Skip to main content

Full text of "The People's medical journal, and family physician, Volumes 1-4"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



A. 1^1-2-. cL. 

\- 3 



Digitized by 



Google 




RADCLIFFE SCIENCE LIBRARY 
PARKS ROAD 
OXFORD 
OXl 3QP 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



AND 



FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



EDITED BY 



THOMAS HARRISON YEOMAN, M.D., 

AT7TH0S ON " CONSUMPTION," " A8XHXA., BB0NCHIII8, IVfLVVSZi., AND CAXABSH," " Iia>I0S3TI0N,'C0N8TIFAn0N, 

NERT0T7BNESS, AND LOW SPIRITS," " HSADACHEF," XTC, XTC. 



VOLUME L 







■'U^ 



\^ 



LONDON: GEORGE VICKERS, STRAND. 



1850. 



Digitized by 



Google 



lohsok: 

nciTIS IT WItMVOHIT AX!) CO., M, mTBTnUS 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX. 



Abemethy'a aperient mixture, 127 

Abenietlt/si»l]s,191 

A blacic eye, 47 

Abortion, death firom, 128 . 

Acidom aceticmn, 1 10 

A Cold. 1, 10, 20, 86, 33, 44, 49, 59, 66, 77, 83 

Acquittal of a qnack doctor on ths northern cir- 

cmt,I17 
Action of acute bronchitis, 49 
Action of mercory on the human system, 100 
Acute bronchitis, 49, 55, 59 

„ treatment of, 60 
Acute inflammation of the heart, or carditis, 165 
Acute or legnUr gout, 83 
Acute rhenmatism, or rheumatic ferer, 57 
Administering aperients to children, 39 
Adulteration of drugs, 54, 140 
AdTgntages of plants in the dweUiogs of tiie 

poor, 60 
Advantages of sea-bathing, 180 
AdTertinng consulting-surgeons, exposure of, 1 1, 

3S, 40, I8S 
AdTcrtising sniveons, qtiack, 53 
Advice, rational medical, 190 
Advice to the fair sex, 118 
Aflbetions of the joints, scrofulous, 86 
Affections, scrofulous, treatment of, 86 
After risi^, an excellent custom for, 159 
A &mily French salad for the snmmer, 135 
AgraeaUe fonnola, 47 
Air and exercise, influence of on health, 67 
Allium, allium sativum, 
Allinm porrum, 117 
Ahumd oil, and olive oil, 181 ' 
Aloes, compound decoction of, 151, 205 
Alterative powder for lerafiilous children, 31 
AltbMi'-fflarsb nuBotr, 117 

Ahim sar^ 135 
A mecSamcal leech, 4 
Americi^ deration of life in, 158 

Ammonia, 110 ^^ 

AmmoniacDm— dotema ammoniacum (gum am- 
moniac), 117 

Analysis of the blood, 183 

Analysis of cod liver oil, 30 

Anatomy, 9 

Anchovy paste, 151 

Anderson 9 pills, 63 

An emetic, 87 

An excellent laxative pill, 111 

Annooneement, 1 

Antidote for arsenic, 36 

Antimony, 84, 134 

Apoplexy, If 

Apoidexy, premoniUvy ^mptoms of 805 

Apparatna for em]doying mechanical leeches, 
description of, 37 

Appetite, the fickleness of, in eaaea of indiges- 
tioD, IS 

Appetite and digettion, 193 * 

Apples as an article of human food, 187 

Apjdes baked, 23 

Apple fritters, 55 

Apide and rice padding, 7 

Aqna sinapii^ 55 

A tefivahhigbeTenM, 143 

Areliab,119 

A rich seed cake, 191 

Aiialocraey, nature's, 94 

Annofaeia, 134 

Anest baldness^ or stay the falling off of the 
hair, 59 

Aromatic wine of cpdnioe, 71 

Anmie, antidote ior, S6 

Arterial palpitation, 146 

Aitifldallimhs^ 45 



Asparagus, 167 

Aspara^ 9on|\ 159 

Asphyxia described, 46 

AssakEtida teniiBlsdreck; or stereos diaboli, 125 

Auscultation, 803 



Babies, golden rule concerning, 121 

Baked apples, 23 

Baked eggs with asparagus, 191 

Baldness, liow to arrest, 55 

Balsamic vinegar for sick chambers, 55 

Barley-beard under the tongue, 302 

Barley water, 167 

Baths, 85 

Bathing, 124 

Bathing and cleanliness, 110 

Batter pancakes, 55 

Battle, chlosoform on the field o( 126 

Beef olivet, 175 

Beef-tea, Soyer's, 7 

Benzoin: styrax becioin, 125 

Black ey e^ a, 47 

Black wash, 79 

Bleeding at the nose, 158 

Bleeding firom wounds, 197 

Blirters, management ot, 78 

Blisters, ringworm treated by applicatiOB 0^ 39 

BkMd, analysis of, 122 

Bodily exerdse, 138 

B^led chestnuts, 135 

B^ 119 

Borough of Finsbniy, park for, 148 

Bottling port wine, 110 

Bowels, state of in indigestion, 13 

Boy or girl? 198 

Brayera anthehnintica, experiments with, 155 

Bread pudding. 111 

Bread and batter pudding, 7 

Breakfast, Dr. Franklin's favonrite, 39 

Bread, parsuip, 39 

Bronchitis, inflammation <» the lur tubes, 44, 49 

Broth, mutton, 15_ 

Bruises, or contusions, 91 

Bubble and saueak, 119 

Burning the oead, 808 

Bums and chilblains, 38 

Butter, how to sweeten, 39 

a • 

Cabinet pudding, 103 , « . 

Cake ornaments, death from eating, 88 "* 

Calculus in the bladder originating in fractore of 
the spine, 187 

Calves' feet jelly, 74 

Camp vinegar, 178 

Can gonornioea produce syphiHsf 158 

Cantharis visicatorU : bBsteiing beetle ; or 
Spanish fly, 166 

Cardins and pericarditis, treatment of, 188 

Cariet, or decay of the teeth, 58 

Case of reunion of fingers after complete sepa- 
ration, 14 

Cassia flstuUi, 178 

Catamenia, age at which it appear^ 17 

Cataract, 8086 

Catarrh, 1, 10, 20, 86, 83, 44, 49, 5», 66, 77, 83, 

Catarrh, humid, 36 

Catarrh, polmonaiT, 33 

Cathartics for children. 111 

Causes of diniepeisL, 115 

Cinses of indigestion, 18 

Caoses of intennittent and remittent feren^ 190 

Celebratod, Dr. Oangerk, tooth balsam, 68j 

Chalk mixtnre ibr diairiMay 183 

Chamomile tea, 47 



Channel islands, quackery in, 115 j 

Character of influenza, 33 

Charlatanism, 187 

Cheap substitute for a vapomr bath, 54 

Chelsea pensioner, 179 

Chest, Dissases of thb, 1, 10, 20, 26, 33, 44, 

49, 59, 66, 77, 83 
Chicory, 147 

Chilblains, treatment of, 15 
Childbirth, chloroform in, 8 
Children, administering aperients to, 39 
Children, alterative powder for scroAtlons, 31 ' 
Children, convulsions in, 31 
Children, dress of, 30 
Children, gentle laxative for, 6 
Children, the management of, l70.. , 
Children, drink for, 55 .. -« 

Children, cathartics for. Ill h 
Ching'swonn lozenges, 135 
Chlorine, 109 

CUorosis of pregnant women, 158 
Chlorosis, its eflects on the appetite of yonog 

females, 136 
Chloroform, 14 

Chloroform in obstetric practice^ 30 
Chloroform on the field of battle, 186 < 
Chloroform in childbirth. Dr. Conquest on, 16 
Choking by things getting into the gnllet, 38 
Cholera of 1832 and 1849, 22 
Cholera, the, once man at hand, 145 
Cholera, oxygen gas a cure for, 187 
Cholera, wiU It return? 142 
Chronic pericarditis : chronic inflamiuatioa ot 

the pericardium, 179 
Chronic pleurisy, 147 
Chronic rheumatism, 65 
Classiucation or ttKiramw: 

1, stimulants; 2, tonics ; 3, depteaiants; 

4, sedatives ; fi, narcotics — 70 
Circnmstances, influence of 158 
Climatx, 108 

Climate, the influence of onindigestioB, IS 
Clothing, 16 

Cocoa, description of, 180 
Cod liver oil, 7, 53, 70 
Cod, to dress a salt, 63 
Cod's sounds like litde turkeys, 63 
Coflee, as made in India, 151 
Cold bath, 86 

Cold in the head — corysa. 1 
Cold on the chest, 10 
Cold in the head, treatment ot 8 
Comfort a, for females troubled with habitual 

costireness, 87 
Common custard 63 
Common snccedaneua fat the teeth, 68 
Common sweet flag, 84 

Compan;r> 6i 

Compassion, 118 

Complications of chronic bronchitis, 83 .; 

Complications of the influenza, 44 

Compound decoction of aloes, 151 

Compound decoction of gentian, 191 

Compoimd mixture of cascarilla, 183 

Compound rhubarb mixture, 43 

Compound rhubarb pill, 151 

Connexion of skin diseases with conititotiooal 

disorder, 115 
Constipation, 41 
Constitutional disorders, connexion of skia diieaMi 

with, 114 
Consumption of the lungs, i nfl uence of pngnaaey 

on, 157 
Contusions or bnises, 91 
ConvoUens In children, 31 ] 
Cw^verMtioa, 195 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV 



INDEX. 



Cookerj what it is, 183 

CopaiTa balMm— balsam of ot^ba, 157 

Capper coin, symptoms of poisoning hj a, 198 

C«n plaister, 159 

Com solvent. Sir Hmnpbrey Davy't, 31 

CoBBHVOlfDSKTB, notices to, 8, 16, 34, 3S, 40, 48 

56, 64, 72, 80, 88, 96, 104, 118, ISO, 188, 136, 

144, 153, 160, 168, 176, 184, 192, 200, 208 
Corpulency, 94 
CoDgh, 10, 14 

CoBgh mixture for children, 7 
Owgh with espeotoration, 26; symptoms of, ib.; 

dnration <^ 27; :treatment of,ib. 
Csnby snrgeqr, 88 
Court plaister, 143 
Creating a wuit, 53 
Criticism, natural, 158 
Cobeba — piper cnbeba — tailed pepper, Java 

pepper, 149 
Cutleta, Prussian, 31 
Cutlet, stewed chops, or, 39 
Cure for ill-temper, 98 
Curd cheese-cakes, 151 
Curry powder, 181 
Custard, common, 63 
Custom of women, signs of, 17 



Dancing, 175 

Dandelion roots, 103 

Dalby's carminative, 79, 191 

Datura stramonium, 109 

Deaths from abortion, 126 

Death caused by a quack, 86 

Death by spontaneous combustion, 83 

Death, real and apparent, 147 

Death oat of town, 99 

Death caused by a pin, 140 

Death of a jockey from "sweating," 133 

Death by quackery, 65 

Decision in a case of quackei7, 122 

Defective state of the law of lunacy, iUuitratioM 
of, 73 

Delirium tremens— infirmity of mind produced by 
dissipation, 168 

Demulcents and emolients, 76 

Drepressants^ 70 

Derangement of the liver, the general accompani- 
ment of indigestion, 14 

Description of. the apparatus for employing 
the mechanical leeches, 37 

Diagnosis, meaning o^ 7 

Diaphoretics, 76 

Diarrhoea, chalk mixture for, 183 

Diarrheal in children, HI 

Diuretic a, for elderly persons, 71 

DiBTABT, WhOLKSOXE AH0 ECOKOMIC:— 

Bread and butter pudding, 7; apple and rice 
padding, ib.j ; Bayer's beef tea, ib.; wine 
posset, ib.; sago gruel, ib.; a very strengthen- 
ing drink, ib.; to make white nnfermented 
bread, 15; ; to make brown nnfermented 
bread, ib.; to boil rice,ib.; mutton broth, ib.; 
porridge, ib.; Irish stew, 23; to cook stur- 
geon, ib.; to roast sturgeon, ib.; baked 
apples, ib,; hare soup, 31; French method of 
making whev, ib.; Prussian cutlets, ib.; 
French panaaa, 39; stewed chops or cutlet, 
ib.; yeast, ib.; parsnip bread, ib.; to sweeten 
butter, ib.; isinglass jelly, 47; hartshorn 
jelly, ib. ; calves' foet jellv, ib. ;plain jelly, ib. ; 
savoury jelly, ib.; muUlgaiawny soup, iK; 
apple fritters, 55; batter pancakes, ib.; pink 
coloured pancake, ib.; to nuJte a light pud- 
ding, ib.; peas soup for t«nt, 63: to dress 
a suit cod, ib.; egg sauce for a salt cod, ib.; 
cod's sounds like little turkeys, ib.; pitch- 
cock eels, ib.; dommdn custard, ib.; M. 
Beyer's fritadella, 71 ; marrow' pudding, ib,: 
red t8go° pudding, %.; to gritl a breast of 
mutton, ib.; potted salmon, 79; sUt leg of 
mutton, ib.; haricot of mutton or Iamb, ib.; 
stewed spinach, ib.; to fry smelts, iK; white 



bait,ibi; lentils, 87; lyonnaiae, ib.; turbot, 
ib.; lobster stuoe, ib.; to stew flonnden, 
plslce or sokt, ib.; made dish from joints 
that have been previously served, 95; lamb 
chops in paper, with fine herbs, ib. ; ginger 
beer, ib.; gmger beer powders, ibk; pure 
osmazone, or essence of meat, 103; French 
herb broth, ib.; cabinet pudding, ib.; treacle 
beer, ib.; roast; sweet-lffeads. 111; imperial 
water, ib.; to poach eggs, ib.; soup mai^re, 
ib.; bread pudding, ib.; vermicelli pudding, 
ib.; bubble and Isqueak, 119; a relish, ib.; 
to broil pigeons, ib.; rfanbaib tart, ib. ; flrying 
herbs as dressed in Staffordshire, ib.; 
lemonade, ib.; apples as an article of human 
food, 127; mustard, ib.; sheept head, ib.; 
pigeon pie, 135; a family French salad for 
< the summer, ih.; dried figs, ik; boiled chest- 
nuts, ib.; orsters,ib.; lettuce, ib.; refreshing 
beverage, ib.; imperial, ik; mint sauce for 
Iamb, lb.; co£^, as made in India, 151; 
curry powder, ib.; lemon pickle, ib.; anchovy 
paste, lb. ; flavouring essence, ib. ; curd cheese- 
cakes, ib.; imperial pop, 159; n^k lemonade, 
ib.; orangeade, ib.; asparagus soup, ib.; 
spiced beef, ibi; rhubarb fool, ib.; asparagus, 
167; gratin of lobster, ib.; eg^ and bacon 
pie to eat cold,ib.; jelly, of spring fruit, ib.; 
lemon flavour, 175; camp vinegar, n>.; 
sauce superlative^^ 0>.; beef oUtm, ib. ; 
savoury chicken pic, ib.; Torkshire pndding, 
to bake under meat, ib.; diet, 183; cookery, 
ib.; bodge podge 6f mutton, ib.; gooseberry- 
fool, ib. ; to dress the inside of a cold sirloin 
of beef, ib.; stewed tongue, 191; veal and 
ham pie, ib.; baked eggs with separagns, ib.; 
a rich seed cake, ib. ; pickling, 207 ; to pickle 
radish pods, ib. ; to pickle narsturtium berries, 
ib.; to stew ducks with greeu peas, ib. 
Difficulty of breathing and cough, symptoms o( 

indigestion, 14 
Digitalis: digitalis purpurea: fox-glove, 149 
Digestion ana appetite, 193 
Diabetes, treatment and core of, 196 
Diluents, 76 
Dinner pills, 47 

Direction for using the mechanical leech, 38 
Dioema crenata, bucku leaves, 141 
Discovery of sex: boy or girl? 198 
Disease,' the signs of, S3, 54 
DisBAaBS or this Chest— Coughs, Colds, ]Jn- 
flnenza, and Bronchitis: — 
Catarrh or "cold," 1; cold in the head, 
coryza, ib.; treatment of cold in the head, 9; 
pnlmonaiy catarrh : cold in the chest — 
cough, description of, 10; dry catarrh, cough 
without expectoration, 20; treatment, ib.; 
fonnultc for "congh mixtures," 21; humid 
catarrh: cough with expectoration, 26; symp- 
toms, ib.; treatment, 27; prescriptions, ib.; 
influenza, or epidemic catorrii, 33; treatment 
and prescription, 34; complication of influ- 
enza, 44; bronchitis the result of influenza, 
ib.; pleurisy somotiioes complicated with 
influenza, ib.; inflammation of the lungs, ib,; 
general symptoms when influenza degenerates 
into fever, 45; bronchitis, inflammation of 
the air tubes, description of, 49; acute bron- 
chitis, 49; symptoms of, 59; treatment, 60; 
chronic bronchitis, 68; treatment of ditto, 77; 
complications of chronic bronchitis, 83. 

DiBKABES OF THE HeAKT: — 

Importance of the blood, 116; description of 
the heart, ib.; its internal machinery and 
functions, ib.; the veins and their structure, 
117; the blood, 122; itsanalj^sis, ib.; quantity 
in the system, 123; the pulse, 131; numbers 
of pulsations at viirions ages, ib. ; palpitation, 
137; increased by the emotions, id,; arterial 
palpitation, 14Gi its momfestations, 147; g^-n- 
cQpe, fainting, 156; eoorce!, degree, cure, ib.( 
carditis, inflammation of the heart, 1&$; .acute 
inflammation of the hcirt, leading symp- 



tcmis, ib. ; causes of carditis, ib. ; peri- 
carditis, acute inflammation of the pericar- 
dium, 170; symptoms, ib.; physical signs, 
171; causes of pericarditis, itx; chronic 
pericarditis, chronic inflammation of the 
pericardum, 179; s^rmptoms, ib,; treatment 
of carditis and pencarditis, 188; antiphlo- 
gistic treatment, ib.; diet during conva- 
rascence, ib.; Angnina pectoris; breast pang, 
195; earliest assault of, ib.; continuance 
of pann^sm, ib. ; rarely attacks the young, ib. ; 
objects to be attainM, ib.; treatment ib.; 
structural, or organic diseases of the heart, 
805 

DiSBABSS or WOICER AND ChILDBEK: — 

Health, definition of, 17: diseases of females, 
ib.; girlhood of woman, ib.; physical symp- 
toms of the first crisis, ib. ; circumstances that 
influence the catamenia, 18; chlorosis, 43; 
symptoms of, ib.; hysteria, tiie invariable 
companion of chlorosis, ib,; its effects on 
the appetite of young female, 126 

Diseases, uses, and management of the teeth, 35, 
42, 51, 68 

"Dispatch," extract from the notices to corres- 
pondents in, 121 

DiBPEmA — ^Ikmoestiok, '5, 12, 18, 25, 37, 41, 
60, 57 : 

Dr. Cheyne's calculation of food, 191 

Dr. Crncifex, the late, 1 12 

Dr. Conquest on pastrycooks' shops, 22 

Dr. Ganger's tootii balsam, 68 

Dr. Kitchener's peristaltic persuaders, 95 

Dress, influence of on^catamenia, 29 

Dreams, answer to S.'B., 160 

Dress of children, 30 

Dried figs, 1 35 

Drink, a very strengthening, 7 

Dropsy and insanity caused by excessive drink- 
ing, 150 

Drtigs, adulteration of, 140 

Drug*, the prescribing of, one step in the removal 
of discndcrs, 171 

Drugging and physicking, habit of, 22 

Drt^gists, prescribing, 14 

Drunkard, a, the five cardinal points of, 61 

Diy catarrh, or congh without expectoration, 
20 

Dulcamara, 134 

Duration of life, 109 

Duration of life in lAarried and unmarried 
females, 105 

Dnpuytren's pomade for the cure of baldness, 
95 

Dwellings of the poor, advantages of plants in 
the, 60 

Dyes for the hair, 62 

Dispepsia, causes of, 114 



East wind, influence of, 196 

Eau de Cdogne, 95 

EstTOB, lbttebb to, on various subjects, 11, 46, 

68, 70, 132, 140, 163, 174. 
Eels, to pitchoock, 63 

Education, effect of in influencing catamenia, 18 
Effect of clinuitetm the menstrual flux, 18 
Effects of firoet, cure for, 6 
Effects of indolence 'and luxury, 18 .^ 

Effectual febrifuge, 39 
Egg end bacon pie to eat cold, 167 
Egg sauce for saJt cod, 63 
Elderly persons, warm, mild aperient for, 6 
Elder-flower ointment, 119 
Elder wood, the staff of, 174 
Embrocation for sprains, bruifles,- and riieuma- 

tism, 15 
Employment of time, 171 
'English climates, 108 
Enjoyment, indestructibility of, 19Q. 
Epidemic catarrh, 33 
Epilepsy, 15 
E&hineSk oijstemntatories, 84 , 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX. 



