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Full text of "Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools : giving a brief account of the origin of the late civil war, the rise and progress of the orphan system, and legislative enactments relating thereto ; with brief sketches and engravings of the several institutions, with names of pupils subjoined"

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PENNSYLVANIA'S 

Soldiers' Orphan Schools. 




DEPARTMENT OF SOLDIERS' ORPHANS' SCHOOLS, | 
Harrisburo, March 15, 1876. j 

It aflbrds me no ordinary degree of satisfaction to bear testimony to the 
moeancj and official character of this volume, prepared by Colonel James L. 
Paul, CSiief Clerk of the Orphan School Department. His abundant oppor- 
tunities for obtaining materials, and his known industry and ability, are a suffi- 
denl guarantee that the work is complete, readable, and reliable. 

To tell how a great State has expended over five millions of dollars in main- 
and educating over eight thousand children, made fatherless by the 
of war, is a laudable and grateful undertaking. 

8ach a narratiTe forms a history of one of the grandest achievements of 
humanity, and constitutes a most appropriate contribution from our State, with 
which to crown the centennial year of our national independence. 

J. P. WiCKERSHAM, 

Supt. Public Instruction. 



EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, 1 
Harrisburo, Pa., March 16, 1876. ) 

Col. Jambb L. Paul, Chief Clerk of the Orphan School Department of 
PefiMylrania, having been intimately associated for years with the direction 
and control of tlie orphan schools, and being so well fitted by intelligence and 
•docation, ha* told the story of their origin, progress, and benefits in a manner 
ntUalag great credit ui)on himself and the Commonwealth. I cheerfully 
commend hb work to the i)eople of Pennsylvania, who have so generously and 
p uriotically Mintaiued the orphan school system. 

J. F. Hartranft. 







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PENNSYLVANIA'S 



Soldiers' Orphan Schools, 



GIVING A 

BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF THE LATE CIVIL WAR, THE 

RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE ORPHAN SYSTEM, AND 

LEGISLATIVE ENACTMENTS REUTING THERETO; 

WITH 

BRIEF SKETCHES AND ENGRAVINGS OF THE 

SEVERAL INSTITUTIONS, WITH NAMES 

OF PUPILS SUBJOINED. 



'God is pleased with no music below so much as the thanksgiving songs of reliered 
widows, of supported orphans." — Jeremy Tatlob. 



BY 



JAMES LAUGHEEY PAUL, 

CHIEF CLERK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 
HARRISBURG, PENNA. 



jUnslratf^ bg f reAwick Jfaas. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
CLAXTON, REMSEN & HAFFELFENGER, 

624, 626 & 628 Market Street. 
1876. 



Gotered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by 

JAMES LAUGHEEY PAUL, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



■^ 



3. PAOAN * BON, 
ILB0TB0TTPER8, PHILAD'A. ^^ 

-^^yx ^ 



S«lh«lm«r L Moore, Prtnt*r«- 
601 Cheatnai £ treei. 




^iliatj} \\h fiflm^ 



TO THE 



Fatherless Children of my Fallen Comrades, 



AS 



A TOKEN OF ESTEEM 



FOR THE LIVING 



AND A TRIBUTE OF REMEMBRANCE 



Wo iht §mL 






HE reason for presenting the history of the sol- 
diers' orplian schools of the State to the public 
at this time, is to enable our own people, as 
well as tliose of sister States and foreign nations 
that may take part in our Centennial Exhibition, to see 
and comprehend the humanity, policy, and magnitude of 
the work ; to help deepen the appreciation of the thou- 
sands of unfortunate children who have enjoyed the benefits 
of the system by informing them fully as to what the State 
has done for them. Above all, to educate coming gen- 
erations to the belief that if men fall on the battle-field or 
in the discharge of the duties which they owe to the nation, 
in the defence of Liberty, Justice, and Right, a loving and 
God-fearing people will take their ofi:spring to themselves 
as their own, and, so far as can be, fit them physically, 
mentally, and morally for the stern . realities of this world 
and the enjoyments of that which lies beyond. 

Comprehending the importance of the work, and with a 
modest hope of appreciation, the author has spared neither 
time nor money in the preparation of this volume. He 
now ofl:ers it to the public as a full and complete history of 
the grand project, from the moment it was suggested to the 
mind of Andrew G. Curtin, then Governor of the State, 
by two soldiers' orphans asking for bread at the door of the 
Executive Mansion, Thanksgiving morning, I^ovember 26, 
1863, — until the present time; when, in the zenith of 
prosperity — thanks to the munificence of the Pennsylvania 

vii 



viii PREFACE. 

Railroad Company and the Legislature of the State — an 
army of widows and orphans throughout the length and 
breadth of the Commonwealth raise their voices in testi- 
mony of the value of the great system, and pour their 
heartfelt blessings on the heads of those who gave it birth 
and the great State which has fostered it so tenderly. 

The author, feeling conscious of his inability, while 
pressed with other duties connected with its publication, to 
give the work that literary finish its importance demanded, 
was fortunate in securing, as an assistant in this respect, the 
services of Rev. Columbus Cornforth, A. M. This gentle- 
man's ripe scholarship, fine literary taste, coupled with an 
experience of ten years in the practical workings of the 
system as State Inspector and Examiner, rendered his 
counsel and labors invaluable; and for his kind ofiices 
grateful acknowledgments are tendered. 

Acknowledgments are here warmly offered to the Prin- 
cipals of the several Schools and Homes for their ready and 
prompt cooperation in supplying facts and statistics relating 
to the institutions over which they preside. 

The author cannot take leave of the reader without ex- 
pressing also his obligations to the Electrotype and Stereo- 
type establishment of J. Fagan & Son, and to the proof- 
readers, Messrs. Lorrilliere and Magee, whose critical liter- 
ary judgment and typographic taste in reading and arrange- 
ment, have been of great service in preparing the book for 
prow*. 

J. L. P. 
Habrisburo, Pa., 

April 15, 1876. 




^^^^i^i^;^^. 




PART I 



CIIArTER I. 

The Conflict which Terminated in the War that made 
THE Children Fatherless. 

Pennsylvania's Thank-offering — Slavery in the Colonies — First Continental 
Congress, 1774 — Carpenters' Hall — Articles of Confederation — Address to 
the American People — Congress of 1776 — The First Compromise with 
Slavery — The Expunged Charge against the Repudiated King — Artides.of 
Confederation of 1781 — Constitution Adopted,1789 — Concessions to Slavery — 
Slavery Excluded from the North-west Territory — Louisiana Purchase, 
1803 — Slave Market — Missouri Admitted, 1820 — A Compromise — Texas 
Packed — War of Conquest with Mexico — Wilmot Proviso — Gold Dis- 
covered in California, 1848 — Compromise, 1850 — Anti-Slavery Organi- 
zations — Repeal of the Missouri Compromise — Kansas-Nebraska Act — 
Civil War Kindled — Republican Party Organized — Buchanan's Presidency 
— Presidential Contest, 1860 — Abraham Lincoln Elected — Southern Con- 
federacy — Lincoln Inaugurated — Fort Sumter — Civil War Begun — "Bat- 
tle-Hymn "— Sacrifices of the War — Its Gains 17-28 

CHAPTER II. 
The "War Governor" and "Soldiers' Friend." 

Andrew G. Curtin, Governor of Pennsylvania, During the Civil War — His 
Responsibility — His Devotiv,n to the Union — His Care for the Sol- 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

A Special Providence and the Pennsylvania Railroad 

Company. 

Thanksgiving — Soldiers' Orphans Ask for Food — A Meeting in the Academy 
of Music, Philadelphia — Governor Curtin Pleads for the Orphans of Sol- 
diers — Patriotic Meeting in Pittsburgh in July, 1862 — The Pennsylvania 
Kailroad Company Proffers $50,000 31-34 



CHAPTER lY. 
The Rejected Stone. 

The First Official Document — The First Attempt to Frame a Law to Establish 
Schools — Dr. Wickersham's Bill — Special Message of the Governor — The 
Debate— Wells' Substitute — The Original Bill and Substitute Fall — Act of 
1864 — The Ingratitude of Legislators 35-43 



CHAPTER V. 

The System Organized. 

Dr. Barrowefl appointed Superintendent — His Fitness — Plan under Act of 
1864 — Office Opened, and Books and Blank Forms Originated — Blank Form 
of Application for Admission — Homes for the Younger Children — Difficul- 
ties in Finding Institutions for the Older Children — Pioneer Institutions — 
Committees of Superintendence appointed — The Mothers' Prejudices — 
Religion — SuperinU'ndent's First Report — The Foundation Laid 44-53 



CHAPTER VI. 
The System Imperilled. 

M«Hige of the Ooyemor — Encouraging Words — Negle/a Bill — Proposes 
to Abolljih the Schools, and give the Orphans into the Care of the Officers 
of thf (Uimmnn Schools — $30 a year — Proposed Amendments — Bill Passes 
tlie Houiw— Hill gom to the Senate— Remarks of Senators Wortliington, 
WallMce, and Clymer— It Passes the Senate with Important Amendments — 
rommiU«« of Conference — Act of 1865 — $7o,000 Appropriated — Demand 
for more 8cboob — Remilti 54-60 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER VII. 
The System Saved by the Orphans. 

Discouragements — Governor's Message — McAfee's Bill — Warm Discussion 
— Passes the House— rDestrnction of the System Threatened — Visit of the 
Children to the Capitol — Dr. Burrowes Explains — Songs and Recitations — 
Speech of Governor Curtin — Children and Teachers in Executive Chamber 
-7- Children in Court-House — Hospitality of the Citizens — McAfee's Bill 
Falls '. 61-76 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Additional Officers Appointed. 

Amos Row, Examiner — Wm. L. Bear, Inspector 77, 78 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Officers and Principals in Council. 

Industrial Feature Discussed 79 



CHAPTER X. 

A Trip to Philadelphia — The Orphans and the Battle- 
Flags. 

Schools Participating — Society of the Cincinnati — Flags for Pennsylvania 
Regiments — Fourth of July, 1866 — Formal Return of the Flags — En- 
thusiasm — General Meade's Address — Governor Curtin's Reply — The 
Enviable Lot of the Fatherless 80-89 



CHAPTER XL 

Instructions Issued to the Principals. 

School-room Duties to have Precedence — Every Pupil to have an Equal 
Chance — Early Rising Condemned — Rest, Play, Exercise — Corporal 
Punishment — Distribution of Time — Time; Rise; Eat; School; Worship 

— Rules for the School-room — Duties of the Principal Teacher — To In- 
struct; To Send out Classes; Receive Reports from Class Examiner, etc. 

— Pupils not allowed Text-books out of School Hours — Few Studies — 



xil CONTENTS. 

Topicd Studj — General Reading — Dictionaries, Cyclopedias, etc. — Duties 
of C'lajw Examiner — Number of Pupils, Teachers, and Class-rooms — Pro- 
gramme —Work Details — Comfort — Labor — Employees— Kules for Order, 
Neatnem, ajid Work — Wednesday Inspection — Food — Clothing — Inspec- 
tion of New Pupils, and Care of Sick — Religious Instruction and Worship 
— Sunday Observances — Home Correspondence — Visits of Mothers — 
Vacations '. 90-107 

CHAPTER XIL 
The Results at the Close of the Year 1866. 

MoreSchooU Established — Results Tabulated 108, 109 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Rejected Stone Becomes the Head of the Corner. 

The System Recognized by Statutory Law — Law of 1867 — In Sympathy with 
Established Plan — Dr. Bnrrowes' Success- His Tenure of Office Ex- 
pires 110-114 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Trust in !N'ew Hands. 

John White Geary — Extracts from his Annual Messages — Appointments — 
George Fi«her McFarland — Columbus Cornforth — Mrs. E. W. Hutter — 
John Dickie Shryock — James L. Paul — Edmund K. Sutton 115-121 

CHAPTER XV. 

The System Settled, and its Difficulties. 

Deficit — Rates Reduced — Schools Crowded — System not Perfected — Colored 
Soldien^ Orphans — A Circular — More Schools Established — Forms for 
Bqwrti— Weekly; Monthly; Annual 122-130 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Education and Training. 

3nMUd Coane of Study ~ Annual Examinations — Industrial Instruction — 
R«ligkNM Training 131-134 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Loans and Taxation. 

Act of 1868 and Supplement — Schools Receiving Loans — Exempt from 
Taxation — The Act — Supplement 135-137 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

The Trust Confided to the Superintendent of Public 

Instruction. 

t 

Superintendent Wickersham Calls a Meeting of Principals — Inspection Re- 
port — Diploma — Course of Study Modified — Change in the Manner of 
Supplying Clothing — Rates per Ajinum per Pupil allowed by the State — 
Cost of Clothing — Manner of Keeping Accounts — Wood-cuts of Orphans — 
Dress Described 138-146 

CHAPTER XIX. 
John Frederick Hartranft. 

He Commands in more than a Score of Battles — Complimented by the Govern- 
ment — The Soldiers' Orphans at his First Inaugural — The Inptitutions 
Participating — His Words of Encouragement to them — Extracts from his 
State Papers — His Second Inaugural 147-149 

CHAPTER XX. 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

Their Sympathy and Services to the Orphans — Normal School Training 
Secured through them — Other Advantages Secured — Kindness and Timely 
Aid 150-153 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Inside View. 

Scholastic Training and Systematic Labor — Extract from Inspector Comforth's 
Report of 1864 — Harmonious Working of the Industrial Departments and 
the Scliool-room — Programme — Home Comforts and Privileges — Good 
Health of the Children — Culture and Education — Elevating Influences of 
the Schools upon Society — Conclusion 154-160 



j^y CONTENTS. 

PART II. 
SCHOOLS, HOMES, AND ASYLUMS. 



PAGES 



Bibd'8-eye View of Pennsylvania's Soldiers' Orphan Schools. 163-167 
NoBTHEBH Home fob Fbiendless Children, and Soldiers' and 

Saii/)B8' Orphan Institute 169-188 

Pa&adise School • 189-195 

McAlwterv I lle School 196-213 

<irAKERTOWN SCMOOL 214-219 

Moi NT Joy School 220-238 

Emmaus Orphan House. 239-241 

Dayton School 242-255 

Obakoeville School 256-264 

Habpord School 265-277 

North Sewickley School 278-282 

CamvilleScho,., 283-299 

Soldiers' OnpH.\N Home 300-303 

PuiLLiPsm i;.,n S. iiMoi 304-319 

JACMOirviLLE School 320-325 

TTkiovtown' .School - 326-338 

MAN Catholic Orphan Asylum 339-340 

I'i: :j : A.NT ORPHAN AsYUM OF PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 341-348 

r IIoMK As- H 1 mimx 349,350 

351-365 

! iM ANiowx 366-369 

370-375 

'' i: r in: Friendless 376-379 

380-389 

390-395 

396-408 

^ " 409-424 

III) W'fUm F0« FRIEVDLEBB Clin.iui >, i.i; nil; HoROUGH OF 

WlUUDttAEREAHDTHBCODKTV OF Ll. 425-430 

OnjBCB Home for Children (Kpiscor , ,.i:a. IMiila- 

WttFHU 431-437 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGES 

St. James' Orphan Asylum 438 

Bridoewater School 439-446 

Bethany Orphans' Home (Woraelsdorf) 447-450 

Tressler Orphans' Home 451-458 

Home for Friendless Children for the City and County of 

Lancaster 459-465 

Mercer School 466-479 

Mansfield School 480^92 

Industrial School 493, 494 

Butler Orphan Home 495-499 

St. John's Orphan Asylum 500-502 

Catholic Home 503, 504 

St. Vincent's College 505-510 

Orphans' Home 511 

"Children's Home," of York 512-515 

St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum 516,517 

Orphans' Farm School 518 

Nazareth Hall 518 

Pennsylvania Training-school for Feeble-minded Children.. 518, 519 
Out-door Relief ; 520 




|(ntt$tr8ii0t|$, 



»rATi Capitol, Harbisburo Frontispiece. 

JamibL. Paul. Facing page 17 

Andrew G. CuRTiN " " ^9 

Thomas H. BuRRowES " " ^ 

JoHH W. Geary " " 1^^ 

Gbobob F. McFakland " "^ H^ 

Columbus CoRNFORTH " " ^^ 

Mrs. Elizabeth E. HuTTER " " ^^ 

JaMBB P. WiCKERSHAM " " l^^ 

John F. Hartranft " " ^^'^ 

Northern Home FOR Friendless Children " " 169 

MacGrBOOR J. MiTCHESON " " 171 

E.W.HuTrER " " 172 

Soldiers' Orphan Institute " " 173 

John W. Claohorn " " 175 

McAlisterville School " " 196 

Mount Joy School. " " 220 

Dayton School " " 242 

Habford School " " 265 

Casbville School " " 283 

Philliphburoh School (Front View)... " " 304 

Philup»buroh School (South Side) " " 305 

DBioiitowH School " " 326 

Pbotebtant Orphan Asylum of Pittsburgh and Alle- 
gheny " " 341 

White Hall School " " 351 

Andersonburo School " " 370 

I^ncoln Institution " " 380 

Gem. Gboboe G. Meade. " " 882 

Educational Home " " 390 

Chbiteb Sprinos School " " 409 

Church Home for Children (Episcopal), Angora, Phila- 
delphia " " 431 

Bbiduewatkr School " " 439 

Tbbmlbr Orphans' Home " " 451 

Mbbcbe School " " 466 

Mabifibld HcH(x>L " " 480 

8r. Paul's Orphan Home, Butler " " 495 

8r. VufCKnys Abbey AND College " " 505 

OmMUDf*! UoMB, York " " 512 

xvi 




ikt^<zx^c^ oC^< a^tc<^K^ 



PEIsrNSTLTATsnA^S 



SOLDIEES' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



CHAPTER I. 




THE CONFLICT WHICH TERMINATED IN THE WAR THAT 
MADE THE CHILDREN FATHERLESS. 

O say that Pennsylvania stands £rst among the great sis- 
terhood of States which compose the American Republic, 
in the noble work of caring for the children made neces- 
sitous by the casualties of war, is no empty boast It 
would, in fact, be within the limits of truth to affirm that the Key- 
stone State has done, and is doing, more to succor the offspring of 
her soldiers who lost life or limb in their country's service, than all 
the other States combined. Indeed, the annals of the race do not 
furnish a similar instance where a State has adopted, as her special 
wards, all the dependent children of her slain and crippled warriors. 
In this ciiuse she has already given over five millions of dollars as 
a thank-offering to the valor that saved the nation entire, when a 
great and wicked rebellion threatened its dismemberment and ruin, 
and gathered under her protecting and guiding care, from her cities, 
her hamlets, her valleys, and her mountains, over eight thousand 
children who represent either the grave or the mangled form of a 
soldier. And the good work is still going on, and will continue till 
every child of the class designated shall have passed beyond the 
years of dependency. 

But before giving an account of the origin and progress of this 
great work, a hasty glance at the cause of the tremendous conflict 
that made the children orphans will be in place. Such a war could 
not have been provoked except for the passions excited in the defence 
of slavery. Early in the history of the British colonies in North 
2 17 



18 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

America, negroes were imported into them and sold as slaves. The 
accursed system of slave labor was introduced and perpetuated with 
the sanction of no law but that of common consent. The descendants 
of the Puritan and the Cavalier alike owned property in man. The 
number of slaves in the Northern colonies, however, was never large. 
This was due more to the ruggedness of the soil, and the severity of 
the climate, than to the purity of their moral code. In the sunny 
and luxurious South the African found a congenial sky, and her 
fields, though tilled with unskilled hands, made rich returns. Here 
the evil took deep root, and spread rapidly. 

But when the colonists themselves were made to suffer beneath the 
oppression of their mother country, they resented the wrong, and 
demanded their rights as British subjects, and began to discourse 
upon the blessings of liberty, and to discuss the nature of man's ina- 
lienable rights. The duty of freeing themselves from political bond- 
age worked a spirit of liberty which was hostile to personal slavery. 
This fact is clearly seen in the records of the earliest measures taken 
by the colonies to form a bond of union for their mutual protection. 
For this purpose the first Continental or general American Congress 
met, in 1774, in Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, and adopted the 
famous Articles of Confederation, which condemned, in the strongest 
terms, the importation of slaves. There were present delegates from 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, and South Carolina. The action of this body was heartily 
approved by the masses of the people^ to whom the word "slave" was 
becoming odious, save to a few sordid souls. After the lapse of more 
than a century, we read with peculiar interest the following com- 
ments upon this Congress, taken from a paper entitled Observations 
Addrettned to the American People, published in Philadelphia, and 
dated November 4, 1774: 

"The leant deviation from the resolves of Congress will be treason against 
the prenent inhabitants of the colonies — against the millions of nnborn genera- 
lioiw who are to exist hereafter in America — against the only liberty and 
liappincM which remain to mankind— against the last hopes of the wretched in 

•▼•ry corner of the world ; in a word, it will be treason against God 

Wt ore now laying the foundations of Amet^ican OomtUution. Posterity will most 
probftbly meaRure their liljerties and happiness by the most careless of our foot- 
•tep». I/et no unhallowed hand touch the precious seed of liberty. Let us form 
ih© gloriuuN tree in such a manner, and impregnate it with such principles of 
life, that It will InMt forever. . . . T almost ttush to live to hear the triumphs of 
tht jubiUe in the year 1874; to see the modeh, pictures, fragmaiis of uritings, that 



19 
\ * 

shall be displayed to revive the memory of the proceedings of the Congress of 1774. If 
any adventitious circumstances shall give precedency on that day, it shall be to inherit 
tfie blood, or even to possess the name, of a member of thai glorious assembly?* 

How like a prophecy is the language of the ancient patriot ! 

Had the American people been true to the spirit of 1774, had they 
preserved inviolate the Articles of Confederation, and had they 
heeded the words of warning which issued from the press of that day, 
and taken no false steps, how different would have been the condition 
of our country on this Centennial year I There would have been no 
sectional hates, no smothei^d feelings of revenge, and no backward 
steps to be taken ! The imagination loves to dwell on the glorious 
possibilities of a people severed from the traditional fetters of society 
by the broad Atlantic, nurtured amid the wild freedom of the forest, 
taught the love of liberty in the school of oppression, and enlightened 
and guided by the holy oracles of Christianity ! 

The next general Congress of the American people was in 1776. 
It was this body, as all the world knows, that made the immortal 
Declaration of Independence, and held as self-evident truths " that 
all men are created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the 
pursuit of happiness ; " and " to secure these, governments are insti- 
tuted among men." And yet, sad to relate, it is among the doings 
of this Congress we find the first compromise with slavery. In the 
original list of offences charged against the repudiated king of Great 
Britain is the following serious accusation : 

"He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most 
sacred rights of life and liberty, in the persons of a distant people who never 
offended hira, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemi- 
sphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This pirat- 
ical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian 
king of Great Britain. Determined to keep a market where, men should be 
bought and sold, he has at length prostituted his negative for suppressing any 
legislative attempt to prohibit and restrain this execrable commerce." 

This paragraph, being objected to by the Georgia delegation, was 
expunged from the document for the sake of unanimity. What 
misery this concession may have brought upon "millions of" then 
" unborn generations " ! 

The Articles of Confederation, ado-pted in 1781, contained no recog- 
nition of slavery. Evidences are numerous that at this time the lead- 
ing men of the nation, North and South, looked with disfavor upon 



20 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

the evil. During, or immediately after, the war for independence, 
legislative measures were taken in all the States north of Mason and 
Dixou's Hue, except Delaware, for the immediate or gradual eman- 
cipation of the slaves within their borders, and States farther south 
seemed ready to follow their example. 

In 1789, the Constitution under which we now live was adopted, 
the Articles of Confederation proving inadequate to the wants of the 
Republic. A majority of the convention which framed this instru- 
ment were, like their compatriots of the Revolutionary era, opposed 
to slavery ; but at that early day the threat of disunion was made, 
and another compromise with wrong Ivas deemed necessary. A 
proposition to prohibit, at once and forever, the importation of slaves 
into the United States, was modified, at the instigation of the delegates 
from North Carolina and Georgia, by a proviso giving Congress the 
authority to interdict foreign slave-trade after 1808, a term of twenty 
years. It was declared that with no slave-trade there could be no 
Union, and the dire ultimatum was too readily accepted. Again 
slavery was recognized in the Constitution in deciding the basis of 
representation in Congress, and direct taxation. These were " ap- 
portioned " among the several States according to their respective 
numbers, which was determined by adding to the whole number of 
free population " three-fifths of all other persons." The " other per- 
eons" alluded to were slaves; and, consequently, the citizens of the 
slaveholding States held a greater political influence in the National 
Legislature than those of the non-slaveholding States. There was 
al.*o ingrafted into the Constitution a clause making it lawful to pur- 
sue slaves escaping from one State into another, and drag them back 
into bondage. Though these unfortunate recognitions of a great 
wrong were clearly in the Fundamental Law, the words slave and 
davery were excluded from it, as it must have appeared to the minds 
of the framers of the Constitution that both the rhetoric and logic of 
the Declaration of Independence were a protest against holding any 
human being in bondage. 

Nor were these concessions to slavery made without a struggle. 
The emergency was such as statesmen are seldom called upon to 
meet There were such conflicting interests in the Convention that 
for a long time it was feared its members would fail to come to an 
agreement Propositionn to adjourn finally had been made. The 
&lr, new nation, which had been conceived by the wisest statesman- 
ship, and born by the patriolic throes of a whole people, and baptized 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 21 

in the blood of the bravest, was about to perish. Those who saw the 
danger dare not adjourn without accomplishing the object for which 
they had assembled. A considerate majority yielded to a reckless 
minority, only when the preservation of the nation seemed to demand 
the costly sacrifice. 

One of the first acts of Congress, under the Constitution, was to 
prohibit the introduction of slavery into what was then designated 
the North-west Territory — a vast extent of country, from which the 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa have 
been subsequently formed. This measure was proposed by Thomas 
Jefferson, and .received the vote of the entire Southern delegation. 
At this time the opinion of the South itself regarded slavery as a 
social, political, and moral evil, forced upon them by England, dif- 
ficult to be got rid of, but soon to' pass away. Slaveholders freely 
admitted the wrongs of the system, and discussed the subject privately 
and in public. 

In 1803, the United States made the Louisiana purchase. For 
generations this region, whether under French or Spanish rule, had 
been slave territory. This act opened the vast and fertile Mississippi 
valley to the cultivation of cotton ; and the invention of the cotton- 
gin made the growth of this plant exceedingly profitable. Sugar- 
cane and rice were also lucrative crops. These new industries created 
a demand for slave labor, and some of the more northern of the 
Southern States turned their attention to breeding slaves for the 
Southern market. Virginia and Kentucky became infamous in this 
barbarous commerce. A counter sentiment began to take place in 
Southern opinion. Slavery, which once asked but to live, humble 
and ashamed, ceased to apologize for its existence, and began to pro- 
claim its moral excellency, and ask for room to expand. The reaction, 
at first almost imperceptible, became more and more marked and 
decided, until it gained the ascendency, and changed the policy of 
the nation in regard to the restriction of slavery. In 1820, Missouri 
was admitted as a slave State ; but not till after an angry debate, 
threats from the South to sever the Union, and a compromise, by 
which slavery was allowed in Missouri, but excluded from all the 
country west and north of that State. The faith of thoughtful men 
was even then shaken in the perpetuity of the national compact, and 
through fear the opponents of the measure conceded what they had 
the right and the power to deny. The whole country was violently 
agitated, and sectional antipathies were engendered by the struggle. 



22 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

For a season this " Missouri Compromise " seemed to allay hostile 
feelings. But the emissaries of the slave power were at work seeking 
to enlarge its domains. Texas, one of the States of the Mexican Re- 
public, was packed with adventurers from the Southern States. 
Controlled by their counsels, she seceded from the Mexican Union 
because that Republic had abolished slavery. A free Republic on 
our southern boundary was not desired by the slaveholders, and 
besides they hankered for additional slave territory ; and as Congress 
now had become the pliant tool of their policy, Texas, before her 
independence had been acknowledged by Mexico, was annexed to 
the United States. Nor was this sufficient. The propagandists of 
slavery looked beyond the Rio Grande with a covetous eye. They 
provoked Mexico, when she preferred peace, to hostile steps, which 
were made a pretext for waging a war of conquest which resulted in 
the acquisition of New Mexico and Upper California — a vast extent 
of country reaching from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean. At 
this enlargement of area, supposed to be opened to slavery, there was 
gpi'eat rejoicing all over the South. The way seemed to be prepared 
for the controlling power of the Government, at no distant day, to be 
lodged in the hands of the advocates of slavery. But at the very 
moment wlien their wishes seemed about to be consummated, an un- 
expected difficulty presented itself in the Wilmot Proviso, which 
threatened to exclude slavery from the newly acquired territory. 
This measure was twice adopted in the House of Representatives, but 
defeated in the Senate. The spirit of the North was aroused, and 
throughout the Free States the indispensable condition of support at 
the polls was a pledge to stand by the Proviso. The discovery of 
gold in California, during the very month — July, 1848 — that the 
treaty with Mexico was signed, brought in a host of hardy adven- 
turers from the North, who assured that country to free labor. 

And growing directly out of the questions raised in fixing the status 
of slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico, was the famous, or 
infamous, compromise of 1850, one of the provisions of which was 
the Fugitive Slave Law. The manifest injustice, and the cruelties 
and barbarities attending the execution of this code, intensified the 
hatred of slavery in all the Free States, and a powerful counter- 
reaction set in tx) wards the purer sentiments which prevailed in the 
earlier days of the Republic, when statesmen and the churches, North 
and South, were conscientiously opposed to slavery. A few years 
before, Abolition societies were broken up by mob violence in Boston 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 23 

and other Northern cities, and there was not a conspicuous pulpit in 
the euUre laud that was not silent in regard to the evil. An un- 
friendly allusion to slavery, in the farthest North, by a lecturer or 
preacher, created a commotion. The cotton-mills of the North had 
joined hands with the cotton plantations of the South, and Cotton 
was king. Had not an overruling Providence interposed, a petty 
oligarchy of a few thousand might possibly have imposed the fatal 
yoke upon all America. But the aggressions of the slave power, 
always reckless and violent, awoke the slumbering conscience of the 
North. Anti-slavery organizations multiplied rapidly, and pulpits, 
long muzzled, began to denounce slavery as a sin. And yet there 
was a goodly majority at the South, and a still larger one at the 
North and North-west, in favor of maintaining the Union, and pre- 
serving cordial and fraternal relations between the diiierent sections 
of the country. 

When Congress met in December, 1853, there was an exhibition 
of a better feeling than had prevailed since the stormy session of 1850. 
The visible omens were auspicious of a coming year of political calm. 
But hardly had the preliminaries been arranged for entering upon 
business, when the grasping slave power again disturbed the peace 
of the country. Missouri was, as will be remembered, admitted into 
the Union as a slave State, after an angry debate and threats of 
secession, by a Compromise, in 1820, which excluded slavery from a 
vast region in the middle of the Continent, nearly twice as large as 
the thirteen original States. That part of the Compromise which 
strengthened slavery having taken full and vigorous effect, it was 
now attempted to repudiate that portion of the compact which favored 
the consecration of that vast area to free labor. It was proposed to 
organize this extensive domain into two territories, to be called re- 
spectively Nebraska and Kansas, and allow the inhabitants who 
should migrate and settle there to decide for themselves whether 
slavery would, or would not, be allowed within their borders. This 
breach of faith on the part of the slave propagandists kindled the 
rancor of the North. Public meetings were called by men of all 
parties to denounce the perfidious plot, and petitions and remon- 
strances flooded the Senate while the measure was pending in that 
body. 

The minions of the slave party were successful in the contest, and 
the terrible struggle which Congress had invited, for the possession 
of Kansas, by the friends of freedom and bondage, followed. A 



24 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

few days after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, hundreds of 
Mi^tourians, on the western border, temporarily crossed into the 
adjoiuing liiriioiy with the intent of taking possession of Kansas in 
behalf of slavery. On the other hand, associations were formed in 
the Ka,<tt'rn States to facilitate the migration of their citizens thither 
with tln' ]>ur|)o<c of iiuikiiig Kansas a Free State. The "Border 
Ruffian- " Wire <ietermined to drive out the peaceful settlers of the 
Ka>t. a;.(l rivil war was kindled. A Congressional committee was 
a ■ the condition of affairs in the disturbed ter- 

niory, aim inc iiiajoniy reported decidedly in favor of the friends of 
Free<lo!n. This continual sectional agitation of the country, by the 
i: led aggressions of the slave-owners, resulted in the formation 

oi 1. ...puhlican party of men of all political creeds, who were 
0]>iH.M(l uj ihc further extension of slavery. In 1856, the new 
organization noiniiiated Colonel John C. Fremont for the Presidency ; 
tlie Democrats nominated James Buchanan ; and the Americans, or 
KnowO'.'oihiiig party, nominated Ex-President Millard Fillmore. 

The couu'si which ensued was exciting and animated. The Re- 
publicans caiik;(l the six New England States, New York, Ohio, 
Michi;jaii, Wiscoiiftiu, and Iowa. Buchanan, though he lacked a 
majority over both his competitors, was elected by a decided plurality. 

The beginning of his administration was disturbed by a remarkable 
ruling of the Ch lei- Justice of the United States, to the effect that a 
freetl in'^rro -lave, or a descendant of a slave, could never become a 
citizMi (<i ihc lujuibru'. This strained and new construction of the 
Coui^titution affected almost every man of African descent in the 
country, an<l produced nuich dissatisfaction and universal discussion, 
aud added intensity to j)arty feeling. 

The country was deeply stirred, during the whole of Buchanan's 
presidency, by questions relating to slavery. When steps were taken 
U> admit Kan.si- int.. iht Tnion as a State, the pro-slavery and the 

•"^'"•'■" ' '''11 ill that 'i(riit(.ry each framed a State Constitution. 

*"*' ' 11" 11 wt r( j)!* v( iit((l by violence from voting against 

the Coij*.iiLuliou framed in t he iiit( i ( sts of slavery ; nevertheless. Presi- 
dent niielianan d.-elMn-d \i to be Kn-al. At a su])sequoiit election, in 
^ ! Ruffians" did not participate, the pro-slavery 



lIUlKiU 



w;ui rejected by ton tliousand majority. The President, 
1. . rth<-h-»<x, l»liiidly iHTsistcnl in disregarding this expression of the 
^*^^ "' '' , "p!''. and sent the bogus, pro-slavery (\.nsiituti()n to 
CoiigUrtr, ..i. i ;. k. .1 that Kansas b. re^i ived as a slave State. Con- 



gress, however, properly ordered it to be again submitted to the vote 
of the people ; and it was a second time rejected by a majority of 
nearly ten thousand ; and Kansas at length came into the Union as 
a Free State. 

It was during Mr. Buchanan's term of office that the slaveholders 
ventured to claim that the fundamental law of the United States 
legalized slavery in all her Territories ; and some even went so far 
as to affirm that it made the odious system lawful in all the States 
of the Union, and the boast was made that the time was not distant 
when the taskmaster would call the roll of his slaves beneath the 
shadow of Bunker Hill. The bold attempt to make that Constitu- 
tion, from which its framers carefully eliminated the words "slave" 
and "slavery," an instrument of bondage throughout the nation, 
together with the continued offensive operations of the Fugitive Slave 
Law, greatly incensed the people of the Northern States ; and several 
of their Legislatures denounced the encroachments in unmeasured 
terms, and enacted laws to prevent the unjust execution of the 
black code. 

In the meantime leading men in the South were maturing measures 
to re-open the African slave trade. Native Africans were actually 
landed on the Southern coasts, and gladly received. 

These backward movements strengthened the friends of freedom 
in the North, and made many converts to their cause. 

In the autumn of 1860, another Presidential election occurred. 
The Democrats, split by the slave question, had two candidates in 
the field, namely, John C. Breckinridge and Stephen A. Douglas ; 
the Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. Besides these there 
was a fourth candidate put forward by the self-styled " Constitutional 
Union" party, which was so nearly a nonentity that it does not 
deserve mention. The Breckinridge party held that any citizen 
might lawfully take with him his slaves into any Territory of the 
United States, and that Congress was bound to protect him in the 
exercise of that right, regardless of the action of Territorial Legisla- 
tures. The Douglas party held that the white inhabitants of each 
Territory had the right to adopt or exclude slavery, and that Con- 
gress had no power to interfere. The Lincoln, or the Republican, 
party held that Congress was bound to prohibit or exclude slavery 
from all the Territories. In the canvass for the Presidency which 
followed, the issues were sharply defined. There was no ambiguity, 
deception, or double-dealing by devising, as had too often been the 



26 pennsylvajjia's soldiers' orphan schools. 

case, a platform which meant one thing iu the North and another 
thing in the South. After an exciting campaign, Abraham Lincoln 
was lairly elected by a constitutional majority. 

Then there was great commotion all over the South. The North 
awaited calmly for the return of reason to those who had been van- 
quished by the ballot. Four mouths must yet pass under the admin- 
istration of Mr. Buchanan. Treason, iu the meantime, was active. 
His Minister of War adroitly used the remainder of his power to 
strip the Government arsenals, located in the North, of their arms, 
and transfer them to the South ; the little army of regulars were sent 
to posts remote from Washington ; and the navy was scattered to the 
four comers of the sea. The first steps of the great rebellion were 
taken, under the protection of the Government, by the very men who 
had sworn to defend it. In the South, States began to withdraw^ from 
the Union. South Carolina took the lead. On the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, 1861, the Southern Confederacy was formed by delegates from 
the seceded States. A rebel Congress chose Jefferson Davis as 
President of the new " Confederacy." Forts, arsenals, mints, ships, 
custom-houses, and other Government property were seized, and 
armies raised to support the usurpation. The Star of the West, a 
Government steamer, was fired into and driven from Charleston 
harbor, while in the act of carrying supplies and reinforcements to 
the loyal Major Robert Anderson and his faithful band, who occupied 
Fort Sumter. While these deeds were being perpetrated, President 
Buchanan sat dazed in the Presidential chair, and made no serious 
eflbrt to check the conspiracy. 

Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1861. His 
predecessor in office escorted him to the White House, and retired 
into a merciful oblivion ; and the new President began to prepare for 
the great task which had been imposed upon him. The language of 
his iuaugural address was conciliatory and yet firm. Referring to 
the people of the South, he said : " In your hands, my dissatisfied 
fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, are the momentous issues of civil 
war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no oath 
n^figtered in Heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have 
the moet solemn one to ' preserve, protect, and defend ' it." He most 
dint I- -larod it to be his most solemn duty and determination, 

"^ '* 'f tl>« United States, to enforce the laws and repossess 

I'l arsenals, 
i m- iHi.pic oi the North were slow to admit that there would be 



PEN^'SYLVANIA^S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 27 

war. The South had so often threatened, and so often been quieted 
by fresh compromises, that it was diflficult to believe that now she 
meant anything more than to establish a position for extorting 
advantageous concessions. Indeed, honorable terms of peace were 
even now offered, but were rejected by the secessionists. 

During all the month of March, and on to the middle of April, 
Mr. Lincoln was strangely silent ; but it was not the silence of inde- 
cision. He was at a loss to know what the South really meant. 

The ominous stillness was at last broken, and the purpose of the 
South declared — the dream of peace broken, and the work of com- 
promising with slavery ended, by the bursting of a rebel shell over 
Fort Sumter, April 12th, 1861. This act aroused and united the 
North, and the uprising of her people was wonderful. Within 
twenty days almost two hundred thousand men were ready to take 
the field, and the loyal people had offered nearly forty millions of 
dollars for the war. This m\s the beginning of a momentous strug- 
gle, which continued four sad and weary years. The slave power was 
not weak or cowardly. It fought to the bitter end, surrendering 
only when utterly exhausted. The North suffered many defeats, and 
passed through many seasons of deepest gloom and discouragements. 
Had it not been for the deep-seated conviction that they were fighting 
in a righteous cause, they might have despaired. The whole people 
were humbled, and became thoughtful and grave under the awful 
circumstances amid which they lived. The following " Battle-Hymn 
of the Republic " is an embodiment of the popular sentiment of those 
portentous times : 

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord ; 
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored ; 
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword ; 
His Truth is marching on. 

I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps ; 
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps ; 
I have read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps ; 
His Day is marching on. 

I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnished rows of steel — 
** As you deal with My contemners, so with you My grace shall deal ; " 
Let the Hero born of woman crush the serpent with His heel, 
Since God is marching on. 



28 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat; 
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat; 
Oh I be swift, my soul, to answer Him ; be jubilant, my feet, — 
Our God is marching on. 

In the beauties of the lilies Christ was born across the sea. 
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me ; 
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free, 
While God is marching on. 

The sacrifices of the war were fearful. During its contiuuance two 
millioo seven hundred thousand men bore arms on the side of the 
North. Of this number ninety-six thousand men were killed in 
battle or died of wounds in hospitals ; one hundred and eighty thou- 
sand died of disease in hospitals ; and many more went home wounded 
or stricken with mortal disease, to die amid the scenes of their child- 
hood. Sad memories of the war are sacredly cherished in nearly 
every Northern home. 

But terrible as was the cost, its gains are great. The curse of 
slavery, which retarded progress, kindled sectional strife and civil 
war, and made us a byword among the Christian nations, has been 
removed. The fatal political heresy of State sovereignty has been 
branded as treason, and the lie that the Union is a weak bond of 
incoherent and independent powers discarded, and the great truth 
that the United States of America is a Nation established by the 
blood of a hundred battles. And as a hope to the oppressed peoples 
of the world, the fact has been demonstrated that a free people have 
the capacity to guide their own destiniesjn war as well as in peace, 
and that the dependence of the many upon the few is as unnecessary 
as it is humiliating. 

In the light of these grand results, the contest which raged with 
such destructive fury for four weary, anxious years, appears more 
truly a holy war than the purest of the Crusades ; for we fought for 
•omething greater than Christ's empty tomb, — we fought for Justice, 
for Freedom, for Self-government, for Humanity, for Civilization, for 
Beligioo, and for God. 





; /^^^^^s^*^ 




CHAPTER II. 

THE "WAR GOVERNOR" AND "SOLDIERS' FRIEND." 




T was most fortunate for the great State of Pennsylvania 
that she had for her chief magistrate, in the mighty strug- 
gle of our civil war, so faithful, so enlightened, and so 
patriotic a man as Andrew Gregg Curtin. His State was, 
of all others, most imperilled, and her moral and physical power in 
determining the question of war was exceptionally great ; and Gov- 
ernor Curtin was first called upon to speak officially for the Common- 
wealth, defining the relations of the State to our sister Border States 
and to the general government. It was a time when a mistake would 
have been a crime, and its consequences immeasurable. A sentence 
of passion, or a departure from the soundest statesmanship or generous 
comity, might have made the Keystone State responsible in history, 
and possibly, in fact, for fraternal war. The unity of the Republic 
was to be preserved, and the respect of the Border States was to be 
maintained. If the conflict had to come, every consideration of 
patriotism forbade that Pennsylvania should be responsible for its 
immediate or remote provocation. It was under these circumstances 
that Governor Curtin was inaugurated in January, 1861 ; and not 
only all the States of the North waited for his utterances to guide 
them, but the South paused in the tide of revolt to await the position 
of the great central Commonwealth. That he spoke wisely and 
patriotically is proven by the singular vindication of the position he 
then assumed, and which was maintained until peace came again 
through the. tempest of battle. He not only witnessed the inaugura- 
tion of civil 'war, against which he directed every eflTort consistent 
with his devotion to the Union, but he remained in his high trust 
until the banners he had himself given to his hundreds of thousands 

29 



30 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

of brave warriors sent to the field, had been brought back with their 
victories inscribed on them. He saw war come, and accepted its 
terrible duties and grave responsibilities, and he welcomed peace 
before his retirement. In all his efforts he was a most judicious, 
energetic, and patriotic man. Through all the years of fearful strug- 
gle he kept his post, notwithstanding his great physical suffering, and 
discharged his responsible duties with honor to himself and honor to 
his State. Under the inspiration of his leadership, Pennsylvania 
promptly filled every requisition made upon her by the President for 
troops, amounting in the aggregate to over three hundred and eighty 
thousand men. 

Nor did Governor Curtin consider his duties ended when he had 
complied with the demands of the parent Government for men to 
defend the Union. His zeal in hastening soldiers to the field was but 
the beginning of his efforts, for wherever a Pennsylvania soldier 
bore the flag, the beneficent laws and agencies of his State, devised 
and executed by Governor Curtin, followed him. His devotion to 
the cause of the Government made him known as the " War Gov- 
ernor ; " and his ceaseless care for the soldiers in the field, in the 
hospital, and when fallen as martyrs in the strife, has crowned him 
as the " Soldiers' Friend." Blessed in his home and household gods, 
and generous in every sympathy of our better nature, he was ever 
more than faithful in healing the wounds and solacing the bereave- 
ments of the widowed and fatherless. When he reviewed the gallant 
men who had responded to his call, as he was about to leave them in 
the march for the harvest of death, he pledged himself and his State 
to care for their wives an^ little ones if they should give life for 
country. It was a great pledge — great in its purport and in the 
grandeur of its fruition ; but it was made by Governor Curtin, and 
it was most faithfully fulfilled. 





CHAPTER III. 




A SPECIAL PROVIDENCE AND THE PENNSYLVANIA 
RAILROAD. 

N accordance with a custom which had its origin in New 
England during the early days of her history, and after- 
wards adopted by most of the States of the American 
Union, Governor Curtin, in 1863, issued the usual procla- 
mation appointing the 26th of November as a day of Thanksgiving, 
and requested the people of Pennsylvania to assemble in their various 
places of worship and give thanks to God for the mercies and bless- 
ings of the closing year. On the morning of the day designated for 
this sacred service, two children called at the executive mansion and 
asked for bread. The request was not an uncommon one. Scores 
had, at that same door, asked and received alms, unobserved save by 
tlie servants who dealt out the charity. It would seem that it was 
ordained by Him who calls himself the God of the fatherless, that 
the Governor himself should meet and speak with these needy ones, 
to be told by them how their father had been killed in battle, how 
their mother had since died, and how they had been left utterly 
friendless and alone. There they stood before him, on that chill 
November day — the day appointed for public thanksgiving and 
social joy and feasting — clad in rags, timid, and piteously begging 
food ! A pitiful sight, indeed, to the chief magistrate, who had been 
for more than two years calling for troops and hurrying them beyond 
the State border to the seat of war, with vows of guardianship over 
their children ! Keenly did that great-hearted man feel the appeal. 
He attended Thanksgiving service heavily oppressed with the sad 
rejflections which the fate of those two forlorn children of a slain 
soldier had awakened; and when again with his family, the deep 

31 



3 J i i:NXSYLVANIA's SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

regret bur:*t forth in an agonized expression : " Great God ! is it pos- 
sible that the people of Pennsylvania can feast this day, while the 
children of her soldiers who have fallen in this war beg bread from 
door to door I " He then narrated to them the affecting scene of the 
morning, and with deep feeling and much excitement went from one 
thought to another evolved by the contemplation of the subject, 
feeling, as it Were, his way to the attitude to be taken by the State 
towards these unfortunates. It was, he said, an unjust, a disgraceful, 
an unchristian-like thing, that a soldier's child should beg. Some- 
thing, he determined, should be done to remove such disgrace from 
the escutcheons of the State. 

The engrossing duties and cares of his office, peculiarly great at 
this time, never drove the resolve 'from his thoughts. "I really 
believe," he writes, " I am safe in saying that at some period of each 
day, until accomplished, it crossed my mind." Yet it was difficult 
to devise a method of bringing the subject before the people, in such 
a way as to show them a duty, and thus secure legislative action, 
without arousing a suspicion of vanity and self-glorification. Plan 
after plan suggested itself only to be rejected. 

It was while such reflections were revolving in his mind that an 
eminent religious teacher returned from England, where he had ably 
endeavored to enlighten public opinion in regard to the nature of 
the struggle going on in this country, and thus create more generous 
sentiments towards the North than then prevailed among certain 
classes of English society. As a recognition of his distinguished 
services abroad, a public reception, in the interests of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, was giveii him in the Academy of 
Music, in Philadelphia. Governor Curtin was invited to preside ; 
and recognizing this as his opportunity to bring to the light the 
thoughts that were crystallizing in his mind, he accepted. On taking 
the chair, he took occasion, while eulogizing the good work of the 
Sanitary Commission in their care of the sick and wounded, to refer 
to the " uncared for who were left at home by the gallant fellows 
who have gone forward." Eloquently he recalled the pledges made 
them, the abundance enjoyed by the people dwelling in safety at 
home, " unnhared," he said, " by the surviving relatives of the slain, 
and the families of those who, maimed and wounded, have become 

belplcMs Coming, as the claimants upon our patriotisoi 

and benevolence usually do, from the humble walks of life, their 
modest ftud unpretending wants are hardly recognized amid the 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 33 

clamor and excitement of the times, and the soldier's widow turns 
with natural pride from what might be considered the condition of 
a mendicant or the recipient of charity. My friends, let us no longer 
fail in the performance of our solemn duty, but let us make the 
position of these an honorable one, and not one of degradation. Let 
the widow and her dependent offspring become, in fact and in truth, 
the children of the State, and let the mighty people of this great Com- 
monwealth nurture and maintain them. Let this not be a mere 
spasmodic effort, but let us now at once lay the foundation of a sys- 
tematic and continuous work, which will enable the defender of the 
Constitution to know, as he paces his weary vigils upon the cheerless 
picket, that living, his family at home is cared for, and that dying, 
the justicey not the charity, of the country has provided for the help- 
less survivors." 

Slowly, in the heat of conflicting thought, an idea had matured 
that was destined to give happiness and usefulness to many lives, 
which, but for its inspiration, would be miserably wrecked — the idea 
of making the children of disabled and deceased soldiers and sailors 
the honored wards of the State. To accomplish this, large sums of 
money would be required. Provision must be made for clothing, 
maintaining, and educating hundreds of children ; and legislative 
guardians of the public funds are necessarily cautious in exercising 
their power of granting appropriations. How to move them was the 
Governor's perplexing problem. But money is cumulative. One 
dollar attracts another. And a nucleus had already been provided 
by that God whose providence is so plainly visible in the strange 
origin and through all the slow process of maturing and perfecting 
this most wonderful undertaking. 

After the failure of the campaign on the Peninsula, in 1862, the 
President of the United States, at the instance of the loyal governors, 
issued a call for three hundred thousand more men. To arouse the 
people of Pennsylvania from the depression of that unexpected dis- 
aster, a public ipeeting was held in Pittsburgh, on the 10th of July, 
1862. Many stirring addresses were made, and the excitement ran 
high ; but the enthusiasm rose to its highest pitch, when Governor 
Curtin announced to the eager throng the reception of a telegram 
from the President of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, offering 
fifty thousand dollars for the organization and the equipment of 
troops. The Governor, however, declined this offer, as he could not 
accept it on account of the State without legislative sanction, and 
3 



34 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

was unwilling to undertake its disbursement in his private capacity. 
And 80 for a while the matter rested. 

Subsequently, he entered into correspondence with the President 
of the Railroad Company in relation to the proffered sura, in the 
course of which he suggested the propriety of using it to erect an 
asylum for disabled soldiers. Consent was readily given, and the 
Governor, in a brief message to the Legislature, January, 1863, 
recommended the appropriation of the money for that purpose. The 
Legislature adjourned, however, without taking action on this com- 
munication. 

Before another year rolled round God had sent those two forlorn 
children to the Governor's door, or rather to his heart, and the idea 
of adopting the orphans of soldiers, as the special wards of the 
State, had matured. Abandoning his original purpose, he now 
requested the President of the Pennsylvania Railroad to allow the 
fifty thousand dollars, offered but not accepted, to be paid into the 
treasury of the State, for the purpose of creating a fund to be used 
in educating and maintaining destitute soldiers' orphans. That the 
case might have a warmer advocacy than letter-writing would admit 
of, he twice sent one of his official staff to Philadelphia to personally 
urge its adoption. The Company finally consented to permit the 
money to be used in accordance with the cherished wishes of the 
Grovemor, reserving the right to pay it in instalments as it might be 
needed. The generosity of this concession will be appreciated, when 
it is considered that making grants for equipping troops in a time 
of danger was but making provision to guard its own extensive 
bterests; while giving money to aid helpless children was a most 
unselfish and purely beneficent act. 





Ife' / 




CHAPTER IV. 
THE REJECTED STONE. 

ONFIDENTLY believing that he had now found the best 
way to redeem the many pledges made by the State 
through him, Governor Curtin made use of every avail- 
able means to perfect his scheme, and allowed no obstacle 
to impede its speedy success. He consulted with leading men of the 
State; he won politicians over to his cause; he inspired editors with 
his own grand and noble thoughts, that the press might prepare the 
way for their reception. 

The first official recommendation relating to the project was in 
January, 1864. In his annual message of that year to the Legisla- 
ture, he commended to its prompt attention the honorable mainte- 
nance and education of the orphans of soldiers in these words : 

" I commend to the prompt attention of the Legislature the sub- 
ject of the relief of poor orphans of our soldiers who have given, 
or shall give, their lives to the country during this crisis. In my 
opinion, their maintenance and education should be provided for by 
the State. Failing other natural friends of ability to provide for 
them, they should be honorably received and fostered as children of 
the Commonwealth. The $50,000 heretofore given by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company, referred to in my last message, is still 
unappropriated, and I recommend that this sum, with such other 
means as the Legislature may think fit, be applied to this end, in 
such manner as may be thought most expedient and effective. In 
anticipation of the adoption of a more perfect system, I recommend 
that provision be made for securing the admission of such children 
into existing educational establishments, to be there clothed, nur- 
tured, and instructed at the public expense. I make this recom- 

35 



36 Pennsylvania's soldiebs' orphan schools. 

mendation earnestly, feeling assured that in doing so, I represent 
the wishes of the patriotic, the benevolent, and the good? of the 
State." 

This part of the message was referred to the Committee on Military 
Affairs, but received from it no attention whatever. But the Gov- 
ernor, and those whom he had interested in the good work, would 
Dot permit the matter to rest. Professor J. P. Wickersham, then 
Principal of the State Normal School at Millersville, Lancaster 
county, was sent for, and to this distinguished educator Governor 
Curtin imparted at length his ideas, which had been matured by 
much reflection, in regard to a system of schools for the children of 
deceased soldiers, and requested him to prepare a bill, to be laid 
before the Legislature, embodying the necessary provisions for carry- 
ing into effect the measures proposed. 

Mr. Wickersham was a man eminently qualified for this work. 
The sympathies and labors of his life had been in the interests of 
education. He entered earnestly into the Governor's views, and 
cheerfully assumed the task assigned him. Possessing fine executive 
powers and a talent for systematizing, he prepared a bill which the 
Grovemor commended as doing " great justice to his head and heart." 
A few friends of the measure to whom the proposed law was sub- 
mitted also conceded its merits. As this was the first attempt to 
frame a law establishing schools for soldiers' orphans, we give it 
entire : 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c. : That as fsoon as convenient, after the passage 
of thw Act, there shall be appointed by tlie Governor, with the consent of the 
Benate, an officer to be called the " Superintendent of Schools for Orphans," 
whoHe duty it shall be to carry into effect the several provisions of this Act, 
and to make an annual report to the Legislature, which shall contain a full 
account of his proceedings, the expenses incurred in the past year and the sums 
required for the ensuing year, the institutions recognized as orphan schools 
and the numl>er of pupils in each, and all such matters relating to the instruc- 
tion and training of the orphan children of soldiers as he may deem expedient 
to communicate, and whose salary shall be $1G00 per annum, and necessary 
travelling exiHjnseH; to be paid quarterly; said Superintendent of Schools for 
Orphaiui to hold hiji office for three years, commencing on the first Monday of 
June, one lliou»and eight hundred and sixty-four, and his successors to be 
■p|K>int«d every third year thereafter; all sucli officers to be subject to removal 
by the Governor at any time for misbehavior or misconduct during their 
r««pertive terniH, and the vacancies in anywise occurring to be supplied for the 
unexpired ternm by new appointments: Provided, That in case of removal, 
Um Oofemor thall at the time communicate his reasons therefor, in writing, to 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 37 

the Superintendent of Schools for Orphans thus displaced, and also to the 
Senate, if in session ; and if not, within ten days after their next meeting. 

Section 2. Any institution now established, or which may hereafter be estab- 
lished in this Commonwealth, may apply to the Superintendent of Schools for 
Orphans, to be recognized as a suitable school or home for the instruction and 
training of the destitute orphan children of soldiers ; and after full opportunity 
shall have been given for all such institutions as desire to do so to make appli- 
cation, it shall be his duty without delay to visit the several institutions thus 
applying, make a careful examination as to their means of imparting physical, 
industrial, intellectual, and moral instruction and training, and their ability to 
furnish proper food and clothing, and select, subject to the approval of the 
Governor, from among them those best adapted in all respects to become schools 
or homes for the said orphan children of soldiers or sailors. 

Section 3. That the Superintendent of Schools for Orphans shall, with the 
approval of the Governor, appoint a committee of both sexes in each county 
to serve gratuitously, whose duty it shall be to make application to the Super- 
intendent of Schools for Orphans for the admission of any child into one of the 
institutions selected as suitai>le to become schools or homes for the destitute 
orphan children of soldiers and sailors, who resides in Pennsylvania, and is 
between the ages of five and fifteen, whose father was killed while in the mili- 
tary or naval service of the United States, or died of wounds received or disease 
contracted in that service, and whose circumstances are such as to render him 
or her dependent upon either public or private charity for support : Provided, 
That all such applications must be accompanied with a statement, certified to 
by oatli or affirmation, of the name and age of the child, the place of residence 
and nativity, the extent of destitution, the name of the father, his regiment or 
vessel on which he served, rank, and the manner of his death. 

Section 4. The Superintendent of Schools for Orphans shall grant all appli- 
cations for admittance into the institutions selected as orphan schools or homes 
that seem to him proper, and assign the children so applying to such one of 
them as he may consider most convenient or suitable, having regard as far as 
possible to the religious denominations or faith of their parents. 

It shall be his further duty to visit each institution so selected at least once 
in three months, and carefully inspect its arrangements for promoting the 
health and comfort of its pupils, the methods of instruction pursued, and the 
kind of food and clothing furnished ; and if any of the schools so selected 
prove derelict in duty in these or other respects to the orphan children placed 
under their care, he shall lay the facts before the Governor, and with his 
approval refuse longer to recognize them in the capacity of orphan schools : 
Provided, That such a decision shall in all cases be made known to the institu- 
tion concerned one month before it is carried into eflfect. 

Section 5. It shall be the duty of the authorities of all institutions selected 
as orphan schools or homes to record the names of all persons who may desire 
to take into their service any orphan child connected with said institutions, 
and shall have authority to bind such children as apprentices with the consent 
of the mother, if living ; but all contracts to apprentice or bind out an orphan 
child must be made at the time of Ihe tri-monthly visit of the Superintendent 
of Schools for Orphans, and be signed by him. 



38 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

Section 6. All institutions instructing and training the orphan children of 
aoldiere and providing them with food and clothing, as prescribed in the pre- 
ceding sections, shall be entitled to receive from the treasury of the State an 
mmoimt to be determined by contract between the authorities of said schools 
respectively and the Superintendent of Schools for Orphans, and approved by 
the Governor, to be graduated by the respective ages of the children, but in no 
case to exceed $100 per annum, for each orphan child thus instructed and cared 
for, to be paid in quarterly instalments upon warrants issued by the Superin- 
tendent of Schools for Orphans : Provided, That before the payment of any 
quarterly instalments, the authorities of the institutions to which payment is 
to be made, shall have made under oath or affirmation a quarterly report stat- 
ing the number of orphan children of soldiers, admitted according to the pro- 
visions of this Act, there were in the institute at the commencement of the 
quarter, the number admitted and discharged during the quarter with the 
respective dates, and the number then remaining. 

This bill was read in place, on the 8th of April, by Mr. Robert L. 
McClellan, of Chester county, and referred to the Committee on 
Education. 

On the 13th of April, just five days after, the Governor sent to 
the Legislature the following special message in regard to the care 
and education of the orphan children of soldiers : " I have hereto- 
fore invited the attention of the Legislature to the subject of main- 
taining and educating, at the public expense, such orphan children 
of Pennsylvania volunteers who have died in the public service, as 
may be destitute of other means of aid. I have since caused 
inquiries to be made through the school department and otherwise, 
in regard to the probable number of such orphans. It has been 
found, however, impossible to obtain reliable information in so short 
a time ; but, in my opinion, the number to be at present provided 
for will not exceed one thousand. I submit to the wisdom of the 
Legislature the propriety of making early provision on the subject, 
merely BUggesting that the orphans, as far as possible, be committed 
to the care of persons of the same religious denominations as their 
parents. I would also remind the Legislature that the sum of fifty 
thouBand dollars, donated by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 
ii subject to my order, and could be properly appropriated towards 
tlie ezpenaet to be incurred." Objections had been made to the 
proposed measure, from certain quarters, on account of difiSculties 
which might attend the religious training of the orphans, while, 
fiom other sources, opposition arose in view of the great cost involved 
in its execution. To remove these hindrances and to insure prompt 



39 

and favorable action on the bill then under consideration by the 
educational committee of the House, and to prepare the way for its 
cordial reception, this communication Wiis sent to the Legislature. 
Governor Curtin went to the utmost limit of his authority as an 
executive officer ; he gave to the project the full weight of his per- 
sonal and official influence, that he might interest the indifierent, 
silence and win, if possible, those who opposed, and strengthen and 
encourage the friends of his darling scheme. 

On the 29th of April the bill came before the House for consider- 
ation. 

This bill called forth a warm debate. Mr. William Burgwin, of 
Venango county, said the proposed Act provided for the disgracing 
of destitute orphan children and making them serfs. He objected 
to the expense of establishing a new bureau, and thought the work 
could be more effi^ctually done by the department of common schools 
through the medium of its school boards and county superintendents, 
and moved an amendment embodying his views. Mr. Bryan S. 
Hill, of Erie, coincided with Mr. Burgwin. Mr. McClellan argued 
against the amendment. The care of the destitute children made 
orphans by the calamities of war he considered a work of great 
importance. There would be doubtless a large number of such 
children in the State, and unless provisions similar to those proposed 
were made, they would, in all probability, become the inmates of 
poor-houses, prisons, and penitentiaries. He stated that the friends 
of the bill, after carefully considering the subject for several weeks, 
came to the conclusion that, in order to carry out its object effectually, 
the work must be confided to an officer specially appointed for that 
purpose. 

Mr. George H. Wells, of Susquehanna county, moved to amend 
by striking out all after the enacting clause, and inserting the fol- 
lowing : 

Section 1. That it shall be the duty of the secretary of the hoard of school 
directors of every township, ward, or borough of this Commonwealth, as soon 
as may be after the passage of this Act, and at such times hereafter as may be 
directed by the superintendent of common schools of this Commonwealth, to 
make a list of all the orphan children of soldiers or sailors, under the age of 
fifteen years, residing in said township, ward, or borough, whose father was 
killed while in the military or naval service of the United States, or died of 
wounds received or disease contracted in that service, and whose circumstances 
are such as to render him or her dependent in whole or in part upon either 
public or private charity for support ; that said list shall be accompanied with 



40 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

a statement, certified to by oath or affirmation, of the name and age of the 
child, the place of residence and nativity, the extent of destitution, the name 
of the father, his regiment or vessel in which he served, his rank and the man- 
ner of hin death, and to enter the same at length in a book kept for that purpose ; 
and also return said certified list to the superintendent of common schools 
within ninety days after the passage of this Act. 

Section 2. It shall be the duty of said secretary to find suitable homes for 
said orphan children in the said township, ward, or borough where said orphan 
child may reside, or an adjoining ward or township; and said secretary is hereby 
authorized to sign, seal, and execute a contract with such suitable person or 
persons, (subject to the approval of a majority of the board of school directors 
or a public meeting thereof,) fixing the time for which said orphan child or 
children shall remain with said person or persons, the amount of money to be 
paid for food, clothing, and schooling, (said schooling not to be less than five 
months in each and every year,) and define particularly the duties and obliga- 
tions of the parties to said contract : Provided, That a majority of the board of 
school directors shall have power at any public meeting thereof to annul any 
such contract and declare the same cancelled, if they shall believe it to be to 
the interest of said orphan child or children to do so. 

Section 3. The said secretary of the board >of school directors (with the 
approval as aforesaid) shall have authority to bind such orphan child or chil- 
dren as apprentices, with the consent of the mother, if living: Provided, That 
no male child shall be so bound until he has arrived at the age of thirteen, nor 
shall the apprenticeship extend beyond the time when he shall be twenty-one 
years of age : And provided, also. That no female child be so bound until she 
has arrived at the age of eleven years, and shall not extend beyond the time 
when she shall be eighteen years of age. 

Section 4. It shall be the duty of the secretary of the board of school 
directors to make out semi-annually a full statement, under oath, of the ex- 
penses incurred in his township, ward, or borough, for the support and edu- 
cation of said orphan children; and when said statement is approved by the 
president of said board, it shall be forwarded to the superintendent of common 
schools, whose duty it shall be to draw his warrant upon the State treasurer for 
the amotmt found due, and for such additional amount as may be awarded by 
said board of school directors for the services of said secretary under this Act : 
Provitied, That in no case shall the amount paid exceed the sum of one hundred 
dollarx annually for the support and education of one child. 

HBfmoN 5. It shall be the duty of the superintendent of common schools to 
fumiHh the several school boards of this (Commonwealth, desiring the same, 
■iich forniK, blankH, and instructions as may be necessary to carry into efiect 
the several prcjvinions of this Act, and to make report annually to the Legisla- 
ture, and in the same volume with the common school report, a full account of 
his prooeodings, tho expenses incurred in the past year, and the sums required 
fcr th« ensoing year, tho number of destitute orphans of soldiers and sailors 
of thb Commonwealth, tlicir names, ages, and places of residence, and such 
mntt<Ts relating to their education and well-being as he may decide expedient 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 41 

Section 6. That the superintendent of common schools shall receive the 

sum of dollars per annum for the additional duties imposed upon him by 

this Act, and is authorized to employ such additional clerk-hire as may be 
necessary. 

Section 7. That the Governor be authorized and required to cause to be 
paid into the State treasury the fifty thousand dollars heretofore donated by 
the Pennsylvania Kailroad Company, and any other donations that may be 
received by him ; and the said sum or sums of money be, and the same are 
hereby, appropriated to defray the expenses to be incurred under the provisions 
of this Act. 



Mr. P. Frazer Smith, of Chester county, spoke against the adop- 
tion of any amendment, and said that the bill before the House 
embodied a j^lan which had been recommended by the Governor for 
carrying out the purposes of the donors of the fifty thousand dol- 
lars. Mr. Wells, in a lengthy speech, attempted to fchow the superi- 
ority of his amendment over the original bill. He said it would be 
a cruel thing to drag these children from their mothers and friends 
and give them into the hands of strangers. He believed that his 
substitute would be less expensive, and would better consult the 
dictates of humanity and better subserve the well-being of the 
orphans, than the bill reported by the Chairman of the Educational 
Committee. Mr. T. H. Purdy, of Northumberland county, advocated 
Mr. Wells' substitute. Mr. T. J. Barger, of Philadelphia, earnestly 
advocated the original bill, and thought the division of the children 
among the district schools of the State would not bo'raore humane, 
and would be much more expensive, than collecting them into insti- 
tutions specially provided for them. In his opinion, there could be 
no cruelty in sending these children to suitable schools selected by a 
responsible person appointed by the Governor. He did not think it 
possible, should the responsibility of caring for the orphans be 
divided among many persons, that the supervision would be so 
efficient as it would be if an officer be appointed for that special 
purpose. Mr. Samuel H. Orwig, of Union county, thought that 
since the Committee on Education had reported the bill favorably 
after giving it a careful consideration, and since it had been pre- 
pared by the advice of the Governor and other benevolent and 
judicious persons, its provisions must be good. Mr. Thos. Cochran, 
of Philadelphia, thought the X/Cgislature should not adjourn without 
taking some action on the bill. Mr. G. Dawson Coleman, of Lebanon 
county, said it would be a disgrace if the Legislature should adjourn 



42 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

without adopting some measure to provide for the orphan children 
of soldiers. 

Neither Mr. Burgwin's nor Mr. Wells' amendments were agreed 
to. The first and second sections of the original bill, after unim- 
portant amendments, were agreed to. On the reading of the third 
section, opposition to the bill developed sufficient strength to show 
its friends that its defeat was inevitable. Mr. Cochran then read as 
a substitute, which passed both branches of the Legislature, the 
following: 

ACT OF 1864. 

Section 1 . Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the 
mUhority of the fame, That tlie Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
be and is hereby authorized to accept the sum of fifty thousand dollars donated 
by the PennHylvania Railroad Company, for the education and maintenance of 
de<>tllute orplian children of deceased soldiers and sailors, and appropriate the 
same in such manner as he' may deem best calculated to accomplish the object* 
designed by said donation ; the accounts of said disbursements to be settled, in 
the usual manner, by the Auditor General and the Governor, and make report 
of the same to the next Legislature. 

Thb little enactment was the sole result of all the perplexity, 
thought, and labor on the part of Governor Curtin, of the carefully- 
prepared bill of Professor Wickersham, and of the lengthy discus- 
sion in the legislative halls by the people's representatives. 

It would be gratifying to State pride to allow the Pennsylvania 
Legislature to share with the Governor and the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company the honor of taking the initiatory steps in founding a 
eystem of schools for the children of deceased soldiers; but the 
records read to the contrary. In that body there were earnest advo- 
cates of the measure, but the majority were opposed to it. The 
voice of justice, to say nothing of the calls of mercy and humanity, 
was silenced by custom. All men, to some extent, are slaves to the 
past And when did a people shelter, feed, clothe, and educate the 
children of th(j«e who perish in war? And yet, viewed in the light 
of unfetUired reason, it is an unaccountable thing that the men who 
bad in their keeping the honor of the State, who enacted her laws 
and disbursed her revenues, should be so ungrateful to the volun- 
toen who, a short distance away, were«even then holding at bay the 
invading foe ! Should not the burdens of war, in a Republic, be 
equally shared, so far as possible, by all her citizens? A few miles 



Pennsylvania's soldiers* orphan schools. 43 

to the south of the very capitol where those legislators sat, were 
thousands of their fellow-citizens, sheltered by army tents or cano- 
pied only by the blue vault of heaven, exposed to the frosts of an 
inclement season, liable at any moment to fall a prey to disease or 
suffer mutilation and death ; hundreds of their comrades in arms 
had fallen in battle, and their children were left with no father's 
breast to shield them, no father's fond heart to love and cheer them, 
and no father's experience to direct and guide them in the devious 
path of youth. Yesterday, many of that army of citizen soldiery 
left happy homes, cheered and gladdened with the merry voices of 
children who fell asleep nestling in their arms ; to-day, they, severed 
from the endearments of home, are subject to army discipline and 
come and go at the dictation of another ; at nightfall no children 
gather around them ; to-morrow their voices may not be heard at 
roll call, and their children may be left to grow up in ignorance and 
neglect and, possibly, crime. And yet these legislators coolly decide 
that the State, saved from invasion and pillage but a few months 
before by literal bulwarks of the heaped-up slain, cannot assume the 
expense of educating and respectably maintaining the children of 
her slaughtered defenders ! By refusing to make ample provision 
for this class upon whom the calamities of war press so cruelly, the 
Legislative Assembly of 1864 evaded an evident duty, — a duty, too, 
that was plainly pointed out and earnestly pressed, — and lost the 
honor of performing a great deed which would have given it a 
golden page in the annals of the State. 

But the short Act which it passed authorized the executive to 
accept from the Pennsylvania Kailroad Company the proffered gift 
of fifty thousand dollars for the benefit of soldiers' orphans, to be 
expended as he might " deem best ; " and with it he, disappointed 
but not discouraged, and hopefully trusting the future to a kind 
Providence, laid the foundation of a system the glory of which will 
resound through the ages ! 





CHAPTER V. 



THE SYSTEM ORGANIZED. 




N the 16th of June, 1864, the Governor commissioned 
Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, L.L.D., Superintendent of 
Soldiers' Orphans, and requested him to prepare " a plan 
for carrying into effect the intentions of the Legislature." 
The unfortunate children could not have fallen into better hands. 
In 1835, when thirty years of age, Dr. Burrowes was appointed by 
Governor Ritner, Secretary of the Commonwealth ; and to him was 
committed, by virtue of his office, the superintendency of the then 
newly-created system of common schools, there being at that time 
DO special department of education. His intellectual strength was 
sliown in this herculean labor. The crude school laws received valu- 
able revision at his suggestion, and the chaotic school system was, by 
his efforts, reduced to order. By these exertions he was led to see 
the importance of providing instruction for children of every class, 
and was, through nearly all the intervening time, connected with the 
school system of the State, as editor of the Pennsylvania School 
Journal^ and Superintendent of Common Schools ; and was, therefore, 
when commissioned by Governor Curtin to superintend the new 
bureau, possessed of that knowledge and experience which enabled 
him to enter at once upon his duties. On the 27th of June, he pre- 
sented the plan as requested, and it receiving the executive approval, 
became the basis of operations, and was as follows : 



PLAN OF DR. THOS. H. BURROWES, UNDER THE ACT OF 1864. 

1. Of the permmi entitle<l to the benefit of the act: 

TliOMs will Imj children of either Bex under the age of fifteen, resident in 
PennvylTania nt the time of the application, and dependent upon either public 
or prirato charity for uupiwrt, or on the exertions of a mother or other person 

44 




(/^^^r'-^/^^'^J-c.^^^ 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 45 

destitute of means to afford proper education and maintenance, of fathers who 
have been killed, or died of wounds received, or of disease contracted in the 
service of the United States, whether in volunteer or militia regiments of this 
State, or in the regular army or the naval service of the United States, but 
who were at the time of entering such service actual bona fide residents of 
Pennsylvania. 

2. Of admission to the benefits of the Act : 

This will be by application by the mother, if living, or if not by the guardian 
or next friend, in the form prescribed by the Superintendent of Orphans, 
setting forth the name, rfge, place of nativity, and present residence of the child, 
with the extent of destitution, the name of the father and of his regiment or 
vessel, his rank and the manner and time of his death, accompanied by an 
affidavit to the facts set forth, to be presented to the common school directors 
of the district in which the orphan resides for approval or disapproval, accord- 
ing to the facts of the case, and if disapproved to be returned, with a statement 
of the reasons therefor ; but if approved, to be so certified by the president 
and secretary and transmitted to the superintending committee of the proper 
county, by whom it shall be transmitted to the Superintendent of Orphans, 
with such suggestions and remarks as shall enable him to make the proper dis- 
position of the caso; and when approved by hira an order to be issued by him 
for admission to such school as he shall designate ; orphans under six years of 
age to be placed in such nearest institution for the more juvenile class as may 
be proper for, and will admit them on terms to be arranged by the Superin- 
tendent ; and those above that age to be sent to the more advanced schools 
hereafter described, but in both cases regard to be had, as far as possible, to the 
religious denomination or faith of their parents. 

3. Of the kind of education and maintenance: 

The orphans will be clad in a neat, plain, uniform dress, according to sex, 
and supplied with comfortable lodgings, a sufficiency of wholesome food and 
proper attendance when sick; they will be physically developed — the boys by 
military drill or gymnastic training, according to age, and the girls by calis- 
thenic and other suitable exercises; they will be habituated to industry and 
the use of tools, while at school, by the various household and domestic pur- 
suits, and mechanical and horticultural employments, suitable to the respective 
sexes ; they will receive a full course of intellectural culture in the ordinary 
branches of a useful English education, having especial reference to fundamental 
principles and practical results; and they will be carefully trained in moral 
and religious principles, the latter as nearly approached as may be to the known 
denominational preference of the parents. 

4. Of the schools to be employed under the Act; 

For the orphans under six years of age, suitable institutions, in any part of 
the State, that will receive them on proper terms and afford them fitting train- 
ing and maintenance, will be employed, and they will be placed therein till 
arrival at the age of six years. 

For the orphans over six years of age, one school will be selected, when 
practicable, in each of the twelve normal school districts, of sufficient capacity 
to accommodate all the orphans of that age in the proper district, and having 



46 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

the necessary appliances to impart the physical, industrial, intellectual, and 
moral training, necessary to render them intelligent citizens and useful members 
of society; but if one such institution cannot be secured in each district, a suffi- 
cient number of a smaller class will be accepted, preferring such as will admit 
the largest number of orphans, and afford the best instruction and accommoda- 
tions, the compensation in each case to be such as shall have been previously 
agreed on between the institution and the Superintendent, having reference as 
well to a reasonable economy as to a just remuneration for the services rendered, 
and to be paid quarterly, on the rendition of full and sufficient accounts and 
vouchers ; clothing, books, and medical attendance to be supplied by the State 
or the several institutions, as the Superintendent shall decide ; and all contracts 
for the education and maintenance of orphans to terminate for such causes and 
after such notice as shall be therein specified. 

5. Of the control of the orphans in the schools : 

The details of education and maintenance will be in the hands of the princi- 
pal of each school, subject to the regulations adopted by the Superintendent and 
the visitation of the proper superintending committees. Each school will keep 
a record of all applications for apprentices or employees from among its orphan 
pupils ; but none shall be bound or otherwise put out to any employment, with- 
out his or her own application and that of the parent, guardian, or next friend, 
and the concurrence of the superintending committee of the proper county. 
All contracts of apprenticeship or for employment to be, as soon as legal 
authority shall be obtained therefor, between the Superintendent and master 
or employer, and contain a reservation of power to annul the contract in case 
of failure on the part of the master or employer to fulfil all the stipulations. 
And the Superintendent will keep a record of the name, master, trade, term, 
and residence of each apprentice or employee thus sent from schools. 

6. Of the fund now at command under the Act : 

This is believed to be sufficient to commence this humane, just and patriotic 
undertaking, but the plan now recommended cannot be kept long enough in 
operation to produce any useful results, unless sufficient additions be made to it 
by the public authorities or private liberality, or by agencies similar to that 
which made the first liberal donation. It is hoped that this will be done, and 
that the undertaking will be continued till all our destitute soldiers' orphans 
shall be placed in a condition to meet the trials of life, on an equal footing with 
the children of those for whom their fathers died. 

All accounts of the expenditure of the fund will be settled by the Auditor 
General, in the usual manner. 

7. Of the administration of the trust under the Act: 

The school directors seem to be the proper board first to receive and scrutinize 
the application for admission ; representing as they do every part of the district, 
one member at least will be cognizant of the facts of each case ; and their action 
can take place at their regular meetings without any additional labor to them- 
•elree, and to the great convenience of the applicants. 

The auperintending committee of each county will consist of three, five, or 
MTeQ, according to circumstancea ; be composed of both sexes, and will be 
appointed with the approval of the Governor. It will receive the application, 



» 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 47 

and transmit it, with such remarks and explanations as may be useful, to the 
Superintendent, and will also periodically visit the school in its county or dis- 
trict containing soldiers' orphans, and make report of its condition and of such 
matters as may be promotive of their welfare. 

The Superintendent will perform the duties in this plan specified, aa well as 
such others as its full and successful operation shall render necessary and 
proper. Especially he will visit tlie schools in which the orphans are placed, 
as often as is consistent with his other duties ; and, as the business of the trust 
will, except that of visitation, be mainly transacted by written correspondence, 
no office need, for the present at least, be established at Harrisburg. All com- 
munications will, therefore, be addressed to him at Lancaster. 

It will be seen on inspection that several features of the original 
bill prepared by Professor Wickersham, but defeated in the House, 
are adopted in this plan, which is based upon broader principles than 
can be found in the little Act that merely authorized the acceptance 
and expenditure of a donation from a railroad corporation. This 
plan, as did the rejected bill, assumes that the destitute cliildren of 
deceased soldiers and sailors are justly the wards of the State, and 
should be tenderly nurtured, decently maintained, and well edu- 
cated ; and that the public guardianship should continue so long as 
there remains an orphan needing help. 

The method of procedure having been determined. Dr. Burrowes 
opened his private office in Lancaster for official use, and selecting 
Professor James Thompson, of Pittsburgh, a gentleman well qualified 
for the work, to act as clerk, began the difficult task of organizing 
the new bureau, for which his previous labors and peculiar abilities 
so well fitted him. His first business was to originate and prepare 
the necessary office books and blank forms. The department regis- 
ters devised by him were, first, a descriptive register, which contains 
a record, by county, of the orphan's name, date of birth, and place 
of residence ; name of father, when and where he enlisted, his regi- 
ment or vessel and rank, also date, place, and manner of his death ; 
and name, post-office address, and religious denomination of mother 
or guardian ; and second, a school register, in which are recorded, by 
county, the orphan's name, when and to what school admitted, to 
what school transferred, when and how long bound out and to what 
trade or employment; name and residence of master; when the 
orphan left school and cause of withdrawal, date and cause of death, 
and general remarks. Of course, only the first-named items can be 
inserted in this book at the time of making application for admit- 
tance; the other entries are made as events transpire, and when 



48 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

completed, show a complete record of each child while in the care 
of the State. Dr. Burrowes truly predicted, in 1864, that the size 
of these registers " is sufficient to contain a record of all the children 
which this bloody rebellion shall throw upon the care of the State." 
The form of application framed by him, for admittance into an 
institution for soldiers' orphans reads, when filled out, as follows : 

APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION. 

To Thomas H. Burrowes, Superintendent of destitute Orphans of deceased 
Soldiers and Sailors of the State of Pennsylvania : 

Sir : — I, as Mother of Lucinda Maxwell, do hereby apply for an order for her 
education and maintenance, in accordance with the provisions of the Act entitled 
" an Act authorizing the Governor to accept the donation of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company," approved the 6th day of May, 1864, and of the "Act to' 
provide for the maintenance of the destitute Orphans of the deceased Soldiers 
and Sailors of the State," approved March 22d, A. d. 1865; and, on condition 
of the granting of said order, and in consideration of the education and main- 
tenance of the Orphan above named, according to the plan adopted for carrying 
said Act into effect, I do hereby resign and transfer to said Superintendent, and 
to his successors in office, the custody, care, and control of said Orphan, for 
eaid purpose, till her arrival at the full age of sixteen years, with the full right 
to put or bind her out on her arrival at said age, for such employment or trade, 
to such employer or master, and during such term, as said Superintendent shall 
then select, with the written assent of said Orphan and of myself. 

In furtherance whereof, I hereto append the following statement of facts in 
relation to said Orphan, with my signature and affidavit thereto. 

Witness present : Lucinda Maxwell, 

O. L. Carroll, •» Coal Valley P. O., 

John CNeil. / Allegheny county. 



STATEMENT. 

The within named Lucinda Maxwell was born on the twenty-fourth day of 
February, eighteen hundred and lifty-two ; now resides in Independent Common 
School District, No. 1, Allegheny county, Pa. ; is the daughter of E,. Maxwell 
and Lucinda Maxwell ; is in destitute circumstances, being dependent for sup- 
port on the lalx)r of her mother, who is unable thereby to afford her proper 
education and maintenance. 

The father of this orphan was an actual resident of Allegheny county, in this 
State, where in the m^nth of September, 1861, he volunteered into the 102d 
Regiment of Pennnylvania Volunteers, and was killed in the service of the 
United State», at Fair Oaks, in Virginia, on the Slst day of May, 1862, being 
then in rank a privnto. 

The Wild (iiilier wjw of the Methodist denomination in religion, and the sub- 



♦ Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 49 

scriber accordingly desires that his orphan shall be trained in the same creed 
and observances. 

LuciNDA Maxwell, 
Allegheny County, Pa., 88; Mother. 

Personally appeared before me, a Justice of Peace, in and for said county, 
the above subscribed Lucinda Maxwell, who being duly sworn does say that 
the facts set forth in the foregoing statement are true, to the best of her knowl- 
edge and belief. In testimony whereof, 1 have hereto set my hand and seal 
this 17th day of November, 1865. 

James H. Berry, J. P. [seal.] 



CERTIFICATE BY SCHOOL DIRECTORS. 

Independent Common School District, No. 1. 

Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. 
It is hereby certified, that the foregoing application and statement were duly 
laid before the Board of Directors of the above-named district, and having 
been carefully examined, are found to be true and correct, so far as the facts 
are known to this Board. The orphan therein named is accordingly recom- 
mended as a proper person for education and maintenance, under the provisions 
of the laws on the subject. 
Signed and attested, by order of the Board, this 16th day of November, 1865. 
Samuel Kuhns, A. D. Foster, 

Secretary. President. 



i 



CERTIFICATE OF SUPERINTENDING COMMITTEE. 

It is liereby certified, that the facts set forth in the foregoing application and 
statement are true and correct, as far as the same are known to this committee. 
The orphan therein named is therefore recommended for admission to a proper 

school, for the more Pupils. 

Felix R. Brunot, 

Allegheny County, Nov. 22d, 1864. Chn. of Sup. Com County. 

The first few months of Dr. Burrowes' superiiitendency were 
spent in preparing the books and blanks above named, appointing 
superintending committees in each county, writing letters, in which 
he sought to explain the new system, correct erroneous views con- 
cerning it, and in creating an interest in soldiers' orphans in all sec- 
tions of the State, and in seeking by letter and visitation proper 
institutions willing to receive thera. 

Little difficulty was encountered in securing homes for the younger 
children. According to the original " plan," all under six years of 
age were to be sent to primary schools ; but upon maturer reflection, 
4 



50 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

the Superintendent ruled that no child under four years of age could 
properly be included in the provisions of the Act to educate and 
maintain soldiers' orphans, and decided that none of that tender age 
could be accepted, and concluded to place those between the ages of 
six and ten years at the institutions for the more juvenile class of 
children. 

The Northern Home for Friendless Children, of Philadelphia, was 
the first to aid in the good cause. This institution had, indeed, dur- 
ing the war opened its doors to destitute children of soldiers who 
were fighting at the front, and had, in advance of the State, begun 
to provide gratuitously for the orphans of those who had fallen in 
their country's service. Its patriotic Board of Managers, as might 
have been expected, responded cheerfully to the call of Dr. Burrowes 
for co-operation, and at once generously offered to take the little ones 
beneath its hospitable roof, and provide suitable care, food, raiment, 
and instruction for one hundred dollars each per annum. In like 
manner the Children's Home in Lancaster, the Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home in Pittsburgh, which was established before the orphan fund 
was created, mainly by the efforts of James P. Barr, Esq., the Pitts- 
burgh and Allegheny Home for the Friendless, and the Pittsburgh 
and Allegheny Orphan Asylum acceded promptly to the Superin- 
tendent's request, upon the same terms as those agreed upon by the 
Northern Home. As there were no other available institutions at 
that time for these young and helpless children, this timely and 
liberal action on the part of these homes, was as creditable to them- 
selves as it was disembarrassing to the new department. 

But to find institutions for the children between the ages of ten 
and fifteen years was a very difficult task ; " and a man less hopeful 
than Dr. Burrowes, one with more calculation and less faith, would 
not have succeeded in accomplishing it." He had at his command 
but fifty thousand dollars, and could only cherish the hope that the 
fund created by a corporation's bounty, would be increased by State 
api)ropriation8 ; and that hope must, to ordinary minds, have been 
clouded by grave apprehensions, as the bill, which implied a continu- 
ance of the gratuity by tlie State, had already been defeated in the 
Legislature. To erect buildings would consume too much time and 
require more money than he had at his disposal. Besides, had the 
neoeoary funds been assured, it was then thought that such an out- 
lay, for a demand that would cease to exist at the end of fifteen or 
twenty years, would be an unwarranted expenditure. Recourse to 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 51 

existing institutions was therefore inevitable. Application was first 
made to the authorities of several normal schools to admit one hun- 
dred of these orphans, each, into their model schools. It was thought 
by Dr. Burro wes that these would be just the kind of pupils for 
that department. The normal schools, however, declined the offer, — 
some because they had not sufficient accommodations, and were 
unwilling to put up additional T)uildings on so slender an assurance 
as could then be given, and others because the remuneration offered 
was not considered adequate. 

Resort was next had to several boarding-schools in different parts 
of the State, and at first with only discouraging results. The prices 
asked for taking care of and instructing the orphans, by the proprie- 
tors of the schools to which application was made, were higher than 
the Superintendent deemed proper to give, being over two hundred 
dollars a year for each pupil, exclusive of clothing. 

But want of confidence in the permanency of the enterprise was 
the great hindrance. It was, not without cause, feared that, after 
the liberal donation of a corporation had been paid out, the State 
would refuse to make any contributions of her own. The managers 
and proprietors of existing schools could hardly be expected to be 
moved by motives so disinterested as patriotic gratitude, and open their 
doors to most probable financial ruin. This difficulty Dr. Burrowes 
felt and acknowledged ; and yet he was not disheartened. Still hop- 
ing, when others would have despaired, he zealously labored on, not 
in the easy and delightful employment of expending the donation 
of fifty thousand dollars in alleviating present suffering, but in 
endeavoring cautiously and wisely to lay a broad and permanent 
foundation for the education and maintenance of all the needy chil- 
dren which had been, and which should be, made orphans by the 
bloody rebellion then in arras against the national government. 
Imbued with a sense of the righteousness of the cause, and believing 
it would be ultimately sustained by the people, though their repre- 
sentatives had once refused to uphold it, he, full of faith and zeal, 
persevered, using his personal influence and powers of persuasion, 
till at length others, imbibing the same spirit and belief that the 
State would finally pay the vast debt due the children of her slain 
patriots, embarked in the hazardous enterprise. 

That the full meed of praise may be accorded to the venturesome 
pioneers in this grand undertaking, the schools which first acceded 
to the proposition of Dr. Burrowes are here named in the order in 



52 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

which engagements for receiving soldiers' orphans were completed : 
in September, the Paradise School, in Lancaster county, and the 
McAllisterville School, in Juniata county ; in November, the Mount 
Joy (then Strasburg) School, in Lancaster county, the Quakertowu 
School, in Bucks county, and the Orangeville School, in Columbia 
county. These institutions agreed to receive the orphans at one 
hundred and fifty dollars a year per pupil for instruction, boarding, 
and everything necessary, except clothing ; the number to be sent to 
each school to range from fifty to one hundred, and to include chil- 
dren of both sexes. 

While these negotiations to secure schools were going on, the 
fiuperintending committees had been appointed in every county in 
the State, and furnished with blank forms of application for admis- 
sion and necessary instructions ; care had also been taken, in the 
meantime, to keep the public informed in regard to the provisions 
being made for the necessitous children of deceased soldiers ; and at 
the earliest period possible, notice of the readiness to receive chil- 
dren into the schools, and explanations of the mode of procedure 
and invitations to mothers, guardians, and friends, were published. 

For a time, it seemed to the Superintendent that his labors had 
been in vain. All things were ready, and the needy were invited to 
come and be sheltered, clothed, fed, and instructed, without price. 
Few, very few, responded to the invitation full of gifts. He piped, 
but the orphans would not dance. Here was an obstacle unexpected 
and from a quarter least suspected. What could be done ? In this 
dilemma, Dr. Burrowes resorted to the expediency of visiting various 
parts of the State to meet applicants and give personal explanations. 
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Erie were selected for this purpoge, 
with the intention of making the practice general, if successful. 
Though ample public notice had been given of these intended visits, 
and their object fully explained, the attendance of the friends of the 
soldiers' orphans was so meagre that this mode of procedure was 
abandoned. 

But during these interviews with mothers and other relatives of 
the orplmns, he discovered, in part at least, the nature of the diflSi- 
culty. Had the dead Union soldiers and their orphans and the 
%y»Uim appointed to bless them, enemies who insinuated falsehoods? 
It wa« wliiHiHjred that all the talk about generosity towards the chil- 
dren of deceaHCHl soldiers was a scheme to rob the surviving parent 
of her children, in order to train them up in some peculiar political 



i 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 53 

and religious creed I That mothers would not be permitted to have 
any intercourse with their children when once they were in the care 
of the State, and that they would be at the earliest possible moment 
arbitrarily bound out to strangers, without the parents' knowledge 
or consent. It is hardly necessary to say that all these objections 
were utterly groundless. 

However, in order to remove all fears of injustice being done any 
denomination of Christians, the Superintendent made definite arrange- 
ments with the proper clerical authorities to send the children of 
Roman Catholic parentage to institutions controlled by that church, 
reserving the right of visitation by State officials and inspection in 
regard to intellectual training, comfort, and sufficiency of mainte- 
nance and clothing. With Christians of other names, the method 
shadowed forth in the " plan " was generally satisfactory, and conse- 
quently from that source little difficulty was encountered. Each 
principal was directed to conduct morning and evening worship in 
accordance with his personal preferences, and, so far as consistent, to 
commit the children for religious instruction, in Sunday-school and 
chufch, to persons belonging to the same denomination as that pro- 
fessed by their parents. 

Encountering new and unexpected difficulties on every hand, the 
work moved slowly on. In December 31, 1864, after a little more 
than six months' hard labor, the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans 
made his first report to the Governor. Five schools for the older 
and four homes for the younger orphans had been engaged ; but in 
these institutions there were something less than one hundred pupils. 
Though it would seem almost indispensable, for the continuance of 
the system, that such progress should be made, before the Legislature 
should again assemble, as to constitute in itself a proof of the wisdom 
of the plan adopted, and the most powerful appeal for State aid, the 
exhibit was anything but encouraging to the superficial observer; 
still, there had been laid a foundation broad and deep, which has 
stood the test of years, and upon which there has been erected a 
superstructure the beauty and grandeur of which none but a 
prophet's eye could have foreseen. 




CHAPTER VI, 



THE SYSTEM IMPERILLED. 




HE friends of the system, dow in its ineipiency, awaited 
the action of the Legislature of 1865 with more than 
ordinary interest. One year before, the lower branch of 
the Assembly rejected the bill framed in accordance with 
Governor Cartings instructions by Professor Wickersham, because a 
majority of its members was opposed, on the grounds of humanity 
and economy, to taking the children away from their surviving 
parent and friends and placing them in institutions expensive and 
often remote from their homes. The Act, however, which was finally 
approved by that body, authorizing the executive to accept and 
expend the donation to the soldiers' orphans, contained one significant 
clause, 80 brief and unpretending, that possibly it escaped general 
observation. That clause related to the method of expending the 
gift, and was this : " In such manner as he may deem best." By virtue 
of the freedom granted in these apparently unmeaning words, a great 
achievement was begun, of the glory of which every Pennsylvanian 
may, to-day, justly be proud. Left to the exercise of his own choice, 
the Governor, through his appointed agent. Dr. Burrowes, had up to 
this time been diligently at work planning a vast scheme of bene- 
faction, based upon the presumption that large appropiiations would 
be annually made from the State treasury, until every necessitous 
child of the soldiers slain in the war for the suppression of the 
rebellion, should be gathered into institutions especially appointed 
for that purpose, and there be maintained and educated till capable 
of self-support. 

" Will this grand project, now taking shape, be adopted by the 
StaUj and carried on to completion ? or will the preparatory work 

64 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orpiTan schools. 55 

already done be lost, and the orphans now being gratuitously shel- 
tered, clothed, fed, and educated, be disbanded, and sent back to 
their mothers and friends with a niggardly annuity, to grow up, for 
the most part, amid privations, hardships, and ignorance?" These 
were the grave questions which, at this time, the friends of Governor 
Curtiu's generous policy often propounded to themselves without 
daring to venture an answer. 

The Governor, in his annual message to the Legislature of 1865, 
called attention to the report of the Superintendent of Soldiers' 
Orphans, commending his zeal, fidelity, and efficiency in the dis- 
charge of his appointed and difficult duties ; and earnestly recom- 
mended that a liberal appropriation be made for the support of the 
just and worthy scheme of beneficence which he was laboring to 
establish. Encouraging words from this source were not unexpected. 
All anxiety centred upon the action of the Legislature. The out- 
look was ominous. Mr. Wells, of Susquehanna county, was again 
at his post. He it was who, twelve months ago, so persistently 
opposed, with his substitute (given in full in the fourth chapter of 
this book), the original bill of Professor Wickersham. He, still 
desiring to carry out his measures, early in the session, read in place 
a bill embodying his views as expressed the previous year. This 
proposed law was not discussed, as Mr. John H. Negley, of Butler 
county, introduced a similar Act, but containing more to commend 
it to the favorable consideration of the liberally disposed, since it 
included in its doubtful provisions, in addition to soldiers' orphans, 
the brothers and sisters of deceased soldiers. This bill was entitled 
" a supplement to the common school law of this Commonwealth, 
relating to the maintenance and education of destitute orphan chil- 
dren and brothers and sisters of deceased soldiers and sailors," 

The system proposed by this " supplement " was radically different 
in scope and object from that contemplated and inaugurated by 
Governor Curtin. By its provisions, school directors were required 
" to make arrangements for the maintenance and schooling of the 
orphans resident within their district, by contracting with suitable 
parties, with the consent of the mother, relative, or other friend, upon 
such terms that the services of said children sJiall either m whole or in 
part be accepted as an equivalent for the necessary expenses incurred in 
their maintenance and schooling, and shall make report annually of 
such contract to the State Superintendent " of Common Schools. The 
amount to be paid, on account of each child, was, in the original 



66 Pennsylvania's soldiers* orphan schools. 

bill, not to exceed thirty dollars a year; but was amended, on motion 
of Mr. Owen Rice, of Northampton county, as follows : 

"In all cases where the child or children are entirely dependent upon the 
labor of a mother or other relative for support, there shall be paid annually 
for each child under eight years of age thirty dollars. For every other child 
of the same family, twenty dollars. In ail cases where the child or children 
are entirely dependent upon the labor of a mother or other relative for support, 
there shall be paid annually, for each child over eight and under ten years of 
age, provided that the youngest child of the family is over eight years of age, 
twenty dollars. For every other child of the same family, fifteen dollars. In 
all cases where the child or children are entirely dependent upon the labor of 
a mother or other relative for support, there shall be paid annually, for each 
child over ten years of age, provided the youngest child of the family is ten 
years of age, fifteen dollars. For every other child of the same family, ten 
dollars. In cases where a child is sickly, afflicted with some constitutional 
disorder or permanent jjhysical disability, and the certificate of a physician, 
legally qualified, declaring that said child is an extraordinary burden upon its 
parent or other relative, is attached to the application for relief, there shall be 
paid annually the additional sura of twenty dollars. In all cases not provided 
for above, and in all cases of temporary sickness, certified as hereinbefore pro- 
vided for, there shall respectively be paid one-half of the amount above 
enumerated." 

