(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 61, April 1918"

ENN 



1 VA N 



MUSEUM 




MEMORIAL HALL 
FAIRMOUNT PARK 
PHILADELPHIA 



PLBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE PENNSYLVANIA Ml; 
AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



SUBSCRIPTION, ON!- (uii.lAic A YRAR 



APRIL, 1918 



ENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



Board of Trustees 

I'HB Governor of the vState, Ex-Of. The Mayor 

Mrs. Rudolph Blankenborg John Storv Jenks 



Charles Bond 
James Buttkrworth 
John G. Carruth 
Mrs. Henry S. Grove 
John Gribbel 
Charles H. Harding 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 



Gustav ICetterer 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs 
John W. Pepper 
Eu Kirk Price 



of the City, Ex-Of. 
Walter H. Rossmassler 
Theodore C. Search 
Edgar V. Seeler 
Mrs. Joseph P. Sinnott 
Edward T. Stotesbuby 
Jambs F. Sullivan 
WiLUAM Wood 



Vice-Presidents 



Officers 

THEODORE C. SEARCH, President 

JOHN STORY JENKS, 1 

JOHN G. CARRUTH, / 

JAMES BUTTERWORTH, Treasurer 

LESLIE W. MILLER, Secretary, Principal oj the School 

LANGDON WARNER, Director of the Museum 

HAMILTON BELL, Acting Director of the Museum 



BULLETIN 

For April, Nineteen Hundred and Eighteen 
CONTENTS 

(.rave Potterj' of the Korai Dynasty, • By Mrs. Lanp;do 

Indian Sculpture. By Hamilton Bell 

Venetian Lecterns. By Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 

Notes 

School Note 

Acoe'^ions 

' ■ i , ]903, BtPhUadelphia, Pa., :. ■' ' — 



BULLETIN 

OF 

THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

APRIL, 1918 SIXTEENTH YEAR Number 61 

GRAVE POTTERY OF THE KORAI DYNASTY 

The custom of burying ceremonial vessels with the dead persisted in Korea 
until a hundred years ago, and to this custom we owe the preservation of 
thousands of beautiful pottery objects which otherwise, in the destructive 
households of the East, would have vanished centuries ago. So many of these 
tomb vessels are defective or deformed in the firing, that it has been supposed 
that imperfect pieces were commonly used for burial purposes and doubtless 
this was often the case among the poorer people; on the other hand many of 
them are so fine as to seem to prove that in many instances the very best of a 
man's possessions were buried with him. This is emphasised by the finding 
of bronze vessels, implements, mirrors and articles of jewelry of the highest 
quality of achievement. 

In Korea the most beautiful pottery and porcelain dates from the Korai 
dynasty, which ruled the peninsula from 932 to 1392 A. D. Omitting for the 
moment all consideration of the rough hand-moulded pottery of South Korea 
which had so strong an influence on that of Japan, especially on the various 
wares favored by the tea-masters, we find that the wheel-made pottery of North 
Korea can be divided into two main types ; the celadon-like ware, with or without 
inlaid or painted designs, and the white pieces that are sufficiently near of kin 
to the Ting Yao ware of China to be wrongly attributed to that country even 
by some of our foremost museums today. 

The celadon-like ware is heavy, sonant, beautifully potted. The clay is 
clear grey. Spur marks, varving in niunber from three to twelve, are found 
almost invariably on the bases" of the pieces. The glaze is clear, thick, vitreous, 
of a greenish blue which is easily distinguished from Chinese celadon. In the 
decorated pieces the design is sometimes painted under the glaze in a reddish 
black pigment which turns black with baking; sometimes done with an inlay 
of white clav either with or without the accompanying details m black paint; 
and sometimes merely incised so that the glaze flowing thicker m the incisions 
makes the pattern appear somewhat darker than does the rest of the object. 
These incised designs are either drawn freehand with a tool, m very low mtaglio 
under the glaze, or else impressed by means of a mould or stamp; m the hner 
specimens the work is as good as in the best Chinese wares similarly ornamented, 
for which they are sometimes mistaken. The use of these two methods is 



18 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

common to the white and celadon wares. In Japan the term for undecorated 
celadon-Uke ware is Korai seiji (Korai celadon) ; this name is also applied to 
pieces decorated with incised or moulded patterns. The celadon pieces with 
inlaid designs are known as Korai unkaku (Korai clouds and storks) from the 
frequency with which this pattern appears, and those with painted ornament 
are called Egorai (picture Korai). 