ErralenU, reralenta, and oriental farinfl, IS 

Eoenoe for tmelliDg salts, 175 

Eaphorbinm, 84 

EzeesKS of yonth, 81 

Exdaou of the shoulder joint, 173 

Excision of a tamour, S3 

Exercise, 63, 1S9 

Exereise, hodily, 138 

Exercise, good effecti of at a certain age, 89 

Experiments with the braycrft onthclmiatica for 
for lemoral of tenia Bolinm, or ape worm, 
155 

Expistaxi^ to be eneoniaged, when, 43 

Extraction of teeth, 58 

Extraction of tooth emplojrcd as care for neu- 
ralgia, 198 

Eye, extraction of particles from, 39 

Eye, singular disease of the, 78 

Eye, things in the, 103 

Facial nerre, excision of a tomoar from, 53 
Facts in anatomy and physiology, 69 
Fainting; 15 
Fair sex, advice to the, 118 

FaJIILT PsSSCXIFTIOliS AKD McDICAL PbB- 
CEPTS: — 

Warm, mild aperient for elderly persons, 
7; strong cathartic for robost adults, ib.; 
gentle luatiTe for children, ib.; cough mix- 
ture, ib.i cough mixture for children, ib.; 
three laws to ensure the health of infants, 7; 
when the hands or feet are frost-bitten, 7; 
treatment of chilblains, 15; embrocation for 
sprains, bruise^ and rhenmatism, ib.; oint- 
ment for hoemorritoids; ib.; fainting, ib.; 
epilepsy, ib.; apo|dexy, ib.; table of the 
doses of medicine, 23; tempernture of food, 
ib.; gargle for sore throat, ib.; lotion for 
wealt eyesgib.; convulsions in children, 31 ; 
scrofula, ih.; alterative powder for scrofulous 
children, ib.; medicinal properties of water- 
ereai^ib.; Sir Humphrey Davy's com solvent, 
ib. ; administering aperients to children, 39 ; 
poison in the saucepan, ib.; ringworm trea- 
ted by the application of blisters, ib.; ex- 
traction of particles from the eye, ib. ; eifec- 
tnol febrifuge, ib. ; simple mode of purifying 
water, ih, ; dinner pills, 47 ; chamomile tea, 
ib.; most agreeable formula in the pharmn- 
copaia, ib. ; table beer, ib. ; a bkcic eye, ib. ; 
Tioegar, ih ; zinc ointment, 55 ; to remove 
corns, ib.; aqxa sinapis, ib.; balsamic vinegar 
for sick chambers, ih. ; to arrest baldness, 
or stay the falling off of the hair, ib. ; hint 
for nurses, 63; Sir Henry Halford's gont 
prerentativc, ib. ; quinine, ib. ; Anderson's 
pills, ib. ; gluttony, ib. ; exercise, ib. ; grease 
for the hair, ib.; mild tonic in convalescence 
from fever, 71 : a diuretic for elderly per- 
sons, ib. ; lime water, ib. ; Gregory's powder, 
ih.; aromatic wine of quinine, ib.; lemonade, 
s^no effervescing draught 79 ; sodiac 
powderst ibi; sciUlitz powders, ib.; Dulby's 
carminatira, ib. ; ycUow wash, ib. ; blacli 
wash, ib.; white wash or lead wasli, ib. ; 
an emetic, 87 ; ditto, ib. ; ditto, ib. ; in pre- 
scribing, ib. ; temperature of baths, ih. ; 
honey, ib. ; climate, ib ; a comfort for 
females troubled with habi'.ual costivencs3, 
ih. ; Dupnytren's pomade for baldnc^, 9j ; 
ean ile Cologne, ib. ; rose dcntrifnccjib. ; Dr. 
Kitchener's peristaltic pcrsuuders, ib. ; mode 
of administering the male fern root, ib. ; 
spring physic, ib.; dandelion roots, 103; 
quinine, ibi; retention of nriuc, ih.; freckles, 
ib. ; the iee cap, ib. ; skin dL-ease, 1 1 1 ; ,an 
excellent laxative pill, ib. hysteria, ib. ; 
cathartics for children, ib.; diarrhoea in 
children, ib. ; hartshorn and oil, 119; elder- 
flower ointment, ib.; gnat bites, lb.; boils, 
iK: Abemetby's apenent mixture,- 127; when 
cbildr^ are allowed to cry till tli'eir strength I 
ig exlMMisted.lb.; fever mixture for children. 



ib; fever powders for children, 13.'!; Ching's 
worm lozenges, ib.; alum gatgle, iK ; labonr, 
ib.; long sl^p, ib.; compound rhubarb mix- 
ture, 143; when wine is talcen in excess, ib.; 
spir.ts, ib.; malt liquors, ib.; court plaister, 
ib.; compound decoction of aloe^ 151; com- 
pound rhubarb pill, ib.; friction, ib.; children 
should for some time sleep on thdr backs, ib. ; 
rules for the presen'ationof health, ib.; milk 
of ruses, 1S9; sea-sickness, ib.; after rising, 
ib.; for the recovery of strength, ib.; ex- 
ercise, ih,; com plaister, ib.; infusion of 
linseed, or linseed tea, 167; barlev water, ib.; 
sudden changes, ib.; gargle for re]axe<i 
throat, 175; Chelsea pensioner, ib.; dancing, 
ib.; to prevent baldness, ib.; quinine tooui 
powder, ib.; oleum charts), ib.; essence for 
smelling salts, iK; chalk mixture for di- 
arrhoea, 183; compound mixtnre of coscarilla, 
ib.; perspirttion, ik; tca,ih.; mental labour, 
ib.; malt liquor, ib.; Abemetby's pills, 191; 
Dallqr's carminative, ib.; the way to place a 
cradle, ib.; thirst, ib.; Dr. Cheyno's calcula- 
tion of food, ib.; compound mixture of genr 
tian, iU; treatment of the stin^ of a bee, 207^ 
pot ponrri, ib.; offensive feet, ib. 

Fees, physicians', 196 

Feather beds, why they are relaxing; answer 
to a patient, 1G8 

Febrifuge, effectual, 39 

Females, diseases of, 17, 28, 43 

Female temper, 78 

Fevers, causes oi^ 130 

Fever mixture for children, 135 

Fever powders for children, 35 

Fine pancakes, 55 

Fingers, cose of reunion of, 114 

Finger nails, the management of, 6 

Fil£y advertisements, letter to the editor on, 132 

Flavouring essence, 131 

Flour of lentils, NeviU's, 40 

Food, 167, 177 

Food, temperature of, 21 

Formation of a new nose, 158 

Fracture of the spine, calculus in the bladder ori- 
■ginating in, 187 

French herb broth, 103 

French panadn, 39 

French method of making whey, 31 

Friction, 151 

Fritadelhi, M. Beyer's, 70 

Fritter, apple, 55 

Frying herbs, ss dressed in Staffordshire, 119 

Gallstone's new method of diagnosticating, 120 

Gargle for sore throat, 23 

Gargle for relaxed tluroot, 175 

GarUe, allinm cepa— onion, 117 ' 

General rule applying to diet, 183 

Gentle laxative for children, 7 

Getting on in the world, 163 

Genius of woman, 165 

Ginger, 84 

Ginger beer, 95 

Ginger beer powders, 95 

Girlhood of woman, 70 

Gluttony, 63 

Gnat bitc^ 119 

Good and beautiful, 54 

Gooseberry-fool, 183 

Gout: — 

Origin of the term, 7S; exciting and occa- 
sional cauBies, ib.; attacks the rich oftener 
than the poor, 76,; what it is in its regular 
form, ib. ; acute or regular gout, 82; how it 
commences, iU; favourable peculiarity of, ib. ; 
irregular gout, ill.; chief s^kts of, 83; symp- 
toms of, ib,; misplaced gout,9S; treatment 
and diet, ib.; in unhealthy subjects, 100; 
of irregular gout, 101,; of misplaced gout, 
ib.; daring the inter>°al3 of the disease, iU - 

Government scneme.for iutermeuts, 166 , 

Qratiu of lobster, 167 



Grease for the hair, 63 

Gregoir's powder, 71 

Grief, 36 

Gruel, sago, 7 

Guaiacnm, 76 

Gullet, choking by getting things into, 38 

Habit, the acqnisition of, 164 

Habit of " drnggine " and " physicking," 23 

Hamoiriioids or pues, 78 

Hsusonrhoids (pilesX ointment for, 15 

Hair dyes, 62 
, Hare-lip in France, 186 

Hareioap,ai 

Bard beds, 136 

Hard and soft water, 70 

Haricol of mutton or lamb, 79 
' Hartshorn and oil, 119 

Hartshorn jelfy, 47 

Headachb: — 

Meaning of the term, 89 ; frequently a symp- 
I tom of other diseases, ib.; the attendant of 

I most diseases, ih.; dyspeptic or sick-head- 

i ache the acoompanimeat of disordered sto- 

I mach, ib.; symptoms of, ib.; freqnency of 

theretmn, 90; treatment, ibi; headache from 
excess of bile, ibw; arising from constipa- 
tion, ib.; riiennutio headache, 98; its causes, 
ib.; hemicrania, or megrims, ib.; ]>eriosterial 
headache, 99; nervons headache, I0<; symp- 
toms of, ik; common to vonng ftmaies, ib.; 
treatment, 107; pledioric headache, ib.; sel- 
dom absent at pajticnlar periods, ib.; arterial 
idethora in matare age, ib.; congestion or 
stagnation of the blood, 108 ; treatment and 
diet, ib.; other forms of the disease, ib. ; head- 
ache, seldom absent in derangement of the 
digestive organs, 13 

Health of Lohdon during the week, 8, 16, 24, 
38,40 

Health, rules for the presemtioa of, ISl 

Health: what is it? how is it maintained? 169 

Health and disease, 2 

Health undorvalned, 130 

Hereditary insanity, 9M 

Hearing, sense of, 154 

Hbabt, Dibbasks of thb, 116, 122, 131, 137, 
146, 156, 16.5, 170, 179, 188, 19S, 203 

Heavy blow against quackery, 101 

Hints to liang up in the nuraeiy, 131 

Hints on some scrofuloos aSections, 86 

Hint for nurses, 63 

Hodge podge of mutton, 183 

Home, how to make it unhealthy, 131 

Home, wife and children, the desire of all 
men, 164 

Honey, 87 

Honours to medical men, ,10 

Horse-hair gloves preferable to use of towel, 112 

Horse-radUb, 84 

How to sleep well: answer to P. J. B., 184 

How to treat bmises, 9 

liow many creatures a man of seventy has 
eaten, 46 

How to make home unhealtliy, 121 

Human brotherhood, 43 

Hydrargyri bichloridinm, 93 

Hydrargyri bisulphuretum, 93 

Hydrargyrum cum crota, 93 

llyilrorgyri chloridum : cliloride of mercury 
calomel, 166 

Hydrargyrum iodidum, 93 

Hydrocephalus, treatment of, 2 

Hydrophobia, new remedy for, 14 

Hydrophobia, suicide fromdniad of, 179 

Hypochondriasis, or low spirits, 18 

Hysteria, HI 



Ice cap, the, 103 
Ill-temper, cure for, 99 

Illostrations of the defective state of the taw of 
lunacy, 73 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI 



INDEX, 



Imperial pop, 159 

Imperial, 143 

Imperial water. 111 

Importance of ventilation, 2 

Importance of vrashenromen, 150 

Impodtions of qnackery, the, 174 

In all cases of skin disease what is Important, III 

^destructibility of enjoyment, 190 

Ikwomtios— DrsPBPSiA. Nervousness, &c 
Most not be considered a solitary disorder, 5 ; 
Caoses of indigestion, ib.; temperaments, 
description of, ib.; influence of the mind, 6 ; 
the iafiuenee of occapation, 12 ; tight hieing 
a constant cause, ib.; intemperance a foe to 
digestion, ib.; climate, its infliionce, ib. ; 
qnality of food, ib. ; tampering with medi- 
cine, ib.; symptoms of indigestion, ib.; the 
presence of headache, 13 ; the fidcleness of 
appetite, ib.; irrezolaiity of the bowels, ib., 
palpitation of the heart, a fiiequent symptom, 
lb.; coogh and difficolty of breathing, 14; 
derangement of the liver, ib.; general ap- 
pearance of the body, ib. ; hypochondriasis, or 
low spirits, 18 ; monomania, or hallucination, 
ib.; treatment, 25, 36, 37; constipation, its 
causes and treatment, 41; influence of indi- 
gestion on other diseases, 50 ; scrofula peca- 
uarly influenced by indigestion, 57; origin of 
skin diseases, ib.; oondnaion, ib. 

Indoleiice and Inxuiy, the effects of 187 

Infants, three laws to ensure the health of, 6 

Infirmity of mind produced by dissipation — 
dehrimn tremens, 162 

Inflammation of the glands in tbe neck, scrofu- 
lous, 86 

Inflanmiation of the air tubes, 49 

Inflammation of the lungs, 44 

Inflammation of the pleura— pleurisy, 183, 141, 
Ul, 147 ■ 

Influence of air and exercise on health, 67 

Influence of circumstances, 158 

Influence of pregnancy on phthisis— consump- 
tion of the lungs, 157 

Influence of marriage on longevity, 105 

Influence of newly-built houses oa health, 61 

Influence of Uie east wind, 196 

Influenza, or epidemic catarrh, 33 

Influenza, treatment of, 34 

Inquest on Maria Lord, 97 

Imtation, sympathetic and local, 61 

Insanity caused by excessive drinking, followed by 
drop^, 150 

Insectttu leaping, 69 

Intemperance, the foe to digestion, 12 

Interments, government scheme for, 166 

Intermittent and remittent fevers, causes of, ISO 

Intervals between doses, 87 

Intestinal 'Wobiis: — 

Number of species, 102; effects produced by. 
ib.; the long round worm, ib.; its general 
appearance, lb.; treatment for its removal, 
i&; small thread, or maw-worm, 108; pecu- 
liar to childhood, ib.; illustration in a case, 
109; treatment for the disease in chil- 
dren, ib. ; long hair-tailed threadworm, 118; 
symptoms and treatment, ib.; tienia solium, 
or tape worm, 125; pecnliarity of this worm, 
ibt; broad tape worm, ib,; countries it fre- 
quents, ib.; symptoms that denote its pre- 
sence, 132; treatment, ib. 

Iodine, 110 

Iodine in water-cress, 186 

Ipecacuanha, 77, 134 

Irish stew, 28 -^im 

Jelly of spring ftiiit,'.l67 . 

Jelly, isinglass, 47 

— hartsbom, 47 

, — calves' feet, 47 

— pUn,47 

f — mifvitj, 47 . 
Juniperus commnnlo, 141 

Labour, 135 ^ 



Labour, the pleasures and advantages of, 132 

Lamb chops, 95 

Leeches, preservation of, 4 

Lemonade, 71, 119 

liemon flavour, 175 

Lemon pickle, 151 

Lentils, 87 

Letters to the Editor, 11, 46, 68, 70, 132, 140, 

163, 174. (See notices to correspondents.) 
Letter of a physician on chicory, 147 
Lettuce, 143 
Life, progress of, 130 
Life, dnration of, 109 
Light pudding, how to make, 55 
Limbs, artificial, 45 
Lime water, 7 1 

Linimemum hydrargyti compoeitnm, 94 
Linseed tea, 167 
Lipscome's filters, 88 
Liquor of the acetate of ammonia, 76 
Liquor of the citrate of ammonia, 77 
Liquor potassa: carbonotis: solution of carbonate 

of potash, 166 
Local irritation, 61 
Local stimulants, 70 
Lobster sauce, 87 
Lobelia inflata, 84 

Long and short sights, the common causes of, 176 
Longevity, 68 

Longevity, the influence of marriage on, 105 
Long sleep, 135 
London Iliarmacopaeia, 126 
London surgeon's shop, 22 
Lotion for weak eyes, 83 
Low spirits, 18 
Lungs, 147 

Lunacy, with suggestions for, 73 
Lyonnaise, 87 

Made dish from joints previously served, 9S 

Magnesin: magnesia, 189 

Magnesite sulphus: sulphate of magnesia, Epsom 

salts, 181 
Mognesisacarbonas: carbonate of magnesia, 189 
Make a light pudding, how to 55 
Malady, an "irreligious," 157 
Malt liquors, 143, 183 
Male fern root, mode of administering, 95 
Max, the natural history of, 113; the Caucasian 

variety, ib.; Mongolian, ib.; Ethiopian, ib.; 

copper coloured, ib. ; Malay or tawny 

race, ib. 
Management of children, 171 
Management of the finger nails, the, 6 
Management of the teeth, 42 
Management of blisters, 78 
Manslaughter by a quack agent, 181 
Manna, 172 

Manslaughter, committal of a quack's agent for, 181 
Manslaughter, verdict of in a case of midwifery, 30 
Marriage, 164 

Married and unmarried men, duration of life of, 106 
Marrow pudding, 71 
Marrubinm — white horebound, 117 
Mastiche, 84 
Medicines, patent, 3 
Medicine, routine practice of, 150 
Medicine not a mystery, 81 
Medicine, on popular and domestic, 153 
Medicine, table of doses of, 23, 
Medical science, progress of, 120 
Medical men honours to, 30 
Medical attendant, choice of, 10 
Medical Pkbcepts amo Family Fbeschip- 

TiOKS-7, IS, 23, 31, 39, 47, 55, 63, 71, 79, 87, 

95, 103, 111, 119, 127, 185, 143, 151, 159. 167, 

175, 183, 191,199,207, 
Medicinal properties of water-cress, 31 , 
Mental labour, 183 
Mental poisoning, 198 
Mercury or quicuilvBr,93 
Mercury, use and abuse of, 85j 
Milk lemonade, 159 



Mind complaints, 48 

Mint sans^e for lamb, 143 

Mode of administering the male fern root, 95 

Menstruation, commencement of, 17,. 

