, Clement, 
signed the celebrated Non-importation Resolutions of October 
25, 1765. He was a delegate to the Provincial Conference 
Jan. 23, 1775 ; member of the Committee of Safety from June 
30, 1775, to July 22, 1776, and of the Council of Safety from 
July 24, 1776, to March 13, 1777; member of the Board of 
War March 13, 1777; of the Convention of July 15, 1776, 
and, in June, 1777, Deputy Commissary of Forage. His name 
appears in the list of Philadelphia merchants headed by 
Robert Morris, who became personally bound for various 
sums, amounting in the aggregate to over 260,000 sterling, for 
purchasing provisions for the army at a time when there was 
great difficulty in procuring supplies. During the occupancy 
of Philadelphia by the British, the enemy destroyed his resi- 
dence, which was on the site of the Girard College grounds. 
He was an early and active member of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, one of its curators from 1769 to 1772, and 
secretary from 1773 to 1782, when he became one of the 
councillors, continuing as such until his death. He was one 
of the Committee of thirteen appointed by the Society to 
observe the transit of Venus on 3d of June, 1769. These 
observations were made with eminent success by three mem- 
bers of the Committee, Mr. Rittenhouse being stationed at 
Norristown, Dr. Ewin at Philadelphia, and Mr. Biddle at 
Cape Henlopen. Mr. Biddle died at Philadelphia on the 10th 

I he Constitutional Convention, of 1776. 195 

of March, 1799. His descendants have always taken a pro- 
minent part in the benevolent and business enterprises of the 

BLEWER, JOSEPH, of the county of Philadelphia, was born 
in Pennsylvania, of English parentage, in 1734. At the be- 
ginning of the Revolution he was a captain in the merchant 
service, and it was no doubt due to this fact that he was 
appointed a member of the Pennsylvania Navy Board, when 
that State established an armed flotilla for the defence of 
Philadelphia. He was a member of the Provincial Confer- 
ence at Carpenter's Hall, June 18, 1775 ; member of the 
Convention of July 15, 1776; member of the Council of 
Safety, July 23, 1776; member of the Committee of Inspec- 
tion for Southwark* August, 1777; arid of the Navy Board, 
1777-8. During the latter part of the year 1777, he served 
on the Committee to arrest disaffected Quakers and tories. 
He was a member of the General Assembly 1779-1780. He 
was appointed Warden of the Port of Philadelphia Oct. 31, 
1781. Capt. Blewer died August 7, 1789, and is buried in 
the Swedes' Church-yard, near the main wall of the church, 
facing west. His wife Sarah, born in 1737, died May 4, 1801, 
and is interred by his side. Capt. Blewer invariably affixed 
the figures 1759 within the flourish of the final letter of his 
name, but why so distinguished is not known. 

BROWN, JAMES, of Cumberland County, was born in Lan- 
caster County, Pennsylvania, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, about 
1736. He removed very early in life to Carlisle, or its vicinity. 
He served in the Provincial service in the Rev. Capt. Steel's 
company, of whose congregation at Carlisle he was a member. 
He was a member of the Convention of July 15, 1776, and 
of the General Assembly of the State from 1776 to 1778. He 
died in the year 1780, and was interred in the Presbyterian 
burying-ground at Carlisle. His son, William Brown, was 
member of the Assembly from Cumberland County from 1780 
to 1786, and during the latter year was one of the Committee 
to superintend the drawing of the Donation Land Lottery. 

196 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

BROWN, MATTHEW, of Northumberland County, the eldest 
son of John Brown who emigrated from the Province of 
Ulster, Ireland, to America in 1720 was born in Paxtang 
Township, Lancaster (now Dauphin) County, Pennsylvania, 
November 6, 1732. About 1760 he settled near Carlisle, but 
subsequently removed to White Deer Hole Valley. His name 
appears on the tax list for 1775 as being in possession of sixty 
acres. He was one of the first overseers of the poor for White 
Deer Township, Northumberland County, and in February, 
1776, one of the Committee of Safety for the county. In 
June following he was a member of the Provincial Confer- 
ence, and in July 15, 1776, member of the Convention from 
Northumberland. In the autumn of that year he entered 
the army as a private soldier. Contracting the camp fever 
while campaigning in the Jerseys, he returned home, where 
he died on the 22d of April, 1777, and lies buried in a field, 
once part of his property, near Elimsport, Lycoming County. 
His wife, Eleanor, survived him thirty -seven years, dying 
August 9, 1814. He left eight children, the youngest of whom, 
Matthew ) born in White Deer in 1776, with his brother 
Thomas, were adopted by their Uncle William Brown, who 
resided near Harrisburg. The former became a Doctor of 
Divinity, and President of Jefferson College, Canonsburg. 

BURKHALTER, PETER, of Northampton County, settled in 
Egypt, Whitehall Township, now Lehigh County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1740. Under the laws of the Province he was 
naturalized April 11, 1761, having partaken of the sacrament 
on the 22d of March previous. He was one of the Commis- 
sioners for the County of Northampton in 1776; was a mem- 
ber of the Convention of July 15, 1776; a member of the 
Assembly during that and the folio wing year ; and appointed 
sub-lieutenant of the county March 30, 1780. From 1784 to 
1788 he again represented Northampton in the General As- 
sembly, and from 1791 to 1794 in the House of Representa- 
tives. He was captain of a company of the Northampton 
Associators, and in active service in the Jerseys. He died in 
1806, and lies buried in the old walled Union Church grave- 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 197 

yard in Whitehall Township, Lehigh County. His daughter, 
Magdalena, married Col. Stephen Balliett. 

BULL, JOHN, of the county of Philadelphia, was born in 
1730, in Providence Township, now Montgomery County. 
He was appointed Captain in the Provincial service May 12, 
1758, and in June was in command at Fort Allen. The same 
year he accompanied Gen. Forbes' expedition for the reduc- 
tion of Fort DuQuesne, and rendered important service in the 
negotiations with the Indians. In 1771 he owned the Morris 
plantation and mill, and was residing there at the opening of 
the Revolution. He was a delegate to the Provincial Con- 
ference of January 23, 1775, and of June 18, 1775; a member 
of the Convention gf July 15, 1776, and of the Pennsylvania 
Board of War March 14, 1777. In 1775 he was appointed 
Colonel of the first Pennsylvania Battalion, which he resigned 
January 20, 1776, on account of bad treatment from his officers. 
He was one of the Commissioners at the Indian treaty, held 
at Easton, January 30, 1777 ; in February was in command of 
the works at Billingsport, and on the 16th of July was ap- 
pointed Adjutant-General of the State. In October of this 
year, his barns were burned and stock carried away by the 
enemy. In December, when Gen. James Irvine was captured, 
Col. Bull succeeded to the command of the second brigade of 
the Pennsylvania militia; under Gen. Armstrong. In 1778 
and 1779, he was engaged in erecting the defences for Phil- 
adelphia, and in 1780 was Commissary of Purchases at that 
city. In 1785 he removed to Northumberland County ; in 
1805 elected to the Assembly, and in 1808 was the Federal 
candidate for Congress, but defeated. Col. Bull died at 
Northumberland, August 9, 1824, aged 94. His wife, Mary, 
died 23d of February, 1811. They were both interred in the 
Quaker grave-yard at that place. 

BURD, JOHN, of Bedford County, a native of Scotland, and 
cousin of Col. James Burd of Tinian, was born July 15, 1724. 
He emigrated to America prior to 1740, and settled in the 
vicinity of Fort Littleton several years later. He served as 

198 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

one of his majesty's justices for Bedford County; was a 
member of the Convention of July 15, 1776, and of the 
General Assembly from 1777 to 1781. He died in March, 
1792. His son Benjamin, b. in 1754 (vide Rodgers's Biog. 
Diet.), enlisted in July, 1775, in Col. Thompson's regiment, 
of which he was promoted a lieutenant in October of that 
year. In 1777 he was appointed captain 4th Pennsylvania, 
and subsequently promoted major. He died at Bedford, Octo- 
ber 5, 1823. 

CANNON, JAMES, of the city of Philadelphia, was a native 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, where he was born in the year 1740. 
He was educated in the University of his native city, and 
came to America in 1765. At the breaking out of the Revo- 
lution he was tutor in the College of Philadelphia, now Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. From the diary of Christopher 
Marshall it appears he was the leading spirit in private meet- 
ings held to select candidates to be placed before the people 
in opposition to those representing more conservative senti- 
ments. He was very active in forming and organizing the 
Associators of Philadelphia, and was Secretary of the " Ame- 
rican Manufactory," the result of the patriotic endeavor made 
at the beginning of the Revolution by some of the citizens of 
that city in accordance with the suggestion of Congress to 
manufacture woolen, linen, and cotton fabrics. He was the 
author of the " Cassandra" Letters, which elevated him high 
in the esteem of the patriots. He was chosen a member of 
the Convention of July 15, 1776, and of the part taken by him 
in that body, Graydon says: The Constitution u was under- 
stood to have been principally the work of George Bryan in 
conjunction with Mr. Cannon, a school-master. ... Of 
him it may not be uncharitable to presume that, having the 
little knowledge of man, and scholastic predilections for the 
antique in liberty, which generally falls to the lot of a peda- 
gogue, he acted accordingly." In the Convention Mr. Cannon 
was placed on the Committee to draw up the instructions to 
the delegates of Pennsylvania in Congress, he being the au- 
thor of that instrument. By the Convention he was made 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 199 

one of the justices of the peace for the State, and served as 
member of the Council of Safety from July 24, 1776, to Dec. 
4, 1777, one of the few who were not members of the Supreme 
Executive Council. In November, 1779, upon the establish- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, Mr. Cannon was 
elected to the Professorship of Mathematics. He died on the 
28th of January, 1782, and is buried in Christ Church grave- 

CARMICHAEL, JOHN, of Westmoreland County, was a native 
of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, born about 1751. Pre- 
vious to 1775 he had settled in what is now Franklin Town- 
ship, Fayette County, on the waters of Redstone Creek, about 
eight miles from Gel. Cook's, where he erected a mill and 
still house. He was elected a member of the Convention of 
July 15, 1776, and of the Assembly in 1777. He died in 1796, 
leaving a widow and two sons, James and Thomas. 

CESSNA, JOHN, of Bedford County, the son of John Cessna, 
a Huguenot who settled and married in Ireland after the 
battle of the Boyne, was born in Ireland about the year 1718. 
The elder Cessna came to America about the same period, at 
first settling in Eastern Pennsylvania, but subsequently locat- 
ing in the Cumberland Valley. About 1765 the former re- 
moved to Friend's Cove, Bedford County, on a farm, still in 
possession of one of his descendants. In 1747 Mr. Cessna 
served as ensign in the Provincial service, as did also, at a 
later date, his brother Charles. On the organization of 
Bedford County, he heads the list of Provincial magistrates. 
He was a member of the Convention of July 15, 1776 ; sheriff 
of Bedford County, 1777-8 ; collector of excise, Jan. 1, 1778 ; 
and justice of the peace June, 1779, Oct. 21, 1782, and Sept. 
9, 1790. Mr. Cessna died about the year 1800. He raised 
a large family of children, and his numerous descendants, 
scattered over the Western and Southern States, embrace in 
their number several very prominent men ; John Cessna, at 
present a member of Congress, is a great-grandson. 

200 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

CLARK, WALTER, of Northumberland County, was a native 
of Paxtang Township, Lancaster, now Dauphin County, Penn- 
sylvania. In 1771, in conjunction with his brothers, Robert 
and William, he purchased land, and removed to Buffalo 
Valley. He was a member of the Committee of Safety for 
Northumberland County Feb. 8, 1776, of the Convention of 
July 15, 1776 ; and March 21, 1777, appointed sub-lieutenant 
of Northumberland County. In 1804, Mr. Clark removed to 
Mercer County, where he died. 

CLARK, WILLIAM, of Cumberland County, was born in Lan- 
caster, now Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, in 1740. At the 
beginning of the Revolution he assisted in organizing the 
Associators, and became Colonel of one of the Cumberland 
County battalions. He was a member of the Convention of 
July 15, 1776, and of the General Assembly in 1776 and 1777. 
He was appointed paymaster of the Cumberland County 
militia August 20, 1777. He died at his residence in Mid- 
dleton Township, March 29, 1804. 

CLYMER, GEORGE, of the city of Philadelphia, was born 
March 16, 1739, of English parentage, in Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. His father dying when George was only seven 
3^ears of age, he was taken by his maternal uncle William Cole- 
man, educated, and subsequently entered his counting-house. 
In 1767 he was chosen a member of the Common Council of 
Philadelphia. At the celebrated tea-meeting, held in that city 
October 16, 1773, Mr. Clymer was appointed Chairman of the 
Committee to request the resignation of the tea agents. He 
was elected an alderman of the city of Philadelphia in 1774; 
a delegate to the Provincial Conference of January 23, 1775 ; 
member of the Committee of Safety from October 2, 1775, to 
July 22, 1776 ; and member of the Convention of July 15, 
1776,by which body he was ehosen to the Continental Congress 
July 20, 1776, and, although several weeks after the passage 
of the Declaration, signed that instrument. In September, 
1776, he was sent with Stockton, of N. J., to confer with 
Washington on the affaire of the army. In 1777 he was 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 201 

chosen to Congress by the Assembly of the State. On Dec. 
7, 17 78, he was appointed one of the Commissioners to attend 
the Indian treaty at Fort Pitt. In 1780 he was again chosen 
to Congress, and in November, with John Nixon assisted in 
organizing the Bank of North America. At the close of the 
Revolution he removed to Princeton, N. J., but returning to 
Pennsylvania shortly after, he was elected to the Assembly, 
serving from 1785 to 1788, during which period he aided 
in modifying the penal code of the State. He was a member 
of the Convention which framed the Federal Constitution, 
and in November, 1788, elected to the first Congress of the 
United States. In 1791 he was appointed by President 
Washington Collector of Excise for Pennsylvania, a position 
he resigned towards^ the close of the year 1794. With 
Messrs. Pickens and Hawkins he was appointed in 1796 to 
negotiate a treaty with the Creek and Cherokee Indians, 
which was consummated on the 29th of June the same 
year. He subsequently withdrew from public affairs, but 
served as President of the Academy of Fine Arts, and of 
the Pennsylvania Bank. He died at Morrisville, Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania, January 23, 1813. 

(To be continued.) 

VOL. in. 14 

202 Notes on Sundry Calendars. 



The very interesting article by Mr. Spencer Bonsall on 
" Changes of Style in the Calendar" in !Nos. 8 and 9 of this 
Magazine rather piques the curiosity of students of history 
and genealogy as to the character of other calendars which 
have had, or may still have, existence. 

On examining the fifty short chapters in which the subject 
of Calendars is treated by M. FraiiQois Arago in his " Astro- 
nomie Populaire," one is rewarded by learning some valuable 
facts regarding them. 

Perhaps the most interesting of the non-Christian Calen- 
dars described by him, because of its superior accuracy, was 
that of Persia. 

The following is a translation of Mons. Arago's account of 
it as it appears in Chapter XIX. Book XXIII. 


The Persians had already adopted in the eleventh century 
an intercalation which brought their civil year very near to 
the astronomical one, and which maintained the equinoxes 
and the solstices upon the same days of the civil year. 

It was thus constituted: Three ordinary years of 365 
days were followed by a leap-year of 366 days, and this 
period of four years was repeated seven times. This was 
succeeded by a period in which the leap-year did not occur 
until after four ordinary years. 

Let us ask what length of year ensues from this mode of 
intercalation? Here is the answer: 

The first seven periods form a total of 28 years, the eighth 
period comprises five years, making a total of 33 years. 

Therefore, in 33 years the Persians intercalate 8 days. 

Notes on Sundry Calendars. 203 

Hence the fractional part of the year beyond the 365 days 

may be expressed thus, - Q * 


S ^L S - 0.2424 days. 

10,000 years with the Persian mode of inter- 
calation comprise . , v * 3,652,424 d8 
10,000 astronomical years comprise . . 3,652,422 d8 .64 

The difference is only . . . . '. ' l d y.36 

Between the civil year as amended by Gre- 
gory XIII. 1 and the astronomical year there is 
a difference of . . ... . 2 d8 .36 

Thus it appears that the Persian mode of intercalation is 
superior in accuracy* to the Gregorian Calendar now adopted 
by the greater part of Europe, and of the New World. 

In his " History of the French Kevolution" M. Thiers de- 
scribes the twelve months into which the year was divided 
by the Directory. He also tells us of the complementary 
days, and the "sans culotides;" but about the manner in 
which the " Republican year" was made to keep pace with 
the astronomical year he says absolutely nothing. 

More strange still than the above is the fact that while M. 
Arago describes with minuteness so many different calendars, 
upon the above interesting point in the Republican Calendar 
he says as little as does M. Thiers. 

Upon one point only he enlarges, and thereon bases the re- 
flection, that as the exact day on which the autumnal equinox 
occurs was to be calculated upon the longitude of the meridian 
of Paris, the founders of the Republican Calendar might have 
been assured that national jealousy would certainly prevent 
the people of other countries from adopting it. 

In the "Atlas Universel d'Histoire et de Geographic," par 
M. K Bouillet, under the head of " Chronologic" may be 
found a short, but minute account of the Republican Calendar. 

The following is a translation of the article : 

1 Astronomic Pupulaire, vol. iv. p. 688. 

204 Notes on Sundry Calendars. 


This era, the most recent of all, is also that which has lasted 
the shortest time. Established in France by a decree of the 
Convention on the 6th October, 1793, it had a retroactive 
commencement from the 22d Sept. 1792. 

As precedently, the ordinary years were to contain 365 days, 
those which contained 366 days were to be called sextiles (and 
not bisextiles). The difference consisted solely in the mode of 

It was ordered that the year 3 should be sextile, that from 
this epoch each fourth year should be sextile until the year 
15 ; after which a 366th day should not be added till the year 

This sequence was to be repeated until the years 48 and 53 
of the era. Thereafter a cycle of 33 years should be con- 
formed to, in which every fourth year a sixth day called 
epagombne (that is to say, intercalated) should be added, but 
in such a manner that after the seventh intercalation, no ad- 
dition should be made to the complementary days until the 
fifth year, when the 8th intercalation was to be made. 

Special decrees in the years 1793 and 1794 abolished this 
mode of intercalation, and ordered that the first day of the 
year should always be that of the autumnal equinox, which 
was to be ascertained each year by astronomical calculations. 

The duration of the Republican era was only 13 years and 
100 days. By a Senatus consultum of the 22d Fructidor in 
the year 13, the conservative senate abolished this institution, 
and the 10th tfivose of the year 14 was followed immediately 
by the 1st of January, 1806. 

In the preparation of the article " Chronologic" in the 
"Atlas" from which the above is translated, the Collaborator 
of Mons. Bouillet was Mons. Caillet, 

It will be observed that by the combined testimony of these 
two authorities, the mode of intercalation by which the Con- 
vention proposed to keep their civil year in coincidence with 
the astronomical year was absolutely identical with that 
adopted in Persia in the Eleventh Century. 

Notes on Sundry Calendars. 205 

Another calendar described in detail by M. Arago is that 
of the Christian Church. All are familiar with the mode in 
which the time for the celebration of Easter was determined 
at the Council of Nice. 

M. Arago mentions a fact with which most persons are un- 
acquainted, viz., that " the paschal moon is a conventional 
moon ; and may arrive at its full one or two days before or 
after the true or mean astronomical moon." 

" Hence ensue frequent reclamations of the public, being 
unaware that the time of Easter is based upon the phases of 
a fictitious or imaginary moon, and not upon those of the 
real moon." "Astronomers are, therefore, taxed with igno- 
rance or carelessness for causing the celebration of Easter to 
take place a month after the proper time." 

There are other calendars and sundry eras described by M. 
Arago, which would repay perusal by those interested in such 

The same is true of the subject of Chronology as treated 
in the "Atlas d'Histoire et de Geographic." 

206 Descendants of Joran Kyn Catharine Sandelands. 



(Continued from page 95.) 


12. CATHARINE SANDELANDS, S daughter of James and Ann 
(Keen) Sandelands, was born at Upland, January 26, 1670-1. 
She married, first, Alexander Creker, who died, however, 
probably without issue, not long afterwards, letters of ad- 
ministration on his estate being granted March 16, 1690-1 
(with her consent) to Mr. Sandelands, "his principal creditor.'* 
Hereupon Mrs. Creker married, secondly, Jasper Yeates, of 
Philadelphia County, a native of Yorkshire, England, a 
gentleman of considerable intelligence and force of character, 
who emigrated to the "West Indies, and afterwards settled as 
a merchant on the Delaware.* In 1697 Mr. Yeates purchased 
the mills and property at the mouth of Naaman's Creek, in 
New Castle County, and the following year bought lands in 
Chester, erected extensive granaries on the creek, and estab- 
lished a large bakery.f He also built for the residence of 
himself and family "the venerable Mansion," still standing,} 
subsequently Mrs. Deborah Logan's, described in her MS. 
"remarks," referred to in the account of Mr. Sandelands. "I 

* Said to have been his second wife, his first being a West Indian, who 
died without issue. For information with regard to Mr. Yeates and his 
descendants the writer is under every obligation to Mr. Charles E. Hilde- 
burn, a gentleman to whom, also, he is indebted for constant and invaluable 
assistance at all points of this family history. 

f Its site (between Edgmont Avenue and Chester Creek, near Filbert 
or Second Street), is indicated in the " Draft of the First Settled Part of 
Chester," in Dr. Smith's "History of Delaware County." "It was torn 
down some years since." Martin's " Chester," p. 90. 

J Situated on the west side of Second Street, about a hundred feet north 
of Edgmont Avenue, looking towards the river. It has been converted into 
two separate dwelling-houses. 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates 207 

believe/' she says, " the initials of the names of Jasper and 
Catharine Yeates and the date of the year are on one of the 
gables of the House. I do not think the Chambers have ever 
been repainted. It formerly had large Buttresses built up 
against the Gables for strength, and small ones to guard the 
brick walls on each side of the Mansion House." On erecting 
the Town of Chester into a Borough, October 31, 1701,William 
Perm constituted Jasper Yeates one of the four Burgesses, and 
Mr. Yeates was chosen Chief Burgess in 1703, being the ear- 
liest occupant of that office whose name has been preserved 
to us.* At a meeting of the Provincial Council, March 19, 
1705-6, he was ordered, with others, to survey "the Queen's 
Road" to Darby, connecting Chester more directly with Phila- 
delphia. Mr. Yeatea possessed some knowledge of the law, 
and in 1694 was appointed Justice of the Court for Chester 
County, and in later years (as from 1704 to 1710, and from 1717 
till his death in 1720) held the position of Associate- Justice of 
the Supreme Courts of the Province of Pennsylvania and the 
Lower Counties on the Delaware. On the 25th of September, 
1396, Mr. Yeates was admitted to a seat in the Provincial 
Council of Pennsylvania, an office whose duties he fulfilled, 
with some intervals of intermission, for the rest of his life. 

* Martin's " Chester," p. 301. On pages 89 and 90 appears a petition 
of James Sandelands to William Penn and Council, sitting at New 
Castle, November 19, 1700, setting forth that he "is possessed of a 
certain spot of land lying in the Countie of Chester, verie fitt and naturally 
commodious for a Town, and to that end lately caused the said spot of land 
to be divided and laid out into Lotts, Street, and Market place" (a draft and 
model being submitted) , and praying for the erection of the ground into " a 
Town." " Upon reading the Petition, and upon hearing the Petitioner and 
some of the Inhabitants of the Countie of Chester, Jasper Yeates and 
Robert French, who married two of the Petitioner's Sisters, were sent for, 
and the said Petition was again read to them, and being Askt if they had 
anything to object Against the same, they answered that they had not ; and 
Jasper Yeates added that he had advised with a person or persons skilled 
in the Law, whether the said Petitioner had the power to sell the Land in 
the petition mentioned, and they had told him hee had power and might sell 
the same. Whereupon the Proprietary and Governour and Councill . . . 
did erect the said spot of Land so modelled and Laid outt into a Town." It 
forms an ancient part of the present Chester. 

208 Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeatcs. 

In October, 1700, he was elected a Representative of New 
Castle County in the General Assembly of the Province, and 
after the separation of the Lower Counties on the Delaware 
was chosen a Representative and Speaker of their Assembly. 
On occasion of King William's proposing, in 1701, to levy a 
sum of 350 upon the Province " for the Erecting and main- 
taining a ffort at the ffrontiers of the Province of New York," 
together with his wife's brother-in-law, Robert French, and 
other Representatives of the Lower Counties, he presented an 
energetic address to the Proprietor, naturally differing some- 
what in tone from that drawn up by the Quaker majority of 
the Assembly: " We desire your honour to represent to his 
Majesty the weak & naked condition of the Lower Counties, 
as we are the ffrontiers of the Province, and Dayly threatned 
with an Approaching War, not being able to furnish ourselves 
with arms and ammunition for our defence, having Consumed 
our small stocks in making Tobacco, which hath proved very 
advantageous for the Kingdom of England, Yet that his 
Majesty hath not been pleased to take notice of us in the way 
of Protection, having neither standing Militia nor Persons 
Impowered to Command the People in Case of Invasion . . . 
These things, we hope, by your honour's influence, will Incite 
his Majesty to take into consideration our present circum- 
stances^ not require any Contribution from us forfforts abroad 
before we are able to build any for our own defence at home."* 
In October, 1701, while a new charter of privileges for the 
Colony was under consideration and preparing, the disagree- 
ment, which had occurred between the Province and Territories 
in 1691-3, once more exhibited itself, and Jasper Yeates be- 
came conspicuously concerned in the discussions of the points 

* See Minutes of the Provincial Council held at Philadelphia " the 6th 
of 6th Mo., 1701." The Address of the Assembly to the Proprietor stands 
thus : " We move that the further consideration of the King's Letter may 
be referred to another meeting of Assembly, or uutill more emergent occa- 
sions shall require our proceedings therein. In the meantime we earnestly 
Desire the Proprietor would Candidly represent our Conditions to the King, 
and assure him of our readiness (according to our abilities) to acquiesce with 
and answer his Commands so far as our Religious perswasions shall per- 
mitt, as becomes Loyal and faithful subjects so to do." 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 209 

at issue. Failing to carry his measures in the Assembly, in 
company with the other Representatives of the Lower Coun- 
ties, he withdrew from the House, and on the 14th of October 
appeared before William Penn in Council, remonstrating 
against the proceedings of the former body, "which" (as 
Proud says), u they declared were, in their consequences, highly 
injurious and destructive to the privileges of the Lower 
Counties, and which, consistent with their duty to their con- 
stituents, they apprehended, they could not sit there, to see 
carried on ; and, therefore, they informed the Governor, they 
thought it best for them to depart to their respective habita- 
tions." " To which the Governour gave his Several answers, 
concluding that he took it very unkind, to himself in par- 
ticular, they woul now give Occasion of a Rupture, such a 
Return as they would find, perhaps, he deserved better from 
their hands : upon which they affirmed (by Jasper Yeates) that 
it was not through any personal disregard to the Governour, 
for whom they had always a sincere respect, but they must 
be just to their principals whom they Represented, and, there- 
fore, could not proceed unless they could act safely in Regard 
to the Privileges of their Counties."* At another meeting 
of the Proprietary and Members of Council, on the same day, 
the Assembly being sent for, both the Members for the Pro- 
vince and those for the Territories appeared, when the Pro- 
prietor explained to them still further his desire to maintain 
the unity of government (to which the gentlemen from the 
Lower Counties continued to object), and seems at last to have 
prevailed upon them to a present accommodation, with the 
provision in the new charter, then granted, for a conditional 
separation, if they chose it, within the space of three years. 
After Perm's departure for England the Representatives of 
the Territories absolutely refused to join with those of the 
Province in legislation, till it was finally agreed between 
them, in 1703, that they should compose distinct Assemblies 
entirely independent of each other, and in this capacity they 

* Minutes of the Provincial Council. 

210 Descendants of Jbran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 

acted from that time.* In 1698, in company with five other 
gentlemen of note in the Colony, Mr. Yeates was empowered, 
by a Dedimus under the Great Seal of England, to administer 
the oaths to all such persons as should take upon them the 
Government of Pennsylvania, a duty which he discharged in 
the cases of Lieutenant-Governors Andrew Hamilton, John 
Evans, and Charles Gookin; and in 1717 he received a simi- 
lar writ from William Penn, addressed, likewise, to William 
Trent, Robert Assheton, and John French,f authorizing them 
to administer the oaths of office to Lieutenant-Governor 
William Keith, an act which he appropriately performed. 
Mr. Yeates is frequently mentioned in James Logan's letters 
to the Proprietor, published by the Historical Society, not 
always complimentarily, however, in consequence of his 
peculiar devotion to the interests of the Lower Counties on 
the Delaware. In a letter to Penn, dated "Philadelphia, 2d 
December, 1701," the Secretary says : "All things have gone 
very smooth and easy since thy departure, without the least 
obstruction or emotion. Coming up from the Capes I called 
on Rodney, and such others as were viewed violent, and lead- 
ing men, and left them very easy and good-natured in appear- 
ance ; and when I came to town I made bold to give a small 
treat at Andrews's to the Governor,;): Richard Halli well, Jasper 

* See Minutes of the Provincial Council, and Robert Proud's " History 
of Pennsylvania," in loci's. James Logan, in a letter to William Penn, 
dated " Philadelphia, 3d 1st mo., 1702-3" (" Penn and Logan Correspond- 
ence," vol. i. p. 176), says : " The chief thing that disturbs the people in all 
the three (lower) counties is our refusing to grant lands at the old rent, 
which chiefly induces them to wish themselves under the crown." 

t Messrs. Trent and French are both mentioned elsewhere in this gene- 
alogy. Robert Assheton was a relative of William Penn, who for some time 
occupied a seat in the Provincial Council, and held many offices of dignity 
and trust in the Colonial Government. 

t The Hon. Andrew Hamilton, Esq., one of the Proprietors of East New 
Jersey, and some time Governor of both East and West New Jersey, whom 
Penn had constituted his Deputy-Governor on sailing to England. Of the 
other gentlemen named, Richard Halliwell is spoken of in the third letter 
here cited. He was at times Sheriff and Justice of the Peace for New 
Castle County, which he represented as early as 1690 in the Assembly of the 
Province, and was one of the signers of the protest addressed in 1691 to the 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 211 

Yeates, J. Moore, and some such others, about a dozen, in- 
cluding T. Farmer, and the other owners of the small yacht 
or vessel the family went down to New Castle in, on thy be- 
half and in thy name, which, being very well timed and 
managed, was, I have reason to believe, of good service. 'Tis 
not that I could think it my place to take such things upon 
me, but at that time I could not have been dissuaded from 
it." In another to the same, dated "Philadelphia, 14th 4th 
mo., 1703," Logan writes as follows: "Gov. Nicholson, of 
Virginia, passed this way lately, to and from New York, and 
at his departure did all the mischief it was possible for him 
at New Castle, though treated very civilly by Friends here. 
I accompanied him to Burlington upwards, and designed 
[going] to New CastTe with him downwards ; but at Chester, 
at supper with Jasper Yeates, we had some high words, occa- 
sioned at first by the clergy, on which J. Growdon,* who 
was with us, and I returned from thence in the morning: the 
subject was the territories. He has encouraged them, as't is 
reported, to build a church at New Castle, on the green, and 
promises to procure a confirmation of it from Queen Anne." 

Provincial Council, which determined the Proprietor to separate the Gover- 
norship of the Lower Counties on the Delaware under Colonel William Mark- 
ham from that of the Upper Counties under Thomas Lloyd. In 1695 he was 
admitted to a seat in the Provincial Council, an honour which he frequently 
afterwards enjoyed. " J. Moore" is, of course, John Moore, Attorney-Gene- 
ral of Pennsylvania, Deputy-Judge of the Vice-Admiralty in 1700 and 
1704, and successor to John Bewley as Collector of the Port of Philadelphia, 
an office which he held for the remaining thirty years of his life. He was 
conspicuous for his interest in ecclesiastical affairs, and was one of the ori- 
ginal members of Christ Church in Philadelphia. Mr. Logan attributes to 
him the writing of the "Address to the Lords of Trade," signed by Mr. 
Yeates and others, referred to in the third letter quoted. " T. Farmer" 
Thomas Farmer, Sheriff of Philadelphia. The " treat" was given in accord- 
ance with the instructions of "William Penn to Logan indited on the " Ship 
Dolmahoy, 3d 9br., 1701 :" " Give a small treat in my name to the gentle- 
men at Philadelphia, for a beginning to a better understanding." 

* Joseph Growdon, for so many years Member of the General Assembly 
of Pennsylvania from Bucks County, and constantly Speaker of that body, 
also Member of the Provincial Council, and Chief-Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the Province. 

212 Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 

The most important reference to Mr. Yeates occurs in a letter 
from Logan to Penn, dated " Philadelphia, 5th 1st mo., 1708- 
9," presenting a graphic account of an endeavour on his part 
to establish a seat of government at New Castle quite inde- 
pendent of that stationed at Philadelphia. "In November 
last," says Logan, " I took the liberty to inform thee that 
some of the leading members of the New Castle Assembly, 
chosen the first of October last, had formed a design to call 
thy powers of government in these three Lower Counties into 
question, and had proceeded in it until prevented by the other 
members dissenting from them, who at the time put an end 
to the matter by breaking up the House. ... I now beg 
leave to acquaint thee that they have drawn an address directed 
to the Lords of Trade, &c., complaining of divers grievances 
that they lie under by reason of thee and the Quakers. Par- 
ticularly they complain that under thy administration they 
have no sufficient power to enact laws for the publick good, 
that they are left naked and defenceless in this time of war, 
and that they have had no Provincial Courts among them for 
these seven years past, &c. ; and this is signed by nine mem- 
bers, of which James Coutts,* Jasper Yeates, Richard Halli- 
well, and Robert French are the leaders. . . . The country 
people of this Province," pursues Logan, " having of late 
generally fallen upon the practice of bolting their own wheat, 
and selling or shipping the flour, Jasper Yeates, a man of a 
working brain for his own interest, found his trade at Ches- 
ter to fall under a very discouraging decay. Upon this he 
has frequently discoursed of removing to New Castle, where 
he is possessed of a large tract of land close to the town, by 
means of that irregular grant made to Colonel Markham, of 
whom he purchased it. But as that town has never been 
considerable for trade, and, therefore, his land, notwithstand- 
ing the conveniency of its situation, not very valuable, the 
first thing to be laboured was how to render it so, of which 
they could never conceive any great hopes unless some bar 

* At that time Speaker of the Assembly of the Lower Counties, a gen- 
tleman, according to Logan, usually antagonistic to Yeates. 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 213 

were thrown in between that and Philadelphia, that there 
might be no communication between this and the Lower 
Counties, whose inhabitants have always chosen rather to 
bring their trade quite to Philadelphia than to stop or have 
anything to do at New Castle. ... To make this town 
flourish, therefore, was the business, to which nothing seemed 
more conducive than an entire separation of these counties 
from the Province. Formerly they had been strictly united ; 
but since thy departure, Jasper Yeates, principally, with 
French and llalliwell,by their obstinacy, caused a separation 
in the business of legislation. . . But this separation 
seemed not yet sufficient. It in no way helped to ingross 
the trade of the place to these men who had laboured it. 
Nothing would do but either to get New Castle made the seat 
of a small government by itself ; which, how inconsiderable 
soever, might, notwithstanding, answer the proposed end ; or 
else to have it annexed to some other neighbouring Govern- 
ment besides Pennsylvania, the distance of whose capital from 
our river might leave New Castle almost as absolute in the 


administration, which must be committed to the principal 
men of that place, as if it were altogether independent. How 
this might be compassed was next to be considered. . . . 
Jasper first fell upon the measures to be taken. At the elec- 
tion for New Castle he was chosen with the three others, and 
two more for New Castle, and Robert French the same day, 
also, for Kent, where they elected, likewise, by Robert 
French's interest, several others fit for their purpose, their 
design not being then known ; but in Sussex they gained not 
one member, there being none present at the election to stickle 
for them, as Robert French did in Kent, where his estate 
chiefly lies." There was a report, says Logan, of the prospec- 
tive removal of Colonel Evans from the Governorship, " and 
since he had, also, purchased a small farm or tract of land 
near New Castle, it was expected he would be well pleased, 
rather than lose all, to fall in with their project, and by their 
assistance endeavour to obtain the poor Government of these 
Counties from the Crown to himself." The scheme fell 
through, however, in consequence of Governor Evans's failure 

214 Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 

to encourage them, as well as the withdrawal of their oppo- 
nents from the Assembly, thus leaving that hody without a 
quorum, as before stated ; and the address referred to at the 
beginning of Logan's letter appears to have borne no fruit. 
With regard to one of the " grievances" alleged, that "where 
they complain of wanting Provincial Courts for seven years," 
Mr. Logan says : " It is true there have been failures of that 
kind, yet some of these men very well know that it has been 
owing to themselves, and not to the Government. Commis- 
sions for that Court have always been duly issued ; and gene- 
rally Jasper Yeates and Richard Halliwell, especially of late 
years, have been two of the number that have filled them ; 
nor did they refuse the office. But several times, 'tis true, 
when it has been thought these Courts could scarce possible 
have failed of being held, yet by some unexpected accident, 
occasioned entirely by the judges themselves, they have often 
very strangely been put off, the design in which, tho' never 
once suspected before, now largely appears." And the Secre- 
tary proceeds to speak of " the reiterated endeavours used by 
Richard Halliwell and Robert French to prevent the holding 
of any Courts at all at New Castl These men have for this 
reason been put out of commission, and have again been re- 
commended by the rest as fitly qualified by their experience 
to serve the country. . . . He needs not information of 
Richard Halli well's unworthy endeavours to prevent the hold- 
ing of a Court in November last, at New Castle ; or of Robert 
French's soliciting to be in the Commission for the Orphans' 
Court ; and yet as often as it was appointed, still found a pre- 
tence to be absent to prevent its sitting ; notwithstanding all 
which, among the very last names sent up for the Commission 
for Kent County, he has got himself recommended for a Jus- 
tice there, where he has reason, since Captain Rodney's death, 
to hope he may be able to do the most considerable mischief, 
for in New Castle he can do no more." One of the grounds 
of opposition of the inhabitants of the Lower Counties to 
the Proprietary Government, referred to by Secretary Logan, 
was dislike of William Penn's religion, most of the residents 
in the Territories being either adherents of the Establishment, 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Jasper Yeates. 215 

or dissenters of other creeds. This was notoriously the case 
with Jasper Yeates. He was one of the original members, 
and, probably, one of the earliest Vestrymen of Christ Church 
in Philadelphia, his name being appended to a letter, dated 
January 18, 1796-7, borne by Col. Robert Quarry* to Gov. 
Francis Nicholson, in acknowledgment of his " Excellency's 
extraordinary bounty and liberality in assisting to build the 
Church," and desiring that the condition of the parish be 
commended to the attention of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, f In 1699 he resisted the application of David Lloyd 
to the Lieutenant-Governor and Council for the privilege of 
laying out and building a town upon " a parcel of land at 
Chester, called the Green," on the ground that it was "Church 
land, and appropriated by a donation to that use forever," it 
having been granted, at a very early period, for the use of the 
Swedes' minister. And when the objection -to the title was 
removed by a release from William Penn, he purchased the 
spot from Mr. Lloyd, the endorsement of the deed describing 
it as lying before his door.J Mr. Yeates was one of the first 
Vestrymen of St. Paul's Congregation at Chester, his zeal in 
founding which Church has already been spoken of in the 
account of his father-in-law. In Humphreys's "Historical 
Account of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts," " Mr. Jasper Yeates and Mr. James Sandelands," his 
brother-in-law, " two worthy Gentlemen of Chester," are said 
to " deserve particular mention ; they were the principal 
promoters of the building of this Church." In the Rev. 

* One of the gentlemen authorized by the crown, with Mr. Yeates, to 
administer the oaths of office to the Governors of Pennsylvania. He was 
Governor of South Carolina in 1684 and 1690, and afterwards Judge of the 
Admiralty in New York and Pennsylvania. He was a Member of the 
Council of five Governments at one time : New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, and Virginia. 

t The letter is given among Perry's " Papers relating to the History of 
the Church in Pennsylvania," pp. 5-7, a volume which contains several 
communications from Mr. Yeates with regard to the Church at Chester. 

t See Minutes of the Provincial Council, May 15, 1699 ; and " Record of 
Upland Court," Note B, pp. 200 et seq. ; as well as Dr. Smith's " History 
of Delaware County," and Martin's " Chester," in locis. 

216 Descendants of Joran Kyn Mary Sandelands. 

George Keith's " Journal of Travels from ETew Hampshire to 
Caratuck on the Continent of North America"* occurs this 
entry : "August 3, 1703, 1 preached in the Church at Chester 
. . . and had a considerable Auditory : We were kindly 
entertained at the house of Mr. Jasper Yeates there." The 
Church at NQW Castle, of which mention is made in one of 
Logan's letters to Penn just quoted, was erected in 1703, and 
called Immanuel, and Mr. Yeates's name appears in the ear- 
liest lists of Vestrymen of that parish extant. Towards the 
close of his life Mr. Yeates removed to a plantation near the 
town of New Castle, and here he resided until the period of 
his death. He left a valuable estate, both real and personal, 
and made his will, disposing of it, February 6, 1718-19, an 
instrument which was admitted to probate, at ISTew Castle, 
May 2, 1720.f Mrs. Yeates survived her husband, by whom 
she had six children: 

41. JAMES, still living January 26, 1712, the date of a letter addressed to 

him by his father, recorded at New Castle. 
2. GEORGE, b. April 5, 1695; m. Mary Donaldson. 

43. ANN, b. December 27, 1697 ; m. George McCall. 

44. MARY, b. December 4, 1701 ; m. Samuel Carpenter. 

45. JOHN, b. May 1, 1705 ; m. Elizabeth Sidebotham. 

46. JASPER, b. June 22, 1708 ; d. s. p. before February, 1768. 

14. MARY SANDELANDS, S daughter of James and Ann (Keen) 
Sandelands, was born at Upland, and married in 1693-4 Mau- 
rice Trent, "of the Province of Pennsylvania, mariner,":): who 

* London, 1706, p. 73. Mr. Keith is the preacher who created a division 
in the Society of Friends, and, being disowned as a member, returned to 
England, and took orders in the Established Church. 

f A fac-simile of Mr. Yeates's signature is given in Dr. Smith's " History 
of Delaware County." 

J In " The Model of the Government of the Province of East New Jersey 
in America," by George Scot, published at Edinburgh in 1685, occurs a letter 
addressed to Maurice Trent, by Patrick Falconer, dated " Elizabeth Toun 
in East Jersey, the 28th of October, 1684." And in a deed recorded at 
Philadelphia mention is made of a sale, July 2-3, 1680, by Edward Byllynge 
and others, of " one full, equal, and undivided Ninetyeth Part of West New 
Jersey" to " Maurice Trent, late of Leith in Scotland, Merchant, and Hector 
Allen, late of Preston Panns in Scotland, Mariner," both deceased by No- 


Descendants of Jbran Kyn Robert French. 217 

died by October 7, 1697, when letters of administration on 
his estate were granted to his widow. Soon after the latter 
married Robert French, a native of Scotland, and a merchant 
"of the Town and County of New Castle upon Delaware," 
possessed of numerous large tracts of land in this and the 
adjoining county of Kent. Mr. French was a gentleman of 
' prominence in the Government of the Lower Counties on our 
river, and copies of letters addressed to him by William Penn 
are still preserved. One of these, dated "Philada. 12 Mo. 
1699-1700," incloses "a writ for y e County of New Castle to 
return their Representatives for a Council & Assembly." An- 
other, written about the same time, is as follows: 

" Jn Donaldson, "| 

Rob* ffrench, V "Loving fr dl : 

Cornel" 8 Empson, J 

Being informed that there are Several Pirates, or p'sons so 
suspected lately landed below, on this and t'other side of the 
River, & that some hover about New Castle, full of Gold, 
These are to desire you to use your utmost Endeavour and 
Diligence in discovering and app'hending all such p'sons as 
you may know or hear of that may be so suspected, according 
to my Proclamation, issued at my Arrival, & of such as you 
shall discover or app'hend give immediate Notice unto me, 
who am, Yo r Loving ffr d , 

WM. PENN."* 

vember 4, 1721. It does not seem improbable that these Maurice Trents 
may be the same, and identical with, or of the family of, the one who mar- 
ried Mary Sandelands, as well as related to William Trent, from whom the 
city of Trenton, New Jersey, derives its name, who was Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Member of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, 
Speaker of the Assemblies of both Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and at 
his death, in 1724, Chief-Justice of New Jersey. The laUer gentleman 
called one of his sons Maurice. 

* Both of these letters are given in " Pennsylvania Archives," vol. i. pp. 
126 and 128. It was Mr. Donaldson's daughter who married George, son of 
Jasper and Catharine (Sandelands) Yeates. Cornelius Empson was a Judge 
of the Supreme Court of the Province, and one of the Justices of the Peace for 
New Castle County, which he sometimes represented in the General Assembly. 

VOL. in. 15 

218 Descendants of Joran Kyn Eobert French. 

Mr. French was chosen a Member of the Provincial Council 
from New Castle County in January, 1699-1700, a position 
which he also filled in 1707; and August 20, 1701, he was 
commissioned Associate-Justice of the Provincial Court of 
Pennsylvania. He was elected a Representative of New 
Castle County in the General Assembly of the Province in 
October, 1700, and actively participated in the movements of 
the Lower Counties during the two succeeding years, related 
in the account of Jasper Yeates, which resulted in the divi- 
sion of the Assemblies under the Proprietary Government. 
After this event Mr. French frequently sat in the Assembly 
of the Territories. He was one of the leaders in the endeav- 
our to achieve independency of the Provincial Government, 
which culminated in 1709 in the appeal to the authorities in 
Great Britain, already mentioned. Like the rest of his con- 
nections he appears to have been a member of the Church of 
England, and was, doubtless, one of the founders of Imman- 
uel Church, at New Castle on the Delaware. The following 
entry, pertaining to him, is recorded in the Rev. Mr. Keith's 
"Journal," cited above: "July 29, 1703. We came from 
thence* to New Castle, by Delaware River, and were kindly 
entertained at the House of Mr. Robert French, some Days." 
Mr. French's will is dated at New Castle, January 23, 1712, 
and is quite voluminous, affording a noteworthy glimpse of 
this excellent gentleman's character. After disposing of his 
several plantations in full accord with colonial conceptions of 
the claims of primogeniture, he proceeds to speak of his only 
" son now at Schoole in the Town of Chester" in terms which 
indicate the highest estimate of the benefits of superior edu- 
cation very unusual in the infant colony. "I desire," he says, 
" he may be kept at that or Some other Schoole untill he at- 
taine what Gramaticall this Government Can aford him,& if he 
be of a Genious, & have Good Inclinations to Learning, I de- 
sire he may be sent to the University of Glasgow, in North 

" The Manner, by Bohemia River, where we lodged, and were kindly 
entertained by the Master of the House, who was a German," probably 
Caspar Hermans, son of Aogustyn Hermans, and father of Ephraim Augus- 
tine Herman, who married Isabella Trent. 


Descendants of Jbran Kyn Robert French. 219 

Brittaine, & there placed under a Severe and pious Tutor 
Untill he acquire at Least four Years accademicall Learning, 
& as he is fitt for a divine or Phisitian I desire he may betake 
himselfe accordingly, & if the Incomes of what is Left him 
& personall Estate will not support the Charge I doe order 
that the Plantation in fforest of Jonses Containing five hun- 
dred acres of land be sold to doe it, & if that be not Enough 
then the one halfe of Eight hundred acres near to Caleb offlys, 
& if that be not Enough then five hundred acres of the Land 
Called the partnership or Mill !N"eck in Kent County, but noe 
more to be Sold than what needs Must." In case of the fail- 
ure of lineal and collateral heirs he wills that his property 
" descend to the use of the poor" in the counties of Kent and 
New Castle, and " particularly for the erecting of a school & 
maintaining a schoolmaster for teaching poor children in Each 
of the said Counties." He appoints his wife and only son 
executors, and his " well respected friend and Contrey Man, 
Andrew Hamilton, of Chester river in Mary Land, Gent.,"* 
and his brother, Thomas French, of County Kent, trustees. 
He died in Philadelphia, September 8, 1713, and was interred 
in St. Paul's Church at Chester. f James Logan thus speaks 
of him in a letter to William Penn, written that day: 
" Rob't ffrench is this day carried from hence to be buried. 
He has been long ill, and died here last night. His Death 
will be a Loss to us, for tho' once he was very troublesome,^ 

* The eminent lawyer of that name, afterwards Member of the Provincial 
Council and Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, Prothonotary and Recorder 
of the City of Philadelphia, Judge of the Vice- Admiralty, and Speaker of the 
Assembly, for a good account of whom see " The Historical Magazine," 
Second Series, vol. iv. pp. 49-59. 

t The inscription on his tombstone (the oldest but one in St. Paul's 
Churchyard) is as follows: " Pcobert French obt. Sept. the 8th, 1713." 
" It is cut," says Mr. Martin (" Chester," p. 129), " upon an ordinary slab of 
syenite, six feet long, and three and a half feet wide, and is made the step- 
ping-stone from the front gateway of the present church-edifice." 

% Robert Proud, indeed, accuses him, in " The History of Pennsylvania," 
vol. i. pp. 468-9, of having been, with Governor John Evans, a chief promoter 
of the noted false alarm of an attack on Hore Kill and New Castle by the 
French, which caused consternation amonir the peaceful inhabitants of Phila- 
delphia during the May fair of 1706. According, however, to a letter of 

220 Descendants of Joran Kyn Robert Gordon. 

yet, like "Win. Rodney, before his Decease his heart seem'd 
turn'd, & he appear'd a cordial WeUwisher to thee & thy 
Interest."* After the death of her second husband Mrs. 
French married (Immanuel Church Register, New Castle, 
Delaware), February 17, 1714-15, Robert Gordon, who was 
commissioned by Governor Patrick Gordon Chief-Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the Lower Counties upon Delaware, 
July 25, 1726, and April 20, 1727, Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the Lower Counties, and Justice of the Peace for 
the County of New Castle, and October 26, of the following 
year, succeeded Colonel John French, kinsman of Robert 
French, as " Register of the Probate of Wills" for the same 
County .f Mr. Gordon was one of thirty gentlemen, who re- 
presented the Territories in signing the u Proclamation of 
King George the Second, at New Castle upon Delaware," 
September 4, 17274 Mrs. Gordon was still living April 18, 
1728, when Mr. Gordon is described as " of the Town of New 
Castle upon Delaware, Gentleman," and she is, possibly, the 
lady referred to in a letter from Robert Gordon to Governor 
John Penn (" I have sent up by my Wife some old Drafts and 
warants"), dated New Castle, 5th March, 1739-40. 

Samuel Preston to Jonathan Dickinson, dated three days after the fright 
(contained in "The Penn and Logan Correspondence," vol. ii. p. 121), the 
main accomplice in contriving this worse than foolish test of the quality of 
Quaker principles was Colonel John French, for many years Member of the 
Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, whom Robert French calls " kinsman" 
in his will, and whom Mr. Preston describes, rather splenetically, perhaps, 
as " clothed with more titles than I know how to name, but amounting to 
the Governour's vicegerent or representative" at New Castle. See, also, a 
letter of James Logan to William Penn, ibid. p. 309. 

* " Pennsylvania Archives," Second Series, vol. vii. p. 39. 

t The last-mentioned office was conferred upon him notwithstanding a claim 
set up for it by Peter Evans under colour of a patent from William Penn, 
and out of regard, apparently, to a letter signed by ten of the Justices of 
the Peace for New Castle County, desiring the appointment of a " fit person 
of Capacity living and residing among" them. See " Minutes of the Pro- 
vincial Council of Pennsylvania," .as well as " Pennsylvania Archives," vol. 
i. pp. 234-5. 

% " Pennsylvania Archives," vol. i. p. 204. 

j Printed in " Pennsylvania Archives," Second Series, vol. vii. pp. 218-19. 

Descendants of Joran Kyn David French. 221 

By her first husband, Maurice Trent, Mary Sandelands had 
two children : 

47. ISABELLA, m. Ephraim Augustine Herman. 

48. ELEANOR, m. John Hore. 

By her second husband, Robert French, she had five chil- 
dren : f 


49. DAVID, the son referred to in his father's will cited abov% He seems 

to have pursued his studies with good success, and at an early age 
exhibited that rarest talent among the colonists on our river, a true 
genius for poetry. A few of his verses, fortunately, have been pre- 
served to us through the appreciative care of a brother-poet of a 
later period, Mr. John Parke, " an officer of Washington's army, 
and a gentleman of classical acquirements and cultivated taste," 
" translations," says the latter, " from the Greek and Latin, which 
were consigned to oblivion, through the obliterating medium of 
rats and moths, under the sequestered canopy of an antiquated 
trunk ; written, between the years 1718 and 1730, by the learned 
and facetious David French, Esq., late of the Delaware Counties."* 
They are renderings of the 8th Elegy of the First Book of Ovid 
" de Tristibus," and the 3d of the Third Book, and of the 1st, 4th, 

* " The Lyric Works of Horace, Translated into English Verse : To which 
are added a Number of Original Poems. By a Native of America. Phila- 
delphia: Printed by Eleazar Oswald, at the Coffee House. MDCCLXXXVI." 
Preface. The late Joshua Francis Fisher, Esq., of our city, in " Some Ac- 
count of the Early Poets and Poetry of Pennsylvania" (" Memoirs of the 
Historical Society," vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 59), in speaking of Mr. French's verses, 
says : " Some of them were written as early as 1718, and are, therefore, 
amongst the earliest, as they are of the best, colonial poetry we are likely 
to discover. They are undoubtedly the composition of a man of learning 
and of taste. They discover a familiar acquaintance with the classical 
authors, and are so elegant and fluent in their style, that we cannot but be- 
lieve Mr. French to have been a practised writer of English poetry. Fame, 
however, has been for once unjust, and posterity has none of his original 
verses to admire." The Messrs. Duyckinck, in their " Cyclopedia of Ameri- 
can Literature," vol. i. p. 116, affirm that " the smoothness and elegance of 
the versification [of Mr. French's poems] testify to the accomplished scholar- 
ship of the writer." Mr. Fisher falls into the error of presuming David 
French to have been the son of Colonel John French, of New Castle, a 
relative elsewhere referred to, but takes the precaution to qualify his con- 
jecture with a particle denoting doubt. This word is omitted by the Messrs. 
Duyckinck, as well as by Mr. S. Austin Allibone in quoting from them in his 
"Dictionary of Authors," whose works, therefore, both perpetuate the 
blunder as a fact 

222 Descendants of Jo ran Kyn David French. 

llth, 12th, and 26th Odes of Anacreon, and are both literal and 
graceful. Mr. French does not appear to have devoted himself to 
either of the professions proposed to him in his father's last testa- 
ment, but preferred the career of lawyer, and July 25, 1726, at a 
very youthful age, he was commissioned Attorney-General for the 
Lower Counties on the Delaware. He signed the Proclamation of 
King George II. at New Castle the following year, and October 
26, 1728, succeeded his cousin. Colonel John French, as " Clerk of 
the Peace and Prothonotary of the Court of Common Pleas" for 
the County of New Castle. At the Meeting of Council, at which 
the latter honour was conceded him, the highest encomium possible 
was bestowed upon the mode in which he had discharged the duties 
of his former post ; for, when the Governor was about to name 
some one to take his place as Attorney-General, " the Board ob- 
served that as the due Prosecution of Criminals tends very much 
to the Reputation of a Government, & that the present Attorney- 
General had acquitted himself in that Office to the general Satis- 
faction of the Counties, & was very well qualified for the office now 
to be conferred on him, it might not be improper to continue him 
Attorney-General for some time, & that, if another is appointed, 
Mr. French would undertake to assist him in the Public Prosecu- 
tions." The lucrative office of Prothonotary he retained for the 
rest of his life. Mr. French was also elected Member and Speaker 
of the Assembly of the Lower Counties. In 1740, in company with 
Clement Plumsted* and Samuel Chew,f Esquires, and Col. Levin 
Gale,J he received " a Commission, issued out of his Majesties high 

* A prominent merchant of Philadelphia, Alderman and Mayor of the 
City, Justice of the Peace for the County of Philadelphia, and for many 
years Member of the Provincial Council and General Assembly of Penn. 
sylvania, a relative of Clement Plumsted, of London, one of the Twenty-four 
Proprietors of East Jersey. His son William married a descendant of 
Joran Kyn. 

f Doctor Samuel Chew, son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Benson) Chew, 
of "Maidstone," near West River, Maryland, afterwards of Philadelphia, 
and finally of Dover, County Kent, appointed in 1741 Chief-Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the Lower Counties on Delaware. He was the father of 
Benjamin Chew, Recorder of Philadelphia, and Attorney-General and the 
last Chief- Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania. For a brief account of 
him see " THE PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE," vol. i. p. 472. 

J Son of George Gale, who was born in Kent County, England, in 1670, 
and settled in Maryland in 1690, where he died in August, 1712. Colonel 
Gale was a Member of the Legislature of Maryland for Somerset County in 
1728 and 1734, and was one of the two Commissioners appointed by Governor 
Samuel Ogle, of Maryland, who ran the famous " temporary line" of 1739 

Descendants of Joran Kyn David French. 223 

and honourable Court of Chancery in England, for the Examination 
of Witnesses in the Province of Pennsylvania and the three lower 
Counties of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex," in the highly import- 
ant cause of Penn v. Lord Baltimore, which determined the bound- 
aries of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. His will is dated 
August 16, 1742, his brother in-law, John Finney, and his friend, 
John Legate, Esq., of New Castle, being named executors. He 
died, unmarried, a few days afterwards, and was buried " by the 
side of his father" in St. Paul's Church, Chester, Pa., the 25th of 
the same month. The following obituary notice of him is to be 
found in " The Pennsylvania Gazette" for August 26, 1742 : " Phila- 
delphia. The beginning of this Week died at New Castle, David 
French, Esq. ; late Speaker of the Assembly of that Government, 
&c. A young Gentleman of uncommon Parts, Learning and 
Probity, join'd with the most consummate Good-Nature ; and 
therefore universally beloved and regretted. The Corps was 
brought up to*Chester, and yesterday interred in the Church there, 
the Funeral being attended by many Gentlemen, his Friends, from 
this City." 

50. CATHARINE, m. John Shannon. 

51. ANNE, m. Nicholas Ridgely. 

52. ELIZABETH, m. John Finney. 

53. MART, m. James Gardner. 

between the Provinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania. (See " Old Kent," 
by George A. Hanson, M. A., Baltimore, 1876, and " Pennsylvania Ar- 
chives," and " Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania," in locis.) 


Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

BURIALS, 1709-1760. 


(Continued from page 106.) 

July 21, 
June 8, 
Sept. 2, 
June 2, 
Dec. 14, 
Aug. 8, 
Feb. 13, 
Sept. 17, 
Oct. 3, 
July 12, 
Mar. 28, 
Sept. 5, 
Oct. 7, 
June 21, 
Oct. 3, 
Aug. 25, 
Jan. 29, 

1754. Elves, 
1709. Elwood, 

1743. Emerson, 

1745. Emmerson, 

1743. Enis, 

1731. Ennis, 
1740. Erwin, 
1745. " 
1746-7. " 
1747. " 
1751. " 

1755. " 
1735. Esman, 
1713. Evans, 
1719-20. " 

Oct. 12,1721. 

Feb. 26,1725-6. 
Oct. 5, 1727. 
Dec. 8, 1727. 
Aug. 31, 1728. 
Feb. 25,1730-1. 
April 26, 1731. 
Sept. 11, 1731. 
Nov. 6, 1733. 
May 10,1738. 

Aug. 17, 1743. 
Sept. 4, 1743. 
May 14,1745. 
Aug. 2,1746. 
Jan. 4, 1746-7. 

Deborah, wife of Capt. Henry. 

Sarah, wife of Richard. 

Elizabeth, wife of Thomas. 

Sarah, wife of Lambert. 


Lydia, dau. of James. 

Rebecca, dau. of James. 

Susannah, dau. of James. 


Sarah, dau. of John. 

John, son of John. 

Malachi, son of John. 

Alexander, son of John. 

dau. of John. 

Sarah. [Martha. 

William, son of William and 
Mary, dau. of Peter and Mary. 

The Rev. Dr. [Evan] died ye 

10th, aged 60 years. 

Martha, dau. of Stephen. 

Peter, son of Mr. Peter. 
Theodosia, dau. of Mary. 

Mary. Strangers' Ground. 
Mary, wife of Peter. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Evan and 


Elizabeth, dau. of John. 
Isaac, son of John. 
Peter, Esq. 
David, son of David. 
Evan, son of John. 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


Feb. 17, 
July 26, 
Feb. 3, 
Sept. 10, 
Aug. 3, 
Jan. 17, 
Sept. 5, 
June 14, 
July 20, 
April 18, 
Nov. 11, 
Nov. 27, 
Oct. 6, 
May 31, 
Nov. 7, 
July 22, 
Mar. 14, 
May 19, 
Nov. 13, 
April 9, 
Feb. 15, 

1746-7. Evans, 
1747. " 
1747-8. " 

1749. " 

1750. " 
1750-1. " 

1751. " 
1756. " 
1756. " 
1751. Eve, 

1756. " 

1721-2. Evett, 
1731. Evitt, 
1754. Ewing, 
1736. Ewins, 
1711-12. Eyer, 




Oct. 6, 1716. Eyers, 
Dec. 21, 1729. Eyres, 
Oct. 18, 1715. Eyris, 

April 24, 1739. 


Jan. 19,1746-7 


Jan. 26,1752. 


Nov. 4, 1756. 


May 3, 1718. 


Jan. 5, 1752. 


April 26, 1749. 


July 23,1752. 


Feb. 11,1755. 


June 14, 1756. 


Aug. 10, 1759. 


Oct. 31,1733. 


July 12,1750. 


Aug. 29, 1754. 


Nov. 10,1756. 


Nov. 1, 1745. 


Sept. 7, 1747. 


April 5,1748. 


Elizabeth, wife of John. 

Sophia, dau. of Lewis. 

Martha, wife of Lewis. 


Lewis, son of James. 


Susannah, wife of James. 



Anne, dau. of Oswald. 

dau. of Oswald. 

son of Os well. 

Mary, dau. of Oswald. 
Mary, dau. of John. 
John, son of James. 
Oswald, son of Oswald. 



Susannah, wife of John. Poor. 

Charles, son of John and Su- 

Edward, son of John and Su- 

John. [sannah. 

John, son of John and Susan- 

Mary. From widow Johns. 
Mary, dau. of Henry. 

son of Henry. 

Ann, dau. of Thomas and Eli- 

Mary, wife of William. 
John, son of William. 
Mary, dau. of Lester. 
Mary, dau. of William. 

dau. of William. 

Mary, dau. of William. 


Isaac, son of Isaac. 

Isaac, son of Isaac. 