Mr. Wells moved to increase the above amounts as follows : " To 
etrike out 'thirty' and insert 'fifty;' to strike out 'twenty' and 
insert ' thirty ; ' to strike out ' twenty ' and insert ' forty ; ' to strike 
out * fifteen ' and insert ' twenty-five ; ' to strike out ' ten ' and insert 
* fifteen ; ' to strike out ' twenty ' and insert ' forty.' " The proposi- 
tion to increaijc the annuities received opposition from several mem- 
bern, among whom was Mr. James R. McAfee, of Westmoreland 
county, who, in the course of his remarks, said : 

"The object aimed at in Ihiis bill was simply to provide suitable books and 
clotldng, HO that these children might have no excuse for not attending our 
public schools. Those of us who were concerned in getting up this bill, thought 
that that was as far as the Commonwealth w;is prepared to go at this time. I 
hope the amendment of the gentleman from Susquehanna will not be adopted." 

The amendment was lost, and Mr. Negley's bill passed the House 
with no oppoHitiou. 

The ftttfi of tlie bill was eagerly watched in the Senate, where it 
wa« sent for concurrence. After due consideration, it was reported 
from the Senate Committee on Education, with very important 



k 



OEPHAN SCHOOLS. 57 

amendments, which left the whole matter of the soldiers' orphans 
where it had hitherto been, in the hands of the Governor and Super- 
intendent Burrowes. Senator Wilmer Worthington, of Chester 
county, was in full sympathy with the "plan" thus far acted upon; 
and, as the report of the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans had 
unaccountably been retained in the hands of the printer, he took it 
upon himself to explain to his fellow-Senators the degree of progress 
made, the nature of the preparatory work done by Dr. Burrowes, 
the number of pupils admitted into the different institutions, and to 
elucidate all points of interest. 

During his remarks, Dr. Worthington said : 

"It is for us to say whether we are wilHng to take these children under our 
care. Their fathers, their natural guardians and protectors, have gone into the 
service of the country, and have sacrificed their lives in defence of our free 
institutions and to save the life of the nation. I am sure I need make no 
appeal to Senators here, for I know that there is not in this House a man in 
whom there is not enough of patriotism to induce him to believe and to say 
that it is our solemn duty to provide for these children, who have been thus 
left destitute by the casualties of war. I fully appreciate the anxiety of Senators 
to save all they can to the. Commonwealth ; but is the Commonwealth not com- 
petent, is it not able to provide for these orphan children until they can provide 
for themselves? It strikes me that it would be a burning shame upon Penn- 
sylvania, if she permitted these children to go destitute after the great sacrifices 
that their fathers have made for our country. They are the legacies left to the 
Commonwealth by the patriotism of its citizens ; and I deem it to be the solemn 
duty of the Commonwealth to take these 'legacies' under its protection, and 
make that provision for them which will be most likely to accomplish the object 

which has been presented here They are our children. And let me 

here call attention to the fact (and it is a source of gratification to me, as I 
have no doubt it is to every Pennsyfvanian), that Pennsylvania has inaugurated 
this idea. She has been the first among the sisterhood of States to provide for 
the children of her deceased soldiers." 

While the bill was pending, Senator William A. Wallace, of 
Clearfiield county, among other things, said : 

" There was an attempt made in the House bill to reach many children that 
are not now reached ; but that bill, to my mind, is a lamentable failure on its 
face; it is no more than a pauper arrangement, making it a disgrace to the 
Commonwealth instead of a noble charity. Let us give the control of this 
fund to the Governor and the Superintendent whom he has appointed, and 
allow them, in any manner which their experience in the system they are 
building up may suggest, to reach these destitute children of the soldiers. Let 



58 Pennsylvania's soldiees' orphan schools. 

U8 not embarrass them ; let us not put this enactment in a shape in which we 
Hliall waste the public money ; but let us receive their experience and their 

recomraemlations as our guide I know that the Governor's heart is in 

this thing ; and with him and his discretion I am willing to leave it." 

Senator Hiester Clymer, of Berks county, while advocating the 
wisdom of the bill, as amended by the Senate Committee, gave 
utterance to tlie following sentiment : 

" There is one reflection, and that is, that an appropriation annually during 
these few coming years, if it did nothing more, will leave the State a gainer of 
thousands in the years to come. By educating these children, by making them 
virtuous and industrious, and giving them the means of earning a livelihood 
in the future, and withdrawing them from want, the State places them beyond 
the temptation to commit crime, — she removes them from all its miseries. And 
we, to-day, till our schools with our orphan children in order that hereafter we 

may not till our almshouses and prisons with paupers and criminals I 

can only say that by no vote of mine would I in any way interfere with the 
general scope of the plan. I believe it to be benevolent ; I believe it to be well 
considered ; I believe that in the end it will be eflfective." 

Other Senators, also, spoke earnestly in advocacy of the measure. 
While none seemed opposed to gathering the orphans into schools, 
a few thought that provisions, something similar to those of the 
House bill, should also be made for a numerous class of children 
whom maternal aflPection would never relinquish to another's care. 
At length, however, the opinion prevailed that it would be wise and 
eafe to let the orphan fund and the orphans themselves rest in the 
custody of the Governor, without any restrictions as to the manner 
of expenditure or care; or, in other words, to allow the Superin- 
tendent of Soldiers' Orphans to go on gathering orphans into the insti- 
tutions already engaged, and to establish others, as fast as practicable, 
in those sections of the State not yet provided for. In this view the 
Senate was a unit, when, on its final passage, every vote in that 
assemblage was cast in its favor. 

But the end was not yet. When the bill was sent back to the 
House, that body would not concur in the Senate amendments. A 
committee of conference was appointed, composed of Senators Wil- 
mer Worthington, David Fleming, and Hiester Clymer, and Repre- 
•entatives George H. Wells, Harry Hake, and M. S. Quay. With 
the exception of Mr. Wells, this committee agreed to recommend 
that the House concur in the amendments made by the Senate ; but 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 59 

the report was rejected by a vote of forty-six to forty-two. But as 
a majority of the representatives was not content that the session 
should close without making some provision for the orphan children, 
the House reconsidered its hasty action, and the bill was recommitted 
to the conference committee, with instructions to reconcile the differ- 
ences between the two branches of the Legislature, if possible. The 
committee, Mr. Wells still dissenting, a second time recommended 
that the House accept the Senate amendments of the bill. This 
naturally created a great deal of dissatisfaction. A spirited discus- 
sion ensued. Seeing the determination of the Senate to stand by the. 
Governor, a number of representatives nobly sacrificed their opinions 
and preferences, fearing, if they longer stood out, no appropriation 
whatever would be made for the destitute orphans ; and the bill, as 
amended by the Senate, finally became a law, by a vote of twenty- 
four against and sixty-four in favor of its passage. It is here given 
in full: 

ACT OF 1865. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, <fec., Tliat there is hereby granted the sum of seventy- 
five thousand dollars, out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropri- 
ated, for the education and maintenance, during the year one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-five, of the destitute orphan children of the deceased sol- 
diers and sailors from this State, in the service of the United States, during the 
existing rebellion, to be drawn on the warrant of the Governor, as it shall be 
needed, and to be expended and accounted for in the manner directed by said 
Act. 

Section 2. That the conveyances and transfers of the custody, care, and con- 
trol of said orphans, till their arrival at the age of sixteen years, heretofore 
made, or hereafter to be made, to the State Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, 
by their respective mothers, guardians, or next friends, and upon said orphans, 
for all the purposes of education and maintenance, till their arrival at said age ; 
and that if said orphans abscond, or be withdrawn, without his consent, from 
the custody of the Superintendent, or from the institutions in which he shall 
place them, they, and all persons withdrawing or harboring them, shall there- 
upon become liable to the provisions of the Acts of Assembly relating to 
absconding apprentices. 

Section 3. That when any of said orphans shall have arrived at the age of 
sixteen years, or sooner if deemed expedient, said Superintendent shall, at the 
written request of said orphan, and of his or her mother, guardian, or next 
friend, put or bind him or her out to such trade or employment, and to such 
master, mistress, or employer as shall thus be requested, and for such term as 
shall expire, if a male, at or before the age of twenty-one, and if a female, at 
or before the age of eighteen years ; in which indenture of apprenticeship there 
shall be included such covenants for the further education of the orphan as 



60 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

said Superintendent shall prescribe ; and sucli apprenticeship shall be, in all 
other respects not herein provided for, subject to the provisions of the Acts of 
Aaaemblj relating to masters and apprentices. 

This Act appropriating seventy-five thousand dollars for the edu- 
cation and maintenance of soldiers' orphans, confirming the plan 
then going into operation, and adding one year to the term in which 
the children were to remain in the schools, greatly encouraged the 
Superintendent. With mind more at ease and hands unfettered, he 
continued to push forward his great undertaking. There were yet 
many untried details. Principals, who had the schools in charge, 
had everything to learn. Their duties were new, and they had the 
experience of no one to guide them. To suitably provide and care 
for, and properly train, so large a number of children, was, to those 
unaccustomed to such responsibilities, a perplexing task ; and it is 
not a matter of surprise that complaints in regard to food, clothing 
and discipline often reached the ears of the Superintendent. Much 
of his time was now necessarily devoted to putting in order and sys- 
tematizing the schools already in operation. 

In the meantime the demand for more schools was becoming 
urgent. There was now no anxiety in regard to a lack of appli- 
cants. Requests for admission came pouring in at the rate of from 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty a month, till the accepted 
applications, for which no school accommodations had been provided, 
numbered fully three hundred. Though the action of the last Leg- 
islature was somewhat encouraging, yet the permanency of the sys- 
tem had by no means become established. The persistent opposition 
in the House of Representatives, through which success had been 
reached, was too well known to remove all distrust; and it was 
therefore still difficult to find proprietors of suitable institutions will- 
, ing to negotiate with Dr. Burrowes to admit soldiers' orphans on 
such terms as he could offer. 

But notwithstanding the many difficulties which beset the infant 
project, it made commendable progress, and at the close of the year, 
1865, a little more than eighteen months from its origin, eight schools 
for the older, and seventeen homes and asylums for the younger 
children had been engaged ; and in the former there were in attend- 
ance, at that time, seven hundred and ninety-seven^ and in the latter 
five hundred and thirty-two pupils, making in all a total of one 
thousand three hundred and twenty-nine. 




CHAPTER YIL 



THE SYSTEM SAVED BY THE ORPHANS. 




HE schools began the year 1866 amid trials and discour- 
agements. The price of labor and all the necessities of 
life were still at war prices. A yard of common muslin 
then cost seventy-five cents, and other things were propor- 
tionally dear. New bedding and furniture, and additional school 
accommodations, had to be provided for the constantly increasing 
number of pupils. And, worse than all, the funds appropriated for 
the support of the orphans were exhausted. 

In December, the Superintendent issued a circular letter to the 
Principals, informing them that by the 1st of January all the means 
at his command would be consumed, and that they could receive no 
more money from the State till the Legislature should make another 
appropriation ; and, in the meantime, if they continued to keep the 
£>rphans, they would do so at their own risk ; still he encouraged 
them to persevere in the discharge of their duties, believing that the 
State of Pennsylvania would suffer none to sustain loss who engaged 
in a work so beneficent and patriotic. 

When it is considered that the men who embarked in this enter- 
prise were possessed of limited means; that there were, to say 
nothing of the homes, eight advanced schools, with an average of 
one hundred pupils each ; that more than three weary months passed 
before an appropriation was made, and that business men were very 
reluctant to give credit upon so uncertain a guarantee as future 
legislative action, some conception can be had of the difficulties 
which the pioneers in the cause had to meet and overcome. Grave 
fears were entertained, in more than one instance, that the gathered 
orphans would be forced to disband for want of food ; but happily 

61 



62 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

no such calamity befell any of the schools. Yet these adverse cir- 
cumstances demoralized the employees, retarded progress, and les- 
sened the comforts of the orphans, and gave rise to many complaints 
which tended to bring the schools into disrepute. 

On the 2d of January the General Assembly met. The Governor, 
in his annual message, called the attention of that body to the sacred 
duty of continuing support to the adopted system of educating and 
maintaining the orphans of soldiers. Superintendent Burrowes' 
report was referred to as exhibiting gratifying results, and an appeal 
was made to the legislators in language as follows : 

" I have heretofore commended this charity to you, and I deem it unneces- 
sary to add another word, in asking a continuance of an appropriation which 
ifi to provide for and educate the best blood of the State, and support the living 
l^acies which have been bequeathed us by the men who laid down their lives 
for the country. When we remember that every sort of public and private 
pledge that the eloquence of man could devise or utter, was given to our sol- 
diers as they went forward, that if they fell, their orphans should become the 
children of the State, I cannot for an instant suppose that you will hesitate to 
continue an appropriation which is to bless their little ones, providing comfort- 
able homes, instead of leaving them in want and destitution, many of them to 
fall victims to vice and crime." 

It was confidently hoped that the House of Representatives would 
take early steps to relieve the pressing wants of the schools, but the 
session was rapidly approaching its close and no relief had been 
granted. On the contrary, the embarrassed condition of the schools 
seemed to give " aid and comfort " to those unfriendly to the system 
then on trial. As has been seen, strenuous efforts had been made in 
the House of 1864 and that of 1865, to establish an entirely different 
method of aiding the orphans from that inaugurated. The time 
appeared favorable for making a third attempt ; and there were not 
wanting those who were ready to take the lead in the movement. 
The Legislature was barely organized, when Mr. James R. McAfee, 
of Westmoreland county, introduced a bill similar to those brought 
before that body the two previous years. As this was the last 
endeavor of the kind, it may be interesting to the curious to read 
the entire document. 

The proposed law of Mr. McAfee : 

A SirPPLKMEMT to the common Rchool law of this Commonwealth, relating to 
the iDAintenftQoe and education of destitute orphan children and brothei-s and 
■iiten of deoe«Md soldiers and sailors. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 63 

Section 1. Be it enacted^ &c., That it shall be the duty of the board of school 
directors of each township, ward, borough, or school district of this Common- 
wealth, within ninety days, or as soon as practicable, after the passage of this 
Act, and annually thereafter, as the Superintendent of Common Schools of this 
Commonwealth may direct, to make out a list of orphan children of soldiers or 
sailors, or orphaned brothers and sisters of the same, who had been dependent 
on them for support, under sixteen years of age, residing in said township, ward, 
borough, or school di.>>trict, who are in whole or in part dependent on either 
public or private charity, or upon the earnings of a widowed mother for support, 
giving the age of each orphan thus left destitute, and the post-office address of 
the mother or other relative or friend to whose care the said orphan or orphans 
are committed, and shall transmit the same to the county Superintendent of 
Common Schools, whose duty it shall be to examine it, and if found to be cor- 
rect, to endorse it and forward it to the State Superintendent of Common 
Schools. 

Section 2. That the State Superintendent shall keep a separate and correct 
record of said lists thus transmitted to him from each coimty, in a book provided 
for that purpose, which shall be open for inspection in the school department 
at all times to all persons concerned. 

Section 3. That it shall be the duty of the school directors of every school 
district in this Commonwealth, as far as in them lieth, to make arrangements 
for the maintenance and schooling of any or all of the orphans above men- 
tioned, resident within their district, by contracting with suitable parties, with 
the consent of the mother, relative, or other friend appearing on behalf of said 
children, upon such terms that the services of said children shall either in 
whole or in part be accepted as an equivalent for the necessary expenses 
incurred in their maintenance and schooling, and shall make report annually 
of all such contracts to the State Superintendent in the manner now provided 
for by the general school laws of this Commonwealth. 

Section 4. That whenever the mother, relative, or other friend of such 
orphans, or the board of school directors shall desire aid, as contemplated by 
this Act, he, she, or they shall make declaration, under oath or affirmation, 
setting forth that the father of the said orphan or orphans or brother, upon 
whom they had been dependent for support, was killed in battle or died of dis- 
ease contracted in the military or naval service of the United States, or of this 
Commonwealth, specifying the company and regiment, or the name of the vessel 
in which he served, if practicable, and also stating the pecuniary circumstances 
of the mother or other relative appearing in behalf of such orphans, the age of 
the children, their physical condition, together with such other facts as may be 
necessary to form a just opinion of the wants of the same ; the said declaration 
shall be submitted to the school board of the district in which said orphan shall 
reside, who shall examine the same, and if it be found to be correct, it shall be 
endorsed by the president thereof, and forwarded to the county Superintendent, 
who shall also endorse it if found to be correct, and transmit it to the State 
Superintendent, who shall examine the same, and if satisfied that it is correct, 
in form and in fact, he shall draw his warrant on the State treasurer for what- 
ever amount, in each individual case, he shall deem just and right under the 



64 Pennsylvania's soldiers* orphan schools. 

facta set forth in the application : Provided, That in no case shall such amount 
be more than thirty dollars per annum for each orphan. 

Section 5. That in all cases where such orphans as are contemplated to be 
benefited by this Act, shall be without parent, relative, or other friend appear- 
ing in tlieir behalf, it shall be the duty of the secretary of the school board of 
the school district, who shall also be the proper person to make the declaration 
provided for in the fourth section of this Act, in lieu of mother, relative, or 
friend, to find suitable homes for said orphan children in the district in which 
they may reside, or in any adjoining district; and said secretary is hereby 
authorized to sign, seal, and execute a contract with such suitable person or 
persons, subject to the approval of the board of school directors at a public 
meeting thereof, fixing the time for which said orphan child or children shall 
remain with said person or persons, the amount of money to be paid for food, 
clothing, and schooling, said schooling not to be less than four months in each 
and every year, and define particularly the duties and obligations of the parties 
to the said contract: Provided, That in every instance the services of the child 
shall, if possible, be received as an equivalent for its maintenance and support : 
And provided further, That a majority of the board of school directors shall have 
power, at any regular meeting thereof, to annul any such contract and declare 
the same cancelled, if they shall believe it to be to the interest of said orphan 
children to do so. 

Section 6. That should any applicant for aid, under this Act, refuse or 
neglect to send said orphans of more than six years of age to school, at least 
four months in each year, unless sickness or other Providential hindrance 
should prevent, such applicants shall not be entitled to receive any further aid* 
under this Act, until the end of the school year for which aid is sought ; in 
such cases the State Superintendent may require an additional statement, under 
oath or aflSrmation, by the teacher or teachers, that such orphans have attended 
school regularly for four months, at least, during the previous school year; and 
when the State Superintendent is satisfied that such orphans have attended 
school as herein above provided, the usual Warrant shall be issued by him. 

Section 7. That the secretary of each school board in this Commonwealth 
shall be entitled to receive two dollars per day, for each and every day neces- 
sarily employed in preparing lists of such orphans as are contemplated herein, . 
and for performing such other duties as are imposed upon him by this Act, 
which compensation shall be paid out of the common school fund of the dis- 
trict : Provided, hotm^er, That he shall be sworn to his account as being correct, 
and that the time charged for was employed in the performance of said duties. 

Section 8. That the State Superintendent shall be and he is hereby author- 
ized to employ an additional clerk in the school department, at a salary not 
exceeding twelve hundred dollars per annum, whose duty it shall be to attend 
to the buHineas connected with the orphans of deceased soldiers and sailors 
under this Act 

Section 9. That the State Superintendent shall, as soon as practicable after 
the psflMge of tills Act, prepare and forward to the secretary of each school 
board in this Coraraonwealth, the proper blanks and instructions necessary to 
carry into effect tl»e provi«ions of this Act. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 65 

Section 10. That the State Superintendent of Common Schools shall, in his 
annual report, make a statement of the number of orphans which have been 
returned to his department, the number aided, and the amount expended under 
the provisions of this Act. 

Section 11. That so much of the Act, entitled. An Act authorizing the (gov- 
ernor to accept the donation of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, approved 
the 6th day of May, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, 
as may be inconsistent with the provisiona of this Act, be and the same is 
hereby repealed. 

The bill was considered at length by the House. No one objected 
to granting aid to the orphans. There was, however, a difference of 
opinion as to the merits of the established system and the one here 
proposed. The plan thus far acted upon was expensive. The num- 
ber of orphans seeking admittance to the schools exceeded all expec- 
tation. The amount asked for by Superintendent Burrowes, for the 
support of the institutions for the ensuing year, was three hundred 
thousand dollars. This large sura frightened the fixint-h carted into 
the support of the apparently more economical plan of placing the 
orphans under the supervision of the officers of the common schools. 
Yet but one member ventured to openly urge parsimonious consider- 
ations in defense of this expediency. The main plea made in favor 
of the new measure was that it would reach all the needy orphans 
in the State, while the system in operation had not, and never would, 
benefit but a small portion of them. The sincerity of all those who 
thus argued should not be called in question, though, viewed in the 
light of subsequent events, one is tempted to do so. 

Those who were opposed to making a change in the method of 
providing for the soldiers' orphans, earnestly and ably defended the 
schools, and exposed the defects and littleness of the pet scheme of 
the House of- Representatives. Mr. John A. Danks, of Allegheny 
county, said he regarded the " whole bill as infamous." Still it was 
received with great favor. Fifty-five votes were cast for the bill 
and only twenty-two against it. This was on the 8th of March. 

This action of the House threatened the destruction of the system, 
organized and built up with so much thought and labor ; and offered 
no relief to the sorely pressed institutions which had continued to 
provide for the orphans, without remuneration, since the opening of 
the year. 

It was a time of painful anxiety to Governor Curtin, who had 
devised and established this scheme of beneficence, the grandest of 



66 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

all time ; and those who had espoused and embarked in the cause 
were scarcely less concerned. Something must be done. Much of 
the opposition arose from gross ignorance of the system. Rumors 
were in the air in regard to the neglected condition of the children 
at the schools. Invitations had repeatedly been extended to mem- 
bers of the Ijegislature to visit them ; but those who most needed 
enlightenment did not respond. If Mohammed will not go to the 
mountain, the mountain must go to Mohammed. The children from 
the three nearest schools made a visit to the capitol, that the legis- 
lators might see them, and judge for themselves of the kind of care 
and training they were receiving. 

On the 16th of March, three hundred and forty -five soldiers' 
orphans, from the schools at McAllisterville, Mount Joy, and Para- 
dise, arrived in Harrisburg by the noon trains. The girls and boys 
were neatly and uniformly clothed — the former in brown hoods, black 
cloth cloaks, and checked frocks, and the latter in dark blue gold- 
laced caps, blue roundabouts, and gray pantaloons. Each party had 
its drum corps. The McAllisterville School, of which Colonel Geo. 
F. McFarland was Principal, contained eighty-four boys and sixty- 
two girls ; that of Mount Joy, of which Mr. J. R. Carothers was 
Principal, fifty- three boys and thirty-five girls ; and that of Paradise, 
of which Mr. Seymour Preston was Principal, fifty-five boys and fifty- 
four girls. They were loudly cheered on arriving at the capitol, 
where they were taken charge of by the citizens, who entertained 
them. 

At four o'clock they appeared before the members of both Houses 
of the Legislature in the hall of the House, which was crowded with 
ladies and gentlemen. Governor Curtin and Speaker Fleming, of 
the Senate, occupied seats on either side of Speaker Kelly, of the 
House. 

Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, State Superintendent of Soldiers' 
Orphans, being introduced, spoke at length, explaining the system 
of educating and maintaining the orphans. He said the children 
present only represented one-third of the orphans in the more 
advanced schools, and about one-fifth of the whole number now in 
charge of the State ; that it had been noised abroad that these chil- 
dren had been starved, kept dirty, and without clothing ; and he 
directed the attention of the audience to the little folks present, and 
asked them to say whether the report was true. Not a sick child 
was left behind ; all wore healthy. Tie thon called on the children 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 67 

for soDgs, recitations, and other performances, — Colonel McFarland 
taking charge of the exercises. 

" Rally Around the Flag, Boys," was then sung with great spirit, 
especially by the girls. 

Master Henry Albert, a pupil of the McAllisterville School, made 
the opening speech, as follows : 

Gentlemen: — We appear before you with much backwardness, yet 
with some degree of pleasure. Indeed, our hearts were made glad when 
we were told that we would be permitted to visit the capital of our State, 
and perhaps get to see his Excellency, Governor Curtin, the orphan's 
friendy the man whom we all love, and also those good men who took such 
an interest in our welfare and provided means for our education and 
support. 

With all our diffidence, we come with grateful hearts, and in the name 
of all the boys and girls I desire to thank you for what you have done. 
You have taken us from various parts of the State, and have so arranged 
it through your Superintendent, Dr. Burrowes, that we have kind teachers 
to instruct us, and from you we receive our food and the clothes we wear. 
You have aflforded us an opportunity of becoming good men and women 
and good citizens of a great State. Though we are yet young, be assured 
we are not ignorant of this great boon, and will ever feel it our duty to 
act in such a manner as to fulfil the design intended. 

It is our desire to be useful and good, an honor to the State whose chil- 
dren we are, and at all times so to live a§ to give you no cause to regret 
what you have done and are still doing for us. 

It is to you, then, by the direction of Providence, that we are indebted 
for our present pleasing condition, and through you can we look into the 
future with bright and cheering hopes. My duty is performed when I, 
in the name of all the orphans, return our sincere thanks to Govprnor 
Curtin, and to you, gentlemen, and through you to the good people whom 
you represent. [Applause.] 

The girls from Mount Joy then sang the " Dear Old Flag." Mas- 
ter David Leche, from Paradise, delivered an original address, which 
was really eloquent. He thanked the citizens of Harrisburg for 
their kindly entertainment of his fellow-orphans, which they highly 
appreciated. 

The boys of Paradise sang " Uncle Sam is rich enough to send us 
all to School," to the great amusement of the audience. 

Master Kobert Booz, of Bristol, Bucks county, son of a color 
sergeant killed in the Pennsylvania Reserves, spoke pathetically of 
the fallen heroes and the care their orphans were now receiving ; 
and the McAllisterville School sang the " Little Octoroon." 



68 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

Master George Jacobs, of the McAllisterville School, recited the 
" Orphan's Appeal," an original poem, written by Mrs. Nellie Eyster, 
of Harrisburg. 

POEM. 

The lamp was lit, the fire blazed, the long day's work was done, 
And 'round the table's ample space we gathered every one, — 
My father, mother, little sister, brother Charles and I,— 
And just like birds in summer time, the winged hours flew by. 
We talked and laughed, we read and sang, and lightly I began 
To tell of all the things I 'd have, when once I was a man ; 
Then father said, " It is not wrong for wealth or fame to thirst, 
But ere they come, my boy must have an education first." 

Soon after that the drums were heard resounding through the street, 
And almost ere their echoes ceased, brave men had rushed to meet 
The angry foe, with hearts resolved to do, to dare, to die, 
If needs be, to preserve unharmed our priceless liberty. 
'T was mother's hands that buckled on the knapsack father wore, 
And mother's tear-stained cheek which told the agony she bore, 
As thus he closed the burden of our last united prayer, 
" My service to my country, my children to her care." 

The light of home was darkened when my father went away ; 
I rarely heard my mother laugh, nor cared ive now for play. 
Since he who was our main spring of study, work, and mirth, 
Had left us but his vacant chair beside our lonely hearth. 
Then came the fearful, crushing news a battle had been fought ; 
And men exclaimed, " At what a price that victory was wrought I " 
But none knew, save the widowed and fatherless that day. 
The debt posterity incurred, whose fulness none can pay. 

" Our service is our country's ; our. children are its care ; " 
This was the bond that robbed the field of half its gnawing care. 
The lips which gave the manly pledge have mouldered into dustl 
Shall not the land they died to save fulfil the sacred trust? 
Oh, Legislators ! Rulers I Men ! around on every side 
Stand little ones whose future no tender hand will guide. 
Who, powerless to help themselves, as orphan children come, 
And in our martyred fathers' names entreat of you a home. 

Your public trusts, your lofty work may some day hence be ours; 
That we may fill those stations well, oh, educate our powers I 
And think not Pennsylvania taxed, if of her wealth is given 
That which will elevate her sons, and lead them on to Heaven. 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 69 

We love her institutions, her every inch of soil, 
And to their preservation we 'II consecrate our toil ; 
Then risk not that our future is blindly left to chance, 
But strive to make us worthy of our grand inheritance. 

To you, most honored ruler of this mighty Keystone State ; 
You, whom we love for being good, far more than being great; 
You, from whose hands our sires took the standards which they bore; 
Whose voice they heard in every fight, "our country's rights restore;'* 
Who cheered them on to victory, who wept for them when slain ; 
Whose promise to protect us our surety will remain ; 
The greatest good, the sweetest peace. He seeth fit to send, 
The Soldiers' Orphans pray their God to grant " the Soldiers' Friend." 

While delivering the first five stanzas with his face to the audience, 
the attention and the interest were such as have not often been 
exceeded ; but when, on commencing the sixth, he turned round and 
addressed the Governor, the eflfect was such as to make an impres- 
sion which no one who watched the scene can ever forget. 

The Mount Joy girls then sang 

"TENTING ON THE OLD CAMP GROUND." 

We 're tenting to-night on the old camp ground; 

Give us a song to cheer 
Our weary hearts, a song of home, 

And friends we love so dear. 

Chorus. 

Many are the hearts that are weary to-night. 

Wishing for the war to cease ; 
Many are the hearts looking for the right 

To see the dawn of peace. 
Tenting to-night, tenting to-night. 

Tenting on the old camp ground. 

We 've been tenting to-night on the old camp ground, 

Thinking of the days gone by, 
Of the lov'd ones at home that gave us the hand, 

And the tear that said " Good-bye I " 

Chorus. 

We are tired of war on the old camp ground ; 
Many are dead and gone, 



70 Pennsylvania's soldiees' orphan schools. 

Of the brave and the true who 've left their homes, 
Others been wounded long. 

Chorus. 

We 've been fighting to-day on the old camp ground, 

Many are lying near ; 
Some are dead, and some are dying, 

Many are in tears. 

Chorus. 

Edward and Alice Drinkwater, of the Paradise School, spoke an 

amusing dialogue on " Life Insurance." 

The McAllisterville drum corps then played " Yankee Doodle." 
The following was spoken by Master John W. Dill, a pupil of 

McAllisterville School : 

"OUR FATHERS." 

Honorable Friends :— We appear among you this evening as father- 
less ones. Some few of us were orphans before we knew much of a father's 
care and a father's love. Most of us, however, can well remember the 
parting grief. We heard the last prayer offered around the family altar 
by our fathers. We heard the outbursts of crushing sorrow that could 
not be spoken. We kissed away the tears as they said, " Good-bye, my 
dear little ones ; may God protect you." We saw the quivering lips and 
trembling hand as they said farewell to mother, and started off to defend 
our country and yours. We knew not what it all meant, yet we were sor- 
rowful ; but we have learned that for us it meant orphanage. 

Most of us knew not how, or where, or when our fathers died, only as 
we were told months after they were dead. Some were killed in the heat 
of battle. Some, at the word of command, marched up to the cannon's 
mouth, and were blown to atoms. Some pined away and died of wounds 
or sickness in hospitals. Some lingered on the gory field when the battle's 
shout and the battle's roar had died away, and there breathed out their 
patriotic souls to the God of battles. 

Others, alas! starved to death at Libby, or Belle Isle, or Anderson- 
ville. Oh, how we did beg of our mothers to let us send to them our 
dinners and suppers, coarse and humble as they were, when she read to us 
that they were dying for want of food. 

You know not, dear friends, how we wept when the sad news came 
that " father is dead I " Oh, we would not be comforted then. Our mothers 
knelt by the old family altar, and prayed that the God of the fatherless 
would take care of us. Then, as if in answer to those prayers, came our 



p 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 71 

good Governor as an angel of mercy and provided these schools for us. 
We can never thank him enough for this kindness. 

Send us not back to our desolate homes ignorant and dependant as we 
now are. Our fathers died for you. Will you not educate us as a recom- 
pense for their lives ? 

The McAllisterville School saug 



"ON, ON, ON," SEQUEL TO "TRAMP, TRAMP, TRAMP." 

Oh ! the day it came at last, when the glorious tramp was heard, 
And the boys came marching, fifty thousand strong; 

And we grasped each other's hands, though we uttered not a word, 
As the booming of our cannon rolled along. 

Chorus. 

On, on, on, the boys came marching, 

Like a grand, majestic sea ; 

And they dashed away the guards 

From the heavy iron door. 

And we stood beneath the starry banner free. 

Oh 1 the feeblest heart grew strong and the most despondent sure, 
When we heard the thrilling sounds we loved so well; 

For we knew that want and woe we no longer should endure 
When the hosts of freedom reached our prison cell. 

Chorus. 

Oh ! the war is over now and we 're safe at home again, 
And the cause we starved and suffered for is won ; 

But we never can forget, 'mid our woe and 'mid our pain. 
As the glorious Union boys came marching on. 

Chorus. 



This was sung with great spirit, and was greeted with much 
enthusiasm. 

Master Horace Fitery, of Paradise School, delivered the following 
oration on 

"OUR HEROES." 

Ladies and Gentlemen:— The heart swells with unwonted emotion 
when we remember our fathers and brothers, whose constant valor has 



72 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

sustained, ou the field, the cause of our country, of civilization, and liberty. 
On the ocean, on the rivers, on the land, on the heights where they thun- 
dered down from the clouds of Lookout Mountain the defiance of the 
skies, they have graven with their swords a record imperishable. 

The muse herself demands the lapse of silent years to soften, by the 
influences of time, her too keen and poignant realization of the scenes of 
war — the pathos, the heroism, the fierce joy, the grief of battle. But, 
during the ages to come, she will brood over their memory. Into the 
hearts of her consecrated priests she will breathe the inspirations of lofty 
and undying beauty, sublimity, and truth. By the homely traditions of 
the fireside, by the headstones in the churchyard, consecrated to those 
whose forms rest beneath the marble slabs at Gettysburg, or repose far oflf 
in rude graves by the Rappahannock, or sleep beneath the sea, embalmed 
in the memories of succeeding generations of parents and children, the 
heroic dead will live on in immortal youth. By their names, their char- 
acter, their service, their fate, their glory, they cannot fail. They never 
fail who die in a great cause. 

The Great Proclamation of Liberty will lift the ruler who uttered it 
[applause], our nation and our age, above all vulgar destiny. [Great 
applause.] 

The bell which rang out the Declaration of Independence has found at 
last a voice articulate to " proclaim liberty throughout all the land — unto 
all the inhabitants thereof." [Cheering.] It has been heard across 
oceans, and has modified the sentiments of cabinets and kings. The 
people of the Old World heard it, and their hearts stop to catch the last 
whisper of its echoes ; the poor slave heard, and with bounding joy, tem- 
pered by the mysteries of religion, he worships and adores. The waiting 
continent has heard it, and already foresees the fulfilled prophecy, when 
she wills it " redeemed, regenerated, and disenthralled" by the irresistible 
genius of universal emancipation [applause] ; yea, America shall be as a 
city set upon a hill, whose light may be seen by all the nations of the 
world. [Prolonged applause.] 

The Paradise School sang " The Angels' Welcome." 

Daniel Reeder, of McAllisterville, delivered a poem. 

Ma*«ter Captain Frank Fry, of McAllisterville, spoke of the bat- 
tles of the war. His reference to Governor Curtin was warmly 
received. 

Master William Hunter, of the Mount Joy School, delivered the 
following 

VALEDICTORY. 

HONORABLB SbvaTOBS AND REPRESENTATIVES :— We feel ourselves 
deeply indebted to you, as well as to our intelligent Governor and kind- 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 73 

hearted Superintendent, for your kindness in permitting us to visit our 
State capital, and for this pleasant interview, which will be a green spot 
in our memories through life. 

We thank you sincerely for your noble generosity in providing us with 
such comfortable homes, and so favorable opportunities for acquiring a 
thorough education. 

We promise to improve our inestimable privileges, and to strive to be 
what you desire to have us be ; intelligent and good men and women, and 
thus repay the State for all its care so lavishly bestowed upon us. 

In parting with you, for this time, we would respectfully invite you to 
come and visit us at our homes, and see how we do there. 

We would bid you an affectionate farewell. 

To you, our most faithful and fatherly Superintendent, we would render 
our most hearty thanks for your parental care and indefatigable labors on 
our behalf 

We feel that in you we have a guardian that is deeply interested in our 
present and future happiness. ' We bid you Godspeed in your noble work 
of attending to the wants of the helpless soldiers' orphans. 

We expect to meet and to see you often yet before we leave our schools, 
and shall always greet you with pleasure. 

To you, kind Principal, in whom we feel that we have made up for the 
loss of our own dear fathers; and to you, affectionate teachers, we cannot 
properly express our gratitude for what you have done for us. But we 
shall endeavor to show, by our future conduct, our appreciation of your 
unwearying efforts on our behalf. 

We expect to remain under your kind care and instruction for some 
time to come, through the beneficence of our worthy Legislature, and are 
glad that we need not say to you, farewell ! 

The exercises on the part of the children were closed by the Mc- 
AUisterville School, which sang in a manner so touching as to bring 
tears to many eyes unused to weeping. 



"THE ORPHAN'S PRAYER." 

I LOVE to stay where my father sleeps, 

And love to gaze on each star as it twinkling peeps 

Through that bending willow which lonely weeps. 

Chorus. 

O'er my father's grave. 
O'er my father's grave, 
Through that bending willow 
O'er my father's grave. , 



74 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 

I love to kneel on the green turf there, 
Afar from the scenes of my daily care, 
And breathe to my Saviour my evening prayer. 

Chobus. 

I still remember how oft he led, 

And knelt me by him as with God he plead, 

That I might be His when the clod was spread. 

Chorus. 



SPEECH OF GOVERNOR CURTIN. 
The Governor being called upon, said ; 

I have been in the habit of addressing the Legislature for several years 
past, but only in obedience to the directions of the Constitution. I would 
add a word to what we have heard. I would say much if I thought it 
were necessary. But there is more in the mute eloquence and sad silence 
of those children ; more than I can say. I pledged to the brave men who 
were encamped here and all over the Commonwealth, when they were 
about to go into the public service, that if they fell on the field of battle, 
we would take care of their orphan children. [Cheers.] 

A Voice — "We will." 

My words were applauded. Orators and journalists pledged themselves 
to the work. Just before the battle I said it to thousands, and after the 
battle, when chaplain and priest and good men poured the words of com- 
fort and spiritual consolation into the ears of the dying, I said, your chil- 
dren shall be protected. [Cheers.] I do not desire war. I am opposed 
to war. I trust our country may never be called upon again to engage in 
war. We have shed blood enough ; but if war ever should come again, 
here are the boys to fight our battles. They will say, " My father died for 
his country, the State pledged itself that his sons and daughters should 
be maintained at the public expense : that pledge was redeemed. I would 
be an ingrate to my country and my State if I failed to offer my life at the 
same shriuo with my brave, dead father." [Cheers.] 

I knew that a State so great, so grand, so noble as old Pennsylvania, 
would not turn these children out. I know that it will not turn them out 
now. [Voices — Never, never.] It will not turn them out; the boys to 
crime and misery, the girls to worse — God forbid it should. One morning, 
when the people were gathered in their places of worship, in obedience to 
my call, to give thanks to Almighty God for the victories he had vouch- 
safed ua, two little ragged children appealed to me for alms as I stepped 
from my doorway. I learned they were children of soldiers who had 



ORPHAN SCHOOI^. 75 

fallen in defence of the country. What was my train of thought then ? 
I said to myself, is it possible that the people of Pennsylvania, thanking 
God for victory, can do so when the children of the brave men who 
brought us the fruits of hard fighting and gained us our victories, are on 
the streets begging for bread ! [Applause.] 

This beneficence, gentlemen, is the result. Pennsylvania has something 
whereof to be proud ; she has taken the lead in this matter. Other great 
States have followed her. Ohio has such a system. Connecticut is about 
inaugurating it. It was only to-day we forwarded to her Governor, in 
obedience to her request, the plan embraced in our laws. Other States 
will soon follow our example. What a thing to be proud of. All over 
the Commonwealth, after a great war, the greatest the world has ever seen, 
exhausting our energies and attacking and crippling our finances, I say 
we have been able to pay our debts, and at the same ttme take care of our 
soldiers' orphans. We boast of the liberality of our people, we boast of 
extended charities. I know how beautiful they sound and how noble 
they really are, but no charity of the age and of the past can compare 
with this. [Applause.] 

Were it not for these soldiers, my friends, this capital would be in ashes, 
the whole State would be sacked, burned, and ruined ; death and fire and 
desolation would have passed over this good old State, and the fair land 
would have been smitten with them. I am not here to persuade you. These 
children are not here to affect public opinion ; they are here only that the 
people may see and judge for themselves. If you are satisfied, then I ask 
you to continue this beneficent plan. But if you are not satisfied, let these 
children go. 

Voices — "Never, never, never." 

I will not say more ; yes, I may as well add something ; you may as 
well know it now. If this Legislature adjourns without doing these little 
people justice; if it neglects its duties, let me say, gentlemen, I have the 
power to call you back. [Immense cheering.] Before I leave this, I 
pray God that the electric spark may fall upon all ; that we may all deter- 
mine to do justice to the poor orphan children, and that we may thus do 
ourselves and our great Commonwealfti an honor. [Cheers.] 

After the exercises, the children flocked around the Governor, to 
whom they were introduced, and who manifested a great interest for 
them. The boys then adjourned to the Pai'k, where they were 
engaged in drilling and military tactics until supper-time. They 
were organized into companies, and drilled by boy officers selected 
from their own number. The precision and accuracy of movement 
they displayed surprised many, and was pronounced superior to 
those of many volunteer orgaitizations. 

On Saturday morning, March 17th, all the children, with their 



76 PENNSYLVANIA S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

teachers, called upon the Governor at the Executive Chamber, and 
had a most delightful and, to them, memorable interview. There 
was no speech making or other cold formality; but the soldiers' 
orphans were received by the " Soldiers' Friend," in a manner which 
evidently made a deep and right impression upon their young hearts. 
It was very cheering to them to be told, by such high authority, that 
their visit was not only a pleasure to himself, the Legislature, and 
the citizens of Harrisburg, but that their own conduct had been 
such as to reflect credit upon their heroic fathers and the State. 

After the termination of this reception, the schools repaired to the 
Court-House, which was crowded to its utmost capacity, and repeated 
the exercises of the preceding afternoon, with several other addresses, 
to the evident satisfaction of the audience. Again Governor Curtin 
addressed the assemblage, as did also General Harrison Allen, a 
member of the House of Representatives from Warren county, and 
Hon. Edward G. Lee", a member of the House from Philadelphia. 
The remarks of these gentlemen were eloquent and appropriate, and 
were fully appreciated by those to whom they were so kindly and 
cheeringly addressed. 

It would also be as pleasant, as it would be creditable to the 
schools, to insert here all the addresses of the pupils, but want of 
space forbids. 

On the occasion of this visit, the conduct of the citizens of Harris- 
burg towards the orphans is worthy of honorable record. Had their 
number been three thousand, instead of three hundred, every one of 
them would have been cordially welcomed into their homes and 
kindly entertained. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, also, to whom the orphans 
already owed so much, again showed its generosity by providing for 
them free and pleasant accommodations to and from the seat of gov- 
ernment. 

The simple exhibition of these children, showing their health, 
cleanliness, manners, and progress towards respectability, secured for 
the system, in which they had been trained, the confidence of the 
Legislature, and it was never after called in question. 

The bill of Mr. McAfee, which would dole out, as to paupers, a 
slender ejastence and a meagre schooling to the defenceless children 
of martyred patriots, was sent to the Senate for concurrence, but 
there received that treatment which if richly deserved. 

It was referred to the Committee on Education, and has never since 
been heard from. Mequiegeat in pace. 





CHAPTER VIII. 

ADDITIONAL OFFICERS APPOINTED. 

WING to the increased and rapidly increasing labors of 
the Bureau, it became evident to the Superintendent that 
the schools could not be efficiently managed without addi- 
tional assistance. Accordingly, in April, 1866, he, with 
the consent of the Governor, appointed Amos Row, Esq., of Indiana 
county. Examiner, and Colonel William L. Bear, of Lancaster county. 
Inspector. 

Mr. Row was a teacher of long experience and high standing, and 
well known to Dr. Burrowes. His duty was to visit all the institu- 
tions, to supervise and direct the school-room operations, — intro- 
ducing as rapidly as possible the peculiar method of instruction pre- 
scribed by the Superintendent, — and to see that the teachers em- 
ployed were competent; that school-room accommodations were 
ample, and that proper books and suitable school furniture were 
supplied. In addition to this, he was required to annually examine 
the higher classes in the institutions for the younger pupils, prepara- 
tory to making promotions or transfers to the advanced schools. 
The efficiency of the Superintendent's plan wa,s greatly improved by 
his faithful labors. 

Colonel Bear had served his country faithfully during the war, 
entering the service as second lieutenant in 1861, and passing up 
through the grades of first lieutenant, captain, major, and lieutenant- 
colonel, and receiving the compliments of the Secretary of War 
" for gallant services in the battle of the Wilderness." Besides his 
honorable war record, he had won a good reputation as a teacher. 
For ten years he taught in Professor John Beck's Boys' Academy, at 
Litiz, Lancaster county, and from that veteran learned many valu- 

77 



78 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

able lessons in dealing with youth. His duty as Inspector was to 
visit regularly all the institutions, and see that the clothes, food, bed- 
ding, and persons of the children were in proper condition. He also 
looked after the comfort, cleanliness, and ventilation of the buildings, 
the state of the grounds and out-houses, and the arrangements for 
employing and instructing the boys in farming, gardening, and mili- 
tary drill ; and the girls in sewing and household duties. To him, 
also, was entrusted the distribution and care of the garments sent to 
the schools, and of the materials to be there made up. No one could 
be more conscientious in filling a trust than was Colonel Bear, in 
looking after the interests of the children, who always hailed his 
visits with delight. Having been elected Prothonotary of Lancaster 
county, he closed his duties as Inspector with December, 1866, much 
to the regret of the orphans and his colaborers. 





CHAPTER IX. 

THE OFFICERS AND PRINCIPALS IN COUNCIL. 




HE first council of Principals was held during the 26th 
and 27th of April, 1866, at which time representatives 
of all the advanced schools, except Phillipsburg, were in 
conference at Lancaster with the State Superintendent, 
and the newly-appointed Examiner and Inspector. , Each of the 
workers in the new undertaking had learned some lesson which was 
of use to all the rest." Among the many topics under consideration, 
the industrial feature of the schools received most attention. Hith- 
erto, in nearly every school, no regular system of working the chil- 
dren had been introduced. Pupils were called from the school-room 
with no regard to their recitations or studies. This want of method 
was very annoying to teachers, some of whom had introduced a sys- 
tem of making work details in such a manner that the duties of the 
school-room would not be interfered with. Ail saw the advantage 
of the plan, and introduced it into their several schools. This was 
the beginning of the now perfected system of making work details, 
which has so long been practised, with so much success, in all the 
institutions for soldiers' orphans. The conference, in other respects, 
was beneficial, greatly promoting uniformity and eflficiency in the 
general plan of operations. 



79 





CHAPTER X. 



A TRIP TO PHILADELPHIA. -^THE ORPHANS AND THE 
BATTLE-FLAGS. 



O history of the schools would be complete which did not 

contain an account of the never-to-be-forgotten visit to 

Pl^iladelphia, which occurred during the summer of 1866. 

A list of the institutions and the members who partici- 




pated in this memorable event are here given 



Schools. 

McAlisterville 

Paradise 

Mount Joy 

CaRRville 

Quakertown 

North Sewickley. 

Harford 

Orangeville 

Phillipshiirg 

White Hall 



Principals. 

Col. Geo. F. McFarland. 

Prof. S. Preston 

Prof. J. R. Carothers.... 

Prof. A. L. Guss 

Rev. L. Cort 

Rev. H. Webber 

Prof. Chas. W. Deans... 

Prof. H. D. Walker 

Rev. W. G. Taylor 

Prof. D. Denlinger 



Girls. 


Boys. 


Teach- 
ers. 


67 


85 


7 


47 


63 


6 


52 


68 


5 


56 


80 


6 


43 


83 


5 


46 


53 


4 


37 


69 


5 


67 


74 


4 


32 


52 


4 


14 


26 


3 



Ag. 



159 
116 
125 
142 
131 
103 
111 
139 
88 
43 



Early in the history of the rebellion, the Society of the Cincinnati 
of Pennsylvania — an hereditary order, founded by the officers of 
the Revolutionary war — presented to the Governor of the State a 
sum of money, requesting that it be used to equip volunteers. The 
amount wasjiot large, — five hundred dollars, — and the subject being 
brought to tlic attention of the Legislature, the Executive was author- 
ized to use it, and whatever additional sums might be required, to 
procure flags to present to Pennsylvania regiments as they should go 
forth to the seat of war, with the wise provision that they be given 
back at the close of the conflict, inscribed with the names of the 

80 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 81 

battles through which they had been borne, and deposited in the 
archives of the State. The Fourth of July, 1866, was the day sub- 
sequently appointed for their formal return. Eleven hundred and 
fifty-seven orphans, children of the men who fell beneath the folds 
of those rent and pierced banners, went to Philadelphia to participate 
in the imposing ceremony. The railroad authorities of the State 
granted them free travel to and from the city ; and while there they 
were gratuitously and kindly cared for at the Soldiers' Home, the 
Lincoln Institution, the Episcopal Church Home, the Institution for 
the Blind, and at private families. 

Great preparations had been made that the event might be appro- 
priately celebrated. The men .who had served in the late war, so 
triumphantly terminated, flocked by thousands from all parts of the 
great State, to join in the festivities. An immense procession was 
formed, composed of Pennsylvania military organizations. United 
States troops and marines in the vicinity of the city, pupils of mili- 
tary schools, invalid officers and soldiers of the late war. in carriages, 
fire companies in full uniform, soldiers' orphans, — the boys on foot 
and the girls comfortably seated in ambulances, singing patriotic 
songs, and each bearing a miniature " star-spangled' banner," — and 
civil officers of the Commonwealth and invited guests from other 
States and the general Government. These were formed into seven 
divisions, each commanded by a distinguished general of the late war, 
attended by his staff officers, and each division having its proportion 
of veterans, who again proudly marched to the familiar strains of 
martial music and beneath the dear, old, tattered regimental colors 
which they had so often, in the name of God, freedom, and their 
country, baptized in fire and blood. The array was such as Phila- 
delphia had never before seen. The streets were thronged with men, 
women, and children, who vied with each other in patriotic demon- 
strations, all along the extended route over which the pageant passed. 
The place appointed for the grand ceremony of the day, namely, the 
presentation of the flags by General Meade, on behalf of the soldiers, 
to Governor Curtin, who received them on behalf of the State, was 
in the shadow of the cradle of American liberty. Independence 
Square, which had been fitted up and elaborately decorated for the 
occasion. 

The column began to move at ten o'clock, at the head of which 
was the mounted police, spread from curb to curb, clearing the streets 
with great difficulty. The front of the procession reached the Walnut 
6 



82 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

street entrance to the Square at ten minutes to eleven o'clock, up to 
which time the people who filled the amphitheatre of seats were 
entertained by the singing of the orphan girls and the music of a 
band, — it having been so arranged that the girls reached the Square 
before the military. 

The first to enter the gate was Major-General Winfield S. Han- 
cock and staff, followed by Major-General George G. Meade and 
staff, at the sight of whom there burst forth from the assemblage 
cheer after cheer, whose patriotic fervor carried the listener back to 
the memorable days of the war. The band struck up " Hail to the 
Chief," and the people rose, waving handkerchiefs and cheering vocif- 
erously. The generals bowed their acknowledgments. The Square 
soon became filled by the color-bearers, with their standards tattered 
and torn, which excited those who saw them to a still higher pitch 
of patriotic enthusiasm. The arrival of Governor Curtin, followed 
by the orphan boys, was the signal for renewed and prolonged cheers, 
especially from the soldiers, who, at a glance, recognized his familiar 
face. The platform was soon crowded to excess with citizens dis- 
tinguished in the late war, with officers of the army and navy, and 
representatives of the State and National Government. 

The exercises were opened with the playing by the band of " The 
Triumphal March," after which General Harry White, the chairman 
of the Committee of Arrangements, stepped to the front of the plat- 
form and delivered a well-timed and eloquent address, at the close 
of which he called on the Rev. Dr. Brainard to lead the vast con- 
course of people in prayer and thanksgiving to the God of nations. 
The address to the throne of grace being ended, he next introduced 
to the assemblage General Meade, who made the following address : 

Governor Curtin : — At the request of the brave and noble men who 
on the field of battle represented our beloved State of Pennsylvania, I am 
)»cre upon this occasion to present to you, air, the honored Chief Magis- 
trate of our Commonwealth, these battle-stained banners, which for four 
yeanj were carried by these noble men, amidst the bullets and cannon 
roar, and in the face of the enemy. Sir, of all the honors that have been 
Mhowered upon me for the humble services which it has been in my power 
to render to my country, none have been so grateful to me, and of none 
am I 80 proud, as being on this occasion the representative of these hardy 
and noble men wlio stand before you. [Applause.] Sir, in the dark days 
of 1861, when treaHon and rebellion lifted their impious hands, and the 
people of eleven States of this blessed Union, forgetful of the memories 



Pennsylvania's soLDiErws' orphan schools. 83 

and associations which had bound us together for three-quarters of a cen- 
tury, and made us a great and happy people, but blinded by passion, raised 
their impious arm and threatened the life of this Government ; at that time 
when you, sir, as now, were the Chief Magistrate of this Commonwealth, 
it is a matter of historic record that Pennsylvania was the first State to 
fly to the rescue of our country, and send her sons to the endangered 
capital of the nation. Sir, in that noble procession which to-day has 
marched through our streets, at the head of the column were the repre- 
sentatives of the men, who, at the first alarm, rushed to the rescue of the 
capital, and from that time to the conclusion of the war Pennsylvania was 
ever prompt to send her men into the field. More than 380,000 soldiers 
carried the banners of their country on the battle-field. When it was 
found what the proportions of this war would reach, you, sir, witii a sa- 
gacity highly creditable and honorable to you, in conjunction with the 
action of the Legislature, devised a banner which should be presented to 
the Pennsylvania regiments in the army of the Union. It was no un- 
worthy or improper State right which you, on this occasion, claimed. It 
was a legitimate pride in the prowess and deeds of valor in the noble sons 
of the State, which you were satisfied they would honor and appreciate. 
These flags were presented by you on many occasions in the presence of 
these regiments. I have often heard your fervent and eloquent appeals to 
the soldiers, to their patriotism, and strict attention to their duty. I say 
that on this occasion, which is due to you and your personal services in 
inspiring the soldiers of Pennsylvania on the field of battle [applause], 
the soldiers of Pennsylvania for four years have carried these banners with 
honor to themselves and to their native State. [Renewed applause.] I 
will not attempt here to recount the deeds of the soldiers of Pennsylvania. 
To do 80 would be to repeat the history of this war, for, with few excep- 
tions, there is not a battle-field from Gettysburg to Mobile [cheers for 
Gettysburg and General Meade] that the ground has not been stained by 
the blood of the soldiers of Pennsylvania; and, sir, there is not a State, 
either loyal or insurrectionary, which was the seat of war, which does not 
at this moment hold within it the honored and sacred remains of the heroes 
of Pennsylvania. Whilst we as soldiers of Pennsylvania claim no pre- 
eminence over the soldiers of our sister States, we at the same time cannot 
acknowledge any; and I claim, sir, in the name and on belialf of the 
soldiers of Pennsylvania thiat, in the illustrious roll of honor, whether it 
be among the immortal dead or among the distinguished living, that the 
names of the sons of Pennsylvania oflScers and soldiers will stand as high 
as the representatives of any other State. [Applause.] This war is over; 
peace has returned to bless our happy land. By the concurrent action of 
the Legislature, it has been determined that you should receive on this 
day, sacred to the memory of liberty, these battle-stained banners, that 
have passed through their fiery ordeals. In the name of the soldiers of 
Pennsylvania, I present to you these banners, which were received from 



84 PENNSYLVANIA S SOLDIEEIS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

the State, and which were borne through the war with honor and credit, 
and of which we, as soldiers, are justly proud. Receive them, sir, as 
mementoes of the prowess and deeds of valor of the noble sons of Penn- 
sylvania. Cherish them for all time to come, and place them in the State 
capitol, where our posterity for all generations may see them, to know 
what their forefathers have done in the hour of trial, and where they may 
stand a warning to all future traitors to shun the fate of those who dare 
to attempt the life of the nation. [Applause.] I will conclude by praying 
the Great Giver of all good that He will bless this great country, upon 
which He has been pleased to send peace once again, that never again may 
it be necessary for the sons of Pennsylvania to take up arms against those 
who should be their brothers, to put down insurrection and civil war and 
treason, but that God will ever bless us, that we may be a united and happy 
people, so that we shall look back to this day and these colors for the proud 
associations they carry with them. 

The Governor in reply said : 

General and Soldiers of Pennsylvania: — Soon after the com- 
mencement of the late rebellion, the Cincinnati Society of Pennsylvania 
presented to the Governor of the State a sum of money, which they asked 
to be used in the equipment of volunteers. The sum was too small to be 
of material service in that respect, and the subject having been presented 
to the Legislature, an act was passed directing the Governor to use the 
money, and whatever additional sums were necessary, to procure flags to 
be carried by Pennsylvania regiments during the war; and with a wise 
provision that the flags should be returned to the State at the close of their 
service, with proper inscriptions, to be made archives of the Government. 
The ceremony of the return of these flags was delayed until all the regi- 
ments in service from Pennsylvania had been mustered out; and to-day, 
surrounded by your fellow-citizens, and in the presence of high officials of 
the National Government, of Governors and officials of sister States, of 
distinguished soldiers of other States, and of the army and navy of the 
United States, and the representatives of the government of this Common- 
wealth, more than two hundred of these emblems of our country's nation- 
ality, all of which have waved amid the rapture of strife — all of which 
have been carried by Pennsylvanians — are returned untarnished. In 
their azure fields the arms of Pennsylvania have been emblazoned, and 
her motto, " Virtue^ lAberUj, and Independence" has been written in letters 
of fire, with pens of steel, by the gallant men before us and their com- 
rades, living and dead, upon every battle-field of the war. The record is 
glorious in memories of the past and in hopes of the future. 

If I consulted my own feelings, I would receive these flags in silence, for 
this occHMion is it« own most eloquent orator. My words cannot add to its 
•ublimity. Human lips cannot express such lessons of patriotism, of sac- 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 85 

rifice and heroism as these sacred relics sublimely attest. The man is to 
be pitied who claims to be a citizen of our America, especially of Penn- 
sylvania, who has witnessed these ceremonies without profound emotion, 
alike of sorrow and exultation — sorrow for the dead who died for liberty, 
exultation in recalling the blessings of God, the laws vindicated and en- 
forced by the suppression and punishment of treason, the Government 
protected and maintained, until the last armed rebel was beaten down, and 
the redeemed Republic emerged from the smoke of battle. 

It might be better to accept the momentous lessons taught by these 
returned standards without a word. In what adequate language can we 
address you, soldiers of the Republic, who live to take part in this ceremony? 
We have no words to convey the holy sentiment of veneration and of 
reverence for the heroic dead that wells up from every heart in your 
presence. 

To the men who carried the steel, the musket, and the sabre — to the 
private soldier, to the unknown dead — the demi-gods of the war, we this 
day seek in vain to express all our gratitude. If there be men more dis- 
tinguished than others, more entitled to our highest veneration, it is the 
private soldier of the Republic. If we follow him through all the sufferings 
and privations of the service, his long, weary marches, his perils on the 
out-posts, his wounds and sickness, even in the article of death, we trace 
him back to that sentiment of devotion to his country that led him to 
separate from home and its ties, and to offer even his life a sacrifice to the 
Government his fathers gave him and his children. As the official repre- 
sentative of the Commonwealth, I cannot take back the remnants of the 
colors she committed to your keeping without attempting to gather into 
my arms the full measure of her overflowing gratitude, and lay it at your 
feet. I, therefore, present you with the thanks of your cherished mother, 
this ancient and goodly Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, for the great 
glory you have given to her history. She fiilly realizes, and while public 
virtue remains she will never cease to realize, that she could better afford 
to lose the sources of her natural wealth, her rich fertile valleys, her great 
cities, her exhaustless minerals, than to lose from her archives a single one 
of these torn, faded, precious, consecrated flags of battle and its history, 
and of the brave men who suffered and fought around them. A Common- 
wealth may exist without cherishing her material wealth, but no Common- 
wealth can worthily, or should exist, which does not cherish, as the joy 
of its life, the heroic valor of its children. 

In the name of Pennsylvania I gave you these standards, fresh and 
whole, and asked you, in all trials, to maintain your loyalty, and defend 
them ; and to-day you bring them back to me, torn with rebel shot, sad 
with the gloom of some reverses, bright with the light of many triumphs, 
but beyond all, saved by your courage from dishonor, reddened by the 
blood of your dead brothers, borne over the ridges of a hundred battles, 
and planted, at last, upon the summits of victory. Surely State never had 



86 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

nobler children, nor received at their hands more precious gifts. What 
heroism, excelling the fables of romance ; leading forlorn hopes; charging 
into the "imminent deadly breach ;" "riding into the jaws of death till 
all the world wondered I " What sufferings of pain and hunger, and out- 
rage and death ; what ardent love of country ; what purest love of home ; 
what tender messages to mother, wife, children, and betrothed maiden ; 
wliat last prayers to God do these old and tattered flags suggest and unfold! 

The State will guard them reverently and lovingly until, in the fulness 
of time, some genius will arise to marshal their legends into the attractive 
order of history, or weave them into the immortal beauty of poetrj^, and 
then, at last, will be found fit expression for the part Pennsylvania has 
acted in the bloody drama. It will then be remembered that our State 
was represented at Fort Sumter, when traitors first fired upon the flag of 
the Union, and that the volunteers of Our State first reached the National 
Capital, and were at Appomattox Court-House, where traitors fired their 
last volley, and in all the terrible intermediate struggles in every rebellious 
State, in every important battle on land and water, where treason was to 
be confronted and rebellion to be conquered, the soldiers and sailors of 
Pennsylvania were to be found confronting the one and conquering the 
other — that her people never faltered in their fidelity to their distressed 
Government. 

It was in due historic fitness, therefore, that the wicked struggle to 
destroy the Union should culminate upon our soil, its topmost wave be 
dashed against our capital, and its decisive defeat be suffered here, and 
accordingly from Gettysburg the rebellion staggered backward to its grave. 

Alas! how many other graves it filled before it filled its own. How 
many brave and familiar faces we miss to-day who helped to bear these 
colors to the front, and on whose graves are growing the wild flowers of 
the southern land I 

Our words can no longer reach them, nor our gratitude serve them ; but 
we thank Heaven that those they loved better than life, are with us; that 
the widow of the war, and the orphan children of the soldiers, are within 
the reach of our cherishing care. We must never forget that every soldier 
of Pennsylvania who died that the nation might live, thereby entitled his 
widow to be kept from want, and his fatherless children to find a father in 
the Commonwealth. 

May the flags which we fold up so tenderly, and with such proud recol- 
lections, never be unfurled again, at least in such a war; and may all 
mankind, beholding the surpassing power of this free Government, abandon 
forever the thought of its destruction. Let us remember, too, that at Get- 
tysburg the blood of the people of eighteen loyal States — rich, precious 
blood — mingling together, sank into the soil of Pennsylvania, and by that 
red covenant are we pledged for all time to Union, to liberty, to nationality, 
to fraternity, to "peace on earth and good-will towards men of good will." 

Now that the war is over, we give peace to those who gave us war. 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 87 

And in the universal freedom, purcliased at so large a cost of blood and 
treasure, we give true justice to all men. Under the benediction of even 
justice to all, and inviting them to obedience to the law, to industry and 
virtue, we offer them the glories of the future and the sacred blessings of 
freedom for them and their children. We ask them to forget their malice 
and hate, and the counsels of the insane and wicked men who first led 
them to strike at the heart of their country, and to return to a participation 
in the rich rewards in store for this the freest and most powerful nation on 
the earth. 

But for you and your comrades, rebellion would have become revolution, 
and the enemies of freedom and united nationality would have achieved 
their infamous purposes. Under God we triumphed. The right has been 
maintained. And to you, in the name of all the people of this great Com- 
monwealth, I tender thanks — warm, deep, heartfelt thanks! May your 
lives be spared long to enjoy the Government you saved, to illustrate your 
country's grandeur, and to enjoy the priceless blessings which must foUov/ 
from the results of your courage, fidelity, and patriotism. 

The State of Pennsylvania, during all your services, has not been 
unmindful of you. You were followed to the battle-fields by the bene- 
dictions and prayers of the good, and benevolent people carried to you 
the contributions of the patriotic and generous at home. Never, at any 
time during the war, did this constant benevolence shrink, and always 
good. Christian men and women were found willing to endure privation 
and sulTering, to reach you on the field and in the hospital. So far as it 
was possible, the State always made ample provision for the removal of 
the bodies of the slain for Christian interment amid their kindred and 
friends. When it was practicable, the sick and wounded were removed 
to enjoy the tender watching and care of their friends at home. A7nl as 
the crowning glory of this great Commonwealth, she has gathered together 
the helpless and destitute orphans of dead soldiers and adopted them as 
the children of the Commonwealth. The Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
moved by Justice and Christian charity, for three years have made munifi- 
cent apj^ropriations of the public money to place within the care of the 
State the homeless little ones of your dead comrades. They are to be 
brought up as the glory and honor of the State, a monument that Penn- 
sylvania raises to the memory of the slain, more enduring than brass or 
marble, and in harmony ivith the Christian teachings of her people. 
Here are twelve hundred of these children before you to-day, tJie children 
of comrades left upon the field of battle, bright jewels in the crown of 
glory which encircles this great Commonwealth, the strongest evidence 
of the fidelity and patriotism of her people. Let this work be so now 
engrafted upon the public policy of the State, that it shall endure until 
the last orphan of the Pennsylvania soldier shall be trained, nurtured, and 
educated. 

This is a hallowed place — this is a hallowed day. Here and now, in 



88 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

the name of Pennsylvania, I accept these colors fitly, for we are assembled 
upon the birthday in the birthplace of American liberty. 

We are forced to contemplate the wondrous march of this people to 
empire, to colonization, the Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, 
the Constitution, the Kebellion — its overthrow, and the purification of 
our Government, and the change of our organic laws by the lesson of dis- 
cord, and our hopes for the future, following each other in logical sequence; 
and the duty and responsibility of this labor for mankind are devolved by 
the grace of God and the hearts and arms of our soldiers upon the loyal 
people of this land. 

In the presence of these mute symbols of living soldiers [pointing to 
the flags]; of yonder touching memorials of our dead soldiers [pointing to 
the children]; in fealty to the blood poured out like water; in remem- 
brance to the sorrows yet to be assuaged, and the burdens yet to be borne, 
the graves yet to be numbered, and the horrors yet to be forgotten ; in 
loyalty to our State, to our country, to our fellow-men everywhere, and to 
God, let us rise to the height of our great privileges, and place the Ameri- 
can Government upon the enduring basis of justice and liberty. This is 
the great lesson of the war, and the very rock of political truth. " Who- 
soever fulls upon it will be broken, and upon whomsoever it shall fall it 
will grind him to powder." 

Then our Government will represent the result of American civilization, 
and then these old flags will glow with the light of their true meaning, 
and the valor of the soldiers of the Republic will receive its just reward 
in rendering a memorable service to mankind ; for then, in the words of 
our illustrious martyr, we will take care "that the Government of the 
people, by the people and for the people, shall not perish from the earth." 

And now, having received these standards, he who addresses you has 
performed his last official act connected with the military service of the 
war, and his relations to you, so long, so intimate, and so cordial, are 
severed. 

In this, our last official interview, when the ties that bound us so closely 
for these eventful years just passed, and the relations so intimate, so cor- 
dial are closing, he would be insensible to the constant fidelity, to the 
pleasant relations, to the forgiveness of error, to the ready and generous 
Rupport, to the many, very many evidences of kindness and affection he 
has received from you and your comrades, if he has failed to express to 
you his personal obligation and thanks; he recurs with gratification to 
the fact that he did for the soldier what he could. He regrets that he 
could not have done more. But he will carry with him to his grave, and 
leave as a rich legacy to his children, the consciousness that you, at least, 
believed that he did what he could for his distressed country, and that, 
after the experience of five eventful years, the soldiers of Pennsylvania 
deem him worthy of their confidence and respect. 

And here, on this last occasion of the war, he returns his thanks to the 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 89 

great body of the people of Pennsylvania for their kindness and support, 
and to the thousands of benevolent women and men who were always 
ready to obey his calls to the succor and relief of their brave and gallant 
brethren in the field. 
I have done. Farewell, brave men. May God bless you. ' 

There could not have been a more fitting presence at this cere- 
mony than the boys and girls who were made fatherless by the 
rebellion. The appropriate and aflfecting exhibition of these " Chil- 
dren of the State" was second only to that of the glorious flags 
themselves. Strong men smiled on them through their tears, as they 
thought of the generous care of the State over them, and at the 
same time saw in their orphaned condition the sad results of war 
and the dear price of liberty. But who would* not have been one 
of them on that day of triumph, — on that grand natal day of the 
nation, made doubly glorious by the recent and complete victory over 
insolent and gigantic treason ! How enviable was their lot when 
they heard the united voices of a grateful people laud the memories 
of their slain fathers, and thank Almighty God for the valor that 
saved a great nation ! 

In the long, long years, when every title of nobility has perished 
from the earth, will it not be counted more than the blood of royalty, 
to be able to trace one's lineage back to the martyrs who were slain 
in the Great Battle of Freedom ! 





CHAPTEE XL 



INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED TO THE PRINCIPALS. 

HE unwearied labors and organizing powers of Superin- 
tendent Burrowes, and the degree of progress now attained, 
cannot be better shown than by presenting in full the 
instructions issued to the Principals during the month of 
October, 1866. Most of the rules then promulgated had been 
practically tested in one or more of the schools, while a few of them 
were measurably untried. That which is particularly noticeable, as 
being at variance with the prevailing methods, are his views in 
regard to school-room study and class-r(3om recitations. 




THE GENERAL RULES AND PRINCIPLES OF DR. BURROWES 
FOR THE ADVANCED SCHOOLS. 

The object of the State in taking charge of the destitute orphans of her dead 
soldiers is to provide for their education and maintenance. This is to be done 
in a manner at once worthy of her and useful to them. In carrying out this 
intention, it is to be kept in view, that, while education and maintenance are 
both to be provided in proper degree, the one is subordinate to the other ; for 
inasnnieh as the soul is the nobler and more valuable, its wants are to be pre- 
ferred to those of the body. Neither, however, is to be neglected or stinted. 

Education, in its full sense, embraces proper habits of body and development 
of conscience Jis well as instruction of mind. All are indispensable to the 
formation of right character. All are, therefore, to be provided for and pro- 
moted in these schools to the fullest extent of which their officei*8 and teachers 
are capable. But, inasmuch as in this complicated jjrocess there must be a 
fttarting-i)oint and a department of instruction to whicli all the others are to be 
in a certain Hense subsidiary, and inasnujch as the wisdom of the world and the 
CU«tom of our ancestors have decided the instruction of the mind to be that 
starting-point in the general education of youth,— 

T. The regtdar education of these oi'phana in the school-room is hcirby recognized 

90 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 91 

as and declared to be that deparltnent, in their general instruction, which is to have 
precedence in, while it is at the same time to be, as far as practicable, promotive of all 
their other necessary studies, pursuits, exercises, and employments. It is in nowise 
and at no time to be curtailed or inter-fered with, either for profit in employ- 
ment, for the ease of instructors, under pretext of pleasure or exercise for 
pupils, or for any other cause, except sickness and those periodical intermissions 
and vacations which are the right of youth. 

This rule is to be without exception. And when it is considered that only 
five hours' work in the school-room, during five of the seven days in the week, 
are required of the pupil, and that consequently all the rest of the time is left 
for physical labor and recreation, for eating, rest, and sleep, and for religious 
instruction, exercises, and worship; it cannot with truth be a«;serted that an 
undue draft is thereby made, either upon the pupil's time, energies, or patience, 
or that the teacher's labor and professional skill are unduly taxed by devoting 
eight hours to the school-room. 

The nature of these schools — in which industrial instruction and employ- 
ment are to be connected with intellectual, moral, and religious training — : ren- 
ders an additional fundamental principle or rule imperative ; and that is, — 

II. That cveiy pupil shall have an equal duration and opportunity of school-room 
instruction with all the others, and that such instruction shall be adapted to his or her 
intellectual condition and wants. Therefore, neither is any larger pupil to be 
detained from the school-room for the purposes of labor when the time for 
attendance has arrived or during such time (except in regular turn to which all 
shall be subject), nor is any junior pupil to be curtailed in the number or dura- 
tion of lessons, under pretext of the superior or more pressing wants of the 
elder. Each is to have the degree of instruction and attention proper for his 
or her age and state of advancement, and a sufficient force of teachers is to be 
provided to effect this object. 

The rights of children in matters of sleep, rest, and play are as well founded 
in reason as those of mental or moral instruction. They cannot be violated 
without injury as well as injustice. Therefore : 

III. Rising before daylight, in a school or institution for children at least, is neither 
promotive of health, comfort, study, nor economy. The damp air of the morning 
and the cheerless rooms of the school before either sun or fire has rendered 
them pleasant, are as unwholesome as they are comfortless and unpropitious to 
mental effort. The same candle-light wasted in the dark hours of the morning, 
or rather of the latter part of the night, if properly employed during two or 
three hours after sunset, will effect much more in the way of study. While the 
school-room is yet warm in winter or begins to be cool in summer, and while 
the studies of the day are still fresh in the memory and their accompanying 
instructions recent, as much may be effected in the evening as in double the 
time during the dark and probably chill morning hours ; or if miscellaneous 
reading and voluntary improvement be the work of these hours, as they should 
mainly be, the body, the mind, and the spirits will all be in better condition for 
effort in the latter part of the day than at any other time. Accordingly, that 
kind of early rising, which is really getting up and performing or attempting 
to perform the first duties of the day in the dark, is to be avoided. 



92 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

rV. Ab re»t, play, and exercise are also rights of childhood, so they are to be not 
only allowed in due quantifies, but so reguLaXed as to promote moral and physical 
improvement. It is, therefore, the duty of instructors to regulate without im- 
properly restraining the amusements of the pupils, and to see to it that, while 
cheerfulness and relaxation prevail, nothing detrimental to health or good 
morals is practised. 

Soldiers' orphans, like all other children, are subject to evil influences, and 
will occasionally be guilty of improper conduct. Those influences are, as far 
as possible, to be corrected and this improper conduct punished. In cases in 
which no other corrective is found to succeed, corporal punishment is to be 
administered. But, in order to prevent the abuse of this power, — 

V. Every instance of corporal punishment, whether it be the application of the rod, 
confinement, to the room, or exclusion from meals, shall be entered in a book kept for 
that purpose, by the Principal of the school, with the name of offender, cause, and kind 
of punishment, and date. And all corporal punishments shall be inflicted by the Prin- 
cipal of tJie school himself, and not by any of the teachers or other employees. 

General Distrtbution of Time. 

In order to methodize all the operations of the schools and obtain due time 
for sleep, food, care of the person, study, work, worship, and play, the following 
hours will be observed : 

Ist. Pupils will rise about five o'clock in April, May, June, July, August, 
and September ; and about six o'clock in October, November, December, Janu- 
ary, February, and March, except such details in succession as may be required 
earlier to attend to special duties, such as making fires, cooking, feeding ani- 
mals, &c. These hours, however, may be varied, according to the month, within 
the above limits. 

2d. The first thirty minutes after rising shall be devoted to washing the face, 
neck, teeth, and hands, combing the hair, and arranging the clothing, &c., for 
inspection ; the next fifteen minutes to inspection of the person and clothing by 
the proper officer, and the last fifteen minutes of the hour before breakfast to 
morning worship. 

3d. Breakfast shall be on the table and the pupils called to it at six o'clock 
in the summer half year, and at seven o'clock in the winter; and the pupils 
aliall be allowed a full half hour for the meal. 

4th. The time between breakfast and the opening of school shall be allowed 
for play the whole year round, except in haytime and harvest, when the pupils 
shall be permitted to aid in the light and pleasant labors of the season till the 
regular school hour. 

6th. The school shall open with the calling of the roll, at fifteen minutes 
before eight o'clock in the morning, and continue till fifteen minutes of twelve 
o'clock, with fifteen minutes of recess at ten o'clock. 

6th. Dinner shall be on the table at twelve o'clock, and the pupils shall have 
a full half hour at table. 

7tli. The titne between dinner and the opening of school shall be for play, 
except for iuch pupiU as, in their turn, shall be detailed for special duty. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 93 

8th. The school shall reopen at one o'clock p. m., and continue till fifteen 
minutes of five o'clock P. M., with a recess of fifteen minutes at three o'clock. 

9th. The first half hour after close of school shall be devoted to military 
drill by the boys and proper physical exercise by the girls, and the remaining 
time till supper to play, except by pupils specially detailed for work in their 
regular turn. 

10th. Supper shall be served and pupils called to it at six o'clock, all the year 
round, and a half hour allowed for the meal. 

11th. The half hour between supper and seven o'clock shall be for play. 

12th. From seven to eight o'clock in summer, and to nine o'clock in winter, 
sliall be spent in the main study-hall and under the eye of the Proprietor of 
the school himself, in exercises of vocal music, declamation, reading essays, 
writing essays and letters, familiar lectures, miscellaneous reatlings, &c. ; an 
evening, or part of an evening in each week, as the Principal shall direct, 
being devoted to each of these, or other similar employments. 

13th. After family worship, in the study-hall, the pupils shall retire to their 
rooms at eight o'clock in summer and nine o'clock in winter, and all lights in 
bed-rooms shall be extinguished at the end of fifteen minutes from those hours, 
respectively. 

SCIIOOL-KOOM PKINCIPLES AND EXILES. 

In order to interest and aid pupils in their studies, without supplanting health- 
ful self-eifort, to overcome as far as practicable the obstacles to combining in- 
dustrial pursuits with intellectual culture, and to secure to each pupil an equal 
advantage in recitation, the following will be the fundamental rules of instrucr 
tion in these schools : 

I. The principal teacher shall not, as a general rule, set a task, or hear a lesson, but 
shall confine himself to the giving of oral imtruction and assistance in tlie study of the 
text-books, in the main study-hdU. 

Every student has, on innumerable occasions, felt the want of an intelligent, 
kind, and learned friend, while struggling with the difficulties of a new study 
or science, — not of one to tell him everything, but to put him in the way to 
overcome those difficulties and pass through those dark passages with which 
every text-book, no matter how good, does more or less abound. Thousands of 
youth have become disgusted with study, and lost their interest in learning, just 
for want of such aid. And this aid it is which is indispensable to reconcile the 
extremes of the ancient mode of instruction, which was all oral, with the mod- 
ern, which is all text-book, and retain the benefits of both, and with them the 
interest of the pupil in his work. Accordingly, it will be the duty of the prin- 
cipal teacher of each of these schools : 

1st. To afford to each pupil, in his seat, and while studying his next lesson 
for recitation, on being requested by signal or otherwise, any needed explanation, 
suggestion, advice, or aid, as the case may need ; but always so imparted as at 
the same time to overcome the difficulty, yet to do so in such manner as to cause 
the pupil to exercise his own faculties as much as possible in the efibrt. 

2d. To send out the classes for recitation to the examining assistants, in the 
recitation-rooms, in their order, and as far as possible by his oversight and 
assistance, prepared for successful recitation. 



94 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

3d. To have reference, in his instructions, more to the comprehension of the 
fundamental! principles and main facts involved in the lesson, than to mere 
memorized passages or minute details. 

4th. To receive reports daily, or at stated periods, from the examining assist- 
ants, showing not only the condition of each class, but of each mind and the 
advancement of each mind in each class, so as to be enabled to adapt his own 
oral instruction and assistance to the condition and wants of each. 

5th. Occasionally, when the state of the study-hall will permit, or when the 
Principal of the school can take his place therein, to visit the class-rooms during 
recitation, in order to know how his assistants may be discharging their duties, 
and to enable him to afford them needed advice and instruction. 

II. No text- or lesson-books shall be studied except in school, and during school 
hours ; nor, cw a general rule, shall any text-book be allowed in the hands of a pupil, 
except in the presence of the teacher. 

If the value of the teacher's presence while the pupil is ^studying the lesson 
be admitted, nothing need be added as to the danger or loss of time and interest 
in study consequent upon his absence. It is therefore taken to be established 
that all lessons should be studied in reach of such aid. But, in schools whose 
object is to combine intellectual with industrial training, and therefore in which 
as large a portion of time as possible is to be secured for the former, without 
interference by the latter, the compact confinement of all study within certain 
hours and at a certain place, becomes imperative. In fact, it is the indefinite 
mixture of the one with the other, and the leaving of both, to a great extent, to 
the student's own choice or caprice as to time and place, that have mainly pre- 
vented the success of most manual-labor institutions. Still, in the use of the 
text-book, even under all proper restrictions, there are certain conditions to be 
observed. Among these are : 

1st. That few studies shall be pursued at the same time by the same students. 
One at a time, till well mastered, would probably make the best scholars in 
each ; but, inasmuch as we are omnivorous in mind as well as stomach, and 
inasmuch, also, as school-time life is short, three or four may be pursued simul- 
taneously. What these shall be after the rudimcntal studies, and their order, 
must of course be left to the principal teacher of the school, in view of the 
capacity and state of advancement of each pupil. It is, however, insisted on, 
that attention be continued, during the pupil's whole continuance in the schools, 
to spdling — as the first grace of good writing ; to reading — as the best exercise 
of the voice, and a most pleasant social accomplishment ; to writing — as the 
practical branch by which more successes in life are commenced, than by any 
other ; and to a thorough knowledge of the fundamental principles of arithmetic, 
without which no permanent success in business is often effected. Geography, 
grammar, &c., have their places, and should come early in the course. But 
the«e Khould precede them and be continued till the end. 

2d. That topical study is the best. A branch of the subject should be taken 
up, 88 a whole, in each lesson, and be recited and contemplated by itself. If 
Uk) long for one recitation, it must be divided into two or more; but when the 
end iB reached in tliis way, the whole should be reviewed together and regarded 
an a whole, and also in ItH relation to the main branch or science. 



SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 95 

3d. That the miscellaneous or general reading of the pupil should be, as far 
as practicable, made to take the same direction as his school-room studies, for 
the time being. In all these schools there should be libraries ; and in selecting 
books for evening reading, the pupils can readily be induced to prefer those 
calculated to throw light upon their school-room labors. 

4th. Tliat dictionaries, cyclopedias, digests, and compends be often and liber- 
ally resorted to, in aid of text-book study. These will often sare the teacher 
labor, afford much light to the pupil, impart to him a habit of reference to 
authority of great value in after life, and be an aid in the use of text-books, 
second only in value to that of the living instructor. 

III. l^he class examiner shall set the tasks and hear the lessons, but not, as a gen- 
eral rule, give instruction. 

There are three acts or processes in the culture of mind : 1st. Study, or self- 
effort, by the mind itself, to acquire knowledge or development by the use of 
books and the other appointed inanimate means; 2d. Instruction by the living 
teacher, in aid of the imperfections and insufficiency of the dead-book ; and, 
3d. Examination by a competent person, to ascertain whether the study of the 
book and the instruction of the teacher have effected the object in view, in 
reference to the lesson assigned. 

If this be the orderly and correct process, based on the nature of mind, the 
means employed, and the end desired, then there is neither time nor necessity 
for teaching in the class-room. The business of that department is to ascertain 
and report the progress effected by the joint action of the two other agencies, 
or processes. And all who have closely watched the proceedings in a recitation- 
room, in which both instruction and examination are attempted, will probably 
acknowledge that neither is satisfactorily accomplished. A few pupils at the 
head of the class probably make good recitations; but soon a falling off is per- 
ceived, and long before the end of the class is reached, the allotted time has 
been consumed in an attempt, on the part of the teacher, to make up by his 
own instructions, — which are forgotten as soon as uttered, — for the neglect or 
ignorance of the rest. Now, such recitations are a severe, but useless, tax upon 
the teacher, at the same time that they injure the pupil, by using him to this 
neglect of study and failure in recitation. The true mode is neither to attempt 
to add to the knowledge of the pupil making a good recitation, nor to patch up 
by useless, because not remembered, instruction a bad one. Let the exact state 
of the class be ascertained and reported to the teacher, the master of study ; and, 
day after day, under the impulse of his aid and supervision, an improvement 
will be visible. 

It may, and generally will, happen, in the class-room of a good examiner, 
acting on this principle, and with classes properly prepared, that time will be 
left at the end of the recitation for general purposes. Perh'aps the best use 
that can be made of such creditable moments will be to make some remarks 
explanatory of the general principles involved in the next lesson, or to present 
some view of the topic of the last, not found in the book. Such aid is legiti- 
mately within the sphere of the class examiner, and will be of the greatest 
value to his pupils. 

Among the special duties of the class examiner, it may be stated that he is: 



96 Pennsylvania's soldiers* orphan schools. 

Ist. To assign short lessons, but to exact perfect recitations. 

2d. To avoid leading questions, or sucli as suggest the answer, in cases where 
he is coinpelle<l, by the nature of the subject, to ask questions. 

3d. To require all passages for committal to memory to be literally mem- 
orized, and not to permit bungling recitals, or the substitution of one word for 
another, — accurate memorization being of the greatest value in after life, as 
well as due tj> the subject of the lesson. 

4th. To see that the portions to be comprehended and reproduced, but not 
memorized, are comprehended fully. 

5th. To hold the pupil to propriety of language in rendering the substance 
of a passage, or lesson. No mispronunciation of words or ungrammatical sen- 
tences are to be allowed to pass without correction and explanation. This is 
the best mode, after all, of teaching grammar. 

6th. To promptly report, for promotion to a superior class or degradation to 
an inferior one, every pupil whose progress, or the habitual lack of it, renders 
the change due to himself or to his classmates. 

7th. To send a class-book to the principal teacher with each class when it 
returns from the recitation-room, in which the examining teacher shall date and 
Dote the subject and extent of the next lesson, and shall also enter the names 
of such pupils as have failed in recitation. 

Number of Pupils, Teachers, and Class-Kooms. 

As each of these schools has, or is to have, a maximum of one hundred and 
fifty pupils, the number of teachers required will be at least four, — that is, one 
principal teacher, and three assistants, or class examiners. Of these, the Prin- 
cipal, of course, is to be a teacher of large experience, and of sufficient scholar- 
ship to afford instruction in all the branches of study pursued in the school. 
The' assistants may have less scope of scholarship, but each must be well quali- 
fied in the branch or branches committed to his or her class-room. 

In this corps of teachers —two of whom should be males and two females — 
one should be capable of giving instruction in military drill and calisthenic 
exercises, one should be qualified to teach vocal nmsic, and one, if practicable, 
should be able to instruct in the rudiments, at least, of linear drawing. 

Ah a general rule, it is recommended that the Principal or proprietor of the 
school sliall not himself be the principal teacher. His time and attention will 
be so much occupied by the general supervision of the establishment and pro- 
viding for its wants, as to render it inconsistent, if not impossible, to act also as 
the principal teacher. For this position, the better way will be to secure the 
servicefl of a competent person, who shall devote his whole time to school-room 
duties and the matters connected therewith. 

This system will require at least three class-rooms to each school, properly 
provided with blackboards, &c., it being inconsistent with its nature to have 
any of Uie ieiMous recited in the study -hall. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 97 
Programme. — Morning Session. 



Or'o BxB«*«. 


Ut HALV HOVR. 


2D. 


3d. 


4th. 


REOKsa. 


6th. 


6th. 


7th. 


15 mia. 
7.15-8. 


SOmla. 

8-8.30. 


aOmin. 
8.30 -». 


SOinin. 
(M).30. 


SOmin. 
9.30-10. 


15niin. 
10-10.15 


30 min. 
10.16-10.45. 


.10 min. 
10.46-11.15. 


30 min. 
11.15-1 J. 45. 


1 Division. 

A. Glass, 

B. Glass, 


Work, 
Work, 


Work, 
Work, 


Work, 
Work, 


Work, 
Work, 


" 


Recite, 
Spell. Read. 

Study. 
Spell. Read. 


Writing, 
Exercise. 

Recite. 
S. or tt. 


Recite, 
Mental. 

Writing, 
Exeroise. 


3 Division. 
G. Glass, 
D. Class, 


Reoite, 
Menu Arith. 

Study, 
.Meuu Arith. 


Reoite, 
Mont. 


Recite, 
Spell. 

Writing, 
ExeroiM. 




" 


Work, 
Work, 


Work, 
Work, 


Work, 
Work. 


3 DmsiON. 
S. Glass, 
P. Class, 


Recita, 
Read. 


Study, 
W. Arith. 

Reoite, 
Reiid. 




WriUng, 
Bxerotse. 

Recite. 
OIJ. l*ss. 


" 


Recite, 
oy. Less. 

Study, 
W. Arith. 


Study, 
Spell. 

Reoite, 
W. Arith. 


Recite 
Spell. 


i Division. 
O. Class, 
H. Class, 


Recite, 
Obj. Less. 


Study, 
Read. 

Reoite, 
Read. 


Recite, 
Read. 
\ 
Writing. 

Bxeroiie. 


Writing. 
Exorcise. 

Reoite, 
Count. L«sa. 


•' 


Recite, 
Count. Less. 

Studv. 
Spell. 


Recite, 
Spell. 


Reoite, 
Spell. 



Noon. — Recess, 75 min. 11.45-1. 





Progrannme. — 


■Afternoon Session. 




Op'o Exbb'8. 


Ist HALF HOOB. 


2d. 


Sd. 


4TH. 


BTCBte. 


6th. 


•th. 


7th. 




SO rain. 
1-1.30. 


SOmin. 
1.30-2. 


30 min. 
2-2.30. 


30 min. 
2.30-3. 


15 rain. 
S-3.15. 


SOmin. 
S.15-3.45. 


Mmln. 
3.46-4.15. 


SOmin. 
4.15-4.45. 


I Division. 1 

St-i(ly, 

A. Cla^s, W. Arith. 

B. Class, 1 R-cite, 

Maiit. Arith. 

■ ! 


Recite. 
W. Arith. 

Studv. 
W. Arith. 


Study, 
Qco.or H. 

R»cite, 
W. Arith. 


Recite, 
Geo. or Hist. 

Studv. 
Geo. or Hist. 


•' 


Study 

G. or Comp. 

Recite. 
O. or Hist. 


Recite. 

Q. or Comp. 

Study 

G. or Comp. 


Study, 
Sp. or Read. 

Recite, 
Gram, or G. 


2 Division. 

R'cite, 

C. Glass, Rjad. 

D. Class, 1 Stuir, 

1 Geo." 


Study, 
Oeo.or H. 

Recite, 
aeo. 


Recite, 
Geo.or H. 

Studv, 
W. Arith. 


Stndv. 
W. Arith. 

Recit€. 
W. Arlth. 


•' 


Recite. 
W. Arith. 

Study, 
Spell, or C. 


Study, 

R. or Comp. 

Recite, 
Spell, or C. 


Recite, 
Obj.L.orC. 

Study, 
Read. 


3 Division. 

E. Class. 
P. Class, 


Work, 
Work, 


Work, 
Work, 


Work. 
Work, 


Work, 
Work, 


" 


Study. 
Ment. or G. 

Recite, 
Spell. 


Recite, 
Ment. or C. 

Study, 
Tables or G. 


Study, 
Bead. 

Recite, 
Tables or G. 


4 DimioN. 
G. Class, 
H. Glass, 


Study, 
Read. 

Recite, 
Obj. Less. 


Recite, 
Read. 

Study, 
Spell. 


Studv. 
W. Arith. 

Recite, 
Spell. 


Recite, 
W. Arith. 

Study, 
Drawing.eto. 


" 


Work, r 
Work, 


Work, 

1 
Work, 


Work. 
Work. 



93 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

PROGRAMME OF STUDIES AND DETAILS. 

In order to enable this programme to be punctually and successfully put into 
operation, the following rules are to be observed : 

1st. That the school be divided into four general divisions, each consisting of 
two subdivisions or classes, aiid these, as far as practicable, of an equal number 
and grade of pupils. 

2d. That each pupil be furnished with all necessary books, slates, paper, pen, 
ink, pencils, &c. 

3d. That every pupil be in his or her seat at the opening exercises of the 
school, and also at the close, unless absent at the close on detail for work, in 
regular turn. 

4th. That a full half hour be devoted to each recitation. 

On Wednesday afternoon the A, D, and E classes will write compositions 
during the first half hour after recess ; and the B, C, and F classes will have a 
similar exercise during the second half hour after recess. These compositions 
will be examined, and errors marked by the class examiner the succeeding half 
hours. The principal teacher sliall give such aid and instruction, in the prep- 
aration of these exercises, as will make them pleasant and profitable, instead 
of irksome. 

On Friday the A, B, and D classes will receive a lesson on objects, at the time 
allotted for the recitation of mental arithmetic. The remaining classes will each 
iiave a lesson on objects once a week, on Friday, at the periods designated in the 
programme. On the other days of the week this period of time is to be devoted 
to orthographical exercises, reviews of previous lessons, etc. 

This programme of studies provides for eight hours of exercises in the school- 
room every week-day except Saturday ; but inasmuch as each pupil in the school 
will be detailed for work, in regular turn, during two of those hours, and have 
half an hour of intermissions, there will remain only five hours to each pupil for 
frtndy.and instruction, — each recitation being preceded by ample time to prepare 
the lesson by study, under the supervision and aid which this system contem- 
plates. It is believed that this provision for intellectual training is quite suf- 
ficient; and that with proper care, skill, and faithfulness on the part of the 
teachers, and industry, patience, and obedience on that of the pupils, the schools 
may soon be made to show results alike creditable to themselves and honorable 
to the State. 

ORDER, NEATNESS, AND WORK. 
General Principles. 

I. Concnrrcntly with the improvement of the mind and the elevation of the 
moral nature, the comfort, health, and efficiency of the body, for the purposes 
of life, are to be attended to and promoted by all proper means. 

II. Comfort and health being dependent, as far as can be effected by human 
meanH, on proper food, clothing, cleanliness, air, exercise, and relaxation, — 
tlic?He are to be Becured not only by a sufficiency of each, but their full enjoyment 
muHt bo promoted by regular inspection and constant supervision. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 99 

II r. Labor, being essential to health and happiness, is also to be such a por- 
tion of the life of these children as, on the one hand, not to interfere with their 
intellectual or moral development, while, on the other, it shall be of such kinds 
as shall fit them for those domestic and social duties which all, no matter of 
what calling or profession, should be able to discharge for themselves. 

IV. This labor is to be performed so as, at the same time, to be instructive to 
the pupils and beneficial to the school, and must, therefore, always be executed 
under proper instruction and supervision. Hence, 

V. There must be, in each of the schools, a sufficient force of employees to 
supervise and direct the pupils in all matters of order, neatness, and work. 

VI. There will be, in addition to the Principal or proprietor of the school, 
and his wife, — from whose kind and intelligent supervision much is expected, — 

A matron, with a male assistant. 

A farmer, who shall also be gardener and the master of boys' work. 

A nurse. 

Two cooks, one of whom shall bake. 

Two laundresses. 

One chambermaid. 

One eating-room girl. 

KuLES FOR Order, Neatness, and Work. 

1. 4,30 A. M., male attendant arises, makes firea in school-room, recitation- 
rooms, and in wash-kitchen. 

2. 5.45, bell for pupils to rise. 
Male attendants to awaken the boys. 
Matrons to awaken the girls. 

The chambers aired by lowering upper sashes. 

Male attendant assists the boys in washing. 

Matron assists the girls in washing. 

There are to be at least twenty basins for each sex, and the washing is to be 
done in separate apartments, which shall be comfortable and well supplied with 
water, towels, combs, wash-rags, soap, and looking-glasses. 

The towels shall be changed every day. 

Special details to report immediately after washing to cooking department, 
eating-room, and farmer for such work as is to be done before inspection. 

3. 6.25. Bell for inspection. 
6.30. Inspection. 

No pupils to be excused from inspection, or roll-call, except those actually 
required in the kitchen or eating-room, or such as may be sick. 