Model nurse, 62 

Moderation, 45 

Menses, age of its appearance, 18 

Morrison's pills, 48 

Mortality, scnle of European, 156 

M. Soyer's Fritadella, 71 

M. to the JBditor, on ragged-schools, 70 

Mr. Baron Alderson's decision in a case of 

quackery, 123 
Mr. &aath on a " black eye," 47 
Moral and intellectual training, &&, expedient 

with girls, 29 
Mullagatwaiiy soup, 55 
Mustard, 127 
Mutton broth, 15 

Marias auri— the muriate of gold, 166 
Myraxylon tolnifera— balsam of tolu, 125 
BIyrospermnm Feruiferum— balsam of Peru, 125 
Mystery, medicine not a, 81 

Narcotics, 70 

Narrative the, n quack advertising consulting 
snrgcon,of, 185 

National vaccine establishment, 146 

Natural dentrifico, 117 

Natural history of man, 1 13 

Natural criticism, 150 

Nature's aristocracy, 94 

Ner\-es, description of, answer to Hannah Curious, 

Nervousness, 5, 12 {1%S 

Nervous weakness, the accompaniment of irregu- 
larity, 43 

Nervous headache, 106 

New method of diagnosticating biliary calculi — 
gall stones, 131 

New remedy for hydrophobia, 14 

Newly-built houses, influence of on health, 61 

New. park for the borough of Finsbury, 80 

New nose, formation of, 158 

Nicotianu tabacum, 109 

Nitric acid, muriatic acid, and sulphuric acid, 166 

Non-appearance of the monthly flux, 43 

Northern circuit, 117 

Nose, peculiar disease of, 164 

Nuisance of pastrycooks* shops, 21 

Nurse, the model, 62 

Nursing the young, 45 

Nursery, hints to Lang up in, 121 

Nurses, hint for, 63 

Oatmeal more nutritious than wheat, 22 

Obstetric practice, cUoroform in, 30 

Occupation, influence it exerts in delaying the 
menstrual dischai;ge, 18 

Oil, cod liver, analysis of. 30 

Ointment fgr hoemorrboios Ol>>I^i) 15 

Oleum chartae 175 

On cleanliness and bathing, 100 

On chloroform in childbirth, 2 

On diseases in women and children, 17, 26,43,'126 

On diseases of the chest, "a cold," 1, 9, 20, 26. 33 
44, 49, 59, 68, 77, 83 

On gout, 75, 82, 92, 100 

On headaches, 89, 98, 106 

On popular or domestic medicine, 153 J 

On patent medicines, 3 

On rheumatism, 57, 65 

On the selection of a wife, 166 

On the choice of a medical attendant,^10 

On tbe intemperate use of opiun, lOJ ' 

Onion, the, 171 

Operations, surgical 91 

Operation on hare-lip, 186 

Opium, 77 

Opium intemperate use of, 10 

(>angeade, 159 

Osmaiome, pure essence of meat, 103 

Osseous B^tem the, 1 14 

Ostermaier's succedanenm forteeA,*6S 

Oxygen gas a cure for choleta, 187 

Oysters, 135 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX. 



Til 



Okeu and nenrslgui of the ftce cnied by 

extraction of a tooth, 198 
Otone, 6S 

PalpUatioo of the heart, 13 

Fa}pitatkiii of the hean distressing grmptora of 
indigeatioii, 13, 

Palpitation, 137 

Faacakes, batter, 55; flne, ib.s pink c(Jonred, ih.; 

Panada, for aged people, &c, 39 

Faragiaph from "Wetleyao Times," 118 

Park for the borooeh of Finibnry, 143 

Pannip bread, 39 

PatiioD, 69 

Potaiue aoetai — the aoeetate of potaa 1 66 

Paler Familias to the Editor, 138 

Peas soap for Lent, 63 

Peculiar diieaae of the nose, 164 

Pellitcn of Spain. 84 

PuistaUic persnaden, Dr. Kitchener's, 95 

Perspiration, 183 

Pbaxmaooumt : — 
Alimentary medicinal agents, 76; dihients, ih; 
demnloents and emolients, ib^; eracnants, ib. ; 
diaphoretici, ib.; guiacicum {lignmn vUaS ib., 
sasnfras ib. ; saraparillo, ib. ; senega, ib.; hqaor 
of the acetate of ammonia, 77 ; liqnor of the 
citrate of ammonia, ib. ; sulphur sublimatu m 
ib.; ipeeaeaanha, ib.; opiom, ib. 
Sudorifics— 
Woody nightshade, the solannm dnlea 
mara, 84; lobelia inflata, the bladder-pod- 
ded lobdia (Indian tobacco, or emetic weed,) 
ib. ; camphor, ibi ; antimony, ib. ; 
Enhines, or stemattaories, ib.; tobacco, nico- 
tiana tabacum, ib.; eophorbium, ib.; irbite 
bore, (reiatnnn albun), ib. 
Siliagt^jnee — ' 
Common sweet flag (acoris calamas), 84; 
horse radish (cochleria armoracia) ib. ; ginger 
(amomnffl ziogiber), ib.; pellito^ of Spain, 
ib.; toba«eo^ ib.; mastiche, ib.; meaereon, 
ib.; meremy, or qnicksiWer, 93 ; piluhe 
hydraigni (bine pillX >b. ; h^drargyri 
bichlorMam, tk; hydiar^yri chlondum, ib.; 
hydrargyram cnm creta, ib.; pilolae hydrar- 
grri, (btae pillXib.;pilaUe hydraigynchlo- 
ridiooinpontK (Fhmin)er'spiil),ib.; hydrar- 
gyram iodidnm (iodide of mercoiy), ib.; 
hydrargyri Insalpbaretnm (bisnlphur of 
mercury), ib. ; wigoentum hydrargyri for- 
ins (strong ointment of mereuiy), ib.; ungn- 
entam bymrgjrri mitins, (mimr mercurial 
ointment), 94; nngnentnm l^dnugyri nitra- 
tis, (ointanent of nitrate of mercory), ib.; 
Unimentam hydrargyri compositnm, (com- 
pound liniment of mercury), ib.; action of 
mercary on the homan system, 100. 



Nieotiana tabacnm (tobacco)) 109; datura 
atramoninm (thorn-apple), ib.; pix liquida 
(pilch), ib.; chlorine, ib.; iodine, 110; am- 
monia, ib.; addinm aeeticum, ib.; allium— 
aUiom satirnm (garlic), 117; oltfaiea (marsh 
malloir^ ik; marrubinm (white horehonnd), 
lb.; sciUa maritima (squill or sea onion), ib.; 
ammoniacum — dorema ammoniacnm (gum 
ammoniac), ib.; tossilago furfara (colt's-foot), 
ih.; myiDxylon toluifera (balsam of tolu), 
125; myrospermom peroifemm (balsam of 
pern), ib.; benzoinum — s(yrax benzoin (bcn- 
.iuin^ ib.; senega— poly ^a senega (rattle- 
aiake root), iU; assafceUda— teufelsdieck, or 
sterens diaboU ^deril's dung), ib.; ipeca- 
cnaaha, 134; aunmony, ib. 
IXuietics — 
Amoracia (horse radish), 134; dulcamara 
(woody nightAnde),' ib.; juniperas com- 
manus (common juniper), 141 ; praeira In-ava 
(wild vine), ib.; diosma cronata (bncku 
leares), ib.; spartium scoparium (common 
tiroom), ibi; digitalis — digitalis purpurea 
(fox-glorej, 149; cnbeba — piper, cubeba 



(cnbebs), iK; copaira balsam (balsam of 
copaiba), 157; teretnnthina (tnrpentitte), ib.; 
nra nrii, ih.; canthariajvisicatoria (Spanish 
fly), 166; spiritos sethoris nittici (sweet 
spuitsof nitre),lb.; nitrie add, mniiaUc acid, 
snlphnric acid, ib.; potasate acetas (acetate of 
potash), ib.; potassts bitartras (bitartrate of 
potath— cream of tartar), ib.; potassie bi- 
carbonatis (carbonate of potash), ib.; potacsa: 
nitrat (nitrate of potash — sallpctre), ib. ; 
tincture fern sesquichloridi (tincture of 
mnriate of iron), ib.; hydrargyri chloridum 
(calomel), ib. ; nurias anri (muriate of gold), 
ib.; iodidnm (iodine), ib.;spirit8. ib. 
FnraatiTea.— Mild Cathartics— laxatives — 
Manna, 173; cassia fistula (cassia pulp), ib.; 
tamarinda pnlpa (tamarinds), ib.; potassn 
bi-tartras (cream of tartar), ib.; prunes, figs, 
honey, treacle, ib.; ricini oleum (castor oil), 
181; almond oil, olive oil, ib. 
Saline Fntgatives — 
Magneaifl! sulphas (sulphate of magnesia — 
^Mom salts), 181; sodta sulphas (sulphate 
oHsoda— OUnber salts), ib.; potassaa sul- 
phus (sulphate of potash), ib. ; potassn 
bisulphas (binnlpbate of potash), ib. ; po- 
tassa: tartras (tartrate of potash), 189; 
potasse bitartras, bitartrate of potash, ib.-, 
potaasas acetaa (acetate of potaA), ib. ; 
magnesia,' ib. ; magnesia carbonas (car- 
bonate of magnesia), ib. ; Bod<B mnrios (mu- 
riate of soda— common salt), ib. ; sodse 
phosphate (phosphate of soda), ib. ; sodse 
, tartras: sodas potassias tartraa (tartrate of 
soda — Bocbelle salt), ib. ; sulphur (brim- 
stone), ib. ; sulphm: sublimatum (flower of 
sulphur), ih. 
Mild acrid purgatives— senna folite, senna 
leaves, rheum palmatum, rhei radix, rhu- 
barb root, 197 ; aloes, aloes socotrina, 
barbadensis, hepatica, 205. 

Passions, 197 

Pharmacopcsia, the London, 126 

Phthisis, influence of pregnancy on, 157 

Physicians' fees, 196 

Physician's visit, 182 

Physic, taking, in die return of "atum^nia, 29 

Physiognomy not an idle science, 179 i 

Physical symptoms, 17 

Pigeon pie, 135 

Piles, treatment of, 78 

Pilulie hydrargyri chloridi composiue^ 93 ' 

Piinhe hydrargyri, 93 

Fin, death caused by a, 140 

Pink coloured pancakes, 55 

Pitehcock eels, how to, 63 

Pix liquida, 109 

PlamjeUy, 47 

Pleasure and advantages of labour, 133 

Plethoric headache, 107 

Pleuritis: pleurisy, inflammation of the pienca— 
a stitch in the side, 133, 141, 147 

Pt-EinuaT. — Pleuritis. — Inflammation of the 
Pleura — 
Description of the pleura, 133 ; deflnition of 
the term pleurisy, ib. ; causes of the disease, 
ib. ; general qrmptoms of acute pleurisy, ib, ; 
febrile symptoms, 134; chief physical signs, 
ib, ; treatment of acute pleurisy, 141 ; coun- 
ter-irritants, ib. ; purgatives, ib. .l refrige- 
rants or cooling medicines, 143; chronic 
pleurisy, 147 ; resemblance to consumption, 
ib, ; anatomical character of, ib. ; physical 
signs, 148 ; treatment. 

Poisons, sale of, 112, 148 

Poison in the saucepan, 39 

Poisoning by mackerel, 302 

Poisoning by copper coin, symptoms of, 198 

Pores of the skin, 54 

Porridge, 15 

Posset, wine, '. 

Potass.'c acetas acetate of potash, 189} 
Vousia bitartras: bitartrate of potash, 189 



Fotassse bitartras: cream of tartar, 172 

Potaaaae bitartras: bitartrate of potash: cream of 

tartar, 166 
Potaasffi bisulphas: bisulphato of potash, 181 
Potasae bicarbonaa: carbonate of potaah, 166 
Potassae nitros: nitrate of potash: saltpetre, 166 
Potassse sulphas: sulphate of potash, 181 
Potasso! tartras: tartrate of potash, 18S 
Potted salmon, 79 
Pondre metallique, 68 
Praeira brava, 141 
Pregnant women, chlorosis of, 158 
Fieaervation of leaches, 4 
Prescribing druggists, 14 
Progress of medical science, 129 
Progress of life, 130] 
Prognosis, meaning of, 7 
Prophylatic, wiiatit signifies, 136 
Prunes, flgs, hone^i treacle. 172 
Prussian cutlets, 3^ 
"Psora," definition of, 136 
Puberty in women, 17 
Puddmgs, bread and butter, 7 
— rice and apple, 7 

Pnlmonaiy catarrh: cold co the chest, cough, 10 
Pure osmaxome, or essence of meat, 108 
Pure water, 88 

Quack Cohsultiiio Sdboeoxs.— Exposure of— 
Iietter IVom "a vicdm," II; answer to "a 
viaim," 38; answer to a traveller, 40; 
letter from " Medical Timea^" 53 ; a narra> 
tive, 185. 

Quackery: tetter from a sub-editor, 68 

Quack's agent, manslaughter by, Igl 

Quack, death caused by, 65 

Quackery and superstitkm, II 

Quackery, death by, 85 

Quackery in the Channel Islsods 

Quackery, a heavy blow against, 101 

Quackery, tlie impositions of, 174 

Quinine, 63, 103 

Quinine, Hi 

Quinine tooth powder, 175 

national medical advice, 190 

Real and apparent death, 148 

Recreations, 45 

Recovery of strength, 159 

Red sago pudding, 71 

Reform, sanitary, 1 14 

Reluctance in oonsuldog medical men, 12 

Bemedief, claisificatiop of, 70 

Remove coma, how to, 55 

Removal of the tapeworm, experiments with the 
brayera antheunintica, 155 

Respirators, 7 

Rewsciaiion, 46 

Retention of urine, 108 

Rheumatic headache, 98 

RanuxATiSM:— 

Deflnition of, 57; cause of, ib. ; trhen it pre- 
vails, ib. ; acute rheumatism, or rheumatic 
fever, ib. ; lumbago sometimes confounded 
with, 58; treatment, ib ; chronic rheumatism, 
65; chatoeterof, ib.; sub-acute rheumatism, 
66 ; riieumatic neuralgia, ib, ; treatment, 
ib.. 67. 

Rice to boil, 15.'J 

Ricini oleum : castor oil, 181 

Ringworm heated by the application of blisters, 39 

Rhubarb tart, 119 

Rhubarb fool, 189 

Roost sweet bread. 111 

Robust adults, strong cathartic for, 6 

Ruse dentifrice, 95 

Routine practice of medicine, 150 

Rule for administering chloroform, 62 

Rules for the preservation of health, 191 

Russian vqwnr botha^ 187 

Snd truth, 21 

S:ipo gruel, 7 

Sale of p<nson8, 148 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIU 



INDEX. 



SaKne eifervescing dranght, 71 

Salt leg of mutton, 79 

Sarsaparilla, 76 

Saasamu, 76 

Saace sapeilatiTe, 175 

Saucepan, |>oison in the, 39 

SaTomy chicken pie, 175 

SaToniy jelly, 47 

Scale of Earopeammortality, 156 

Scarlet fever, " critical days" in ; answer to Bar- 

tholemew, 176 
Scilla maritima: the eqnill, or sea onion, 117 
Scrofula, 31 
Scrofulons inSammation of the glands in the 

neck, 86 
Scrofulous affectionf, hints on, 86 
Scrofulons affections in the joints, 86 
Sea-bathing, 182 
SeaHuckneas, 159 
SedatiTe«,70 
Self-made men, 94 ' 
6eidlitz powders, 79 
Senega, 76 

Senega: polygala senega, 125 
Sehses, the, 1S4, 161, 172, 160, 189 
The sense of hearing, 154 
„ sight, 161 

„ smell, 172 

„ taste, 180 

„ toacb, 189 

Sheep's head, 127 
Sberingham's ventilator, 126 
Shoulder joint, excision of, 173 
Sick chambers, balsamic vinegar for, 55 
Sight, the sense of, 161 
Significant fact, 30 
Smagognes, 84 

SimfMe mode of purifying water, 39 
Simple process for detecting the presence of nree 

sulphuric acid in vinegar, 118 
Singular case of the advantages of life assor- 

ance, 62 
Singular disease of the eye, 78 
Singular cure for the toothache, 194 
Singular incident in a madhouse, 45 
Sir Henry Halford's gout preventive, 63 
Sir Hmnphrey Davy's com solvent, 31 
Skin, the pores of, 54 
Smell, the sense of, 172 
Smartt on the teeth, 35, 42, 51, 58 
SodiB murias : muriate of soda, common salt, 189 
SodiB phosphas: phosphate ot sodo, 189 
Sodie tsrCras: soda potassio tartrai, tartrate of 

soda, 189 
SodsB sulphas — sulphate of soda, 181 _ 

Sodaic powders, 79 — - 

Sore throat, gargle for, 23 

Soup, hare, 31 

Soup, mulligatawny 55 

Soup maigre. 111 

South on swollen veins, 124 

Soyer's beef-tea, 7 

Specifics, 52 

Spiced beef, 159 

Spirits, 143, 166 

Spirituous SDtheris nitrici— sweet spirits of nitre, 

166 
Spontaneous combostion, death by, 83 
Spring physic, 95 

Sprains, bruises and rheumatism, 15 
Staff of elder^wood, 174 
Stays and corsets, use of, 35 
Stewed tongue, 191 
Stethoseppe, description of, 203 
Stewed spinach, 79 
Stewed chops or cutlet, 39 
Stew, Irish, 23 
Stitch in the side, ,133 141 
Stopinng teeth, 68 
Strichnia, description of: answer to Thomas 

Willich, 168 
Strong cathartic for robust adolts, 7 
Stoigeon, how to cook, 23 
Sncoedaneom for the teeth, common, 68 



Sudden changes, 167 

Suggestions for the law of lunacy, amendment 

of, 73 
Suicide from dread of hydrophobia, 17 
Suicide, 21 

Sulphur Eublimatum, 77 
Sulphuric acid in vinegar how to detect, 118 
Sulphur sublimatum — flowers of sulphur 
Sulphur — brimstone, 189 
Superstition, 142 
Superstition, narrative of, 21 
Supply of water in the metropolis, 164 
Supply of water in London, 30 
Surgeon's shop, a London, 22 
Surgical operations, 91 
Surgeons, advertising consulting, 11, 32, 40, 53, 

185 
Sweating, death of a jockey from, 133 
Sweeten butter, how to 39 
Swollen veins, 124 
Sympathetic and local irritation, 61 
Symptoms of influenza, 33 
Symptoms of indigestion, 13 
Symptoms of poisoning by a copper coin, 198 
Syncope — fainting, 156 
SyphiUtic poison, the seeondaiy action of 174 

Table of doses, 23 

Table beer, 47 

Tamarinda pulpa, 1 72 

Tampering with medicine a cause of indigestion, 12 

Taste, the sense of, 180 

Tea, 183 

Tea, M. Sojer's method of making, 31 

Teeth, the, by Charles Smartt, £^., surgeon den- 
tist, their uses, diseases and management, 35, 
42, SI, 58 

Teeth, the, 16 

Teeth, Vienna snccedanenm for, 68 

Temperate or tepid bath, 85 

Temperature of baths, 89 

Temperature of food, 23 

Terebinthina — turpentine, 157 

The most agreeable formula In the pharma- 
copieia, 47 

The sympathy of the affections, 182 

The passion of love, education for, 133 

The Seizes, 154, 191, 172, 180, 189 

The stomach, 4 

The teeth, their uses disease and management^ 35, 
42, 51, 58 

The universality of teaching, 181 

The tongue, impaction of a barley beard under, 202 

The young, method of nursing, 45 

Things in the eye, 102 

Thirst, 191 

Three laws to ensnre the health of mfants, 7 

Tight lacing, evil effects of, 206 

Time, the employment of, 171 

Tincture ferri sesquicUoridi : tincture of the 
muriate of iron, 166 

To boil rice, 15 

To broil pigeons, 119 

To cook stmrgeon, S3 

To dress salt cod, 63 

To dress the inside of a cold sirloin of beef, 183 

To grill a breast of mntton, 71 

To fry smelts, 79 

To make brown unfiermented bread, IS 

To make white nnfennented bread, 1 5 

Tonic, a mild, 70 

To poach eggs, 111 

To prevent baldness, 175 

To roast sturgeon, 33 

To the readers of " The People's Medical Journal " 
and Family Phydcian," 46 

To the editor of " The People's Medical Jonraal," 
letter, 46, 68, 132 

To stew flounders, plaice, or soles, 73 

Toct'iache,the, 149 

Toothache, singular cure for, 194 

Toothache, popular remedy for, ISO 

Touch, the sense of, 189 

Training, on, 201 



Trachea, foreign body in, 206 

Treatment of carditis and pericarditis^ 186 ^ 

Treatment of chilblains, 15 

Treatment of chronic bronchitis, 77 

Treatment of coughs without expectoiation, SO ' 

Treatment of hydrocephalus: water on the bcain, 2 

Treatment of misplaced gout, 101 

Treatment and cure of diabetes 196 

Treacle beer, 103 

Troubled and unrefreshing sleep, 14 

Tumour, excision of a, 5,3 

Tnmonr on the thigh, spontaneons aeparation 

0^28 
Turbot, 87 

Tussilago farfara: colt's-foot, 117 
Ulcer, description of, 120 
Unfcrmented bread, to make white, 15; brawn, ib. 
Unguentnm hydrargyri fortius, 93 
Ungnentum hydrargyri mitins, 24 
Unguentnm hydrargyri nitratis, 94 
Urine retention of, 103 
Use and abuse of mercoiy, 85 
Use of stays and corsets, 35 
Uva ursi, 157 

Vapour baths, Russian, 187 
Vapour bath, cheap substitute for, 54 
Vapour bath to reduce weight, 192 
Various complications of iimuenza described, 44 
Veal and ham pic, 191 
Veins, swollen, treatment of, 124 
Ventilation, importance of, 2 
Ventilator, Sberingham's, 126 
Vermicelli pudding, 111 
Very strengthening drink, 7 
Vienna succedaneum for teeth, 68 
Vinegar, 47 
Vinegar, simple process to detect salphuric 'acid 

in, 118 
Warm bath, 85 
Worm bedding for winter, 19 
Warm, mild aperient for eld^ly pcrsuBS, 7 
Washerwomen, importance of, 150 
Water-cress, iodine in, 186 
Water on tlie brain, treatment of, 2 
Water in London, supply of, 30 
Water, hard and soft, 70 
Water, simple mode of purifying, 39 
Water-cress, medicinal properties of, 31 
Way to place a cradle, 191 
" Wesleyan Times," paragraph from, 118 
What is health, and how is it maintained? 169 
When diseases arc cured by medicine, and not by 

diet, 143 
Wheat, oatmeal more nutritious than, 22 
Whey, French method of making, 31 
Weather glasses, natural, 304 
White bait, 79 
White hellebore, 84 
White wash or lead wash, 79 
Wholesome ahs Ecoiroiuc Dibtaet, 7, IS, 23, 

31, 39, 47, 55, 63, 71, 79, 87, 95, 103, 111, 

119, 127, 135, 143, 161,' 169, 167, 175, 183, 

191, 149, 207. 
Wounds, bleeding from, 197 
Wife, the selection of. 
Will the cholera return? 142 
Wine posset, 7 
Wine taken in excess, 143 
Winter, warm l>edding fat, 19 
Woody nightshade, 84 
World, how to get on in, 163 
Woman's power, 140 
Woman, tAe genius of, 165 ' 
Woman, the girlhood of, 17 ; first crius ai the 

life of, ibk ; physical symptoms of disease 

in, ib. 
Women and Chilobxn, Dibbases or, 17, 28, 

43, 126 
Worms, intestinal, 102, 108, 118, 126, 132 

Yeast, 39 

Yellow wash, 79 

Yorkshire pudding to bake under meat, 175 

Zinc ointment, 55 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



AND 




F H I S i € i I i. 



EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 1.— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY. JANUARY 5, 1850. 



foxz mm, 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 

The purpose of this periodical is to diAise popular knowledge on 
the laws of Health and Disease ; to bstruct how the one may he 
preserved, die other removed ; to Improve the sanitary condition, 
and add to the well-heing, of the Industrious Classes ; to afford 
competent and legitimate advice to the Invalid t to spare his parse, 
and lessen the unjust gains of the extorting quack and the adver- 
tising pin>vendor. 

DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BT T. H. TEOMAM, H.D. 
No. I. 

CATARBH.— "A COLD." 

Tnx symptoms of common catarrh are fiunillarised to the inhabitants 
of this climate by abundant experience in their own persons, as 
scarcely one man in ten thousand passes a winter without having 
a cold of some description; and, as every one esteems himself 
competent to be his own doctor, it may be thought little need be 
said of the treatment ; indeed, in simple cases, the medical manage- 
ment may be safely confined to the usual domestic and popular 
reme^es. When, however, we consider the serious and fatal 
complaicts that have their origin in a slight cold ; that it may he 
the prelude to various inflammatory diseases ; and that comsump- 
tion may be one of its terminations, the propriety of commencing 
the history of diaorderad respiration with catarrh, will not be 
questioned. 

Catarrh is a febrile affection, in which there is some trifling in- 
flammation of the mycous membranes, (especially those which iine 
the air-passages,) and an increased secretion of mucus. 

The common cause of catarrh is cold, however applied to the body, 
but particularly when it is combined with moisture. Exposure to 
cold wbea the body is heated, — thus arresting the perspiration; 
wet feet; remaining in damp clothes; insufficient clothing; a 
damp atmosphere ; sitting in a room filled with smoke ; sleeping 
in a strange bed ; removing from one house, or from one town to 
another ; in £sct, everything that suppresses perspiration, or sud- 
denly diminishes, or even alters, the temperature of the body and 
the immediate atmosphere, may be considered, in a greater or less 
degree, aa near or remote causes. 

As the complaint assumes different symptoms according to 
the part especially affected, I shall consider it, first, as cold in 
the head (eorifxa), when the mucous membrane of the nostrils 
and eyes are affected ; secondly, as cold on the chest {pulmonary 
catarrh'), when the mucous membrane of the aur-passages is in- 
flamed ; and, thirdly, as infivtma, when the attack is sudden and 
epidemic ;— that is, attacking a multitude of persons at the same 



time and at the same place. Catarrh also affects other mucous 
membranes, and those of the stoqiacb and bladder are not Arco 
from its invasion. 

COLD^N THE HEAD.— COBYZA. 

Cold in the head, although considered a very simple disorder, 
is one tliat causes the greatest discomfort ; the whole body ap- 
pears to be unhinged ; flying pains are felt in different parts ; the 
spirits are depressed, and ^e patient is miserable. The approach 
of an attack is generaUy announced by frequent chills and shivere ; 
there is a sense of fulness in the head, and weight or pain in the 
forehead ; the nostrils are dry and " stuffed-up," which renders 
breathing through them difficult, and induces frequent and in- 
effectual attempts to remove the obstruction by blowing the nose ; 
afterwards there is a secretion of thin watery mucus, that rapidly 
increases in quantity, and is so acrid as to excoriate the nose and 
upper lip ; the sense of smell is impaired, or altogether lost ; the 
patient sneezes violendy and frequently ; the eyes are red, in- 
flamed, and suffused with tears, which roll down the cheek; 
the throat is sore, and the act of swaQowing painful ; there 
is some tickling and irritation at the upper part of the windpipe, 
causing a constant dry cough : there is tightness and uneasiness 
across the chest, and sometimes difiiculty of breathing. Bheumatic 
pains are felt at the back part of the head and neck, and the 
whole surface of the body is tender; the appetite fails, thirst 
increases; the tongue is coated and white, and the taste more 
or less perverted ; the patient complains of being cold, whilst 
the skin is dry and parched, or burning to the touch ; the pulse is 
accelerated, and towards evening all the symptoms increase in 
intensity. 

When the attack is severe, it is attended with more or less 
fever ; violent pains and stiffness are experienced in the limbs and 
down the back and loins ; the heaviness in the head becomes a 
stupor ; the patient is weary, restless, and peevish ; he is chilly, 
the least breath of cold air is acutely felt, and he creeps towards 
the fire ; there is some hoarseness, and a sense of roughness and 
soreness in the windpipe ; the chest feels tight, stuffed, and con« 
Btiicted ; Uie breath is hot, the cough frequent, and the disorder then 
runs into catarrh on the chest. 

In some cases the throat and stomach are more particularly 
implicated; we then find the most distressing symptoms to be 
nausea and sickness, a burning heat, or gnawing pain in the sto* 
mach, which is increased on pressure, and loathing of food. 

Catarrh has a disposition to travel, and generally begins above 
and proceeds downwards ; the eyes and nose being first affected, 
then the throat, and sometimes the eustachian tubes, which in* 
duces deafness ; afterwards the gullet and stomach suffer, causing 
sore-throat, qualmishness and indigestion ; or the trachea and 
bronchial tubes are inflamed, giving rise to cough, expectoration, 
and bronchitis ; as it leaves tiie upper part it increases in severity 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL. 



in tbe lofrer, so that titat vAidh was a trifliug cold 'in die iioad 
joay become a (efftus affair iu tlie chest 

In ordinary and fkvourable cases the disorder is at Its height 
about the third day, and then begins gradually to decline; the 
thin serous fluid secretion from the nose becomes thicker, and 
as it becomes thicker, it becomes less irritathtg also ; it is alio 
more viscid, opaque, and yellow : the swelling in the membrane 
of the nose subsides, it is less raw and sensitive, and is sometimes 
succeeded by an eruption or " breaking out" arouud the moutli. 
About the fifth day, the secretion resumes its natural quality and 
natural quantity, aud on the seventh day the disorder is en- 
tirely removed. This is the course of cold in the head, when 
not complicated with inflammation in the trachea or bronchi. 
It should be recollected that the individual during convalescenoe 
is most susnepdble of taking fresh cold from the slightest cause ; 
and ntatil every symptom is entirely banished, he should be careful 
of the least exposure to cold or damp air, as a relapse, or 
"fresh cold" always brings back tbe old symptoms in greater 
violence. 

Catarrh in the hea^ is frequently the forerunner of measles 
and small-pox ; it usually precedes, if it dkes not cause, rheuma- 
tism ; and although of itself seldom attended with any danger, 
yet it often lays the foundation of disease, which, in time yet to 

. come, may jeopardise life. A vigorous passage in Mr. Warren's 
", Diary of a late Physician" is so applicable to the present subject, 
and expresses my own ideas in language so much more elegant 
aud emphatic than any I could employ, that I adopt the sentence : 
" Let not those complain of being bitten by a reptile which they 
have cherished to maturity in their own bosoms, when they might 
hAve crushed it in the egg. Now if we call a slight cold ' the 
egg,' and pleurisy, inflammation of the lungs, asthma, consump- 
tion, the venomous reptile, the matter will be no mere than 
correctly figured. There are many ways in which this ' egg' 

- may be deposited aud hatched. Going suddenly slightly clad 

. from a heated to a cold atmosphere, especially if yon contrive to 
be in a state of perspiration — sitting or standing in a draught, 
however Hlight — it is the breath of death, reader, and laden with 

.the vapours of the grave. Lying in damp beds, for there his 
«old arms shall embrace you ; continuing iu wet clothing, and 
neglecting wet feet ; these and a hundred others, are some of the 
ways in which you may slowly, imperceptibly, but surely, cherish 
the creature, tliat shall at last creep inextricably inwards, and lie 
coiled about your vitala. Once more, again. — again, — I would feay, 
ATTEND to this, all ye who think it a small matter to neglect a 

8LI0BX COLD." 

^To be coatinaed in onr next.] 

Tbbatment op IIYOR0CEPBAI.OS. — Watsr om thc Braih. — Bvcry 

one is acquainted with tlie difficulty of finding any eOeclual treatment for this 
diseaie, eipeeially for that most dangerous form known as " tubercularmen- 
ingitii." M. Hahn, physician to the hospital at Aix, recommends strongly 
the following method, in cose* where the disease has already made aome pro- 
gress before the medical attendant has been called io. Dr. Hahn's method 
consists in employing tartar emetic ointment in friction on tbe scalp, which 
it previously shaved. The ointment is rubbed in for ten minutes at a time, 
and a piece of linen beraieared with it is then placed on tbe head. The fric- 
tions ore renewed every two hours, until the pustules begin to appear. The 
eflecis are, uf course, very severe. The whole scalp becomes inflamed, and 
numerous small ulcers are formed, which heal with difficulty, and generally 
destroy the points of the scalp in which they were situate. The author aflirms 
ihat he baa employed this severe, but absolutely necessary mode of treat- 
meat, with stioeess for tbe last twenty yeara, having thereby saved more than 
a dozen children, whose lives would have been inevitably sacrificed but for it. 
BvRNs AND Chilblains.— A correspoaclent in the Medical Timit says : — 
" 1 bai-e had two opportunities of trying the effects uf creosote upon burns, 
in both eases with thc most complete success; the first, my own, a severe 
iwrn on the back of thc hand. The pain was relieved almost instantly. 
Supposm^ that considerable analogy existed between burns and chilblains, 
I have tried the effect of creosote upon them, in several coses among my 
children, and in every instance the irritation btisbeen allayed, end an almost 
itlirRculotti sure b*f been effected. 



HEALTH" & DiSEABi ■ ■■ 

Bmalth admiii neither of deRidtiop nor desAiptioa ; of none, at least, Which 
can be applied to any uaetul purpose. If we define it as the integrity of every 
structure, and the perfect and harmonious play of every function, we give a 
true definition, but not a useful one. The more lengthened description in 
which some phvsialogitts have indulged answers no better end ; fur it esta- 
blislics no standard of comparison, and that is what we are in want of. Pt-r- 
feet healtli, like perfect beauty, is perhaps an ideal, compounded of the per- 
fectiona of many different individuals; or if it exists, it falls to the lot of few, 
and its phenomena have met with no accurate description. 

Disease. — To deRne disease we must first define health, for the one is 
but the negative of the oUicr. In like manner, the description and right 
understanding of tUseasedepeuds upon the description and right understand- 
ing of health. Without attempting a formal definition of disease, it will be 
su l Tlui pu t to state that iKtnse is present W1)«li my ttnicture df The body Is 
changed (provided tha^ cliange.be not the direct and immediate, effect «f ex- 
ternal injitry), or w6ere aay fanction is either uimatnrally ActtVe, ftr torpid, 
or altered in character. 



ON CHLOaOFOBM IN CHILDBIRTH. 

Dr. Simpson, of Edinburgh, who, we must admit, is a prejudiced, but still 
a jtwt advocate of the efficacy of chloroform in childbirth, thus sums up thc 
results of his experience, deduced from mora ibau one hundred cases in his 
own practice, or in the practice of his personal friends'. He says : " The 
effects at chloroform have been delightful. The mothers, instead of crying and 
suffering under the strong agonies and throes ol labour, have lain in a state 
of quiet, placid slumber, made more or less deep at tbe will of llie medical 
attendant, and, if dirlnrbed at all, disturbed only unconsciously from time to 
time by the recurring utorlne contractions, producing some reflex or automatic 
movements on the part of the patient, — like those of a person moving undor 
any irritation of the surface, or from the touch of another, thouijh still in a 
state of alsap ; ner have the ultimate consequences and results been less 
liappy. , I never oaw motheia recover m«re saiiafaslorHy or' raptLlly, or chil- 
dren that looked more viable.' And the practice Is not a great bTessingto the 
patient merely : it is a great boon also to the practitioner ; for whilst it re. 
lievcs the farmer from the dread and endurance of agony and pain, it both 
relieves the latter from the disagreeiible necessity of witnessing such agony and 
pain in a fellow-crealure, and imparts to him the proud power of being able to 
cancel 'and remove pangs and torture that would otherwise be inevitable. It 
transforms a work of physical anguish into painless muscular effort ; and 
changes into a scene of sleep and comparative repose that anxious hour of 
female existence which hat now been proverbially cited as the boar of the 
greatest of moral auffering." Again : " I never had the pleasure of watch, 
ing over a series of more perfect or more rapid recoveries ; aor kave I once 
witnessed any disagreeable result to either mother or child. I have kept up 
theanssihetij state during periods varying from a few minutes to three, four, 
Sve, and six hours. I do not remember a single patient to have taken it who 
haa not afterwards declared her sinrere gratitude for its employment, and her 
indubitable determination to have recourse again to similar means under simi- 
lar circumstances. All who happened to have formerly entertained any dread 
respecting t'le inhalation, or its effects, have afterwards looked back, both 
amazed at and amused with their previous absurd fears snd groundless terrors:. 
Most, indeed, have subsequently set out, like lealOua mitsionariss, to persuade 
other friends to avail themselves of the same measure of relief in their honr 
of trial and travail ; and a number of my most esteemed professional brethren 
in Edinburgh have adopted it with success and results equal to my own. All 
of ut, I most sincerely believe, are called upon to employ it by every princi. 
pie of true huoMniiy, at well as by every principle of true religion." 



IMPORTANCE OF VENTILATION. 
In consequence of a passage which occiirs in a recent notification of the 
Board of Hehlth, Dr. Neill. Arnott has addressed a letter tiilu Timet, 
from which we subjoin some extracts. The passage in. question is the fol. 
lowing! — "Under such clrrcnnstances, coiMiderable and immediate relief 
may be given by a plan suggested by Dr. Arnott, of taking a brick out of 
the wall near the ceiling of the room, to ts to open a direct communica. 
tion between the room and the chimney. Any occasional temporary incon- 
venience of down-draught uill be more than compensated by tbe beneAcial 
result* of this simple rmtilating process." Dr. Arnott says : " A syUem 
of draining and cleansing, water supply, and flushing, for instance, to the 
obtaioment of nhteb chiefly tbe Board of Health hot hitlteito devoted 
its attention, can, however good, influence only that ftianliiy and kind 
of aerial impurity which arises from retained solid Or liquid filth wiiliio 
or about a house, but it leaves absolutely u[ituuched|ihe other and really 
more important kind, which, in known quantity, is never absent where 
men tte breathing, namely, the filth and poison of the butenn breath, 
This latter kind evidenily plays the mott iaiporbvK part in all caiea ot 
a crowdj and therefore such catattrophet aa that of t^e Tooting ach ol. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN: 



a 



with },100 •bit*)f«ii, of «b9in nearly 800 ware leized by cbaUn. of (h« 
Houie of Refqge for tbe Destitute, and of the two grent crowded 
lunatic asylums here, where the disease made similar havoc — for places 
so public u these, and visited daily by numerous straogera, could not be 
allowed lo ramain Tisifaly impure with solid and liqiild filth, like the 
Kaokery of St- Gile>'s, aa« other s«wh (oMliiiea. Now, seod vantUai 
iioD— wbichi although few pertqni cooipanitivcly ar« ■■ y«t «w«re of 
the ftct, is easily to be had— not onljr entirely dissipates and renders 
shsolatejy inert the breath-poison of inmates, however numerous, and 
even of Aiver patients, bat ia doing this it necessarily at tlie some time 
carries away at onoe ali the $rst oanicd kiods of poisao, arisiagr frooi bad 
drdiiia, or want of draios, and thus acts as a most important subaiitHi* fvi 
good draining, until there be lime to plan and safe opportunity to e^lablirb 
spch. Is in farther to be noted, that It is chiefly when the poison of drains, 
&e., it caofht aad retained linder coveri and is there mixed with the 
brralh, (bat it braewca wry active ) for seavaagtra, nifbtatB, and grave- 
digEcra, who work in th« opeii air, are not often sasailedwiih diaeaae -, »iid 
in loul neighbaurhooilr, persons like bnichcrs, who live in the opet) sliops, 
cr policemen, who walk generally in the open streets, or in Paris, the people, 
who manaRMiMre a nfeat part of the town llth into portible manure, auffer 
very little. 