Mary, wife of Dr. Richard. 

Anne, dau. of Doctor Richard. 

John, son of Doctor Richard. 


Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

July 30, 
Aug. 10, 
Oct. 17, 
Oct. 6, 
Aug. 2, 
Jan. 11, 
Oct. 12, 
Dec. 12, 
Nov. 12, 
July 20, 
Mar. 28, 
Oct. 1, 
June 17, 
Jan. 6, 
Aug. 28, 
Nov. 6, 
April 1, 
July 1, 
July 7, 
Sept. 6, 
Mar. 2, 
Oct. 26, 
Mar. 10, 
Oct. 13, 
April 17, 
June 1 , 
May 16, 
Sept. 13, 
May 26, 
Nov. 16, 
May 25, 
June 28, 
Aug. 25, 
Feb. 7, 
Aug. 7, 
Feb. 12, 
Aug. 20, 
Feb. 3, 








































. Faro, 






, Feagan, 







. Fetters, 


. Ffaro, 









. Finley, 

. Fisher, 

July 9, 1727. 
Feb. 9, 1737-8. 
July 15, 1742. 
Aug. 26, 1743. 
Aug. 14, 1744. 
Aug. 6,1747. 
June 9, 1748. 

Isaac, son of Edward. 
Susannah, dau. of Edward. 

John, son of the Widow. 

Mary Ann, dau. of Canida. 
William, son of William. 
Martha, dau. of Samuel. 
John Rudolph. 
James, son of William. 
Lester, son of Lester. 
John, son of Thomas. Swedes' 
Bazil. [Ground. 

Abraham, son of Thomas. 
Elizabeth, wife of John. 
Mary, dau. of Robert. 

Doctor John. 

Right, son of Samuel. 
John. Mariner from Ireland. 
Elizabeth, dau. of John. 
John, son of Thomas. 

Rachel, wife of Robert. 
Mary, dau. of Edward and Eli- 
Edward, [zabeth. 
John, son of Daniel. 

Rachel, dau. of Charles. 
William, son of Edward and 


Sarah, dau. of Thomas and Eli- 
Elizabeth, [zabeth. 
Mary, dau. of William. 
Margret, wife of Thomas. 
Sarah, dau. of William. 
John, son of Thomas. 
John, soil of William. 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


May 9, 
Feb. 9, 
April 13, 
June 29, 
Aug. 12, 
Aug. 25, 
Feb. 9, 
July 6, 
Jan. 26, 
Feb. 28, 
Nov. 25, 
Nov. 27, 
May 6, 
Oct. 10, 
Jan. 13, 
July 25, 
Aug. 2, 
June 2, 
Jan 7, 
June 6, 
Dec. 13, 
July 4, 
Aug. 7, 
May 2, 
April 5, 
Mar. 11, 
Nov. 28, 
Aug. 15, 
Dec. 10, 
Aug. 26, 
Feb. 15, 
Sept. 30, 
April 7, 
Nov. 25, 
Jan. 21, 
June 7, 
June 16, 
Aug. 12, 
Feb. 25, 
Nov. 13, 
Aug. 20, 
Oct. 11, 
Oct. 15, 
Mar. 26, 
Aug. 12, 
Oct. 24, 

1750. Fisher, 
1750-1. " 

1751. " 
1756. " 
1756. " 

1758. " 

1756. Fitchet, 

1757. " 
1734-5. Fitzakerlin, 
1736. " 

1736. " 

1737. Fitzharris, 

1738. " 
1741-2. " 

1746. Fitz Harris, 

1752. * 
1731. Fitzpatrick, 
1723-4. Fizy, 

1741. Flahanan, 
1752. Fleason, 

1742. Fleesou, 

1747. " 
1752. " 
1712. Fleming, 
1725-6. " 
1728. " 
1733. " 
1728. Flemming, 
1747. " 
1750-1. " 
1756. " 
1736. Fletcher, 

1759. " 
1746-7. Fling, 

1752. " 

1752. " 

1753. " 
1756. " 

1758. " 

1759. " 
1759. " 
1734-5. Flood, 

1751. " 


Mary, wife of Thomas. 


wife of Thomas. 

dau. of Thomas. 

dau. of Samuel. 

Mary, wife of Thomas. 



Henry, son of Henry. 

Ann, dau. of Henry. 

Mary, dau. of Henry. 

Sylvester, son of John. 

John, son of John. 

Jonas, son of John. 

Peter, son of John. 


Hugh, son of Hugh. 



Catharine, wife of Plunket. 

William, son of Plunket. 

James, son of Plunket. 

William, son of Plunket. 

Patrick. [Hannah. 

Thomas, son of Thomas and 

Benjamin, son of Thomas. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Daniel. 


Hester, dau. of Merchall. 

Robert, son of Michael. 

dau. of Michael. 

Elizabeth, dau. of John. 


Mary, dau. of Matthew. 

George, son of Owen. 

Marbe, wife of George. 

John, son of John. 




Robert, son of John. 

John, son of John. 

Anthony, son of Patrick. 

Samuel, son of Patrick. 

Septimus, son of Patrick. 


Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

July 29,1736. 


Oct. 13,1736. 


Dec. 13,1726. 


July 17, 1742. 


Oct. 11,1736. 


Aug. 13, 1759. 


Aug. 23, 1751. 


Aug. 23, 1751. 


Jan. 26,1752. 


Mar. 10,1759. 


Oct. 13,1739. 


Jan. 29,1750-1 


Aug. 30, 1752. 


Feb. 1, 1754. 


June 24, 1755. 


April 3, 1752. 


July 21,1747. 


June 26, 1752. 


Aug. 31, 1757. 


Sept. 12, 1710. 


Aug. 26, 1714. Fortune, 
Oct. 28,1717. " 























13, 1736. 

3, 1732. 
10, 1735-6, 
19, 1752. 
14, 1759. 
29, 1759. 

9, 1711. 

5, 1710. 

1, 1738. 
26, 1745. 
23, 1747. 

3, 1742. 

5, 1742-3 
29, 1743. 
11, 1748. 

7, 1749. 
29, 1756. 

2, 1750-1 

1, 1752. 

2, 1756. 
16, 1758. 
22, 1736. 











Mary, dau. of Joseph. 

Joseph, son of Joseph. Swedes' 

Heugh. [Ground. 

Edmund, son of James. 

Capt. David. 

John, son of Joseph. 

Mary, dau. of Alexander. 

Anne, dau. of Alexander. 



Richard. Beg'd. 



Mary Ann, dau. of John. 

wife of William. 


Joseph, son of George. 


son of Thomas. 

Ann, dau. of William and 

Mary. [Mary. 

Mary, dau. of William and 
Lydia, dau. of William and 


Elizabeth, wife of William. 
John, son of James. 
William, son of James. 
Ann, wife of Marmaduke. 

dau. of Thomas. 


Eleanor, wife of Henry. 

Benjamin, son of Michael. 

George, son of Michael. 

Thomas, son of Michael. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Anthony. 

Samuel, son of John. 

Henry, son of John. 

John, son of John. 



John, son of Tench, Esq. 

Samuel, son of George. 

son of Thomas. 


Francis, son of Benjamin. 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


Feb. 7, 
Mar. 26, 
July 7, 
July 23, 
Nov. 28, 
Oct. 6, 
Oct. 5, 
Nov. 17, 
Dec. 19, 
Aug. 1, 
Sept. 14, 
July 21, 
April 25, 
April 21, 
April 29, 
Nov. 20, 
April 12, 
Jan. 22, 
Oct. 19, 
Aug. 12, 
Nov. 13, 
Nov. 18, 
Mar. 24, 
April 10, 
Feb. 21, 

1748-9. Franks, 
1734-5. Frassier, 
1734. Frazier, 
1754. " 
1744. Frederick, 
1750. " 

1720. Freek, 

1721. Freeman, 

1721. " 
1733. " 
1757. " 
1752. Freestone, 
1733. French, 
1748. " 
1748. " 

1747. Fresh, 
1740. Fretfrell, 
1741-2. " 

1722. Frogby, 
1733. Frost, 

1748. Fudge, 
1748. " 
1759. " 
1731. Fuller, 
1733-4. " 


















10, 1717. 
10, 1717. 
16, 1727. 
8, 1735. 
27, 1738. 
19, 1741. 

22, 1746. 
16, 1755. 
13, 1755. 

23, 1723. 
13, 1746. 

3, 1748. 
25, 1748. 
26, 1734. 
14, 1759. 
26, 1741. 
22, 1736. 

2, 1753. 










George, son of William. 

Hannah, wife of William. 


George, son of John. 

Elizabeth, dau. of John. 




Mrs. Mary. 


John, son of John. 

Joseph, son of Nathaniel. 

Sarah, wife of John. 



Ralph, son of Edward. 



Francis, son of John. 

George, son of George. 




Elizabeth, alias By water, poor. 



Harriss, son of Nicholas. 

Sarah, dau. of Nicholas. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Levan. 

Aries, son of Nicholas. 

Elinor, dau. of Nicholas. 



Daniel. From Jamaica. 

Jane, wife of Peter. 


Anne, dau. of ye widow. 

Jeremiah. Strangers' Ground. 

son of John. 

Ann. [wald's. 

Elizabeth. From Capt. Os- 
John, son of Thomas. 

(To be continued.) 

230 Notes and Queries. 


INNS IN THE OLDEN TIMES. Many of our old-fashioned country inns are 
still used; but, alas! their glory has departed. How well I remember 
"Thurlow's," in the days of its busy greatness; well I remember how, when 
I was a boy, I lingered near its hospitable doors to see the handsome horses 
of the Reeside, Stockton & Stokes, Murdock & Sharp, and Janvier's rival 
lines of stage coaches changed, the smoking steeds detached by active 
hostlers, and the new relay of well-groomed horses substituted, and saw the 
"Stage driver," an important mau in those days, with his great coat of many 
capes, and long whip ; the well-dressed travellers sauntering about, talking 
and smoking after their meal, waiting for the stage. Oft have I peeped into 
the small, clean bar-room, in the centre of which stood a large coal stove (in 
winter) in a large sand box, that served as a huge spittoon. In one corner 
of the room stood a semicircular bar, with its red railings reaching to the 
ceiling, into whose diminutive precincts the jolly landlady could scarcely get 
her buxom person, while her husband, with his velveteen shooting-coat, with 
its large buttons and its many pockets, excited my intense admiration. At 
his heels there were always two or three handsome setter dogs, of the finest 
breed, and well trained. Sometimes I got a glimpse of the southwest room. 
This was the parlor ; back of it was a room where travellers wrote their 
letters ; and back of the bar was a cosy little room, mine hostess' sanctum, 
into which only special friends were admitted. All these are now one large 
American bar-room. 

In reading accounts of the old English inns of coaching days, my mind 
involuntarily reverts to "Thurlow's," for there on the walls were hanging 
the quaint old coaching and hunting prints imported from England, and 
around the house was " Boots," and the " Hostler," and the " pretty Waiting 
maid with rosy cheeks." all from Old England. But I must away to school, 
or Caleb Peirce will thrash me. The horses are all hitched, the passengers 
are " all aboard," the driver has taken his seat (the guard is blowing his 
horn, having taken one inside), is gathering up his many reins ; now he feels 
for his whip, flourishes it over his four-in-hand, making a graceful curve with 
its lash, but taking care not to touch his horses ; but does it with a report 
like a rifle shot, the hostlers jump aside, and with a bound and a rush, the 
coach is off for Washington or Philadelphia, carrying perchance within it 
Clay, Webster, or Calhoun. 

And of a winter's evening when I have stolen out from home, I have 
passed the " Tavern," and seen seated around its cheerful fire the magnates 
of the town, telling stories of other days (as I now could tell their names). 
And sometimes peeping through the green blinds, I have seen a quiet game 
of whist going on ; perhaps it was " all-fours," or else a game of checkers 
or dominoes, but now such things are out of date, or else the times are out 
of joint, and the good old days of Adam and of Eve have passed away for- 
ever. From John Hill Martin's History of Chester. 

quiries having arison regarding the precise location of these pews, a Com- 
mittee of the Vestry was appointed in 1863 by the Rector, Dr. Dorr, con- 

Notes and Queries. 231 

eisting of the two Wardens, Messrs. Edward L. Clark and James C. Booth, 
to inquire into the subject, with a view of having accurately defined their 
localities. These gentlemen gave much examination to the subject, and 
after comparing the church records, and conferring with some members of 
the parish who had either personal knowledge or reliable tradition in the 
matter, made a report, which is as follows, and which has not hitherto been 
made public: 

Wednesday, 17 February, 1864. 

The Committee on ascertaining the position of the Washington and 
Franklin Pews in order that some designating plate might be affixed to the 
same, would respectfully report that they have carefully examined the plans 
and records of the Church, and have arrived at the following conclusions : 

The pew occupied by Dr. Franklin is evidently the one at present num- 
bered 25, centre aisle. On the ground plan of the Church in 1760 it was 
numbered 59, and his name appears in the Pew Books of the Church as a 
renter of three sittings in this pew until the time of his death in 1790. In 
all probability he was an occupant for many years previous to 1760, but as 
the Pew Books are not to be found earlier than that date, the Committee can 
give no data relative to it. His name, however, appears in the minutes of 
vestry as early as 1739, as* showing his interest in the Church at that early 
date. His name then appears as a subscriber to the fund to be raised for the 
purpose of finishing the new church building; and again, in 1751, he sub- 
scribes for building the steeple, and purchasing the bells. In 1752 the Vestry 
appointed him one of thirteen managers of a lottery for raising money to 
finish the steeple, and purchase a chime of bells, and the next year he re- 
ceived a similar appointment from the Vestry. The Committee would, there- 
fore, infer that he occupied the pew during these successive years. In 1790, 
the year of Dr. Franklin's death, the pew was transferred to his son-in-law, 
Richard Bache. 

The pew occupied by General Washington was a large double pew, which 
the Committee consider as embraced in a line comprising the present pews, 
Nos. 13 and 11, centre aisle, extending seven inches into pew No. 9. not in- 
cluding, however, the end of pew No. 11, next to the column which should 
end at the same north line as the pews Nos. 9 and 13, thus forming the 
square pew as occupied by the President. 

The minutes of the Vestry of 26 November, 1790, state that the Com- 
mittee appointed to provide a pew in Christ Church for the President of the 
United States, report that they have obtained a double pew in the middle 
aisle of said Church by the removal of the former occupants. In this busi- 
ness they have promised the several families who have been removed from 
their sittings that they are to be reinstated, whenever the public use, to 
which the said pew is now applied, shall be discontinued. 

The pew was regularly occupied by President Washington and his family 
for the six following years, when, the seat of Government being about to b*e 
transferred to Washington, he withdrew to his residence at Mount Vernon, 
and the pew was thus vacated. 

In 1797 the pew was offered to President Adams, and, as it was but little 
used by him, the following resolution was offered at a meeting of the Vestry 
on the 24th April, 1797. 

" A preamble and resolution were proposed, and laid over till the next 
meeting, to the effect that, as the President's pew will only be occasionally 
occupied by the President of the United States 

"Resolved, That the Right Reverend Dr. White be requested to make use 
of the same, reserving the right of accommodating the President of the 
United States at such times as he shall choose to aiuuu." 

232 Notes and Queries. 

In the minutes of 27th May, 1801, there is another allusion to the pew, 
as follows : 

"A Committee was appointed to take into consideration the circumstances 
of th? pew lately occupied by the President of the United States, in conse- 
quence of the removal of the Seat of Government to Washington, and to 
enquire whether the whole or part of the Pew cannot be reserved for a 
Rector's Pew." 

No further mention appears to be made in the minutes with reference to 
it, but the Pew Books show that the pew was restored soon afterwards to its 
original condition, and occupied as two pews. 

In confirmation of the views of the Committee they present the following 
extract from a report to the Vestry, dated 19 June, 1839, from Thomas 
H. White, son of the Right Reverend Dr. White, which is engrossed in the 
minute book : 

' ' From my earliest recollection our family occupied the pew of my Grand- 
mother Harrison in the North Aisle, during which time I have repeatedly 
heard my father mention his owning one-half of the Pew, Middle Aisle, in 
which Mrs. Morris, his sister, and family sat, his sister owning the other 
half. Adjoining this to the West, a large pew was made for President 
Washington, and this was accomplished by some alteration in the pews lower 
down. I recollect Mr. Dupuy was transferred further off. When General 
Washington ceased to be President, and left the city, at the particular re- 
quest of the Vestry, my father's family occupied the pew, but after some 
years my father, recollecting the promise made to Mr. Dupuy and others that 
when a pew was not wanted for the President of the United States they 
should be restored to their original location, urged the Vestry to do this. It 
was accordingly done, and we then took possession of the pew Mr. Morris 
and family had occupied.' 

" Bishop White's pew as stated in the above report is embraced in the 
pews at present numbered 7 and 9. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

PHILADELPHIA, 17 February, 1864. JAMES C. BOOTH." 

In 1836 the present modern style of pew was substituted for the original 
square or box pew, and numbered, beginning at the eastern end of the middle 
aisle, the uneven numbers running on the north side. Within a few years 

East a new system of numbering was adopted, by which the pews referred to 
i the above report as Nos. 7, 9, 11, and 13, are known as Nos. 52, 54, 56, 
and 58, and the pew then No. 25 is now No. 70. T. H. M. 

YORKTOWN, Jan. 21, 1778. 

Christians always love one another. This is the only apology I shall make 
for troubling you with this letter. The Congress have concluded to detain 
Mr. Burgoyne and his army till the convention is confirmed by the Court of 
Britain. The reasons they intend to give to the public for this measure are 
as follows : 1. He refused to deliver up the accoutrements of his soldiers, 
although by the articles of capitulation, they have ever been included in the 
word arms. 2. He has refused to have a descriptive list taken of his men. 
3. Gen. Carleton has violated the convention by compelling the Canadians 
who returned upon parole to take up arms. It is even suspected, and that 
not without reason, that Burgoyne intended to have sailed for Philadelphia 
instead of Great Britain, and that the 7000 arms lately taken at Wilmington 
were intended for his men. A packet from our Commissioners in France has 
been opened, and the dispatches replaced with blank paper. This State 
trick smells too strong of villany to have been perpetrated any where but 

Notes and Queries. 233 

on the other side of the water. There is as yet a simplicity and stupidity, 
even in the wickedness of the rascals of this country. An American villain 
would have stolen the whole packet, and thereby have given the express an 
opportunity of returning for a duplicate of his dispatches. It is in vain 
now for the Court of Britain to hold out to the world the pacific disposition 
and assurance of the Court of France. The manner of stealing our dis- 
patches (perhaps at a great risque and an enormous expence) shows that 
they placed no dependence upon the declarations of that Court. They have 
acknowledged to the nation and to the whole world that they are a set of 
lyars. I am so deeply persuaded that all things work together for the good 
of our cause, that I have no doubt but the loss of that packet will appear 
hereafter to have been as necessary for the safety and happiness of this 
country, as the loss of Ticonderoga was last summer for the destruction of 
Gen 1 Burgoyne's army. My business in this noisy, crowded town is to re- 
quest a dismission from the hospitals. The Congress will not grant it till I 
point out the abuses which prevail in them. Next Monday is set apart for 
that purpose. I expect, if not banished for the negligence, inhumanity, 
injustice, &c., which have prevailed in our hospitals during the last campaign, 
to retire to a small farm in the neighbourhood of Princetown, where I shall 
remain till I can get batk to Philad*. If I can carry with me a single con- 
tinental dollar, with as much cloathing as will cover my dear wife and boy, 
together with our liberty, I shall be satisfied. One of my marks you know 
of a good Whig is that he must not grow rich during the war. One of yours 
is that he cannot be a good Whig unless he grows poor during the war. I 
shall be a Whig of the first magnitude if measured by your scale. I left 
Mrs. Rush and the whole family of women in good health about three weeks 
ago. They would be happy in a visit from you in the spring. With best 
compliments to Mrs. Searle, I am, my dear friend, your affectionate Hble. 
servant. B. RUSH. 

FRANKLIN AND HUTTON. The following letters written by Benjamin 
Franklin to James Hutton, a well-known book publisher of London, and a 
member of the Moravian Church, are still preserved. It is quite probable 
that these two friends first became personally acquainted in 1757, when 
Franklin was sent to England as agent for the Province of Pennsylvania. 
While on a visit to Germany, in December of 1777, and after his return to 
London in January following, Hutton had been corresponding with Franklin, 
who was then Minister to the Court of France, on the subject of the missions 
of the Moravian Church in America, claiming the protection of the Govern- 
ment ; and, as it appears from many of his letters, endeavoring to bring 
about a reconciliation between the mother country and her colonies. " Any- 
thing short of absolute Independency," writes Hutton, " would almost be 
practicable, and could take place." 

PASSY, 1st February, 1778. 

" MY DEAR OLD FRIEND': You desired, that if I had no proposition to 
make, I would at least give my advice. I think that it is Ariosto who says 
4 that all things lost on earth are to be found in the moon ;' on which some- 
body remarked, 'that there must be a great deal of good advice in the moon.' 
If so, there is a good deal of mine, formerly given and lost in this business. 
I will, however, at your request, give a little more, but without the least 
expectation that it will be followed ; for none but God can at the same time 
give good counsel, and wisdom to make use of it. 

" You have lost by this mad war, and the barbarity with which it has been 
carried on, not only the government and commerce of America, and the 
public revenues and private wealth arising from that commerce ; but what 
is more, you have lost the esteem, respect, friendship, and affection of all 

VOL. in. 16 

234 Notes and Queries. 

that great and growing people, who consider you at present, and whose pos- 
terity will consider you, as the worst and wickedest nation upon earth. A 
peace you may undoubtedly obtain by dropping all your pretensions to 
govern us ; and by your superior skill in huckstering negotiation, you may 
possibly make such an apparently advantageous bargain, as shall be applauded 
in your Parliament ; but if you cannot, with the peace, recover the affections 
of that people, it will not be a lasting nor a profitable one, nor will it afford 
you any part of that strength which you once had by your union with them, 
and might (if you had been wise enough to take advice) have still retained. 

" To recover their respect and affection, you must tread back the step you 
have taken. Instead of honouring and rewarding the American advisers 
and promoters of this war, you should disgrace them ; with all those who 
have inflamed the nation against America by their malicious witness ; and 
all the ministers and generals who have prosecuted the war with such inhu- 
manity. This would show a national change of disposition, and a disappro- 
bation of what had passed. 

" In proposing terms, you should not only grant such as the necessity of 
your affairs may evidently oblige you to grant, but such additional ones as 
may show your generosity, and thereby domonstrate your good will. For 
instance, perhaps you might, by your treaty, retain all Canada, Nova Scotia, 
and the Floridas. But, if you would have a really friendly, as well as able 
ally in America, and avoid all occasion of future discord, which will other- 
wise be continually arising on your American frontiers, you should throw in 
those countries. And you may call it if you please an idemuification for 
the burning of their towns^which indemnification will, otherwise, be some 
time or other demanded. 

" I know your people will not see the utility of such measures, and will 
never follow them, and even call it insolence and impudence in me to mention 
them. I have, however, complied with your desire, and am as ever, 

Your affectionate friend, 


In June, Hutton applied to Franklin for a [Protection] for the mission 
ship Good Intent, on her voyages to and from Labrador, which was readily 
given, accompanied by the following : 

PASSY, 23d June, 1778. 

" My dear old friend has here the paper he desired. We have had a marble 
monument made at Paris for the brave General Montgomery, which is gone 
to America. If it should fall into the hands of any of your cruisers, I ex- 
pect you will exert yourself to get it restored to us, because I know the 
generosity of your temper, which likes to do handsome things, as well as to 
make returns. You see we are unwilling to rob the hospital; and we hope 
your people will be found as averse to pillaging the dead. Adieu. 

Your affectionate friend 


J. W. J. 

some old newspaper files, I have culled the following : 
Lieut. James Collier, of the Pennsylvania Line, d. at Carlisle, Sept. 28, 

Capt. Jeremiah Talbot, of the Pennsylvania Line, d. at Chambersburg, 

Jan. 17, 1791. 
Matthew Irvin, Esq., Master of the Rolls, d. at Lancaster, March 18, 1800, 

aged 59. 

Gen. Thomas Hartley, d. at York, Dec. 21, 1800, aged 52. 
Col. Wm. McFarlane, d. at Big Spring, Cumb. Co., Jan. 29, 1802. 

Notes and Queries. 235 

Robert McKean, son of Gov. McKean, d. at Philadelphia, June 8, 1802. 

Capt. Worsley Ernes, d. at Philadelphia, July 29, 1802. 

Col. Samuel Nelson, of York Co., d. Nov. 8, 1802. 

William Wilson, Esq., Representative in the Pennsylvania Legislature, d. 

. at Lycoming, May 17, 1803. 
Dr. Charles Nesbit, President of Dickinson College, d. at Carlisle, Jan. 18, 


Wm. Sellers, printer, d. at Philadelphia, Feb. 4, 1804, a^ed 79. 
Mrs. Ann Buchanan, wf. of Andrew Buchanan, Esq., of Baltimore, and 

second dau. of Gov. McKean, d. June 3, 1804. 
Samuel Edminster, d. at Lewistown, June 29, 1804, aged S4. 
Mrs. Ann Proctor, wf. of Capt. Francis Proctor, d. at Birmingham, June 

26, 1804, aged 53. 

Michael Hillegas, d. at Philadelphia, Sept. 29, 1804, aged 76. 
Rev. Hugh Morrison, d. at Sunbury, Sept. 15, 1804. 
Brig.-Gen. Benjamin Mills, d. in Mt. Joy twp., Lane. Co., Sept. 1804. 
William Moore, Esq., one of the associate-judges of Cumberland Co., d. at 

Carlisle, Aug. 31, 1804. 

Rev. John Blair Linn, D. D., d. in Philadelphia, Aug. 30, 1804. 
Morgan J. Rees, prothonotary of Somerset Co., d. at Somerset, Nov. 7, 1804. 
Dr. Robert Kennedy, d. at York, Dec. 8, 1804, aged 75. 
Mrs. Sarah Ann Proctor, wife of Gen. Thomas Proctor, d. at Philadelphia, 

March 23, 1804, aged 35. 
Gen. John Neville, d. at his seat in Montour's Island, near Pittsburgh, July 

29, 1803, aged 72. 

Zachariah Poulson, printer, d. at Philadelphia, Jan. 14, 1804, aged 67. 
Dr. Joseph Priestley, d. at Northumberland, Feb. 6, 1804. 
Wm. Palm, Esq., postmaster at Palmstown [Palmyra], d. March, 1804. 
Gen. John A. Hanna, d. at Harrisburg, June 23, 1805, aged 44. 
Col. Thomas Butler, d. Sept. 17, 1805, at the seat of Richard Butler, Esq., 

near New Orleans. 

Samuel Miles, Esq., d. at his seat in Montgomery Co., Dec. 29, 1805. 
Major Andrew Galbraith, d. in Cumberland Co., March 7, 1806, aged 54. 
Gen. Thomas Proctor, d. at Philadelphia, March 16, 1806. 
Edward Shippen, Chief-Justice of Pennsylvania, d. at Philadelphia, April 

13, 1806, aged 78. 
Samuel Laird, Esq., d. at Carlisle, Sept. 27, 1806, aged 74. W. H. E. 


Can any of your " genealogical readers" tell us who Townsend White, of 
Philadelphia, was, whose daughter Anne married in 1782 William Con- 
stable, at that time a resident of Philadelphia, but subsequently of New 
York, where he was a prominent merchant, and speculator in large tracts of 
land ? It was for William Constable, that the fnll-length portrait of Wash- 
in o-ton was painted by Stuart, now owned by Mr. Peirrepont of Brooklyn. 
He was an intimate friend and partner of Robert Morris. Mrs. Constable's 
descendants claim that she was related to Bishop White. C. H. H. 

A FIRE INSURANCE BADGE was taken from the Wharton House on its de- 
struction in 1857, and is described in Notes and Queries, 14 August, 1875, 

236 Notes and Queries. 

p. 128, as " of iron more than a foot high, about a foot broad, with the rep- 
resentation, in a raised figure, of a fire engine. Below are the letters F. I. 
Co." Mr. Cornelius Walford, in his Insurance Cyclopaedia, refers to this 
in his article on the History of Fire Insurance, but is unable to identify the 
Company, if an English Insurance Company. It is unlike any badge in use 
by the earlier American companies, the Contributionship (1752) having on 
their badge four hands clasping at the wrist, and the Mutual Assurance 
(1784) having alone a Green Tree ; in both these cases the Companies derive 
their popular name from their well-known badges. T. H. M. 

SECESSION IN THE ASSEMBLY OF 1787. Where can Judge Brackenridge's 
verses on this affair be found ? Was there a collection of Brackenridge's 
poetical effusions ever printed ? W. H. E. 

COL. THOMAS PROCTOR. Can any of your readers give me any information 
concerning Col. Proctor, of Philadelphia, who served in the army of the 
Revolution ? I am desirous of knowing something of his military record, 
and if he left any descendants. B. M. 

JOURNALS OF THE ARGO. In a letter of Franklin's printed in the second 
volume of the Historical Magazine, page 163 (N. Y. 1858), I find the follow- 
ing passage regarding the attempt made by the citizens of Philadelphia to 
discover the Northwest passage in 1753 : " Our vessel named the Argo is 
gone on the N. W. Passage, and the Captain has borrowed my journals of 
the last Voyage, except one Vol. of a broken set, which I send you." This 
letter is dated April 12, 1753 ; the first voyage of the Argo was made in 
that year, another attempt was made by the came vessel the year following. 
To what Journals does Franklin allude ? S. E. M. 

MAJOR WHITE. Mr. Editor. Can you give me any information regarding 
Major White, who Watson, in the Annals of Philadelphia, tells us was an 
aid to Sullivan, and died of wounds received at the battle of Germantown ? 
Neither the letters of Washington nor Sullivan mention White, an omission 
that it is hardly likely either would have made had the facts been as given by 

Watson. Mr. W also says that White was an Irishman by birth ; was 

a very fine looking man, and from the care he gave to his dress was known 
as " beau White ;" that he had settled in Philadelphia, and was the father 
of the late Judge John M. White, of Woodbury, N. J. W. J. B. 

GEN. JOHN BARKER. Who are the descendants of Gen. John Barker ? 
We believe his son, Major James Nelson Barker, died without issue. 

H. B. 

FRANKLIN TO MRS. BACHE. In the Letters to Benjamin Franklin by his 
Family and Friends (N. Y. 1859), there is a letter 'from Mrs. Bache to her 
father, dated Jan. 17, 1779, in which she speaks of having a piece of Ameri- 
can silk, which she intended sending to him for the Queen. I have been told 
that the answer to this letter was printed in a Philadelphia newspaper about 
two years ago. That Franklin reproved his daughter for her extravagance, 
and told her that as the silk was spotted he had had it dyed, and made up 
into a suit of clothes for himself. Can any of the readers 'of the MAGAZINE 
furnish us with a copy of the letter of Franklin ? F. D. S. 

DANIEL, OF ST. THOS., JENIFER, is the signature of one of the Maryland 
Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. What is the meaning 
of the " of St. Thos." ? SEARLE. 

Notes and Queries. 237 

Gov. PATRICK GORDON. Watson, in his "Annals" (vol. ii. p. 274), in 
speaking of Governor Patrick Gordon, who died in this city in 1736, asks, 
" Do any know where he was buried ?" As Mr. Hazard, in his continuation 
of Watson, does not answer the question, will you permit me to repeat it in 
the PENN'AMAG.? J. P. H. 

SIR SAMUEL CUNARD, the founder of the famous steamship line which bears 
his name, is said by Burke to have been the son of Abraham Cunard, of 
Philadelphia. Is anything known of this Abraham Cunard, or of his an- 
cestors ? HERALD. 

STEPHEN, ADAM AND ALEXANDER. There appear to have been two officers 
of the name of Stephen in General Braddock's army Adam and Alexander. 
The subsequent career of the former is well known. I cannot find anything 
more about the latter. What became of him, and was he a relative of the 
first named ? ALLEGANEY. 

WASHINGTON PORTRAIT. Any one having an impression of a full-length 
Portrait of Washington, engraved in Mezzotinto by Charles Wilson Peale, 
and published at Philadelphia in 1780, is requested to communicate with the 
undersigned, who is engaged in preparing a work on the engraved Portraits 
of Washington. W. S. BAKER. 

PARKE, KENDLE OR KENDALL. Have any of the readers of the PENN'A 
MAGAZINE genealogies of the Parke, and Kendle or Kendall families, of 
Montgomery County ? Answers directed to the care of the Editors of the 
MAGAZINE will oblige. K. S. 

ADAMS. In the narrative of Col. James Smith, concerning his captivity 
among the Indians from 1755 to 1759 (pub. in Lexington, Kentucky, 1799) 
mention is made of " Mr. George Adams on Reed Creek." 

Col. Smith, at the date of his capture, about May, 1755, was a resident of 
" Conococheague," Pennsylvania, and returned there after his release, but 
subsequently (1788) removed to Bourbon Co., Kentucky. 

Reed Creek, upon which this George Adams resided, was evidently in 
Pennsylvania. Can any reader inform me who George Adams was ? i. e., 
as to ancestry and place of nativity. NELSON D. ADAMS, 

Washington, D. C. 


COL. JOHN BUTLER (vol. ii. pp. 349, 473 ; vol. iii. p. 120). In the History 
of New York during the Revolutionary War, by Thomas Jones, Edited 
by Edward F. de Lancey, and lately published by the Historical Society of 
that State, we find the following : " Col. John Butler is the son of a Lieu- 
tenant Butler, a native of Ireland, who came to N. Y. in 1711. He was not 
a far distant relation of the Ormond family. The army then sent out was 
for the reduction of Canada. It was in the reign of Queen Anne. He was 
even then a Lieutenant. The expedition failed .... Butler ex- 
changed his Lieutenancy from a marching regiment into one of the Inde- 
pendent Companies stationed in the Colony of New York. By making 

238 Notes and Queries. 

purchases of the Indians, he accumulated in the course of his life a large 
and valuable real estate. One of his purchases in the county of Albany, 
about seven miles from Johnson Hall, contains above 60,000 acres. It is 
known by the name of Butler's Purchase. He was only one of the paten- 
tees, though he had a considerable share Butler settled upon, 

cultivated and improved his part. He had two sons, Walter, and the present 
Colonel, both of whom he also settled here, and gave to each a large farm. 
This purchase was in the Mohawk country, and the old gentleman, as well 
as his two sons, had considerable influence with the Six Nations. The old 
gentleman died in 1760, a Lieutenant only. He was nearly ninety, and had 
been seventy years a Lieutenant .... The Lieutenant being an 
Irishman, Mr. William Johnson, afterwards the Colonel, the General, and 
the Baronet, upon settling in the neighborhood of Butler, warmly attached 
himself to him and his family. In 1755 Mr. Johnson, then a Militia Colonel, 
was made a General, and appointed as Commander-in-Chief of an expedition 
against Crown Point. He procured commissions for the two brothers, Walter 
and the present Colonel, as Captains in the Indian Corps which attended 
him upon this service.' 

affirmative statement, see this Magazine, vol. III. page 32.) For over 1500 
years no person has been recognized as a bishop whose consecration was 
performed by less than three bishops. John Talbotwas consecrated in 1722 
by Bishop Ralph Taylor and Eobert Welton ; but the latter was not a 
bishop, his consecration having been previously performed by Taylor alone ; 
consequently Talbot was not lawfully consecrated. A note appended to the 
above-mentioned article, stating that Bishop Carroll, of the Roman Catholic 
Church, was consecrated by only one bishop, was evidently added as a tacit 
argument in Talbot's favor, but it lacks force since the two cases occurred 
in jurisdictions having no official communication, the acts of the one not 
being recognized by the other. 

The consecration of Talbot was, therefore, not valid, since it was contrary 
to the Ecclesiastical law ; it was not canonical, as it did not conform to the 
laws of the Church of England ; it was not even recognized by the other 
Non-jurors in the words of Percival, "Welton and Talbot were' not recog- 
nised by the rest of the Non-jurors, having been consecrated without their 
approval." This sentence, omitted by the writer of the above-named article, 
immediately precedes the quotation on page 32 of this Magazine. 

The occasion which gave rise to this claim in behalf of Talbot was the 
finding of an old will, " having for its seal a mitre," and dated eight years 
after Talbot's death, who could not, therefore, have been responsible for its 
use. And in view of the above facts, and the author's own admission that 
" There is absolutely nothing that can be shown beyond question to have 
been on his part an Episcopal act," since Talbot, good and pious as he may 
have been, was neither a lawful bishop, nor recognized so by others, nor 
claimed that title for himself, it is hard to perceive why such a claim should, 
at this late day, be advanced in his behalf. R. B. 

FRANCES SLOCUM (vol. iii. p. 115). In reply to Mr. Slocum, it may be 
stated that the Journal of Col. Proctor as published in the 4th volume of the 
new series of Pennsylvania Archives, was printed from a copy made in the 
office of the Secretary of War, and forwarded to Gov. Mifflin. The names 
were printed as in this copy. The original is probably at Washington and 
only by a personal inspection could it be ascertained whether the clerks in 
the department correctly copied it. It is a very easy matter to blunder over 
a name, and it is frequently noticed that well-educated persons sometimes 
write the feminine Frances with an i. W. H. E. 

Notes and Queries. 239 

DANIEL DULANY'S TOMB (vol. iii. p. 3), I visited on 4 February last, under 
the guidance of the Rev. Dr. Hodges, Rector of St. Paul's, and made a copy 
of the inscription, which is as follows : 

In Memory of 
The Honble DANIEL DULANY, Esq r , 

Who with great INTEGRITY and HONOR 

for Many years 
Discharged the important Appointments 



and one of 

In private life 
He was BELOVED, 



March 17th, 1797, 

Aged 75 years and 8 months. 

Daughter of the late Benjamin Tasker, Esq r , of Annapolis, 

Caused this TOMB to be erected. 

On the upper end of the slab of this altar tomb there is inserted an oval 
white stone, a softer marble than the rest of the structure, upon which must 
have been originally traced the Dulany Arms, the lines of which are all now, 
excepting the border, weather-worn away. Alden gives this inscription, not 
with literal correctness, and even with less accuracy than the Memoirs of 
the Dead, and Tombs' Remembrancer, quoted by Mr. Latrobe on p. 3 of 
the present volume of the PENN'A MAGAZINE, in his American Epitaphs, 
vol. v. p. 126, but the name does not appear in his Index. The Records of 
St. Paul's show his burial was on 21 March, 1797. 

The Arms of Dulany are seen on his Mother's Tomb at St. Ann's. An- 
napolis, impaled with Smith, and are identical with those quoted. Gideon 
De Laune", of Blackfriars, London, in 1612. She died 18 March, 1737, aged 
47 years. 

His Father was first cousin to Dr. Patrick Delany, Dean of Down, the 
intimate friend of Dean Swift, who died in May, 1768, in the 83d year of 
his age. It was subsequent to the year 1710 that Daniel Dulany, Senior, 
changed the spelling of his name to Dulany. 

Daniel Dulany was the eldest son of his parents, the other brothers being 
Dennis, d. s. p., and Walter, Commissary-General of Maryland, who d. 20 
Sept. 1773, and whose death is noticed in the Pennsylvania Chronicle of 4 
October, 1773. By the father's third marriage, with Henrietta Maria, d. of 
Col. Philemon Lloyd, and widow of Samuel Chew, there was a third brother, 
Lloyd, who received his fatal wound in the duel with the Rev. Bennet Allen, 
18 June, 1782, in Hyde Park, dying 21 June, in Park Street, Grosvenor 
Square, London. See Political Magazine, London, July, 1782 ; also Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, 1782, p. 312. In 1767 and '68, as Rector of St. Ann's, 
Annapolis, Bennet Allen had the Dulany family among his parishioners ; it 
was at the close of his ministry here, that the Rev. Ethan Allen quaintly 
says of him : " He got into another very serious quarrel it is said with 
Daniel Dulany, Esq., who visited him with personal chastisement in the 
street of Annapolis," Historical Notices of St. Ann's Parish, in Anne 
Arundel County, Baltimore, 1857, p. 77. This represents Mr. Dulany in 

240 Notes and Queries. 

another phase of character than those so well portrayed by Mr. Latrobe in 
his Biographical Sketch. 

Immediately at the side of Hon. Daniel Dulany's tomb lie the remains of 
Edward Biddle, of Pennsylvania, who d. in Baltimore, when on a visit in 
1799, and whose epitaph is given by Alden, v. 125. T. H. M. 

" APPLEBY MANOR" (vol. iii. p. 117). In reply to the queries propounded 
by W. H. E. in the last number of the MAGAZINE, I have to state : " Appleby 
Manor" is the " Manor of Kittanning." It was surveyed 28 March, 1769, 
on a warrant to the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, dated 23d February next 
preceding, In Smith's forthcoming History of Armstrong County, Penn- 
sylvania, there is an extended sketch of it, and of the varied and deeply-in- 
teresting historical events that have occurred within its limits at different 
periods in the past. It appears from his researches, that the name of "Ap- 
pleby" was adopted by Alexander Cobran, who then owned the southern, 
and Thomas and Robert Duncan, who then owned the northern, purpart of 
that tract, but just when and why it was adopted is not yet manifest to that 
author. R. W. S. 

Kittanning, Pa., 2 May, 1879. 

BYEES, JOHN (vol. ii. pp. Ill, 230). He was born in Derry Township, 
Lancaster, now Dauphin County, in the year 1735, and died at Carlisle on 
the 20th of February, 1788. He was not a physician. The account given 
by C. P. W. is, with these additions, in the main correct, save that he was 
not the JOHN BUYERS of Northumberland County. W. H. E. 

letters of Washington and Lafayette to J. F. Mercer that your correspondent 
M. makes inquiry about will be found in the " Pennypacker Reunion," p. 39. 

]D * f J -o :L-:I ;^ 'C or .IB J<_, 




VOL. III. 1879. No. 3. 




ABOUT the year 1570, there crossed over from Paisley in 
Scotland to the north of Ireland one John Cochran. He was 
a clansman of the powerful house of Dundonald, and of kin 
with its noble head, and for several generations his descend- 
ants were born, tilled the land, married and died in the 
home of their adoption. Many were of the gentry ; most 
were yeomen, but all led sober, upright, and righteous lives, 
feared God, and kept his Commandments. The family names 
were carefully handed down from sire to son ; James the son 
of John was succeeded by John, who, in turn, was father of 
another James. Then came Robert, called " honest" to dis- 
tinguish him from others of the same name. His sons were 
James, Stephen, and David, and these latter crossed the sea, 
and settled in Pennsylvania, where unmolested they might 
continue to worship in the faith of their fathers. James 
married his kinswoman, Isabella, the daughter of "deaf" 
Robert, and their children were Ann, Robert, James, John, 
VOL. in. 17 ( 241 ) 

242 Doctor John Cochran. 

Stephen, Jane, and George. Aim married the Reverend John 
Roan, or Rohan as it was indifferently spelled ; Jane became 
the wife of the Reverend Alexander Mitchell ; Robert died, 
leaving a daughter, Isabella ; James died in April, 1768, pre- 
ceded in his departure out of this world by his father James, 
who died in the autumn of 1766. 

This is the race of the Cochrans from the period when they 
quitted their home in Scotland to the time when their bones 
were first laid in the New World. 

James, Stephen, and David settled in Chester County, and 
laid out their farms near the rippling current of the Octorara. 
As appears from the records, James first resided in Sads- 
bury ; in 1742 he purchased one hundred and thirty-five acres 
additional in the same township ; l but it was not until the 
year 1745 that a large tract in Fallowfield, owned in common 
by the three brothers, was divided, and a patent issued by 
John, Thomas, and Richard Penn to James for three con- 
tiguous lots, aggregating four hundred and thirty acres. 2 This 
tract lay to the south of Stephen's and David's shares. 
Through the northern portion, and near to the northwestern 
boundary, dividing it from the land of Stephen, ran the New- 
castle road, to-day called the Gap and Newport Turnpike. 
There the little village of Cochranville by its name per- 
petuates the traditions of the clan, whose pibroch and whose 
slogan have long ceased to sound on Scottish hills. 

JOHN COCHRAN was born in Sadsbury, Sept, 1st, 1730, and 
was educated at the grammar school of Dr. Francis Alli- 
son. He received his professional training in Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania ; and that intimate knowledge of surgery and 
medicine, which distinguished him in later years, came to him 
first from his preceptor, Dr. Thompson. 3 

At the outbreak of the French and Indian war young 
Cochran had but recently finished his medical studies. He 
entered the service, however, as surgeon's mate, in the hos- 

1 Chester County Deed Book F, p. 628. 

Patent Book A, vol. 15, p. 299. 

Amer. Medical Biography ; Thacher, Boston, 1828, p. 226. 

Doctor John Cochran. 243 

pital department, and remained with the northern army until 
the close of the war. 

Dr. Cochran, together with Major (afterwards General) 
Philip Schuyler, joined Bradstreet when he inarched against 
Fort Frontenac in the summer of 1758, and the events of the 
northern campaign were the text-books of the school wherein 
he gained his technical education. 1 

It is hardly possible to present the character of a man, 
whose public life connected him with our national history, 
without reverting to the military episodes of the time during 
which he lived ; but happily a pleasant and a natural break 
occurs in the sequence of the narrative, and enables us to turn 
to other and calmer scenes of Dr. Cochran 's career. 

On Dec. 4, 1760, he was united in marriage to Mrs. Ger- 
trude Schuyler, by Dominie Westerts of the Reformed Dutch 
Church at Albany. 2 That lady was the only sister of Major 
Philip Schuyler, and the widow of Peter Schuyler, whose 
grandfather, Peter, had been President of the Council of the 
Province of New York in 1719. By her first husband she 
had two children ; one, Peter, who married, but died childless ; 
the other, Cornelia, who married Walter Livingston, grandson 
of Robert Livingston, first lord of the manor of Livingston. 

After his marriage Dr. Cochran removed to New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., and there continued to practise his profession, 
becoming one of the founders of the New Jersey Medical 
Society in 1766, and in November, 1769, succeeding Dr. Bur- 
net as its President. 8 

During the close of the winter of 1776, he offered his ser- 
vices as a volunteer in the hospital department, and WASH- 
INGTON recommended his name to the favorable notice of 
Congress in a letter written in the beginning of 1777. He 
spoke of Dr. Cochran's services as a volunteer, and of his ex- 
perience during the French war. 

On the 7th of April, 1777, Congress resumed the considera- 
tion of a report on the hospitals ; and plans modelled after 

1 Amer. Med. Biography, page 227. 

2 Register of the Reformed Dutch Church, Albany. 

Hist, of Med. and Med. men in N. J., Wickes, p. 205. 

244 Doctor John Cochran. 

those of the British Army having heen proposed by Dr. 
Cochran and Dr. William Shippen, and approved by General 
Washington, were adopted upon that day. On the llth of the 
same month, in pursuance of his Excellency's recommenda- 
tion, Dr. Cochran was selected for the position of physician 
and surgeon-general of the army in the middle department. 
During the period of holding this position, he was often 
called upon to bewail the wretched inefficiency which charac- 
terized the management of the hospital department. In a 
letter to Jonathan Potts, Purveyor-General to the hospitals, 
Dr. Cochran thus expressed himself. 1 

MORRISTOWN, March 18, 1780. 

DEAR SIR: I received your favor by Dr. Bond, and am ex- 
tremely sorry for the present situation of the hospital finances. 
Our stores have all been expended for two weeks past, and 
not less than 600 regimental sick and lame, most of whom 
require some assistance, which being withheld, are languishing 
and must suffer. 

1 flatter myself you have no blame in this matter, but curse 
on him or them by whom this evil is produced. The ven- 
geance of an offended Deity must overtake the miscreants 
sooner or later. It grieves my soul to see the poor, worthy, 
brave fellows pine away for want of a few comforts, which 
they have dearly earned. 

I shall wait on his Excellency, the Commander-in-Chief, 
and represent our situation, but I am persuaded it can have 
little effect, for what can he do? He may refer the matter to 
Congress, they to the Medical Committee, who will probably 
pow-wow over it awhile, and no more be heard of it. The 
few stores sent on by Dr. Bond in your absence are not yet 
arrived, I suppose owing to the badness of the roads. If they 
come they will give us some relief for a few weeks. 
Compliments to all friends, and believe me, 

Dear Sir, yours very sincerely, 


In January, 1781, Dr. Shippen resigned the post of Direc- 
tor-General of the medical department of the army. Im- 
mediately afterwards Congress conferred upon Dr. Cochran 
the unsolicited appointment of Director-General of the IIos- 

1 Biographical sketch of Dr. Jonathan Potts, by Rev. Edward D. Neill, 
New England Hist, and Gen. Register. 

Doctor John Cochran. 245 

pitals of the United States. "Writing from New Windsor, 
Connecticut, on the third of February, he acknowledged 
having received a copy of the act of appointment. 

SIR: I received your Excellency's Favor of the 18th of 
January yesterday, enclosing an Act of Congress appointing 
me Director of the Military Hospitals. 

I thank Congress for this additional Mark of Honor con- 
ferred on me ; and you, Sir, for the polite and obliging man- 
ner in which you were pleased to communicate the same. 

If my past conduct in the station of Physician and Sur- 
geon-General to the Army, which I have filled for near four 
years, has been acceptable to that Honorable Body, I hope 
my future endeavours to perform the duties of my new 
office, will not be less so. 

As far as my abilities will enable me to execute the Trust 

reposed in me, they shall be most faithfully exercised, and 

whatever Errors may fall to my Lot, they will proceed from 

a want of Judgment and not from Intention * * * * 

I have the Honor to be, with the utmost 

Respect and Esteem, your Excellency's 
Most Obedt. and very humble servant, 

His Excellency, SAM'L HUNTINGDON, Esq., 
President of Congress. 1 

"While the field of his usefulness had been broadened, his 
vigilance ceased not to regard the minor workings of the 
hospital department. Letter after letter he wrote, represent- 
ing the insufficiency of the supplies of food and medicine, 
but entreaty, expostulation, and denunciation met with but 
meagre result. In a letter from New Windsor, in February, 
1781, addressed to Abraham Clark, Chairman of the Medical 
Committee, he wrote : " Tho' we have few deaths, yet the 
poor fellows suffer for want of necessary supplies, which I 
hope will soon be afforded them, otherwise there will be 
little occasion for Physicians and Surgeons." 2 

On March 25th of the same year, after returning from Al- 
bany, he wrote to Thomas Bond, Purveyor of the Military 
Hospitals, " I am sorry to inform you that I found that hos- 

1 This letter is from Dr. Cochran's letter-book, now in possession of his 
grandson, Gen. John Cochrane, of N. Y. 
2 Ibid. 

246 Doctor John Cochran. 

pital (at Albany) entirely destitute of all kinds of stores ex- 
cept a little vinegar, which was good for nothing, and fre- 
quently without Bread or Beef for many days, so that the 
Doctor under those circumstances was obliged to permit such 
of the patients, as could walk into town, to beg provisions 
among the inhabitants." 1 Again a line from a letter of April 
2, 1781 : " Neither myself, nor any of the Gentlemen who 
have served with me, have received a shilling from the Public 
in twenty-three months, which has, as you may reasonably 
suppose, reduced me to some difficulties." 2 In another letter 
to Abraham Clark, of April 30th, in the same year, " I have 
from all quarters," he relates, "the most melancholy com- 
plaints of the sufferings of the sick in the Hospitals, for want 
of stores and necessaries, that you can conceive, and unless 
some speedy remedy is applied, the consequences must be very 

fatal As soon as my strength will enable 

me, I propose setting out for Philadelphia. 

" On the 5th instant I was taken sick with a Pleurisy, 
which has confined me till yesterday, and has left me very 
weak." 3 

These extracts show plainly the condition in which the 
affairs of the American Government, relating to its hospital 
service, stood in the year 1781, while the multifariousness of 
the duties of Dr. Cochran are indicated by his other and more 
general correspondence. He quieted dissensions in the de- 
partment; he composed the difficulties of individuals ; he 
presented petitions for his subordinate officers; he attended 
not only to the general duties of his office, but made out re* 
turns of the sick in all the hospitals, which he submitted to 
the inspection of the Commander-in-Chief. And all this 
various labor was performed with cheerfulness in adversity, 
and courage amid danger. 

He concluded a letter to his friend, Dr. Thomas Craick, in 
which, a few lines above, he had spoken of a "jaunt" up the 
North River, whither he had gone accompanying Mrs. Wash- 

1 Dr. Cochran's Letter-book. * Ibid. 8 Ibid. 

Doctor John Cochran. 247 

ington, with " my poor little boy lays ill of a fever." 1 While 
in carap, m the end of July, he begged Dr. Bond to send aid: 
" could you not, by advertisement, be able to procure a quan- 
tity of old linnen from the good ladies of your City? I was 
obliged after the last skirmish, when fifty men were wounded, 
to give every sheet I had in the world, but two, to make lint, 
&c. I dread the thoughts of an action, when we have it not 
in our power to relieve the distresses of the unfortunate. "2 

Turning from a view of the services of Dr. Cochran to his 
country during the arduous years of his connection with the 
army, it will be well worthy of attention to regard his civil 

The aspect which his character then assumed was that of 
a man full of honor, enjoying in the seclusion of his home 
the friendship of Many eminent contemporaries. He was on 
terms of intimacy with Washington, with Lafayette, with 
"Wayne, with Paul Jones, and with many more. To him the 
great commander presented his camp furniture ; 8 he received 
from " Mad Anthony" the latter's sword the silver hilt of 
which was melted into goblets, and thus came down to his 
descendants ; while the French hero sent him from France a 
gold watch of delicate movement. 4 

Much of his private correspondence has been preserved, 
and the closeness of the ties which bound him to Washing- 
ton and to Lafayette cannot be further illustrated better than 
by the following letters. 

WEST POINT, August 16, 1779. 

DEAR DOCTOR: I have asked Mrs. Cochran and Mrs. Liv- 
ingston to dine with me to-morrow ; but ought I not to ap- 
prise you of their fare ? As I hate deception, even when 
imagination is concerned, I will. 

It is needless to premise that my table is large enough to 
hold the ladies of this they had ocular demonstration yes- 
terday. To say how it is usually covered, is rather more 
essential, and this shall be the purport of my letter. 

Since my arrival at this happy spot, we have had a ham, 

1 Dr. Cochran's Letter-book. * Ibid. 

8 Now in the possession of Gen. Cochrane, of N. T. 
4 See letter below from De Lafayette to Dr. Cochran. 

248 Doctor John Cochran. 

sometimes a shoulder of bacon to grace the head of the table. 
A piece of roast beef adorns the foot, and a small dish of 
green beans almost imperceptible decorates the centre. 
W hen the cook has a mind to cut a figure, and this I presume 
he will attempt to-morrow, we have two beefsteak pies or 
dishes of crabs in addition, one on each side of the centre 
dish, dividing the space, and reducing the distance between 
dish and dish to about six feet, which without them would 
be nearly twelve apart. Of late, he has had the surprising 
luck to discover that apples will make pies ; and it is a ques- 
tion if, amidst the violence of his efforts, we do not get one 
of apples, instead of having both of beef. 

If the ladies can put up with such entertainment, and sub- 
mit to partake of it on plates, once tin, but now iron, not 
become so by the labor of scouring, I shall be happy to see 
them. Dear Sir, yours, 


Lafayette wrote from St. Jean d'Angeli in France, in August, 
1779, and the expression Doctor Bones which occurred in his 
letter, not only testified to the terms of intimate regard in 
which the Marquis held Dr. Cochran, but had reference to 
the latter 'swell- remembered song, whose refrain "Bones, bones, 
bones" charmingly rendered by his splendid voice, had so 
often cheered the lingering hours, by the camp-fire, of Wash- 
ington's military family 

" I feel very happy, my dear Doctor, in finding an occasion 
soon to tell you how I lament separation. It is, indeed, 
highly pleasing to me to be under so many obligations to you, 
because there is no gratitude in the world which can exceed 
the bounds of my affection for the good Dr. Bones that 
name I shall ever give you and kindly wish, and even 
ardently hope, you will before long hear from my own 

" My health, dear Doctor that very health you have almost 
brought back from the other world has been as strong and 
hearty as possible. 

"As during my fit of illness, the watch I had then was of 
great use to you in feeling the pulse, I thought such a one 
might be convenient, which I have entrusted to the Chevalier 
de la Luzerne, and beg leave to present you with it. I did 

1 living's Life of Washington, 18C1, vol. iii. p. 477. 

Doctor John Cochran. 249 

fancy that adorning it with my heroic friend's picture would 
make it acceptable. 

" Be so kind, my dear .Sir, as to present my best respects to 
your lady, and my best compliments to your brother doctors 
and my brother officers of the army. Tell them how sin- 
cerely L love them how much I desire to join them again. . 

Upon the formation of the Society of the Cincinnati, 
founded " to perpetuate, as well the remembrance of the vast 
events, as the mutual friendships which have been formed 
under the pressure of common danger," 2 Dr. Cochran became 
a member from the State of New York. 3 In 1790, upon the 
adoption of the new Constitution, President "Washington 
having, to use his own words, " a cheerful recollection of his 
past services," and " reposing special confidence," etc., ap- 
pointed him to fill the office of Commissioner of Loans for 
the State of New York. Shortly before his decease, a stroke 
of paralysis obliged him to resign this position, and to retire 
to his country-seat at Palatine in Montgomery County, New 
York, there to end his days. 4 

On the sixth day of April, 1807, at the ripe age of 76, his 
spirit passed away the skilled hand was numbed, and the 
kindly heart had ceased to beat. 

His widow survived him until the month of March, 1813, 
when she died in the 89th year of her age. 

"When the centenary anniversary of the battle of Bunker 
Hill was held at Utica on June 17, 1875, the remains of Doctor 
and Mrs. Cochran were transferred from their resting place 
in Albany to the Forest Hill Cemetery. There, under the 
auspices of the Cemetery Association, with addresses com- 
memorating the great struggle, and military pomp to honor 
the names of the founders of our nation, were the bodies of 
John and Gertrude Cochran again laid in a hallowed grave- 
the grave wherein they repose to-day. 

1 The original of this letter was some years ago stolen from the rooms of 
the Historical Society of New York. 

2 Motives of organization as set forth by the Society of the Cincinnati. 
8 See roll of original members of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

4 Obituary notice of Dr. Cochran, Albany Gazette, April 9, 1807. 

250 A Walk to Darby. 


(Continued from page 166.) 

In our former walk from Philadelphia towards Darby we 
crossed the Schuylkill at Market Street. Another route 
(which we pursue to-day) is by the old Gray's Ferry Road, 
that now leaves South or Cedar Street, at 23d, or Water 
Street, as it is styled in Hill's map of the city, of 1796, bear- 
ing away southwestwardly to the Schuylkill. Just to the 
south of its point of commencement was " Evergreen," the 
country seat of Israel Pemberton, at first, and afterwards of 
Joseph Crukshank, whose imprint, from his office in Church 
Alley, is on the title-page of many a book of the earlier part 
of the century. A story goes that on a time this amiable 
Friend with another Quaker, his neighbour Edward Sheep- 
shanks, and also Maltby John Littleboy of Second Street, 
hard by, met in the almost adjoining counting-house of 
Joshua Longstreth. This latter friend, whose sense of hu- 
mour was unusually keen, was so much impressed with the 
oddity of the names of those thus gathered together, that he 
commenced to introduce them to one another, and by ringing 
all the changes on their striking names, continued it for such 
a time that even Quaker patience threatened to endure it no 
longer. The scene, it was said, was for a moment as though 
some of the world's people had met. 

A short distance down the Gray's Ferry Road a fight oc- 
curred on the 27th of September, 1777, between about thirty 
British soldiers and nearly a hundred Continentals, the latter 
of whom were defeated. There were three officers and one 
private wounded on the American, and one private killed on 
the British side. A little farther, and on the western side of 
the road, are the fine grounds of the Naval Asylum, which 
reach nearly to the river. Originally the country seat of 
Chief-Justice Kinsey, it was at the time of the Revolution 

A Walk to Darby. 251 

the " Plantation" of James Pemberton. A beautiful paint- 
ing of the quaint old one-storied building has been executed 
by Mr. Isaac L. "Williams. In 1826 the property was pur- 
chased by the Federal Government, and soon afterwards the 
imposing marble building which has sheltered the battered 
hulk of many an honest tar, was erected thereon. The 
grounds were laid out and the trees planted under the direc- 
tion of Commodore James Biddle, who was the first Governor 
of the Asylum. Additional buildings, of brick, have since 
been erected. In the rear of the buildings, on the slope to- 
wards the river, lie the remains of its sometime Governor, 
Admiral George C. Head, whose portrait is in our gallery. 
An excellent history of the Asylum has been written by 
Edward Shippen, M.D., TJ.S.N"., which, in manuscript, is 
among the archives* of the Society. Not far beyond the 
Asylum and on the same side of the avenue, is the Schuylkill 
Arsenal, also belonging to the Federal Government. To the 
east of the Arsenal, and at no great distance from it, is the 
site of the seed-garden established about the beginning of the 
century by David and Cuthbert Landreth. Its ten acres, 
situated on Federal Street, bounded on the east by Long 
Lane, and extending from 20th Street westward to 23d or 
Ashton Street, sufficed for raising the seeds then needed, as 
well as for an extensive nursery and fine greenhouses. These 
greatly interested visitors, who consequently sought the place 
in considerable numbers. The property is still held by the 
Landreth s, but long ago they sold to the Controllers of the 
Public Schools the old mansion house, which thus became 
the Landreth Public School. It was burned down about 
fifteen years since, but was soon rebuilt. This seed garden 
was the first of the kind in this country, and the prudence 
and wisdom of its management may be estimated by the suc- 
cess of the owners and their descendants who now hold such 
gardens, not small ones however, but of many hundred acres 
each in extent, in this and in far distant States of the Union. 
Passing onward from the Arsenal, iron and chemical and 
various other manufacturing works are to be seen as we ap- 
proach old Gray's Ferry, while on the east side of the avenue 

252 A Walk to Darby. 

there are brickyards, rapidly disappearing, however, before 
the rows of houses that have already at some points stretched 
to the avenue, and even beyond it. 