The Principal, himself, shall inspect and acquaint himself with the condition 
of each pupil as to cleanliness of face, neck, ears, hands, and head, — proper 
adjustment and cleanliness of clothing, — the condition of hats, boots, and shoes. 

Pupils with torn garments, or buttons ofi", shall be directed to report, immedi- 
ately after breakfast, to the matron, and have the garments replaced ; and she shall 
at once place the defective garments in the hands of the seamstress for repairs. 

Pupils not passing inspection in regard to cleanliness of person, shall be 
immediately referred to the matron, or to the attendant upon the boys, for 
correction of the neglect or oversight. 



100 PENNSYLVANIA S SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

No pupil shall be punished who fails to reach the standard required to pass 
inspection, unless the fault is manifestly and perversely his or her own. 

4. 7 o'clock in winter; 6 in the summer. Bell for breakfast. 

The pupils shall pass in order to the eating-hall from the school-room, or 
other place of assembly. 

The Principal and teachers shall eat at the table with the pupils; and the 
foo<l for the pupils shall be the same as that for the Principal and teachers. 

Pupils only to be excused from appearing at table by the Principal; and all 
shall remain till the time for eating has expired, when they shall retire in order, 
as upon entering; except in special cases, when permission to retire has been 
granted by the person presiding at the table of the pupils asking to be excused. 

A reasonable degree of silence shall be maintained while eating. 

The pupils shall be taught to eat decently and observe rules of politeness at 
the table. 

5. 8 o'clock. School being opened, the regular details are to be sent from 
the school-room to work, and not before, and any special details announced. 

At the bell for change of details, the pupils at work shall return to school 
without awaiting the arrival of the relief. 

Not less than six girls shall be at any time employed in the sewing-room, and 
08 many more as the force of the school will admit of; but when six will leave 
a deficiency of female help for the other departments, the aid of boys will be 
resorted to in such kinds of work as are suitable for them. 

Di'tJiils for the dormitories, kitchen, eating-room, ete., shall be so made that 
pupils shall not be employed more than one week in the same special department. 

No labor shall be exacted from pupils during the hours set apart for play ; or 
for evening exercises; or after the hour for retiring has arrived. 

6. 11.45. School dismissed for dinner, which is to be regulated in the same 
manner as breakfast. 

1 p. M. School re-assembled. 

4.45. School dismissed for the day. 

5.30. Supper, to be regulated as breakfast and dinner. 

7. 8 o'clock. Pupils retire for the night, passing in order to the dormitories, 
accompanied by the matron and male attendant, to see that they go in an orderly 
manner to bed. 

The matron and attendant shall see that the pupila have a suflSiciency of bed- 
clothing for the season, and notify the Principal of deficiencies, that he may 
supply them. 

Two blankets, one comfort, and two sheets shall be provided for every two 
pupils in the winter, and a sufficiency, including two sheets, at other seasons. 

The chaff-bag shall be made of strong ticking and well filled with clean • 
chaff*, fine-cut straw, or corn husks. 

The l)ol8terH shall also be made of good ticking and filled with the same 
material as the bod, or feathers when procurable, and covered with muslin cases. 

BhectA and bolster cases shall be washed every week. 

Not more than two pupils shall be allowed to sleep in one bed. 

Night-stooU, covere<l, shall bo near the sleeping apartments and easy of 
to every pupil. , 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 101 

The Principal or teachers, before they retire, shall acquaint themselves with 
the state of the air in the dormitories, and take all necessary steps to secure a 
healthful ventilation. 

Clothen-hooks shall be put in each sleeping apartment, sufficient for all the 
pupils to hang up their garments. 

Wednesday Inspection. 

On Wednesday, after the opening of the school, the boys of each class in 
turn shall report to the Principal or other competent person for a rigid inspec- 
tion as to personal cleanness, discovery and treatment of cutaneous diseases 
and the presence of vermin ; and the half hour of each class devoted to recita- 
tion on other days shall be employed in this duty. 

The girls of the same classes shall report in like manner, to the Principal's 
wife or matron, for the same purpose. 

This inspection is to be made regularly and rigidly, and in addition to the 
daily inspection, and to the bathing of all the pupils on Saturday. The follow- 
ing is recommended as the order and time for this examination of the cli 
according to the programme of school exercises; 



C Class from 8 to 8.30 

D " " 8.30 " 9 

G " "9 " 9.30 

F " " 9.30 " 10 



E Class from 10.15 to 10.45 
H " " 10.45 " 11.15 
A " " 11.15 " 11.45 
B " " lp.M." 1.30 



Saturday's Operations. 

The programme of the morning until after breakfast, the same as on other 
days. After breakfast the Principal shall announce the following details for 
the next week : 

1. Of girls for making beds and sweeping chambers. 

2. Of girls for scrubbing and general housework. 

3. Of boys to assist the farmer. 

4. Of boys to assist in making fires, &c. * 
For Saturday : 

5. Of boys to clean yard and premises. 

6. All boys not on other duty, to black or grease their shoes, wash, and bathe. 
It is expected that all work to be performed on Saturday shall be completed 

by noon, and every pupil be then clean and neatly clad for dinner. 

The afternoon of Saturday shall be entirely for play and recreation, except 
that in fine weather one hour shall be employed by the boys in military and 
by the girls in systematic physical exercises. 

FOOD, CLOTHING, AND HEALTH. 

Food. 

Wholesome, sufficient, and regular food is all that is needed for childhood. 
Rich dishes and dainties are prejudicial. Of course an occasional treat of this 
kind will be greatly enjoyed, would do little harm if partaken of in moderation, 
and is not forbidden. 



102 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

The following, for the present, are tlie regulations on this subject. It being 
understood that a sufficiency for all pupils, of at least one of the articles in each 
of the numbered lists, shall be on the table at the respective meals : 

Breakfast: 1. Bread. 2. Butter, sauce, or molasses. 3. Coffee, tea, chocolate, 
or sweet milk, the latter to be warm or cold at the option of the pupil. 4. One 
or more of the following articles : Fried mush, fried potatoes, with or without 
onions, fried bread, fried or boiled eggs, gravy, boiled potatoes, with skins, 
tomato sauce, milk gravy, mackerel or other tish, hash, or any other warm 
meat preparation. 

Dinna-: 1. Bread. 2. Beef, pork, mutton, veal, poultry, or other meat. 3. 
One or more of the following articles : Potatoes, cabbage, parsnips, turnips, car- 
rots, green beans, green corn, green peas, hominy, beans, rice, stewed onions, 
Btewed beets, or any other vegetable stewed or boiled, vegetable or other soup, 
boiled or baked pot-pie, tomato sauce, green apple sauce, salad. 

Supper: 1. Bread. 2. Butter or molasses. 3. Coffee, tea, or milk. 4. One 
or more of the following articles: Cold meat, hash, stewed fruit, potatoes, 
onions, pone or other corn bread, potato soup. 

SuTiday Dinner to consist of cold meat, bread, cakes, pies, stewed fruit, &c. 
FruU to be given at any meal, when in season, and grown on the premises. 

Clothing. 

These children are to be plainly but comfortably clad, and their clothes kept 
in good repair by the seamstresses, assisted by the female pupils. 

Such of the garments as can shall be made at the schools, by the seamstresses, 
with the assistance of the girls ; and a reasonable compensation will be allowed 
to the Proprietor of the school for his trouble and care in the matter, and for 
tlie cutting out and labor by the seamstresses. All the articles worn by the 
girls, except shoes, stockings, cloaks, and head dresses, and all those of the boys 
except their parade dresses, winter suits, and overcoats, and their shoes, stock- 
ings, hats, and caps will be made in the schools. 

The uniform of the boys shall consist of a dark bluejacket, with black braid 
and gilt eagle button ; dark gray pants, with black braid ; and a blue cloth cap, 
with a strip of gold lace. 

The other garments of the boys shall be such as the season requires, but as 
nearly uniform as may be. 

The frills shall wear black cloth cloaks and bonnets in winter, with dresses 
of < <.lor simlhir to each other in the same school ; and garments suitable to the 
8ea.son at other times. 

There shall he a room sufficiently large, and with conveniences for the orderly 
keeping of every pupil's wanirolx'. 

'Every garment shall he iii:irk((l with the pupil's name, or proper number, 
and sliall not he ■. ism u> anoihcr until pernianeiitlv so assigned. 

The njaiion -h.ill li.,vr chai-.' of and shall make herself acquainted with the 
Mimlx r and ("ndiiiun of the articles in each jjupil's wardrobe ; she shall receive 

*^' ' ' ''" ' ''.'> '•"■ <!"ilie- <.r the pupils; and shall see that they are put in 

I ' ' , re.idv lor <li-tril)Ution. 

' •"'' her own hands, distribute the garments to the pupils, when 



PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 1C3 

Every pupil shall be furnished with clean undergarments every week. 

Clothes-hooks shall be provided at a convenient place, to enable the pupils to 
hang their hats and lioods upon during school hours. No torn garments shall 
be placed in the wardrobe. 

Inspection of New Pupils and Care of Sick. 

No orphan is to be excluded from the school on account of any degree of 
destitution, or of any disease merely temporary and not in itself dangerous. 
The opposite course would defeat the very purpose of the institutions, which 
are for the improvement of the physical condition as well as intellect. Still, 
due means are to be adopted to prevent the spread of any contagious disease 
or other unpleasant condition in the school from a new pupil tlius afflicted. 

So in case of sickness of pupils while members of the school, the duty of 
providing for their wants and cure is even more incumbent than that of pro- 
moting their comfort in health. Accordingly, — 

1. Two infirmary rooms shall be set apart in each school, one for the boys 
and the other for the girls ; and each shall be provided with the furniture and 
appliances necessary. 

2. A nurse shall be employed to take charge of all new pupils and keep them 
apart from the others, till examined by the physician and pronounced free from 
all cutaneous and other contagious diseases ; and also to have the care of all 
sick pupils. 

3. It shall be her duty to attend upon all diseased pupils, and administer to 
them such medicines and remedies as shall be prescribed by the physician, and 
also to see that their rooms are kept well ventilated and clean and their gar- 
ments often changed ; and that the inmates have such food as their cases may 
require. 

4. No pupil, either newly arrived or previously in the school, shall be dis- 
charged from the infirmary till so directed by the physician. 

KELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION AND WORSHIP. 
Generaij Principles. 

I. It is the right of these orphans, as it is of every child separated from 
home training, to receive, and it -is the duty of, tlie teacher to impart, regular 
instruction in the principles of religion, as an indispensable element in a proper 
education. And in this State, in which Christianity is a part of the law of the 
land, — the laws themselves being based upon and conformed to its principles, — 
the Christian religion is to be made a part of the course of instruction. 

By this it is not meant merely that these children are to be taught those 
great principles of morality which are found to conform to the Christian sys- 
tem, but that the Christian system itself, as found in the Scriptures, is to be 
taught, accompanied with a knowledge of the origin of that system and due 
reverence for its Divine Author. 

II. As there is no religious belief or observance without preference for some 
one or other of the creeds and forms of worship prevailing amongst the various 
Christian sects, that creed is to be taught and that form of worship preferred 



104 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

for each of these orphans, as far as practicable, which the fatlier himself would 
have designated were he alive, or which tlie mother in his stead shall indicate. 
This principle cannot, from the nature of the case, be fully observed in every 
instance. For, though the schools have been placed in charge of religious men, 
and care has been taken to have all the prominent sects represented in the corps 
of Principals, yet, as the institutions are so scattered over the whole State that 
in most cases it would remove the child too far from the mother to send it to 
a school of its own denomination, sectarian religious training must therefore 
Imj mainly provided for otherwise. Therefore, — 

III. The assistance of the Christian clergy, resident in the vicinity, is relied 
on, in this part of the training of the children of their respective denomina- 
tions, in the schools. 

To efiect this object, a list of the orphans whose parents were of his church 
is sent to each clergyman, with a request that, subject to the rules of the school, 
he will supervise and guide their religious training, and, as far as convenient, 
liave them attend public worship at his church. But, as there are several 
schools having no churches or clergy of some of the denominations near them, 
this renders it unavoidable, that, — 

IV. In all cases in which there is neither clergyman nor church of the 
parent's denomination near the school, the orphan thus circumstanced shall, for 
the time, attend the church of the Principal, and be instructed in religious 
matters with the body of the school ; due respect being always had to the known 
religious preference of the deceased father, and no attempts made to proselyte 
his child. 

Xo other expedient than this is generally practicable in 'such cases. It is 
true that there may be, in the variety of teachers in a school, some one agreeing 
with pupils thus removetl from church privileges of their own denomination. 
These, of course, m.iy and ought to take charge of such pupils as catechumens 
of their own church; but in the absence of such instruction, this class of pupils 
is to accojnpany the Principal. 

EULES FOR EeLIGIOUS WORSHIP AND INSTRUCTION. 

1. There shall be morning and evening worship and grace before meat, daily, 
at the times specified ; the worship to be in the study-hall, and conducted by 
the Pritjcipal or such of the teachers as he shall designate, and to consist, at the 
leant, of the reading of a portion of Scripture, singing, aiid prayer. 

2. All the pupils of the same denomination shall attend Sunday morning, 
afternoon, or evening worshij), as the Principal shall direct, in the church to 
which their parents belong, if there be one within convenient distance: Pro- 
videtl, that the minister or others furnish them with seats and have an oversight 
of them while in attendance. But no pupils of these schools are to attend 
night metlings in any church. 

3. tlach clergyman, resident in the vicinity of such school, shall have the 
privilege of visiting and instructing the children of his own denomination 
therein, ns often and at such hours, either on Sunday or a week-day, as 
Khali not muU-rialiy interfere with their studies and other pursuits, and as shall 
be agreed to by the Prineli.al: Provided, that if there be two ihurcl.es of the 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 105 

same denomination, tlie orphans of that denomination shall attend and be 
instructed by the minister of the nearest, if there be any question. 

4. That there shall be a Sunday-school organized in each school ; the teachers 
of wiuch Sunday-school shall be the teachers of the orphan school and such 
others from amongst the resident citizens as shall be willing and qualified to 
assist, with the consent of the Principal. And that in the formation of the 
classes, if there be teachers of different denominations, they shall be put in 
ciiarge of chisses of their own denominations respectively. 

5. That the habit of reading the Scriptures be encouraged, not only by the 
example of the teachers, but by affording such historical, geographical, and 
other aids, and by such explanatiotis of the customs and practices alluded to 
in many of its parts, as shall render its study interesting and the knowledge of 
it more complete. 

(). Tliat the practice of individual prayer by the pupils on retiring to bed at 
ni;^ht and arising in the morning is to be encouraged, without being forced. 

7. That all the pupils be taught to sing psalms and hymns, and encouraged 
to join in this delightful portion of public worship on all suitable occasions. 

8. That no undue means be resorted to to get up any religious excitement in 
the schools, or to effect an ill-considered profession of conversion ; this mo- 
mentous step in the life of each individual being better left to the times and 
the influences of the Divine Spirit, which will not be withheld from faithful 
and i)rayerful instruction. 

Sunday Observances. 

The time of rising, inspection, worship, and breakfast as upon other days. 

Immediately after breakfast, the pupils shall put on their Sunday dress. 

At nine o'clock A. m., they will meet for exchange of library books, and each 
f^hall be cliarged with the books issued and be held responsible for their proper 
care and retunii 

At ten o'clock the school shall be called for Sunday-school exercises. 

When the pupils go to public worship in the morning, the Sunday-school 
will be held at half-past one in the afternoon. 

Sunday-school will open with roll call, singing, reading the Scriptures, and 
prayer. 

Addresses and general exercises on Sunday shall be before the whole 
school. 

For class instruction, the school shall be divided in four or more divisions. 

The duration of the exercises should not be less than one and a half hours ; 
and three-quarters of an hour should be spent in class instruction. 

Every child who can read with sufficient readiness should be supplied with 
a copy of the Scriptures, and receive class instruction. All who cannot read 
witli readiness are to receive oral instruction in Biblical truths and have exer- 
cises in singing, &c. 

There shall be a sufficient number of hymn-books for the pupils. 

The school shall be well supplied with maps, charts, cards, and works illus- 
trating Biblical history and important events. 

The class instruction should be topical, and the same in all the classes ; and 



106 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

it sliould also be the subject for review and comment during the Sunday even- 
ing exercises. 

COBRESPONDENCE WITH HoME. 

The manifest design of the State, in the establishment of these schools, is not 
to destroy the home feeling, but to act as a father to the fatherless. Corres- 
pondence with the mother and other relatives is therefore a right of each of 
these orphans; and it is to be as frequent as may be consistent with other 
duties, and not to be in any way restrained except for abuse. Therefore, — 

Each pupil is to be permitted to write home at least once a month, if so 
desired by him or herself. Neither the letters sent nor received are to be sub- 
ject to examination by the Principal or any other authority in the school, 
except after ascertained violation of truth by the pupil, in former letters sent, 
or disturbing sentiments in letters received. 

In such cases, but no other, the right of unrestricted correspondence shall be 
forfeited and that of examining letters exercised ; but all such cases shall be 
reported to the State Superintendent, or one of his officers, at the next visit. 

Visits of Mothers. 

Frequent visits of parents to their children, while at boarding-school, are not 
desirable in any case. These schools are no exemption from the disturbing 
practice. Therefore, — 

1. Mothers are not to visit the schools oftener than once in each quarter of a 
year, and not to prolong their visits beyond one day, except in cases of sickness, 
when the visits may be of such frequency and duration as shall be necessary. 

2. A mother's room shall be provided in each school, and comfortably fur- 
nished with two beds, &c. 

3. Mothers shall eat at the table with the pupils, and shall not be charged 
anything for their accommodations, unless their stay be prolonged without such 
reason as that of sickness, &c. 

Vacations. 

There shall be one vacation annually in all the schools of this grade, from 
the last Friday in July till the end of five weeks from the following Tuesday. 
During this time all studies and labor shall cease in the schools, except the 
work necessary to carry on the domestic operations. 

During, but not to exceed this period, leaves of absence to visit relatives may 
be granted by the Principal, to such pupils as shall have deserved it, and have 
a comfortable and proper home to visit. 

The other minute details in these schools cannot be here specified. They are 
left to tlie experience and judgment of the several Principals and their assist- 
antfly and may be modified as circumstances shall require. But the main 
featured of the Hysteni jih herein set forth will be insisted on, and any departure, 
re|)ort4Ml either by the examiner or the inspector of the schools, will, if not at 
once corrected, be lield as a sufficient ground for closing the institution in which 
Huch violations of rule may occur. 

Thomas IT. Burrowes, 

Lancaoter, Oct. 13, 1866. Supt. Soldiers' Orphans. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 107 

The rule requiring the person in charge of the main school-room, 
or " study-hall," to do all the teaching, and the assistants in the class- 
rooms to do no teaching, but to confine themselves to examining the 
pupils in the lessons assigned, and reporting the standing of each 
pupil to " the teacher," has not been retained. But the programme 
of studies and work details, the requirements relating to employees 
and their duties, the domestic arrangements, the industrial manage- 
ment, and the directions for worship and religious instruction, are, 
with such modifications as circumstances require and experience has 
dictated, in force at the present time (1876). 

Immediately after the announcement of the regulations given 
above, Examiner Row and Inspector Bear visited the schools in suc- 
cession, remaining at each a week or more, and taking charge of 
them in their respective departments, for the purpose of putting the 
new rules into operation. 






CHAPTER XII. 

THE RESULTS AT THE CLOSE OF THE YEAR 1866. 

T was still a difficult and embarrassing duty to secure new 
schools. Many were unwilling to embark in the under- 
taking, suj)posing it liable to suspension ; while others were 
deterred by the moderate compensation offered, and the 
nigh price of living. But, notwithstanding these hindrances, four 
more schools for advanced pupils were established. Three of them 
were in the western part of the State, namely, one at Phillipsburg, 
Beaver county ; one at Uniontown, Fayette county ; and one at 
Dayton, Armstrong county ; and one in the central part of the 
State, at White Hall, Cumberland county. For the younger chil- 
dren, several additional institutions were also opened. Two of these 
were exclusively for soldiers' orphans, one of which was at Anderson- 
burg, Perry county, and the other at Jacksonville, Centre county. 
Tlie others were charitable institutions, located in the large towns, 
namely, The Home for Friendless Children, Wilkesbarre, Luzerne 
county ; the Lincoln Institution, and the Church Home (Episcopal), 
in Pliiladelphia. Temporary arrangements were likewise made for 
the few orphans of colored soldiers, who made application, at the 
Home for Colored Children, in Maylandville, Philadelphia, and also 
with Asylums for the Blind, Deaif and Dumb, and Fceble-Minded 
Children, for the admission of those whose condition rendered them 
proper inmates of these several institutions. 

The whole number of homes, asylums, and schools receiving the 
younger cIuks of orphans, at the end of the year 1866, are here 
narucd, together with their locations, number of boys and girls, and 
whole number in each institution. 

108 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 



109 



Name. 



Pittsburgh and Alleglieny Orphan Asylum. 

Home for Friendle&s 

Soldiers' Orphans' Home 

Kpiscopal Church Home 

Itocthester Orphan Home 

Zclienople 

Jacksonville School 

I'liutnaus Orphan House 

(Jhildren's Home 

St. .lames' Orphan Asylum 

Home for Friendl&ss Children 

Loyxville Home 

Ar>dci*sonburg School 

Northern Home 

Jhidcsburg Orphans' Home 

(urmantown Home 

Lincoln Institution 

Cimrch Home (Episcopal) 

St. John's Orphan Asylum 

Cntholic Home for Girls 

St. Vincent's Asylum 

St. Vincent's Home 

HojJie for Destitute Colored Children 

Children's Home 



Location. 



Allegheny City 
Allegheny City 

Pittsburgh 

Pittsburgh 

Beaver co 

Butler CO 

Centre co 

Dauphin co 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Wilkesbarre... 

Perry co 

Perry co 

Philadelphia... 

Berks co 

Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 
York 



Total. 



Boys. 


Girls. 


58 


38 


18 


11 


17 


19 


11 


14 


1 


4 


2 


1 


46 


39 


16 


15 


75 


39 


... 


14 


46 


30 


66 


52 


32 


22 


94 


66 


36 


22 


28 


23 


82 


... 


%.. 


14 


29 


... 


... 


19 


8 


6 


2 


4 


3 


2 


9 


14 


078 


457 i 



To- 
tals. 

96 
29 
36 
25 
5 
3 
85 
31 

114 
14 
70 

118 
54 

150 
67 
51 
82 
14 
29 
19 
]:; 
G 
5 
23 

11. ">5 



Tl'.c subjoined table shows the whole number of schools for llie 
older orphans that were in operation at the close of 1866, with their 
locations, names of Principals, and number of boys and girls, and 
total number in each. 



Name of School. 


Location. 


Principal. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 




Armstrong CO 

Beaver co 

Beaver co 


T.M.Elder 

J. H. Mann 

W.G.Taylor 

Lucine Cort 

H. D.Walker 

D. Denlinger 

A. H. Waters 

A. L. Guss 

G. F. McFa-land. 

S. Preston 

J. K. Carothers... 
C. W. Deans 


53 
31 
68 
99 
83 
88 
48 
101 
90 
88 
80 
93 


32 
15 
69 
44 
74 
64 
24 
77 
70 
68 
38 
54 


85 


North Sewickley.. 

Phillipsburg 

Qiuikertown 


46 
137 




143 


Columbia co 

Cumberland co... 

Fayette co 

Huntingdon co... 

Juniata co 

Lancaster co 

Lancaster co 

Susqueharnia co... 


157 


White Hall , 

Un ion town 


152. 

72 


Cassville 

McAlisterville 

Paradise 

Mount Joy 


178 
160 
156 
118 


Harford 


147 






Total 


922 

1600 


629 


1551 




d Total 







Gran 


1086 


2686 











To each advanced school was attached twenty acres of land. 





CHAPTER XIII. 

THE REJECTED STONE BECOMES THE HEAD OF THE 
CORNER. 

HE time at length had arrived for a recognition of the 
system by statutory law. It will be remembered that an 
attempt to accomplish this object was made in 1864, at 
the instance of Governor Curtin, when the cause of the 
soldiers* orphans was first urged upon the attention of the Legisla- 
ture ; but the measure then failed, owing to the heavy drafts it would 
obviously make on the treasury of the State. To avert the disgrace 
of establishing a pauper system, the true friends of the orphans, as 
was shown in a previous chapter, proposed the short Act, authorizing 
the Governor to accept the donation from the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company and expend it as he might " deem best." This was an 
adroit flank movement. For the Executive "deemed best" not to 
dissipate the fund placed in his hands in relieving the present wants 
of the needy, but in laying the foundations of a system which might 
ultimately embrace within its ample provisions all the destitute sol- 
diers' orphans in the State. In 1865 and 1866 appropriations were 
made by the Legislature for these children, without specifying the 
method of expenditure ; and these additional sums were consequently 
used in developing the generous plan which had been inaugurated 
with the gift of a " soulless corporation." It would seem that a 
kind Providence had held in abeyance adverse legislative action, 
that the system might take root, diffuse its blessing, and gain a place 
in the affections of the people, and by degrees educate public senti- 
ment to such a point that the State might safely adopt as her own 
the grand scheme of beneficence which she had indeed supported, 
yet hitherto in a manner disowned. 

It remained for Senator George Landon, of Bradford county to 

110 



A 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



Ill 



discover the anomaly, and make it known to the grave body of which 
he was a member. Senators were taken by surprise when told that 
four hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars had been expended 
for the soldiers' orphans in accordance with no law but the pleasure 
of the Executive ; and a resolution was immediately adopted, in- 
structing the Senate Committee on Education to prepare and report 
a bill providing for the education and maintenance of the soldiers' 
orphans, and the disbursement of the funds appropriated by the 
State for that purpose. As a result of this action of the Senate, the 
State adopted a system of schools which she had rejected three years 
before. Such were the circumstances under which were enacted, 
with no opposition from either branch of the Legislature, the 



LAW OF 1867. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, <fec., Tliat the Governor of this Commonwealth is 
hereby authorized and required to appoint, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, a State Superintendent of Soldiers' Orplians, for three years from 
and after the date of said appointment, to be subject to removal, for cause, as 
other ofiicers, appointed in like manner, are now, whose oflfice shall be at Har- 
risburg, whose salary shall be the same as that of the State Superintendent of 
Common Schools and necessary travelling expenses, and who shall give bonds, 
with three sureties, to be approved by the Auditor-General, and filed in the 
oflfice of the secretary of the Commonwealth, in the sum of twenty thousand 
dollars, for the faithful performance of his duties ; the Superintendent shall 
have power to appoint one clerk, and the Governor one male inspector and 
examiner and one female assistant, each at a salary not exceeding one hundred 
dollars per month and necessary travelling expenses, to inspect and examine 
the soldiers' orphan schools hereinafter provided for: Provided, That said 
Superintendent shall not, during the period of his superintendency, have any 
pecuniary interest in any of the said orphans' schools! 

Section 2. That the State Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans is hereby 
authorized and empowered to contract with the trustees, proprietors, or princi- 
pals of institutions, now employed as soldiers' orphan homes and schools, pos- 
sessing such good and suflficient accommodations as said Superintendent may 
approve, and of such other like institutions as may be necessary for the proper 
care and maintenance and education, at the expense of the State, and until the 
age of sixteen years, of the destitute orphan children of all such deceased sol- 
diers and sailors, citizens of Pennsylvania, and soldiers who have served in 
Pennsylvania regiments, as have died in the service of the United States, in 
the late war to suppress the rebellion : Provided, That the Superintendent may 
require the institutions receiving soldiers' orphans over ten years of age, shall 
have not less than twenty acres of tillable land, and accommodations for not 
less than one hundred and fifty soldiers' orphans, except the Lincoln Institu- 
tion, in the city of Philadelphia : And provided further, That said Superintendent 



112 pexxsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

of Soldiers* Orphans shall establish at least one such institution for the recep- 
tion of soldiers' orphans over the age of ten years, within one year after the 
passage of this Act, in each of the twelve normal school districts, now provided 
for by law, if, in the opinion of said Superintendent, the Governor concurring, 
the same shall be required and practicable: And provided further, That in no 
case the State shall become liable, in any manner, for the cost of erecting, 
repairing or furnishing any of the institutions employed aa soldiers' orphan 
schools. 

Section 3. That the State Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans is hereby 
authorized to receive conveyances and transfers of the custody, care, and con- , 
trol, for all the purposes of education and maintenance, till their arrival at the 
age of sixteen years, of said destitute soldiers' orphans, from their respective 
mothers, guardians, or next friends ; and all such conveyances and transfers, 
lieretofore made, or that may hereafter be made, to the State Superintendent of 
Soldiers' Orphans, shall be valid and binding upon said mothers, guardians, 
and next friends, and also upon said orphans, till their arrival at the age of 
sixteen years ; and if said orphans abscond or be withdrawn, without his con- 
sent, from the custody of the Superintendent, or from the institution in which 
lie shall place them, they, and all persons withdrawing or harboring them, shall 
thereupon become liable to the provisions of the Acts of Assembly relating to 
absconding apprentices. 

Section 4. That the Superintendent of Soldiers* Orphans shall, by and with 
the advice and approval of the Governor, prescribe rules and regulations for 
the government of institutions becoming soldiers' orphan schools, designate the 
minimum number and grade of employees necessary, specify the character and 
quality of food and clothing that shall be furnished, and which shall be similar, 
for all institutions of the same grade, in the State, and decide upon a course of 
study to be pursued, which course shall embrace, at least, the usual branches 
of a good common school education, together with instruction in vocal music, 
military tactics, and calisthenics, and the greatest variety possible of household 
and domestic pursuits and mechanical and agricultural employments, consistent 
with the respective sexes and ages of said orphan children and their school-room 
studies; lie shall visit each soldiers' orphan school at least ojice each quarter, 
either in person or by deputy, remaining at least twenty-four hours in each. 

Section 5. Application for the admission of soldiers' orphans, entitled to the 
benefits of this Act, into the institutions established for their education and 
maintenance, shall be made by conveyance and transfers to the Superintendent 
of Soldiern' Orphans, in accordance with provisions of section third of this Act, 
executed, under oath, by the mother, if living, and by the guardian or next 
friend, if the mother be dead or has abandoned said orphans; but all applica- 
tions must be approved by the board of school directors, controllers, or super- 
intending committee of the district, ward, or city in which the mother resides, 
if she makes the application, or in which the orphans reside in other cases ; 
and tlio Superintendent may require such other certificate from a superintend- 
ing committee, which committee shall be appointed and hold office at the dis- 
cretion of the SuiHjrintcndent, and by and with the consent of the Governor, oi 
from «ueh other source as he may deem necessary. 

SfxrriON 0. That said Superintendent be and is hereby authorized and directed 



Pennsylvania's soldiers* orphan schools. 113 

to procure a school or schools, or home or homes, for the children of the colored 
soldiers and sailors wlio fell in the recent rebellion, subject to the same regula- 
tions and restrictions provided in relation to the education and maintenance 
of the orphans of our white soldiers and sailors : Provided, That when he may 
deem it expedient to do so, the said Superintendent may waive the restriction, 
in regard to number of acres and extent of accommodation, in the case of 
schools or houses for colored orpluins. 

Section 7. Tliat all contracts made by said Superintendent sliall be charac- 
terized alike by wise economy and a just regard for services rendered; and that 
no contract shall be made for a longer period than one year, unless with the 
sanction of the Governor, and in cases in which it is clearly the interest of the 
State to contract for a longer period ; such period, in no case, however, to exceed 
five years: Provided, That all the contracts made under this Act may be 
annulled at any time for failure to fulfil the condition^ of such contracts on the 
part of any contractor, of which failure the Governor and Superintendent shall 
be the judges ; and that every such contract shall be made upon the condition of 
the continuance of said soldiers' orphan schools by the Legislature of the State. 

Section 8. That the said Superintendent may, with the consent of the Gov- 
ernor, aflbrd partial relief, in kind, not exceeding thirty dollars per annum for 
each orphan, in cases where, in his judgment, it is proper to sull'er the orphans 
to remain with their surviving parents or relations or guardians, and to receive 
instructions in the public schools of the Commonwealth. 

Section 9. That all bills for the maintenance and education of the soldiers* 
orphans shall be paid quarterly, by warrant drawn directly upon the State 
Treasurer, signed by the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, who shall file a 
receipted bill for the same in the Auditor-General's office before issuing the next 
quarterly warrant, which the State Treasurer is hereby forbidden to pay until 
such receipted bill is thus filed: Provided, That all amounts appropriated for 
the purchase of clothing, and the payment of partial relief, salaries, and inci- 
dental expenses, may be drawn by the State Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, 
upon the warrants of the Governor, and the bills for the same settled semi- 
annually, at the Auditor-General's office, in the usual manner. 

Section 10. That the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans shall require 
monthly, quarterly, and annual reports, according to such form as he shall pre- 
scribe, from each institution receiving soldiers' orphans at the expense of the 
State ; and that said Superintendent shall, not later than the first day of Decem- 
ber, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and annually thereafter, make 
a detailed report to the Governor of this Commonwealth, of all the soldiers' 
orphans under his charge, their condition and progress, the numbers of each 
respective age, from four to sixteen years, and such other information as he may 
deem expedient, together with the statement of receipts and disbursements, by 
item, -and estimates for ensuing years. 

Section 11. That when any of said orphans shall have arrived at the age of 
sixteen, or sooner, if deemed expedient, said Superintendent shall, at the written 
request of said orphan, and of his or her mother, guardian, or next friend, put 
or bind him or her out to such trade and employment, and to such master or 
mistress, or employer, as shall thus be requested, and for such term as shall 
8 



114 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orwPHAN schools. 

expire, if a male, at or before the age of twenty-one, and if a female, at or 
before the age of eighteen years; in which indenture of apprenticeship there 
phall be included such covenants for the future education of tlie orphan as said 
Superintendent may prescribe ; and such apprenticeship shall be in all other 
respects, not herein provided for, subject to the provisions of the Act of As- 
sembly relating to masters and apprentices, and the supplements thereto. 

Section 12. That upon arrival at the age of sixteen years, each of said 
orphans Avho shall not desire to be apprenticed to a trade or employment, shall 
be restored to the mother, guardian, or next friend, with a full outfit of clothes, 
and a certificate, signed by said Superintendent and the Principal of the proper 
school, showing .his or her moral standing, and literary and industrial attain- 
ments and quaHfications. 

Section 13. That the year, for all operations under this Act, shall begin on 
the first Monday of June in each year, and end on the day preceding the first 
Monday of June of the year next succeeding ; and all appropriations, hereafter 
made, shall be for the year, as herein determined, and made in like manner, 
and at the same time, as appropriations are now made for the general expenses 
of the government. 

Section 14. That all Acts, and parts of Acts, heretofore passed, and incon- 
Bistent with this Act, be and they are hereby repealed. 

This law, which is still in force, was mainly prepared by Colonel 
George F. McFarland, then a clerk in the Department of Common 
Schools. He was, in the main, in sympathy with the system already 
established, and familiar with the- rules and regulations issued by 
Superintendent Burro wes for the government of the schools and 
homes, and, to a great extent, incorporated them into this Act, be- 
sides adding several wise and practical measures. Its results were 
beneficial every way. It gave permanency to the project, authority 
to the State Superintendent, confidence and courage to the Principals, 
and new life and hope to the grand enterprise. 

Beset on every hand with difficulties incident to a new and great 
undertaking, and haunted continually with fears of suspension. Dr. 
Burrowes for nearly three years persevered when others would have 
given up in despair; and, as a result of his faith and indomitable 
energy, thirty-six schools and homes had been opened to the soldiers' 
orphans. Into these three thousand defenceless children had been 
gathered, three hundred and fifty thousand dollars had been appro- 
priated to their support for the current year, and the system, which 
he had so sedulously built up, had been adopted by the State and 
placed upon a solid foundation. The success of the magnificent work 
was now assured. ' 

On the thirtieth day of April, 1867, Dr. Burrowes' tenure of oflSce 
having expired, his official connection with the soldiers' orphans ceased. 




cSyz^is^-^Ca^S^ 



^?x-^ 




CHAPTER XIV. 



THE TRUST IN NEW HANDS. 

JOHN WHITE GEARY. 

OVERNOR CURTIN was succeeded in office by Major- 
General John White Geary, a distinguished soldier, both 
in the Mexican War and in that of the Rebellion. He, 
prompted by sentiments of justice and patriotism, entered 
heartily into the great and noble work of generously providing for 
the unfortunate children, many of whose fathers had perished while 
fighting under his heroic leadership. The intelligent sympathy which 
he cherished towards the important trust can be best learned from his 
own language, relating to the cause, in his first inaugural address : 




" And while we would remember * the soldier who has borne the battle,' 
we must not forget * his widow and his orphan children.' Among our 
most solemn obligations is the maintenance of the indigent widows, and 
the support and education of the orphan children, of those noble men who 
fell io defence of the Union. To affirm that we owe a debt of gratitude to 
those who have been rendered homeless and fatherless, by their parents' 
patriotic devotion to their country, is a truth to which all mankind will 
yield a ready assent ; and though we cannot call the dead to life, it is a 
privilege, as well as a duty, to take the orphan by the hand and be to him 
a protector and a father. 

" Legislative appropriations have honored the living soldiers and en- 
tombed the dead. The people, at the ballot-box, have sought out the 
meritorious veterans, and the noble spectacle is now presented of the 
youthful survivors of those who fell for their country, cherished and edu- 
cated at the public expense. Even if I were differently constituted, my 
official duties would constrain me vigilantly to guard this sacred trust. 
But having served in the same cause, and been honored by the highest 
marks of the public favor, I pledge myself to bear in mind the injunctions 

115 



116 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

and wishes of the people, and, if possible, to increase the efficiency and 
multiply the benefits of the schools and institutions, already so creditably 
established, for the benefit of the orphans of our martyred heroes." 

In accordance with the recent Act, which authorized the Governor 
to appoint " a Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, an Inspector and 
Examiner, and a lady Inspector and Examiner," Governor Geary 
commissioned, in May, 1867,. Colonel George F. McFarland, of Ju- 
niata county, Rev. C. Cornforth, A. M., of McKean county, and 
Mrs. Elizabeth E. Hutter, of Philadelphia, to fill respectively the 
positions thereby created. At the same time, Mr. John D. Shryock, 
of Westmoreland county, was appointed Chief Clerk ; and, subse- 
quently, James L. Paul, of the same county, his successor ; and, in 
the following July, Edmond R. Sutton, of Indiana county, Messenger 
of the Department. 

To answer the demands of a curious public, we venture to submit 
a brief personal notice of the several ofl&cers to whose hands the 
orphan system was now entrusted. 

GEORGE FISHER McFARLAND. 

Governor Geary very properly selected a wounded soldier, Colonel 
George F. McFarland, as Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans. In 
the fall of 1862, Colonel McFarland raised a company, principally 
from the pupils of his academy, at McAlisterville, Juniata county, 
which he took to Camp Curtin, near Harrisburg. In the formation 
of the One Hundred and Fifty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, his 
company was incorporated into that organization, and he became its 
lieutenant-colonel. He participated in the battles of his regiment 
till stricken down in the terrible encounter of Gettysburg, in July, 
1863, while commanding in the absence of Colonel Allen. He was 
wounded in both legs, resulting in the loss of his right, and the dis- 
abling of his left, leg, confining him ever since to crutches. 

Speaking of the men of his regiment, General Doubleday, who 
commanded the First Corps, says : " At Gettysburg they won, under 
the brave McFarland, an imperishable fame. They defended the 
left front of the First Corps against vastly superior numbers ; covered 
it8 retreat against the overwhelming masses of the enemy at the 
seminary, west of the town ; and enabled me, by their determined 
resistance, to withdraw the corps in comparative safety. This was 
on the first day. In the crowning charge of the third day of the 




^^.c^ 



^9n/><^,u,u^ 




^-1^?-^-w^<^;2^ 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 117 

battle, the shattered remnants of the One Hundred and Fifty-first 
Pennsylvania, with the Twentieth New York State Militia, flung 
themselves upon the front of the rebel column, and drove it from 
the shelter of a slashing I can never forget the services ren- 
dered me by this regiment, directed by the gallantry and genius of 
McFarland. I believe they saved the First Corps, and were among 
the chief instruments to save the Army of the Potomac and the 
country from unimaginable disaster." 

As a previous preparation for the work of superintending the 
orphans. Colonel McFarland had been engaged in teaching for many 
years ; and when the soldiers' orphan schools were devised, he was 
among the first to give countenance to the project, by promptly open- 
ing his boarding-school at McAlisterville for the reception of the 
fatherless children. This institution was recognized by the State 
authorities as a soldiers' orphan school on the third of November, 
1864, from which time till appointed to the State Superinteudency, 
Colonel McFarland had been actively engaged in the work, and was 
consequently already deeply interested in the success of the system, 
and familiar with it in all its details. 

COLUMBUS CORNFORTH. 

In the unsolicited appointment of Mr. Cornforth to the responsible 
position of Inspector and Examiner of the Soldiers' Orphan Schools 
of the State, the peculiar fitness of selecting a wounded soldier to 
look after the comforts and training of the children of his fallen 
comrades, was again duly recognized. Immediately after the dis- 
aster of Bull Run, while the whole loyal North was suffering the 
agony of its first defeat, and resolving with intensest earnestness to 
crush out the vaunting rebellion, he, yielding to the universal and 
patriotic impulse, volunteered as a private in the Bucktail Regiment 
(42d Pennsylvania Volunteers), which subsequently " forged itself 
a name in the fire " of many battles. This regiment was already in 
the field, fully organized, and in camp near Harper's Ferry. He was 
dangerously wounded and made prisoner of war on the thirteenth 
day of December, 1862, in the first battle of Fredericksburg. While 
suffering from wounds and languishing in Libby Prison, he barely 
escaped death. While his recovery was still doubtful, he was re- 
leased on parole, and brought to the Navy School Hospital, at An- 
napolis. Being permanently disabled in his left arm, he was dis- 
charged from the United States service on the fifth day of June, 1863. 



118 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

Complying with the solicitations of friends in the array, and yielding 
to a desire to participate in the struggle until the rebellion should 
end, he again entered the service as Chaplain of thfe One Hundred 
and Fiftieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, which post he hon- 
orably filled till the triumphant termination of the war. 

While his associations and sufferings in the army prepared him to 
sympathize with the orphans of his less fortunate comrades in arms, 
his literary attainments, his practical knowledge of the common 
school system of the State, and his spotless character, eminently 
qualified him to supervise their intellectual and moral training. 

He graduated with honors at Union College, Schenectady, New 
York, and subsequently received from that institution the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts. He studied theology at the Rochester 
Theological Seminary ; and when appointed Inspector and Examiner 
of the Soldiers' Orphan Schools, he was Superintendent of the 
Common Schools of McKean county, Pennsylvania. Unpretending 
in manners, and yet persistent in correcting abuses, the " wards of 
the State " ever recognize in him a true and tried friend. He still 
(1876) fills the position, to which he was appointed in 1867. 

MRS. REV. EDWIN W. HUTTER, D. D. 

Mrs. Hutter, wife of the late lamented Rev. Dr. Hutter, was a 
veteran in the cause of humanity when commissioned lady Inspector 
and Examiner, and was, on account of her noted devotion to friend- 
less children, urged by Governor Geary to relinquish the pleasures 
of a home where abundance and happiness abounded, and devote 
her remarkable energies to the welfare of the soldiers' orphans. 
Moved by considerations of patriotism and benevolence, she accepted 
the trust. 

Mrs. Hutter is a daughter of the late Colonel Jacob Shindel, of 
Lebanon, Pennsylvania, and granddaughter of Baron Shindel, who, 
for many years after his settlement in the Commonwealth, repre- 
sented his district in the State Senate. Of her it may undoubtedly 
be said, without disparaging the merits of others ; 

"My daughters have done virtuously, 
But thou excellest them all." 

During her married life she has been known by many distinguished 
citizens of the Commonwealth. She resided in Washington during 




S^^^^i^ ^. ^-. 



^ 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' okphan schools. 119 

the Presidency of Mr. Polk, with whose administration her husband 
was intimately associated. At the National Capital, her personal 
attractions placed her in the forefront of society. When, however, 
her husband exchanged a political life and the pen of an active par- 
tisan editor and publisher for that of a Christian pastor, Mrs. Hutter 
unhesitatingly relinquished the gayeties of a life at Washington, and 
heartily cooperated with her husband in his new and honored field 
of labor. While pursuing her active parochial duties, she was unani- 
mously elected the first President of the Board of Managers of the 
Northern Home for Friendless Children. Of her invaluable effi- 
ciency in that office a tithe could not be told. All the children love 
her, the managers esteem her, and the trustees are proud of her. 

During the late civil war, Mrs. Hutter more than once went to the 
"front" to minister to the comfort and relief of the sick and wounded 
troops. When the Sanitary Fair was projected, she was elected Presi- 
dent of the ladies' branch of the committee of " Labor, Income, and 
Revenue," and to her extraordinary ability and zeal are to be largely 
credited the unapproachable success of that committee. 

As the Lady Inspector in the 'Department of Soldiers' Orphans 
she has been indispensable, and has conscientiously discharged the 
duties of that onerous position since her appointment in the spring 
of 1867. She enjoys the distinction of being the only lady in the 
history of the Commonwealth to whom a governor's commission has 
been granted. 

Mrs. Hutter's name is indissolubly linked with this " broadest 
charity in Christendom." The beautiful valleys and the grand old 
mountains of the goodly land of Penn have again and again been 
traversed, as she has gone from school to school, and from asylum to 
asylum, to visit and secure the comfort of the orphans of our fallen 
braves. There, too, she ever receives from these orphaned children 
a gladsome welcome, for, with childlike instinct, they recognize in 
her a true friend. 

That she may be spared for many years to pursue her works of 
beneficence and mercy in her native State, is the earnest prayer of 
all who know her worth. 

We have the pleasure of presenting to our readers a fine steel 
engraving of this excellent lady, executed expressly for this work. 



120 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

JOHN DICKIE SHRYOCK. 

When Mr. Shryock entered the office at Harrisburg, its labors were 
exceedingly perplexing. Its duties were unfamiliar, not only to him- 
self, but to every member of the Department. The amount of busi- 
ness was always large, and often pressing and confused ; and yet he 
never complained or slighted his work. The books of the office show 
how faithfully and diligently he labored. His gentlemanly and unas- 
suming manners, and his frank and pure nature, won the affections 
and esteem of all associated with him. But his burdens, though self- 
imposed, were too heavy for his delicate constitution, and too soon 
he began to show symptoms of failing strength. And, yet, unwill- 
ing to relinquish his desk, he, deaf to the admonition of friends, 
remained at his post, when one less persevering and energetic would 
have retired. When, at length, he was obliged to succumb to dis- 
ease, he left the Department, amid the. deep regrets and heart-felt 
sorrow of his fellow-laborers. He died on the eighth of October, 
1871, in the twenty-fifth year of his age. 

JAMES LAUGHERY PAUL 

was, on the retirement of Mr. Shryock, at the instance of Hon. John 
Covode, his personal friend, appointed by Governor Geary Chief 
Clerk of the Department, in November, 1868, which position he yet 
occupies. 

His military record is as follows : He enlisted at Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, August 1, 1861, "for three years or during the war," as a 
private, in Company " A," Sixty-third Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, Colonel (afterwards General) Alexander Hayes command- 
ing. The regiment was assigned to the Army of the Potomac, Third 
Army Corps, General Phil. Kearney's Division. He re-enlisted in 
the field as a veteran volunteer, December 10, 1863, at Brandy Sta- 
tion, Virginia; and when the time (August 1, 1864,) for which his 
regiment enlisted had expired, he was transferred to Company " I," 
One Hundred and Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volun- 
teers, and served with it to the close of the war. While in active 
service he attained to the rank of second sergeant of his company, 
and claims no greater honor than that of having faithfully served 
bU country as an enlisted man. 

Imniediutely after the surrender of General Lee, he was detailed 
as a clerk in the War Department, at Washington, by a special order 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 121 

of Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and served in that 
capacity until August 24, 1866, when, after having served for an 
unbroken period of five years and twenty-four days, he was mustered 
out of the military service, under provisions of an order issued from 
the office of the Adjutant-General of the Armies of the United States. 
For gallant and long-continued services in the war for the sup- 
pression of the late Rebellion, and as a mark of personal regard, 
Governor Geary, before retiring from the gubernatorial chair, in 
January, 1873, commissioned him to rank as a brevet lieutenant- 
colonel, reciting in the commission the names of the following bat- 
tles in which he participated, viz. : Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair 
Oaks, Orchards, Seven Days' Battles, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Wapping Heights, Auburn Mills, Mine Run, Petersburg, and also 
the^Dursuit and capture of the Confederate Army at Appomattox. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH SUTTON. 

The appointment of Mr. Sutton as Messenger to the Department 
proved to be a very fortunate one. The office was then crowded with 
business ; and he, from the first, discharged the duties of a clerk, in 
addition to the work properly belonging to his position. This favor 
was highly appreciated, as the labor of the Department could not be 
properly performed by one clerk, and there was provisicm for no 
more at that time. Mr. Sutton's ability and faithfulness in the task 
which he had gratuitously assumed was in due time appropriately 
rewarded. In June, 1871, he was appointed warrant clerk, and has 
very satisfactorily filled that situation to the present time (1876). 
He wields a ready pen, WTites a bold, legible hand, and is an accu- 
rate and rapid accountant. In auditing the accounts rendered 
against the Department by the several institutions, amounting annu- 
ally to a little less than a half million of dollars, his services are 
deemed as almost indispensable. 





CHAPTER XV. 

THE SYSTEM SETTLED AND ITS DIFFICULTIES. 

N Act approved April 9, 1867, providing for the continu- 
ance of the education and maintenance of soldiers' or- 
phans, and given in full in the thirteenth chapter, exerted 
so important an influence upon the future of the system 
that it deserves more than a passing notice. Previous to its passage, 
the friends of the needy soldiers' orphans honestly differed as to the 
best mode of maintaining and educating them, and rival plans were 
being constantly discussed in the Legislat-ure and pressed for adoption, 
several times greatly endangering the existence of the system which 
was being developed. These differences gave the indifferent or hos- 
tile opportunities to thwart the efforts of its friends, unsettled the 
minds of mothers and children, injured the credit of the proprietors 
of schools, who sought to improve their accommodations upon bor- 
rowed capital, as most of them had to do, and endangered appro- 
priations. It waa generally believed by the best friends of the sys- 
tem, who knew the views of the leading men in the Legislature, that 
it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to secure additional 
State aid for the schools, if this state of things continued. 

Happily, however, the passage of the Act settling the system ^nd 
providing for ite management removed many of these difficulties, and 
advocates of rival plans gradually settled down into the conviction 
that the work so well begun would be carried on to completion with- 
out any material departure from the plan now crystallized into law 
— a conviction that has been realized quite fully thus far. Hence, 
the Houi»e of Representatives, the most captious in passing the law, 
voted $450,000 per annum, for seventeen months, for the support of 
the Bchoob; and though this was cut down in the Senate to $350,000 

122 



orpha:n schools. 123 

per annum, upon a reconsideration of the appropriation bill, on the 
last working-day of the session, because the total sum appropriated 
for all purposes had to be reduced $800,000, to bring it within the 
estimated receipts for the year, there was an implied promise that 
induced the Superintendent, the Governor concurring, to conduct the 
schools on the basis of $450,000 per annum. This promise was fully 
redeemed by the prompt passage of additional appropriations to 
meet deficits thus created. 

Nevertheless, there were difficulties to be overcome. Colonel Mc- 
Farland, in his first annual report says: "Two serious difficulties 
met me at the outset in the administration of this trust, and con- 
tributed largely to the want of that complete and immediate success, 
so much desired : 1, an insufficient appropriation, and, 2, want of 
proper accommodations for the advanced schools, system in their 
management, and efficiency in the ability and number of the help 
employed." 

There was a deficit of $31,069.77 for the month of December, 

1866. On the first of December, 1866, there were in school fifteen 
hundred and forty-six pupils in the advanced, and eleven hundred 
and thirty -five pupils in the primary schools, and one hundred and 
twenty -five accepted applications on file. Before the Act of April 9, 

1867, had become a law, one hundred and thirty-five advanced, and 
one hundred and eighty-three primary pupils had been actually ad- 
mitited, making sixteen hundred and eighty-one pupils, at $150 for 
education and maintenance, and $25 for clothing each per annum, 
and thirteen hundred and eighteen pupils in primary schools and 
homes, at $105 to $125 per annum, including clothing, — a total of 
twenty-nine hundred and ninety-nine pupils actually in the schools, 
May 1, 1867, while the accepted applications on file had increased to 
three hundred and eighty-three. 

The schools were, therefore, running at the rate of at least $450,- 
000 per annum, and the House voted that sum. But the gross sum 
of the appropriation bill exceeding the estimated receipts nearly 
$800,000, the Senate reduced the appropriation to $350,000. To 
keep within this sum would have required the discharge of children 
actually in school, and a refusal to admit any others, no matter how 
needy. The situation was embarrassing, and was the subject of much 
anxious solicitude. The result is thus given by the Superintendent 
in his report to the Governor : 



124 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

" After a full and candid consideration of all the circumstances of the 
case, and of the evident intention of the Legislature, as expressed in the 
Act of April 9, 1867, and on former occasions, it was determined, your 
Excellency concurring, to retain all justly in the schools and homes, to 
discharge promptly all arriving at the age of sixteen, and to admit only 
the neediest applicants, always giving the preference to the oldest, but in 
no event to allow the expenditures to exceed $450,000 per annum, the sum 
voted by the House. 

" This course, a medium between that injustice that would have rejected, 
and a full compliance with the evident intention of the law that would 
have promptly admitted all proper applicants, seemed the most prudent 
and judicious." 

The rate was reduced after June 1, 1867, to $140 per annum each, 
exclusive .of clothing, for advanced pupils, and primary pupils pre- 
pared for promotion were retained in the homes and primary schools 
at the reduced rates paid those institutions. By this course, one hun- 
dred and eighty-one additional needy children were admitted during 
the seven months closing November 30, 1867, and yet the cost was 
kept at $435,080.44. The Legislature justified the faith put in it 
by appropriating (February 25, 1868) $31,069.77 for the month of 
December, 1866, and $141,561.69 to pay the accrued tind accruing 
deficit up till May 31, 1868. This act of generosity and good faith 
firmly established the system in public confidence, and forms a record 
never equalled in the annals of any country. 

Meanwhile, the pressure for admission continued to increase, and 
five hundred and forty accepted applications remained on file Decem- 
ber 1, 1867. 

The second class of difficulties — the want of proper accommo- 
dations for the advanced schools, system in their management, and 
efficiency in the ability and number of the help employed — was 
scarcely less perplexing, and required much delicate and unpleasant 
work. Tlie Legislature having passed the law asked for, and appro- 
priated large sums of money to carry out its provisions, it was felt 
tluit the schools and homes must promptly reach a high standard of 
excellence to justify the action of the Legislature, or go down. 
HeHC6, to visit these schools and homes, ascertain their condition 
aud wants, and provide for their improvement, was the most pressing 
business, and the first official act of the Superintende;it was to visit 
White Hal! School, in company with Governor Geary (May 1), who 
alwavM iMifiTod enthusiastically into every plan and movement cal- 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 125 

culated to advance the interest of these schools. In company with 
both inspectors, a visit to all the advanced schools and most of the 
homes followed as rapidly as possible, and a careful inspection made 
of everything relating to the schools and their condition. This visit 
and examination developed the following facts : 

Most of the institutions were of insufficient capacity for the num- 
ber of children received, illy adapted to the purpose, and poorly sup- 
plied with the necessary conveniences and comforts. War prices 
prevailed, the proprietors were poor, and the system but recently 
settled — reasons quite sufficient to account for this state of things. 
The educational departments were unsystematic, each institution 
having its own course of study and classification. The teachers and 
employees were willing and industrious, but often necessarily inex- 
perienced. The public, though full of patriotism and sympathy for 
the children, but imperfectly understood the system, and hence com- 
plaints, groundless or otherwise, were generally magnified, and the 
schools did not receive that public sympathy which they needed and 
deserved. The number of children applying for admission was large. 
On account of insufficient appropriations, only the most needy could 
be admitted. This discrimination gave rise to much dissatisfaction 
to those who were deferred. 

But not least among the difficulties encountered, was the estab- 
lishment of a school for 

COLORED SOLDIERS' ORPHANS, 

for which the Act of April 9, 1867, provided. This was a task of 
no ordinary perplexity. The Home at Maylandville had received 
a few under twelve years of age, the only institution to which these 
children were admitted. 

Fortunately the Committee on Colored Soldiers' Orphans, com- 
posed of ladies and gentlemen who had made the colored race the 
subject of deep solicitude and anxious effort for more than a quarter 
of a century, came to the assistance of the Superintendent. After 
many conferences and much negotiating, a large building near 
Bridgewater, Bucks county, was purchased by the committee, and 
opened for the reception of colored soldiers' orphans June 16, 1868. 
The twenty-two then at Maylandville were transferred to it and 
others admitted, the number reaching one hundred and twenty-four 
by the end of the year. 

The mothers of these colored children were widely scattered over 



126 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

the State, and entirely ignorant of the provisions made. The fact 
that they availed themselves of them was largely due to the self- 
sacrificing and gratuitous efforts of B. P. Hunt, Esq., the agent of 
this committee, who travelled over large portions of the Common- 
wealth to visit these mothers, and convey their children to the 
school, buying clothing and paying fare when necessary. 

Below willbe found the circular, and the names, of the committee 
to whose forethought and liberality so many colored people are 
indebted : 

OFFICE OF THE COLORED SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' ORPHANS 

COMMITTEE, 
711 Sansom Street. 

Philadelphia, June 1st, 1868. 
To the Widows and Orphans of the Colm^ed Soldiers and Sailors of Pennsylvania : 

The Committee below named now take sincere pleasure in informing you 
tliat the State School-Home for our Colored Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans will 
be open for their reception on Monday, the 15th of June, under the charge of 
Mr. and Mrs. Isaac S. Flint, as Principal and Matron. 

The Home is in Bucks county, beautifully situated on the Delaware, sixteen 
miles above Philadelphia, from which it carl be easily reached by boat, two 
miles and a half below Bristol and one mile from Schenck's Station, on the 
Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad, and is the place formerly known as " Bris- 
tol College." It is a large substantial brick building, three and four stories 
high and two hundred and four feet long, to which is attached a lot of excel- 
lent land of thirteen and a half acres, extending to the river, and capable of 
producing all the vegetables which will be needed by the School. The premises 
coBt $14,000, and are now being fitted up and comfortably furnished at an addi- 
tional expeuKC of $5000. For $3000 of the funds thus applied, the Committee 
and yournelves are indebted to the Philadelphia Branch of the United States 
Sanitary Commission ; for the remainder, to a few — less than one hundred and 
fifty — just men and women, mostly of Philadelphia, who contributed it from 
tiieir own private means. 

The widows and guardians who have already applied for the admission of 
orphans, now ninety-nine in number, are directed, under the approval of Col. 
McFarland, the State Superintendent, to have them in readiness for removal to 
the Bchool-Home by the 15th instant, and to give notice of such readiness to 
Bobert R. Cornon, Secretary of the Committee, 711 Sansom Street, or to B. P. 
Hunt, 1724 Frank ford Road. Those who have not yet applied will please at 
once forward their addresses, with the names and ages of their children, and 
Uie name and addrens of the pension agent employed by each, to the same per- 
■ona. An agent of the Committee will then call on them at their homes, to 
aatiai in making out papers and to conduct the children of all applicants from 
thair hoiiMS to the School-Home, free of expense. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 127 



Mothers will be permitted to visit the School-Home once a quarter and 
remain over night. 

There will be a vacation of five weeks every summer, when the children, 
who have comfortable homes, will be allowed to visit them. 

We again announce that the Orphans of all the Colored Soldiers and Sailors 
of Pennsylvania who lost their lives, either by wounds received, or disease con- 
tracted in the late Slaveholders' Rebellion, have a right by law to support and 
education in this Home at the expense of the State until sixteen years of age. 

We entreat you not to neglect this right. In return for the lives which our 
brave men of color gave up to the country, the State now offers their children 
the highest boon in her power — free education. Let no selfish motive nor 
evil counsel deprive them of the precious gift. 

Louis Wagner, 
Chainnan of the Committee. 
Robert R. Corson, 

Secretary. 
B. P. Hunt, 

Treasurer. 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 



Edward S. Buckley, 
j. g. rosengarten, 



Philip P. Randolph, 
Wm. Still, 



Wm. W. Justice. 



Thomas Webster, 
Abraham Barker, 
E. W. Clark, 
N. B. Browne, 
Stephen Colwell, 
Rev. Phillips Brooks, 
Aubrey H. Smith, 
Francis R. Cope, 
Ebenezer D. Bassett, 
Benj. Coates, 
Mrs. Edward Hopper, 
Mrs. Wm. Hunt, 
Miss Mary E. Jackson, 
Samuel S. White, 
Horacd H. Furness, 
Mrs. Robt. Pettit, 



Mrs. Thomas Mott, 
" G. C. Franciscus, 
" Israel Maule, 
" P. Williamson, 
" David Meconkey, 
" Persifer F. Smith, 
" Aubrey H. Smith, 
" John F. Frazer, 
Ellis Yarnall, 
Dr. Jacob F. Holt, 
Mrs. Richard P. White, 
Miss S. L. Baldwin, 
Miss Lucretia Towne, 
Mrs. Wm. H. Furness, 
Mr. Isabella James, 
James A. Wright, 



Dr. J. K. Eshleman, 
Rudolph F. Kelker, 
Geo. Eyster, 
A. Updegraff, 
Nath. Ellmaker, Jr. 
James Black, 
Joseph S. Travelli, 
Robt. B. Beath, 
Wm. Windle, 
Samuel Evans, 
Addison May, 
Samuel Cabeen, 
Elizabeth Cabeen, 
Charles W. Pierce, 
Sarah H. Pierce, 
Robert Purvis. 



Had it not been for the eflficient services rendered by the above 
committee, it is more than probable that the State Superintendent 
would not have succeeded in providing a school for this class of de- 
serving and unfortunate children. 

Other schools, also, were established, while others enlarged their 
accommodations, and some were closed. A watering-place, at Ches- 



128 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

ter Springs, Chester county, well located, and possessing capacity for 
some three hundred pupils, was opened, and the Quakertown and 
Paradise Schools transferred thither. The schools at North Sewick- 
ley, Beaver county, Orangeville, Columbia county, and Jacksonville, 
Centre county, were discontinued, and the children sent to other 
institutions, while the Mount Joy and White Hall Schools changed 
hands, and were enlarged and improved. New schools, likewise, 
were opened at Titusville, Crawford county ; Mercer, Mercer county ; 
and Mansfield, Tioga county ; and, everywhere, proprietors of schools 
and managers of homes were urged to make such improvements and 
introduce such system as was deemed necessary to do well the work 
in hand. 

The system, or rather want of system, of making reports to the 
Department, as required by law, was also a source of constant annoy- 
ance, and, hence, forms were prepared and adopted, in October, 1867, 
as follows : 

1. Weekly Report. 

To be forwarded regularly by the last mail for each week. 

I. Lists, by name and county, for the week ending with this report, of 

1. AdmissioTis to the institution by order. 

2. Admissions to the institution by transfer. 

3. Discharged from the institution on age, with certificate of character, schol- 
arship, &c. 

4- Discharged by transfer, or order. 

6. Deaths, with physician's report of diseases, treatment, length of sickness, &c. 

2. Monthly Eeport. 

To be forwarded regularly on the last mail day of each month. 

1. A tabular statement, without names, as follows : 
Number remaining in school on the first day of the month, as per last 

report 

Number admitted during month by order 

Number admitted during month by transfer 

Total number in school and admitted during month *. 

Number tranHferred from, during month 

Number discharged on age " " „ , 

Number diMcharged by order " " 

Number died « « 

Total tranafen, diachargOB, and deaths 

Ktunber remaining in scliool 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 129 

2. Menwranda. Under this head report the health, progress, and general 
deportment of pupils during the month, together with the interest taken in the 
Sunday-school, places of public worship attended, and other items worthy of 
note. This part of the report can be made as lengthy as desired. 

3. Quarterly Report. 
To be forwarded regularly on the last mail day of each quarter, accompanied, 
if possible, by the duplicate bills and affidavits for education, maintenance, and 
clothing. 

1. A statement in tabular form, as follows : 

Whole number admitted into school from its commencement till the close 
of last quarter, ending 186.., on order 

Whole number admitted into school from its commencement till the close 
of last quarter, ending 186.., by transfer 

Total admissions to same date 

* Number transferred to 

Number discharged on age 

Number discharged by order 

Number died 

Total transfers, discharges, and deaths 

Number remaining in school , 186.., 

Number admitted during quarter, on order 

Number admitted during quarter, by transfer 

Total admissions during quarter. 

Whole number in school during quarter 

* Number transferred during quarter to 

Number discharged on age during quarter 

Number discharged by order " " 

Number died " " 

Total transfers, discharges, and deaths for quarter 

Number remaining in school at close of present quarter, , 

186.., 

2. Report of the Educational Department of the institution. (On blanks 
furnished.) 

3. Lists, by name, of (1) admissions, (2) discharges, (3) deaths, and (4) trans- 
fers, for the quarter ending September 1, 1867. 

4. A statement, by name, of all absentees during the quarter, either with or 
without leave, with length of time absent, cause, &c. 

* If transfers were made to more than one institution, report the number to each separately. 
9 



130 PEXKSYLVANIA'S SOLPIERS' ORPHAN SCflOOLS. 

5. A rei)ort of the sanitary condition of the school during the quarter, num- 
ber of casea treated, &c., made out and officially signed by the physician regu- 
larly employed at the institution, after a thorough inspection of every pupil, 
during tlie last week of the quarter. 

6. A list, by name, of all persons employed in the institution during the quarter, 
with the number of montlis heretofore employed, and in what capacity. 

7. A report of clothing made and issued during the quarter. This report, for 
which blanks have been furnished, should correspond with the quarterly cloth- 
ing bills accompanying it, only required from institutions which are furnished 
clothing by the State. 

8. Any other matter calculated to give this Department interesting and valu- 
able information concerning the school. In this connection, the condition of 
pupils when they entered the school, their present educational condition and 
progress, improvements to the buildings being made or in contemplation, pros- 
pects of crops growing, extent and success of industrial instruction, account of 
visits made to the school, with their apparent influence upon it, and other simi- 
lar matters, should be stated as much as possible in detail. Fulness in these 
particulars will be very acceptable. Advanced schools are expected to report 
fully under this head, and other institutions so far as applicable to them. 

4. Annual Eeport. 

It is desired that this shall be a summary of all the operations of the year. 
It should embrace, 

1. A statistical statement for the year, similar to that made quarterly. 

2.. Report of the educational progress and standing of the institution, also 
similar to that made quarterly. 

3. Report of the Industrial Department, embracing number of garments 
made, work done, produce raised, food consumed, industry and aptness of chil- 
dren at work, &c. 

If made properly and truthfully, this will be an interesting and valuable 
report. 

4. A historial review of the institution during the year, as minute as the 
Principal or Managers desire. This may include the character and efficiency 
of teachers and other employees, interesting cases of reform and progress among 
pupils, suggestions, &c. 





CHAPTER Xyi. 




EDUCATION AND TRAINING. 

HE INTELLECTUAL CULTURE of the children [received a 
large share of attention. The educational departments 
proper of these institutions were as yet comparatively in 
their infancy. No fixed course of study had been adopted, 
and no stated examinations held to ascertain results. As a conse- 
quence the schools were ungraded, the pupils advanced irregularly, 
according to the preferences of individual teachers. To correct 
these irregularities, the branches of a good practical English educa- 
tion were divided into eight grades, and each pupil was required to 
thoroughly master the branches of a grade before being promoted 
to the next higher. 

The following is the course which was adopted : 



GRADED COURSE OF STUDY. 

First Grade. — Spelling, primary, first half; reading. First Reader, 
through ; writing on slates ; oral exercises in numbers. 

Second Grade. — Spelling, primary, completed ; elementary sounds 
of letters, commenced ; reading. Second Reader, through ; writing 
and drawing on slates; mental arithmetic, primary, first half; 
written arithmetic, four fundamental rules ; geography, oral instruc- 
tion in local. 

Third Grade. — Spelling, first half, advanced ; elementary sounds, 
continued; reading. Third Reader, through; writing in books; 
drawing on slates ; mental arithmetic, primary, through ; written 
arithmetic, primary, through ; geography, oral and use of maps. 

Fourth Grade. — Spelling, advanced, through ; reading. Third 
Reader, reviewed ; writing in books ; drawing ; intellectual arith- 
metic, first half; written arithmetic, first half; geography, primary. 

131 



132 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

Fifth Grade. — Spelling and defining; reading, Fourth Keader, 
first half; writing ; intellectual arithmetic, through ; written arith- 
metic, through; drawing; geography, intermediate; grammar, 
primary. 

Sixth Grade. — Spelling and defining; reading, Fourth Keader, 
through ; writing ; drawing ; written arithmetic, reviewed ; geogra- 
phy ; grammar ; United States History ; primary physiology. 

Seventh Grade. — Spelling and defining; reading. Fifth Keader, 
first half; book-keeping; elementary algebra, commenced; geogra- 
phy, physical ; grammar, through ; United States History and Con- 
stitution ; physiology. 

Eighth Grade. — Etymology; reading. Fifth Keader, through; 
book-keeping; elementary algebra completed, to quadratic equa- 
tions ; philosophy, &c. ; and a general review of previous studies. 

Vocal music, declamation, composition, and other exercises 
throughout the course. 

Examinations quarterly and annually. Two quarters allowed to 
complete the studies of each grade. All promotions at the close of 
examinations. 

Educational blanks were prepared, and the results of the annual 
examinations made out in duplicate, one coj)y for the school and the 
other to be retained in the Department, where they ca^ be seen by 
all interested. 

ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS. 

The first public annual examination, under the course of study 
just given, took place during July, 1869. Hon. Wilmer Worthing- 
tou, Francis Wells, Esq., and others assisted the State ofiicers and 
the principals and teachers, and large numbers of leading men of 
the State, residing in the vicinity of the several schools, attended. 
Detailed reports were published in the Philadelphia Bulletin, Press, 
and other leading journals, and favorably commented upon by the 
editors. The results were satisfactory in the highest degree, and 
oon verted into friends of the system all who attended or read reports 
of them. No one who witnessed the surprising proficiency already 
atUiue<l by these cliiUlren, and the thoroughness of the system pro- 
vided for their education, doubted the wisdom of the plan, while the 
penoual ap|Kjarauce and physical development of the children won 
all heartii. Many of those previously opposed or indifferent became 
frieodn, and frieiid« became encouraged and strengthened. The 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 133 

children returned home at the vacation that followed so healthy, 
happy, and well clothed, that mothers and friends were pleased. 
Complaints diminished, and though discharges on age became more 
numerous, the applications for admissions rapidly increased, the 
number on file being over seven hundred for the year following. 
But still greater results were expected for the second annual exami- 
nation, the year following. In a circular issued, and very widely 
reprinted throughout the Commonwealth, the Superintendent said : 

" These examinations close a school year in which I expected and pre- 
dicted for these schools the most rapid and satisfactory progress — educa- 
tional, industrial, and otherwise — it being the third year of my adminis- 
tration, and the second since the introduction of a carefully prepared and 
systematic graded course of study. The schools are now thrown entirely upon 
their own merits^ and I most earnestly invite Senators and members of the 
House of Kepresentatives, to whose liberal appropriations these children 
owe their present educational opportunities, and those philanthropic men 
and women whose counsel and encouragement have been so grateful in 
the midst of anxious cares and exliausting labors, to attend these examina- 
tions and see how far my expectations and predictions have been realized." 

The examinations were largely attended, the examining boards 
containing one or more of the best known educators in the neighbor- 
hood of the schools. It is believed these and subsequent annual 
examinations exerted an important influence in favor of the schools. 

The tabulated results of these examinations were returned to the 
Department, and formed the means of comparing tha relative prog- 
ress of the several schools, as well as of the children in the same 
school. 

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUCTION. 

In addition to the education and maintenance of these children, 
the law, incorporating the plan of Dr. Burrowes, contemplated doing 
as much as possible to furnish industrial instruction, both as a means 
of lessening the expenses of the institutions, and of teaching the 
children to be industrious and useful. The baking, washing, cook- 
ing, house-cleaning, and making and mending of clothing, furnished 
the girls a wide range of work. The boys cultivated the farm, 
attended the stock, and did the various kinds of work such institu- 
tions furnish, learning also the rudiments of a trade, in a few 
instances, where facilities offered. The wisdom of educating these 
children industrially being recognized, much attention was given to 
perfecting measures to secure this important object. 



134 

RELIGIOUS TRAINING. 

The policy of the system was to respect the denominational prefer- 
ences of the orphans and their friends. Yet religious instruction 
was not neglected. The childr.en in the schools were taught to 
regard the Bible as God's revelation to man. From its sacred pages 
lessons were daily read, and the great truths and moral precepts 
found there were constantly inculcated. On Sundays the children 
attended divine service at the churches in the vicinity of the schools, 
when they were so located as to make it practicable ; while, at the 
schools that were remote from any church, religious instruction was 
given in the main school-room, by the Principal or some minister of 
the gospel. There was a Sunday-school organization in connection 
with every school. 





CHAPTER XVII. 



LOANS AND TAXATION 



LOANS. 

HE Act of April 9, 1867, contemplated the distribution 
of schools so that as nearly as possible there should be 
one in each normal school district; the object being to 
have the schools so located that children would not be 
compelled to go farther than possible from home. There being 
several sections of the State containing many soldiers' orphans either 
not provided with schools, or those established needing enlargement, 
the Superintendent prepared and had passed the following Act, 
approved March 25, 1868 : 




Be it enacted, <fec., That to assist in the establishing of soldiers' orphan schools 
in districts now destitute thereof, it shall be lawful for the Superintendent of 
such schools, with the concurrence of the Governor, to advance from the fund 
provided for such schools to the proprietor or founder of one such school, in 
any district now unprovided therewith, a sura of money, not exceeding five 
thousand dollars, as may be required to put the same in operation : Provided, 
Adequate security shall be given for the proper application thereof, by bond 
filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth: And provided, That 
such sum shall be deducted from the money to become due to such school, 
under the laws of this Commonwealth, in sums not less than five per cent, of 
the amount advanced, to be taken from each quarterly payment made to said 
school, or so that such discounts may, during the time contracted for, amount 
to the sum loaned. 



Some change to adapt this law to several special cases being neces- 
sary, the following supplement was passed at the same session : 

135 



136 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

ACT OF 1868. 

Be U enacted, <fec., That the Act, entitled "An Act to provide means for the 
eetablishment of a soldiers' orphan school in each State normal school district 
of this C\)mraonwealth, now destitute thereof," approved April fifteenth, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, be so construed as to permit the 
Superintendent, the Governor concurring, to grant the aid it provides to one 
«uc!i institution for advanced and one for primary pupils, in each district, as 
may have been established hereafter for districts destitute thereof, whether such 
institutions be located within such district or in an adjoining district convenient 
of access: Provided, That the money advanced under the provisions of this 
Act shall be paid out of the money appropriated to soldiers' orphan schools. 

Under this Act the following schools received loans : 

Chester Springs, new $5,000 

Mercer, new 6,000 

Titusville, new 5,000 

Harford, enlarged •• 3,000 

Mansfield, enlarged 3,000 

$21,000 

As soon as fully established, these institutions commenced repaying 
the loan as provided by the Act. This temporary aid is the only 
assistance Pennsylvania furnished towards providing buildings for 
the accommodation of soldiers' orphans, and every dollar has been 
refunded. 

EXEMPT FKOM TAXATION. 

The institutions used as soldiers' orphan schools were all furnished 
by the proprietors or managers of them at their own expense and 
rink, and involved most of them heavily in debt. The property 
iHjing used exclusively for State purposes and under State control, 
and amounting to more in value than was covered by existing laws, 
it was deemed but just that while thus used they should not be sub- 
ject to taxation. Hence the following Act was passed : 

Be it enacted, <kc., That the trustees, owner or owners of any literary or chari- 
Uble imttitutions, now incorporated, erected, endowed, or established, or that 
may hereafter be incorporated, erected, endowed, or established, by virtue of 
any Uw of thij4 Coramonwealth, be and they are hereby autliorized and em- 
powere<i to Hocure, by purchase, lease, beqtiest, or otherwise, and to hold, enjoy^ 
and IMC landM and buildings, not exceeding in value tliirty-five thousand dol- 
lani, and to wll, leaw, or otherwiso dispose of the same; and the lands and 
buildtngM, ihuH iwcured and held, ^hiU 1)^- exempted from all and every county, 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 137 

road, city, borough, poor, and school tax : Provided, That these institutions be 
designated and employed as soldiers' orphan schools: And provided also, That 
the State shall never be asked or expected to pay any portion of the cost of 
said buildings and grounds. 

Some questions about the scope of this Act having arisen, the 
following explanatory Act was passed : 

Be it enacted, &c., That the true intent of the Act granting an increase of 
capital to certain institutions becoming soldiers' orphan schools, approved April 
tenth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, shall be taken to be that no 
tax shall be assessed or collected or any property used or entered upon for the 
purposes mentioned in said Act, after the date of and during said occupancy, 
the assessed valuation of which shall not exceed the sum mentioned in said 
Act. 





CHAPTER Xyill. 

THE TRUST CONFIDED TO THE SUPERINTENDENT OF 
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 




Y virtue of the Act of May 27, 1871, the Superintendency 
of the soldiers' orphans was imposed upon the Superin- 
tendect of Common Schools, and, consequently, James 
Pyle Wickersham, LL.D., on the first day of June, 1871, 
assumed the additional duties to which he had been appointed. Dr. 
Wickersham had been a close and interested observer of the system 
since its inception. He, therefore, with laudable enthusiasm, entered 
immediately upon the labors of this delicate and important trust. 
With singleness of purpose, he aimed so to administer its affairs as 
to secure to the unfortunate children the greatest possible measure of 
good from the liberal provisions of the State. In this endeavor he 
was ably assisted by the intelligent and practical aid rendered him 
by Rev. C. Coruforth and Mrs. E. E. Hutter, who, as Inspectors, were 
already acquainted with the workings and details of the schools ; and 
in regard to the clerical work of the Department, he was relieved 
from the perplexity incident to a new bureau by the assistance of 
experienced clerks. 

During the annual vacation following the assumption of the Super- 
intendency of the orphans, Dr. Wickersham caused orders of ad- 
raisaion to be issued to all the children whose applications were on 
file in the Department, amounting in all to nearly five hundred, some 
of which had been awaiting action for several years. He also decided 
that in the future all children making proper application should at 
once be MUgned to suitable institutions. The Legislature of 1871 
had abo removed the restriction which kept the orphans under eight 
yean of age from the schools. This generous policy of the Super- 

138 



i 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 139 

iuteiident and the State, while it silenced complaints of an unjust 
discrimination, which admitted some and rejected others no less needy 
and deserving, kept the number of children in the schools from 
diminishing. During the year ending May 31, 1872, the whole 
number receiving aid from the system was four thousand three hun- 
dred and twenty-five ; and there were left in the charge of the State, 
after all discharges, three thousand five hundred and twenty-seven. 

In order to learn the wants of these schools, better to become 
acquainted with those having immediate charge of the children, and 
to secure uniformity of action. Superintendent Wickersham called a 
meeting of the Principals, who met in the rooms of the Department, 
at Harrisburg, on the 7th of September, 1871. After a few explana- 
tory remarks by the Superintendent, relative to the objects of the 
meeting, that gentleman was called to the chair, and Prof. W. E. 
Caveny was chosen secretary. The schools and homes were repre- 
sented as follows : 

Phillipsburg, Rev. W. G. Taylor ; White Hall, Maj. J. A. Moore, 
Dr. Moore, and Prof C. C. Hughes ; Uniontown, Rev. A. H. Waters ; 
Cassville, A. L. Guss, Principal ; McAlisterville, J. H. Smith, Prin- 
cipal ; Mount Joy, Rev. Jesse Kennedy and Mr. Gable ; Harford, H. 
S. Sweet, Principal ; Mansfield, Prof F. A. Allen ; Titusville, J. N. 
Beistle, Principal, and G. S. Berry, Esq. ; Chester Springs, W. E. 
Caveny, Principal, and C. W. Deans, Esq. ; Bridgewater, James 
Stitzer, Principal ; Loysville, Rev. P. Willard ; Andersonburg, Hon. 
M. Motzer ; Soldiers' Orphan Institute, L. Hopkins, Esq., and Mrs. 
E. E. Hutter ; Lincoln Institution, ^Y. H. Billings, Esq. ; Board of 
Charities, Dr. W. Worthington, Secretary. 

Department of Soldiers' Orphans. — J. P. Wickersham, Superin- 
tendent ; Rev. C. Corn forth and Mrs. E. E. Hutter, Inspectors, and 
Col. James L. Paul, Chief Clerk. 

Gen. John F. Hartranft, Auditor-General, and Hon. Thomas Nich- 
olson, Cashier of the State Treasury, and other gentlemen, were 
present during the evening session. 

Messrs. Guss, Taylor, and Deans were appointed a committee to 
wait on his Excellency, Governor Geary, and ascertain at what time 
it would suit him to be present and address the convention. The 
committee subsequently reported that the Governor was too ill to 
perform what otherwise would have been to him a pleasant duty. 
He, however, expressed, through the committee, his deep interest in 
the welfare of the soldiers' orphans in the care of the State. 



140 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

The convention proceeded to dispose of the business under the 
several heads proposed by the Superintendent, as follows : 

1. A Course of Study. The discussion was very animated, and 
participated in by nearly all present. Many valuable facts were 
stated and suggestions made. 

2. (Jure of Children after Leaving School. The discussion revealed 
the fact that something had been done in this direction, and much 
more was promised to be done in the future. The State Superin- 
tendent promised to use his best efforts to secure the admission, with- 
out cost, of a limited number of orphans, who may show special 
talent for teaching, into our State Normal School. 

3. Moral and Religious Instruction of the Children. On this topic, 
the State Superintendent said : " I deem it more important to train 
the children right than to instruct them well." Dr. Worthington 
was very earnest in pressing upon those present the primary import- 
ance of making good men and women of the wards of the State. 
Gen. Hartranft thought '* kindness " was the most effective discipline 
in this regard. Mr. Nicholson, as an old teacher, concurred in this 
view. Reference was made by all to the wonderful moral changes 
wrought upon the children by the training of the schools. 

4. Industrial Instruction. It is the intention of the State that the 
orphan children in her care shall be taught to work. Habits of 
industry will be as valuable to them in life, it is thought, as knowl- 
edge. From the reports made from the different schools, a good 
degree of attention is paid to this matter. 

In addition to these general discussions, the convention considered 
questions concerning the kinds of clothing suitable for the children ; 
the mode of purchasing their clothing, and the manner of keeping 
the clothing accounts ; the kind of reports to be made to the De- 
partment, and other matters of detail. 

Dr. Worthington, Gen. Hartranft, Mr. Nicholson, the State Super- 
intendent, Mr. Kennedy, Prof. Allen, and other gentlemen, made 
concluding remarks upon the noble work Pennsylvania had under- 
taken to do in providing for the thousands of destitute children 
orphaned by the war. It was said that if the work cost her millions 
of dollars, it would save her tens of millions. All the other States 
of the Union have done less than Pennsylvania in this noblest of 
all charities. 

The oonventioD was a decided success. Its last session continued 
until afUr midnight, and none seemed weary. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orppan schools. 



141 



Desiring to systematize the duties of the iDspectors, and to facili- 
tate the work of making their reports, the subjoined printed form 
was prepared during the first year of Dr. Wickersham's Superin- 
tendency : 

INSPECTION REPORT. 



.187 



To J. P. Wtckersham, 

Supenntendent Soldiers' Orphan Schools. 

Sir: — The following is the report of my inspection of the 

, made 187 



Grounds. 

Extent 

Condition of grounds and sur- 
roundings 

. Buildings. 
Condition as to repair 



"^ Culinary dep't- 
>- School-rooms... 



Condition as to 

cleanliness: ) Dormitories, 
Adaptation to the purpose 



Furniture. 

Greneral condition of furniture 

Condition of beds and bedding 

Condition of tables and table fur- 
niture 

Condition of school furniture 



Children. 
Number of children present. 

Condition as to health. 

Condition as to cleanliness... 
Condition as to morals 



Food. 
Condition of the food.. 



Clothing. 
Condition as to quantity.. 
Condition as to quality -. 



The School. 

Number of teachern 

Character of the teaching 

Advancement of the pupils 

Discipline 

No. of books in li- 
brary 

No. of periodicals 
taken 



Reading 



Industrial Facilities. 

Number of employees 

Condition of the indus- ") Boys'.... 
tries: j Girls'... 

Moral and Religious Advantagis. 
Moral and rejigious condition of 
the institution 

The Institution as a Whole, 
Condition of the institution as a 
whole 

Improvement since Previous Visit. 
Degree of progress in improve- 



ment 



Miscellaneous Remarks. 



Inspector S. 0. Schools. 



142 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO INSPECTORS. 

1. Except where positive results are required, the Inspectors will fill up the 
blanks with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, meaning, respectively, very goody 
goody tolerably good, \niddling, rather poor, poor, very poor. 

2. The Inspectors are directed to point out, on the spot, to the authorities of 
the several institutions, what they may think requires amendment, and insist 
upon the needed changes. 

3. Details which cannot be properly expressed in the report should be 
promptly communicated to the Superintendent, either in person or by letter. 

Superintendent Wickersham also prepared a neat diploma, to be 
granted worthy soldiers' orphans on leaving school at the age of 
sixteen years, of which the following is a copy : 



1 } 






I? 

I ^ 






^ ^ ?^ 



^ r 



"SI 



^ 






bl 



I 

I 



1^ P^ 



I 

5i. 



i 



I 



^ 



*53 









03 

I 



r A 



43 






«i 



X 5S 



Ik 



■^ 5^4 «. 'Ni 

^Cfe ^ g5 ^ 

^ - s ^^■• 



55. 






5 

r 

55. 



S I" 



XR 



•^S 



P$ 



^ 
% 

^ 

^ 



^ 
^2^ 



I 

s 

CO 



O 

Hr: 

o 
^^ 
to 



Co 



f 



143 



144 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schooi^. 

The course of study and method of grading presented by Super- 
intendent McFarland, already given, was somewhat modified by his 
successor. Perhaps the changes referred to can best be told in Dr. 
Wickersham's own language : 



"The branches now taught in the different grades will be continued, with the 
addition of object lessons in the first four grades, and grammar in the eighth 
grade. The extent to which each branch shall be studied in the several grades 
is left to the teachers. Progress will be measured more by the proficiency of 
the pupils in the several branches, as exhibited to the inspectors and at the 

examination, than by the number of 
books or parts of books they have 
passed over. Due attention should 
be given to vocal music, the writing 
of original compositions, and draw- 
ing." 

An important change, which 
was agitated the previous year, 
was made by the Legislature of 
1871, in the manner of supply- 
ing the advanced schools with 
clothing. Up to this time the 
State Superintendent had made 
the purchases of clothing and 
clothing materials of all kinds 
and forwarded them to these 
institutions. The amount al- 
lowed to each child was twenty- 
five dollars. By the provisions 
of the appropriation bill of 
1871, each Principal was re- 
quired to make these purchases 
for his own school. With the 
State Superintendent, however, still rests the duty to prescribe the 
kind of clotliing and the amount furnished. Pupils over ten years 
of age, and for whom one hundred and fifty dollars per annum are 
paid, must receive twenty-five dollars' worth of clothing ; and those 
under ten years, and for whom one hundred and fifteen dollars per 
annum are paid, must receive nineteen dollars and sixteen cents' 
worth of clothing. The cost of mending boots and shoes is included 
in clothing accountu, but all other mending is reckoned among the 
ordinary expenses of the institutions. 




I 



JOHN WILHELM. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 145 



At the close of each fiscal year, the Principals of the several 
schools forward to the Department receipted bills for all purchases 
of clothing, clothing materials, and for transportation of the same., 
together with bills for making clothing at the schools and mending 
boots and shoes. All these must equal the amount required to 
clothe all the children in each school for the year, which is easily 
ascertained, as it is just one-sixth of the whole amount paid the 
school for all purposes. Besides this, each Principal keeps an exact 
account with each orphan, who is charged with the actual cost of 
every article of clothing given 
him or her, and the cost of cob- 
bling. Yet, as it would be diffi- 
cult to give each child the exact 
amount required, a little latitude 
is granted for the sake of con- 
venience. But each pupil over 
ten years of age must receive at 
least twenty-one dollars' worth 
of clothing, and each child below 
ten must receive at least sixteen 
dollars' worth ; and the average 
value of clothing must equal the 
required amounts. The names 
of the children in each school 
are entered upon an " issue roll^" 
and the articles of clothing and 
their cost, and the cost of repair- 
ing sliDes, are placed opposite 
their several names. This roll 
shows just what each orphan has 
received during the year. Both 
the receipted bills, which show 
how much has been paid out to clothe the whole school, and the 
" issue roll," which shows how much has been given each child, are 
kept on file in the Department. 

These rules as to clothing do not apply to the homes, to which 

only one hundred dollars are allowed per annum for each child, if 

at any time a State appropriation has been granted, and one hundred 

and fifteen dollars, if no such appropriation has ever been made. 

10 




SUETTA MARKLEY. 



146 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

These institutions must comfortably clothe their children, but are 
not required to render clothing accounts to the Department. 

Twenty-five dollars to clothe a child between ten and sixteen years 
of age, and nineteen dollars and sixteen cents to clothe a child under 
ten years are not large sums ; and it is a constant study with those 
who have the schools in charge how to make this amount of money 
do the most good. Experience has taught that it is poor economy 
to purchase inferior goods. With the most prudent expenditure and 
much mending, it is very difficult to make the twenty-five dollars 
properly clothe the boys in those schools where they have wide scope 
and free range; but when less freedom is granted, that amount is an 
ample allowance. 

No child is considered properly supplied with clothing who does 
not have a change of underwear, a work, a school, and a dress suit. 
Much taste is displayed in dressing the children. We give two 
wood-cuts copied from photographs taken in 1875. Tlie boy and 
girl represented here are now pupils at Mount Joy, and may be 
regarded as fair representatives of the children in the advanced 
schools. They, of course, have on their best. The boy's pants are 
of blue Kersey, his jacket and cap are made of dark blue cloth, 
trimmed with military buttons. The girl's dress is of Scotch plaid ; 
her hat is becoming, and her shoes are shapely and neat, but they 
do not pinch her feet. 



« 





t 





CHAPTER XIX. 
JOHN FREDERICK HARTRANFT. 

N the 21st of January, 1873, Major-General Hartranft 
was inaugurated Governor of Pennsylvania. In him the 
soldiers' orphans found an earnest and devoted friend. 
At the first call of President Lincoln for troops, he, as 
Colonel of the Fourth Regiment, Montgomery County Militia, hast- 
ened to Harrisburg, and offered the services of his command to the 
imperilled Government. From the beginning to the end of the war 
of the great rebellion, Governor Hartranft was in the military ser- 
vice, and commanded in more than a score of battles. By his skill 
and bravery he earned an honorable distinction. As a recognition 
of his valuable services and conspicuous gallantry, he was, by his 
Government, breveted major-general on the 25th of March, 1865, 
while in active service. Many of the fathers of the orphaned chil- 
dren had bravely fought and nobly perished beneath his own eyes ; 
and he naturally cherished a deep interest in the welfare of those 
made dependent and defenceless by a parent's valor; for if the 
cruelties and horrors of war tend to harden man's nature, no less do 
its bereavements and sorrows touch the heart and prompt it to deeds 
of tenderness and mercy. 

Yielding to a desire enkindled by the sad yet grateful remem- 
brance of the honored dead, the Governor-elect requested, as a spe- 
cial favor, that the soldiers' orphans honor his inaugural with their 
presence. With the permission of their Superintendent, eight hun- 
dred and nineteen fatherless boys participated in the ceremonies, and 
from their sad history, yet present favored circumstances and their 
fine appearance and military bearing, formed an important feature 
of the occasion. The institutions represented, and the number of 
boys from each, were as follows : Soldiers' Orphan Institute, one 

147 



fa 0/>T T^TCino' 



148 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

hundred and twenty-one ; Mount Joy, one hundred ; Cassville, 
eighty-two ; Lincohi Institution, one hundred and thirty-five ; Bridge- 
water (colored), fifty; Chester Springs, ninety; McAlisterville, 
eighty; Loysviile, fifty-three; and White Hall, one hundred and 
eight. 

Hardly had the solemn oath to perform with fidelity his duties as 
Governor been taken, when he quietly withdrew from the company 
of distinguished statesmen and soldiers, and from the pomp and 
pageantry attending that hour of his civil triumph, to mingle with, 
and speak words of encouragement to, the orphaned children who 
had temporarily sought shelter in the Court-house. It was flattering 
to them to be the first auditors of the new Governor ; and they were 
highly gratified to be assured from his own lips that he would, dur- 
ing his administration of the aflfairs of the State, do all in his power 
to promote their happiness and progress in knowledge and virtue. 
Naturally reticent and undemonstrative, his words were few, but 
they revealed a depth of fervor and feeling ; and the promises then 
made the orphans, though called forth by the occasion and conse- 
quently unpremeditated, were ever after regarded by him sacred as 
the most solemn vows. Upon successive Legislatures, Governor 
Hartranft has urged the duty of providing generously for the schools 
of the adopted " wards of the State." Having himself enjoyed the 
advantages of excellent schools, and holding advanced views in 
regard to popular instruction, and wisely believing in compulsory 
education as a safeguard to society, he, from every consideration of 
statesmanship, justice, and humanity, is an earnest and consistent 
advocate of that system which nurtures the necessitous children of 
fallen soldiers and fits them fi)r virtuous, industrious, and honorable 
citizenship. In every one of his annual messages to the General 
Assembly, he has given the soldiers' orphan schools a conspicuous 
place. The following passages must suffice to show his manner of 
speaking of this great trust in his official communications : 

"The continued favor of the Legislature to the Rchools wherein the orphan? 
of our BoMierH are maintained and taught, is an agreeable proof of the patriotism 
of our people. What prouder monument could we erect to the Pennsylvanians 
who fell in baUlo than to care for and educate their children ? There will be 
lillle hope for our inKtitutions, when we cease to be grateful to those who bled 
or diet! in their defence. No more responsible charge, and one which does more 
honor to her head and heart, liaa been assumed by the Commonwealth, than 
iboM ■cboolM for the support and instruction of our soldiers' orphans; and it is 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 149 

of the gravest importance that this trust Bhould be administered not only in 
good faith to the State, but with a special view to the comfort and careful edu- 
cation of these unfortunate children. 

" In this connection, let me say a word in regard to a subject that has often 
engaged my thoughts, and to which I invoke the attention of our law-makers. 
No part of our system of education has secured so universal commendation as 
that which is embraced in the circle of instruction of those who were made 
orphans by the casualties of war. The helpless condition of these little ones 
touchingly appealed to the hearts of our people, and the response was the 
establishment of the orphans' schools that are now the pride of our State. But 
in rescuing these children from destitution, and providing for their education 
until they have attained the age of sixteen years, have we filled the measure 
of our duty to them ? 

"Thrown out into the world to do battle with life's trials, at an age peculiarly 
dangerous to youth, does not common humanity require that the State should 
maintain its guardianship of these children until their habits are somewhat 
settled, and they have acquired the ability to earn their own livelihood ? The 
establishment of industrial schools, where useful trades may be taught, seems 
to promise the easiest and best solution of this problem." 

General Hartranft was the second time inaugurated Governor of 
Pennsylvania on the 18th of January, 1876. It is not necessary to 
say that in this event the orphans and their numerous friends 
throughout the Commonwealth greatly rejoiced. Another might be 
true to them and their interests, but in regard to him there existed 
not a shadow of doubt. He had committed himself by word and 
act unequivocal to the good work. And there were other considera- 
tions, aside from the care of the orphan children, which made his 
second inaugural an occasion for congratulation. He had, by three 
years of the most judicious control of the affairs of the State, shown 
himself to be a true and intelligent friend to her interests, and by 
his distinguished services in the war to save the nation which was 
born a hundred years before, demonstrated the fact that he was 
worthy to be the Centennial Governor of the Keystone State. 