" la regard to tba dilutiea of aerial poiaona in haufot by vw^iUtion, 
I have to explain that every chimney in a houK is what is called a sucking 
or drawing air-pump, of a certain fbrce, and can easily be rendeieJ a 
vjluabi* ventilating pnmp. A obinney is a pump — first, by reason ot 
the aiution ot approach to a vaaauB made at the opaq top ef any lube 
acrosa which the nipd blows direvtly i foi, a^comPyi becanso the iu> ia 
usually oooupied, even when there is no lirr, by air somewhat warmer 
than the extrnial air, and Ins therefore, even in a colm day, what U called 
a chimney draoght proportioned to the difference. In Kngland, there- 
fore, of olJ, when the sbimiMy bnasi was always made higher' (ban the 
beads of persons sitting or sleeping ii) rooms, a room with an open cliim- 
nry was tolerably well veplilaled in the lower parU where the inipates 
brta'hed. Tlie n\odern fashion, however, of very low giales and low 
ehiamey openings has changed the case completely, fbr such openlnjtt 
can draw air only bom the faoitom of the rooms, where generally the 
coolest, tbaliift entered, and than for* the purest air, is found i while the 
hotter air of M)c breath, of light', of warm food, Bi)d often of suliierranean 
drains, ftc„ rises and stagna'es near the ceilings, and gradually corrupts 
there. 8oeh heated, iihparc air, no more tends downwards again to escape 
or dive under the chimney-piece, than-oU to au inverted bottle immersed in 
water will dive down through the water to escape bj the bottle's mouth ; 
and such a bottle or other vessel containing oil, iind io placed in water 
with its mouth downwardf, ersii if l^ft in a ruoping stream, would retain 
the oil for any length of time. If, however, an opening be made in the 
cbiisoey flue Ij^iougb tli» wall near the «eiUi4g of iha roemt. (b«B will a)| 
(he hot impure air of the room as certainly pasf away by that opening 
as oil from the inverted bottle would instantly all escape upwarda through 
a small opening made near the elevated bottom of the botde. A tfip 
wlodow-sash, lowered, a little, instead of lervibg, as many people believe it 
does, like tnol) an opeoiog into the chimney Que, becomoa generally, in 
obe^ence lo the chimney drafight, merely an mUt of coll. «ur, which Gm 
falls as a cascade to the flpor, and then glidfs towards the chimney, and 
gradually passes away by this, leaving the hotter, impurenur of tlie roont 
qearly untoiicbed. _ < _ 

_" For years past I h five recommended the adoption of such ventilating 
chimney opeipngs a? above described, and I devised a balanced metallic 
valve, to prevent, during the use of firea, the escape of imoke to (lie roam. 
Tbe advantages of these openings and valves were soon so manifest that 
the referees appointed under the Buildinf^ Act added a clause to their 
bill allowing the introduction of the valves, and directing how they were 
to be placed, and they arie now in very extensive use. A good illustra- 
tion of the sulriect was afforded in St. James's parish, wlare some quarters 
are densely itinabited by the <%»milles of Irish labourers. These localities 
farmerly sent an enormous number o(sick to the neighbouring dispensary. 
Mr. Toynbee, the able meiMcarcWcf -of that dispensary, catue to consult me 
rtepediDg the ventilation of such places, and on my recommendation hid 
openings made Mto the chimney flues of the rooms near ,thc ceilings, by re- 
aoving a single brick, and placing there a (Ifeoe of Wire gauze with a light 
cuniin flap banging' against the msldc to 'prevent the lisu^ of smoke in 
gu>ty weather. The decided effect produced At once on the feelings of the 
inmates was so remarkable, tliat there was an extensive demand for the new 
appliatxe, and ss aconseqitence-Of lt««doptl«n, Mr. Toynbee had soon to 
rrpnrt in evidence given before the Health of Towns' Commission, and in 
oibcr puUiahed doenments, both an extraqitfinary roduotton - in the number 
ofsickapp^ing <br relief and of the aeverity of disease* occurring. Wide 
experience diewfaare has sinoo obtained ihniisr re^lfcs. Most of the hospi- 
tab and poor booaes .in Ifaa kingdom *ow have theae chimney valve* i and 
osost of tlia Boadleal mea and (Nhm who have published nf late on sanitary 
Butiersb^eslrongiy aomitiondcd them. Had the present Board of Heal in 
pias waed the powen, and deemed the wwans expedient, the elihnney open- 
iaga nighty as a prtiventton of ohoUrn, almost in one day, and at the expemc 
of about a ahilliog te a pbor' m•n^l room,' bar* been caiablMiirA 'Over Ibe 
whole kingdom. 



ON FATENT M£DICIir£S. 



BY t>R, CONQUEST. 

pVe beg to acknowledge theeeurteay of Dr. Conquest la permitting his 
admimble " Latter" to appear ia our coiuasns.] 

The aubject of this letter is one of the greatest importance, ami 
connected with the interests of tlie nation, of families, and of 
individoals. It is one, the 'neglect of which has destroyed many 
more lives than the corohined ravages of small-pox and measles, or 
than the havoc of war, even when that cutse has most generally pre- 
vailed. It is nothing short of Hitnuwe mMrdtr by patent ot fuaek 
mediciaeg. ' ' 

The appalling mortality which prevails in our m«Dufactnring 
districts may be traced to the maiderens practice of the administa^ 
ttou of quack medieines, and specifics of various kinds. It is a 
duty of every mother to assist, by her social influence, in causing 
appeals to be made to the legislature of this enlightened country, tp- 
suppress the sale of sgentSajiotoriously the annual slaughterers of 
thousands of all ages, but espeoially of young and helpless children, 
whose lives a^e committed to their parents as a solemn trust* and 
whioh is thus fearfully abased. 

But to show that prejudice does not dictute these remarks, it 
.is readily admitted that many patent medicines have done good 
when their exhibition has been guided by skill in those oaMS 
for which they may have been exelusively appropriate. To an 
unreflecting mind the admission may he dangerous ; bat tk* 
truth is, tliat tliis assumption and admission of benefits conferred 
proves nothing, Arsenic is** a moat deadly poison^— prussio acid 
more deadly still : but who would place the administration of 
these agents, powerful for good or evil, in the hands of debased 
ignorance, selfish aggrandisement, and unflini^ipg and unseru« 
pulous pretenders and impostors ? But if arsenic and pmssio 
acid when known to us require sotnueh eave in their administtation, 
how much care ahould be requited with seoret agents of unknown 
power ! 

The cause of humani^ demands an expowre of the iniqni* 
ous practices and poisonous system of quackery ; Sat the extent 
to which they are carried on in this oouutiry would reflect lasting 
disgrace on the most credulous, superstitious, and anoiviliaed 
nation. Were we to read in history of au ancient empire, the 
iqhahjtauts of which aspired to the pharMter of the eapecial 
citizen^ of the world, who were ]»e-eminent for their deeds of 
greatness and goodness, who respected property so much that 
the severest punishments followed the smallest infriBgemeats on 
its rights, and who apparently valued life so highly that they- 
instituted state investigations into the oause of every sudden or 
obscure death,-— and yet foupd it recorded in the state documents; 
that all over the empire tliere wore individuals who vended se- 
cret substances, which they termed "mcdiciues," hut whiidi- 
produced an annual mortality of several thousuuds of the in- 
habitants, who were misled by the false statements put .£»r<Ji 
to recommend these medicines ; and that the government derived 
a revenue from the sale of these poisons, and thus encouraged' 
this class of men,— what would we think? But yet such is- 
the fact ; and until our great men become wise, end ceaae to ; 
be the patrons of quacks; and until tho legislature ce«ei to 
sanction their vile impositions, tlie difficulty of crushlug their . 
distressiug ravages is insurmountable, and no hope can be enter- : 
tained of the complete abolition of so great a national cprse iad 
disgrace. Language too strong cannot be used to induce pareols 
to flee the pestilential contagion of its spurious and monrnfully fatal 
deceptions. 

Common sense, oiie von)d anpposo, must convince every 
person blessed with reason, that the unknown and dangeronsly 
active nature of th^ ingredients entering into die oomposition of 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL 



quack mediciises, and the long catalogue of affectingly fatal conse- 
queuces that have followed their use, are sufficient grounds for legal 
interference, and for their general discontinuance. 

The majority of patent niedicines lay claim to the physically 
impracticable power of curing all, or a number of diseases. But the 
existence of an universal remedy is an insult to the understand- 
ing : and none but the most ignorant or credulous of mankind will 
sanction a medicine to which is attributed the power of removing all 
complaints, or even two dissimilar diseases. 

Will any one so impose on his judgment as to deny that the 
same medicine judiciously and successfully given to a patient of 
on<« kind of constitution and habit of body, may not only be useless, 
but do incalculable mischief to another patient, whose constitntion 
and habit of body are different ? or where is the person so profoundly 
ignorant as not to know that even the same disease in different 
stages, requires very different remedies ? 

Besides, mention but the nam» of a single disease (take cough 
or head-ache, complaints arising from twenty different and most 
opposite -causes), and it will be found that the most opposite 
remedies will be required for the same symptoms, or the same 
disease. Independently of this, so dissimilar are the same diseases, 
aruing from the same causes, in persons of different ages, sex, 
temperament, constitutional powers and habits of life, that they 
assume an infinity of modifications of character, and require great 
variety and discrimination in the employment of means for their 
remoTsl. 

The many well-authenticated instances of death which are 
daily recorded, and constantly result from the use of patent me- 
dicines, would, we should suppose, intimidate the most fearless 
from perseverance in their employment ; but deaths are not the 
sole items in the balance sheet ot quackery : how innumerable 
are the cases in which they have permanently enfeebled and 
undermined the powers of life, though they have not been directly 
fatal ! 

Nor is this great amount of human infirmity and premature 
death to bo wondered at, when we reflect on the poisonous ingre- 
dients of which quack remedies are nearly universally composed ; 
and when it is well known that many of the most popular patent 
medicines contains, under the disguise of a false name or spurious 
itie, tlie most active and dangerous articles of the mineral and 
vegetable kingdoms, — such as arsenic, corrosive sublimate, deadly 
nightshade, and opium. 

The ointments, creams, and lotions puffed off for the removal of 
eruptions from the faces of children, have for their basis lead and 
mercury. These articles become introduced into the system by the 
iikin, and often produce, by their deleterious qualities, the most 
deplorable consequences. 

Host of the patent medicines given to children contain the 
strongest and most heating aromatics in ardent spirits, or opium 
in different forms, and artfully concealed. Such are the active 
ingredients in syrup of meconium, or of poppies, Godfrey's 
Cordial, Dalby's Carminative, Daffy's Elixir, and similar prepar- 
ations. 

It is dot intended to affirm that these medicines nefer do good. 
Many proofs to the contrary might be adduced ; but it is no less 
true that their habitual and indiscriminate administration kills a vast 
number of children in this country. 

Inflammatory diseases carry off by far the major part of the 
infknts and children that die in the early stages of life ; and in 
these affections the quack medicines advertised for infants and 
children, from their stimulating and anodyne properties, become 
poisonons, and in a very short time destroy all hope of recovery. 
The history of a case may be thus stated : — a child is in great 
pain, indicated by screaming ; this may be a symptom of inflam- 
inaUon of the brain,- lungs, or bowels ; —but to deaden this pain, 
and to quiet the sufferer, immediate recourse is had to these 
medieinea, and because unnatural sleep and a little temporary 



and specious relief are obtained, a parent's fears are lulled' 
whilst the disease is making irreparable ravages on the constitu- 
tion. 

How common a practice is it, when children are in pain, to refer 
it to their bowels, and immediately to give stimulanU or opiates 
without any reference to the anise of the pain, though perhaps 
inflammation may be destroying life, or the griping and purg^g 
may be critical, being an effort of nature to carry off some acrid 
and offending matters from the bowels — an effort which if checked 
by opiates is productive of alarming and sometimes fatal conse- 
quences ! 

Nurses should never be permitted to have these dangerous and 
poisonous weapons in their possession ; yet it is a &ct of lament- 
ably frequent occurrence, that such medicines may often be found 
concealed in their boxes, and in other places, ready to be given to a 
child, should the little sufferer's wakefulness or cries interfere with 
their night's rest. 

To conclude : — patent medicines acquire the most unmerited 
reputation by false and confident assertions that startle the unre- 
flecting mind, and maintain the reputation they have so unjustly 
obtained by the practice of the most evasive delusions on the unwary. 
Not one case in a hundred, brought forward in support of their 
alleged efficacy, ever occurred : and were it possible to obtain the 
evidence of those unfortunate creatures who have trusted to tlie 
professions of quacks, they would bear testimony to the dangerous 
and fatal effects of their remedies. 

The insidious manner in which these medicines are advertised, 
often obtained for them such unlimited and ill-founded confidence, as 
to induce parents and nurses to postpone recourse to a judicious and 
rational plan of treatment, till the infallible remedies, in which they 
have confided, have brought the patient to the brink of the grave, 
and rendered ineffectual the greatest talents and extensive experience 
of the most eminent practitioners. 



paasaavATtott or lxbchks. 

Tbk increiiing price of leecbe*, and the great diffeulty of procnrtog tbenl, 
almost at an; price, render it a mattsr of great importance to diicovcr thi 
beat method of preaerving them. Leechea kept in the onlinaiy nanner secrete 
■ quanlity of gelatinoaa matter, which becomet attached to Uieirbodiea, and 
aoon killa them. M, Domini haa obaerred that nothing enable* leeches better 
to get rid of thia gelatinona matter than moat. This must be idected sa green 
aa poaiible, wuhed and perfectly cleaned, then placed in a battle (a quart one 
for 100 leechea). Daring the heat of aummer it will be well to place a little 
water in the bottle. Daring winter they need not be changed often ; but in 
summer the mosi muat be changed every aecond day, and the leeches kept 
in a ool cellar. Following theie aimple mlea, M. Domini haa been able to 
preserve bLi leechea in perfect vigour, and with very moderate loss, consider- 
ing the number* preserved. 



A UCCUANICAt VMcm, 



An important discovery occupies the attention of the Frendi *e|entiiic world. 
It is a mechanical leech, invented by M. Alexandre, a civil engineer, already 
celebrated for his uaeful discoveriea. All the acienlific bodie%afker aatisfae- 
lory trials, have caused thia leech to be adopted in all the hospitala ; having 
proved not only the immense economy of its uae, but what ia better, the 
decided advantage which it baa over the_ natural leech, often so scar e 
alwaya lepugnant to tlie patient, and aometimea dangerous. 



ma STOMACH. 



1 nRMiiT believe that almott every malady of the tiUBum ftame is, either 
high-ways or by-waya, connected with ibe stomach. The woea of every 
other member are founded on your belly timber \ and I mnat own I never 
aee a faalitonable phyaician mjrsteriously eooaulting ths pulse of bii patirot, 
but I feel a detire to exclaim, Why not tell the poor geatlemaa at once, 
" St, you have eaten too much ; you've drank too m«ch i and you have 
not ukcn exercise enough 1" The human frame was not created iBperfiect. 
It is we ourselves who have made it so. There exists no Anakey in cteatioa 
so overloaded a* the atonach.— £i>*Un/r«ai th$ Br»m»n». 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



DT8FEFSIA.-IN DIGESTION. 

NERVOUSNESS. &c. 

BT THE EDITOR. 

No. I. 
iHDiGStnoN is a thein»OD which volumei have been written—^n wUeh 
rolumct will ■(•in written. It ii a ditorder under the tbnldon of which 
a nujorilj of mankind groan and wfTthe; it spare* neither the peer nor the 
peiaant, the luxurious nor the stamog, the indolent nor the— yea, the in- 
dustrious, the toiling, the temperate man, frequently poasesKS— truly by the 
sweat of hb brow— an immunity from this root of much evil, which the wealth 
of a millionaire can aeldom pnrchaie. Healthf jl labour U well rrqnited if 
it disarm such a foe to alt ease, comfort, and happiness, as indigestion. Justly 
does the erudite Burton, in his " Anatomy of Melancbo'y," exclaim : " If the 
stomsch (which he elsewhere calls the ■ King of the Bellye'} be distempered, 
all the rest suffer with him, as being deprived of their nutriment, or fed by 
bad nourishment; by means of which come crudities, obstiructioii*, winde, 
rumbling, griping, &c." A more modem, bnt equally correct obsenrer, Wbytt, 
says, " When the stomach is in a aoond sute, and digeetion i* properly per- 
formed, the cpirits are good, and the body is light and easy t but when that 
organ is out of order, a langnor, debility, melnneholy, watehMnest, or trouble- 
some dreimi, the nightmare, ftc, are the eonsequeoccs." 

Indigestion must not be considered merely as a solitary disoi4er or diseaae 
of one particular organ — would thit it were so ; but as one which Influences 
and Goolra'a, to a great degree, evrry other malady to which the human fi-sme 
is liable. When the digeition is imperfect, it is impossible that a due supply 
of pure and nourishing blood can be elaborated in the ayatem for the pivpose 
of carrying on the functiona of life, and eompentatinf for the loa* of snpport 
and strength occasioned by the wear and tear of continued action atid sensi- 
bility. The stomach ii the arch-director of the physical man ; it is the electric 
telegraph from which emanates every mandate lor the preservation of health 
or the induction of distase : an impression on one wire irritates the heart or 
lungs; on another, the brain and the faculties of the mind; on a third, the 
Joiota ; on a fourth, the akin ; so that each separate organ and tissue, not only 
owes allegiance, and has to pay tribute, but also has to suffisr for the bad 
policv of its imperious ruler. 

Beiore we can properly nnderaland the alterations and disorders produced 
by diseaae, it is requisite that we should know something of the organs of the 
body, and their functions when in health. I therefore give a ahort outline of 
the offices performed by the organs concerned in the procestof digestion. The 
stomach is the receptacle of the food, and the ohief organ of digestion. The 
iood, after it ha* undergone mastication, and admixture with the ttiirt of the 
n-juth, is carried by the oesophsgus into the stomach, where it is acted upon 
by the gwtrie juice, and converted into a greyish pulpy mass, named chyme i 
this pasiea by the pyloric, or kiwor end of the stomach, which acts as a sen- 
tinel, by rejecting every particle Which has not undergone chymiflcation, and 
enters the first portion of the intestines, called the duodenum ; here the chyme 
is submitted to the action of the bile and pancreatic fluid, and ia separated 
into two parts, the one white, rich, and nutritive, called chyle ; the other the 
balky, indigealible reaidnum, which is afterwards excreted. The intestine* are 
studded with innumerable tube* of lymphatics, which oovsr their inner sar- 
ikce, like the pile of velvet ; and having a molcular coat, they are endowed 
with a longitudinal, or perUlallie motion, and a ehreuiar, or vermictttar mo- 
tion, by which their contents are urged forwards, the chyle to be taken up by 
the open mouths of the lymphatic tubes, and afterwards converted into fresh 
blood; while the useless mass, which ha* now acquired its fsculeot odour and 
chaiBcter, is carried on to the termination of the alimeotary canal. Hie liver 
Is the most bulky of all the organs ; its ftinctlon* is to secrete bile, which is 
osrrird to its reservoir, the gall- bladder, where it ia kept until the arrival e( 
cbyme in the duodenum, when it ^ects a portion of its contents into this part 
of the intestine*^ by means of a duet, or tube, common to it and the pancreas. 
The elTeGt of the bile is to act chemically upon the cbyme, by precipitating 
the useless matter from that whi^ ia nntritive. 

Trb Cavbu mr iMOtacsnon are a* nmscrons — may we not ssy innu- 
merable f— at ths sflcetsto which it gives rise ; in some instances it is purely 
a local dis«rder, occasioned by actual 4it<ut in the stomach itself ; butaaore 
frequently it exists without any strvctnral change or disorgaoisatiea af . the 



viscera, and is rather a derangement or irregidarity of function than a break- 
ing down of the machinery. When there is diseaae and disorganisation of the 
stomach, as inflammation, nlcention, thickening of the coats, cancer, ftc, the 
indigestion thence arising must be considered mere ss a symptomatic com- 
plaint than a malady ;>»- n ; in the present paper our attention will be con- 
fined to indigestion aa a derangement of Amotions-^ departure from healthy 
digestion. 

In teirehing for eautet of this complaint, I cannot but place fint in the 
list, a natural predisposition of the body, which perioni of certain tbmpkhv 
UXNTs unfortunately possess, by which the disorder exists without other ade-' 
qnste csnse, or is acquired by such means as to other individnsls would prove 
innocuons. Probably some explanation of the term temperament may not be 
out of place, as a peculiar condition of the body is (hereby indicated, which 
is of the greatest importance in all melical investigation. By temperament, 
then, is meant certain combinations or groups of peculiarities of mind and 
bjdy, quite compatible with lieilth, but rendering the posseaor more liable to 
some diseases than to others, and imparting to diseases, when present, a pecu- 
liar character. Temperaments are born with us, but may be modified by cir« 
cnmstances ; indeed by early care and cultivation, a peculiar temperament 
may be, to a certain extent, diverted from its original bias. The meaning 
popularly attached to the word " constitution" approaehe* nearly to that 
which is inferred by medical vrriters by " temperament." 

The temperaments,'whic1i, for all usefitl purposes, may be limited to four, 
are the taMg»i»t, the lymphaiic, the bilinte, and the nerimu ; the following 
are the chief physical and mental qualities of each. 