Before crossing the river we should linger for a while at 
the castle of " the State in Schuylkill," which stands on the 
left bank at Rambo's Rock, not far below the railroad bridge. 
At a very early day in the history of Pennsylvania there 
were those here who dearly loved good cheer, and so in 1732 
they formed themselves into a club for fishing and for dining 
on the fruits of their sport. This was the ancient " Colony in 
Schuylkill," whose castle was at Eaglesfield on the right bank 
of the river, about one mile above Fairmount dam. Upon 
the erection of that dam, in 1822, as shad could no longer 
ascend so far, the place was abandoned, and the old castle was 
floated down through an aperture left in the dam, and put up 
below as it now appears. The proud boast of the State is 
that in all the lapse of years since its origin, no alteration 
has been made in its laws and no change in its customs. No 
vandal hand has touched its fireplace that seems to have 
come down undiminished in its vast size from the days of 
the giants. At its feasts all alike wear aprons, guests as well 
as " citizens," and all engage, the ladies too, who may have 
been invited, in the preparation of the food in the antique 
cooking utensils, after the same fashion as in the olden 
time. After that manner, too, it is served in the huge pewter 
platters that came from the Penns. Each apprentice wil- 
lingly serves his time, never aspiring to become a citizen until 
by his proficiency in cooking the health and comfort of all are 
assured. Indeed he need not aspire, for no one can rise until 
a vacancy shall occur in the fixed number of the citizens. A 
child, the heir-apparent of a citizen, may be laid in the mighty 
bowl that has made the Fish-house punch so famous. After 
a feast, and as the sun goes down, and the flag of the castle 
is to be lowered, there rises from the company some song of 
freedom not more heartfelt now than were the strains chaunted 
by their liberty-loving English ancestors. 

In the Provincial days the establishment was called " The 
Colony in Schuylkill," but legends handed down from citizen 

A Walk to Darby. 253 

to apprentice, and fondly cherished, are to the effect that 
more than a thousand moons ago, the colonists met and de- 
clared their independence, and thus became the State that 
good cooking has so well preserved. Quite recently, a terri- 
tory has heen acquired on the right bank of the Wissahickon, 
at its mouth, on which a colony has been planted, which it is 
hoped may long endure, and may never depart from ancient 
forms and customs ; for, as yet, this venerable government, 
unlike everything else on earth, has undergone no change. 
Braddock had his fall, and Washington his rise, and both in 
Pennsylvania ; Napoleon sighed away his blasted life on the 
lonely Isle of St. Helena, while his brother passed some of his 
last years here ; China and Japan have opened their long 
closed ports, and their ambassadors on their way to "Washing- 
ton could be seen by fhe warden as he stood at the castle ; all 
that ever was old has passed away to be replaced by the less 
enduring new, but never yet has an apprentice entered here 
without wearing the white apron befitting a cook, and prac- 
tising his 'prentice hand on planked shad or sirloin steak, 
that he might, as it were, win his spit and saucepan. The 
laws are now as they ever were and ever shall be, for the 
Medes and Persians are held in high esteem in this most 
changeless state. 

Near the castle is Harmar's Retreat, still held by the family 
of that name. Late in the last century its head, General 
Harmar, after an honourable career in the Revolutionary 
War, marched an army into the Western country of that 
day, now Ohio, against the hostile Indians, who in great 
numbers proved, as more than once has been the case, victo- 
rious in the field. He retreated, and hence the name of the 
place. Here the General lived for years afterwards, regarded 
by all who knew him, for he was of a genial manner. He 
was Commander-in-chief of the Army of the United States 
during several years. Regarding the code as gentlemen of 
the old school even yet are apt to do, he once met some 
younger men at Gray's Garden, and suggested to them in the 
course of the interview, that it had become necessary to settle 
a question that had arisen between them, by a shot or so. 

254 A Walk to Darby. 

They had no pistols, most unfortunately, they said ; but he, 
all politeness, as was the custom of the day, said, " It was of 
no moment whatever ; for," and springing on his horse as he 
said it, " I will bring mine in a few minutes." It was scarce 
a mile, so he was not long gone, but on his return, alas! there 
was no one to shoot. That night, it was said, he laid his 
head upon his pillow, a miserable man. 

It would be wrong to leave this side of the river without 
adverting to the history of an extraordinary tree. On the 
place of Lawrence Seckel, afterwards of the Girard Estate, 
near Point Breeze, stood a pear tree, the fruit of which was 
used for many years by a tenant, until at last Mr. Seckle eat- 
ing thereof discovered its great excellence. Its origin is 
entirely unknown, but it is the respected ancestor of all the 
Seckel pear trees of the country. 

"We are now to cross the river, and we do so by the bridge 
erected in 1838 by the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Balti- 
more Railroad Company. The site of this bridge is the 
point of a most ancient crossing. On the 25th of May, 1695, 
a petition of Chester County for " a ferrie att the rock" was 
presented to the Provincial Council. The prayer of the peti- 
tioners was granted, and Benjamin Chambers, patentee of 
land on the "West side of the river, was for a time the Farmer 
of the Ferry. On the 17th of August, 1747, George Gray, 
who had become the owner of the " Lower Ferry," as it was 
then called, petitions Council for a warrant to survey a road, 
etc., showing " That the said road leading from the South 
Street of the said city over the said ferry to Cobb's Creek, 
near Darby in the County of Chester, has Time out of Mind, 
been the only and accustomed Road to Darby, Chester, New 
Castle, and the Lower Counties." The means of passage used 
before the railroad bridge was constructed is still remembered 
by many yet living, who in their adventurous youth sought 
the western shore of the Schuylkill for the rich milk punches 
that awaited them at Gray's Garden. And a picturesque 
sight it was, that floating bridge, a legacy of the British occu- 
pation of the city. On the 20th of October, 1777, Robert 
Morton writes that he had seen " a number of Hessians cross- 


A Walk to Darby. 255 

ing over the bridge of boats lately made for that purpose." 
Major Clark says in a letter to Washington, December 26th, 
" At Gray's Ferry they have a very good bridge of boats ;" 
and on the 30th, that " They have taken up their bridge at 
Gray's." "William Jones long remembered that, when a boy, 
he came across two American riflemen concealing themselves 
among the bushes on the hilltop west of the river. They told 
him they were going down the slope to shoot the sentinel at 
the bridge. They left, and he soon heard firing, and a day 
or two afterwards he learned that the sentry had been shot. 

On the 9th of April, 1781, the Assembly "Resolved, That 
the property of the floating bridge, now lying at the Lower 
Ferry, on Schuylkill, be vested in George Gray, Esquire, on 
his paying into the Treasury of this State the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds for public use, and that the said 
George Gray be authorized and permitted to lay the same 
over the river Schuylkill at his Ferry." Mr. Westcott, in 
his "History of Philadelphia," chapter 265, says, "The bridge 
at Middle Ferry, laid by the British, was ordered to be re- 
moved to Gray's Ferry ; and the floating bridge originally at 
Market Street, laid during the time that Putnam was in 
command, in 1776-77, was towed back from the safe place 
where it had been concealed from the enemy and moored 
at its old station." The river Schuylkill, " att the Rock," 
was a strikingly picturesque scene. There is enough, too, of 
historical incident associated with the place to have led 
that excellent artist, Mr. Isaac L. Williams, to recently exe- 
cute for the Society a most charming oil painting of the 
scene as it was" in the days of the old floating bridge. The 
site of the bridge was a little, and only a very little, further 
np the stream than is that of the present one. The roadway 
from it ascended to the higher ground, but in order to do so, 
it had been cut deep into the rocks that rose on either side, 
forming at the right hand a firm foundation for the old inn 
where all were welcomed. The steps to the house were hewn 
out of the rock itself, and were still to be seen in 1870, 
though the house had disappeared long before that time. 
High up the ascent was the residence of Thomas Say, of a 

256 A Walk to Darby. 

Huguenot family of Languedoc, which, coming here, became 
Pennsylvania Quakers. One of the family was a partner in 
a well-known drug house, and not a silent one, for the style of 
the firm was Speakman & Say. Another descendant occupies 
an honourable place in our annals among the writers on 
natural history. They were of the same family as Jean Bap- 
tiste Say, the celebrated writer on political economy. By a 
fall at Say's grounds, half a century ago, James Bartram had 
his neck dislocated. 

In 1787 a number of gentlemen formed " The Philadelphia 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture," the first of the 
kind established here. It still exists, and still continues its 
old custom of monthly dinners, under the cognomen of " The 
Farmer's Club." The intelligent direction of the Society 
soon had a marked effect on the farm product of Delaware 
and Chester Counties, which increased so greatly in amount 
as to considerably augment the receipt of tolls on the Gray's 
Ferry bridge. This was used effectively as an argument in 
favour of the erection of the bridge at Market Street. The 
confidence in the success of this bridge was so great that the 
original intention was to construct it entirely of stone. On 
the completion of the piers it was, however, decided that the 
superstructure should be of wood. The witty Judge Peters 
was one of the founders of the Society. Ever ready to un- 
dertake improvement, he endeavoured at his own place, Bel- 
mont, to produce a superior article of butter. It was achieved. 
The butter, balanced by his old pound weight, was nicely 
packed in tubs and sent to market, but only to be seized by 
the clerk for short weight, and confiscated to the use of the 
poor. The Judge was told by the clerk that he should have 
his weight tested by the public officer. He did so, and it 
happened that the servant returned with the weight while a 
dinner party was at the table. The Judge took it in his 
hands and beheld the initials of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, C. P. Turning to his wife, he said: "My dear! 
They have found us out. They have stamped the old weight 
C. P., for cheating Peters." 

We are now in Kingsessing, and here was that place of 

A Walk to Darby. 257 

favourite and fashionable resort, Gray's Garden, the road to 
which is well described in the lines of Alexander "Wilson : 

" Where market maids in lively rows, ' 

With wallets white were riding home ; 
And thundering gigs with powdered beaux, 
Through Gray's green festive shades to roam." 

The great bowl of punch, of 1744, to refresh the Virginia 
Commissioners, was no doubt prepared here. 1 It must have 
been a busy scene, too, at another time, when on the 20th of 
April, 1789, the triumphal arch twenty feet in height over 
the bridge was erected in honour of General Washington. 
Under the arch at the western end was a crown of laurel, so 
arranged as to descend upon the hero's head as he passed. 

Gray's garden being near the seat of the Hamiltons, and 
not far from the fine botanical collection of Bartram, it was 
but natural that its owner should partake of the spirit of 
such devoted lovers of trees and flowers, and therefore on 
these grounds were to be found many rare specimens. And 
now, although half a century has elapsed since the place was 
known as a garden, the botanist still finds among the tangled 
thickets unexpected exotics. George Gray was the fifth of 
that name in the line of descent from George Gray who came 
here from Barbadoes. He was a member of the Colonial As- 
sembly, of the Committee of Safety, of the Board of "War of 
Pennsylvania, of the Constitutional Convention, and Speaker 
of the House of Representatives of the State. He died in 

Just before the junction of the Gray's Ferry and Kingses- 
sing Roads, in the angle formed thereby, and running along 
both, may yet be seen the ditches of the military works of 
1812, constructed under the direction of General Jonathan 
Williams, assisted by his son, the late Henry J. Williams. 
They are redan, open in the rear. The breastworks are 
levelled, but the well-marked ditches remain. Almost at the 
junction spoken of, and on the west side of the Darby Road, 
is the Educational Home for Boys, erected on land unosten- 

1 Penna. Mag., i. 242. 

VOL. in. 18 

258 A Walk to Darby. 

tatiously presented for the purpose by Mrs. Mary Gibson and 
Mr. I. V. Williamson. In this vicinity, in 1845, that gigantic 
man of six feet six, "William Jones, died. He was a friend of 
Alexander Wilson, the ornithologist, who for a time lived at 
his house. We are now on the Darby Road again, it must 
be remembered, and about a fourth of a mile further on is 
the ancient hostelry, the "Sorrel Horse." Opposite to it 
there stood until recently three Lombardy poplars. They 
were in front of an old and quite dilapidated stone building, 
now used by a wheelwright for his shop, but which in earlier 
days was the place where Wilson taught his school. 

His scholars were instructed in the mode of those days, 
which has become so obsolete now that the very first steps in 
it are a puzzle to the adult. The alphabet, printed in the 
form of a cross, was called the Christ-Cross-Row. Each vowel 
had to be sounded " by itself," when it was reached, and the 
words "by itself" repeated. The rapidity of pronunciation, 
however, soon turned "by itself" into " bisself," so the 
anxious urchin rushed through his alphabet in this wise. A 
bisself a, B, C, D, E bisself e, F, G, H, I bisself i, etc. He 
ended with z as now, but called it izard, and the flourish at 
the end, Ampersand, he called Ann pussy ann. 

Here^it was also that this fine character imparted to others 
something of the rare spirit that impelled him to achieve 
works that have given him a most respectable name among 
authors. It is not easy at this time of abounding wealth to 
comprehend the struggle of excellent artists with depressing 
poverty ; a struggle, however, that is as keen now as it ever 
was. While, then, our days can produce instances of labour 
as ill rewarded as that of Alexander Lawson, it is none the 
less to his credit that he should have engraved some of the 
plates of Wilson's work for the poor reward of less than one 
dollar a day ; " but I did it," said he, " for the honour of old 
Scotland." In the school-house that we are contemplating, 
boys were taught but little, as we have often been told, yet 
little as it was there was nothing that was not thorough, nor 
anything to interfere with that other and perhaps far more 

A Walk to Darby. 259 

important part of education self-reliance, and the use of im- 
plements of husbandry or tools of handicraft. 

A short distance further on the road brings us to the ex- 
tensive gardens and hot-houses of John Dick. They were 
established not many years ago on a property which, some 
time previously, appeared to have had no claimant. The last 
family who should have been there had passed away, and no 
one knew whither or why. The Rising Sun now appears on 
the elevated ground just beyond Dick's, while opposite to it 
is the house of that eccentric John Bartram, a descendant of 
the botanist, and who died about a quarter of a century ago. 
Now we come to the houses of occupants whose ancestors 
were Swedes, the Mattsons, Urians, Hansells, Matzingers, and 
Holsteins. On the east side a lane leads to Bartram Hall. 
This interesting building, of the date of 1730, is emphatically 
the work of John Bartram, for it was constructed by his own 
hands. Around it are the grounds of his botanical garden, 
the first in this country, and so greatly celebrated as to have 
brought its owner into an extensive correspondence with the 
great naturalists of Europe. Their letters to him are pre- 
served, carefully bound, in the manuscript collections of the 
Society. The house and grounds are in good condition, but 
should any mishap in ownership occur it ought to be a matter 
of pride for Pennsylvanians to preserve so noted a place. 

Just beyond Bartram's Lane is Gray's Lane, running north- 
westwardly, however, over to the West Chester Eoad. At 
the distance of about a mile is Whitby Hall, a large house of 
stone, erected about the middle of the last century by Captain 
Joseph Coultas, whose daughter married George Gray. Until 
recently this property was in possession of Mrs. Martha 
Thomas, a daughter of George Gray, and widow of Evan 
Thomas, and is still held by her descendants. She died about 
1867 at the age of ninety-seven years. On the east side of the 
road, only a little distance from Gray's Lane, is where, near 
fifty years ago, Hope, the market gardener, lived. In his 
case "Murder will out" has been disproved, for early one 
morning he fell a victim to a brutal assailant, and no trace has 
ever yet been discovered of the murderer. Half a mile be- 

260 A Walk to Darby. 

yond Gray's Lane is quite an extensive tract of land, yet in 
possession of a descendant of the Gibsons, who were early 
Quaker immigrants. 

On the west side of the Darby Road is the Presbyterian 
Home for "Widows and Single Women, and then, also on the 
same side, but beyond, is the Maloney place, now, however, 
belonging to Mr. Thomas S. Ellis. A number of wooden 
houses that stood till recently along this part of the road were 
erected and used, for the time, by citizens of Philadelphia 
who had fled from the yellow fever of '93. The road to 
Mount Moriah Cemetery passes westwardly on the south side 
of Maloney 's. On the southeast side, and perhaps three- 
fourths of a mile beyond, is the fine property of Mr. Robert 
Smith. The house was erected by Mr. Morris Wickersham, 
now of Piacenzi, Italy, on ground that once was part of the 
Paschall estate. Opposite to this, on the north side of the 
road, and some distance back from it, is an old stone house, 
erected long ago by Colonel Davis, from whom George Ges- 
ner obtained it. His children yet live near there. 

Not much beyond Gesner's is 68th Street, and between it 
and 69th Street, with a front of five hundred and fifty feet, 
is the ample lot on which stands the edifice of the ancient 
Swedish Church of St. James of Kingsessing. This congre- 
gation was so averse to a loss of individuality that they re- 
quired provision in their charter for much of independence 
before they would consent to be represented in the convention 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Their ownership covers 
the whole square of ground except a very narrow strip along 
69th Street. The nave of the church edifice was erected in 
1762, and the transept in 1854. That generous-hearted man 
who, in an unostentatious manner, did so much good in his 
day, the late Thomas Sparks, built the Parish School House 
on the north corner in 1865, as a memorial to his child, Wil- 
liam B. Sparks. The Sunday School House on the south 
corner was erected by the ladies of the church in 1859. The 
wall fronting the lot was constructed at the cost of Mrs. M. 
Brooke Buckley. The bell was presented by Mr. Edward 
S. Buckley. All the buildings are of gray stone, and the 

A Walk to Darby. 261 

broad, irregular seams of white mortar are picked in with 
small pieces of the same stone, producing a pleasing effect, re- 
lieved as the whole scene is with many fine old trees on the 
grounds, and widespread ivy on the walls. On the right 
hand side of the road is the parsonage, which formerly was 
the mansion house of Dr. Henry Paschall. To the rear of 
the church grounds is the old building now occupied by the 
family of Garrigues, who, perhaps, are of the same stock as 
was Garrick the great actor, who was of Huguenot extrac- 
tion, the real name being Garrique. During the Revolution- 
ary War the house was the mansion of the Price family. At 
one time it was occupied by General "Washington as his 
quarters. The movements of the enemy were, however, so 
rapid, that he quickly abandoned the place, leaving the parlour 
half filled with saddles, accoutrements, etc. The enemy im- 
mediately took possession, and their commander, Sir "William 
Howe, a very polite gentleman, inquired of Miss Nancy Pas- 
chall, then a visitor at the house and about to be married, 
"What was in that room ?" Poor thing! she must have been 
sorely perplexed about the bridles of Washington's horse and 
her own bridal arrangements, for she replied, "They were her 
wedding things." Sir William kindly said to her " My dear, 
I will not disturb them." 

Not much beyond St. James's, and on the west side of the 
road, is the Summit House, built originally for summer 
boarders, but used during the late war as a military hospital, 
and now owned by the Roman Catholics, who hold it as a re- 
treat for aged priests. Near it, and on the same side of the 
road, is the building of the Methodist Church, of dressed 
stone ; while to the rear, and only a few feet to the south, is 
an old country school-house belonging to the Friends. On the 
eas't side of the road, a few score yards beyond, is an attractive 
building of dressed stone, erected some ten years ago as a 
church edifice by the Roman Catholics. They have also pro- 
vided a parsonage, and have tastefully ornamented the 
grounds. And now comes the village of Paschallville, a 
place of about two thousand inhabitants, laid out in 1810 by 
the Dr. Paschall previously mentioned. The southern end of 

262 A Walk to Darin/. 

the village, just before reaching the Blue Bell Inn, was, in 
1777, the scene of a conflict with the British. Major Clark 
writes to Washington on the 18th of November, that "Five 
thousand of the enemy crossed from Philadelphia at the 
Middle Ferry. They surprised the guard at the Blue Bell 
and took a few prisoners. Three of ours wounded, and three 
of the enemy killed, including a Scotch officer." It is said 
that Lord Cornwallis was in command, and that he captured 
thirty-three of General Potter's force. The British loss was 
one captain, one sergeant-major, and three privates killed, and 
several wounded. It was here, along the higher ground on 
the left bank of the Kakarikonk, that Washington, when 
moving towards the field of Brandy wine, was forced by rains 
so heavy as to swell the stream almost beyond precedent, to 
remain three days inactive. The family of Judge Lloyd were 
wont to speak of boats being used for crossing. 

The " Island Road" to Suffolk Park leaves to the east just 
at the Blue Bell, and soon passes a pretty spring-house, along- 
side of which stand two fine willow-oaks, a tree that finds in 
this region nearly, if not quite, its northern limit. The Blue 
Bell Inn is on the west side of the Darby Road, and on the 
margin of the Kakarikonk, or Cobb's Creek. Its distance 
from 32d and Market Streets is more than four miles, or from 
the Delaware end of Market Street about seven miles, the 
whole of which is lighted with gas. The southern portion of 
the inn is of stone, and bears the date of 1762. In front of 
this older part is a carriage stepping-stone of considerable 
historical interest, for it is, perhaps, one of the first millstones 
used in what is now the territory of Pennsylvania, and was 
in use before Penn's arrival. The stone is circular in form, 
with a square hole through its centre. 'Not far from the inn, 
and in the bed of the creek, only a few feet west of the old 
King's Road bridge, may be seen the holes, drilled in the 
rocks, in which were inserted the supports of the ancient mill 
wherein the stone was used. Mr. Aubrey H. Smith remem- 
bers finding, when a boy, a piece of lead weighing seventeen 
pounds, that had evidently been run, when melted, around an 
inserted post. 

A Walk to Darby. 263 

Dr. George Smith, in his history of Delaware County seems 
to fully establish the fact that the " Towne of Kingsesse," 
commenced before Penn came, " was located below the Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, and east of the 
Island road, in the late township of Kingsessing. The imme- 
diate vicinity of the Swede's mill has been assigned as the loca- 
tion of this town, but this was not situated in ' ye SchuylkilP. 
A comparison of Holme's map with p. 174 of the Record of Up- 
land, and also with Jonas Neelson's will (in Register's office, 
Book A, No. 94), will be satisfactory as respects the location 
of this town." In all probability then, in some building 
in that now unknown town, was held on the 14th of June, 
1681, the last session of the Court of Upland under James, 
Duke of York ; for there is entered of record in the minute 
of that date, " Att* a Court held at Kicgsesse for Upland 
County in Delawar River by his Majesties authority," the 
proclamation of the Commander and Council that " his Maij- 
tie hath been graciously pleased by Letters Pattents bear- 
ing date ye 4th day of March laest to Give and Grant to 
"Will. Penn Esq., all ye tract of Land in america now called 
by ye name of Pensilvania, etc." " Ye tract of Land" was not 
however a wild waste, for that there were already many inhab- 
itants in the country is shown, not only by the removal of the 
Court further up the river, but also by the last order of the court 
previous to the entry of the proclamation. This last order is 
the appointment of " William Boyles (Biles) to be overseer 
and surveyor of ye higheways from the falles to Poetquessink 
creek ; he to take care that ye sd higheways be made good and 
passable with bridges over all myry and dirty places." It 
must be borne in mind that under the crown of Sweden, and 
afterwards under the government of Holland, and subse- 
quently under that of the Duke of York, all or nearly all, 
who travelled up or down the territory, did so either in boats 
along the water-courses, or else passed by the mill, which was 
conveniently situated, keeping, when north of it, to the west 
of the river Schuylkill, which they crossed at the falls near 
Manayunk. Thence they crossed over to Tacony, or, if going 
southwardly, they passed from it to the falls. When Penn 

264 A Walk to Darby. 

came and founded Philadelphia, it is, however, not to be 
doubted that the crossing at or near where Gray's Ferry now 
is, commenced at once to be of the first importance. In 1744 
the Virginia Commissioners were escorted to the stone bridge, 
the Blue Bell, by the sheriff, coroner, and several gentlemen 
from Chester, and at this bridge, the county line, they were 
met by the sheriff, coroner, and sub-sheriff of Philadelphia 
County. 1 

At the time of the Revolution, or perhaps it was during 
the first presidency, when the Paschalls kept the Blue Bell Inn, 
General Washington stopped there more than once. On one 
of these occasions he chanced to hear the girls in the kitchen 
(there were three of them) chattering about him, one of them 
saying she would like to kiss him. He opened the door and 
inquired which of them it was who was so willing, but none 
would speak, for they greatly feared the majestic man. 
" Then I will have to kiss all of you," he said, and descending 
as Jove did, he kissed them all, but it was in that proper 
manner so becoming in the days of our grandfathers. Until 
1855 the venerable dame who long survived her sisters, was 
wont to relate the anecdote, and with no little pride. For 
many years the house was kept by the Lloyds, and no place 
along the whole road was more favourably known. Other 
houses on the route have had striking names. "Dewdrop 
Inn," from its pronunciation, must have been coined by Sam 
Slick himself, and " One too many" by some one beside him- 
self, while the " Grecian Bend" was of course the fruit of the 
happy fellow whose last glass made him describe in practice 
Hogarth's line of beauty. 

On the south side of the Kakarikonk, or Cobb's Creek, we 
are now in Delaware County, and to the east of the Darby 
Road is the picturesque mansion-house of the Smiths of 
Tinicum, bought by them of the Lloyds in 1816. An ancient 
house, a part of it dating from 1725, embowered among aged 
trees, no destroying hand has as yet touched the antique 
double door, now so rarely seen, and which in this place yet 

1 Penna. Mag., i. 240. 

A Walk to Darby. 265 

retains what, perhaps, can nowhere else oe seen, veritable 
" bull's-eyes." These are round pieces of glass, very thick in 
the middle, and inserted, two of them, in the upper part of 
the door, to afford some little light to the hall. The north- 
ern door, the eastern door, and an inside one opening into 
the dining-room, each contains two of these now almost un- 
known adornments. A wooden lock, yet in good and service- 
able condition, is in use on one of the doors of the house. 

Leaving Smith's we soon come, on the north side of the 
road, to the stone house formerly of Robert Jones, erected, no 
doubt, prior to the Revolution. Further on, and also to the 
right hand, is another old stone house that once belonged to 
James Hunt. Most of that family, however, lived in a house 
still further on, just upon the slope as we descend to Darby, 
but which in earlier* days was the residence of Dr. John Pas- 
chall, one of the corporators in 1742 of the Library Company 
of Philadelphia. There is a well on the property, yet in good 
condition, strongly impregnated with iron, in the water of 
which the doctor was used to immerse his patients. 

Darby at last is before us. It contains about fifteen hun- 
dred inhabitants, and is of early date. It is named after 
Derby in England, and is spelled as the name was by the 
author of the " New World of Words," printed in 1671. It 
is there said to be a contraction of the word Derwentby, " be- 
cause it standeth on the river Derwent." The difference of 
spelling in Derby and Darby is but slight, and is not in- 
comprehensible as is the case in another instance. Near 
Richmond, in Virginia, there is a family named Darby who 
spell their name thus, Enroughty. Occupying a good position 
in a country so excellent as to have already led to the removal 
of the court-house from Upland to the vicinity of Darby, 
it was but natural that the followers of Penn should settle 
there in considerable numbers. As was their custom they 
almost at once, in 1684, established their meeting, and in that 
year occurred the first marriage, that of Samuel Sellers and 
Anna Gibbons. The fair bride rode to her new home on a 
pillion behind her husband. Samuel Sellers while married 
in Darby, was, however, a resident and landowner in the 

66 A Walk to Darby. 

township of Upper Darby, and it is said of him that during 
the first year of his residence there, he lived in a cave, near 
the site of which he afterwards erected, in 1683, the build- 
ing known as " Seller's Hall." The place is still called the 
" Cave Field." Cave life was not unusual in that early day. 
A deed of about 1683, for a cave on the Delaware front of 
our city, is among our manuscripts. About a year before 
his death, our benefactor, the late Henry D. Gilpin, accom- 
panied by his friend Joseph G. Cogswell of the Astor Library, 
visited with much interest the cave on the Brandywine in 
which his ancestors passed their first winter on this continent. 

Prosperity soon rewarded the labours of the sturdy immi- 
grants. At the very early date of 1743 their descendants 
formed a Library Company that still exists, and whose early 
importations of books were directly from London. It was 
somewhere about this time in the distant past, that the veteran 
tramp Bamfylde-Moore Carew, noted as the King of the Eng- 
glish mendicants, was on his way from Maryland to the North. 
He had left Chester for Darby, " but before he reached there he 
was overtaken by hundreds of people going to hear Mr. White- 
field preach. He joined them, and they all proceeded to Darby, 
where he found Mr. Whitefield preaching in an orchard, but 
could not get near enough to hear his discourse by reason of 
the great concourse of people." Carew, however, was equal 
to the occasion, for by an artful, lying letter, he gained an 
interview with Whitefield, so that otbers with good claims 
were neglected, while he, the impostor, not only obtained 
from him several pounds in paper money of the Province, but 
much sympathy besides. At another time there was a great 
concourse there. Washington had been defeated at Brandy- 
wine, and the next day, September the 12th, his army poured 
through Darby on its way to Philadelphia. 

As we pass through the village, quaint old houses, with 
projecting eaves, are still to be seen on the left-hand side 
just before we reach the inn, noted in earlier days as that 
where Washington was once entertained at dinner, when he 
found the doorway so low, or himself so tall, that he was 
forced to stoop. It was called the Buttonwood from an old 

A Walk to Darby. 267 

tree that stood in front of it. Some years ago the tree came 
down, and now the house, too, is gone, replaced, however, by 
a new one more commodious. In leaving, as we cross the 
bridge over Nyeck's Kihl, or Darby Creek, we still see, to the 
right, in full strength and vigour, a large white oak tree, which 
in 1682 was the beginning point in the survey of a tract of 
five hundred acres patented by William Penn to John Blun- 
ston, and at that time styled in the said patent an " ancient 
oak." The " Foul Anchor," an inn of some note in its day, 
was on the far side of the creek, it ultimately became 
known as the Bee Hive, but has now happily disappeared. 
One cares not to quickly leave a place like Darby, with its 
associations of the olden time, but it needs must be ; and the 
spirit of the age, hurrying every one on, permits only a few 
closing observations as to the region around it. 

About a half mile below Darby, on the old King's Road, 
as the whole of it southward of Gray's Ferry was called, and 
that afterwards became the great post route passing through 
Chester, is the farm of Nathaniel Newlin, of the era of the 
Revolution. With his views derived from Quaker ancestry 
and association, and perhaps from membership with them, it 
is not strange that he should say he "found King George's 
government good enough for him." Yet he was a man so 
much esteemed in the community that knew him well, that 
he was elected a member of the convention which framed for 
Pennsylvania the constitution of 1790. Nearly half a mile 
further is Kalmia, the country seat of the late Thomas Sparks. 
Some years ago, in digging trenches there for laying pipes, 
pieces of muskets, bullet-moulds, accoutrements, and some 
bones were found. No doubt they were of the time of the 

A second road from Darby, that to Radnor, crosses over to 
the West Chester Road, passing the places of Joel J. Bailey 
and others. A third road, up the Darby Creek, is that to 
Springfield. On it we soon come to the residence of the 
Puseys, descendants of the Caleb Pusey who, with William 
Penn and Samuel Carpenter, built the mill at Chester, the 
weather-cock of which, with its date of 1699, now surmounts 

268 A Walk to Darby. 

the edifice of the Historical Society in Spruce Street. A 
little beyond Pusey's, at the summit of the hill, is the old 
Methodist Church edifice. Then, to the left, we come to the 
properties of the Bartrams, held by them continuously from 
the time of Penn. Woodbourne, with its charming lawns 
and tasteful gardens, formerly the seat of Mr. George Mc- 
Henry, but now of Mr. Thomas A. Scott, is next met with, 
on the right-hand side of the road ; and then come the places, 
also on Darby Creek, recently of the Ashes, who, in 1860, 
were still living there, though mighty old, and who appeared 
to have always lived in the place, as their habits were those 
of the world before the fiood, retiring to their beds at five 
o'clock in the afternoon, having no furniture in their houses 
but what had been purchased prior to the Revolution, and 
some of them, it was said, and perhaps correctly, never having 
visited that den of iniquities, the city of Philadelphia. 

To go further one would soon reach the land where on every 
side appear those singularly attractive spring-houses, not less 
characteristic of Pennsylvania than are her equally famous 
bridges, a country charming beyond comparison in its scenery, 
and bountiful as Nature herself in all its products ; a country, 
too, that often affords the exciting scene of a foxchase, for 
this ancient sport is still continued in Delaware County, which 
possesses the famous Rose Tree Fox Hunting Club, and an 
excellent pack of hounds. The title is derived from an old 
inn, of the days of the Revolution, called the Rose Tree, situ- 
ated near "Wallingford Station. The club has recently been 
gladdened, by the discovery, in an old loft, of the original sign 
of the inn. And here our pilgrimage ends. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 269 




The opening of the International Exhibition, this year, in 
Philadelphia, on soil formerly Swedish, and the intercourse 
between Sweden and the shores of the Delaware, springing 
from the circumstance, have again directed attention to the 
Swedish colony, which two hundred and forty years ago 
planted civilization in that vicinity, and the Swedes, who 
have visited the Exhibition, have been welcomed in Phila- 
delphia almost as fellow-countrymen. In connection with 
the zealously conducted investigations of later times regard- 
ing the early history of the States, this ancient Swedish settle- 
ment has long since been the object of reverential attention 
and research on the part of historians in America, 2 albeit in 
Sweden very little has been accomplished in elucidation of 
facts concerning the primitive colony. Authors have gene- 
rally followed the older works of Gampanius and Acrelius, 
without addition of special criticism, and Geijer and Cron- 
holm, in their accounts of Gustavus II. Adolphus* even repeat 
the former writer's unconfirmed, and, without doubt, unwar- 
ranted, mention of a Swedish expedition to the Delaware as 
early as 1631. The only contributions to the history of New 
Sweden, which have appeared more recently, occur in Carl- 
son's work on the history of Sweden under the House of the 
Count Palatine, and in that of the author upon the internal 
history of Sweden during the regency of Queen Christina's 

1 Kolonien Nya Sveriges Grundl'dggning 1637-1642. Af C. T. Odhner. 
Hist. BiUiotek. Nyfoljd I. ss. 197-235. (Stockholm, 1876.) 

8 The titles of several American publications relating to the history of 
New Sweden are given by Professor Odhncr iu the Swedish original, omitted 
here. TRANS. 

270 The Founding of New Sweden. 

Guardians. 1 The former book is occupied with the last years 
of the colony, and its conquest by the Dutch; the latter, on 
the contrary, with its foundation and first development. 
Most writers, both Swedish and American, who have treated 
of this subject, begin with the first great expedition which 
left Sweden for the Delaware, that, namely, under Governor 
Printz in 1642, but furnish nothing but disconnected and 
doubtful accounts of the previous settlement of the colony. 
Their omissions proceed from the obscurity which overhangs 
the earlier period, owing, partly, to the fact that during the 
first years colonization was carried on with some degree of 
secrecy, and more like a private enterprise, partly, to the cir- 
cumstance that Governor Printz and his attendant clergyman, 
Johan Campanius, who supply details of the time referred to, 
probably both lacked accurate knowledge of what preceded 
the expedition of 1642, and had no occasion to speak of the 
topic. The author, indeed, in his above-named work, has 
sought to unfold the origin and first fortunes of the colony, 
but he was obliged to treat the matter with brevity in a book 
of such a scope, and, besides, he was not then possessed of 
sources of information enabling him to do justice to the sub- 
ject. Since that time sundry scattered records relating to 
New Sweden have been brought together from various quar- 
ters of the Royal Archives ; and during his last visit to this 
office the author was particularly fortunate in meeting with 
a packet in the Oxenstjerna collection comprising letters from 
the Swedish commissary in Amsterdam, Samuel Blommaert, 
to Axel Oxenstjerna, containing much new information con- 
cerning the founding of the colony and the first expeditions 
to the Delaware. The letters are written in Dutch, and for 
that reason, it may be, hitherto have not been turned to ad- 
vantage by Swedish writers of history. With the help of 
such invaluable authorities, and of certain recent publications 
in America we are now in a situation to impart a much more 

1 Sveriges Historia under Konungarne af PfalzisTca Huset, of Fredrik 
Ferd. Carlson : Stockholm, 1855-6. Sveriges Inre Historia under Drott- 
ning Christinas Formyndare, af C. T. Odhuer : Stockholm, 1865. TRANS. 


The Founding of New Sweden. 271 

exact and fuller account of the settlement in New Sweden 
than formerly was possible. 

The first scheme of a Swedish colony in foreign parts was 
projected, as is known, by Willem Usselincx, the founder of 
the Swedish South Sea Company. 1 Praise has been accorded 
to the liberal and comprehensive views constituting the basis 
of the privileges conceded to this corporation, and, without 
doubt, these do bear advantageous comparison with the nar- 
row-minded conceptions at that time prevalent in the world 
of trade, and especially with the Spanish and Dutch methods 
of colonization. We must not forget, however, that the 
Swedes made a virtue of necessity in opening their company 
to other nations, for, indeed, they had not the means to estab- 
lish it independently. Both Gustavus Adolphus and Axel 
Oxenstjerna embrace*d Usselincx's projects with much interest, 
and assisted him as far as possible, but were hindered in the 
execution of their schemes by the pecuniary embarrassment 
and political changes which marked the period. Usselincx, 
too, does not seem to have been the right person to superintend 
the carrying on of such a work ; he was already advanced in 
years, and appears, also, always to have been a man of words 
rather than deeds. With his pen, to be sure, he laboured in- 
defatigably for his darling plan. Besides the collection of 
documents relating to the Southern Company, printed under 
the name of Argonautica G-ustaviana? the Swedish Office of 
Archives contains a mass of prolix proposals and reports, 
written by him, sometimes addressed to the chief commercial 

1 Usselincx was a merchant of Antwerp, wno had become acquainted 
with the mysteries of the Spanish system of trade during a tolerably long 
sojourn in Spain and Portugal, and, as soon as he had settled in Amsterdam, 
sought to avail himself of his experience in the interests of Dutch com- 
merce. He drew up the first plan for the Dutch West India Company, 
founded in 1621, but, after he had lost his wealth, through unfortunate specu- 
lations, he once more left the country. In 1624 he visited Gottenburg on a 
journey to Dantzic, when he was invited by Gustavus Adolphus to remain 
in Sweden. On Usselincx see, especially, Laspeyres, Geschichte der voiles- 
wirthschaftlichen Anschauungen der Niederl'dnder. 

9 Printed in 1633 at Frankfort-on-the-Main. Reprinted in 1662 in Mar- 
quardus, De jure Mercatorum. 

272 The Founding of New Sweden. 

towns of the Kingdom of Sweden, at others directed to for- 
eign powers, the Hanseatic cities, France, the States-General, 
and so forth, abounding, indeed, in clever thoughts and brill- 
iant fancies, but all, so far as we have been able to learn, un- 
productive of fruit. In the beginning his attention was 
bestowed chiefly upon the Spanish possessions in America, 
so alluring by reason of their inexhaustible metallic wealth. 
It is true, it was prohibited by 29 of the privileges to enter 
into hostilities with the lands or subjects of the Spanish King ? 
but when, in 1627, Gustavus Adolphus quarrelled with the 
Emperor, that monarch saw a foe, also, in Spain, and made no 
scruple, therefore, the following year, of concluding a treaty 
with the Duke of Buckingham, by which he agreed to aid 
that nobleman with sailors and soldiers in an expedition 
against Jamaica, and as compensation claimed one-tenth of 
the revenue of the gold mines. 1 The murder of the Duke, 
happening soon after, put an end to the whimsical project. 
Like the designs upon the crowns of Russia and Poland, it 
remains a witness to the adventurous, fantastical character at 
times conspicuous in the actions of the great king. 

It was a singularity of Axel Oxenstjerna, that in several 
instances he brought about the execution of plans, which, 
during the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, had been mere pro- 
jects of the mind ; and it is characteristic of the statesman, 
that it was in the midst of the storms of war, and at a time 
of utmost peril and distress, he embarked on so equivocal an 
enterprise as the establishing of a foreign colony. Axel Ox- 
enstjerna, surely, supplies ample reason for the appellation 
bestowed by Geijer on Gustavus Adolphus, "sower of swift 
war-chariots." It was during a year so full of menace for 
Sweden as 1635, that the chancellor of the kingdom took the 
first step towards the founding of New Sweden. "When, in 
the spring, he was obliged to retire from southern to northern 
Germany, he passed, as is known, through France and Hol- 
land, for the purpose of inciting these nations to a more 

1 On this see, further, Lingard, History of England, vol. vii. p. 339 (Lon- 
don, 1849) ; Fant, Observations Selectee, pp. 100-2 ; Cronholm, Sveriges 
historia under Oustaf II. Adolf, iv. pp. 373-4 ; v. ii. p. 85. 


The Founding of New Sweden. 273 

vigorous support of his native country in her prosecution of 
the German war. In May, 1635, he sojourned in the Hague 
and Amsterdam. On the subject of this visit to Holland 
nothing is known excepting what relates to the political 
transactions. 1 We may, however, feel assured that a man 
with Axel Oxenstjerna's habits of careful observation, and 
lively interest in the development of the national economy, did 
not neglect the opportunity, aiforded by his residence in the 
principal commercial city of the time, to acquire knowledge 
of effective measures, and to foster friendly relations, likely 
to result in gain for Sweden. That he did not forget the 
plans of Usselincx, we have a proof ; for there appears among 
the Oxenstjerna papers a query, written by a certain Samuel 
Blommaert, and dated Amsterdam, June 3, 1635, a few days, 
therefore, after the departure of the chancellor from Holland, 
seeking information as to the prospects of a Swedish expedi- 
tion to the coast of Guinea. This Blommaert, a merchant 
of Amsterdam, and a partner in the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, 2 after the chancellor's visit, regularly paid his respects 
to Oxenstjerna through the medium of letters descriptive of 
the commercial and maritime relations of Holland. We learn 
from these epistles that at that time attention was directed 
chiefly to the coast of Guinea or Brazil. For an expedition 
to the latter country affairs then seemed peculiarly propitious, 
since the Dutch had acquired firm foothold in the land, and 
had dispossessed the Portuguese, while the West India Com- 
pany had not yet obtained the privilege of the Brazilian trade, 
thus leaving Sweden free to participate in it. 

1 On this point see Arend, Algemeene Oeschiedenis des Vaderlands, iii. 
4, p. 851 ; Chemnitz, Gesch. des Schwed. Kriegs, ii. p. 696. 

8 With respect to this person we glean nothing from the chief Dutch bio- 
graphical work (van der Aa, Biographisch Woorderiboek der Nederlanden, 
II., i.), except that he distinguished himself during the years 1607-9 in the 
service of the East India Company. We may add that he is mentioned in 
1630-1 as a partner in a private colonization (under the title of patroonship) 
of the east side of Delaware Bay : see Hazard, Annals of Pennsylvania, p. 26. 
Probably he was of the same family as the Thomas Blommaert who deserves 
so much credit for the development of the manufacture of bar-iron in Sweden 
during the reign of Gustavus Adolphus. 
VOL. III. 19 

274 The Founding of New Sweden. 

Another step in advance was taken the following year. 
During the spring of 1636 Axel Oxenstjerna received a visit 
in Wismar from the Dutchman Peter Spiring, who was on a 
journey from Prussia to Holland. This prudent man, so 
highly esteemed by the chancellor of the kingdom, 1 had regu- 
lated and introduced into the Prussian ports a system of excise 
singularly to the satisfaction of the latter, and, since the re- 
linquishment of these harbours in 1635, had been retained by 
Oxenstjerna in the Swedish service. He departed for Holland 
with a commission to endeavour to gain subsidies for Sweden 
from the States-General ; and was, moreover, instructed " to 
observe whether it might not be possible in this conjuncture 
to obtain some service in affairs of commerce or manufac- 
tures." 2 What he accomplished in the latter particular is 
learned from his letter to the chancellor. 3 He had held seve- 
ral "conversations" with Blommaert concerning the trade 
with Guinea, and had sought to interest in it both Blommaert 
and other Dutch men-of-business ; he also heard from Blom- 
maert of the person best qualified to impart information on 
these subjects, namely, Peter Minuit, the leader of the First 
Swedish Expedition to the Delaware. 

Peter Minuit, as he himself wrote his name, or Minnewit, 
as he is, perhaps, properly called, 4 was a native of the town 
of Wesel, in the country of Cleves, the nearest border-land of 
Holland on the side of Germany. Probably he left the city 
of his forefathers when it fell into Spanish hands on occasion 
of the Julich-Cleves war of hereditary succession. He went to 
Holland, and entered the service of the West India Company, 
and was at last constituted Director or Governor over the colony 
of New Netherland. This embraced the territory between the 
Hudson and Delaware Rivers, on both of which, in 1623, the 

1 With regard to this person see the author's Sveriges deltagande i 
Westfaliska fredskongressen, p. 46. 

* The chancellor's Memorial f. Joh. Nicodemi, dated March 29, 1636. 
Handlingar ror. Skandinaviens historia, xxxviii. pp. 289-90. 

3 Spiring to the chancellor, dated May 14, 1636. The Oxenstjerna papers 
in the Royal Archives. 

4 It was also written by Swedes Meneiue, Menuet, and so forth. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 275 

Company possessed firm foothold ; on the east bank of the 
Delaware a little redoubt was built, called Fort Nassau, and 
on the western, near Cape Henlopen, a Dutch colony was 
planted in 1G31, named Zwaanendal^ soon laid waste, how- 
ever, by the Indians, and abandoned. 1 Minuit resided as 
Governor at New Amsterdam (now New York City) from 
1626 to 1632, and seems to have acquired the reputation of 
being an efficient officer, but finally rendered himself ob- 
noxious to a powerful coterie in the Company, who, through 
their intrigues, compelled him to relinquish his office in 1632, 
when he returned to Holland. 2 He was living in his native 
country in 1636, when he was brought into notice by Spiring. 

It was purposed, that Minuit should accompany Spiring, 
when the latter returned, in the summer of 1636, to Sweden, 
that he might aid the authorities with his counsel and supe- 
rior information. But he was prevented from doing so, and 
sent instead a written opinion on the subject 3 by Spiring. In 
order to found a Swedish colony in some foreign part of the 
world (to be called " Nova Suedia"), a ship was needed, thought 
Minuit, of from sixty to a hundred Idstcrf with a cargo worth 
10,000 or 12,000^^671, and a company of twenty or twenty-five 
men, with provisions for a year, and a dozen soldiers to serve 
as a garrison for the place, besides a smaller vessel to remain 
at the settlement. It was, apparently, this proposal, or, at 
least, one grounded on it, which was read in the Swedish 
Ead September 27, 1636. 5 The thoughts of both Spiring and 
the government were constantly directed, it appears, to the 
coast of Guinea, peculiarly known as " the Gold Coast." 

During the autumn of 1636 Spiring was again sent out to 

1 Hazard's Annals, p. 25 et seq. Cape ITcnlopcn (properly Hindlopen ?) 
lay on the southwestern side of the mouth of the Delaware, and on the north- 
eastern lay Cape May (properly Jllcy, from the first discoverer of the country, 
Cornells Mey). 

* The preceding statements with regard to the earlier fortunes of Minuit 
are taken, chiefly, from Fr. Kapp, Peter Minnewit aus Wesel, in Sybcl's 
Histor. Zeitschrift, xv. p. 225 et seq. 

* Dated Amsterdam, June 15, 1G36. The Oxenstjcrua papers. 
4 From 720 to 1200 tons. TRANS. 

6 Rddsprotokollen. 

276 The Founding of New Sweden. 

Holland, now, however, in the quality of Swedish resident 
and " counsellor of the finances" ("Jinansrad") , ennobled under 
the name of Silfvercron till Nbrsholm. 1 He arrived in Hol- 
land at the close of October, 1636, and, in accordance with 
the orders of the government, immediately resumed negotia- 
tions with Blommaert and Minuit. The former now received 
a commission as Swedish Commissary in Amsterdam, at a 
yearly salary of 1000 riksdaler, becoming what, in our days, 
is called Swedish consul-general in Holland. To arrive at 
some determination about the plans for a colony, Spiring in- 
vited Blommaert and Minuit to meet him in consultation at 
the Hague at the beginning of the new year. The result of 
this deliberation appears in Spiring's and Blommaert's letters 
to the chancellor. 2 It was discovered, on closer examination, 
that an expedition to Guinea would require more capital than 
they could hope to raise, and they, therefore, resolved to form 
a Swedish-Dutch Company, which should carry on trade with, 
and establish colonies on, the portions of the North American 
coast not previously taken up by the Dutch or English. The 
cost of the first expedition was estimated at 24,000 Dutch 
florins, 3 half of which sum was to be contributed by Minuit 
and Blommaert and their friends, and the remaining half to 
be subscribed in Sweden. Spiring desired, also, to take the 
advice of other men-of-business, but refrained, both hia coun- 
sellors urging, that the affair ought to be kept profoundly 
secret, lest the West India Company might frustrate the enter- 
prise. Minuit was to be the leader of the expedition, Blom- 
maert the commissioner for it at Amsterdam. 

After these stipulations had been concluded, Minuit set out 
for Sweden, provided with the necessary documents, in the 
beginning of February, 1637. With regard to his residence 
and proceedings in Sweden the only information we possess 

1 He was in the habit of signing his name Peter SpieringTc Silvercroen op 
Norsholm. His letters to the chancellor are usually written in Dutch. 

8 Spiring to the chancellor, dated November 8, 1636, and January 7 and 
31, 1637. Blommaert to the same, November 26, 1636, and January 14, 
1637. The Oxenstjerna papers. 

8 1 riksdaler was equivalent to 2 Dutch florins or gulden. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 277 

is gathered from the letter of Blommaert to the chancellor. 1 
The Swedish government embraced the scheme with interest, 
and promised to place two fully equipped vessels at the dis- 
posal of the company : the contribution of money required 
from Sweden was subscribed by the three Oxenstjernas, Clas 
Fleming, and Peter Spiring. 2 Fleming, as well as the chan- 
cellor, was a most zealous promoter of the work : as virtual 
chief of the admiralty the head-admiral was old and dis- 
qualified for service he obtained the commission to fit out 
both of the ships, and concerted the details of the equipment 
with Blommaert and Minuit. In Holland, Blommaert pro- 
cured an experienced crew, and the cargo required to trade 
with, and both were sent over to Gottenburg in the spring of 
1637, when, it was agreed, the expedition should set out. 3 But, 
whether because of delay on the part of the authorities, or 
from a prolonged illness of Minuit, it was August before the 
vessels were prepared to leave Stockholm: on the 9th of this 
month the Admiralty issued a passport for the ships Kalmar 
Nyckel and Gripenf the former the larger, a man-of-war, the 
latter a sloop, both belonging to the United Southern and Ship 
Company. They did not sail from Gottenburg till late in 
the fall. This delay was attended with several disadvanta- 
geous results: the ship's crew had to be maintained during 
the whole summer, and their wages paid at the expense 

1 See Blommaert's letters dated February 18, and May 6, 1637, etc. 

2 According to the Account of Peter Minuit' s Voyage to the West Indies* 
in 1637, at Stockholm (Oxenstjerna's papers), Axel and Gabriel Gustafson 
Oxenstjerna each contributed 3000 florins, Spiring 4500, and the rest smaller 

* Blommaert to the chancellor, June 6, 1637. 

4 Amiralitetets registratur: Sjoforvaltningens arkiv. The passes were 
granted to Captain Anders Nilsson Krober, of the Kalmar Nyckel (Key 
of Kalmar, named from the city and sea-port of Kalmar, in Sweden), and 
Lieutenant Jacob Borben, of the Gripen (the Griffin). The only person 
(so far as known) who came to New Sweden on the Gripen, and remained 
with the colony, was Anthony, " ein morian oder angoler" a bought slave 
(the first on the shores of the Delaware), who served Governor Printz at 
Tinicum in 1644 (" making hay for the cattle, and accompanying the Gov- 
ernor on his pleasure-yacht"), and was still living in New Sweden March 1, 
1648. TRANS. 

278 The Founding of New Sweden. 

of the Company, and the vessels, after leaving Got ten- 
burg, encountered the autumn winds in the North Sea, by 
which they were roughly handled. In December, 1637, they 
were obliged to put into the Dutch harbour of Medemblik, 
to refit and take in fresh provisions. The cost of the expedi- 
tion, already reckoned at about 36,000 florins, was thus neces- 
sarily increased; and the Dutch partners, seeing the prospects 
of gain diminish, began to grumble. They were appeased, 
however, by Minuit's promising, on his return, to persuade the 
Swedish government to assume the additional expenditure. 
"Whereupon the voyage was continued, at the close of 1637, 
to the place of destination. 1 

With respect to Minuit's voyage across the Atlantic we 
know nothing. The date of his arrival, however, in the 
Delaware has been determined, it is believed, with tolerable 
accuracy. An American investigator has extracted from 
English archives a letter from Jerome Hawley, " treasurer" 
for the English Colony in Virginia, to Mr. Secretary Winde- 
banke, dated Jamestown, May 8, 1638, mentioning the arrival 
of a Dutch ship, with a commission signed by the Swedish 
government, whose commander had sought the privilege of 
laying in a cargo of tobacco for Sweden free of duty, and, 
although the right was not conceded, the vessel remained at 
Jamestown about ten days, " to refresh with wood and water." 
It was also ascertained that both this and another vessel accom- 
panying her were destined for the Delaware, "to make a plan- 
tation, and to plant tobacco." As the Delaware was supposed 
to be part of the English territory, the question was asked, 
what should be done in case the Swedish colonization was 
successful? 2 From this testimony it was concluded, that it was 
Minuit himself, who visited Virginia on his journey to the 
Delaware. The inference is, notwithstanding, incorrect, as is 
discovered from a statement in . Blommaert's letter. The 
vessel, that went to Jamestown on the occasion indicated, 
was not the Kalmar Nyckel, with Minuit aboard, but the 

1 Blommaert to the chancellor, January 6, 1638, with his particular account, 
dated January 28, 1640. 

* Hazard's Annals, pp. 42 et seq. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 279 

sloop Gripen, which, after his arrival in the Delaware, the 
commander sent to barter her cargo in Virginia a design 
which, nevertheless, miscarried. Since it seems, then, from 
the English document, that the Swedish vessel probably made 
its appearance in Virginia at the close of April, 1638, her 
arrival in the Delaware must, consequently, have occurred in 
March, or early in the month of April. With this opinion 
accords, likewise, another document of the same period, which 
shows that the Dutch Governor at New Amsterdam, Willem 
Xieft, was already aware of Minuit's arrival by the 28th of 
April. 1 On this day he writes to the Directors of the West 
India Company, that he had received intelligence from the 
commissary at Fort Nassau, that Minuit had landed on the 
Delaware, and hac^ begun to construct a stronghold, and was 
minded to push on up the river past Fort Nassau, but was 
prevented from doing so. The Governor had first ordered 
the commissary to protest against Minuit's action, and had 
afterwards (May 6-17) uttered a solemn protest, in which he 
laid claim, on behalf of the West India Company, to the 
whole " Zuid-Rivier" (South River) (as the Delaware was com- 
monly called in opposition to the more northerly Hudson), 
and pronounced Minuit responsible for all the harm and dis- 
cord which might result from his procedure. 2 What ground 
the Dutch possessed for their claim we know from former 
statements ; they had, in truth, purchased and built upon a 
part of the western shore of the Delaware, but had afterwards 
forsaken the region. 

As to further events upon the Delaware, occurring after 
Minuit's arrival, we gain our information from the oft-men- 
tioned letters of Blommaert, 3 which, it is stated, rely, in turn, 

1 Since the publication of Professor Odhner's article a document has been 
discovered in the Royal Archives at Stockholm implying the presence of 
Minuit on the Delaware at least by March 29, 1638. See THE PENNSYL- 
VANIA MAGAZINE, vol. ii. p. 465. TRANS. 

2 Hazard's Annals, pp. 44 et seq. Ferris, History of the Original 
Settlements on the Delaware, pp. 38 et seq. Acrelius, History of New 
Sweden, pp. 25 et seq. 

8 Particularly the letters of the dates of November 13, 1638, and January 
28, 1640. 

280 The Founding of New Sweden. 

on Minuit's own journals, charts, and other records now lost. 
It was agreed by Blommaert and the rest of the Dutch part- 
ners, who were at the same time associates in the "West India 
Company, that all collision with that Company should be 
avoided, and Minuit seems to have beguiled the Hollanders 
with the illusion that Florida was the goal of his journey, it 
being usually spoken of in Blommaert's letters under the 
name of ^voyagen till Florida" "Without doubt, however, 
from the very beginning Minuit determined to direct his 
course to the large peninsula jutting out between the Delaware 
and Chesapeake Bays, which, from the period of his governor- 
ship, he knew to be both fertile and unoccupied, notwith- 
standing the Hollanders laid claim to it. In his journals he 
seems completely to have concealed the protest of the Dutch, 
for nothing with regard to it occurs in Blommaert's letter. 
On the contrary, this relates that Minuit travelled some miles 
into the country, to discover whether there were any Christian 
people there, and made signals by firing cannon, but no re- 
sponse to indicate their presence was received. He had sailed 
into one of the tributaries of the river on the western side, 
named "Minquas' kil" 1 and entered into negotiation with the 
chiefs of the neighbouring Indian tribes, called by the Swedes 
"Minquesser" belonging to the Iroquois race, which dispos- 
sessed the Delawares, the former owners of the country, who 
were of the Algonkin stock. 2 The Indians agreed to sell 
Minuit a tract of land, several days' journey in extent, situ- 
ated on the west bank of the Delaware, and the bargain was 
solemnly ratified by five competent Indian chiefs or Sachems, 3 
a written contract being drawn up. 4 

1 The Dutch kil signifies river, stream. Minquas,' or Mam'quas' kil is 
to be distinguished carefully from Minquess' kil, situated farther to the 
south. (The latter was a name applied to the Apoquenemy ; by the former 
is meant Christine Creek. TRANS.) 

* Eeynolds's observation on Acrelius's History, p. 47, note 4. 

9 Sachem is the Dutch and English appellation of such a chief; Campa- 
nius and Acrelius write Sackheman. 

4 Acrelius affirms that the Indians at this time resigned the land from 
Cape Henlopen to Santickan (the present Trenton Falls). On what he 
grounded his statement we do not know : possibly he had seen some tran- 

The Founding of New Sweden. 28 1 

"When Minuit had thus acquired possession of the country, 
he caused the arms of the Queen of Sweden to be erected, and 
designated the new colony New Sweden. The stream he 
called Elbe? and the fort, which he began to build close to it, 
with salute of cannon, he named Kristina. The latter was 
situated about two English miles from the outlet of the Elbe 
in the river Delaware, near where the city of Wilmington 
now stands, on a rising point of land, accessible on one side 
to large vessels, on the other surrounded by bog and sand- 
banks. 2 Within this stronghold were built two log-houses 
for the abode of those who should compose the garrison, and 
provisions of every kind were stored there for their sustenance, 
including maize and game, deer, -wild geese, turkeys, and so 
forth. Probably a little garden, also, was laid out in the fort. 
At last, when all measures had been taken for the welfare of 
those who were to remain in New Sweden, Minuit began 
preparations for his return-voyage. He left a portion of the 
cargo, which he had brought out, to be used in barter with 
the Indians, as well as twenty-three men, under the command 
of Lieutenant Mans Kling, the only Swede who is expressly 
named as taking part in the First Expedition, 8 and Henrik 
Iluyghen, who seems to have been Minuit's brother-in-law, 
or cousin. It was enjoined upon these leaders (of whom the 
former appears to have been entrusted with the military, the 
latter with the civil or economical part of the direction), to 

script of the bill of sale, now lost (which appears to have been written in 
Dutch, and signed with the Indians' marks). It is, nevertheless, probable 
that he confounded this first purchase with the later one, for, if the Swedes 
had in the very beginning come into possession of the country as far as 
Trenton Falls, there would scarcely have been any need of further bargain. 
See, also, Hazard's Annals, p. 48. 

1 It was known afterwards not as Elbe, but as Kristinas kil, and is still 
called Christeen. 

* As to the present appearance of the spot see Ferris's Settlements on 
the Delaware, pp. 41 et seq. 

9 Probably there were, also, one or two Swedes among the garrison. When 
Acrelius mentions a Swedish clergyman, Reorus Torkillus, as Minuit's com- 
panion, it is very likely that he bases his statement on a misconception. It 
is scarcely to be presumed that a Swedish priest went with the expedition, 
when this was composed, with few exceptions, of Dutchmen. 

282 The Founding of New Sweden. 

defend the fortress, and carry on traffic with the natives. 
These dealt, chiefly, in skins, and there still exists a letter of 
Governor Kieft's, dated July 31, 1638 ,* complaining, that 
Minuit, through his liberality towards the Indians, had drawn 
to himself the fur trade of the Delaware. Since Kieft in the 
same letter mentions Minuit's departure from New Sweden, 
it is likely that this event occurred during that month. 

Minuit sent the sloop Gripen,'m advance, to the West Indies, 
where he hoped to be able to exchange the cargo he brought 
out from Gottenburg,and afterwards he steered his own course, 
also, on the Kalmar Nyckel, to the same place a proceeding 
censured by Blommaert, on the ground that he might very 
well have put all the residue of his cargo on the G-ripen, and 
himself have taken the shortest homeward route to Sweden. 
Minuit arrived with his vessel at the West Indian island of 
St. Christopher, and succeeded in selling his merchandise 
there, obtaining in its place a load of tobacco. He was al- 
ready prepared to sail away, when he and his captain were 
invited to pay a visit to a Dutch ship, which lay near by, 
named " Het vliegende hert" (The Flying Deer). While the 
guests happened to be on board the foreign vessel, there arose a 
violent hurricane, "such as occur in the West Indies every six 
or seven years." All the ships in the roadstead, to the num- 
ber of twenty, were driven to sea ; some lost their masts, or 
were otherwise badly damaged, some absolutely foundered. 
Among the latter, in all probability, was " He t vliegende hert" 
where Minuit was, for nothing more was seen either of him 
or of that vessel. The Kalmar Nyckel, on the contrary, had 
the good fortune to escape, and returned to the island, as soon 
as the storm abated, to search for her commander, but, hearing 
no tidings of him, after a delay of several days pursued her 
voyage to Sweden. 2 

Such was the end of the enterprising and gifted man, who, 
after having brought the Dutch settlement on the Hudson to 
a flourishing condition, became the founder of the Swedish 

1 Hazard's Annals, p. 45. 

2 With regard to this see, especially, Blommaert's letters to the chancel- 
lor, dated November 13, 1638, and January 28, 1640. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 283 

colony on the Delaware. The suddenness and mysteriousness 
of his death, together with the silence of the Swedish authori- 
ties as to that point, have till now kept us in ignorance of his 
ultimate fate. Acrelius even ventures to relate that Minuit 
remained in New Sweden, and " after several years of faithful 
service died at Christina." This assertion has passed from 
that historian to most of the writers on the subject, and, actu- 
ally, Minuit 's hiograpber, Kapp, has no other declaration to 
make. 1 That this statement was certainly incorrect was 
already discovered by the author in collecting materials for 
his work on Queen Christina's Guardians, for Fleming, in a 
letter of 1639, 2 speaks of the necessity of providing a succes- 
sor for Minuit at Christina. But the true circumstances of 
the affair the author could not then learn, and, therefore, con- 
fined himself to these expressions: "Minuit seems either to 
have died on his way home, or to have left the Swedish ser- 
vice." 3 The former conjecture proves now to have been the 
true one. 

The Swedish vessel, Kalmar Nyckel, bereaved of her com- 
mander in the way described, returning home encountered 
another misfortune. Once more was she battered by a storm, 
this time in the North Sea, and, losing her mast, she was 
obliged in November, 1638, to retire to a Dutch port. 
Through Blommaert's assiduity she was repaired upon the 
spot, and awaited further orders in Holland. The sloop 
Gripen, which had been sent by Minuit to the "West Indies, 
cruised a while in the waters about Havana, and returned 
again to New Sweden. Here the vessel took in furs, ob- 
tained in the interval through traffic with the Indians, and 

1 Acrelius, op. cit. p. 15 ; Ferris, op. cit. p. 57 ; Hazard, op. cit. p. 59 ; 
Kapp, op. cit. p. 248. It is usually affirmed, that Minuit died in 1641, and 
was buried at Christina. 