CHAPTER XX. 
THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

HEN, in 1864, it was first proposed that the State assume 
the care and education of all the children whom the war 
had made necessitous, a decided majority in the House 
of Representatives, as has been seen, was opposed to the 
measure. The war had increased the public indebtedness, and the 
project, though humane and worthy, would, if carried out, require 
large sums of money during at least the next decade ; and hence 
legislators hesitated to fasten upon the Commonwealth this addi- 
tional burden. But the people, who fought the battles and uncom- 
plainingly bore the expenses of the war, were no less willing to 
recognize and discharge their obligations to a deserving and numer- 
ous class of unfortunates of whom its cruelties had robbed of the 
natural means of support. As the grand scheme of beneficence 
became known and its objects understood, it gathered strength and 
made friends. Its advocates were confined to no party creed. The 
wisest statesmen were its warmest advocates. And yet there have 
not been wanting those who,, during all the years of its history, have 
seemed to look suspiciously upon the great work and to grudge the 
means required for its continuance. The disposition to contract 
rather than to expand the State's liberality to the orphans has too 
often manifested itself in the halls of legislation. 

lu resisting the narrowing and belittling of the undertaking, 
wliile no set of men can claim the exclusive honor, the soldiers of 
the lat« war may justly demand a preeminence. Especially is this 
true of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization composed 
of tbo honorably diHcharged veterans of the war for the suppression 
of the rebellion. To perpetuate the remembrances of that struggle, 

150 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 151 

to keep alive the friendships which were formed amid common hard- 
ships and dangers, and to cherish a love for the Union of the respec- 
tive States for which they fought and bled, are some of the objects 
of its existence. And among other obligations of mercy, the mem- 
bers of this brotherhood are pledged to extend aid, when necessary, 
to the unfortunate families of their comrades who were slain and 
crippled in battle. Fidelity to their vows, quickened by a remem- 
brance of the dead and a regard for the living, have placed these 
banded warriors foremost in the support of that system which pro- 
vides a home and a school for those whom they are obligated to 
defend and protect. By their numerical strength, and by their social 
and political standing, they have been enabled so to shape legislative 
action as to obtain favorable results. Not only has the Grand Army 
ever been ready to exert its powerful influence in favor of securing 
ample appropriations for the support of the schools, but it has also 
heartily favored every enlargement of the State's liberality to the 
orphans. 

It is largely due to its influence that provisions have been made 
to aid the pupils, after completing their term at the schools, to con- 
tinue their studies at the normal schools of the State. Members of 
the order, as well as those who had immediate charge of the children, 
had repeatedly been pained by seeing earnest and promising students, 
on arriving at the age of sixteen years, sent away and their student- 
life suddenly ended, too often never again to be resumed. A few, 
without any additional preparation, engaged in teaching; some, 
aided by friends, continued their studies ; but in most instances the 
case was far otherwise. With a little more assistance, many could 
be fitted for a career of highest usefulness as teachers. Deeply im- 
pressed with this fact, the members of the organization deemed it a 
duty to see that some provision was made for this class of orphans. 
They accordingly made known their wishes to the Superintendent, 
who, heartily concurring in their views, asked and^ obtained of the 
Legislature of 1872 an appropriation of two thousand dollars to 
assist a limited number of the most worthy pupils, who had com- 
pleted their term at the orphan schools, to further pursue their 
studies at the State normal schools. It is also largely due to the 
same influence that the normal school fund was subsequently in- 
creased and made permanent. 

By an arrangement with the Principals of these institutions, the 
orphans sent to them are furnished boarding, washing, tuition, and 



152 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

the use of text-books for four dollars a week. One dollar of this 
sum is paid out of the common school fund, in the same manner as 
to other students who propose to become teachers in tne State. Only 
those puj)ils are sent to the normal schools, by the Superintendent 
of Soldiers' Orphans, who have been honorably discharged at the 
age of sixteen, and show aptitude for teaching. And, in order to 
render assistance to the greatest number practicable, they are kept 
at the normal schools but one year, when they give place to other 
tieserving applicants. The pupils to whom additional aid is thus 
extended acquit themselves, with rare exceptions, very satisfactorily, 
either graduating with honors, or occupying positions in the highest 
classes. One hundred and eighty-two orphans have already enjoyed 
the privilege of a normal school training, the majority of whom are 
teaching in the public schools of the State. 

In 1874, another forward movement was made. All soldiers' 
orphans born after the 1st day of January, 1866, had, by a previous 
Act, been excluded, and no children of disabled soldiers, however 
destitute, had ever enjoyed the benefits of the system. By the Act 
of May, 1874, one hundred of these hitherto excluded children were 
admitted into the schools. In 1875, a bill was drafted by Hon. W. 
H. Graham, member from Allegheny City, which removed the lim- 
itation, and provided for the admission of all the needy children of 
both deceased and disabled soldiers, without regard to date of birth. 
The bill met with opposition in the Legislature ; but Mr. Graham, a 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and having the matter 
much at heart, pressed it vigorously, and was warmly supported in 
securing its passage by Representatives W. W. Brown, of Erie county; 
Charles S. Wolf, of Union county ; W. Cooper Tally, of Delaware 
county; B. C. Christy, of Allegheny county; George F. Smith, of 
Chester county ; Samuel A. Losch, of Schuylkill county ; J. R. Bil- 
liugsly, of Washington county ; Geo. H. Ettla and D. P. Rosen- 
miller, of Lancaster county ; Geo. A. Bakeoven, Harry O'Neill, Wm. 
J. Roney, Harry M. Quirk, Josephus Yeakel, Jas. J. Monaghan, 
ChaH. R. Gentner, Robert Gillespie, and Joseph R. Souder, of Phila- 
<lelphia ; and Senators Daniel Ermentrout, of Berks county ; A. H. 
Dill, of Union county ; Samuel M. Jackson, of Armstrong county ; 
J. G. Heilraan, of Lebanon county ; Thomas V. Cooper, of Dela- 
ware county ; Elisha W. Davis and A. H. Dunkle, of Philadelphia; 
E. D. YuUy, of Someraet county, all members of the veteran organ- 
ization. 



PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



153 



Not only in this public manner have the members of the order 
been of service to the orphans, but in many other ways have they 
rendered them needed help. Often have needy oaes been sought out 
by them and brought into the schools, who, had it not been for the 
assistance thus extended, would have been suffered to grow up in 
destitution and neglect. Nor have the veterans permitted their kind 
offices to cease with the admission of the children into the State insti- 
tutions. While there, they have watched over the defenceless little 
ones with a father's solicitude. The State officers, who have ever 
invited their cooperation, have more than once had occasion to thank 
these warriors for their kindness and timely aid. And after passing 
out from under the care of the State, homes and opportunities to 
learn trades have often been obtained for them by the agency of this 
worthy organization. To their fathers' surviving comrades, the de- 
fenceless children ever look for advice and help, with no fear of being 
repulsed with a cold or scornful rebuff. 

To give the names of members of the Grand Army who have been 
active in their kindness to the orphans, would be an easy task, were 
it not for the necessity of omitting others equally deserving. With- 
out disparaging the services of any, we mention, as being conspicuous 
in the good work of helping the children and aiding the Depart- 
ment, the following gentlemen, who are highly esteemed, and have 
filled honorable positions in the fraternity, viz. : 



General Frank Reeder, 
General R. B. Beath, 
Captain W. W. Tyson, 
Colonel Norman M. Smith, 
Private Abe Patterson, 
Captain Crosby Gray, 



Colonel O. S. Bosbyshell, 
Major A. Wilson Norris, 
General James W. Latta, 
Captain John M. Vanderslice, 
Colonel S. Irwin Given, 
Captain A. M. K. Storrie. 





CHAPTER XXI. 



INSIDE VIEW. 




HE soldiers' orphan schools are homes as well as schools. 
In them the children are given the very best scholastic 
training in the different branches of learning suited to 
their ages, and they are also taught to labor systematically 
and perseveringly at such household and other duties as are usually 
performed by children in well-regulated and industrious families. 

The founders of the system anticipated teaching the orphans 
trades ; but it was found to be infeasible, as is seen by the following 
extract from Inspector Cornforth's annual report of 1864 : 

" It should be borne in mind that all the boys in any one school should not 
be taught the same trade. So absurd is the idea, that a mere statement of the 
cfwe is sufficient to show its utter impracticability. Among the boys of any 
Bchool there would be found natural bent for at least half a dozen occupations. 
To furnish instruction and facilities for giving practical knowledge and skill in 
even this limited number of pursuits, would involve an outlay whicli tlie tem- 
porary nature of the schools do not warrant. It should also be remembered 
that boys leave the schools at the age of sixteen, which is the most suitable 
period of life for them to begin to learn trades. Tlie present method secures a 
good business education, is especially favorable to physical development, estab- 
lisliea habits of industry, and furnishes an excellent opportunity to become 
familiar with farming and gardening and the necessary duties of domestic life, 
which certainly will be of great advantage to them, whatever pursuit they may 
follow in after life. Most of the girls become proficient in housework and in 
Hewing, both with the needle and sewing-machine, which places them in ad- 
vance of a mjyority of the daughters of well-to-do citizens." 

But, in order to allow every child a part of each day for manual 
labor, and to afford constant help in the various domestic employ- 
raeDts, each school is divided into four divisions, and each division is 
again divided into as many working classes as there are departments 
of labor, the several classes being respectively composed of but one 

164 



ORPHAN SCHOOI^. 155 

sex, and employed at such labor as is commonly performed by tbat 
sex. The working classes are engaged, alternately, in all the differ- 
ent industrial departments of their respective schools, and each class, 
while at work, is under the control of a competent person, who super- 
intends the work, and assists and instructs the children in the per- 
formance of their duties. Tlie divisions and classes being arranged, 
the daily routine of an orphan school, excepting Saturdays and Sun- 
days, is about as follows : At half-past five o'clock in the morning, 
the cooking class of the first division gets up, and assists the cook in 
preparing breakfast ; at six, all the children rise, dress, wash, and 
comb ; at half-past six, breakfast is taken, and is immediately fol- 
lowed by family worship, after which the children play till the time 
for study. At eight o'clock school is called, and the second, third, 
and fourth divisions repair to the school-rooms, while the first di- 
vision remains out and engages in manual labor ; at ten, there is a 
recess of fifteen minutes, and the first and second divisions. change 
places, the first going into school, and the second taking its place in 
the labor department. 

At eleven forty-five A. m., school is dismissed, and from its close 
till one o'clock p. m., the children play, except during the time occu- 
pied by dinner, which is served precisely at noon. School is again 
called at one o'clock, and the third division engages in manual labor, 
while the others attend school ; at three o'clock, after a recess of 
fifteen minutes, the fourth division takes its turn at labor, and works 
till four forty-five p. m., at which time both labor and study cease 
for the day. Supper is taken at five o'clock ; family worship is held 
immediately after supper, and is followed by play till night. The 
children all stay in the buildings from twilight till bedtime, some 
of them in the sitting-rooms, and the others in the reading-rooms, 
engaged in writing letters, in reading, or in study ; at eight o'clock 
they all assemble in the sitting-rooms, and, after engaging in singing 
and prayer, retire to bed. It will thus be seen that the second and 
fourth working divisions are engaged in stuSy and recitation for five 
and a half hours every day, while the first and third divisions are 
so engaged but five hours a day. Saturdays are occupied in bathing, 
play, &c., and Sundays are taken up chiefly in attending church and 
Sunday-school. 

The annexed programme of a prominent school gives a view of its 
educational department, and also shows what grades compose each 
working division, and does not materially differ from those of other 
advanced schools in the State at the present time (1876). 



156 Pennsylvania's soldieeis'' orphan schools. 

PROGRAMME OF A SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOL IN WHICH FIVE 
TEACHERS ARE EMPLOYED. 



TtMB. 


RBCTTIWa. 


Stddyino. 


Work. 


Grade. 


Branch. 


Grade. 


Branch. 


8 to 8.30. 


Jd Grade. 
7th Grade, 
3d Grade, 


C Class A. } 
i " B.J 
(Class A... 
t " B... 
(Class A... 
\ " B... 


Spelling. 
Algebra. 
Physical Geog. 
Reading. 
Reading. 


6th Grade, 
4th Grade, 
5th Grade, 


(Class A... 
} " B... 
(Class A... 
i ■' B... 
(Class A... 
\ " B... 


Reading. 
Reading. 
Reading. 
Arithmetic. 
Political Geog. 
Political Geog. 


i 

S 

3 

00 

1 

1 

3 
1 


8J0t«». 


Id Grade, 
4th Grade, 
3d Grade. 
5th Grade, 
6th Grade, 


5 0.-A;-. 

( Class A. 
i " B. 
( Class A. 
} " B., 
(Class A... 
\ " B... 


Object Lessons. 
Reading. 

Writing. 

Reading. 
Reading. 


7th Grade, 


(Class A... 
\ ■' B... 


Physical Geog. 
Grammar. 


9 U> 9.30. 


5th Grade, 
7th Grade, 
4th Grade, 


(Class A... 
] " B... 
(Class A... 
i " B... 

Class B... 


Political Geog. 
Political Geog. 
Physical Geog. 
Grammar. 
Arithmetic 


2d Grade, 
3d Grade. 
6th Grade. 
4th Grade. 


(Class A... 
I '■ B... 
(Glass A... 
i " B... 
(Class A... 
\ " U... 
Class A... 


Reading. 

Reading. 

Spelling. 

Spelling. 

Arithmetic. 

Grammar. 

Political Geog. 


9.30 to 10. 


•2d Grade, 
3d Grade, 
4th Grade, 
6tb Grade, 


Class A... 

" B... 

Class A. > 

" n.l 

Class A. t 
( Class A. J 
} " B... 


Reading. 
Reading. 
Spelling. 

Writing. 
Grammar. 


4th Grade, 
5th Grade, 

7th Grade, 


Class B... 
( Class A... 
\ " B... 
(Class A... 
\ " B... 


Reading. 

Arithmetic. 

Arithmetic. 

Grammar. 

Algebra. 


10 to 10.15, R«oess. 












10.15 to 10.45. 


3d Grade. 
5th Grade, 

4tU Grade. 
6tb Grade, 


Class B... 

Class A... 
(Class A... 
i " B... 

Class A... 


OMect Lessons. 
Arithmetic. 
Political Geog.' 
Reading. 

Arithmetic. 


1st Grade, 
3d Grade, 
5th Grade, 
6th Grade, 
8th Grade, 


( Class A... 
\ " B... 

Class A... 

Class B... 

Class B... 
(Class A... 
i " B... 


Reading. 

Reading. 

Arithmetic. 

Reading. 

Physiology. 

Physiology. 

Geometry. 


■i 

2 
2 

1 

1 
•a 

s 


10.45 to 11.15. 


Ut Grade, 
3d Grade. 
5th (jrade. 
8th Grade, 


Class A... 

Class B... 
(Class A... 
I " B... 


Drawing. 

Arithmetic. 
Reading. 
Philosophy. 
Geometry. 


3d Grade, 
5th Grade. 

4th Grade. 
6th Grade. 


Class B... 

Class A... 
( Class A... 
i " B... 
( CI.iss A... 
\ " B... 


Political Geog. 

Reading. 

Arithnietio. 

Political Geog. 

Grammar. 

Drawing. 


ii.uun.tt. 


Itt OrMle. 
Cih Grada, 
UOnda, 
4tliOnMto. 
fttkOndc, 


(Class A.) 

L." »s 

(Class A... 
I " B... 

CIbbs B. 
(CI.I.S A. 


Reading. 

Grammar. 

I'h.vslolngT, 
Political 6«og. 

DrmwlDg. 


34 Grade, 
8th Grade, 


Class A... 

(Class A... 
\ - B... 


Political Geog. 

Grammar. 
Botany. 


Umm iftimalMtM.' 






*■ 





Pennsylvania's soldiers' oephan schools. 157 

PROGRAMME OF A SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL IN WHICH FIVE 
TEACHERS ARE EMPLOYED. 



TiMB. 




Stddtiho. 


Work. 


Grade. 


firanch. 


Grade. 


Branch. 


P.M. 

1 to 1.30. 


8th Grade, 
5th Grade, 
4th Grade, 


J Class A... 

C Class A... 
] - B... 

Class A... 


Grammar. 

Botany. 

Heading. 

Arithmetic 

Arithmetic. 


1st Grade, 
3d Grade, 
7th Grade, 
4ih Grade, 


(Class A... 

L." »•• 

5 Class A... 
i - B... 
(Class A... 
} " B... 
Class A... 


Spelling. 

Spelliug. 

Arithmetic. 

Arithmetic. 

Heading. 

HiHtnry. 

Spelling. 


n 

2 

1 
1 

t 

1 

■s 

i 


1.30 to 2. 


4th Grade, 
7th Grade, 
1st Grade. 
2d Grade, 


Class B... 
jC,...*... 


Political Geog. 
Grammar. 
Algebra. 
Object Lessons. 
Arithmetic. 


8th Grade, 
5th Grade, 
4th Grade, 


(Class A... 
\ " B... 
5 Class A... 

*c;:„I::: 


Algebra. 

Grammar. 

Grammar. 

(iraniniar. 

Spelling. 


2 to 2.30. 


8th Grade, 
4th Grade, 
5th Grade, 


r"'t: 

jC,^J... 


Algebra. 

Grammar. 

Spelling. 

Grammar. 

Orammar. 


1st Grade, 
2d Grade, 
7tb Grade, 


r'.^-J::: 

(Class A... 
i " B... 


Drawing. 

DrBwing. 

Spelling. 

Spelliuic. 

Physiology. 

Philosophy. 


2.80 to 3. 


1st Grade, 
2d Grade, 
7th Grade, 
4ih Grade, 
5th Grade, 


5 Class A. t 
< " B.J 
J Class A... 

(Class A.-j 
} " B. 1 
jC,„.,.j 


Spelling. 
Spelling. 
Reading. 
History. 

Oluect Lessons. 


8th Grade, 


jO,«.J... 


Geology. 
Zoology. 


3 to 3.15, Recess. 












8.15 to 3.45. 


3d Grade, 
7th Grade, 
8th Grade, 


Class A... 
(Class A... 
i " B... 
5 Class A... 


Political Geog. 
Physiology. 
Philosophy. 
Geology. " 
Zoology. 


1st Grade, 
2d Grade, 
3d Grade, 
6th Grade 


5 Class A... 

(Class A... 

" B... 

Class B... 

(Class A... 

i " B... 


Reading. 

Reading. 

Drawing. 

D.awing. 

Arithmetic. 

AstronocalGeog. 

Physical Geog. 


i 
2 

1 

1 

o 

fa 

1 
1 


3.45 to 4.15. 


1st Grade, 
2d Grade, 
3d Grade, 
6th Grade, 


(Class A. ; 
\ " B.J 
(Class A.) 
i " R.l 
Class A... 
JO,,„A... 


Reading. 

Drawing. 
Object Lessons. 
AstronocalGeog. 
Physical Geog. 


3d Grade, 
7th Grade, 
8th Grade, 


Class B... 
5 Class A... 

i " B... 

J Class A... 


Reading. 
Algebra. 
Physical Geog. 
History. 
History. 


4.15 to 4.45. 


.M Grade, 
7lh Grade, 
8th Grade, 
lit Grade, 
6th Grade, 


Cla.ss B... 

J Class A. ) 
I " B.J 
J Class A. 

5 Class a! 
J " B. 


Arithmetic. 

Drawing. 

History. 

Oral Ex. in Num. 

Drawing. 


2d Grade, 
3d Grade, 


(Class A... 

\ '• B... 

Class A... 


Spelling. 
Spelling. 
Reading. 


4.45 P.M. school closes. 











158 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 

These institutions aim to give the children they receive the bene- 
fitJ of a Christian home, and the advantages of good schools. To 
reach this high standard is not an easy task. Vigilance and labor 
alone can accomplish it. Being taught constantly by experience, the 
earnest laborers in this great work are all the while becoming more 
efficient. A sure and permanent advancement is clearly discernible. 
The home comforts and privileges of the adopted children of the 
State are many and great. The family, unquestionably, is the most 
fitting place for the nurture and development of childhood and youth. 
But to a home bereft of its support and scattered, and from which 
the possibility of family enjoyments and blessings are removed, the 
State oflTers, in her soldiers' orphan schools, a happy and beneficent 
alternative. In these are found kindness, sympathy, and protection. 
Here are taught the value of industry and the excellence of morality, 
virtue, and religion. The food furnished the orphans is uniformly 
good and abundant. The bill of fare for dinner is changed every 
day in the week. The dormitories and beds are, with hardly an ex- 
ception, neat and comfortable. The sleeping rooms are sometimes 
crowded, but great care is taken to ventilate them thoroughly, so that 
no injurious effects seem to result therefrom. The personal cleanli- 
ness of the children, as a rule, is commendable. Weekly bathing of 
the entire person, under ordinary circumstances necessary, is espe- 
cially demanded where a large number of children are congregated. 
This fact is universally admitted and acted upon. 

Daily recreation is an admitted necessity. 

A physician is employed in every institution. 

The good health of the children, and their fine and rapid physical 
development, are everywhere noticeable. This is attributable not 
only to their home comforts and healthful diet, but also to the whole- 
some regulations which govern them. Everywhere there is system. 
Each day is filled up with study, labor, and recreation, mingled in 
plea«ing and healthful proportions. The children also go to bed, 
riiie, and take their meals punctually at the appointed hour, and are 
l)atlicd on a given day each week. As a result of this regulated 
variety in the occupations of each day, and observing fixed times for 
taking rest and food, far less sickness and fewer deaths occur among 
these children, in proportion to tlieir number, than among any other 
cUjm» 80 far m known. Out of a total of over eight thousand childreny 
who have been pupils in these schools, during the twelve years of their. 
exitUnee, only one hundred and seventy have been removed by death. 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 159 

The importance of culture, in good breeding, in morals and re- 
ligion, is recognized. The good example of those under whose care 
the children are placed is, doubtless, in these things, the most effective 
educator. Attention is therefore paid to the social, moral, and re- 
ligious standing of teachers and other employees. Religious books 
and papers are regarded as indispensable. The superior educational 
advantages enjoyed by the children in the institutions of the State 
are acknowledged by all. The school-rooms are generally spacious 
and comfortable, and many of them are elegantly furnished with 
modern school furniture, wall maps, globes, &c. Competent and ex- 
perienced teachers are permanently employed ; the prescribed course 
of study is well chosen and zealously pursued. Strict attention is 
given to grading and classification, and good discipline is secured by 
appeals, in the main, to the reason and judgment, or by depriving 
the offender of some privilege. The harsher methods of punishment 
are resorted to only when milder measures have failed. While spe- 
cial care is taken to have the pupils well grounded in reading, spell- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic, other branches are not neglected. 
Geography, map-drawing, grammar, bookkeeping, physiology,- and 
algebra are as thoroughly taught, so far as pursued, as in the best 
schools of the State. Instruction in vocal music is given in every 
institution. The annual examinations, at the close of each school 
year, usually show hard work on the part of both pupils and teachers. 
Distinguished educators, and men of influence in the locality of the 
several schools, express not only gratification, but surprise at the pro- 
ficiency exhibited. 

A few years of culture, w^hen the mind is in its most receptive and 
plastic state, often give direction to the whole of after existence. 
There are reasons to hope that the career of great numbers who were 
made orphans by the war will be far different and nobler for the help 
extended them by the State. Even the character of the Common- 
wealth itself must be elevated, when the influence of the thousands 
of children she has nurtured is felt upon society. These reflections, 
infinitely more than the fact that the widow's burdens are lightened 
and the orphan's wants are supplied, give importance and grandeur 
to the soldiers' orphan schools of Pennsylvania, and stamp them as 
the latest and best fruits of a Christian civilization. 





CONCLUSION. 

UCH is the record which Pennsylvania gives to the worhl. 
The lustre of the annals of heroism, written by the sol- 
diers of the Commonwealth, has been brightened by the 
most generous humanity. The history of the Keystone 
State is grand in war, and the story of her beneficence in peace is 
no less sublime. Wherever a Pennsylvania soldier was ordered, 
whether on the sanguinary fields of the Mississippi, in the struggles 
of the coast, in the unexampled conflicts of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, or in the sword-hewn pathways from Chickamauga to Atlanta, 
and thence forward on the " March to the Sea," he had the ever- 
present assurance that his State cherished his idols as her own ; that 
in sickness her ministers of mercy would reach him ; that in death 
Iiis dust would be sought by his Commonwealth and sepulchred 
with its kindred ; and that his widow should not beg bread, nor his 
orphans wander in helplessness. Arid that bright trust has been ful- 
filled in stainless perfection. Under the guardianship of a patriotic 
I)eople, the fatherless children of the nation's martyi-s have become 
the " wards of the State." 

160 





SCHOOLS, HOMES, AND ASYLUMS. 




11 



161 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW 



OF 



Pennsylvania's Soldiers' Orphan Schools. 



The Origin, Rise, and Progress. 



I 



PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS. 

During the war for the suppression of the Rebellion, the State equipped 
and sent to the field over 380,000 men, of whom about 50,000 perished. 

THE STATE'S GRATITUDE. 

Justice, humanity and patriotism alike demand, that when a State has 
deprived 1>he children of their natural guardians, these children should 
become the wards of the State, hence 

Our Soldiers' Orphan Schools and Homes. 

I. ORIGIN. 

1. Governor Curtin promised the soldiers that, should they fall in battle, 

their children should become the wards of the State. 

2. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company donates to the State $50,000. 

3. Loyal Association of Pennsylvanians in Washington, D. C, donates 

$85.00. 

4. James W. Lear, of Fox Chase, Philadelphia, donates $3.00, the pro- 
ceeds of a lecture in a public school-house. 

. Act of 1864 authorized the Governor to accept the above donations. 

II. STATE AGENT. 

pon. Thomas H. Burrowes, prominent educator, appointed Agent for the 
State, to devise a plan for the organization of these schools. 

III. HIS WORK. N 

^Plan for educating and maintaining the soldiers' orphans, under the Act 
of 1864. 

163 



164 Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 
General View of the Plan Prepared. 

A. Persons Entitled to the Benefits of the Act. 

1. Children of deceased soldiers of Pennsylvania. 

2. Children of permanently disabled soldiers of Pennsylvania. 

3. Children of deceased soldiers of the United States Army and Navy 

who were residents of Pennsylvania at the lime of enlistment. 

B. Admission to the Benefits of the Act. 

1. Application to State Agent (Superintendent) by the mother or guardian. 

2. Application to be approved by school directors of the township in 

which the orphan resides. 

3. Orphans under six years to 'be. sent to Homes (primary schools) ; above 

that age, to advanced schools, designated by the State Superintendent. 

4. Regard as far as possible to religious denomination of the parents. 

C. Kind of Education and Maintenance. 

1. Clothing — uniform dress. • 

%. To have comfortable lodgings, wholesome food, and medical attendance 
when required. 

3. Intellectual culture — ordinary English education. 

4. Physical — 1. Calisthenics, gymnastics, and military exercises. 2. All 

pupils to have specified hours for work, and trained to habits of in- 
dustry. 

5. Religious and moral instruction. 

D. Schools Employed under the Act. 

1. The State to have no interest in buildings and grounds. 

2. Homes, or primary schools, for pupils under six years. 

3. Advanced schoolH, for pupils between the ages of six and fifteen years. 

E. Control of Orphans in the SchooL 

1. Schools to b« under control of Principal, subject to inspections and 

regulations of the Superintendent. 
1 AH contracto for apprenticing and orders for discharges to be granted 

by Superintendent. 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' 



ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



165 



F. Opening of Pioneer Schools and Homes. 
Homes, or Primary Schools. 

1. Northern Home, Philadelphia. 

2. Orphan Asylum, Pittsburgh. 

3. Soldiers' Orphan Home, Pittsburgh. 

4. Pittsburgh and Allegheny Orphan Asylum, Allegheny City. 

5. Home for Friendless,- Allegheny City. 

6. Children's Home, Lancaster. 

7. Farm School, Zelienople, Butler county. 

Advanced Schools Contracted with. 

1. Paradise, Lancaster county. 

2. McAlisterville, Juniata county. 

3. Strasburg (Mt. Joy), Lancaster county. 

4. Quakertown, Bucks county. 

6. Orangeville, Columbia county. 

IV. 

Legislative Act of 1865 approves the plan adopted by the Governor and 
State Superintendent, provides for the continuance of the system, and 
fixes the time for discharging orphans at the age of sixteen years. 



V. NEW SCHOOLS ORGANIZED UNDER THE ACTS 
OF THE LEGISLATURE, AT THE SESSIONS OF 
1865, 1866 AND 1867. 



Andersonburg, Perry co. 

Bridgewater (colored), Bucks co. 

Cassville, Huntingdon co. 

Chester Springs, Chester co. 

Dayton, Armstrong co. 

Harford, Susquehanna co. 

Lincoln Institution, Philadelphia. 

Mansfield, Tioga co. 

Mercer, Mercer co. 

North Sewickley, Beaver co. 

Phillipsburg, Beaver co. 

Uniontown, Fayette co. 

Titus ville, Crawford co. 

White Hall, Cumberland co. 

Jacksonville, Centre co. 

Loysville, Perry co. 

Emmaus Orphan House, Dauphin co. 

St. Paul's Orphan Home, Butler co. 



Church Home, Pittsburgh. 

Children's Home, York. 

Wilkesbarre Home, Luzerne co. 

Womelsdorf Home, Berks co. 

Rochester Orphan Home, Beaver co. 

St. James' Orph. Asylum, Lancaster. 

Episcopal Church Home, Philadel- 
phia. 

Orphans' Home, Germantown. 

St. Vincent's College, Westmore- 
land CO. 

St. Vincent's Home, Philadelphia. 

St. John's Asylum, Philadelphia. 

Catholic Home, Philadelphia. 

Industrial School, Philadelphia. 

Penna. Training School for Feeble 
Minded Children, Media. 

Nazaret'a Hall, Northampton co. 



166 PENNSYLVANIA'S SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

VL GROWTH OF THE SYSTEM. 
1. Pupils in school at the close of the year 1864 



2. 




3. 




4. 




6. 




6. 




7. 




8. 




9. 




10. 




11. 




12. 







1865. 
1866. 
1867. 




1868. 




1869. 




1870. 




1871. 

1872. 
1873. 




1874. 

1875. 



110 
1,226 
2,681 
3,180 
3,431 
3,631 
3,526 
3,607 
3,527 
3,261 
3,071 
2,788 



VII. GENERAL SUMMARY, February 1st, 1876. 

1. Whole number of admissions to schools 8,277 

2. Number discharged on order 1,558 

3. Number discharged on age 3,777. 

4. Number of deaths 170 5,605 

• 

Number remaining in school 2,772 



VIII. COST OF THE SYSTEM. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

6. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
JW. 
21. 



Donations 

Legislative appropriation, 



1865, 
1866 
1867 
1868, 
1868 
1868, 
1869, 
1869, 
1869, 
1870, 
1870 
1870, 
1871, 
1871, 
1871, 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 



$50,088.06 

regular 75,000.00 

" 300,000.00 

" 350,000.00 

deficit ' 31,069.77 

" 141,561.69 

regular 400,000.00 

deficit..- 60,000.00 

damages — Orangeville... 6,000.00 

regular 450,000.00 

deficit 44,968.88 

" 44,700.00 

regular 620,000.00 

damages — Orangeville... 5,000.00 

damages — Jacksonville.. 5,000.00 

regular 620,000.00 

" 480,000.00 

" 460,000.00 

" 440,000.00 

" 400,000.00 

♦' 880,000.00 



Onnd total. 



$5,152,388.40 



Pennsylvania's soldiers' orphan schools. 167 

IX. OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

1. Superintendents. ♦ 

1. Thomas H. Burrowes 1864-1867 

2. George F. McFarland 1867-1871 

3. James P. Wickersham : : .'. 1871-1876 

2. Inspectors. 

1. William L. Bear 1865-1867 

2. Amos Row 1866-1867 

3 Act f 1367 ( Columbus Cornforth 1867-1876 

t Elizabeth E. Hutter 1867-1876 

3. Clerks. 

1. Jpmes Thompson 1864-1867 

2. John D. Shryock 1867-1868 

3. Jiimes L. Paul, Chief Clerk 1868-1876 

4. Edmund R.Sutton 1867-1876 




-2l,.42?. 




168 




Ifortlierii Home for Friendless Children, and 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan Institnte. 




HE Northern Home was organized April 28, 1853, by a 
few benevolent ladies, who met in the parlor of John W. 
Claghorn, Esq., 1009 Arch Street. Thomas Earp, Esq., 
was elected President of the Board of Trustees ; Thomas 
S. Mitchell, Esq., Treasurer ; Wm. R. Stockton, Secretary ; and Mac- 
Gregor J. Mitcheson and James J. Barclay, Esqs., Solicitors. Upon 
the death of Mr. Mitchell, John \V. Claghorn, Esq., was elected 
Treasurer, and faithfully discharged the duties of the position until 
his death. The retirement of Mr. Stockton resulted in the election 
of Mr. Mitcheson as Secretary, which office he filled until elected 
President of the Board of Trustees, in 1875. • 

Although a Board of Trustees was elected, the administration of 
the Home has rested principally in the hands of twenty-four lady 
managers, of whom Mrs. Rev. Edwin W. Hutter, D. D., was chosen 
first President, and continues to serve in that capacity with great 
acceptability to all concerned. She was ably assisted by the follow- 
ing officers : Vice-Presidents, Mrs. John W. Claghorn (who was one 
of the founders of the Home, and continued to work with unabated 
zeal to her death) and Mrs. John Wiegand ; Treasurer, Mrs. R. 
Hammett ; Recording Secretary, Miss Susan O'Neill ; Corresponding 
Secretary, Mrs. George Duffield, Jr. 

The act of incorporation was approved January 26, 1854. The 
object of the corporators was, as recited in the preamble, " the laud- 
able and benevolent purpose of educating and providing for friend- 
less children." 

The Managers feeling the need of this form of benevolence, but 
with no other capital than trust in God and a willingness to work, 

169 



170 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

instituted a series of floral fairs at the " Chinese Museum," and sub- 
sequently at Concert Hall, to raise funds; and succeeded^remarkably 
well in their efibrts. The press of the city assisted in the work, and 
teemed with friendly notices of the undertaking. A poem, written 
especially for the occasion by the late Thomas Buchanan Read, was 
read at the opening of these fairs. Other pens were also employed 
in like benevolent work, among the ablest of which was that of the 
late Rev. Dr. Hutter, who for many years was a trustee of the insti- 
tution. He gave the whole weight of his large personal influence to 
the project, and wrote with telling effect. To him is largely due the 
earliest successes of the Northern Home. Although a man of such 
distinguished literary ability, he became as a little child in his gen- 
tleness and child-like sympathy in his intercourse with the children 
of the Northern Home and Soldiers' Orphan Institute. It was beau- 
tiful to behold them flocking around him, anxious for a part in the 
" good man's smile," so heavenly in its sweetness. 

The institution began operations in an humble way, in what was 
then known a^ the " Old Soup House," on Buttonwood, below Broad 
Street. The first year it was made the custodian of forty-seven chil- 
dren, and since then the number has constantly increased. 

A large and handsome building was soon erected, at the north-east 
corner of Twenty-Third and Brown Streets. It was built in the most 
substantial manner, with large, airy halls extending the whole length 
of tl^B building, and in every way admirably adapted to the purpose 
for which it was designed. Subsequently, the Trustees purchased the 
ground adjoining the site upon which the buildings were erected, thus 
securing nearly the entire square bounded by Twenty-Second and 
Twenty-Third and Brown and Parrish Streets. 

Since the establishment of the Northern Home, it has floated on 
the full tide of success. Although a home for friendless children, it 
has never itself been friendless, and scarcely even a child. Like 
Minerva from the head of Jove, or Adam from the hand of God, it 
sprang into perfected maturity almost at a bound, quickly attaining 
to what other institutions reach only, if at all, by slow and painful 
degrees. 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion, the Northern Home opened 
its doors to the children of the brave men who had gone forth in 
defence of tlie imperilled Union, even before any of their fathers had 
&llen in the struggle. Here the children were kept free of expense, 
with the understanding that, if their fathers fell in battle, they would 



NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS* ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 171 

be permanently cared for ; but, if the soldiers should be so fortunate 
as to return, the children would be given up to them. Hundreds 
were kept in this way, for whom the Institute has never received a 
cent of remuneration. 

The late Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, the first State Superintendent 
of Soldiers' Orphans, on receiving his appointment, visited Phila- 
delphia, and made satisfactory arrangements with the Managers of 
the Northern Home to receive the younger class of orphans, on 
account of the State, for one hundred dollars per annum each. This 
generous example was soon followed by other institutions in various 
parts of the Commonwealth. 

During this visit. Dr. Burrowes appointed MacGregor J. Mitche- 
son Chairman of the Committee of Superintendence for Philadelphia, 
an honorable and responsible position which he has ever since filled 
with great efficiency. The committcj appointed by Mr. Mitcheson, 
to cooperate with him in the work of investigating and reporting 
upon the thousands of applications that have from time to time 
been made, is as follows : 



1st Ward 
2d Ward- 
3d Ward- 
4th Ward - 
5th Ward ■ 
6th Ward - 
7thWard- 
8th Ward- 
9th Ward ■ 
10th Ward- 
nth Ward- 
12th Ward 
13th Ward- 
14th Ward 



-William E. Lehman. 
-William Lauglilin. 

- James D. Campbell. 
-John O'Brien. 

• Uselraa C. Smith. 
-Daniel K. Grim. 

- Peter Williamson. 
-John H. Atwood. 
-Theodore Earp. 
-George W.Hall. 

- Madison R. Harris. 

- Charles M. Wagner. 

- Aid. Jos. Plankington. 
-Jacob Dowler. 



15th Ward - 
16th Ward- 
17th Ward - 
18th Ward - 
19thWard- 
20th Ward- 
21st Ward- 
21st Ward 
2^d Ward 
23d Ward- 
24th Ward- 
25th Ward - 
25th Ward ■ 
26th Ward - 



-Henry Davis. 
-Robert D. Coxe. 
-Dr. M. C. Kreitzer. 
■ Georg*> W. Vaughan. 
-John Moffett. 

- John B. Austin. 
-William B. Stephens. 
-C. Thompson Jones. 

- Charles J. Wisfar, Jr. 
-William Ashworth. 

- Henry C. Townsend. 

- Barton H. Jenks. 
-John Savage. 

- James Evans. 



After the war had assumed colossal proportions, and when many 
children had been reduced to orphanage, the Northern Home was 
the first to erect a building especially for the soldiers' and sailors* 
orphans. In this work, the late Hon. Joseph R. Ingersoll lead the 
way with a subscription of two thousand dollars. This edifice was 
put up directly north of the Northern Home, in the year 1862, and 
was formally dedicated as " The Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan Insti- 
tute," the first in the country, on March 16, 1865. 



172 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

Dr. Hutter's prayer upon this occasion was so appropriate, we give 
it entire : 

PRAYER OF DEDICATION. 

Almighty God, our heavenly Father, the sovereign Arbiter of the desti- 
nies of men and rfations ! Thine is the only throne on earth or in heaven 
before which the free Republic of the United States of America bows her- 
self. If-we know our own hearts, it is our delight to do Thee homage as 
our Monarch and our Judge. Thou boldest the hearts of all men, even 
the heart of the king, in Thy hand, and Thou dost guide them as Thou 
dost the rivers of water, whithersoever Thou wilt. We render unto Thee 
praise that Thou hast inclined the hearts of the benevolent and kind to 
rear this asylum for the dependent children of the soldiers and sailors 
who, on the altar of their country, have offered up their lives. Merciful 
God, we feel that a dark stigma upon the nation which their valor has 
preserved, it would be, if a single one of the offspring of these martyred 
heroes were permitted to grow up in ignorance and neglect, or roam 
through the streets begging bread. For the-pleasing prospect that no such 
deed of ingratitude shall be suffered to sully the escutcheon of the Repub- 
lic, we give Thee unfeigned thanks. We praise Thee that in the midst 
of wrath Thou hast remembered mercy. We praise Thee, that though 
by reason of an unprovoked and ungodly rebellion, our land has been 
drenched in blood, our blessings, meanwhile, have been distinguished 
alike for magnitude and number. We praise Thee, that though treason 
and sedition have robbed the land of its wonted peace, they have not been 
able to rob its loyal inhabitants of their trust in Thee. As our fathers 
confided in Thee, and were delivered, so do we trust in Thee for safety and 
deliverance. 

God of all comfort! we render unto Thee the homage of unfeigned 
gratitude, that, after the insult offered by traitor hands to the cherished 
emblem of our nationality, at Sumter, impelled by a high sense of duty 
to their country and to Thee, such vast multitudes of men left their peace- 
ful firesides and endearments of home and repaired to distant fields of 
strife to confront their enemies and Thine, and of their country's wrongs 
to become Thine own avengers I We give Thee thanks for the contempt 
of danger with which Thou didst inspire them — for the martial ardor and 
unquenchable patriotism which Thou didst enable them to exhibit — for 
the fortitude and patience, to do and to suffer, which they were enabled to 
display. These sufferings, alas, as from Thy throne on high Thou hast 
not been an indifferent spectator, were often wantonly inflicted, and their 
remerabrance causes the cheek of modesty to be suffused with blushes, 
and tlie hearts of the meekest to burn with an anger that is not unholy, 
»nd which we believe Thou dost not forbid. The spirits of the thousands 
who, in this fearful struggle, have laid down their lives, are before Thy 
righteous throne. We give Thee thanks, and cherish it as ,our richest 





iio^^tiju?^ — ^ 



i 



consolation, that the dying moments of so many of these martyred heroes 
were illumined by the light of the Gospel of Thy dear Son. The memory 
of their heroic deeds, we beseech Thee, enable us to enshrine undecay- 
ingly in our hearts. In behalf of their widows and orphans, we implore 
Thy constant guardianship, who art husband to the widow and father to 
the fatherless. Oh I be Thou their best friend, and show to them that 
"earth has no sorrows that heaven cannot heal." 

Father of mercies I we praise Thy holy and excellent name, for the 
ministry of love which this dreadful war has elicited. We give Thee 
thanks for the Sanitary and Christian Commission, and for the many kin- 
dred organizations founded all over the land. We give Thee thanks for 
woman's self-sacriticing toil and patient labor of love. We praise Thee 
that benevolence has flow.n, not in isolated rills, but as a mighty river. 
Who called it forth from the hearts of the people, but He that caused 
crystal waters to gush from flinty rocks ! Ours was the agency ; the 
work, God, was Thine. Be pleased to accept, then, our thank-utter- 
ances, and make them the expression of grateful hearts. 

Our Father, who art in Heaven I we would be preserved from pride 
and phariseeism. We would direct to Thee orisons of humility. We are 
not righteous, and do not claim to be. But, oh 1 whilst we thank Thee 
that our eyes rest on so many hospitals and asylums and retreats, into 
which the sick and wounded have been gathered, wilt Thou be angry with 
us if we thank Thee, also, that by Thy preventive grace, throughout all 
the coasts of our/ree America, Thine eye has not rested on any Anderson- 
ville, nor Salisbury, nor Libby prison, nor Belle Island, nor any such place. 
We thank Thee that into such counsels we have not come — that from 
such " Ivabitations of cruelty " Thou hast graciously preserved us and ours. 
This blessing, like all the rest, we ascribe, O God, alone to Thine unmer- 
ited favor 1 And now, our gracious God, our Divine Benefactor, we dedi- 
cate this house of mercy to Thee ! We consecrate it to Jesus, the friend 
of the helpless 1 We consecrate it to the cause of suffering humanity, in 
whose behalf it has been reared ! We consecrate it to our country, for 
whose rescue from meditated overthrow, the fathers of the children that 
shall here be gathered, offered up their lives ! Save, Lord, oh save, this 
orphan home from fire and from flood and from the design of evil men I 
Bless, Lord, oh bless, the children that shall be here gathered together, 
and those whom Thou shalt place over them I Multiply, oh multiply, 
such institutions all over the land, and cause Thy reconciled face to shine 
upon us, as a nation, now and forever ! These blessings, and every other 
needed blessing, we ask in the name of Jesus Christ, to whom, with the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, belong present, future, and unceasing praises. 
Amen! 

At the opening of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan Institute, the 
Trustees and Managers resolved on a high standard of education, and, 



174 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

accordingly, selected such a course of studies and such skilled teach- 
ers as made the Institute worthy of its name ; and its inmates have 
been thoroughly instructed in all suitable and useful branches of 
knowledge. It now stands among the advanced soldiers' orphan 
schools of the State, and has always been regarded by those in au- 
thority as a model institution. 

In addition to the ordinary school, the kindergarten — a new educa- 
tion, introduced early in 1874, by Miss Rachel S. Walk — charms the 
smaller children, and the Managers seem actuated by the sentiment 
of the gifted Froebel, but in a broader sense : " Come, let us live for 
our children." This is the first orphan establishment in the world in 
which the kindergarten system has been established. Books, globes, 
charts, maps, tools, and all the paraphernalia needful for successful 
teaching, are supplied without stint. 

The school also has connected with it a large library, and other 
necessary appliances for efficient work, among which is a beautiful 
organ. 

Perhaps die best proof of the value of the education here received 
will be found in the fact that four of its former pupils are now serv- 
ing as teachers in the school. 

Nor are the ornamental branches neglected. Drawing is a source 
of much delight to many of its pupils. Music on piano and organ 
is taught by an accomplished lady ; and an early morning visit to 
the Institute, or at five o'clock on an evening, will enable the ob- 
server to see the little soldiers on drill, marphing to the attractive 
strains of the Matthew Baird Cornet Band. On New Year's Day 
of 1875, this band received a handsome set of silver-mounted horns 
from their friend and patron after whom it is named. 

One of the noted features of the Institute and Northern Home is 
their excellent sanitary condition. With scarcely less than four hun- 
dred iiiiii:U(,~, the average mortality of the children is about one-sixth 
of one per centum. This extraordinary exemption from disease is, 
without doubt, attributable to their elevated site, it being one of the 
highest in the city ; their excellent ventilation and cleanliness, the 
healthl'ul outdoor exercises, and good nursing and medical attendance 
afforded the children. An additional reason may also be found in 
the fact that two buildings on Brown Street, nearly opposite the 
Northern Homo, iiiid (>ntir(>ly sopariito from the main buildings, serve 
84 an inriiiiKirv to hoth thi- institutions. Besides, all the buildings 
are Hupplied with roomy and well-ventilated dormitories, school- 



NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS* ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 175 

rooms, gymnasium and play-rooms, a large swimming pool, and other 
lavatory arrangements of the most complete description, all of which 
are comfortably heated. Also, a large adjoining plot of ground has 
been enclosed, laid out in walks and shaded with trees, which serves 
as a pleasant play-ground for the children. 

One great source of prosperity is that so few changes have been 
made in the officers of the different Boards. The venerated Thomas 
Earp was President of the Board of Trustees from the beginning of 
the Home up to the time of his death, in 1868. After him, Mr. John 
Wiegand became President, and continued in the office till May, 1875, 
when he resigned. MacGregor J. Mitcheson, Esq., for many years 
Solicitor and Secretary of the Home, was then unanimously elected 
President of the Board of Trustees, and Mr. Smith Bo wen, one of 
the earliest of the Trustees, Secretary. The much-loved Mr. John 
W. Claghorn served in the onerous capacity of Treasurer until he 
was called to his reward above, after devoting seventeen years to the 
cause. Mr. Claghorn was a man of remarkable ability and memory. 
He could name nearly every child who had passed through the Home 
at sight, and could give an account of his or h^r indenture and 
whereabouts. This was his favorite charity. He devoted one-third 
of his time to the promotion of .its prosperity. His visits were fre- 
quent, his manner kind and unassuming, and all the children loved 
him. Upon his death, his son, James L. Claghorn, Esq., succeeded 
him as Treasurer of the Board of Trustees, and his splendid abilities 
are still, freely given to managing the finances of the institutions. 
After the retirement of Mrs. Hammett, the first Treasurer of the 
Board of Managers, Miss Louise E. Claghorn was elected Treasurer, 
which office §he fills with signal ability. 

The 27th of February, 1875, should be marked with a red letter 
in this history, for on that day the beautiful new chapel, the crown- 
ing glory of the institutions, was dedicated with appropriate services. 
His Excellency Governor Hartranft presided. Dr. J. P. Wicker- 
sham, Bishop Simpson, Rev. Dr. Harper, and a large number of 
other dignitaries of both church and State, honored the occasion with 
their presence. The Rev. Dr. Suddards, of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, made a suitable dedicatory prayer, and pronounced the bene- 
diction. Bishop Simpson, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, pro- 
nounced the words of dedication. Addresses were delivered by the 
Governor, Dr. Wickersham, MacGregor J. Mitcheson, Esq., and 
others. The Rt. Rev. Bishop Stevens, of the Episcopal Church, and 



176 



PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



the Rev. Dr. Baum, of the Lutheran Church, being unable to attend, 
sent letters of regret and of congratulation, which were read. 

The chapel is a beautiful auditorium, easily seating five hundred 
j)ersons. It is fitted up with neat, yet rich, gas-fixtures ; and fur- 
nished with oiled-wood, reversible pews. It has stained-glass memo- 
rial windows, which were furnished by private contributions. Re- 
ligious and Sunday-school services are conducted in the chapel 
every Lord's day. 

Sea Grove, the new bathing-place near Cape May, has lately at- 
tracted much attention. Alexander Whilldin, Esq., a promoter of 
this enterprise, has generously donated a site for a seaside resort Tor 
the inmates of the Northern Home and the Soldiers' Orphan Insti- 
tute during the hot months. 

Thus these institutions go on in their honored course of usefulness 
to the young, over three thousand five hundred children having 
passed through their wards during the twenty-two years since 
the founding of the Northern Home ; and the zeal of the Managers 
is increasing. New buildings — a bakery and gymnasium — are 
now being erected, and other improvements are constantly being 
made. 

OFFICERS OF NORTHERN HOME. 



MacGregor J. Mitcheson, President. 
James L. Claghorn, Treasurer. 



Smith Bowen, Secretary. 
Theodore Earp, Assistant Secretary. 



Mr. John Wiegand, 
" John B. McCreary, 
" James L. Claghorn, 
" John M. Ogden, 
" J. J. Barclay, 



Board of Trustees. 

Mr. Theodore Earp, 
" William Bucknell, 
" A. V. Murphy, 
" William S. Perot, 
" Smith Bowen, 



Mr. MacGregor J. 
Mitcheson, 

Mr. Charles E. Haven, 
" Daniel K. Grim, 
" Matthew Baird. 



Solicitors. 
M. J. Mitcheson, Esq., and J. J. Barclay, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS' AND 
SAILORS' ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 



Mn. E. W. Hutter, President. 
" J. Wiegand, Vice-President. 
" E. W.Miller 



Mrs. W. J. Chaplain, Rec. Secretary. 

" C. Yarrow, Cor. Secretary. 
Miss Louise E. Claghorn, Treasurer. 



NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS' ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 177 



Mrs. E. W. Hutter, 

" J. Wiegand, 

« E.W.Miller, 

« W. J. Chaplain, 

« T. Hammett, 

« A. V. Murphy, 

" S. V. Merrick, 

" A. Emerick, 



H. Lehman, M. D., 



Board of Managers. 

Mrs. Caroline Yarrow, 
" T. Trewendt, 
" J. B. Heyl, 
« E. H. Worrell, 
" R. D. Harper, 
" J. Lewis, 
Miss Mary Baugh, 
Mrs. R. T. Shepherd, 

Physicians. 

W. M. Welsh, M. D., 
D. S. Gloninger, M. D. 



Miss Susan O'Neill, 
" Anna E. St. Clair, 
" L. E. Claghorn, 
" Anna M. Grove, 
" Adeline Sager, 
" Sarah H. McCalla, 
" Sallie M. Horn, 

Mrs. Matthew Baird. 



J. Roberts, M. D., 



Consulting Physicians. 

S. Weir Mitchell, M. D., and R. J. Levis, M. D. 

Dentist, W. Gorgas. 

SuPT. OP Northern Home, James W. Walk. 
Matron, Miss Maggie Walk. 
Assistant Matron, Miss Hannah Brintlift. 
Teachers, Emma J. Hannah, Elizabeth Felton. 
SuPT. OF Orphans' Institute, Dr. A. Harshberger. 
Matron, Mrs. A. Harshberger. 

In the Soldiers' Orphan Institute. 

Teachers, Prof. A. H. Weidman, Miss Rachel S. Walk, Prof. A. G. Hu- 
ber, Misses Ella Bartholomew, Sarah Pierce, Mary A. Shay, Lizzie S. 
Ogden, and Mrs. Anna E. Hutchinson. 

Male Attendant, Capt. Harry F. Spicer. 

Music Teacher, Miss Annie B. Kintzle. 

Vocal Music, Prof. Giles. 

Band, Mr. J. B. Rowbotham. 

Charge of Sewing-Room, Mrs. Kate Lee. 

12 




178 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS' ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 179 



C Proof-reader in Press 
I office, $9.00 per week. 

Died July 25. 1878. 

With his mother. 
With his mother. 
With his mother. 

With his mother. 

Plnmbing, $4 per week. 
Page In Common Council. 

J Removed to Marvland 
} with his mother." 

J In furniture ware- 
( rooms, $4.00 per week. 
Sail-making, $4 per wk. 


Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

S. Easton. 

S. Easton. 

Philadelphia. 

Norristown. 

Norristown. 

Camden. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 


III 

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ft.a.ft 


Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia.... 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 


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Sept. 13. 1866 
Feb. 10, 1874 

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12, 1866 
26, 1866 
10, 1868 
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29. 1868 
e 28, 1871 
e 28, 1871 
. 15, 1871 
5, 1874 
. 1, 1874 
. 1, 1874 
12. 1874 


22, 1875 
. 3, 1875 
. 8, 1875 
. 3, 1875 
9, 1865 
17, 1866 
17,1868 
21,1866 
13,1866 
29. 1868 
29, 1868 
29,1868 
20, 1874 
25, 1865 
12. 1867 
7. 1871 
7, 1871 

7, 1871 

. 19, 1874 
25,1865 
. 3, 1875 
. 3. 1875 
24,1865 
25, 1865 
27, 1866 
4, 1868 
1, 1868 
1, 1868 
26,1868 

8, 1874 
25. 1866 
8. 1865 
16. 1866 
3. 1866 

s 18, 1866 
•JO, 1866 
20, 1866 

. 30, 1874 

. 30, 1874 
11,1865 

. 15, 1865 




^m^ g gt 55 g g g ^ g-^fe fe fef g|£"3 g fe g^^ &>§ g ^i g £ g 8 g-g-^* 


June 29, 1860 
Aug. 8, 1858 
May 21, 1861 
May 2, 1861 
Sept. 11, 1861 
Sept. 26, 1861 
May 20, 1865 
June 1, 1861 
Jan. 16, 1861 
Deo. 28, 1862 
Apr. 22, 1861 
Mar. 28, 1865 
Sept. 3, 1861 
Feb. 12, 1870 
Jan. 16, 1865 
Dec. 14, 1867 
Aug. 20. 1865 
July 11, 1864 
July 23, 1865 
July 4, 1857 
Apr. 21, 1857 
Mar 29, 1861 
May 23, 1858 
Apr. 6, 18,55 
Feb. 11,1856 
Oct. 12, 1862 
July 28, 1860 
Deo. 6, 1864 
Sept. 5. 1858 
Deo. 12, 1854 
May 18, 1858 
Oct. 19, 1860 
Dec. 8, 1862 
Deo. 15, 1864 
July 15, 18.58 
Deo. 25, 1861 
Aug. 21, 1869 
Oct. 10, 1859 
Deo. 1, 1858 
Mar. 11, 1861 
July 6, 1857 
Feb. 27. 1859 
Mar. 23, 1863 
Oct. 16, 1860 
Dec. 28, 1860 
Apr. 22, 1859 
Dec. 11, 1857 
Mar. 15, 1859 
Jan. 2, 1862 
Mar 21, 1858 
June 10, 1860 
Aug. 24, 1861 
June 15. 1860 
June 14, 1862 
June 14, 1857 
June 17, 1858 


1 

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666 


Clark, Joseph W. 
Clark, Charles 
Cutler, Malvin T. 
Custer, Benjamin P. 
Custer, Abraham 
Cramer, Nelson E. 
Collum, Geo. W. 
Crawford, Robert E. 
Copp, Frederick A. 
Ciossin, Alexander 


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Downey, James E. 
Danfleld, Joseph H. 
Drechler, Chas. J. 
Deans, Mark 
Deans. William C. 
Deans, James 
Davis, Edward 


Earnest, Harry 
Elk, William J. 
Edwards, John E. 
Edwards, Claudius W. 
Edwards, William H. 
Esray, Charles A. 
Earnest, James O. 
Emmitt, Ephraim 


33.2.2 


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180 



PEXNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 




NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS^ ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 181 



In needle factory. 
With his mother. 


Freemansburg... 

Philadelphia. 

Zion. 

Chester. 

Chester. 

Philadelphia. 

Bethlehem. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 


1.1 


West Cliester.... 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 


sic, 

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July 13, 1866 
July 13, 1866 
Dec. 17, 1865 
Dec. 17, 1865 
Sept. 25, 1865 




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Lincoln Inst. 
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Feb. U, 1865 
Feb. 14, 1865 
July 18, 1865 
Jan. 12, 1866 
Jan. 12, 1866 
Nov. 7, 1867 
Nov. 7, 1867 
Feb. 8, 1868 
Nov. 21, 1871 
Jan. 2, 1874 
Jan. 2. 1874 
Oct. 31, 1874 
Mar. 30, 1«65 
Mar. 30, 1865 
May 11, 1865 
J>iu. 25, 1865 
Mar. 21, 1865 
Mar. 21, 1865 
Mar. 21, 1865 
Mar. 23, 1865 
Nov. 23, 1865 
Mar. 8, 1865 
Aug. '20, 1866 
Nov. '22, 1866 
Nov. 5, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Jan. 13, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1874 
June 1, 1865 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3. 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
June 30, 1865 
Apr. 17, 1868 
War. 16, 1874 
July '20, 1874 
Sept. 15, 1874 
Sept. 15, 1874 
Sept. 15, 1874 
Oct. 1'2. 1874 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Oct. 13, 1874 
Jan. 23, 1865 
Jan. '23, 1865 
Jan. '25, 1865 
Jan. '25, 1865 
Apr. '24, 1865 
Apr. 26, 1865 
Apr. 23, 1865 
Feb. 23, 18(>6 
Mar. '27, 1S<M5 
May 16, 1866 
Aug. 3, 1867 
Feb. 21, 1868 


Apr. 29, 1856 
July 25, 1860 
Oct. 3, 1858 
Mar. 22, 1860 
Deo. 9, 1861 
Jan. 2, 1856 
Oct. -28, 1858 
Feb. '22, 1861 
June 19, 1861 
Mar. 7, 1860 
Feb. 11, 1862 
Feb. '23, 1868 
Nov. 5, 1859 
Jan. 22, 1858 
Dec. 13, 1857 
Dec. 22, 1859 
Sept. 12, 1857 
June '20, 1860 
June 20, 1860 
Sept. 2, 1855 
Nov. '25, 1857 
Sept. 18, 1851 
Jan. 3, 1861 
Aug. 9, 1858 
JuueU. 1859 
June 18, 1861 
Dec. 24, 1856 
Jan. 6, 1865 
Mar. 7, 1859 
Apr. 3, 1863 
Aug. 25, 1866 
Feb. 1, 1867 
Feb. 8. 1864 
Dec. '29, 1860 
July 14, 1859 
June 14, 1860 
May 1, 1861 
Mar. 15, 1861 
Jan. '27. 1862 
Feb. 3, 1863 
Apr. 15, 1865 
June '26, 1870 
Feb. 18, 1861 
Dec. 16, 1865 
Oct. 12, 18,55 
Dec. 28, 1857 
Doc. '23, 1857 
Apr. 15, 1856 
Apr. 26, 1860 
Nov. '26, 1857 
July 25, 1859 
Dec. 9, 1860 
Feb. 6, 1862 


11 




•II 




Jones, William 
Jones, Josiah 
Johnson, William 
Justice, Charles 
.Tiistice. Winfleld S. 


Jones, William W. 
Jones, Beuj. F. 
Jones, Harry 
Johnston, James 
Jackson, James F. 


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NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS' ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 1 83 



With hia motter. 

5 Working in a factory 
} ® $4.00 per week. 
(With M. M. Marple. 
^ learning notion busl- 
( neM, ® $4.50 «) week. 

rin oonnting-room of 
J Messrs. Sower. Barnes 
( * Potts, booksellers. 


Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Dovlestown. 

Philadelphia. 

Phillipsburg. 

Norri.stown. 

Toby h anna. 

Trenton. 

Philadelphia.... 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia.... 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia.... 

Philadelphia. 

Reading. 

Reading. 

Tunkhannock. 

Tunkhannock. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

PhiladelphU. 

Camden. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Darby. 

Philadelphia. 

Beading. 

Reading. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia.... 

Norristown. 

Philadelphia. 




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Mar. 30, 1868 
Mar. 30, 1868 
Jan. 28, 1«71 
Sept. 23, 1872 
Mar. 7, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Dec. 27, 1864 
Dec. 27, 1864 
Feb. 13, 1866 
Feb. 13, 1»65 
May 17, 1865 
May 29, 1865 
Feb. 6, 1872 
Sept. 12, 1«65 
Sept. 21, 1«65 
Nov. 6, 1865 
Jan. 8, 18«i6 
Jan. 8, 1866 
Mar. 14, l^(68 
Mar. 14, lh68 
Feb. 9, 1869 
Jan. 30, 1866 
Jan. 30, 1866 
Jan. 8, 1866 
July 31, 1866 
Feb. 26, 1866 
July 31, 1H66 
Aug. 21, 1866 
July 9, 1866 
Mar. 8, 1867 
Mar. 8, 1867 
Aug. 12, 1867 
June 1, 1869 
Oct. 29, 1867 
Mar. 1, 1871 
Dec. 11, 1H67 
Oct. 19. 1H68 
Dec. 16, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Apr. 6, 1872 
June 27, 1872 
.Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1,1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Jan. 20, 1875 
July 25, 1865 
July 25, ma 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 17, 1867 
Sept. 17, 1867 
Deo. 6, 1867 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Mar. 28, 1865 


Apr. 20, 1860 
Apr. 20, 1860 
Feb. 8, 1862 
July 5, 1860 
Sept. 3, 1861 
Mar. 16, 1870 
Aug. 18, 1866 
Dec. 27, 1853 
Nov. 17, 1856 
Dec. 27, 1854 
Apr. 6, 1857 
Sept. 3, 1859 
Feb. 14, 1858 
Dec. 10, 1860 
June 29, 1860 
Sept. 17, 1857 
Dec. 30, 18o0 
Aug. 2. 1858 
July 29, 1860 
Aug. 2. 1860 
Mar. 10, 1862 
Apr. 24, 186.} 
Feb. 2, 1862 
Feb. 2, 1862 
May 11, 1M61 
Oct. 7, 1857 
Oct. 15, 18.i8 
Apr. 14, 18,',9 
Juue 20, 1858 
July 7, IM59 
Oct. 9, I860 
Sept. 18, 1862 
Dec. 19, 1862 
Sept. 28, I86t 
Mar. 30, 1860 
Nov. 19, 1861 
Sept. 12, 1857 
July 3, 1859 
M.ir. 16, 1864 
Mar. 8, 1868 
Mar. 7, 1863 
May 11, 1860 
June 14, 1860 
Aug. 11, 1864 
Feb. 22, 1869 
Feb. 8, 1866 
Dec. 2, 1869 
Jan. 29. 1861 
July 19, 1858 
Sept. 8, 1862 
Jan. 17, 1865 
June 6, 18.-19 
July 10, 1862 
Dec. 18, ia57 
July 17, 1864 
Aug. 11, 1855 


III. 

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Suiith, Thomas 
Smith, William 
Silvey, Jonah W. 
Snyder, Henry 


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stout, Charles K. 
Schnell, l.saac F. 
Schnell, John H. 
Starisbury, Tiche A. 
Stansbury, E. Truxton 
Stitzcl, John A. 
Stitzel, Albert B. 


Stevenson, William 
Simmons, Martin W. 
Simmons, Granvill V. 
Sorden, John B. 
Sterr, John J. 
Sherman, George 
Sherman, Jackson 
Sou tag, Peter 
Slipp, Paul E. 
.Slipp, Daniel L. 
Slater, Robert 
Steel, Williara A. 
Steel, James R. 
Street, William 
Thorn, William 
Thorn, Charles M. 


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NORTHERN HOME, AND SOLDIERS' ORPHAN INSTITUTE. 187 



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PARADISE SCHOOL. 




HIS school was located in Paradise village, Lancaster 
county, about one mile from Leaman Place, on the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

In September, 1864, arrangements were made by Super- 
intendent Burrowes with Seymour Preston, then Principal of t^e 
Paradise Academy, by which that institution became a soldiers' 
orphan school. It was very difficult at that time to find suitable 
persons willing to engage in the new enterprise, as its permanency 
was doubted, and the price of provisions and all house-furnishing ma- 
terials were high, and the compensation offered was necessarily low. 
"When flour was from eleven to twelve dollars a barrel, beef from 
twelve to twenty-five cents a pound, butter fifty cents a pound, ordinary 
bed-ticking ninety cents a yard, muslin from seventy to eighty cents a 
yard, and labor and everything else proportionately dear, the induce- 
ment to furnish board, lodging, washing, mending, medical attendance, 
and, in short, every necessity except clothing, for two dollars and eighty 
cents a week, was not very great in a worldly point of view. 

In the latter part of October, preparations were completed to 
receive thirty orphans, and though orders of admission were promptly 
issued by the State Superintendent, no children came till the sixth 
day of December. Opening school with less than a dozen, the num- 
ber slowly increased. In February, 1865, but twenty were present, 
and not till May did the thirty children arrive. Mothers seemed 
reluctant to accept the gratuity of the State. 

At first there were accommodations for boys only ; but, as families 
were thus separated. Dr. Burrowes determined that all schools should 
have conveniences for children of both sexes, and, accordingly, on 

189 



190 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

the 15th of May, 1865, eight girls '•vere admitted, who had brothers 
ill the school, from Strasburg (afterwards Mt. Joy), and eight boys 
who had sisters at Strasburg were transferred to that institution. 
During the spring and summer of 1865 the school steadily increased, 
and continued to do so till its close. 

Previous to the fall of 1865, the school-room was in the academy 
building, nearly a half mile from the boarding-house, and pupils who 
were not soldiers' orphans were received. This Dr. Burrowes said 
must now be changed. The walk in stormy weather was objection- 
able, particularly for the smaller pupils, and he wanted the orphans 
in the schools by themselves, that the instruction and training might 
be adapted to their special wants. A school-room was therefore 
fitted up in the seminary building, which had, until now, been used 
as a boarding-house alone. Here there were accommodations for 
one hundred and fifty pupils, which were all that were then required. 
But before a year rolled round the school-room and boarding facili- 
ties were insufficient. Consequently, a large private house, on the 
opposite side of the street, was secured for school purposes, and the 
basement of the main building was remodelled and used for a dining- 
room, and the old dining-room as an additional school-room. One 
hundred and sixty pupils could now be accommodated. Attached 
to the school was a farm of about twenty acres of land. 

The organization of the school now approached completeness, there 
being three teachers besides the Principal, a physician, a matron, 
a farm superintendent, a sewing-room instructress, a cook, a baker, a 
chambermaid, a dining-room girl, besides several other employees. 

The health of the school was generally very good. Many of the 
children were, however, troubled with sore eyes, which were a source 
of much anxiety and trouble. This disease was brought iuto the 
school by transfers from Philadelphia institutions. Also, in the 
autumn of 1866, typhoid fever appeared in a mild form. Not a 
single death, or a dangerous case of sickness, or even a serious acci- 
dent, occurred at the school during the four years of its existence. 
When the school visited Harrisburg, in the winter of 1866, every 
pupil went along except one, who had measles ; and when the whole 
school, numbering one hundred and forty-nine, was finally removed, 
every child was well and able to walk to the railroad station, a dis- 
tance of nearly half a mile. 

The whole number of orphans admitted during the continuance of 
the school was two hundred and eight, — one hundred and twenty- 



PARADISE SCHOOL. 



191 



seven boys and eighty-one girls. The greatest number in school at 
any one time was one hundred and sixty-one, — one hundred and 
one boys and sixty girls. This was in the fall of 1867, a short time 
before the school closed. Eleven pupils — seven boys and four girls 
— were discharged on age, and one was transferred in the winter 
cf 1867. 

On the second day of January, 1868, twenty-two were transferred 
to Mount Joy, and on the 29th of February following, the balance, 
one hundred and twenty-seven, were transferred to Chester Springs, 
and the Paradise School was at an end. 

We append a list of the teachers and employees : 

Superintendent. — Seymour Preston . 

Physician. — George J. Hoover, M. D. 

Teachers. — Elias Hollinger, Joseph N. Beistle, Lewis M. Haines, A. 
D. Eisenhower, Silas A. Will, Rebecca Preston, Mary K. Schreiner, Mary 
Gorman, Mary S. David. 

Matrons. — Lydia Weirman, A. D. Elston, Catherine Chambers, Maria 
Knipe, Harriet Naylor. 

Male Attendants. — Herbert F. White, Mclntyre, Ramsey, James 
Backet. ' 

Farm Superintendents. — John Gorman, Taylor Nethery. 

Assistant. — J. Curran. 

Sewing-Room Superintendent. — Sue Kline. 

Cooks. — Harriet Ralph, Caroline Viney, Elizabeth Carmany. 




192 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 




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PARADISE soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



195 



Married. 

420 Maria atreet. 

Married. 

i Transferred to Chester 
Springs, Feb. 28, 1868. 

Married. 


West Phtlad'a. 

Philad'a 

PhUada 

Philad'a. 

Reading. 

Blue Ball. 

Lancaster. 

Dowuingtown. 

Norristown. 

Lancaster. 

Allentown. 

Lancaster. 

Rockville. 

Phcenixville. 

Allentown. 

AUentown 

AUentown. 

Schaeferstown. 

Schaeferstowu. 

Lancaster. 

Gordonvillo. 

Gordonville. 

Harrisburg 

Harrisburg, 

AUentown 

Strasburg. 

Strasburg, 

Allentown, 

Allentown, 

Delaware co. 

Delaware co. 

West Chester, 

West Chester, 

PennlngtonvUle, 

Lancaster. 

Chester co. 

Chester co. 

AUentown. 

Allentown, 

Doylestown, 

Doylestown. 

Doylestown. 

Ubanon. 

Lancaster, 

Lancaster. 

Morionville, 

Goshen, 

Goshen. 

Hamburg. 

Allentown. 

West Chester. 

West Chester. 

Harrisburg. 

Harrisburg. 

Soadernburg. 


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July 12, 1854 
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Schmidt, Catharine 
Sheets, Mary A. 
Sheets, Sarah E. 
Sherer, Amanda 
Sherer, Elphiua 
Smith, Annie F. 
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Strohm, Emma U. 
Styer, Harriet C. 
Styer, Mary A. K. 
Taylor, Mary R. 
Theiss, Matilda W. 
ToUingor, Mary E. 
ToUinger, Margaret J. 
Wagner, Mary M. 
Weiss, Sarah 0. 


White, Ida L, 
Woodward, R. Anna 
Wyant, Agnes 
Wyant, Sarah E. 
Zook, Sarah E. 




McALISTERVILLE SCHOOL. 




N 1856, a stock company erected a substantial three-story 
brick building, fifty-four by forty-eight feet, as an academy, 
at the village of McAlisterville, Juniata county. Two 
years later, Geo. F. McFarland, then Principal of the 
Freeburg Academy, bought the building, and converted it into the 
McAlisterville Academy, enlarging the accommodations, and con- 
ducting it successfully as an academy and normal school until the 
fall of 1862. Having then a good normal class composed largely 
of teachers, he enlisted them into the service of the United States, 
and took the company to Harrisburg, where it was assigned to the 
One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, of 
which he became lieutenant-colonel, and one of the teachers, W. L. 
Owens, captain of the company. , 

Returning after the battle of Gettysburg, in 1863, in which he 
was badly wounded, Colonel McFarland reopened the academy, and 
continued it until the following autumn, when Dr. Burrowes, then 
Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, requested him to convert it into 
a soldiers' orphan school, which he did, it being duly recognized as 
such November 3, 1864. 

From this time forward it received soldiers' orphans upon the 
or<!( r ni' ihc Superintendent, the number reaching sixty-one by 
April 1, l'SI>r>, uikI one hundred and forty-one the following Decem- 
)).•!. i',i ing among the in>i iu.^titutions of the kind, its work was at 
firrtt largely missionary, and needy children were sent to it from 
widely separated counties, and afterwards transferred when other 
•chooU were opened nearer the homes of these children. It passed 

196 



McALISTERVILLE SCHOOL. 197 

through the severe struggles incident to those early days of these 
schools. Notwithstanding the unprofitable and unpromising state 
of affairs, many and expensive improvements were made. A kitchen 
was built and a large range put into it, a cistern constructed, the 
dining-room enlarged, new desks put into the school-room, the several 
departments all organized, with superintendents and assistants in 
each ; sewing-machines procured, and other expenses incurred to 
increase the accommodation and perfect the home and school facili- 
ties of the children. These expenses put the institution in debt, 
which was afterwards further increased by additional buildings, and 
has since proved troublesome and annoying. 

This school participated in all the efforts made to educate public 
opinion to the wisdom and duty of providing for the needy orphans 
of those who fell in the armies of the Union. At the first vacation, 
July 27, 1865, the children were accompanied by Dr. Burrowes to 
Mifflin, where the first concert was held in the court-house. The 
large audience was deeply interested in the performance, the explana- 
tion of the system by Dr. Burrowes, and the patriotic speeches that 
followed. It was one of the three schools that visited Harrisburg, 
March 16, 1866, and influenced the Legislature to abandon the 
pauper bill and continue appropriations for the support of the 
schools. Master Geo. L. Jacobs, now a practising physician of 
Harrisburg, then a member of this school, delivered the original 
poetic address to Governor Curtin, composed by Mrs. Eyster, that 
called out his solemn declaration that the schools should be sup- 
ported, and that brought tears to every eye and won every heart. 
The school also participated in the ceremonies incident to the recep- 
tion of the State battle-flags at Philadelphia, July 4, 1866. On all 
these occasions the clothing, appearance, discipline, intelligence, and 
ability of the children won general commendation. The military 
drill of the boys was specially superior. , 

It becoming apparent that the number of orphans to be provided 
for was larger than at first anticipated, and that better accommoda- 
tions must be secured, twenty-two acres of land were purchased, and 
an additional brick building erected, larger than the original academy 
building, being sixty-seven by thirty-nine feet, four stories high, and 
finished attic, and especially adapted to the purpose. The corner- 
stone was laid, with interesting and appropriate ceremonies, July 23, 
1866, Hon. S. P. Bates, LL.D., delivering the address. 

The completion of this excellent building, with the out-buildings, 



198 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

bam, fences, &c., and the planting of a grapery, fruit, and orna- 
mental trees and shrubbery, &c., rendered the accommodations and 
comforts here equal to the best in the State. 

The industrial system, now working well in all the schools, was 
early introduced and tested here with good results. When the new 
building was being erected, two kilns of brick were burned and 
handled by regular details of boys, they displaying much skill. A 
large amount of work was done by them on this building and on 
the farm then and since, while brooms, shoes, &c., have been made 
and mended with satisfactory results. Still better results have been 
attained in the industrial department with the girls, facilities for 
their employment under instruction being better. All the clothes 
have been made here, including the dress suits, from the first, and 
the sewing department has been uniformly successful in turning out 
good seamstresses and good operators on the sewing-machine. 

The industrial plan was productive of the best results in the 
health, development, discipline, and instruction of the children, and 
in reducing the expenses of the institution. 

On the first day of January, 1876, the control of the school passed 
into the hands of Mr. Jacob Smith, of McAlisterville, who had for 
many years been steward of the institution. From his well-known 
business capacity, the most favorable results are confidently expected. 

All things considered, the McAlisterville Soldiers' Orphan School 
has a fair record. Its employees have been, in the main, faithful and 
efficient. The pupils have been well taught. The health and physi- 
cal development have been remarkable. 

The rolls of the institution show that seven hundred and six sol- 
diers* orphans (three hundred and ninety-four boys and three hun- 
dred and twelve girls) have enjoyed its advantages as a home and 
school. Among those who left the school at sixteen years of age, a 
large number were well prepared for life's duties, and are faithfully 
fulfilling the expectations of friends and statesmen. Some are min- 
isters, teachers, doctors, lawyers, inventors, merchants, mechanics, 
and farmers ; while others are filling important and responsible posi- 
tions with credit to themselves and honor to the State. The State 
will reap a harvest from their intelligence, industry, and virtue that 
will very soon pay both principal and interest of the expenditures 
in their behalf, and leave her richer in her citizenship, besides hav- 
ing bound them firmly to her defence in time of need by this noble 
act of justice to the bereaved oflspring of those who fell while fight- 
bg her battles. 



McALISTERVILLE SCHOOL. 



199 



Appended are the names of some of the persons officially connected 
at various times witli the school. 



Principals and Superintendents. 



Rev. Chas. Witmer, 
Jesse Kennedy, 
James Stitzer, 



Rev. M. L. Shindle, 



Miss Mary E. Smith, 
" C. J. Corbett, 
" Annie M. Keller, 
" Emily A. Fulton, 
" R. Alice Gehrett, 
" Sallie Van Horn, 
Mr. O. M. Grieseraer, 
" W. C. B. Miller, 
" Henry Albert, 
" Milton E. McLinn, 
" W. W. Wisegarver, 



Mrs. E. McWilliams, 

" C. M. Yeager, 
Miss Lizzie J. Corbett, 
" Mag. S. Atchley, 



Mr. John Miller, 
Josiah McFarland, 
Mr. J. Leonard, 

Mrs. Mackey, 
Miss Mattie B. Arey, 
" M. A. Anderson, 

E. A. Marqeitz, 



Peter Devery, 



Wm. E. Caveny, 
J. H. Smith, 
J. C. Bell, 

Chaplains. 
Rev. A. Copenhaver, 

Physician. 
A. J. Fisher, M. D. 

Teaciiers. 
Miss C. B. Stevens, 
" Joe M. Stevens, 
" Sallie J. Jacobs, 
" L. J. Blair, 
" Annie M.Milsom, 
" Fannie E. Heyl, 
Mr. Samuel M. Shelly, 
Rev. E. D. Martin, 
Mr. J. R. Runyan, 
" J. P. Benford, 
" Jacob Mann, 

Matrons. 
Miss Flora Caveny, 
Mrs. Bella Rambler, 
" Maggie A. Stewart, 
" Mary J. Keller, 

Male Attendants. 
Mr. Arthur Boyd, 
" John Shermer, 

Seamstresses. 
Miss Sallie McGarr, 
Mrs. Jane Caveny, 

Stewards. 
Jacob Smith, 

Gardeners. 
Lewis Ingram, 



M. R. Beck, 
Ira Wentzel. 



Rev. J. W. Izer. 



Mr. Lewis A. Haffley, 
Miss Clara Arey, 
" C.S.Colby, 
" Mary L. Nesbitt, 
" SueB. Kuhn, 
Mr. E. B. Young, 
" Chas. M. Carrow, 
" Theo. T. Davis, 
" M. Kratz, 
" H. S. Kulp, 
" C. H. Heffley. 



Mrs. E. P. Wyant, 
" Fanny M. Smiley, 
" Kate Brandt, 
" Jennie Brehman. 



Capt. John A. Bell, 
Mr. W. W. R. Smith. 



Mrs. Kate Dunn, 
Miss May J. Snyder. 



Reuben Caveny. 
Daniel S. Masser. 



200 



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m'alisterville soldiers' orphan school. 207 



5 Farming near MAlls- 
l tervillc, Pa. 

Shoemaker by trade. 

[Dnncannon. 
Living with a family in 
( Married, and Uving in 
I Harri-iburg. 

Teaching. 

Married. 
Married. 

Married. 

Died Dec. 12, 1870. 




Milesburg. 
Johnstown. 
Millerstown. 
Johnstown. 

Millerstown 

BendersviUe. 

Lewistown. 

Spring Milli. • 

Liverpool. 

Lewistown. 

New Buffalo. 

Harrisburg. 

Pcrrvville. 

Perry ville. 

New Buffalo. 

Altoona. 

Altoona. 

Concmaugh. 

Beach Creek. 

Liverpool. 

Osceola. 

Oscwia. 

Osceola. 

Osceola. 

Liverpool. 

Liverpool. 

Baltimore. 

Lock Haven. 

Elliotuburg 

Bloomsburg 

Bloomsburg. 

Drums. 

Port Trevcrton.. 

Port Trcverton. 

Port Treverton. 

Mifflintown. 

Hollidavsburg. 

HoUldavsburg. 

Mile«buV|f. 

New Buffalo 

Newn.iffalo 

Milesburg. 
New Oxford. 
Lewistown. 
Lewistown. 
lewistown. 
New Buffalo. 
New Buffalo. 

Waterloo 

Martha Furnace 
Sbamukin 








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Cassville 
Cassville 

Cas'sVlIle 

Cassville 

Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 


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■1 

29, 1875 
18, 1865 
29. 1875 

29, 1865 
•29, 1875 
24,1865 
'29, 1875 
24, 1863 
•20, 1865 

14, 1866 
2, 1867 

8, 1869 
12, 1869 
14, 1870 

1,1871 

8, 1871 

8, 1871 

4, 1872 

5, 1874 
8. 1874 
18. 1876 
B, 1874 
12. 1874 

13, 1873 
1, 1874 
1, 1874 
1, 1874 
13, 1873 
13, 1873 
7, 1868 

31. 1864 
'2,1865 
1,1868 
1, 1868 
1, 1868 
•25, 1868 
■25, 1875 


19, 1865 
23, 1865 
23. 1865 
8, 1865 
•26, 1865 


•2e, 1865 
•20, 1865 
2. 1865 
2, 1865 
1, 1865 
,1865 
1, 1868 
1.1868 
29.1868 
•21, 1869 
4, 1870 


■ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitfiiiii mum 




Nov. 

Deo. 

Dec. 

Oct. 

Oct. i 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

June 

Feb. 


June 8. 1860 
Apr. 27, 1854 
Feb. 2, 1862 
Feb. 15, 1850 
Aug. 10, 1864 
July ^28, 1856 
Jan. 7. 1806 
Oct. 22. 1851 
May 10, 1850 
Jan. 10, 1854 
Jan. 4, 1856 
Feb. 8, 1856 
Apr. 3, 18.59 
Mar. '20, 1858 
May 10, 1862 
Aug. '25, 1860 
Mar. '25, 1862 
Oct. 7. 1862 
June 6, 1858 
Nov. 19, 1859 
Mav 5, 1868 
Mar. 30, 1859 
Feb. '26, 1860 
Mar. 26, 1863 
Mar. '20. 1862 
Jan. 19, 1860 
Jan. 22. 1864 
Aug. 24, 1861 
July 13, 1863 
May 8, I860 

Oct. 6, 1850 
Mar. 11, 1856 
May 12, 18,53 
Sept. 10. ia59 
Nov. 13, 1854 
Aug. 22, 1858 
Jan. 3, 1862 
Nov. 8, 1863 
Oct. 27, 1854 
Feb. 18, 1857 
May 27, 1854 
Aug. -29, 1856 
Jan. 15, 1851 
Feb. 16. 1855 
Sept. 22, 1853 
Nov. 7, 18.51 
Oct. 3, 1&51 
Aug. 5, 1855 
Sept. 12, 1853 
Oct. 7, 1856 
Apr. 29, 18.58 
July 4, 1856 
Jan. 21, 18.59 
July 27, 1857 


Warfel, Isaac 
Wallace, Robert W. 
Warlel, Henry S. 
West, Alfred A. 
Warfel, James 
Wise, George P. 
Warfel, Robert A. 
Wise, Winfield S. 
Walker, Abel 
White, Lemuel H. 
Walters, Jeremiah 
Williamson. John W. 
White, Jacob A. 
Wright, Thomas W. 
Wyant, Jeremiah S. 
Wallace, James P. 
Wallace, George Mo. 
Wright, William H. 
Wherry, Albert C. 
Wilt, Jacob S. 
Warfel, David 
Wants, Roland A. 
Williams, Thomas R. 
Wright, David B. 
Walker, Abraham L. 
Walker, Alva 
Walker, Andrew G. 
Wright, Irvin 
Wright, James 
Yeager, George P. 

Avis, Hannah A. 
Albert, Mary C. 
Allen, Mary M. 
Allen, Ellen N. 
Acker, Lydia 
Arnold, Ida B. 
Arnold, Mary M. 
Arnold, Carrie 




Butler, Martha C. 
Blair, Sarah M. 
Briner, Mary E. 
Blett, Harriet W. 
Blett, Mary K. 
Bair, Catherine A. 
Bair, Susan A. 
Batton, Mary M. 
Bennett, Nora M. 
Bordel, Mary 


■z 

X 


III 



208 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



Going to school in Phila. 
Died Feb. 17, 1875. 


Teaching in Perry eo. 
Teaching in Snyder oo. 
Tailoress. 

Married. 

Married. 
Married. 
Married. 
At home with mother. 

C Married James Biddle, 
I a laborer. 

Died Feb. 9, 1869. 

CTanght school for a 
\ time ; is now married. 


Post 

Office 

Address 

WHEN 

AT Home. 

Penn's Creek. 
Penn's Creek. 
New Bloom Beld. 
Willianisport.... 
Waterloo. 

Lewisburg 

Willianisport. 


Pine Grove Mills. 

Smiths Mills. 

Williumsburg. 

Williamsburg. 

Milesburg. 

Mt. Holly Sp'gs. 

Grandville. 

East Salem. 

Milesburg. 

Elliottsburg 

Elliottsburg 

Newport 

Chapman. 
Chapman. 


Lewistown 

Phillipsburg. 
Williamsport.... 
Williamsport.... 
Williamsport.... 

Newport 

Newport. 

Newport. 

Bellefonte. 

Phillipsburg. 

Smith-8 Mills. 

Milesburg. 

Milesburg. 

Milesburg. 

Milesburg 

Bellefonte. 

Newport. 

Newport. • 

Newtn Hamilton 

Howard. 

Howard. 

Duncannon. 

BoHlsburg 

Milroy. 
Milroy. 

Mountain Eagle. 
New Columbia.. 
Duncannon. 


§ 

< 

1 


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B ill!::: 


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: : : :!=3 : : -fe : : : :< 


11 n : nti 






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:a :a :3.:J? : : .'aa : 
:^ :^ :^ :^ : : \^^ \ 


June 6, 1870 
Jan. 1, 1871 
Jan. 15, 1873 
Deo. 25. 1868 
July 24, 1873 
Feb. 8, 1876 


HiiiiHliiii 

riiiliniliii 


iigii ! 

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St um\ 

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Where 
From. 

"JMk"8on"vme " 

Jacksonville 

Jacksonville 


"0M8"v'ille" 

Andersonhurg 
Jacksonville 

"whiT"e""Haii""" 
White Hall 


Oran-geville 
Orangeville 
Orangeville 

Loysville 


bill 

m 


'. \ '. ta '• '• '• 

: : :| : : : 


:::::= 

! ^ ! ! '.">■ 

nnii 


Date of 
Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 

Apr. 25, 1870 
Apr. 25, 1870 
Sept. 28, 1870 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Sept. 2, 1872 


Sept. 1. 1874 
Sept. 18, 1874 
Sept. 18, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Nov. 17, 1874 
June 1, 1875 
Mar. 10, 1865 
Mar. 14, 1865 
Aug. 31, 1865 
Aug. 31, 1865 
Feb. 17. 1866 
Jan. 5, 1867 
Jan. 5. 1867 
Sept. 6, 1867 
Jan. 28. 1868 
June 1. 1868 
Junel, 1868 
Juue 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1. 1868 
Apr. 12, 1869 
Sept. 13, 1869 
Feb. 13, 1871 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Apr. 10, 1874 
Jan. 19 1865 
Jan. 19, 1865 
Jan. 19. 1865 
Feb. 1, 1865 
July 11, 1855 
Julv 11, 1865 
Jan. 3. 1871 
June 21, 1874 
June 24, 1874 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Oct. 8, 1867 
Nov. 11, 1867 
Oct. 7, 1870 
Feb. 1,1865 
Dec. 22, 1865 
Jan. 4, 1870 


Sg iSligii: 


Jan. 11, 1860 
Dec 6, 1864 
Jan. 2, 1860 
May 17, 1860 
Sept. 8, 1860 
June 11, 1870 
Jnly 31. 1851 
Sept. 19. 1855 
Jnly 28, 1854 
Feb. 15, ia53 
Jan. 18, 1855 
Sepu 22, 1854 
Oct. 12, 1867 
Dec. 15, 1855 
June 6, 1854 
Jan. 1, 1855 
Jan. 15, 1857 
Dec. -25, 1S>2 
July 24, 1857 
Feb. 8, 1860 
Apr. 2, 1862 
Dec. 23. 1859 
July 18, I860 
May 13, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1860 
Jan. 20, 1856 
Aug. 6, 1858 
Nov. 11, 1853 
Aug. 22, 1856 
Jan. 24, 1852 
Sept. 5, 1850 
June 12, 1860 
Nov. 13, 1860 
May 15, 1859 
Dec. 1, 1861 
Jnne 6, 1855 
Jnly 10, 1858 
Oct. 2, 1860 
July 15, 1852 
Nov. 28, 1850 
Jnly 26, 1861 




III 
: Ulilj£ 


mfkm 
iMmm 


Cramer, Emily F. 
Campbell. Sarah J. 
Campbell, Mary E. 
Campbell. Laella 
Crooks. Mary H. 
Crooks, Kmma J. 
Crooks, Elizabeth 
Condo, Anna M. 
Cramer. Cordelia B. 


Cnrrv. Mary A. 
Cook, Mary J. 
Davis, Lucy 
DaviR. Ellen 
Davis, Sarah A. 


usOMatdsS: 
SaOQAOAK 


Engle, Minnie 
Engle, Sarah 
Funk. Margaret A. 
Fisher, Fannie 
Ford. Mary Ann 



m'alisterville soldiers' orphan school. 209 






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QUAKERTOWN SCHOOL, 




MONG the schools selected by Superintendent Burrowes 
was the one at Quakertown, Bucks county. The buildings 
were erected for, and were many years used as, a boarding- 
school. This place was originally settled by the Friends 
or Quakers, and hence its name. It is now a thriving borough. It 
is situated on a fertile plateau, about five miles in diameter, and has 
a continuous border of boulders, from two to three miles wide, com- 
pletely encircling it. This singular formation has been a fruitful 
source of geological discussions. In early times the wild deer 
resorted here in large numbers, to drink of the waters of a salt 
spring not far from the school. 

Rev. Lucian Cort was the first proprietor and principal of the 
orphan school. On the first day of January, 1865, ten orphans had 
been ordered to it by the State Superintendent. The first children 
were admitted on the eighteenth of the same month. They continued 
to come in slowly. In the November following, one hundred and 
six orders for admission had been granted, but only fifty-eight had 
reported ; in January, 1866, one hundred and twenty-five orders of 
admission had been issued, and only sixty-nine had been admitted. 
The State had paid Mr. Cort, for keeping the orphans to December 
1, 1866, seventeen thousand nine hundred and fifty-four dollars and 
sixty-two cents ; and for making clothing and mending shoes, eight 
hundred and fifty dollars and sixty-four cents. The attendance on 
the first day of April, 1867, was one hundred and forty-one. 

Tlie management of the school not being satisfactory to the State 
authorities, Mr. Cort was succeeded, after conducting the school 
about two years, by Messrs. Fell and Marple, and remained under 

214 



QUAKERTOWN SCHOOL 



216 



their control something over one year, when all the orphans were 
transferred to the soldiers' orphan school at Chester Springs, Chester 
county. During the year the Quakertown School was in the charge 
of these gentlemen, its conveniences and comforts were increased, 
and the pupils made commendable progress in their studies. 



Physicians. 



A. M. Dickie, M. D., 



John Haney, M. D. 



Teachers. 



Mr. John Campbell, 
Mr. George Weiss, 



Mr. John Smith, 
Miss Sallie Aaron, 



Matrons. 



Mrs. Gohee"n, 



Mrs. Hellinger. 



Assistant Matron and Seamstresses. 



Hannah Hellyer, dee'd, 
Mrs. Hishbaugh, 
Mary Cambell, 



Joanna Watson, 
Elthea Hill, 



Mrs. Wills, 

Lucy Ann Bornden. 




216 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 






Ob. 



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QUAKERTOWN ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



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PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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QUAKERTOWN ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



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MOUNT JOY SCHOOL. 



^ 


M 



HIS institution had its origin at Strasburg, Lancaster, 
county, under the principalship of Professor J. R. Car- 
others. It was opened on the 20th of December, 1864. 
But the accommodations being inadequate, the academy 
buildings at Mount Joy were purchased of Professor E. L. Moore, 
A. M., and the orphans, being sixty-four in number, taken thither. 
This transfer took place during the annual vacation of 1865, the 
vacation beginning July 28th and ending September 4th. 

The change of place not only secured better conveniences to the 
school, but was an advantage to it in other respects. Its location 
was now a desirable one. Mount Joy being a beautiful village, noted 
for the number of its excellent citizens, and possessing good railroad 
facilities, situated as it is on the Pennsylvania Railroad, twelve miles 
west of Lancaster and twenty-five east of Harrisburg. The edifice 
now occupied presents an inviting appearance, and has a beautiful 
yard in front laid out in walks and shaded with trees. The number 
of pupils increasing, additions were made to the buildings. But the 
State authorities not being satisfied with the management of Mr. 
Carothers, i)revailed on Professor Jesse Kennedy, then Principal of 
the McAlisterville S'oldiers' Orphan School, to purchase the property 
at Mount Joy and become Principal of that school. He took pos- 
session on the first day of December, 1867. , At that time there were 
one hundred and twenty-nine pupils. 

Professor Kennedy was widely and favorably known, having ably 
represented Cumberland and Perry counties in the State Legislature 
in 1862, besides filling other important positions of public trust. 
His administratiou of the afl'airs of the institution was also very 

220 



1 



MOUNT JOY SCHOOL. 



221 



efficient. Orphans were attracted to the school and the number 
began to increase, and continued to do so till there were in attend- 
ance nearly three hundred pupils. Immediately there were improve- 
ments which required a large expenditure of money. Important 
additions were made to the buildings. A large cooking-range, of 
the most approved pattern, was procured, and a first-class furnace 
was placed in the basement of the main structure. Nothing was 
neglected that could increase the comfort and happiness of the chil- 
dren. The institution, under Mr. Kennedy's supervision, rapidly 
rose to a position second to none, and has since ranked among the 
best in the State. 

While the discipline of the school, under its present Principal, has 
been strict, it has been secured in such a way as to cultivate a home 
feeling among the children. Severe measures have been resorted to 
only in rare and extreme cases, and after other methods have failed. 
Those receiving correction have been made to feel that their reforma- 
tion and well-being are the sole ends of punishment. Kindness has 
ever been the controlling influence. Children have been trained and 
not " broken." By firm and kind treatment real nobleness of char- 
acter has been developed. The children, as a whole, have been and 
are, while at the school, willing, industrious, cheerful, frank, manly, 
and ambitious to excel. The " well done " of Principal and teachers 
has carried with it an inspiration, and has been a constant stimulus 
to well doing. 

Visitors have always been welcomed and encouraged to mingle at 
pleasure with the inmates of the school. No suspicion of tyranny 
has at any time been created by closing its doors to any who have 
sought admittance. 

That labor is honorable and idleness a disgrace has been taught 
both by precept and example. Instruction has been imparted in all 
possible kinds of employments. 

The children have also been taught the importance of good man- 
ners, whether in the school-room, at their work, at the table, or on 
the play-ground. Tidiness in dress and person has at all times 
been required. 

The corps of teachers has, from the beginning of Mr. Kennedy's 
connection with the school, been full and competent, a number of 
them being college and normal school graduates, and standing high 
in their profession. 

The moral and religious training of the orphans has been regarded 



222 



PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



of first importance and received much attention. Vice has been 
made to appear odious and its practice degrading, while moral purity 
has been represented as lovable and elevated and the road to true 
success. Many of the orphans, while under the influence of the 
school, have been led to profess faith in Christ. 

As a result of this wholesome discipline, right training, and 
thorough instruction, a large proportion of the children, after leaving 
school, do well. Quite a number have begun to teach with no 
further preparation ; others, aided by friends or the State, have con- 
tinued their studies at normal schools, and are now either preparing 
for, or are, teaching. 

With fewer exceptions than could be expected, have the children 
been so grounded in right principles that they have, after being 
thrown out into the world and exposed to temptations, been true to 
the lessons imparted at school, and receive that respect, in the com- 
munities where they reside, which is due industry, honesty, and 
virtue. 

The Mount Joy School stands high in the affections of the orphans 
and their mothers, and enjoys the esteem and good-will of the intel- 
ligent community in which it is located. It has done and is doing 
a noble work, of which the State is justly proud. 

Subjoined are the names of some of the persons officially connected 
with the school from the date of its organization to the present time : 



SUPERINTENDEIfT Aiq^D PrOPKIETOE. 

• Jesse Kennedy. 

Physicians to Institution. 
J. L. Siegler, M. D., C. W. Moore, M. D. 



Mr. 



Thomas Ruth, 
John C. Martin, 
Israel M. Gable, 
George Deitrich, 
George G. Kunkle, 
G. N. Alexander, 
Clinton C. Hughes, 
Geo. W. Geiger, 
Bamuel Smeigh, 
Middleton Smith, 
lirael L. Witmyer, 



Teachers. 
Mr. John Hinkle, 
" Joseph R. Irving, 
" Edward J. Moore, 
" Richard Holl, 
" James R. Ewing, 
Miss M. Snowberger, 
" E. Richardson, 
" T. Buckingham, 
" M.I. Shields, 
" P. E. Buttles, 
" Julia Moore, 



Miss 



E. Hollinger, 
M. Tollinger, 
Sal lie E. Gulp, 
Liberty Stewart, 
Rachel Hudson, 
Lou M. Shields, 
Mary Martin, 
Cora Hull, 
Lillie Moore, 
M. E. Buckwalter, 
Ella Kline. 