The best known and in some ways the most interesting of these types is 
the Korai unkaku, and its characteristics are worth noting as being perhaps 
unique in the history of Eastern potterj^ and certainly characteristic of the 
Korai wares. The object to be decorated is built up or wheel-turned out of 
the grey clay; the design is then incised, and an inlay of fine white kaolinic 
clay, like that used in the fine white Korean pottery, is inlaid into the intaglio 
lines, thus bringing the design flush with the body of the object. In many 
cases this design is completed with black paint before the glaze is flowed on. 
A common design is of a small aster-like flower, probably some form of chrysan- 
themum, which is used both freely and highl}' conventionalized, but a large 
variety of designs has been noted and their combinations follow ancient 
traditions. 

The small aster-like flower is much used in the pottery that was made in 
Japan centuries ago and is still being made in the Korean manner ; the pottery 
called mishinia. It is however no more likely to be confused with Korai unkaku 
than is Sung celadon to be confused with Korai seiji. 

The process of inlaj-ing a design in a piece of pottery seems to have 
originated in Korea before it did elsewhere, but of this fact there is not at 
present sufficient evidence at hand to justify me in making a positive assertion. 
It is however certain the process was not used in China and that it appeared 
in Japan only after the Japanese had been taught it by the Korean potters. 

In the small exhibit, now shown, is only one of the celadon-like pieces and 
this inlaid in the mishima manner. The group of small white dishes in the 
same case are of the type known in Japan as hakugorai (white Korai) and 
belong to a group of Korean wares wrongly labelled by certain people as Sung 
Ting Yao. Although we are unable to show the great ^'ariety of shapes that 
are to be found in white Korai pottery we have in these small dishes examples 
of the different glazes. 

The most obvious argument against a Chinese provenance for Korean 
white ware is that thousands of unbroken examples of this very fragile and 
delicate porcelain have been found in Korea and none exactly like them in 
China; and that while trade between China and Korea was of course constant, 
yet it is hardly likely that they would ha\'e survived a journey of a thousand 
miles or so in such quantity as to be still available by hundreds in Korea. 

But more conclusive than this is the proof shown by the objects themselves. 
To begin with, Korai unkaku is indubitably Korean. A certain large pot in 
the Museum at Seoul is of the grey clay and celadon-like glaze common to all 
Korai seiji. It is without question a typical Korai unkaku piece. But its 
interest lies for us in the quantity of white inlay that it shows. Instead of 
having very small flowers or storks or some other design scattered over it, it 
has two large panels or medallions, perhaps four inches by three, made of the 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 19 

white clay. These medallions are inlaid precisely as the smaller patterns are 
inlaid; on each appears a design, partly painted and partly of the grey clay 
that forms the body of the jar. The entire pot is covered with a snigle glaze, 
which over the grey clay is of the strong green-blue color of Korai seiji, and 
over the large white medallions is of the vitreous bluish tone of the best 
hakngorai. A small bottle recently acquired by the Metropolitan Museum is 
equally clear in proving that the glaze used on hakiigorai is the same as that 
used on Kcrai seiji and Korai unkaku. 

Under the general term of haktigorai (white Korai) maj- be included all 
the variants of glaze, color and potting for which the same hard, white, close- 
knit, and generally sonant body clay has been used as a foundation. But the 
- word in its particular sense is also used to define those pieces in which the 
glaze, even when it flows deep, has no trace of green or blue or yellow. It is a 
creamy white, even, thin, and often covered with a close net of crackle. There 
is more reason for confounding this type than any of the others, with Ting Yao. 
The commonest glaze on the white pottery is that called by the Japanese 
seijihakii. The almost colorless consistency of the vitreous glaze results in 
a white ware with an aqueous blue tone where the glaze flows deep, 

A variant in color from this seiji bakii is the so-called amegiisuri (honey 
glaze). Bvit this yellowish tinge may well come from the glaze that appears 
on a number of regular Korai seiji pieces in which the color is so far from celadon 
that it is nearer a brownish yellow. It is not likely that this is more than a 
haphazard variant. 

The glaze called by the Japanese nyoju is on the other hand quite different 
from haktigorai and seiji baktt. It is a greasy white, without craze or crackle 
or bubbles; it seems slightly opaque and shows the "tear-drops," which are 
supposed by many people to prove a Sung origin. As a matter of fact the 
presence of " tear.-drops " in a glaze has no significance whatever except to 
show that the glaze was not perfectly controlled. Nothing could be further 
from the truth than to consider them t\'pical of a certain period or proof of a 
certain provenance. 