8 Kl. Fleming to the chancellor, dated June 8, 1639. The Oxenstjerna 

3 The author's work referred to, p. 302. When Reynolds ( Acrelius's His- 
tory, p. 28) attributes to the writer the assertion, that Minuit returned to 
Europe, but soon retired from the Swedish service, this arises, probably, 
from some misapprehension on his part. 

284 John Penn's Journal. 

then left for Sweden, where she arrived at the close of May, 
1689, making the voyage from Christina to Gottenburg in 
five weeks. 1 

(To be continued.) 




[John Penn, the author of the following Journal, was the eldest son of 
Thomas, who was the second son of William and Hannah (Callowhill) 
Penn ; John Penn was born Feb. 23, 1760, and died in 1834 ; his mother was 
Lady Juliana Penn, daughter of the Earl of Pomfret. He published several 
volumes of poems, and built the mansion known as Solitude, now standing 
in the Zoological Garden in Fairmount Park. He also built a great house 
in Kensington Gardens, London, and the mansion of Stoke the park sur- 
rounding which he laid out and planted; also Pennsylvania Castle on Port- 
land Island. His portrait, and commonplace-book from which the Journal 
is taken, are in the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. For 
the notes we are indebted to Mr. Daniel S. Zacharias and Mr. Henry May 
Keim, of Heading, and Mr. A. Boyd Hamilton, of Harrisburg. ED.] 

April 6, 1788. Set out from Philadelphia and passed thro' 
the township of Roxborough, the name of which all the 
houses bear, scattered along the road for some miles. Passed, 
likewise, two meeting houses, then filled by their congrega- 
tions, and alighted to rest the horses at one Cochran's. The 
soil is not very rich, but the country is finely diversified with 
wood and clear ground; tho' the beauties are not of so bold a 
sort as I admired in last year's tour to Bethlehem. I con- 
versed much with a hoary-headed guest at this tavern, who 
lived near Reading, and who invited me to his house, terming 
me the " Honorable Proprietor." But to show how qualified 
respect is in this democratical country, this discourse passed 

1 Blommaert to the chancellor, dated January 28, 1640 ; Fleming to the 
same, June 8, and July 1, 1639 ; the same to Spiring, June 8, 1639. The 
Oxenstjerna papers. 

John Perm's Journal. 285 

while he, the tavern keeper, and myself were lounging in 
three chairs, and I obliged to joke with him about his age. 
Mine host, too, apprised me freely of the state of his finances, 
by which I concluded him to have joined in a late petition 
from Montgomery county for the relief of debtors. 

In the evening arrived at Brooke's tavern, the sign of Dr. 
Franklin, but being recruited by light fare at the last tavern, 
exchanged my intended dinner for a refreshing tea. This 
road is marked by a peculiar appearance in the roofs of the 
different buildings, which remind us of England. Instead 
of shingles, the ordinary and universal covering, the barns 
are often roofed with thatch, and the houses with tiles, fabri- 
cated in the neighborhood. 

April 7. Left the tavern at seven and a half o'clock, after 
admiring the strong likeness to Dr. Franklin, drawn by one 
Rutter, 1 a limner I employ in Philadelphia. That city and 
its environs may boast of the best sign painter, perhaps, in 
any country. I called upon Squire Muhlenberg 2 (as he was 
termed) the last speaker of the Assembly, who lived close by, 
over against the tavern, but as he was employed by business, 
soon proceeded upon my journey thro' a very pleasant country. 
The character of it is the beautiful, a little heightened in 
some places by the sublime. It is, indeed, perfect, especially 
as you approach the Schuylkill about Pottsgrove, 3 which 
would, even in England, be no contemptible village. One 
brick house adjoining, owned by a person named Rutter, 4 has 
the appearance of an English box. The river now adds to 
the beautiful disposition of the ground, and to the picturesque 
forms of the horizon ; which continue till the Black Horse, 5 
about half way to Reading, which is thirty miles from the 

1 George Rutter (Hitter), a noted sign painter and ornamenter of Phila- 

2 Frederick A. Muhlenberg. 

8 Now Pottstown. 4 Thomas Rutter. 

8 The Black Horse Tavern is in the township of Amity, in the county of 
Berks, and the place is now known as Douglassville ; the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railroad Company have a passenger and freight depot adjacent 
to said tavern or hotel. 

286 John Perm's Journal. 

last tavern. Here I baited my horses, and then passed on 
thro 3 a series of higher hills, breaking the horizon with less 
harmony, and resembling somewhat more, Pelion upon Ossa. 
Near Reading, into which I walked for two miles, sending 
on my horses, I met a person on horseback, and questioned 
him concerning the Manor here, 1 as I had alighted chiefly to 
examine at leisure my own ground. He showed the fertile 
valleys and low places, which were all settled by encroach ers, 
and the rocky and barren mountains they left unsettled. The 
town 2 is finely -situated on the Schuylkill, surrounded at a 
distance, and sheltered by these mountains. Dinner was 

1 The manor here mentioned was the manor of Penns Mount, and at that 
time formed the eastern limits of the town of Reading ; at the present time, 
part of said manor is included in the limits of the city of Reading ; said 
manor was surveyed to the use of the Honorable the Proprietaries, in pur- 
suance of a warrant dated the 25th day of November, 1748, and returned 
into the secretary's office the 21st day of November, 1755, and contains 
12,200 acres. Resurveyed by Cadwallader Evans, Jr., in 1789, and laid off 
in lots to the number of 232, by direction of Anthony Butler. 

2 The land on which the town of Reading was first laid out was taken up 
as follows, to wit: three hundred acres of land, surveyed on the 19th day 
of March, 1733, to Thomas Lawrence, warrant for the same tract dated the 
1st day of June, 1733. Patent to Thomas Lawrence dated the 27th day of 
October, 1733. One hundred and thirty-seven and a half acres of land, sur- 
veyed on the 22d day of April, 1738, to Thomas Lawrence, warrant for the 
same tract dated the 23d day of June, 1737. Patent dated the 16th day of 
February, 1739. One hundred and twenty-six acres of land, surveyed the 
3d day of July, 1741, to the Proprietaries' use, by order of the Honorable 
Thomas Peun, Esq., out of Richard Stockly's tract of 1150 acres. 

Deed, Thomas Lawrence and wife to Thomas Jenkins for the above 
mentioned two tracts of laud. Deed dated 6th December, 1745. 

Deed, Thomas Jenkins and wife to Richard Peters and Richard Hockly 
for the same lands. Deed dated 10th December, 1745. 

Deed, Richard Peters and Richard Hockly and Hannah, his wife, to the 
Honorable Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, Proprietaries, for the same 
lands. Deed dated 30th March, 1748. 

The town of Reading was laid out on the two tracts of land which had 
been owned by Thomas Lawrence. 

The first survey or plot of Reading extended from King, now Third Street, 
to Vigour, now Eleventh Street, and from Hamilton, now Chestnut Street 
to Margaret, now Walnut Street. A subsequent survey was made of 55 or 
60 lots along the Schuylkill on both sides, which were called water lots. A 

John Perm's Journal. 287 

ordered at one Whitman's, 1 who proved the only tavern 
keeper who had not lately petitioned against the confirma- 
tion of the proprietary estate. His accommodations were 
worthy of a respectable country town, and I dined heartily 
upon catfish, which the river plentifully affords. 

April 8. Mr. Biddle 2 and Daniel Clymer, 3 who, with other 
gentlemen of this town, had called the day before, joined me, 
and we walked down to the ferry, rented by us to one Levan. 
Then, turning to the left, we walked over the farm also belong- 
ing to the Proprietors, which has great advantages as such, 
but it will be more productive, as well as valuable, to divide 
it into small parcels and sell them separately. This counsel, 
given by people of the neighborhood, will most probably be 
followed, in spite of pleading taste. A dinner was provided 
for us at Mr. Biddle*s, the honours of the table done in part 
by Mrs. Collins, his daughter, and his unmarried one present. 
They are of low stature, but rather pretty. Mr. Biddle ap- 
pears an amiable character. 4 

third survey was made on the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th days of July, 1776, by 
direction of John Penn, Esq., of the part of the town which lay between 
King, now Third Street, and the river. 

1 Abraham Whitman, whose son Abraham is now (1877) living in the city 
of Reading, and is upward of eighty years of age. The hotel or tavern was 
at the southeast corner of Fifth and Franklin. 

2 Judge James Biddle. His brothers were Charles, Vice-President of 
Pennsylvania, Edward, Member of the Continental Congress, and Captain 
Nicholas, who was lost on the frigate Randolph in 1777. 

8 Daniel Cunyngham Clymer, son of William and Ann (Roberdeau) 
Clymer, was born in Philadelphia, April 6, 1748. Losing his father in 
early life, he was brought up by his uncle, General Roberdeau. He gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1766, read law, and attained an enviable position in 
that profession. He was a lieutenant in the 2d Battalion of Philadelphia 
Militia in 1775, and as lieutenant-colonel commanded a rifle battalion in 
1776. During the Revolution Mr. Clymer was Commissioner of Claims of 
the Treasury. He removed to Reading, Penn., and in 1782 represented 
Berks County in the Assembly. He married Mary Weiduer, daughter of 
Peter and Susan Weidner. His wife died Dec. 5, 1802, and Col. Clymer 
Jan. 25, 1819. They left one child, Edward Tilghman, the father of the 
Hon. Heister Clyraer. Roberdeau Family, Washington, 1876. 

4 The ferry rented to Levan was then at the place where the first Lan- 
caster bridge had been built, which is north of the present iron bridge ; it 

288 John Perm's Journal. 

It was mentioned that a subscription of about 3000 
currency would remove the obstructions of tke Schuylkill so 
much, that the trade and property of the town would most 
rapidly increase. Another plan much sooner to be executed, 
is the establishment of a school. The trustees are to allow 
the teacher 100 currency per annum. 

April 9. Set off accompanied by Mr. Biddle, who was so 
obliging as to show me the way to General Mifflin's farm, 1 
three miles from Reading. Finding the river too deep to ford, 
we passed at a lower ferry on the road to Lancaster. The 
General and Mrs. Mifflin received us in a neat farm-house, 
and being very early themselves, provided a second breakfast 
for us, tho' it was then only half-past seven. He took us 
round some of his improvements, and I rode with him to 
various points of view which commanded the town of Read- 
ing and the circumjacent hills and valleys. He farms about 

is called the Lancaster, being on the road leading from Reading to Lancaster. 
After crossing over the river they turned to the left. At about one mile from 
the ferry on the road leading from Reading to Morgantown, there are two 
farm-houses, one on the right and the other on the left ; these were on the 
Proprietaries' farm, which Penn said that he walked over, accompanied by 
Messrs. Biddle and Clymer ; this tract of land was surveyed to the Proprie- 
taries' use on the 18th of 2d month, 1740, by virtue of a warrant dated 31st 
December, 1733, containing two hundred and forty-five acres and allowance. 
About the year 1826, these farms became the property of the Hon. Henry A. 
Muhlenberg, the elder, who, after serving several terms in Congress, for the 
county of Berks, was nominated in the year 1844 as the Democratic candi- 
date for governor, but died a short time before the election. The tract of 
land is now divided, and about one-half of it is owned by the Reading Land 
and Improvement Company, and the other part of said farm or tract of land 
is owned by the heirs of Charles Norton, deceased, late of the city of 
Philadelphia ; a fine stream of water flows through this tract of land, and 
is known by the name of Angelica Creek ; on the south of the above men- 
tioned tract is another tract of land containing two hundred and seventy 
acres, which had likewise been surveyed to the use of the Honorable the 
Proprietaries on the 9th day of December, 1734, and is known as the mine 
tract ; both these tracts of land are situate in the township of Curaru. 

1 This farm or a part of it is now owned by the county of Berks, the 
Berks County Almshouse and Hospital being erected on the same ; there 
are upwards of six hundred acres of land in this farm, that is with the 
woodland. It is situate in the township of Cumru. 

John Perm's Journal 289 

twelve hundred acres, and has a Scotch farmer who conducts 
the business. One hundred of meadow-land he waters. One 
neighbour of the General's is one of the marrying Dunkers. 
They live in their own houses like other countrymen, but 
wear their beards long. This person is a principal one, and 
when we accosted him was working in his meadow. 

General Mifflin, with agreeable frankness and affability, 
pressed us both to stay for an early dinner, to which we sat 
down about one o'clock. After dinner I mounted my horse 
and came into the Carlisle road about three miles off, at 
Sinking Spring. 1 About sunset arrived at Middletown, 2 
fourteen miles from Reading, and put up at a tavern, the 
master of which owned the town and one hundred acres in the 
neighbourhood. There is one spot on this road remarkable 
for its European appearance, the lands all cultivated, and 
adorned by some farms, and a very handsome Presbyterian 
church upon a hill. This road, however, upon the whole has 
less cleared ground than any I passed. The beauties are 
chiefly those of wildness and the romantic ; the adjoining hills, 
being as yet bare of leaves, except where dotted by groups of 
firs, and being steep and extensive, these circumstances render 
them striking: 

forlorn and wild, 
The scat of Desolation. 

April 10. Rose by six o'clock, and after breakfast set out, 
in order to sleep at Harrisburg, the chief town of Dauphin 
County, and which was proposed to be the seat of government. 
Passed some mills a few miles from thence at Tulpehocken 
Creek, which afterwards meets the road somewhat farther in 

1 This place still retains its name. It is about six miles westward from 
Beading on the road leading from Reading to Harrisburg. 

1 The town was laid out by Mr. John Womelsdorff between the years 
1760 and 1765, and is now called Womelsdorff. The Presbyterian Church, of 
which mention is made, is known as the German Reformed Church. It is now 
also used by the Lutherans. Womelsdorff (formerly Middletown) is laid out 
on land surveyed to John Page, and created into a manor by the Honorable 
the Proprietaries, and was named Plumton ; a court of Barons was also 
granted to the said John Page. 
VOL. III. 20 

290 John Penn's Journal. 

a very picturesque spot. On the eastern side of this is a most 
elegant new Lutheran church. 1 On the western is a Cal- 
vinist's, called here, by way of distinction, a Presbyterian 
church. 2 After riding through a village, 3 1 came to Lebanon, 
a handsome town containing some hundred inhabitants. This 
place is decorated by a spire, and the houses are well built ; 
many of them stone or brick. It not being distant enough, 
the horses were baited at Millerstown, a small village half- 
way, and twenty miles from Harrisburg, or Harris's ferry. 
About sunset, I had a fine view of this town from an high 
part of the road; 4 the river Susquehanna flowing between its 
woody and cultivated banks close to the town. Mr. Harris, 5 
the owner and founder of this town, informed me that three 
years ago there was but one house built, and seemed to 
possess that pride and pleasure in his success which ^Eneas 

Felices illi, quorum jam msenia surgunt ! 

Tho' the courts are held here generally, Lebanon is infi- 
nitely larger. The situation of this place is one of the finest 
I ever saw. One good point of view is the tavern, almost 
close to the river. This was the house which stood alone so 
many years. It is called the Compass, 6 and is one of the first 

1 In the township of Marion, Berks County. 

* Now known as the German Reformed Church, and situated in Jackson 
Township, Lebanon County. 
8 Now known as Myerstown. 

4 This road was north of the present P. & R. R. R. It afforded an en- 
chanting view of Kittatinny Gap, up and down the Susquehanna for about 
10 miles, and some distance into the valley of Cumberland and York Coun- 
ties. The west side of the river was not wooded at that time, all the forest 
having been burned off twenty years before. 

5 John Harris, the founder of Harrisburg, a man of great energy, and the 
owner of 1000 acres of choice land about his fine residence, built in 1766 
yet standing, pretty much as he erected it on the Front Street and Mary 
Alley. His father is buried directly in front of it. Mr. Harris was " born 
at the ferry," 1726, died 1791, buried in Paxtang Church-yard. 

6 The ferry house, now occupied as a public school-house built of lo^s, 
weather-boarded, low ceilings, large rooms just below the present Harris 
Park, on Paxtang place, about 200 yards below the Harris Mansion. 

John Penn's Journal. 291 

public houses in Pennsylvania. The room I had is 22 feet 
square, and high in proportion. 

April 11. After breakfasting about eight with Mr. 
Harris, we walked together to the ferry, when he gave me 
two pieces of information, one of an island he purchased of 
us, which the war prevented us from confirming to him ; 
and the other of the delinquency of one Litso, who wishes to 
detain the money due in part for a farm over the Susque- 
hanna, tho' there is an incumbrance in our favor, on it, to the 
amount of six or seven hundred pounds, going on upon 
interest. The waters being high, we ferried across with 
difficulty, and almost dropped down to a very rapid part 
below the landing place; but at length escaped a disagreeable 
situation. About t^vo miles from the river passed the house 
of Whitehall the Assemblyman, 1 and arrived about three at 
Carlisle, seventeen miles off. The first buildings seen here 
are three or four separate wings, intended for magazines 
originally, 2 but said to be granted by Congress to the trustees 
of Dickinson College for twenty years ; tho' upon inquiry I 
find they are negotiating, but have not concluded a bargain. 
The present college or school-house is a small patch ed-up 
building of about sixty by fifteen feet. The apartments of 
the public buildings are casually inhabited, and Dr. Nesbit, 3 
the head of the college, lives in one. I found my landlord, 
tho' an Irishman, possessed of the free and easy style to a 
great degree. It was difficult indeed to persuade him, for 
any length of time, that I was able to forego the pleasure of 
his society. 

April 12. After breakfast went out to take a walk, and 

1 Robert Whitehill; he resided at the present village of Whitehill, where 
there is a large soldiers' orphans' school. He was born in Lancaster County, 
1736, and died in Cumberland, 1813, and is buried in Silver Spring Church- 
yard. He was long in the public service assemblyman and congressman 
for more than twenty years. See, also, Rupp, Cumberland Co., p. 438. 

8 These buildings were erected by the Continental Congress in 1777. 
They were occupied by the college for some time, until they were converted 
into cavalry barracks. 

* Dr. Charles Nesbit, of Montrose, Scotland, President of the college from 
1785 until the time of his death in 1804. 

292 John Perm's Journal. 

persevered in spite of the rain, till I arrived at the head of a 
spring, 1 which sends a rivulet about three miles to the town. 
I returned hy the opposite bank. Immediately after dinner 
called upon Gen. Armstrong 2 to inquire of him whether the 
surveys of our lands, he had made in this neighbourhood, had 
been returned into the office. This served me for introduc- 
tion, as I had been careless of providing letters. However, 
he was just setting out to call upon a Mr. Montgomery, and 
visit me together with him. We convened at the tavern, 
and were soon joined by Col. 3 the brother of Dr. Magaw, 4 a 
professor at the University of Philadelphia. A principal 
part of the conversation was on the subject of our estate in 
the environs, which, lying at hand, was of course interesting 
to them all. Gen. Armstrong assured me that every survey he 
made had been returned, and that this had been a consolation 
to him when his papers were formerly destroyed by fire. In 
the middle of it we were interrupted by the arrival of a 
countryman who had been disappointed by Mr. Francis, as 
our agent, in a bargain for some neighbouring land. 

Carlisle is an incorporated town, and seems about the size 
of Heading ; it has an English church (which is not the case 
at Heading), tho' the Presbyterian church is the most con- 
spicuous, and the best built. There are many Irishmen 
among the poor of this county, who are all opposed to the 
new government, proposed by the late convention. They 
appear much more to prefer the English system. 

April 13. Rose early in order to see a cave near Cone- 
dogwinit creek, in which water petrifies, as it drops from the 
roof. Returned and pursued my route to a place called Lis- 
burn, tho' it proved somewhat out of my way. Just at this 
spot the country is romantic. The name of the creek running 
thro' it, Yellow-breeches creek, may, indeed be unworthy of it. 
From hence the road lay thro' woods till the Susquehanna, 

1 Probably at the site of the First Presbyterian Church, on the bank of 
the Conodoguinet, two miles west of the town of Carlise. 

2 Gen. John Armstrong the Elder. See THE PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE, 
vol. i. p. 183. 


8 Col. Robert Magaw. 4 Ecv. Samuel Magaw. 

John Penn's Journal. 293 

and Harrisburg at a distance denoted that the ferry was at 
hand. I crossed the river about three and a half o'clock, 
surrounded by enchanting prospects. The ride to Middle- 
town is along the eastern bank, and exhibits a striking 
sample of the great, in the opposite one, rising to a vast 
height, and wooded close to the water's edge for many miles. 
From this vast forest, and the expansive bed of the river 
navigable to its source for craft carrying two tons burden, 
the ideas of grandeur and immensity rush forcibly upon the 
mind, mixed with the desert-wildness of an uninhabited 
scene. The first particular object on this road is Simpson's 
house, 1 the owner of the ferry where I crossed. It is on a 
rock across the river. At Middletown I put up at one 
More's, who was a teacher formerly at Philadelphia of Latin 
and Greek. lie talked very sensibly, chiefly on subjects 
which discovered him to be a warm tory, and friend of pas- 
sive obedience. Unlike many tories, he is an enemy of the 
new constitution. Here the Great Swatara joins the Sus. 
quehanna, and a very fine mill is kept at their confluence by 
Mr. Frey, a Dutchman, to whom I carried a letter from Mr. 
D. Clymer. 

Several trees, before I arrived at the Susquehanna-ferry, had 
been girdled, as it is termed, that is cut all around thro' the 
bark, so as to prevent their continuing alive. This operation 
in a country so abounding in timber, saves the too great 
trouble of cutting down every tree whose leaves might ob- 
struct the men's operation upon the corn. 

April 14. Before my departure, Mr. Frey showed me his 
excellent mill, and still more extraordinary mill-stream, run- 
ning from one part of Swatara for above a mile till it rejoins 

1 It was the residence of Gen. Michael Simpson, is yet standing, and is 
very spacious. It is directly opposite the Penna. Steel Works ; they are at 
the " Chambers's ferry" of 1750. Simpson was a lieutenant at the storming 
of Quebec, and went through the Revolution with great credit. He was 
brother-in-law to Rev. Col. John Elder, had three wives, but left no issue. 
Born in Paxtang 1748, died 1813, buried under a handsome monument in 
Paxtang Church-yard. At his death he was a Major-General of the Penn- 
sylvania Militia. See, also, Campaign against Quebec, by John Joseph 
Henry, Albany, 1877, p. 30. 

294 John Perm's Journal. 

it at the mouth. It was cut by himself; with great expense 
and trouble, and is the only work of the kind in Pennsyl- 
vania. Middletown is in a situation as beautiful as it is 
adapted to trade, and already of a respectable size. I left it 
threatened by rain, which came on rather violently soon after, 
and the roads proved the worst of the whole journey, till that 
time. I passed thro 7 Elizabeth town, eight miles off, and over 
the creeks (or small rivers) of Conewago and Chickesalunga. 
As you leave Dauphin for Lancaster county, the lands im- 
prove, and at a place half way from Middletown, where I 
stopped for my horses, and to avoid the rain, it was said to 
be worth 15 per acre. There are some handsome farm- 
houses nearer Lancaster. The town itself has a far superior 
appearance to any I had passed thro'. The streets are regu- 
lar, and the sides are paved with brick, like Philadelphia, or 
else stone ; and separated by posts from the street. 

April 15. I rode alone over to the Blue-rock, and spent a 
great part of the day in examining the grounds, not returning 
till dusk. The consequence of this ride was the resolution I 
made of keeping or purchasing near two hundred acres round 
a spot admirably calculated for a country-seat. It is the 
highest situation there, and commands the distant banks of 
the Susquehanna, and several islands, which might many of 
them be collected into one front prospect. The grounds behind 
and of each side fall finely, and may be seen from this spot to 
the extent of the above-mentioned number of acres, except in 
a few low places, in some of which a strong supply of water 
runs thro' excellent meadow-lands now perfectly green. The 
road wants frequent direction. 

April 16. Set out for Nottingham, and crossing Conestoga 
creek in the Philadelphia road, left it on the opposite bank, 
pursuing the right hand road along the creek. At Haynes 
town there is the appearance of a small village, and one neat 
brick house. The lands fall to a very few pounds per acre 
about half way from Lancaster. This country is acknow- 
ledged friendly to the new constitution, tho' I happened to 
converse, on the road, with but one for it, but two against 
it. The former's argument was that matters could not be 

John Perm's Journal. 295 

worse, rior taxes higher. He informed me that a farm of 
four hundred acres in this part (where land is as just now 
mentioned) brought 60 per annum clear of all expenses. 

Crossed Octarara creek, and arrived about four at the sin- 
gle house (the Horse and Groom) next to Nottingham Meeting 
house. Forty acres here were granted by William Penn to a 
society of Quakers as a place of worship. The distant lands 
are seen from the tavern, which are the subject of dispute, 
owing to the boundary lines being long uncertain between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. The people were meeting and 
consulting previous to the purposed decision of the affair 
at Annapolis, next May. Being somewhat fatigued, stayed 
here this night, tho' little fresh information could be obtained 
of my claims to these lands. 

April 17. The country is pleasantly varied in the ride from 
this place to Wilmington. At Newark, is the most conside- 
rable collection of houses I had seen since Lancaster. The 
Elk is crossed upon this road ; and the country is plentifully 
watered here by small streams. Newport, within a few 
miles of Wilmington, has still more houses than Newark, and 
a good brick tavern, which provided proper entertainment 
for horse and man. The kitchen door being ajar, I was 
amused by a war of words between Perrins and Rapilius, 
two rustics completely drunk, and by degrees becoming less 
intelligible. Each seemed perfectly apprised of the other's, 
tho' unconscious of his own, aberration from propriety. 

At Wilmington, after a twenty-four miles ride, closed the 
evening agreeably by waiting upon Mrs. and Miss Yining. 1 

1 An account of this lady, so well known in society at the close of the last 
century, will be found in the Reminiscences of Wilmington, by Elizabeth 
Montgomery, p. 150. 

296 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 



Col. Eyre was born in Burlington, N. J., January 21, 1738. 
His father, George Eyre, of Nottinghamshire, England, came 
to America in 1727, and settled in Burlington, N. J., and 
married Mary Smith of that place in 1730. He had four 
sons, three of whom, Manuel, Jehu, and Benjamin George, 
were early and active on the side of liberty and freedom 
during the troubles between these Colonies and the mother 

The family of Eyre, founded in England by Baron "William 
le Eyr, a Norman, who went with William the Conqueror 
over from Normandy, and who lost his leg at the battle of 
Hastings, 1066 (in commemoration of which the crest of the 
family has always been a leg in armor, couped and spurred), 
became quite a large and noble family, intermarrying with 
some of the most prominent houses of England. It has de- 
veloped many distinguished and titled men, and to this day, 
although extinct in the peerage, is a well known and very 
highly respected family in Great Britain. 

George Eyre, of Nottinghamshire, who came to this coun- 
try, was a lineal descendant in this family; he being the 
great-grandson of Sir Gervaise Eyre, of Newbold and Keneton, 
county of Derby, and his wife Mary, daughter of George 
Neville, Esq., of Thorney, Nottinghamshire. With a staid, 
steady determination for prosperity, and seeing in the near 
future the commercial progress of this country, and the neces- 
sity of vessels to carry on the increasing trade with the 
mother land, George Eyre sent his two sons, Manuel and 
Jehu, to Philadelphia, or rather to Kensington, Philadelphia 
County, the then ship-building place on the Delaware, to 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 


learn the trade of shipwright with Richard Wright, the 
leading ship and boat builder of that day. 

In 1760 Jehu, then 23 years of age, having learned his 
business thoroughly, was engaged by the government to take 
command of a party of boat builders to go to Fort Pitt to 
build bateaux for the navigation of the Ohio River and its 
tributaries running in that part of the country, lately captured 
from the French and Indians. 

Having prepared everything for the journey to the then 
considered Far West, the party, consisting of the following 
persons, set out on the 22d day of May with a wagon con- 
taining their tools, baggage, and camping utensils, and marched 
to their place of destination in stages, as noted in a pocket 
diary which Jehu Eyre kept, as follows : 

Names of the party for Fort Pitt, 

John Midwinter, 
Isaac Middleton, 
Samuel Duenshear [Devon- 

William Flood, 
Daniel Delaney, 
Nathaniel Goforth, 
George Careless, 
Henry Bragg, 

Friend Streeton, 
Thomas Smith, 
John Barter, 
Daniel Rambo, 
David Row, 
James Tull, 
Wm. McAllister, 

George 1 (the sawyer). 

Jehu Eyre's Diary. 

May 22, 1760. Set out from Philad* about 12 of the clock, 
and reached tbe Sign of the Plow, about 13 miles that day. 

23d. Friday the 23d we got to the Sign of the Stage Wag- 
gon, about 29 miles that day. 

24th. We crossed the Conestoga about two of the clock in 
the afternoon. We e^ot into Lancaster about 3 of the clock, 
and there we staid all that night. About 24 miles that day. 

1 It appears that Mr. Eyre did not know the last name of this man, for 
in his accounts with him for money, goods, etc., paid him he calls him always 
George the sawyer. 

298 Colonel Jehu Eyw. 

Set out from Lancaster about 9 of the clock on 
day the 25th, and got to the Sign of the Plow, about 21 miles 
that day. At Lancaster drew provisions, but no rum. 

26/A. Monday y e 26 day we got to the Pyne [Pine] ford, 
about 9 of the clock. It is about 10 miles from Harris' ferry. 
We crossed Sweet arrow [Swatara] about 10 of the clock. 
We got 7 quarts of bonny clabber for our dinner for 14 pence. 
Got to Harris* ferry about 4 o'clock, and crossed the Susque- 
hanna about 5 o'clock, and reached to Tobias Hen rick's 
[Hendricks] about 3 miles from the Susquehanna 36 miles 
in the day. 

21th. We got to Carlisle about 12 of the clock on Tuesday. 
It is about 15 miles from Harris' Ferry, and there we staid 
all night. 

2Sth. Wednesday the 28th we staid all that day at Carlisle. 

29rfA. Thursday y e 29 we set out from Carlisle about 6 of 
the clock, and got to Shippistown 1 about 4 of the clock, and 
there we staid all night. It is about 21 miles from Carlisle. 

BOth. Friday the 30th we set out from Shippistown, and 
about 4 miles from London 2 Tom Smith and myself milked a 
cow and made a good meal. We got to London about 5 
o'clock. It is about 26 miles from Shippistown. About 2 
in from London we staid all night in the woods. 

31s. Saturday y e 31 we got to a cabin in the woods, and 
there we staid all night. It is about 3 miles from Fort Lit- 
tleton, 3 and from Fort to Fort about 18 miles. 

June 1st. June y e 1st, Sunday, we got to Sidling hill, about 
8 miles from Fort Littleton. There we pitched our tent, and 
then we staid all night in the woods. 

2d. Monday we crossed Sidling hill on the Blue Mountains 
about 8 of the clock, and 10 miles from Littleton. We crossed 

1 So pronounced, now Shippensburg. 

2 Fort London, Franklin Co. In 1756 it was called London town, in 
which year the Fort was built. See History of Franklin Co., Pa., I. H. 
McCauley. ED. 

3 In the N. E. part of the present Fulton Co. It was named for Lord 
George Lyttelton, who, in 1755, was Chancellor of the Exchequer. ED. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 299 

the Juniata about 6 o'clock. It is about 18 miles from Fort 
Littleton. We got about four miles from the Juniata. We 
got about 15 miles that day. 

M. Tuesday y e 3d we got to Bedford 1 about 12 of the clock. 
It is about 16 miles from the Juniata. We staid all night in 
the Hospital. 

th. Wednesday y e 4 we staid all that day and did nothing. 

5th. Thursday y e 5 we went to work at a shed for Captain 
Ourry. 2 

6th. Friday y e 6 it rained all the forenoon, and the afternoon 
we went to work at the shed. 

1th. Saturday y e 7 we were at work at the Stable. 

8th. Sunday y e 8 we worked at the sheds and making fence. 

9/A. Monday y e 9 we did nothing but walk about. 

IQth. Tuesday y e 10 we went to work at the storehouses in 
the Fort. They have six six-pounders in that Fort. 

llth. Wednesday y e 11 we went to work out in the woods 
to cut rafters for a log house. 

12th. Thursday y e 12 we did nothing at all but walk about. 

l&th. Friday y e 13 went to work in the woods to cut logs 
for the sawyers. 

14th. Saturday y e 14 went to work in the woods to cut logs 
for the sawyers. 

15th. Sunday y e 15 we did nothing, but I went in the woods 
a gunning, and I caught a turtle. 8 

16th. Monday y e 16 we did nothing. We cooked the turtle, 
and all our company had a good dinner. 

llth. Tuesday y e 17 we started from Fort Bedford, and got 
to the Shawnees Cabin ; and there we encamped and staid all 
night, 10 miles that day. It was a very rainy night. 

ISth. Wednesday y e 18 we set out on our march. It was 
a rainy day, and got to the top of the Allegheny Mountain, 
8 miles that day. 

4 Fort Bedford, formerly Raystown. ED. 

2 Of the Royal American Regt. His letters in the possession of the His- 
torical Society are signed L Ourry. ED. 
1 No doubt a snapper, P. D. K. 

300 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

19M. Thursday y e 19 we set out upon our march, and reached 
to Colonel Armstrong's breast works, and there we encamped 
all night. About 11 miles that day. 

20//i. Friday y e 20 we set out on our march, and crossed 
Stony Creek about 6 of the clock, there is a small Fort here. 
From Fort to Fort is 32 miles. We got to Drownded, or 
Kick-and-a-Poke run that day. 10 miles that day. 

21s. Saturday ye 21 we set out on our march, and reached 
Fort Ligonier. About 14 miles that day. From Fort to 
Fort 21 miles. They have got there two mortars, and three 
cowhorns, 1 and three six-pounders. 

22J. Sunday y e 22 we did nothing but walk about and take 
our pleasure. 

23d. Monday y e 23d we [drew] 25 Axes. 

24^A. Tuesday 24th we loaded all the wagons, and set off 
from Fort Ligonier, and got to the four-mile run ; and there 
we staid all night. 

25A. Wednesday y e 25 we went to work at making a bridge 
over the four-mile run ; and there we staid all night. 

26th. Thursday 26 we finished off the bridge, and staid all 
that night. 

21th. Friday 27 we set out on our march; and about 15 
miles that day. 

28#A. Saturday y e 28 we got to the Block house about 4 
o'clock. It is about 39 miles from Ligonier. We got four 
miles farther than the block house that day. 20 miles that 

29^ . Sunday y e 29 we set out on our march, and 14 miles 
from Pittsburg we found a dead man close by the road. We 
got 10 miles that day. 

30*A. Monday y e 30 we got into Fort Pitts about 12 of the 
clock, and we did nothing that day. 

July 1. Tuesday y e 1 we went to work at building batteaux. 

4th. Friday y e 4 we drew lots for to go up the river against 
the french fort, and it fell out upon Lum [Denn?] and Brag, 

1 Cohorns. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre'. 301 

and Treats [Fritz, Fred Streeter?] and Tull, but John Mid- 
winter went in Brag's stead. 

7/A. Monday y e 7 they set off, and went over the river 
Alleghany. 1 

10th. Thursday 10 we went to work at the bomb proof. It 
is about one hundred and eighty feet long, and twenty-four 

11*A. Friday y* 11 we were at work. 

12th. Saturday y e 12 we were at work at the bomb proof. 
. Sunday 13 we were at work at the bomb proof. 
, Monday y e 14 we were at work at the bomb proof. 
. Tuesday y e 15 we were at work at the bomb proof. 

IQth. Wednesday y e 16 we were at work at the bomb proof 
a caulking of it. 

Vlih. Thursday y e FT we were a caulking of the bomb proof. 

18^. Friday y e 18 we were a making of punchings. [Pun- 

19^A. Saturday y e 19 we were a making of punchings. 

20th. Sunday y e 20 we were a caulking of the bomb proof. 

2lst. Monday y e 21 we were at work at the bomb proof. 

22d. Tuesday y e 22 we were at work hewing timber for a 

23d. "Wednesday y e 23 I was sick, and did no work. 

24M. Thursday y e 24 I was at work hewing of timbers for 
the scow. 

25^A. Friday 25 we were at work a hewing of timber for 
the bateaux. 

26*A. Saturday y* 26 was a caulking of a bateau, and we 
drew lots who should go to Wenango [Yenango], and it fell 
out upon Samuel Deninshear [Duenshear], but they made 
Daniel Dillany [Delaney] go in his stead. 

27^. Sunday y e 27 was at work at building of a scow. 

1 This party probably accompanied a detachment of five hundred and fifty 
men, which a letter of Col. James Burd, written from Fort Pitt July 15th, 
informs us had gone under the command of Col. Bouquet to take possession 
of Tresqu' Isle. A journal of the march will be found in vol. ii. FEKKSYL- 

302 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

28/A. Monday y e 28 was at work at the scow. 

29^/1. Tuesday y e 29 Bragg and myself went to work at 
building of a bateau. There were 13 bateaux set off for to 
go to Wenango to-day. 

3(M. Wednesday y e 30 we were at work at the bateaux. 

31st. Thursday y* 31 we were at work at the bateaux. 
There waa a company of men set out to-day for to go to 

August 1. August y e 1 we were at work at the bateaux. 

2d. Saturday y e 2 we were at work at the bateaux. There 
was a catfish caught that was four foot long, and 10 inches 
across his eyes. 

3d. Sunday y e 3 we were at work at the bateaux. 

4th. Monday y e 4 we were at work at the bateaux. 

6th. Tuesday y e 5 was at work at the bateaux. There 
was a great many Indians came in to-day, and the guns were 
fired for joy. 

6th. Wednesday y e 6 were at work at the bateaux, and 
Thursday and Friday and Saturday. 

10A. Sunday y e 10 we had a holiday, and all that was in 
the garrison were reviewed, and all our names were called over. 

llth. Monday 11 and Tuesday 12 we were at work at the 

l$th. Wednesday y e 13 we were at work at the bateaux^ 
and the Indian treaty begun to-day. 

14th. Thursday y e 14 we were at work at the bateaux; and 
the bateaux came down from Wenango to-day; and the men 
that were at Wenango had not ate no bread for five days be- 
fore the bateaux got there. 

Ibth. Friday y e 15 we were at work at the bateaux. 

16th. Saturday y e 16 we were at work at the bateaux. 

17 'th. Sunday y e 17 we were a caulking of the bateaux for 
to go to Yenango. 

18th. Monday y e 18 we were at work at the bateaux, and 
about 10 bateaux set off to Yenango. The Indian treaty 
broke up, and a great many presents made to them, blankets 
and coats and gold and silver laced hats, and ruffle shirts and 


Colonel Jehu Eyre. 303 

kettles, and rum, which all doth amount to about two hundred 
pounds. 1 

19th. Tuesday y 19 we were at work at the bateaux. 

2Qth. Wednesday y e 20 we were at work at the bateaux. 
Over the river Alleghany where the Indians encamped, one 
Indian killed another, and the other Indians were in search 
for to kill him ; for it is their law. It was a Dalloway [Dela- 
ware] killed a Mohawk. 

21 st. Thursday y e 21 were at work at the bateaux. There 
was a catfish caught that weighed 94J pounds. 

Friday y e 22 we were at work at the bateaux. 
Saturday y e 23 we were at work at the bateaux. 

2Ath. Sunday y e 24 we were at work at the bateaux. In 
the woods where the carpenters are at work there was a party 
of Indians came and* took three of their horses, and carried 
them off. 

25/A. Monday y e 25 we finished 4 bateaux 

26^. Tuesday y e 26 Samuel Deninshear and myself went 
over the river Minongohela to cut knees for bateaux. 

27*A. Wednesday and Thursday and Friday we were a cut- 
ting of knees for batteaux, and Saturday and Sunday y e 31 
we were a cutting of knees for bateaux. 

September 1. September y e 1, it was Monday. Samuel 
Deninshear and myself went into the woods to cut knees, but 
instead of cutting of knees, we set off through the woods to 
go to Braddock's field, and on our journey we met with several 
Indian huts which the Indians had left ; and when we came 
to the place where they crossed of the river Monongahela, we 
saw a great many men's bones along the shore. We kept 
along the road about 1 J miles, where the first engagement 
begun, where there are men's bones lying about as thick as 
the leaves do on the ground ; for they are so thick that one 
lies on top of another for about a half a mile in length, and 
about one hundred yards in breadth. There was a tree cut 
in half with one of the cannon balls. The tree was about 2 
feet and a half over ; and the place is about 15 miles from 

1 For minutes of this conference see vol. iii. Penna. Archives, p. 744. 

304 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

Fort Pitt. "Where Major Grant had his defeat is about one 
mile from Fort Pitt. 

2d. Tuesday y e 2 I was a caulking of a bateau for Mr. 

3d. Wednesday and Thursday and Friday we were at work 
in the woods. Friday we came home to the Fort. 

6th. Saturday and Sunday and Monday I was lame in my 
hand, and did not do anything. Tuesday, Wednesday and 
Thursday I was lame. 

llth. Thursday y e 11 three Indians brought in a Cherokeee's 
skalp (scalp), which they got at fort Detroit. 

Friday and Saturday I was at work at the bateaux. This 
day fifteen bateaux set off to Yenango with provisions. 

14/A. Sunday y e 14 we were at work at the bateaux. 

15^. Monday y e 15 we went in the woods to cut logs for a 
storehouse, and we got enough cut. 

26th. On Friday y e 26 the bateaux came down from Ve- 

28th. Sunday y e 28 we are cutting of logs for another store- 

October 1 & 2. October y e 1 and 2 I was caulking of a scow. 
This day we had great rejoycing for Montreal being taken. 
For which we had the guns fired, and three dozen of sky 
rockets at night. 

3d. This day we were working at Grant's Hill hewing of 

4th. Saturday y e 4 we went to work at a bomb proof in the 
fort. It is about one hundred and eighty foot long. 

5^A. Sunday y e 5 we were at work at the bomb proof. 

6th. Monday y e 6 and Tuesday we were at work at the 
bomb proof. 

Wednesday and Thursday and Friday and Saturday and 
Sunday we were at work at the bomb proof. 

Sunday there was a party of men came down from Piss- 
kill, 1 which they were 12 days a coming down. 

Monday and Tuesday and Wednesday and Thursday we 
were a caulking of the bomb proof. 

1 Presqu' Isle, now Erie. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 305 

Tilth. Friday y e 17 we got orders to go to Pisskill. 

18^. Saturday y e 18 we crossed Alleganey river about 11 
o'clock, and we got about 4 miles that day. We had a very 
rainy night. 

l$th. Sunday y e 19 we got about 14 miles that day. "We 
came to an old french encampment. 

2(M. Monday y e 20th we got about 22 miles that day. It 
is a very barren country; nothing but hills and hollows; no 
timber on the land for hundreds of acres. "We came by several 
french encampments. 

21s. Tuesday y e 21 we got about 24 miles that day. Very 
swampy land. 

22d. "Wednesday y e 22 we came across about 10 Indians 
who were a hunting. "We bought two quarters of venison 
for 4 shillings. We 'got about 20 miles that day. 

23d. Thursday y e 23 we got to Yenango. There was an 
old french fort. "We have got a block house built there. We 
crossed the French creek that day. We got about 20 miles 
that day. 

24^A. Friday y e 24 we came to the Cattawa town. There 
are about 25 houses there, all Dalloway [Delaware?] Indians 
live there. We got about 20 miles that day. We had a very 
rainy day and night. The Indians stole two of our horses, 
but they gave them to us again. 

25/A. Saturday y e 25 we went through 2 of the Indian 
towns. We crossed three very bad creeks. We got about 
12 miles that day. Yery low swampy land. 

26th. Sunday y e 26 we crossed the French river [Creek] on 
rafts. We got about 8 miles that day. 

27f/i. Monday y e 27 we crossed 4 creeks. We got about 12 
miles that day. Yery swampy land. 

28^A. Tuesday y* 28 we crossed Le Boeuf creek, and we got 
there about 10 o'clock. Le Boeuf is an old french fort, but 
we have got a block house and stockade fort there. There is 
a lake about half a mile from the fort, it is about one mile 

29^. Wednesday y 29 we set off from Le Boeuf to go to 
Pisskill, and there was a settler that came up along with us, 

306 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

was robbed on the road by three frenchmen. "We got to Piss- 
kill about 5 o'clock. It is about 15 miles from fort to fort. 
There is a bridge on the road 10 miles long. 1 

30^. Thursday y e 30 we went in the woods to cut logs for 
bateaux. Pisskill stands on rising ground, and there is a fine 
block house built. There is a fine prospect of the Lake Erie. 
This lake is about 70 leagues across. 

31. Friday y e 31 we went in the woods to cut timber for 

November 1. November y e 1 we were a cutting of timber 
for bateaux. 

2d. Sunday y e 2 we were a making of oars for Major 
Rodgers' 2 whale boats. 

3d. Monday y e 3 we were at work at making oars. 

4th. Tuesday y e 4 we were at work at the bateaux. Major 
Rodgers set oft' to Fort Detroit, for to take possession of it, 
with about one hundred and fifty Rangers, and about one 
hundred Royal Americans. 

5^. Wednesday 5 Thursday y e 6, and Friday y e 7, and 
Saturday y e 8 we were at work at the bateaux. 

$th. Sunday and Monday and Tuesday and Wednesday we 
were making of oars for the bateaux. A party of Major 
Rodgers' men went off to Fort Detroit with provisions. 

Thursday and Friday and Saturday and Sunday and Mon- 
day we were at work at the bateaux. 

ISth. Tuesday y e 18 we launched two bateaux, and they set 
off to Niagara to fetch provisions, for we had only one day's 
provisions in the fort. This day we were forced to kill Colo- 
nel Cockerill's milk cow, for we had no meat in the garrison. 

18^A. Tuesday y e 18 set off Colonel Messer 3 and Colonel 
Cockerill to go to Fort Pitt. 

. Wednesday 19 we were at work at the bateaux. 
. Thursday y e 20 I went over to the Peninsula to cut 
knees. It is a point of land that runs out about 5 miles long, 

1 This was a corduroy road, and existed within the recollection of persons 
now living. 

* The well-known Major Robert Eodgers. 
8 Hugh Mercer, afterwards General Mercer. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 307 

and about one mile broad. The French have had two large 
store houses there, and a big dwelling house. 

21s. Friday and Saturday we were at work at the bateaux. 

Sunday and Monday we were at work at the bateaux, and 
finished of the sixth. 

25#i. Tuesday y e 25 we made pars for the bateaux. This 
day we had a fine feast upon a bullock's liver. 

Wednesday we set off from Pisskill, and we got to Le 
Boeuf. It is about 15 miles. There was a Corporal and six 
men came from Niagara to Pisskill, and they were seven 
days without any victuals. 

Thursday we were a building of two bateaux. 

2Sth. Friday y 6 27 [28?] we set off from Le Boeuf,and Sun- 
day we came to the^Cuscologo 1 town, and there we bought 
venison and bread of them. 

December. Monday y e 1 [2?] we got to Yenango, and there 
we drew two days of flour for to take us to Fort Pitt. They 
had no meat for to give. 

Thursday y e 4 [5?] we got to Fort Pitt. We were three 
days coming down. 

1 On a manuscript map, in the collections of the Historical Society, the 
name is given Custalogas. The location of the town was on the west side 
of the river Le Bouef, or French Creek, about half way between Forts 
Venango and Le Boeuf. 

(To be continued.) 

308 William Burnet, M.D. 



(Centennial Collection.) 

Dr. William Burnet, of Newark, New Jersey, was elected, 
by the Legislature of that State, a delegate to the General Con- 
gress on the 23d of November, 1780, for the term of one year ; 
it being the practice of the State of New Jersey to have a 
new election of delegates after every annual State election in 
October. His associates were Dr. Witherspoon, Abraham 
Clark, William C. Houston, and William Patterson. Until 
1785 the State always sent five delegates. After that only 
three. Of course it had but one vote in the Congress, and the 
number of its delegates was in its own option. 

Dr. Burnet was born at Lyon's Farms, a small hamlet be- 
tween Newark and Elizabethtown, N. J., Dec. 2d (0. S.), 
1730. His father was Dr. Ichabod Burnet, a physician of 
much eminence, who died at Elizabethtown in 1774, at the 
great age of ninety years, being one of the most venerated 
and distinguished citizens of that town. Ichabod was a 
grandson of Thomas Burnet, who emigrated from Lynn, 
Massachusetts, to Southampton, Long Island, prior to 1643. 
The family tradition is that he was collaterally related to the 
famous Dr. Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury in William 
and Mary's time ; but the connection, if any existed,' is lost in 
the obscurity of the past. Ichabod Burnet emigrated with 
his father to Elizabethtown in 1700, then only sixteen years 
old. He received his education in Edinburgh, and settled 
first at Lyon's Farms, and afterwards returned to Elizabeth- 
town. He was one of the associates representing the early 
settlers, who claimed title to the lands of that town by grant 
from Governor Nichols, adverse to the claim of the general 
proprietors of the province; and having been a Puritan, and 


Wittiam Burnet, M.D. 309 

then a Presbyterian, he naturally took the popular side in 
all the political controversies of the period. Under such 
auspices it is not wonderful that his son William, the subject 
of this sketch, became a warm partisan of the rights of the 
colonies, and an enemy of prerogative. He had a second son, 
Ichabod, who also studied medicine, but died at an early age, 

William Burnet received his academical training in the 
College of New Jersey, then located at Newark, under the 
presidency of the Rev. Aaron Burr, and graduated in 1749. 
Having studied medicine under the direction of Dr. Statts iu 
New York City, he settled in Newark, and in 1753 married 
Mary, daughter of Captain Nathaniel Camp, a substantial 
citizen of the town. He was one of the founders of the New 
Jersey Medical Socfety, was long an elder in the Presbyterian 
church, and early became a prominent and leading man in 
that part of New Jersey. The records of the New Jersey 
Medical Society, which have been published, contain two ad- 
dresses delivered by him, which give a very favorable view 
of his qualifications as a writer. 

At the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, Dr. Burnet 
took an active part in organizing the elements of opposition 
to British authority. In May, 1775, he was appointed 
deputy chairman 1 of the Committee of Safety of the town 
of Newark, formed to support the Continental Congress, and 
carry out the measures of the proposed Provincial Con- 
gress. The burden of management came principally on Dr. 
Burnet and his two associates, Capt. Joseph Hedden and 
Major Samuel Hayes, who for a considerable period exercised 
complete power of local government in Newark and its vicin- 
ity, keeping the Tories and disaffected in awe. Dr. Burnet 
was also appointed chairman of the Essex County Committee 
of Safety, and in that capacity exercised a large executive 
control. In March, 1776, at the call of Lord Stirling, he 
superintended the organization and dispatch of several mili- 
tary companies in aid of the defence of New York. 

1 Lewis Ogden, on account of his family influence, being made chairman. 

310 William Burnet, M.D. * 

His eldest son, "William, who had also studied medicine, and 
was then but little over twenty-one years old, went as surgeon 
of one of the regiments organized under the Doctor's direc- 
tions. His second son, Ichabod, who was only in his twen- 
tieth year, acted as secretary of the County Committee. At 
a later period, in 1777, the latter became aid-de-camp to Gen- 
eral Greene, and attended him in that capacity with the rank 
of major, to the end of the war, being one of the most efficient 
and trusted officers of his staff. At the battle of Germantown, 
during the retreat, a musket ball took off his queue. " Bur- 
net," said the general, " if you have time, you had better 
jump down and pick up your queue." " And your curls, too, 
general," responded the aid, observing that another ball had 
taken off his commander's curls. Greene laughed, but I do 
not learn that they stopped for the lost ornaments. Dr. 
Burnet's third son, John, who was sixteen at the breaking 
out of the war, was unfortunately lame, or he would also, 
without doubt, have entered the service of his country. As 
Paine justly said, " those were the times that tried men's 
souls." The real patriots of that day were in dead earnest, 
and Dr. Burnet was not alone in giving himself and all the 
male members of his family to the cause. 

The province of New Jersey was situated in the centre of 
the contest, and although the majority of her people were on 
the patriotic side, there were very many, and these often per- 
sons of wealth and influence, who were either on the fence or 
outspoken royalists. The old General Assembly sympathized 
with the people, but were prevented from adopting any effec- 
tive measures by the activity of the governor, "William Frank- 
lin, a son of Dr. Franklin, who was a zealous Royalist. Of 
course the Whigs had to strain every nerve to keep the State 
in line, and to furnish its quota of aid to the Continental cause. 
A Provincial Congress was improvised, and regulated public 
affairs for more than a year ; but adopted a provisional consti- 
tution on the 2d of July, 1776, under which a State govern- 
ment was organized. One of the first necessities to be pro- 
vided was money of some sort or other. The Legislature had 
no other resource than to issue bills of credit. An issue of 

William Burnet, M.D: 311 

100,000 was ordered ; and Hcndrick Fisher and Drs. Dun- 1 
ham and Burnet were appointed commissioners to make the 
issue of 50,000 in East Jersey, and to purchase therewith 
arms, munitions and equipments for the State troops. In exi- 
gencies that affect the national existence, paper money, with 
all its drawbacks, is sometimes a necessity. Dr. Franklin 
says it saved the American Republic. The associates of Dr. 
Burnet on this commission were men of the very first considera- 
tion in New Jersey. To Hendrick Fisher, who resided be- 
tween New Brunswick and Bound Brook, perhaps more than 
to any other one man, did she owe the spirit of patriotism which 
animated the masses of her people. He was about eighty 
years of age at the breaking out of the war ; but no one ex- 
celled him in energy and enthusiasm in the cause. lie was 
the first president of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey. 
Besides these duties pertaining to military operations and 
local administration, Dr. Burnet was invested with import- 
ant judicial functions. In September, 1776, he was appointed 
by the Legislature, presiding judge of the Essex county 
courts, then a position of much responsibility, which he occu- 
pied for ten years. In this capacity he was called upon, in 
1778, to preside at the trial of many of his Tory neighbors 
and friends for furnishing aid to the enemy. The duty was 
undoubtedly performed with his characteristic firmness and 
decision, but must have been peculiarly trying to one so noted 
as he was for kindly courtesy. The object of the proceedings 
was, to confiscate the property of active royalists. Two of 
the Ogden family, Isaac and David, were included in the 
prosecutions, and convicted. They were sons of lion. David 
Ogden, long a judge of the Provincial Supreme Court, who 
joined them in retiring to Canada after the war. David, the 
younger, subsequently became, I believe, Chief Justice of 
Canada. They had been on the popular side at the outbreak 
of the troubles, but tbe disasters of 1776 led them to suppose 
that resistance was hopeless, and they, with many others, 
gave in their adhesion to the British government. The 
other members of the family, Abraham, a lawyer of Newark, 
and Samuel, father of Hon. David B. Ogden of New York, 

312 William Burnd, M.Z>. 

and maternal grandfather of William M. Meredith, remained 
true to the Colonial cause. The Ogdens had been the leading 
family of Newark for half a century. Two of the Gouver- 
neurs, Samuel and Isaac, were also proceeded against on this 
occasion (1778) but were acquitted. 

As stated in the commencement of this sketch, Dr. Bur net 
was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress in Novem- 
ber, 1780 ; but he was soon called upon to perform other du- 
ties which prevented his further attending the sittings of that 
body ; and his place was filled in June, 1781, by the appoint- 
ment of Elias Boudinot. 

At the first breaking out of the war he had, principally at 
his own expense, established a military hospital at Newark 
for sick and wounded soldiers, and amongst his other arduous 
duties, had given it much of his personal superintendence. 
The success of this institution attracted the public attention, 
and in October, 1780, he was appointed by the General Con- 
gress a regular hospital physician and surgeon of the United 
States. On the 5th of March following, whilst a member of 
the body, he was appointed chief physician and surgeon of 
the hospital in the room of Dr. Craik, who was removed to 
the army. This required him to resign his seat in Congress 
and gave him the position of surgeon-general of the general 
hospital, Continental Army, a position which he filled with 
distinction and ability during the balance of the war. The 
Medical service of the Continental Army was divided into 
two departments, the Hospital, and the Field, or Army, de- 
partment proper. Dr. Burnet was at the head of the former 
for the Eastern and Middle States. At the close of the war 
he became a member of the Society of Cincinnati, and is still 
represented in the New Jersey State Society by his descend- 

Dr. Burnet died in 1791 at the age of sixty-one years, greatly 
esteemed and lamented. By his first wife he had, besides 
daughters, two other sons in addition to those already men- 
tioned ; Jacob, afterwards known as the eminent Judge Bur- 
net of Cincinnati ; and George, a lawyer, who settled at 
Dayton, Ohio. At the close of the war he married Gertrude, 

William Burnet, M.D. 313 

widow of Col. Philip Van Cortlandt, of Newark, and daugh- 
ter of Nicholas Gouverneur, Esq. By her he had three sons, 
Isaac, Staats, and David ; the first of whom was for some 
time mayor of Cincinnati, and the last, the Hon. David G. 
Burnet, was the first President of Texas in 1836, one of the 
kindliest, and yet firmest and bravest ; one of the most adven- 
turous, and yet most polished and cultivated of men. The 
writer of this notice was acquainted with two of these 
eminent persons, Judge Jacob Burnet of Cincinnati, and 
President Burnet of Texas, who, though of different mothers, 
exhibited the same high moral tone, decision of character, 
and positive firmness of convictions. These masculine quali- 
ties were at the same time united with great kindliness and 
even sweetness of disposition. Perhaps we may discern in 
them the lineaments* of the father, and form some conjecture 
as to the grounds of that controlling influence which he exer- 
cised over his co temporaries, and of that general confidence 
which he seems to have inspired. 

That old Newark fireside over which he and Mary Camp 
presided a hundred years ago, must have been surrounded by 
a bright and gentle circle, overflowing with patriotic ardor, 
and united by the warmest affection. One of the daughters, 
Hannah, mother of Hon. "W. Burnet Kinney, of Newark, 
who survived to a good old age and is recollected by many 
persons still living, is represented to have been one of the 
most cultivated, refined and charming ladies of the old 

Many years ago an old resident of Newark described to 
the writer the departure of Ichabod from home for Princeton 
College in 1772 or 1773. It was a bright summer morning 
just at sunrise, and Ichabod and a servant, who accompanied 
him to carry his luggage, were mounted on horseback, ready 
for the long journey now made by railroad in less than two 
hours but then occupying as many days. His mother and 
grandmother were out to bid him adieu and give him their 
parting benedictions. Though affected for the moment, he 
departed with a face beaming with youthful ardor and hope. 

314 Arthur Middleton. 

This now seems almost a picture of Arcadian life, so many 
changes have come around with the revolving century. 

Dr. Burnet is still represented in ISTew Jersey and other 
States by a large number of descendants, who venerate his 
memory, and have a just pride in his upright character and 
patriotic services. Among these, besides those of his own 
name, are the Kents, of ISTew York ; the Hornblowers, the 
Penningtons, the Kinneys, of New Jersey ; the Groesbecks, 
the Wrights, and the Perrys, of Cincinnati. 

An honorable name is the richest legacy a man can leave 
to his descendants. Such a legacy was bequeathed by WIL- 



(Centennial Collection.) 

Ko more grateful task could employ an American pen than 
the rescue of every memorial that may, now, or hereafter, 
illustrate the lives of the founders of the Republic. It be- 
comes the especial duty of the hour to wipe from history's 
tablet the accumulated dust of a century, and to re-cut there, 
in bolder relief, the story of their matchless heroism and de- 
votion. As we perform this duty, as we cherish and protect 
their visible monuments, the future will judge our worthi- 
ness to possess the priceless inheritance of liberty, confided to 
our care as a sacred trust, won with such infinite toil and 

The signers of our great Magna Cbarta, were no privileged 
class, though they proved strong enough to wrest far more 
than their ancient franchises from the throne. There was 
not a titled name among them. They were merchants, me. 
chanics, lawyers, planters, clergymen or physicians, from 
every walk of life, essential constituents of the body politic, 
thoroughly identified with every phase of popular thought or 

Arthur Middleton. 315 

feeling, and as completely united in the great work to which 
they pledged life, fortune, and honor. To no one of this 
illustrious assemblage did the pledge have higher meaning 
than to Arthur Middleton, of South Carolina. 

He was born at the family seat on Ashley River, in 1743. 
His great-grandfather, Edward Middleton, emigrated to South 
Carolina soon after its settlement. His grandfather, for whom 
he was named, and who was also of English birth, had put 
himself at the head of the revolutionary movement of 1719, 
which extinguished the vexatious rule of the proprietary 
government. His father, Henry Middleton, 1 was chosen by 
the first convention of the people, in 1774, a delegate to the 
Congress at Philadelphia. Arthur Middleton, the Signer, was, 
therefore, a patriot by tradition and by descent. 

In accordance with* an old custom which prevailed among 
the gentry of the Southern Colonies and which has survived 
to our own time, Arthur was sent to England to be educated. 
He was placed in a school at Hackney and later at Westmin- 
ster : finally entering Cambridge at eighteen to graduate with 
honor in 1764. Upon quitting the halls of the University, 
Arthur travelled in England and on the continent, making a 
long stay in Eome, where his grave and thoughtful cast of 
mind found ample food for study and reflection among her 
eloquent memorials of antique greatness and splendor. 

Returning in 1768 to his native country, Arthur was con- 
sidered to have completed the preparation indispensable for 
one of the wealthy and even aristocratic class which derived 
all its traditions from that mother-land of which they still 
spoke with pride and affection as " home." Shortly after 
this event, Arthur Middleton married a daughter of Walter 
Izard. She accompanied him in a second visit to Europe, 
whence, in 1773, he recrossed the ocean to find the cloud of 
civil war brooding heavily above his native shores. 

Putting aside every consideration which timidity or selfish- 
ness might suggest, Arthur Middleton unhesitatingly em- 

1 For sketch of Henry Middleton, see PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE, vol. iii. 
p. 179. 

316 Arthur Middleton. 

braced the cause of his countrymen. Two days before the 
battle of Lexington he became a member of a secret commit- 
tee to take measures for placing the colony in a state of de- 
fence. By its timely action the public stores of arms and 
ammunition were secured to the use of the patriots. He was 
also chosen, in June, a member of the Council of Safety, 
which organized a military force, commissioned its officers, 
and performed other executive functions. Middleton also 
advocated the extreme measure of seizing the person of the 
newly-arrived royal governor, Lord Campbell, who while 
temporizing with the revolutionary party, had written home 
for the means of crushing it. In 1776 as a member of the 
Continental Congress, Arthur Middleton signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

He remained in Congress until the close of the year 1777. 
South Carolina had formed a new constitution and on a 
secret ballot for governor, Middleton was chosen. He de- 
clined, however, to act, from doubts of the legality of the 
instrument, which he shared in common with President Rut- 
ledge. In 1779, when South Carolina was invaded, Middle- 
ton joined the forces which Governor Rutledge was levying 
for her defence. His estate, from which Mrs. Middleton had 
fled, was left to the pillage of the enemy. By the capitula- 
tion of Charleston he became a prisoner of war ; and after 
nearly a year's detention he was exchanged to be immediately 
re-elected to Congress, in which he served until November, 

Arthur Middleton died on the first day of the new year, 
1788, from disease caused by exposure in his country's service. 
He left a wife, who survived him until 1814, and eight chil- 
dren. He also left an untarnished name and a memory to be 
treasured by a great nation, BO long as it has a history. 