MOUNT JOY SCHOOL 



223 



Employees. 
John C. Moore, Steward. Ehrman Huber, Supt. of Boys. 

Jacob Keorper, ) 
William Scholing,]^^^^^- 
Chas. Willis and Henry Mellinger, Farmers. 
Miss Mary Wood, Matron. 
Miss Lizzie Smiley, '\ 

" Kate Smiley, V Assistant Matrons. 
Mrs. Kate Hamaker, j 
Miss Annie Hippie, ") 
Mrs. Kate Hamaker, >• Seamstresses. 
Miss Mary Curran, j 
Mrs. Maggie Huber, Culinary Department. 
Miss Josie Hunter, ) 
" Annie Hull, | Supt. of Dmmg-room. 

Mrs. Sarah Shroeder, ] _ 
" Adelaide Hamaker, I ^'^"°'^'^^««- 




224 



PEXXA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



REMARKS. 


cigar manufacturer. 

Blacksmith. 

In a plauing-mlll. 

Home with mother. 
Boatman. 

Coachsmtth. 
Clerk. 

Died , 1874. 

Car shops, P. R. R. Co. 
Brakeman^.&R.B.E.Co. 

Clerk. 
Mason. 
Farmer. 
Iron-workt. 

Shoemaker. 
Printer. 

Home with mother. 
Boatman. 

Home with mother. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Harrisburg 

Millersville 

New Jersey 

Lancaster. 
Harrisburg. 

Norrlstowu 

Middletown 

Lancaster. 

Harrisburg. 

Millersburg. 

Millersville 

Philadelphia.... 

Bristol 

Philadelphia.... 

Hamburg 

Lebanon. 
West Chester. 
West Chester. 
Salisbury. 
Salisbury. 
Sali..<bury. 

Lancaster 

La ncaster 

Catawissa 

Lebanon 

Lebanon. 
Womelsdorf. 


Lancaster. 
Lancaster. 

Middletown 

Lancaster 

Newport. 
Hamburg. 
Marietta. 

Danville 

Lancaster. 
Greene. 

Marietta 

Marietta. 
Lancaster. 
New Holland. 
Waterside. 

Lebanon 

Wallaceton. 
Wallaceton. 
Kast Kidge. 
Six Mile Run. 
Huntingdon. 


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S. O. Inst. 
Paradise 
Lan. Home 

■Lan.'Home"' 

■Lan.'Home*" 

Paradise 
Lan. Home 
Paradise 
Paradise 
Wilkesbarre 


Emmaus 
Lan. Home 
Andersonburg 

'Lan.'Home'" 

'Worael'sdorf" 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 


Date of 
Admission 
ON Order 

or by 
Transfer. 


Oct. 11.1865 
June 16, lh66 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Jan. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 22, 1869 
Sept. 26. 1870 
Sept. 19, 1871 
Dec. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1872 
June 16. 1866 
May 16, 1865 
May 12, 1865 
Sept. 21, 1865 
Dec. 15, 1865 
Oct. 10 1866 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Dec. 27, 18(i7 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Dec. 2f , 1867 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1,1870 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 26. 1870 
Mav 9, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1. 1R7I 
Oct. 30, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1. 1873 
Sept. 24, 1873 
Sept. 24, 1873 
Sept. 29, 1873 
Oct. 27, 1873 
Feb. 13. 1874 
Mar. 17, 1874 
M.av 8, 1874 
MaV 8. 1874 
May 8, 1874 
May 8, 1874 
May 8, 1874 


Ii 




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Brown, Henry 
Bitu, Benj. F. 
BoUiuger. Joeiah 
Brown, George 
Brown, Daniel Mc. 
Billig. Daniel 
Brooks, Joshna 
Bailey, Samnel T. 
Bell, Uartroan 
Brown, Klmer E. 
Brown, Franklin 
Brown, John C. 
Bamea. Martin A. 
Bowers, William B. 
Bowman, William F. 
Benson, William H. 
Bressler, William S. 
Bressler, Joseph H. 
Beeman, Homer S. 
Beer*. George W. 
Barkley, George W. 



MOUNT JOY soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 225 






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PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 







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MOUNT JOY soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 227 



Clerk. 

Laborer on Q. & L. B.B. 

Clerk in bank in N. J. 
Farmer. 

Moulder. 

Hat-maker. 

Printer. 

Farmer. 

Farmer. 

Moulder. 

Laborer. 

Beading law at Colombia. 

Laborer. 

Car-painter. 

Clerk. 

Currier. 

Clerk. 

Home with mother. 

Home with mother. 

Farming. 

Home with mother. 

Photographer. 

Blacksmith. 

Hat manufacturer. 

Hat manufacturer. 
Home with mother. 

Carpenter. 
Died ,1871. 


Salisbury. 

Stroudsburg. 

Altoona. 

Bohrsburg. 

Philadelphia.... 

Lancaster 


Safe Harbor. 
Goldsborough... 
Sporting Hill... 
Reading. 


Hi 
III 


Heading 

Lancaster 

Reading 

Danville 

Reading 

Blue Ball. 


Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Goldsborough... 
Bunbury. 

Lancajtter 

Manheim. 


k 


Laucaater. 

Lanoaster 

Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia. 
Columbia. 
Moher'a Store... 
Moher'i Store. 
Moher'a Store... 
Jonestown. 
Philadelphia. 

Beading 

Lancaster. 
Mnncy. 
Monnt Joy. 
Lancaster, 
aiatlugton. 
Bethlehem 


Ono. 

Columbia. 

Lancaster. 

Cauwisaa. 

Cittawissa. 

Ihiladelphta. 


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Lan. Home 
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Sept. 19, 1871 
Oct. 2. 1874 
Apr. 14. 1875 
Nov. 16, 1875 
May 3, 1865 
May 10, 1865 
July 7, 1865 
Apr. 18, 1865 
May 15, 1865 
Oct. 19, 1865 
Dec. 14, 1865 
Dec. 14, 1865 
Sept. 15, 1869 
June 18, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 9, 1867 
Dec. 11, 1867 
Sept. 9, 1867 
Juue 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1. 1868 
Dec. 1, 1867 
Dec. 6, 1868 
Dec. 5, 1868 
May 30, 1868 
June 22, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Nov. 10, 1869 
Jan. 17, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 15, 1870 
Sept. 15, 1870 
Jan. 21, 1871 
Apr. 27, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1. 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Dec. 7, 1872 
Jan. 6, 1873 
Jan. 15, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
June 8, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 7, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Mar. 15, 1875 
Apr. 19, 1875 
Sept. 3. 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
May 5, 1865 


Dec. 10, 1860 
Jan. 11, 1860 
Feb. 27, 1864 
Aug. 12, 1860 
Mar. 19, 1853 
Feb. 10, 1855 
Apr. 11, 1851 
Apr. 17, 1854 
May 30. 1854 
Oct. 13, 1856 
Jan. 3, 1855 
Apr. 15, 1857 
Feb. 12, 1856 
Oct. 2, 1855 
Julv '21, 1852 
June 5, 1855 
Aug. 15, 1854 
Nov. 3, 1858 
Dec. 13, 1858 
July 19, 1854 
Oct. 11, 1856 
May 29, 1855 
Feb. 22, 1855 
Dec. 13, 1857 
Oct. 22, 18,59 
Nov. 27, 1859 
Feb. '23, 1857 
July 27, 1858 
July 30, 1860 
Oct. 26, 1858 
Dec. 13, 1860 
Deo. 9, 1860 
Dec. 7, 1869 
July 24, 18.58 
Aug. 21. 1860 
Jan. 15. 1860 
Mar. 10, 1H.59 
May 10, 18,59 
Feb. 12, 1856 
May 10, 1H,59 
Dec. 24, 1860 
July 3, 1865 
Aug. 28, 1862 
Apr. 17, 1862 
Oct. 8. 1864 
Sept. 30, lHfi4 
Sept. 15. 1863 
Apr. 1, 1668 
Feb. 14, 1859 
Jan. 4, 1867 
May 2, 1864 
Deo. 7, 1864 
Mar. 6, 1^61 
Aug. 2, 1866 
Nov. 29, 1869 
May 9, 1853 


I 
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it 

■ft 


Holl, Isaac W. 
Horner, Ananias 
Holl, Richard P. 
Hale, James 
Holl, George 
Hinkle, Henry M. 


Huber, George W. 
Hahn, William K. 
Hahn, John 
Hunter, Walter P. 
Headings, Charles R. 




nxx 


Hambright, Phares C. 
Hooper, Thomas D. 
Hagele, Norman W. 
Hannura, Lewis W. 


Haas, Samuel 
Haas, Heury 
Haas, John 
Horn, Harry L. 
Hagele, John 
Hughes, Henry H. 
Hamhright, George H. 
Handflong, William 
Hinkle, Harry 


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228 



PENXA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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MOUNT JOY soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL 



229 



Brakeman. P. E. B. 

Baker. 

In nail works. 

In nail works. 

Home with mother. 

Plumber and gas-fitter. 

Home with mother. 

Going to school. 

Edge-tool works. 

Married. 
Moulder. 
Printer. 
Plumber and gas-fitter. 

5 Sailor. Last heard from 

} in India. 

Steel works. 

Home with grandmother. 

Farmer. 

Clerk. 

Home with grandmother. 

Baker. 

Machinist. 

In Nebraska. 

Died 1872, in Nebraska. 

Painter. 

Home with mother. 
Printer. 

Home with mother. 

Engineer. 

Home with mother. 


llll 

ml 


•.T-C 

= as 

ill 


nil' 


Marietta. 
Williamsburg. 
Williamsburg... 
Columbia. 


II 


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it 


m 

MM 


Newnianstown.. 
Newmanstown.. 
Chester Springs. 

Lebanon 

Lebanon. * 

Harrisburg. 

Harrisburg 

Reading 

Reading 

Harrisburg. 

MiddletowB 

Salisbury. 
Salisbury. 

Harrisburg 

Kutztown 

Sunhury. 


Mapleton. 

Mapleton. 

Lancaster. 

Columbia. 

Sunburv. 

Columbia. 

Danville. 

Danville. 

Wa!<hiiigton. 

Washington. 


j 




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Mar. 16, 1871 
Nov. 9. 1873 
Apr. 27, 1871 
July 5, 1873 
Aug. 18, 1873 
Nov. 20, 1873 
Nov. 4, 1875 




s 


Mar. 25, 1868 
Nov. 27, 1868 
Apr. 27, 1867 
Dec. 11, 1872 
Dec. 31, 1870 
Dec. 10, 1867 


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8. 0. Inst. 
Paradise 
Paradise 
Orange vi lie 
Loysville 


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Emmaus 
Lan. Home 
Lan. Home 


Wllkesbarre 
Lan. Home 
M'Allisterville 
M'Allisterville 
Lan. Home 














Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 15, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Jan. 1, 1868 
Jan. 1, 1868 
Junel, 1868 
Sept. 1 . 1868 
Sept. 1. 1868 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Dec. 24, 1870 
May 3, 1871 


eg. 


1874 
1875 
, 1865 
,1865 
, 1865 
1865 

1865 

1865 
1866 
, 1M66 
, 1866 
. 1H66 
, 1H66 

, 1867 

, 1867 
1868 

1868 

1868 
1869 
1869 

1867 
1870 

1875 
871 
, 1871 
.1871 

1871 
1872 
1873 

1873 

, 1874 
. 1874 
1874 
1875 
1874 
1875 
1875 
1875 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1874 




May 8, 
June 8, 
Sept. H 
Sept. It 
Sept. It 
Oct. 18, 
Dec. 6, 
Dec. 6, 
Mar. 29 
Sept. i; 
Sept. 14 
Sept. 14 
S.pt. 14 
June 17 
June 17 
.Sept. 1, 
Dec. 5, 
Dec. 5, 
Oct. 20. 
Nov. 27 
Dec. 1, 

May 8, 
Sept. 2J 
Sept. 25 
Dec. 7, 
Mar. 25 
Sept. 1 
Oct. 6, 
June 22 
June 22 
Sept. 1, 
Apr. 19 
Sept. 1, 
Apr. 19 
Apr. 27 
Apr. 27 
Sept. 1, 
Sept. 1, 

Feb. 16 


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Muma, John 
Miller, Isaac D. 
Montgomery, Robert W. 
Means. William R. 


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PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 




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MOUNT JOY soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 231 



Clerk. 

Teaching. 

Farming. 

Blacksmith. 

Baker. 

Coacb factory. 

Coal mines. Shamokin. 

Cotton-mills. 

Home with sister. 

Painter. 

Married. 

Home with mother. 

Carpenter. 

Coachsmith. 

Bridge-builder. 

Clerk. 

Home with mother. 

CTerk In boot-store. 

Clerk. 

Teaching. 

Home with mother. 

Farming. 

Fanning. 

Cigar-maker. 

Butcher. 

Farming. 

Baker. 

Confectioner. 

Farming. 


Philadelphia.... 
Philadelphia. 

Airville 

Airville 

Lancaster 




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Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 

Lebanon. 

Wakefield. 

Washington..... 

Washington. 

RealiUK 

Marietta. 

Mount Jor. 

Petersburg. 

MavtowD. 

CatHwissa. 

Cilawissa. 

Lebanon. 

Gilbert 

Sliirleysburg. 

^Jlntington. 

SlatingtoD. 

Kreidersville. 

Krelder.Tllle. 

Saxton. 

Harrisburg 

Danville 


Fishing Creek... 
Fairniount, III.. 
Fishing Creek. 
FUhing Creek... 
Bloomsburg. 
Sereno. 
Philadelphia. 
Millersburg. 
LIsburn. 

Manheira 

Grosb's Store... 
Manayunk 


if 






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Apr. 28, 1872 
Sept. 8. 1874 

Aug. 12, 1871 
Dec. 5, 1868 
June 4, 1875 
June 6, 1875 
Dec. 25, 1870 
July 13, 1870 • 


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S. 0. Inst. 

Lan. Home 


Lan. Home 

Paradise 

Paradise 

Lan. Home 

Lan. Home 

JVomelsdorf 

Kmmaus 

Kmnians 

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Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 9, 1867 
Sept. 11, 1867 
Dec. 1, 1867 
Dec. 1, 1867 
Jan. 1, 1S68 
Jan. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 18,68 
Dec. 5, 1868 
Jan. 5, 1869 
Mar. 1,1869 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Mar. 1, 1869 
June 1, lh<>9 
Oct. 19, 1870 
Jan. 25, 1871 
June 24, 1872 
May 8, 1874 




Mar. 16, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Feb. 6, 187;l 
Sept. 1.1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 3. 1873 
Feb. '23, 1874 
Sept. 1. 1874 
Feb. 20. 1875 
Feb. '20, 1875 
Mar. 20, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Dec. '27. 1875 
Dec. 1. 1867 
Snpt. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1.5, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Mar. 19, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Apr. 27, 1875 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Apr. 23, 1875 
Oct. 16, 1865 
Sept. 2, 1867 
July '29, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1H66 
Oct. 15, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 9, 1867 
Jan. 1, 1868 
Jan. 5, 1870 






Oct. 26, 1853 
Nov. 17, 1856 
Apr. '28. 1866 
Sept. 8, 18.58 
Nov. 6. 1867 
Aug. 14, 18,57 
Aug. 12, 1865 
Dec. 5. 1852 
Juue 4, 1859 
Juue 6, 1859 
Dec. '25, ia54 
July 13, 18.54 
Oct. 28, 1867 
Aug. '23, 1865 
Apr. 21, 18i'>4 
Aug. 4, 1856 
Sept. 10, 1860 
Mar. 1, 1K66 
Feb. '23, 1861 
Ool. 8, 1861 
Sept. 15, 1858 
Dec. 8, 1861 
Jan. 8, 1862 
Sept. 11, 186:1 
Sept. '23. 1862 
Mar. 16, 1860 
Feb. -16. 1862 
Nov. 1, 1862 
July 3. 1860 
Sept. '22. 1861 
Miir. 11, 1862 
Nov. 15. 1866 
Apr. 28, 1860 
June 14, 1862 
May 5, 1862 
July 16. 1867 
Mar. 11, I.M64 
Dec. 11, 1869 
Sept. 19, 18.>8 
Oct. 15, 1854 
Nov. 3, 1861 
June 15, 1861 
Mar. 5, 1857 
Oct 8. 1862 
Apr. '28, 18(i5 
Aug. 11, 18.55 
Apr. '29, 1860 
May 11, 1853 
Mar. 21, 1867 
Oct 15, 1853 
Feb. 27, 1858 
Dec. '25, 1864 
Feb. 22, 18.57 
May 16, 1857 
July 18, 1854 
Mar. 11, 1860 


Smith, Albert 
Smith, Frank 
Stokes, Jackson L. 
Stokes, William L. 
Sharlock, John 
Styer, Samuel E. 
Schmidt, Michael 
Schmidt, John 
Schmidt, Charles 
Styer, William 
Shoup, John 
Shrov, John H. 
Shelleuberger, Jonas S. 
Shelleuberger, John J. 
Spaugler, Clement M. 
Simmers, Joseph H. 
Schlegelmilch, Geo. W, 
Schlegelmilch. John L. 
Sharrar. Oemge 0. 
Styer, Klnier E. 
Strawbridge, Jacob 
Strawbridge, Henry D. 
Seiders, Solomon 
Sultzback, Peter 
Sneath, Stephen A. D. 
Sanders, Henry M. 
Stevenson, Jacob 
Small, Christian 
Small, Harrison 
Sbiiud, Jacob D. 
Small, Nathan 
Sneath, Charles A. 
Snyder. Alvin 


KM or 


Theis. Charles F. 
Trumbower, Harrv E. 
Thomas, Daniel W. 
Tavlor, John H. 
Thomas, William I. 
Thomas, Joshua K. 
Thomas, Abraham C. 
Thomas, William C. 
Ulmer, William 
Urich, Samuel R. 
Wise, William M. 
White. Jacob 
Wilhelm, Adam 
Wilde, Edward 
Wolbei t, William C. 
WatMon, William J. 
Witmer, Francis 
Woodward, Randolph F. 
Werle, John H. 








1 



232 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 




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MOUNT JOY SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOL, 



233 



Home with mother. 
Mautuamaker, 

Home with mother. 

Married. 

House- work. 

Atten'g S.N.8.,Bloom8"g. 

Home with mother. 

Died, 1872. 

Married. 

Home with mother. 

i Teaching. Graduated at 
Shippensburg S. N. S. 

( Dining-room assistant, 
I Mount Joy S. 0. S. 

(Discharged on age, un- 
< der provisions of an act 
( approved May 27, 1870. 

Died. 1875. 
Married. 
Married. 
Printer. 

Home with mother. 

Married. 

Home with mother. 

Atten'gS.N.S.,Miller8v'le 

Milliner. 

Teaching. 

Married. 

Married. 

Married. 

Home with mother. 


lis 
III 


Jonestown. 

Jonestown. 

Marietta. 

Mount Joy. 

Marietta. 

New Holland. 

Lebanon. 

Lebanon. 

Six Mile Run.... 

Saxton. 

Philadelphia.... 

Lebanon 

Mifflinville 

Coatesville 

Coatesvllle 

Newport 

Wilkesbarre.... 

Union Corner. 

Uuion Comer... 

Catawissa. 

Middletown. 

Lime Valley.... 

Danville. 

Danville. 

Lime Valley. 

Middletown. 

Pottsville. 


Strasburg. 
Btrasburg. 

Bart 

Bart 

Bart 

Lancaster 

York. 

Philadelphia.... 

McF.wensville. 

Strasburg 

Bloom sburg. 

Danville. 

Kreidersville. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelr-hia. 


u 


Reading 

Reading 

Merccrsburg. 
Philadelphia. 

lola 

Middletown 






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Sept. 1, 1872 
Apr. 2. 1R74 
Mar. 25, 1871 
Nov. 7. 1H68 
Dec. 16. 1870 




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Emmaus 
















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Sept. 1, 1872 
Oct. 3. 1H72 
Feb. 14, 1873 
Fel.. 14. 1873 
Feb. 14, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 24, 1873 
Oct. 27, 1873 
.Mar. 24, 1874 
Mar. 24, 1874 
.May 8, 1874 
May 4, 1875 
Sept. 13, 1866 
June 27. 1867 
Sept. 1, 1.^68 
Apr. 20, 1869 
Oct. 14. 1869 
Jan. 13, 1870 
.Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1872 
.Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1873 
.Sept. 1, 1874 
Oct. 12, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1874- 
Sept. 1. 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Jan. 18, 1H75 
June 8, 1875 
Apr. 20, 1,S69 
Dec. 20, 1864 
Dec. 20, 1864 
Apr. 1.5, 1865 
Apr. 15, 1865 
Sept. 3, 1867 
July 1, 1865 
Mar. .30, 1866 
Sept. 13. 1866 
June 1,1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Oct. 2, 1875 
Jan. 18, 1865 
Jan. 18. 1865 
Sept. 3. 1865 
Feb. 1, 1869 
Sept. 3. 1865 
Oct. 26, 1865 
Sept. 12, 1865 
Sept. 12, l.Hfi5 
Mhv 12, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
June 1, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1869 


Sept. 10, 1859 
June J6, lMo8 
Nov. 22, 1861 
Dec. 9, 1«H3 
Apr. 22, 1865 
July 10, I860 
Deo. 20, Itttil 
Julv 1, 1865 
Aug. 9, 1861 
Fel). U, 1861 
Apr. 19, 1«63 
Dec. 25, 1858 
Mar. 23, 1866 
Nov. 30, 1853 
Apr. 7, 1857 
Oct. 5, 1853 
Apr. 11, 1856 
Oct. 26, 1858 
Deo. 29, 1856 
May 22, 1859 
Jan. 8, 1860 
June 16, 1858 
Dec. 5, 1862 
Nov. 30, 1862 
Mar. 22, 1857 
Apr. 21, 1865 
Feb. 24. 1867 
Dec. 7, 186;i 
Feb. 20, 1861 
July 12, 1861 
July 27, 1854 
Apr. 19, 1854 
Feb. 8, 1851 
Feb. 1,1858 
Sept. 7, 1H55 
Mar. 2, 1H54 
Deo. 19, 1852 
Jan. 2, 1851 
Jan. 1,1857 
June 18, 18.54 
Apr. 19, 1854 
Mar. •81,1863 
Apr. 16, 1864 
Nov. 4, 1861 
June 21. IHie 
Sept. 8, 18.53 
Sept. 1. iai6 
Apr. 2, 1858 
Mar. 25, 18,55 
Nov. 7. 18.52 
Dec. 16. 1854 
Aug. 3, 18.56 
May 30. 18.56 
Sept. 27, 1855 
Aug. 6, 18r,3 
Oct. 2, 1859 


i 1 

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Briglitbill, Marv 
Bngliibill, Elizabeth 
Brooks, Amanda 
Barlow, Serena 
Brown, Eliuiia E. 
Bowers, Elizabeth R. 
Benson, Mary J. 
Ben.son, Clementina 


Campbell, Mary J. 
Cook, Emma 
Creasy, Alvaretta J, 
Carr, Annie B. 
Carr, Amanda R. 
Combs, Hannah E. 


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Everman, Eleanor 
Eshelman, Susan R. 
Eshelman, Hai;er S. 
Eshelman, Lydia A. 


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MOUNT JOY soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 237 



Housework. 
Home with mother. 

Housework. Pittsburgh. 

At home with mother. 

Clerk. 

At home with mother. 

Married. 

In school. 

At home with mother. 

5 Teaching. Graduate of 

) Shippensburg S. N. S. 

Married. 

Housework. 

Housework. 

Mantuam&ker. 

Housework. 

Mantuamaker. 

Teaching. 

Mantuamaker. 
AttengS.N.8.,8hJppen'g. 

Housework. 
Atten'gS.N.S.,Mlllers'lle. 

Teaehing. 
Married. 

Hontework. 


MS a c 

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lllliii 


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til 


Chanoeford. 

Lebanon. 

Spruce Creek. 

Spruce Creek. 

Shirleysburg. 

Danville. 

Saxton. 

Harrisburg 

Fairmount, 111.. 


Danville 

Fairmount, 111... 
Fishing Creek. 
Fishing Creek. 

Bloomsburg 

Wakefield 

Wakefield 

Wakefield. 

Wakefield 

Bloomsburg. 
Benton. 

Bloorasburg 

We.1t Chester. 
West Chester. 
Mauhelm. 
Lancaster. 

Bainbridge 

Balhbridge 

Marietta 

Reading 

M.inayunk 

lola 

lola. 

MarietU 

Marietta 

Marietta. 

Catasauqna 

Lan.llsville 

Landisvllle. 

Lan.llsville 

LnndlsviUe 

Sinking Springs. 
Sinking Springs. 
Harrisburg. 
Middletown. 
Middletown. 
Rohrsburg 


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Cassville 
Cassville 
Cassville 

'white 'Haii'" 

Paradise 

Loysville 

Orangeville 

Emmaus 


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Cot. 31, 1860 
Oct. 24. 1861 
Sept. 30, 1863 
Oct. 20, 1865 
Aug. 10, 1861 
Oct. 4. 1805 
June 27, 1859 
Sept. 7, 1861 
Feb. 16, 1864 
Oct. 25, 1859 
May 3, 1861 
Feb. 18, 1863 
Feb. 6, 1860 
May 31, 1862 
Feb. 18, 1868 
Dec. 23, 1861 
Apr. 14, 1861 
Aug. 7, 1857 
Apr. 6, 1856 
Dec. 7, 1856 
Apr. 3, 1858 
Nov. 26, 1862 
Apr. 13, 1860 
Feb. 9, 1858 
Apr. 7, i860 
Nov. 15, 1858 
Dec. 7, 1863 
Nov. 3, 1857 
Mar. 9, 1861 
Aug. 20, 1862 
Apr. 18, 1855 
Feb. 5, 1856 
Sept. 30, 1856 
Mar. 2, 1854 
Sept. 21, 1852 
May 12, 1855 
Sept. 8, 1857 
July 5, 18.56 
Sept. 3, 1857 
Aug. 8, 1855 
Aug. 9, 1853 
Nov. 23, 1860 
Sept. 10, 18,58 
.Sept. 30, 1859 
Feb. 9. 1862 
Nov. 2.1, 1857 
July 5, 1859 
M.'.r. 10, 1861 
Aug. 26. 1857 
Oct. 9. 18.55 
Mar. 27, IftfiO 
Nov. 23, 1857 
Mar. 22, 1H59 
Deo. 12, 1860 
June 19, 1863 
Deo. 16, 1859 


Sharlock, Anna M. 
Sultzbach, Mary E. 
Styer, Sarah T. 
Simmers, Sarah E. 
Shaadt, Sarah 
Shaadt, Gertrude 
Shaadt, Rosa A. 


< 

111 


4 

II 


Schott, Maria L. 
Sohott, Ella M. 
Sneath. Lillie M. 
Slack, Mary A. 
Syling, R. Anna 
Theis, Matilda F. 
Taylor, Mary E. 


'i'aylor, Lucy J. 
Thomas, Ann E. 
Thomas, Ella I. 
Thomas. Sarah J. 


Tollinger, Emily R. 
Tollinger, Adrianna 
Tollinger, Sarah A. 
Tollinger, Mandeena 
Townsend, Hannah K. 
Titus, Phoebe E. 
Thomas, Mary E. 
Woodward, Rachel A. 


Jf 


Weidraan, Mary 
Woodward, Emily 0. 
Wild, Sarah J. 
Warner. Annie M. 


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Whitmoyer, Amelia 0. 
Whitmovor, Ellen R. 
Walton, "Susan J. 
Welker, Anna 
Welker, Fanny 
Whitenight, Rachel E. 



238 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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EMMAUS ORPHAN HOUSE, 




HIS institution, located at Middletown, Dauphin county, 
owes its existence to the benevolence of Mr. George Frey, 
who was a native of Germany. Some time before his 
death he willed his large estate to a Board of Trustees, 
who were to establish with it an orphanage, and support it with the 
revenues arising therefrom. In his will he gave minute directions 
as to the kind of food, clothing, education, etc., which should be 
afforded the orphans. He died on the thirteenth day of May, 1806, 
at the age of seventy-four. During the year of his death he was 
engaged in erecting a building for an orphan home, which was never 
finished. Nothing was done until the year 1835, when measures 
were taken to put up a building for orphans, which was completed 
in 1837. This edifice occupied a central position in the town. Up 
to 1840 but from two to five orphans were maintained by the estate. 
In 1873 a new building was erected, beautifully situated upon an 
eminence north of the town, and just outside of the borough line. 
The heirs of the " Frey estate " have made repeated but unsuccess- 
ful attempts to abrogate the will, which deprived them of so much 
property. 

Soldiers' orphans were, by a contract between Superintendent 
Burrowes and the Trustees, first admitted into the institution May 
6, 1865. Eleven were received during the first year. At the 
end of 1866, thirty-one of this class were on the rolls of the asylum. 
The number did not much exceed thirty in attendance at any one 
time. Soldiers' orphans continued to be educated and maintained 
here till the spring of 1869, when the State Superintendent trans- 
ferred them to Mount Joy and other schools for soldiers' orphans. 

239 



240 



PEXXA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 




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16 




DAYTON SCHOOL. 



f^-^ I HIS institution is located in the town of Dayton, a village 



m 



containing about four hundred inhabitants, and occupying 
a beautiful site in the extreme north-east part of the 
county of Armstrong. The town is in the midst of a thrifty 
agricultural community, and the people of both town and county are 
noted for their morality, intelligence, and devotion to the cause of 
education. 

When it was first known, in the summer of 1866, that an orphan 
school was needed somewhere in this or the adjoining counties, it was 
very generally conceded that Dayton was the proper place for its 
establishment. Her citizens, having been apprised of this fact, 
promptly took the subject under consideration, and after holding 
one or two meetings, and determining to engage in the enterprise, 
deputed Rev. D. K. Duff to confer, in reference to the matter, with 
Hon. Thomas H. Burro wes, then Superintendent of Soldiers* Orphans. 
Dr. Burrowes, having been advised of the movement here, visited 
the place, and, after making a verbal agreement with some of the 
leading men for the opening of a school, selected the site on which 
the buildings now stand. A company was then formed with a capi- 
tal of $15,000, and was composed of twenty-two members ; namely, 
Revs. D. K. Duff and T. M. Elder, Drs. William Hosack and J. R. 
Crouch, and Messrs. Robert Marshall, Wesley Pontius, William R. 
Hamilton, William Marshall, T. P. Ormond, Thomas H. Marshall, 
Smith Neal, William Morrow, W. J. Burns, J. W. Marshall, Samuel 
Good, J. H. Rupp, William Hindman, John Beck, Jacob Beck, John 
Craig, David Ijawson, and David Byers. 

Buildings were rented until more suitable accommodations could 
be procured. 

242 



DAYTON SCHOOL. 243 

During the fall of 1866 the company bought tliirty-five acres of 
land, and immediately proceeded to the erection of buildings. Three 
two-story houses were built, as may be seen by reference to the 
engraving preceding this sketch. The first house, 72x24 feet in 
size, was ready for use in the early part of the spring of 1867 ; the 
second, 72x36 feet, was built during the summer and fall of the same 
year ; and the third, 86x40 feet, was ready to be occupied by the 
1st of September, 1868. These houses were all substantial frame 
structures, well suited to their purpose, and, together, capable of 
accommodating about two hundred and twenty-five children. In 
December, 1873, two of these houses, the first and the last built, and 
nearly all their contents, were destroyed by fire ; but were replaced 
within six months by two others, one of which — the smaller — 'was 
eight feet wider than the one it replaced ; while both were better and 
more convenient than the former ones. 

Rev. T. M. Elder was chosen Principal, and conducted the school 
from its commencement till his resignation, which took effect on the 
first day of September, 1871. The school opened, November 1, 
1866, with sixty scholars, forty of whom were transfers from Phil- 
lipsburg and North Sewickley State Orphan Schools. Up to the date 
of Rev. Elder's resignation, the whole number of children admitted 
into the school was three hundred and three. Of these, two had 
died ; one had been transferred to another school ; seven had been 
discharged by order of the Superintendent; ninety had been dis- 
charged by reason of age ; and two hundred and three were still 
members of the school, but six of them had been absent for some 
time. The average number of children in attendance for this period 
of time was one hundred and fifty-seven. The health of the children 
was remarkably good, there being very few serious cases of sickness, 
and no diseases except those incident to childhood, — such as measles, 
whooping-cough, etc. The measles went through the school in the 
spring of 1868, and directly or indirectly caused the two deaths 
above referred to. 

Rev. J. E. Dodds was chosen Principal, and entered upon the 
duties of^ his position, September 1, 1871. By the next October, 
the number of orphans had increased to two hundred and fopfey- 
seven, — a greater number than could be properly taken care of with 
the accommodations then provided ; but Mr. Dodds was in no way 
blamable for this over-crowding of the school, the orders having been 
issued, and the arrangements made for the admission of the addi- 



244 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



tioual Dumber of children, before he took charge. Nor is the former 
Principal responsible ; it was an oversight consequent on the change 
of Principals. Through discharges, transfers, or otherwise, the 
number gradually decreased, till, on the fifth day of January, 1872, 
there were but one hundred and ninety scholars present. At 
this date Rev. Dodds resigned, and Professor Hugh McCandless, the 
present Principal, was chosen to take his place. From this time 
to the present the health of the school has been good, there having 
been but one death, and very little sickness of any kind, considering 
the large number in attendance. The average number of pupils 
during the last four years was two hundred and six. The whole 
number of orphans received into the school from its commencement 
to the present time was four hundred and ninety-nine. Of these, 
three died; twenty-four were transferred to other schools; thirty- 
eight were discharged by order of the Superintendent ; two hundred 
and twenty-nine were discharged by reason of age — leaving now 
two hundred and five still in school. From the opening of the school 
to the present it has prospered far beyond the expectation of its sup- 
porters, and has been steadily increasing in efficiency and in favor 
with the people. None now openly oppose the system, and all have 
encouraged and heartily supported the present Principal in his man- 
agement of the school. The children who have gone out from the 
school show, by their course in society, that the training received 
here is at least as good a preparation for the duties of life as that 
obtained elsewhere. 

The following persons have been officially employed in this school 
at various times since its organization, viz. : 



]yir. J. P. Barber, 
" G. W. Innes, 



Miss T. E. Lindsay, 
" H.A.Boyle, 
" M. W. McConnell, 
" E. G. Guthrie, 
" M. E. McCandless, 
" Emma Johnston, 
" M. E. McCreery, 

Mrs. M. A. Lockhart, 

Mr. John Book, 



Principal Teachers.* 

Mr. W. McKirahan, | Mr. M. L. Thounhurst. 
" A. T. Ormond, 



Assistant Teachers. 

Miss Jennie Gibson, 
" W. A. Palmer, 
" S. R. Meaner, 
" M. Black, 
" Ray Upperman, 
" M. A. Walker, 
" M. M. McCreery, 

Mr. H. A. Teats, 
" J. B. Powers, 



Miss Martha Marshall, 
" Jennie Marshall, 
" P. Ma»shall, 
" M. Simpson, 
" Jennie Wasson, 
" Emma Smith, 
" Lizzie Kepple, 
Mr. J. R. Wylie, 
Miss Susie Frantz. 



DAYTON SCHOOL. 



245 



Superintendents of Boys. 

Mr. M. M. Elder, Mr. W. F. Byers, Mr. John Black, 

" J. W. Kelly, " John Armstrong, " C. Everhart. 

" E. Morrow, " W. P. Oberlin, 



Miss M. Marshall, 
" H. Rupp, 
" Mattie White, 
" Maggie English, 
" Florida Goodhart, 
" Mattie Fitzgerald, 
Mattie Moreland, 

Mrs. S. J. Stroup, 
" Susan Myers, 
" A. Lawson, 



Employees. 

Miss Lizzie McElhany, 
" Hattie Sloan, 
" Lizzie Stewart, 
" M. M. Morrow, 
" N.S.Morrow, 
" M. Dill, 

Mrs. Jennie Lawton, 
" E. McCutcheon, 
" A. Thounhurst, 
" J. McElwee, 



Miss Mary McConnell, 
" Lydia Richards, 
" Susan Olinger, 
" Lizzie Walker, 
" Jennie Martin, 

Mrs. H. Gourley, 
\' M. A. Weamer, 
" Jane Work, 

Miss M. Oliver. 




246 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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Farming. 

With his mother. 
Farming. 

Walnut itreet. 

Works at blacksmithing. 

C Attending Kdinboro' 
I State Normal School. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 

Red Bk Furn'oe. 
Gilpiu. 


Gilpin. 

Gilpin. 

Gilpin. 

Craigville. 

Craigville. 

Smitten. 

.Sootoh Hill. 

Brookville. 

Marchaud. 

Marcliaud 

Clarksburg. 
Tuniielion. 
Brush Valley. 

Brookville 

Reyuoldsville. 

Marchand 

Brookville. 
Brookville. 


Hudson. 

New Bethlehem. 

Marohand. 

Brookville. 

Kimersburg. 

Marchand. 

Marchand. 

Brady's Bend. 

Alleghenv. No.29 

Callenshurg. 

Manorville. 

Rural Valley. 

Brady's Bend. 

Manorville. 

MiteheU'R Mills. 

Putnevville. 

Puinp'vville. 

Pittsburgh. 

BrockwHyville. 

Cowansville. 

Cowansville 

Revnolrtsville. 

Reynoldsvllle. 

Revnoldsville. 

Revnolrtsville. 

Blairsville. 

Blanket Hill.... 

Blanket Hill. 


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Apr. 1, 1875 
Dec. 6. 1874 




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Mar. 12, 1871 
Oct. 8, 1874 
July 21, 1874 

"Apr.'io, "1873' 


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Oct. -22, 1868 


-»QO-»»ao!^---j£"-^-j~;-l5'^''g;lN«flO-oo-oo-xoo-oo--^^^ 


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BiBTH. 
Apr. 1. 1859 


June 6, 1860 
Nov. 3, 1861 
Nov. 3, 1862 
Jan. 11, 1859 
May 21, 1861 
Nov. 1. 1862 
Mar. 12, 1853 
May 21, 1856 
Feb. 12, 1853 
Mar. '27, 1857 
Dec. -25. 1855 
Mar. 12, 1855 
Oct. 8, 1858 
July 21, 1858 
July -29, 1859 
Apr. 20, 1857 
Jan. 1, 1862 
Jan. 8, 1858 
Mar. 8, 1859 
May 10, 1862 
Mar. 19, 1858 
July 11, 1861 
Feb. 14, 1863 
July 11, 1862 
July 14. 1859 
Nov. 19, 1861 
Nov. 27, 1858 
Feb. 22, 1861 
Nov. 29, 1861 
Nov. 15, 1860 
Mav 21, 1863 
Nov. 19, 1860 
Nov. 14. 1862 
May 28. 1865 
Aug. 14, 1858 
Feb. 9. 1863 
July 23, 1866 
Oct. 21, 1864 
Aug. '26, la-iS 
Mar. 22, 1855 
June '22, 1852 
Mar. 28, 18.'i6 
Apr. '23, 1858 
July 10, 1860 
Mar. 3, 1854 
May 9, 1856 
Jan. 15, 1859 


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Barr, Robert 
Brown, James E. 
Brown, Jacob S. 
Bailey, Rolaud A. 
Bush, William C. 
Bradv, Evans R. 
Burn*. Elmer E. 
Burns. Robert N. 


Bnms, Lorenzo 
Bowers, John L. 
Bailey, John L. 
Brady, William P. 
Bailey, Miles M. 
Bretrster, James L 


Bush, Philip 
Burford, .Samuel A. 
Bail, George W. 
Burns, James 
Bumham, Harry J. 
Burket, John E. 
Byers, John S. 
Bumham, David S. 
Barbour, Franklin 


Brown, James F. 
Burns. George O. 
Briggs, Frank 
Cowan, James P. 
Cowan. William T. 
Carl, Henry L. 
Carl, Jasper A. 
Carl, Isaac Newtoa 


4i 

i 



DAYTON SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



247 



Farming. 
Farmiug. 

Farming. 

• 

Panning. 

Died Jan. 30, ISTi. 


Kerr's Store. 

Mahouing 

Sprankle's Mills. 

Rlmersburg. 

Blanket Hill. 

Brady's Bend. 

Brady's Bend. 

Red Bk Furn'oe 

W'nitesburg. 

kittanning. 

Kittanning. 

Dtah. 

Brookville. 

Brookville. 

Helen Furnace.. 

Smicksburg. 

Brady. 

Hillside. 

Callensburg. 

Clarion. 

Clarion. 

Orrsville. 

Orrsville. 

Shannondale. 

'unxsutawney. 

Punxsutawney. 

Puiixsuuwney. 

Willet. 

Wlllet. 

Willet. 

CurlUville. 

Armagh. 

Sprankle'i IfUU. 

Davton. 

Adrian. 

Blanket HIil.... 

Blanket Hill.... 

Elderton. 

Milton. 

Orrsville. 

Kbenozer. 
Frost burg. 
Brush Valley. 
Homer City. 
Worthville. 
Worthville. 
Helen Furn«c«. 
Pho-nix. 
Brush Valley. 
Homer City. 
Frostburg. 
Brush Valley. 
Davtnn. 
Phixntx. 
Butler. 








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Cessna, John S. 
Cochrane, Andrew 
Carson, WiUard H. 
Cravener, John M. 


Crozier, Samuel 
Craig, William T. A. 
Craig, John W. 
Coder, Henrv L. 
Coder, John'A. 
Donahey, Thomas N. 
Davis, John E. 


Davis, William 
Dolby, William L. 
Davis, Peter E. 
Doty, Daniel "W. 
Drunimond, James W. 
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Fairbanks, George W. 
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Fairbanks. William W. 
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PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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DAYTON soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL 



249 



Farming. 
Farming. 
Farming 

Farmiug. 

With hli mother. 

(Attended Edinboro' 
.? State Normal School 
{ one year. 

( Discharged on age, nn- 
^ der pro vision 8 of an act 
( approved May 37, 1870. 


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June 7, 1868 
Aug. «, 1870 


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Long, Lyman L. 
Latimer, James E. 
Latimer, Joseph I. 
Latimer, William E. 
Law, Carl Clayton 
Lowry, John R. 
Little, Edwin T. 
Lloyd, Richard 
Morrison, W. Ambrose 
Morrison, Samuel S. 
Morrison, Milton 


Mathers, William H. A. 
Mathers, Samuel I. 
Mathers, Hugh H. 
Mathers, John R. 
Meade, Wesley 
Meade, George H. 
McCormick, Thomas J. 
McKelvy, Charles 
MoKelvy, Jacob 
McKelvv, James 
McKelv>, George 
Myers, James S. 
Myers, John M. 
McLaughlin, John A. 
McLaughlin, Thomas 


Martin, William R. 
Martin, William L. 
Martin, Henry J. 
Mortimer, Martin E. 
Morrow. Georire S. 


Morrow, John A. 
McCutcheon, Roberto, 
McClain, Charles O. 
McMillen, Henry 
Metcalf, Frank E. 


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DAYTON SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL, 



261 



5Re.admitted to this 
I School Sept. 16, 1875. 

With her mother. 
With her mother. 
At domestic servioe. 

With her mother 

With her mother. 
Married to Chris. Smith. 
C Attending Indiana St'e 
I Normal School. 
With her mother. 
With her mother. 

With her mother. 


Porterfleld 

Knoxdale. 

Putneyville. 

Putueyville. 

Echo, 

Rimersburg. 

Corsica'. 

Wall Rose. 

ShoffnersCor's. 

Leechburg. 

Oliveburg. 

Olivet. 

Brady's Bend. 

Fi.sher. 

Horton. 

Plumville. 

Brookville. 

Brookville. 

Brookville. 

Elderton. 

Elderton. 

Kittanuing. 

Tannery. 

Rochester Mills. 

Elizabeth. 

Fo.ster's Mills. 

New Bethlehem. 

Kittnnning. 

Punxsutawney. 

PuQxsuuwuey. 

Red Bk Fnrn'ce. 
Red B'k Furuce, 


a = 

11 


Brookville. 

Marchand 

Putneyville 

Rural Valley. 

Davton 

Kittanning 

Kittnnning 

Brookville. 
Reynoldsville. 
Dayton. 
Brookville. 
New Bethlehem. 

Marchand 

Putnevville. 
FroRtburif. 
Marchand. 
Adamn. 
Brady's Bend. 


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Feb. 2, 1870 
Mar, 6, 1871 
Dec. 14. 1870 
Nov. 26, 1H69 
June 12, 1875 








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Deo. 21, 1870 
Apr. 6, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 


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Feb. 20, 1859 
Sept. 7, 1862 
Deo. 12, 1860 
Nov. 9, 1863 
June 13, 1862 
Mar. 27, 1859 
Apr. 26, 1862 
Dec, 25, 1860 
Oct. 27. 1861 
Dec. 12, 1864 
Jan. 16, 1860 
Feb. 27, 1862 
Apr. 12, 1855 
Mar. 24. 1861 
Apr. 8, 1856 
Oct. 6, 1854 
Apr. 24, 1856 
July 3, 1860 
Nov. 14, 1857 
Apr. 29. 1854 
Mav 29, 1858 
Aug. 16, 1858 
Apr. 11, 1862 
Mav 25. 1859 
Feb. 17, 1H60 
Feb. 25, 1861 
Dec. 25, 1861 
June 3, 1858 
Sept. 11, 1861 
Mar. 28, 1859 

Sept. SO, 1853 
May 2, 1857 
Nov. 3, 1856 
May 4, 1860 
Feb. 18, 1856 
Feb, 2, 1854 
Mar. 6, 1855 
Deo. 14, 1854 
Nov. 26, 1853 
June 12, iai9 
June 16, 18.58 
Nov, 5. 1859 
Mar. 16, 1861 
Dec. 10, 1860 
July 2, 1861 
Oct. 6, 1860 
Oct. 7, 1859 
Mar. 12, 18,59 
July 18, 1860 
Oct. 1, 1860 
Mar. 2, 1864 
Feb. 17, 1862 
Jan. 21, 1862 


lilt 

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Slogeuhaupt, Wm. K. 
Snyder, Charles 
Snyder, Henry 
Scott, Robert Mo 
Scheckler, Oeorge 
Stitt. William J. 


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Echo. 

Ringgold 

Sprenkle'sMiUa. 
Ringgold. 
Ringgold. 
Brady's Bend. 
Brookville. 
Brookville. 
Slioffner's Cor's. 
Parker City. 
Leecliburg. 
New Bethlehem. 
Froslhurg. 
Kichardsville. 


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Franklin. 

Brookville. 

Brookville. 

Brookville. 

Brookville 

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Mar. 11, 1872 
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Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Sept. 2, 1873 
Sept. '2, 1873 
Oct. 28, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1. 1873 
Sept. 18, 1874 
Dec. 2, 1874 
May 3, 1875 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, l»i8 
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Jan. 4, 1869 
Jan. 4, 1869 
Jan. 4, 1869 
Oct. 31. 1866 
Oct. 31, 1866 
May 29, 1875 
Jan. 14, 1873 
Apr. -28, 1873 
Jan. 5, 1875 
July 20, 1869 
Feb. 21, 1871 




May 9, 1854 
Apr. 10, 1853 
Mar. 29, 186;i 
Dec. 6, 1858 
Mar. 11, 1856 
May 14, 1853 
Mar. 26, 1854 
July 15, 1855 
July 9, 1859 
Sept. 4, 1854 
May 6, 1860 
Nov. 4, 1857 
Sept. 4, 1860 
May 5, 1862 
Apr. 12, 1857 
Jau. 12, 1862 
Sept. 5, 1858 
Feb. 9, 1861 
May 22, 1861 
Oct. 27, 1863 
Oct. 10, 1861 
Jan. 25, 1860 
Apr. 22, 1860 
S^b. 14, 1861 
Nov. 6, 1861 
Sept. 18, 1862 
Aug. 15. 1861 
Feb. 5, 1858 
May 5, 1860 
Apr. 7, 1862 
May 5, 1854 
Mar. 10, 1856 
June 3, ia58 
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July 12, 18.56 
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ORANGEVILLE SCHOOL. 




UST below the far-famed Wyoming Valley, the mountain 
which forms its western boundary is suddenly parted, and, 
through the opening gorge, flows into the Susquehanna 
the Nanticoke Creek. Thence south-south-west runs the 
mountain thirty miles further, broken only by Shickshinny Creek, 
and forms the western wall of the North Susquehanna Valley. 
Here its path is crossed by Fishing Creek, and its termination is so 
abrupt as to have suggested its name, " Knob Mountain." 

Quietly nestled in a recess at the base of this knob, and shielded 
by it from both northern and western blasts, is the village in which, 
January 2, 1865, was started one of the first of the soldiers' orphan 
schools of Pennsylvania. 

Five years before had the citizens of Orangeville completed the 
beautiful structure that crowns the hill, which, from below the knob, 
overlooks the village, and during this time had their school been in 
Buccessful operation ; first, as an academy one year under Professor 
J. A. Shank ; then, four years as a normal school under Professor 
H. D. Walker. During the year 1865, its name and purpose re- 
mained unchanged, and the orphans who were received into it became 
members of its preparatory and model classes. In 1866, its name 
was changed, and for the next two years it was known as the Orange- 
ville Soldiers' Orphan School. 

Ita History commenced January 2, 1865, and closed May 31, 
1868. 

The year 1865 was one of trial and labor to the Principal, — 
a large projwrtion of the orphans admitted coming from homes 
of great destitution. Mothers who were able to support their 

25G 



ORANGEVILLE SCHOOL. 



257 



children were unwilling to send them to the orphan schools, which 
were, at that early period of their history, falsely regarded by them 
as charitable institutions. To clothe and otherwise prepare these 
children so that they might be presentable in the school-room, and 
to reform their habits, unfoW their minds, and cultivate their hearts 
was no play-day task. 

During this year, also, there was no home into which the orphans 
could be gathered. Boarding-houses had to be extemporized. A 
hotel was hired and filled. The citizens opened their doors, and 
received the homeless ones into their families. Not less than a half 
score of soldiers' widows hired rooms in the village, and were per- 
mitted to board their own children, and in some instances the chil- 
dren of others. But this irregularity was not long permitted to con- 
tinue. In September of said year, Superintendent Burrowes, while 
on a visit to the school, announced that, at the earliest possible day, 
a home must be provided sufficiently large to accommodate all the 
orphans. After his return to Lancaster, he wrote more definitely, 
insisting that the necessary buildings should l)e erected at once, and 
made ready for occupancy as soon as April, 1806. 

Accordingly, in October, the foundations were laid of what was 
subsequently known as the '* Orphans' Home ;" and in April follow- 
ing, the buildings were finished, furnished, and occupied. Of these 
buildings — planned, built, and furnished by Professor Walker — Dr. 
Burrowes and his Inspector, Colonel W. L. Bear, made a careful and 
minute examination in May; at the close of which, the Superin- 
tendent, in the presence of the Inspector and others, said : " I have 
visited the orphan schools of Pennsylvania, and of many other 
States, but I have never been in a 'home' which, in my opinion, 
combines so many comforts and advantages as this." 

The year from April, 1866, to April, 1867, was one of renewed 
activity and marked success. Prominent among the objects of aim in 
the education of the orphan wards of the State was the formation of 
proper habits; such as cleanliness, order, industry, obedienco, and 
truthfulness. It was the constant effort of Professor Walker to 
inspire his pupils with noble thoughts and purposes, and to make 
them feel that, while striving to do right and to be good, God was 
by their side to aid them and make them happy ; and that by doing 
wrong, they would degrade themselves, sin against God, and could 
never be truly prosperous or happy. 

The organization of the school was as perfect as, in the nature of 
17 



258 

the case and the limited period of its existence, was possible. A 
complete course of study was arranged, and a succession of classes 
formed, beginning wiLli the elements of knowledge, and rising to the 
highest point reached by the foremost pupils. 

The school year was divided into sessions, and the amount of study 
to be accomplished in each, definitely fixed. Each orphan, on enter- 
ing the school, was carefully examined, and placed in the class whose 
studies he was fitted to pursue. The curriculum of study embraced 
all the branches needed to prepare the student for the pursuits of 
business, or the duties of the teacher. The teaching was thorough, 
systematic, and practical ; and pupils were promoted from class to 
class on the ground of scholarship, and not of age or time. 

In November, 1866, Dr. Burrowes again visited the school in com- 
pany with his Inspectors, Messrs. Bear and Kow ; and, after a two 
days' examination of the school and home, of the sleeping-rooms and 
beds, the working departments and the clothing, and of the persons 
and sanitary condition of the orphans, pronounced the school as 
being in all respects, and without any disparity of others, " the best 
soldiers' orphan school in the State ; " and this result of their visit 
was reported by the local press, and in the Pennsylvania School Jour- 
nal, Before the time for another inspection. Dr. Burrowes retired 
from the Superin tendency, and was succeeded by Colonel George F. 
McFarland. 

During the years 1867 and 1868, the Orangeville School was 
visited almost from week to week by teachers, physicians, lawyers, 
and ministers of the gospel ; and their testimony as to its superior 
sanitary condition, the perfection of its arrangements, both in the 
literary and working departments, and the good order and high 
scholarship of its members, was unequivocal and uniform. 

Such is a brief sketch of the Orangeville Soldiers' Orphan School. 
Its history closed with the removal of the orphans. May 31, 1868 ; 
and among the unfoldings of the "final judgment" will be a com- 
plete revelation of its influences and results. 

The teachers and employees who served during its existence were 
as follows, viz. : 

Principal and Proprietor. 
Prof. H. D. Walker, A. M. 

Physicians. 

Jacob Schuyler, M. D., J. B. Case, M. D., 

0. A. McGargell, M. D. 



ORANGEVILLE SCHOOL. 



259 



First Assistant Teachers. 



Prof. C. W. Walker, 
Mr. C. C. Hughes, 
" M. E. Walker, 



Miss Kate Patterson, 
" Effie Vance, 
" S. E. Patterson. 



Miss M. S. Eves, 
" L. E.Walker. 



Teachers of Music and Drawing. 
Miss M. E. Rogers, Miss E. F. Browning, Miss N. C. Turner. 

Matrons. 
Mrs. C. Walker, Mrs. L. Blake, Miss P. Snyder. 

Seamstresses. 
Miss P. Snyder, Miss R. A. Hampton. 

Farmers. 
Mr. Wm. Patterson, Mr. H. B. Walker. 

Gardener. 
Mr. S. B. Appleman. 

Carpenters. 
Mr. Benjamin Wertman, Mr. A. B. Herring. 




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261 



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Jan. 23, 1866 
Sept. 21, 1866 
Nov. 28, 1865 
Jan. 2, 1866 
June 13, 1865 
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Mar. 30, 1866 
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Feb. 10, 1865 
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Feb. 20, 1866 




Heddings, Chas. R. 
Higgings, Thos. B. 
Hilbert, Wellington F. 
Hilbert, Henry 0. 
Hoyt, L. LifflngweU 
Hoyt, Samuel E. 


Hull, Charles C. 
Hunt, William M. 
Huntingdon, Jas. B. 
Jarrett, William H. 
Jarrett, Isaac P. 
Johnston, Fuller 
Kauf, William V. 
Kauf, Jacob M. 
Keefer, John 
Kembell, Peter 
Kibbee, Marlon A. 
Kibbee, James H. 
King, George W. 


Kline, Charles P. 
Kline, Cyrus B. 
Logan, Samuel 
Lyman, George B. 
McAfee, Thomas 
McAmley, Willis W. 
McCann, Orange L. 
MoGonnell, William 
McLean, George 
McLean, James 
Miles. John N. 


Miles, Erastus M. 
Miles, George 
Miller, John Jacob 
MiLsom, William J. 
Mordan,. Simeon 
Nickel. Jofin 


Nickel, Joseph 
Newberry, Grant 
Pyers, Franklin C. 
Ray, Charles E. 
Renn. Samuel R. 
Reicheldlffer, James L. 
Ribble, Eugene H. 
Richards, Harvey C. 
Rishel, James P. 
Rishel, John C. P. 


Rogers, Adelbert 
Sanders, Clarence W. 
Sanders, Michael E. 
Saxton, Millard F. 
Scott. Joseph E. 
Smith, Chas. E. 
Smith, Frank 



262 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 




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HARFORD SCHOOL, 




HIS institution is located at Harford, Susquehanna county, 
six miles from Montrose Station, on the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna, and Western Railroad. Its location is an elevated 
one, being on a spur of the Blue Ridge. The water and 
air are pure, and the climate cool and healthy. 

The " Harford University " was formerly located here. This was 
a select classical school, established in 1817, and for many years con- 
ducted by Professor Lyman Richardson. These buildings and an 
adjoining farm of one hundred and twenty-five acres were, in the 
autumn of 1865, purchased by Professor Chas. W. Deans, on the 
recommendation of the then Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, 
Hon. Thos. H. Burro wes, for a soldiers' orphan school. The old 
buildings were repaired and remodelled and additional ones erected. 

The school was opened on the 7th of November, 1865, Mr. Deans 
being Principal, which position he retained until March, 1868, when 
Professor Henry S. Sweet took charge, and has remained in control 
ever since, with the exception of the year 1873, during which Dr. 
H. N. Pennepacker had supervision of the institution. 

Eighteen children were in attendance at the opening of the school, 
but enough were admitted to raise the number to one hundred before 
the year closed. Additions were frequent, and the school constantly 
increased until the year 1871, when the maximum number was 
reached, there being then one hundred and seventy-four in attend- 
ance. Since that time the school has slowly decreased. There are 
at present one hundred and sixty-three on the roll. 

During the first year the school was fully organized. Competent 
persons were procured to superintend the various industrial de- 
partments. Lessons were given to the girls in the various domestic 
duties, as well as in the use of the needle and sewing-machine ; and 
the boys were taught how to do " chores " and to work on the farm. 

265 



266 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

Habits of industry were thus formed, and that degree of skill 
acquired, which has enabled many of the orphans, on leaving school 
at sixteen years of age, to secure good positions. 

The system of making work-details being observed, no child has 
been robbed of his or her opportunities for study. A full and 
experienced corps of teachers have been employed, and the school 
properly graded according to the proficiency of the pupils. All the 
common and higher English branches have been thoroughly taught, 
and occasionally lessons in the ancient languages have been imparted. 
Especial attention has been given to those desiring to become teach- 
ers, and many are offered schools immediately after leaving the 
orphan school, and have proved themselves competent. Five, accept- 
ing the gratuity of the State, have received a. normal school training; 
and permission has been granted by the State Superintendent to 
several others who will soon accept of the privilege so generously 
provided. Quite a number have remained at the school after becom- 
ing sixteen, being supported by friends or by their own labor, while 
others have continued their studies at other institutions than the 
normal schools. Vocal music has not been neglected, there being 
daily practice, and weekly instruction in the art of reading music. 
Lessons are also given, to those who desire it, in instrumental music. 

Drill in military tactics has, for a number of yeai-s, been required 
daily when the weather was favorable — company movements being 
understood by the boys. 

Religious observances and instruction have formed an interesting 
feature of the school since its origin. The pupils have, at all periods 
of its history, been required to repair to the main school-room at 
eight o'clock in the morning and at seven in the evening for devo- 
tional exercises, which have often been interspersed with short lec- 
tures on manners and morals. Religious services have been con- 
ducted at the school alternately by ministers of the various religious 
denominations residing in the vicinity. On Sundays, all the pupils 
liave regularly attended Sunday-school, which is conducted by the 
Principal, assisted by the teachers and various employees. 

From 1871 to 1874 the boarding department was conducted sepa- 
rately by Mr. Chas. S. Hallstead. This was transferred, at the latter 
date, to Mr. A. J. Seamans, who still boards the school. 

The sanitary condition of the school has always been excellent. 
During the year 1871, however, typhoid fever prevailing in the 
vicinity, the orphans did not escape the epidemic. Five cases proved 
fatal. Besides these there has been one sudden death, one from 



HARFORD SCHOOL. 



267 



erysipelas, one from diphtheria, and two from dropsy. No serious 
accident has ever befallen any of the pupils. The school has passed 
through the ordinary diseases of childhood without any fatal results. 
A physician has at all times been employed. A hospital is connected 
with the institution under the charge of an excellent nurse, but it 
has been vacant the greater part of the time. 

We give herewith a list of persons officially connected with the 
school since its organization. 

Teachebs. 
Mrs. Hellen Follett, 
Miss Sarah Beebe, 
" M. I. Gillitte, 
" Addie Carpenter, 
" Anna Eastman, 
Mr. Robert McAlpin, 



Miss H. A. Williams, 
" Alice Welsh, 
" Kate Gould, 
" Esther M. Orvis, 
" E. P. Gamble, 

Mrs. Emma Redfield, 



Mr. Chas. E. Harris, 
" Payson Brewster, 
" Silas Belles, 
" Frederick Miller, 
" Myron Kasson. 



Mrs. S. Sterling, 
*•' Emma Redfield, 



Miss Ida Crandall, 
" Lizzie Beebe, 



Mrs. Sarah Stevens, 
" Adeline Brewster, 



Mrs. Welsh, 
" Sarah Tewk^ury, 



Matrons. 
Mrs. Mary Crandall, 
" Hellen Stroupe, 

Assistant Matrons. 

Miss Alpha Reynolds, 
" Jennie Morgan, 
" Lillie Tifiany, 

Seamstresses. 
Miss Sarah Gelatt, 
" Mary Brainard, 

Nurses. 
Miss Snowden, 
Mrs. M. A. Wilber, 



Mrs. H. S. Sweet, 
Miss G. Williams. 



Miss Isadore Carpenter, 
" Alice Tucker. 



Miss Laura Pierson, 
Mrs. Corey E. Burgess. 



Mrs. Sarah Rehrig, 
" L. A. Miller. 



Superintendent of Boys. 
Mr. Henry Deans, I Mr. Geo. Johnson, I Mr. William Jones. 

" S. C. Halsted, | Mr. William Sweet, 



Stewards. 
Mr. Charles S. Hallstead, 

Farmers. 
Mr. Theran Palmer, 
" Jasper Lewis, * 

Teamsters. 
Mr. Lyman Ward, Mr. John Gavitt, 



Mr. A. J. Seamans. 



Mr. Horace Sweet, 
" Henry A. Brainard. 



Mr. Edgar Farrar, 



268 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 







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HARFORD SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



269 



Painter. 

Teamster. 

Farmer. 

Died Jan. 23, 1871. 

At school at Harford. 

Engineer. 

Blacksmith. 

Teamster. 

Sawver. 

Sawder. 

Braken. D.L.&W.B.E. 

Butcher. 

Miner. 

Fanner. 

Laborer. 

Died Nov. 3, 1874. 

Farming. 

Died May 20, 1870. 

Gone to Michigan. 
Miner. 

Died Jan. 23, 1871. 

Miner. 
Stage. driver. 

Farming. 
Wheelwright. 

Currier. 
Currier. 
Laborer. 

W\Bnt Weat. 


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Laurel Run 


Kingston 

Friendsville 

Laddsburgh. 
Laddsburgh. 
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Montrose. 
Bowman's Creek. 
Hunlock Creek.. 
Forkston. 

Monroe 

Osceola. 

Osceola. 

Osceola. 

Osceola. 

Bald Mount. 

Forkston. 

Kingston 

Haxleton 

Haxleton. 

Dundafr 

R. Smithfleld. 
Reresio. 
Rereno.. 
Troy. 

Factoryville 

Factoryville. 

Tunkhaisnock. 

Hales Eddy. 

Dundaff. 

Forkston. 

.Shultiville. 

Brookdale 

Friendsville 


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Estea, George W. 
Evans. John R. 
Eashy, David 
Evans, William 
Evans, Byron B. 
Finch, Eugene 


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270 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 







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271 



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Farming. 
Farming. 
Printer. 
Farming. 

Farmer. 

Baker. 
Blacksmith. 
Sash factory. 

Carpenter. 

Miner. 

Died Dec. — , 1874. 

Teamster. 

Clerk. 
Farmer. 

Clerk. 
Blacksmith. 
Clerk. 
Farmer. 

Clerk. 
Clerk. 
U. S. Service. 


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Rowland. 

Sugar Run. 

Olvphant. 

Olyphant. 

Green Uiore. 

Forkston. 

Terry town. 

Sunar Run. 

Damascus. 

Sjlvania. 

Old Forge. 

Plymouth. 

Duiidaff. 

Forkston. 




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Mar. 24, 1871 
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PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



REMARKa 


Died April 1st, 1875. 
Telegraph operator. 

Pirem'nonD.L.&W.B.R. 

Farmer. 

<; Attended Mansfield S. 
I Nor. School one year. 
Farmer. 
doTy. 

Farming. 

Engineer on D. & H.B.B. 

Miner. 

Killed in coal-mines. 

Teacher. 

Miner. 

Farmer. 

Brakeman. 
an CO., N. Y. 


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Oct. 10, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Mar. 10, 1873 
Mar. 10, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
May I, 1871 
May 1, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Oct. 10, 1873 
Mar. 17. 1874 
Mar. 16, 1875 
Mar. 16, 1875 
Mar. 1, 1875 
Nov. 22, 1873 
Nov. 14, 1865 
-Mar. 1, 1866 
Sept. 2», 1866 
Mar. 24, 1866 
Sept. 9. 1875 
Sept. 20, 1866 
Oct. 16, 1869 
June 1, 1871 
Junel, 1871 
Apr. 25, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
June 2, 1875 
Nov. 29, 1866 
Nov. 29, IS66 
Mar. 24, 1869 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Feb. 19, 1866 
June 16, 1866 
Nov. 27, 1867 
Sept. 10, 1867 
Feb. 27, 1868 
Sept. 6, 1869 
Oct. 7, 1869 
Feb. 23, 1870 
Apr. 24. 1874 
Sept. 8, 1874 
Sept. 16. 1873 
May 4, 1874 
.Sept. 1, 1874 
Feb. 26, 1866 


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Staa.bary, tiche H. 
Slaasbnrv. E. Truck 
Smith, Charles E. 
Smith, Miles 
Soon. John 
Stark. Charles 0. 
Steams, (.eorge W. 
Sttirgis. William H. 
Stewart. William P. 


Stereas, CurtisE. 
Swank, James A. 
Sayer, Mathias H. 
Sayer, Arthur B. 
Swarts. Kd. E. 
Shamway, Elmer 
Tavlor. James R. 


Townsend, Alvah 
Townsend, Firman 
Tewksbury. Auson L. 
Tinsman. Eddie 
Tewksbury, Albert 
Tiffany, Philip B. 
Thomas. Charles S. 
Thomas, Francis D. 
Thomas. Albert 


Thomas, Evan E. 
Thomas, Oscar 
Utter, Thomas 
Utter. William 
Upright, Raynsford 
Upright. William S. 
Vandermark, Peter 
Vanduzer, Jacob S. 
Vani.arsdale, Marion 
Vannauker. George N. 


Vannauker, A. H. 
Vergason, Lemon N. 
Van Hosen, Henry 
Van Oorder. Klisha 
Van Gorder, Frank 


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HARFORD SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL 



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Jan. 14, 1871 
Dec. 2. 1872 
Aug. 22, 1868 
Dec. 28. 1871 
Apr. 13, 1872 
Apr. 13, 1872 
Oct. 26, 1867 

'Sept! 13,1869* 
July 17, 1871 
Sept. 9, 1873 
Sept. 25, 1868 
June 20, 1872 


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with her mother. 
Married Wm. Freese. 

■i Attending Bloomsburg 

Married Lee Tiflkny, 

Marriod A. Conklin. 
Died Aug. -, 1873. 
At domestic service. 

Married Chas. Sharp. 

Dressmaker. 

Married. 

With her mother. 

■( Attending Bloomsburg 

I S. n. S. 

Married Seth Brown. 

Married Chas. Snover. 

Married Mr. Ely. 
Marr'd Theo. Richardson. 
■{ Attending Bloomsburg 
I S. N. S. 


Post 
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Address 

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Nicholson. 

Nescopec. 

Carbondnle. 

Scottsville. 

Nescopec. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Montrose. 

Harford 

Glenwood. 
Foster. 

Dimock 

Sterlingsville... 
llerrick Centre.. 
Foster. 

Lawsville Centre 
Uniondale. 
Unionville. 
Green Grove. 
Damascus. 
East Spring Hill. 

East Lemon 

East Lemon 

Pittston 

Stroudsburg. 

Union 

East Lemon 

Foster. 
Russell Hill. 


Bowman's Creek. 
Hunlock's Creek. 

Bald Mount 

Daleville. 
Daleville. 

Brooklyn 

Harford 

Dundaff 

Troy. 

FaotoryviUe. 

Stroudsburg. 

Stroudsburg. 

Stroudsburg. 

Brookdals. 

Moscow. 


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Mar. 19, 1872 
Apr. 11, 1869 
Apr. 22, 1867 
Apr. 24, 1872 
Nov. 18, 1868 
Jan. 17, 1871 
Apr. 8, 1872 




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Sept. 12, 1872 
July '25, 1871 

July 16, 1875 


Apr. 9. 1869 
May 10, 1876 
Jan. 5, 1874 
Mar. 10, 1876 

Jan.'l2,'i869" 
Oct. 22, 1869 
Dec. 6, 1874 
Jan. 4, 1870 


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OR BY 

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June 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 18(59 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Jan. 1, 1867 
June 4, 1870 
Sept. 8, 1871 
May 31, 1871 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Nov. 10, 1865 
Dec. 10, 1865 
Feb. 19, lh.66 
Jan. 12. 1866 
Sept. 15, 1866 
Sept. 3, 1867 
Sept. 3, 1867 
Jan. 27, 1871 
June 1, 1870 
Dec. 1. 1870 
June 29, 1871 
Dec. 1, 1871 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 8, 1875 
Jan. 4, 1876 
Feb. 16, 1866 
Feb. 16, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Mar. I, 1868 
Sept. 1. 1870 
Deo. 21, 1874 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Feb. 13, 1866 
Feb. 21, 1871 
Apr. 27, 1871 
Mar. 16, 1875 
Mar. 16, 1875 
Nov. 28, 1865 
Sept. 15, 1866 
Sept. 15, 1866 
June 1, 1868 
Dec. 29, 1871 
June 19, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
May 12, 1866 
Feb. 2. 1866 




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Cooley, Adelia 
Coolev. Caroline D. 
Churchill, Ellen M. 
Crandall. Minnie B. 
Crandall, Laura L. 
Churchill, Angeline 
Churchill, Harriet R. 
Collins, Carrie C. 
Conklin. Maad A. 
Culver, Margaret C. 
Dickens, Sarah E. 
Dickens, Eolla M. 
Delbler, Elizabeth 
Decker, Anna 
Deuel, Grace 
Dickens, Emily 
Davidson, Susan E. 
Davis, Mary L. 
Evans, Frances L. 
Easby, Anna 
Finkley, Anna E. 
Fry, Ifary 
Fry, Ella 
Gavitt, Sarah E. 
Goodrich, Harriet 
Goodrich, Fanny B. 
Gilmer, Floretta J. 
Gardner, Waty 
Goble, Flora 
Groaner, Esther A. 
Groaner, Eva J. 
Harris, Adelia P. 
Hoyt, Mary B. 






n 



HARFORD soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



275 



Married George Gordon. 
With ber mother. 

Died April 14, 1875. 

Married. 

Mard Mr. Hendershot. 

With her mother. 

Married Chas. Ashley. 

At domestic service. 

■I Attending Bloomaborg 

I 8. N. 8. 

With her mother. 

At domesUc service. 

Married A. C.Douglass. 

At domestic seriice. 

With her mother. 

Married. 

Married F.lbert Oelatt. 

Married Kdward Dolph. 

At domestic service. 
^ Attended Mansfield S. 
V N. S. one year. 
Attend Mansfield S.N.S. 

Married Peter Shay. 
With her mother. 
At domestic service. 
■( Attending Bloomsburg 
1 S.N.S. 


its 

III 


Carbondale. 
Carbondale. 
Dundaff. 
Beaver Brook. 
Wilkes barre. 
Beaver Brook. 


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Wralusing. 
Forkston. 
Forkston. 
Hunlock's Creek. 

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Forkston 

Delhi, Iowa 

Favidale 

Thompson 

Olyphant 

Scranton. 

Scranton. 

Tnnkhannock. 

Berwick. 

New Miirord. 

Olyphant. 

Soott. 

Scott. 

K. Spring Hill. 

K. Spring Hill. 

Terrytown. 

Forkston. 

Forkston. 

Montrose 

.Mansfield 

Jenningsrille. 

Mansfield 

Hnnkins. 

Fairdale 

Nicholson 

.Montrose 

Nicholson 

Pitiston. 

Plymouth. 

Plymouth. 






















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May 26. 1868 
Dec. 14, 1870 
Dec. 21, 1867 
Dec. 5, 1868 
Sept. 28. 1871 


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Feb. 20. 1871 
Nov. 22, 1869 
Jan. 9, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
May 7, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Jan. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Nov. 1, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3. 1866 
Oct. 9, 1867 
June 1, 1868 
(.)ct. 7, 1869 
Sept. 13. 1867 
Oct. 10, 1869 
Sept. 21, 1868 
Nov. 10, 1865 
Jan. 2, 1872 
Sept. 20, 1875 
Nov. 21. 1875 
Nov. 24. 1875 
Sept. 20, 1865 
Nov. 13, 1866 
Nov. 16, 1865 
Nov. 9, 1865 
Nov. 27, 1865 
Mav 22, 1866 
Jh6. 15, 1H67 
June 25, 1866 
June 25, 1H66 
Sept. 12, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Oct. 16, 1871 
June 10, 1875 
June 10, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Oct. 1, 1875 
Sept. 13, 1875 
Oct. 7, 1873 
Nov. 23, 1865 
May 5, 1866 
Sept. 23, 1S63 
May 5. 1866 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Nov. 7, 1865 
Jan. 16, 1871 
Oct. 14, 1871 
Jan. 16, 1871 
Sept. 20. 1866 
June 1, 1870 
June 1, 1870 


Nov. 29, 1854 
Sept. 8, 1855 
June 24, 1858 
Mar. 20, 1861 
Apr. 16,1863 
Dec. 12, 1859 
Oct. 24, 1859 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Dec, 19. 1862 
May 25. 18<)1 
A pr. 2, 1862 
Dec. 27, 1859 
Apr. 1, 1854 
Aug. 3, 1853 
Jan. 13, 1857 
Mar. 4, 1861 
Jan. 8, 1854 
Mar. 29, 1857 
Jan. 21, 1860 
May 19, 1856 
Sept. 2, 1862 
Dec. 16, 1860 
Nov. 4, 1861 
Dec. 17, 1863 
Sept. 13, 1857 
Feb. 27, 1852 
Sept. 8, 1856 
July 14, 18.H 
May 26, 1852 
Deo. 14, 1851 
Dec. 21, 1851 
Dec. 5, 1852 
Sept. 28, 1855 
Apr. 13, 1854 
June 29, 18.i5 
Mar. 22, 18<il 
June 26, 1861 
Sept. 24, 1868 
Jan. 27, 1871 
Oct. 13, 1860 
Aug. 3, 1864 
Feb. 4, 1867 
Apr. 20, 1862 
Dec. 23, 1862 
Oct. 30, 1855 


ill 


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a\y 13, 18.'S7 
eb. 21, 1S57 
pr. 4, 1859 
ay 29. 1867 
pr. 14, 1859 
ug. 12, 1860 




C-,fc.<S<!-«! 


[eath, Chloe A. 
obbs, Almina 
uuter, Emma 
unter, Jane 
unter, Elizabeth 
olford, A. E. 
olbert, Clara E. 
oyt, AnnaM. 
offman, E. E. 
ebrig.-il Serinda 
all, Susan A. 
all, Ida A. 
enkins, Sarah A. 
ones, Elizabeth 
ohnson, Emma 
ohnson, Catherine 
napp, Irene 
napp, M. E. 
napp, Rhoda A. 
oree, Hannah A. 
ong. KUa M. 
ewis, Martha V. 
ott, Ro.sa D. 
ott, Mary L. 
cCamley, M. A. 
cCland, P. E. 




-i 


■ffe 


errill. E. J. 
axwell, Eliza 
axwell. Eliza 
iles, Clara E. 
cAfee, Elizab 
cDonald, Flot 
errill. Marv P 


111 


McGee. Isadora 
Miller. Lovice 
McCland, MaH 
Ormsby, Melin 
Phillips, Mary 
Parks, Emily 
Pewterbaugh, 1 
Parks, Henriet 
Palmer. Emma 
Patterson, M. g 
Phelps, Sarah 
Patterson, Dell 
Phelps, Roxanr 
Riven burg, Leo 
Rehrig, Agnes 
Behrig, Missur 


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276 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 






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(Dressmaker. Attended 
^ Mausfield 8. N. 8. 
i one term. 

Married Isaac Parroll. 

With her mother. 
With her mother. [N.S. 
Attending Bloomsbnrg S. 
With her mother. 

(Attending Bloomsbnrg 
i S.N. S. 

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Sereno. 

Sutton, Nebraska 

Starucua. 

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Wilkesbarre 

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May 1, 1869 
June 4, 1873 
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Jan. 14, 1870 
May 24, 1871 
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Jan. 18, 1866 
Sept. '20, 1866 
Oct. 19, 1868 
Sept. 10, 1857 
Sept. 21, 1867 
Sept. 25, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Dec. 1, 1870 
Apr. 1, 1871 
Mar. 27, 1862 
Sept. 10, 1867 
Sept. 14, 1870 
Mar. 1, 1871 
Mar. 9, 1870 
Mar. 1,1875 
Jan. 7, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Apr. 9, 1873 
Apr. 9, 1873 


Oct. 25, 1855 
May 1, 1853 
Juue 4, 1857 
Feb. '25, 1857 
Jau. U, 1854 
May -24, 1855 
July 12, 1858 
Dec. 6, 1855 
Jau. 26, 1858 
Nov. 28, 1861 
Juue 16, 1860 
Nov. 24, 1852 
May 25, 1861 
Mar. 1, 186;^ 
Apr. 11, 1859 
Mar. 31, 1863 
June 10, 1862 
May 15, 1860 
Oct. 8, 1860 
Aug. 17, 1862 
Jan. 9, 1859 
Oct. 13, 1861 


a 

s 
1 


III 

111 


Wass, Sarah J. 
Worth, Adebretta 
Woodward, L. M. 
Wetherby, Harriet 
Wetherby, H. E. 
Warner, Eve 
Wilbur, Angeline 
Woodruff, Mary 
Whiting, Elsie E. 
Whiting, Mary Z. 


Wass, Elizabeth 
Wass, Anna 
■Wetherby, Frances 
Wetherby, Josephine A. 
Warden, Lucetia F. 
Warner, Jennie 
Yale, Mary J. 
Yale, Emma E. 





NORTH SEWICKLEY SCHOOL. 




HORTLY after the appointment of Dr. Burrowes as State 
Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphan Schools, he made 
earnest efforts to find a competent person to establish and 
take charge of a school for this class of children in the 
western part ©f the State ; but he failed for some time, because of 
the doubt and- uncertainty of appropriations being continued, and 
because the work to be done for the orphan^ was double what was 
done in boarding-schools, and the compensation about one-half as 
much. 

He was directed to Rev. Henry Webber, Principal of the North 
Sewickley Academy, a man of most humane and sympathetic heart, 
but in declining health ; after pressing the case upon him, Mr. 
Webber consented to take a limited number, until other arrange- 
ments could be made. Accordingly, on May 5, 1865, he received his 
first soldier's orphan, and the number steadily increased, until one 
hundred and eleven were in attendance. But Mr. Webber felt his 
accommodations were not adequate to so large a number. He did 
for them the best he could under the circumstances; and he deserves 
the highest credit for the interest and venture he took at this early 
period of the work, and the great tax it laid upon his declining 
health, which was before taxed as much as it could well bear. He, 
feeling, by fourteen months' experience, the responsibility and labor 
to be too great for him, concluded to sell his interest, and did so to 
Mr. James Jackson. 

Mr. Jjickson took charge August, 1866, and continued four months, 
when, finding the duties and difficulties so great and numerous, he sold 
the property to Rev. J. H. Mann. 

278 



NORTH SEWICKLEY SCHOOL. 



279 



Mr. Mann took charge December 1, 1866, having forty orphans, 
which number increased to sixty. Being an experienced teacher, he 
endeavored to push the work forward successfully ; but he found the 
difficulties to be encountered very many. He was materially assisted 
by E. M. Alexander, Esq., of New Brighton, who showed the most 
substantial sympathy in this great work. After trying the experiment 
for six months, Mr. Mann declined to continue longer in the business. 
He found that the school was sinking about one hundred and fifty 
dollars per month, and the buildings not being adequate for a larger 
school, he resigned the principalship, and the school closed June 1, 
1867, by the transfer of the children to Phillipsburg and Union- 
town. 

The persons employed at various times during the existence of this 
school were as follows : 

Teachers. 

Mr. R. E. Brown, Mr. M. J. Ingram, Miss Kate McBeth, 

Miss Olivia J. Smith, Miss M. E. Porter. 

Physician. 
Dr. Witherow. 

Matrons. 
Mrs. Elezan Cole, Mrs. Jackson, Mrs. Hattie B. Mann. 

* 
Seamstresses. 

Miss Koozer, Mrs. Bell Robinson. 




280 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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CASSVILLE SCHOOL. 




ASSVILLE is a small country town in Huntingdon county, 
of about four hundred inhabitants, located at the foot of 
Sideling Hill Mountain. The water is of the very best 
quality. Coal is mined within two miles of the town. 
The region is elevated, and the climate cool and healthy. The 
scenery, from the village and from the neighboring elevations, is 
charming and attractive. Cassville is ten miles from Mapleton, on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, and fourteen from Mill Creek, with which 
it is connected by a tri-weekly mail-coach. Cole Station, on the E. 
B. P. R. R., is within three miles of the village. The town contains 
three churches, two potteries, and the usual number of stores and 
shops found at a country town. 

The buildings used for the orphan school were erected first by an 
association, and quite a flourishing seminary was at one time in 
operation. They are situated on the hill-side facing the town, and 
consist of two brick buildings — one a school-house sixty-two by 
thirty-two feet, two stories high, with cupola and a fine bell ; and the 
other a boarding-house eighty-two by-thirty-two feet, four stories high, 
to which was added, after its conversion into an orphan school, a frame 
addition, extending the building fifty feet. This property, including 
about four acres of land, was purchased by Prof. A. L. Guss, in Sep- 
tember, 1865, for $2,250, and converted into an orphan school. 
The erection of additional buildings and improvements cost over 
$5,000. The farm cost $3,000, and the lots and adjoining grounds 
$1,000. 

The school was opened on November 6, 1865, and closed April 

283 



284 PENNA. soldiers' OBrilAN SCHOOLS. 

10, 1874, after having been' in operation nearly eight and one-half 
years. Pupils were admitted by orders from the State Superin- 
tendent and by transfers from other schools as follows • 

Males. Females. Total. 

Admitted on orders 174 149 323 

Admitted by transfers 99 62 161 

Grand total 273 211 484 

The children were discharged as follows : 

Males. Females. Total. 

Discharged on age (at 16 years) 116 99 215 

Discharged on order 48 29 77 

Discharged by transfer 18 12 30 

Died while in school 2 5 7 

Discharged at the close of school 89 Q6 135 

Grand total 273 211 484 

The school was organized when the system of orphan schools was 
yet in its infancy, and no one, except those who passed through 
labors and privations incident to the early history of these schools, 
can form an adequate idea of what should be in justice accorded to 
them. The sudden bringing together of one hundred and twenty- 
five undisciplined children, a corps of inexperienced employees, 
buildings illy adapted to the enterprise, and with nothing yet sys- 
tematized, surely were obstacles serious enough to discourage any 
one; but when it came to waiting five, six, and even twenty-two 
months for pay, it taxed the ingenuity and faith to its utmost ca- 
pacity. 

For the purposes of an orphan school, the buildings were made com- 
modious and well adapted. No other school in the State had better 
accommodations. The front yarcf was cleared of rocks, and five hun- 
dred dollars were expended in ornamental trees, vines, shrubbery, and 
flowers. An adjoining grove furnished shade and additional play- 
grounds. Extensive board-walks helped to keep clean buildings; 
while water, conveyed in iron pipes from the mountain-side, fur- 
nished ample washing and bathing facilities on every floor. In short, 
it had everyUiing that a judicious Principal could provide to make it 
u happy home. 

The farm belonging to the school was located a half mile distant, 



CASSVILLE SCHOOL. 285 

and consisted of seventy-five acres. On this, Mr. J. H. Rindlaub 
lived, and managed the farming and trucking, which was so well 
done as to add much to the variety at the table, and to economize the 
expenses. Several lots in the village were also used for cultivating 
vegetables. This department was smoothly and successfully man- 
aged, and furnished ample exercise for the boys on their details. The 
system of work-details was, in the spring of 1866, put in operation, 
and always strictly adhered to. All pupils were conscientiously 
allowed their six hours of school exercises each day. At about the 
same time a clothing-room was set apart, and boxes were arranged 
and numbered for each pupil's clothing. Large rooms for washing 
and bathing were fitted up for each sex, and one for general use of 
employees, and the school-room provided with two hundred patent 
desks. Five recitation-rooms were fitted up contiguous to the main 
study-hall ; also play-rooms for both sexes. 

The first Christmas was celebrated by a grand dinner, gotten up 
by A. P. Fields, M. D., the attending physician, aided by the citizens 
of Cassville and vicinity, a flattering account of which was pub- 
lished in the Huntingdon Globe. 

In January, 1866, Robert McDivitt, Esq., then County Superin- 
tendent, was at the school, and was so well pleased with what he saw, 
that he wrote a lengthy and highly complimentary account of his 
visit, which appeared in the Huntingdon Journal. 

On the fourth of July, 1866, the school participated, with similar 
institutions, in the ceremonies of the return of the regimental bat- 
tle-flags, at Independence Square, Philadelphia, and presented a fine 
appearance. Every one of the one hundred and fifty-seven pupils 
in attendence accompanied the excursion, thug showing a remarka- 
ble condition of health. 

At the close of the terra in July, 1866, the school gave a concert 
in Huntingdon, where they were enthusiastically received and freely 
entertained, and the school praised by all persons who saw it. 

At the close of the term in July, 1867, the school gave a concert 
in Altoona, and the next evening in Hollidaysburg. One hundred 
and fifty-three dollars and seventy-five cents were realized at the 
former, and ninety-seven dollars and seventy-five cents at the latter 
place, and invested in books for the children's Sunday-school. Again, 
in May, 1869, the school visited Johnstown, and gave three enter- 
tainments, which netted nearly five hundred dollars, all of which 
was expended for a flag, drums, an organ, books, and other articles. 



286 PENXA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

Free transportation was provided by the railroad company, and the 
orphans entertained gratuitously on all these occasions. 

In November, 1869, the sixth was duly observed as the Anniver- 
sary of the opening of the school. Prof. M. L. Stoever, LL.D., of 
Gettysburg, was present, and delivered his excellent lecture on 
" Aaron Burr," and another on " Advice to the Young." After the 
literary exercises, the children were treated to a grand dinner. In 
1870, the anniversary was observed by a jubilee dinner, a concert of 
vocal and instrumental music, essays, speeches, &c., by the orphans ; 
and Rev. Morris Officer, formerly a missionary in Western Africa, 
delivered a lecture. 

The spring of 1871 was made memorable in the history of the 
school by the sickness of Mrs. Guss, the Principal's wife. She was 
stricken with apoplexy and paralysis while in the midst of her labors. 
She had always been the active Matron of the house, and with her 
own hands led off in the work. To her industry, good management, 
and untiring exertions, the school owed much of its prosperity. From 
this affliction she never fully recovered, and it may be truly said she 
sacrificed her health in her labors for the orphans. 

Another grand jubilee was held on the sixth of November, 1871, 
when over sixty of the " sixteeners " (a term originated by Lydia 
Ray, a pupil at Cassville) were present, and a host of invited guests. 
Dr. J. G. Butler, of Washington, D. C, for many years Chaplain of 
the National House of Representatives, was present and lectured ; 
also Prof. Henry Houck, A. M., the popular and efficient State 
Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction, honored the occasion 
with his presence, and delivered an able address. At this reunion, 
the " sixteeners " quietly raised one hundred and twenty-five dollars, 
with which they purchased a beautiful gold watch, and presented the 
same to their Principal, Prof A. L. Guss. 

Another anniversary was held in November, 1873, of a similar 
character to the one two years previous. It was largely attended by 
"sixteeners," who participated in the exercises, a full account of 
which was reported for the Huntingdon Globe, The speeches of the 
pupils show their feelings and their attachment to the school. 

Tlie annual examinations, year after year, showed the school to be 
one of the most efficient in the State. Indeed, it is related that Rev. 
O. H. Miller, now State Librarian, who conducted the examination 
in July, 1871, after hearing a couple of the female pupils read, was 
80 Mir])iij3ed and pleased that he exclaimed: "I would give five 



CASSVILLE SCHOOL. ^ 287 

hundred dollars, if my daughters could read like those two girls." 
As an illustration of the efficiency of the school educationally, we 
would say that one of its pupils entered the Freshman class of 
Pennsylvania College in one year after leaving the orphan school, 
and that another graduated at the Shippensburg State Normal School 
in one year after leaving Cassville. The official reports show that 
Cassville always had at least one more teacher for the pumber of 
pupils than any other school, besides employing a music teacher 
to instruct the children without charge, which was not done 
in other schools, except Titusvflle and the Soldiers' Orphan Insti- 
tute. 

In December, 1872, Prof Guss purchased the Globe, and removed 
to Huntingdon, where he has continued to publish that paper. After 
this date, the active control of the school was in the hands of 
Harper W. Snyder, Esq., and subsequently J. L. Kendlehart, Esq., 
who was Principal when the school closed. 

. Thus we have traced the school, through its history, from No- 
vember, 1865, to the fall of 1873, and shown, from the testimony of 
the outside world and the records of the Department, that it had 
been well managed. But now an unfortunate moment came. Prof. 
Guss allowed himself to become a candidate for Congress, which 
led to the publication of scandalous charges, in order to defeat his 
chances of success. He succeeded, however, in receiving the nom- 
ination in Huntingdon county, but was defeated in the district 
conference. Following this there were complicated and protracted 
litigations, the result of which is well stated in Superintendent Wick- 
ersham's annual report of 1874 : 

"Partisan and personal bitterness still kept alive the charges, greatly to 
the injury of the school ; and, unwilling that this state of things should con- 
tinue, not wishing to subject the State to an annoying claim, which I knew 
would be made, for heavy damages, by removing the school without having 
something more substantial than bad rumors upon which to base my action, 
and, unable to induce any one of the complaining citizens to bring the matter 
before the courts, that judicial investigation might reveal the facts in the case, 
I decided to place the whole question in the hands of the Legislature. The 
committee to whom the matter was intrusted, after a prolonged and expensive 
investigation, reported in three divisions : The majority believing that the 
conduct of Mr. Guss was of * an improper character,' and recommending the 
removal of the school; the first minority coinciding with the majority, so 
far as the recommendation for the removal of the school was concerned, and 
the second minority holding that no jury could convict the accused on the 



288 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

testimony presented 'of any of the specifications contained in the charges' 
against him, and recommending that the school be continued, on the condi- 
tion that the Proprietor wholly disconnect himself from it. The Legislature 
took no action upon these reports, except to refer them to the Superintendent 
of Orphan Schools for such action as he might deem best. Accepting the 
recommendation of the majority report as binding upon him, the Cassville 
School was closed, and the children quietly placed in other institutions, selected 
in most cases by their friends." 

It may be remarked that the determination of " the guilt or inno- 
cence" of Prof. Guss, which was the object the Superintendent had 
in view when asking for an investigation, was never attained. The 
majority took the position that the rumors, whether true or false, 
Avere alike injurious to the school ; that " when Prof Gass became 
a candidate for political honors, he should have relinquished the con- 
trol of the school ;" and, finally, they say, " the question of his guilt 
or innocence is remitted to the courts for investigation " — a method 
of treating the difficulty which the Superintendent could not induce 
the complaining parties to adopt, and to which Prof Guss had him- 
self frequently challenged them. 

The minority report says : "The improper conduct charged by the 
Enemies of the Cassville Soldiers' Orphan School is said to have 
occurred between 1868 and 1872," and that the "witnesses were 
contradicted or impeached to such an extent, that we believe no jury 
could convict Prof Guss of any of the specifications contained in 
the charges upon their testimony." Referring to reasons given by 
the majority, they say : " These reasons for the removal of the 
school are untenable in the light of the testimony taken at Cassville, 
where scores of witnesses from the immediate neighborhood testified, 
with but two exceptions from that entire region, that the rumors 
were not believed," and, in fact, in many cases, were not heard of 
prior to the investigation ; " and that they believed the school was 
well managed and prosperous ; " and, iurther, they recommend 
that "the good name and welfare of these unfortunate orphans 
demand that the school should remain where it now is." 

Justice to the noble band of boys and girls who were pupils at 
this institution impels us, before closing this sketch, to say that, in 
all human probability, had not their Principal become a candidate 
for political preferment, their school would have escaped the calum- 
nies heaped upon it, and coutiuued in successful operation until the 
present time. 



CASSVILLE SCHOOL. 



289 



The following are some of the names of the persons officially con- 
nected with the institution while it was in operation. 



Mr. Samuel W. Heaton, 
" A. H. Weidman, 
" W.L.Owen, 
" E.C.Stewart, 

Prof. A. Lenk, 

Mr. Lewis A. Haffley, 

Miss Mary A. Doyle, 
" A. L. Simington, 
" Idella C. Green, 
" Julia A. Gault, 



A. P. Fields, M. D., 



Capt. Harry F. Spicer, 



Teachers. 

Mr. Jas. M. Wilson, 
" Wm. Lytic, 
" J. C, Clarkson, 
" D. H. Shultz, 
" M. M. Horton, 
Miss C. A. Phillips, 

" E.W. Stein, 

" Mattie Collins, 

" Maggie L. Hart, 

" Hattie A. Wayne, 

" Ada Love, 

Physicians. 

Isaac Guss, M. D., W. A. Hinchman, M. D., 
A. J. Hamilton, M. D. 



Mr. Josiah H. Glenn, 
" A. B. Tayior, 
" Geo. S. Rea, 
" Jas. G. Corbin, 
" Wm. C. Reem, 

Miss S. Belle Clarkson, 
" Emma J. Hall, 
" Lizzie L. Cooper, 
" R. Alice Gehrett, 
" Mary A. Hawker. 



Mr. John H. Clark, 



Male Attendants. 

Capt. G«o. W. Guss, 
Mr. Zane B. Taylor. 

Sick Nurse. 
Mrs. R. C. McManama. 



Sewing Superintendents. 
Mrs. Mary C. McCauley, Miss Mattie B. Arey, Miss Mattie S. Gehrett. 

Farmers. 
Mr. Michael Brannan, Mr. A. J. Henderson. 

Teamsters. 
Mr. Chas. Marshall, Mr. Silas Prough, Mr. A. J. Forshey. 

Butchers. 
Mr. B. Fink, Mr. T. T. Houck. 



19 



290 



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SOLDIERS' ORPHAN HOME. 




HE Soldiers' Orphan Home in Pittsburgh was incorpo- 
rated in April, 1864, and organized in May of the same 
year by the election of the following officers, viz. : 

President, Chas. Knapp. 
Vice-President, James P. Barr. 
Treasurer, George W. Cass. ^ 

Secretary, James M. Gallagher. 



The Board of Managers was composed of the following gentle- 
men, viz. : 



Chas. Knapp, 
C. W. Ricketson, 
Wm. H. McGee, 
John D. Scully, 



Thos. A. Scott, 
Geo. W. Cass, 
Joshua Rhodes, 
James McCabe, 



Wra. H. Smith, 
James P. Barr, 
R. J. Grace. 



The Home was opened on the 1st of December, 1864, in a large 
building on the corner of Pride and Bluff Streets, at an annual 
rental of eight hundred dollars, under charge of Miss Mary Stafford 
as Matron, which position she .filled with great satisfaction for six 
years, devoting her earnest efforts in behalf of soldiers' orphans 
without compensation. The Home opened with about twenty-five 
children, wliich number increased to seventy, entirely supported by 
private subscription, as the State had at that time made no provision 
for this clans. About twelve thousand five hundred dollars had been 
subscribed by the following gentlemen, viz. : 

300 



SOLDIERS' ORPHAN HOME. 



301 



Thos. A. Scott, 
Wm. J. Kountz, 
Chas. Knapp, 
Geo. W. Cass, 
John H. Shoenberger, 
Joshua Rhodes, 
Isaac Jones, 
Samuel McKee, 
Wm. H. Smith, 



Thomas Moore, 
John Moorhead, 
John Dunlap, 
Andrew Carnegie, 
Daniel McMeal, 
James P. Barr, 

C. W. Ricketson, 
W. H. Williams, 

D. H. Stewart, 



N. J. Bigley, 
Wm. H. McGee, 
B. F. Jones, 
James McCabe, 
H. H. Collins, 
Hostetter & Smith, 
Robert Finney, 
John Savage. 