Characteristic of all the white Korean pottery is the pure white clay, 
the presence of few spur marks on the bases, but often traces of sand ; an appear- 
ance of having been string-cut and filed ; generally an unglazed border to saucers 
and bowls, which was meant to be covered with a metal rim; lightness and 
generally sonancy; very fine clean potting; shapes wheel-turned and then 
often pressed over a decorated mould ; and in many cases a quality of hardness 
and thinness that makes the pieces as translucent as porcelain if held to the 
light. 

The delicate thin bowls occasionally show an interestmg technique which 
resembles that of Chinese "rice-grain" porcelain, but which I believe to be 
purely accidental in the Korean examples. I have in mind two bowls, one in 
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and one in the collection of Mr. Charles W. 
Gould of New York. In both of these the design is of flowers and karako (lit. 
"Chinese children"). The incision is deep, the glaze flows smoothly over 
it; perhaps in the shrinkage caused bv baking, the design has become m many 
places a slit in the sides of the bowl; the glaze over it leaves it transparent, 



20 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

on the same principle as in the so-called "rice-grain" porcelain. I assume it 
to be accidental because I have seen it so seldom in Korea and because the. 
designs do not lend themselves to the technique; they are not constructed in 
the manner of stencils, but are more pictorial than merely decorative, whereas 
the designs in Chinese "rice-grain" porcelain and in the Persian "Gombroon" 
ware, based on this last, are pure ornament. 

The fine craft of potting appears to have degenerated toward the end of 
the Korai d^Tiasty and the white wares of the succeeding period, Ri, are coarse 
in shape, technique, design, and glaze. The celadon-like ware was discontinued, 
but before it ceased to be made it had lost its original simplicity of form and a 
most elaborate and ugly tradition had debased it. The highly ornate pieces 
of the late makers, while perhaps ably potted with their undercutting and 
sculpturesque qualities, are lacking in taste and beauty. 

Today under Japanese tutelage Korai sciji is being made again in Korea, 
and the old art is revived for modem use. 

L. 0. W. 



INDIAN SCULPTURE 

The Pennsylvania Museum has recei^'ed recently as a gift from M. Paul 
Mallon of Paris a fine red sandstone head of the Mathura School of Indian 
Sculpture and dating from the second or third centuries of our era. It is 25 cm. 
in height and is set on a modem black marble stand. In all probability it 
belonged to a statue of the Buddha, as it is uncrowned and the hair is treated 
in formal curls turning from right to left, as described in the scriptures. It 
lacks, however, the ushrisha or curious lump on the top of the head which in all 
probability is merely a conventionalization of the method used by the higher 
classes of the early Indian peoples in arranging their long hair. In many of 
the Gandharan sculptures it is certainly a knot of hair and, in that art, was 
common not only to the Buddha but to many other personages, human and 
divine. The treatment of the features, particularly the deep setting of the 
eyes, is more western than native Indian but this is a characteristic of much 
of the sculpture from Mathura and Samath. 

It is gradually being realized that the influence of Classic art on that of 
India has been to a great extent exaggerated by the discoverers of the abundant 
remains of the Gandharan school and their immediate successors. Not that 
this is not in itself a very important phase in the history of the arts of the world. 
The fact of the wide dispersion of the Hellenistic sculptors to the Eastward is in 
itself of great interest and their influence on the arts of the whole further East 
is undeniable. 

But its chief achievement was in demonstrating to the Buddhists that it 
was possible, without irreverence, to represent the object of their adoration 
in human form. This idea, familiar to the European mind, does not seem to 
have dawned upon that of the Indian people until revealed to them by the 




Head of Buddha from Mathura 



1 




SURYA DeVA 

Indian, probably Twelfth Century 



24 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Romanized Asiatic Greeks who in great numbers carried their craftsmanship 
far into the East. It so happened that the figure of the Buddha, then and 
there evolved, came to be accepted as the canonical presentment of him through- 
out the Buddhist world. Nevertheless the religious spirit and the ideals of 
beauty remained essentially Indian. 

The Hellenistic influence seems to have been felt first sometime during the 
first century B. C. and to have reached its climax between 50 and 200 A. D. 
Little is found that can be dated after 400, by which time whatever influence 
Greece had exercised on Indian art was practically exhausted. Spreading 
from the Gandharan Kingdom, in the extreme Northwest of India, this style 
produced an effect on the arts of India, diminishing as it receded from its source. 
Mathura, a little to the Northwest of Agra, not unnaturally received a con- 
siderable amount of the "Greco-Buddhist" impress, but it certainly derives 
mainly from the older art of the peninsula, which is best displayed in the sculp- 
tures of Sanchi and Barhut. In the sculptures found here and at Samath we 
can see the Western formula gradually being absorbed by and lost in those of 
the dominant Indian. 