Cyrus Griffin. 317 




(Centennial Collection.) 

Cyrus Griffin was descended from an old Welsh family, 
dating as far back in history as the last king of Wales, 
Llewllyn Griffin, who fell in battle against Edward I. of 
England, in 1282, after a reign of 28 years. He was the fourth 
son of Leroy Griffin of Sion House, Lancaster County, Vir- 
ginia, and Mary Anne Bertrand, granddaughter of a Hugue- 
not gentleman who fled from France during the reign of Louis 
XIV. He was born in 1748, and sent to England to be edu- 

It was while attending law lectures in London that Cyrus 
accepted an invitation from the colonial ambassador, and 
there met for the first time Lady Christiana daughter of 
the sixth earl of Traquair, whom he afterwards married. 
The first year of their married life was passed at Traquair 
House in Scotland. Soon after the birth of their first son 
John they came to America, and Lady Christiana never re- 
visited her native land. 

After living some time at Sion House the old family 
mansion in Virginia Mr. Griffin was elected in 1778 a mem- 
ber of Congress : and the last session of the Continental Con- 
gress was organized on the 2d of January, 1788, by the election 
of Cyrus Griffin as President of that body. He was also a 
judge of the Supreme Court until his death. 

The entertainments of Cyrus Griffin while President of 
Congress are mentioned as frequent and hospitable, but char- 
acterized by simplicity and temperan/e. Brissot de Warville 
an intelligent Frenchman, in his "Travels in America," 
writes : " Mr. Griffin is a man of good abilities, of an agree- 
able figure, affable and polite. I remarked that his table 

338 Cyrus Griffin. 

was freed from many usages observed elsewhere ; no fatiguing 
presentations ; no toasts, so annoying in a numerous society. 
Little wine was drunk after the ladies retired. These traits 
will give an idea of the temperance of this country temper- 
ance, the leading virtue of republicans." 

Lady Christiana, though in delicate health, showed herself 
"'friendly towards all. They had four children : Judge John 
Griffin, died unmarried ; Mary, married her cousin Major 
Thomas Griffin, ; Louisa, married Col. Hugh Mercer, son of 
Gen. Mercer who fell at the battle of Princeton ; and Dr. 
Samuel Stuart Griffin, married Miss Lewis of Westover, Va. 

After his retirement from public life, Cyrus Griffin lived 
in Virginia, until his decease, which took place in Yorktown, 
in the year 1810. The following obituary notice appeared at 
the time of his death: 

"Died, on Friday 14th December, at York, the Hon. Cyrus 
Griffin, Judge of the United States Court for the District of 
Virginia. He was a gentleman highly respected for his emi- 
nent virtues, his integrity and independence. He has filled 
many public appointments, and always with honor to himself, 
and with advantage to the country." 

He was noted for devotion to his family and for steadfast- 
ness in friendship. Eufus W. Griswold, in his " Republican 
Court," speaks of him as being " conspicuous for his devotion 
to American liberty ; and few men from Virginia shared more 
largely the respect and confidence of Washington." 


The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 319 




(Continued from page 20L) 

COATS, WILLIAM, of the county of Philadelphia, was a 
native of that county, and was born in 1721. He received a 
good education at the Friends' School. During the Provin- 
cial era Major Coats was one of the few officers from Phila- 
delphia in the military service. He was a delegate to the 
Provincial Conference of January 23, 1775 ; member of the 
Conference at Carpenters' Hall, June 28, 1775 ; one of the 
Committee of Inspection of Philadelphia, his district being 
the Northern Liberties; and of the Convention of July 15, 
1776. In 1775 he was chosen Major of the 1st Battalion of 
Philadelphia Associators, and during the winter of 1776-7 
was constantly in active service. On the 4th of January, 1777, 
he wrote from Bristol an account of the battle of Princeton. 
In 1777 he served as a member of the Assembly, but the 
tented field had more charms for him, and he again entered 
the service. He was captured by the British in the spring of 
1778, and confined in one of the rooms of the new jail in 
Philadelphia about two months, when he was released on 
parole, but was not exchanged until 1779, when he again 
f acted against the enemy. In 1778 he was commissioned 
justice of the peace and common pleas for the township of 
Northern Liberties. In 1779 he was a member of the Assem- 
bly, and died while serving in that body, January 24, 1780. 
His wife, Martha, born Feb. 11, 1738, died July 17, 1795. 
Major Coats was one of the most indefatigable and gallant 
officers of the Revolution, and his name should have been 
perpetuated in his native city by the street named for him, 
but recently changed to Fairmount Avenue. The family 
name is now Coates. 

320 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

COOK, EDWARD, of "Westmoreland County, was born in 
1738, of English parentage, in the Cumberland Valley, on 
the Conecocheague, then in Lancaster, now Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania. In 1772 he removed to the "Forks of Yough" 
between the Monongahela and Youghiogheny rivers, now 
Fayette County, and between that date and 1776 built a stone 
house, yet standing, where he lived and died. When he first 
settled in the western part of the State he kept a store, farmed, 
had a still-house, and owned slaves. He was a member of 
the Committee of Conference which met at Carpenters' Hall, 
June 18, 1776, and of the Convention of July 15, 1776. In 
1777 he was appointed by the General Assembly one of the 
Commissioners from this State to meet those from the other 
States, which assembled at New Haven, Conn., Nov. 22, 
1777, to regulate the prices of commodities. In 1781 he was 
in command of a battalion of rangers for frontier defence. 
He was sub-lieutenant of "Westmoreland County 1780-1, and 
lieutenant Jan. 5, 1782, which latter office he held at the time 
of the erection of Fayette County in 1783. On November 
21, 1786, Colonel Cook was appointed a justice with jurisdic- 
tion including the county of Washington, and August 7, 
1791, associate judge of Fayette County. He was a man of 
influence, and during the Excise troubles in 1794 was chosen 
chairman of the Mingo Creek meeting, and was largely in- 
strumental in allaying the excitement, and thus virtually end- 
ing the so-called Whiskey Insurrection. Col. Cook died on 
the 28th day of November, 1808. His wife was Martha 
Crawford of Cumberland, now Franklin County, sister of 
Col. Josiah Crawford. She died in 1837, aged ninety-four 
years, in the old stone house into which they moved, as she 
always said, in "Independence Year." Col. Cook had but 
one child, James Crawford Cook, who was born in 1772, and 
died in 1848. 

COOKE, "WILLIAM, of Northumberland County, was a native 
of Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, He 
was elected the first sheriff of Northumberland Oct. 1772. 
He was a member of the Committee of Safety for Northurn- 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 321 

berland, February 8, 1776 ; of the Provincial Conference of 
June 18, 1776 ; and of the Convention of July 15, 1776. On 
the last day of the session of the latter body he was chosen 
and recommended as Colonel of the battalion to be raised in 
the counties of Northampton and Northumberland. This 
became the 12th regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, and, 
being composed of riflemen, was employed upon picket duty, 
and covered the front of Gen. "Washington's army during the 
year 1777, while detachments were sent from it to Gen. Gates, 
materially assisting in the capture of Burgoyne. It was so 
badly cut up at Brandywine and Germantown that it was 
disbanded, and Col. Cooke mustered out of service. In 1781 
and 1782 he was chosen to the General Assembly ; appointed 
one of the justices Oct 3, 1786 ; and Jan. 16, 1796, an associate 
judge for Northumberland County. Col. Cooke died in April, 

COULTER, THOMAS, of Bedford County, resided in what was 
formerly Cumberland Valley Township, Bedford County, 
Pennsylvania, prior to the year 1760. He was one of the 
Provincial Magistrates in 1774; member of the Convention 
of July 15, 1776 ; sheriff of Bedford County Oct. 28, 1778 ; 
one of the associate justices of the Court of Common Pleas 
Dec. 24, 1785; and justice of the peace August 31, 1791, 
serving until his decease, June 18, 1800. He was the ancestor 
of Chief Justice Coulter of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 

CRAWFORD, JAMES, of Northumberland County, was a native 
of Hanover Township, Lancaster, now Dauphin County, 
Pennsylvania. He located on Pine Creek as early as 1770. 
He was a member of the Convention of July 15, 1776. On 
the 8th of October following he was commissioned Major of 
the 12th Pennsylvania, Col. Cooke's regiment, serving until 
its disbandonment in 1778. The year following, 1779, he was 
elected sheriff of Northumberland County. 

CRAZART, FRANCIS, of York County, was a native of New 
Jersey. His parents emigrated from Holland, and settled in 
VOL. in. 22 

322 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

that State, but subsequently removed to York, now Adams 
County, locating near Hunterstown. Mr. Crazart was a 
member of the Committee of Correspondence for York County 
in 1775, and a member of the Convention of July 15, 1776. 
He was not present at the close of the labors of that body, 
from the fact that his services were required at home in assist- 
ing the sending forward of the militia to the Jerseys. On 
the 2d of May, 1777, he was appointed by the Pennsylvania 
Board of War, one of the commissioners for York County, to 
collect blankets for the use of the Continental troops. Mr. 
Crazart died at Hunterstown and is there buried, but the 
date is not known. He left several children, one of whom, 
Damd^ was a member of the Legislature a number of years. A 
daughter married Thomas Burd Coleman. A granddaughter 
is the wife of Samuel Small, of York. The name Crazart has 
been superseded by that of Cassat. 

CUNNINGHAM, SAMUEL, of Chester County, was a native of 
!N"antmeal Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, born 
about 1737. He was a member of the Convention of July 15, 
1776, and of the General Assembly in 1776 and 1777. He 
was appointed collector of excise November 27, 1778, and 
justice of the peace August 26, 1791. The will of Samuel 
Cunningham, Esq. of East Cain, who was " aged and infirm" 
was dated December 27, 1802, and proved August 12, 1806, 
with codicils dated June 3, 1803, and February 18, 1804. 
From this memoranda it would appear that he died in the 
first week of August, 1806. 

DONALDSON, JOSEPH, of York County, was a native of the 
Province of Maryland, born August 16, 1742. He located in 
what were termed the " York Barrens " ; was an active and 
energetic Whig, and formed one of the Committee of Corres- 
pondence for the county, to succor the Bostonians at the time 
of the going into effect ot the " Port Bill." He was a dele- 
gate to the Provincial Deputies which met July 15, 1774 ; 
justice of the peace from 1774 to 1776 ; member of the Pro- 
vincial Conference of January 23, 1775 ; and member of the 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 323 

Convention of July 15, 1776. He was major of the 1st Bat- 
talion of the Associators of York County, July, 1775, and 
was in service in the Jerseys during the campaign of the year 
following. On the 8th of November, 1777, he was appointed 
one of the commissioners to collect clothing for the Conti- 
nental Army. Major Donaldson died at York about 1790. 

DRIESBACH, SIMON, of Northampton County, a native of 
Witgenstein, Germany, was born February 18, 1730. He 
came to America about 1754, and settled on a large farm 
in what is Lehigh Township, Northampton County. He 
was a member of tbe Convention of July 15, 1776 ; member 
of the Assembly from 1776 to 1780 ; one of the commissioners 
for Northampton County appointed by the Pennsylvania War 
office to collect blankets for the use of the Continental troops, 
May 2, 1777 ; and member of the Council of Censors, October 
20, 1783. During the progress of the Eevolution, Mr. Dries- 
bach rendered efficient service in organizing and maintain- 
ing the militia of the county for general and frontier defence, 
two of his sons being in the army. He was a member of the 
House of Representatives for the session of 1793-4. He died 
on his farm near the present town of Weaversville, North- 
ampton County, December 17, 1806. 

DUFFIELD, WILLIAM, of Cumberland County, was born in 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, November 24, 1731. He was 
the grandson of Benjamin Duffield who came with the West 
Jersey settlers in 1678. About 1760 William Duffield settled 
on a farm in Cumberland Valley. In 1763 and 1764 he was 
in the Provincial service under Colonel Bouquet for the de- 
fence of the frontiers. He was a member of the Convention 
of July 15, 1776, and served in the Assembly during that and 
the following year. He died on his farm near Mercersburg, 
Franklin County, in January, 1799. Some of his descendants 
remain near the ancestral home. 

ECKERT, VALENTINE, of Berks County, was born in Longa- 
"elva, Kingdom of Hanover, in 1733. He came to America 

324 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

with his parents in 1740, who settled near Womelsdorf, Berks 
County, in the valley of the Tulpehocken, and was naturalized 
in September, 1761. He was a member of the Provincial 
Conference of June 18, 1776 ; of the Convention of July 15, 
1776 ; and a member of the Assembly during that year as 
also in 1779. He commanded a company of cavalry associa- 
tors at the battle of Germantown, where he was wounded. 
He was appointed sub-lieutenant of the county March 21, 
1777, serving until his appointment as lieutenant of the county, 
January 6, 1781. He was one of the commissioners for the 
purchase of provisions for the army in 1778 ; and appointed 
one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, August 4, 
1784. He was commissioned Brigade Inspector of Berks 
County April 11, 1793, an office which he filled for twenty 
years. About the year 1816, Colonel Eckert removed to Vir- 
ginia. He died at Winchester in that State, December, 1821, 
in his 88th year. 

EDGAR, JAMES, of York County, was a native of that county, 
of Scotch-Irish ancestry, born November 15, 1744. His 
father subsequently removed to North Carolina, but young 
Edgar remained on his farm until the outset of the Revolu- 
tion. By the Committee of York County, he was chosen a 
member of the Provincial Conference of June 18, 1776 ; and 
elected by the people to the Convention of July 15, following. 
He was a member of the Assembly 1776-7 fromYork County ; 
of the Provincial Council of Safety from October 17 to De- 
cember 4, 1777, when he took his seat in the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council, an office he filled acceptably until February 13, 
1779. In the autumn of this year he removed to Washing- 
ton County, and upon the organization thereof was appointed 
one of the justices July 15, 1781, and served in the Supreme 
Executive Council from November 30, 1781, to December 4, 
1782. He was a member of the Council of Censors, November 
20, 1783, and chosen to the Assembly in 1785, having pre- 
viously served in that body in 1781. He represented his 
county in the Pennsylvania Convention of November 20, 
1787, to consider the proposed constitution for the govern- 


The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 325 

ment of the United States. He was appointed by Governor 
Mifflin one of the associate judges of the courts of Washing- 
ton County, August 19, 1791, serving therein until his death. 
Judge Edgar was prominent in the so-called Whiskey Insur- 
rection of 1794, on the side of law and obedience thereto ; 
and when the troops marched to quell the disturbance, he 
was appointed a member of the Committee of Conference to 
confer with the Commissioners of the United States, and the 
State of Pennsylvania, relative to a prompt return to State 
and National allegiance. Judge Edgar was a leading spirit 
in the Presbyterian Church with which he connected himself 
at the age of 16. For many years he was a ruling elder in 
the church, and was nine times a member of Old Redstone 
Presbytery. Brackenridge, in his " History of the Western 
Insurrection," states that he was " a kind of Rabbi in the 
Presbyterian Churches in the Western country." Rev. Dr. 
Carnahan gives this estimate of his character " he had a 
good English education, had improved his mind by reading 
and reflection ; so that in theological and political knowledge 
he was superior to many professional men ... he pos- 
sessed an eloquence which, although not polished, was con- 
vincing and persuasive." Judge Edgar died on his farm, on 
the 1st of January, 1806. 

ELLIOTT, BENJAMIN, of Bedford County, was born in Cum- 
berland now Franklin County, Pennsylvania, in 1752, and 
settled at the town of Huntingdon prior to the Revolution. 
He was chosen a member of the Convention of July 15, 1776, 
and served as a member of the Assembly during that and the 
following year as one of the representatives for Bedford 
County. He was commissioned sheriff of that county, Octo- 
ber 31, 1785, and of Huntingdon October 22, 1787, after its 
erection from Bedford ; member of the Convention of Penn- 
pylvania to consider the Federal Constitution, November 20, 
1787 ; appointed county lieutenant on the 23d of the same 
month, and in April, 1789, in conjunction with Matthew 
Taylor of Bedford and James Harris of Cumberland, ap- 
pointed to run and mark the boundary lines of Huntingdon 

326 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

County. He served as treasurer of the county in 1789 and 
again in 1799 ; was admitted a member of the Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council, December 29, 1789, and member of the Board 
of Property, August 3, 1790. On the 17th of August, 1791, 
he was commissioned one of the associate judges for Hunt- 
ingdon County. He had previously held the office of justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas under the constitution of 
1776. He was the first chief burgess elected in the borough 
of Huntingdon after its incorporation in 1796. He was 
appointed brigadier-general of the militia, 1797, and in 1800 
elected County Commissioner. Judge Elliott died at Hunt- 
ingdon, March 13, 1835, aged 83 years, and lies interred 
in the cemetery in that borough. He married, FIRST, Mary 
Carpenter of Lancaster County, and had issue: Martha mar- 
ried David McMurtrie, Mary married Robert Allison, and 
James, who became a member of the bar and died unmarried ; 
SECOND, Sarah, sister of Colonel George Ashman of Three 
Springs, and had issue: Eleanor married William Orbison, 
Harriet married Jacob Miller, and Matilda married Dr. James 
Stewart of Indiana, Pennsylvania ; THIRD, Susan, daughter of 
Abraham Haines, and had issue : Patience married Calvin 
Blythe, Benjamin, Louisa married Dr. William Yeager, and 
John. Benjamin and John settled near Newark, Ohio, and 
died there. Judge Elliott was an active and influential citi- 
zen. He owned a large amount of real estate in the county 
and elsewhere, and besides holding the official positions enu- 
merated, carried on the mercantile business in the borough of 
Huntingdon, and farming on his lands in the vicinity of that 

FLEMING, JOHN, of Chester County, was a grandson of 
William and Mary (Moore) Fleming, who settled in East Cain 
now Valley Township, Chester County, about 1715, previously 
of Bethel, now Delaware County. The family possessions 
were at first on the east side of Brandywine, at or near the 
present Coatesville, but they subsequently became owners of 
large tracts on the west side of the creek in Sadsbury and 
West Cain townships. Mr. Fleming was born in 1731 ; was 

The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 327 

an officer in the Provincial service ; member of the Conven- 
tion of July 15, 1776, and in 1778 one of the representatives 
from Chester County in the General Assembly. He was one 
of the patentees of the land belonging to Ocrorara Church, of 
which he was an elder as early as 1762. He died Septem- 
ber 2, 1814, and is buried in the graveyard attached to that 
church. Mr. Fleming was the owner of large tracts of land 
on the West Branch on which his children located during the 
Eevolutionary period. He was the ancestor of John Flem- 
ing, who was for many years an associate judge of Ly com- 
ing County, and of General Robert Fleming of Williams- 
port, a leading lawyer serving in the Senate from that district, 
and a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1838. 

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, of the city of Philadelphia, the son 
of Josiah Franklin and Maiy Folger, was born at Boston, 
Mass., January 17, 1706. Apprenticed to his brother James 
as a printer, after a few years, owing to a disagreement, he 
left home and established himself in Philadelphia. He 
worked as a journeyman printer in London in 1725, but re- 
turned the next year to Pennsylvania, subsequently becoming 
editor and proprietor of the Penn'a Gazette, and publisher of 
Poor Richard's Almanac, and other publications. In 1731 
he assisted in founding the Philadelphia Library ; became 
clerk to the Assembly in 1736 ; postmaster of Philadelphia 
in 1737 ; and in 1753 was deputy postmaster-general of the 
British Colonies. On Oct. 4, 1748, he was chosen one of the 
Common Councilmen of the City of Philadelphia ; and on 
Oct. 1 , 1 75 1 , Alderman. In 1 75 2 he made the discovery of the 
identity of lightning with the electric fluid. In 1754, as a 
Commissioner from Penn'a to the Albany Congress, he pre- 
pared the plan of Union for the common defence adopted by 
that body. During the French and Indian wars he was com- 
missioned a Colonel in the Provincial service, and in 1755 
superintended the furnishing of transportation for the sup- 
plies of Braddock's army. Under his direction most of the 
frontier forts between the Delaware and Susquehanna were 
erected. He served as a member of the Assembly from 1751 

328 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

to 1763, the latter year being Speaker; from 1757 to 1762, 
and again from 1765 to 1775 he was the agent of the Province 
to Great Britain, spending most of his time in England, and 
while there aided in securing the repeal of the obnoxious Stamp 
Act. In 1762 the Universities of Oxford and Edinburgh 
conferred on him for his scientific discoveries the degree of 
LL.D., he having been previously honored with a membership 
in the Royal Society, and by being the recipient of the Copley 
gold medal. From 1773 to 1775 he was again elected to the 
Assembly. Returning to Philadelphia in the spring of 1775 
he was chosen member of the Continental Congress. He was 
a member of the Provincial Conference at Carpenters' Hall 
June 18, 1775, and of the Committee of Safety from June 30, 
1775, to July 22, 1776. While in Congress he was one of the 
Committee to prepare, as he was also a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. He was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of July 15, 1776, and chosen its President. From 
the close of 1776 to September, 1785, he was the American 
Ambassador to France, and secured the treaty of alliance with 
that country, signed February 6, 1778, which greatly assisted 
in securing the independence of the Colonies. He took a 
prominent part in negotiating the preliminary treaty of peace 
with England, which was signed at Paris, Nov. 30, 1782, and 
with Adams and Jay signed that at Ghent, Sept. 3, 1783. 
He was President of Pennsylvania from October 17, 1785, to 
November 5, 1788, declining on account of his advanced years 
to continue in office. In May, 1787, he was a delegate to the 
Convention which framed the Constitution of the United 
States. He died in the city of Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 
Franklin married in 1730 Deborah Reed, of Philadelphia. 
They had one daughter, Sarah, who married Richard Bache. 
Franklin left an interesting autobiography, and was the an- 
thor of a large number of political works. His son, William 
Franklin, was the last Royal Governor of New Jersey. 

GALBRAITH. BARTREM of Lancaster County, the eldest son 
of James Galbraith, Jr., and Elizabeth Bartrem (daughter of 
the Rev. William Bartrem, Pastor of Derry), was born in 


The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 329 

Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber 24, 1738. He was of Scotch-Irish origin, and brought up 
as a surveyor. During the French and Indian wars, Colonel 
Galbraith served as an officer in a company of rangers formed 
for the protection of the frontiers. From 1760 to 1775, acting 
in his professional capacity, he surveyed the greater portion 
of the lands located in the present counties of Dauphin, Perry, 
and Juniata. He was a member of the Provincial Convention 
of January 23, 1775 ; delegate to the Provincial Conference 
of June 18, 1776, and member of the Convention of July 15, 
1776. During that year was elected colonel of one of the 
Lancaster County battalions of associators, and was on duty 
in the Jerseys during the greater portion of that year, serv- 
ing also as a member of the Assembly 1776-1777. On June 
3, 1777, he was appointed county lieutenant ; November 8, 
one of the commissioners to collect clothing for the army ; 
and December 16, appointed by the Assembly to take sub- 
scriptions for the Continental Loan. He acted as one of the 
commissioners which met at New Haven, Conn., November 
22, 1777, to regulate the prices of commodities in the States. 
After four years of excessive and exhaustive labor, Colonel 
Galbraith was compelled to resign the office of county lieu- 
tenant, but remained in service as an officer of the militia 
until the restoration of peace. In 1789 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners to view the Juniata and Susque- 
hanna, and mark the places where locks or canals were neces- 
sary to render these streams navigable. He was appointed 
deputy surveyor November 4, 1791, and while acting as such 
'took up large tracts in Lykens Valley, but dying before 
patents were issued to him, his heirs lost them all in the 
numberless litigations which ensued. While on a visit to 
his brother Andrew Galbraith, in Cumberland County, who 
was seriously ill at the time, Colonel Galbraith suddenly died 
March 9, 1804. He was buried in Donegal churchyard. 
Colonel Galbraith married Ann, daughter of Josiah Scott of 
Donegal. She died June 29, 1793, aged 51 years, leaving a 
large family. 

330 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

GRAY, NEIGAL, of Northampton County, was one of the 
earliest residents of the " Irish Settlement," so called, in 
Allen Township, that county. He located where Howertown, 
Northampton County, now stands. He was a member of the 
Provincial Conference of June 18, 1776, and of the Conven- 
tion of loth July following. He was colonel of one of the 
Northampton County battalions of associate's ; subsequently 
entered the Pennsylvania Line, and rose to be lieutenant- 
colonel of the 12th Regiment. After the Revolution, he re- 
moved to Buffalo Valley and died there in the year 1786. 

GRIER, JOHN, of Bucks County, the eldest son of Nathan 
and Agnes Grier, early immigrants from Ireland, who set- 
tled in Plumstead, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, was born in 
the year 1744. Brought up as a farmer, he nevertheless re- 
ceived a good classical education. Two of his brothers, James 
and Nathan, became able and prominent Presbyterian minis- 
ters, and Mr. Grier was for many years a trustee of Old 
Neshaminy Church. With the exception of being a member 
of the Convention of July 15, 1776, he never would accept a 
public office. During the War of the Revolution he was an 
active Whig, assisting in the organization of the associators 
and other troops. He died on the llth of June, 1814, and was 
buried in Neshaminy Church graveyard. Mr. Grier married 
Jane daughter of Captain John Hays of the "Irish Settle- 
ment," by whom he had ten children, among whom were the 
Reverend Matthew B. Grier, D.D., of Philadelphia, and 
Reverend John Hays Grier of Jersey Shore. 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Jonas Sandelands. 331 



(Continued from page 223.) 


16. JONAS SANDELANDS, S son of James and Ann (Keen) 
Sandelands, was born at Upland, and resided there until his 
death. lie was a cooper, and is described in deeds as u gen- 
tleman." lie was appointed Coroner for Chester County, Pa., 
in October, 1717, an office which he held till 1721. He was 
a Vestryman and Warden of St. Paul's Church, Chester. lie 
married Mary, daughter of Israel Taylor, Sheriff of Bucks 
County, Pa., in 1G93, and at the time of his death a resident 
of Tinicum Island, practising the art of surgery.* Mrs. 

* Son of Christopher Taylor, " supposed," says Dr. George Smith in his 
biographical notice of this exceptionally learned colonist, " to have been 
born near Skipton, in Yorkshire, England," in which country he " officiated 
as a Puritan preacher, until, in 1652, he was convinced of the truth of 
Quaker doctrine by George Fox. He became eminent as a minister among 
Friends, and was imprisoned several times" on account of his faith. He also 
taught 4< a classical school" in various places, and, finally, " at Edmonton, in 
Middlesex," where "he was succeeded by the noted George Keith." He left 
this spot to emigrate to Pennsylvania in 1682, obtaining a grant of five 
thousand acres of land from the Proprietor, and settled first in Bristol, in 
Bucks County, which he represented in the First Assembly of the Province. 
He was likewise a member of the first Provincial Council after the arrival 
of William Penn, and retained his seat at the council-board until his 
death, in July, 1686. He also occupied the office of Register-General of 
the Province, and was one of the Commissioners appointed by Penn, in 
1683, to treat with the Government of West New Jersey. " In July, 1684, 
he appears as one of the Justices of Chester Court, when he had, probably, 
established himself on Tinicum Island, which was conveyed to him shortly 
afterwards," and in granting which to his son Israel he speaks of himself as 
a schoolmaster, and of his place of residence as " Tinicum, alias College 
Island." " He was well acquainted," says Dr. Smith, "with Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew, and in 1679 published his Compendium Trium Linguarum 

332 Descendants of Joran Kyn James Sandelands. 

Sandelands survived her husband, and married, secondly 
(about 1731), Arthur Shield, by whom she had a daughter, 
baptized at St. Paul's Church, Chester, August 29, 1732. Mr. 
Sandelands had eight children, born in Chester, Pa.: 

54. JAMES, " eldest son and heir," described as " gentleman." He inherit- 

ed the ancestral taste for military life, and obtained a commission, 
in 1740, as Second Lieutenant in one of the seven Companies of 
Infantry enlisted in the Province of Pennsylvania to join Admiral 
Yemen's splendidly-appointed expedition against the Spanish 
territories in the West Indies. He engaged the following spring 
in General Wentworth's ill-conducted attack on Carthagena, and 
re-embarked, with the rest of the army, for Jamaica and Cuba, 
where he, no doubt, stayed until the spring of 1742, and the unfor- 
tunate enterprise against Panama. " In September," says Dr. 
Smollett, " Yernon and Wentworth received orders to return to 
England with such troops as remained alive; and these did 
not amount to a tenth part of the number which had been sent 
abroad in that inglorious service. The inferior officers fell ignobly 
by sickness and despair, without an opportunity of signalizing their 
courage, and the commanders lived to feel the scorn and reproach 
of their country." Mr. Sandelands was one of the survivors of 
these disasters, but d. not long afterwards, probably unm., letters of 
administration on his estate being granted to his younger brother, 
David, June 8, 1744. 

55. ANNE, m., 1st, Richard McGee ; 2dly, Richard Yenables. 

56. MARY, m. James Claxton. 

57. DAVID obtained, through the will of his uncle, Christopher Taylor, of 

Tinicum, part of that island, as well as the latter gentleman's share 
of " Long Hooks Island," and title to lands in Chester, Pa., with 
" fishing place, and the help and use of" certain negro slaves, to- 
gether with some personal property ; but d. within four months 
afterwards, unm., letters of administration on his estate being 
granted to his sisters, Rebecca and Mary, with their husbands, 
April 6, 1749. 

58. SARAH, m. Oliver Thomas. 

59. REBECCA m., 1st (Trinity Church Register, Christina, now "Wilming- 

ton, Delaware), February 8, 1738,* Henry Maddock, son of Mor- 

of those languages." Robert Proud, in a short account of him in his His- 
tory of Pennsylvania, vol. i. p. 235, speaks of him as " one of the first and 
principal settlers in the Province under "William Penn." Israel Taylor's 
mother, Frances Taylor, " died in the Tenth month, 1685." (TJie Friend, 
vol. xxvii. p. 124.) 

* Here, as well as elsewhere in entries in the books of the Swedish 
Lutheran Churches on the Delaware, the year is reckoned as beginning with 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Rebecca Sandelands. 333 

decai Maddock, of Springfield Township, Chester Co., Pa., oldest 
son of Henry Maddock, of Loom Hall, Cheshire, England.* Mr. 
Maddock was a member of the Society of Friends, and, on being 
complained of at Chester Monthly Meeting, " 12th mo. 28, 1737- 
8," for thus marrying a person not a member, made his acknowl- 
edgment, which was accepted " 3d mo. 29, 1738." He d. not long 
after, letters of administration on his estate being granted August 
16, 1738. Mrs. Maddock m., 2dly., William Smith, described in 
April, 1749, as " of the City of Philadelphia, tanner," appointed 
guardian for his wife's niece, Elizabeth Venables, in 1757, and still 
living in Philadelphia in 1758. Mrs. Smith received her portion of 
her brother David Sandelands's estate in October, 1752, but is not 
heard of afterwards. 

the first day of January, differing from the records of Friends, and other 
English Protestant sects, including the Establishment, as well as from the 
civil usage, all of these computing from Lady Day. 

* Henry Maddock, of Loom Hall, with his brother-in-law, James Kenerly, 
purchased fifteen hundred acres of land in Pennsylvania in 1681, and emi- 
grated to America the following year, some time before the Proprietary. 
He represented Chester County in the General Assembly of the Province in 
1684, but afterwards returned to England. Part of the grant referred to, 
comprising eleven hundred acres situated in Springfield Township, adjoining 
Ridley, in Chester County (indicated on a Map of the Early Settlements in 
Dr. Smith's History of DelawareCounty], came into the possession of Henry 
Maddock's son Mordecai. The latter was in this country in 1687, and was 
one of the trustees for the property conveyed by Joran Kyn for the use of 
Chester Friends' Meeting, already referred to, and at a Monthly Meeting 
held "8th mo. 13, 1690," was appointed, with his brother-in-law, George 
Maris, Jr., to solicit or receive subscriptions in Springfield Township towards 
building a meeting-house in Chester. He recrossed the ocean, and on hia 
second arrival here, March 30, 1702, produced a certificate from Newton 
Meeting, in Cheshire, dated " 9th mo. 7, 1701." April 5, 1703, he received 
a certificate to return to England, at which time he does not appear to have 
had a wife. Once more, however, he came back to this country, bringing 
with him his wife, Sarah Maddock, followed by a certificate from Friends 
of Nottingham Monthly Meeting, in England, dated " 1st mo. 2, 1726-7." 
Mrs. Maddock died soon after, and Mordecai Maddock married, at Springfield 
Meeting, November 8, 1733, Dorothy, widow of Philip Roman, of Chichester, 
with witnesses Henry, John, Benjamin, James, and Elizabeth Maddock, pro- 
bably his children. In 1736, as the only surviving trustee of the Meeting 
property acquired from Joran Kyn, he signed a deed conveying the same to 
Edward Russell, the Meeting being removed to another site. After that year 
nothing more is heard of him. (Facts for most of which I am indebted to 
the civility of Mr. Gilbert Cope, of West Chester.) 

334 Descendants of Jb'ran Kyn John Keen. 

60. ELEANOR m. (by license granted September, 1744) George Pooley, 

described December, 1755, " of Philadelphia, cordwainer," his wife, 
also, still being alive. 

61. MARGARET d. unm., and was buried in Christ Churchyard, Philadel- 

phia, October 30, 1746. 

21. JOHN KEEN,* " eldest son and heir-at-law" of Matthias 
and Henricka (Claassen) Keen, was born in Oxford Township, 
Philadelphia Co., Pa., in 1695, and inherited from his father 
an estate of ahout four hundred acres of land in Oxford and 
Lower Dublin Townships (the situation of which has been 
described in the account of Matthias Keen), and from his 
mother a lesser tract lying in Bristol Township, Bucks Co., 
Pa. He resided on the former, at first, in a house built for 
him on the southwest side of the Township Line Road, 
between the so-called State Road and Keen's Road (leading to 
Holmesburg),* afterwards, however, and at his death, in a 
dwelling between the State Road and the river. He married 


in November, 1713, Susannah, eldest daughter, and second 
child, of James Steelman, of Great Egg Harbor, Gloucester 
Co., New Jersey, " Gentleman," by his first wife, Susannah, 
daughter of Christina Toy.f Her father is mentioned in 
Springer's list of Swedes who resided on the Delaware in 
May, 1693, and among the members of the Swedish Lutheran 
Congregation of Wicacoa during the pastorate of the Rev. 
Mr. Rudman. He owned the ground now occupied by At- 
lantic City 4 and in his will, dated August 2, 1734, preserved 

* This house, rebuilt, altered, and enlarged, at sundry times, still stands, 
surrounded by noble trees and beautiful grounds. It has been the home of 
five generations of the family. 

f Mrs. Steelman's father was, probably, a native of Sweden. His baptismal 
name is not known. Her brother, Elias Tay, or Toy, was born in October, 
1664, and m., February, 1690, Gertrude, daughter of Jonas Nilsson, of the 
Swedish Colony. He was one of the contributors to the salary of the Rev. 
Jacobus Fabritius in 1684, and is mentioned in Springer's list of Swedes who 
resided on the Delaware in 1693, was living in Senamensing, New Jersey, in 
1697, and bought land in Newton Township, Gloucester County, N. J., in 
1700. Mr. Steelman's last wife was Katharine Ouster, of Gloucester County, 
N. J., " spinster," the marriage bond being dated June 13, 1730. 

I Bestowed during his lifetime on his son Andrew, who devised it to his 
children under the name of "Absecoiid Beach." 

Descendants of Jbran Kyn John Keen. 335 

in the office of the Secretary of State at Trenton, bequeaths 
" slaves & servants, lands, cedar swamps & Beaches, houses, 
Barnes, mills, and orchards," situated in the present Atlantic 
County, N". J. To his " daughter Susannah" he leaves a token 
of remembrance, with the explanation, " the leason that I 
give her no more is because I have given her many valuable 
things already." Like his father, Matthias Keen, John 
Keen signed a petition to the General Assembly of the Pro- 
vince, relating to encroachments on lands held by the Swedes 
before the advent of the Quaker Proprietor. " Penn's Com- 
missioners," says Acrelius,* " continued to question the Swed- 
ish titles through the Duke of York, to clip off pieces from 
their lands, to put on higher rents, and to withhold their old 
deeds. On this account many others took part in this matter. 
The first English inhabitants, together with those who had 
bought Swedish titles, all united in the complaints. They pre- 
sented a petition to the Assembly in the year 1722, in which 
the chief charge was, that the Proprietor, by his Commissioners, 
and especially within the last five years, had interfered with 
the Swedes' lands, as, also, with the lands of those who had 
the same titles, or were the oldest English inhabitants in the 
country and had their rights to the land not only from the 
English authorities before Penn's time, but these, also, after- 
wards, still further confirmed by the fundamental laws of the 
country, namely, that seven years' undisputed possession of 
property should become a good title." The Assembly granted 
the petition, and a bill was introduced, styled " An Act 
for the further Confirmation of Rights to Lands, and for 
avoiding of Law-suits concerning the same." Their proceed- 
ings were communicated to Sir William Keith, the then 
Governor, who on addressing himself for information to 
Richard Hill, Isaac Norris, and James Logan, at that time 
Proprietary Agents for the Province, received from them a 
self-exculpatory u Report" with regard to the subject, which 
he, in turn, presented to the Assembly, accompanied by a 
written Message. "After some time spent in the debate of 

* History of New Sweden, p. 128. 

336 Descendants of Joran Kyn Jonas Keen. 

the bill" it was finally rejected.* "From thenceforth," 
affirms Acrelius, " no more was heard of the matter." Mr. 
Keen was a member and warden of Gloria Dei Church at 
Wicacoa, and is mentioned in the parish records as one of the 
principal contributors to the rebuilding of the minister's 
house at Passyunk, destroyed by fire in 1717,f as well as to 
the repairing of the church edifice in 1738-9. He appor- 
tioned his land among his sons during his life, and bequeathed 
it to them and their sons at his death, describing the several 
boundaries with precision in a will dated January 21, 1758. 
His wife died in Oxford Township, November 9, 1753, and 
was buried on the llth in Gloria Dei Churchyard. Mr. Keen 
died on his estate February 22, 1758, and was buried the 25th 
in the same Swedish Lutheran Cemetery. They had eleven 
children, all born in Oxford Township : 

62. JAMES, m. Mercy Ashton. 

63. MARY, m. Toby Leech. 

64.. SUSANNAH, m., 1st, John Martin ; 2dly, Edward Milner. 

65. KEBECCA, probably d. young. 

66. MATTHIAS, b. December 21, 1721 ; m., 1st, Mary Swift ; 2dly, Margaret 


67. JOHN, b. May 22, 1723 ; m. Esther Foster. 

68. ELIAS, b. May 15, 1725; m. Hannah Thomas. 

69. REBECCA, m., 1st, Benjamin Engle ; 2dly, Jacob Hall. 

70. PETER d. in Oxford Township, unm., November 11, 1757, and was bur. 

the 13th in Gloria Dei Churchyard. 

71. JACOB, m. Hannah Holme. 

72. GEORGE, m. Margaret Bristol. 

23. JONAS KEEN,* son of Matthias and Henricka (Claassen) 
Keen, was born in Oxford Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa., 
September 16, 1698. He was married by the Swedish Lu- 
theran pastor of Eaccoon Church, New Jersey, the Eev. 

* On these points see Votes of Assembly, January 11, 18, and 19, and 
March 7, 1721-2. The Report of the Proprietary Agents is printed in 
Pennsylvania Archives, vol. i. pp. 172-7. 

t A representation of the new parsonage (already twice referred to in 
preceding articles) is given in Mr. Thompson Westcott's History of Phila- 
delphia, chap. Ixxii. 

Descendants of Jb'ran Kyn Jonas Keen. 337 

Abraham Lidenius, October 20, 1718, to Sarah Dahlbo,* and, 
no doubt, immediately, but, at least, as early as June, 1719, 
occupied the portion of his father's estate in Oxford Town- 
ship exhibited on Holme's Map as belonging to " Ha Salter," 
southwest of the Township Line Road, and traversed by the 
Bristol Turnpike. From thence he removed, by the summer 
of 1721, to Pilesgrove Township, Salem Co., New Jersey, f 
He had, at least, eight children, all born in Salem County, 

73. SARAH, b. January 26, 1722 ; m., 1st, John Stille ; 2dly, Samuel 


74. CATHARINE, b. March 9, 1724 ; m. (Trinity Church Register, Chris- 

tina), November 11, 1740, Anders Steddom, also written Stedham 
and Stidham.J 

* Doubtless, the daughter or granddaughter, by his wife Catharine, of 

Olof Dahlbo, of Senamensing, New Jersey, one of the Proprietors of West 
New Jersey, and a Representative of the Fourth Tenth in the General As- 
sembly of that Province in 1685-6, a Surveyor of the Highway from Salem 
to Burlington, and one of the four original Wardens of Raccoon Swedish 
Lutheran Church, referred to in former foot-notes, a descendant of Anders 
Larsson Daalbo, of Sweden, who emigrated with Minuit or Hollender, was 
settled on a tobacco plantation on the Schuylkill in 1644, and in 1648 held 
the post of Provost, and in 1658 that of Lieutenant, of the Swedes upon the 
Delaware. Her kinswoman, Maria Dahlbo, became the wife of the Rev. 
Provost Andreas Sandel, Pastor of Gloria Dei Church from 1702 to 1719, 
and returned to Sweden with her husband and two children, Magdalena and 
Peter, by the latter of whom, Acrelius says, "an honourable Minister's 
household was afterwards formed in the town of Hedemora." Charles 
Dahlbo, of Penn's Neck, Salem Co., N. J., another member of the family, 
b. April 6, 1723, m. (Raccoon Swedish Church Register), August 12, 
1756, Rachel, daughter of Jonas Keen, of Gloucester County, b. September 
14, 1736, by whom he had eight children, some of whom left posterity. He 
was " a very worthy Vestryman" of the Church, says the Rev. John Wick- 
sell, and d. October 10, 1773. 

t Letters of administration on the estate of " Jonas Keen, of Penn's 
Neck," Co. Salem, N. J., probably the same person, were granted to Andrew 
Dahlbo, January 2, 1748. 

t A descendant, and, probably, a great-grandson, of Dr. Timon Stiddem, 
who was born, according to the statement of his will, " at Hammell," and 
came with one of the later Swedish expeditions to the Delaware, most likely 
that of Governor Rising, which sailed from Gottenburg February 2, 1654, 
and reached Fort Casimir, on our river, the 21st of the following May. On 

VOL. in. 23 

338 Descendants of Joran Kyn Jonas Keen. 

75. CHRISTINA, b. October 11, 1726; still living January 2, 1747-8, when 

she attests her brother-in-law, John Stille's will. 

76. MARY, b. September 29, 1728; m., 1st, Jonathan Crathorne; 2dly, 

Thomas Roker. 

77. MATTHIAS, b. November 15, 1731. 

78. KEBECCA, b. March 4, 1734 ; m. (Raccoon Swedish Lutheran Church 

Register), December 19, 1754, Michael Richman, whom she sur- 
vived, receiving letters of administration on his estate June 16, 

the subversion of the Swedish rule by Peter Stuyvesant in September, 1655, 
Mr. Stiddem, with others of his fellow-countrymen, took the oath of allegiance 
to the Dutch authorities. He appears to have learned the arts of medicine 
and surgery in Europe, for as early as January, 1656, he is ordered to " give 
an affidavit of the cure" of some soldiers on " South River;" and in a letter 
written in 1662 by Yice-Director Beeckman to Governor Stuyvesant " an old 
man" is mentioned as having been murdered by Indians, and examined by 
" Timen Stidden, the surgeon." In another letter from the same to the same, 
dated "Altena, the 1st of Feb., 1663," occurs the following curious state- 
ment : " D'Hinojossa considers us still his mortal enemies, for, when, on the 
18th of December, Mr. Jacop, the City's surgeon, stated in the meeting that 
he desired to put in his place Mr. Timen Stidden, after he had before obtained 
permission to put somebody in his place, d'Hinojossa nevertheless said to 
him : ' Why do you present to us a man who is Beeckman's friend, whom I 
consider our enemy, yes, our mortal enemy ?' " The City referred to is, of 
course, the City of Amsterdam, which owned New Ainstel, and the territory 
down the Delaware to Bombay Hook, where d'Hinojossa was Yice-Director. 
Doctor Stiddem resided for some time at Upland, and at the trial of Evert 
Hendrickson for his assault on Joran Kyn, spoken of in the account of the 
latter, he was one of the chief witnesses against the Fin, relating unpleasant 
experiences of the man, and declaring, that " he had neither security nor 
peace, but was obliged to leave Upland's kil," because of the ruffian. He 
settled, permanently, at Christina, where he purchased large tracts of land, 
the possession of which was subsequently confirmed to him by Gov. Francis 
Lovelace in a patent, dated May 23, 1671, printed in Benjamin Ferris's 
History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware. On these is built 
a great part of the city of Wilmington. Dr. Stiddem's will was signed 
February 1, and admitted to probate April 24, 1686. The Doctor was mar- 
ried twice (his second wife being " Christina Oels's daughter"), and had 
several children, with numerous descendants, residing, for the most part, in 
Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. One of his posterity still pre- 
serves the metal case, in which he carried his surgical instruments on visits 
to his patients of the early Swedish Colony, interestingly authenticated by 
bearing his name and title engraved upon it. 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Peter Keen. 339 

79. SUSANNAH, b. June 13, 1736 ; m. (ibid.), February 12, 1755, Hugh 


80. WILLIAM, b. January 27, 1739 ; m. Dorothy Gaylor. 

25. HANS KEEN/ son of Erick and Catharine (Claassen) 
Keen, was born in Oxford Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa.,* 
and married Mary, youngest daughter of luls Laican, and 
sister to Elizabeth, second wife of his father's eousin-german, 
Maons Keen. He inherited through her a fifth part of "Poor 
Island," already spoken of, and in 1727, in conjunction with 
his younger brother, Peter Keen, purchased two additional 
fifths of the same land, and resided (probably upon that farm) 
in Shackamaxon, in the Northern Liberties, until his death. 
Letters of administration on his estate were granted to his 
father November 24, 1737. He had two children : 

81. REBECCA, m. (Gloria Dei Church Register), November 1, 1753, George 

Breintnall, styled, September 18, 1755, " of the City of Philadel- 
phia, printer." 

82. WILLIAM, m. Anne Shillingsforth. 

26. PETER KEEN/ son of Erick and Catharine (Claassen) 
Keen, was born in Oxford Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa., 
February 26, 1703, but removed by 1727 to the city of Phila- 
delphia, where he resided, at least, until the close of 1733. 
In November of the latter year he purchased four acres of 
land in "Wicacoa, Philadelphia Co., and lived there in Novem- 
ber, 1735, when he added to this lot four acres of ground 
adjoining it. In 1747 he again dwelt in the city, where he 
remained, at least, until September, 1755. During that month 
he bought the only interest in " Poor Island" (before referred 
to) not already held by him, and between this date and 1758 
removed to that plantation, which comprised about three 
hundred acres of land, situated in Kensington, Philadelphia 
Co., a mile and a half from the river Delaware, on the north 
side of Tumanaramaming, or Gunners Run, above the mouth 
of a small branch which formed its eastern boundary, f On 

* Possibly, the " little son of Erick Keen," whoso baptism is recorded in 
Gloria Dei Church AccounkBook for 1699. 

t Extending a mile and a quarter up the former, and three-quarters of a 
mile along the latter to its source, the northwestern limit of the estate being 

340 Descendants of Joran Kyn Peter Keen. 

this fine country-seat Mr. Keen was pleased to spend the last ten 
years of his life. He was, by occupation, a merchant, though 
frequently described in deeds as " gentleman." He prospered 
in his enterprises, owned numerous slaves, and acquired 
several houses and lots of ground on High (now Market), 
Arch, Race, and Fifth streets, in Philadelphia, besides some 
tracts in neighboring townships. In 1753 he purchased 
the land on Wissinoming Creek bequeathed by his father to 
his step-brothers, Daniel and Jonas Keen (conveyed by him 
December 30, 1758, to Lynford Lardner, Esq., of Philadel- 
phia). His name appears in the list of contributors to the 
Pennsylvania Hospital in 1754 for the sum of 10. He was 
a member of the Swedish Lutheran Church of Wicacoa, and 
was chosen by that congregation, October 24, 1750, one of 
twelve u Second Trustees" so called. He was married, at 
least, twice, but the surnames of his wives have not come 
down to us. His first wife, Margaret, died July 25, 1732, 
and was buried in Gloria Dei Churchyard. His last wife, 
Ann, is mentioned as a member of Wicacoa congregation in 
1752, and was still living November 22, 1754, when, with her 
husband, she signed a deed of sale of property in the town- 
ship of Lower Dublin. Mr. Keen died October 12, 1765, and 
was buried in Gloria Dei Churchyard.* He left three chil- 
dren, the two elder by his first wife : 

83. BENJAMIN was b. in Philadelphia in 1726-7, and was a member of the 

Swedish Lutheran Congregation of Wicacoa in 1752. He inhe- 
rited his father's plantation in Kensington, but d. s. p. soon after, 
August 16, 1767, and was bur. in Gloria Dei Churchyard. 

84. MARY, b. about 1730 ; m. Joseph Stout. 

85. EEYNOLD, b. 1737-8 ; m., 1st, Christiana Stille ; 2dly, Patience (Bar- 

clay) Worrell ; 3dly, Anne Lawrence. 

28. MATTHIAS KEEN, 4 son of Erick and Catharine (Claassen) 
Keen, was born in Oxford Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa. 

a right line from stream to stream three-quarters of a mile in length. The 
eite is indicated on Hills's Map of the City of Philadelphia and Environs, 
published in 1808. 

* The graves of Peter and Margaret Keen and children are indicated by 
horizontal tombstones of unusual size, which are yet in excellent condition. 

Descendants of Joran Kyn Matthias Keen. 341 

His father bequeathed to him three acres of land and meadow 
in Chester Township, Burlington Co., New Jersey, purchased 
from Maons Keen, which he sold June 13, 1747, when he re- 
sided in Lower Dublin Township, Philadelphia Co. He 
married Sarah, daughter of Joseph and Sarah Harper, of 
Oxford Township,* born June 12, 1717, and baptized the 
following August at Trinity Church, Oxford, Philadelphia 
Co., through whom he acquired land in Oxford Township. 
They had six children, all baptized at Trinity Church : 

86. MATTHIAS, b. June, 1742. 

87. JOHN, b. June, 1745. 

88. JOSEPH, b. October, 1747. 

89. JONAS, b. January, 1750. 

90. ROBERT, b. May, 1752. 

91. JOSIAH, b. Februa/y, 1754. 

30. DANIEL KEEN,* son of Erick and Brigitta Keen, was 
born in Oxford Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa., in 1722-3, 
but removed to the city of Philadelphia, where he resided, at 
least, from 1746 to 1753, pursuing the trade of a carpenter. He 
married (Trinity Church Register, Oxford), January 6, 1752, 
Elizabeth McCarty, by whom he had three children, the two 
elder baptized at Trinity Church: 

92. ANDREW, b. September, 1752. 

93. MARY, b. March, 1754 

94 JOHN, bur. in Gloria Dei Churchyard, Wicacoa, December 11, 1816, 
" aged about sixty years." 

* And granddaughter of persons buried in Trinity Churchyard, Oxford, 
whose tombstones bear the following inscriptions: "John, son of John 
Harper, of Noke in Oxford Shire in Old England, and arrived in Pensil- 
vania the 2d of August, 1682, who died y 29th of April, 1716, aged 83 
years." "Ann Harper, widow of John Harper, daughter of Charles Butcher, 
of King Sutten in North Hampton Shire in Old England, who died y c 4th 
of March, 1723-4, aged 77 years." 

. (To be continued.) 


Eecords of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


BURIALS, 1709-1760. 

(Continued from page 229.) 

Sept. 9, 
April 20, 
June 5, 
Oct. 29, 
June 10, 
April 24, 
June 20, 
May 31, 
Jan. 24, 
May 19, 
July 6, 
Oct. 1, 
Feb. 11, 
Oct. 5, 
Oct. 25, 
Sept. 12, 
Dec. 5, 
Mar. 17, 
July 24, 
Sept. 6, 
July 19, 
Aug. 15, 
Dec. 10, 
July 18, 
Feb. 16, 
Jan. 19, 
July 7, 
Sept. 26, 
Feb. 5, 
May 28, 
Mar. 3, 
Oct. 8, 
July 9, 
May 21, 
Feb. 29, 




























1727. Gative, 

1713. Gattow, 

1732. Gaufe, 

1747. Gault, 

1720-1. Gaultry, 

1742-3. Gaven, 

1747. Gavin, 

1712. Geaddy, 

1743-4. Geary, 

1729. Geddings, 

1726-7. George, 


1735. " 
1737. " 
1743-4. " 


Mary, dau. of Peter. 

Rebecca, dau. of Francis. 

Hannah, dau. of Peter. 

Francis. From ye State-house. 


Anne, dau. of Benjamin. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Valentine. 

Rebecca, dau. of Francis. 

Sarah, dau. of Peter. 

Anne, wife of Francis. 


Susannah. "Widow. 


Mary, dau. of Francis. 

Anne, dau. of Francis. 

wife of Francis. 

Grandchild of Francis. 


Hester, dau. of James. 

John, son of James. 

Nicholas, son of Nicholas. 

Frances, wife of Nicholas. 

Nurse. P. 


Mary, wife of Oliver. 

Joseph, son of Joseph. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Joseph. 

Mary, wife of George. 

Ann, dau. of John. Poor. 

John. Barbados. 


John. Poor. 


John, son of Abram. 

Mary, dau. of Abraham. 

Eecords of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


Sept. 1, 1744. 
June 18, 1748. 
Oct. 1, 1759. 
Dec. 19,1737. 
Sept. 1, 1726. 
Dec. 13,1726. 
May 18,1727. 
Mar. 10, 1759. 
Feb. 13,1733-4 
Feb. 25,1753. 
July 2, 1754. 
Sept. 17, 1731. 
April 25, 1735. 
Aug. 7,1747. 
Aug. 17, 1710. 
July 26, 1712. 




. Ghisling, 




Sept. 16, 1716. 
Aug. 12, 1725. 

Sept. 10, 
Dec. 7, 
April 7, 
Jan. 4, 
June 11, 
Nov. 22, 
Dec. 26, 
Jan. 22, 
July 17, 
Nov. 3, 
Aug. 27, 
Nov. 10, 
April 28, 
Dec. 20, 
Oct. 15, 
April 6, 
Oct. 31, 
Mar. 23, 
July 20, 
Mar. 13, 
Aug. 7, 
Dec. 21, 
July 8, 
Oct. 6, 
Jan. 13, 






























Ann, wife of Abraham. 



John. [and Elizabeth. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Nicholas 


Catharine. Quakers' Ground. 

dau. of William. 


Mary, wife of Caesar. 

Mary, dau. of James. 

John, son of John. 


Dorothy. [Rebecca. 

Rebecca, dau. of Thomas and 

Mary, dau. of Thomas and 

Thomas, son of Thomas and 

Thomas, son of Thomas and 


Richard, son of Thomas. 
Rebecca, dau. of Thomas. 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas. Pr. 
Doctor John. 
Joseph, son of Matthew. 
Thomas, son of Matthew. 

son of Martha. 

dau. of John. 

Robert, son of James. 


Amy, wife of Samuel. 


son of Thomas. 


dau. of Thomas. 

Edward, son of Edward. 
Mary, dau. of John. 
Joseph, son of John. 

son of John. 

"William, son of John. 


Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

July 9, 1741. Gillum, 

Dec. 11, 1754. Gilson, 

Oct. 30,1711. Ginkins, 

July 8, 1711. Gisling, 

Mar. 20, 1734-5. Glass, 

Aug. 25, 1721. Glentworth, 

April 6,1726. " 

Mar. 26,1730-1. " 
April 28, 1731. " 

June 6, 1733. " 

Dec. 19,1736. " 

Aug. 12, 1738. " 

Sept. 9, 1711. Glover, 

June 12, 
Aug. 18, 
Mar. 4, 
Sept. 18, 
Jan. 27, 
April 6, 
June 8, 
Dec. 12, 
Mar. 22, 
July 27, 
July 17, 
Dec. 17, 
Feb. 7, 
Mar. 9, 
Oct. 7, 
Oct. 1, 
Mar. 12, 
Sept. 21, 
Oct. 29, 
Dec. 9, 
Sept. 27, 
June 2, 
Aug. 15, 
May 16, 
Dec. 5, 
Mar. 5, 
April 9, 
April 1, 
Jan. 16, 

1730. Goad, 
1757. " 
1742-3. Godfrey, 

1746. " 
1749. " 
1752. " 



1739-40. Godsden, 

1747-8. Goen, 

1747. Gold, 
1727. Goldsmith, 

1746. Gollerthurn, 









1754. " 

1712-13. Goodwin, 

1729. " 

1736. " 

1746-7. " 



Mary, wife of Matthew. 

Thomas, son of Thomas and 

Elizabeth, dau. of Caesar and 


Caroline, dau. of Alexander. 
Lydia, dau. of Thomas and 

Mary. [Mary. 

Mary, dau. of Thomas and 
Samuel, son of Thomas. 
Anne, dau. of Thomas. 
Benjamin, son of Thomas. 
"William, son of Thomas. 
Martha, dau. of Thomas. 
Edward, son of Edward and 


Martha, wife of Edward. 
Solomon, son of Solomon. 
Anne, dau. of Solomon. 

Ann. "Widow. 

Sarah, dau. of Thomas. 

James, son of John. 
"William. [Mary. 

Flecher, son of Flecher and 

Elizabeth, dau. of John. 
Hatton, son of John. 
Samuel, son of Robert. 

Martha, wife of Walter. 
Elizabeth, wife of James. 
William. [Ground. 

Mary, dau. of Henry. Coates' 

Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 


June 30, 
Mar. 4, 
May 26, 
May 81, 
May 7, 
May 5, 
Sept. 14, 
Aug. 6, 
June 6, 
July 4, 
April 10, 
Feb. 25, 
Aug. 9, 
Nov. 2, 
Sept. 6, 
Aug. 31, 
Dec. 11, 
Jan. 18, 
Oct. 17, 
Dec. 17, 
July 30, 
Nov. 29, 
Dec. 7, 
Aug. 30, 
Mar. 12, 
Sept. 24, 
Nov. 27, 
Sept. 7, 
Dec. 28, 
Oct. 10, 
June 12, 
Nov. 1, 
Jan. 12, 
May 29, 
Nov. 25, 
Oct. 2, 
Jan. 17, 
Nov. 23, 
Nov. 25, 
Dec. 13, 
May 17, 
Jan. 21, 
Dec. 31, 
Dec. 9, 
June 19, 
Aug. 5, 

1731. Goold, 
17^8-9. Gordman, 

1714. Gordon, 

1722. " 

1733. " 

1734. " 

1736. " 

1740. " 

1742. " 

1743. " 
1749-50. " 
1759. " 

1726. Gorrigue, 

1741. Gosling, 
1718. Gough, 
1748-9. (3oujeon, 
1747. Goujon, 
1756. " 
1710. Goulf, 
1759. Goveyn, 

1744. Govin, 
1721. Grace, 
1730-1. Graeme, 

1733. " 

1737. " 
1747. " 

1727. Grahaeme, 

1728. Graham, 
1731. " 

1758. Grainger, 
1731. Grame, 
1736. Grant, 
1740. " 
1741-2. " 
1712. Grasbury, 
1756. Grassbury, 

1759. Grassholt, 
1727-8. Gratto. 

1734. Gray, 
1739. " 
1746. " 
1746. " 


"William. [ander. 

Dorothy, wife of Capt. Alex- 
Alexander, son of Dorothy. 

Alexander, son of Thomas. 
Isabella. Lady of Governor. 
Governor Patrick. 
Thomas, son of Thomas. 
Rebecca, dau. of Thomas. 
Rebecca, dau. of Thomas. 
Mary, wife of Thomas. 

Mary, dau. of Thomas. 
Capt. William. 

Mary, wife of Jeremiah. 

Rachel, dau. of Thomas. 
"William, son of Thomas. 

Thomas, son of Doctor Thomas. 
Rachel, dau. of Mr. Thomas. 
Alexander. Barbadoes. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas. 
Dr. Hugh. 
Patrick, son of Thomas. 

dau. of Charles. 

Jane, dau. of James. 
Elizabeth, wife of James. 

dau. of Joseph. 

dau. of Joseph. 



Mary Ann, dau. of Benjamin. 

Judith, wife of Henry. Poor. 


Penelope. "Widow. 


Records of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

Oct. 6, 1746. Gray, 

Oct. 2, 1751. 

Feb. 2, 1 741-2. Graydon, 

July '3,1746. 

July 27,1746. 












Aug ; 


















Aug ; 








30, 1709. 
10, 1709. 
14, 1711. 
19, 1711. 
17, 1713-14. 

6, 1718. 
15, 1731. 

8, 1739. 
18, 1746. 

8, 1747. 
28, 1748-9. 

5, 1749. 

2, 1750. 
21, 1751. 
19, 1753. 

23. 1753. 
4, 1755. 

21, 1758. 
17, 1757. 

20. 1754. 
28, 1743. 
23, 1736. 



29. 1746. Greenway, 

17. 1747. 

11. 1748. " 
26, 1750. " 

16. 1756. 

18. 1757. " 
26, 1759. 

11, 1759. " 

2, 1759. Greenwood, 
2, 1732-3. Gregory, 

29, 1739. " 

17, 1741. " 

1, 1757. " 

18, 1759. " 

16, 1735-6. Grew, 

Mary, dau. of Henry. 

Mary, wife of Henry. 

Alexander, son of Alexander. 

Charles, natural son of Alex- 

Pamela, natural dau. of Alex- 

Ann, dau. of John and Ann. 







Elizabeth, wife of John. Poor. 

Fisher, son of Thomas. 

George, son of Daniel. 


Thomas, son of ye widow. 

Pyramus, son of Pyramus. 

Susannah, wife of James. 

Godfrey Buckley. 


George. + 



"William, son of William. 

Hannah, dau. of Robert. 

Crispanus, son of Robert. 

Margret, dau. of Henry. 

John, son of John. 

Mary, dau. of William. 

Mary, dau. of William. 

dau. of James. 



William, son of William. 


John, son of Robert. 

Elizabeth. From Legay's. 


John, son of Thomas. 

dau. of Thomas. 

Rebecca, dau. of Theophilus. 

(To be continued.) 