The Home was founded without any encouragement as to the 
permanent establishment of a general system for the care of soldiers' 
orphans, and was the first chartered institution distinctively for the 
purpose in the United States. 

Children may have been cared for in existing institutions, but 
there was not, so far as was known, any separate home maintained 
either by State or individual effort. This fact was thought sufficient 
to entitle it to a share in the bequest of the late Horatio Ward, of 
London, who left one hundred thousand dollars to be distributed to 
asylums or homes established prior to 1865, but Pennsylvania was 
left out of the award. 

When this State provided for the education and maintenance of 
soldiers' orphans, the Home was included among the State institu- 
tions. Yet at no time did the compensation allowed pay the ex- 
penses, which obliged the Managers to distribute the children among 
other schools, a few yet remaining in the Industrial School in Phila- 
delphia. 

The Home was frequently complimented for its efficiency by Messrs. 
Burrowes and McFarland while State Superintendents of Soldiers' 
Orphans, and by Mrs. Hutter, who made frequent mention of the 
institution in her reports. 




302 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 







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soldiers' orphan home, PITTSBURGH. 303 



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PHILLIPSBURGH SCHOOL. 



3^|HIS institution was purchased December, 1865, exclusively 
I8J3 for a soldiers' orphan school, and was organized as such 
in March, 1866, under the principalship of Rev. W. G. 
Taylor, D.D., under whose able supervision it has re- 
mained till the present time. Phillipsburgh, where the school is 
located, is across the Ohio River from Rochester, which latter place 
is a town of considerable business importance on the Pittsburgh, Ft. 
Wayne and Chicago Railway. A steam-ferry plies between the two 
places. The post-office is Water-cure. 

The original buildings were used for a Water-cure, and afterwards 
for a Pleasure resort, for a number of years. The time was when 
this place had considerable notoriety in and about Pittsburgh. When 
Dr. Taylor took possession, he at once began to repair and remodel 
the house, that it might be made suitable for a soldiers' orphan school. 
A lessee occupied a part of the property till the 1st of April, which 
retarded the work, and was a source of great inconvenience. But 
as occasion required and opportunity offered, very important addi- 
tions were made. In 1870 a new dwelling was erected and furnished, 
and dedicated February 18, 1872. This building is large, well 
arranged, and every part well adapted to the use designed. This 
was followed by another structure, containing a large, well-lighted 
school-room, a large sitting-room for boys, and a neat and handsomely 
furnished chapel, which was followed by two bath-rooms and wash- 
rooms for boys and girls, a work-shop, a farm-house, and a store- 
house, all of which were completed in 1873. A farm of forty-one 
acres was purchased soon after the school opened. In 1870 the farm 
and garden lands were increased to one hundred acres, and in 1873 
these were again increased to two hundred and ten acres, with fine 

304 



?HILLIPSBUIIGH SCHOOL. 305 

orchards of two hundred and fifty fruit-trees, three barns, and stables 
for ten horses and twenty cows, and four farm dwellings. The cost 
of this property, together with the furnishing and equipping of the 
school buildings, Dr. Taylor estimates at 848,000. 

The first orphan was admitted into this school March 3, 1806. 
During the following spring and summer the number of pupils 
reached eighty-three. The school was largely increased by transfers 
from North Sewickley and the Homes in Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
City, in the following October, making the number one hundred and 
eighty-eight. But this number was soon greatly reduced by transfers 
to Titusville, where a new school had been opened, and the children 
whose mothers resided in the north-western part of the State were 
naturally sent there. Quite a number of transfers were also made 
to Dayton and Uniontown schools, which had been opened since this 
school was established. These transfers left the school much reduced 
in numbers, in which condition it remained for some time, its average 
being for several years about one hundred and forty. This small 
number greatly diminished the income of the school, and had not 
Dr. Taylor given his undivided attention to its management, and had 
he not been ably assisted by his estimable wife, two daughters, and 
son, the finances of the institution would have been taxed to the ut- 
most capacity. 

On the 4th of July, 1866, Phillipsburgh joined with other soldiers' 
orphan schools in the excursion to Philadelphia, to witness the 
formal return of the battle-flags, borne in the late war, to the State 
authorities. Of this interesting occasion, Dr. Taylor reports : " We 
took our ninety scholars there and back without a single act of 
known disobedience. The boys were entertained at the Soldiers' 
Home, and slept in a large room with four hundred boys, most of 
whom felt the excitement of the surroundings ; but these boys marched 
in according to orders ; in silence took off' their shoes, jackets, and 
caps, and lay down quietly and in the most perfect order, to the 
astonishment of many lookers on. The girls were handsomely en- 
tertained at the Episcopal Church Home. The boys and girls par- 
ticipated in the pleasure of seeing the battle-flags under which their 
fathers had fought." 

When his school first opened. Dr. Taylor found it exceedingly 

difficult to get a full corps of trained teachers qualified for, and 

adapted to, and interested in the work. The duties to be performed 

in a soldiers' orphan school are unlike those of any other school, and 

20 



306 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SC1E00LS. 

special gifts and experience are required for this specialty. Hence 
it is not strange that at first he failed to secure those who gave entire 
satisfaction. But, not easily discouraged, Dr. Taylor acted upon the 
motto, " Try, try again," till at length he obtained, and for the last 
five years has had, an able and successful corps of teachers. The 
annual examinations have repeatedly demonstrated to many visitors 
the remarkable degree of progress made by the orphans. Those who 
attended Normal Schools after leaving Phillipsburgh, have acquitted 
themselves with credit, and are now, with few exceptions, successful 
teachers. In regard to the educational standing of this school. Dr. 
Taylor makes the following statement: "We have /owr extra grades, 
and some orphans have finished twelve grades with high standing. 
We have teachers for both vocal and instrumental music, and a 
department of art. For the last four years the average progress 
per annum has been a grade and a half, and the average standing 
ninety-three on examination." 

Special pains are taken to train the children morally and religiously. 
Two services are held every Sabbath in the chapel, and daily morn- 
ing and evening family worship is observed. Tjiere are also stated 
times'for reading the Bible and religious books and papers; daily 
instruction in regard to duty is imparted, and much attention is given 
to the correction of bad and the formation of good habits. 

The children are taught that success in any undertaking cannot 
be had without labor; and that labor in any lawful calling is' 
honorable, while idleness is degrading and disgraceful. Great care 
is therefore taken to teach the orphans all kinds of work possible. 
The girls learn in classes to do chamber-work, to cook, bake, wash, 
iron, besides being instructed in the sewing-room by a competent 
teacher; the boys are instructed in the work of the farm and 
garden, learn how to take care of stock, do the out-door work about 
the institution, and the use of tools. 

The physical laws of health are explained, and their observance 
enforced. " Every child," Dr. Taylor says, " discharged at sixteen 
years of age, has been in perfect health." 

A large majority of the pupils leaving at sixteen years of age are 
doing well, and are an honor to their fathers, a credit to the school, 
and industrious and useful citizens of the great State that so nobly 
nurtured them while in the plastic years of youth. 

The following is a Ibt of persons who have been officially connected 
with the school since its organization, viz. ; 



PHILLIPSBURGH SCHOOL. 



307 



Principal. 
Rev. W. G. Taylor, D. D. 

Assistant Principal. 
Mrs. C. T. Taylor. 

Physicians. 
D. McKinney, M. D., D. S. Marquis, M. D. 

Teachers. 



Mr. A. G. Thome, 
" D. McAllister, 
" J.S.Steele, 

Miss Lizzie Dever, 
" Lizzie Rollings, 



Mr. R. F. Thompson, 
" J. N. Biers, 

Miss M. M. Taylor, 
" Loretta Reynolds, 
" E.S.Taylor, 



Prof. S. M. Piersol, 
" J. M. Phillis, 

Miss M. M. Chambers, 
" C.E. Taylor, 
" M. E. Kroesen. 



Superintendents of Boys. 
Mr. J. Neel, | Mr. P. Aulshouse, I Mr. Wm. P. Badders, 

" P. Bromwell, | " Henry Turner, | " E. H. Crandall. 

Matrons. 
Miss N. W. Thompson, Miss Minnie Cole. 

Sewing Superintendents. 



Miss Mary Chambers, 1 Mr. J. Braun, tailor, 
" Ella Mann, | Mrs. L. L. Brown, 



Miss M. McLaren, 
Mrs. M. J. McGinniss. 



Superintendents of Kitchen. 



Mrs. M. J. Hoyt, I Miss Eunice Brown, 

Miss S. Fenstermacher, | " Julia Eckles, 



Mrs. L. Turner, 
" A.M.English. 



Laundry. 
Miss Christiana Frank, Mrs. C. Lloyd. 



I 



Nurse. 
Mrs. Mary Eckles. 

Superintendents of Children. 
Miss Rachel Wilson, Miss Sue Work, Miss Ada Grandy. 

General Care-taker. 
Mr. James W. Taylor. 

Farmers and Gardeners. 
Mr. Benjamin Strite, I Mr. John Hughes, I Mr. A. Yount, 
" Jas. Smith, | " Wm. Kaler, | " Joseph Garrett. 



Shoemakers. 
Mr. C. Pfancuch, Mr. A. Blott. 



Butcher. 
Mr. C. Erbeck. 



308 



PEXNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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PIIILLIPSBURGH SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOL. 309 





( Works in rotUng-mill, 
} $36^ month. 
5 Works in rolling-mill, 
\ $60^ month. 
Printer; $60 ^ month. 
Teamster ; $50 ^ month. 
Iron-works ; $60 ^ mo. 
Iron-works; $50 %) mo. 
With his guardian. 
Wagon-maker. 
Learning a trade. 

Farming. 

5 Attending commercial 

I college. 

5 Marble-cntting @ $22 
i V month. 

5 On the river @ 8« V 
'} month. 

5 Black^mithlng @ $65 
i ¥ month. 

C In a hardware store @ 
i $28 per month. 

With his mother. 
Butchering® $40 V mo. 

Brmkeman ® $60 ? mo. 


Tionesta. 

Tionesta. 

Hookstown. 

Brookville. 

Rochester. 

Saltsburg. 

Cowansville. 

Cowausville. 

Etna 

Howe. 


m 
m 


Bennett 

Newcastle 

New Wilmlngfn. 

Pittsburgh 

Pitt..(burph. 
irilitinrp 


Corry 

Cowansville. 

Manorvllle. 

Lawremeburg. 

Pituburgh 

Manorville 

Buchanan.. 

Buchanan. 

Rochester. 

Boliver. 

Boliver. 

West Elizabeth. 4 

Utah. 

West Elizabeth.. 

Utah. 

Newcastle 

New Alexandria. 
New Alexandria. 
Sheakleyville. 

Pittsburgh 

•Rochester 

Pittsburgh. 
Phillips- Mills. 
Phillips' Mills. 
Economy. 
Buchanan. 
Beaver. 
Riceville. 
Biceville. 
Penn Run. 
Sheakleyville. 
Sheakleyville. 
gandv Lake. 

Plttobnrgh 

New Brighton. 










































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Nov. 19, 1871 
Aug. 4, 1873 
Sept. 2, 1870 
Nov. 8, 1873 
July 23, 1875 
May 6, 1871 
Apr. 3, 1875 


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Mar. 5. 1861 
July 23, 1862 
Feb. 2, 1861 
May 2, 1868 
July 3, 1864 
Aug. 26, 1853 
Mar. 22, I8.i5 
Mar. 16, 1851 
Aug. 22, 1862 
July 7. 1854 
Mar. 14, 1851 
May 20, 1852 
Feb. 28, 1857 
Sept. 20, 1851 
Nov. 19, 18.55 
Aug. 4, 1857 
Sept. 2, 1854 
Nov. 8, 1857 
July 23, 1859 
May 6, 1855 
Apr. 3, 1859 
Mar. 28, 1863 
Aug. 14, 1858 
Dec. 9, 1859 
Dec. 31. 1858 
Jan.l, 1861 
Mav 13, 1861 
Sept. 11, 1861 
Dec. 12. 1867 
Jan. 28, 18K5 
Apr. 29, 1869 
Oct. 13, 1855 
Apr. — . 1853 
July 1, 1853 
Jan. -, 1857 
Julv 12. 1857 
Dec. 26, 1857 
Apr. 3, 18.56 
June 8, 1856 
Auu. 24, 1853 
Nov. '^6, 1857 
May 27. 1851 
Feb. 20. 1855 
Sept. 12. 1857 
Feb. 22. 1860 


iiii 


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V 10, 18.54 
le 10, 18.56 
y 12, 1855 
y 10, 1856 
r. 28, 1865 


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HI 


Brady's Bend. 
Indiana. 
Srady's Bend. 

Pittsburgh 

Aliecheny. 

Callensburg. 

Callensburg. 

Reidsburg. 

Reid-sburg. 

Castle Shannon. 

Suchnuan. 

Buchanan. 

Natrona. 

Natrona. 


Holt 

Indiana. 

Allegheny 

Pittsburgh. 
Martin's Ferrr.. 
Slippery Rock. 
Glade Mills. 
Dtica. 

Pittsburgh 

Utica. 

Mai tin's Ferry.. 

Martin'* Ferry. 

Pituburgh 

BiK Run. 

Allegheny 

Anderson's Mills. 
Anderson's Mills. 

Drnrosburg 

RrownsTille. 
Brownsville. 
Cames City. 
Hookstown. 

Pituburgh 

Wilkinsburg. 

Eakin 

Coal Valley. 
Alleghenv. 
New Brighton... 
Pittsbnrith. 
Beaver Falls. 
Beaver Falls.... 
Shenango. 










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Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1. 1870 
Oct. 11, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 8. 1871 
Kept. 18, 1866 
Mar. 27, 1866 
May 1, 1866 
May 1, 1866 
May 1, 1866 
May 1, 1866 
Oct. 1, 1866 
Feb. 19, 1868 
Feb. 19, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Oct. 13, 1873 
N..V. 6. 1874 
Mar. 9, 1868 
Oct. 29, 1866 
Oct. 30, 1866 
Oct. :iO, 1866 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Apr. '25, 1867 
June 1, 1867 
June 1, 1867 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Juuel, 1867 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Dec. 1, 1871 
Feb. 6, 1872 
Dec 1. 1874 
Dec. 1, 1874 
Apr. 5. 1866 
Mar. 6. 1866 
Mar. 6. 1866 
Mav 24, 1866 
Sept. 1, 18»'^ 
Sept. 4, 1866 
Sept. 4. 1866 
Oct. 1, 1866 
Oct. 1, 1866 
Oct. 1,1866 
Sept. 12. 1866 
Oct. 1, 1866 
Oct. 30, 1866 
Oct. .30, 1866 
Dec. 1, 18(M5 
June 1, 1867 
June 1, 1867 
June 1, 1867 
Juue 1, 1867 
June 1, 1867 
June 1, 1867 


June 2, 1857 
Mar. 6, 1855 
Aug. 24, 1863 
Nov. 22, 1857 
Sept. -29, 1862 
Nov. 17, 1858 
Oct. 12, 1853 
Juue 16, 1855 
May 12, 1852 
Mrfy 5, 1856 
Oct. 24, 1856 
Dec. 29, 1854 
July 1, 1856 
May 7, 1854 
Feb. 4, 1855 
Oct. 11, 1860 
Feb. 1, 1863 
July 13, 1860 
Mar. :^0. 1853 
Sept. 27, 1858 
Oct. 2, 1854 
Sept. 6, 1856 
May 17, 18.56 
Mar. 9, 1856 
Oct. 1, 1853 
July 5, 1855 
Apr. 13. 1857 
Sept. 14, 1857 
Deo. .30, 18.58 
Apr. 8. 1861 
Dec. 10, 1858 
Oct. 13, 1860 
Sept. 23, 1856 
June 10, 18(i0 
Aug. 7, 1862 
Apr. 14, 18.54 
June 12, 1850 
Apr. 27, 1855 
Aug. 20. 1857 
Nov. 30, 18.53 
Mar. 30, 185:1 
June 1, 1855 
Nov. 26, 18.56 
Aug. '29, 18.59 
Jan. 8, 1857 
June 19, 18.56 
Feb. 13, 1857 
Nov. 13, 18.51 
Mav 21, 1855 
Mav 9, 1856 
Mar. 21, 18.57 
Apr. 22. 18.53 
Dec. 18, 18,57 
May 18, 1853 
Nov. 8, 1851 
July 17, 1856 


ill 

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Jones, Alfred J. 
Jones. 'William A. 
Jones, George M. 
Kennedv, James 
Kingsland, Wm. J. 
Keister. Thom.as I. 
Keister, Adam H. 
Kuhns, Charles B. 
Kuhns. James A. 


Kelly. William 
Kelly, Jacob 
Kerr, William 0. 
Kerr, James C. 
Kuhns. Daniel M. 


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Ma.son, William C. 
Murphy, Samuel J. 
M.irphy, William T. 
Malarkey, William H. 


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PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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PENXA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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With her aunt. 

Doing housework. 
Married K. P. Dunnim. 

Tailoring, $40 ^ month. 

( Learning tailoring, $12 

\ ¥ mouth. 

Married. 

Uousewuik, $8^month. 

ga CO., Ohio. 'VTith her 
mother. 

( Had one term at S. N. S. 

< Since married Lewis 

( Amon. 

Married. 

Housework, $8 ^ month. 

C Attending Edtnboro' S. 

{ N. S. 

Attending S. N.S. 


rosT 

Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


..a 

II ^ 


Blanket Hill.... 
Sprenkle's .Mills. 
New Brighton. 
Gallitzen. 
Gallitzen. 
Sharon 


ill 


Kossuth. 
Wilkiusburg.... 

Wampum 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Monroeville. 

Homewood. 

Homewood. 

Homewood. 

Montville, Geau 

Johnstown. 

Big Bend. 

Big Bend. 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Davis. 

Davis. 

New Vernon 

Livermore. 

Industry 

Newcastle 

Livermore. 

Balm 

Petersburg. 
Tareutum. 
BlairsviUe. 
Rock Point. 
Braddock's F'ds. 
Braddock's F'ds. 
Braddock's F'ds. 
Pittsburgh. 
Pittsburgh. 

Mineraville 

Legouier. 


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N. Sewickley 
N. Sewickley 
P.4 A.O.Asy. 
P.& A.O.Asy. 

C.assville 
Cassville 
Titusville 
Titusville 


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Oct. 1. 1870 
Dec. 1, 1874 
Oct. ao, 18(i9 
Sept. 10, 1870 
Not. 22, 1871 
Feb. 21, 1873 
Sept. 18, 1875 
Sept. 18. 1875 
June 1, 1867 
Mar. 6. 1866 
Mar. 16, 1866 
June 1, 1867 
Mar. 16, 1866 
Oct. 30, 18<K> 
June 1, 1867 
Aug. 31, l8tW 
Sept. 1, 1S69 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1. 1873 
May 7, 1874 
May 7. 1874 
Dec. 1, 1874 
Dec. 1, 187+ 
Mar. 27, 1875 
Apr. 1, 1875 
Apr. 1, 1875 
Apr. 1, 1875 
S. pt. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, IH75 
Mar. 8, 1866 
Jan. 20, 1870 
Oct. 30, 1866 
June 1, 1867 
Jan. 20, 1875 
.Sept. 15, 1869 
Nov. 3, 1869 
Mar. 1, 1870 
Oct. 5, 1870 
May 3, 1871 
Mar. 29, 1873 
Mar. 18, 1875 
June 1,1874 
.Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 1,1868 
Sept. I. 1870 


11 


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Graudy. Frances L. 
Grubaugb. Maria M. 
Guthrie. Clara A. 
Gill. Eliza J. 
Graham, Ida 
Graham. Elizabeth 
Graham, Alice 
Gregory, Marv E. 
Gregory, Ehz!. J. 
Gouchet, Elvira J. 
Goucher, Clara H. 


OeUinger, Mary 
Geuinger. Josephine 
Geuduger, Ruth 
Geisinger, Catherine 
Goutz. Martha A. 
Goutz, Ida E. 
Heaslev, Frances L. 
Hart. Adelaide B. 


Howells, Mary A. 
Hart. Martha A. 
Heaiiley. Malissa E. 
Hutchinson, Evangeline 
Hanson, Julia 
Harkins, Charlotte E. 


Howells, Margaret J. 
Helm, Katie J. 
Helm, Mary G. 
Helm, Martha 
Haid. Catherine 
Haid, Mary 
Jetikins. Sarah 


\ 
1 



PHILLIPSBUKGH SOLDIERS* ORPHAN' SCHOOL. 317 



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318 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 




II 






PHILLIPSBURGH SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOL. 319 



with her mother. 
Died Jan. 9, 1876. 

With her mother. 

Dressmaker. 

i Brush factory, $20 fl 

L month. 

Married. 

In a drug store. 


wniet. 

Rochester. 
Middlesex. 
Tidioute. 
Peun Run. 
Peun Run. 
Pittsburgh 


New Castle. 
Leechburg. 

Leechburg 

Greensburg. 
Brook ville. 
Urookville. 
Beaver Falls.... 
Beaver Falls.... 
Beaver Falls.... 
Evansburg. 
Conemaugh. 
Armagh. 


Emlenton. 

Pittsburgh 

Pittsburgh 

Kittanning. 
Kitianning. 
Kittanning. 




Hill 


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N. Sewickley 
N. Sewickley 
N. Sewickley 
Cassville 


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Oct. 8, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Dec. 1, 1874 
Deo. 1, 1874 
May 3, 1875 
May 3, 1875 
Aug. 11, 1866 
Mar. 10, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1874 
.Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Mar. 28, 1866 
Mar. 28, 1866 
Oct. 1. 1866 
Oct. 30, 1866 
Oct. 30, 1866 
June 1, 1867 
May 7, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Dec. 1, 1874 
Apr. 30, 1866 
Apr. 30, 1866 
Oct. 10. 1871 
Oct. 10. 1871 
Nov. 30, 1869 


Aug. 29, 18C0 
Dec. — , 1865 
June 1. 1860 
Dec. 16, 1862 
July 9, 1861 
Dec. "23, 1862 
Jan. 28. 1857 
Feb. 6, 1856 
Mar. 23, 1869 
Mar. 12, 1871 
Juue 24, 18G0 
Aug. '28, 18.i3 
July 12, 1856 
Apr. 4, 1857 
Aug. 13, 1852 
Aug, 6, 1851 
Apr. 8, 1853 
Deo. 20, 1861 
Aug. 11, 1861 
June 25, 1860 
May 17, 1853 
Sept. 23, H54 
Apr. 13, 1860 
Feb. 5, 1862 
May 8, 1860 


% 

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ii: 


Sly, Annie 
Sebrang, Deborah 
Sebrang. Maggie A. 
Temple, Mary J. 


Upcraft, Mary M. 
Upcraft, Catherine A. 
Varndell, Mary M. 
Wilson, Isabinda G. 
Wilson, Sarah J. 


Wray, Isabella 
Wray, Alice 
Wray, Eleanor 
Williams, Josephine 
Wysel, Jane 
Williams, Mary L. 


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JACKSONVILLE SCHOOL, 




N the spring of 1866, the property known as the Fairview 
Seminary, at Jacksonville, Centre county, was bought by 
Rev. D. G. Klein, with a view of opening a school for 
soldiers' orphans, under the auspices of the State. Super- 
intendent Burrowes visited the place on the tenth of May, inspected 
the buildings, and gave directions as to changes and additions to be 
made, in order to render the accommodations sufficient for one hun- 
dred and fifty pupils. The verbal agreement then entered into 
between Mr. Klein and Dr. Burrowes was in substance this : The 
buildings were to be put in readiness, and orders of admission were 
fo be issued to orphans on the first of June of the same year. The 
children were to be under ten years of age, and were to be main- 
tained, educated, and clothed for S150 each per annum. 

Immediate steps were taken to provide the stipulated conveniences. 
Early in June the orphans began to arrive, and were received and 
cared for, though everything was as yet in an unfinished state. 
After a number had been admitted, the Superintendent advanced 
funds to enable Mr. Klein to go forward with the necessary improve- 
ments. The school filled up slowly, only about fifty having been 
admitted before vacation of that year. 

After vacation, there was a gradual increase in the number of 
pupils until the close of the first year, when there were one hundred 
and seven on the roll of the school. But now a new order of things 
waa inaugurated. The Legislature reduced the allowance from 
$160 to $125 per annum, a new Superintendent was appointed, and 
a Bomewhat different management required. The reduction in the 
rates was at that time peculiarly hard, as flour then cost 815 per 

320 



JACKSONVILLE SCHOOL. 



321 



barrel, and other provisions, wages, and lumber were at the same ex- 
travagant figures. What to do was a serious question. Some S5,000 
had been put into the improvements and furniture, and if the school 
should now close, this would be nearly all lost. 

In the emergency, the new Superintendent, Colonel McFarland, 
was consulted, and he advised the Principal, Mr. Klein, to go on 
with his improvements, so as to be able to admit one hundred and 
fifty pupils. In consequence of this advice, and hoping a larger 
school would pay its way, an additional expense of several thousand 
dollars was incurred. 

By the 1st of September, 1867, the number of pupils had slowly 
gone up to one hundred and nineteen. But now there was a transfer, 
which reduced the number to ninety-two. During the year 1868 
the average number in actual attendance was but a little rising one 
hundred, and the following year the number reached but one hun- 
dred and thirteen. In 1870 a further reduction of rates was made, 
giving to schools admitting orphans under ten years of age but $115 
for each child, per annum, for education, maintenance, and school- 
ing. The school had not hitherto paid expenses, and Mr. Klein, 
being burdened with an ever-increasing debt, was compelled to resign, 
and the children were taken to other schools on the 3d of January, 
1871. 

During the existence of the school there were admitted ninety-four 
boys and eighty girls, making a total of one hundred and seventy- 
four. 

We regret we are not able to give the names of the faithful 
teachers and employees connected with this school, no list having 
been furnished us. 
21 




322 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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Post 
Offick 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


English Centre. 

Euglish Centre. 

Moshannon. 

Hegarty X R'ds. 

Shaver's Creek. 

MontoursviUe. 

Osceola. 

Flemington. 

Flemington. 

Huntingdon. 

Port Matilda. 

Beech Creek. 

Beech Creek. 

Lumber City. 

Phillipsburg. 

Smith's Mills. 

Frankstown. 

Frankstown. 

Liberty Townp., 

Lewistown. 

Sinking Valley. 

Sinking Valley. 

Harrisburg. 

Milesburg. 

Williamsport. 

Mill Creek. 

Mill Creek. 

Danville. 

Moshannon. 

Mill Hall. 

Mill Hall. 

Pleasant Gap. 

Pleasant Gap.... 

Bellefonte. 

Bellefonte. 

Howard. 

Williamsport. 

Williamsport. 

Medara. 

MontoursviUe. 

Aaron sburg. 

A 1 toon a. 

Birmingham. 

Birmingham. 

Pino (Jrove Mills. 

Bellefonte. 

Bellefonte. 

Williamsport. 

Fount Hill. 


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Jan. 31, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1867 
Jan. 3, 1871 


Feb. 13, 1871 
Feb. 13, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 17, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Feb. 21,1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1870 


Sept. 1, 1869 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Jan. 3, 1871 
Feb. 13, 1871 
Aug. 28, 1867 
Jan. '20, 1871 
Jan. 20, 1871 
Feb. 13, 1871 


Feb. 13, 1871 
Feb. 13, 1871 
Feb. 21, 1871 
Sept. 24, 1870 
Sept. -24, 1870 
Feb. 21, 1871 
Sept. 1. 1869 
Feb. 28, 1871 
Feb. 21, 1H7I 
Feb. 21, 1871 
Feb. 21, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Jan. 23, 1871 
Jan. 23, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1809 


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22 

II 


Cassville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 


Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

Lovsville 

Lo>sville 

White Hall 

M'Allisterville 

M'hite Hall 

Cassville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 


Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

Cassville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 

M'Allisterville 
























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Date ok 
Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


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Feb. -, 1860 
Aug. 25. 1861 
Oct. 7. 1861 
Aug. 16, 1858 
Oct. 19. 1861 
Mar. 25, 1860 
Oct. 22. 1856 
Jan. 19, 1858 
Sept. 30, 1858 
Apr. 27, 1859 
Sept. 19, 1858 
Aug. 19, 1860 
July 10, 1861 
Oct. 18, 1863 
Nov. 18, 1859 
July 11, 1860 
Mar. 21, 1858 
Aug. 25, 1860 
June 12, 1862 
Jan. 19. 1861 
Feb. 5, 1863 
Aug. 27, 1863 
Oct. 1, 1857 
Mar. 10, 1858 
Nov. 7, 1858 
Aug. -22. 1862 
Mar. 6, 1861 
Sept. 4, 1857 
Feb. 8, 1862 
July '28, 1856 
Sept. 7, 1859 
July 11, 1862 
May 9, 1860 
June -26, 1857 
Aug. 28, 1858 
Oct. 29, 1859 
June 2i, 1857 
Oct. 9. 18,-)9 
May 11, 18,59 
Mar. 12, 1859 
Jnne 13. 1860 
May 25, 1861 
Nov. 15, 1862 
Mar. 26, 1858 
Feb. 5, 1860 
Jan. 5, 1858 
Mar. 25, 1858 
May 1, 1859 


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323 




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PEXXA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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UNIONTOWN SCHOOL. 




N the 7th of May, 1866, the Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, 
Superintendent of Common Schools, and to whom the 
labor and responsibility of organizing a system of soldiers' 
orphan schools had been entrusted, wrote Rev. A. H. 
Waters, who had just retired from the school superintendeucy 
of Butler county, earnestly requesting him to look out a suitable 
location and building for a soldiers' orphan school somewhere in the 
western counties of the State not already furnished with a school. 
After considerable inquiry and search without success, the efforts 
were about to be abandoned, when, by a providential circumstance, it 
became necessary for him to visit Fayette county in the discharge of 
another duty. Whilst there, his attention was called to the Madison 
College buildings, then used only for a small day-school, and owned 
by the Hon. Andrew Stewart. Having found Mr. Stewart very 
desirous to have the property used for the purpose, and Dr. Bur- 
rowes warmly approving of the location, the buildings were secured, 
and arrangements made for the opening of the school. On the 
19th of September, 1866, the first scholar was admitted, and in a 
few days large accessions were made on order and by transfers from 
other schools. The first year of the school's history was attended 
with m:in y difficulties and discouragements. The want of adaptation 
in the buildings, and the great uncertainty of the continuance of the 
aystem, made it hazardous to incur any great expense in the erection 
of additional buildings. After a year of struggle, the system was 
made pcniiancnt, and by the erection of new buildintrs, and changes 
ill iIh- olil, i!i- mIi()(,] was placed upon a solid footing- and siaited on a 
< ar(N r ,.( (^raiifyiiiti: prosperity. Credit is due to Mr. Stewart for his 
<1. vol lull to til'" iiiirivMs ()(' the school. This was shown by his wil- 
lingneas to coniiihui." lo the lucrssary changes, and his generous 
*'""»r!'""M<)n <.r s<i(M) annually — luing one-half ol" the annual lease 
• ;ir<l ■ lo iii.rilorions pu])ils. 
All. I Hi ally right yrars of very encouraging success, and when, 

32G 



UXIOXTOWN SCHOOL. 327 

from the nature of the ease, this, as well as all the other schools, 
must soon commence its decline, for various reasons it was thought 
advisable to change its location. After giving the matter due con- 
sideration, and with the consent of the State Superintendent, it was 
determined to move to Dunbar's Camp, four miles and a half east of 
Uniontown, on the Laurel Hill range of the Allegheny Mountains. 

This point was selected on account of location, being indeed 
" beautiful for situation," commanding one of the finest natural 
scenes to be found in the country; and also, because it was suffi- 
ciently removed from the influences of a large town. Accordingly, 
in the fall of 1874, work was begun, and in April, 1875, large and 
convenient buildings were so far completed as to enable the school to 
move into them. The 8th of April was a memorable day in the 
history of the school, as on that day it was transferred from the old 
home in Uniontown to the new one on Dunbar's Camp. With 
wonderful exemption from the accidents of ordinary removals, in a 
day the transfer was made to the mountain home. After two years 
of exiDerience in the new home, the most sanguine expectations have 
been more than realized. The change has been demonstrated to be 
a wise one. The children are healthier, have more freedom, and are 
happier. They breathe the pure air of an altitude of two thousand 
five hundred feet, and drink the pure mountain water. It is claimed 
that there is no finer location for a school in the State ; and it is hoped 
that when this school shall have finished its noble work, an educa- 
tional institution may still be continued in this charming spot. 

This is historic ground. Although a reference here to the inci- 
dents making it such would seem out of place, yet the general in- 
terest and importance will be a sufficient apology. Here one of the 
most interesting incidents in the life of Washington occurred. In 
1754, when only twenty-two years of age, he crossed these moun- 
tains — then a howling wilderness — with three small companies, 
and met at this place a party of French soldiers, under the com- 
mand of M. de Jumonville. An action occurred, in which Jumouville 
and ten of his men were killed and twenty were taken prisoners. The 
grave of Jumonville is near the school, and is visited by many persons. 

The following year General Braddock arrived from England, with 
a large force of well-trained men, for the purpose of taking posses- 
sion of Fort Duquesne, where Pittsburgh now stands, and of driving 
back the French and Indians. 

Washington was invited to become his aid-de-camp; no doubt, 



328 PENXA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

chiefly because he had already twice crossed these wilds and pene- 
trated the boundaries occupied by the French. To transport 
Braddock's army, with its cumbersome baggage-wagons and heavy 
artillery, across a wild, rocky, and uninhabited mountainous region, 
heavily timbered, proved almost a herculean undertaking, and the 
army advanced with slow progress, as they were obliged to cut their 
way through the dense forest. General Braddock found that he was 
not manoeuvring an army upon the broad and open fields of Europe, 
and the season was fast passing around. Though his haughty spirit 
rebelled against it, he was compelled to seek the advice of Washing- 
ton, who suggested an immediate division of the army in order that 
he might proceed rapidly with a body of chosen men and light 
equipage, whilst the remainder, with the heavy artillery and baggage- 
wagons, should follow with slow marches. This suggestion was 
adopted. Braddock and Washington pushed forward, whilst Col- 
onel Dunbar followed. On the 9th of July, when the advance 
force was within a few miles of the fort, marching in high expecta- 
tion of its early possession, suddenly, like a clap of thunder in a clear 
sky, a deadly fire poured upon them from an unseen enemy, and a 
terrible carnage ensued. In vain Braddock sought to rally his men. 
The brave and well-trained men could not be rallied to face a shower 
of bullets from a hidden foe. At this critical juncture, with the 
wildest confusion among the troops, Washington suggested to Brad- 
dock to change the mode of warfare and fight the enemy in its own 
way. This wise and timely suggestion was indignantly rejected, and 
the fearful carnage continued. On every side brave officers and men 
fell fast as autumn leaves, to gratify the haughty spirit of Braddock. 
At this juncture Braddock himself fell, mortally wounded, and the 
advice of Washington was now gladly sought. To save the shattered 
remnant of the army, he advised an immediate retreat. The com- 
mand having been committed to him, the retreat was conducted with 
such masterly skill as to foreshadow him as the future great leader of 
the American armies. With the shattered remains of this proud army, 
Washington reached this point, and found Dunbar's forces utterly 
panic-stricken. The heavy wagons were burned and large quantities 
of shells were exploded. Although one hundred and twenty years 
have passed since that event, and wagon-loads of shells, etc., have 
been sold as old metal, the labor of a little digging is still rewarded 
by the discovery of relics of various kinds. Braddock was borne 
on the retreat to a point near the present location of this school, 
where he died. Here his remains still rest. 



UNIONTOWJSr SCHOOL. 



329 



A legeud exists that on the retreat of Duubar from this encamp- 
meut a cannon was filled with gold and buried. 

Bona fide requests have been made of the Principal of the school 
for the privilege of digging in search of the hidden treasures ; but if 
that cannon and gold ever were buried here, there is no doubt that 
they were unearthed again not long after the burial. 

We give a list of the persons officially connected with this school 
from the date of its organization to the present time, viz. : 



Kev. D. L. Roth, 
Maj. F. I. Thomas, 
Mr. Andrew Hook, 
Miss Mary Tyler, 
" Alice Oliphant, 
" Marg't Harbaugh, 
" Fannie Dougan, 



Mrs. H. C. Waters, 
" E. Hill, 



Teachers. 

Mr. Michael Baker, 
Rev. J. P. Benford, 
Mr. Hiram Faust, 
Miss Olivia Smith, 
" Clara Taylor, 
" Susan Rugan, 
Hon. W. H. Sanner, 

Matrons. 

Mrs. Lucy Starr, 
" M. J. Shott, 



Prof J. F. Diveley, 
Mr. J. F. Anthony, 
Miss Mary Smith, 
" Ellie Livengood, 
" Jennie Rogers, 
Mr. John A. Waters. 



Miss Ann Littlewood. 



Miss Debora Richards, 
" Louisa Richards, 

Mrs. Caroline Beabout, 
" Susan Collier, 

Mr. Wm. Davis, 
" John K. Whaley, 
" John Rhodes, 

Miss M. Dershinger, 
" Ellen Flood, 

Mrs. Ann Adams, 

Miss Annie Brumhead, 

Mrs. Mary Johnston, 



John Fuller, M. D. 



Employees. 

Mrs. Rebecca Patton, 
Miss Nannie Hart, 
Mr. A. C. Hunt, 

" John Ingles, 

" Evans MeClure, 
Mrs. Martha Shannon, 
Miss Amanda Culp, 
Mrs. Mary Beistel, 
" D. Tompkins, 
Miss Jennie Clark, 
Miss Carrie Murphy, 
Mrs. Mary Brown, 

Physicians. 

W. H. Sturgeon, M. D.,| F. C. Robinson, M. D. 
Jas. B. Ewing, M. D., 



Mrs. A. M. Malick, 

Mr. D. E. Davis, 
" Wm. Murphy, 
" H. C. Brown, 
" Albert Henry, 

Mrs. M. Huttenhower, 

Miss Amelia Martin, 

Mrs. Ann Core, 

Miss Mary Clark, 
" Fannie Arnsburg, 

Mr. E. Brownfield. 



330 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



i 

1 




Blacksmith by trade. 
In Regular army. 

Printer. 

Carriage-maker. 

Farming. 

Printer. 

BrakemaD. 
Farming. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 
UOME. 


Altoona, 

AlUtoua 

Blood V Run. 
Bloody Run. 
New Salem. 

Uniontown 

Uniontown. 
Plcasantvllle. 

Washington 

CiUiforuia. 

Brownsville 

Brownsville. 

Greensburg 

Uniontown 
Uniontown. 
Monongahela Cy. 

Pittsburgh 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Washington. 

Beallsville. 

Monongahela Cy. 

WashingU)n. 

Washington. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown 

Uniontown. 

Donegal. 

Uniontown. 

Brownsville. 

Indian Creek. 

Indian Creek. 

Indian Creek. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Washington. 

Washington. 

Callensburg. 

Hulton. 

Allegheny. 

Mt. Pleasant. 

Mt. Pleasant. 

Allegheny. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

North Strabane. 


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Nov. 23, 1869 


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Oct. 7, 1874 

July 17, 1870 

Mar. 22, 1868 

July 4,1871 

;;!!!!!!;;!; ■May'2"3,*i869** 

Jan. 20, 1872 

Apr. 13, 1870 

Oct. 22, 1873 


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N. Sewlckley . 

PhiilVpVbJrg" '. 
P.&A.O. Asy. . 

PhiilVpVb'urg** ! 


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"N.'Sewi'c'krey"' '. 


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Date of 
Admission 
on Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


Oct. 3, 1.S66 

Oct. 3, ms 

J»n. 14. 1867 
Jan. 14, 1867 
Oct. 2, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Apr. 7, 1875 
Sept. 19. 1866 
Oct. 12, 1866 
Oct. 3, 1866 
Oct. 3. 1866 
Oct. 3, 18H6 
Nov. 26, 1866 
Nov. 26, 1866 
June 11, 1869 
June 15, 1867 
Oct. 3, 1867 
Oct. 3, 1867 
Oct. 7, 1867 
Dec. 7, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sopt. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 15, 1869 
Oct. 25. 1869 
Apr. 10, 1871 
May 2, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 2. 1871 
Sept. 20, 1871 
Sept. 9, 1872 
Sept. 9, 1872 
Sept. 9, 1872 
Nov. 27, 1872 
Nov. 27, 1872 
Dec. 18, 1872 
June 2, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 5, 1874 
Mar. 17, 1875 
Mar. 17, 1875 
Apr. 4, 1874 
Apr. 4, 1874 
Mar. 18, 1875 
May 18, 1875 
May 18, 1875 
May 18, 1875 
Jan. 20, 1869 


OB 


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Alton. Stephen 
Allen, William H. 
Beahnut, Alexander 
Bane. James F. 
BreckcDridge, William 


Bommer, John 
Boring. John W. 
Boring. Darid S. P. 
Boyd, Clark 
Brers, Madison E. 
Bakehouse, Henry 
Bakehouse. John 
Beabout, Charies A. 


Bovd, Alden 
Beabout, Clarence J. 
Ball, Charles L. 
Brvner, Calvin S. 
Beggs, Alfred 


Breiner, Charles B. 
Beistle, John W. 
Beggs, William 
Ball, James T. 
Blackburn, B. C. 


Blackburn, Anthony B. 
Blackburn, Joseph E. 
Barnes, William 
Bamea, Suten 
Barnes, Jesse 
Braddock, Isaiah 


Braddock, Silaa 
Rums, James 
Bright, Albert R. 
Bolton, Joseph Alex. 
Brothers. Austin 
Brothers. Quincy 
Bowser, Fullerton 


ills* 

b" a* c Z 
» » ^ « 

III! 



UNIONTOWN soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 331 



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Nov. 7, 1871 
Feb. 17, 1873 
Oct. 10, 1874 
Mar. 25, 1867 
July 17, 1870 
Oct. 22, 1872 
May 1. 1874 
Dec. 26, 18«7 








Oct. 29. 1874 
Oct. 8, 1870 

Jan. 23, 1868 
May 22, 1868 
Aug. 3, 1872 




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Dec. 1, 1870 
Deo. 1, 1870 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 7, 1869 
May 2. 1867 
Sept. 4, 1867 
June 1. 1867 
Sept. 28, 1867 
Sept. 5. 1870 
Sept. 5, 1870 
June 2, 1875 
Oct. 8, 1867 
Sept. 1. 1870 
Sept. 1, 1H70 
Sept. 6, 1870 
Nov. 11, 1873 
Oct. 20, 1874 
June 1, 1867 
Julv 8. 1875 
Jan. 1, 1876 
Dec. 3, 1866 
Oct. 26, 1867 
Jan. 24, 1867 
Sept. 18, 1868 


nil 


Julv 24, 1855 
June 15, 1853 
Jan. 17, 1857 
Sept. 17, 1853 
Oct. 5. 1858 
Apr. 6. 1854 
May 15. 1857 
Jan. 12,1859 
Apr. 7, 1855 
Feb. 12, 1857 
Nov. 14, 1859 
June 17, 1861 
Nov. 10, 1862 
Sept. 17, 1856 
Feb. 24, 1862 
Sept. 3, 1864 
Apr. 11, 1862 
Sept. U, 1857 
Nov. 24, iai8 
Aug. — , 1863 
Sept. 11, 1861 
Nov. 7. 1855 
Feb. 15, I8,i7 
Oct. 10, 1K58 
Mar. 25, 1851 
Julv 17, 18.->4 
Oct. 22, 1H56 
May 1, 1858 
Dec. 26, 1851 
Apr. 3, 1856 
June 5, 1863 
Oct. 6, 18(iO 
May 22, 1860 
Aug. 25, 1862 
Oct. 29, 1858 
Oct. 8. 18.54 
Sept. 12, 1854 
Jan. 8, 1856 
Jan. 23, 1852 
May 22, 1852 
Aug. 3, 1856 
May 11, 1859 
Oct. 2. 1862 
May 16, 18.56 
Oct. 27, ia59 
Aug. 4, 1861 
Apr. 2, 1858 
Apr. 5, 1862 
Dec. 28, 1867 
Sept. 6, 1855 
Sept. 24, 1S68 
May 15, 1860 
Jan. 5, 1853 
Apr. 30, 185.3 
Mar. 15, 18.57 
Jan. 19, 1859 


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332 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



Pi 
< 

1 


Saddle- and harness- 
maker by trade. 

fReoeivlng outdoor re- 
lief, under provisions 

i of Sect. 8. Act of 1867. 
Rev. D.Harbison, trus- 

L tee. 

( Readmitted by trans- 


5 
S 

3 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Perryopolis. 
Jacobs Creek. 
K. Bethlehem. 
Uniontown. 
Sugar Grove. 
Mount Pleasant. 
Uniontown. 
Pittsburgh 
Pittsburgh. 
Monroe. 
Donegal. 
Donegal. 
Hope Church. 
Webster. 
Uniontown. 
Uniontown. 
M'ebster. 
Webster. 
Donegal. 
Donegal. 
Donegal. 
Belle Vernon. 
Belle Vernon. 
Ursin.a. 
West Finley. 
West Newton. 
California. 
• Cribbs. 

Temperance ville. 
Uniontown. 
Pittsburgh. 
Belle Vernon. 

Delmont 

Elizabeth town. 
Etizabethtown. 

Delmont 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Donegal. 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

E. Bethlehem. 

East Liberty. 

Uniontown. 

Pittsburgh. 

Saltsburg. 

Saltsburg. 

M.irlin". li". W V 


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Datk op 
Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


mimsimmmummmiiMmmmii 


II 




1 

5 

1 




iiii 

oooocoa 


Beekard. Hugh 
Heckard. Franklin 
Harding. Cweorge 
Hays, John W. 
Havs. Henry B. 
Hays, Charles C. 
Haley, John 
Haugbt. Robert M. 
Hanghl, Joseph C. 
Haley, Andrew C. O. 
Ha)«y, George 
Hays, John A. 
Hays, Je^se 
Hays, William H. 
Huttenhower, James L. 
Huttenhower. Jeremiah 
Heimbaagh, Curnel 


Hughes, Reaben O. 
Howe, Job I. 
Hammon, Fred. 
Ingraim, Thomas J. 
Inks. John H. 
Johns, John T. 
Jobs. John 
Kelly, Thomas P. 
Kirkland,. Austin L. 
Klrkland, Lemuel 
Kelly, Joseph M. 
Klsner, William R. 
Klsner, Silvester 8. 




illlll 



UNIONTOWN soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL 



333 



Moulder. 

Printer. 

Blacksmith. 
Clerk. 

J Dranghtsman sod pho- 
l tographer. 


ill |11l||a1||||llllts!:^!:|s|:|ll|li|||liil| 


WashingU.n. 
Good Intent. 

Washington 

Washington. 
PittRi.urgh. 
Frolericktown. 
FrediTicktown. 
West Finley. 
West Fin lev. 
Fountain Mills. 
Fountain Mills. 
New Richmond. 
New Richmond. 






























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July 12, 1873 
May 19, 1867 
Apr. 2. 1872 
Dec. 23, 1867 
June 12, 1866 
Apr. 22, 1871 
Jan. 31, 1870 
Dec. 23, 1872 


ii 

II 


III 




Sept. 3, 1871 
May 10, 1873 
Jan. 27, 1875 

Deij'.il.i872" 
June 23, 1874 
















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Sept. 5. 1870 
May 15, 1871 
Apr. 15, 1875 
Apr. 15. 1875 
Dec. 8, 1866 
Oct. 3, 1866 
Oct. 3, 1866 
Oct. 8, 1866 
Oct. 2, 1866 
Oct. 2, 1866 
May 10, 1867 
May 22, 1S«7 
May 22, 1867 

Tiino 1 1»l:7 




5, 1869 
29, 1869 
26, 1869 
, 186.; 
1, 1869 

8, 1871 
8,1871 

0, 1870 
12, 1870 
H, 1871 
5. 1872 
4, 1873 

1874 
, 1875 
, 1875 
i, 1875 

1, 1874 

2, 1875 
1866 
1866 

1. 1870 
1, 1867 
1,1867 
(5, 1870 
0,1867 
, 1872 

9, 1872 
3,1867 

1, 1869 
,1868 
1,1869 
8, 1871 

2, 1871 
2, 1871 
,1872 

, 1872 
8, 1874 
8, 1874 


iiii 




Aug. 24, 1857 
Sept. 1, 18fX) 
June 29, 1866 
Mar. 13, 1868 
July 12, 1857 
May 19, 1851 
Apr. 2, 1866 
Deo. 23, 1851 
June 12, 1850 
Apr. 22, 1855 
Jan. 31, 1854 
Dec. 23, 1856 
Jan. 30, 1862 
July 16, 1851 
May 16, 1853 
Apr. 22, 1856 
July 2, 1859 
Sept. 6. 18.58 
Dec. 31, 1856 
Apr. 29, 1860 
Aug. 12, 18,59 


mm 


May -25 1864 
Apr. 3, 1862 
Nov. 6, 1861 
Deo. 18, 1864 
Aug. 24. 1867 
Sept. 22, 1860 
Oct. 28, 1859 
Oct. 8, 1800 
June 21, 1856 
Feb. 9, 18,55 
Oct. 27, 1858 
Apr. 19, 1857 
May 10, 18.58 
June 25, 1860 
Dec. 14, 1856 
Feb. 27, 1861 
Nov. -26, 1862 
Nov. 20, 1855 
June 24, 18.58 
Aug. 24, 1858 
Oct. 27. 18.59 
Oct. 3, 1861 
Apr. '26, 1862 
Mar. 24, 1857 
Oct. 9, 1859 
Deo. 16, 1860 
Oct. '20, 1859 
Feb. 14, 1862 


May 10, 1 
Jan. -27, 
Nov. 30, 
Deo. 11, 1 
June '23. 




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Maxwell, John 
Maxwell. Daniel W. 
Maxwell, Wm. Henry 
Montgomery. Robert 




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334 



PEXNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



< 


Farmer. 
Farmer. 

W. Vlr. 
W. Vir. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 
Iik)ME. 


Connellsvllle.... 

CoiinclUville.... 

Webster. 

Senright. 

Pittsburgh. 

Hillside. 

Porterflold. 

PorterfleM. 

Brownsville. 

Up. Middletown 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Spriugfield. 

Springfield. 

Allegheny. 

Allegheny. 

Pittsburgh. 

Springfield. 

Spriugfield. 

Browusville. 

Masontown. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Myersdale. 

Pittsburgh. 

Independence, 

Independence, 

Allegheny. 

Allegheny. 

Titusville. 

Cribbs. 

Cribbs. 

Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh. 

Allegheny City. 

Elm. 

Allegheny. 

Dorceyville. 

Dorceyville. 

ConnellsviUe. 

Lecchburg. 

Leechburg. 

Allegheny City 

Waynesburg. 

Waynesburg. 

Waynesburg. 

N. Washington. 

N. W.ashington. 

Uniontown. 


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Apr. 30, 1871 
Nov. 28, 1870 
Sept. 29, 1872 
June 22, 1872 
Aug. 13, 1868 
Oct. 2, 1868 
Feb. 28, 1871 


























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ADM1S.SION 

on Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


Jan. 11,1867 
Jan. 11, 1867 
Oct. 19. 1870 
Oct. 2, 1866 
Oct. 3. 1866 
Oct. 2, 1867 
Oct. -a. 1»66 
Oct. 23, lhrt6 
Oct. 29, 1866 
Dec. 14. 1866 
Dec. 16, 1867 
Dec. 16, 1867 
Jan. 10, 1867 
Jan. 10, 1867 
June 1,1867 
June I, 1867 
Sept. 1. 1869 
Sept. 6, 1870 
Sept. 6, 1870 
Nov. 14, 1866 
Aug. 9, 1870 
Junel, 1870 
June 1, 1870 
Sept. 8. 1871 
Sept. 26, 1871 
Mar. 18, 1873 
Mar. 18, 1873 
Apr. 3, 1874 
Apr. 3, 1874 
Jan. 15, 1875 
Apr. 26, 1875 
Apr. 26, 1876 
Oct. 6, 1875 
Oct. 9, 1875 
Dec. 1, 1875 
Nov. 29, 1867 
May 28. 1868 
Aug. 8, 1870 
Aug. 8, 1870 
Feb. 5, 1875 
Feb. 21, 1876 
Feb. 21, 1876 
Dec. 1, 1875 
Nov. 29, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Nov. 21, 1866 
Nov. 21, 1866 
Jan. 25, 1867 


11 


Ang. 81. 1855 
Jan. 28, 1858 
Apr. 13. Ih57 
Apr. 3, 1856 
Deo. 11. 1855 
Oct. 2. 1854 
May 25, 1852 
July 8, 1854 
Jan. 8, 1852 
Apr. 30, 1855 
Nov. 28, 1854 
Sept. 29, 1856 
June 22, 1856 
Ang. 13, 1»52 
Oct. 2, 1852 
Keb. 28. 1855 
Feb. 2. 1860 
Apr. 24, 1861 
Feb. 5. 1860 
Sept. 30, 1854 
Aug. 24, 1857 
Sept. .SO, 1857 
Jan. 10, 1859 
May 31, 1861 
Sept. 22, 1857 
Jan. 22, 1864 
Jan. 22, 1864 
July 6, 1861 
Jan. 5, 1863 
June 22, 1862 
Feb. 7, 1862 
July 14, 1863 
Mar. 24, 1861 
Sept. 4. 1861 
Sept. 12, 1861 
July 16, 18.55 
Apr. 24, 1858 
Mar. 26, 1860 
Apr. 23, 1863 
June 1, 1861 
Feb. 8, 1866 
Sept. 15, 1867 
Jan. 30, 1873 
June 11, 1854 
Sept. 26, 1859 
Oct. 12, 1861 
Jan. 5. 1853 
Sept. .SO, 1&S5 
Aug. 17, 1851 


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UNIONTOWN SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL, 



335 



Died Oct. 17, 18«. 
KeadmitUsd,8ept.9,1875. 

(Seamstress. Lives with 

I her mother. 

Lives with her mother. 

Died Nov. 11, 1872. 

J Expects to take a conne 
I at Sagamore S. N. S. 


lydffHliiMii liliifiiiiiJIii 


California. 

California. 
MonongahelaCy. 
MonoBgahela Cy. 
Townville. 
Venango. 


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Dec. 2, 1871 


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Sept. 26. 1867 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept.. 27, 1867 
July 8, 1869 
July 8, 1869 
July 8, 1869 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Apr. 30, 1867 
Jan. 29, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Jan. 17, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Nov. 8, 1874 
Nov. 8, 1874 
June 2, 1875 
July 12, 1875 
Sept. 14, 1869 
May 20, 1873 
Nov. 8, 1870 
Nov. 8, 1870 

Oct. 3, 1866^ 
Jan. 10. 1867 
Deo. 26, 1868 
Jan. 5. 1875 
Apr. 7, 1875 
Apr. 3, 1874 
Oct. 3, 1866 
Oct. 3, 1866 
Nov. 6, 1866 
Oct. 12, 1866 
Nov. 26, 1866 
./an. 4, 1869 
Sept. 8. 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 18, 1871 
Sept. 21, 1871 
Sept. 21. 1871 
Apr. 3, 1874 
Oct. 19, 1874 
Mar. 17, 1875 
Mar. 17. 1875 
Sept. 26, 1866 
Nov. 14, 1866 
Mar. 13, 1867 
Mar. 13, 1867 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Apr. 27, 1874 
Apr. 27, 1874 
Deo. 8, 1874 
Dec. 18, 1874 


Oct. 24, 1858 
July 24, 1860 
Nov. 14, 1853 
July 25, 1856 
Mar. 14, 1860 
Oct. 29, 1861 
May 7, 1863 
Aug. 5, 1854 
Apr. 15, 1857 
Feb. 13, 1860 
Mar. 16, 1858 
Oct. 3, 1861 
Mar. 15, 1861 
Nov. 18, 1869 
Feb. 17, 1860 
Dec. 15, 18G1 
May 12, 1864 
Apr. 8, 1860 
July 28, 1865 
June 16, 1860 
Nov. — , 1863 
June 12, 1860 
June 12, 1860 

Deo. 1, 1856 
July 13, 1852 
Aug. 7, 1859 
Juuel, 1861 
Nov. 5, 1864 
Apr. 15. 1859 
Feb. 17, 1852 
Jan. 9, 1854 
Feb. 12, 1855 
Sept. 19, ia-)6 
Aug. 27, 1857 
Apr. 14, 1-855 
June 29, 1860 
Sept. 28, 18,57 
Sept. 4, 18)8 
July 20. 1860 
Mar. 13, 1862 
May 30, 18,59 
Apr. 7. 1861 
Nov. 27, 1866 
Oct. 12, 1865 
May 18, 1853 
Oct. 11. 1853 
Feb. 28. 18.55 i 
June 6 1857 
Feb. 12, 18.59 
Sept. 30, 1861 
Mar. 9, 1860 
Mar. 9, 1860 
Dec. 13, 1859 
Aug. 5, 1860 




Walters, John 
Walters, James M. 
Walters, George W. 
Wilson, Frank M. 
Wilson, Edwin F. 
Wilson, James S. 
Wilsoa, Henry H. 


Wilgus, Joseph 
Waddiugton, Thomas J. 
Waddington, John W. 
Wall, James 0. 
Walls, William M. 
Walls, David 0. 
Weutzel, Lewis P. 
Wilkinson, Charles 
Younkin. Harvey 
Toder, William N. 
Zebley, Andrew 3. 
Zebley, Henry C. 


its' 

Il- 
iii 


Anderson, Mary C. 
Allen, Tillie 
Adams, Sarah E. 
Breckenridge, Josephine 
Breckenridge, Jennie 


Bommer, Catherine 
Boring, Alice J. 
Bail, Eliza Jane 
Beistle, Susannah M. 


m 
m 


Baker, Margaret 
Bolton, Mary J. 
Bolton, Jennie M. 
Campsey, Rebecca 
Clark, Marv A. 
Cummins, Lillian 
Cummins, Gertrude 


Connelly, Emma A. 
Connelly, Margaret B. 
Cady, Caroline 
Cady, Margaret 
Churchill, Sarah 
Clavvson, Eva 



336 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 







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Sept. 27, 1871 
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Sept. 20, 1866 
Sept. 12, 1870 
Dec. 8, 1866 
May 10, 1867 
Sept. 21, 1870 
May 10, 1867 
Sept. 4, 1873 
Jan. 14, 1867 
May 22, 1867 
Oct. 2, WS 
Aug. 26, 1869 
Apr. 29. 1872 
June 24, 1871 
Feb. 18, 1873 
Feb. 18, 1873 
Sept. 11, 1«73 
Nov. -28, 1874 
Oct. 9, 1875 
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Nov. 7, 1867 
May 31, 1869 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Oct. 9. 1873 
Oct. 9, 1873 
Jan. 5, 1875 
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Oct. 7, 1874 
Oct. 7, 1H74 
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Oct. 3, 1866 
Dec. 14. 1866 
Dec. 14, 1866 
Jan. 22. 1873 
Apr. 25. 1.S70 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8. 1871 
Oct. 10. 1871 
Oct. 10, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1874 
May 10, 1H75 
Jan. 15, 1875 
Oct. 29. 1866 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Deo, 1. 1875 
Nov. 29, 1867 


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July 9, 1857 
Feb. 24, 18.58 
Jan. 25, 1857 
Jan. 15, 1860 
Oct. 18, 1857 
May 27, 1861 
Dec. 31, 1862 
Dec. 6. 1857 
Aug. 23, 1861 
June 9, 1856 • 
Mar. 25, 1856 
Jan. 5. 1859 
Sept. 26, 1857 
Sept. 3, 1859 
July 20, 1858 
June 21, 1858 
Oct. 5. 1853 
July 30. 1857 
Apr. 6, 1862 
June 5, 1860 
Apr. 19, 1861 
Aug. 27, 1863 
Apr. 19. 1859 
June 23, 1862 
Dec. 13, 1860 
Mar. 10, 18.56 
Oct. 26, 1858 
Feb. 12, 1858 
Apr. 19, 1863 
Jan. 14, 1860 
Aug. 28, 1863 
Jan. 23, 1860 
Oct. .30, 1857 
Sept. 15, 1860 
Apr. 10, 1863 
Sept. 16. 1860 
Mar. 30, 1863 
Jan. 18, 1859 
Mar. 14, 1858 
Apr. 17, 1853 
Nov. 25, 1857 
Apr. 20, 1860 
Nov. 17, 1854 
Sept, 15, 1860 
Mav 15, 1862 
Dec. 24, 1861 
Oct. 8. 1859 
Apr. 15, 1865 
Aug. 16, 1866 
Jan. 17, 1861 
May 20, 18,59 
Oct. 8. is^a 
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Feb. 12. 1864 
May 13, 1853 


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338 



PBNNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



REMARKS. 

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Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 

Elm 

Kim. 

Elm. 

Pile Falla. 

Uniontown. 

Uniontown. 

Leeobburg. 

Allegheny. 

AUeeheny. 

N. Washington. 

Broad Ford. 

Webster. 

Webster. 

Waynesburg. 

Pile Falls. 


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OR BV 

Transfer. 

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Sept. 1, 1870 
Oot. 20, 1873 
Nov. 23. 1869 
Apr. 23, 1872 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Feb. 21, 1876 
Oct. 9, 1875 
Oct. 9, 1875 
May 18, 1870 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1874 
Sept. 8, 1874 
May 20, 1873 
Nov. 8, 1870 




S«pt. 4, 1880 
Apr. 19, 1863 
Not. 25. 1858 
May 8. 1860 
Jan. 25, 1885 
Mar. 23, 1889 
May 14, 1867 
Dec. -25. 1868 
Oct. 5. 1860 
Nov. 16, 1861 
Feb. 10, 1864 
Jan. 26, 1867 
Jan. 17, 1862 
Dec. 29, 1857 


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St. Paul's Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum. 




HIS orphanage is located on Tannehill Street, in the city 
of Pittsburgh. It was among the pioneer institutions of 
the kind in the western part of the State. It was incor- 
porated in 1840. The St. Paul's Male Orphan Asylum, 
formerly located in Birmingham, and the St. Paul's Female Orphan 
Asylum, formerly situated on Webster Street, were merged into this 
institution, and their inmates transferred thither. 

The site of this Asylum is most commanding, affording a fine view 
of the city, its surroundings, the romantic valleys of the Mononga- 
hela, the Allegheny, and the Ohio rivers. 

The building now occupied is indeed a grand structure. The 
corner-stone was laid on the 10th of June, 1866. It is of a cruci- 
form shape, having a front on Tannehill Street of two hundred feet, 
with a depth of fifty feet, and a rear extension of eighty feet. The 
lower story is constructed of freestone, and the other three of brick 
faced with stone. A spacious hall runs longitudinally through the 
building on each story. The third and fourth stories are used for 
dormitories. The total cost was at least one hundred and sixty 
thousand dollars. 

Trusting to its own resources, this orphanage received many sol- 
diers' orphans before the State had made provision for them. In 
1866, there were seventy-six of this class under its care. Subse- 
quently all the applications for admission that could be made out 
were forwarded to the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, and the 
institution reimbursed. The whole number of soldiers* orphans ad- 
mitted into this Asylum, whose expenses have been borne by the 
State, is twenty-seven. 

The household and school are under the direct supervision of 
the Sisters of Mercy, to whose humble and unwearied labors many 
orphans are deeply indebted. 

339 



340 



PENNA. S0L.DIER8' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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Protestant Orphan Asylum of Pittsburgh and 

Allegheny. 




HIS institution was founded in the year 1832. An in- 
formal meeting of the ladies of the two cities was held at 
the residence of the Rev. Joseph Stockton, and, after con- 
sideration and discussion, it was decided that " it is expe- 
dient to attempt the formation of an asylum for orphans in this vi- 
cinity ; " and it was also resolved to hold a public meeting for that 
purpose. This meeting was held April 17, 1832, in the First Pres- 
byterian Church, Pittsburgh. It was presided over by General Wil- 
liam Robinson, Jr. A draft of a constitution was adopted, and a 
committee of gentlemen appointed to procure an act of incorporation. 
The first Managers were the following ladies, five of whom still sur- 
vive, and two of whom are still Managers, Mrs. Denny having been 
the President ever since its foundation : 

First Directress, Mrs. Elizabeth F. Denny. 
Second Directress, Mrs. Martha Page. 
Secretary, Mrs. Anna Halsey. 
Treasurer, Mrs. Mary Robinson. 



Mrs. Eliz'h P. Halsey, 
" Eliza Lothrop, 
" Margaret George, 
" MaryWilkins, 



Managers. 

Miss Mary Page, 
" Marian Cowan, 

Mrs. Margaret Bruce, 
" Eliz'h Tiernan, 



Mrs. Susan K. Wade, 
" Hannah Higby, 

Miss Mary Herron, 
" Mary A. S. Baird. 



Committees of gentlemen and ladies went through the cities col- 
lecting donations, and, on the 27th of June, a house was rented, a 

341 



342 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

matron provided, and the Asylum was opened with two orphan chil- 
dren as inmates. 

In August, 1836, General Robinson presented a lot, on Webster 
Street, Allegheny, to the Asylum ; and after many difficulties were 
encountered and obstacles overcome, a new house was occupied in 
the spring of 1838. Here the family of orphans remained until, 
during the war, they became so numerous that they were obliged to 
seek larger accommodations. Mr. Charles Brewer, who died in 1860, 
left a bequest of fifteen thousand dollars for a new house, and also a 
share in his residuary estate, which proved to be very valuable. Mr. 
William Holmes, of Pittsburgh, attended to the investment of this 
legacy, and added to it his own large subscription and that of his 
friends, so that the building, whose erection he superintended, was 
free of debt when occupied in November, 1866. 

The Asylum building, located in Allegheny City, is of brick, two 
stories and a half high, with good basement ; it is one hundred and 
fifty-five feet long by fifty -five feet wide, and stands in a lot two hundred 
and fifty by two hundred and eighty-six feet, bounded on three sides 
by Ridge, Grant, and Lincoln Avenues. Its cost, including furniture 
and grading of grounds, was about sixty-four thousand dollars. 
About three hundred persons can be accommodated in it. The 
largest number has been two hundred and sixty, including officers 
and employees. 

Since the State undertook the support of the soldiers' orphans, this 
Asylum has had under its charge about two hundred and sixty of 
these children, at one time one hundred and fifty being inmates. 

The Asylum is supported by the income derived from investments 
and by contributions. It has received but four thousand dollars from 
the State, except the money paid for the support of soldiers' orphans. 
There are now under its care one hundred and ninety children, about 
two thousand two hundred having been sheltered by it since its first 
organization. 

The following is a list of Managers, officers, and employees : 

BOARD OF MANAGERS. 

President. 
Mrs. Elizabeth F. Denny, 114 Penn Avenue. 

Vice-President. 
Mrs. Mary Wilkins, 1 Fourth Avenue. 



ASYLUM OF PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY. 343 

Treasurer. 
Mrs. H. B. Logan, 52 Wood Street. 

Secretary. 
Mrs. Lois J. Campbell, 75 Wood Street. 



Mrs. Mary J. Hays, 
" Harvey Childs, 
" Letitia Holmes, 
" W. Van Kirk, 

Miss H. S. Lotbrop, 
" Amelia Verner, 



Mrs. Mary A. Murray, 
" Eliz'b McKnight, 
" Samuel Lowrie, 
" Mary H. Brunot, 

Miss M. H. Smitb, 

Mrs. A. C. Kay, 

Matron. 
Mrs. E. McKelvey. 

Assistant Matron. 
Miss E. P. Hervey; 

Principal Teacher. 
Miss M. Wallace. 

Primary Teacher. 
Miss M. McKelvey. 

Superintendent of Nursery. 
Mrs. Walsh. 

Hospital Nurse. 
Miss M. McMarlen. 

Physician. 
Oliver Laird Miller, M. D. 



Miss Jane Holmes, 
" E. P. Albree, 
Mrs. James Speer, 
Miss S. Garrison, 
Mrs. MuUins. 



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PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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CHURCH HOME ASSOCIATION, 




HIS institution, located in Pittsburgh, was originally or- 
ganized as a home for aged members of the Episcopal 
Church ; but, after a time, its charities were so extended 
as to include the young. 
It was incorporated in 1859, and opened in the following April. 
From this period until April, 1862, it occupied a rented house, 
from which it was removed to its present location in the vicinity 
of Lawrenceville, now within the limits of the city of Pittsburgh, 
and previously known as "Locust Grove Seminary." This prop- 
erty was afterwards purchased, and conveyed to the Board of 
Trustees, at a cost of about sixteen thousand dollars. The funds 
were obtained by private contributions. During the first year of its 
operations, nineteen needy persons were received — seven adults and 
twelve children ; and by the fourth annual meeting the number had 
increased to thirty-one — six adults and twenty-five children. 

Soon after Dr. Burrowes was appointed State Superintendent of 
Soldiers' Orphans, he made arrangements with its Board of Man- 
agers to receive a small number of the more juvenile children under 
his charge. The first arrival of these orphans was on the twenty- 
fifth day of September, 1865. From that date, the institution con- 
tinued to admit, from time to time, children on the order of the 
Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, until the fall of 1873, when all 
the " wards of the State " were transferred to schools established 
solely for the children of deceased soldiers, where they could enjoy 
better educational and other facilities than could be afforded at a 
charitable institution. The whole number of soldiers' orphans ad- 
mitted into the Church Home and supported by the State was forty- 
three. 

349 



350 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 







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WHITE HALL SCHOOL. 




HIS school is pleasantly located at Camp Hill, Cumberland 
county, near the White Hill station, on the Cumberland 
Valley Railway, three miles west of Harrisburg. 

The original building was formerly used as an academy, 
of which Professor David Denlinger was, for many years. Principal ; 
but upon the organization of the soldiers' orphan system, he, obtain- 
ing a contract from the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, closed 
his academy, and in May, 1866, opened a school for the children of 
deceased soldiers. The building was old, small, and inconvenient, 
and unsuitable for a school of this kind. As a natural result, 
typhoid fever prevailed to an alarming extent in the fall of 1867, 
and quite a number of deaths occurred. Professor Denlinger being 
unwilling to make the necessary improvements, and preferring another 
sphere of activity to his present occupation, sold the property to 
Messrs. Frederic E. Dum and Major J. A. Moore, who took posses- 
sion on the 1st of November, 1867. Major Moore assumed the 
principalship of the school, while Mr. Dum acted as steward. Under 
the new management, a favorable change was speedily brought about. 
The house was renovated, stagnant water was removed from the 
cellar, and the domitories and their furniture went through a process 
of purification. System took the place of confusion, and the children 
presented an improved and cheerful aspect. During the summer 
vacation of 1868, a new building was put up, and the accommoda- 
tions otherwise enlarged, and many conveniences added. The school, 
which, under its former head, had never been large, now began to 
increase, and, as the wants of the school required, improvements 
were from time to time made. With increased efficiency, the insti- 
tution gained a place in the confidence of the public. 

351 



352 



PEXNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



Mr. Dum remained with the school until- the 12th of March, ISTvO, 
when he sold his interest to Mr. Amos Smith and Mr. John Dum. 
Major Moore, on the 1st of March, 1875, resigned his position as 
Principal, after having served in that capacity for seven and a half 
years. Mr. John Dum and Mr. Amos Smith now became, and are 
still, the Proprietors of the school — the former discharging the duties 
of Principal, and the latter those of a steward. 

White Hall has justly gained an enviable reputation for its superior 
educational facilities. Its teachers have been noted for their effi- 
ciency, their fidelity, and remarkable success. A large proportion 
of the orphans who have been trained here, have gone forth from its 
walls well grounded in all the studies of a good English education. 

There are connected with the buildings separate yards for boys and 
girls during play-hours. Also, a small farm, upon which sufficient 
vegetables are raised to meet the demands of the school. 

At its beginning, this school was made up chiefly by transfers from 
other schools, principally from McAlisterville and Cassville ; and up 
to January 1, 1876, there have been three hundred and fifty-five ad- 
mitted on order, and two hundred and seventy-nine by transfer, 
making a total of six hundred and thirty-four. 

The persons officially employed during the entire period of the 
school's existence are as follows : 



A. W. Nichols, M.D 

Prof. A. G. Owen, 



Pbincipal Teachers. 

Prof. C. C. Hughes, Prof. W. Scott Alexander, 



Prof. Z. B. Taylor. 



Capt. J. B. Landis, 

" J. G. Vale, 
Prof. M. G. Marple, 
Mr. S. P. Statnbaugh, 
Miss Surah Lamb, 
" Maggie Backwater, 
" Alice Conrad, 
" Mary A. Hughes, 



Assistant Teachers. 

Mr. Wm. Ross, 
" Christian B. Engle, 
" John C. Nesbit, 

Miss — : I^onard, 

" Maggie Garrison, 
" Mary Hippie, 
" Lillie G. Moore, 
" Ella M. Heller, 



Mr. A. B. Martin, 
" J. Gable, 
" C.Snyder, 

Miss Garrie Stambaugh, 
" Fannie Hess, 
" Jennie Russell, 
" E. S. Waggoner, 
" Emma R. Lefever. 



Superintendents of Boys 
Capt. John A. Bell, 
Mr. Edw. M. Newman, 
" M. A. Butlerfield, 



Mr. A. B. Martin, 
" E. S.Walker, 
" J. R. Runyan, 



Mr. John O. Smith, 
Capt. E. L. Reber, 
Mr. Wm. H. Kacy. 



WHITE HALL SCHOOL. 



353 



Matrons. 
Mrs. Mary Riipp, Mrs. Mary Stephenson, Mrs. Mary A. Drinkwater, 



Mrs. Rebecca Grabill. 



Mrs. S. A. Rea. 



Miss Maggie Atchley, 

Mrs. E. Michael 



Assistant Matrons. 

Miss Jennie Gates, Miss Carrie Barnes, 

Mrs. Sallie M. Auker. 

Seamstresses. 

Mrs. Mary Miles, Mrs. Mary A. Beaverson, Mrs. B. Grabill, 

Mrs. Maggie Mutch, Mrs. Agnes Umberger. 



Dining-Room Attendants. 



Mrs. E. Mohler, 
" Sarah Leggett, 

Miss Sallie Bretz, 
" Annie French, 
" Emma Overdeer, 



Mrs. Margaret Myers, 



Mrs. Jane Orwine, 
" Ann Leslie, 

Miss Jennie Gates, 
" Annie Kline, 
** Jennie Ray, 
Miss Mary Hoover. 

Laundresses. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Noel, 
Mary Howecker, | Miss Katie Dean, 

Baker. 
Mr. Lucius C. Wox. 



Mrs. Annie Swartz, 
Miss Lizzie Hoover, 
" Amanda Hoover, 
" Emily Simpson, 
" Jennie Loy, 



Mrs. Barbaria Rice, 
Miss Hettie Keiffer. 



Mr. Joseph Woods, 



Farmers. 
Mr. John Wolf, 



Mr. Philip Daily, 



Mr. Amos Hurst, 



Mr. Christian Bowman. 



Mr. Edwin Noel, 



Watchmen. 

Mr. Amos Hurst, 
Mr. J. Sowers. 



Mr. Joseph Howecker, 



Physicians. 



A. W. Nichols, M. D., 
J. D. Bowman, M. D., 



C. W. Moore, M. D., 
John Cresswell, M. D. 



354 



PENNA. SOLDIEPvS' OPPIIAN SCHOOLS. 












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WHITE HALL SOLDIERS*' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 355 




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PEXXA. SOLDIERS' OrwPIIA^J SCHOOLS, 



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WHITE HALL SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 357 



At home. 

Learning saddler's trade. 
Laborer. 

Oone west. 

Learning printer's trade. 

Laborer. 

Carpenter. , 

Laborer. 

Farming. 
Farming. 

Learning tinner's trade. 

Laborer. 

Miner. 

Still going to school. 

Farming. 

Farming. 
Farming. 
Learn'g blacltsm'h trade. 

(Salesman in a whole- 
\ sale house. . 


: PPP : : : : : : :::::: : 

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Juniata. 

Gratziown 

Alum Bank 

Duncansville.... 

Duncansville. 

Duncansville. 

Barry. 

Philadelphia.... 

Newville. 

Newville. 

Gettysburg. 








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Nov. 3, 1860 
May 26, 1862 
Oct. 5, 1863 
June 30, 1862 
July 7, 1859 
Feb. 25, 1861 
Deo. 18, 1859 
Jan. 8, 1860 
Mav 6. 1864 
Nov. 18, 1863 
Sept. 24, 1861 
Sept. 24 1861 
Aug. 7, 1864 
June 4. 1862 
Jan. 10, 1866 
Jan. 2i, 1864 
Mar. 3, 1866 
Sept. 3, 1867 
Jan. 20, 1862 
Mar. 10, 18.56 
July 2, 1860 
July 9, 1862 
Apr. 12, 1855 
June 6, 1861 
May 18, 1856 
Dec. 17, 1861 
Oct. 30, 1858 
,\jig. 1, 1857 
dIc. 4, 1854 
Dec. '20, 1853 
Jan. 3, 1851 
Apr. 17. I860 
Oct. 6, 1861 
Sept. 2, 18,53 
Sept. 11, 1853 
Jan. 22, 1861 
May 20, 1858 
Vov. 20, 1859 
Jan. 3, 1857 
Feb. 16, 1859 
Apr. 5, 1854 
Nov. 4, 1863 
July 22, 1867 
Feb. H, 18H9 
Nov. 4, 1861 
Mar. 6, 1863 
Mar. 27, 1855 
Mar. 26, 18.56 
Mav 24, 18.58 
MaV 22, 1860 
An?. 15, 1863 
Oct. 5, 18.59 
Sept. 18, 1852 
Aug. 19, 1860 
Jan. 16, 1863 
Feb. 24, 1862 


nn 


ii 


Heludle, Daniel W. 
Huff, James C. 
Hawk, Joseph M. 
Hoffman, John T. 
Hoffman, Randall B. 
Harmon, George M. 
Hughes, John E. 


Huff, William .^ 
Hummer, Amos G. 
Hosier, Henry 
Hosier, Edward 
Bollinger, George M. 
Jarrett, Isaac P. 


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Kelly, James A. 
Koons, John 
Koons, David C. 
Koons, James G. 
Knipe, Albert F. 
Krall, Peter I. 
Kleckner, Stephen A. 
Klcckner, William G. 
Kemball, Peter W. 
Keffer, William T. 
Keiffer, Clarence N. 
Keiffer, Valentine 0. 


Kerr, Jon.ion I. 
Lentz, Jonathan 
Layton, William 
Lindsey, Emment N. 
Lindsey, Tolbert T. 
Lindsey, James M. 
Levy, George W. 
I-ev. William 
Lawyer, Samuel T. 
Lawyer, Charles O. 
Little, George B. 



358 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



REMARKS. 


Farming. 

Farming. 
Farming. 

Laborer. 

Laborer. 

Died March 20th, 1873. 

(En.plovedinR.R.shops 

i (gi $;!5 per mouth. 

} Clerking in ■» store @ 

\ $16 per month. 

liaborer. 

Farming. 

Died Dec. 16, 1867. 

Farming. 

Laborer. 

C Clerking @ $300 per 
\ year. 

Died Nov. 22d, 1872. 
Gone to Wisconsin. 
Gone to Wisconsin. 

Farming. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Mechanicsburg. 
Mechanicsburg.. 
Mechanicsburg. 

Highspire 

Highspire....... 

Moorsburg. 
Forks. 
Harrisburg. 
Carlisle. 
Coffee Run. 
Coffee Itun. 
Euterline. 
Harrisburg. 
Alum Bunk. 
Bedford 


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Lancaster Ho. 
Lancaster Ho. 


MAllisterville 
MIAllisterville 

'orangeville " 
Lancaster Ho. 


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Date of 
Admission 
ON Order 

ORBY 

Transfer. 


Sept. 8. 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Apr. 3, 1872 
Sept. 12, 1871 
Sept. 12, 1871 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Nov. 20, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 21, 1874 
Mar. 27. 1875 
Mar. 27, 187.i 
Sept. 1, 1868 
June 8, 1871 
July 3, 1866 
Jan. 2, 1872 
Jan. 2, 1872 
Jan. 2. 1872 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 17, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 18, 1866 
Sept. 15, 1866 
Sept. 18, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 2. 1867 
June 2, 1867 
June 1,1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1,1870 
Sept. 17, 1868 
Apr. 23, 1868 
Apr. 23, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1,1870 
June 8, 1871 
Oct. 6, 1871 
Mar. 11, 1872 
May 4, 1872 
May 4, 1872 
June 21, 1872 
Sept. 8, 1872 
June 1,1868 
June], 1868 
Oct. 17, 1872 
Apr. 14, 1873 
Apr. 14, 1873 
Mar. 2, 1874 




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Marshall. Charles W. 
Marshall. William H. 
Michael, Georee D. 
McConnellv, William A. 
Michael, Henry M. 
Michael, Jacob T. 
Mosser, Jacob F. 


Musser, Charles S. 
Musser, John W. 
Mosser, Harry 
Myers, William C. 
Mvers, Anson B. 
McConnell. George W. 
Miller, M-illiam H. 
Miller, Frederick 


Miller, John L. 
Miller, Jacob 
Morgan, David R. 
Morgan, Samuel R. 


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Moser, Hillery 
Mull, .Samuel 
Mull, John 
Miles, James R. M. 


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WHITE HALL SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOL. 359 



Farming. 
At home. 

Gone to Kansas. 
Gone to Kaasmi. 

Laborer. 
Laborer. 
Farming. 
Farming. 

Married. 

C Attending school at 
I home. 

t At Bloomsburg S. N. S. 
I one term. 

Cigar-maker. 

Died Oct. 9th, 1874. 

Emplored in nail facfy. 

RmploVed in nail facfy. 

Forger. 

Nailer. 

5 AtMillersvilleS. N.S. 

} one term. Teacher. 

Carpenter. 




1-2 
•5": 


Newport. 

Spring Meadow. 

Harriiburg. 

Etters. 

Danville. 

ClearUeld. 

Two Taverns.... 

Two Taverns.... 

>ssna Station. 

Cessna Slotiou. 

Bedford. 

Bhamokin. 

Arndtzville. 

AmdtJiville. 

Hughes. 

New Oxford 

New Oxford 

Houstonville.... 
Houstonville.... 
Houstonville. 

Lewisburg 

Harrisburg. 
Harrishurg. 
.■iverpool. 
Liverpool. 
Liverpool. 
Dickens. 
Dickens. 
Dicken.i. 
Donnelly's Mills. 
Baxton. 

Danville 

Danville 

larrisburg. 

Pittsburg. 

Pittsburg. 

Bloomsburg. 

Bedford. 

^ower. 

^ower. 

Oresson. 

Lewisburg 

>wi«burg 

Harrisburg 

Harrisburg 


West Fairview.. 
West Fairview.. 

Lewisburg 

West Fairview. 

New ville 

NewTille. 
Newvllle. 










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Oct. 20, 1871 
Nov. 11,1873 
Sept. 7, 1872 
July 3, 1874 
Nov. 22, 1870 


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M'Allisterville 

Paradise 

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M'Allisterville 


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Cassville 
Cassville 

Mou'n'tjoy " 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 




Apr. 27. 1874 
Mav 1, 1874 
May 1, 1874 
May 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Apr. 20, 1875 
Sept. 14. 1866 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3. 1875 
Sept. 10, 1875 
Oct. 1 , 1867 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
June -25, 1866 
Apr. 24, 1874 
Oct. 9, 1874 
Oct. 9. 1874 
Apr, 18. 1871 
May '26, 1866 
Sept. 18, 1866 
Apr. 20, 1869 
Apr. 20, 1869 
Apr. 20 1869 
June 1, 1868 
Apr. 7, 1873 
Apr. 7, 1873 
Sept. 1,1869 
Sept. 18, 1H66. 
Sept. 18, 1H66 
Mar. 1. 1871 
Mar. 6, 1871 
Mar. 4, 1872 
Sept. 18, 1866 
May 18, 1874 
Junel, 1868 
Sept. 17, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Junel, 1868 
Mar. 30, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Apr. *20, 1875 
Sept. 14, 1,S(J6 
Sept. 14, mi6 
Sept. 14, 18<!6 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1869 


Aug. 6, 1865 
Apr. 23, 1860 
Aug. 12, 1861 
Mar. 25, 1864 
Dec. '23, 1864 
June '25, 1864 
Sept. '26, 1851 
Feb. '27, IHKi 
June 9, 1862 
July 16, 18(i2 
Oct. 2. 18.^5 
Sept. 13, 1858 
June 14, 1862 
July 30, 18*i7 
Mar. 7, 18.i5 
Mar. 3, 1861 
Apr. 22, 1863 
Nov. 14, 1865 
Oct. 14, 1861 
Apr. 4, 1857 
Feb. 19, 1855 
June 14, 1856 
Oct. 26. 1857 
Mar. 5, 1861 
May 9. 1853 
Aug. 17, 18,i9 
Mav 23, 1863 
Mar. 7, 1859 
Sept. '28, 1853 
Apr. 12, 1S57 
Nov. 9. 18.i8 
Oct. 21 , 1860 
Sept. 9. 1362 
Feb. 14, 18.>8 
Mar. 21, 1862 
July 7. 1857 
Mar. 9, 1855 
Oct. 2, 1861 
Feb. 26, 1864 
Nov. 29, 1865 
June 12, 1855 
Mar. 28, 1864 
Aug. 22, 1860 
Jan. 14, 1863 
Aug. 6, 1864 
July 4, 18,i3 
May '20, 1857 
Oct. 20, 18.55 
Nov. a, 1857 
Sept. 7, 18.^)6 
July 3, 1858 
Nov. 22, 1854 
Deo. 19, 1861 
Mar. 2, 1854 
Mar. 14, 1858 
Nov. 5, 1860 


Mitchell, William A. 
Marlin, Harry B. 
Marlin, George W. 
Marlin. William 
Morrison, William S. 
Mack, Kdwiu E. 
McNaughton, James M. 
Mausparger, Sherman 
Millard, John H. 
McCuUough, Roy 
Newman, Edward M. 
Newman, Harry C. 
Nelson, Charles C. 
Nelson, Burton E. 
Orris, Benjamin F. 
Osman, Franklin 
Oruer, Harrv Mo 
Orner, John" A. 
O'Brien, Martin 
Pheiller, John Q. A. 
Pheiffor, Samuel 
Parker, Clayd M. 
Parker, Leonard 
Parker, James D. 




Reed, Peter W. 
Ricedorff, John L. 
Reed, George B. McC. 
Rishel, John C. F. 
Rishel, James P. 
Rodabaugh, Harry E. 
Rodgers, Charles 
Rodgers, Amos 
Reichenditfer, James L. 
Roby, Joseph G. 
Robbins, Joseph 
Robbins, Jesse 
Ramsey, Robert V. 
Shanley, Henry 
Shanley, William 
Simmers, Abram P. 
Simmers, ,Tohn E. 
Smith, William B. 
Siuitli, George 
Shanley, Robert N. 
Smith, Fred. R. 
Stum, James M. 
Stum, William A. 
Stum, Morris A. 


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G60 



TEXNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



< 


Tinsmith. 
Laborer. 
Laborer. 
Printer. 

At borne. 

Clerk in grocery. 
Clerk in book-store. 

Laborer. 
Laborer. 

Farming. 

Cigar-maker. 

Laborer. 




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Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
LaucHstcr Ho. 
Laucaster Ho. 
York Home 
York Home 
York Home 
Lancaster Ho. 
LHnGH..stpr Ho. 


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York 

Wilisesbarre 
Wilkesbarre 
York Home 
York Home 
York Home 
Andersonburg 


Date of 

Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

TrajJsfer. 


mmumimimiMUMMimmiMimM 




Aug. 5, 18.% 
Sept. 14, 1856 
Aug. .11, li>a3 
Apr. 24, 1&>7 
Dec. 28. 18.56 
Apr. 4, 1859 
Jau. 25, 1860 
Mar. 10, 1862 
Mar. 8, 1857 
Feb. 26, 1859 
June 8. 1859 
Jan. 1.1860 
Oct. 26, 1859 
Juae 16, 1863 
Jan. 12, 1865 
Dec. 11,1858 
May 7, 1861 
July 14, 1863 
Aug. 4, 1866 
Oct. 11. 1861 
Nov. 15, 1858 
Sept. 3, 1859 
July 7, 1861 
June 19, 1857 
Feb. 10, 1862 
July 8, 1&57 
Jan. 28, 1858 
July 22. 1864 
Aug. 15, 1858 
Jan. 20, 1856 
Mar. 19, 1855 
Feb. 18, 1860 
Feb. 1, 1862 
July 23, 1863 
Mav 6, 1861 
June 1. 1863 
May 13, 1863 
July 11, 1861 
June 18. 1862 
Oct. 3, 1862 
Sept. 4, 1864 
Feb. 10. 1854 
Mar. 20, 1862 
Sppt. 15, 1858 
Jnne20 1860 
Nov. «, IK60 
Mar. 7, 1862 
Ang. 7, 1863 
Aug. 20, 1859 


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Smith, Samuel A. 
Smith, Morris 
Sullivan, James A. 
Shaizer, Charles M. 
Sbatzer, William U. 


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Shuttleworth, Theodore 
Stoner, Merrick 
Shatto, George 
Schreckcngast. Sam'l W. 
Schreckengaat, Chaa. T. 
Smith, Charles K. 
Simpson, William 
Simpson, Robert 
ShedroB, William P. 
Sanders, Charle.s J. 


Smeltzer, John 
Schaddle, John 
Spidel, Espey 
Shultz, Jaoob E. E. 
Smith, Miller S. 
Salterly. Brittian W. 
Trott, Andrew D. 
Turner, William G. 
Tovey, Oeorije W. 
Tovev, Edmund 
Te«t,'Wlllinni H. 
Thomas, Wn. H. H. 
Thomas. Achesoo 
Taylor, Bdward T. 



WHITE HALL SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 361 





Oone to lowa. 

Printer. Died in 1874. 

Farming. 

Clerk, and doing well. 

Huckstering. 

Working in cotton mill. 

Printer. 

Telegraph operator. 
Farming. 

5 Meswnper to Y. M. C. 
) A. Rooms, Harriaburg. 

FannioK. 

At home. 
At home.' 
At home. 
At home. 
At home. 
At home. 

At home. 

At home. 

At home. 

Married. 

At home. 

At homo. 

MarrlPd. 

Married. 

At home. 

Lives with aunt. 

( Attending Shippens- 

\ burg S. N. S. 

Seam.stress. 

Died June 24th, 1872. 


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Dec. 20, 1872 
Sept. 16, 1871 
Feb. 13, 1874 
Feb. 3, 1872 
Hay 11, 1869 


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Jan. 4. 1875 
Deo. 24. 1869 
Feb. 22. 1871 
Nor. 26, 187S 












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Jan. 24. 1873 
Mar. 17. 1871 
Apr. 7. 18«S 
Nov. 7, 1867 
Feb. 14, 1874 
Apr. 24, 1871 


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Lancaster Ho. 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
York Home 
York Home 


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Srpt. l,l.«7:l 
June 15, 1874 
Sept. 25, 1866 
June 11, 18(«5 
Sept. 3, 1866 
Sept. 15, 1866 
Sept. 3, 1867 
Nov. 6, 1866 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Sept. 8, 1871 
June 1, 1869 
June 1, 1869 
Feb. 16, 1872 
Feb. 16. 1872 
Aug. 25, 1868 
June 1, 1868 
May 26. 1868 
Feb. 16, 1872 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 10, 1866 
Sept. 10, 1866 
Oct. 6, 1866 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 2, 1872 
May 1, 1869 

Sept. 12, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 15, 18(J6 
Sept. 1, 1H69 
May 10, 1875 
Sept. 1,1874 
Apr. 8, 1874 
Nov. 25, 1873 
June 16, 1S71 
July 3, 1866 
June 1, 1868 
Sept. 3, 1866 
Nov. 1, 1867 
Sept. 17. 1H66 
Sept. 10, 1867 
Sept. 18, 1866 
Sept. 8. 1K71 
Oct. 24, 18';6 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 15, 1866 
Deo. 1, 1868 
Jan. 9, 1867 
Jan. 9, 1867 
Oct. 4, 1871 


Mfiv 15. 1862 
Sept. 10, 1868 
Apr. 9, 1856 
Dec. 20, 1856 
Sept. 16, 1855 
Feb. 13. 1858 
Feb. 3, 1856 
May 11, 1853 
Nov. 3, 1861 
June 14, 1859 
Oct. 17, 1860 
Dec. 18. 1857 
Oct. 6, 1855 
Apr. 21, 1857 
Feb. 2, 1861 
Feb. 23, 1854 
Mar. 13, 1863 
Mar. 9, 1858 
Apr. 24, 1863 
Apr. 5, 1864 
June 24, 1866 
Nov. 1, 1854 
Nov. 19, 1855 
Dec. *27, 1851 
Nov. 12, 1857 
June 7, 1862 
Mar. 16. 1864 
Jan. 24, 1861 

Oct. 8, 1856 
Jan. 4. 1859 
Deo. 24, 1853 
Feb. 22, 1855 
Nov. 26, 1857 
Sept. 12, 1859 
June 7. 1866 
Feb. 28, 1863 
Oct. 10, 1862 
Jan. 28, 1864 
Apr. 6, 1858 
Oct. 14, 1855 
Aug. 16, 18.55 
Oct. 22, 1852 
Jan. 24, 1857 
Mar. 12, 18.55 
Apr. 7. 1853 
Nov. 7. 1851 
Feb. 14. 1858 
Apr. 24, 1855 
Jan. 22, 1860 
Nov. 14, 1857 
July 6. 1859 
Sept. 17, 18.55 
Apr. 20, 1857 
Mar. 9, 1860 




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PEXXA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 












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PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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WHITE HALL SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 3G5 



(Married Mr. Hague, a 
■ graduate of Lewisburg 

At home. 

Married to Geo. Hucker. 
Died after leaving school. 

Married. 

Mautua maker. 

Mantua maker. 

Married to Mr. Shank. 

At home. 

( A tteudiug Bloomsburg 

At home.' 

Removed to Iowa. 
Removed to Iowa. 
At home. 

At home. 

Married to John Maiion. 

Working in ootton-miU. 

Married. 

Married. 

At home. 

At home. 

Died Ueo. IS, 1868. 


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Greeucastle. 
Greeucastle. 

Harrisburg 

Harrisburg. 

West Fairview.. 

Newberry. 

Salona. 

West Fairview.. 

Harrisburg 

Harrisburg 

Harrisburg 

Lykeus 

Lewisburg 

Lewisburg. 

Harrisburg 

Harrisburg. 

Mercersburg. 

GreencasUe. 

Carlisle. 

Saxton. 

Newville. 

Sax ton. 

Saxton. 

Harrisburg. 

Danville. 


York 

York. 

Danville 

York. 

Wenksville 

I.isburn 

Philadelphia.... 

Linglestowu. 

Carlisle. 

Cariisle. 

Renvenue. 

Duncannon 

Duncaunon. 
Dnncannon. 
Siddensburg. 
Siddensburg. 
Dalmatia. 










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Kmmaus 

M'Allisterville 


Mount Joy 
M(mnt Joy 
Lovsville 
Lancaster Ho. 
M'Allisierville 
Jacksonville 


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Robinson, Florence J. 
Simmeis, Marion M. 
Simmers, Eliza A. 
Smith, Amanda 
Smith, Maggie J. 
Smith, Mary C. 


Stephenson, Martha J. 
Shepler, Alice A. 
Simpson, Emily 
Sheffler, Ellen 
Suydara. Bella H. 
Suydani. Margaret D. 
Steele, Clara E. 
Steel, Anna C. 


Shatzer, Emma C. 
Shatto, Laura A. 
Syling, Anna R. 
Swartz, Nannie B. 
Shedron, Emma S. 
Shedron, Sarah A. 
Smith, Josephine M. 
Turner, B. Catherine 


Trott, Mary A. 
Trott, Christina 
Test, Ida J. 
Test, Mary A. 
Trumbower, Nora 
Welsh, Carrie H. 
Wyant, Sarah B. 


Walker, Maria L. 
Wise, Betsey M. 0. 
Wise, Louisa 0. 
Wesner. Sarah 0. 


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THE OEPHANS' HOME, GERMANTOWN. 




HE original house was furnished and occupied March 12, 
1859, although the Home was not chartered until June 
4, 1860. 

The first child was received on March 18, six days after 
the formal opening of the house : and from that small beginning the 
family gradually increased, until the original quarters were found 
too small to accommodate all the applicants. 

Within six months from the commencement, it was found necessary 
to purchase a neighboring property of seven acres, with increased 
accommodations, where the institution has been located ever since. 

In December, 1860, Rev. J. Schladermundt was elected Superin- 
tendent of the Home, and continued until Easter, 1863. In the 
month of November, 1874, Rev. Schladermundt died at the Emi- 
grantenhaus. New York. He was succeeded as "house-father by Rev. 
Charles Witmer, who continued in charge until March, 1864, a terra 
of one year, and was in turn succeeded by Rev. C Rondthaler, who, 
after but one month's services, was superseded by Rev. Henry Wendt, 
on November 1, 1864. 

On November 8, 1867, Mr. John K. Heyl was chosen Superin- 
tendent, and continued to serve very efficiently until September, 
1868, when he resigned the position. 

For the sake of economy, and because of the impossibility of pro- 
curing a suitable male Superintendent, the Home was for several 
years under the charge of the Matron, previous to the transfer of 
the institution and property to the Ministerium of Pennsylvania. 