Ttie soflfaiae temperament derives its name and character from the 
preponderance of the vascular system. The pulse is Strong, the circulation 
vigorous, the complexion ruddy, the muscles well developed, the chest large 
and well formed, the skin fair, the eyes blue, and the hair red or reddish 
brown. Thtf mental qualities of the man of sanguine temperament are welt 
known ; he is ardent, impetuous, and patsionale, but not unforgiving; of liigh 
hopes and buoyant spirits, daring and uncalculating ; often possessing the 
highest order of intellect, but not achieving so much as he might for want of 
steadiness ; be is not so delicately seiuitire ss the nervous, por so persevering 
as the biliotis ; fond of gratifying his set;ses, he is yet willing to exert himself 
for the benefit of others. In such persons' disease more frequently assumes a 
high inflammatory character, and goes through its stages rapidly ; they are 
peenliarly liable to inflammatidn of the Iiings, and active diseases of the heart. 
Indigestion seldom attains the chronic form, and the disordered functions of 
the stomach depends, in a majority of eaacs, on some temporary cause. 

The igwfhatic tempennaent is marked by a softoeis and fulness of th • syS' 
tem)palenees(>ftbeeoiripleilon,lighti.edound hahrand eyfe-brows, knd light 
blue or giuy eyes t the miiselM are large, kut not firm nor atrong, the body it 
inclined to obenty, and the abdomen, in particular, ii corpulent ; the eirenla* 
tion is always languid. The mental qualities are remarkable for alo wness and' 
indolence ; the temper is eqnal and not eslily ruffled \ the spiriu are regular, 
not high, nof, on the other hand, readily depressed i the judgment is cool, andT 
firequently correct; works of great enierpriie lie seldom conceived or achieved, 
yet, by calmness and steadiness, persons of this constitution often effect much, 
and that ranch, wdi ; they are not liable to active or high inflammatory dis- 
eases, hut rather to these of a chroiiie character : in them we flrequehtly And' 
diteases of the heart and of the large blood-vessels; they are prone t»disorders 
•f the liver and atomach, etpeeially flatulent indifettion, and to dropsy. 

The Ultau temperament is marked by charaeteriatics which are auppoted 
to depend on an excess of bile in the system ; the akin ia sallow, or yellow t 
the coitplexien dark ( the eyes also dark ; the hair bUek and profiise ; the 
chest is not largely developed, and the circulation is not vigorous. In such 
peisoot the disposition is serious, grave, often melancholy and desponding ; 
tlwy are hot buoyant or elastic, but posses* considerable perseverance ; tliey 
are haaty and irriubl* in temper, nevertheless they are constant in love and 
in hate ; eoatinued and enduring bodily and mental eSertbn can euity ht 
borne, and, by the eombioation of talent with industry, they are equal to 
aecempliah great object The diseases to which individuals of thit tempers- 
ment are subject, are in general more inflammatory in their nature than are 
thoae of the lymphatic temperament ; the liver is frequently deranged, attended 
with coBstipalion ; they are pmne to sick head-aches and to indigestion. 

TbeneiW** tei<ipeiwa««t ie marked by exeitsbility of the nervous system I 



Digitized by 



Google 



e 



THE PEOPt.B'S UWlCAh JOURNAL 



»re otnefTE thehfscl well developed, the ppnan not large, and tlie oprnFlexion 
of every ihade; the miwcular lyalejB U aniaU, >ut very energeUo for a short 
effort, Mon exhaauiuB ilfeUby inteosit of action i the cireuUtiop U auick 
but not powerftil, caaily affected by »eiy iligbt causes, and like all the other 
functions, very much influenced by nwntitl eMotions. The mental characters 
are marked by reflneroenti there is groit delicacy of sentiment, nicety of 
feeling, and quickness of perception. Nervous persons are usually intelleciual. 
There is not, however, so much vigour in their intellpciusl power as in the 
snngviowus, nor to much peiseYarance m in the bilioits, Most persons en. 
gaged in the Ieatne4 professions, and artists, acquire a portion of this tem- 
perament by their halits and occupations, in addition to that which they may 
originally have bad. The diaeasos to which they aje lisible are what are 
called nervQUf ; as, hysteiis, chorea, spasmodia affections, neuralgia, and very 
frequently, " * bgd stomach," stianded with intense beadoche. 

It seldom happens that we ftnd any of these temperamenU in a pure and 
genuine form, single apd unmixed : they are generally m^t blended in the same 
individual ; thus wc have the ssnguino-bilioiis temperament, which m«k?s a 
powerful character for good or evil i the nerveo-hilious, which tendcia th« 
individual rather unhappy, though iptcUcctnally emintntj the neryeo- 
lymphatic temperament consiiintes a character irritable and passionate | in 
s.oroe instancy, all the temperaments may be happily and equally blended 
together, as we see in persons of eqnal temperament. 

As well as temperaiient, there is another natural ciuae of disgrder which 
should i)ot be lost sight of {preference to indi^C'tion— that it, idiosyiic«4CY, 
or a simple pecoUarity, or tingularUg of constitution, which influences one 
individual and not ai)other ,- ^n e^mple or two will best illqslr<ite the tpnct 
rneaning of the word, and I have little doubt but that the Mpcrience of the 
reader will furnish many ptherr. 

A lady of my acquaintance can detect the small of onion if placed at « 
distance remote from where she is — a distaooe from the drawing-room to the 
kitchen — and immediately suffirt sickness, and that irritaiign and discomfort 
of the stbm.ich which attend an attack of indigestion. An instance baa come 
to my knowledge of a gentleman who is invariably purged by the smell of 
Russian leather. Some persons canpot be put to sleep by opiuiiti others 
cann >t be salivated by mercury. The occasional effect of ipecacitanha in escit- 
ing a spasm or cough -like asthma, ii well known to ipedical iq*n. The poet 
Fope doubtless alluded to this power in some articles to produce roost strange 
and contradictory effects in pertain individuals, when he wrote the line—; 
" Die of a rose io %romatic (lain.* 

Alihougli4yfP*H** Ua«tge«orally.sanaidarad ImtdUary, yet I have «ceh ■« 
many inst^uea iq wUohaerend m«mbmiof the saan tainily, and in diflsrent 
geaerations, w«T« aAiotad with tb« <Ua«Met that I an iaeliaed to think 
bardUMry pradwpo«itio|i abpuld «ot ha Mailtad frwa 'tb* list af cwiaea. 
Oout 1» dacidedly bwfditary, aad gout and dyapepaia are nost Intimatvty 
ennnected, if iwt elosfly r«l»ta«l. 

Tlie MtuB »q4 tbp bo^v eaert a aeaiyiooal tmitf eve* each other i and, aa 

Ijb* aB>fUi|t4avialsw frvmtbe atandard of high haalili imBudbttelyatketo (h« 

' sjpirit* PC tba ii)t«Uact, so does the moms or eaoiteraent of one emotion wr 

pasiian affpct Ma b<»ltli of th« body. What frame ia there so hardy as to 

«s<ape the agUfitiona and attiotipna of tb« mind t And what muKl ao flrm as 

to remaili u|>hfir|ned amid the infiriMtiea MMlsuffarioga of the body. 

. Ti>« influcMC of th« mind-M « T«ia«t« etdsa of diatasa ia too freqnenily 

overlopked in tb« diligevt aaairfb for moro tangihl* oausesf tluMe ok xh» 

medical ptpfcsaion ever conopotratipg lh«ir attepiiM upon the physical, are 

too prone to ntrgUct 4hf mental eaiiafa of ^liiease, A kaowledg* of the aeerat 

trouble* ftnd^nitietiea pf our paticni* wouldj in many ioatanoes, shed a na«r 

light on thair tieatmsat; it might suggeit a vsarp speedy and etfaotual remedy i 

it might tell M decidedly tliat it is a ntoral halm which can •>noe reaoh their 

inward aorcow, and thus we might spare tliarn ^t aver drugging wbfeb eanooc 

" miniftar to « nind diaeaaed." How often d«ea it happen that aomt imbappy 

torevealed pinion, Pt amiaty, iy preying on ibe Tfliy tpring of Ufa, prpdudng 

feaifiij apd uneonlroUahle aymptapis, «hid> wr« all, uiqastly inq>uted la bad 

diet, impure air, want of exercise, &«. Wbtn ibe aedietd attendaDt 

possesses tbecpnSdrnc(^ of his paiienia, hi* duty ia net oonfined. ta the mera 

ereacribing of drugs ; be abowld hacoine tba/rwnd, a* wellisa-th* phywioian. 

Th^ nii;dium ,|)y which the ingiiriou* ,indiHi^ of a peiiutbed mind n 

i:v^rtei), Vt the nvTPHS ayatcDi, nhioh ' hspowlng : dyp w i nd aoA A<wngad, 



directly affects the whole fiincligp of life, but especially that of the itomach 
and of digfsi^n, W« therefore end thai those patriina or enwtUns which are 
in their action drpreuiHg,-:-M gfitf, aofiety, anger, i»a|ansy, the troubles and 
cares of business, continued mental labour, heart-aclie, occasioned by absence 
from home, or country, or by UDra^niied love, eflvy, disappointment, &c., are 
frequent causes of iodigesfion. At some period of oar lives, we have all ex- 
perienced mental agony, either at the lots of a beloved relative, pecuniarjr 
reveraes, tbeslupwreekof the hesrt's deirast hopes, or oiber "sad sorrow' . 
and the memory of the hour is too lattuig to rrqaire piwwqt deaoiiption. 
Every sudden grief meets with immediate aympathy in the HtPWMb and 
interferes with digestion ; ou the instant an exhausting psin or " sinking," ia 
felt at the pit of the stomach ; the mouth becomes parched; a feeling like 
dioking oomes on ; tba idea pf food excites losihing, and the attempt to 
awallow anything solid is inbearable. Suppose an individual in rode, roknat 
health, receives, whilst at dinner, inteilig^oi^ ofsome calamity wWod'bankropia 
his happlncf s : — with what disgnst dues be see tlie savoury diihet wbieli « 
moment before deUghied his palste ; the function of the stomach is arietted, 
almost rwvnlsed, and ha qnita a soene which adds to much to his mis' ry. 
8baktp*re rightly appreciated this property of grief, whoa he esade King 
Henry say to Cardinal Wolaey,.^- 



" r Reado'erOibi 

And alter, thli ; aoil then to breakfast, with 
What avpatit* too have. 

Wbaanervra* exoitament, sorrow, or despondency, Is of long duration, the 
indlgeation is not only ooaflrmed, bat may lead to organic diseafe of the 
stomach. Ihe death of NapBleon wsa, withoat deabt, oaoaad by ooBtinwed 
indigestion — induced and increased by the mental tortore beati^red in bis 
confinement at St Helena, which ended in ulceration, or| a* some fay, panoer 
of the stomach. 

Feraona of agloamy diaposltieii, or initable temper, seldom have a perfect 
dijesiion ; for " a sour tamper atakea a soar atanaah ;" and ahkoagh law 
spirits, hypochondrhisis, or nervonsnacs, is as frequently an ififcfna afiaoaa^ 
yet we must all admit that tlic more cheerful and light-lie irted of our 
aeqaalntanoe are generally ihe mott vigorous and healthy. T'le influence of 
depreaeing emotions on the liver it so well marked, that the word " melan- 
eholv " ia derived from two Oreek wards, aignifying blmek kilt i and vat great 
bard says we may — 

" 1 — ciecp into thp;<iHa4ice 

■7 twine iweviafa." 

During the last few yam, Pates of iBdigeition, produced by the anxietirt 
of business, Buctuaiiona of proBi and loss, have been moat rifc. I bava 
daily under my care patients troubled in body, hc<s*use troubled in ealaie i 
and, however successfblly medicine may palliate their syirptoms, their 
aiaeliaMtion or total disappearance, it commensurate with resignation of mind 
or brighter prospects. Men of studious habits, who devote their whole jims 
to severe mental labour, depriving ibematdwae of oMieiae and natnaal repoae, 
are generally dyapeptics ; the nervous energy ia exbatifted by the acnial 
application, the stomach becomes torpid, and if the appetite continue, the 
bad " lies heavy " and undigested. The stttdent'a midnight lamp is 
frequently trimmed with gsatrio Jiiiee. 

[To bo corltlnaed in our nex'.] 



mn MAMAomfSNT or ran nNOBR-Naiu. 
AflOonMwato European fashion, they should be of an oval flgtire, trana- 
parent, without apecka or ridgea of any hind 1 the aamilttnar fold, or while 
balf-circle, should he fully developed, and tha pellicle, or cuticle whieh forma 
the configuration around the root of the nsU, thin and welL-defined, and 
when properly arranged, should represent, as nearly as possible, the shape of 
a balf.filbert. The preper arrangement of the nails is to cut them of an 
aval shape, corresponding with the form of the flngera ; thsy should not 
be allowe:! tg grow too long, as it it difficult to kaep tbein clean 1 nor t«o 
short, as it allows the ends of the fingers to become flattened fnd enlarged, by 
being pressed upwards against the nails, and gives them a clumsy appearance. 
The PlwierBis, which forms the semicittile arouiid, and adheres to Hie nail, 
requires particulitr attention, aa it ia frequently dragged on widi iu grosstb, 
drawing the skin below the nail so tense aa to caute it to crack and aepamtp 
into what are called agnailt. This is easily remedied by csrefully separating 
theakin from the nail by a Uunt, half-round ir.itrument. Many persons are 
in the habit of oontinuatly cutting this pellicle, in conseqaetiee of which it 
becomea exceedingly irregular, «oi pftan ii()u«ia«M to the growth of the nail.. 
Tliey also frequenilpr pick und^ the pails vith a piiv p«ikl>ife, or the punt 
of sharp scissors, with the {retention of keeping them clean, by doing which 
they often loosen them, and occasion considerable injury. The nails should 
b< cleansed with a brush not too hard, and the temieireular akin should not 
be cut away, hut only loosened, without touching the quiek, the linger 
being afterwards dippetd in tepid water, and the skin pushed back,.wUh a 
towel, lliit method, which should be priictis^d daily, will keep the nails of 
a proper shape, prevent agnails, and the pellicle from thickpning or becoming 
rugged. When the nails are naturaUy swggcd ar ill-fwnip*, the lon^tudiaal 
ridges or fibres should be scraped and rubbed with lem^is, afterwards tinaed 
in water, and wel) dried with the towel : but if the nails arc very thin, no 
benefit will be detmd by icncping; on the contrary,' U riiight cause (hem to 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAM'ILY l^HYSictAN. 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS AND MEDICAL PRECEPIS. 

A Wakx Mild Apsusmt ron Blderly Pkeson*. — Take two 
(crupUi of ooopouad rhubarb pillt, tnd odo scrape «r pill alow with 
myrrb (Loodsn PharmtcopoeU), oil of pepperiniDt, or cloves, two drops. 
Beat and fttix well together s divide into twelve pUls. Dose, one, two, or 
three. 

A SrmoKO Catbartic roti Kobubt Adclts. — Take calomel twelve 
' grains ; compound extract of coloeyntb and extract of Jalap, of each one 
scruple I oil of dovaa, two drops. Beat and mix well together; divide into 
twelve pills. Dose, two or tluce. 

A Gkhtlb Laxa^ivb foh CuiLDBBif.— Take tartrate of potub, two 
scruples ; powdered rhubarb, one scruple ; manoa, one drachm ; spirits of 
outmsg, half a drachm ; cinnamon water, two ounces. Mix. Dose, from • 
dessert-spoonful to two table-apoonfuls, according to age. 

CovoH MiXTORB. — Take ipecacuanha nine, oxymel of squill*, tlnelnre 
of tqnills, tincture of hops, of Oicb four drachms. Mix. Doae, a tea-apoon- 
ful occasionally in half a wine-gUuful of water. 

CouGR MixTOKB roK Childbcn. — Ipecacuanha wine, three drachms ; 
sjrrop of toln, five drachmi ; mucilsKe of mia arable, one otmce. Mix. 
Dose, a tea-spoonful every hour or two. This Is very useAil for children 
threatened with Croup or BrmchUU. 

TnsKB Laws to jiNauBX tub Hxalth of Iktants. — First, let them 
breathe pure air. Second, feed tlieni with diet of nature's cooking, the 
mother's milk. Third, keep them religiously clean, fiy adhering to theae 
directions, a large proportion of the diaeasca of infanta m.iy be prevented. 

Wbbn the hands or the feet are frost-bittea or benumbed from the effects 
of cold, the paru should be rubbed with camphorated apirit, applied with the 
utmost gentleness, so as not to irritate the surface by violent friction. When 
the first effecu of cold are removed, it will be proper to apply cold poultices ; 
for warm arplicaiiona are to be carefully avoided. When parte are frost-bit- 
trn in colder climates, the common practice U to restore the circulation by 
rubbing them with snow water. 



DIETARY WHOLESOME AND ECONOMIC. 

We are indebted to M. Soyer for many of the rollowlng Receipts ; it is not 
our intention to publish one that has not been prepared in our own kit- 
chen, and tested at our onrn table, or in practice. 

Brbaa aad Bui'TBH PujIdino.— Butter a tart dish well, and aprlnkle 
some currants all around it, then lay in a few sliees of bread and butter ; boil 
one pint of milk, poor it on two egga well whipped, and then on the bread and 
butler ; bake it in a hot oven for. half an hour. [An excellent padding for 

convalescent invalids.] 

^■■ 

ArPLB AHO Bioa Poddimo.'>-Bo1I half an ounce of Carolina rioe in a 
gill of milk until very tender ; then add a very small piece of butter, sugar, 
« little cinnamon, and a grain of aalt ; then peel, core, and slice a middling- 
sbed apple, which put into a stewpan, with a small piece of bnlter, a little 
tujnr, and a drop of water, and stew it until tender ; when done, put the 
ap|ile in a small tart diah, mix an egg with the rice, which pour over the 
apple, and bake ten minutea in a moderate oven. It may alao be made quite 
plain, if preferred. [Excellent and refreshing.] 

Sovbu'b Bbbv Tba. — Cut a pound of solid beef into very small slices, 
which put into a stewpan, with a small pat of butter, a clove, two button 
onions, and a salt-spoonfal of salt, stir the meat round over the Are for a few 
minutes, until it produces a thin gravy, then add a quart of wntcr, and let it 
simmer at the comer of the flro for half an hour, skimming ofT every particle 
ol fat ; when done pass through a sieve. The same if wanted plain, is done 
by merely omitting the vegetables, aalt, and olovei the butter cannct be 
objectionaUe, aa it ia taken out in skimming. Pearl barley, vermioelli, rice, 
fie., may be aenred in it, if required. 

Winb Possbt.— Take half a pint of new mi'k, and some bread crumbs, 
boil till the bread ia quite aoft, then add some grated nutmeg and sugar i pour 
into a ^uisi and add gradually a win* giastful of sherry. The wine most be 
mixed carefully, otherwiae the posset will curdle, and be hard and tough. 
[TItis is a capital " night cap"*— frequently a cure ior a simple cold.] 

Sa«o Obubc— Pat two table apoonfiilt of sago into a small saucepan, 
which moisten gtsdnally with a pint of cold water, set it over a slow fire, 
kfeping it aiirred until becoming rather thickfah and clear, similar to a jelly, 
then add a Uttle grated nutmeg and sugar according to taste, and serve % half 
a pat of buuer mtgfht also be added with the sngar, or it ml^t be made with 
new milk, and a little salt added \ and a glaaa of wine in either ease makes it 
more palateable. 

A VBET STM^oramiMO Drink. — Put a tea spoonful of pearl barley 
into a sa ucep an, with tlirea pints of cold water, the rind of a lemon, and a 
siaall p1US*areniitkin«l't loil'Aie whole very gently until the barley becomes 
tender, tban tftiaia It Arotitb a fln« sieve, and inreeten wUh a spoonful of 
iretsU ) ff OMsIa te o^MtiOMM*, \kifuvi or wgar iriU do. 



AOVERTISEMCNtS. 

Price 2t. i bg ffl, it. 6J, 

(CONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; tli* Cauwa, 
^-^ Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the meant of Prevention. 
By T, H. Yeoman, M.D. 