Proceedings of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 347 


A stated meeting of the Society was held on Monday evening, March 10, 
1879, Samuel W. Pennypacker, Esq., in the absence of the President, in 
the chair. 

The Secretary read an interesting, unpublished letter from Col. Henry 
Lee, Jr., " Light-Horse Harry Lee," dated October 4, 1780, giving a graphic 
account of the treason of Benedict Arnold, and his escape, and of the cap- 
ture, trial, and execution of Major Andr6. 

Mr. Charles M. Morris read a sketch of Daniel Dulany, the distinguished 
Maryland lawyer of the last century, by the Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, of 

A communication from the New Jersey Historical Society, dated January 
30, 1879, was read by the Secretary, requesting the co-operation of this 
Society in an endeavor to interest the National Government in a proposed 
joint movement on the part of the Republics of the Western Continent in 
order to aid the people of San Domingo in erecting a worthy monument 
over the remains of Christopher Columbus. 

Nominations for officers to be balloted for election, May 5th, were then 
made as follows : 

John William Wallace. 


Aubrey H. Smith. Craig Biddle. 

Recording Secretary. 

William Brooke Rawle. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

John W. Jordan. 

J. Edward Carpenter. 


James C. Hand. Sam'l W. Pennypacker. 

John Jordan, Jr. Chas. Riche" Hildeburn. 

Mr. Ward, on behalf of the artist, Mr. Isaac L. Williams, presented to 
the Society a painting of the Old Floating Bridge at Gray's Ferry. 

Mr. Charles M. Morris, on behalf of Mr. Titian R. Peale, presented a coil 
of the first sub-marine cable across the Atlantic. 

Mr. Ward announced the death of the following members of the Society 
since its last meeting : Judge John Cadwalader, Hon. Bayard Taylor, John 
13. Biddle, M.D., E. Spencer Miller, Esq. 

348 Notes and Queries. \ 


NATIONS. The celebrations at Elmira and Waterloo, N. Y., on the 29th of 
August and the 3d of September, respectively, were attended with great 
success. At the former, historical addresses were made by the Rev. David 
Craft, and Steuben Jenkins, Esq., which deserve to be preserved in a more 
lasting form than that in which they have reached us the papers of the day. 
One of the most valuable results of these celebrations is the study that 
they have directed to the subject they commemorate. Under the auspices 
of the Waterloo Historical Society several gentlemen have with great care 
traced the route of Sullivan's march in N. Y., and printed the results of their 
labors in the Seneca County Courier under the heading of " TRACING INDIAN 
HISTORY," a series well worthy of being printed in a volume. For the con- 
venience of any one who may wish to study the documents of Sullivan's Ex- 
pedition, we give a list of Journals kept by participants, prepared by one 
well acquainted with the subject. ED. 

JOURNALS OP THE SULLIVAN EXPEDITION, 1779. The following list com- 
prises all I know at this date (May 9, 1879), of Journals kept by officers 
connected with this Expedition. Those of which I have copy, marked *. 

*I. Lieut, (afterwards Colonel) John Jenkins the original in the hands 
of his grandson, Hon. Steuben Jenkins, of Wyoming, Penna. 

*II. George Grant published in Wyoming Republican, Wilkesbarre, 
1868. Hazard's Register, vol. xiv. pp. 72-76. 

*IH. Thomas Grant published in Historical Magazine, Aug. and Sept. 

*IV. Daniel Livermore published New Hampshire Hist. Collections, 
vol. vi. pp. 308-335. 

*V. Adam Hubley published Appendix of Miner's Hist, of Wyoming. 

*VI. James Norris original in Buffalo Hist. Soc. My copy was made 
by myself from a certified copy now in the hands of D. Williams Patterson, 
of Newark Valley, N. Y. 

*VII. An imperfect copy of Norris was published in Hill's N. H. Patriot 
the date I cannot tell is referred to by Miner, who did not observe a loss 
of two days, and connects the destruction of Chemung with that of Queen 
Esther's town. 

VIII. Capt. Theodosius Fowler, beginning with Aug. 30, is in Campbell's 
Border Wars, and O'Reilly's Hist, of Rochester. Stone, in his life of Brant, 
says there was no more of it when he had it I have not yet got a copy. 

*IX. Lieut. William Barton published in N. J. Hist. Soc. Transactions, 
vol. ii. 

*X. Dr. Ebenezer Elmer published as above. See, also, Hist. Mag. Aug. 
1862. My copy ends August 12. 

XI. Newman referred to by Miner and is supposed to have been 

burned in the fire which consumed the office of the " Record of the Times," 
Wilkesbarre, April 9, 1867. 

Notes and Queries. 349 

*XII. Lieut. Thomas Blake published in Kidder's Hist, of First N. H. 

*XIII. Lieut. Daniel Gookin published New England Hist, and Gen. 
Register, Jan. 1862, pp. 27-33, ends with Sept. 5. 

*XIV. Lieut. Rudolph Van Hovenberg original in hands of Dr. F. B. 
Hough, Lowville, N. Y. 

*XV. Dr. Jabez Campfield republished in the Wyoming (Tunkhannock) 
Rep., Dec. 31, 1873-Jan. 28, 1874, from N. J. Hist. Soc. Trans. (?) 

*XVI. Lieut. William Rogers original in hands of L. B. Rogers, Esq., 
Newark, N. J. is but little else than a table of distances, of but little or no 

*XVII. Lieut. John L. Hardenberg original in hands of Rev. Dr. 
Hawley, of Auburn Theo. Seminary. 

*X VIII. Rev. William Rogers, D. D. published in Universal Mag. for 
1797, vol. i. pp. 390-399, and vol. ii. pp. 86-91, and 200-206. This copy 
ends Aug. 7. Sidney S. Rider is about to publish it complete to Sept. 5. 

*XIX. Erkuries Beatty original in the N. Y. Hist Soc. 

*XX. Gen. Henry Dearborn original MSS. in hands of family in Boston, 

*XXI. Nathaniel Webb published in 1855 (?) Elmira Republican. Have 
been able to secure only a fragment. 

Besides these, Capt. William Pierce of Col. Harrison's Reg't of Artillery, 
and 1st Aide-de-Camp to Gen. Sullivan, kept a Journal, which was copied by 
Major Adam Hoops. I know nothing of either. 

It has also been generally believed that Col. Gansevoort kept a Journal ; 
if so, I have not found it. The same has been said of Obadiah Gore, of 

Also the following persons have written narratives, more or less full, and 
of varying value : 

*I. Col. Cortlandt published in the Elmira Advertiser, 1879, from copy 
in the hands of Mr. James Riker, of Waverly. 

*II. John Salmon published in Seaver's Mary Jemisom (old ed.) ; also 
in Wyoming Massacre. 

*I1I. Nathan Davis published in Hist. Mag., April, 1868, p. 198, et 

*IV. Rev. John Gano published in Hist. Mag., Nov. 1861, p. 330, e* 

*V. Moses Van Campen published in Memoirs. 

There are also letters of James Clinton, Lt.-Col. Francis Barber, and Gen- 
Washington besides Sullivan's Reports. 

Any addition to the above will be gratefully received. 


STONY POINT. The one hundredth anniversary of the assault and capture 
of Stony Point by Anthony Wayne, and the brave men he commanded, was 
celebrated at that place July 16th. The proceedings were under the charge 
of the WAYNE MONUMENT ASSOCIATION, and Gen. Hawley was the orator of 
the day. The excessive heat prevented the entire programme from being 
carried out, and it was wisely curtailed. " But the celebration did good," 
writes Professor Henry P. Johnston, of the City of New York College, "in 
one respect It was the means of bringing out some very valuable material, 
which I propose to publish in connection with other unpublished papers. I 
now have the organization of Wayne's Light Infantry complete from original 
sources, also orders from Wayne to the Infantry not before printed." All 
who are familiar with Professor Johnston's scholarly production published 

350 Notes and Queries. 

about a year ago by the Long Island Historical Society, entitled The Cam- 
paign of 1776 around New York and Brooklyn, will rejoice that the work 
of telling the story of Wayne's brilliant achievement has fallen into such 
able hands, and Peunsylvanians, for Wayne's sake, should be foremost in 
aiding the good work. 

LENGTH OF GENERATIONS. Under this title there' have appeared in the 
London " Notes and Queries" within the last year, numerous instances of the 
longevity of three generations, dating from the birth of a grandfather to the 
death of a grandson. Of these but one represents a term exceeding two 
centuries, viz., Robert Maude, b. 1673, d. 1750; his son Cornwallis (Lord 
Hawarden) b. 1729, d. 1808 ; his grandson Francis b. 1798, living in 1878, 
being 205 years. 

It may be noted that William Penn was born 1644, d. 1718. His son 
Thomas b. 1702, d. 1775 ; his grandson Granville b. 1761, d. 1844, precisely 
200 years. 

Can any one of our readers supply similar instances ? J. 

PITTSBURGH, PA., IN 1760 AND 1761. [As we wish the PENNSYLVANIA 
MAGAZINE to be truly a storehouse of material for the history of the State, 
we shall from time to time, as our space will permit, reprint such articles of 
particular interest as have appeared elsewhere, that they may be preserved 
in a place in which they will be most likely sought. The article below is 
from the Historical Magazine, vol. ii. p. 273. ED.] 

The following are extracts from the MS. Diary of James Kenney, of 

Chester County, Penna., who was residing in Pittsburgh, keeping a store 

for some members of the Pemberton family in Philadelphia. He was a 

member of the Society of Friends, and at one time had been a schoolmaster. 

Philadelphia. WILLIAM DUANE. 

" 1761, 8th mo. 4th. A young man called William Ramsey has made 
two little boats, being squair at y e sterns, and joined to gether at y e sterns 
by a swivel, makes y e two in form of one batoe, but will turn round shorter 
than a boat of y e same length, or raise with more safety in falls and in case 
of striking rocks ; he has also made an engine that goes with wheels en- 
closed in a box, to be worked by one man, by sitting on y e end of y e box, and 
treding on traddles at bottom with his feet, sets y e wheels agoing, which 
work scullers or short paddles fixed over y 6 gunnels turning them round ; 
y e under ones always laying hold in y e water, will make y e battoe goe as 
if two men rowed, and he can steer at y 6 same time by lines like plow lines. 

" llth mo. 19th. The Fort Banks here is very near raised, which makes 
it look much stronger than it was in times of more danger ; by accounts y 
front next y Inhabitants being of brick, and corners of y e angle of hewn 

stone, about foot high, y e back part next y point where y e two rivera 

meets being of earth, and soded all so that it grows thick of long grass, 
that was done last year, and they have mowed y e bank several times this 
summer ; it's four squair with a row of barracks along each squair, three 
rows of which are wooden frame work, and y e row on y e back side next y 8 
point is brick ; also a large brick house built this summer in y e southeast 
corner, y roof being now aputing on, having fine steps at y e door of hewn 
freestone, a cellar all under it, at y e back side of y e barracks opens y e doors 
of y e magazines, vaults, and dungeons ; lying under y e great banks of earth 
thrown out of y e great trinches, all round in these are kept y e stores of am- 
munition, etc., and prisoners that are to be tried for their lives; in these 
vaults are no light, but do they carry lanthorns, and on y e southeast bastion 
stands a high poal like a mast, and top mast to hoist y e flag on, which is 

Notes and Queries. 351 

hoisted on every first day of y* week from about eleven to one o'clock, and 
on state days, etc. ; there are three wells of water wall'd in y e fort, and a 
squair of clear ground in y 8 inside of about two acres. 

" 20th. I have been informed by a young man that was ordered by y* 
Commanding Officer, Collonel Bouquet (this summer), to number all y e 
dwelling-houses without y e fort, marking the number on each door ; that 
there was above one hundred houses, but y 6 highest number I have seen, by 
better accounts, there is one hundred and fifty houses, to take notice of I 
think was seventy-eight, these being y e inhabitants of Pittsburgh, where two 
years ago I have seen all y* houses that were without y e little fort, they had 
then, thrown down, only 1 one, which stands yet, also two that was within 
that little fort is now standing, being y hospital now, all y e rest being built 
since, which if y e place continue to increase near this manner, it must soon 
be very large, which seems likely to me. 

" 12th mo. 1. Many of y e inhabitants here have hired a schoolmaster, and 
subscribed above sixty pounds for this year for him, he has about twenty 
schollars, likewise y 6 soberer sort of people seem to long for some public way 
of worship, so y e schoolmaster, etc., reads y e Littany and Common Prayer 
on y e first days to a Congregation of different principles (he being a Presbi- 
terant), where they behave very grave (as I heare), on y e occasion, y e chil- 
dren also are brought to Church as they call it. 

" 12th mo. 25th. A young Indian man brought us four turkeys, saying 
that he was recommended by several of his acquaintances to come to y e 
Quaker who would use him very well, and having bought them and paid him 
six shillings cash, besides victuals and drink, he going out heard of a better 
market, so came back and got y e turkeys, delivering y e money again, but his 
second Chap not pleasing him in dealing, he brought them back to us, and 
had his money again, but he said Dam it several times at y e second Chap." 

series of Almanacs in the German language, printed in Pennsylvania from 
1750 to 1815, those for the following years are required. Any person who 
can assist in furnishing them will confer a favor on the Society. 1750, 51, 
52, 54, 56, 58, 1760, 61, 63, 65, 1772, 73, 1780, 82, 83, 86, 87, 1799, 1806, 15. 

LIFE OF ALBERT GALLATIN. From the life of Albert Gallatin by Henry 
Adams, recently issued by Lippincott & Co., I extract the following as on page 
68 from Mr. G/s diary : 1787, Christmas day." Fait No8l avec Odnn (?) et 
Breckenridge chez Marie." 

" Who these three persons were is not clear. Apparently the Breckenridge 
mentioned was our Judge H. H. Brackenridge, who, in his ' Incidents of the 
Insurrection,' or whiskey rebellion, declares that his first conversation with 
Gallatin was in August, 1794. Marie was not a woman, but a Genevan 

In all probability it was the Judge with whom he spent the evening of 
Christmas he had settled in Pittsburgh in the spring of 1781, and at this 
period was an attorney-at-law in full practice. In 1794 Peter Audram (Odnn) 
made an affidavit in defence of the Judge in relation to his course at the 
meeting at Braddock's field. In the collections of the Historical Society 
there is a pamphlet published in 1808 in relation to James Ross, from which 
it appears John Marie was born in France in 1727-8, and in 1808 was living 
in the family of Felix Brunot, the elder. J. J., JR. 

1 Meaning except. 


Notes and Queries. 

NOVEMBER, 1677. The following ;list of taxable persons is contained in 
Records of the Court of New Castle, Book A, pp. 197-201, preserved in 
the Prothonotary's Office in New Castle, Delaware. It appears in the 
Minutes of " a Meeting of the Justices held In y e Towne of New Castle for 
y e makeing up y e accomt of y e Publicq Charge of this Countij, The 9 of 
November, 1677," corresponding with a similar list, entered in Record of 
Upland Court, published by the Historical Society, under date of the 13th 
of the same month (pp. 77-80). It comprises the names of all males between 
the ages of sixteen and sixty years, who resided on the Delaware within the 
jurisdiction of New Castle Court, excepting certain officers and soldiers, as 
well as the Justices of the Court, who, by " the Duke's laws," were exempt 
from the payment of taxes, except for the support of the Church. The 
Justices at that time were : Messrs. John Moll, Peter Alrich, William Tom, 
Foppe Outhout, "Walter Wharton, Jean Paul Jaquet, and Gerrit Otto. Mr. 
Ephraim Herman was Clerk of the Court. 

A List of the Names of the Tijdable p r sons Living in this Courts 

[At " Oppoquenemij," and elsewhere on the western shore of the Delaware :] 

James Yiccory 

Will. Courter 


John Harmen 

three negros 

Joseph Holding 

John Foster 

Thos. Linke 

John Anter 

Roelof Andriea 

Jan Waker 

Brougt ouer 
Adam Petersen 
John Siericx 
James att J Sierix 
Jurian Siericx 
Rut Hudde 
Jo. Waker Senior 
John Taylor 
Will. Sherrer 
Jan Pietersen 
Tho. Saddler 
John Arianson 
Jacob his mate 
Peter Brink 
Hendrik Walraven 
Dirk Lourens 
Dirck Williams 
Edward & James Williams 
Gaspares Herman 
Phil. Cevalier 
William Pattisson 
The doctor 
John Peers 


Tho. Gilbert 



Edward Swendell 



Hans Muller 



Will. Grant 



Tho. Snelling 



John Whyte 



Rob. Morton 



John Street 



Robb. Tallent 



Albert Blocq 



John Berker 



John Atteway 



Morris Listen 



Henry Clercq 



Tho. Jones 



2 Serv ts of Morris Listen 




Brougt ouer 



John Wallis & 1 servant 



James Crawford & 1 servant 



Augustin Dikes 



Rich. Scaggs 



John Scot 



Jacob Joung 



3 slaves and 1 serv' 



Even Salisburry 



John Roud 



Joseph Cooxen 



Rob. Homes 



John Hayles 
Robb. Whyte 




Thomas Dauiss 



Joseph Hand 



Joseph Burnham 



1 negro woman of Mr. Mdl 



William Currer 


Notes and Queries. 


James Crawford (als) Doctor 

Anthony Bryant 

Math. Beekman 

John Adams 

Ellegert the smith 

Peter Mr. Alrichs man 

John Eaton Taylor 

1 neger of Mr. Alrichs 

Harmanes Wessels 

John Kan 

Henry Stanbrooke 

John Hendrix 

Broer his man 

Ralph Hutchinson 

Robb. Hutchinson 

His Cooper 
Mr. Dunsten 
John Matheus 
Math. d'Ring 
Engelbert Lott 
Corn el is Jost 
Isacq Taijne 
John Bisk 

John Harmsen & his man 
Sijmon Gibson & his man 

From y e next Syde 
Will. Osborne Carpenter 
Jan Boyer 
Claes Daniell 
Joh. d'Haes 
Moses d'Gan 
Job Nettelship 
Rodger Measur 
Will. Still 
Justa Andries 
Rich. Jefferson 
Evert Alderts 
John Mathijsse 
Will. Semple 
Will. Hamelton 
James Walliam 
Gysbert Dirks 
Hendrik Williams and Sibrant 

his man 

ITuijbert Hendrix 
Reynier v. Coelen 
Ambroos Backer 
Gerrit Smith & son 
Tho. Sprij 
Phill. Huggan 
Humphrij Cittly 
Jan Hulk 
Peter Maeslander 
Huybert Lourens 
Peter Volckerts 

VOL. in. 24 




Claes Andries 
Oele Toersen 
Symen Eskell 
Patrik Carr 
Peter Mathiass 
Hendrik Sibraiits 
John Sibrants 
Sybrant Janss 
Hendrik Fransen 
Jan Barentse 
Humphrij Nicols 
Peter d'Witt 
Cornelia Jansen 

Brougt ouer 
Evert Hendrix 
Symen Jansen 
John Mattson 
Hendrik Everts 
Lace Andries 
Eskell Andries 
Hendrik Lemmens 
Will. Scott 
Hendrik Andries 
Andries Andriesse 
Moens Poulsen 
Stostell Michill Mijer 
Peter Jan & Poull Jacquet 
Peter Claasse and 2 sons 

Peter Claasses boy 
Jurian Bootsman & son 
Andries Sinnex 
Mathias Hutt 
Seger Aukes 
Peter Slobe 
Poull Laersen 
Marten Gerritz & his son 
John Arskin & sou 
John Ogle 
Thos. Harris 
John Ogles servant 
Jan Gerritz 
George More 
Will. Jeacox 
Andries Tille 
John Watkins 
Tho. Jacobs & 3 sons 
Aert Janseu 
John Hummerseii 
Oele Poulse & his brother 
Swart Jacob & 2 sons 
Harmen Jansen 
Will. Raynboo 
Walraven Jansen 
Gysbert Walravens 
Broer Sinnex 






Notes and Queries. 

Jurian Jurians 

Jan Sinuexe 1 

Mathias Mathiass d'Vos 1 

From y e next syde 204 

Jan Andries 1 
Will. Sandford 

Charles y e frensman 1 

Sara. Peters & sou 2 

Lace Wayman 1 

Tyraen Stiddam & 4 sons 5 

John Andries & 2 sous 3 

Jacob v. Yeer & 2 son8 3 

Hans Peters 1 

Peter Hendrix 1 

Justa Poulsen 1 

Juns y e smith 1 

Peter Jegou 1 

Hendrik Nealson 1 

Jacob & Oele Clemmens 2 

Hendrik Olaassen 1 

Lace Oelsen 1 

Oele Oelsen & 2 sons 3 

Poull Moensen 1 

Carell Petersen 1 

Xtopher Barnes & 1 serv* 2 

Barent Gerfitze 1 

Markus Lourens 1 

Neeles Neelsen 1 

Oele Fransen & son 2 


Easterne Shoare 

Jan Hendrix 1 

Dauid & Peter Hendriks 2 

Isacq Sauoij 1 

Mathias Nealson & man 2 

Mats Matsen 1 

Peter Roelofs & son 2 

Lucas Peters & 2 sons 3 

Jan Erix 1 

Poul Mincq 1 

Jan Hermsen Krull 1 

Mr. Outhouts 2 servants 2 

Will. Giljamsen 1 

Claes Jansen 1 

Mach. Lacroa senior 1 

Mach. Lacro junior 1 

Jan Lacroy 1 

Brought ouer 265 

Aert Jansen 
Stephen Jurians 
Lace Hendriks 
Math. Bertelsen 
Erik Jurians & servant 
John Tingell 
Jan Cornelyss 

Mach. Baron & 2 sons 1 

Tho. Arnold 1 

Gerrit v. Immen 
Joh. v. Immen 
Jelles Giljamsen 
Hans Schier 

John Pledger 1 

Hipolet Lafever & servant 
John Smith 1 

Sam. Nicolls 
Sam. Hedge & neger 
Rodger Huggings 
Edw. Chamnies & serv* 
Anthony Padge 1 

Will. GoodChild 1 

Will. Wilkissen 
Will. Moestersman 
John Fuller 1 

Markus Ellegart 
Rich. Guy 

and 3 servants 3 

Thorn. Wattson 1 

Tho. Podwell & servant 
John Smith 
Abram Eenloos 
John Nicolls 1 

The whole number of y e Tydables 
being 307 

I say 307 Tydables. G. B. K. 

OF PENN A. 1676-1700, HARRISBURG, 1879. In an address before the Law 
Academy in 1838, the Hon. Peter McCall gave an interesting outline of the 
judicial history of Pennsylvania, and added a list of the judges of the pro- 
vincial court down to the time of the revolution. In a lecture before the 
same institution in 1868, William Henry Rawle, Esq., traced the growth of 
equitable jurisdiction in Pennsylvania, and with it is printed the Registrar's 
book of Governor Keith's Court of Chancery, containing the records of that 
Court from 1720 to 1735. In the volume now before us, prepared under the 
direction of the Hon. John Blair Linn by Messrs. Staughton George, Benj. 

Notes and Queries. 355 

M. Nead, and Thomas McCamant, and giving evidence of much careful re- 
search and special knowledge of the subject, may be found all the material 
for the early judicial history of Pennsylvania. It begins with the code of 
laws in force under the government of the Duke of York from 1676 until 
abrogated by Penn's Assembly of 1683. Some of these laws are curious 
enough. Among the offences punished with death are the denial of " the true 
God and his Attributes," to forcibly steal or carry away " any Mankind," and 
for any child to smite his natural father or mother. It is provided that " No 
Christian shall be kept in Bond-slaverv, villenage, or captivity, Except Such 
who shall be Judged thereunto by authority, or such as willingly have sould 
or shall sell themselves." The minister of every parish " shall preach con- 
stantly every Sunday," and pray for the King, Queen, Duke of York, and 
the royal family. A fine is imposed upon any one " who shall wittingly and 
willingly forge or Publish fals news whereof no Certain Author nor Authen- 
tique Letter out of any part of Europe can be produced." 

The second part of the book is devoted to the laws established by Penn, 
which are in marked contrast with those they superseded. The corner stone 
of the system is that all persons who confess the one eternal God "shall in 
no ways be molested or prejudiced for their religious persuasion or practice 
in matters of faith or worship, nor shall they be compelled at any time to 
frequent or maintain, any religious worship, place, or ministry whatever." 
Then follows a collection of the " Court Laws," aad the growth of the judi- 
cial system is accurately traced in the introduction. Among those to whose 
efforts this system owed its origin and development were David Lloyd, 
Thomas Holmes, Thomas Lloyd, Samuel Richardson, Thomas Pemberton, 
John Guest, Edward Shippen, Isaac Norris, and Samuel Carpenter. 

The volume closes with a series of " Historical Notes" on the government 
beginning with the Dutch settlement and continued until the year 1700. 
The only gap is in the year 1691, which was caused, the author supposes, 
by the intentional destruction of the minutes of the Assembly and the 
Council. On the whole the book is worthy of much commendation, and 
possesses great value for both lawyers and historians. It is to be hoped that 
no niggardly spirit will interfere with the printing of all the archives in the 
possession of the Commonwealth, as that is the only way in which they can 
be preserved and made accessible. S. W. P. 

In the July number of HARPER'S MAGAZINE, there is an article entitled 
A Peninsular Canaan, in which we find the following regarding the " Old 
Welsh Tract Church," New Castle County, Delaware : 

Many of the tombstones are very old. One of them has an inscription, 
nearly erased, in old Welsh : 

Riceus Rythrough 

Traues ahud ffanwenoc 

In Comitaru Cardigan 

erhrie Sepultus fuit 

An Dom 1707 

<ffitat is fine 87. 

Had the writer been less imbued with that spirit which engrossed the im- 
mortal Pickwick at the time of the discovery of the inscription 






358 Notes and Queries. 

and borne in remembrance the days of his classic studies, we think he would 
have made the old Welsh to read : 

Biceus Rythrough 

Natus apud Llanwenog 1 

In Comitatu Cardigan 

et hie Sepultus fuit 

An. Dom. 1707 

JEtatis suae 87. C. R. H. 

NATIONALITY OF ROBERT FULTON. Robert Fulton has been selected by 
the State Commissioners as one of the two Pennsylvanians to represent the 
Commonwealth in the gallery of statuary at the Capitol in Washington. 
It is, therefore, proper that all question regarding the land of his nativity 
should be settled. The following article having appeared in no less authori- 
tative publication than the London Notes and Queries (5th Series, vol. vi. 
p. 125, 1876) we make no apology for reprinting it, with such evidence as 
leaves but little doubt of the truth of the American version : 

" The following letter was in a late number of the Glasgow News : 

" * Oue of the greatest achievements of the present century is steam navigation. 
The credit of first- successfully proving this belongs to my granduncle, Robert 
Fulton. Though usually called an American, he was born in the Mill of Beith, 
in the county of Ayr. In consequence of having offered some torpedo inven- 
tion to the French, he concealed the fact of his Scottish origin as much as pos- 
sible, and when last in this country only visited his relatives here by stealth, 
being afraid that proceedings would be taken against him by the British Gov- 
ernment. On that occasion I perfectly remember, as a boy, to have seen him. 
He married an American lady, Harriet Livingston. He got into pecuniary 
difficulties in America, and retired to the West Indies, where he died. Others 
of his relatives, still alive, remember him. I am, etc., 

"'Knows, Lochwinnoch, July, 1876. JOHN STEVENSON.' 

" To this account the News adds some remarks, from which I take the fol- 
lowing : 

" ' Briefly summed up, the American biographyis as follows: They say Fulton 
was born near Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, in 176.5. His parents were Irish, 
his grandfather having immigrated from Tipperary. His father died when he 
was three years old, leaving his family in poverty. Young Fulton early 
showed a fondness for painting and mechanics, and was so successful with his 
pencil that before he was twenty-one he had made enough money to purchase 
a farm in Pennsylvania for his mother. In 1786 he visited London, and be- 
came the pupil of the celebrated painter, West. In London he made the 
acquaintance of many distinguished men, such as the Duke of Bridgewater, 
Earl Stanhope, and others, and gradually diverted his attention from painting 
to the improvement of machinery. In 1796 he published a treatise on canal 
navigation. Shortly afterwards he went to Paris, where he made an offer of 
his invention of the torpedo to the French Government. In 1806 he married 
the daughter of Mr. Walter Livingston, having previously returned to the 
United States, where he was successful in introducing steam navigation be- 
tween New York and Albany. He died February, 1815, leaving four child res. 

" 'Mr. Lindsay, in the last volume of his History of Merchant Shipping, was the 
first to make any investigation into the Scottish origm of Fulton. The result 
of his inquiries produced a very different story. Eobert Fulton was born in 
Beith Parish, in the county of Ayr, in April, 1764. His parents were in com- 
fortable circumstances, and gave their son an excellent education. Through 
the influence of relatives who had a high position in business in London, he, 
when quite a young man, went there to complete his studies. From that period 
to about 1815 the biographies are the same ; but at the time when the Ameri- 

1 Llanwenog (Lower and Upper), Cardigan, a parish in the hundred of 
Moyddyn, union of Lampeter, on the river Teife, South Wales ; 268 miles 
from London, 6 from Lampeter, 13 from. Newcastle. Clarke's British Gazet- 
teer, 1852. 

Notes and Queries. 357 

can version makes him die, the other account makes him get into pecuniary 
difficulties in America, brings him to this country, leaves his wife in London, 
and makes him pay a farewell visit to his relatives in Scotland, and then re- 
tire to the West Indies where he died, leaving no family, shortly after 1822. 
The American story is liable to doubt, even from internal evidence. Fulton 
is a Scotch, and not an Irish family name. Fulton himself is well known to 
have been a Presbyterian, which is in favor of the Scottish origin, and against 
the Irish one : and Henry Bell, who was personally acquainted with Fulton, 
in one of the letters printed in 1844, distinctly says that he was of Ayrshire 
origin. J. S.' " 

The assertion of Mr. Stevenson is worthy of weight, as it is supposable 
that a man would know something of his granduncle, and the fact that an 
individual of the name of Robert Fulton was born about 1764 in the county of 
Ayr is supported by the investigation of Mr. Lindsay. That the person so 
named was, however, the inventor, we cannot believe in the light of evidence 
we have to the contrary, and we are forced to the conclusion that common ru- 
mor confused the two men. The argument of Mr. Lindsay or J. S. " that the 
American story is liable to doubt from internal evidence" has no weight on 
the points taken, and only shows how little the person who made it knew of 
the history of the settlement of Pennsylvania. The locality which the Amer- 
ican version states was the birth-place of Robert Fulton was settled by what 
is known as Scotch-Irish, or Ulster Scot families, and we find to-day all 
through Lancaster County such names as Mcllvain, McNeely, Adair, and 
others sufficiently Caledonian to leave no doubt of their origin, borne by per- 
sons whose ancestors had emigrated from Ireland, and brought with them the 
love for the Westminster Confession, which their descendants cherish to-day. 

It is not, however, on such arguments that the connection of the name 
Fulton with Lancaster County rests. A letter in the possession of Gilbert 
Cope, of West Chester, Pa., written by the Robert Fulton whom we suppose 
was the father of the inventor, is dated Lancaster, Aug. 15, 1764. On the 
23d of Aug. 1759, Robt. Fulton, Sr., purchased a house at the N. E. corner 
of Centre Square, in the town of Lancaster, and sold the same Feb. 8, 1765, 
to Edward Shippen. The same day he purchased at sheriff's sale a farm in 
Little Britain Township, which was mortgaged to William West, Samuel 
Purviance, and Joseph Swift ; and, on the 29th of Nov. 1766, he and his 
wife, Mary, conveyed the property to the mortgagees. These facts, which 
are given by J. Franklin Reigart, the latest biographer of Fulton, ap- 
pear to be gathered from the office of Recorder of Deeds, Lancaster Co., 
and prove without question that the name of Fulton existed in that county 
at the time it is claimed the inventor was born. 1 The life of Fulton by his 
early and intimate friend, Cadwallader D. Golden, published almost im- 
niediately after his death, is the authority for the American version of the 
inventor's career, and we see no reason to question it, supported as it is in 
most of its statements. Mr. Golden says that Fulton became a miniature 
painter, and before he was of ape purchased a farm in Washington County, 
Pa., for his widowed mother. Mr. John D. McKennan, of Washington, Pa., 
writes to me, that Deed Book C, vol. i. p. 56, of Wash. Co. Record shows that 
on May 6, 1786, Thomas and Margaret Pollock sold to Robert Fulton, minia- 
ture painter of Phila., a farm of 84$ acres. Dr. Alfred Creigh, of Washing- 
ton, Pa., informs me that from original papers in his possession it appears 
that Robert Fulton purchased three lots, Nos. 4, 218, and 125 in the borough 
of Washington from John and William Hoge. That on May 20, 1793, he 
wrote to his sisters " I have sent Mr. Hoge a power of attorney to transfer the 

1 A curious document in the Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania 
(vol. ix. p. 126), in regard to the killing of the Conestoga Indians, leaves no 
doubt that one Robert Fulton, a Presbyterian, resided in Lancaster Co., Pa., 
in 1764. 

358 Notes and Queries. 

lots as they may be settled by mutual consent among you, that each person 
may have writings drawn so as to secure them to their heirs," etc. Dr. 
Creigh adds that Mrs. David Morris chose lot 4, Mrs. Isabella Cook lot 218, 
and Mrs. Peggy Scott lot 125 ; and that he also has a paper of Abraham 
S. Fulton's, dated July 26, '93, assigning all the right and claim that he may 
have in the estate of his brother Robert, then living in England, should he 
die without issue. The will of Robert Fulton the inventor, proved and en- 
tered in the Surrogate office in New York City, Feb. 25, 1815, leaves to his 
brother, Abraham Smith Fulton, three thousand dollars ; to his sister. Eliza- 
beth Scott, one thousand dollars, and the farm on which she resided ; to 
Isabella Cook two thousand dollars, and to Mary Morris five hundred dollars, 
thus connecting the Robert Fulton, miniature painter of Phila., 1786, with the 
person who died in New York, 1815. The idea that it was not the inventor 
who died in 1815, but that he went to the West Indies and died childless in 
1822 is too preposterous to be entertained for a moment by any one who will 
read the works of C olden and Reigart. In the former will be found the 
full account of the last illness of the inventor by Dr. Hosack, who attended 
him ; in the latter his will, in which he makes disposition of the annual 
profits arising from his steamboats. F. D. S. 

SIR WILLIAM PEPPERRELL. In the Magazine of American History for 
August, 1879 (pp. 517-18), some of the descendants of Sir William Pepper- 
rell are spoken of. About twenty-five years ago a Polish gentleman, named 
Lehmanowski, resided in Philadelphia, where he taught French. His wife 
was a descendant of Pepperrell. They had in their possession a portrait of 
him. W. D. 

" TOMAHAWK." The origin of this word is in dispute. Webster says it is 
*' Indian ; Algonkin tomehagen, Mohegan tumnahegan, Delaware tamoihe- 
can" In Church's History of King Philip's War, 1716, p. 24, it is printed 
" tomahog." And yet, all these authorities to the contrary notwithstanding, 
in a small volume published of late years, giving the genealogy of Benjamin 
West, the distinguished American artist, the following remarkable statement 
as to the origin of the word is given in apparent good faith : " In the year 
1677 or 1678 one Thomas Pearson from England settled in a cave on the 
west bank of the Delaware River, now below Philadelphia. He was a 
blacksmith by trade, and it is said wielded the first smith's hammer in 
Pennsylvania. About the first work done was to make small axes for his 
Indian neighbours, who in their short way termed him Tom, or Tommy. In 
their language the word hawk signifies any tool used for cutting. Hence 
the origin of the word tomahawk." This Pearson was the grandfather of 
Benjamin West. Webster gives the definition of the word thus : "A.n In- 
dian weapon, being a wooden club, two feet or more in length, terminating in 
a heavy knob ; applied also to the Indian hatchet." Is there any authority 
for the connection of the word with Tommy Pearson ? 

Brownsville, Pa. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 

JESSE TORREY. Where is a biography to be found of this author, who 
published, in 1817, "A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery in the United 
States"? D. 

Notes and Queries. 359 

NUTT FAMILY OP PENNA. AND NEW JERSEY. Woodward, in his history of 
Bordentown, has mentioned incidentally the family of Nutt of that place. 
Is any connection known to exist between this family and those mentioned 
in " the Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., by Mrs. Thomas Potts James, 1874," 
see p. 372 ? There are but one or two wills in this name recorded in Phila- 
delphia before 1800. I should be glad of any early genealogical data relat- 
ing to the Nutts. WILLIAM JOHN POTTS. 

Camden, New Jersey. 

" SOCKEN ABOVE THE GREAT SWAMP," VIRGINIA. In an advertisement in 
the year 1731 I find a place designated thus, which I have been unable to 
locate, not finding it in the Gazetteer. Can any of your correspondents help 
me ? It may have been of Indian origin, and have various spellings. 

Camden, New Jersey. WILLIAM JOHN POTTS. 

MARGARET COGHLAN. Can any one inform the undersigned of the career 
of Mrs. Margaret Coghlan after the publication of her " Memoirs" ? She 
dated these, Dec. 7, 1793. When and where did she die ? What was her 
subsequent conduct ? 

Sabine says, " She died a heart-broken woman." 

Aaron Burr stands barged with her ruin, whilst Parton, his latest biog- 
rapher, denies this. Which statement is correct ? COCKED HAT. 

MAJOR WHITE (vol. viii. p. 236). I have frequently tried to discover who 
the Major White was that Watson states died from wounds received at the 
battle of Germantown. It is incorrect to say that he is not mentioned by 
either Washington or Sullivan. The letter of the latter to President Weare, 
Oct. 23, 1777, reads : " We lost some valuable officers, among whom were 
the brave General Nash, and my two aid-de-camps, Majors Sherburne and 
White, whose singular bravery must ever do honor to their memories." 
I think, however, Watson must have confused the antecedents of Sullivan's 
aid with those of Colonel John White, who commanded the Georgia regi- 
ment. An account of the last-named officer will be found in White's His- 
torical Collection of Georgia, p. 367, and in Historical Magazine, vol. ii. 
B181. The latter article is by I. K. T. (I. K. Tefft?), of Savannah. 
RAKE abridges it as follows : " Born in England, d. Ya. about 1780. Of 
Irish parentage. He acquired a fortune * *argeon in the British Navy, 
and settled in Phila. He entered the Rev. Army as capt., and was soon 

promoted to Colonel of the 4th Ga. Batt he was severely 

wounded at the assault of Spring-hill redoubt, Oct. 9, 1779 (where Pulaski 
fell), and was obliged to retire from the army," and died soon afterwards in 
Va. from a pulmonary attack, produced by fatigue and exposure. It seems 
hardly likely that two persons of the same name, of Irish extraction, should 
have acquired fortunes, settled in Philada., and both entered the army, the 
one to command a Georgia regiment, the other to be an aid to a N. Hamp- 
shire General. F. D. S. 

HERMAN (vol. ii. p. 349). Ephraim Augustine Herman had two daughter! 
by his first wife, Isabella Trent. Their names were Mary and Catharine. 

G. J. 

SCO Notes and Queries. 

SLOOP or WAR WARREN (vol. iii. p. 117). The dilapidated vessel "A 
Subscriber" saw at Panama in 1874, was not the sloop of war Warren, of 
32 guns, " burned in the Penobscot in 1779," but one of the same name, of 
18 guns, built at Charlestown, Mass., in 1826. The last service this vessel 
performed, as one of our navy, is thought to have been as Receiving Ship at 
Panama. She was there in that capacity in 1860. W. A. W. 

TOWNSEND WHITE (vol. iii. p. 235). As one of the descendants of Town- 
Bend White, I can give a few facts about him, though I am anxious to learn 
more. I never heard any of the family claim any relationship to the family 
of Bishop White. Their attendance at the same church in Philadelphia 
was simply a coincidence. Townsend White came from Bristol, England, 
and his parents were Welsh. The arms are three roses and a chevron. 
He was Warden of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and married a Renaudet of 
Philadelphia. One daughter married Moore Furman, another daughter 
William Edgar, and a third daughter William Constable, of N. Y. You 
will find, on pages 201-202 of the Bartow Genealogy, all that is known of 
him so far. E. B. 

William Constable and Ann White were married by Rev. Wil- 
liam White, D.D., Feb. 28, 1782 (Christ Church Records). Ann d. of Town- 
send and Ann White was born July 15, 1759, and baptized Oct. 10, 1759 
(Christ Church Records). A conveyance is on record in Philadelphia of a 
property on Front and Water Streets from Townsend White, merchant, and 
Ann his wife, bearing date May 18, 1773, which he had purchased from 
Joseph Richardson Dec. 26, 1758. T. H. M. 

FRANCES SLOCUM (vol. iii. pp. 115, 238). We have received several replies 
to this query, which throw no light on the point under discussion, and only 
repeat the well-known account of the discovery of Frances Slocura by Colonel 
Ewing in 1837. ED. 





VOL. III. t 1879. No. 4. 




Read at the Meeting of the Historical Society, May 6, 1879. 

We are all familiar with the appearance of those rudely 
engraved, poorly printed pieces of coarse paper which awaken 
recollections of traditionary fortunes ruthlessly snatched from 
our ancestors ; which bear devices and mottoes suggestive of 
" Poor Richard ;" which recall the sufferings of Valley Forge, 
and which are so surrounded with an atmosphere of buff and 
blue as to render most appropriate the name given to them 
of Continental Money. 

In our city, a hundred years ago, these notes were exercising 
a potent influence. They had not then reached that state of 
depreciation which made their existence as money only a 
question of time. Their zealous friends hoped, by "Tender 
Laws" and other measures, to infuse new confidence in their 
value. But neither the proposition to exchange the notes in 
circulation for certificates of indebtedness bearing interest, 
VOL. in. 25 ( 361 ) 

862 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

nor the attempt to regulate the prices of the necessaries of 
life proved of the least avail. The people could see but little 
difference in the two kinds of paper, both fearfully depre- 
ciated; while the holders of commodities, because of their 
refusal to part with them at any price rather than accept that 
fixed by law, were stigmatized as speculators and forestallers, 
and this added to the feeling of discontent. 

It is not my intention to enter upon an examination of the 
causes of these financial difficulties, or to follow them to their 
conclusions ; but only to glance at the effect which they had 
on the domestic and social life of our citizens, and to picture 
Philadelphia society at that time. If, in doing this, I should 
grate on your feelings by exhibiting some of the days of the 
Revolution in colors other than those in which they are 
generally presented, I beg you to remember the words of 
that excellent authority, Diedrich Knickerbocker: "It has 
ever been the task of one race of philosophers to demolish 
the works of their predecessors, and elevate more splendid 
fantasies in their stead, which in their turn are demolished 
and replaced by the air-castles of a succeeding generation." 1 

After the evacuation of Philadelphia by the British in 
June, 1778, Gen. Arnold was made its military commander. 
He at once entered into a style of living ill suited to his 
means, and was charged with having engaged in speculations 
of a questionable character. The unblushing publicity with 
which he used his authority for the advancement of his own 
schemes, his high position, and the splendor of his entertain- 
ments could not but have an injurious effect in a community 
already demoralized by the evils of an inflated currency, and 
Philadelphia soon became the centre of speculation and of 
the pursuit of private gain. 

Wealth thus easily acquired was as freely squandered ; and, 
while luxuries of all kinds were being enjoyed by one class 
of citizens, the expenses and burthens of others were greatly 
increased. On none did the weight fall more heavily than on 
those public servants whose salaries in paper money were 

1 History of New York, chap. ii. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 363 

being daily diminished by its depreciation. These causes and 
the return of^Congress soon made our city what it was in the 
winter of '76-77, when Eichard Henry Lee wrote of it as an 
" attractive scene of debauch and amusement ; J>1 and James 
Lovell, as " a place of Crucifying expenses." 3 

On Sunday afternoon, July 12th, Gerard, the French Am- 
bassador, arrived in Philadelphia. He was escorted to the 
apartments which had been prepared for him by a committee of 
Congress ; and, on the Tuesday following, his credentials were 
presented to that body. On the 5th of August, at five o'clock 
in the afternoon, he was formally received by Congress, and 
a grand banquet was given in his honor. On Sunday, the 
23d of August, the birthday of Louis the Sixteenth, the 
President and the members of Congress called upon his 
Minister to offer their congratulations, and two days after- 
wards Gerard gave an elegant entertainment at the City 

These events, following so closely upon the news of the 
French alliance, had their influence on the fashions of the 
day, and Timothy Pickering, a man of plain taste, thus un- 
gallantly wrote to his wife: " I mentioned to you the enormous 
head-dresses of the ladies here. The more I see, the more I 
am displeased with them. 'Tis surprising how they fix such 
loads of trumpery on their polls ; and not less so that they are 
by any one deemed ornamental. The Whig ladies seem as fond 
of them as others. I am told by a French gentleman they are 
in the true French taste, only that they want a few very long 
feathers. The married ladies, however, are not all infected. 
One of the handsomest (General Mifflin's lady) I have seen in 
the State does not dress her head higher than was common 
in Salem a year ago. But you know, my dear, I have odd, 
old-fashioned notions. Neither powder nor pomatum has 
touched my head this twelvemonth, not even to cover my 

1 Lee to Washington, Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, vol. L 
p. 367. 
8 Lovell to Washiugton, Hid. 412. 

364 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

baldness. The latter I find a very common thing, now men 
have left off their wigs." 1 

It is not surprising that the Whigs gloried in the oppor- 
tunity that was offered them to retaliate upon the Tories for 
their conduct, while protected by the British. One Whig 
who did not wish to purchase anything of a Tory, found it 
troublesome to learn the sentiments of those with whom he 
was dealing, and proposed that the houses of the disaffected 
should be marked, as the Turks designated " the residences 
of liars, by painting them black." Another suggested that 
" the right side of the face, and the right hand" of every Tory, 
" be dyed black," and added " if that don't answer, it will not 
be any great loss if the whole body is set to dying." 2 

It was the wish of many of the citizens that the Tory ladies 
who had taken part in the Meschianza and other entertain- 
ments given by the British, should be excluded from the social 
gatherings in which the Whigs indulged in the autumn of 
'78, and the winter following. With this view, a ball was 
given at the City Tavern " to the young ladies who had mani- 
fested their attachment to the cause of virtue and freedom by 
sacrificing every convenience to the love of their country." 8 
" Tell those Philadelphia ladies who attended Howe's assem- 
blies and levees," wrote General Wayne from camp in July, 
" that the heavenly, sweet, pretty red-coats, the accomplished 
gentlemen of the guards and grenadiers, have been humbled 
on the plains of Monmouth. The knights of the Blended 
Roses and of the Burning Mount have resigned their laurels 
to rebel officers, who will lay them at the feet of those virtuous 
daughters of America who cheerfully gave up ease and afflu- 
ence in a city for liberty and peace of mind in a cottage." 4 
But all did not think and speak as Wayne. 

Arnold's conduct had given great offence to many of the 
most active supporters of the American cause, and had in- 
volved him in a quarrel with the authorities of Pennsylvania, 

1 Life of Timothy Pickering, vol. i. p. 215. 

2 Moore's Diary of the American Revolution, vol. ii. p. 87. 

3 Annals of Pliiladelphia, Watson, vol. ii. p. 297. 

4 Life and Services of Gen. Anthony Wayne. By H. N. Moore, p. 64. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 365 

who administered the government of the State under a new 
Constitution. This Constitution had occasioned much heart- 
burning and bitter feeling, and its opponents, many of whom 
were good "Whigs, together with those who sympathized with 
the British, gathered around the military commander, and for 
a while influenced the gay eties of the day. " New Characters," 
says a letter from Philadelphia in November, " are emerging 
from obscurity like insects after a storm. Treason, Disaffec- 
tion to the interests of America, and even assistance to the 
British interest is called . . . Error of Judgment which 
candor and liberality of sentiment will overlook." Such ideas 
were undoubtedly those entertained by Arnold and some of his 
friends, for the same letter goes on to say, " "Will you think 
it extraordinary^that General Arnold made a publick Enter- 
tainment the night before last of which not only Tory ladies, 
but the Wives and Daughters of Persons proscribed by the 
State, and now with the enemy at New York, formed a very 
considerable number." 1 Another writer, whose loyalty to his 
country does not admit of doubt, but whose party zeal made 
his judgment err woefully, wrote : " General Arnold is become 
very unpopular [among the] men in power in Congress, and 
among those of this State in general. Every Gentleman, 
every man who has a liberal way of thinking, highly approve 
his conduct. He has been civil to every gentleman who has 
taken the oath, intimate with none. The Ladies, as well 
those who have taken an active part (as our low-lived fellows 
will call it), as those who are good approved Whigs, have 
been visited and treated with the greatest civilities." 2 "I 
know of no news," wrote Mrs. Robt. Morris to her mother 
the same month, "unless to tell you we are very gay is such. 
We have a great many balls and entertainments, and soon the 
Assembly will begin. Tell Mr. Hall even our military gen- 
tlemen are too liberal to make any distinction between Whig 
and Tory ladyes. If they make any it is in favor of the 
latter. Such, strange as it may seem, is the way those things 

1 Reed to Greene, Lee Papers, vol. iii. p. 250, 252, in Publications of the 
New York Historical Society, 1873. 
* Cadwalader to Greene, Ibid. 270. 

366 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

are conducted at present in this city. It originates at head- 
quarters, and that I may make some apology for such strange 
conduct, I must tell you that Cupid has given our little 
General a more mortal wound than all the hosts of Britons 
could, unless his present conduct can expiate for his past 
Miss Peggy Shippen is the fair one." 1 

It is not our privilege to have even a passing glance at the 
ball-rooms of Arnold and his friends; but, from what we 
know of some of the characters, and of the events in which 
they figured, it does not require a very fertile brain to picture 
the changes which had been wrought in the manners of the 
Quaker City since its Provincial days. The leading belle 
was no doubt Peggy Shippen, then in her eighteenth year, 
soon to become the w r ife of the military commander. Her 
character has more than once been the subject of an almost 
cruel scrutiny ; but those who have thus closely considered 
it have pronounced her an innocent sufferer for her husband's 
crimes. If, however, her guilt had been confessed, and it 
could have been said of her, as of the heroine of Esmond, 
that " she was imperious, she was light-minded, she was flighty, 
she was false," and that "she had no reverence for character," 
it is doubtful whether her punishment would have been more 
severe than it was, for, like Beatrix, " she was very beautiful." 
Then there were the two sisters of Miss Peggy, Sarah and 
Molly Shippen, who, with their sister, had been knight's 
ladies at the famous Meschianza, and of whose extravagances 
we will hear more anon. 2 The ladies of the families of Foot- 

1 PENNA. MAG., vol. ii. 162. 

2 In making the statement that the Miss Shippens were present at the 
Meschianza I followed the accounts written by Major Audr6 and others. 
Since the paper was read I have received a letter from Mr. Lawrence Lewis, 
Jr., from which I extract the following, that will be new to those interested 
in the history of that celebration : I would like to communicate to you a 
suggestion in reference to one part of your address. You stated that Mrs. 
Arnold and her two sisters (daughters of Shippen, C. J.), were present at 
the Meschianza. Although all the printed and published accounts of that 
festivity have made a similar statement, the tradition in the Shippen family 
has always been to the contrary. The young ladies had been invited, and 
had arranged to go; their names were upon the programmes, and their 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 367 

man, Amiel, Clifton, Odell, Bard, and Riche were also of 
this set. 

The witty Rebecca Franks was one of the number. Her 
father, David Franks, lived at the corner of Lodge and Second 
Streets, opposite the old Slate Roof House, once the home of 
William Penn. "When the British were in the city, a young 
girl looked out of the windows of this house, as young girls 
do nowadays, at what was going on over the way, and in after 
years told another generation u that there were rare doings at 
David Franks's when General Howe would tie his horse at 
the door, and go in to call on the young ladies." 1 It was 
during the time that Arnold commanded in the city that 
Gen. Charles Lee wrote his well-known letter to Miss Franks, 
upon hearing that she had mistaken his sherryvallies for 
green breeches patched with leather. The humor and wit of 
this production cannot be disputed, but it is so broad in its 
character, that we are not surprised that it was received with 
indignation, and that its author felt called upon to apologize. 
It seems strange, at the present time, that it should have been 
printed in the magazines of the day; but it is hardly right 
to judge, as we do not now consider the writings of Fielding 
and Smollett the most refined reading in the world. So many 
excellent specimens of Miss Franks's wit have been preserved, 
that, at the risk of being considered garrulous, I will make 
her the mouthpiece of that brilliant circle which she so well 
illustrates. Immediately after the English left the city, she 
was called upon by her friend, Col. Jack Stewart, of Mary- 
land, who had exchanged his well-worn uniform of Valley 
Forge for a suit with a scarlet coat. Alluding to Miss Franks 

dresses actually prepared, but at the last moment their father was visited by 
some of his friends, prominent members of the Society of Friends, who per- 
suaded him that it would be by no means seemly that his daughters should 
appear in public in the Turkish dresses designed for the occasion. Conse- 
quently, although they are said to have been in a dancing fury, they were 
obliged to stay away. This same story has, I know, come down independ- 
ently through several branches of the family, and was told me repeatedly, 
the last time not more than two years ago, by an old lady of the family, who 
was the niece of Mrs. Arnold and her sisters, and who has since died. 

1 This anecdote was told to the late John McAllister by the eye-witness. 

368 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

having been one of the ladies of the Meschianza, he said: "I 
have adopted your colors, my Princess, the better to secure a 
kind reception; deign to smile on a true Knight." To this his 
Princess made no reply, but, turning to her companions, ex- 
claimed : " How the ass glories in the lion's skin. 7 ' On the 
same occasion the conversation of the company was inter- 
rupted by a commotion in the street. Upon looking out of 
the window they saw a figure in female attire, with ragged 
skirts and bare feet. She wore a headdress which was an 
exaggeration of the style then worn by the Tory belles. The 
unfortunate Colonel remarked that "the lady was equipped 
altogether in the English fashion." " Not altogether, Colo- 
nel," replied Miss Franks, " for, though the style of her head 
is British, her shoes and stockings are in the genuine Conti- 
nental fashion." It was not, however, for those with whom 
she differed politically that she reserved her shafts. At a 
ball in New York, to which city she was obliged to retire, 
she was in conversation with Sir Henry Clinton, when that 
officer called to the musicians, " Give us Britons, strike home." 
" The Commander-in-chief has made a mistake," exclaimed 
Miss Franks, " he meant to say, Britons, go home." 1 

In 1780, David Franks and his daughter received a pass from 
the Executive Council of Pennsylvania to go to New York 
with a hint that compulsory measures would be adopted if 
they did not at once avail themselves of its use. Miss Franks 
subsequently became the wife of Col. Sir Henry Johnson of 
the British Army, and died in England. 2 When Gen. Win- 
field Scott visited Europe in 1816, he carried with him a 
letter of introduction to this ex-belle of Philadelphia. At 
that time she was in ill health, and confined to her chair. 
Her cheerfulness had not forsaken her, and she gratified Scott's 

1 Anecdotes of the American Revolution, Garden, vol. ii. p. 462. Brook- 
lyn, 1865. 

2 This officer commanded Stony Point at the time it was captured by 
Wayne. Could Col. Jack Stewart, who led the Marylanders in that assault, 
have looked into the future, he would we think have felt a particular satis- 
faction in the capture of the chief officer of the Fort. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 369 

vanity by asking him if he was the young rebel who had taken 
the liberty to beat his Majesty's troops. 1 

The French Ambassador is thus spoken of by Gen. John 
Cadwalader, one of the anti-constitutionalists. He u is a 
polite gentleman, and well calculated for the present barbar- 
ism of the times. His knowledge of mankind makes him 
overlook, tho' I cannot help thinking he must see, some men 
and measures in their true colors." 2 " I should take him," 
said Pickering, " to be fifty years old. He has a fine piercing 
eye, and a most agreeable countenance. He speaks English 
tolerably." 3 

Among a host of other military men could have been seen the 
tall, ungainly figure, and sharp countenance of General Charles 
Lee, who was then paying his court to Congress, and endeavor- 
ing to convince tne members that he had shown great merit 
at Monmouth. In one who had seen him on the day of that 
battle his excessive complaisance to his brother officers ex- 
cited the suspicion that his manners were a mere cloak for 
less amiable sentiments, and the person wished that at that 
time he was " relating the battle of Monmouth in the other 
world," for he looked upon him as "a very hurtful man in 
this ;" 4 and a very hurtful man he shortly tried to be, for, one 
fine morning in December, he and young John Laurens, 
Colonel on Washington's staff, and son of the President of 
Congress, exchanged shots at a convenient piece of wood near 
the four-mile stone on the old Point No Point Road ; the 
meeting having been caused by some disrespectful expressions 
of Lee's regarding Washington. 

Personal and political disputes of all kinds were rife at this 
time, and added to the excitement. Petitions to President 
Joseph Reed, and to the Supreme Executive Council, were 
circulated, and were signed by thousands, praying for the 
pardon of Carlisle and Roberts, who had been sentenced to 
death for aiding the British while in possession of the city. 

1 Scott's Autobiography, vol. i. p. 173. 

* Cadwalader to Greene, Lee Papers, iii. p. 271. 

8 Life of Timothy Pickering, vol. i. p. 215. 

4 Col. Stewart to Wayne, Lee Papers, vol. iii. p. 272. 

370 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

The execution of these men sent a thrill of horror through 
the community, and made the friends of William Hamilton, 
the owner of " The "Woodlands," tremble for his fate, but after 
a trial of twelve hours he was acquitted. Another day, at the 
Coffee House, Gen. Wm. Thompson and Chief-Justice Thomas 
McKean came nearly to blows on account of the supposed 
opposition of the latter to the exchange of Thompson, who 
had been taken prisoner in Canada ; arid their friends feared 
a duel would be the result. On the 21st of July the news- 
papers were filled with the accounts of the proffered bribe of 
Commissioner Johnstone to Joseph Eeed, of whom a Tory 
poet afterwards sung, and to be the objects of such shafts 
should be no shame : 

Of deep resentments, wicked, bold, 
The thirst of Blood, of Power, of Gold 

Possess alternate sway ; 
And Johnstone's bribe had surely won 
Rebellious pale-faced matchless son, 

Had mammon rul'd that day. 1 

About the middle of December Mrs. "Washington arrived 
in town with the intention of joining the General, who had 
been ordered to wait on Congress to consult about the spring 
campaign. An entertainment was given to her on the 17th 
inst., at which the French Minister and the President of the 
State were present ; and on this occasion the Whigs made a 
successful effort to exclude the Tory element. " The only 
public evidence of grace" we have had, says Dunlap's paper, 
" in that infatuated tribe [is that] not a Tory advocate, nor 
a quondam Whig interfered on this joyous occasion." 2 The 
French residents of the city also gave a ball to Mrs. Wash- 
ington. It was no doubt on one of these occasions that Miss 
Franks tied a cockade, like those that were then worn in 
honor of the French alliance, to her dog's neck, and bribed a 
servant to turn it into the ball-room. 3 

1 Loyal Verses of Stansbury and Odell, Sargent, p. 44. 

2 Westcott's Hist, of Phila., chap. 265. 
8 Scott's Autobiography, vol. i. p. 172. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 371 

At these gatherings could have been seen the wives and 
daughters of our citizens most active in the American cause. 
The names of the married ladies have alone been preserved, 
and in the list we find those of Mrs. Powell, Mrs. Robert 
Morris, Mrs. Francis, Mrs. ilillegas, Mrs. Reed, and Mrs. 
Bache, the daughter of Dr. Franklin, in whose letters to her 
father and husband, which I shall ^have occasion to quote, will 
be found pleasant passages regarding her little ones. 

Washington did not arrive in the city until the 22d of the 
month. He was the guest of Henry Laurens, who had re- 
signed the presidency of Congress ten days previously. 

The Commander-in-Chief was obliged to play his part in 
the social circle ; but it is evident, from his letters, how dis- 
cordant it was to his feelings to do so under the circumstances, 
and with what forebodings he thought of the future while such 
innueuces surrounded the Congress. " If I were to be called 
upon," he writes to Col. Harrison, of Virginia, " to draw a 
picture of the times and of men, from what I have seen, 
heard, and in part know, I should in one word say, that idle- 
ness, dissipation, and extravagance seem to have laid fast hold 
of most of them. That speculation, peculation, and an in- 
satiable thirst for riches seems to have got the best of every 
other consideration, and almost every order of men ; that 
party disputes and personal quarrels are the great business of 
the day, whilst the momentous concerns of an empire, a great 
and accumulating debt, ruined finances, depreciated money, 
and want of credit, which in its consequences is the want of 
everything, are but secondary considerations, and postponed 
from day to day, from week to week, as if our affairs wore 
the most promising aspect . . . Our money is now sink- 
ing fifty per cent, a day in this city, and I shall not be sur- 
prised if, in the course of a few months, a total stop is put to 
the currency of it ; and yet an assembly, a concert, a dinner, 
or a supper that will cost three or four hundred pounds, will 
not only take men off from acting in this business, but even 
from thinking of it ; while a great part of the officers of our 
army, from absolute necessity, aro quitting the service, and 

372 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

the more virtuous few, rather than do this, are sinking by 
sure degrees into beggary and want." 1 

At the time "Washington was writing thus, Edward Ship- 
pen, the father of the future Mrs. Arnold, wrote to a relative : 
" It is not very unlikely I shall find myself under the neces- 
sity of removing from this scene of expense .... The 
common articles of life, such as are absolutely necessary for 
a family, are not much higher here than at Lancaster, but 
the style of life my fashionable daughters have introduced 
into my family, and their dress, will, I fear, before long, 
oblige me to change the scene. The expense of supporting 
my family here will not fall short of four or five thousand 
pounds per annum, an expense unsupportable without busi- 
ness ... I gave my daughter Betsy to Neddy Burd last 
Thursday evening, and all is jollity and mirth. My youngest 
daughter is much solicited by a certain General on the same 
subject, 2 

The anniversary of St. John the Evangelist was kept by 
the Masonic Brotherhood with more than usual ceremony. 
The newspapers of the day inform us that the officers of the 
Grand Lodge, with His Excellency, our illustrious brother, 
George "Washington, Esquire, supported by the Grand Master 
and his Deputy, and followed by Brother Proctor's Band of 
Music and the Members of the different Lodges, marched in 
procession from the College in Fourth Street to Christ Church. 
The brethren took their seats in the pews of the middle aisle, 
which had been kept ewpty for their reception. Prayers were 
read by the Rev. William White, and an anthem was sung 
by the brethren. Our reverend and worthy brother, William 
Smith, D. D., preached an excellent and well-adapted sermon 
from Peter I., Chapter 2, verse 16. After service the proces- 
sion returned to the College, the bells chiming, and the band 
playing proper Masonic tunes. "The brethren being all new 
clothed, and the officers in the proper jewels of their respective 

1 Writings of Washington, Sparks, vol. v. p. 151. 

2 Letters and Papers Relating Chiefly to the Provincial History of 
Pennsylvania, Balch, p. 268. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 373 

lodges, aiid other badges of dignity, made a genteel appear- 
ance." 1 

The letters from Mrs. Bache to her father, Dr. Franklin, 
who was then our Minister to France, give us a graphic picture 
of the times from a Whig point of view. " If I was to men- 
tion the prices of the common necessaries of life, it would 
astonish you," she writes. " I should tell you that I had 
seven table-cloths of my own spinning, chiefly wove before 
we left Chester County ; it was what we were spinning when 
you went. I find them very useful, and they look very well, 
but they now ask four times as much for weaving as they used 
to ask for the linen. ... I am going to write to cousin Jona- 
than Williams to purchase me linen for common sheets . . . 
they really ask me^ six dollars for a pair of gloves, and I have 
been obliged to pay fifteen pounds fifteen shillings for a com- 
mon calamanco petticoat without quilting, that I once could 
have got for fifteen shillings. I buy nothing but what I really 
want, and wore out my silk ones before I got this." 2 In an- 
other letter she writes: " The present you sent me this month 
two years, I received a few weeks ago ; 'tis a prize indeed. 
It came open, without direction or letter, and has come 
through three or four hands. I have received six pairs of 
gloves, nine papers of needles, a bundle of thread, and five 
papers of pins. . . . The last person to whose care 
they were given left them at a hair-dresser's, with directions 
not to send them to me till he was gone. Their being all 
opened makes me suspect I have not all ; what I have received 
makes me rich. I thought them long ago in the enemies' 
hands. The prices of everything here are so much raised 
that it takes a fortune to feed a family in a very plain way : 
a pair of gloves 7 dollars, one yard of common gauze 24 dol- 
lars, and there never was so much dressing and pleasure going 
on ; old friends meeting again, the Whigs in high spirits, and 
strangers of distinction among us." . . . 