The Trustees appointed by Synod, met for the first time on July 1, 
1872. On August 24, 1872, Rev. G, F. Gardner was elected Super- 
intendent; but it was not until January 6, 1873, that he was duly 
installed in office, and has ever since continued to do most faithful 
service, and the institution is now in a high degree of prosperity 
under his management 

3G6 



On April 29, 1862, the corner-stone of a new building was laid, 
and was completed September 18, 1863, and -put into immediate use 
as a school-house, and subsequently as a printing-office and factory. 

The rapid increase of inmates made necessary the erection of a 
larger main building, the corner-stone of which was laid July 24, 
1865, and completed at a cost of about twenty-five thousand dollars ; 
the means of paying which was provided mainly by a fair, held Oc- 
tober 31, 1869, at Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia, and was so liber- 
ally patronized that twenty-one thousand five hundred dollars of the 
above expenses were realized during the space of two weeks. 

Of the original corporators of the institution, but one — Lewis L. 
Houpt — has continued in connection with it until the present time, 
having served the Home as Secretary from the beginning of its his- 
tory, January 4, 1860, a period of more than sixteen years. 

The Presidents of the Board of Trustees have been as follows : 

1. Lewis Bremer, elected June 4, 1860, and died March 6, 1866. 

2. He was succeeded by William L. Schaeffer, who resigned in 
July, 1867. 

3. Frederick Staake, who was elected Trustee in March, 1863, and 
President in July, 1867. He continued in office until October 5, 
1868, when he resigned. He departed this life on Oct. 31, 1874. 

4. Paul P. Keller succeeded Mr. Staake, in October, 1868, and 
continued to preside over the institution until the property was trans- 
ferred to the Synod, and a new Board of Trustees appointed by it, 
in June, 1872. 

5. Daniel M. Fox, elected Trustee in June, 1872, and chosen 
President of the Board at its first meeting. He still remains at the 
head of the institution. 

There have been but two Treasurers since the organization of the 
Home, viz. : George Ashmead, who served until the Home became 
the property of Synod, in 1872, at which time John C. File was 
elected Treasurer of the new Board, and has ever since given effi- 
cient service in that capacity. Mr. Ashmead continued to be a warm 
friend of the Home up to the time of his death, February 3, 1875. 

Up to the present time, 361 children have been admitted into the 
Home, of whom 111 were soldiers' orphans, of which class only four 
now remain. 

Superintendent and House-Father, Kev. G. F. Gardner. 
Matron, Mrs. G. F. Gardner. 
Teacher, Prof. T. W. Bennett. 



368 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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fStipposed to have been 
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the Phila. & Trenton 
RR., near Morrisvllle, 

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Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. , 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Canadenis. 

Wealherlv. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Allentown. 

Philadelphia. 

PhilHdelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Bethlehem. 

Bethlehem. 

Bethlehem. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Phil!idel.)hia. 

Weisspoft. 

Philadelphia. 

Easton. 

Philadelphia. 

Easton. 

Easton. 

Manayunk. 

Reading. 

Reading. 

Reading. 

Hilltown. 

Philadelphia. 

Bethlehem. 

Bethlehem. 

Freemansburg. 

Easton. 

New Hope 

New Hope. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Norristowu. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia. 


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Date of 
Transfers. 




II 


Sept. 1, 1868 
Apr. 15, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Apr. 1, 1868 
Mar. 1, V869 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Sept. 13, 1866 
Oct. 19, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 13, 1866 


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Mar. 1, 1869 
Mar. 1, 1869 
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Apr. 15, 1868 
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Oct. 5, 1866 
Julv 5, IB65 
Oct. 14. 1865 
Sept. 28, 1865 
Sept. I, 1H66 
Sept. 12. 1865 
Nov. 15, 1866 
July II, 1866 
Oct. 5, 1865 
Oct. 5, 1865 
Mav 29, 1866 
Mar. 31, 1865 
Sept. 7, 1865 
July 24, 1865 
Nov. 22, 1865 
Nov. 22, 1865 
Sept. '26, 1866 
July -24, 1865 
Mar. 29, 1867 
July 24, 1865 
Aug. 2, 1866 
Oct. 2, 1866 
Apr. 1, 1867 
June 28, 1865 
July 17, 1866 
Sept. 18, 1866 
Sept. 18, 1866 
July 24, 1865 
Sept. 7, 1865 
Sept. 7, 1865 
Sept. 7, 1865 
Dec. 11, 1H65 
Apr. 21. 1866 
July 17, 1866 
July 17, 1866 
Oct. 6, 1866 
Jan. 28, 1865 
Sept. 19, 1865 
Sept. 19. 1865 
July 24, 1865 
Nov. 27, 1865 
Jan. 24, 1866 
July 17, 1865 

July 5, 1865 
July 5, 1865 
July 31. 1866 
Sept. 28, 1865 


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orphans' home, germantown, 



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24 





ANDERSONBURG SCHOOL. 




HIS school is located in the far-famed Sherman's Valley, 
Perry county, seventeen miles west of New Bloomfield, 
the county-seat, and twenty miles west of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, at Newport. A daily mail and passenger 
coach (except Sunday) passes this point. The valley here is about 
six miles in width, being within ten miles of the upper or west end, 
and is beautifully surrounded by mountains — the Conococheaque 
Mountains sweeping round on the north-west, and Bowers' Mountain 
on the south-east. 

Some time in the autumn of 1865, at the suggestion of Hon. A. 
B. Anderson, Judge M. Motzer communicated with Dr. Burrowes, 
who was then the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, relative to 
opening a soldiers' orphan school at Andersonburg, in the large 
brick building then belonging to Mr. Anderson, and which was at 
that time used as an academy. Receiving the necessary encourage- 
ment from Superintendent Burrowes, Judge Motzer rented and 
moved to the building in the spring of 1866. 

In July following. Dr. Burrowes visited Andersonburg, and, after 
seeing the place and surrounding mountains, he manifested himself 
highly pleased, saying: "This is a beautiful location for a school ; 
one of the best I have yet selected. This must certainly be a very 
healthful locality." 

The first pupils were received on the 18th and 20th of September, 
1866. The school was organized on the 16th of October following, 
with Professor Wm. H. Hall as principal teacher, and a few months 
after Miss Laura J. Milligan was employed as assistant teacher. 

At the close of the second year the children had increased to one 
hundred and seventeen ; the house above mentioned was then found 
to be too small to accommodate the school, and another building, 

370 



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ANDERSOKBURG SCHOOL. 371 

thirty-five by fifty feet, three stories high, was erected. A fine study- 
hall or school-room, thirty-five by forty-three feet, was finished in 
this new edifice, well lighted, and supplied with modern furniture. 
The school-room is on the second floor ; on the third floor are two 
class-rooms, besides a number of sleeping-rooms. 

On the 1st of December, 1872, Professor Hall became joint pro- 
prietor of the school, but still acted as principal teacher, and Mr. 
B. K. Hall and Miss Milligan were the assistants. 

On the 1st of September, 1874, Judge Motzer withdrew from the 
school on account of the bad health of himself and wife, and Pro- 
fessor Hall became sole Proprietor and Principal, with Mr. J. R. 
Runyan as principal teacher, and Miss M. Coyle assistant. Up to 
the present time one hundred and seventy children have been ad- 
mitted into the school. 

Judge Motzer was connected with the school between eight and 
nine years. The degree of health enjoyed by the children during 
this time was remarkable, but four deaths having occurred. It is 
worthy of record that no complaints have at any time reached the 
Department at Harrisburg, from mothers, guardians, or children, 
relative to the management of this school. Many of the children 
who left this institution in its early history are now useful members 
of society. Many, who were honorably discharged, have returned 
on visits, and said it seemed like coming home. 

We give a list of employees, February 29, 1876 : 

Teachers. 
Prof. W. S. Hulslander, Prof. B. F. Hollenbaugh. 

Matron. 
Mrs. Lizzie S. Hall. 

Assistant Matron. 
Mrs. E. R. Sheaffer. 

Seamstresses. 
Miss Nancy Clouser, Miss Ellen Toorny. 

Employees. 

Miss Maggie Stahl, Mrs. Maggie McGuire, Mrs. Mary Rowe, 
Mr. David H. Johnsi 

Physician. 
G. W. Mitchell, M. D. 



372 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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Clerking In a store. 

With bis mother. 

Attending public school. 

Farming. 

With his mother. 

Farming. 
Ee.»dinIttedSept.3,1875. 


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Oct. 20, 1866 
Oct. 20, Ih66 
Mav 4. 1867 


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Jan. 16, 1863 
Mar. 8. 1862 
July 19, 1861 
Sept. 11. 1861 
Dec. 2, 1857 
Apr. 1, 1860 
Oct. 16, 1860 
July 11, 1859 
Oct. 6. 1864 
July 28. 1860 
Oct. 25. 1861 
Apr. 30. 1863 
Feb. 26, 1859 
Nov. 9, 1862 
Aug. 26, 1861 
May 19, 1859 
Aug. 7. 1861 
Aug. 22, 1&t8 
Feb. 16, 1865 
Oct. 27, 1864 
July 8, 1858 
Deo. 17, 1857 
Jan. 13. 1858 
July 6. 1859 
June 7, 1858 
Feb. 24. 1863 
Apr. 14, iai9 
July 2, 1864 
May 31, 1860 
Oct. 25, 1864 
Sept. 24, 1869 
Apr. 24, 1859 
Aug. 14, 1860 
Dec. 31, 18H5 
July 8, 1860 
Feb. 24, 1863 
Nov. 25, 1860 
Mar. 13, 1861 
May 19, 1862 
Dec. 22, 1858 
Oct. 20, 1860 
June 5. 1862 
Oct. 28, 1857 
June 8, 1860 
May 24, 1858 
May 22, IbOO 


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Clark, Denton J. 
Deeker. Svlvester 
Decker, C'harlea 
Decker, Peter A. 
Evans, Nathaniel 


Everts. John 
Foster, Joseph A. 
Fooae, Edward M. 
Fooae, William H. 
Graham. Charles H. 
Gibson, Elmer 
Grove, John W. 
Olllum. Joseph E. 
Gensler, James F. 
Gensler. William C. 
Hartley. Jamea A. 
Harrison, William J. 
Hippie, Emory T. 
Hippie, William B. 
Himes, John 
Hart, Barnard 


Hart, L*vi N. 
Heckert, Benjamin F. 
Heckert, Dauiel 
Harper, William E. 
Jacobs, Willis H. 
Jacobs, John H. 
Jacobs, George H. 
Kinwloe, Thomas W. 
Kinsloe. Samuel B. 
Kephart, James C. 
Kepbart, John S. 
KepAart. William B. 
Kinsel, John T. 
Kiasel, William M. 
LIndsey, Einment N. 


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3 



ANDEESONBURG SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 373 



Fanntag. 

5 Attending Miller»ville 
} Bute Normal School. 

With his mother. 
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son 00., Ohio. 
Farming at $14 per mo. 


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Sept. 18, 1866 
Deo. 20, 1867 
Mar. 12, 1867 
Mar. 12, 1867 
Sept. 9, 1867 
Oct. 15, 1867 
Oct. 15, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 5, 1870 
Sept. 1, lh72 
Sept. 3, 1M72 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Dec. 4, 1866 
Oct. 16, 1867 
Sept. 29, 1866 
Sept. 1. 1874 
Oct. 1, 1866 
Sept. 2, 1867 
Sept. 25, 1866 
Sept. 25, 18ti6 
June 11, 1S67 
Juue 28, 1868 
June 28, 1868 
Apr. 24, 1873 
Sept. 4, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
June 12, 1869 
.Mar. 13, 1867 
Sept. 15, 1H69 
Sept. 7, 1869 
Oct. 15, 1869 
Apr. 1, 1872 
July 30, 1873 
Dec. 20, 1866 
Feb. 6, 1868 
Apr. 29, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Oct. 31, 1867 
Oct. 31, 1867 
Feb. 7, 1868 
M.ar. 12, 1867 
Jan. 23. 1867 
Sept. 26. 1866 
Oct. 31, 1866 
Jan. 25, 1868 
Feb. 4, 1867 
Feb. 4. 1867 
Nov. 26, 1866 
Nov. 26, 1866 
Sept. 3, 1872 
Nov. 11, 1872 
Sept. 23, 1866 
Jan. 8, 1868 


Nov. 12, 1861 
Sept. 3, 1858 
Mar. 13, 1863 
May 25, 1859 
Oct. 5, 1862 
June 4, 1861 
Aug. 3, 1860 
Oct. 11, 1861 
Oct. 31, 1863 
Nov. 12, 1862 
Sept. 2, 1864 
Oct. 5, 1865 
May 6, 1856 
Mar. 27, 1860 
Sept. 14, 1862 
Nov. 9, 1861 
May 22, 1863 
Oct. 9, 1859 
Dec. 16, 1860 
Aug. 22, 1860 
Aug. 22, 1860 
Dec. 22, 1862 
Mar. 27, 1858 
Mar. 19, 1861 
Apr. 12, 1864 
May 27, 1861 
July 11, 1857 
Feb. 11, 1859 
Nov. 25, 1860 
Feb. 6, 1863 
Mar. 4, 1861 
May 7, 1859 
Jan. 17, 1859 
Oct. 25, 1859 
May 2, 1860 
Oct. 21, 1864 
Mar. 17, 1858 
July 23, 1863 
Apr. 29. 1864 
Sept. 17, 1863 
Aug. 20, 1859 
May 15, 1862 
Sept. 27, 1860 
May 5, 1861 
May 20, 1859 
June 15, 1860 
Aug. 15, 1861 
Nov. 15, 1864 
Nov. 2it, 1859 
Nov. 15, 1862 
Aug. 2. 18.57 
Aug. 8, 1861 
Mar. 29. 1865 
Nov. 6, 1864 
Apr. 3, 1859 
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Pearson, Edwin 
Pearson, Benjamin 
Ralston, MiUer 
Ralston, Wilber 
Ralston. George 
Rupert, James Lee 
Rupert, John E. 
Rupert, Harry 


Stuart, James H. 
Stuart, John W. 
Stuart, Samuel L. 
Simonton, Abraham 
Spanogle, Albert 
Shearer, Samuel 
Stanford, William 


Singer, David l<. 
Shedron, Joseph B. 
Shedron, Peter A. 
Symnierman, John M. 
Shearer, James E. 
Taylor, Edward T. 
Taylor. Frank 
Taft, James 
Thomas, Jordan 


Thomas, Daniel 
Wiurick, John 
Winrick, William 
Winrick, Harry 
Williams, John I.. 
Williams. Ellsworth 
Worley, Peter A. 
Worley, William H. 


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PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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ANDEE80NBUEG SOLDIERS* ORPHAN SCHOOL. 375 






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Pittsburgh and Alleglieiiy Home for the 
Friendless. 




N the winter of 1861, a few ladies connected with the Pitts- 
burgh and Allegheny Kelie Society, impressed with a 
desire to alleviate, in some measure, the distress with which 

they were daily brought in contact, in the shape of beggar 

and homeless children, met and organized the Pittsburgh and Alle- 
gheny Home for the Friendless. A charter was obtained in Febru- 
ary, 1862, and the institution commenced its operations with three 
children. The highest number under their charge at any one time, 
including the soldiers' orphans, was one hundred and five. 

The object of the institution, as set forth in its constitution, " is to 
afford a home, food, clothing, and schooling for such children as may 
be neglected or deserted by their friends or guardians ; for girls under 
thirteen, and for boys under eight ; also, females of good moral char- 
acter, destitute of friends, funds or home, shall be boarded and em- 
ployed until suitable places can be provided for them." 

The institution is under the direction of a president, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary, and treasurer, and twenty managers, all ladies. We 
take great pleasure in here recording their names. Among their 
number will be found some of the most devoted and intelligent 
Christian ladies of the two cities which gave name and character to 
the enterprise : 

President, Mrs. Henry P. Swartz. 
Vice-President, Mrs. Robert McKnight. 
Secretary, Mrs. John B. Herron. 
Treasurer, Mrs. Mary D. Agnew. 

376 



pittsb'g and alleg. home for friendless. 377 



Mrs. E. Breading, 
" Wm. H. Evving, 
" Joseph King, 
" David M. Long, 
" Samuel McKee, 
" Henry Pliipps, 



Board of Managers. 

Mrs. Josephine N. Dale, 
" Richard Hays, 
" James Laughlin, 
" Belle Foster, 
" M. J. Kennedy, 
" R. D. Thompson, 



Mrs. Breading Dalzell, 
" W.H.Kirkpatrick, 
" Wm. P. Logan, 
" Wm. McCreery, 
" G. Follansbee, 

Miss Mary McKee, 



Miss Mary Nimick, Miss Jane M. Smith. 

The Home now owns and occupies two large buildings on Wash- 
ington Street, Allegheny, purchased by the liberality of citizens of 
Pittsburgh and Allegheny. Although one hundred and five was the 
greatest number at any time in the institution, yet it has, since its 
organization, sheltered many hundred children and placed them in 
good homes, in many cases by adoption. 

The employees, during the time the soldiers' orphans were in the 
Home, were : Matrons, Miss L. J. Blair and Mrs. E. J. Neal ; As- 
sistant Matrons, Miss M. ShuU and Mrs.' M. Myers. After many 
years of devoted and faithful service, Mrs. Neal, the much-loved 
Matron, was, on December 13, 1875, removed from the scene of her 
earthly toil to her final reward, deeply mourned by the inmates of 
the institution and a large circle of relatives and friends. During 
this time, a number of the soldiers' orphans, under her excellent influ- 
ence, became members of the church, and, so far as known, adorn 
their profession, and will, in after-life, be ever grateful to the State 
whose fostering care of them in youth has been rewarded by making 
so many good and useful citizens. 




378 



PEXNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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LINCOLN INSTITUTION, 




NE of the greatest difficulties evident in all asylums for 
children is, that they are obliged to be sent away and lost 
sight of at the age of twelve years, just at that period 
when their characters are beginning to form, and the 
influences surrounding them are likely to be permanent. Boys and 
girls of this class, after twelve years of age, should be learning some 
kind of work that will eventually enable them to gain an honest 
living. 

This matter was the cause of much thought on the part of some 
wealthy and charitably-disposed ladies in the city of Philadelphia, 
and one of their number, for a long time, had in her mind the 
establishing of a home for boys from twelve to twenty-one years of 
age. The undertaking being a novel one, it was difficult to organize, 
when, fortunately, in the fall of 1866, the Superintendent of Sol- 
diers' Orphans of the State wrote to the managers of the "Church 
Home," asking if they could provide for at least one hundred boys. 
Owing to their limited accommodations, they could only receive ten. 
This was the desired opportunity for starting an adjunct institution 
so long hoped for, and a few of the ladies above referred to seized 
upon it. Their zeal was augmented by patriotism ; when the chil- 
dren of their brave defenders were all cared for, and would outgrow 
the necessity of such care, here would be a home for boys to be 
transferred to, when ready and old enough to go to work. In Jan- 
uary, 1866, a meeting to organize was called, and met in the 
parlors of Miss Mary McHenry, 1902 Chestnut Street, where the 
first meeting of the "Church Home" was held, just ten years 
previous. A Board of Managers and Counsellors was appointed, 

380 




LINCOLN INSTITUTION. 
808 South Eleventh Street, Philadelphia. 



LINCOLN INSTITUTION. 381 

and tliey adjourned to meet at the " Church Home " the next week. 
Meanwhile a constitution was framed, and submitted at that meeting 
and adopted, and a charter finally granted by the Legislature. 

Miss Mary McHenry,^ Mrs. W. G. Boulton, Mrs. William Ellis, 
Mrs. G. T. Lewis, Mrs. C. J. Stille, Mrs. A. D. Jessup, and other 
Managers of the " Church Home," assisted with other ladies, gave 
the project their earnest support, devoted to it much time and 
energy, and were supported by General George G. Meade, William 
G. Boulton, Francis Wells, and other gentlemen. In nine weeks 
from its inception, the house No. 308 South Eleventh Street (a cut 
of which is herewith given), which it now occupies, was purchased, 
and the sum of $25,000 raised. The building, with alterations, cost 
$25,000, $6,000 of which were left as a mortgage on it. It was 
publicly dedicated on the 17th day of April, 1866 ; General (now 
President) Grant came from Washington to be present. Two boys 
entered the day of its dedication. In January, 1867, it contained 
seventy-five boys, the next year eighty-eight, the next ninety-two, the 
next one hundred and nineteen, and the next one hundred and 
twenty, which is all the building will accommodate. 

The house not being constructed for such a purpose, and the 
demands for admission being so great, it soon became necessary to 
enlarge it. In 1868 an effort was put forth, and large additions to 
the back buildings were made, costing fourteen thousand one hun- 
dred and forty dollars and forty-four cents, all of which was 
promptly paid. The mortgage of six thousand dollars yet remained 
on the property; but in 1869, through the untiring exertions of Mr. 
and Mrs. William Lippincott, Miss McHenry, and Miss Lardner, an 
appropriation of ten thousand dollars was made by the Legislature, 
the bill passing both Houses without one dissenting vote ; and thus 
the Institution was freed from debt, and another important addition 
made to the school-room and front portion of the building. 

Since the inception of the project, just ten years ago, two hundred 
and sixty-seven boys have been the recipients of its benefits ; of this 
number, one hundred and ninety-six were the children of deceased 
soldiers, and the following sums of money have been collected, viz. : 

^B^y private subscriptions $127,435.88 

^TFrom the Department of Soldiers' Orphan Schools 104,902.58 

B Special legislative appropriation 10,000.00 

H From wages and board of inmates 69,257.15 

~ Making a total of. $311,595.61 



m 



382 PENNA. soldiers' orphan S<:!H00LS. 

The plan of this Institution is different from that of any one in 
this or any other country. When a boy arrives at twelve years of 
age, if he piisses a creditable examination in his studies, he is secured 
a situation where the work is light, and as soon as he is old enough, 
he is, if possible, placed at some trade or found a permanent situa- 
tion. All they earn until sixteen years of age goes towards their 
support in the Institution; after sixteen they pay three dollars per 
week, for which they are boarded, lodged, washed, and mended; 
medical attendance and medicines are also provided ; they have sim- 
ply to provide their clothes. They can remain in the Institution 
until twenty-one years of age. Boys from twelve to sixteen are 
obliged to attend the night-school, where the instruction is mostly 
oral and made as attractive as possible. All the inmates are required 
to adhere to the rules, which are very simple. During the ten years 
of its existence there have been but five deaths in the Institution, and 
for the past four years there have been no deaths and scarcely any 
serious sickness, a fact that speaks well for its management. 

The important positions occupied by the pupils of this Institution 
are such that it is necessary that all of them should be personally 
known to some of the Managers, that they may be able to give them 
a recommendation for honesty, industry, &c. 

This they could not do with boys whose previous training was 
unknown to them. The character that the pupils of the Lincoln 
Institution has attained in Philadelphia is very high ; so they are 
determined that their future inmates shall have the same advantages 
of discipline and instruction as their present ones. 

With commendable foresight, the Managers are looking forward 
to the time when there will be no soldiers' orphans to be cared for, 
and have, as will be seen on page 390, established a home for other 
friendless boys from six to twelve years of age. Through the lib- 
erality of a few friends, this building was erected ; and although, 
from necessity, it is under a different organization, the " Lincoln In- 
stitution " will always have a representation in its board of manage- 
ment, by which means the two can work in harmonious partnership. 

This Institution is deeply indebted to Major-General George G. 
Meade. He was its first President. To him, fir^jit of all, was com- 
municated the thought of its erection. It found in him a helper and 
a friend. Seizing upon the suggestion, he gave to it his warmest 
support. By his personal labor, and by the weight of his character, 
he procured large sums of money, and awakened the interest of the 




(First President of the Lincoln Institution.) 



LINCOLN INSTITUTION. 



383 



community. He aided to push the charter through the Legislature, 
aud to secure the approval of the Governor. Present at the inau- 
gural meeting, he was the first to sign the charter, and by his energy 
and aid contributed mainly to bringing about the remarkable result, 
that in nine weeks from the conception of the idea the money was 
raised, the house was bought, and the work begun. In the midst of 
his many duties, he always found time to counsel and advise. From 
first to last, by night and by day, in season and out of season, his 
devotion was unfailing; and the eye that had witnessed the self- 
sacrifice of the fathers never faltered in its watchfulness for the wel- 
fare of the children. At all meetings, at Thanksgiving and at 
Christmas, his tall form was to be seen ; and he is still missed and 
mourned for by his associates there as elsewhere. 

The following is the list of ofiicers and teachers for the year 1876 : 

BOARD OF COUNCIL. 

President. 
J. B. Moorhead. 

Vice-President. 
J. Vaughan Merrick. 

Secretary. 
Samuel Bell. 

Treasurer. 
Morton McMichael, Jr. 



Members. 



^a:-#cto,Rt.Rev.W.B.Stevens,D.D., 
" Rev. R. Newton, D.D., 
" Rev. Wm. Rudder, D.D., 
" Rev. T. S. Davies, D.D., 
Rev. E. A. Hoffman, D.D., 
Rev. H. G. Morton, D.D., 
Rev. G. C. Currie, D.D., 
Rev. Wm. McVickar, 
Lemuel Coffin, 
George C. Carson, 
A. H. Franciscus, 



Joseph G. Rosengarten, 
John Welsh, 
R. F. Wood, 
John E. Cope, 
Franklin A. Dick, 
William H. Merrick, 
Charles W. Trotter, 
Joseph I-I. Trotter, 
Edward Brownjng, 
A. Haller Gross, 
Charles F. Hulse, 



384 PENXA. soldiers' orphax schools. 

Alexander Brown, O. C. Bosbyshell, 

John P. Brock, Thomas C. Price, 

Henry C. Gibson, Gordon Monges, 

B. G. Godfrey, Charles Carver, 

Henry C. Tovvnsend, Charles Henry Hart, 

Anthony J. Drexel, Charles Williams. 

BOAKD OF MANAGERS. . 

Directresses. 

Miss Mary McHenry, Mrs. Geo. R. Justice, 

Mrs. J. Dundas Lippincott. 

Secretary. 
Mrs. Harry G. Clay. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Miss E. C. McVickar. 

Treasurer. 
Mrs. Geo. W. Ball. 

Members. 

Miss E. W. Key, Mrs. Edward Lowber, 

" Anna Frazer, Miss L. T. Merrick, 
" Mary H. Trotter, " F. M. Paul, 

Mrs. J. Barlow Moorhead, Mrs. Alfred English, 
" J. R. Fry, " Henry C. Gibson, 

" E. L. Reakirt, Miss S. Fisher, 
" J. L. Redner, " Clara Roberts, 

Miss Mary C. Coxe, ' Mrs. Charles Henry Hart, 

" Israel, " Nalbro Frazier, 

Mrs. Robert Pettit, " George deB. Keim, 

Miss Emily Stocker, " William Thomson, 

" H.F.Randolph, " Charles F. Lennig. 

Honorary Members. 
Mrs. John Frazer, Mrs. William Lippincott, Mrs. R. T. Jones. 

Visiting Physicians. 

January, February, March: Wm. G. Porter, Jr., M. D. 
April, May, /une : De Forrest Willard, M. D., 

July, Auffust, September : Chas. Cadwalader, M. D. 

October, November, December : W. Scott Wolford. 



LINCOLN INSTITUTION. 385 

Surgeon. 
Harrison Allen, M. D. 

CoNsuLTi]?G Physician. 
S. Weir Mitchell, M. D. 

Solicitor. 
Lewis Wain Smith, Esc[. 

» 
Superintendent. 

Mr. E. F. Pearson. 

Assistant Superintendent. 
Mr. John Pearson. 

Matron. 
Mrs. M. N. Weatherly. 

Assistant Matron. 
Mrs. E. F. Pearson. 

Teacher. 
Mr. Lemuel McMichael. 

Assistant Teacher. ^ 
Mrs. Pine. 




25 



386 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 






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EDUCATIONAL HOME, 




N October, 1871, a square of ground, containing six and 
one-fourth acres, was presented, by a lady and gentleman 
of the city of Philadelphia, to Miss Mary McHenry, to be 
held in trust as a site for a building to be used as a home 
for orphan and destitute children of all creeds, from six to twelve 
years of age, to act in connection with the Lincoln Institution. 
Isaiah V. Williamson, Right Rev. M. A. De Wolf Howe, I. N. 
Stone, L. W. Smith, Percival Roberts, H. C. Townsend, Mary Mc- 
Henry, Mary A. Williamson, and Elizabeth C. Roberts acted as 
Trustees. 

The name, as above given, being decided upon, a charter was 
obtained through the courts, and it became a legal corporation. 

On the evening of Monday, November 27, 1871, a meeting was 
called by the corporators, at the residence of Miss McHenry. Major- 
General George G. Meade was called to the chair, and the meeting 
was opened with prayer by Bishop Howe. Mr. L. Wain Smith being 
appointed secretary, explained the reasons that led to the incorpora- 
tion of the enterprise. 

A Board of Managers and Councillors was then elected, after 
which addresses were made by Bishop Howe, Hon. Charles Gibbons, 
and ex-Governor Pollock. The meeting then adjourned. The expe- 
rience of many years had taught some of the Managers the practical 
wanta of such a home as they contemplated ; a rough sketch was 
therefore made of the plan of the building, which was hauded to 
Mr. Henry Pcttit, Architect, who kindly drew the outlines, and 
arranged the first story, after which Mr. James H. Windrim, Archi- 
tect, finished up the plans, which he did most satisfactorily. A cir- 

390 



i>l;,l'llilWH'"| 



iiiiliil^^ 




'#.S'W 



EDUCATIONAL HOME. 391 

cular was then issued, and in a short time pledges for about thirty- 
five thousand dollars were secured, which the Trustees felt authorized 
them at once to proceed with the work. The picture, as given, 
affords a very good idea of the style of the structure. The stone 
selected is of a gray color, from the Leiperville quarries ; there is a 
cellar under the entire building, and a loft in the Mansard roof, thus 
securing the best ventilation. It is heated throughout with steam, 
and the partitions and walls are all brick up to the second floor, as a 
preventive against vermin and also fire. On the first floor, on one 
side of the hall, is a play-room, main stairway, wash- and bath- 
rooms ; on the other side a dining-room, off which is the matron's 
dining-room, pantry for washing dishes, bread, grocery, and other 
closets ; a large kitchen, with dining-room for servants off it ; the 
ironing-room contains drying closet, with laundry back of the 
kitchen, and bakery on one side. On the second floor, on one side, 
are the managers' and committee rooms, clothes- and sewing-rooms ; 
on the third floor are the dormitories, where there are ample accom- 
modations for one hundred and fifty children. 

On June 8, the Building Committee and several of the Managers, 
with the contractors, staked off the ground, and the first spadeful of 
earth was removed by Miss McHenry with a small shovel procured 
for the purpose. 

On the 15th day of June, at 4 p. m., the corner-stone was laid, 
with appropriate ceremonies, by General Meade. Bishop Stevens 
conducted the religious services, and addresses were made by Rev. 
J. A. Crowell, D. D., and Rev. W. F. Paddock, D. D. The music 
was under the charge of Mr. Pearce, the pupils of the Lincoln In- 
stitution forming the choir. After the ceremonies were concluded, 
the boys of the Lincoln were reviewed by General Meade, and went 
through the military evolutions with the precision of veterans. 

It is proper to again bear testimony to the active sympathy shown 
this new enterprise by General Meade. Although his official duties 
called him elsewhere, he remained in the city to aid in the laying 
of this corner-stone, and looked forward with much interest and 
solicitude to the completion of the work, giving it his warmest sanc- 
tion and support. 

The silver trowel used by General Meade on this occasion was 
presented to Miss McHenry, and will ever remain a valued trophy 
of this occasion. 

The building being completed, and the money secured for its pay- 



392 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

ment, Saturday, the eighth of November, 1873, was chosen for its 
formal dedication to the purpose for which it was originated. 

The building was beautifully decorated throughout with flowers, 
evergreens, and a full display of national colors, calling forth the 
admiration of all present. The ceremonies were conducted by 
Bishop Stevens and the Rev. Dr. Rudder. Bishop Howe, as one of 
the Trustees, presented the title-deeds of the ground to the Man- 
agers, in accordance with the conditions of said deed, which specifies 
that if, before the expiration of five years, a suitable building is 
erected and paid for, the ground becomes the property of the cor- 
porators. The President of the Board of Council received the deed, 
and the Hon. Charles Gibbons responded in a fitting and appropri- 
ate manner. Miss Mary Gibson, the benefactress of the institution, 
much to the satisfaction of all interested, was present ; and there 
were also present, by invitation, the children of the " Burd Orphan 
Asylum of St. Stephen's Church," and the pupils of the " Church 
Home for Children." 

On December 1, 1873, the first children were received. Since 
then two hundred and eleven have been admitted, sixty-one of whom 
were sons of soldiers yet living, seventy-six soldiers' orphans, and 
the other seventy-four were destitute children. 

There are now one hundred and fifty on the roll. The money 
receipts from November 13, 1871, when collections were commenced, 
to December 31, 1875, were as follows : 

Voluntary subscriptions , : $165,697.61 

Lincoln Institution for board of boys 11,751.64 

Special legislative appropriation 10,000.00 

$187,449.25 

.The following is the list of officers and teachers for the year 
1876: 

BOARD OF COUNCIL. 

President. 
William H. Merrick. 

Secretary. 
Franklin A. Dick. 

Treasurer. 
G. Theodore Roberts. 



EDUCATIONAL HOME. 



393 



J. B. Moorhead, 



Honorary Member. 
Rt. Rev. Wm. B. Stevens, D. D. 

Ex-OFFicio Members. 
J. Vaughan Merrick, 



Samuel Bell. 



Members to serve for Three Years. 

Henry C. Townsend, Solomon Shepherd, 
William Harmer, William H. Merrick, 

J. B. Moorhead, Henry Lewis, 

Joseph Jeanes. 



William Henry Lex, 
Franklin A Dick, 
Walter Allison, 



Peter Williamson, 
Lewis Wain Smith, 
A. H. Franciscus, 



Members to serve for Two Years. 

G. Theodore Roberts, 



Clarence H. Clark, 
I. V. Williamson, 
B. A. Knight, 



F. S. Hoffman, 
George Bullock, 



Rt. Rev. M. A. DeW. Howe. 



Members to serve for One Year. 



Charles Gibbons, 
A. J. Drexel, 
Benjamin G. Godfrey, 



Henry C. Gibson, 
James S. Whitney, 
William Lippincott, 
James N. Stone. 



Jos. G. Rosengarten, 
William B. Jenks, 
Richard S. Howell, 



BOARD OF MANAGERS. 

Directresses. 

Miss Mary McHenry, Mrs. Franklin A. Dick, 

Miss Laura T. Merrick. 

Secretary. 
Miss Mary F. Lex. 

Treasurer. 
Mrs. G. T. Roberts. 



Miss Mary Gibson, 



Honorary Members. 

Miss A. Frazer, 
Miss R. T. Jones. 

Ex-OFFicio Members. 



Miss M. H. Trotter, 



Miss McHenry, Mrs. George R. Justice, Mrs. H. G. Clay, 

Miss E. C. McVickar, Mrs. James Dundas Lippincott. 



394 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



Members to serve for Three Years. 



Mrs. J. D. Lippincott, 
" F. S. Hoflinan, 

Miss Mary C. Coxe, 
" Mary F. Lex, 



Mrs. F. A. Dick, 
Miss L. T. Merrick, 
Mrs. J. M. Bacon, 
" E. S. Howell, 



Mrs. C. H. Clark, 

" Charles S. Wurts, 
Miss M. E. Cope. 



Miss McHenry, 

" F.A.Roberts, 
Mrs. Robert Pettit, 



Members to serve for Two Years. 

Miss A. Cadwalader, 
Mrs. J. B. Allen, 
" James G. Hardie. 



Miss E. W. Key, 
Mrs. G. T. Roberts, 
Miss Rosalie Hoopes, 



Miss H. F. Randolph, 
" Susan Israel, 
" E.C.Roberts, 



Members to serve for One Year. 

Mrs. Edward Lowber, 

" H. C. Gibson, 
Miss Foster, 
Mrs. Evan Randolph. 



Mrs. Wm. Lippincott, 
Miss A. B. Coxe, 
Mrs. S. R. Morgan, 



Visiting Physicians for 1876. 

February, March, April: Dr. M. B. Musser. 

May, June, July : Dr. S. R. Skillern. 

August, September, October: Dr. H. Perry. 
November, December, January : Dr. S. S. Stryker. 

Surgeon. 
Dr. F. F. Maury. 

Consulting Physician. 
Dr. R. M. Girvin. 

Dentist. 
Mr. Charles E. Diehl. 



Solicitor. 
Charles Carver, Esq. 

Superintendent. 
Mr. Chauncey Towne. 

Matron. 
Mrs. R. G. Singleton. 



EDUCATIONAL HOME. 395 

Assistant Superintendent and Lay-reader. 
Mr. Charles Henry Schultz. 

Assistant Matron. 
Miss Kate Welsh. 

Teacher. 
Mrs. Pine. 

Assistant Teacher. 
Miss Drumgold. 

Infant Class Teacheb. 

Miss N. Wright. 




TITUSVILLE SCHOOL. 




|HE,EE years had elapsed since Pennsylvania had estab- 
lished and opened, for her soldiers' orphans, institutions 
which were designed to afford home culture and home 
comforts, as well as opportunities for acquiring the rudi- 
ments of an English education. These institutions thus far had 
been confined to the southern and eastern sections of the State. The 
Act of 1867 provided that one school, at least, might be located in 
each of the twelve normal school districts. With the new Act, 
further regulating the management and organization of these schools, 
came a new administration full of vigor, and apparently desirous to 
extend their benefits to the greatest possible number. 

The counties of the north-western section of the State that had 
contributed so liberally of men and means for the late war, were now 
asking that the orphans of their deceased soldiers be provided for. 
In compliance with this demand, the Superintendent, during the 
summer and fall of 1867, visited this section of the State, to hear 
and receive propositions relative to the opening of a new school. 
Among the places visited was Titusville; and here, in this metropolis 
of the "great oil region," he received a hearty welcome from a thor- 
oughly earnest, enterprising, and intelligent people. Suitable build- 
ings were offered, and a meeting of the citizens was called and held 
during his visit, and so pleased was he with the sentiments there 
expressed, and with the patriotism and magnanimity of the people, 
that he at once decided that at Titusville should be located the 
soldiers' orphan school of the "advanced grade" for the twelfth 
normal school district, composed of the counties of Crawford, Erie, 
liawrence, Mercer, and Venango. 

896 



titusvilLe school, 



397 



Gurdon S. Berry, Esq., accepted the proffered trust, and refitted 
and equipped buildings which had been erected a few years pre- 
vious for hotel purposes, but the decline of the "oil trade" rendered 
them unprofitable. They were large and well adapted to the pur- 
pose, and supplied with modern conveniences for heating, cooking, 
and bathing. Early in December, 1867, the buildings, with ample 
accommodations for three hundred, were open for the reception of 
pupils. 

The sympathies and energies of the proprietor were- thoroughly 
enlisted in the work he had undertaken, and relying upon the fulfil- 
ment of promises made by State officials, that the school should at 
once receive the "maximum" number authorized to be admitted to 
institutions of the "advanced grade," all appointments and arrange- 
ments were made for the reception and entertainment of a full 
school. But the promises of this "full school" vanished like bub- 
bles in the air. Hoping for the promised number was patient hope 
long deferred. Weeks and months come and go, and lengthen into 
weary years, and that "maximum" is not reached. 

The close of the first quarter, ending February 28, 1868, about 
seventy-five pupils were enrolled. The close of the first year, ending 
November 30, 1868, one hundred and fifty-three pupils were in 
school. The second year, ending November 30, 1869, showed an 
average attendance of one hundred and fifty-two pupils. We give 
these facts, without further comment, in illustration of the above 
statement. 

In the organization of the school, the design was to make it first- 
class in all its appointments, and it was at all times under the imme- 
diate and direct supervision of an experienced and practical teacher. 
The advantage and wisdom of such a course was fully exemplified in 
the results obtained during the brief existence of the institution. 

The Titusville School opened several years later than many others 
of the same grade ; but the records of official examinations show, 
though youngest of the " advanced schools," it occupied a front rank 
in scholarship, discipline, and completeness of organization. The 
Principal being thoroughly acquainted with the management of the 
soldiers' orphan schools from actual service therein, comprehending 
the wants of the schools and the design of the State, lost no time in 
experimenting on ideal vagaries. In the supervision of the school 
the teacher had his special work, and was not required to labor out- 
side of school hours, to the deprivation of proper recreation and 



398 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

relaxation to such an extent as to unfit him for his school-room 
duties. 

It is proper here, as a matter of justice, to name some of those who 
gave efficient aid in the several departments of the institution, and 
whose names will recall many pleasant reminiscences and bring to 
memory scenes and incidents of other days. Among the teachers we 
recall the names of Miss Sarah P. Kidder, Miss Mary E. Bradley, 
Miss Rebie Coates, Miss Ellen S. Preston, Miss Florence J. Mattison, 
Miss Victoria Mattison, Misses Etta and Emma McCrillis, Mr. Sam- 
uel Grumbine, Mr. Gurdon G. Sill, Mr. E. J. Hayes, Mr. Wm. D. 
Weaver, Mr. J. R. Spiegel, Mr. A. G. Owen, Mr. B. D. Rowlee, Mr. 
J. P. Benford, and Mr. A. C. Schoolman (blind), teacher of music. 
In the household department the names of Mrs. C. M. Yeager, Mrs. 
Shutt, Mrs. C. M. Heath, Mrs. Shepardson, Mrs. Mary Reed, Mrs. 
Schott, Mrs. Gardner, Mrs. Eakin, Miss Jane McCutchen, Mrs. Toby, 
and Mrs. Jane Demming, are familiar to hundreds of soldiers' or- 
phans. In the boys' department, the names of Geo. H. Sill and 
Capt. H. F. Spicer were familiar as household words. The names 
of some are probably omitted. If so, the orphan children will 
quickly supply them as they scan these pages, and, although not 
recorded here, their little acts of kindness, we trust, may have given 
them a place in their hearts. 

The instruction afforded in this school was of a superior character 
from the date of its organization, as its recorded list of experienced 
teachers for the whole time shows. The teachers employed were, as 
a general thing, graduates of a college or normal school, or those 
who had acquired a professional standing in their vocation. During 
the school year closing May 31, 1873, the cost of instruction was 
$3,000, besides board, rooms, fuel, lights, and washing for teachers 
employed. In the early years of the institution, promises of large 
increase in numbers were relied on to justify such expenses as cited 
above, and it was deemed necessary to make them in order to place 
the school on a high grade of merit and usefulness, and it was diffi- 
cult to reduce such expenses without lowering the tone of instruction 
and disappointing prospects of promising pupils. 

This is but one of the many instances which serve to illustrate the 
manner in which the private interests of the Proprietor were subor- 
dinated to the growing wants of the school. 

The whole number of pupils admitted to the Titusville School 
from the time it opened, in 1867, until its close, in September, 1873, 



TITUSVILLE SCHOOL, 



399 



was four hundred and forty-one. Of this number two hundred and 
fifty-three were boys and one hundred and eighty-eight were girls. 

From the opening of the school until the spring of 1872, it was 
under the direct supervision of Prof. Joseph N. Beistle as Principal. 
In the spring of 1872, Mr. Berry, the Proprietor, relinquished the 
practice of law and assumed direct charge as Principal, which duties 
he performed until the autumn of 1874, when a portion of the build- 
ings was destroyed by fire, and the school suspended operations. 
Owing to this fact, it is not possible to give an engraving of the 
buildings and grounds. 




400 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 




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(Readmitted Sept. 9, 
^ 1872, and discharged 
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Died Apr. 23, 1871. 

(Readmitted Sept. 23, 
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Died Uar. 7, 1872. 


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July 6, 1868 
Dec. '27, 1867 
Feb. 10, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1870 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Jan. 21. 1871 
Mar. 18, 1871 
Dec. 13, 1871 
Jan. '28, 1870 
Apr. 0, 1872 
Feb. 5, 1872 
Apr. '29, 1872 
Jan. 4, 1874 
Sept. 17. 1874 
Jan. '2, 1868 
Jan. 2, 1868 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Dec. '27, 1867 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Sept. '23, 1872 
Oct. 17, 1869 
Feb. 3, 1870 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Apr. '23, 1868 
June '22, 1868 
June 22, 1868 
June 1, 1868 
Jan. 4, 1870 
Jan. 4, 1870 
June 1, 1870 
May 28, 1872 
Nov. 1, 1872 
.Sept. 1. 1873 
Oct. 1, 1873 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Dec. '27, 1867 
Jan. 30, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Feb. 24, 1870 
Oct. 18, 1870 
Apr. 29, 1874 
May 10, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 30, 1869 
Jan. 5, 1870 
Jan. 4, 1870 
Jan. 7, 1868 
Jan. 2, 1868 
Jan. 7, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Jan. 16, 1868 
Mar. 30, 1868 


Aug. 9. 1860 
July 17, 1859 
Sept. '25, 1857 
Jan. 1, 1857 
Oct. 16, 1854 
Oct. 2». 1859 
June 8, 1856 
Deo. 6. 1860 
May 14, 1859 
May 31, 1«62 
July 13, 18<!0 
May 3, 1862 
Jan. 20, 1864 
Jan. 12, 1859 
Dec. 27, 1858 
Mar. 19, 1864 
Sept. 26, 1866 
July 2, 1858 
May 10, 1854 
June 10, 1856 
July 12, 1855 
Sept. '25, 1862 
May 18. 1858 
Aug. 26, 1856 
Oct. 1, 1858 
Mar. 31, 1856 
Apr. 7, 1855 
Dec. 5, 1857 
Dec. 5. 1856 
Feb. 14, 1856 
Apr. 21, 1857 
Feb. 12, 1859 
Nov. 1, 1860 
Aug. 22, 1861 
Aug. '29, 1863 
Jan. 16, 1863 
Apr. 28, 1865 
July 20, 1857 
Feb. 10, 1856 
Aug. 31, 1855 
Feb. 22, 1859 
Juue 6, 1861 
Jiin. 19, 1862 
May 8. 1861 
Aug. 1, 1862 
Apr. 5, 1864 
Apr. 10, 1856 
Nov. 27, 1857 
Dec. 29, 18.i9 
May 18. 1857 
Sept. 4, 1859 
Feb. 17, 18,59 
Oct. 23, 1857 
Oct. '24, 1859 
Jan. 11, 1857 
Mar. 4, 1854 


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402 



PEXNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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Died Nov. 10, 187J. 


Tost 

Office 

Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Union Mills. 

llarrisburg. 

Titusville. 

Marionville. 

Marionville. 

New Richmond. 

New Ricbmond. 

Ceres. 

Titusville. 

Shippensville. 

Riceville 

Meadville. 

Meadville. 

Titusville. 

Bradford. 

Meadville. 

Bradford. 

Bradford. 

Steuben. 

Gay's Mills. 

Turnir Creek. 

Turner Creek. 

Wayne. 

Wayne. 

Meadville. 

Meadville. 


utica. 

Utioa. 

Ridgeway. 

Brockwayville. 

Centreville. 

Centreville. 

Ridgeway. 

Titusville. 

Anderson's Mills 

Anderson's Mills 

Meadville. 

Pleasantville. 

Pleasantvillc. 

Tryonville. 

Tryonville. 

Warsaw. 

Tryonville. 

De Golier. 

Plumer. 

Saegertown. 

Shennngo. 

Rosston. 


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Junel, 1857 
Oct, 23. iai8 
Aug. 11.1853 
Jan. 8. 1858 
Oct. 30, 1854 
Dec. 12, 1852 
Mar. 10. 1857 
Apr. 30, 1857 
Nov. 27, 1860 
July 14, 1860 
Dec. 3. 1860 
Mar 15, 1862 
July 10, 1860 
Mar. 31, 1863 
.Mar. 10. 1863 
Mar. 17, 1858 
Jan. 10. 1862 
Aug. 3, 1863 
Mar. 3. 1854 
Apr. 23, 1856 
Aug. 27. 1858 
Dec. 4. 1860 
May 10. 1864 
June •29. 1863 
Sept. 27, 1860 
Sept. 12, 1864 
July 5. 1855 • 
Sept. 14, 1857 
Aug. 19. 1856 
June 6, 1855 
Deo. 19, 1860 
Auij. 7, 1856 
An?. 18, 1860 
Nov. 14. 1855 
Aug. 7. 1362 
June 10, 1860 
Jan. 6, J 858 
Mar. 22, 1862 
Jan. 1,1860 
Jiine^23, 1K58 
May 19, 1864 
Sept. 4. 1858 
Dec. 19, 1860 
May 11, 1863 
Mar. 18, 1853 
July 30, 1852 
May 9, 1856 
May 7, 1856 


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408 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Titusville. 

Cochranton. 

Chandler's Vail. 

Steamburgh. 

Irvine. 

Brady's Bend. 

Blooming Vail. 

Oil Creek. 

Titusville. 

Bvaushurg. 

Six Points. 

Limestone. 

Limestone. 

Titusville. 

Titusville. 

Waterford. 

Waterford. 

Youngsville 

Youngsville. 
Youngsville. 
Emlenton, 


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Date of 
Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


Jan. 4. 1868 
May 25, 1868 
Jan. 4. 1869 
Nov. 3, 1869 
Sept. 29, 1869 
Oct. 18, 1869 
May 20, 1872 
Apr. 4, 1873 
May 17, 1873 
Dec. 27, 1867 
Nov. 12, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Mar. 4, 1868 
Mar. 28. 18«)8 
Mar. 28, 1868 
Nov. 19, 1868 
Nov. 19, 1868 
Feb. 1, 1870 
Nov. 6, 1871 
Nov. 1. 1872 
Jan. 2, 1874 


1 

II 


Aug. 1. 1859 
Jan. 18. 1864 
Oct. 29. 1866 
N..V. 10, 1857 
July -X, 1854 
Aug. 26, 1855 
Oct. 30, 1862 
Oct. 18. 1861 
May 14, 1865 
Apr. 8. 18,i3 
Oct. 20. 1857 
Feb. 28. 1854 
Feb. 29, 1866 
Oct. 12, 1858 
Julv 19, 1867 
Nov. 6, 1859 
Dec. 3. 1866 
Oct. 30. 1859 
Jan. 19. 1861 
Feb. 6. 1865 
June 25, 1860 


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Wensil. Sarah A. 
Wensil. Marr S. 
Williams, Nellie 
Williams. Mary 
Wright. Margaret E. 
Wright. Mary A. 
Whituey. Addie D. 
Wentworth, Helen M. 
Wentworth. Emma M. 
Womer, Catharine E. 





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CHESTER SPRINGS SCHOOL, 




HIS school is situated in the northern part of Chester 
county, near the Pickering Valley branch of the Phila- 
delphia and Reading Railroad. 

The buildings, as represented in the plate, are on the 
slope of a hill, facing south-east. The one on the right is called the 
Washington building, because it was built by General Washington, 
and used by him as a hospital for his sick and wounded soldiers from 
Valley Forge and Brandywine. It is a frame building, and rough 
weather-boarded on the outside. Dents in the steps of the old 
stairways are still visible, and can be pointed out to the visitor as 
the marks of the crutches of the wounded patriots. 

A wing has been added for the accommodation of the school, thus 
making the main study-hall 48 x 53 feet, with small adjacent rooms 
for class-rooms. These have all been painted, which gives to them a 
new and cheerful appearance. 

The central building is known as the cottage, and is used for the 
girls' sleeping apartments, sitting-room, wash- and bathing-rooms, 
library for the use of boys and girls, and music-room. The 
lady Principal and female members of the faculty also occupy this 
building. 

The girls' sitting-room is 20 x 60 feet. It is nicely carpeted and 
well furnished, and made attractive by pictures and mottoes on the 
walls. Adjacent to this are the library and music-rooms. The 
bath-room is furnished with an abundance of warm and cold water, 
and all that is necessary to promote the health and cleanliness of 
the children. The dormitories are well ventilated, clean, and com- 
fortable. 

- 409 



410 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

The large building on the left, known as the "Hotel," was origin- 
ally a small, two-story house, and for some time the head-quarters of 
General Washington. An old Franklin stove, used by him, may 
still be seen in one of the central rooms, which is used now as the boys' 
clothes-room. This building is used by the male members of the 
faculty and the boys. In addition to the dormitories, it contains 
sitting-rooms and bath-room, also the kitchen and dining-room. 

Between the hotel and cottage, standing back a few feet, and not 
visible in the engraving, is the "Hall," in which are the sewing-room, 
boys' mending-room, and infirmary. These buildings are connected 
by a covered promenade. 

In front of the cottage is a lawn of about one and a half acres, 
used as the girls' play-ground, in which are a number of shade trees 
and a beautiful magnesia spring called " diamond spring." South 
of the " Hotel " is the boys' play-ground, embracing several acres, in 
which are the chalybeate spring and bath houses. These grounds are 
finely shaded by grand old sycamore and other trees. 

This place, formerly known as " Yellow Springs," was for many 
years a popular watering-place and summer resort. Hundreds of 
people, in quest of health and pleasure, made this their summer 
home — attracted here by the beauty of the scenery, the salubrity of 
the atmosphere, the medicinal quality of the water, and, doubtless, 
many on account of the historic association. How fitting, then, that 
this place, so sacred in the past, should now be a home for the chil- 
dren of those who, in a later day of our country's history, were slain 
upon the same altar, and by whose self-sacrifice our Union has been 
preserved. 

The property is owned by a stock company. The school is under 
the management of a Board of Trustees, elected yearly by the stock- 
holders. The first elected were Isaac Sulger, Esq., Prof C. W. Deans, 
and M. S. McCullough, Esq., of which Isaac Sulger, Esq., was Pres- 
ident, and C. W. Deans Secretary and Treasurer. In June, 1870, the 
same were re-elected — M. S. McCullough being chosen President^ and 
Prof. C. W. Deans Secretary and Treasurer. In June, 1872, T. J. 
Grier, Esq., was elected a member of the Board, in place of Isaac 
Sulger, Esq. Owing to the death of C. W. Deans in 1873, Prof. W. 
E. Caveny was elected to fill the vacancy, and, at the last annual 
meeting of the stockholders, A. H. Hoagland was elected in the place 
of T. J. Grier, Esq. 

The school was organized in 1868, and was composed mainly of 



CHESTER SPRINGS SCHOOL. 



411 



cliiklreu transferred from Quakertowii and Paradise Schools. Prof. 
C. W. Deans was appointed Principal, who carried it on successfully 
until April, 1870, when he resigned. Prof. W. E. Caveny was ap- 
pointed his successor, during whose administration many valuable 
improvements were made and comforts added, and the moral condi- 
tion of the school was also greatly improved. Prof. Caveny resigned 
in May, 1873, and Rev. F. C. Pearson was appointed Principal. He 
continued in charge until March, 1874, when, having other duties to 
claim his attention, he resigned, and Mrs. E. H. Moore, at the instance 
of Post No. 2, of the G. A. R. of the Department of Pa., was appointed, 
and has, by her continued success, demonstrated the fact that a 
modest lady is fully competent to discharge the varied and responsible 
duties of the position she still occupies to the entire satisfaction 
of all concerned. 

The health of the school has been excellent, no form of epidemic 
having visited it, excepting scarlet fever, in the fall of 1870, which 
was skilfully treated by Dr. J. R. Hainey; and, although about 
fifty of the children were sick, all recovered. Of the five hundred 
pupils who have been here during a period of over seven years, but 
two have died. The first was a boy about thirteen years old, who, 
having wandered out of bounds, fell into a pit and received injuries 
which caused his death. The other, a girl of fourteen, died of he- 
reditary consumption soon after entering school. 

The moral and religious condition of the school is very good, the 
children, having learned to act from motives of principle, do right 
because it is right. 

In order to convey an idea of the standing of the school, and the 
estimation in which it is held by the people in the vicinity, we add 
a paragraph from one of the numerous articles published in the 
Phmnix Messenger : 

" The School at Chester Springs, under the administration of Mrs. E. 
H. Moore, has been very successful, and the standard has been raised to 
such an extent that it is now regarded one of the best schools in the State. 
At the last annual examination, in addition to the branches usually taught 
in the public schools, several classes were examined in geometry, algebra, 
botany, natural philosophy, physiology, book-keeping, and drawing, and 
showed a marked degree of proficiency in these branches." 

Since the above sketch was written, the " Hotel " has been destroyed 
by fire, which occurred on the 7th of March, 1876. The flames were 
first discovered, between one and two o'clock at night, by one of the 



412 



PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



boys, who gave the alarm. The inmates were aroused from their 
sleep, and every one escaped unharmed. Most of the bedding and 
clothing were removed. The adjoining building and " cottage " were 
saved with the greatest difficulty. Water was plenty, and boys, girls, 
teachers, and other employees and neighbors exerted themselves to 
the utmost, and deserve great praise for their persevering efforts and 
self-possession, which alone stayed the progress of the flames. 

This accident greatly reduced the accommodations of the school, 
but none were obliged to leave. Another building will soon be 
erected to take the place of the one destroyed. 

Since the school was organized, the following persons have been 
officially connected with it in the various departments : 



Mr. J. A. Groff, 

" O.N. Shingle, 
Dr. J. H. MacCreary, 
Mr. P. J. Umstead, 
Miss M. K. Schreiner, 

" S. B. Kuhn, 

" E. Pearson, 

" E.W.Wickersham, 



Teachers. 

Mr. W. W. Deans, 

" J.L.Allen, 

" W. W. Wisegarver, 

" F. Ibach, 
Miss A. Kitcher, 
Mrs. F. L. Yeager, 
Miss E. I. Sinsabaugh, 
" E. Sharpless, 



Mr. H. Lamborn, 
" A. H. Weidman, 
" M. Kratz, 
" W. B. Chalfant, 
Miss H. M. Williams, 
" A. L. Drinkwater, 
" E. A. Thompson, 
" A. L. Fusselb 



Mrs. W. E. Caveny, 



Music Teachers. 
Miss Fannie Middleton, 



Miss M. P. Tustin. 



Matrons. 

Miss Train, Miss L. A. Norris, Miss G. Williams, 

Mrs. E. H. Moore, Miss E. C. Woodward. 



Miss M. Bowers. 



Assistant Matrons. 

Miss A. Woodward, 
Mrs. Mary Kishbaugh. 



Mrs. A. E. Sturgess, 



Miss B. Jackson, 



Mr. J. Becket, 
" W. Hoyle, 



Nurses. 
Mrs. E. B. Hellener, 

Male Attendants. 

Mr. E. B. Whitney, 
" J. Craiger, 
Mr. J. W. Snyder. 



Mrs. S. Musselman. 



Mr. J. Glenn, 
" F.Wagner, 



CHESTER SPRINGS SCHOOL 



Sewing Superintendents. 



413 



Miss S. G. Galatt, 
" A. Davis, 



Miss A. Kendall, 
"' C. Hellener. 



Laundresses. 



Mrs. Phebe Barrett, Mrs. E. Beerbrower, Mrs. R. Copeman, 

Mrs. B. Brown, Mrs. M. Goumph. 



Mr. J. L. Smith. 



Stewards. 
Mr. W. W. Deans, 

Cooks. 

Mr. D. Johnston, Mrs. W. Stretzel, Miss A. Rice, 

Miss E. Powers, Miss F. Smith. 



DiNiNG-RooM Superintendent. 
Mrs. Mary Hoi man. 

Bakers. 
Mr. J. Bodderman, Mr. T. Roberts. 

Farmers. 

Mr. J. Sloanaker, 



Mr. W. Dolittle, 



Mr. W. Wray, 
" P. Daily, 



" R. Beard. 



Carpenter. 
Mr. F. Williams. 

Plumber. 
Mr. H. Stretton. 

Physicians. 
J. R. Hainey, M. D., J. H. MacCreary, M. D., M . Fussell, M. D. 




414 



PEXNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 






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CHESTER SPRINGS SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 415 



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CHESTER SPRINGS SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 417 



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CHESTER SPRINGS SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 423 



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424 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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Married. 

J Attending MiUersville 
I 8. N. School. 
Teaching school. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN at 

Home. 

Goshorn. 

Philadelphia.... 

Port Carbon. 

Port Carbon. 

Norrlstown. 

Kimbleville. 

Philadelphia. 


Allentown 

Allentown. 
West Chester.... 
West Chester. 

Hamburg 

Hamburg. 

Philadelphia. 

West Chester. 

Hamburg. 

Philadelphia. 

Tremont. 

London Grove. 

Phoenixville. 

Strasburg. 

Allentown. 

Allentown. 


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On Age, at 
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Oct. 30, 1858 
Nov. 26, 1871 
Feb. 3, 1875 
Sept. 17, 1872 
Oct. 26, 1874 


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Paradise 


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Paradise 

Paradise 

Paradise 

Paradise 

Womelsdorf 

Qualtertown 

Titusviue 




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Date op 
Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 

Feb. 29, 1868 
Mar. 1. 1868 
Oct. 10, 1870 
Oct. 10, 1870 
May 24. 1873 
Oct. 28, 1874 
Oct. 18, 1874 
Jan. 26. 1875 


Sept. 3, 1875 
Mar. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Jan. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1870 
June 1, 1871 
Feb. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Oct. 2, 1875 
Mar. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Mar. 1, 1869 


Datk op 
Birth. 

Oct. 30, 1852 
Nov. 26, 1855 
Feb. 3, 1859 
Sept. 17, 1856 
Oct. 26, 1858 
Nov. 6, 1861 
Oct. 6, 1864 
Oct. 25, 1866 


July 26, 1869 
Feb. 9, 1858 
June 13, 1860 
Sept. 30, 1856 
Feb. 5, 1856 
Feb. 27, 1857 
Dec. 25, 1859 
Mar. 19, 1853 
Feb. 23, 1860 
Jan. -25. 1861 
Oct. 12, 1858 
Dec. 7, 1857 
Apr. 28, 1865 
July 10, 1861 
May 2, 1855 
May 22, 1856 
Apr. 16, 1861 


P 

< 


TolHnger, Marcaret J. 
Tavlor. Marv C. 
Troy, Lothania A. 
Troy, Marv M. 
Townseod. Mary A. 
Travoer. Laura 
Thomas. Ella V. 
Trader. Ida 


Trader. Rmma 
Weiss, Sarah C. 
Weiss. Mary Jane 
White, Ida L. 
Woodward, Rachel A. 
Wagner, Marv M. 
Wagner. Sal lie A. 
Will. Matilda 
Woodward, Carrie 
Warner, Henrietta A. 
Williams, Nellie 
Williams, Martha A. 


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The Home for Friendless Children, for the 
Borough of Wilkesbarre and the County 
of Luzerne. 



HIS institution is located in the city of Wilkesbarre. It 
was organized in 1862. The number of destitute children, 
at this time, was greatly increased by the exigencies of the 
civil war, then raging, which called many, fathers from 
their homes, to engage in the defence of their country. Moved by 
a sympathy, which was quickened by patriotism, a number of 
worthy ladies of Wilkesbarre, of whom Miss Mary Bowman, a noble 
Christian lady, was the leading spirit, met in March, 1862, to devise 
a plan of relief This meeting was not fruitless. It was there deter- 
mined that a Home should be opened for needy children. By the 
kindness of a benevolent gentleman, the free use of a small house 
on South Street was granted the ladies to be used for this purpose. 
" With a fund of twenty-five dollars, and six little waifs," a begin- 
ning was made, amid many doubtiugs and misgivings, yet with 
prayers and faith. It soon became apparent that a larger and more 
commodious building was needed. During the years of 1863 and 
1864, the energies of the ladies were successfully put forth for the 
accomplishment of this object. A building lot was secured on 
Franklin Street. It contains one and a half acres of land, lacking 
three rods square. One part of it, 100 by 198 feet, together with an 
alley of ten feet leading from Franklin Street to the back end of the 
lot, was given by the owners of the land to the institution, besides 
a liberal contribution in money. The remainder of the lot cost 
$2,832.00. 

425 



426 PEXXA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

. Upon this site a substantial building, three stories high, and 50 by 
100 feet, was erected in 1865. It is supplied with water from the 
city works, — the water being taken to the second story, and 
warmed by two furnaces. Its kitchen, pantry, and dining-rooms 
are conveniently arranged and w^ell furnished. Its sewing-room, 
clothes-rooms, dormitories, and school-rooms are well adapted to the 
purposes for which they are used. The building affords accommoda- 
tions for about eighty children, besides the necessary number of 
attendants. 

By the act of incorporation, the affairs of the institution are con- 
ducted by a board of trustees, consisting of sixteen gentlemen, and a 
board of managers of twenty-four ladies. 

The Home is supported by donations from benevolent individuals. 
The State, however, has at different times made appropriations for 
its aid, amounting in all to $13,000. Five thousand dollars were 
granted it by the Legislature of 1871, on condition that " the Judges 
of the Courts of Common Pleas for the counties adjoining Luzerne 
County, shall be authorized to commit and send to said Home for 
Friendless Children those friendless children who may come within 
the jurisdiction of said courts, or be subject to their order and dispo- 
sition." This grant was accepted upon the condition named, and the 
benefits of the institution were thus extented to friendless children 
of Columbia, Carbon, Monroe, Schuylkill, Sullivan, Susquehanna, 
Wayne, and Wyoming counties. 

The lady managers have been for a number of years laboring to 
raise an endowment suflicient to support the institution. This fund 
now, 1875, amounts to $16,656.75. 

In August, 1865, Dr. Burrowes, the State Superintendent of 
Soldiers' Orphans, addressed a letter to the managers of the Home, 
requesting them to take fifty or sixty orphans, under his care, into 
their institution. These were to be young children, who were to be 
transferred to schools where better educational advantages could be 
had as they arrived at the age of ten years. The sum to be paid for 
the education, maintenance, and clothing was fixed at $100 per 
annum for each child. Already there was in the institution quite a 
number of soldiers' orphans, as the patriotic managers had, from the 
first, shown great readiness to receive destitute children whose 
fathers had fallen in the defence of their country. For the support 
of these orphans, the managers were, hitherto, wholly dependent upon 
the contributions of the benevolent. By accepting Dr. Burrowes' 



THE HOME FOR FRIENDLESS CHILDREN. 427 

proposition, they would receive $100 yearly from the State, not only 
for those sent, but also for the soldiers' orphans already in the Home. 
Under these circumstances, the managers complied with the request 
of the Superintendent, though the amount they were to receive, 
according to their report of May, 1866, was "wholly inadequate to 
pay the necessary expenses." The first soldiers' orphans were re- 
ceived on account of the State in February, 1866. From time to 
time, soldiers' orphans of the more juvenile class continued to be 
sent to the institution, by the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, 
while, in the meantime, numbers were transferred to institutions of 
a higher grade as they arrived at the suitable age for promotion. 
The Home continued to assist in the good work till 1873, when, in 
September of this year, all the soldiers' orphans in the institution 
were, by order of the State Superintendent, transferred to schools for 
the more advanced pupils. The whole number of soldiers' orphans 
received in the Home, and supported by the State, is ninety-two. 
The largest number at any one time in the Home was eighty-one. 

It is but an act of justice to here record the names of several noble 
men who greatly assisted the ladies in the difficult work of establish- 
ing the Home, and sustaining it by their open-handed liberality. 
Judge William S. Ross, Mr. W. C. Gildersleeve, Mr. George M. 
Hollenback, and V. L. Maxwell, Esq., each gave $1,000. Judge 
I. N. Conyngham, A. T. McClintock, Esq., and several others whose 
names are not at command, donated $500 each. 

The Board of Trustees, in 1873, was as follows : 



Mr. Nathaniel Rutter, 
" J.C.Phelps, 
" J. W. Hollenback, 
" W. L. Conyngham, 
" W. W. Lathrope, 



Mr. 



J. P. Williamson, 
C. M. Conyngham, 
R. J. Flick, 
A. T. McClintock, 
C. E. Wright, 
T. Burnett, 



Mr. A. Ricketts, 
Dr. E. R. Mayer, 
Mr. L. T>. Shoemaker, 
" W. W. Loomis, 
" Joseph Lippincott. 



The Board of Managers, in 1873, was as follows 



Mrs. J. C. Phelps, 

" F. V. Rockafellow, 

" F. W. Hunt, 

" A. R. Brundage, 

" Joseph Lippincott, 

" F. B. Hodge, 

" Charles Parrish, 

" S. D. Lewis, 



Mrs. C. E. Wright, 
" W. S. Ross, 
" W. F. Dennis, 

Miss Eliza R. Covell, 
" Laura G. Brewer, 

Mrs. F.J. Leavenworth, 
" V. L. Maxwell, 
" Lord Butler, 



Mrs. Jesse Thomas, 
" T. F. Atherton, 
" W.C. Gildersleeve, 
" Ziba Bennett, 
" J. Lawrence Day, 
" Matthew Wood, 
" R. H. Williamson, 

Miss Hetty Wright. 



428 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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WILKESBARRE HOME FOR THE FRIENDLESS. 429 



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Church Home for Children (Episcopal), 
Angora, Philadelphia. 




EVERAL homes for destitute children had already taken 
their places among the charitable institutions in Philadel- 
phia, when the Church Home was established; but all 
were under the charge of miinagers belonging to the vari- 
ous religious denominations, and the children were brought up with- 
out any distinctive religious training. In 1856, it became evident to 
a number of persons connected with St. Mark's Parish that the time 
had arrived for the Episcopal Church to take her decided part in 
training children to be useful citizens and members of her own com- 
munion. 

A meeting was held in January. Four ladies were present, and 
it w^as decided (the Rev. Dr. Wilmer, of St. Mark's, offering to aid 
them as far as practicable) to take a house and begin the work. Mr. 
S. "Wilmer Cannell offered to become security for the rent of a house, 
and a small one was taken at No. 1706 Sansom Street ; and by the 
second of February the house was opened — furnished, in part, by con- 
tributions in material, and with money given for that purpose. Prior 
to this, however, a Board of Council and a Board of Managers had 
been chosen from the St. Mark's, St. Luke's, and the Epiphany 
Churches. All with equal energy pressed on this work, by soliciting 
aid and interesting others in the labor of love ; and their hearts were 
made glad by the entrance within its walls of the little ones they so 
longed to protect. 

The originators of this charity were as follows ; 

431 



432 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



Pierce Butler, 
George L. Harrison, 
J. W. Kester, 



Mrs. N. Hopkins, 



Miss R. Henop, 

Mrs. J.M.Hollingshead, 
" G.T.Lewis, 
" Alfred J. Austin, 
" J. Anderson, 

Miss Agnes Boyd, 

Mrs. J. W. Kester, 
" G. H. Boker, 



Board of Council. 

John Welsh, 
Thomas Allibone, 
Edward H. Rowley, 

Directresses. 
Miss M. AUinson, 

Secretary. 
Miss H. H. Patterson. 

Treasurer. 
Miss M. S. Cannell. 

Managers. 

Mrs. Henry Austie, 
" Susan Collet, 
" A. G. Gaw, 

Miss Sarah Lewis, 
" N. W. Fisher, 
." Mary A. Gaul, 
" Emily Wells, 

Mrs. Moreton Stille, 



Edward S. Buckley, 
John R. Wilmer, 
Rev. W. S. Hinds. 



Mrs. F. R. Starr. 



Miss Hockley, 
Mrs. H. S. Biddle, 
Miss C. W. Paul, 

" Mary McHenry, 

" Lenauze, 
Mrs. C. J. Still6, 
Miss Margaretta Lewis, 
Mrs. John Clayton. 



Much praise is due these loving hearts and energetic workers, who 
planted, as it were, the acorn which has become the sturdy oak. St. 
Mark's received the little family, soon numbering twenty-four, into 
her parish school, where they were in regular attendance until July, 
when Mr. James C. Vogdes offered a house in West Philadelphia for 
two months, thus securing to the children the pure air of the country 
during the heat of the summer. 

In 1857, it became evident that the work must be enlarged, and 
the modest little house was left for a larger and more convenient one, 
at No. 1609 Pine Street. During this year the number of inmates 
increased to thirty, and a lady was secured to teach the younger chil- 
dren in the house. During this year, also, a fine lot at Twenty- 
Second and Pine Streets was secured, and on October 10, 1857, the 
corner-stone of a new building was laid by Bishop Potter. 

In 1858, the children were again moved to a home especially pre- 
pared for them. Thus, this work, begun * in faith, had, in less than 
three years, become a church charity, fixed in the hearts of her people 
for all time. 



CHURCH HOME FOR CHILDREN. 433 

The three churches that had begun the work had already been 
joined by others, and the subscription list was enlarged by patrons 
from all parts of the city. With increased accommodations, the 
children multiplied, and soon the family numbered forty-eight. 

In 1862, the building was entirely freed from debt. A small ground 
rent, all that remained of indebtedness, was paid off. At no time 
have the expenses been allowed to exceed the income, and with every 
year's additions the funds required to supply the needs of the insti- 
tution have never failed. Thus quietly did the charity live on, the 
number of inmates yearly increasing. In 1864, there was received 
from the State a very limited number of soldiers' orphans. The 
building, pretty well filled already, only allowed the Managers to 
offer the State authorities vacancies as they should occur. 

The necessity for a home for the orphan boys of our brave soldiers 
caused the organization of that excellent charity, the Lincoln Insti- 
tution ; and, as soon as it was opened, the male soldiers' orphans were 
transferred to it, making room for an additional number of girls. 

In 1867, additions were made to the buildings, by which the Man- 
agers were enabled to increase the number of children to fifty-eight, 
seventeen of whom were soldiers' orphans. Feeling the necessity of 
enlarging the charity, the Managers were called upon by the Bishop 
to make another trial of faith. In September, 1869, a committee 
waited on him at his rooms, and, after consultation, it was decided 
that the time for a more extended work had arrived. One of the 
^ Managers, knowing that certain property had been set apart for a 
charitable purpose, whenever the time should come for its use, ap- 
proached the owner, and the result was a gift, by Mrs. Ann G. 
Thomas, of eleven acres of ground, near Angora Station, West 
Chester and Philadelphia Railroad, to which was soon added two 
acres, the site upon which the beautiful new Home now stands. 

The corner-stone was laid October 29, 1870, the architect being 
Mr. T. W. Richards. It was ready for occupancy in November, 
1872; but, by the advice of the physicians, the children were not 
moved into the building until May, 1873, on the fifteenth of which 
month the Home was dedicated to the Father of the fatherless with 
appropriate services. 
28 



434 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

Hardly had the Managers started in the new building, when it 
became apparent that a chapel was needed to make the work com- 
plete; and it was decided that they should proceed to erect one. 
The architect was asked for a plan, which he furnished gratuitously ; 
and as soon as the ladies had purchased from Mrs. Thomas a lot 
immediately adjoining the Home, he was kind enough to contract for 
its building ; thus securing, by his judicious management, a beautiful 
stone church, complete, with the exception of bell-gable, for $10,000. 
The chapel was consecrated May 15, 1875. 

After the lapse of a little over twenty years, of the original 
Board of Managers, six remain to reap the fruit of years of hope, to 
gee a beautiful home building of serpentine stone in the midst of 
grand old trees, with ample grounds, capable of sheltering within its 
walls one hundred and fifty children, who are carefully trained and 
instructed by teachers and matron, and, above all, taught how to 
work. Thus those who began this work have lived to see this result : 
two beautiful structures, entirely free from debt, with a family of one 
hundred and twelve children, and room for more. 

The noble Christian ladies interested in this work have had many 
warm and generous friends to hold up their hands, and they hope to 
do a great deal in the future for the orphan "and the destitute. 
The new charity, not far from the Church Home — the Educational 
Home for Boys — relieves it, in a measure, from the care of boys, 
and it is gradually withdrawing from this part of its work, and 
devotes itself almost exclusively to the training of girls, only taking 
a boy when it is felt that he should not be separated from his sister. 
As time passes, soldiers' orphans leave to go out into the world, and, 
it is hoped, to be useful in their several stations. 

The children love the Home which they have left, and, on the 
occasion of the dedication of the Home, and the consecration of the 
chapel, many of the former inmates were among those who rejoiced 
in these services. 

From time to time, legacies have been bestowed, and the Sanitary 
Commission has not been forgetful of the orphans. 

Rarely a child is received temporarily. As the chief object of the 
managers is training, they require those placing children in the Home 
to give them up until they are eighteen years old, in order to pre- 
pare them not only to earn their living, but to guard against any 
temptation to which they may be exposed. 



CHURCH HOME FOR CHILDREN. 

PRESENT MANAGEMENT. 

BOARD OF COUNCIL. 

President. 

The Rt. Rev. William Bacon. Stevens, D. D. 

Secretary. 
George T. Lewis. 



435 



William P. Cresson, 
Lemuel CoflBin, 
Francis A. Lewis, 
R. C. McMurtrie, 
Israel W. Morris, 
Thomas Neilson, 



Mrs. G. T. Lewis, 



Members. 
Charles J. Still6, 
William G. Thomas, 
W. G. Boulton, 
D. H. Flickwir, 
George W. Childs, 
John Welsh, 



J. H. Dulles, Jr., 
William P. Pepper, 
John S. Newbold, 
E. S. Buckley, 
Rev. J. W. Robins, D.D. 
George T. Bispham. 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Directresses. 

Mrs. C. J. Stills, 

Secretary. 
Miss Meredith. 

Teeasuree. 
Mrs. John Harrison. 



Miss M. S. Lewis. 



Mrs. S. W. Mitchell, 
" I. T. Jones, 
" C. R. King, 
" E. Perot, 
" G.C.Morris, 



Members. 
Mrs. J. W. Robins, 

" F. A. Lewis, 

" Robt. H. Hare, 

" J. W. Sagers, 
Miss M. Lennig, 

" C.W.Paul, 

Solicitor. 
George T. Bispham. 

Chaplain. 
Rev. James W. Robins, D. D. 



Mrs. W. B. Stevens, 
Miss V. R. Bowers, 
Mrs. I. W. Morris, 
" 'John Fallon, 
Miss E. S. Stanley. 



Assistant. 
Mr. Louis S. Osborne. 



433 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 





C Married to Jo8. H. Ker- 
i nan in Sept., 1873. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

MMlliamstown. 

West Chester. 

Media. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Chesier. 

Philadelphia. 

Valley Forge. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

PottsviUe. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Germnnia. 

Lebanon. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 


Media. 

Phiiadelphii."" 

Philadelphia. 

I'hiladelphia. 

Media. 

Philadelphia.... 

Cabinet. 

Lancaster. 

Media. 

Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 




«c5,5««.e«« 


Philadelph 
Philridelph 
Philadelph 
Philadelph 
Philadelph 
Phil.adelph 
Philadelph 
Philadelph 


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May 31 , 1869 
May 31,1869 
Oct. 31, 1873 

'r)'ec.'i,"l8*69 " 
Feb. 1, 1874 


i i i : i is i i 1 ; i j i i 


Mar. 1 , 1870 
Nov. 30, 1870 

Feb.'lVi874" 
Nov. 14, 1871 


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May 8, 1866 
Feb. 10, 1873 
May 14, 1866 
May 14, 1866 
May 8, 1866 
May 8, 1866 
Mav 8. 1866 


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Chester Sp'gs 

Lincoln 

Lincoln 

Lincoln 

Lincoln 

Lincoln 


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Lancaster Ho. 
Lancaster Ho. 


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Date of 

Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


Mar. 12, 1869 
Feb. 21. 1866 
Oct. 19. 1866 
Jan. 19, 1866 
Nov. 16, 1869 
Jan. 12, 1866 
Jan. 12, 1866 
Mar. 1, 1866 
Jan. 11, J866 
Feb. 27, 1866 
Sept. 16, 1869 
Jan. 11, 1866 
Jan. 11, 1866 

Nov. 21,1867 
Nov. 15, 1867 
Jan. 18, 1866 
Mar. 12, 1869 
Nov. 5, 1869 
Mar. 10, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Julv 13, 1866 
Julv 13, 1866 
Nov. 21, 1867 
Mar. 1, 1870 ' 
Dec. 1, 1869 
Mar. 8, 1867 
Oct. 24, 1874 
Apr. 26, 1866 
Apr. 26, 1866 
June 26, 1869 
Oct. 7. 1870 
Nov. 15, 1867 
Dec. 20, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 28, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1. 1872 
Auif. 9, 1867 
Jan. 11, 1866 
May 16. 1866 
July 13, 1866 
Sept. 16, 1869 
Sept. 9, 1870 
Aug. 9, 1867 
June 12, 1866 


Date op 
Birth. 


Aug. — . 1864 
June 29, 1860 
Apr. 4, 1862 
J..n. 4, 1859 
Apr. 3, 1861 
Sept. 16. 1861 
Apr. 3, 1860 
June 29, 1860 
Nov. 25, 1861 
July 26. 1858 
Apr. 14, 1861 
Apr. 14, 1861 
Apr. 14, 1859 

Nov. 27. 1858 
Mar. 1, 1860 
Jan. 21,1858 
Dec. 1, 1863 
Oct. 18, 1864 
Sept. 7. 1857 
Feb. 28. 1858 
Apr. 30, 1860 
June 30, 1856 
Jan. 23, 1855 
Sept. 21. 1860 
Feb. 20, 1864 
Dec. 21, 1856 
July 27, 1865 
Mar. 8, 1857 
June 12, 1860 
May 4. 1864 
Feb. 28, 1861 
Mar. 24, 1855 
May 29, 1860 
Jan. 27, 1856 
Jan. 27, 1856 
July 6, 1862 
Apr. 16, 1863 
Ai.g. 25, 1859 
Feb. 16. 1858 
July 21, 1H56 
Mar. 8, 1860 
Deo. 28. 1857 
Apr. 23, 1838 
.Sept. 27, 1837 
Apr. 28, 1857 
Oct. 13, 1852 
Julys, 1859 




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Andrews, Rebecca J. 
Andrews. Arabella 
Barton, Mary 
Brandt, Mary E. 
Braun, Phillipine K. L. 
Braun. Carolina F. 
Cunimings, Elizabeth 
Dougherty, Jane 
Dougherty, Annie 
Dav, Georgiana 
Dunn, Marv J. 


Edwards, Hannah K. 
Esrey, Caroline 
Ford, Mary L. 
Ford, Margaretta 
Foster. Mary E. 
Groves, Eliza S. 
Holden, Sarah 1 
Hallman, Addie A. 
Harnish, Alice 
Harnlsh. Jane M. 
Jone*. Eliiaheth L. 
Jeffrie*. Sarah 
Jeffries, Esther 
Jeffries, Kmma 


RlrKpatricIf Hannah 
Kitts. Mary L. 
McCloy, Mary C. 
Miller. Mary 
Martin, Clara J. 
Michel, Sophia 


00 

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CHURCH HOME FOR CHILDREN (EPISC.)^ PHILA. 437 



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Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia. 

Phiadelphia.... 

Philadelphia. 


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May 25, 1864 
Apr. 15, 1861 
Mar. 18, 1861 
Dec. 5, 1858 
Aug. 16, 1860 
Oct. 29, 1863 
Oct. 12, 1860 
Sept. 8, 1858 


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ST. JAMES' ORPHAN ASYLUM. 




HIS Asylum is located at No. 119 North Duke Street, 
Lancaster. The building is a two-story brick dwelling, 
with bath-rooms, water-closets, &c. It has accommoda- 
tions for sixteen children and the necessary number of 
employees. Girls only are received, and they must be between the 
ages of four and eight years. They are put out, when suitable homes 
can be found, till eighteen years old. 

The object of this charity is to take care of orphans of the Epis- 
copal Church, though others are* not excluded. The vestry of the 
church of St. James are, by act of incorporation, its Trustees. 

This Asylum is the result of a legacy from the wife of Hon. Charles 
Smith, to which was added another legacy from her sou, Theodore, 
both amounting to about three thousand dollars. This sum, after 
being invested a few years, was used in purchasing a lot and erecting 
the building, which was done by Rev. Samuel Bowman, rector of 
St. James' Church. 

From 1839 to 1860, the sum of nine thousand dollars had been 
drawn from the State treasury to aid this Asylum. 

Since its organization, aboutthirty church orphans have been cared 
for. For many years, Miss H. K. Benjamin served as Matron and 
Teacher. In self-sacrificing devotion to the orphans, she had few 
equals. Dr. I. L. Atlee has been the attending physician from its 
organization to the present time. 

Sixteen soldiers' orphans, at the expense of the State, have en- 
joyed the advantages of this home. In September, 1872, all were 
removed, most of whom were placed in the Church Home, Philadel- 
phia. Their names are as follows : 



Emma J. Cummings, 
Elizabeth Cummings, 
Alice Harnish, 
Jane M. Harnish, 
Clara J. Howard, 



Esther Jeffries, 
Emma Jeffries, 
Sanih Jeffries, 
Anna Lees, 
Catharine Long, 
Sarah A. Tollinger. 



Rebecca Rinier, 
Elizabeth Rinier, 
Mandeena Tollinger, 
Adrianna Tollinger, 
Emily R. Tollinger, 

438 




BRIDGEWATER SCHOOL, 




-^ I HOUGH the orplians of colored soldiers were included in 
l^gj all the provisions made by the State for the education and 
maintenance of destitute soldiers' orphans, yet no school 
was Established for that purpose till the system had been 
in operation for several years. A few of that class had been gathered 
into the Home for Colored Children at Maylandville, Philadelphia ; 
but further than this nothing had been attempted. In 1866, the 
Philadelphia branch of the Freedman's Aid Society called public 
attention to the neglect, and, as a result, in the following year, an 
Act was passed by the Legislature, authorizing the establishment of 
a school for the needy children of colored troops who had been killed 
in the late war. 

To assist the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans in carrying out 
the provisions of this Act, the Freedman's Aid Society just named 
purchased a building in Bucks county, known as Bristol College, a 
large, beautiful, commodious, and substantial brick edifice, located 
on the banks of the Delaware, and commanding a fine view of the 
river and the surrounding country. To this is attached thirteen and 
one-half acres of excellent land, two-thirds of which are under culti- 
vation, and the remaining third is a beautiful lawn shaded with trees, 
and is used as a play-ground. 

But it was not sufficient merely to provide a beautiful and attrac- 
tive home-school. The colored orphans scattered all over the State, 
had to be searched out and brought to it. For this purpose, funds 
were also furnished by the same society which had procured the 
home, and one of its members, B. P. Hunt, Esq., in the spirit of self- 
sacrifice, nobly gave several months of hard toil to seek and save 
the lost. 



410 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

In June, 1868, the school was opened under the control of the 
Freedman's Aid Society. Mr. Isaac N. Flint was chosen to take the 
immediate charge of the institution as Principal, and provided with 
an able corps of teachers and other assistants. Mr. Flint's heart was 
in the work, and he entered upon his labors with high hopes and 
becoming zeal. After a trial of nine months, he became discouraged 
with the many difficulties which beset him, and resigned. He was 
succeeded by Mr. Archibald Batters, who also resigned after a stay 
of eight months. For a short time succeeding his resignation, the 
school was without a Principal, and, wanting in an efficient head, did 
not prosper satisfactorily. 

Hitherto the Aid Society had employed Principal, teachers, and 
all other employees. Now it withdrew its supervision, and rented 
the property to Mr. James Stitzer, who was recommended as a suit- 
able person for the position by the then Superintendent of Soldiers* 
Orphans. The members of the society, though no longer officially 
connected with the school, did not cease to manifest a deep interest 
in its success, and have ever remained its steadfast and generous 
friends. 

When Mr. Stitzer took charge of the school, it was in a disorgan- 
ized condition, and discipline had to be established. Many repairs 
were made, and the buildings, beds, etc., were thoroughly renovated. 
Notwithstanding the many and great difficulties that had to be met at 
the outset, the Principal, aided by his efficient assistants, persevered 
in his efforts, till the Bridgewater School became, in order, neatness, 
and fine appearance of the children, the model school of the State. 
In reaching these results, too much credit cannot be given to the 
Principal's excellent wife, Mrs. Stitzer, to whose kindness, patience, 
perseverance, vigilance, and activity the school is greatly indebted 
for the high standard it has maintained during the last five years of 
its existence. 

The whole number of children admitted into this institution since 
its organization is two hundred and thirty-six — one hundred and 
twenty-one boys and one hundred and eleven girls, of whom eighty- 
four of both sexes now remain. 

To Wm. W. Justice, Esq., and others, of Philadelphia, the school 
Is indebted for repeated favors, among which may be named a dona- 
tion of two hundred and sixty volumes of carefully selected library- 
books, wliich have afforded much pleasure and information to the 
orphans, and helped to cultivate a correct taste for reading. 



BRIDGEWATETl SCHOOL. 



441 



Morally, intellectually, and religiously, this school compares favor- 
ably with any of the class in the State. Many who have enjoyed its 
advantages, have gone forth to fill positions of trust and usefulness. 
Quite a number are teaching in the South with great success. It is 
grati Tying to know that the efforts which have been put forth in 
behalf of the colored soldiers' orphans have already yielded a rich 
harvest. 

For further information as to the establishment of this school, 
see page 125. 

We give the names of some of the persons who have been officially 
employed in this school since its organization, viz. : 



Mr. James Stradling, 
Mrs. G. W. Stradling, 
Mr. D. D. Chupin, 
Miss Laura Stitzer, 
Mr. Chas. McMahon, 



Teachers. 

Mr. Ed. Martin, 
Mrs. P. J. Umstead, 
Miss H. Emma Stitzer, 
Mr. David Shultz, 
" Frank Foster, 



Miss Carrie Dodson, 
" Sallie Aiken, 
" Clara Phillips, 
" Nora Gilpin. 



Sewing-Room Superintendents. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Wildey, Miss Matilda Carter, Mrs. J. Lynch. 



Matrons. 

Miss Mary J. Moore, Miss Tillie Brown, 

Miss Amanda Burrows. 



Miss Lizzie Corbit, 



Steward. 
J. Herbert Stitzer, Esq. 




442 



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3ept. 11, 1874. 




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Jan. 21, 1870 
Oct. 11,1871 
Oct. 11,1871 
Oct. 11. 1871 
Feb..2, 1874 
.Sept. 12. 1868 
Sept. 12, I.S6« 
Aug. 8. 186» 
Jan. 6, 1869 
Oct. 10. 1874 
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Feb. 22, 1861 
Jan. 4, 1863 
May 6. 1857 
Dec. 12, 1865 
Mar. 14, 1864 
Oct. 28 1861 
Mar. 9, 1856 
Apr. 9, 1857 
Sept. 15, 1863 
Sept. 4, 1854 
Oct. 11, 1859 
Doc. 20, 1859 
Oct. 16, 1861 
Dec. 25, 1860 
Jan. 31. 1862 
Dec. 16, 1860 
Feb. 10, 1862 
Sept. 26, 1859 
June 30, 1858 
Sept. 17. 1858 
June 24. 1862 
Oct. 3, 1856 
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June 22, 18,59 
Feb. 9, 1864 
June 2, 1862 
May 4, 1864 
Sept. 7, 1857 
Oct, 22, 1860 
Sept. 7, 1861 
Aug. 28, 1864 
Aug. 31, 1861 
Mar. 26. 1856 
Apr. 14, 18,58 
Feb. 16, 1860 
Oct. 12. 1860 
Dec. 25, 1864 
Sept. 7, 1866 
Oct. 22, 18,55 
Jan. 9, 18,58 
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Nov. 20, 18,54 
Oct. 26, 1857 
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Feb. 6, 1861 
July 25. 1863 
July 7, 1860 
JulV 27, 1856 
Oct. 3. 1863 
Apr. 2, 1861 
May 15, 1859 
Mar. 8, 1855 
Oct. 7, 1862 
Jan. 28, 1857 
June 30, 1859 


Dorsey, Harriet A. E. 
Enty, Agnes A. 
En ty, Fannie E. 
Enty, Jane A. 
Emorv, Marion C. 
Ford,"Louisa A. J. 
Ford, Martha E. J. 
Green, Martha L. 
Gla.sgow, Marparet 
Gover. Annie M. 
Hall. Rachel E. 
Hall, Amy E. 
Hammond, Rachel 
Hammond, Emma 
Harris, Marth A. Q. 
Harris, Eliza C. 
Henry, Sarah J. 
Jones, Sarah R. A. 
Jones, Nancy A. 
.Tones, Margaret M. 
Johnson, Juliana 
Johnson, Eva S. 
Lum, Martha 0. 
Lohmon, Louisa E. 
Lyons, Corissa J, 
Loney, Martha A. 
Luff, Alice B. 
Miller, Mary M. 
Miller, Mary J. 
Miller, Ida F. 
Miller, Catherine A. 
Milford, Eliza J. 
Mason, Mary E. 
Millon, Su.sie 
Millon, Lauretta M 
Millon, Alice G. 
Mullen, Ida C. 
Miravit, Lucy A. 
Moodv, Mary L. 
Nocho, Saralh 
Nocho, 'Victoria 
Nocho, Millzaia 
Pruit, Bethania 


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BETHANY ORPHANS' HOME (WOMELSDORF) 




HIS institution is under the control of the Reformed 
Church. It was incorporated by the Legislature in 1865. 
Formerly, it was located at Bridesburg, Philadelphia, and 
known as " The Shepherd of the Lambs." In 1867, it 
was removed to Berks county, near AVoraelsdorf, where it is now 
situated. The building stands at the foot of South Mountain, in the 
edge of timber which covers that eminence. It is one hundred and 
twenty by thirty feet, three stories high, exclusive of basement, and 
is made of brick. It is comparatively new, and was designed for a 
summer resort when built. There is a very large spring of most 
excellent water but a few feet off. The building and twenty-nine 
acres of land cost thirty-three thousand dollars. In 1873, the Board 
bought an additional tract of land of sixty acres, making a farm of 
eiglity-seven acres, which is now under good cultivation, and affords 
employment and comforts to the inmates. 

The State, in 1871, appropriated three thousand dollars to this Home. 
All other contributions have been derived from private sources. 

No particular religious belief is required to entitle children to 
admittance ; but all are taught the doctrines and required to observe 
the forms of the Reformed Church. 

On the 11th of January, 1*865, the first soldiers' orphans were 
reipeived and provided for at the expense of the State. The whole 
number of this class admitted is about one hundred and twenty-iive, 
twenty of whom are still at the Home. The rest have been dis- 
charged on arriving at sixteen years of age, or transferred to the 
State schools for soldiers' orphans. 

Rev. Emanuel Boehringer was the first Superintendent. He was 
succeeded by Rev. John Gantenbine. In 1866, Rev. D. Y. Heisler 
was called to the office, and was succeeded, on the 12th of October, 
1868, by the present incumbent. Rev. D. B. Albright. 

447 



448 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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TRESSLER ORPHANS' HOME. 




I HIS Home is located in Sherman's Valley, about midway 
between Newport and Gerraantown, on an eminence slop- 
ing north, south, east, and west, about four hundred yards 
north of the village of Loysville, and one and one-half 
miles from Sherman's Creek. 

For health, purity of atmosphere, and variety, as well as beauty, 
of scenery it rivals many, and is surpassed by but few in the State. 
It is easy of access, a stage-coach running to and from the railroad 
depot at Newport daily. 

In the year 1865 a primary soldiers' orphan school was estab- 
lished at Loysville by Superintendent Burrowes, under the princi- 
palship of Captain D. L., but at present Rev. D. L. Tressler, now 
President of Carthage College, Illinois, but then in the profession of 
law at New Bloomfield. 

The school was for the first eighteen months superintended by 
Mr. Wm. Minich, and afterwards by G. V. Tressler. In the spring 
of 1867 it became necessary for that part of the Lutheran Church 
adhering to the General Synod in the United States of America, to 
have a home for orphans under its own supervision and control. 
After consultation with his brethren in the ministry and with the 
State Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, and obtaining from him 
a promise that orphans under his supervision would be sent to the 
institution, the building and five acres of land adjoining were 
purchased by Rev. P. Willard for the General Synod, and leased for 
two years to Mr. Philip Bosserman, who took charge of the State 
orphans and also of the charity children, the church paying a stipu- 
lated sum for the keeping of the latter. In the meantime a charter 
was procured in the name of the Trustees appointed by the Synods, 
who obligated themselves for an equal amount of purchase-money 
and other necessary funds for the proper management of the Home 

451 



452 PEXNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

under the rules and regulations of said Trustees. Subsequently, 
twenty-seven and a half additional acres of land were purchased by 
the Trustees, contiguous to the Home, making now a total of thirty- 
two and a half acres. Mr. Bosserman, who lived at Newport, did 
not take personal charge of the children, but employed others to ' 
discharge that duty. ' 

On the 1st of June, 1869, by action of the Board of Trustees, the 
institution was put under the charge of the present Superintendent, 
Rev. P. Willard. Through his efforts entirely new beds and bedding, 
and much other furniture, were procured from churches and Sunday- 
schools. Eighty soldiers' orphans and eighteen charity children 
were in the institution at the beginning of his administration ; at 
the present time sixty-two of the former and forty-six of the latter 
are present. 

The original building is of brick, sixty by forty feet, three stories 
high, on the first floor of which are a school-room, forty by thirty- 
five feet, and two recitation-rooms and an office. Immediately on 
taking charge, Mr. Willard erected a new frame building, the first 
floor containing a dining-room, forty-eight by twenty feet, and the 
second story is used as a dormitory. 