We have in the Museum a few other specimens of ancient Indian sculpture. 
The most important of them all is a high relief in black carboniferous shale or 
clay slate, of which the eminent authority on Indian art. Dr. A. Coomaraswamy 
of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, writes: 

"It undoubtedly represents Surya Deva, the Sun, driven by Aruna in the 
seven-horsed car. I think you are fortunate to possess such a fine piece of work. 
It is very accomplished, and well preserved; it is however altogether conven- 
tional in detail as well as composition. I should describe your figure as Surya 
Deva, school of Bengal or Bihar under the Pala dynasty, probably twelfth 
century." The influence of the Pala style spread as far as Orissa, 

"The small figures of female archers represent Usa and Prat}ai,sa driving 
away the darkness. The female figures with cditris or cdmaras are the goddesses 
RajnT and Niksubha. The larger male figures are probably Pingala (proper 
right) and Danda, protectors of the Sun against the Asuras. " 

The group is 5 feet 1 1 inches high and 2 feet 7 inches wide at the base. 
It is said to have been found, in 1833, imbedded in the mud at low water mark, 
on the island of Sangur "Gunga Sanjuri" at the mouth of the River Ganges 
by Mr. P. G. Sinclair, a pilot in the Honorable East India Company's service; 
purchased from him by its late owner Mr. John W. Rulon then residing in 
Calcutta, and sent in 1835 to Philadelphia, it was deposited in the Museum 
in 1886. 

The three headless female figures are of pale red sandstone, the tallest 
being 2 feet 9 inches high. They are late mediae-\'al, perhaps even seventeenth 
century, says Dr. Coomaraswamy, adding, "There is something about them 
that suggests Tanjore or Bengal and also some kind of European influence 
vaguely suggested." They belong to Judge Sulzberger's collection. 

It is greatly to be hoped that we may by degrees acquire other examples 
of this most interesting art, which is not elsewhere represented in Philadelphian 
public collections. 

H. B. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 25 

VENETIAN LECTERNS 

The Museum, through the generosit}' of Mr. Frank Ralston Welsh, has 
recently been enriched by the possession of two lecterns of gilt canned wood, 
probably of Venetian workmanship. One of these, that represented in the 
accompanying illustration, is 5 feet 7 inches high and dates from the eighteenth 
century. It is well preserved and is highly ornate, with a cherub's head and 
scrolls of rococo effect. The desk is covered with old brown leather, probably 
original, with gilt tooling of simple style, and the Christian monogram I. H. S. 
in the center. 

The second specimen is smaller and of more modem manufacture and of 
less interest from a museum's standpoint. The desk is covered with red velvet, 
but it is likely that like the liner piece it was used for ecclesiastical purposes. 

The Lectern or Lectry, in French Letrin, Lestrin, Leutrin, and finally 
Lutrin, in Italian "Leggio, " means a reading desk used for religious purposes. 
But the lectern is found in private use through the Middle Ages under Louis IX. 
It grew to considerable proportions in the fifteenth century. In 1472 there 
are mentions of such lecterns, which are quite elaborate in their ornamenta- 
tion as well as of considerable size. These contained space for some thirty or 
forty volumes. The old inventories often contain entries of such lecterns, 
royal as well as private, and innumerable pictures show them in use. 

After the sixteenth century, however, at least in France, the lectern becomes 
an article of furniture purely assigned to religious purposes. It is probable that 
the same holds good for Italy. 

It appears from certain passages in old chronicles that the pulpit originated 
in the lectern or reading stand. For instance, of Dandolo, Doge of Venice, 
ascending his pulpit in St. Mark's, it is said by Villehardouin : 

"Le bon Dux de Venise qui molt ere sage et pros, monta el leteri et parla 
au peuple" — (The good duke of Venice who was most wise and brave ascended 
the lectern and spoke to the people) . 

Again, in the "Roman de Guillaume au Court Nez, " the two following 
lines read : 

"Uns archevesque est le letrin monte, 
Qui sermonna a la Chretiente." 

Our Archbishop ascended the lectern and preached to the Christian world. 
(See Havard, Diet, ds I'Ameublement et de la Decoration, Vol. Ill, p. 320, Art. 
"Lectrin"). 

Again in the Grandes Chroniques de France (V, p. 339) for the year 1330: 
" mais le jour ensuivant il monta sur le letrin, " etc. 

In his " dictionnaire et}-mologique," Menage designates "Letrin" as the 
pulpit from which a sermon mav be preached. 