1 Moore's Diary of the American Revolution, vol. ii. pp. 113-15. 

2 Letters to Benjamin Franklin from his Family and Friends, 1751- 
1790, pp. 85, 86, N. Y. 1859. 

374 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

The next passage gives us an idea of the measures a minis- 
ter plenipotentiary to a new country should take to insure the 
popularity of the nation he represents : " The Minister was 
kind enough to offer me some fine white flannel, and has 
spared me eight yards. I wish to have it in my power to re- 
turn him as good, which I will beg you will enable me to do. 
I shall have great pride in wearing any thing you send, and 
showing it as my father's taste. 

" I have dined at the Minister's . . . and have lately 
been several times invited abroad with the General and Mrs. 
Washington. He always inquires after you in the most affec- 
tionate manner, and speaks of you highly. We danced at 
Mrs. Powell's your birthday, or night I should say, in company 
together, and he told me it was the anniversary of his mar- 
riage ; it was just twenty years that night. 

" My boy and girl are in health. The latter has ten teeth, 
can dance, sing, and make faces, tho' she cannot talk, except 
the words no and be done, which she makes great use of." 1 

Franklin did not approve of the dissipations of which his 
daughter wrote, mild as they were in comparison with those 
in which other of our citizens indulged, and replied: U I was 
charmed with the account you gave me of your industry, the 
table-cloths of your own spinning, etc. ; but the latter part of 
the paragraph, that you had sent for linen from France be- 
cause weaving and flax were grown dear, alas ! that dissolved 
the charm ; and your sending for long black pins, and lace 
and feathers ! disgusted me as much as if you had put salt into 
my strawberries. The spinning, I see, is laid aside, and you 
are to be dressed for the ball ! You seem not to know, my 
dear daughter, that of all the dear things in this world idleness 
is the dearest, except mischief. . . . When I began to 
read your account of the high prices of goods .... I 
expected you would conclude with telling me, that everybody 
as well as yourself was grown frugal and industrious ; and I 
could scarce believe my eyes, in reading forward, ' that there 

1 Letters to Benjamin Franklin from his Family and Friends, 1751- 
1790, pp. 91, 92, N. Y. 1859. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 375 

never was so much pleasure and dressing going on ;' and that 
you yourself wanted black pins and feathers from France to 
appear, I suppose, in the mode ! This leads me to imagine, 
that perhaps it is not so much that the goods are grown dear 
as that the money is grown cheap, as everything else will do 
when excessively plenty ; and that people are still as easy 
nearly in their circumstances as when gloves might be had 
for half a crown. The war, indeed, may in some degree raise 
the price of goods, and the high taxes which are necessary to 
support the war may make our frugality necessary ; arid, as I 
am always preaching that doctrine, I cannot in conscience or 
in decency encourage the contrary by my example, in furnish- 
ing my children with foolish modes and luxuries. I, there- 
fore, send all the articles you desire that are useful and neces- 
sary, and omit the* rest; for, as you say, you should 'have 
great pride in wearing anything I send, and showing it as your 
father's taste/ I must avoid giving you an opportunity of 
doing that with either lace or feathers. If you wear your 
cambric ruffles as I do, and take care not to mend the holes, 
they will come in time to be lace ; and feathers, my dear girl, 
they may be had in America from every cock's tail." 1 

In answer to this Mrs. Bache wrote : " How could my dear 
papa give me so severe a reprimand for wishing a little finery? 
He would not, I am sure, if he knew how much I have felt 
it. Last winter was a season of triumph to the Whigs, and 
they spent it gaily. You would not have had me, I am sure, 
stay away from . . . G-erard's entertainments, nor when I 
was invited to spend the day with General Washington and 
his lady ; and you would have been the last person, I am sure, 
to have wished to have seen me dressed with singularity. 
Though I never loved dress so much as to wish to be particu- 
larly fine, yet I never will go out when I cannot appear so as 
to do credit to my family and my husband. ... I can 
assure my dear papa that industry in this house is by no 
means laid aside ; but as to spinning linen we cannot think of 
that till we have got that wove which we spun three years ago. 

1 Works of Franklin, Sparks, vol. viii. p. 374. 

376 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

... I only mention these things that you may see that the 
balls are not the only reason the wheel is laid aside. I did not 
mention the feathers and pins as necessaries of life, as my 
papa seems to think. I meant as common necessaries were 
so dear, I could not afford to get anything that was not, and 
begged he would send me a few of the others. Nor should I 
have had such wishes, but being in constant hope that things 
would soon return to their former channel, I kept up my 
spirits, and wished to mix with the world ; but that hope 
with me is now entirely over, and this winter approaches with 
so many horrors that I shall not want anything to go abroad 
in, if I can be comfortable at home. My spirits, which I 
have kept up during my being drove about from place to 
place, much better than most people's I have met with, have 
been lowered by nothing but the depreciation of the money, 
which has been amazing lately, so that home will be the place 
for me this winter, as I cannot get a common winter cloak 
and hat, but just decent, under two hundred pounds. As to 
gauze, now it is fifty dollars a yard 'tis beyond my wish, and 
I should think it not only a shame, but a sin, to buy it if I 
had millions. I should be contented with muslin caps if I could 
procure them in the winter ; in the summer I went without ; 
and as to cambric I have none to make lace of." * 

In January, '79, troubles began to brew. A riot was 
threatened by some sailors who complained of their low 
wages being paid in paper money. They paraded the streets 
armed with clubs, and behaved in a boisterous manner, but 
no serious result occurred, and it had no effect on the com- 

" Luxury and dissipation," wrote Greene from camp on the 
9th of February, after visiting Philadelphia, " are very pre- 
valent. These are the common offsprings of sudden riches. 
When I was in Boston last summer, I thought luxury very 
predominant there ; but they are no more to compare with 
those now prevailing in Philadelphia than an infant babe to a 

1 Letters to Benjamin Franklin from Family and Friends, 1751-1790, 
pp. 106-7-8. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 377 

full-grown man. I dined at one table where there were an 
hundred and sixty dishes." 1 

Good-natured, stout Gen. Knox could not find it in his heart 
to say aught against the luxuries, and only records : " The 
girls are the same everywhere at least some of them, they 
love a red coat dearly." 2 

It would almost seem as if Knox had met the sprightly 
Miss Amile (afterwards the wife of Major Armstrong of the 
British Army), who, in the spring of '79, wrote to her friend 
Polly Riche* : " You have touch'd me in a tender point in re- 
gard to one part of your letter, which says: 'times are 
strangely altered ; gallanted hy a Continental officer,' &c. &c. 
Alter as they may, I remain the same ; but what are we girls 
to do ? You know, bad as the currency is, there is no other 
passing just now. You don't meet with a piece of gold once 
in an age, tho' it seems you prefer an American soldier to a 
British one ; well, there is no accounting for taste." 3 

" The extravagant luxury of our country in the midst of 
all its distresses, is to me amazing," wrote Franklin in October, 
'79. " When the difficulties are so great to find remittances 
to pay for the arms and ammunition necessary for our defence, 
I am astonished and vexed to find, upon inquiry, that much the 
greatest part of the Congress interest bills come to pay for 
tea, and a great part of the remainder is ordered to be laid 
out in gewgaws and superfluities." 4 

A writer of American history, in a review of the finances 
of the Revolution, says of this period : u Meanwhile, specu- 
lation ran riot. Every form of wastefulness and extravagance 
prevailed in town and country ; nowhere more than in Phila- 
delphia under the very eye of Congress ; luxury of dress, 
luxury of equipage, luxury of the table. We are told of one 
entertainment at which eight hundred pounds were spent in 
pastry. As I read the private letters of those days, I 
sometimes feel as a man might feel if permitted to look down 

1 Life of Nathaniel Greene. By G. W. Greene, yol. ii. p. 168. 

2 Life of Henry Knox. By Francis S. Drake, p. 60, Boston, 1873. 
8 MS. letter in the possession of Mr. Charles Riclie Ilikleburu. 

4 Sparks's Works of Franklin, vol. viii. p. 393. 

VOL. in. 26 

378 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

upon a foundering ship, whose crew were preparing for death 
by breaking open the steward's room and drinking themselves 
into madness." 1 

In the middle of February a visitor came to the city who 
was no stranger to its streets. A cloud may have rested on 
the name of Wayne at the time of the surprise at Paoli ; but, 
since then, he had been acquitted by his brother officers of all 
blame in the matter. The brilliant achievement which has 
associated his name forever with Stony Point had not then 
occurred. He had, however, saved the day at Monmouth 
where he had held the hedge-row against Monckton and his 
grenadiers, and was then rejoicing in the confirmation of Lee's 
sentence, against whom he and General Charles Scott had 
preferred the charges. He, no doubt, wore his laurels as if 
he felt that they were well earned, and was the man to have 
sung, with the spirit of true feeling, Wolf's soldier song: 

Why, soldiers, why, 

Should we be melancholy, boys ? 

Why, soldiers, why, 

Whose business 'tis to die ? 

For should the next campaign 

Send us to Him who made us, boys, 

We're free from pain ; 

But, should we remain, 

A bottle and kind landlady 

Makes all well again. 

While living at camp, a brother officer had written to 
Wayne from Philadelphia: "Permit me now to say a little 
of the dress, manners, and customs of the town's people. 
In respect to the first, great alterations have taken place 
since I was last here. It is all gayety, and, from what I 
can observe, every lady and gentleman endeavors to outdo 
the other in splendor and show. The manners of the ladies 
are much changed; they have really, in a great measure, 
lost that native innocence in their manners, which formerly 
was their characteristic, and supplied its place with what 

1 Historical view of the American Revolution. By George Washington 
Greene, p. 160. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 379 

they call an easy behavior. The manner of entertaining, 
in this place, has likewise undergone its change. You can- 
not conceive anything more elegant than the present taste. 
You will hardly dine at a table but they present you with 
three courses, and each of them in the most elegant manner." 1 

And now "Wayne had come to enjoy these pleasures, and 
wrote to Col. Hartley : " I must do the citizens the justice to 
say, that they have honored me with every attention, and 
treated me with every possible politeness. You know that I 
have a fondness for ladies' society ; yet, excepting the few 
days which I spent with my family in Chester County, I have 
not been at a single tea-party since I left the army. I have 
many cards of invitation, and mean to avail myself of them. 
This is an indulgence which I have some right to claim, hav- 
ing been sequestered nearly four years from the society of the 
fair, and the next fair bullet may make my quietus." 2 

But we must turn from these scenes, which, John Laurens 
tells us, "flourished in every town on the continent, as it 
would amongst a people who had conquered the world, and 
were about to pay for their victories by their decline." 3 

"Washington, a few days after his return to camp, wrote to 
President Reed, asking that no more passes should be granted 
for persons to visit their friends, prisoners, at New York; 
as he had good reason to suspect that the real object of many, 
and of the women in particular, was to bring out goods to 
trade with. 4 

Arnold's influence had also gone. His quarrel with the 
authorities of Pennsylvania had resulted in an order for his 
trial by court-martial. Mortified at this, he resigned the 
command of the city on the 18th of March. This did not 
interfere with his engagement with Miss Shippen ; and they 
were married in the following month. 

During the spring of 1779 the paper money had been 
falling lower and lower. One hundred and fifty millions of 

1 Moore's Life of Wayne, p. 81. 

Ibid. p. 82. 

8 Life of Nathaniel Greene. By G. W. Greene, vol. ii. p. 169, note. 

4 Sparks's Writings of Washington, vol. vi. p. 174. 

880 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

dollars were issued in the year 1779, only a small portion of 
which was used for the redemption of old notes. In May of 
the same year, Christopher Marshall recorded that butter sold 
in the market at from two to three dollars a pound. Flour 
at 20 pounds the hundred weight. Green peas from 20 to 25 
shillings the half-peck. In June he paid 50 dollars for two 
pairs of shoes, and 80 dollars for two silk handkerchiefs. !N"or 
was he an extravagant man, for, early in the year, Samuel 
Adams was asked 400 dollars for a hat, 300 for a pair 
of leather breeches, 125 for a pair of shoes, and for a suit 
of clothes 1600 dollars. Disciples of Isaac Walton gave 
half a dollar a piece for their fish-hooks. " I was almost de- 
terred from buying any," wrote William Livingston to An- 
thony Bleecker, " but that I thought you and the other 
gentlemen fishers would not choose to be totally debarred 
from the sport for the sake of a few dollars, especially as you 
can sell your trout at a proportionable advance." 1 

Timothy Pickering, Secretary of the Board of War, in- 
formed Congress that it would be impossible for him to live 
on his salary of $14,000 ; that the very indifferent house he 
occupied cost him $4000 per year ; and that he must have 
some new clothing, inasmuch as his old was already worn on 
both sides.* 

The " United States Magazine," the first number of which 
was issued in January, was published on the following terms : 
" To the adventitious purchaser of a single copy $3. To the 
subscriber $24 per annum." One would think that at such 
rates it was sure of success ; but the publisher reserved the 
right to advance the price with that of articles in general. 
As some of us are interested in Magazines, we cannot help 
glancing at this apparently high-priced specimen represent- 
ing, as it does, the literary taste of Philadelphia at that day. 
It is an octavo of 48 pages. In the first number is a Birthday 
Ode to the publication, in which we read: 

1 Life of William Livingston, Sedgwick, p. 328. 
8 Life of Pickering, vol. i. p. 244. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 381 

" Let me hail thee to the day 
With thy natal honors gay." 

" Hear in wildwood notes with me, 
What the world prepares for thee. 
Statesmen of assembly great, 
Soldiers that on danger wait, 
Farmers that subdue the plains, 
Merchants that attempt the main, 
Tradesmen who their labors ply ; 
These shall court thy company, 
These shall say with placid mien 
Have you read the Magazine f 

" Maids of Virgin beauty fair ; 
Widows gay and debonair ; 
Matrons of a graver age ; 
Wives whom household cares engage ; 
These shall hear of thee, and learn 
To esteem thee more than Sterne ; 
These shall say, when thou art seen, 
Oh I enchanting Magazine I" 

But this cordial greeting was not sufficient to save the life 
of the publication, and it ceased when the first volume was 
completed. We turn over and over its pages in the hopes of 
finding something worthy of note; but, with the exception 
of the lines quoted, in which its own trumpet is blown, and 
of information which time has made valuable, there is no- 
thing of interest except a poetical address to a young lady, 
from the first lines of which we can see how many of her de- 
scendants we have with us to-night : 

" Fine shape, fair skin, good features, and an eye 
That sparkles love and sense and sweet vivacity." 

There are the usual number of articles signed by Sylvus, 
Sidney, and Amelia. There is the Rebus on an Amiable 
Young Lady ; and " The friendly Advice in Solitude," by a 
young lady of thirteen. There is a pretended Soliloquy of 
George the Third, in language so strong that we will not re- 
peat it ; but it must have made the King tremble when, in 
Windsor Castle, he was made aware of the opinions his late 

382 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

subjects entertained of him ; and be doubtless echoed the last 
lines of the piece, 

" Oh, let the earth my rugged fate bemoan, 
And give at least one sympathizing groan." 

How Cornwallis survived the satire of the " Comwalliad" 
is hard to understand, I know you would not, if I should 
read it to you. 

There is one article in it to which I would not allude, 
were it not that it is more germane to my subject than any 
other it contains. It purports to be a letter from a gentleman 
in the country to his sister, who has taken up her residence 
in the city. The brother addresses her as his "charming 
sister," who possesses " that sweet timidity, that charming 
delicacy, that enchanting bashfulness, that artless blushing 
modesty, which shrinks from the most distant approach of 
everything rude." Poor blushing, timid creature, what must 
her feelings have been when she learned from her brother's 
letter, that there were possibly some ladies in the fashionable 
society of Philadelphia, who had suffered themselves to be 
kissed ? I fear that there was some truth in the rumor, as Mrs. 
Bache wrote to her father : " I would give a good deal if you 
could see" my little girl, " you can't think how fond of kiss- 
ing she is, and she gives such old-fashioned smacks. General 
Arnold says he would give a good deal to have her for a 
schoolmistress to teach the young ladies how to kiss ;"* and 
what should he have known about such matters, unless, in- 
deed, it was Miss Peggy's education which had been neg- 
lected ? Of other dangers to which this fair novice would be 
exposed I cannot speak, but I would rather think that her 
brother was a violent Whig, who thought all Philadelphia 
society composed of Tories, in whom there could be no good, 
than accept as a faithful picture the one he drew for his sis- 
ter's admonition. For if there were any truth in it, the 
morals as well as the manners of Philadelphia had been in- 
fluenced by the French Alliance. 

I think the Editor of the Magazine must have had some 

1 Letters to Franklin from Family and Friends, p. 84. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 383 

misgivings as to the attractiveness of his material, for he sug- 
gests to his correspondents that some of them, some Whig 
poet, should select for his theme the confusion caused by the 
several inroads of the enemy. Should show how the ladies 
of the city, driven to the country, were transformed into 
nymphs and goddesses, and wandered in sylvan shades ; and 
that the cities should cry out for their return, and that the 
country should tell them to rest contented with their Tory 
maidens. What could have heen more charming? I wonder 
what " Harper" or " Scribner" would pay for such a produc- 
tion ? Would it be possible for anything to be more stupid? 
Can it be that a taste for such literature will return with that 
for tiles and brass candlesticks ? 

But a truce to this, or you will wish to hear, in the lan- 
guage of modern advertisements, that, " the conclusion of this 
interesting paper will be found in the next number of the 
PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE ;" and I cannot stop yet, as we have 
eaten our cake, and must not turn from the dry crusts. 

As the paper money had fallen by degrees, it was proposed 
to restore its value in like manner. The prices of the neces- 
saries of life were to be fixed by a local committee, and posted 
around the city, and these were to be reduced every few weeks 
until an equitable basis was gained. A town meeting was 
called for the 25th of May, to take the vote of the people on 
this expedient. Papers were circulated pledging the signers 
of them to any measures Congress might adopt to restore its 
credit. On the 24th, the militia, 3000 strong, paraded the 
streets to awaken enthusiasm. On the day of the meeting, 
Mrs. Bache wrote to her husband: "There was a printed 
paper pasted up yesterday, the copy of which I send you. 
You may remember the German ... in old Wistar's store. 
He is, they say, a great speculator. Attempting to pull one 
of the papers down, the mob (I should not call them by that 
name), the militia, seized him, and after taking him about on 
a horse, bareheaded, lodged him in the Old Gaol. They took 
up several others and put them in the same place. If I can 
get their names I will send them. I should mention that no 
one of the others had the honor of riding. . . . This day 

384 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

has been very quiet. The militia kept guard last night. 
There is to he a Town meeting this afternoon ; the militia 
from German town came in this morning to go to it. I should 
have hegun by telling you that as soon as the bad news came 
from Virginia [the invasion by the British], they raised the 
prices of everything. . . . You can't think how much worse 
the money is since you left this, fifty pounds a hundred. Many 
families yesterday went without bread ; not a bit to be bought. 
I hope the regulation will have a good effect, but cannot help 
feeling a little frightened about it; for, since I have begun to 
write, there is nothing but Huzza constantly at the Gaol, and 
they have just put three in since I turned this leaf over. 
One was a Mr. Lilly, for purchasing hard money ; and Ker- 
cher, the Butcher ; the other I don't know. Bryson just 
called at the window to tell me their names. He knows none 
of those yesterday but Robt. Watt, Richard Mason, Sichl the 
Butcher, and a Mr. Bachelor, whom every one took for Wis- 
tar's man, as he looked so very like him. Mr. Morris is much 
talked of; it has made me quite uneasy; but, as it is now 
said he will be first called on, I hope this is only talk. I 
seem afraid of joining him even in thought with these men." 

From this scene of excitement she turns, and gives a charm- 
ing picture of a child's innocent delight in the midst of trial : 
"Your babies are quite well. Bet. delighted with a new 
bonnet Unkle Franklin [sent] her, and talks of it in her 
sleep." 1 

The meeting was held in the State-house yard. The chair- 
man was Daniel Roberdeau, and the proceedings were of the 
most exciting character. Of the resolutions which were de- 
clared adopted, the plan of restoring the value of money was 
a part; and " Robert Morris was pointed out by name, as the 
ostensible actor in bringing about the recent rise in prices ; 
and it was ordered that a committee should investigate his 
conduct." 2 The most graphic account we have of this meeting 
is in the "clever, but bitter satire" of Joseph Stansbury, a 

1 Manuscript letter in possession of William Duane, Esq. 

2 Loyal verses of Stansbury and Odell. Edited by Winthrop Sargent, 
p. 152. For proceedings of the meeting see Penna. Packet, May 27, 1779. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 385 

Philadelphia Loyalist. We have room for only three of its 
stanzas : 

And now the State House yard was full, 
And Orators, so grave, so dull, 

Appeared upon the stage. 
But all was riot, noise, disgrace, 
And freedom's sons thro' all the place 
In bloody frays engage. 

Sagacious Matlack strove in vain 

To pour his sense in Dutchmen's brain : 

With every art to please 
Observed, " that as their Money fell, 
Like Lucifer, to lowest Hell, 

Tho' swift yet by degrees, 

" So should it rise, and goods should fall, 
Montk after month, and one and all 

Would buy as cheap as ever ; 
That they lost all who grasp'd too much" 
(This Col. Bull explained in Dutch), 

But fruitless each endeavor. 

A committee was appointed to carry the resolutions of the 
meeting into effect, and it adjourned until the 25th of June. 
In that month a lower scale of prices was decided upon. In 
vain did eighty merchants, who avowed that, since the days of 
the Stamp Act, they had been steady and decided Whigs, pro- 
test against the regulations. 1 A company of militia had assured 
the committee that, should they find themselves unequal to 
their task, their " drum should beat to arms." 2 Robert Mor- 
ris proved to those who waited on him that the large purchase 
of flour he had made was to supply the French fleet; and that 
the choice of the goods consigned to him had been offered to 
the authorities at but a small advance. 3 He was told that he 
should have bought no more than he absolutely required. In 
vain did such a man as John Cadwalader explain that he had 
no personal interest in opposing the regulations but for the 
public good; that he was a private citizen, living on the in- 
terest of his estate ; and that the regulations proposed could 

1 Penrta. Packet, Sept. 10, 1779. Ibid. July 1, 1779. 

Ibid. July 14 and 24, 1779. 

386 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

not affect him. He was driven from the meeting at which he 
attempted to speak. 1 In vain did one of the ablest financial 
writers of the day point out that the danger of the hour did 
not arise from u poverty or want ;" for they had " officers 
and soldiers enough, stores of every kind enough; zeal, 
union, and virtue sufficient to secure success." 2 That all that 
was wanted to support the cause had been furnished by the 
thirteen States since the beginning of the war. 3 " That the 
riches of a nation do not consist in the abundance of money, but 
in the number of its people, in supplies and resources, ... in 
good laws, good public officers, in virtuous citizens, in strength 
and concord, in wise counsels, and in manly force." 4 And that 
the only way to restore the credit of Congress was by the re- 
duction of the amount of the circulating medium, and the 
collection of taxes. The answer to such arguments was that 
the names of those who refused to support the regulations 
proposed by the committee should be published as enemies 
to their country. 5 

But it must not be thought that this honest, but intemper- 
ate zeal to preserve the credit of the paper money was con- 
fined to unthinking men, or was altogether the work of the 
mob. The address of Congress to the people proposed but 
half-way measures, and was full of delusive hopes: while 
Washington's letters bear ample testimony of his opinions of 
forestallers and extortioners, and of his desire that some mea- 
sures should be taken for their punishment. JNor had the 

1 Penna. Packet, July 31, 1779. 

2 Political Essays. By Pelatiah Webster, p. 19. 3 Ibid. p. 42. 

4 This extract is from the second Essay on Free Trade and Finance by 
Pelatiah Webster. First printed August, 1779. In Feb. 1780, Webster 
wrote : " I am determined to leave a copy of my Essays with my children, 
that my posterity may know that in 1780 there was, at least, one citizen of 
Philadelphia who was not totally distracted, and that they may have the 
honor and consolation of being descended from a man, who was able to keep 
in his senses in times of the greatest infatuation." In Dec. 1780, he wrote : 
" It is no more absurd to attempt to impel faith into the heart of an unbe 
liever by fire and faggot, or to whip love into your mistress with a cowskin, 
than to force value or credit into your money by penal laws." (See Stric- 
tures on the Tender Acts.) 

8 Penna. Packet, Aug. 17, 1779. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 387 

country at large been so fortunate as to escape from the in- 
evitable consequences, whether in time of peace or of war, of 
the presence of a standing army. The people felt aggrieved 
at the bearing of the officers with whom they were daily 
brought in contact ; and it would almost seem as if dishonesty 
had reached some departments of the army. "I am told," 
wrote Pelatiah Webster at the close of the year, "that there 
are nine thousand rations issued daily in this city, where there 
is not the least appearance of any military movements except 
a few invalids and sick in the hospitals, and the prisoners, all 
of which do not amount to one-half that number of rations." 
"There are posts of commissioners, quartermasters, purcha- 
sers, etc., fixed at about ten or fifteen miles distant through 
this State . . . and the people out of doors cannot . . 
. conceive the ! . . use of these multiplied offices, of so 
many different names, that one has need of a dictionary to 
understand them." "I wish," he continues, "that they were 
struck off" the list at one dash of the pen, that their rations 
and clothing might be stopped, and sent for the use of our 
soldiers in the real service . . . and that their horses 
might be taken away from them, that they might not be 
able to parade it through the country on horseback, or in 
carriages, as they do now, with a gayety of dress, importance 
of air, and grandeur of equipage, very chagrining to the im- 
poverished inhabitants who maintain them." 1 

In this condition of affairs the Whigs were less tolerant than 
ever in their dealings with the Tories, who acted with but little 
discretion. The Grand Jury, on the 10th of June, presented 
it as a grievance of a very dangerous character, that the wives 
of so many of the British Emissaries should remain in the 
city. 2 In August, a violent communication was printed in 
the "Pennsylvania Packet," in which questions were asked as 
to the origin of nearly every misfortune which had befallen 
the Continental cause since the beginning of the war, and to 
all were appended the same answer : The Tories 1 The Tories ! 

1 Webster's Political Essays, p 70-1. 

2 Heed's Life of Reed, vol. ii. p. 147. 

388 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

The Tories! "Drive from you every baneful wretch who 
wishes to see you fettered with the chains of tyranny," con- 
tinues the same article. "Send them where they may enjoy 
their beloved slavery to perfection. Send them to the island 
of Britain; there let them eat the bread of bitterness all the 
days of their existence. . . . Banishment, perpetual 
banishment, should be their lot." 1 " I know," wrote Governor 
William Livingston, of New Jersey, the same month to his 
daughter, who was then in our city, " that there are a number 
of flirts in Philadelphia, equally famed for their want of 
modesty as want of patriotism, who will triumph in our over 
complaisance to the red-coated prisoners lately arrived in that 
Metropolis. I hope none of my connections will imitate 
them, either in the dress of their heads, or in the still more 
Tory feelings of their hearts." 2 

And so the summer of '79 passed away in a feverish state 
of excitement, and the autumn opened with but little promise 
of relief. The money was no better, and the regulations had 
driven merchandise and provisions to other markets. The 
people were dissatisfied, but could not fathom the cause of the 

In the latter part of September the militia of the city de- 
termined to enforce the views of the committee and of the 
Grand Jury. They had been so often called upon during the 
war to assist in the adoption of revolutionary measures, that 
they had become imbued with the idea that all difficulties 
could be overcome by "a determined band," 3 and that the end 
which they had in view would justify any means they might 
employ. They resolved to send from the city the wives and 
children of those who had gone with the British, or were 
within the British lines. The yearly meeting of Friends was 
then in session, and as that Society was looked upon with 
distrust by the "Whigs, it was proposed to make an example 
of some of its leading members ; it was also given out that 
monopolizers and forestallers would be dealt with. A mem- 

1 Diary of American Revolution, F. Moore. Vol. ii. p. 166. 

2 Life of Livingston, Sedgwick, p. 337. 
* Reed's Life of Reed, vol. ii. p. 424. 

Phtiaddplda, Society One Hundred Tears Ago. 

her from each militia company was selected to see to the 
arrest of the Tories. When the personal danger, that in case 
of failure would result to the leaders in these movements, was 
pointed out, the reply was that: " Washington could not take 
his command without running some risk, and that they in 
this undertaking would sacrifice their lives, or effect it," 1 

A truce of a few days followed these preparations. A 
meeting of the militia was called for the 4th of October, and, 
on the morning of that day, it was found that placards had 
been posted around the city, during the night previous, 
threatening Robert Morris and a number of other citizens. 1 
One of this number was the Hon. James Wilson, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. He had been an early and 
earnest advocate of the cause of the Colonies, and while in 
Congress, in 1776, tad the resolution to change his vote from 
the negative to the affirmative on the question of Independ- 
ence, when doing so determined the vote of Pennsylvania. 
He was, however, in State politics, an anti-constitutionalist, 
and in addition to this had successfully defended a number of 
Tories in trials for treason. He was in consequence bitterly 
hated. His friends, alarmed for his safety, gathered at the 
City Tavern on the west side of Second Street above Walnut, 
and sent word to the President of the State of the danger 
they apprehended. The Troop of City Cavalry, loyal then, as 
they ever have been since, to the cause of order, rendezvoused 
at their stable with the intention of doing all that was in 
their power to prevent violence.* 

While this was going on in the city, the members of the 
militia companies, without their officers, were gathering on 
the commons near Tenth and Vine Streets. Dr. James Hutch- 
inson, Charles Wilson Peale, and others who had been active 
in the town meeting of May, endeavored to persuade them 
to disperse; but, meeting with no success, retired. 4 A large 

1 Reed's Life of Reed, vol. ii. p. 424. 

1 Westcott's Hist of Phtia., chap, cclxx. 

History of Pint Troop Phtia. City Cavalry, p. 18. 

4 The following description of the riot which occurred on the 4th of Oct. 
*79, is chiefly drawn from the account* of McLane, Hagner. and Peale. given 
in Beed's Life of Reed, Yol. iL 

390 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

rnob had gathered with the militia. Squads were sent into 
the city to arrest such persons as it had been decided should 
be taken into custody. One of the parties visited the Friends' 
meeting on Pine Street below Second, and, as the members 
were leaving the house, seized John Drinker, the clerk of the 
"Meeting of Sufferings," and bore him to the commons. 
Search was made for other persons, and three were arrested, 
but with so little noise that the citizens generally were not 
aware of the fact. The morning passed quietly away, and it 
appeared as if no serious result would occur. As noon ap- 
proached some of the Troop returned to their homes. At 
about this hour the mob and its prisoners moved towards the 
built-up portion of the town. The militia were about two 
hundred in number, and bore arms. They were commanded 
by Mills, a militia captain from North Carolina ; Faulkner, a 
ship carpenter ; Pickering, a tailor, and one Bonham. With 
fife and drum they marched down Arch Street to Front, and 
along Front to Chestnut; and citizens came out of their 
houses and followed in their wake to see the result. For a 
few moments the motley crowd halted, and then moved up 
Chestnut Street and turned down Second. Here they saw the 
gathering at the City Tavern, and gave three cheers. The 
friends of "Wilson retired up Walnut Street, and entered his 
house at the southwest corner of Third. Two of them hur- 
ried to the arsenal at Carpenter's Hall, and filling their 
pockets with cartridges, rejoined their companions. 1 When 
the mob came in front of the City Tavern they halted, sup- 
posing that Wilson and his friends were within. The mistake 
was soon discovered, and directly the sound of the fife and 
drum was again heard by those at Third and Walnut. The 
next minute the head files of the militia turned into Walnut 
Street. Colonel Grayson and Captain Allen McLane, who 
were at the War Office above Third, hurried to meet them, 
and, halting the column, endeavored to persuade Faulkner to 
lead his men up Dock Street, and thus avoid passing Wilson's 
house, which, Faulkner said, they had no intention of attack- 

1 Watson's AnnaU of Phila. vol. i. p. 425. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 891 

ing. Pickering and Bonham came running to the front, and 
inquired the cause of the halt. They ordered Faulkner to 
march the men up Walnut, and with fixed bayonets threat- 
ened Grayson, McLane, and others who attempted to interfere. 
The press was so great that it was with difficulty that Gray- 
son and McLane could keep their feet, and they were crowded 
among the citizen prisoners. As the mob moved up Walnut 
Street, anxious faces peered from the windows, and women 
fainted as they recognized their husbands and friends among 
the prisoners. Within Wilson's house at this time were about 
thirty or forty persons, a number of whom had been marked 
by the mob. With them were Generals Mifflin, Nicola, and 
Thompson, Col. Chambers, arid a Capt. Campbell of the in- 
valid corps, who had lost an arm in the service. With cheers 
and shouts the mob marched by the house. They had almost 
passed, when Campbell appeared at an upper window and 
waving a pistol in his hand, ordered them to march on. The 
pistol was unfortunately discharged. The shot was returned 
by a volley from the mob, and poor Campbell fell mortally 
wounded. Several muskets were fired from the house, and 
the crowd in the street scattered, leaving those who had been 
arrested exposed to danger from both parties. Grayson and 
McLane ran into Wilson's garden, but there found the peril 
greater than before. They were recognized by Mifflin as 
army officers, and the door of the house was opened for their 
admission. At the same time some of those who were in the 
house jumped from the windows and sought places of safety. 
Third Street was then clear of people as far up as Dock, where 
the mob had dragged a cannon. In a few moments "a num- 
ber of desperate-looking men, in their shirt sleeves, came out 
of Pear Street." They were armed with bars of iron and 
large hammers, which they had obtained from a smith shop. 
They soon reached the house, and began to force the doors 
and windows. Gen. Mifflin attempted to harangue the mob 
from a window on Third Street, but was fired at by a man 
who supposed he was a Tory. The shot struck the sash near 
the General's body, and he immediately discharged his pistola 
at the rioters. The firing against the house was now inces- 

392 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

sant, but the musket balls which rattled against its sides 
made no impression on the stone walls, while those aimed 
higher struck the sloping roof covered with copper, and 
glanced harmlessly into the air. The sound was one never 
to be forgotten by those who heard it, and a child 1 born in 
the neighborhood dated his earliest recollections seventy-five 
years afterwards from the firing on Wilson's house. The 
door of the house was soon forced. As the mob rushed in, 
" they received a fire from the staircases and cellar windows 
which dropped several of them." They succeeded, however, 
in pulling Col. Chambers out of the house, and wounding 
him with bayonets. He was rescued by some friends, and 
was carried down Third Street. The door was again closed, 
and barricaded with tables and chairs, and the siege was 
about to be renewed. At this critical moment President 
Reed rode rapidly down Third Street, accompanied by two 
of Baylor's dragoons. They were soon followed by a small 
detachment of the Troop, which had hastily assembled, under 
Major Lenox. When the cry of " the horse 1 the horse I" 
was raised, the rioters, ignorant of the number, fled in all 
directions, but not before two other detachments of the 
Troop had reached the scene. The best possible use was 
made of the diversion which had been created. Wilson and 
his friends sallied out, and a number of persons were seized 
and hurried to the prison. President Reed and a number of 
the Troopers then rode up Third Street, and at the corner of 
Market intercepted a party of the rioters, who had with them 
a brass field-piece, and who were bent on reinforcing their 
friends. A number of them were taken and placed in the 
old gaol which stood near by, and the cannon was dragged 
away. 2 Quiet was thus restored, but the Troop patroled the 
streets for the remaindei of the day, and all of the night fol- 

The next morning a meeting was held at the State House. 

1 Richard Willing who was b. at the corner of Willing's Alley and Third 
* "Westcott's History of Phila., note to chap, cclxx. 

Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 393 

It was composed of the principal citizens, a number of the 
clergy being present, and everything was done to allay the 
excitement. The militia assembled with the intention of 
releasing their companions who had been arrested. They 
were persuaded to desist from violence, and during the day 
nearly all their number who had taken part in the riot were 
liberated on bail. Mr. Wilson and his friends were also held 
in bail, and for a short time absented themselves from the 
city. Proceedings were not pressed against either party, and 
in less than a year a general pardon was granted to all. Three 
lives were lost in the riot, and with this tragedy ended the 
most serious outbreak of passion in any way caused by the 
depreciation of Continental money. 

Insignificant as the affair may now appear, the alarm which 
it excited at the time spread over the continent as far as Bos- 
ton. 1 Enacted wellnigh in the presence of Congress, and in a 
mistaken zeal to serve its purposes, it was almost national in 
its character, and, had it not been quelled, its example would 
have been disastrous. 

Happy was it for America that day, that the tyranny against 
which she rebelled was not one in which, for long years, op- 
pressed and oppressors had been brought face to face. Her 
sons had gathered from their widely-scattered homes, in which 
rank was unknown, at the first attempt to abridge that liberty 
which they had learned to believe the privations of their 
ancestors had made their birthright. And if, in the first 
attempts to use the power they had usurped, they showed 
themselves impatient to solve by force those questions which 
remain unsettled to-day, certain it is, they possessed little of 
that spirit which, the next year, under the convenient cry of 
"No Popery," made the citizens of London tremble; which 
fired four of her prisons, and liberated their inmates ; that 
set six and thirty of her dwellings ablaze at once; and which 

1 " In Boston we are much alarmed by the last accounts from Philadel- 
phia. Some are not a little apprehensive that a like tragedy may be acted 
upon this stage." Life of Pickering, vol. i. p. 242. 
VOL. III. 27 

394 Philadelphia Society One Hundred Years Ago. 

was not subdued until two hundred and fifty persons had 
been shot to death, and until as many more had been sent 
wounded to the hospitals. Nor had the scholars on this side 
of the Atlantic lapsed into that state of sentimentality that 
they required the visible sign of Voltaire and Franklin, kiss- 
ing in the presence of the French Academy, to tell them 
" that the war for American Independence was a war for the 
freedom of mind." Such scenes give zest to the pages of fic- 
tion, and coloring to those of history ; but well is it for the 
people from whose annals they are spared. 

The hour of weakness which I have tried to describe to 
you was followed by a season of depression and care ; but out 
of its darkness was born that love of order, that self-control, 
that spirit of government which in eight years took form in 
the Federal Constitution, 

The Founding of New Sweden. 395 




(Concluded from page 284.) 

Minuit's death was an irreparable loss for the newly-formed 
company, since it was not easy to meet with as clever a man 
as the late commander, or one so familiar with American af- 
fairs. Nevertheless, regarded from the Swedish point of view, 
perhaps the event w#s not greatly to be lamented. That is 
to say, probably the colonization scheme would never have 
acquired so national a complexion, if he had remained the 
leader in it. Blommaert, 1 at least, declares it was the Gov- 
ernor's intention to settle New Sweden with people from 
his native war-wasted land of Cleves ; and it is likely so 
strong a man as Minuit seems to have been, particularly if 
he colonized the territory with fellow-countrymen, might 
have assumed a more independent attitude than would have 
been compatible with the interests of Sweden. 

With reference to the prosecution of the enterprise, thus 
auspiciously begun, the Swedish partners in the company were 
from the first agreed; they viewed the question under its 
national and political aspect, and conceived the great import- 
ance the colony might, in such relations, eventually possess. 
For the future Clas Fleming became special leader of the 
work in Sweden, a position which he, by this time, likewise 
held in virtue of his office as President of the College of 
Commerce, conferred upon him in November, 1637. He and 
his Secretary in the College, Johan Beyer, 2 henceforth evinced 

1 Blommaert to the chancellor, November 13, 1638. 

2 This man was the only paid functionary of the college. When Beyer 
became postmaster-general in 1642, and Fleming died in 1644, the college 
was entirely dissolved; in 1651 first begins its existence as a fully-organized 

396 The Founding of New Sweden. 

great interest in the young Swedish colony, which may even 
be said to have been the first and principal work of that 
body. Their earliest care was to provide a successor for 
Minuit, and such a person, Fleming believed, was found in 
the Dutch captain, Cornelis van Yliet, who had been en- 
gaged for several years in the Swedish service. It is said in 
this man's commission from the Admiralty, written in Dutch, 
and dated at Vesteras, January 26, 1639, 1 that Her Majesty, 
Queen Christina, had resolved not only to support, but also 
energetically to prosecute, the expedition to " the Indies," 
and, full information of the nature of that region not having 
as yet been furnished, (Minuit not having had time to com- 
pose a regular account of his journey,) it was the Royal 
pleasure that v. Vliet should set out on the Kalmar NycJtel 
for "Virginia," and the territory which had been taken pos- 
session of in the King's name by Minuit, and there gain 
accurate acquaintance with the condition of the country and 
its inhabitants, it being the Royal purpose to people the land 
with Swedes. Measures, also, were taken to procure a suffi- 
cient number of colonists. At first it was sought to accom- 
plish this through suasion, but the people entertained a re- 
pugnance to the long sea- voyage to the remote and heathen 
land. It is affirmed in the letters of the administration to 
the Governors of the Provinces of Elfsborg and Varmland, 2 
that no one spontaneously offered to accompany Captain van 
Vliet. The government ordered these officers, therefore, to 
lay hands on such married soldiers as had either evaded ser- 
vice or committed some other offence, and transport them, 
with their wives and children, to New Sweden, with the 
promise to bring them home again within two years to do 
this, however, "justly and discreetly," that no riot might 
ensue. It was still more difficult, in times so grievous, to 
obtain funds for the expedition. The thought, at length, was 
entertained of allowing the Ship and Southern Company to 

1 Amiralitetets registr. i Sjoforvaltn.s arJciv. 

2 Dated August 7 and 8, 1639 : registr. Handl. ror. SJcand. Hist., xxix. p. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 397 

embark their capital in the new association, granting them 
the same monopoly of the tobacco trade. Blommaert, more- 
over, and the rest of the Dutch partners were solicited to 
make a new contribution of money. 1 

The Dutch partners of the Company were, however, by no 
means so ready as the Swedes to proceed with the undertak- 
ing. They had regarded it chiefly as a matter of business, 
and they now complained that it had not been conducted in 
a business-like manner, but, on the contrary, had grown to 
so great a size that it had ceased to maintain itself. Affairs 
had been managed, it was alleged, less in the interest of the 
partners than in that of the Swedish crown, and, therefore, 
the Swedish government should assume a part of the cost. 
Besides, Minuit was gone, and, with him, also the confidence 
with which his personal supervision inspired the Dutchmen. 
The Directors of the West India Company went so far, at 
last, as actually to lament Minuit's so-called intrusion within 
their premises, and, inasmuch as the Dutch partners in the 
Swedish Company were now, at the same time, members of 
the West India Company, these suffered the reproaches of 
their countrymen for trammelling them with the Swedes 
"they had, although members of the same college, done them 
more harm than good." Especially did Blommaert encounter 
many desagriments in consequence of his participancy in this 
affair, and he was, therefore, less willing than before to further 
the scheme. It was, probably, to remove his countrymen's 
repugnance to the enterprise, that he sought to lead it into 
another channel, and directed attention to the advantageous- 
ness of the situation of New Sweden for privateering against 
the Spaniards. The Spanish fleets of Mexico, and their rich 
cargoes, at that period excited the cupidity of many persons, 
the more so since the Dutch had the good fortune, in 1628, to 
intercept the great Spanish silver fleet. New Sweden, thought 
Blommaert, supplied an excellent point of departure, and 
place of refuge, for vessels disposed to watch for the Spaniards 

1 Fleming to Spiring and Blommaert, Jnne 8, 1H39 : Fleming's Memorial 
for Marten Augustinsson, February 28, 1639. The Oxenstjerna papers. 

398 The Founding of New Sweden. 

as they sailed out from Havana. But the Swedish gentlemen 
would not hearken to these proposals, and pursued plans of 
trade and colonization as their chief aim. 1 

Although the leading members of the Company in Sweden 
thus resolved to send a fresh expedition to New Sweden as 
soon as possible, considerable delay occurred before it was 
ready to set forth, arising from various hindrances attending 
its preparation. With means advanced by Spiring and Blom- 
maert, the Kalmar Nyckel was equipped in Holland for a 
second journey, and provided with another crew. The vessel 
was first to go to Gottenburg, to unload and take on board 
the Swedish emigrants, but her departure was postponed, in 
order to finish her repairs, as well as in consequence of a 
commission imposed on Spiring, namely, the lying in wait for, 
and arrest of a certain imperial ambassador, who was expected 
to go by sea to Denmark. The person intended must have 
been Count Kurtz, who, in the spring of 1639, went by sea 
from Hamburg to Denmark and Poland, for the purpose of 
entering into political engagements with those kingdoms. 
As, however, Kurtz embarked in a Danish man-of-war, the 
plan could not be carried out. At length the Kalmar Nyckel 
left for Gottenburg, where she arrived in June, 1639, and 
delivered the cargo of tobacco (12,000 pounds) with which 
she still was laden. Here the vessel lay for fourteen weeks, 
a detention caused, partly, by the negligence of the new com- 
mander, partly, by the difficulty of procuring emigrants, a 
body of whom, however, were at last assembled, and placed 
on board, together with cattle, horses, swine, implements for 
farming, and so forth. The office of Governor at Christina 
was assigned to Lieutenant Peter Hollender, like the former 
commander, probably, as his name indicates, also a Dutch- 
man ; 2 and this was, very likely, the expedition which Tor- 

1 Fleming to the chancellor, June 8, 1639; Spiring to the same, November 
19, 1638, and July 29, 1639 ; Blommaert to the same, November 13, 1638, and 
January 28, 1640. The Oxenstjerna papers. 

f His letters are written in German, but with such a blending of Dutch 
words as equally intimates birth in Holland. He signs himself Peter Hoi- 
lender Ridder (Knight), from whence we may presume he was a nobleman. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 399 

killus, the first Swedish clergyman in New Sweden, accompa- 
nied to America. 1 

The Kalmar Nyckel left Gottenburg in the beginning of the 
autumn of 1639, but had not proceeded farther than the 
German Ocean when she sprang a leak and was obliged to lay 
up for repairs at Medemblik. Twice the ship put out to sea, 
but both times returned in consequence of fresh damages, 
which entailed still further delay and expenditure of means. 
At length the ship's crew declared themselves unwilling to 
sail on such a vessel, and under such a captain as van Vliet. 
The latter was accused not only of carelessness, but also of 
dishonesty in victualling the ship, and when Blommaert in- 
stituted an examination of the matter, both charges were sub- 
stantiated. For these reasons van Vliet was removed from 
his command by Spiring, and another person, named Pouwel 
Jansen, probably also a Dutchman, was appointed in his stead. 
Likewise, a new crew was hired. On setting forth the ship 
had to endure once more the contretemps of a violent easterly 
storm, which on this occasion produced a shoal in the Zuider 
Zee, rendering it temporarily unnavigable, but finally all 
obstacles were overcome, and on the 7th of February, 1640, 
the Kalmar Nyckel sailed from the Texel. 2 

From this time ceases the correspondence between Blom- 
maert and the chancellor, and the former is named no more, 
either because he went with the expeditions to America, or 
for some other reason. He died, however, or else left the 
Swedish service, not long afterwards. 3 When the Swedish 

The name, however, is not found either in Anrep or in Klingspor and Schlegel. 
His commission is dated July 1, 1639, and was issued by Kl. Fleming. 

1 This supposition accords with what Ferris, op. cit. p. 39, sta**s on the 
authority of the Rev. Nicholas Collin's notes in the Wicacoa Church Books, 
namely, that Torkillus who died in September, 1643, died in the fourth year 
after his arrival. Compare a preceding foot-note (page 210, note 3 ). 

8 "With regard to the above facts information is derived from BlommaeH's 
letter to the chancellor, dated January 28, 1640, and from Peter Hollender's 
letter to the same, dated May 13, 1640. The Oxenstjerna papers. 

3 On the 21st of July, 1642, it was decreed in the Bad, that Appelbom 
and Trotzig should come to Amsterdam in Blommaert's place, and divide 
his salary between them. Radsprotok. April 11, 1643, a Memorial was 

400 The Founding of New Sweden. 

gentlemen resolved to carry on the work of colonization in 
the interest of their sovereign, they, naturally, became solici- 
tous to eliminate the Dutch influence from the Company. In 
tho minutes of the chamber of accounts for February 20, 
1641, it is said, the government had resolved to buy out the 
Holland partners, "since they are a hindrance to us," with 
18,000 gulden of the public funds. 1 The same day a letter 
was sent to Spiring, with the injunction to pay the above sum 
to the Dutch partners from the Dutch subsidies, on condition 
they abandoned all further claims. 2 This, without doubt, 
was done, and thus the new colony fell entirely into Swedish 
hands. At the same time the government granted the new 
Company ("our incorporated Southern Company") a monop- 
oly of the tobacco trade between Sweden, Finland, and Inger- 
manland. 3 

Although the Swedish government thus desired to achieve 
independency of the Dutch in conducting their plans of coloni- 
zation, they, nevertheless, had no objection to the settlement 
on their territory of people of that industrious race, provided 
they subjected themselves to Swedish rule. A number of 
such persons from the Province of Utrecht, who could not 
agree with the Directors of the "West India Company touching 
the terms of their establishment in New Fetherland, wished 
instead to emigrate to ISTew Sweden. To this end they first 
addressed themselves to Spiring, and then sent an agent (Jost 
van Bogardt?) to Stockholm, to obtain a grant from the Swed- 
ish government. The chief promoters of this scheme were 
certain influential members of the "West India Company, 
probably belonging to the discontented party. It was a Herr 
van der Horst who first entered into negotiation with the 

issued for the old W. Usselincx in the quality of Swedish agent of commerce 
in Holland. Registr. 

1 KammararTcivet. 

* TysJca och latinska registr. We have found no intimation when and 
in what manner Blommaert received compensation for his individual disburse- 

3 Privilegium for the Southern Company of the tobacco trade, dated 
January 12, 1641, printed in Stiernman, Saml. af Ekonom. forordn. ii. pp. 
305 et seq. ; cf. pp. 309, 373. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 401 

Swedish authorities, but the grant was transferred from him 
to one Henrik Hoogkamer and his " associates." These ob- 
tained from the Swedish government, January 24, 1640, a so- 
called " Octroy und Privilegium" for founding a new colony in 
New Sweden. This charter was in imitation of the conces- 
sions common with the Dutch "West India Company, called 
"patroonships." It was a kind of feudal system, established 
on the free soil of America. Hoogkamer and his associates, 
also called patrons in the grant, were to have the right to 
take up land in New Sweden on both sides of the Delaware, 
at a distance of from four to five German miles from Chris- 
tina. They were to hold this territory under the protection 
of the crown of Sweden, as hereditary property, and exercise 
upon it both superior and inferior judiciary authority; they 
might found cities*, promulgate statutes, appoint functionaries 
to office, enjoy unrestrained exercise of the so-called reformed 
confession, and freely follow professions and trades all on 
the following conditions : they were to recognize the suzer- 
ainty of the crown of Sweden, and pay as tribute three 
imperial guilders for every family settled there ; they were 
to have a care of the religion, instruction, and conversion of 
the savages; must employ in commerce and navigation vessels, 
only, built in New Sweden ; after the expiration of ten years 
of freedom from taxation were to pay five per cent, on all 
exports and imports, besides a certain impost for the defence 
of the land ; and, finally, were required to use Gottenburg as 
the place for bonding all goods shipped by them to Europe. 
These were, it is perceived, a portion of the privileges of the 
South Sea Company. Simultaneously with the charter, the 
government granted, also, a passport for the ship Freedenburg, 
which was to transport the Dutch settlers to New Sweden, as 
well as a commission (" Bestallungsbrief" ) for a certain Jost van 
Bogardt, as Swedish agent in New Sweden, without doubt 
specially for the Dutch colony established there, for he is re- 
ferred to afterwards in that capacity. This Bogardt was, 
likewise, the leader of the Dutch expedition ; he arrived with 
it in New Sweden on the 2d of November, 1C 0, and settled 

402 The Founding of New Sweden. 

with his people three or four (Swedish) miles below Chris- 
tina. 1 

In the meanwhile, after a short voyage, the Second Swedish 
Expedition had arrived on the 17th of April, 1640, at Chris- 
tina. 2 Here they found the colony brought out by Minuit in 

1 Blommaert to the chancellor, January 28, 1640. Spiring to the same, 
July 23, 1639. Memorie van de Heer Hoochcamer om den Heer Resident 
Spieringk te verthoonen, with Spiring's Gegenbedenkcn upon it. The 
privilege, the passport, and the commission for Boogardt in the tyska och 
lat. registr. P. Hollender to the chancellor, December 3, 1640. The Ox- 
enstjerna papers. Cf. Hazard's Annals, pp. 51 et seq. 

2 Although, unfortunately, no list of the colonists, who came to Xew 
Sweden in the First or Second Swedish Expeditions, has yet been found, the 
Eoyal Archives at Stockholm contain a " Rulle der Volcker so in New 
Schweden den 1 Martij anno 1648 noch in Leben sein gewesen," which 
mentions certain persons as having "crossed the ocean in the JZalmar 
Nyckel in 1639," of the number, evidently, of those who emigrated with 
Minuit and Hollender, in point of fact in 1638 and 1640. These are as fol- 

Anders Svensson Bonde, born in Sweden in 1620 ; settled June 20, 
1644, at Tinicum, employed in " making hay for the cattle'* and in sailing 
Governor Printz's " little yacht ;" and March 1, 1648, gunner at New Got- 
tenburg. In 1680 he was living at " Kingsess," and in 1693 was assessed as 
the wealthiest inhabitant of Philadelphia County west of the Schuylkill. 
He owned land in Calkoons and Carkoons Hooks, and in 1694 resided on an 
island, bearing his name, in Minquas Creek, where he died before June, 1696, 
leaving a widow, Anneka (who died in 1713), and six sons and four daugh- 
ters, who perpetuated his family under the cognomen of Boon. 

Per Andersson, occupied in 1644 in the same place and manner as Bonde, 
continuing to sail the Governor's yacht in 1648. 

Anders Larsson Daalbo, in 1644 cultivating tobacco on a plantation near 
the Schuylkill, and in 1648 provost, and in 1658 lieutenant in the colony. 
For some of his descendants see page 337. 

Sven Larsson, in 1644 engaged like Daalbo, in 1648 described as "mason." 

Peter Gunnarsson Rambo, in 1644 cultivating tobacco for the Company 
on the plantation at Christina, in 1648 described as " freeman." He held 
several offices under the Dutch and English Governments on the Delaware, 
and died in Philadelphia County, Pa., in 1698, being the last survivor of the 
first two colonies. He had four sons and two daughters, all of whom were 
married and left posterity. For further reference to him see a foot-note on 
page 94. 

Sven Gunnarsson, in 1644 occupied like Rambo, in 1648 a freeman. He 
must have been accompanied by his wife and eldest son, since the latter, 

The Founding of New Sweden. 403 

good condition. It is true, the report of Governor Kieft to 
the Directors of the West India Company makes the state- 
ment that the settlers in Kew Sweden were much distressed, 
seeing they had heard nothing from home for a whole year, 
and had even determined to leave the place, and betake them- 
selves to New Amsterdam, but were prevented by the arrival 
of a Swedish vessel the day before that set for their departure: 
this does not very well accord, however, with the same Kieft's 
complaint, that the Swedish colony had caused a loss of about 
30,000 florins to the trade of the West India Company, for 
such an admission evinces considerable activity. 1 The settlers 
themselves, unfortunately, furnish us with no account of the 
mode in which they passed the time after Miuuit took leave 
of them: of this period we have only discovered a single 
manuscript mefaento, a half-decayed "Schuldt Boeck" or 
account-book, kept by Henrik Huyghen from the year 1638. 2 
We feel assured, however, that the arrival of the fresh colony 
could not fail to strengthen the Swedish settlement on the 
Delaware, although the new emigrants do not seem to have 
been numerous, or of the best description. At least, the 
commander, Peter Hollender, complains in his letters to the 
chancellor that the colonists were too few in number, and 
little skilled in husbandry and handicraft: "no more stupid, 

known as Sven Svensson, was born in Sweden. He had two younger sons, 
born here, and, with these three, obtained from Alexander d'Hinojossa, the 
Dutch Governor, a patent for land on the west side of the Delaware, above 
" Moyamensings kil," dated May 5, 1664. He was still living in 1677, but 
died not long afterwards, leaving posterity, who assumed the name of 

Lars Svensson Kackin, in 1644 occupied like Rambo, in 1648 a freeman. 

Mans Andersson, ditto. 

Joen Thorsson, ditto. 

Marten Gottersson, in 1644 engaged like Rambo, in 1648 described as 
" labourer." 

Besides the foregoing, the name of Clas Jansson, "freeman," is also given 
in the Rulle, possibly incorrectly for Carl Jansson, who did not come to 
America, however, till 1641. TRANS. 

1 Hazard's A nnals, pp. 50, 56, 57. 

8 In the Royal Archives. The accounts are of the simplest kind, and 
yield no more specific information. 

404 The Founding of New Sweden. 

indifferent people are to be found in all Sweden, than those 
who are now here," says he. They had brought with them, 
too, an insufficient supply of domestic animals, it seems. 
The new chief, therefore, did not harmonize with those who 
till then had directed the affairs of the colony, namely, Kling 
and Huyghen. This lack of unity displayed itself imme- 
diately after the arrival of the Second Expedition, with re- 
spect to the question, what conduct should be observed in 
relation to the Hollenders stationed at Fort Nassau. The 
former commanders desired to employ force, in case the Dutch 
laid obstacles in the way of the Swedish settlers, while the 
new Governor preferred, in accordance with his instructions, 
to proceed gently as long as possible. When, on the 21st of 
April, Hollender was pursuing his way up the river in the 
sloop, in passing Fort Nassau he was saluted with three shots, 
but made no reply to this act of hostility, and quietly con- 
tinued his course. He purchased land of the Indians higher 
up, and erected three pillars about eight or nine (Swedish) 
miles above Christina for a boundary ; a fourth was set up 
afterwards, below the fort. 1 Eeturning from his journey on 
the 25th of April, he lay at anchor in front of Fort Nassau, 
and sent thither a letter, to which he received no answer, shot 
being once more discharged after the Swedish sloop. New 
protests, also, were subsequently issued by the Dutch, who 
proclaimed themselves proprietors of the whole territory 
along the river. No further collisions with the Dutch are 
mentioned in the letters from Hollender, which are preserved, 
and of which the last was written in December, 1640. 2 
Probably, the respectable political position of Sweden, and 
the good relations then existing between Sweden and Holland, 
conduced to protect the Swedish colony against the noto- 
riously inconsiderate West India Company. Less regard was 
shown by the latter towards the English. When a party of 

1 It was at this time, probably, the land was purchased as far as Trenton 
Falls : the latter are situated a little more than nine German miles above 
Christina, but the computation could not be so very exact. See page 280. 

2 P. Hollender to the chancellor, dated May 13, June 8, and December 3, 
1640. The Oxenstjerna papers. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 405 

sixty persons from New England established themselves, in 
1641, on the eastern shore of the Delaware, they were attacked 
with violence by the Dutch, and disturbed in their trade with 
the Indians. 1 The Swedes hastened to buy once more from 
the savages the land where the English had settled, which 
comprised a tract about twelve German miles in length, reck- 
oning from Cape May, on the east side of the river. On the 
western side they had, in 1642, already purchased the whole 
territory from Cape Henlopen to Trenton Falls, a distance of 
thirty German miles, with the right to extend their limits 
towards the interior at their pleasure. 2 

What further transpired in the Swedish colony during the 
governorship of Peter Hollender, or from April, 1640, till 
February, 1643, is not known. The only statement we can 
find, regarding this period, is one drawn from American 
sources, to the effect that a general sickliness prevailed in 
1642 among the settlers on the Delaware, both Dutch and 
Swedes. 3 We are better informed as to the measures taken 
in the mother country for strengthening the settlement. In 
May, 1640, the Kalmar Nyckel started on her homeward voy- 
age, and arrived at Gottenburg by the following July. Lieu- 
tenant Mans Kling accompanied the vessel to Sweden, as we 
discover from his commission from the government, dated 
September 26. 4 He was instructed to recruit in the Mining 
Kegion (Bergslagerif people "for the West Indies or Yir- 

1 Hazard's Annals, pp. 58, 59, 62. Cf., however, Ferris's Settlements, p. 

2 This may be inferred from Governor Printz's Instructions, 1642, gg 5 
and 6. (These give the northern boundary on the eastern shore as " Narra- 
ticons kil," now Raccoon Creek. TRANS.) 

3 Hazard's Annals, p. 62, following Winthrop's Journal. 

4 Commission for Mans Kling, dated September 26, 1640. Shortly be- 
fore (July 30), the Governor in the Province of Orebro had received orders 
to prevail upon the unsettled (" ostadige"} Finns to betake themselves, with 
their wives and children, to New Sweden. Registr. Handl. rbr. SJcand. 
Hist. xxix. p. 213. 

5 Certain parts of Sweden, especially in the Provinces of "Westmanland 
and Dalarne, abounding in mines, iron-works, forges, foundries, and so 
forth. TRANS. 