" There is so much good sense, scientific knowledge and useful information 
in this little volume, that we gladly [assist in giving it publicity. Dr. 
Yeomam diacounlenanccs aU empirical mode» of treatment, at the same tim« 
that he suggeala s6ms sab and beneficial rulea for tha core or amelioratSoa of 
the disease. - The remarks on tbe healthy discipline of bom« shew tiiat tlip 
author is a sound social pliilosoplicrj as'well as an experiencej pbysicinn."-r- 
r*« BnVaenfa, Nov. 11, 1848. 

" Tliere ia no asson^ion orq«a£kery in tkis little volume— it it Just such 
a work as might be anticipated fin>m«n intelligent and eaiierienced phyaician. 
The auggestions apd recommendations of Dr. Yeoman are extremely valuiible, 
and may be unhesitatingly and advantageously adopted by all who are 
interested in the health and well-being of the rising generation." — Morning 
Herald, Oct. 33, UH. 

Also by the same Author, price 2s. 

ASTHUA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, en^ CATARRH; 
■^^ the Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment , . 

'• This is an execUent little ueatise by • elcver kad claar-beadad pncii- 
tioner. Dr. Yeoman is well known by his Work on Consumption, and th« 
present publication will add to his fame." — tVeekly Ditpalch,)nt. 14, 1819. 

London : SAUPao'n Low, 169, Fleet Street, ErrtltoHAM Wilson, 11, 
Royal Exchange ; Wbbvtbr & Co., 00, PIceadilly : and all Bobktellerf. 

ROOFF'S IMPROVED RESPIRATOR (Patent), for Consump- 
tior, Asthma, &c., has separate channels for the inspired and expired 
air; warms and poriSea the atmosphere wilbeut becoming clogged; it neither 
requires cleaning nor r^sairiog, has no onaighily appearance, and may be had 
resembling a handkerchief held to the inonlh. Testttnonials to be seen, and 
descriptions had, on apidisation.— Depot, 189 Strand, near Norfolk Street.' 



JOHN MIL^S (Late BUTLER & CO.), DISPENSING 
CHEMIST, 78, Gcacechnrch Street, reapectfnily informs the Publk: 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals i the too fi'equent dangerous 
adnlteratmn and careleaa prepatatioo of Madicinea, upon the exact action of 
which depend the health and safety of onr Mlow creatures, induce* J. Milbs 
to pledge himself that every article sold at his Establishment is genuine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by well qualified assistants under bis own 
immediate direetton. 

Agent for Roorx's fttent Improved R«jpiiBtor. t. M. kaa now a large 
supply of Cod Liter Oil, pteparad (rem the fiaeat Fish of tlsa Seasoiw 

TRUSSES.— S. SMITH, Truss Maker, 1, High Holborn, 
three doors from Gray's Inn Lane, respectfully annonnces to the Public 
that TKUSSBS can be had at his EstabUshment, at the following low pricea : 
Double T^uaaea, 14>. mA t single ditto, 8j. MaanflMturarof Lac* Stookings, 
Knee Caps, Suspensory Bandages, Riding Belts, &a.— Mn. Sndtb atiands on 
Ladies. 



THE TEETH.— Mr. SMARTT, DENTIST, AND CUPPER, 
25, Sun Street. Bisbopsgate, London, invite* attention to his 
IMPROVED ARTIFICIAL TEBTH. They ar« fixed without extraetlng 
the roou of the previous Teeth, no pain ia cauaad, tltay dafy dataction by the 
moat scrutinising observer, and are guaranteed to anawer all the puroosesof 
mastication, flllmg up the Void produced by the loss of the ralural Teeth, 
thereby restoring facial beauty, end enabling the patient tospesk with fluency 
and comfort. Irregularities and deibrmitiea of the Teeth removed where 
practicable. Mr. Smart attends at 4S, Hanaer Street, OiBveaeud, every 
Friday. 



LAWRENCE & CO'S PATENT IMPROVED FLESH 
GLOVES and STRAPS, for producing a healthy state of the System 
by Friction, without the risk of tearing the SHo, as all the ordinary Horae- 
hair GloveB ate liable to do. 

The great value of the Horse-hair Renovator aa a Ikerapmtio agfBt,«hen 
applied to the human body, is now too well known to«very one who has paid 
the least attention (o the Importance of a healthy action of the skin, to require 
further comment, 

Manufkctured under tk|s sole Licaiiaa of the Patantto, by If eaar*. Law- 
maacB & Co, lalingtoa PUae, Park Road, laKagton. Ceqimanieaiiau will 
alap b« received at 74, Fifet Street, . Sold at 78, Qnctehurch Street, tpi by 
Draggtiti in general. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



HEALTH OF LONDON DURING THE WEEK ENDING 
DECEMBER 22. 

The Deatb* regulered in the week nere 119 below the averagr. In the 
eorretponding week of the year 1848, 1276 deathi were returned ; in that 
of 1847t 1946 deaiha, when the mortality waa increaied by Influenza i and in 
the ume week of 1848, the deaiha were 1118. Bat, though atill conaideraUy 
leu than uaual, the weekly contingent now ihewa a tendency to riae to the 
winter rate of mortaUly, and thepreaent return ahewa an increase of 41 on the 
deathi of the prcTioua week. In three auceeuive weeks ending December IB, 
the deaths from bronehitla were respectively 60, 86, 89 ; last week they rose 
to 110, whilst the arerage is only 68; from asthma there were 31,16, 26, and 
19 in the last four weeks; and from pncnmonia (or inflammation of the 
lungs), 91, 88, 90, and 81. The mortality fi-om pneumonia, which is less than 
the aTcrage, occurs to a much greater extent among children than aged per. 
sons; and the latter class are now the chief salTeren, from the increased cold- 
ness of the weather. Three men and Ave women died last week at 90 years 
and upwards ; two of the women had turned 9£ year*. From diairboes and 
dysentery the deatba were 19 ; a woman of 70 died on the 16th December, in 
Great Pulteney-street, from debility which succeeded an atuck of cholera. 
All efrfdemics are Ires tslal than uaual, except measles, which rather exceed 
the average. 

The mean daily reading of the barometer at Ch-eenwieh Observatory was 
above 80 inches on the last three days of the week ; the mean of the week 
was 20*952. The daily mean temperature, which waa-51° on Sunday, gra- 
dually fell to 3S<> on Friday and Saturday i the mean of the week waa 420, 
rather more than the average of the same week in seven yean. The daily 
mean was about 10° above the average on Sunday and Tuesday) and 6° below 
it on Friday. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

NoTica.—AII communications for the Editor must be addressed, pre>paid, 
to his house, No. 25, Lloyd Squabe, Pkntonville. It is indispen* 
sable that letters requiring a private answer contain a postage stamp, or 
stamped envelope, whereon is written the addreu of the applicant. In. 
valids resident in the country, and others desiring the opinion of the 
Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, can have, on applica- 
tion, a aeries of questions proposed to them, nnd by attention on their 
part, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a personal interview, in 
many inaiances, may be avoided without detriment to the successful issue 
of the required treatment. Notes of every case submitted to the Editor 
will be recorded in his private case- book, for the facility of ref^enee at 
any future period. 

Thb Editor is at home everyday until one o'clock; and on the Evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He attend* 
at Mb. Milbs's Mbdical and Sdboical Establishiixnt, 78, Grace- 
eburcb Street, oo Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from half- past 
One until Three o'clock. Surgical advice may be obtained at the above 
establishment, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday evenings, ^on^ 
Six till Nine o'clock. 

In consequence <rf the great publicity given to the publicaUon of the Pbo- 
PtB's Mbdical Joobmal, we have already been favoured with numerous 
applications, to some of which we now reply. We have to thsnk many 
kind correspondeoto, who^ recollecting our former efforts, have promised 
OS their support. 

W^ Wb particularly request Correspondents who do not attach their proper 
names to their communications, to avoid all such cognomens of signa- 
tures as "A Subscriber"— ■• Constant Header"— " Wellwisher," kc. 
Where the correct name is not given, it will ensure the identity of. the 
"answer" to the query proposed to us, if our correspondents add the 
name of the town or street from which they write : thus— O. P. Q. (Bath) 
— Dblta (Manchester Square). 

Sbnbx Writes : " As I see in your prospectus that you intend to wage war 
against quackery, will you tell me if you consider the practice of hydro- 
pathy td be quaokery t" Certainly, it is qOackbry of the /rtt water. 
Within the list few months a case came under our notice in which death 
resulted from " packing in the wet sheet.*' Collapse came on, the child 
never rallied, and died in fifteen hours. 



J, B. L. Yon are correct; the Editor is the author ol the Essays, and was 
the medical referee of the paper in questlop. 

Cod Livbb Oil. Although it is only during late years that the attentioD of 
the public has been drawn to this mere fashionable thau useful remedy, 
it* employment may be trsced back to the laUer part of the 18th een- 
' tury, at which time it was extensively used in the Msnehester Infirmary, 
and its effects, as there exhibited, have been reported by the late Dr. 
Bardesley, in his " Medical Reports," published iu 1807. The doae is 
one, two, or three teaspoonfuls taken twice a day, in a small quantity of 
coffee, milk, beer, infusion of orange-peel, or peppermint water. 

Fmabo. Collodion is a solution of gun cotton and gutta-percha in snlphmie 
ether. It may be termed artificial skin ; it is most luefiil in guarding 
irritated parts, as abrasions of the skin, from all sources of irritation. 
It m'ay be applied with a camel's-hair paint-brush. 

Rbsfib.vtob. We cannot defer noticing the utility of Respirators vatil we 
have o.'caaion to speak of them in the papers on " Diseases of the Chest," 
as in this season of fog, damp, and fleet, their use beeomes Imperative 
to mi ny who aufier from irritability of the air-paasages. We have had 
an opportunity of examining RojfTs Patent Respirator: lbs principle of 
iis construction ii founded on most correct physiological and mechanical 
knowledge, whilst the delicacy and durability of its manufacture is an 
exalted example of art ministering with science to the amelioration of 
bodily infirmity. To those of our readers who may be advised to pro. 
cure a respirator, we would say, with mnefa sincerity, " Get Rooff's." 

Salus. We are not " phpic doctors." We would tre«t disordered health 
rather by diet and regtmen, than by mixtures, pills, potions, and draughts. 
We shall in an early number give an article on " Training." Aecept our 
thanks for your good wiihes. 

A Si;rrBEEB. The law doei not forbid s druggist recommending his drugs 
behind his own counter, and he therefore presumes to p escribe, which, 
if not illegal, is impolitic and unsafe. We recently aaw a druggist 
examine a diseased eye — and a very diseased one it appeared to be- 
across his counter, by the aid of a gas-light. A Guthrie or a Lawrence 
could not, snJ certainly would not, attempt ao much, nor arrive so 
quickly at the precise character of the disease, and its required treat- 
ment, aa did our mercantile firtend, who in • few minute* sent his 
customer away r joicing, loaded with lotions, mixturei, pills, and 
draughts. 

P. C. (M!.ryhill). Take tincture of sesquicbloride of iron, four drachms; 
liquor potasiK, three drachms ; sp'rita of nitric Kther, thi«e drachms ; 
tincture of opium, two drachms. Mix. Dose, thirty drops three times 
a day in water. Diet; fresh animal food, few vegetatles, and not any 
spirituous or malt liquors. A warm bath once or twice a week will be 
of service. Write to us in a fortnight. 

DlAONOsis, or the discrimination of diseases, is the necessary prelude to the 
treatment of diseaae. It is the first duty which the physician hns to 
perform at the bed^ide, and cvirything depends on the way in which he 
discharges it. A correct oliservation and just appreciation of symptoms 
are essential to the true diagnosis. Diagnosis, indeed, may b« said to be 
the art of converting tgmpttmt into tigtit. 

Pboonosis. The meaning of this term is foreknowledge, and, as used by the 
physician, it means the anticipation of the course sad event of diseases. 
The power of foretelling the progress and termination of a malady is of 
the first impoitsnce, not only as regards the treatment to be adopted, 
but as respects tbe comfort and well-being of the patient and hia friends, 
and the reputation of the physician himself. A correct prognosis implies 
a just diagnosis, an appreciation of all the peeutiaritiei, original and 
acquired, which distinguish one mtn from anotber, and experience of the 
power and operation of remedies. 

Pbtbb.- (Bradford.)— Take tincture of squills, four drachms i ipecacuonha 
wine, two drachms ; syrup of red poppies, two drachms ; dilute sulphu- 
ric aciil, half a draclini ; mucilage of guB arable, six ounces. Mix. 
Dose, tno table-apoonfuls when the cough is troublesome. 

R. G. C— (Sheerneas.)— We do not intend to ndvise for cases similar to 
yoora in this column. Send your address, and yon will receiTe n private 
answer. 

B. E.— Look back to your early youth, and you will find a cause adequate 
to all your present suffering. Your employment is advene to your 
recovery. Tonic medicines can be of little avail whilst the stomach is 
unfit to receive them; stimulanU may give you artificial vigour, which, 
like the " Dutdi courage" produced by spirits, soon evaporatea, and 
induces gieatcr subsequent depression. You are "used up," and re- 
quire to go into moral training. Our best servicea are at your com. 
mand. 

ADVBaTisiKO " CoNsuLTiKO SuRoioMS !" An article on these pesu of 
Society will appear in our next ntunhcr. 



Printed hj Ch aslis Adams, at his FrlnttoK Office, 8, St. James's Walk, la the Parixb 
of St. James's, tnerkenwell, to tlie Canntjr of Ulddlssezj and pubUshed fbr Uie 
Proprietors, br aaoaos TteaaBs, Btread, in file Parish tJrgt. ClemeiA Oaneib m 
tbe said Coontr of Middlesex. ' ~ ~ —1 ~ 



Digitized by V^jOOQ IC 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



ASB 





EDITED BY T. H. YEOMA.N, M.D. 



No. 2.— Vol. I. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 12, 1850. 



[One Penny ■ 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BX I. H. XSOMAX, U.]). 

No. n. 

THE TREATMENT OF COLD IN THE HEAD. 
Continued from page 2. 

Thb first object should be to keep the bodj warm and of an 
pqnable temperature, 80 as to get rid of the chilliness ; to avoid 
any re-exposure to whatever may be a cause of the complaint ; 
to avoid stimulating the body by too exciting or nourishing diet ; 
and to induce some exhalation or perspiration &om the skin. 
It ia an old-fashioned notion that we may beneficially increase 
the temperature of the body by wine-whey, spiced wine, brandy 
and hot water, gruel and rum, and many other pleasant bever- 
ages, which are more agreeable to the palate than useful i^j the 
removal of the disorder ; whenever wine or brandy be added to 
hot drinks, headache will invariably follow, and the risk of ex- 
citing fever is sufficient to forbid their use. The safest, and 
consequently the best plan, is to oonaider " a oold " actuaUy as 
a depiu-tnre &om healtn that demands proper and immediate 
rranedies. With this view I would advise, when necessaiy, 
that the bowels be geiatly acted upon by a warm mild aperient, 
rather than by any of the cold saline purgatives : fifteen or 
tnenty gruns of rhubarb powder, with a few grains of ginger ; 
or two rour-grain pills of the compound rhubarb pill, mtuI be, in 
general, su£Scieat. At btd-time the fBet may be put in hot 
water, as hot as can be borne, — a table spoonful, or two, of the 
floor of mustard added to the water, increases the good effect ; 
— a diaphoretic, as eight or ten grains of Dover's powder ; or, 
from twraity to thirty drops of antimonial wine, with a d*achm 
of the spirits of sweet nitre in a small quantity of camphor 
mixture, sbonld be taken whilst employing the foot bath, and 
when the patient is in bed he shduld take a possit, or biusin 
of warm gruel ; if the gruel or other warm drinlc be taken with, 
or immediately after the diaphoretic, it is apt to induce nausea 
and sickness, instead of perspiration : — he should sleep with 
lome additional bed-clothing, so aa to encourage perspiration, 
and to aToid checking it when induced. A warm bath or a vapour 
bath, when easily procured without the risk of exposure to cbld 
afterwards, is preferable to the foot bath, ns a general bath more 
ipeedily excites some considerable exhalation froin the skin. 

The patient should abstain from animal food and stimulating 
drinks ; a spoon diet of arrow-root, sago, tapioca, gruel, " tops- 
aod-bottoms," or biscuit, soaked in weak tea, or any similar 
artide of ntTidid diet must be the only nourishment allowed ; 
and he should drink pleutifuUy of warm diluent fluidS| as gruel 
barley water, Knseed tea, mucilage of giun arabic, 6r whey. ' 

If the ibver tun high it vrill be necessoxy to give some' saline 
febrifuge medicine ; as, small doses of James's po^rder, nitre, or 



antimonial wine, or subcarbonate potash, three or four times 
a day. The following is a simple and appropriate "fever 
mixture.' 

Take — Nitrate of potash, 1 scruple ; 

Totassio-tartrate of antimony, I gi-sin ; 

Synip of lemena, 3 drachma ; 

DiitUled wato', aoffieient to make 8 ounces \ 
Mix. Doac — ^Two table spoonafal every threo «r four lioura. 

In cases where there is much fever and inflammation, with ' 
pain in the head, chest, or throat,- it may be necessary to abstract 
ttlood from the arm or to apply leeches ; when the tlvoat is 
much inflamed and sore, a mustard poultice will frequently 
afford great relief; inhaling the vapour of boiling Tinegar and' 
water is sometimes equally cfBcacious. The uneaeinesa and 
annoyance in and anround the eyes and nostrils maybe materially 
diminished by placing the head over the steam of boiling water, 
or bathing the eyes with hot water. When the ooughis trouble- ■ 
some and there is roughness and irritation at' the back port of 
the throat, demulcents may be advantageously used ; such as, 
almond emulsion, gum mucilage, or linseed tea : or, a " cough 
mixture'' thus composed may be taken occasionally, 

Take — ^Ipecacuanha wine, 2 drachms ; 

Sytup of the balsam of Tola, 4 drachma : 
Cmosmon water sufficient to make 6 onacea ; 

Mix. Doae— one table spoonfoL 

Opiates should be prescribed with great caution, as they are 
apt to'check the secretion fiom the irritated membranes and thus 
induce inflammation, or increase it if it already exists; when- 
ever there is a disposition to fulness or plethora they are iiiad- 
inissible, but to those who arie habitually troubled with a slight 
catarrh, and when there is nothing to contra-indicate its use, 
twenty drops of laudantnn, taken at bed- time, will firequently 
afford relict, and arrest what otherwise might prove a tedious 
attack. When the sleep is much disturbed, a full dose of Dover's 
powder wiU generally indnce a comfortable night's resk ; a gentle 
laxative, however, should be taken the following morning to 
remove any constipation that may result. 

If the catarrh becomes chronic and has affected the individual 
for any length of time, one of the best modes of getting rid of 
the ^Border, when confined entirely to the head, is by inducing 
perspiration by good brisk exercise in the open air or exercise 
with dnmb-bells, or even the child's game of battledore and ' 
shuttlecock ; great Care however should be taken so as not to 
catch fresh cold by aUowing the perspiration to be suddenly . 
arrested. Sometimes a chronic cold is cm'ed by a good dinner 
and an extra glass of wine. 

I must nht omit to mrntion apian of treatment th.ai has been. , 
recommended by Dr. Williams, ^vliich consists of total abstiuencae 
firom liquids : he says, " To those who have the resolution to 
b«»r the feeling of thi^t for thirty-six, or forty eight hours, I 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



caa promise a pretty certain and complete riddance of their 
colds, and which is perhaps more important, a prevenHon of 
those coughs which probably succeeded to them." I confew 
I do not possess the required resolution : I attempted the 
treatment, Dut would ra^er sneeze and snuffle for ft mdnth'thon 
endure the torture of unquenched thirst for six hours. On suoh 
exbelleut authority aa Dr. 'Williams, I offer the Buggeetion to 
such of mj readers as may feel disposed to give it a trial. 

PULMONARY CATARRH— COLD ON THE CHEST— COUGH. 

FuLHoir^BT catarrh, or cold on the chest, is disttn^^hed 
from other diseases of the mucous membiune of the air-tubsa 
by alteration in the character, by profuseness, or by diminution, 
of the mucus secretion, and by the absence of active inflamma- 
tion ; when acute inflammation is present the diseaae then 
becomes hronehitU. 