As there was in the Pennsvlvania Museum no specimen of the ancient 
lectern, the gift of Mr. Frank Ralston Welsh is a most important as well as 
valuable addition to its collection of furniture. c v q 

O. 1 . O. 




Venetian Lectern 
Eighteenth Century 



J 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 27 

NOTES 

Mr. W. Ellis Scull has lent the Pennsylvania Museum in Memorial Hall 
a small but interesting collection of works of art which are now on view. 

First in size, and in many ways in importance, is a throne seat of sixteenth 
century Italian style, made of carved walnut and decorated with panels and 
mouldings of the characteristic Italian Intarsiatura work, i. e., inlay in coloured 
woods. This is the only example of this method of decoration in our collection, 
and while not so elaborate as many specimens to be found in the churches and 
sacristies of Italy, is excellent in taste and moderation. 

The process of inlaying one material with another is of great antiquity. 
Ancient Egyptian work in this kind has been found of as least as early a date 
as the fifth Dynasty, and it persisted throughout classic times. It probably 
died out with the other arts in Europe during the Dark Ages, and owes its 
revival to the renewed intercourse with the East, which had preserved the 
practice of most of the Arts during their eclipse throughout the rest of the 
world. Its revival in Itah', where first it reappeared, seems to have taken 
place in Siena, where we hear of it as early as 1259. Workmen from this city 
were employed elsewhere in Northern and Central Italy during the succeeding 
centuries. About the end of the fifteer th century Florence took the lead in this 
as in other arts. Splendid examples of intarsia work may be seen in the 
sacristies of the Duomo, Santa Croce, Santa Maria Novella and other churches 
of that city. The largest and most elaborate work remaining to us, the stalls 
in the cathedral and San Domenico, and the wainscoting in the Sala del Cambio 
at Perugia, were the production of Florentine artists. For artists they were, 
many of them being sculptors and architects of note as well as iniarsiatori. 
Here the familiar ornament of the period, together with sprays of flowers and 
other natural objects, are treated with just the right combination of naturalism 
and conventionalization which keeps them within decorative bounds. Not 
much intarsia work of importance was executed after 1500 in Italy. Though 
the art as may be seen in this sixteenth centun- example by no means ceased 
to flourish. 

Mr. Scull's throne has, besides the inlaid borders, a coat of arms in a shield 
which looks more seventeenth than sixteenth century in style. 

With this he has lent a fine old mahogany armchair of English or American 
make, formerly the property of Judge James James, 1730 to 1807, and a Colonial 
mirror in a car\'ed and gilt mahogany frame. 

One of the small fragments of sculptured marble is a sphinx, of French 
eighteenth century make, full of the charm of the Louis XV period; the 
traditional body, half woman with lion's paws, is topped by a piquant little 
marquise's frimousse with an eleganth' arranged perruque. 

A most interesting loan to students is a carved wood-block, probably of 
eariy eighteenth century date, such as was used in Europe for the printing of 
chintzes and the flock wall-papers so much in mode in that day. 

Finally he has lent the Museum a number of pieces of pottery and porcelain 
which will be useful in fllling the gaps in the admirable collection of those 
formed with so much taste and knowledge by our late Director, Dr. Ldwm 



28 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Atlee Barber; this is in its way one of the most important and valuable of such 
collections in this country. 

Among Mr. Scull's pieces are an extremely good water-cistem of Rouen 
ware, a type which is not very well represented in the permanent collection, 
and a very curious majolica placque, perhaps of the somewhat rare Siennese 
manufacture, painted with a copy of one of Pinturicchio's famous frecsoes in 
the Library of the Cathedral at Siena, which commemorate the life of i^neas 
Silvius Piccolomini, of the great Siennese family of that name, who became 
Pope Pius II. These frescoes, ten in number, were painted in the years 1502 
to 1507, and it is a matter of record that the youthful Raphael worked on them 
as an assistant to the master. This is a copy of number five of the series and 
represents the reconciliation of Piccolomini with Pope Eugenius IV on the 
occasion of his reception as envoy of the Emperor Frederick III. 

There are, besides, sorae very good Delft plates and a large blue platter 
by Ridgway with a view of the Capitol at Washington before the erection of 
the present dome in 1863. 



SCHOOL NOTES 

Beginning with the re-opening of the sessions on the 7th of Januar3^ after 
the Christmas holidays, a preparatory class was inaugurated to meet the needs 
of pupils entering for the last part of the school year. Owing to the difficulty 
of securing instructors it was only possible to arrange the lessons for two whole 
and two half days a week with the privilege of attending the Saturday morning, 
and the regular evening sessions, no student being entered for less than a full 
month. Very soon after this arrangement, it was found necessary to close the 
Saturday classes to further registration, and withdraw this privilege to the 
preparatory' students. 