406 The Founding of New Sweden. 

ginia, where New Sweden is situated," a colony founded, it 
is affirmed, "that the inhabitants of Sweden may profit by 
the wealth of that land, so rich in valuable merchandise, as 
well as increase their traffic with foreign nations, and become 
expert at sea." Particularly should he seek to enlist the 
" roaming Finns" (" drift-finnar"\ who were wont to live free 
of charge in the houses of the inhabitants of the Swedish 
forests. We find the former Lieutenant-Colonel Johan Printz 
acting in the same commission the following year in northern 
Finland, 1 having been dismissed the service shortly before in 
consequence of a dishonorable capitulation, 2 and so returned 
from fighting in Germany. It was, probably, 3 the people 
collected by Kling, who were sent off in May, 1641, on the 
ship CkaritaS)from Stockholm to Gottenburg,to be transferred 
from thence to New Sweden ; the list comprises thirty-two 
persons, of whom four were criminals, but the remainder 
went either as servants in the employment of the Company, 
or else to better their fortunes. 4 It is likely they were met 
in Gottenburg by several emigrants from western Sweden : 5 
for the Governor in Varmland and Dal received orders, 
dated April 16, that the forest-destroying Finns, 6 whom 
he had captured and imprisoned, provided they could not 

1 Letter, without date, from Printz to the chancellor from Korsholm near 

2 The capitulation of Chemnitz, certainly, was dishonorable, and the state- 
ment of Anton von Stiernman, quoted by Acrelius, exhibits the Lieutenant- 
Colonel's subsequent conduct in an unfavorable light. Mr. Sprinchorn, in 
his Kolonien Nya Sveriges Historia (Stockholm, 1878), cites Pufendorf 
(Drott. Christinas hist., boh. xii. 9) as saying, that the fortress was sur- 
rendered in consequence of the cowardice of the citizens and Printz's soldiers, 
and notwithstanding the fact that, during a five days' siege, only ten men 
had been lost to the enemy's two hundred. TRANS. 

* The Rulle of 1648, referred to in a former foot-note, removes all doubt 
upon this point. TRANS. 

4 List among Documents relating to New Sweden in the Royal Archives. 

5 This fact, also, is attested by the Rulle of 1648. TRANS. 

6 Described in a royal mandate to the same person, dated July 29, as 
people who, " against our Edict and Prohibition, destroy the forests by set- 
ting tracts of wood on fire, in order to sow in the ashes, and who mischiev- 
ously fell trees." TRANS. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 407 

give security, should be held in readiness to be sent to Amer- 
ica ; and the Governor in the Province of Skaraborg was by 
letter directed to permit a trooper, condemned for having 
broken into the cloister garden at Yarnhem, 1 to choose be- 
tween the punishments of hanging and embarking for New 
Sweden. 2 By some accounts in the chamber of archives we 
find further, that, between the autumn of 1640 and the spring 
of 1641, a variety of purchases were made, both in Holland 
and at Gottenburg, for the equipment of the Third Expedi- 
tion to the Delaware. 3 The persons, who are mentioned as 
taking part in these preparations, were Spiring, Major Clerck, 
and the agents Le Thor and v. Schotingen, while, on the 
other hand, the name of Blommaert is not met with. The 
Expedition this time consisted of the old well-tried Kalmar 
Nyckel and the (Jharitas (a vessel which was made ready at 
Stockholm), and its cost was computed at somewhat over 
35,000 florins. Nothing more is known of the Third Expedi- 
tion, which sailed, however, for New Sweden in 1641. 4 

The persons interested, as already stated, had long since 
entertained the thought of appropriating the whole or a part 
of the funds of the Southern Ship Company for the expenses 
of the next sea-voyage, and the furtherance of their coloni- 
zation scheme. This plan, which had been first proposed 
by Spiring, was executed, also, during Spiring's visit to 
Sweden, in the summer of 1642. In the months of July and 
August several consultations with him were held in the Bad, 

1 A monastery in "Westergothland, devoted at this period to royal uses. 
The trooper, it is alleged, was guilty of " destroying and cutting down six 
apple-trees and two cherry-trees." TRANS. 

2 These letters, printed in Handl. ror. STcand. Hist. xxix. pp. 217-8. 

8 Since this is expressly called the third voyage to New Sweden, it is 
probable that the projected expedition, mentioned in the letters of the gov- 
ernment to Fleming, dated April 13 and 28, 1640 (" the ships which go to 
New Sweden, to be well equipped and commanded by Johan Dufva," " the 
five ships which are to go to Virginia"), did not come off. 

4 Specification uber der dritten Viagio de Nova Snecia in anno 1641. 
Major Richard Clerck's account of what he spent for the equipment of the 
ship Kalmar Nyckel in 1640-1, and so forth. (For a pretty full list of the 
colonists who came to New Sweden with this Expedition see NOTES at the 
end of this number of the MAGAZINE. TRANS.) 

408 The Founding of New Sweden. 

the Rakningekammar, and privately, the partners in the Ship 
Company being invited to attend. The result was the form- 
ation of a new company under the name of the West India 
or American Company (called, also, " Compagnie de Nova Sue- 
da"). Its capital was fixed at 36,000 riksdakr; the old 
Southern Ship Company entered into it with half that sum, 
or 18,000 rdr.\ the crown contributed one-sixth, or 6000 rdr.] 
the chancellor, P. Spiring, and the heirs of the great chan- 
cellor of justice each one-twelfth, and the treasurer and Clas 
Fleming each one twenty-fourth 1 this statement, without 
doubt, including what had already been expended for the first 
company of 1637. Moreover, a transfer was made to the new 
company of the monopoly of the tobacco trade, granted to 
the Southern Company in 1641. Finally, also, it was decided 
that the crown should pay the salaries of a governor for 
the colony, and of other necessary civil and military offi- 
cers. Lieutenant-Colonel Johan Printz, before referred to, 
was commissioned Governor on the 15th of August, 1642, 
and detailed Instructions for his guidance were issued the 
same day. On the 30th of August a certain "budget for the 
government in New Sweden" was adopted, mentioning a 
governor with a salary of 800 rdr., a lieutenant, a sergeant, 
a corporal, a gunner, a trumpeter, and a drummer, besides 
twenty-four private soldiers, as well as, in the civil list, a 
preacher, a clerk, a surgeon, a provost, and a hangman the 
whole estimate amounting to 3020 rdr., of which 2620 rdr. 
were to be furnished by the crown from the tobacco excise. 2 
Tn Amsterdam and Gottenburg (the Company's headquarters 
and depdt in Sweden) special factors were appointed on behalf 
of the Company, and the chief direction of the whole was 
entrusted to Clas Fleming, who was assisted in his charge 

1 From later accounts we find the capital of the Company was by degrees 
increased : thus the city of Yiborg joined it with 2000 rdr., the commissary 
in New Sweden, Henrik Huyghen, with the same amount, and through the 
Southern Ship Company 12,000 rdr., in addition, were placed in it. 

2 In the royal ledger for the year 1644 New Sweden is rated at only 1200 
daler, silver money, or 800 rdr. : to this sum we must, probably, add the 
income from the tobacco excise. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 409 

by Beyer, even after the latter became postmaster-general. 
On Fleming's death (in 1644) no head-director was named as 
his successor, and in this fact, combined with the remissness 
of the crown, when the colony stood in need of contributions 
of money, or other help, we are to seek the main cause of the 
feebleness and tardy growth of the settlement. Unlike the 
former regency, Queen Christina's government does not seem 
to have appreciated the importance of the American coloni- 
zation scheme : " this," wrote Per Brahe in 1643 to Printz, 
" in our judgment, truly is great, and greater than many 
esteem it." 1 

With regard to the preparations for the Fourth and greatest 
Expedition, under the command of Printz, we have little to 
communicate, excepj that the Governors in the Forest and 
Mining Provinces received orders, as before, to send to New 
Sweden Finns, who had been guilty of destroying the woods, 
selecting those who were "strong and able-bodied." 2 The 
Expedition, which was composed of the ships Fama and 
Svanen, left Qottenburg on the 1st of November, 1642, and 
arrived at Christina February 15, 1643. The clergyman, 
Johan Campanius, has given a short description of the voy- 
age, inserted by his grandson in the well-known book on New 
Sweden. 8 With this period the history of the colony begins, 

1 Concerning the foregoing statements see Rddsprotok., June 4 and 17, 
and July 27, 1642 ; several Accounts among Documents regarding New 
Sweden in the Royal Archives ; the Governor's Instructions and the Budget 
in the Registry, the Instructions being also printed in Acrelius's History 
(Reynolds's Translation, pp. 30 et seq.) ; Johan Beyer to the chancellor, 
June 21, 1645, among the Oxenstjerna papers ; Per Brahe to Printz, No- 
vember 9, 1643 (Cone.), SJco Kloster. 

2 Royal Letter to several Governors, dated August 1, 1642. Registr. 

9 So far as can be ascertained, no list of the colonists who accompanied 
Printz has been preserved ; but, besides the Governor's wife and daughter, 
Armgott, the Rev. Johan Campanius Holm, "junker" Knut Liljehook 
(serving as a soldier in 1644 at Elfsborg), and Mans Kling (who had come 
out before in 1638 and 1641) (Sprinchorn, op. cit.), we gather from the 
Rulle of 1648, already mentioned, the following names : 

Knut Persson, clerk, residing in 1644 at Tinicum, still acting in the same 
capacity in 1648. 

Joran Kyn Snohvit, a soldier in the Governor's guard at Tinicum in 1644, 
VOL. III. 28 

410 The Founding of New Sweden. 

in general, to assume a clearer aspect; notwithstanding, the 
elucidation of the subject is not yet complete, owing to the 
fact that several important documents, unfortunately, are lost. 
Among these, for example, is the first official report sent by 
Governor Printz from New Sweden, for the year 1643. We 
possess only his private letter to the Chancellor, dated Chris- 

afterwards the chief colonist at Upland. For an account of him see THE 
PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE, vol. ii. pp. 325 et seq. 

Elias Gyllengren, a soldier in the Governor's guard at Tinicum in 1644, 
in 1648 gunner at Korsholra. In May, 1654, he held the post of lieutenant, 
and took part in the seizure of Fort Casimir by Governor Kising. " Lieu- 
tenant Gyllengren, with our soldiers," says Peter Lindstrbra in his MS. 
account of the affair, " forced his way into the fort, by the order of Com- 
mander Sven Schute, took possession of the guns, and, striking down the 
Dutch flag, raised the Swedish in its stead." 

Anders Andersson Homan, born in Sweden in December, 1620, a soldier 
in the Governor's guard at Tinicum in 1644, still a soldier in 1648, residing 
in 1677 at Carkoons Rook, in 1697 at Trumpeter's Creek, buried at Upland 
in September, 1700. His wife Catharine was born in Finland, and was still 
living in 1697. He had several children. 

Hans Liineburger, a soldier in the Governor's guard at Tinicum in 1644, 
in 1648 still a soldier. 

Lars Andersson, ditto. 

Nils Andersson, ditto. 

Michel Nilsson, smith, in 1644 at Upland. 

Gregorius van Dyck, sheriff, residing in 1644 at Elfsborg, and holding his 
office till 1661. 

Sven Andersson, drummer, in 1644 at Elfsborg. 

Jacob Svensson, in 1644 a soldier at Elfsborg, in 1648 gunner at Chris- 
tina, in 1658 ensign. 

Nicklaus Bock, or Borck, in 1644 a soldier at Elfsborg, in 1648 corporal. 

Johan Gustafsson, in 1644 a soldier at Elfsborg, still a soldier in 1648. 

Peter Meyer, ditto. 

Isack van Eysen, ditto. 

Constantinos Grbnebergh, ditto. 

Peter Jochimson, ditto. 

Joen Nilsson Skreddere, ditto. 

Johan Olofsson, provost at Christina in 1644, in 1648 a soldier. 

Lars Jacobsson, a soldier at Christina in 1644, in 1648 still a soldier. 

Thomas Jb'ransson Timberman, carpenter, in 1644 on the island at Chris- 

Marten Martensson Glaasere, in 1644 cultivating tobacco for the Com- 
pany on the plantation at Christina, in 1648 a freeman. TRANS. 

The Founding of New Sweden. 411 

tina, April 14, 1643. "It is a remarkably fine land," says 
he, speaking of that country, " with all excellent qualities a 
man can possibly desire on earth." The earliest detailed 
account of New Sweden appears in Priutz's second official 
report, dated June 20, 1644. So far as we are aware, this 
document has not appeared in print, and, since it must be 
known to very few, we cannot, we think, more fittingly con- 
clude the history of the founding of New Sweden than by 
inserting it here. 1 

1 Translations of this and of certain hitherto unprinted documents con- 
nected with the history of New Sweden would form a valuable addition to 
the volumes already published by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

412 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 



(Concluded from page 307.) 

Having finished his labors at Fort Pitt, Mr. Eyre returned 
to Philadelphia in December, 1760, and again went to work 
at the ship-yard of Richard Wright in Kensington, with 
whom his brother Manuel had remained. On January 8, 
1760, Manuel married Mary, and Dec. 28, of the fiame year, 
Jehu married Lydia, daughters of the said Richard Wright. 
They both entered into the business with him, and succeeded 
him a few years afterwards. 1 About this time their youngest 
brother, Benjamin George Eyre (who became Colonel and 
Aid-de-Camp to General Washington at Trenton and Prince- 
ton), 2 came to them from Burlington, L J., where their father 
had died Jan. 14, 1761, to learn ship building. The three 
brothers carried on the business together for some years, 
until the early part of 1777, when they separated, Manuel 
going into the Navy Board, and Benjamin G. remaining in 
the Army. 

Jehu remained at the old place in Kensington, on the river 
just above the present Hanover Street, near where the Wm. 

1 The first large vessel that Manuel and Jehu Eyre built after succeeding 
Richard Wright in the business, was a barque called the " Truelove." I have 
often heard my mother say that the first large vessel her grandfather launched 
was a barque named " Truelove," and that the first one built by her father, 
George Eyre, the oldest son of Jehu, and successor to his business, was a 
barque named the "Three Brothers," after his father Jehu, and uncles Manuel 
and Benjamin G. This barque "Truelove," I suppose, was the vessel that 
came here to our docks from Greenland or Iceland in 1873, then spoken 
of as being 109 years old, and having been built in Kensington, Philadel- 
phia. P. D. K. 

* His name is not in the list of Aids given by Sparks, but the tradition 
that he acted in that capacity is supported by the fact that his portrait is 
to be found in Trumbull's picture of Washington at "'rinceton. P. D. K. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 413 

Perm Treaty Monument stands. His dwelling house is still 
standing in its primitive style ; a two-story brick, with large 
cut stone copes over the door and windows. 

After the news of the battle of Lexington, companies of 
minute men and associators for military purposes were being 
formed throughout the Colonies, and the citizens of Phila- 
delphia became very active in such movements. One of the 
first to take a prominent part in them was Jehu Eyre, who 
formed his ship carpenters, workmen, and apprentice boys 
into a military company for the protection and defence of 
the city and county, he being the captain commanding them. 

From his Orderly-Book we find that on Aug. 30, 1775, 
Capt. Jehu Eyre's men on guard at the State House 

Joseph Robinett, Serg't of Richard Ryhl, 

the Guard, Michael Yops, 

Conrad Smith, Corporal, Daniel Haines, 

George Grosskop, Conrad Stager. 

Again on guard at the same place Sept. 21, 1775 
Joseph Robinett, Serg't, Jacob Bumm, 

John Gunn, Thomas Sutton, 

Thomas Gunn, Jonathan Wright. 

David Dubinhall, 

Sept. 21, 1775, Guard at Powder House- 
Jacob Sheppard, Serg't, Robert Patterson, 
George Bakeoven, George Sheats, 
Christopher Painter, John Wood. 

Capt. J. Eyre's men on guard Oct. 10, 1775, at the State 

Joseph Robinett, Serg't, John Brown, 

Peter Browne, Jacob Jones, 

Richard Rhyl, Joseph Hopkins, 

John Wood, Thomas Palmer. 
Michael Yops, 

Oct. 10, at the Gaol- 
Joseph Frandelberg, Christopher Painter, 

Serg't, Jonathan Wright, 

Benjamin Wood, Jacob Sheppard, 

Wm. McMichael George Grosskop. 
Jonathan Grice, 

414 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

Oct. 10, at the Powder House 
George Sheats, Serg't, George Bakeoven, 

George Fox, Peter Paris, 

Conrad Lutes, John Wilkins. 

George Mederer, 

Nov. 19th 

Joseph Robinett, Serg't, Robert Davis, 

William Turner, Serg't, George Fox, 

Richard Ryhl, William Guinnop, 

Henry Brewster, Benjamin Corot, 

David Bradshaw, David Derrick, 

George Pfister, Thomas Palmer, 

Alexander James, John Rain, 

Jno. Rush, Conrad Stager. 

In July, 1775, the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania, 
being desirous of having gunboats built for the defence of 
the Delaware River, invited certain shipbuilders to present 
models for the same. Manuel Eyre, the senior of the three 
brothers, presented a model, which, being approved by the 
Committee, the order was given to the firm on the 10th of 
July to build one according to it, and on the 26th of the same 
month it was launched from their yard, and called the Bull 
Dog. They afterward built "The Franklin" and "The Con- 
gress." 1 At the time Gen. Washington was preparing to 
make his attack on Trenton, N. J., to capture the Hessian sol- 
diers at that place, he was so short of troops that the militia 
of Pennsylvania and New Jersey were ordered to reinforce 
his army, and the Council of Safety of Pennsylvania issued 
the following appeal : 

The calamities of war having spread through the neighbor- 
ing State to our very borders, and our metropolis in danger of 

1 Christopher Marshall recorded in his diary under date of April 5, 1776 : 
" I went to Dr. Young's ; not at home. We went up to Kensington ; found 
him and several friends there at work on board the frigate building by 
Messrs. Eyre. We joined them in assisting what we could till night. Then 
came home." On the 6th he wrote : " Near two, set off for Kensington, in 
order to assist in getting the lower deck beams on board the frigate building 
by Messrs. Eyre. I presume there came not short of one hundred, who 
stayed until they were all put on board. In which were included three parts 
of the Light Infantry of First Battalion, who came in warlike array." 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 


being reduced, and had it not been for tfie spirit and virtue 
of some of our brave Countrymen, who with the blessing of 
Almighty God, have checked the progress of our enemy, it 
might now be in their possession; but while they can main- 
tain, without interruption, a Port within a day's march of 
this City, we ought not consider ourselves in safety, nor should 
any man be allowed to withhold his service from the Public, 
or to indulge himself in a pusilanimous neutrality, when he 
must reap ail the advantages that will be derived from the 
virtuous struggles of those in the Field ; therefore 

Resolved, that Colonel Cadwalader send an officer from his 
Brigade belonging to each district in this City, the Liberties, 
and townships of Moyamensing and Passyunk, who are here- 
by authorized to call out all the able-bodied men in their dis- 
tricts by a written or printed notice left at each of their respec- 
tive habitations, and to enroll and form them into proper 
companies under ^he officers already chosen ; and when so 
enrolled they are to be subject to such military duty as the 
militia now in service. If any persons should be so lost to a 
sense of their duty as to refuse or decline to obey such noti- 
fication, they shall be considered as Enemies to this State, and 
shall not be intituled to any protection under this Govern- 
ment, either for their persons or property. Such Persons 
whose passive conduct, from the commencement of the present 
contest with G. Britain have manifested Religious Scruples 
against bearing arms, are excepted, as well as those whose 
age and bodily infirmity render them unfit for duty, or are 
in public offices and have exemptions from this board. 

Under this order the ranks of the military organizations 
were filleu up, and Capt. Jehu Eyre's company was soon 
ready for service. "When the call was made for the militia to 
march, Capt. Eyre with his company, formed and officered as 
follows, started Dec. 6, 1776, to join the army near Bristol: 

Jehu Eyre, Captain, 
John Browne, Lieutenant, 
Joseph Robinett, Sergeant, 
Jacob Sheppard, 
Joseph Frandelberg, " 
George Sheats, " 

Wm. McMichael, 
Daniel Bates, 
Christian Overstag, 

Geo. Pfister, 
David Derrick, 
Thos. Palmer, 
John Rain, 
Conrad Stager, 
John Brown, 
Michael Yops, 
Jacob Jones, 
J. Hopkins, 
Jonathan Grice, 

416 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

Hugh Lemmon, Geo. Grosskop, 

Jacob Hanshew, Jonathan Wright, 

Robert Brown, Christopher Painter, 

William Howell, Geo. Mederer, 

John Robb, Geo. Carlin, 

John Miller, Geo. Bakeoven, 

Benjamin Pearson, Conrad Lutes, 

George Death, Peter Paris, 

John Ruke, John Wilkins, 

Valentine Sorks, Conrad Smith, 

Joseph Sick frit, David Dubinhall, 

Daniel Bradshaw, John Gunn, 

Christian Froelich, Thos. Gunn, 

Henry Brewster, Jacob Bumm, 

Alex. James, Thos. Sutton, 

Robert Davis, Robert Patterson, 

George Fox, John Wood, 

William Guinnop, John Barker, 

Benjamin Corot, Stephen Carter, 

Jacob Reel, Benj. Wood, 

George Streeten, William Parsons, 

John Moseley, Daniel Price, 

Mathew Remer, Edward Conner, 

Roger Palmer, John Ogborn. 

This Company was formed for artillery service, Capt. 
Eyre having no doubt learned the handling of guns while 
under the English in Fort Pitt in 1760. 

Arriving up nearly opposite Trenton he reported for duty 
with his command, and was placed with that of Gen. Ewing 
who was to cross just below Trenton, to intercept the retreat 
of the Hessians in that direction. 

As it was necessary to cross the river in boats through the 
floating ice, and an inspection of such as they could gather 
was necessary, Capt. Eyre on the 23d of December de- 
tailed the following men, who were boat builders, from his 
company, to repair the defective craft at "Trentown ferry:" 
John Ogborn, Geo. Pfister, John Mosley, Joseph Smith, 
Mathew Remer, Roger Palmer, and Jacob Hanshew. 

After the return of Washington with his troops and prison- 
ers to the Pennsylvania side of the river, the evening of the 
day of the battle, the following guard of Capt. Eyre's men 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 417 

was placed at the ferry above Trenton, then called Eyre's 
Ferry : Joseph Frandelberg, Serg't, John Wood, John Barker, 
Stephen Carter, Benj. Wood, Win. Parsons, Daniel Price, and 
Edward Conner. There they remained until the 30th of 
December, when Gen. Washington ordered the whole com- 
mand over to Trenton. From thence they moved on and 
took part in the Battle of Princeton Jan. 4, 1777, and the 
succeeding campaign. After which, Capt. Eyre's term of ser- 
vice having expired, he returned home with his command, as 
the clanger to the city had passed away. 

He then entered actively into his business, as his brothers 
Manuel and Benjamin G. had withdrawn therefrom. Manuel 
had been appointed one of the Navy Board to take under 
their care all the vessels of war, armed boats, fire ships, etc., 
belonging to Pennsylvania, constructed for the defence of the 
city by water, and to furnish them with everything necessary 
to attack or repel the enemy. The Navy Board was com- 
posed of the following gentlemen: Andrew Caldwell, Joseph 
Blewer, Joseph March, Manuel Eyre, Paul Cox, Robert 
Ritchie, William Pollard, Samuel Massey, Thomas Barclay, 
and William Bradford. 

Immediately on his return, Capt. Eyre laid the keel (Jan. 
25, 1777), of the schooner Dolphin, which he built in connec- 
tion with his brother-in-law, Peter Browne, 1 an iron worker 
for ships, etc. 

The schooner was finished the last of March, and on April 
the 9th sold to Capt. Miller, Jehu Eyre, and Paine Newman, 
who held her in copartnership of one-third each. 

He also built the schooner Molly at this time, which was 
owned by the same parties in thirds. During the first two- 
thirds of this year he was attending to his business, and at 
the same time keeping up the military system, ready to serve 
when called upon by the State Government ; for in June he 
reorganized his Company, as the following copy of the origi- 
nal muster roll shows: 

1 Peter Browne had married also a daughter of Richard Wright, and 
sister of the wives of Manuel and Jehu Eyre. 


Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

We whose names are hereunto subscribed do Pledge our 
Faith to each other that we will continue to associate for the 
Defence of American Liberty, and to stand forth for the same 
when called on, as witness our hands this 6th day of June, 
1777, in a Company of Artillery 

Jehu Eyre, Captain, 
John Browne, 1st Lieut, 
Wm. McMichael, Serg't, 
John Rain, 
Jacob Reel, 
Richard Howell, 
Christian Overstag, 
John Miller, 
Christian Froelich, 
Joseph Smith, 
Mathew Remer, 
Roger Palmer, 
Jacob Hanshew, 
Christian Rush, 
Hugh Mulloy, 
Peter Browne, 
Thos. Rice, 
Samuel Baker, 
Thomas Farren, 
Adam Watt, 
John Farren, 
John Ogborn, 
Robert Cane, 
John Davis, 
Joseph Robinett, 
John Westcott, 

George Streten, 
Morgan Rice, 
Valentine Sorks, 
Manuel Eyre, 
Sam'l Clinton, 
Alex. McAllister, 
William Knox, 
William Christian, 
Joseph Allen, 
Jesse Williamson, 
Richard Salter, 
Michael Baker, Jr., 
Daniel Earnest, 
Henry Pote, 
Thomas Stone, 
John Sutton, 
James Young, 
Robert Brown, 
Adam Baker, 
Peter Helm, 
John Osborn, 
David Derrick, 
John Cramp, 
William Coats, 
John Crawford, 
Michael Baker, Sr. 

On July 25, 1777, the different companies of militia artil- 
lery in the City and Liberties were united into a battalion 
under command of 

Jehu Eyre, Colonel, Joseph March, Major, 

Thomas Nevil, Lieut-Colonel, John Westcott, Adjutant. 

1st Company. 

Samuel Massey, Captain, Isaac Ashton, 2d Lieut., 

Joseph Fry, Capt.-Lieut., William Thorne, Capt. En- 

John McGinley, 1st Lieut., gineer. 

2d Company. 
John McCullough, Captain. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 


John Ogbourn, 1st Lieut., 
Wm. McMichael, 2d Lieut., 
John Happ, Capt. Engineer. 

John Callanan, 1st Lieut., 
John Claypole, 2d Lieut. 

3d Company. 
Peter Browne, Captain, 
Jesse Williamson, Capt.- 


4th Company. 
William Pro well, Captain, 
Edward James, Capt.-Lieut., 

The approach of the enemy from the Chesapeake towards 
Philadelphia in August, 1777, again caused a call upon the 
militia of the city and county, and William Henry, Lieut, of 
the County, issued an order to that effect to Col. Eyre, as 
follows : 

SIR: In consequence of the Executive Councils orders to 
me, you are hereby ordered to get ready the first and second 
companys of Artillery Militia under your command to march 
from hence to Chester, there to join the Militia under the 
command of Maj. -General John Armstrong, and obey such 
orders as you shall there receive. I am, Sir, 

Your very Humb. Serv't, 

WM. HENRY, Lieut. 

Philadelphia, 27 Aug. 1777, To Col. JEHU EYRE, 
Commandant of the Philadelphia 
Artillery Militia. 

On receipt of the above order Col. Eyre issued the follow- 
ing to his first and second companies : 

SIR: In consequence of An order from the Executive Coun- 
cil Deliver'd me By William Henry, Esq., Lt. of the City & 
District of Philad*., you are ordered to get your Comp'y of 
Artillery Militia Ready to march off from hence to Chester 
there to join the Millitia under the command of Major-Gen 1 
John Armstrong, or obey such orders as you shall there Re- 
ceive. I am, Sir, 

Your very humble Serv*, 

JEDU EYRE, Col. Art'y. 


KENSINGTON, August 27, 1777. 

N". B. You are to Parade your Comp 7 in the State house 
yard to-morrow at 1 o'clock on Business of Importance. 

A few days after getting the two Companies off for their 
destination he received the following order direct from 
Thomas Wharton, President of the State Council: 

420 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

In Council, PHILAD'A, Sept. 6, 1777. 

SIR: There is Great Reason to believe that the Enemy's 
Ships will make an Attempt to weigh the Chevaux-de-Frize, 
& to Destroy our Fortifications on the Delaware, with De- 
sign to reach the City ; whilst their Army is endeavoring to 
Penetrate the Country; it, therefore, becomes Absolutely 
Necessary for Council to Pay strict attention to these Mat- 
ters. The works at Billingsport, Fort Island, Darby Creek, 
and Bnsh Island by order of his Excellency, Gen 1 Washing- 
ton, are left almost Without guard. You will, therefore, 
repair immediately to these works, and Post the two Com- 
panys of Militia Artillery, that are under your command, in 
such way as to you may appear most Advantageous. 

I desire you will use your utmost Endeavors to have those 
Fortifications put into as good a state of Defence as possible, 
under the direction of such officer or officers as his Excellency, 
Gen 1 Washington, has or may order there for that purpose. 

Proper Attention should be paid to the Military or other 
Stores, &c., that are already or may hereafter be ordered there; 
have them carefully examined, & see that no waste or Imbezle- 
ment happens. 

In conjunction with the Commanding Officer of our Fleet, 
I Request that you will Exert yourself to take, Burn, Sink, 
or otherwise Destroy the Enemy's Ships or vessels that may 
Attempt to Invade this or the Neighbouring States. 

I expect in a few Days three or four Companys of the Mil- 
litia from Bucks County, the whole of which, or a Part, as 
there may Be Occasion, I will order to reinforce you. 

I am, Sir, 

Your very hum ble Serv't, 

Upon receipt of this he immediately called out the two 
remaining companies of his Battalion, consisting of those of 
Capt. Peter Browne and Capt. John Ruper (who had suc- 
ceeded Capt. Prowell in command of the fourth company), 
got them ready, and on the 9th of September went with them 
to Billingsport and Fort Island. After placing them properly 
there, he joined the companies at Chester that were with Gen. 
John Armstrong, commander of the Pennsylvania Militia in 
Washington's army then preparing to oppose the march of 
the Enemy from the Chesapeake to Philadelphia. By order 
of Gen. Armstrong he placed his cannon at Pyle's Ford to 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 421 

prevent the enemy from crossing the Brandywine at that 
point. On the defeat of the Americans his two companies 
on the Delaware came up to him, and they fell back with 
the whole army to the Trappe, Montgomery County, and 
subsequently went into winter quarters at Valley Forge. At 
the Battle of Germantown he was under command of Gen. 
Armstrong on the right, and marched down to the mouth of 
the Wissahickon, where he placed his cannon, and opened the 
attaek on the Hessians stationed opposite. 1 

As the Militia were enlisted for six weeks only, Maj.-Gen. 
Armstrong issued the following Division Order, Nov. 16, 
1777, in relation to them: 

D. 0. CAMP WHITE MARSH, Nov. 16, 1777. 

A number of the Militia in the State Corps of Artillery 
commanded by Col. Jehu Eyre having served their Tour ap- 
pointed by Law are now discharged. Col. Eyre will, there- 
fore, immediately make return of the Residue of his Corps, 
also of the Arms, Blankets, and Camp Equipage belonging 
to the Public now remaining in Camp, also the number of 
teams Employed with the Militia of Pennsylvania, particu- 
larly showing the uses of which they are applied, and the 
Battalion of which they now belong, &c. &c. &c. 


Col. Eyre knowing that he could not return to Philadel- 
phia, as it was in the possession of the British, persuaded 
his old company of Kensington Artillery to remain with him, 
which they did by re-enlisting for a few weeks longer under 
Jesse Williamson as Captain. Maj. Marsh remained with 
him, for in a report of Capt. Jesse Williamson's Co. of Militia 
Artillery, commanded by Col. Jehu Eyre, of Nov. 30, 1777, 
he returns present for duty: 1 Col., 1 Major, 1 Captain, 1 
Capt.-Lieut., 1 Lieut., 1 Doctor, 1 Clerk, 12 M. Sergt., 3 Ser- 
geants, 3 Corporals, 5 Gunners, 1 Drum and fife, 33 Matrosses, 
and 4 Matrosses turned out of the ranks as Carters. After 
the others were discharged, the following order was issued: 

1 See Gen. Armstrong's Report to President Wharton from camp at 
Towamensing, Oct. 14, 1777. 

422 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

D. 0. CAMP WHITE MARSH, Nov. 21, 1777. 

Col. Eyre commanding the Artillery of the State of Penn- 
sylvania will immediately send to Allentown at least two of 
the Ammunition waggons and one Budge Cart, and all the 
ammunition belonging to the Two Iron Pieces, and as much 
of that fitted for the Brass six pounders as the Commanding 
officer shall think may be spared at present. A conductor is 
to be Present for the Careful delivery and storage of the am- 
munition, who will return on the delivery of those Stores to 
Col. Hagner or such other Persons as may have the care of 
the State Stores at that place. 

Gen. Erwin 1 will furnish a Sergeant guard. The Horses 
and waggons are immediately to Return. Col. Bull will 
point out a proper Place ten or fifteen miles up the country, 
to which the two Iron Pieces are forthwith to be sent. The 
Conductor will apply to Col. Henry if at Allentown, or to 
State Armourer there, and by the Return waggons bring to 
Camp such repaired Arms and Accoutrements as are ready. 


He remained with the army in camp until January the 
10th, 1778, when the time of his last Company which had 
re-enlisted was out. He then gave John Ogborn, the Capt.- 
Lieut., the sum of three hundred and fifty-eight pounds 
fifteen shillings pay for the Company. 2 Having now no 
command left, he withdrew from the army, and went to Bur- 
lington, "N. J., where he had sent his wife and children on 
the occupation of Philadelphia by the Enemy. 

His active spirit could not rest as long as there was an 
enemy near, and he immediately set about harassing them on 
the river Delaware. With this idea he formed a copartnership 
with Thomas Bradford, Paul Cox, Manuel Eyre, Commodore 
Hazelwood, James Longhead, and Joseph Blewer to purchase 
two guard Boats to run down the river privateering. On the 
20th of Jan. 1778, he went to Trenton and got two boats, 
which he had hauled down to Burlington where he fitted 
them up for service, and by Feb. 2d, had them off on their 
duty. Cn the 30th of January, in company with James 

1 General James Irvine. 

2 The receipt is in my possession. P. D. K. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 423 

Longhead, Samuel Massey,and William Miller, he purchased 
another boat for the same purpose. 

He was busily employed with these vessels until April 23d^ 
when he was engaged by the Congress to go to Easton and 
Reading to build boats for the rivers Delaware and Schuylkill. 

July 1, 1778, he was placed in charge of the Boat Depart- 
ment for building the boats needed by the States in Philadel- 
phia ; which kept him employed until March of the next year. 
During that time he had four separate sets of ship's carpen- 
ters at work at different localities, under their foremen, one 
under Capt. Jacob Miller at Easton, one under Capt. Samuel 
Clinton at Reading, one under Capt. Wm. Bowers at Chester, 
and one in Philadelphia under Richard Salter. During all this 
time his Battalion of Artillery was kept intact, and he held 
the commission of Colonel commanding the same, ready to 
march at the call of the Executive Council of the State. 

During the greater part of the year 1779 he was actively 
engaged with his Battalion commanding the fortifications on 
the Delaware, commencing in April as per following order: 

CITY OP PHILADA., Lieu't Office, April 23, 1779. 
SIR: In Consequence of an Order from the Hon. Executive 
Council to me, You are hereby Required to call immediately 
into service, to relieve the Garrison at Mud Island and Bil- 
lingsport, of Colonel Proctor's regiment now called into the 
Field for other service, Two Companies of Artillery. 

I am yours, etc., 

To Col. JEHU EYRE, Esq., WM. HENRY, Vt. 

of the City Philad* & C'ty 

Artillery Battalion. 

On the receipt of this order he called into service the 1st 
Company, commanded now by Capt. John McGinley, formerly 
Capt. Massey, placing it in the works at Billingsport, and the 
4th Company, now Capt. James Lang, formerly Capt. Ruper, 
which he stationed at Mud Island Fort, now Fort Mifflin, 
where they remained on duty until the last of August. Their 
services not being required any longer, he ordered them home. 
The expenses of the militia seem to have been borne by fines 
raised from those who did not serve, for in June the follow- 
ing letter was sent to Col. Eyre : 

424 Colonel Jehu Eyre. 

PHTLAD'A, 7th June, 1779. 

SIR: As I am quite at a Loss, and will be necessitated to 
stop Collecting the Militia fines for want of The particular 
Returns of Each Company of your Artillery Batt% that is 
to say Fifty Privates, non Commissioned officers included & 
Four Commissioned officers agreeable to the Militia Law of 
this State. Therefore please to furnish me with the same as 
soon as possible, which will much oblige 

Sir, your most humble Serv't, 


In October, 1779, the militia were again called out to assist 
in the co-operation of the army with the fleet of Count D'Es- 
taing, which was expected on the coast, and Col. Eyre again 
took the field. 

During the year 1780 military operations were suspended 
in the north, and transferred to the Southern States ; therefore 
the militia of the City and State were not called into service, 
and Col. Eyre remained home attending mainly to his busi- 
ness, for he had lost all but his real estate, the enemy having 
appropriated his effects during their occupation of the City 
and County in 1777 and 1778. In a memorandum of his 
losses sustained during that time while he was with his com- 
mand in the army^ he mentions 

s. d. 

One Brig, 56 ft. keel, 24 ft. beam, nearly finished, value 550 
One Ship, 80 ft. keel, 29 ft. beam " 260 

Timber, plank, boards, tools, and furniture in his house, 

amounting to cost price 5582 

Total loss of 6392 

for which neither he nor his family ever received a farthing 
from the State or Government. 

The vessels which he left on the stocks were finished and 
taken by the enemy, the timber, etc., being used for the re- 
pairing of their vessels. 

From the hardships he had passed through, his health be- 
came impaired, and a chronic affection of the liver set in 
early in 1781 with severe attacks of jaundice, which carried 
him off in July of that year, at the early age of 43 years. 
He left a widow and five children three sons, George, Jehu, 
and Franklin ; two daughters, Sarah and Lydia. 

Colonel Jehu Eyre. 425 

He was a man of great energy and determination, with a 
very generous and hospitable disposition ; whose love for his 
country was such that no sacrifice was too great for him to 

He was a correct disciplinarian in business matters as well 
as in military affairs, as is shown by the careful diaries and 
accounts which he always kept. He and his family were 
regular attendants at Christ Church, Second Street above 

He held his position of Colonel commanding the Philadel- 
phia Artillery until his death, and died honored and respected 
by all his fellow officers and citizens. 

Colonel Eyre was buried, with the military honors belong- 
ing to his rank, in the Coates' family graveyard at the corner 
of Third and Brown Streets, and was followed to the grave 
by almost the whole of the population of Kensington, as well 
as by a number of persons from the city. In 1853 these 
grounds were sold, and his remains were removed to South 
Laurel Hill Cemetery, where they lie surrounded by those of 
his kindred, in a vault built for the purpose designated 
only by the word "Eyre" over the door. 

His sword, one of his epaulets, camp table and stool are 
now in the National Museum in Independence Hall. 

VOL. in. 29 

426 Eichard Dobbs Spaight. 




(Centennial Collection.) 

At the confluence of the Neuse and Trent Elvers in east- 
ern North Carolina stands the venerahle town of Newbern. 
Around this ancient metropolis are clustered many memories 
of rare interest. Its name was bestowed by the patriotic 
emigrants from Switzerland, in regard of the vine-clad hills 
of their native land. 

Here landed in 1709 the Palatines from the Rhine, led on 
by the adventurous De Graffenreidt, whose sturdy valor and 
patient toil resisted the savage Tuskaroras, and caused "the 
wilderness to blossom as the rose." Here was the seat of the 
Royal Government ; and here the Colony was directed by the 
prolonged and gentle rule of Governor Dobbs. Here, Gover- 
nor Tryon, his successor, held his vice-regal court, and erected 
a palatial mansion, more spacious and ornate than any on this 
Continent at that period. 

In this place Richard Dobbs Spaight, the subject of this 
sketch, was born, lived, and died. 

The family was distinguished in the early history of North 
Carolina. His father, Richard, was one of the Governor's 
Council, appointed by the King. He was also Secretary of 
the Crown ; and served in the army as Paymaster in Brad- 
dock's war ; his mother was a sister of Governor Dobbs, a 
native of the county of Antrim, Ireland, and a descendant 
of Sir Richard Dobbs, 1 who was Lord Mayor of London in 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, born 25th March, 1758, was left 
early an orphan. At the age of nine he was sent abroad to 

1 Maitland's History of London. 

Richard Dobbs Spaight. 427 

acquire an education, which was finished at the University 
of Glasgow, Scotland. 

On his return to his native land, in 1778, he found the 
country involved in the Revolutionary War. He volunteered 
his services, and was at the battle of Camden, S. C. (16th 
Aug. 1780) as Aide-de-Camp to Governor Caswell. 

The following year he was elected a member of the Legis- 
lature from the Borough of Newberti; and was re-elected in 
1782 and 1783. By this body he was chosen a member of 
the Congress of the Confederation, which met at Annapolis 
on the 13th Dec. 1783, with Benjamin Hawkins and Hugh 
Williamson as colleagues. Here he witnessed the memorable 
scene of the resignation by General Washington of his com- 
mission, as Commander-in-Chief of the armies of America. 
The appreciation* of the character of Mr. Spaight by this 
illustrious body was evinced by his selection as a member of 
" the Committee of States," in which body all the powers of 
the government were vested. 1 

When the Convention which formed the Constitution of 
the United States met in Independence Hall on the 14th of 
May, 1787, Mr. Spaight was present as a member with 
William Blount and Hugh Williamson as colleagues; and 
their names are appended to that instrument, as delegates 
from North Carolina. He was also elected a member of the 
State Convention which met at Hillsboro, !N". C., on the 21st 
of July, 1788, to consider the Federal Constitution, and with 
all his energies he urged its adoption. In this he was sup- 
ported by the efforts of Samuel Johnston, afterwards Gover- 
nor, and member of the Continental Congress, as well as of 
the Senate of the United States ; James Iredel, afterwards 
one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
States; William R. Davie, afterwards Governor of North 
Carolina, and Envoy to France, and others. But the active 
opposition of Elisha Battle, David Caldwell, C. Dowed, 
Wilie Jones, and others caused its rejection. A subsequent 

1 Continental Congress from 1774 to 1781. Congress pursuant to the 
Articles of Confederation 1781 to 1788. Congress under Constitution 1789. 

428 Richard Dobbs Spaight. 

Convention, which met at Fayetteville on 21st Nov. 1788, 
ratified that instrument. From his long and arduous public 
service Mr. Spaight's health became so impaired that he re- 
tired for a time from public life, and sought repose in the 
milder climate of the West Indies. On his return home in 
1792, he was elected a member of the Legislature, and by 
that body he was chosen Governor of the State, which distin- 
guished position he held through the Constitutional term; 
and was succeeded by Samuel Ashe. "While Governor, he 
served as Presidential Elector in 1793 and 1797. 

He was elected a member of the House of Representatives 
in Congress, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of 
Nathan Bryan, and took his seat on 10th Dec. 1798. 

He was re-elected in 1799 to serve till 1801. This was a 
fearful epoch in the political history of the Republic. Never 
before or since, has party spirit been more active or virulent. 
Governor Spaight was one of the firmest and foremost of his 
day in supporting with his colleagues, Nathaniel Macon, 
Willis Alston, Governor Stone, and others, the leading mea- 
sures of the JeiFersonian party. He was a candidate in 1801 
and elected to the Legislature as Senator ; in this contest he 
was violently opposed by the Hon. John Stanly and others. 
Mr. Stanly was elected a member of Congress after heated oppo- 
sition by Gov. Spaight. As might be expected, the madding 
and malignant influences of party, embittered by personal 
animosity, rendered a collision inevitable. Mr. Stanly in a 
note dated Sunday, 5th Sept. 1802, challenged Gov. Spaight. 
They met and fought the same day, near the Presbyterian 
Church in the town of Newbern, and Gov. Spaight was killed. 

This tragic termination of the life of so useful and so dis- 
tinguished a citizen, caused a deep sensation throughout the 
State; and even at this distant day is remembered with 
mournful regrets. 

Such is a brief, but careful and faithful sketch of the life, 
services, and death of Richard Dobbs Spaight. 

As to his private character, one who knew him well and 
long, states, in a funeral discourse, as " a citizen he was up- 

William Paterson. 429 

right, sincere, generous, and charitable ; an affectionate hus- 
baiid, an indulgent Parent, a devoted and sincere friend." 

By his marriage with Miss Polly Leach, a native of Holmes- 
burg, Pa., he left two sons and one daughter. Charles, who 
was promising, died young without issue ; Richard Dobbs, 
member of Congress 1823, Governor of North Carolina 1835, 
since dead, leaving no issue ; Margaret, who married Judge 
John R. Donnel, who left four children, one of whom married 
Thomas N. Keere, of Baltimore. 

Two portraits of Governor Spaight are preserved, and now 
hang in the National Museum in Independence Hall. One 
in crayon by Sharpless; the other by St. Memin. 




(Centennial Collection.) 

William Paterson, Governor of New Jersey from 1790 
until 1793, was the son of Richard Paterson, an emigrant 
from the north of Ireland, who is supposed to have landed 
in Philadelphia in 1747. He went first to Trenton and re- 
mained there until the spring of 1749; but settled finally at 
Princeton in May, 1750; remaining there engaged in mercan- 
tile and manufacturing industries until 1779, when he re- 
moved to Raritan, where he died 1781. 

His eldest son William was, according to tradition, born at 
sea on the voyage to America. One authority seems to favor 
the idea that he was born before his parents emigrated to 
America in 1745 ; both favor the idea that he was not a 
native American. 

His early education was obtained in Princeton. He gradu- 
ated from Nassau Hall Sept. 27, 1763, and immediately com- 
menced the study of law in the office of Richard Stockton, 

430 William Paterson. 

and was admitted to the Bar in 1764, and to practise as an 
attorney-at-law in the Supreme Court at Burlington at the 
February term 1769. He removed soon after this occurrence 
to New Bromley, afterwards known as " StilwelPs Mills," 
one-half mile from Whitehaven, Hunterdon County. How 
long he remained there is not determined. He seems to have 
been often in Princeton, and participated to some extent in 
his father's business. His practice did not yield him much ; 
and, it is said, he almost resolved to abandon the profession. 

When the Revolution opened, he at once took an active 
part in public affairs, and advocated the patriotic cause. Ac- 
cordingly in 1775 he was chosen one of the Delegates to the 
Provincial Congress of New Jersey. His associates were 
Kendrick Fisher, Jonathan D. Sergeant, and Frederick Fre- 
linghuysen. This delegation was highly honored in this 
Congress, Kendrick Fisher was chosen President, Jonathan 
D. Sergeant Secretary, and William Paterson and Frederick 
Frelinghuysen Assistant Secretaries. When Mr. Sergeant was 
appointed Treasurer of the Province, William Paterson sue. 
ceeded to the office of Secretary. In this office he continued 
until the formation of the State Constitution. This instru- 
ment of Government was adopted by the Assembly on the 
2d of July, 1776, and continued to be the law of the State 
for nearly seventy years ; Mr. Paterson declined, however, to 
vote for its adoption on account of the imperfections which 
he believed to exist in it, and the short time given to its 
consideration an opinion which he never changed, and at 
the close of the century published a series of papers urging 
strongly its revision, or the formation of an entirely new in- 
strument; affirming that the Constitution of 1776 was in- 
tended by its framers as only a temporary expedient. 

Upon the organization of the State Government Wm. 
Paterson was appointed Attorney-General. He had been 
already elected as a member of the Legislative Council and 
commander of a regiment of infantry. He accepted the 
attorney-generalship, and had a principal share in the estab- 
lishment of the State criminal courts. He found the office 
laborious and unpleasant, as it obliged him to travel through 

William Paterson. 431 

the whole State, mostly on horseback ; but the notes of hia 
business remaining, show that he persevered nobly, attending 
the courts of every county in the State. He held office until 
the close of the war, and the acknowledgment of the inde- 
pendence of the United Colonies in 1783, when he resigned 
his office, and returned to the practice of the law. On the 
13th of April, 1779, he purchased an estate, sold as confis- 
cated property, on the north side of Raritan, consisting of 
more than 400 acres of excellent land, and opened an office 
for the practice of his profession. 

In 1779, while residing at Raritan, he contracted marriage 
with Miss Cornelia Bell, of Perth Amboy. It was soon 
ended by her death Nov. 15, 1783, in the 28th year of her 
age. She left only two children : a daughter, Cornelia, who 
became the wife of General Stephen Van Rensellaer, the Pa- 
troon of Albany, and a son, William Bell Paterson, of Perth 
Amboy. Two years afterwards he again married Euphemia 
White, daughter of Col. Anthony White, of New Brunswick, 
who survived him for 26 years. 

While he was living on his farm on the Raritan, he had 
in his office as students of law Aaron Burr, Gen. Morton of 
New York, Gov. Troup of Georgia, Churchill C. Houston, 
and Gen. Frederick Frelinghuysen, and at New Brunswick 
Chief-Justice Kirkpatrick. In the year 1783 he is said to 
have resigned his office of Attorney-General, and removed 
to New Brunswick. 

When the Convention of 1787 which formed the Consti- 
tution met in Philadelphia, Wm. Paterson with Governor 
Livingston, Chief- Justice David Brearly, and Jonathan Day- 
toiuappeared as delegates from New Jersey. Abraham Clark 
and C. C. Houston, co-delegates, -were prevented from being 
present. Seldom, if ever, has. a wiser and more judicious 
assembly of men been convened for as great a purpose. 
George Washington was unanimously chosen as President. 
Two prominent plans of government claimed the attention 
of tbe members. One by Edmond Randolph, of Virginia, 
looking to a National Government and receiving the favor 
of the larger States. The other by Wm. Paterson, contem- 

432 William Paterson. 

plating the preservation of the State Sovereignties, but giving 
sufficient power to the General Government to enable it to 
provide for the common defence and general welfare, and 
favored by the smaller. After a full discussion the question 
of representation was submitted to a Committee of one from 
each State. In this Committee Mr. Paterson represented 
New Jersey, and by his influence and argument was a prin- 
cipal instrument in preserving the State Sovereignties. He 
asserted that thirteen independent sovereignties never could 
form one nation, and that New Jersey would not have sent 
delegates to any assembly that would destroy the equality or 
rights of the States. Thus Mr. Paterson is entitled to the 
praise of having secured a government at once efficient in its 
sovereignty and popular in its separate State rights, and the 
Constitution framed on this idea finally received the signa- 
tures of 38 out of the 55 delegates New Jersey was unani- 

When the Government went into effect Wm. Paterson 
and Jonathan Elmer were chosen to the United States Senate 
from New Jersey, the former taking his seat March 19, 1789. 
He was chosen one of the tellers of the votes for President and 
Vice-President, and Chairman of a Committee to prepare the 
certificates of election. "While in the United States Senate 
he always occupied a prominent position, and as Chairman 
of the Committee on the Judiciary had a large influence in 
giving efficiency to the Federal Courts. 

Upon the death of Governor Wm. Livingston in 1790, 
Wm. Paterson was chosen by the Legislature as his successor, 
and became the second Governor of the State after its inde- 

In 1792 a law was passed authorizing Mr. Paterson to 
collect and reduce into proper form all the statutes of Eng- 
land which before the Revolution were in force in the State 
of New Jersey, together with all the public Acts before and 
subsequent to the Revolution which remained in force; he 
completed this work after long delay, and published it under 
the title of " Laws of the State of New Jersey, revised and 
published under the Authority of the Legislature by Wm. 

William Paterson. 


Paterson." A competent authority says of this work, that 
" it contained a system of law more perfect than that of any 
other State, and has continued to the present time to deserve 
the highest praise." 

In March, 1793, Win. Paterson was nominated by Presi- 
dent Washington as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and continued in this office until his death. 

The opinions delivered by Paterson are said fully to sustain 
his reputation as an able jurist. He was known as " a small 
man, but every inch a judge." His last appearance in Court 
was in New York, April, 1806, on the trial of indictments 
against Samuel GT. Ogden and William S. Smith for the vio- 
lation of our neutrality laws, by aiding Miranda in his ex- 
pedition against South America. His opinion affirmed that 
the facts alleged* if proved, would be no justification of the 
acts charged. The trial ended after he had left the Bench, 
in the acquittal of both the defendants. 

His health declined rapidly, and on the 9th of September, 
1806, he died at the Manor House in Albany, the home of 
his daughter, and his remains were interred in the family 
vault. Judge Paterson was tendered the office of Secretary 
of State, by President Washington on the retirement of Jef- 
ferson, and afterward that of Attorney-General. 

Judge Paterson was not a professor of Christianity, but in 
his last hours the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered to him, and he expressed regret that he had not, 
during his life placed himself decidedly on the side of Chris- 
tianity, in which he had been uniformly a sincere believer. 

On the monument erected to his memory, in the cemetery 
adjoining the Presbyterian Church in the city of New Bruns- 
wick, is found the following inscription: 



In Albany, New York, 

September 1806, 

in the 62 year of his age, 

and was buried in the Manor House Yault. 

Renewed June, 1864. 

434 William Paterson. 

The other sides have the following : 



November 15, 1783, 

in the 28 year of her age. 

She lies buried beneath this marble. 


relict of 


January 29, 1822, 

in the 86 year of her age. 

She lies beneath this marble. 

died Perth Amboy 

April 30, 1833, 
in the 56 year of his age. 
Buried in the Cemetery of St. Peter's Church. 


wife of 

died in New York, Aug. 18, 1844, 

in the 62 year of her age, 

and was buried in the Manor House Vault, 


Major-General Joseph Spencer. 435 



(Centennial Collection.) 

The French and Indian wars about the middle of the 18th 
century proved a training school for many military men, 
who found themselves in 1775-6 brought to face, in the open- 
ing days of the American Revolution, many of their old 
companions in arms, now their enemies, by the fortunes of 
war. Of such was General Joseph Spencer, of East Haddam, 
Connecticut, whose great-grandfather, Garrard Spencer, came 
from England to Newton, Mass., in 1634, and in 1662 was 
one of the twenty-eight original purchasers of Haddam from 
the Indians. The Spencers trace back their origin to the 
Althorp family in England. Some of the most famous men 
of the United States are descendants of the families of Gar- 
rard > and his brothers William, Thomas, and Michael. 

General Spencer was in civil life until his appointment to 
the Northern Army as Major under Col. Nathan "Whiting in 
1758, during the second French War. In 1759-60 he was Lt.- 
Colonel, and acquired the reputation of a brave and efficient 
officer. His experience in military affairs was matured by 
the genial influence of the British officers with whom he 
shared the dangers and fatigues of laborious campaigns in 
the Provinces and upon Lake Champlain. 

Returning to his peaceful civil life in the quiet of his 
beautiful home upon the Connecticut he served, from 1766 to 
1789, on the Council of Magistrates or Assistants, who con- 
stituted the Upper House of Assembly, and were then the 
Supreme Court of the State, and leading men of their time. 

The affair at Lexington and Concord in April, 1775, 
aroused an irrepressible ardor in Connecticut, and May the 
first found General Spencer at the head of the first regiment 
of Connecticut troop which arrived from that State. He was 

436 Major-General Joseph Spencer. 

stationed on Roxbury Heights, as part of the right wing of 
the American army, under General John Thomas. His adju- 
tant was John Trumbull, younger son of the rebel Governor 
" Brother Jonathan," who witnessed from his position the 
battle of Bunker Hill, which he afterward commemorated 
in his well-known picture the " Death of General Warren," 
the original of which is in the JSTew Haven Gallery, and the 
engraving by Miiller of Stuttgart in so many collections. 

General Spencer's sense of honor was so deeply wounded 
by the appointment of Putnam over him as Major-General 
by the Continental Congress in June, 1775, that he abruptly 
left his command without calling upon the Commander-in- 
Chief. General Washington, in his letter from the " Camp 
at Cambridge," of July 19 to the Congress respecting the 
complications he found existing among the officers of the 
American army near Boston, in consequence of appointments 
made at Philadelphia June 22, 1775, says, "General Spencer 
was so much disgusted at the preference given to General 
Putnam that he left the army with out visiting me or making 
known his intentions in any respect." In spite of this grave 
breach of military etiquette, such was the high esteem in 
which General Spencer was held for his superior personal 
worth and meritorious services, alike by General Washing- 
ton, Gov. Trumbull, the General Assembly of Connecticut, 
and the Continental Congress, that the latter body, August 
9, 1776, conferred upon him a Major-General's commission. 
He was persuaded by the wise counsels of Governor Trumbull 
to return to his command, where he was "respected by his 
officers and beloved by his soldiers." General Spencer was 
much employed by Washington in special and confidential 

We find him in the Council of War held at White Plains 
Nov. 6, 1776, with the General-in-Chief, and Major-Generals 
Lee, Putnam, Heath, Sullivan, and Lincoln in reference to 
the enemy's movements in New York. 

General Spencer remonstrated against the evacuation of 
New York, which he believed could have been held. 

On the 22d Dec. 1776, Washington writing from " Camp 

Major-General Joseph Spencer. 437 

above Falls of Trenton," directs Spencer to send forward all 
possible troops to defend Philadelphia against Howe's main 
army, deploring his own defenceless position. He was con- 
stantly on the alert to defend the Connecticut coast against 
the English cruisers. 

He was with Sullivan's unfortunate expedition in Rhode 
Island in 1778, and resigned his commission because of an 
order of Congress to inquire into his conduct on that occasion. 

Gen. Spencer has left us no record or diary of his life, and 
we glean the few facts we record mostly from other sources 
than his own pen. His public employments were very numer- 
ous, both local and general. In 1779 the Connecticut As- 
sembly, "entertaining a high sense of his worth," sent him 
as a representative to Congress. In 1780 he was again elected 
into the Council of his State, and this annually during his 
life, which closed in 1789. 

" Without the advantages of a regular and public educa- 
tion Gen. Spencer," says Dr. Field, " acquired that general 
knowledge and that acquaintance with business which en- 
abled him to discharge happily and usefully the various 
duties to w T hich he was called." He was an earnest Chris- 
tian man. 

General Spencer " married a daughter of the worshipful 
Mr. Brainerd," but left no descendants. 

438 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

(Continued from page 201.) 

HARRIS, JOHN, of Cumberland County, the son of James 
Harris and Jennett McClure, was a native of the county of 
Donegal, Ireland, born in 1723. He emigrated to Pennsyl- 
vania early in life, and located among .his friends in Lancas- 
ter County. About 1765 he removed to Cumberland County, 
settling on the Juniata in Fermanagh Township. He was 
one of the leading spirits at the meeting at Carlisle on July 
12, 1774, called to express the sympathy of the freemen of 
Cumberland County for their oppressed brethren at Boston, 
and adopt measures for their relief. He was a member of 
the Provincial Conference which met at Carpenters' Hall, 
June 28, 1776, and of the subsequent Convention of July 15. 
He was appointed sub-lieutenant of the county March 12, 
1777, and served as a member of the Assembly from 1777 to 
1781. He acted as one of the commissioners which met at New 
Haven, Conn., November 22, 1777, for the purpose of regula- 
ting the price of commodities in the States. Although a 
slave-owner, he voted for the act for the gradual abolition of 
slavery in Pennsylvania, passed March 1, 1780. He was 
commissioned a justice of the peace February 6, 1779. About 
1790, Mr. Harris owning 375 acres of land eligibly situated, 
laid out the town of Mifflin. He reserved grounds for public 
uses, now occupied by the court-house, and for the Presbyte- 
rian and Lutheran churches and graveyards. He died on 
the 28th of February, 1794, and lies interred in the Presby- 
terian burying ground at Mifflin. Mr. Harris was twice 
married ; first to Jane Poer, and secondly to Jane Harris, a 
cousin. By the latter he had six children : Jane married 
James Patterson, son of Captain James Patterson; Grizzel, 


The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 439 

James Knox of Mifflin ; Margaret, John Stewart of Tuscarora ; 
Ann, Samuel Bryson, an officer of the Revolution ; William, 
who was a surveyor, died unmarried ; James married Nancy 
Dunlap, one of whose daughters became the wife of Reverend 
James Linn, a Presbyterian clergyman, of Bellefonte. 

HART, JOHN, of Chester County, the second son of Col. 
Joseph Hart, of Bucks County, was born at "Warminster, 
November 29, 1743. He married, September 13, 1767, Re- 
becca Rees, of the Crooked Billet, and soon after removed 
to Chester County, where he purchased a mill and land near 
Old Church. He was a delegate to the Conference of the 
Provincial Deputies held July 15, 1774 ; member of the Con- 
vention of July 15, 1776, and appointed justice of the peace 
July 25, 1777. Owning to his warm espousal of the cause of 
the Colonies he was so persecuted by the Tories in 1778 that 
he was obliged to leave his mill, and return to Bucks County, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. In the spring of 
1779 he succeeded Henry Wynkoop as treasurer of the county 
of Bucks, and was one of the victims of the Doane robberies 
in October, 1781. He died at Newtown, on the 5th of June, 
1786, at the age of 43. 

HART, JOSEPH, of Bucks County, a descendant of John Hart 
and Eleanor Crispin, who were Quaker immigrants from Ox- 
fordshire, England, under "William Penn, and who settled in 
Bucks County, was born in "Warminster Township in 1 71 5. At 
the age of twenty-five he married Elizabeth Collet, of By berry. 
Inheriting the ancestral plantation in Warminster, he devoted 
his time principally to agricultural pursuits. His first appear- 
ance in public life was his appointment as Ensign in Capt. 
Henry Corson's Company, Associated Regiment of Bucks 
County of the Provincial service, 1747-8. He was sheriff of the 
county in 1749 ; and in 1755 assisted in founding the Hatboro' 
Library. He was a justice of the peace from 1764 to 1776 ; 
a member of the Provincial Conference at Carpenters' Hall, 
June 18, 1776 ; member of the Convention of July 15, 1776 ; 
chairman of the Bucks County Committee from 1774 to 

440 The Constitutional Convention of 1776. 

1776 ; and a member of the Council of Safety from October 
to December 1777. He was Colonel of a Battalion of Asso- 
ciators, and in active service in the Jerseys during the summer 
of 1776. v He was a member of the Supreme Executive Council 
from July 23, 1777, to March, 1780 ; lieutenant of the county, 
March 29, 1780 ; member of the Council of Censors Oct. 20, 
1783, and subsequently register of wills and recorder of deeds, 
and judge of the Court of Common Pleas. Col. Hart died at 
his residence in "Warminster, the 25th of February, 1788, at 
the age of 72 years. His eldest son, Joseph Hart, was promi- 
nent in official life. His second son was John Hart, previously 

HAY, JOHN, of York County, was born in Alsace, then 
in France, about 1733. His father, John Hay, was a native 
of Scotland, who, owing to the religious persecutions, emi- 
grated to the Province of Alsace, subsequently coming to 
America, bringing with him four sons, who settled in Phila- 
delphia, Northampton, and York Counties, Pennsylvania, 
and in Virginia. John Hay, of York County, was natu- 
ralized April 11, 1760. He was one of the Provincial 
magistrates ; a commissioner of the county from 1772 to 
1775 ; member of the Committee of Correspondence to send 
aid to the people of Boston in 1774 ; of the Provincial Con- 
vention, June 23, 1775 ; First Lieut, in Col. James Smith's 
Battalion of Associators, Dec. 1775; me