During the summer of 1875, the old cooking establishment was 
torn down and a new 6ne erected of brick, two stories high, fifty by 
thirty feet, containing separate apartments for cooking, baking, and 
washing, together with a bath-house, suited for washing or bathing 
either in warm or cold water, and conveniences for either plunge or 
shower baths. The second story of the building aflTords five addi- 
tional sleeping-rooms for employees or orphans. 

The play-grounds, containing five acres, which are rolling and 
always dry, are studded with fruit and shade trees of different varie- 
ties, together with grape-vines of the choicest kind on trellis-work, 
and evergreens and flowers in season in great number and variety. 
These grounds are hedged on three sides with arbor-vitse, all calcu- 
lated to charm the eye, cultivate the taste, and gratify the wants of 
the passing moment. There has also been erected an ice-house, 
with an apartment for the preservation of fresh meat, which can be 
kept at the freezing-point in midsummer ; also a separate apartment 
for milk and butter, a corn-crib, chickery, and, lastly, a barn, fifty- 
four by forty-five feet, giving ample room in the lower story for 
Htabling stock, and in the second story for the storage of grain and 
provender. Thb barn is pronounced by all who see it the most sub- 



TRESSLER ORPHANS^ HOME. 453 

stautial, well planned, and convenient in the neighborhood. There is 
also a fruit garden, consisting of nearly a half acre of ground filled 
with strawberries, raspberries, plums, &c., which yield in abundance 
those fruits which are so palatable to the tastes of children in the 
early part of summer. 

The farm of twenty-seven acres has become very fertile. There 
is likewise a young orchard, containing two hundred apple-trees of 
choice fruit and a little over two hundred peach-trees, with some 
forty pear-trees, all beginning to bear, and will, in a few years, yield 
an abundance for the wants of all the children. 

The discipline of the school is parental; moral suasion is the 
motto, coercion never being resorted to until every other means have 
failed. 

The moral and religious training of the children, as well as the 
intellectual, is not overlooked. They are regular in their attendance 
at church, either in one of the village churches, at least once every 
Sabbath, or, if the weather is too inclement, in the school-room, where 
services are conducted by the Superintendent. Sabbath-school is 
held regularly every Sabbath afternoon, followed in the evening by 
Bible class and prayer meeting, connected with reading and ex- 
pounding the word of God. The religious instruction is all from 
the Bible, which is the only text-book, without any reference to 
creed or confession of any kind except the Apostles' Creed. During 
the six years that Mr. Willard has had charge of the Home, some 
sixty-five of the orphans have, after obtaining permission from their 
mothers, united with one or another branch of the church. 

The scholastic instruction has been thorough, the best of teachers 
having been employed. The progress of the children has been 
such that, in point of scholarship, they compare favorably with 
those of the advanced soldiers' orphan schools of the State. 

The following- persons have been employed at this institution since 
June 1, 1869 : 

Teachers. 



Mr. George Sanderson, 
" George W. Weaver, 
*' Ira Wentzel, 
" Herman F. Willard, 



Mr. S.S. Willard, A. B., 
" L. A. Haffley, 

Miss Nettie Willard, 
" Elsie Berg, 

Physician. 
B. P. Hook, M. D. 



Mr. G. M. Willard, 

" A. M. Paff, 
Miss Hattie Anstadt, 

" M.L. Willard. 



454 



PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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Apr. 17, 1862 
Aug. 27, 1866 
Feb. 17, 1857 
July 11, 1859 
Apr. 24, 1858 
Sept. 30, 1858 
Apr. 7, 1859 
June 25, 1856 
Apr. 27, 1859 
Jan. 12, 1858 
Jan. 5, 1857 
Jan. 28. 1863 
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Feb. 5, 1863 
June — , 1863 
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Oct. 10, 1860 
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Sept. 25, 1858 
Nov. 29, 1863 
May 19. 1859 
Sept. 10, 1863 
Aug. 14, 1858 
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Oct. 30, 1858 
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Gannan, Theophllui 
Givler, Samuel H. 
Oivler, Levi L. 
Glazier, John O. 


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TRESSLER ORPHANS' HOME. 



455 



Learning telegraptdng. 

( Now living with his 
{ mother at Hixton, 
} Jackson Co., Wis. 


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Sept. 2, 1872 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Dec. 10, 1872 
Apr. 29, 1874 
Sept. 3, 1875 
June 16, 1865 
Juue li, 1865 
Juue 15, 1865 
Sept. 20, 1885 
Jan. 19, 1866 
Jan. 19, 18<i6 
Sept. 4, 1867 
Oct. 14, 1868 
Oct. 14, 1868 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Sept. 2, 1873 
June 20, 1865 
Sept. 4, 1865 
Sept. 4, 1865 
Sept. 8, 1865 
Sept. 20, 1865 
Apr. 14, 1866 
Sept. 4, 1866 
Oct. 10, 1866 
Oct. 10, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1867 
May 31, 1865 
May 31, 1865 
July 5, 1865 
July 5, 1865 
Mar. 6, 1866 
July 1, 1865 
Nov. 1, 1865 
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Feb. 1,1866 
Sept. 24, 1866 
Deo. 12, 1866 
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Sept. 4, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1870 
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Hooper, \yilliam H. 
Hess, William H. 
Hess, Samuel E. 
Hughes, William H. 
Hughes, David 


Hanuum, Harold K. 
Homan, Howard W. 
Hassenplugh, James A. 
Kouff, Charles P. 
Konold, George H. 


Konold, Adam C. 
Kriner, Daniel H. 
Koons, David C. 
Konns, James G. 
Kriner, James 0. 
Kerr. Jonathan B. 


Kerr, Jonson J. 
Keister, John W. 
Kinsler, John J. 
Lantzer, Sylvester 
Lemon, William E. 
Lemon, Leo L. 
Lemon, Levi L. 
Little, Erasmus G. 
Lay ton, Robert M. 
Liddick, Elnathan 


Milson, Henry J. 
Messimer, David W. 
McCauley, Andrew J. 
McCauley, James H. 
McCauley, Jabez S. 
Miller, John J. 
Musser, Jacob F. 
McManigle, James H. 


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Home for Friendless Children for the City and 
County of Lancaster. 



N the year 1860, the idea was conceived of founding an 
institution in which the poor, neglected children of the 
1^^ ^i) ^^^y ^^ Lancaster could be cared for. The plan was car- 
^^ ^==^\ ried into effect, and for a number of years accomplished 
much good, by way of relieving the sufferings of many destitute and 
very needy children. 

In 1860, the ladies engaged in this noble work determined to 
extend their charities to the suffering little ones in the county, and, 
in order to make it a home for the needy and homeless ones in after 
years, applied to the Legislature for a charter, which was obtained 
MafTch 1, 1860, giving it the title of " Home for Friendless Children 
for the City and County of Lancaster." 

By the act of incorporation, the Managers are authorized to take 
under their guardianship all vagrant children whose parents cannot, 
or whose vices render them unfit to, take care of them. They are 
also authorized to bind them out as apprentices to some useful trade 
or employment. It is free from all sectarian influence, the Managers 
being of all religious denominations. They strive, by training the 

459 



460 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

cliildren for useful, respectable citizens, to lessen the number who 
crowd our prisons and almshouses, and drain the public treasury. 
There have been times when the prospects were very discouraging, 
but, through a kind Providence, the wants of the little ones have 
always been supplied. The building — No. 47 South Queen Street 
— originally occupied was purchased when the Home was considered 
an experiment ; but this time having passed, it was determined, in 
1867, to erect a suitable building for a permanent Home. The Man- 
agers were at that time as follows : 

MANAGERS. 

President. 
Mrs. S. M. Kramph. 

Vice-President. 
Mrs. Thos. E. Franklin. 

Secretary. 
Mrs. James Black. 

Treasurer. 
Mrs. John S. Gable. 

Committee on Admission and Dismission. 

Mrs. S. A. Cox, Mrs. Chas. M. Howell, Mrs. Geo. M. Kline, 

Mrs. Christian Widmyer. 

Committee on Education. 

Mrs. John S. Gable, Mrs. Christian Rine, Mrs. Wm. Baker, 
Miss Isidore Black. 



Mrs. Dr. Messersmith, 
** O. J. Dickey, 



Household Committee. 

Mrs. Geo. D. Sprecher, 
" Elizabeth Reed, 
" M. Ehler, 



Miss Harriet Gaelbach, 
" Elizabeth White. 



Purchasing Committee. 

Mrs. Gibbft, Mrs. John H. Pearsol, Mrs. Horace Rath von, 

Mrs. Charles A. Heinitsh, Mrs. Christian Gast. 



HOME FOR FRIENDLESS CHILDREN. 461 

These ladies, accordingly, made an appeal to the humane and 
charitable people of the city and county, which was liberally re- 
sponded to, and by which they were enabled to purchase ground 
situated on Ann Street, about half a square from East King Street, 
on which they erected a fine, substantial edifice, built of brick, fifty- 
five feet front by ninety feet deep, and four stories in height, in- 
cluding basement and Mansard roof. 

There are six acres of land attached to the new Home building, 
which stands back one hundred and fifteen feet from the street ; the 
grounds surrounding it (occupying about one-third of the whole) are 
laid out in winding drives and walks, and planted with ornamental 
trees and shrubs. 

The remainder is devoted to the cultivation of fruits and vege- 
tables. Private donations, to the amount of seven hundred dollars, 
were expended in laying out and improving these grounds, and, in a 
few years, they will present a very beautiful appearance. 

The title of the property is vested in the Board of Trustees of the 
Home for Friendless Children for the city and county of Lancaster. 
The new building was erected at a cost of thirty-three thousand 
seven hundred and forty-two dollars, and there is now an incum- 
brance upon it of nearly five thousand dollars. This, it is to be 
hoped, the liberal spirit of the community will not allow to remain 
long unpaid, so that the institution may be able to accomplish its 
charitable mission unembarrassed by financial burdens resting upon 
the building. 

This institution was among the first which received soldiers' or- 
phans on account of the State. It was opened for this purpose 
December 5, 1864. The number was very small at first, but at the 
close of 1865 forty children of deceased soldiers were in attendance. 
At the end of 1866, the number had increased to one hundred and 
fourteen, and by January, 1867, to one hundred and thirty. From 
this time the number began gradually to decrease, both by trans- 
fer and by discharge on arriving at sixteen years of age. The ar- 
rangement with this and other homes being temporary, preference 
has been shown to the schools established by the State exclusively 
for soldiers' orphans. 

Miss M. L. Moore and Miss E. H, Martin deserve special mention 
for their protracted and successful services as teachers, as also does 
Miss Eleanor Spense for her continued efiiciency as matron ; and 
Miss K. Holbrook has, as assistant teacher, given much satisfaction. 



462 



PENNA. SOLDIETwS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 






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463 



Died Dee. 8, 1889. 

Died Mar. 9, 1868. 
Readmitted. 

township. 


Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 

Bart. 

Bart. 

Shepherdstown. 

Shepherdstown. 

Shepherdstown. 

Spring Garden.. 

Knterline. 

Mount Joy. 

Bainbridge. 

Bainbridge. 

Lancaster. 

Bainbridge. 

Bainbridge. 

Bainbridge. 

Manheim. 

Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 

Lebanon. 

Lebanon. 

Harrisburg. 

Danville. 

Danville. 

Dewart. 

Sunbury. 

Reading. 

Reading. 

Dewart. 

Allentown. 

Salisbury. 

Salisbury. 

Lebanon. 

Harrisburg. 

Gordonville. 

Gordonville 

Harrisburg. 
Wakefield. 

Lancaster 

Martic. 


Penningtonville. 

Lancaster. 

Wakefield. 

Wakefield. 

Lancaster. 

Marietta. 

Linglrestown. 

Linglestown. 

Mount Joy. 

Kutztown. 

Harrisburg. 

Carlisle. 

Washington. 

Mauve, Manor 




































May 31, 1874 

May 31, 1874 
Sept. 20, 1872 












































M H M M 






Deo. 1,1868 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Nov. SO, 1867 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Deo. 1, 1868 




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Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Apr. 21. 1867 
Sept. 4, 1865 
Sept. 4, 1865 
Deo. 22, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1866 


•isss 


Sept. 1, 18-0 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Nov. 30, 18C7 
Nov. .10, 1867 
Sept. 26, 1867 
Sept. 19, 1871 
Sept. 19, 1871 
Dec. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1870 

Sept.' l','i869' ■ 
Oct. 6, 1873 

Qont OS 1 ORT 


Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Dec. 1, 1868 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Oct. 1. 1868 
Jan. 23, 1871 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1856 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1871 


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Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Chester Sp'gs 
Mount Joy 
White Hall 




White Hall 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
St. John's 0. A. 
Paradise 
Paradise 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
White Hall 
M'Allisterville 
M'Allisterville 
M'Allisterville 
White Hall 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
M'Allisterville 
Paradise 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
White Hall 

White Haii 
Mouut Joy 


Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
M'Allisterville 
White Hall 
White Hall 
Mount Joy 
White Hall 
White Hall 
White Hall 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 








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July 30, 1860 
Nov. 3, 1858 
Oct. 6, 1857 
June 5, 1859 
Aug. 29, 1858 
Dec. 17, 1861 
Sept. 9, 1862 
Mar. 1, 1858 
.Nov. 27, 1859 
Dec. 1. 1858 
Nov. 10, 1861 
July 10, 1864 
Oct. 22, 1859 
Mar. 16, 1855 
Nov. 9, 1857 
Nov. 4. 1859 
Jan. 4, 1861 
July — , 1857 

, 1855 

Sept. 5, 1858 
Nov. 15, 1856 
Dec. 8, 1858 
Aug. 31, 1859 
Sept. 14, 1861 
May 27, 1860 
Deo. 11, 1858 
Mar. 10, 1860 
June 20, 1857 
Oct. 25, 1857 
May 5, 1857 
Dec. 19, 1859 
Dec. 11, 1861 
Aug. 3, 1860 
Aug. 30, 1862 
Jan. 7, 1863 
Nov. 11, 1858 
Oct. 19, 1860 
Nov. 4, 1860 
Jan. 7, 1863 

, 1860 

May n, 1858 
Dec. 6, 1859 
June 4, 1859 
Aug. 14, 1857 
June 6, 1859 
Nov. 6, 1857 
Feb. 5. 1858 
Mar. 8, 1857 
Feb. 26, 1859 
Sept. 10, I860 
Apr. 24, 1857 
Dec. 28, 1856 
Dec. 11. 1858 
Sept. 15, 1858 
Dec. 8, 1861 


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Machamar, William K. 
Miller, William H. 
Muma, John 
Muma, Leaman 
Machamar, Edward C. 


Means, William R. 
Means, Isaac D. 
Miller, Franklin 0. 
Mahaney, James C. 
Mclntyre, George 
Mclntyre, Joseph 
Michael, Jacob L. 
Mathews, William 0. 
Mclntyre, George 
Newport, Amos 


Phelps. William T. 
Schmidt, Charles 
Styer, Samuel E. 
Styer, William P. 
Sharlock, John 
Stein, Henry 
Shepler, Samuel J. 
Shepler, Elias A. 


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464 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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children's home, LANCASTER. 



465 



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Spring Garden. 

Lancaster. 

Mount Joy. 

Harrisburg. 

Middleburg. 

Mercersburg. 

Lancaster. 

Carlisle. 

Lr.ncaster. 

Kumown. 

West Chester. 

Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 

Lancaster. 

Harrisburg. 

Harrisburg. 

Marietta. 

Marietta. 

Marietta. 

Bainbridge. 

Thorndale 

Thorndale. 

E. Hanover.""" 


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Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 29, 1865 
Sept. 29, 1865 
Sept. 3, 1876 
Deo. 1. 1868 
Sept. 3, 1875 


Jan. 23, 1871 
Apr. 21, 1868 
Sept. 4, 1866 
Sept. 14, 1866 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Mar. 20, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1874 

Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Dec. 1, 1868 
Sept. 24, 1865 
Apr. 6, 1868 
Apr. 6, 1868 
Dec. 1, 1868 
Dec. 1. 1868 
Nov. 30, 1867 
Nov. 30. 1867 




Chester Sp'gs 
St. Jas. 0. A. 
St. Jas. 0. A. 
Chester Spgs 
White Hall 
Chester Spgs 


Mount Joy 
Catholic Ho. 
Mount Jov 
Wliite Hall 
M-AUisterviUe 
White Hall 
Mount Joy 

White'Hair" 
Chester Sp'g« 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Paradise 
Emmaus 
Emmaus 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Joy 
Mount Jov 


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: : : :| : • : : : : 
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Nov. 22, 1867 
July 8, 1865 
July 8, 1865 
May 11, 1865 
Sept. 3, 1866 
June 7, 1866 
Sept. 23, 1866 
May 18, 1866 
Oct. 14, 1867 
Sept. 7, 1865 
Mar. 29, 1866 
June 20, 1866 
Oct. 2, 18«i6 
Mar. 27, 1865 
Mar. 8, 1866 
Apr. 1. 1866 
Apr. 30, 1866 
May 18, 1866 
May 12, 1866 
July 16. 1866 
Mar. 20, 1865 
Sept. 17, 1866 
Sept. 17, 1866 
Nov. 5, 1866 
June 13, 1866 
June 13 1866 
Aug. 21, 1866 
Dec. 6, 1866 
Dec. 6, 1866 
Mar. 1, 1869 
Mar. 7, 1866 


Jan. 2. 1861 
Feb. 16, 1868 
Aug. 25, 1859 
Sept. 2, 1861 
Oct. 27, 1858 
June 7, 1862 
Dec. 21, IWiO 
Nov. 4, 1860 
Oct. 22. 1857 
Jan. 29, 1857 
Jan. 22, 1S58 
June 3, 185tf 
May 17, 1860 
Feb. 11, 1860 
Apr. 3, 1858 
Apr. 1, 1862 
Sept. 9, 18.=)8 
Nov. 6, 1859 
May 12, 1862 
Nov. 1, 1858 
Aug. 7, 1856 
Feb. 25, 1858 
Aug. 12, 1860 
Sept. 30, 18.i9 
Sept. 10, 1858 
July 5, 1856 
Sept. 8, 1857 
June 3, 1861 
Dec. 3, 1857 
July 12, 1862 
July 22, 1857 


Hunter, Rebecca J 
Jeffries, Emma 
Jeffries, Esther 
Knight, Susan 0. 
Kline, Jane A. 
Knight, Ella A. 
Kooms, Anna M. 


Lay ley, Mary E. 
Long, Catherine 
Musselman, Catherine C. 
Mahaney, Anna JS. 
Moyer, Maria J. 
Neal, Sarah J. 
Steigerwalt, Elmira 
Snyder, Emma E. 
Shupert, Emma J. 
Schreffer, Ellen 
Shannon, Mary J. 


Sharlock. Anna M. 
Theis, Matilda W. 
Thomas, Mary M. 
Thomas, Frances A. 
Weidman, Barbara A. 
Weidman, Sarah ' 
Weidman, Mary 
Wilhelra, Jane 


5i? •= 

Sa<& 
111.1 





MERCER SCHOOL. 




HE Mercer Soldiers' Orphan School was established Jan- 
uary 1, 1868, in the eastern part of the borough of 
Mercer, county-seat of Mercer county. The situation is 
a beautiful one, and as well adapted to this purpose as 
any that could have been selected. A spring of soft, pure, cold 
water gushes from the base of Bald Hill, on the east ; the west is 
fringed by a winding stream, the excess of waters from numerous 
springs. A beautiful natural grove ornaments the property and 
affords an excellent and delightful play-ground for the children. 
Nature's sweet and varied songsters, in season, inhabit this grove, 
and appear intent on giving culture and refinement to the nation's 
orphaned children. 

To the natural beauties of this place, the hand of Art has added 
its attractions. Maple-trees surround the buildings of the institu- 
tion, and a line of the same bounds the property. Fountains have 
been constructed on the ornamental grounds, the water being sup- 
plied by the spring above mentioned. This spring supplies water for 
all the seven buildings of the school; the water being conveyed in 
pipes to whatever point it is needed. The buildings mentioned are 
commodious, attractive, airy, and ample for the accommodation of 
over three hundred children, in school-rooms, chapel, play-rooms, 
laundry and wash-rooms, dining-room, and dormitories. The farm 
connected with the institution is productive, and cultivated to great 
advantage, through the labor-system of the school. Messrs. George 
Reznor and J. G. White were the first Proprietors — the former having 
charge of the business, and the latter of the educational department. 
Mr. Reznor retired at the end of the first year, and Mr. White con- 

4GG 




-' 



MERCER SCHOOL. 467 

linued as Proprietor and Principal until March 1, 1874, when Messrs. 
G. W. Wriglit, R. R. Wright, S. F. Thompson, and John I. Gordon 
became Proprietors, and still continue such. 

Of the first hundred children admitted to the school, few were over 
eight, and a number under four years of age. This was called one 
of the juvenile schools of the system ; but, in 1871, it was discovered 
that the division of families, occasioned by placing those under ten 
and those over ten years of age in different institutions, often widely 
separated, was very unsatisfactory to mothers and guardians, and 
primary schools are no longer known. 

It was an arduous task to care for so many little ones during the 
first two years, and this was especially so to those who had direct 
charge. Mrs. Jane Findley, of Erie City, was the first matron 
employed. This lady was the widow of a distinguished minister, and 
was possessed of excellent culture and fine executive ability, and 
brought to bear, in the discharge of her duties, the best qualities of 
head and heart. Her name is still cherished by the children whom 
she cared for so efticieutly, and by her co-laborers whom she so 
greatly assisted by her knowledge, prudence, and sagacity. Mrs. 
Findley was obliged, on account of failing health, to resign her posi- 
tion in the year 1870. She was succeeded by Mrs. Wm. F. Dickson, 
a woman of remarkable talents and culture, and who made promise 
of great usefulness in this position ; but she was obliged to leave her 
place on account of the ill health of her husband. Rev. Wm. F. 
Dickson, who acted as Principal for a few months in the year 1870. 

Mrs. Mary C. Galbraith was the next matron of the school, and 
held the position for over four years. She was one who had no supe- 
riors — intelligent, prudent, systematic ; and although the machinery 
by which her different departments were conducted was complicated, 
everything was harmonious. She was a model of order, ever busy 
in superintending the work of the girls, correcting bad habits, giving 
good advice, teaching cleanliness and neatness, and by her uniform 
bearing affording a living example of a true lady and Christian 
mother. The present matron is Miss Jennie Martin, a young lady 
of large experience in connection with this S5^stem of schools, having 
filled responsible positions at Dayton Soldiers' Orphan School ; and 
notwithstanding her youth, she performs her work in a most satis- 
factory manner. The above-mentioned matrons have had for their 
lieutenants. Miss Lizzie Foust, Miss Dougan, Miss Maria Beggs, now 
deceased, Miss Maggie White, Mrs. Martha Fowls, and Mrs. Eliza- 



468 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

beth Johnston, wlio still remains, and is the mother of three of the 
children of the school. These persons performed well their part 
during their respective terms. 

The educational department has been one of peculiar interest, and 
a brief history of it may not be improper, as it is here the founda- 
tion is laid for the great superstructure of practical manhood and 
womanhood. Teachers, as a general rule, have been retained for a 
long time, some being still with the school who began their services 
here with its origin in 1868. 

Mr. J. G. White, the former Proprietor, was first Principal, but 
other duties required him to fill his place with another who could 
devote his time to the educational department. Rev. Wm. F. Dick- 
son, a man of high intellectual attainments and a teacher of large 
and long experience, was employed. After a few months of earnest 
and faithful labor, he was obliged to resign on account of ill health. 
He was succeeded by Miss Sarah Pew, who remained two years. 
Under her instruction the school made rapid and thorough progress, 
and her excellent discipline soon brought incongruous and disorderly 
elements under the rule of almost perfect law and order. 

Prof. Wm. Bogle succeeded her, and is still the Principal. Mr. 
Bogle has displayed a peculiar fitness for this place. He is a man 
of thorough scientific and classical education, of large experience, 
and of the highest type of moral character. How well, not how 
much, is his motto. It is earnestly hoped that Mr. Bogle may 
remain at his post until this system of schools expires by legal limi- 
tation. The assistant teachers have been as follows : Miss Mary E. 
White, Miss Josephine C. Smith, Miss Annie Williamson, Miss Bell 
Orr, Miss Elmira Marsteller, Miss Amelia Leech, Miss Sadie Leech, 
Miss Russell, Miss Hattie Pettit, Miss Allie Bogle, and Mrs. Wm. 
Bogle, wife of the present Principal. Space will not allow a detailed 
history of the services of each of these teachers ; but we must say 
that all have done well, and to them the school is indebted, to a very 
great degree, for the most enviable reputation it has achieved. Mrs. 
Bogle has no superior as a juvenile teacher, and deserves the especial 
thanks of the proprietors and patrons of the school, while the others 
mentioned deserve to be ranked as our best educators. 

Schools of this character cannot be conducted without an army 
of other assistants, such as seamstresses, washwomen and laundresses, 
cooks and bakers, farmers, and general managers. Mrs. Armstrong, 
Miss Nannie Beggs, Miss Maggie Blair, Misses Reed, Miss Black, 



MERCER SCHOOL. 469 

Miss Carmichael, Mrs. Crawford, J. B. Nickum, and a few others 
whose names we fail to recollect, all did good service, and added 
greatly to the morale, good order, and efficiency of the school. 

Messrs. Chas. H. White and John Black have been the local man- 
agers or male attendants, Mr. Black being the present incumbent. 
These gentlemen have both shown that they were fully able to dis- 
charge their arduous duties in a satisfactory manner. S. F. Stewart, 
Timothy Thomas, D. A. Eberle, and Warren Crooks have each acted 
as assistant^ to the above-named gentlemen. 

The department for manufacturing and repairing shoes has been 
conducted by H. C. White and Mr. Ross, the latter-named gentle- 
man still continuing to peg-away. 




470 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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MERCER soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 471 



Clerking in a store. 

5 Employed in an organ 

I factory. 

Farming. 

Farming. 
Farming. 

Farming for his mother. 
Farming for his mother. 
-( Working at a furnace 
I. @ $1.35 per day. 
Working in a brick-yard. 

S Attending Edinboro S. 
} N.S. 

Farming. 

Farming. 
Teamster. 


TitngTille 
Parker's Land'g 
Parker's L&nd'g 
Hydetown 
Fredonia 
Fredonia 
Dixon burg 
New Castle 
New Castle 
Water Cure 
Callensburg 
Sheakleyville 
Centretown 

Mercer 

Bradford 
Wheatland 
New Lebanon 
Union City 

Titusville 

Titusville 

SandvLake 

SandV Lake 
Clark's Mills 
Clark's Mills 
Sheakleyville 
Reedsburg 
Harrisville 


Fertig 

Fertig 

Sharon 

Conneantville 

Lovell's Station. 

Lovell's Station 

Lovell's Station 

Meadvllle 

Mercer 

Port Allegheny 

Fredonia 

Clarion 

Clarion 

Strattonville 

New Lebanon... 

New Lebanon... 

Wheatland 

Clarion 

New Brighton... 

New Brighton 

Harniansburg... 

East Brook 

Barkeyville 

Barkeyville 

Adanisville 
Oil City 
North's Mills 
North's Mills.... 
Sharon 






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Oct. 13, 1874 
Oct. 8, 1874 
Oct. 8, 1874 
Oct, 6. 1874 
Apr. 22, 1875 
Apr. 22, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Mar. 30, 1876 
Mar. 30, 1876 
Mar. 1, 1868 
June 4, 1869 
Mar. 1, 1870 
Nov. 14, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 19, 1873 
Apr. 20, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Oct. 8, 1874 
Oct. 7. 1874 
Oct. 7, 1874 
Apr. 20, 1868 
Apr. '20, 1868 
Feb. 6, 1873 
Feb. 6, 1873 
Mar. 31, 1874 
Jan. 10, 1868 
Dec. 29, 1870 
July 11, 1872 
July 11, 1872 
June 19, 1872 
Nov. 2, 1874 
Oct. 5, 1874 
Oct. 5, 1874 
Oct. 5, 1874 
Dec. 14, 1874 
May 24. 1875 
Sept. 17, 1875 
Jan. 23, 1868 
Jan. 10, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Jan. 10, 18(>8 
Jan. 29, 1868 
Jan. 29, 1868 
June 23. 1868 
Jan. 1, 1869 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Oct. 11, 1874 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Feb. 17, 1868 
Feb. 17, 1868 
Mar. 27, 1868 
May, 15, 1868 
Jan. 25, 1869 
Jan. 25, 1869 
June 3, 1868 


July 17, 1859 
Deo. 23, 1860 
.Mar. 13, 1862 
Apr. 17, 1862 
June 3, 1860 
Jan. 16, 186i 
Julv U, 1866 
Aug. 25, 1862 
Aug. 2'2, lH6t 
July 15, 1862 
Dec. 4, 1860 
June 8, 1856 
Sept. 9, 1861 
Aug. 7, 1853 
Mar. 29. 1S63 
Oct. 16, 1864 
June 13, 1866 
July 11,1861 
May 14, 18.59 
Jan. 20, 1864 
Feb. 5, 1859 
Sept. 4, 1861 
Sept. 3, 18.59 
Dec. 7, 1861 
Deo. 27, 1865 
Jan. 11, 1860 
Feb. 16, 18,58 
Oct. 1, 1858 
Jan. 13, 1861 
Aug, 14, 18,59 
Apr. 28, 1865 
Feb. 12, 1859 
Nov. 1, 1860 
Aug. 29, 186,1 
Aug. 16, 1862 
Sep. 22, 1869 
Apr. 18, 1861 
July 30, 1860 
Oct. 5, 1859 
Julv 20, 1862 
Juiy 14, 18,59 
Jan. 20, 1858 
Apr. 13, 1859 
Oct. 7, 1856 
Apr. '21, 1864 
May 15, 1858 
Mar. 20, 1861 
Feb. 22, 18,59 
Aug. 11, 1860 
Mar. 20, 1862 
May 11, 1858 
De6. 13, 1861 
Aus. 12, 1858 
Apr. 7, 1855 
Sept. 23, 1858 
Jan. 6, 1858 




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Fiidley, Aaron B. 
Frey, George W. 
Fisher, Marcus W. 
Olatzan, Rudolph W. 


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Hardy, Oliver P. 
Hardy, Henry B. 
Hanna, David B. 
Hatikey, John H. 
Holmes, George 


II 

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472 



PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



REMARKS. 








, Ashtabula CO., Ohio. 
, Ashtabula CO., Ohio, 
r Re-admltted by trans- 
fer from Titusyille, 
I Oct. 12, 1874. 

Carpenter. 


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In a large clothing store. 
Work'g in a cheese fac'y. 












Post 

Office 

Address 

WHEN 

AT Home. 


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Feb.M,' 1875 ' 


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Titusville 


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Date of 
Admission 
on Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


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Date op 
Birth. 


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Hunter, Jamea 
Hall, Charles P. 
Hall, DaTid L. 
Hoaston, William 
Hoag, George B. 
Henderson, Jamea D. 
Henderaon. Clarence R. 

M^or.rYt irilM.n. K 


Howard, George A. 
Hoffman, Edgar E. 
Higley. James C. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes. William D. 
Hall, William 
Hall, Edward 


Jones, Frank G. 
Klingensmiih, Jacob H. 
Klingensmith, Wm. M. 
Kitch, George W. 
Kitch. William H. 


Krumbine. Samuel J. 
Keth, David 
Kerr, Charles A. 
Koeler, Henry 
K<«ler, Louis 
King, George 
Lock, Joseph A. 
Leary, Elmer E. 


Lotz, William 
Lotr, John R. 
Moore, Ellis E. 
Moore, William P. 8. 
Moore, Benjamin A. 
Moore, John A. O. 
McCov, William A. 
McKee, Harrv K. 


Mattocks John L. 
McGee, John B. 
Miller. James Y. 
Milliken. Walter B. 
McCombs, Alonro J. 
McGuire, John W. 
Minner, Harrison P. 


II 

ii 



MERGER soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 



473 



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474 



PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



^ 
1 


Attending pnbUo school. 

tion. 

[EmlentOB. 
Clerk in drug store in 
Keeps a news depot. 

Farming. 

Learn'g coach-painting. 

Died June 1, 1871. 
Farming. 

In a printing-office. 

< Clerk in Recorder's of- 

l flee, Mercer. 

J Clerk in Prothonotary's 
i office, Mercer. 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


2<^«ai 


Nickleville. 

Nickleville. 

Centre Road SU 

Mercer. 

Oil Creek. 

Irwin. 

Chandler'sVal'y. 

Titusville. 

Titusville. 

West Freedom.. 

Parker City 

Parker City. 

BarkeyviKe 

Barkeyville. 
New Vernon. 
Limestone. 
Limestone. 
Mercer 


Harrisville. 
Harrisville. 
Reidsburg. 

New Castle 

Prospect 

Prospect. 

New Lebanon... 

Erie 

Erie. 

Meadville. 
Wesley. 
Weslev. 

Harrisville 

New Castle. 
Rose Point. 
Wesley. 
Lottsville. 
Six Points. 
Greenville. 
Prentiss Vale. 
Knon Valley. 
Rnon Valley. 
Mercer. 


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June 30, 1875 

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Titusville 
Titusville 
Titusville 
Titusville 
Titusville 




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Date op 
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ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


Apr. 3, 1875 
Apr. 19, 1869 
June 10, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3. 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
June 15, 1870 
Oct. 5, 1874 
Nov. 2, 1874 
Oct. 16. 1874 
Oct. 12, 1874 
Oct. 11, 1874 
Jan. 15, 1868 
Mar. 7, 1868 
Mar. 7, 1868 
Mar. 25. 1869 
Mar. 25, 1869 
Sept. 27. 1874 
Jan. 18, miS 
Jan. 18, 1868 
Jan. 20, 1868 
Feb. 22, 1868 
Mar. 10, 1868 
Mar. 10, 1868 
Apr. 1, 1868 
June 29. 1868 
July 1, 18C8 
July 1, 1868 
Sept. 7. 1868 
May 25. 1869 
Mar. 3. 1869 
June 3, 1869 
Feb. 24, 1870 
Feb. 24, 1870 
Oct. 25, 1870 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Oct. 21, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1874 
June 4. 1875 
Sept. 3, 1H75 
Deo. 18, 1875 
Sept. 1, 1H68 
Apr. 1, 1875 
Apr. 1, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 


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Stevens. John R. 
Tove. Elmore 




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Vogns.'william J. 
Vogus, Andrew J. 
Voorhies, Burton 
Weckerly, Andrew F. 
Weckerlv, George W. 
White, Joseph C. 


Walker, William 
Woods, David H. 
Whitlock, Orion L. 
Weber, Washington 0. 
Weber, Geor«e B. MoC. 
Whitman, Willis I. 
Whitney, Charles E. 
Whitney, Ernest K. 


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17, 1860 
26, 1864 
17, 1861 
15, 1862 
3, 1860 

1, 1865 
!», 1861 
10, 1866 
17, 1863 
20, 1860 
26, 1861 
6, 1863 

2, 1860 








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PENNA. SOLDIERS' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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Attending school. 

( Attended Edinboro' S. 
\ N.S. one year. Since 
( married. 

Married. 

Living with her nncle. 

[N. S. one year. 
Attended Edinboro' S. 
Married Chas. Simcox. 

Married Thos. Wilson. 
Married. 

J Attended Edinboro' S. 
\ N. S. one year. 

With her mother. 

( Re-admitted by transfer 
< from TitusvIUe, Oct. 
( 8, 1874. 

With her brothers. 
Marr'd Harvey Campbell. 
With her mother. 

Attending aohooL 


Post 
Office 
Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


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Stonertown. 

Williamsburg... 

Williamsburg. 

Mercer 

Pittsburgh 

New CasUe. 

New Castle 

Newcastle 

Rimersburg. 

Modoc 

Modoc. 
Hariisville. 

Annandale 

Annandale. 
Smithport. 
Sheakleyville. 

Steuben 

Sheakleyville. 

Sheakleyville. 

Plum. 

West Greenwood. 

NickleviUe. 

Spartansburg. 

Wolf Creek 

Wolf Creek 


Cooperstown. 
Cooperstown. 
New Castle. 
Mercer. 
FrankUn, 
Oil Creek. 
Chandler's Val'y 
Titusville. 
Barkeyville. 
Barkeyville. 
New Vernon. 
New Vernon. 

Mercer 

Meroer. 
Meroer. 


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Oct. 5. 1858 
Nov. 26, 1862 
Apr. 15, 1862 
Aug. 3. 1861 
Dec. 18, 1858 
Oct. 7, 1863 
Aug. 6, 1861 
Feb. 13, 1855 
Apr. 20, 1862 
Apr. 19, 1859 
Feb. 10, 1861 
June 18, 1858 
June 15, 1856 
July 18, 1861 
Sept. 12, 1855 
Aug. 25, 1858 
May 3, 1860 
Dec. 20. 1858 
July 11, 1861 
Mar. 9, 1861 
June 15, 1858 
July 19, 1860 
July 3, 1862 
Apr. 6, 1861 
May 9, 1860 
Apr. 14, 1863 
June 21, 1865 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Feb. 27, 1860 
Aug. 15. 1868 
July 17, 1861 
Feb. 14, 1856 
Feb. 14, 1856 
June 8, 1858 
Aug. 3, 1862 
Mar. 24, 1861 
Dec. 11,1860 
July 20, 1864 
June 24, 1864 
Oct. 18. 1861 
Mar. 12. 1863 
May 14, 1865 
Aug. 16, 1860 
May 8, 1862 
Jan. 10, 1869 
Oct. 12, 1870 
May 18, 1&58 
May 11,1862 
Sept. 28, 1862 


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Smith. Nettie 
Steele, Ada A. 
Steele, Mary J. 
Shaffer. Clara, A. 
Sloan. Elizabeth J. 
Sloan. Sarah E. 
Sacket, Esther J. 
Sacket, Elizabeth M. 
Swartz, Mary R. 


Stevens, Lanra 
Seaton, MariUa 
Stevenson, Mary J. 
Steven.son. Clara J. 
Sloan, Alice J. 
Small. Seva S. 
Stearns, Mary B. 
Small, Alice H. 
Small. Hannah R. 


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Thom, Grace 0. 
Thom, Eva May 
Thompson, Martha M, 
Toye, Henrietta 
Thomas, Maggie A. 
Tenney, Louisa J. 
Tobey, Nellie 
Taylor, Annie L. 


Vogus, Nancy E. 
Togus, Freelove 
Voorhles, Elizabeth B. 
Voorhles, Rebecca A. 
White, Rebecca J. 
White, Clementine 



MERCER SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOL, 



479 





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Linesville. 
Rose Point. 
Rose Point. 
New Castle. 
Lottsville. 
Lottsville. 
Lottsville. 
Six Points. 
Prentiss Yale. 
Mercer. 
Mercer. 






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Apr. 1,1868 
June 29, 1868 
Sept. 7, 1868 
Feb. 24, 1870 
Sept. 11,1870 
Sept. 2, 1872 
Oct. 21, lh72 
Oct. 21, 1872 
Apr. 8, 1875 
June 4, 1875 
June 4, 1875 
June 4. 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Sept. 3, 1875 


Oct. 4, 1860 
May 9, 1859 
July 25, 1855 
Oct. 18, 1859 
Oct. 11, 1861 
Feb. 23, 1863 
Jan. 11, 1861 
July 23. 1865 
Apr. 25, 1862 
Jan. 30, 186* 
Aug. 3, 1866 
Jan. 3, 1869 
Mar. 18, 1862 
Feb. 1. 1861 
Mar. 2, 1864 
Sept. 28, 1866 


1 

5 


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Wade. Nora A. 
Wright, Maggie J. 
Wright, Laura A. 
Woods, Ella S. 
Woodward, Mary E. 
Woodward, Lucinda J. 
Woodward, Roxana V. 
Wallace, Rachel B. 


ii 

Iff 





MANSFIELD SCHOOL. 




HIS institution, located at Mansfield, Tioga county, had 
its origin in a desire to establish a model school for the 
State Normal School of the Fifth District. Its proprietor, 
Prof. F. A. Allen, who was, at its commencement. Prin- 
cipal of the Normal School, finding it impossible to make a satisfac- 
tory model school out of the pupils in the town, determined to pro- 
cure, if possible, a limited number of soldiers' orphans for whose 
education and maintenance the State had made provision. To this 
end, he made application to the Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans 
for twenty-five boys and twenty-five girls ; and, on the 1st of Oc- 
tober, 1867, the school was opened. At the close of the year, the 
number in attendance was sixty-three. The educational department 
was at once organized as a model school, and placed under the 
charge of normal graduates, and this, at the same time, constituted 
the school of practice for the seniors of the Normal School, they, in 
turn, teaching quite a number of classes. 

The difficulties to be met and overcome were not unlike those ex- 
perienced at other schools, and it is not a matter of surprise that 
considerable time elapsed before the heterogeneous material could be 
moulded into one harmonious whole. Not only were the pupils 
strangers to each other>and to those in whose care they were, but 
teachers, and those employed in the domestic and industrial depart- 
ments, were unfamiliar with their new duties, and had to learn by 
the slow process of experience. During the first year, it was difii- 
cult to obtain suitable help, especially for the work out of the school- 
room, and frequent changes were necessarily made before this could 

480 



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MANSFIELD SCHOOL. 481 

be accomplished. To properly adjust the various departments, so 
that they could run without friction, was not an easy task. No 
one connected with the institution had had any practical knowl- 
edge of the workings of a school of the kind, and, notwithstanding 
the rules and regulations furnished by the State authorities, it re- 
quired time and patience before a satisfactory organization could be 
perfected. At length, however, perfect system was established, under 
the judicious care and persistent efforts of those who had the matter 
in hand ; and to Mrs. S. M. Etz, a soldier's widow, is especial credit 
due for her valuable pioneer services in giving shape and character 
to the institution while yet in its infancy. 

The building at first occupied had been used as a store, and, 
though remodelled, was poorly adapted to the purposes of a home 
and school. This was no small hindrance to immediate success. 
The children, fortunately, did not realize their inconveniences, and 
were contented and happy. Very soon after the opening of the school, 
it was found impracticable to limit the number of pupils to fifty, as 
was originally designed, and other and larger buildings were pur- 
chased and erected, as the demands of the school enlarged, till there 
were accommodations for over two hundred pupils. 

In 1869, when Prof. Allen resigned the Principalship of the Nor- 
mal School, the orphan school was changed from a school of practice 
to a school of observation, — the results being far from satisfactory, 
while the orphans were experimented upon by fledgling seniors. At 
this time the school, educationally, was recast and divided into grades, 
each having a permanent teacher. In 1870, five grades, or divisions, 
of the school were made, each occupying separate rooms, under a 
special teacher, and a method of teaching adopted upon the plan 
of what Prof. Allen calls " a new departure in education." This 
consists in classifying all the studies under three heads, viz. : lan- 
guage, mathematics, and physical science. In regard to this pet 
scheme of his. Prof. Allen, in one of his annual reports to the State 
Department, says : 

*' Our school consists of five grades ; these constitute separate and dis- 
tinct departments, and are under the immediate supervision and instruc- 
tion of one teacher in each. The number of pupils in each grade is about 
forty. Three distinct departments of study are daily pursued in each grade, 
viz. : language, mathematics, and science. Believing, as we do, that the 
elements of these departments of study may be taught successfully to the 
youngest child permitted to enter our schools, we select from each such 
31 



482 PENNA. soldiers' orphan schools. 

branches as seem best to meet the wants of our children, and such as we 
deem best calculated to develop harmoniously the faculties of body, mind, 
and heart. Physiology, botany, and local geography in science — the ele- 
ments of geometry and processes in arithmetic and its tables in mathe- 
matics — the constant correction of improprieties in speech, and the no 
less constant work of teaching how to tell what they know in good English, 
together with the training of each child to write, so that all his school 
requests are in writing, and in the department of language we find not 
only highly useful, but practicable. Our teaching, in the main, is given 
without books. The subject of study, when taken up, is first taken into 
the mind and heart of the teacher, who seldom fails to give to it a life 
and freshness that appetizes the class, thus creating a desire for more. 
After each class recitation, pupils are required to reproduce in writing the 
lesson before the class. It will be readily seen that this process secures 
a closer attention during recitation, greater accuracy in language, and 
clearness in thinking. It makes our teachers more studious in prepara- 
tion, for without this daily exercise the teaching must be a failure. They 
must, of necessity, be far more accurate in statement and definition. But 
the limited space of this report will not allow of further details touching 
this ' new departure.' " 

A more complete account of the educational work of this school 
than can be given in this brief sketch may be found in the Oireiilar 
of Information of the Bureau of Education, November 6, 1875, page 
83. The "new departure" is a feature of tl^e school of which 
Prof. Allen is proud, and earnestly and persistently advocates ; and 
he, being a successful teacher and a veteran in the cause of educa- 
tion, is certainly entitled to a candid hearing, and his utterances are 
worthy of the thoughtful attention of educators of youth. 

Two brass bands have been organized at this school, a set of in- 
struments costing two hundred and eighty-five dollars purchased, and 
the boys frequently discourse excellent music, to the evident delight 
of the inmates of the institution and the surrounding villages. 

It is to the credit of this school that, from its origin, it has been 
in harmony with the rules issued from the State Department, — that 
teachers and other employees should, in the dining-room, occupy the 
lieads of tables, eat the same kind of food as the children, and in- 
struct them in the proper use of the knife and fork, and other pro- 
prieties. 

In the summer of 1872, a farm of one hundred and fifty acres, a 
short distance out of town, was purchased, in order to aflJbrd em- 
ployment and instruction to the boys. Here they work the allotted 



MANSFIELD SCHOOL. 



483 



two hours daily, uuder the eye of a kind-hearted, intelligent, and 
practical farmer, and receive that assistance and direction that a 
father is wont to bestow upon his own sons. The girls are carefully 
taught to do all kinds of housework and plain sewing. 

As an act of justice, we would state, before concluding, that Prof 
V. R. Pratt, a Normal graduate, took charge of this school as Prin- 
cipal at the beginning of the second year, and continues to serve in 
that capacity. During the past few years, he has had the entire 
control and management, as much so as though he were proprietor. 
He possesses fine qualifications as a teacher, and is a kind-hearted, 
genial gentleman. 

Teachers. 



Mis9 Myra Horton, 
" F. M. Wright, 
" Flora Brewster, 



Miss Stella Young, 
" Minnie Reynolds, 
" Joaeph'e Stewart, 
Miss Nettie Hunt. 



Miss Lizzie Haines, 
Mr. Burt W. Baker, 
Miss Eachel La Eue, 



Mrs. Phebe Utley, 
" Sophia Hall, 
" Frances Cook, 

Miss Lettie Shellman, 



Matron. 
Miss A. M. Simpson. 

Employees. 

Mrs. Mary Catlin, 
" Ann Burnham, 
." H. Freeborn, 
" Charlotte Ingham, 



Mrs. A. L. White, 
" Rhoda Vawegen, 
" Frances Fling, 
" EhodaBixby. 




484 



PEXNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 



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MANSFIELD SOLDIEES' ORPHAN SCHOOL. 485 



Besdmitted Apr. 25, 1875 

With his mother. 
With4ki8 mother. 

With taia aotber. 

With his motber. 
With his mother. 
Teamster. 

rContinues his studies 
in this school, and 

■ works in the bakery to 
pay his tuition and 

With his mother. 
With his mother. 

Parming. 


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Mar. 26, 1870 
Sept. 10, 1873 
Oct. 9, 1873 
May 9, 1873 
Oct. 6, 1870 
May 8, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1869 
Jan. 12, 1874 
Jan. 12, 1874 
Jan. 12, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Oct. 15, 1874 
Oct. 15, 1873 
Mar. 17. 1873 
Nov. 2, 1874 
Jan. 1, 1873 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Mar. 30, 1872 
May 23, 1872 
Nov. 18. 1868 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Apr. 4, 1872 
May 28, 1869 
Nov. 5, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Nov. 25, 1871 
Sept. 11, 1871 
Sept. 15, 1870 
Sept. 1. 1871 
Feb. 10, 1870 
May 6, 1869 
Sept. 7, 1868 
Nov. 3, 1869 
Apr. 8, 1875 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1673 
Oct. 6, 1871 
Oct. 6, 1871 
Sept. 3, 1875 
Oct. 1, 1867 
June 12, 1871 
May 22, 1871 
Dec. 10, 1874 
Dec. 10, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1871 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Jiiue 28, 1870 
Feb. 24, 1873 
Feb. 24, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Dec. 6, 1871 




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Dickerson, William S. 
Divine, John 
Divine, Orlando 
Divine, Frank 
Doebler, Thomas S. 
Dodd, William 


Downing, William 
Drake, John H. 
Dudley, Elmer N. 
Drake, Ellet G. 
Elliott, Elmer E. 
English, Samuel E. 




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Gee, Henry 
Gilmore, George F. 
Godden, Charles 
Graves, Hiram P. 
Graves, Melvin 
Hakes, Frank 
Harvey, Asa R. 
Harvey, Adolphus L. 
Hermans, Cassius 
Hertle, Charles 


Higgins, Emerson C. 
Hotchkiss, Thomaa 
Howard, Jesse 
Howe, Orison W. 
Howe, Pharson W, 
Howe, Frank. 
Hulslander, Jacob 
Hurd, Elias A. 
Hurd, Isaac M. 







486 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



05 
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5 Assistant postmaster at 
Mansfield, $22 per mo. 

(■Apprenticed to tinner 
< and plumber trade. 
\ Died Feb. 9, 1869, of 
L brain fever. 
With his mother. 
With his mother. 

LiTing vith Us mother. 

* 


Post 

Office 

Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


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Admission 
ON Order 

OR BY 

Transfer. 


Jan. 29. 1874 
Jan. 20, 1874 
June 1, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1873 
June 1, 1868 
June 1, 1868 
Nov. 10, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Apr. 3, 1874 
Oct. 15, 1872 
Dec. 18, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1868 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Oct. 1. 18r.7 
Oct. 30, 1871 
Apr. 27, 1869 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Jan. 1, 1868 
Nov. 14, 1871 
June 1, 1868 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Jan. 26, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Dec. 29, 1873 
Sept. 1, 1874 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Jan. 7. 1875 
Apr. 15, 1873 
Apr. 12, 1872 
Apr. 12. 1872 
Apr. 12, 1872 
Mar. 11, 1872 
May 7, 1872 
Oct. 1, 1867 
June 23. 1871 
Dec. 9. 1842 
July 19. 1871 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Oct. 1, 1872 
Oct. 1, 1872 
Jan. 25, 1870 
Jan. 25, 1870 
Nov. 13, 1873 
Mar. 5, 1872 
Feb. 2, 1871 
Feb. 2, 1871 




Oct. 16, 1864 
Aag. 1, 1860 
June 30, 1857 
May 30, 1859 
Aug. 20, 1853 
Nov. 4, 1859 
Sept. 29, 1857 
Feb. 18, 1860 
Oct. 22, 1864 
Feb. 17, 1863 
May 11, 1863 
Aug. 6, 1853 
Jan. 20. 1858 
Oct. 6. 1852 
July 22, 1861 
May 18, 1861 
Jan, 20, 1858 
Apr. 15, 1855 
July 2, 186;i 
Jan. 1, 1856 
Jan. 9. 1859 
Jan. 9, 1861 
Nov. 7. 1862 
June 20. 1861 
Sept. 16, 1882 
Nov. 29, 1861 
May 28, 1860 
Feb. 3. 1852 
Nov. 12. 1855 
Feb. 25, 1861 
Sept. 8, 1860 
Dec. 3, 1862 
Oct. 9, 1860 
Dec. 29, 1856 
July 23, 1863 
Dec. 11, 1863 
June 6, 1856 
July 2, 1861 
Nov. 22, 1861 
Jan. 22. 1860 
Sept. 29, 1860 
May 6, 1859 
Feb. 10, 1868 
Oct. 1, 1861 
Sept. 22, 1866 
Jan. 7, 1860 
Oct. 14, 1860 
Jan. 15, 1858 
Nov. 2, 1861 


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Leonard, William M. 
Lester, Levi R. 
Lyons, John H. V. 
Lrmaa, George B. 
iTatbews, James K. 
Mack, Don W. B. 
Mack. Curry F. 


Martin. George M. 
Mathews, John N. 
Mathews, Ctealand A. 
Matterson, Arthur 
McCann, Levi O. 
McCann, Jacob • 
McCann, Mark 


1 


Mclntire, Aaron B. B. 
McConnell. Alonzo B. 
McConnell, Frank M. 
McConnell, Kli Q. 
Miller, Clarence 
Montgomery, John W. 


Montgomerv, Henry E. 
Mosher, George A. 
Mumford. Eugene D. 
Newton, Elisha T. 
Newman, Wallace 


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MANSFIELD SOLDIERS^ ORPHAN SCHOOL, 



487 



With his mother. 
With his mother. 
Working in a paint-shop. 

With his mother. 
With his mother. 
With his mother. 
With his mother. 

With his mother. 
With his mother. 

With his mother. 
With his mother. 

With his mother. 

With his mother. 

With his mother. 
Attending Normal School 
Attending Normal School 
With his mother. 
With his mother. 
Clerk in bank, Mansfield. 


Towanda. 

W. Burlington. 

Troy. 

Cogan Valley. 

Cogan Valley. 

Salladyburgh. 

HolMdaysburg. 

Liberty. 

Chatham. 

Tow.-inda. 

Canton. 

Le Rov. 

Mansfield. 


2 : 

III 


Jersey Shore.... 

Tioga. 

Tioga. 

Tiopa 

Sylvania 

Tioga 

Wellsborough... 
Wyalusing. 
Mansfield. 


Wellsborough. 

Rose Valley 

Rose Valley 

Sheshcquin. 

Athens. 

Wellsborough. 

Wellsborough. 

Wellsborough. 

Knoxville. 

Williamsport.... 

Williamsport. 

Williamsport. 

Chatham. 

Elmira. N. Y. 

Monroe ton. 

Highland. 

Roulette. 

Roulette 

Athens. 
Athens. 
Le Roy. 

Mansfield 

Mansfield 

Mansfield 

Mansfield 




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Apr. 21, 1871 
Oct. 12, 1874 
May 25, 1872 
Mar. 25, 1875 








































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Nov. 1, 1870 
Nov. 13, 1873 
Nov. 1,1867 
Mar. 6, 1873 
Mar. 6, 1873 
May 18, 1873 
May 8, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1868 
May 22, 1874 
Dec. .30. 1873 
Dec. 17, 1872 
Nov. 12, 1873 
May 28, 1874 
May 28, 1874 
June 1, 1868 
Feb. 15, 1870 
Feb. 15, 1«70 
Sept. 8, 1868 
.Sept. 18, 1871 
Sept. 18, 1871 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1H71 
Sept. 28, 1869 
Dec. 19, 1867 
Apr. 9, 1874 
Oct. 1, 18(J7 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 16, 1868 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Oct. 20, 1870 
Sept. 7, 1868 
Oct. 1,1867 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Julv9, 1872 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Jan. 5, 1871 
Feb. 8, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1870 
Jan. 24, 1871 
Oct. 1, 1867 
Oct. 1. 1867 
June 21, 1871 
June 21, 1871 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Sept. 24, 1873 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Oct. 1, 1867 
May 4. 1868 
May 4, 1868 
Dec. 1, 1873 
Oct. 7, 1870 
Oct. 7, 1870 
Sept. 8, 1871 
Sept. 8, 1871 


May S. 1863 
Oct. 29, 1860 
Feb. 1, 1853 
Mar. 31, 1860 
Dec. 11, 1862 
Sept. 13, 1860 
Jan. 12, 1660 
Sept. 22, 1852 
Apr. 30, 1861 
July 10, 1864 
Jan. 22, 1859 
Mar. 6, 1861 
Feb. 11, I860 
Mar. 8, 1864 
Oct. 3, 1855 
July 26, 1859 
Apr. 29, 1857 
Feb. 15, 1857 
June 30, 1860 
Apr. 18, 1802 
Dec. 25, 1857 
Jan. 26, 1862 
Nov. 4, 18,58 
Jan. 15, 1857 
Dec. 3, 1862 
Nov. 28, 1855 
May 21, 1859 
Sept. — , 1859 
Sept. 1, 1856 
Feb. 16, 1859 
May 12, 1862 
Feb. 28, 1855 
Mar. 24. 1857 
Oct. 2. 1854 
Dec. 2. 1852 
May 20, 1864 
Apr. 10. 1859 
Oct. 5, 1861 
Mar. 1, 1863 
Mar. 4, 1859 
Aug. 8. 1857 
July 13, 18.54 
Aug. 18, 1856 
Nov. 4, 1860 
Mar. 7, 1859 
Apr. 3, 18.58 
May 25, 1863 
Apr. 8, 1860 
Aug. 25, 1859 
Apr. 21, 1855 
Apr. 21, 1855 
Oct. 12. 1858 
May 25, 1856 
Mar. 25, 1859 
June 14, 1861 
Apr. 4, 1863 


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MANSFIELD SOLDIERS^ ORPHAN SCHOOL. 491 



(Attended Mansfield S. 
< Nor. School one vear. 
( Is now teaching. ' 

5 Attending Mansfield S. 
I Normal School. 

5 Attending Mansfield S. 
I Normal School. 

Living in a private family 
I a farmer. 

With her mother. 
Married Mr. King. 


Mansfield. 
Steamburgh. 
Le Roy. 
Jersey Shore. 
Jersey Shore.... 

Limestone. 

Limestone. 

Lock Haven. 

Towauda. 

W. Burlington. 

Cogan Valley. 

Mansfield....... 

Mansfield. 

Ansonia. 

Ansonia. 

Ansonia. 

Canton. 

Canton. 

Wellsborough. 

Wellsborough. 

Canton . 


Le Roy. 
Westfleld. 
Jersey Shore. 
Tioga. 
Tioga. 

Mansfield 

Mansfield. 
Wellsborough. 
Wellsborough. 
Mansfield. 
Mansfield. 
Somer's Lane. 
Somer's Lane. 
Wellsborough. 
Sheshequin. 
White's Corners. 
Cogan Valley. 
Greenwood. 
Williamsport. 
Wellsborough. 
Highland. 
Golden Hill. 
Golden Hill. 
Golden Hill. 
Brock Port. 
Le Roy. 
Knoxville. 
Mansfield 


Pike Mills. 
Pike Mills. 
Coudersport. 
Coudersport. 
New Era. 
Somer's Lane. 
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May 4, 1863 
Apr. 1, 1858 
Jan. 8, 1861 
Jan. 10, 1854 
Sept. 19, 1862 
May 16, 1853 
May 26, 1861 
Oct. 5, 1860 
Aug. 27, 1859 
Jan. 4, 1862 
July 5, 1859 
June 29, 1862 
May 5, 1859 
July 21, 1865 
Feb. 12, 1861 
Jau. 14, 1863 
Jan. 31, 18.59 
Dec. 14, 1863 
Jan. 18, 1862 
Oct. 20, 1858 
May 3, 1861 
May 6, 1863 
Apr. 17, 1863 
Dec. '25, 1854 
Jan. 4, 1853 
June 13, 1856 
Sept. 14, 1862 
Jan. 13, 1859 
Dec. 9, 1859 
Oct. 14, 1860 
Oct. 12, 1854 


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PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 






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INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 





1 



|HE West Philadelphia Industrial School, situated at the 
N. W. corner of Thirty-niuth and Pine Streets, Philadel- 
phia, was incorporated March 30, 1858. It is conducted 
by the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, and has for its espe- 
cial object the training of girls in habits of piety and industry. 

Pupils are received, without distinction of creed, from the ages of 
seven to eighteen years, provided they bear a good moral character. 
Every care is taken to impart a solid English education, and form 
their young minds to the practice of virtue. Habits of order and 
neatness are inculcated, and no effort spared to render them useful 
and accomplished members of society. 

The course of instruction comprises orthography, reading, writing, 
arithmetic, geography, grammar, history, composition, and music. 
The pupils are required to devote a certain portion of the day to 
acquiring a knowledge of every kind of work suitable to their sex, 
such as dress- and shirt-making, embroidery on linen, silk, and flan- 
nel, use of sewing-machine, artificial-flower making, gold embroidery, 
tapestry work, washing and ironing, baking, and every kind of do- 
mestic work. 

In April, 1870, twelve soldiers' orphans were placed in the insti- 
tution by Mrs. E. W. Hutter, Lady Inspector of Soldiers' Orphan 
Schools, and later in the same year eleven more were admitted, and 
enjoyed all the advantages of the school. Of these, several have 
left the institution, having attained the age of sixteen. Some were 
returned to their relatives, and for others were procured situations as 
dress-makers, &c. We have now in the school five soldiers' orphans. 
Two will complete their time the present year, being nearly sixteen 
years of age. The average number of children is from seventy-five 
to eighty. The institution is supported by the tuition paid for pupils 
and by the work of the inmates. 

493 



494 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 






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BUTLER ORPHAN HOME. 




HIS Home is situated on one of the many beautiful hills 
that surround Butler, the county-seat of Butler county. 

Notwithstanding the many fine residences in and about 
the borough, the Home on the old McCall hill, with its 
beautiful lawn shaded with trees, surpasses them all. The main 
building is of brick, very substantially built forty years ago by Mr. 
McCall, father of the well-known General McCall, a wealthy mer- 
cliant of Philadelphia, for a summer residence for himself and family. 
Tradition says that the " natives " looked on with gaping astonish- 
ment as the carpenters toiled at the great wonder. Philadelphia, at 
that day, was a long ways off, and mountains and forests intervened 
between that city and the rude little log-built town ; and it is not sur- 
prising that its people looked upon the gray-haired old mau, building 
a mansion of unheard-of dimensions, with feelings akin to the ante- 
diluvians who ridiculed Noah and his ark. The aged McCall, how- 
ever, having in view his own comfort and that of his family, and 
also the improvement of his extensive landed property in the country, 
completed his work. He was building wiser than he knew, though 
he lived but a few summers to enjoy this home. The property, pass- 
ing through several hands, finally became a home for the homeless. 
Truly man proposes, but God disposes. 

The property w^as bought by the St. Paul's Classis of the Reformed 
Church ; and on December 10, 1867, was dedicated as an Orphan 
Home, on which occasion the Rev. Geo. B. Russell presided, and 
performed the act of dedication. Addresses were also delivered by 
Revs. T. J. Barkley, F. K. Levan, and Wm. M. Landis. 

495 



496 PENNA. soldiers' ori^han schools. 

The object of its founders was to provide for the maintenance 
and Christian training of orphan children — principally of the 
Reformed Church ; and also to care for destitute orphans of every 
class. Applications for admittance are made to the Board of 
Directors, and children are received by indenture — the boys to 
twenty-one, and the girls to eighteen years of age. This enables the 
authorities of the Home to again indenture them, when suitable 
places can be found, and to retain the guardianship over them till 
of age. 

This Home has had under its care, from its origin, a goodly num- 
ber of soldiers' orphans, for whose education and maintenance the 
State has provided under its noble soldiers' orphan system. Thus it 
will be seen that there have been supported in this institution, 
hitherto, two classes of children — the . soldiers' orphans, supported 
by the State, and other orphans, supported by charity ; and yet no 
distinction is made, except it be that the State children are not re- 
quired to work during school hours. 

The government here is mild, yet firm. The importance of selfr 
government is earnestly impressed upon the minds of the children, 
and with encouraging success. 

Though this Home is owned and sustained in great part by the 
Reformed Church, yet many valuable contributions are made by 
members of other churches. Thus far it has been nobly sustained. 
It has been necessary to do little else than to let its wants be known, 
to insure the assistance needed. 

Rev. C. A. Limberg, of Butler, was its first Superintendent. In 
the spring of 1871 he resigned, and Rev. J. B. Thompson, of Day- 
ton, Ohio, the present incumbent, was elected his successor in April, 
and entered upon his duties on the 1st of June of the same year. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

President. 
Bev. Thomas J. Barkley. 

Secretaey. 
T. J. Craig, Esq. 

Treasurer. 
B. Wolff, Jr., Esq. 



BUTLER ORPHAN HOME, 



497 



Rev. J. W. Alspacli, 
" J. Hannabery, 
" E.H.Dieffenbacher 
" I.F.Snyder, 



Rev. D. D. Leberman, 
" J.W.Love, 
" T. F. Stouffer, 
" D.S.Dieffenbachei 
Mr. C. Sieberfc. 



C. M. Boush, Esq., 
W.H. Brill, M. D., 
Mr. Joseph Cort, 
" W. E. Schmertz. 



Executive Committee. 
Rev. T. J. Barkley, T. J. Craig, Esq., 



W. E. Schmertz, 



P. Keil, 



W. H. Brill. M. D. 



Superintendent. 
Rev. J. B. Thompson. 

Matron. 
Mrs. Jennie P. Thompson. 

The following list includes the former, as also the present, teachers 
and employees of the Home, viz.: 



Mr. F. A. Limberg, 
" E. H. Diehl, 



Teachers. 

Mr. J. S. Phillippe, Miss Emma T. Keck, 
" D. K. Fulcason, " Mary C. Grubbs, 

Mr. A. W. H. Martin. 



Matrons. 
Mrs. Barbara Hiesley, Mrs. Susan Limberg. 

Seamstresses. 

Mrs. Harriet Caffey, Miss Lizzie Martin, Miss Emma Miller, 

Miss Maggie Troutman, " Barbara Cradle, " A. B. Thompson, 

Miss Saidie Carson. 



Miss Lizzie Sechler, 
" Nancy Berry, 
" Lizzie Gills, 



General House-work. 

Miss Priscilla Neyman, 
" Rachel Johnston, 
" Nancy Sechler, 
Miss Caroline Burr. 



Miss Kate Baddar, 
" Kate Troutman, 
" Lina Neyman, 



Male Attendants and Farmers. 
Mr. J. M. Boyd, Mr. M. Dufford, Mr. Otho F. Thompson. 

32 



498 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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ST. JOHN'S ORPHAN ASYLUM. 




HE St. John's Orphan Asylum for boys was founded in the 
year 1829, by the Rev. John Hughes, Pastor of St. John's 
Church, Philadelphia, and afterwards Archbishop of New 
York. 

A small house was rented in Prune Street, within the limits of the 
city proper, where a few destitute orphan children were sheltered. 
In 1832 the number of orphans had so increased as to necessitate 
their removal to a larger and more commodious building on Broad 
Street, north of Chestnut ; and in the following year they were placed 
in the spacious Gothic mansion on Chestnut Street, east of Thirteenth, 
which had been purchased for that purpose. 

Previous to 1833, the whole burden and responsibility of the work 
rested upon its most reverend founder, but at this date a charter 
was obtained, and the institution placed under the efficient care of 
a Board of nine managers. 

It having become evident to the management that a country resi- 
dence would be more desirable than one in the city, the Chestnut 
Street property was sold, and thirteen acres of land were purchased, 
on Westminster Avenue, near Forty-eighth Street, West Philadelphia. 
On this beautiful site the present commodious buildings, capable of 
accommodating three hundred and fifty orphans, were erected, in 
1851-52, at a cost of nearly fifty thousand dollars. The main build- 
ing, which is two hundred and fourteen feet in length by sixty feet 
in depth, contains kitchen, dining-room, refectories, chapel, private 
parlor, reception i)arlors, class-rooms, dormitories, infirmary, the 
Sisters' sleeping apartments, and servante' bedrooms. At each end 
of the main building is a wing, forty feet in length, in which are 

5U0 



ORPHAN ASYLUM. 501 

contained the washroom, bakery, and additional class-rooms and 
dormitories. 

One of the consequences of the late war, it is well known, was to 
greatly increase the number of orphans, and although Government 
and State provision was generously made for them, before it could be 
put into effect, a large number of our soldiers' orphans were here 
received and cared for. Their number may be estimated to have been 
over one hundred, exclusive of the fifty-one soldiers' orphans placed 
in the institution and paid for by the State. Of these latter, but two 
remain, the rest having been returned to their friends, or placed in 
positions to do for themselves. 

The average number of orphans during the past twelve years has 
been about three hundred and thirty, who are cared for and in- 
structed in the branches of an ordinary English education by fifteen 
Sisters of St. Joseph. 




502 



PENNA. SOLDIERS ORPHAN SCHOOLS 



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With mother. 
With mother. 

With sister. 
Died Juu. 28, 1869. 
■i. In grocery bus. on Mar- 
L ket, near 22d Street. 
Died Jan. 28, 1868. 
Farming. 
With mother. 

With mother. 

With mother. 
i With Michael Keegan, 
< a stone-mason, N. 4th 
( Street. 

With mother. 
With mother. 

With mother. 
With mother. 

With mother. 

Died Mar. 20, 1868. 

Died May 20, 18G0. 

With mother. 
Died July 4, 1872. 

Died Mar. 20, 1868. 
5 Mechnnio ; earning $10 
\ per month. 
Died May 22, 1869. 
With mother. [St. 
With his uncle, 704 Euuo 
With mother. 
With mother. 


Post 
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Address 

WHEN AT 

Home. 


Philadelphia.... 
Philadelphia.... 
Dovle.stown. 

Wilkesbarre 

M'hite Haven... 
Philadelphia.... 
Philadelphia. 
Pliiladelphia.... 


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July 28, 1866 
Apr. 17, 1873 
Nov. 19, 1866 
Nov. 19, 1866 
Mar. 15, 1867 
Mar. 15, 1867 
June 19, 1866 


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CATHOLIC HOME. 

HE Catholic Home for the protection and maintenance of 
orphan and destitute children, located at 1720 Race Street, 
Philadelphia, was instituted tn the year 1863. It was a 
necessity caused by the late civil war. The strife had 
scarcely commenced, when large numbers of children sought protec- 
tion in the asylums already existing. The fathers of many were 
killed ; in some cases the mothers died, or were sick and unable to 
provide for them, and in other cases the demoralizing effects of the 
war made them forgetful of the welfare and protection of their chil- 
dren. To remedy, in a measure, the condition of these helpless little 
ones, the Catholic Home was opened for their protection. 

In September, 1864, the first child was received, and up to the 
present time seven hundred and twenty-three children have been 
admitted and provided for by the institution. The Catholic Home is 
under the charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, who devote their entire 
services to the instruction, education, and care of the children. It is 
supported by voluntary contributions and the payment of a small 
stipend by the relatives of children who can afford to pay. 

The course of instruction embraces a plain English education, 
namely : orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, his- 
tory, composition, and music. They are also taught sewing, embroid- 
ery, fancy needlework, and the use of the sewing-machine ; washing, 
ironing, baking, cooking, and all the duties of domestic house-work. 
Of the above number of children, twenty-nine have been received 
under the auspices of the Soldiers' Orphan Department of the State, 
and have been paid for by the Commonwealth. Most of them have 
arrived at the age of sixteen years, the time appointed for their leav- 
ing the institution, and have been provided with trades or situations. 
Some have been returned to their mothers, who, after investigation, 
were found to be reliable and correct and able to maintain them. 
Of the children placed in the Home by the Department, only four 
remain, all of whom will be sixteen years of age in 1876, and entitled 
to their discharge. 

503 



504 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHxVN SCHOOLS. 




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ST. VINCENT'S COLLEGE 



S situated in Westmoreland county, Pa., forty miles east 
of Pittsburgh, two miles from Latrobe, and one from 
Beatty Station. The location is elevated and healthy, 
commanding an extensive view of the beautiful ranges of 
the Chestnut Ridge from the north and east, and from the south and 
west of the fruitful, undulating country for which the county is so 
celebrated. The buildings are spacious and commodious. 

This institution was founded, in 1846, by the Rt. Rev. Boniface 
Wimmer, O. S. B., of St. Vincent Abbey, and incorporated with 
powers to confer degrees, by an act of the legislature of the 28th 
of April, 1870. It is conducted by the Benedictine fathers. 

At present there are thirty-seven professors, many of whom are 
graduates of the best European universities. 

There are four distinct courses of studies — the Theological, the 
Philosophical, the Classical, and the Commercial, besides an Ele- 
mentary school for beginners. 

The Theological course occupies three years. It embraces Dog- 
matic and Moral Theology, Church History, Exegesis, Canon Law, 
Liturgy, Hermeneutics, and Homiletics. 

The Philosophical course is completed in two years, embracing 
Mental and Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Mathematics, including 
Analytical Geometry, Differential Calculus, Astronomy, Evidences, 
Hebrew, and Latin and Greek continued. 

The Classical course comprises five regular classes, each lasting 
one year. Greek is taken up with the third year of Latin. 

The Commercial course embraces Religious Instruction, Orthog- 
raphy, Penmanship, Reading, English Grammar, Composition, Elo- 

505 



506 PEXNA. SOLDIERS^ ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

cution, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Mathematics, Book-keeping, Commer- 
cial Law, Geography, History, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry. 
It is completed in three years. 

The Elementary school affords boys an excellent opportunity of 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the elementary principles of the 
English and German languages. 

The greatest facilities are offered for the cultivation of music. 
Vocal and instrumental music, harmony, arrangement in all its parts, 
Gregorian choral, sesthetics of music and acoustics, and musical compo- 
sition throughout, receive the attention of the most able professors. 
Instruction is given on eighteen different musical instruments. The 
degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Music are conferred 
after satisfactory examinations in the graduating department. 

The students of the college are divided, according to their ages, 
into three classes, each of which has its own study-hall and dormi- 
tory, and is under the control of two prefects. There are at present 
over three hundred students frequenting the college. This number 
will be greatly increased when the additional buildings now in 
progress of erection are completed. 

The institution possesses two libraries, one numbering over twelve 
thousand volumes ; the other, which is exclusively for the use of 
the students, over eighteen hundred volumes. An excellent chem- 
ical and philosophical apparatus is for the use of more advanced 
students. , Large and beautiful collections of European and Amer- 
ican plants, shells, fossils, coins, etc., are preserved in the cabinet. 

Nineteen fatherless children of deceased Roman Catholic soldiers 
have been received into this institution, sixteen of whom have been 
discharged on age; two were discharged on order, and one yet 
remains. The State paid for their support here tte same as were 
paid to the advanced soldiers' orphan schools. 



FACULTY. 

President. 
Rt. Rev. Boniface Wimmer, O. S. B. 

Vice-President. 

Rev. Hilary PFRiENGLE, O. S. B., 

Professor of Dogmatic Theology. 



ST. vi:&^CE:ffT's college. 507 

V. Eev. Innocent Wolf, 0. S. B., 

Professor of Moral Theology, Introduction to Holy Scriptures, and 

Liturgy. 

Rev. Andkew Hintenach, O. S. B., 
Professor of Christian Doctrine, Latin, History, and Arithmetic. 

Rev. Luke Wimmer, 0. S. B., 
Professor of Exegesis. 

Rev. Ignatius Trueg, O. S. B., 
Director and Professor of Music. 

Rev. Adalbert Mueller, 0. S. B., 

Professor of Logic, Metaphysics, Mathematics, Astronomy, Natural Phi- 
losophy, and Chemistry. 

Rev. John B. Sommer, 0. S. B., 

Professor of Church History, Homiletics, Hermeneutics, Mathematics, 
Painting, and Drawing. 

Rev. Aloysius Gorman, 0. S. B., 

Professor of Christian Doctrine, Rhetoric, English Grammar and Compo- 
sition, Elocution, Arithmetic, and English Penmanship. 

Rev. Raymond Daniel, O. S. B., 
Professor of History and Music. 

Rev. Leo Haid, 0. S. B., 

Professor of English Grammar and Composition, Elocution, Commercial 
Law, and Book-keeping. 

Rev. Aurelius McMahon, 0. S. B., 

Professor of Evidences and Principles of Christianity, Christian Doctrine, 

Latin, Greek, French, and History. 

Rev. Augustine Schneider, O. S. B., 
Professor of Hebrew. 

Rev. Cornelius Eckel, O. S. B., 
Professor of Christian Doctrine, Geometry, Algebra, and Music. 



508 PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

Rev. Wenceslas Kocarnick, O. S. B., 

Professor of Christian Doctrine, Bible History, German, Arithmetic, 
Painting and Drawing, and German Penmanship. 

Rev. Edwin Pierron, O. S. B., 1 

Professor of Christian Doctrine, Latin, English Grammar and Composi- * 

tion, Arithmetic, and History. 

Rev. Dominic Block, O. S. B., 
Professor of Latin, Book-keeping, Reading, and Spelling. 

Rev. Melchior Reichert, O. S. B., 
Professor of Music and English Penmanship. 

Rev. Nepomucene J^ger, 0. S. B., 
Professor of Music. 

Rev. Albert Robrecht, O. S. B., 
Professor of Vocal Music and Prefect of Music. 

Rev. Anthony Wirtner, O. S. B., 
Professor of German and Geography. 

Rev. Frederick Hcesel, O. S. B., 
Professor of Geography. 

Bede Hipelius, O. S. B., 
Professor of Book-keeping. 

Joseph Keller, O. S. B., 
Professor of Latin. 

SiGFRIED KlIMA, 

Professor of Greek and Music. 

Casimir Elsesser, O. S. B., 
Professor of English Grammar. 

Stephen Lyons, O. S. B., 
Professor of English Grammar and Composition, Reading and Spelling. 



509 



Adolph Wessling, O. S. B., 
Professor of Greek and German. 

Louis Haas, O. S. B., 
Professor of German. 

Timothy Blasius, O. S. B., 
Professor of Reading and Spelling. 

WiLFRiED Schmidt, O. S. B., 
Professor of German. 

Cyril Rettqer, O. S. B., 
Professor of German and Geography. 

Boniface Wirtner, O. S. B., 
Professor of English Grammar. 

Patrick McFadden, O. S. B., 
Professor of Latin and Geography. 

Hugh McCauley, 0. S. B., 
Professor of English Penmanship. 

Henry Hohmann, O. S. B., 
Professor of Latin and German Penmanship. 

Severin Laufenberg, O. S. B., 
Professor of Greek and German. 

Secretary, 
Eev. Aloysius Gorman, O. S. B. 




610 



PENNA. soldiers' ORPHAN SCHOOLS, 



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ORPHANS' HOME, 




HIS school is an adjunct to the Farm School at Zelienople, 
and was founded through the labors of the same benevo- 
lent individual. It is intended only for girls, and is also 
an industrial school. The buildings are large and well 
adapted for the purpose, and the situation is one of surpassing 
beauty. From the elevated situation, one can behold the placid 
waters of the beautiful Ohio for a distance of ten miles. To the 
right the Beaver River empties into the Ohio, and around the junc- 
tion of these rivers eight thriving towns are located. The Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad is located along the 
river, on which the iron horse is ever to be seen and heard, whilst 
on the river the steamboat rides majestically along its bosom. Here, 
in this enchanting spot, six of the orphan daughters of soldiers have 
happily found a quiet Christian home, where they have been edu- 
cated and trained for usefulness and happiness in time and in 
eternity. We give the names as follows, viz., Elizabeth Ashbaugh, 
Anna J. Holtzhower, Loretta A. Holtzhower, Mary L. Marquart, 
Beulah A. Thompson, Cornelia A. Thompson. 

511 




f( 



CHILDREN'S HOME/' OF YORK, 




HE above institution was incorporated by the Legislature 
in February, 1865 ; its aim and object being to afford a 
place of shelter for destitute and friendless children, was 
entirely distinct from the State provision for soldiers' 
orphans, though Superintendent Burrowes at once proposed sending 
to it those of this class belonging to York county. 

A large house having been rented in a desirable location, its doors 
were opened for the children May 1, 1865. On the eighteenth of 
the same month, the first family of soldiers' orphans was admitted. 
In this case, as in a number of others, the youngest child was sup- 
ported by the institution until it reached the age which entitled it 
to the State provision. 

During the first two years, owing to very limited accommodations, 
but thirty-one wards of the State were admitted, all very young. 
On April 1, 1867, the family was removed to the large, convenient 
building now occupied, which was erected on ground given by Mr. 
Samuel Small, and built under his direction, and principally at his 
expense. Since this period, soldiers' orphans have been assigned to 
this Home from York, Adams, Dauphin, and Cumberland counties, 
and have shared its fostering care. 

The Managers have preferred to have the boys transferred to other 
scliools at eleven or twelve years of age, partly because of the difli- 
culty in finding employment for them, and partly because by that 
time they generally require male government. Some of the boys 
have therefore been transferred each year, generally to White Hall. 
Thfe same plan was at first pursued with the girls ; but, latterly, 
by the desire of the mothers, and with the consent of the State Super- 

512 



1 



"children's home " OF YORK. 



513 



intendent, nearly all have been retained in the Home, where several 
have graduated with honor, two having entered normal schools. 

In mental training, lady-like deportment, skill in needle-work and^ 
household duties, these girls compare favoi^ably with those in any of 
the schools. 

Five excellent physicians give their time and services gratuitously 
to the Home. It is a remarkable fact that, in a family usually num- 
bering from sixty to sixty-five, no death has ever occurred, and very 
little serious sickness. The present number of soldiers' orphans is 
ten girls and'six boys — sixteen in all. 

Beside the regular teachers, much valuable gratuitous instruction 
is given by Mr. D. B. Prince, in higher English branches; Drs. 
Charles and Jane Garver, in physiology, with charts ; Prof. H. Bentz 
and Miss Schriver, in music and singing ; Prof. D. K. Noell, in cal- 
isthenics. 

Physicians. 



John Hay, M. D., dec'd, 
A. E. Blair, M. D., 



Jane Garver, M. D., 
E.H.Pentz,M.D.,dec'd, 
M. W. McKinnon, M. D. 



Jacob Hay, M. D., 
Charles Garver, M. D., 



Miss S. E. Thornbury, 
" Mary Anderson, 



Teachers. 
Miss Marion Stansbury, 
" M. J. Mifflin, 
Mr. D. K. Noell. 



Miss J. Russell, 
" L. Gable, 



Matrons. 

Mrs. Catherine Stough, I Mrs. Elston, 
Miss Maggie Atchley, | Miss Martha Smith, 
Miss Ellen Steuart. 



Miss Mary Isaacs, 
" S. E. Thornbury, 



Seamstress. 
Miss Ellie Motter. 

Employees in Kitchen and Laundry. 
Mrs, Mary Berger, I Mrs. Harriet Seitz, I Mrs. M. Klinedinst, 

" Charlotte Ward, | " C. Keiser, | Miss Hannah Rosetta, 

Eva Zeigler, Ida Hevener. 

Man of all Work. 
Jacob Spiese. 



33 



514 



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ST. VINCENT'S ORPHAN ASYLUM, 




HIS institution is pleasantly located at Tacony, on the 
Delaware River, about two miles above Frankford. Nine 
acres of good land aiFord many comforts to its inmates. 
The building is of brick, consisting of a centre edifice 
with wings on either side, and is four stories high, besides a fine 
basement. The south wing was erected in 1857, and in 1860 the 
centre and north wing. It has accommodations for two hundred and 
fifty children, who are received between the ages of one and twelve 
years. 

This institution was built, and is supported, by the German Roman 
Catholic congregations of Philadelphia, for whose necessitous chil- 
dren it provides. As soon as good homes can be found, the boys are 
apprenticed until twenty-one and the girls till eighteen years of age. 
Those to whom they are bound are required to pay the institution 
two dollars per month for the third year of service, and three 
dollars for the fourth year, and increasing the amount one dollar 
per month until the child is of age. This money is paid over to 
the children at the expiration of their term of apprenticeship; 
but in case they abscond, the accrued money, if any, inures to the 
benefit of the institution. 

The following are the names of the soldiers' orphans maintained 
and educated at this Asylum at the expense of the State : 

516 



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ORPHANS' FARM SCHOOL, 




HIS school is located at Zelienople, Butler county, and was 
established through the efforts of Rev. W. A. Passavant, 
T>. D., of Pittsburgh, for the education and maintenance 
of orphan children. It is by its charter a church institu- 
tion of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, but is open to the admis- 
sion of all creeds and nationalities. The farm consists of four 
hundred acres of arable and wood land, in one of the most beautifiil 
valleys in Western Pennsylvania. The buildings are very commo- 
dious and substantial, and the grounds around beautifully improved. 
In this school none but boys are admitted, who devote a portion of 
their time to the care and cultivation of the farm and gardens, and 
hence it is an industrial school. Here five soldiers' orphan boys 
have found a delightful home to which, while life lasts, they will 
look back with gratitude and love. We give the names as follows, 
viz., William C. Davis, John G. F. Holtzhower, Robert Montgomery, 
Frank Thompson, William H. Ashbaugh. 

At Nazareth Hall, Northampton county, two soldiers' orphans 
have been maintained and educated at the expense of the State, viz., 
Anthony M. Ely and Charles F. Phillips. 

The Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble -Minded 
Children, located at Media, Delaware county, has cared for thir- 
teen soldiers' orphans under the State orphan system. We give their 
names on the next^page. 

518 



SCHOOL FOR FEEBLE-MIlsDED CHILDREN. 519 



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OUT-DOOR RELIEF. 

THE law of 1867 required the Superintendent, in certain cases, to 
grant to destitute soldiers' orphans out-door relief, not exceeding 
thirty dollars a year to each child. The following statement shows 
what has been done under this provision of the law. 



Blair, James B. 
Bojer, Jacob, 
BeQoj, John H. 
Bricker, William H. 
Barker, Charles S. 
Carter, Heory R. 
CaaaoD, Charles F. 
Dibble, Nortoa E. 
Fulcomer, Norman S. 
Garris, Francis S. 
Gardner, William B. 



Harris, Nathan, 
Hjsong, Amos L 
Hunter, James V. B. 
Joslin, Ellsworth £. 
Kellj, Joseph M. 
Kellj, Newton C. 
McKiiflin, Andrew D. 
McGiffin, Emmit H. 
McCrarj, John G. 
Markley, George A. 
David L. 



Martin, Harry W. 
Peawell, George Mo. 
Reem, John E. 
Kodkey, Elmer A. 
Sears, Stephen, 
Taylor, Jolin H. 
WysoUkey, William 
Wyant, George W. 
White, Wilson W. 

*Bricker, EUza K. 
Blair, EUtabetb M. 
Boyer, Anna M. 
Benson, Edith N. 
Barker, CUra M. 
Clement, Martha E. 
Cannon, Frances L. 
Douds, Dela J. 
Fry, Hannah B. 
Ford, Annie J. L. 
fFetterman, Luoinda E. 
Fetterman, Sarah E. 
Floyd, Julia A. 
Green, Catherine, 
Green, Mary, 
Gardner, Ida M. 
Gallagher, Maggie, 
Gallagher, Emma, 
Grander, Clara A. 
Oodfery, Carrie J. 
Humphreys, E. H. 
Hamilton, CUra, 
Hillyer. Malissa A. 
Hill, Buian E. 
Kelly, AugusU L. 
Knipe, Mary C. 
MeNiell, Annie 0. 
McGiffin, Florence L, 
MoGiffiu, Mary A. 
MoGarr, Clara R. 
Moore, Ella May, 
McWilllams, Rosetta 0. 
Miokerell, Sarah W. 
Me<;rary, Isabella J. 
Oterdurf, Mary E. 
«>rf, LydU A. 



r, IvTdU A. 
Edith E. J. 



,11.*. 



HbroT. Emma A. 



Haara, harah J. 
WaM, MargMvt I. 



May 26, 1862 
July 3, 186i 
Sept. 16, 1857 
Deo. 3, 1864 
Dec. 24, 1860 
Aug. 19, 1865 
May 9, 1868 
July 20, 1862 
Dot. 12, 1864 
Mar. 19, 1863 
Oct. 1, 1859 
Jan. 1, 1881 
Nov. 2, 1857 
June 2, 1857 
May 8, 1861 
Mar. 6, 1863 
May 26, 1863 
Nov. 13, 1860 
Mar. 8, 1863 
Feb. 23, 1856 
June 16. 1807 
Oct. 11,1860 
Got. 28, 1861 
Mar. 8, 1861 
Mar. 6, 1863 
Jan. 10, 1861 
Mar. 17, 1863 
Aug. 22, 1863 
May 2, 1863 
Sept. 11, 1861 
Nov. 8, 1861 
May 22, 1861 
Mar. 9, 1868 
Oct. 20, 1860 

June 1. 1863 
May 1,1856' 
Feb. 3, 1862 
Sept 18, 1861 
Jan. 29, 1868 
Dec. 26, 1856 
Sept. 12, 1861 
Mar. 29, 1861 
Oct. 28, 1856 
Mar. 14, 1864 
Nov. 19, 1862 
Deo. 12, 1869 
July 2, 1868 
Oct 12,1869 
June 22, 1867 
Oct. 23, 1857 
Oct. 6, 1869 
June 6, 1861 
Sept 16, 1858 
April 21, 1863 
Jan. 6, 1862 
April 6, 1862 
April 22, 1863 
Oct 18, 1862 
June 20, 1861 
May 17, 1867 
Feb. 20, 1862 
Sept 8, 1868 
April 22. 1869 
Jan. 20, 1862 
April 6. 1864 
Oct. 12, 1868 
May 10, 1866 
Dec. 28, 1862 
Mar. 4, \»bS 
Jan. 2i>, 1860 
Aug. ii. 1863 
Hay 9, 1861 
Mar. 8, 1856 
Mar. 32, 1864 
Mar. 16, 1861 
June 7, I860 
Feb. 6. 1866 
July 9. 1861 
Dec. 23, IBSS 
May M, 1863 
Jan. 13, IH&a 
May »). 1866 
AdtU ti, 1867 
Mar. 10, 1869 
May 30, 1861 
April 39, 1861 
Jan. 81, 1869 



Datbop 
Apjicssion On Age at 

TO Benetits. 16 Years. 



April 1, 1870 
Mar. 23, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Dec. 1, 1872 
Doc. 1, 1874 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Feb. 12, 1868 
Feb. 18, 1876 
Sept. 3, 1875 
June 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1872 
June 1, 1870 



June 1 



1871 



Nov. 1, 1874 
Dec. 1, 1874 
June 1, 1871 
June 1, 1872 
April 1, 1870 
July 5, 1869 
June 1, 1872 
June 1, 1871 
Feb. 22, 1874 
Feb. 22, 1874 
June 1, 1873 
June 1, 1870 
Feb. 1, 1873 
Jan. 1, 1866 
June 1, 1875 
June 1, 1872 
April 12, 1866 
June 1, 1870 
June 1, 1874 

April 1,1868 
April 1, 1870 
Mar. 23, 1872 
June 1, 1873 
June 1, 1875 
Mar. 8, 1867 
Feb. 12, 1868 
June 1, 1873 
May 1, 1870 
May 1, 1870 
Dec. 1, 1872 
Deo. 1, 1872 
Sept. 23, 1873 
April 17, 1866 
April 17, 1866 
Sept. 1, 1872 
June 1, 1873 
June 1, 1873 
June 1, 1873 
Feb. 19, 1875 
Dec. 1,1872 
June 1, 1873 
Doc. 1, 1874 
June 1, 7376 
June 1, 1872 
Feb. 1, 1873 
April ao, 1868 
April 1, 1870 . 
July 6, 1869 
Mar. 1, 1870 
Deo. 1, 1871 
June 1, 1872 
Sept. 19, 1872 
Juno 1, 1872 
Sept 1, 1872 
Sept. 1, 1873 
Deo. 1, 1874 
Feb. 1, 187S 
Mar. 1, 1870 
Sept 1, 1868 
June 1,1870 
May :n, 1870 
Feb. 1, 1878 
June 1, 1878 
June 1. 1873 
June 1, 1876 
April 12, 1867 
April 12, 1807 
April 12, 1867 
April 12, IC07 
April 12, 1607 
Sept 1,1874 
Bept. 1, 1673 



Sept 16, 1873 
Dec. 24, 1876 
May 9, 1874 



Dec. 12, 1875 
July 2. 1874 
Oct 12,1875 
June 22, 1»73 
Oct 23, 1873 
Oct. 6, 1875 

Sept 16, 1874 



Sept. 8, 1874 
April 22, 187S 



Har. 8, 1871 
Mar. 32, 1870 



Jan. 18, 1869 
May 20, 1871 
April 23, 1878 
Mar. 18, 1876 



Jw. 81. 1876 



Aug. 81, 1876 



Not. 80, 1874 
Mar. 1. 1876 



May 31, 1872 
Sept. 3, 1875 



Aug. 31,1876 



May 31, 1876 
June 1, 1878 



Sept 9, 1872 



April 8, 1875 
April 8, 1876 



PoBT^OmcB 

Addeess when 

AT Home. 



Philadelphia, 

Saltsburg, 

Honesdale, 



Albion, 

Philadelphia, 

Coudersport, 

Conneautville, 

Black lick Stat'n 

Clarksburg, 

Harrisburg, 

Harrisburg, 

Lancaster, 

Harrisbui^, 

Armagh, 

Apollo, 

Lundy's Lane, 

Delmont, 

Saftsburg, 

Bentleysville, 

Bentleysville, 

Brush Valley, 

Port Matilda, 

Armagh, 

Armagh, 

Pittsburgh, 

Shippensburg, 

Brush VaUey, 

Nolo, 

Buffalo, 

RichardsviUe,Va, 

Gettysburg, 

Harrisburg, 

Balina, 

Harrisburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Saltsburg, 

Lancaster, 

Albion, 

Philadelphia, 

Coudersport, 

Saltsburg, 

Ickesburg, 

Colemanaville, 

Brush Valley, 

Brush Valley, 

E. Bethlehem, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Harrisburg, 

Doylestown, 

Dojlestown, 

Rush, 

Albion, 

Wakefield, 

Penn Run, 

Elk Creek, 

Nolo, 

Saltsburg, 



North East 

Bentleysville, 

BentleysviUe, 

Enterline, 

Dutler, 

Saltsburg, 

Brush Valley, 

Brush Valley, 

Brush Valley, 

Urush Valley, 

Brownsville, 

Brush Valley, 

West Chester, 

Willianisport, 

Middlctown, 

tliddle Spring, 

Willi amsport, 

Penn Run 

Penn Run 

Buflklo, 

Caltfomia, 

California, 

California, 

California, 

California, 

Armagh, 

balUburg, 



NAME OF TRUSTEE. 



Mrs. E. E. Hutter. 
David 8. Robinson, Esq. 
Joseph Benny, Esq. 
Henry A. Knepley, Esq. 
Hon. 0. Logan. 
Mrs. Mary R. Welsh. 
H. J. Olmstead, Esq. 
Bradley AV. Pond, Esq. 
T. J. O'llarra, E8q.,dec'd. 
Thomas Hart, Esq. 
Miss Caroline Gardner. 
Miss Caroline Gardner. 
Archibald AS arren, Esq. 
Rev. 0. H. Miller. 
Samuel W. Drips, Esq. 
Rev. H. Magill. 
Hon. 0. Logan. 
Rev. D. Harbison. 
W. C. Robinson. M.D. 
Hon. A. J. liuffington. 
Hon. A. J. Buffington. 
John M. Mack, Esq. 
A. R. Barlow, Esq. 
Samuel W. Drips, Esq. 
Samuel W. Drips, Esq. 
Prof. William R. Fori 
George Walters, Ei 
Thompson MoCrea 
Wm. F. Lydick, Esq. 
- • " T. Work. 



X. 



Thompson MoCrea 

pTi, 

Maj. George 
Mrs. A. E. Taylor (mother) 
W. H. H. Wysotikey, Esq, 
John W. Simonton, Esq. 
John Glass, Esq. 



David 8. Robinson, Esq. 
Hon. John B. WarfeL 
Hon. 0. Logan. 
Ohver C. N lehols, Esq. 
H. J. Olmsted, Esq. 
David 6. Robinson, Esq. 

B. F. Bamhart, tsq. 
W. M. Cooper, Esq. 
H. R. Tyson, Esq. 
H. R. Tyson, Esq. 
Lewis M. Clever, Esq. 
Mrs. Eliiabeth ConnelL 
Mrs. Eliiabeth ConnelL 
Miss Caroline Gardner. 
T. W. Uaker, Esq. 

T. W. Baker. Esq. 

0. W. Palmer, Esq. 
Hon. 0. Logan 

Mrs. Rachel H. Stubb*^ 
James Rugh, Esq. 
Hon. 0. Logan. 
William F. Lydick. Esq. 
W. C. Robinson, M.D. 

1. B. Good, Esq. 
Hon. M. B. loivery. 
Hon. A. J. Buffington. 
Hon. A. J. Buffington. 
Wallace I>e W ilt, Esq. 

C. E. Anderson, Isq. 
William I. Sterrett, Esq. 
Josiah Fee, 1 sq. 

John M. Mack, Esq. 
\Mlliam dveraorf, Esq. 
William Overdorf, Esq. 
11. Shoemaker, M.D. 
Tlioniinon McCrra, Esq. 
Mrs. P. Fraier Smith. 
A. Updepaff, Esq. 
Hennr Snroy, Esq. 
Joseph W. Means, Esq. 
Samuel Adams, Esq. 
Albert R. Evans, Esq. 
Albert R. Evans, Eeq. 
Maj. George T. Work. 

1. W. Morgan, K«q. 
Tin* 

Bon. Wm. Uopkint, 



W. Dripa. 
John U. Leech, Esq. 



t DM JUIUM7 10, 1878. 



IColortd. DMJbm 18, 1871. 

520 



362.732 P324P c.1 

Paul # Pennsylvania's 
soldiers' orphan schools 



3 0005 02077008 



jNr 



Paul 

Pennsylvania's soldiers 

orphan schools 



P324P ' 

Paul 

Pennsylvania's soldiers* orphan 
schools 



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