Many inquiries for classes in mechanical drawing have been received 
owing to the great need of draughtsmen, and the excellent salaries offered; 
it has not been feasible to consider the giving of anj' more time than already 
arranged for, to this subject. 

Miss Elizabeth Norris who has been assisting Mr. Wanvick in the regular 
day and instrumental drawing classes, received the appointment of instructor in 
drawing and design at the re-organized Public Elementary Art School (formerly 
Public Industrial Art School), which will occupy too much of her time to admit 
of her carrying on the work here. The new position is important for the reason 
that the Board of Education contemplates the development of a better type 
of art school than has been conducted under its management. 

Miss Gwendolyn Harrison has been appointed first art instructor in the 
Philadelphia Trade School for Girls, just established as a regular part of the 
city's Public School system, corresponding to the Philadelphia Trade School 
for Boys. Miss Harrison is a student in the normal class, this being her second 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 29 

term here. Her appointment is a very gratifying testimonial to the result of 
her studies in the school. 

The Alumni Association has added several new subjects to its war activities ■ 
To aid the Bureau of Public Information, Washington, by offering in the 
School two prizes for : 

(a) The best sketch for a poster dealing with national interests, as Con- 
servation of Food, Fuel, Navy Enlistments, Third Libertv Loan, etc. (Awarded 
to Bernard Fullmer.) 

(b) The most effective slogan for a similar use. (Awarded to Miss Venette 
Willard.) 

The suggestions, numbering forty, were commented upon most favorably. 
The value and range of the suggestions were especially noted, and it was pre- 
dicted that several would be used in important government advertising 
campaigns. 

To donate materials, and supen-ise the making of large panoramic charts 
for machine-gun drills in the various cantonment camps. 

To organize a campaign among the members of the association and the 
students for the sale of War Thrift Stamps. The association appointed a 
representative to organize the sale in the School, and in two months sold 
thirteen hundred dollars worth ($1,300). 

The association has proposed practical instruction in the use of farm tools 
and the preparation of the soil for vegetable growing. The suggestion is to 
utilize the court -yards of the School, and have demonstrations made either by 
competent members of the association or volunteers from outside, to squads 
of pupils who would be interested and willing to study the work. It has also 
been suggested that among the owners of countr\' properties connected with 
the School, places might be found for students so trained, to the mutual advan- 
tage of the owner and the worker, and in this way losses through draft might 
be made up. 

An organization has also been effected for the drying of fruits and vegetables 
during the summer, ample contributions of material having been promised for 
this purpose. This form of food has been placed fourth on the list of supplies 
advantageous to send to French hospitals, and when ready will be forwarded 
directly to the individual establishments, thus saving time in re-handling. 
Demonstrations of the drying processes are to be made before the pupils, at the 
School, by representatives of the State organization. 

Classes for training marines in sketching, and the graphic work required 
by members of the Fire Control at League Island, have been formed (sessions 
being held Friday evenings), of which Mr. Ege, Mr. Pitz, Mr. Sinnock, and Mr. 
Warwick are in charge. They are attended by a group of interested and capable 
volunteers to whom the instruction is of direct benefit in the making of semi- 
realistic maps of different types of terraine and objects in the landscape. 

An exhibit has been sent to State College, at the request of the Art Director 
of that institution, to be established in a separate room in the Museum. It is 



30 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

desired by the college authorities to show the students of the institution the 
vocational possibilities in art work in another state institution. During the 
summer there are about 1,000 teachers assembled for special work, and the 
director hopes that the exhibition of art work which we have there will be the 
means of guiding them to better appreciation as well as greater power of 
expression, and a clearer vision of that to which the institution leads. The 
State College authorities bear the entire expense in relation to the transportation 
and installation of this exhibit which has been selected and arranged by the 
Exhibition Committee of the Alumni Association, and is disposed about the 
room to best display the practical character of the instruction and practice in 
the preliminary training and results in furniture, pottery, metal work, and 
costume, with examples of the Normal Art Courses. This exhibit is likely to 
be more serviceable than the one installed at Harrisburg. 

The Alumni Association Traveling Exhibition Committee also compiled a 
representative collection of the work of the various courses of the School for 
the use of the Philadelphia Art Teachers' Association. They have planned to 
circulate the work in all the city High Schools. 

The students have organized a campaign for the selling of bonds for the 
third issue of the Liberty Loan. Their activities are not limited to soliciting 
purchases among themselves, but extend to the Alumni and all those identified 
with the School's position as a patriotic institution. Robert Paul Marenzana 
is chairman of a committee composed of representatives elected by the members 
of each class. 

The students' contributions to the fund for the Belgian and Armenian 
children were : 

January $100.00 

February 115.00 

March -. 110.00 



i 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



31 



ACCESSIONS 
January— March, 1918 



CLASS 



Ceramics 



Medals 



Furniture and 
Woodwork 



Glass 



Metalwork 



Sculpture 



Silversmith's 
Work 



Textiles 



Water-Colors 
Miscellaneous 



OBJECT 



Mottled Brown Glazed Doe. Bennington Ware 
Porcelain Snuff Bottle 



Majolica Tile, Italian. Sixteenth Century 

Rouen Water Cistern 

37 Plates . Saucers and Plaques. European. Chinese and 

Japanese 

6 Pieces of Japanese Pottery 

White Delft Tea Jar. Late Eighteenth Centurir 

Jar with Handle. Rakka. Xinth Century 

Bowl. Rakka. \inth Century. . - 

Plate. Koubatcha. Sixteenth Ce.itury '.....' 



Medal. Replica of Medal Designed in Germany to 
Commemorate the Sinking of the Lusitania 

Doll's Cradle. American. Old 

Wall Cabinet. American! Old -.......,....,..[[.[.. 



Throne Chair. Intarsia Work. Italian, Sixteenth Cen- 
tury 

•Wood Block for Printing Flock 'Wall Paper. . 

Arm Chair. American. Old i 

Mirror. Mahogany and Gilt. American. Old ,.,...!.! I 
2 Carved and Gilded Lecterns. Venetian. Eighteenth 

Century 

"Butterfly" Table. American, c. 1700 

Flip Glass, made by Baron Henry William Stiegel, 
Manheim, Pa., 1763-1774 

Plate, probably made by Baron Henry William 
Stiegel, Manheim, Pa., 1763-1774 



SOURCE 



Bronze Bust of Osiris. Egyptian 

6 Pairs of Brass Candlesticks, Eighteenth Century, 

Pair of Pewter Candlesticks. American, Old 

Brass Brasero, Spanish 



Alabaster Vase from Tivoli 

Marble Column from St. Mark's, Venice. . 

Marble Carving, Lion's Head 

Marble Carving. Bust of Woman 

Marble Frieze. Figure of Lions. Vase, etc. 



Sheffield Fruit Basket 

4 Teaspoons, American, Old. 
2 Snuff Bottles 



Sheffield Inkstand with Crystal Ink and Sand Bottles 

Cruet Stand with Crystal Cruets and Salts 

Sheffield Candlestick with Snuffers and Extinguisher 
Sheffield Tray and Snuffers 

4 Silk and Worsted Bags 

Doll. American. Old 

Doll, Modem 



Makimono-FIower Arrangements. 



Tortoise Shell Purse 

8 Pairs of Tortoise Shell Ear-rings 

Mother-of-pearl and Gilt Hand Mirror, 

Empire Style 

Carved Tortoise Shell Prayer-book Cover. . . 



French 



Lent by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 
Lent by Messrs. Walter A.. Horace T 
and Maurice T. Fleisher. 

Lent by Mr. William Ellis Scull. 
Given by Dr. E. S. Vanderslice. 
By Purchase. 



Lent by Mr. Robert Hacker. 

Given by Mrs. Gregor Drummond. 
Given by Mrs. Frederick Thurston 
Mason. 



Lent by Mr. William Ellis Scull. 



Given by Mr..Francis Ralston Welsh. 
By Purchase. 



Lent by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 



Lent by Mrs. W. B. Saunders, 

* Given by Mrs. Frederic C. Penfield. 
Lent by Mr. William Ellis Scull. 

> Given by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 

Lent by Messrs. Walter A.. Horace T. 

and Maurice T. Fleisher. 
Lent by Mrs. W. B. Saunders. 

Lent by Mrs. John Thompson Spencer. 



Lent by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 
Given by Mrs. Gregor Drummond. 
Given by Master Frederick Fraley, Jr. 

Given by Dr. E. S. Vanderslice. 

> Given by Miss Otilie Bachman, 

Lent by Mrs. W. B. Saunders. 
Given by Mr. Howard F. Stratton. 



MEMBERSHIP 

The Trustees of the Pennsylvania Museum 
and School of Industrial Art desire the active 
co-operation of all public-spirited citizens 
who are known to be in sympathy with its 
educational work. All such persons are 
invited to become members. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS 

Patron Members in Perpetuity — Those 
who contribute the sum of $5000 or more 
whether in money or objects for the Museum. 

Fellowship Members in Perpetuity — Those 
who contribute $1000 at one time. 

Life Members — Those who contribute the 
sum of $100 or more at one time. 

Annual Members — Those who contribute 
not less than $10 yearly. 

The contributions received from Patrons 
($5000), and from Life Members ($100), are 
added to the permanent Endowment Fund. 
Contributions from Annual Members ($10) 
are used to the best advantage in the develop- 
ment of the Museum and the School. 

ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP 

All members are entitled to the following 
benefits: 

The right to vote and transact business 
at the Annual Meeting. 

Invitations to all general receptions and 
exhibitions held at the Museum and the 
School. 

Free access to the Museum and School 
Libraries and admission to all lectures. 

Also a copy of each of the following pub- 
lications: 

The Annual Report of the Corporation. 

The Annual Circulars of the School of 
Applied Art and the Philadelphia Textile 
School. 

The Art Handbooks and Art Primers, 
issued from time to time by the Museum 
(a printed list of publications will be mailed 
to any member on application). 

The Illustrated Quarterly BriLiETiN of the 
Museum. 

A list of members is published each year 
in the Annual Report. 

Applications for membership, and remit- 
tances should be sent to the Secretary, 
P. M. & S. I. A., 320 South Broad Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOURS OF ADMISSION 

The Museum is open, free to the public, 
every day in the year. 
Opening Hours: 
Mondays at 12 M. 
Other Week Days at 9.30 A. M. 
Sundays at 1 P. M. 
Closing Hours: 

During the summer months, 5 P. M. 

(Sundays, 6 P. M.) 
During the winter months, a half hour 
before sunset. 



CATALOGUES, HANDBOOKS, ETC. 
(On sale at the South Entrance) 

Handbook of the Museum $0.25 

A Brief History of the Bayeux Tapestry . 10 
Cork Models of Windsor Castle, Tower 
of London, Westminster Abbey, 

Church of St. Peter, Rome 10 

The Great Seals of England 25 

Handbook of the Collection of Tulip 
Ware of the Pennsylvania-German 
Potters: 

Paper cover 1 . 00 

Large paper edition. Cloth 5 . 00 

Handbook of the Maiolica of Mexico: 

Paper cover 1 . 00 

Flexible Art Canvas 2.00 

Art Primer No. 3, Lead Glazed Pottery .50 
Art Primer No. 5, Tin Enameled Pot- 
tery 50 

Art Primer No. 6, Salt Glazed Stone- 
ware 50 

Art Primer No. 9, Hard Paste Porce- 
lain 50 

Art Primer No. 1 1 , Artificial Soft Paste 

Porcelain 50 

Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum 

(quarterly), per annum 1 . 00 

Catalogue of Tiles 25 

Catalogue of Fakes and Reproductions .25 



Friends of the Institution who desire 
to devise to it money should use the fol- 
lowing: 

Form of Bequest 

I give and bequeath unto the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum and School of Industrial Art 

the sum of dollars 

for the use of the said Corporation. 

Witnesses 



Form of Devise of Real Estate 

I give and devise unto the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art, its 
successors and assigns, all that certain (here 
insert a description of the property) for the 
use of the said Corporation. 



Witnesses.. 



N 



'f^M^ MUSEU 



AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



KUSBUti COMMTTTEB 



lOAs V. Seelbk 
.■:rs. W. T. Cattbe 



?.y Jkkss 

- nTEXER 


Mrs. 

NTp.s. 


W. D. Frishmdth 

TOHX n.\RRISON 

9roTBSBUS\ 


Mes. Corn: 


.■.X.HSOX, ScD., 




Tertfles, Lac« aod E'-'br; 


Ms=. 


John Haskisqn 

OKBS WiSTBS 

untBD DuANB Pell 


Oriental F. •■-■ — 




A — = -. - " 




- •- Stkvbnson 


i • - 




. rKEBR 

PwsffsnjTH 






yHEDf 

SnsLiNO Caldbr 



□rsiKacnoB comcnTEK 
~R*BCH, Chairman 



RTHVB V. 
HOUAS RO 



JaME; 

Wru.: 



ASSOCIATB COJtMITTSE O? WOMKa TO THB BOARD Of TUOSTSBa 
FteaSdMl 

Mes Fc.-DcaJH Blakkkn 



not Vie*-Pn Mml 
Miss Nina. Lba 



9»ad Vic«-Pra8idao< 
sTBss Santa Etuj-iA 

Tree*nreJ 



r Hamptos Todo