A few words descriptive of the "air-tubes," "bronchial 
tubes," or " ahvpaasaees," by whioli the atmoopheve is con- 
veyed to the luiigs, will aaaiat the rwuler to comprehend the 
disorders to which they are liable. 

The hrytuc, or or^n of the voice, opens into the mouth, 
aiid is situated anterior to the gullet ; it terminates in the 
trachea, ot wind-pipe, which i8.a hollow. tube, composed of iiom 
fifteen to twenty fihro-cartilagiuous arches or ruifSy — incom- 
plete at the back part, — contained or enveloped ui a fibrous, 
slightly elastic membrane, which connects them together, and 
supplies the deficienoy at the posterior part : the trachea des- 
cenoa some short diatanoe (to the aeoond or third dorsal vertebra) 
apd then dividea into two lessor tubes, called the right and 
left Iromhi, similu'ly formed, except that the rin^ are thinner 
aiid smaller ; the bronchi agfain divide and auboivide into in- 
QwnwablA leaser tubea or branches, like those of a tree, which 
q^read throughout the lungs, and ultimately terminate in the 
hronehial eoU* into which the air penetrates : a number of 
these ceUa, united together by a delicate substance, termed 
cellular membrane, oonatitutea ^l pulmonary lobifh) the \mion 
of these lobules forma the loie, and by the junction of the 
lobea (three in the right and two in the left lung) the whole 
lung results. Thus the aubatance of the lungs is formed of 
minute bronchial, or air cells, cellular membrane, the pulmonary 
blood-vessels and nerves, and lymphatic and bronchial claads. 
The lungs are soft spongy, yielding bodies of a conioalform ; 
the base resting on the dimpkraytit, or muscular partition 
between the abdJomen and the chest, and the apex in contact 
with the flrat rib, immediatedy beneath the collar bone : they 
are contained in two serous membranes or baga, called the 
pleura of the ribt, and the pleura of the Iuiim, The windpipe 
and the bronchial tubea are lined with a delicate membrane, 
called mueou* membrane, which in a state of health, ia kept 
constantly moiat by a secretion of mucus — a bland unirrita- 
ting fluid, sueh aa is secreted in the nose, mouth, atomacb, and 
inteatiues, 

I shall next proceed to conaidw the efiects produced on this 
menbiane and ita seoretioB by oold ; namely, Diy Oatarrh, and 
Humid or Muoos Catairh. 

(To be oontiiiued in our next.; 

ON THE CHOICE OF A MEDICAL ATTENDANT. 

TO TBB BPITOK Or "TBB PKOPLS'* MKDICAX. 400BNAL." 

Sia, — I am one of tboie unfortuuate beiogi who, u Mn. Matoprep 
Would «ay " eqio/ bad health," and, like many valetudiuariani, I delight 
in Medical literature. I have long (ighed for a journal on Fopidar 
Medicine, and hail the appearance of your periodical with tlumlcAilneas. 
I have lufiered much sickness, I have known many " doctors ;" and I 
now venture to give you my experience on one of the moat important 
tnatten for the consideration of invalids, namely, the leloction of their 
Medical attendant. 

A ** Doctor," Uke the friars of the middle ages, should heal the aU- 



ments of the mind as well as thoae of the body. He should be the 
faithful depositary of family secrets, which should remain in his own 
l)«^m, as in the vault bearing upon its eternally closed brazen doors, the 
Seal of Solomon the Wise. He should become the bedside confessor of 
his patieQta. H« should well study till he %nows his {tttieats ami their 
coDstitutlon I and, by means of such knowledge, l|e 4ioiitd seak to pre- 
vent dilate as well as to cure tt, to preserve healA. as well as to restore 
it. Besides talent, he should possess blandness of manner, kindness of 
disposition, fluency of speech, perspicuity in explanation, and extensive 
general information. He riiould faaspka unbounded coafldence, by ap- 
pealing to the understanding of his patients, and, except under acute and 
dangerous diiaase, axplaining to them so much information in reference 
to their indisposition as their general knowledge and previous studies 
enable them to understand. In short, he should be looked upon as a 
ftimlly oracle. If a man wholly such as I have described cannot \t« 
found, the one should be selected who approaches nearest in likene^ to 
my sketch. 

There is one species of medical man frequently to be met with in small 
country towiM, wkam I should svoomiBWid afl isMlida, eapee laU y-if they 
are nervous, to avoid. 

The doctor of this class assumes a stern and swaggering bearing, af- 
fects extreme rudeness of manner, and wraps up his own ignorance in 
the veil of mystery which he thrsvs over the practice of his profession. 
For h» has such a tendeaey to empirifismi that ke makas a sooret of 
every disease he treats, and of every medicine he prescribes, because he 
disapproves of enlightening unprofessional i>ersons, or giving any ex- 
planations to the i^ninltiated. He therefore acts in darliaasSi and shroud* 
his ignorance under a cloud which nous but an adapt can penetrate. 
His language, at times, brutal, is frequently ouintelligible from its pe- 
dautio affectation. If there ia a scratch on his finger, be calls it '* an 
abrasion of the cuticle," — if any liquid has become very thick, be will 
say that it is " inspissated," — a patient with low of qieech, he terms 
" obmuteecent," — a refractory invalid, "a fellow full of obluctation ;" 
In a word, he would most probably, if asked the meaning of "net-work," 
say, with Dr. Johnson, that it is " any thing decussated or retioalated at 
equal distances, with interstices bet«'ecn the iiitcniections,'' Such a man 
would inspire a nervous patient with dread rather than confideoco, and 
would, in most instances, cause death, while his bland, more communi- 
cative, and kinder rival wonld effisct a care. Because the late Mr. 
Abcrnethy Indulgedineccsntrioltieaof manner, in which I am oonvlnoed 
there was net a spark of aflMation, por a tbiwgbt of giving offenae^ but 
which were the mere exuberance of animal impulse not under pioper 
discipline, — these men fancy that, by imitating the defects of this cele- 
brated man, they will gain credit for possessing his talents — a sad mistake. 

I am, sir, yours, Ac. P. N. 

ON THE INTEMPEEATE USE OF OPIUM. 
Opium must not bo considered m^^ a narcotio, having for ita 
effect atupor, sleep, and death ; on the oontnary, it ia a powerful 
stimulouti producmg considerable excitement ; when ito stimu- 
lating power is exhausted, it is then followed by a eonesponding 
degree of depression, seuorally succeeded by sleep. To ooonter- 
act this depression and langour, the Qpium>takornM recourse to 
repeated doses to continue the excitement, and to restore him to 
that equilibrium necessary for his veiy existenoe ; tfa« quantity 
necessary to effect this rapidly increases, until tiie wretohed in- 
dividual sinks in the grave a deformed and slavering id^, 

The personal appearance of an habitual mium-taker oui 
scarcely be mistaken by thoae who have caiefiwyaotieed a few 
who use it to excess. The aspect of the face ia most pecolior, 
the complexion ia of a sickly, almost jaundiced, pateness,— pear- 
haps it|is beat expressed by that color known as "whiey-browia" 
— the eve is sunken, and, when not under the influenoe of a 
recent aose, is dull and heavy i at other times it is of unaatuial 
brightness, and sparkles as though beaming with intelligence ; 
the lips are bloodless, the clieeks emaciated, and the whole 
features betray that anxioua expression so charsotai^iiic of acute 
I mental disease ; the form is wasted, the milt unsteady rod feeUe, 
and the whole frame appeara borne cu>wn by premittwe old 
age. Fcnr the most part cleanliness in person <md in dress is 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



II 



entirely neglected, squalor and Misery is depicted in their every 
Mtion and appearance. WLen not excited by the eflect of a 
former dose the uneasineaa and anxiety are extreme; the strength 
IS completely prostrated. We hare noticed them breathless and 
exhausted unable to drag themselves to a druggist's counter to 
articulate their want of a "penuorth;" as soon as it was swal- 
lowed an almost Immediate effect ia produced. Wc do not assert 
howefver, that this proceeds direct from the opium itself, but 
firam the mind being relieved of that anxiety which the fear of 
mrf oiteMMfP the (VUg creates; then succeeds its absolutely 
rtimolating power; the countenance is then cheerful, the eye 
regains its brilliaooy, the step is comparatively el^tic, the 
mind vt trauquiliaed, and tlie poor victim ei\joys a new exis- 
tence : the imagination ia preter-naturally excited, the pre- 
ceptiona are more acute, in aome the ideas are of the most 
pleaanreaUe nature, objects of most fanciful creation are pre- 
sented to the mind'a me, and the opium-eater breathes in an 
atmoaiAere peculiarly nis own. Ererv reader must be familiar 
with tne conleaBioiui of the celebrated De Quincy. These sen- 
Ktiona socm subside ; the imagination is again vapid — a distress- 
ing restlessness supervenes to the previous tranquil soothing 
eonditioii, and he is once more in an agony of anxiety and 
prottmticm; thus the opium taker alternates, supported through 
a miserable life by that which must eventually terminate it. 
We know instanoea in which this dreadful habit of taJdng 
opium has had its origin in the cradle 1 — We fear the practice 
of adminatering the drug to infants Is daily increasing ; it oon- 
stitutes the bans of the chief nostrums sold under the name of 
Bettoratieet and Oortkah ; the most common of which ia the 
Diacodion, or "Symn ift'Djea'B Oordial," as it is vulgarly called; 
this correctly should be the I^hi^mu Ptmaveria o£ uie fharma- 
eopaeia, which is directed to oe made nom the o^muIs of the 
white poppy, bat too Yiequently it is prepared from sugar, water, 
and opium; this lulls tlie child to rest,--^e mother, plMsed to 
sfe her iniknt sleeping oomposedly and free &om pain, is will* 
ing to believe in its remedial powers, and thus persists in its 
nse — ^the child, no more an inftnt, still requires its usual ex- 
citement, and the habit' is oonftrmed untd death closes its 
short career — " defi)rmed and sullied." 

Prom oar own observation the mqority of those who use 
opium are females, the greater part of whom ure certainly be- 
yond the meridiaa of Hfe, while alas! others are in the prime of 
womanhood. Among men those whose ooonpations are seisn- 
tanr are more prone to its use. It cannot be denied that pain 
and disease have, at the outset, been the cause of many gratify- 
ing themselves with this species of intemperance ; but it must be 
st&iitted that many, &a too many, indulge in it only for the 
stimulating yet enervating effects which it produces. The 
rustom is not alone confined to the lower orders of society, as, 
HDfi»tunately, there are some whose previous habits should 
have shielded them &om an abandonment so debasing. 

The principal form in which opium is taken in this country 
is in the tincture, or laudanum ; a fluid ounce of which containB 
forty-five grains of opium — ^twenty drops nearly a grain. In 
those cases where the fidl mediciniu effect of opium is desired, 
about sixty drops would be considered a full dose for an adult. 
We have under our notice at this time a person who occasion- 
ally takes an ounce, and whose regular quantity is about half on 
ounce repeated three times a day ; we Know a boy not yet ten 
years of age, accustomed to laudanum from his infancy, who 
takes a drachm every night, and again during the day if he can 
procure it. We remember a girl in St. Thomas's Hospital, 
under the care of Dr. EUioteon, who took the immense quantity 
of two ounces at a time. It is stated by BusseU, in his History 
of Aleppo, that .Mustapha Shater, on opium-eater in Smyrna, 
took daily three drachms of gum opium, and felt a necessity 
for inereMiiig the dose. 



ADVERTISINO "COFSULTnrG SUROECnre"! 

'Tis strange what an apathy prevails on the subject of the 
progress of medical knowledge. One would think that, next to 
the soul, the body of man ought to be his diief concern; but all 
experience shews that it Is otherwise. Any new act of parlia- 
ment, that effects' our property or fortune, is read with avidity, 
and studied with the most minute and scrupulous care; yet that 
knowledge on which life ofien depends, and which gives us 
health, without which we cannot enjoy fixrtnne, is despised or 
neglected, or only sought for when the danger presses— when 
necessity calls — when the time for inquiry is past. Mankind 
are more prodigal of their health than their fortune. If property 
be endangered, the most prompt advioa is immetliately taken, 
and talent and competenOTrare instantly summoned to our aid. 
Yet when health and life are endtmgwed, advice is often 
delayed until it can be of no avail, and even then it is often 
sought tor among quacks and charlatans, who found their pre- 
tensions on the ignorance and oreduUty of their dupes and whose 
advertisements, m our daily uad weekly papers, are a disgraoe 
to the enlightened spirit of the age in which we lire. 

The success of msdical charlatans is owing in a very great 
degree, to the deficiency of education and want of reflection in 
those who ore the victims of their impoeitioas and fitsuds ; and 
that these victims are not always found in the lower classes, is 
only too true, and cannot be too much lamented. Who would 
think of employing an advocate who professed to gain every 
cause — ^who appeared as an advertising quack in every news- 
paper, proposing a panacea for every grievance that law could 
possibly redress P Is the medieal quaok any better? He is 
only more sUcoessfVil because he j)ractices in a profession less 
generally understood, and where ignorance and credulity pay 
the more readv tribute to charlatanism and imposture. 

Who oan calculate the amount of misery, the wreck of health, 
the ruin of fortune, that has been inflicted on society by those 
pests of the present day, the advertising, self-styled, "consulting 
surgeons" ? 

The previous education of these men must totally unfit them 
for any occupation in which gentlemanly feeling, smcerity and 
hones^ are required. Ignorant of the laws which rule nature; 
ignorant of the properties of remedies which are at our disposal 
to remove disorder &om the regularity of her actions; ignorant 
of the very grammar of their langiuge, — they are wise only in 
eflfrontery, cupidity, and deceit. Their knowledge of the heal- 
ing art, in five eases out of six, has been acquired in the pur- 
lieus of Houndsditch; their dissections confined to "ripping up * 
old che; their operations to the steaming of real Saint Michael' t 
and the books, of which they announce themselves the authors, 
are plagiarised from medical authorities by degraded members 
of the profession, who for "a consideration," have prostituted 
their talents (small though they be) at the shrine oisaccesrful 
knavery. 

In iUustration of the above remarks, we append the follow- 
ing letter, which vre select from several that hare alresd^ 
rciched us. 

TO THK sDiroR or "TWt nopu's icbdical jovaKAi," 

Bib— Inaimuch as the proipeatiu of your work bean aa honeit face and 
presmges a dagleneia of purpoie m its oApriag rarely enooanterMl in 
thoaa degenerate days, I am induced, although a complete wreck in mind 
and body, and scarce able to put pen to paper, to addrea you. 

I am (during my iUneaimy ritoation hai been filled up) a mercbant'i 
clerk.' Some six months since I had occasioa to aak memcal Muatancr, . 
aad was provoked, bv the joint pcQisal of a very elaborate treatise on my 
disease, and an equal specious advertisement concerning the certainty of 
an early cure, to make appUcation to a Arm cstrving on budneas in a street 
not far from Oxford Street. The parties in question style themselves "Con- 
sulting Surgeons," and profeoors of aiuerdfol regard for the feeling* and 
finances of their patient*. You will perceive, however, what little right 
they posses* to these ^ipellstiont. On the occasion of my flnt visit, I was 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



received with Infinite courtesy, and.as I then imaginedi eonalderafion; inio- 
much that not being able to meet their pecuniary wishes by some 40 per 
cent., they readily agreed to accept the sum I offered, namely, three gui- 
nets. For this amount— more, indeed, than I could well afford to part 
■with, but which, at their desire, I paid down on the spot— they pledged 
their reputation to cure me effectually in one week. Of course I was satis- 
fied with this assurance, and it was only natural that I should have retired, 
■with my bottle of medicine and box of pills, quite impressed wiLh the idea 
that the parties in whose hands I had placed my life were alike intelligent, 
experienced, and respectable practitioners. In three days, according to 
directions, 1 visited them again, but met witii somewhat less civility than 
before. Hovrever, I was presented with fresh medicine, and requested to 
call on the morrow. This I did ; when, after having been subjected to an 
apparently scientific examination, I was informed thot I had another com- 
plaint—a" weakness," 1 think they termed it— *hich would require 

very expensive antidotes to treat, and which it was necessary to dispose of 
first With this, they produced a number of plates, &c., descriptive of the 
different stages of my disease, the last being "consumplion," and repre- 
sented the severe sufferings contingent upon its neglect. Indeed, they 
uttered so many gloomy things, and playcil upon my feelings in such a 
way, that I became seriously alarmed, an^ believed myself to be in a really 
dangerous condition. But they partly dissipated my anxiety, by asMrting 
that they could— and for a consideration adequate to the task, the difficult 
and responsible task, would — restore me to perfect health. I told them I 
was-prenared to meet any reasonable demand : I laid a stress on the word 
"reasonable," because, as 1 explained, the sphere I moved in was ahumble 
one, and I had to labour hard, very hard, for a living. Upon this, he said, 
in a tone of voice so sharp and frigid, that I quite shook with affright, 
" Making allowanee, sir, for your position in life, I will undertake your 
desperate cose for fifteen guineas, exclusive of the three you paid the other 
day." " Fifteen giuneaa more?" I cried: "why that sum is little less than 
a quarter of my year's salary." I then requested him to reduce the charge, 
but to no purpose; and not having at my command anything like the 
amount required, I quitted the place in a desponding state. The indepen- 
dent manner, however, in which I was treated impressed me with a pro- 
found idea of their ability, and, on the following morning, -I went again, 
determined to^makc any sacrifice, so that I might remove the load of disease 
under which they taught me I laboured. I need not say how I^ was 
" managed;" in the end I gave a promissory note for the amount, roy own 
a4dress, the address of my father, and that of my employer ; and for this 
I was promised a speedy and certain cure. 

Time passed away, and the fifteen guineas had been duly and honoura- 
bly paid: but had I recovered? had I been duly and honourably paid ? No! 
emaciated and helpless, I was laid prostrate on a sick bed ! At my solicita- 
tion, this Satan in tlie guise of man came to see me. He said all that 
sdence was capable of effecting within the time had been effected, and I 
waa in a fair way of recovery; but that more remained to be done, and more 
money — five guineas more money — must be forthcoming to do it with. Oh, 
God! I agreed to odvaoce the five guineas— anything if I could but get 
back my health ! He attended mc .until the last amount — and I was com- 
pelled to pavi'n a portion of my wardrobe to make it up — was liquidated, 
when — the scoundrel! — he deserted me, said I had trifled with him, had 
not followed his instructions, and positively refused to allow me any more 
medicine. But in every sense I thank Providence for this — inasmuch as 
the very eminent physician, to whom I subsequently applied, and to whom 
I owe the power of penning this letter, told me I had been the victim of 
Quad Doclort, that I had been taking mercury and the most poisonous 
compounds, which, to him, rendered my being alive quite a miracle ! 

Sir, I was never afflicted with what tiiey call " wetness," neither 

was I at all seriously indisposed when I first visited Street But I 

am indisposed, and seriously so, now ; and fesr, although I may be, per- 
chance, able to move about once again, that no mortal skill can change me 
from the thing I find myself at present — a wreck in fivme, peace, and 
purse. But I ask not for sympathy, because my unpardonable want of sense 
places me without the pale cf such ; all I wish is to warn the youth of the 
age against bring similarly enmeshed, and to essay a humble but earnest 
endeavour to unmnsk the black flogitiousness of advertising quacks. 

But I would fnin invoke some experienced man to illustrate (his subject. 
Perhaps, sir, if the above "plain unvarnished tale" strikes your mind as 
deserving comment, you will not hesitate to attack the evil-doing and vil- 
))ny contained within it nor to spare snch blackguards as I have described 
—those moral cancers, the Quack Surgeons. 

Apologiring for the length of this epistle, I enclose my cord, and aub- 
Xribe myself, sir, yours, in grief, 

» A Victim. 

Thf.be is a general reluctance in consulting medical men on ailments 
which are not urgent " I have hod a slight cough for some time," says 
oae to a friend, — " it does not go off, but I suppose I keep taking fresh 
cold." " I am not well," says another. " I feel ■weak, and I think I get 
thmner ; but still I have nothing to complain of It can be of no use 
taking advice." You cannot become thinner, friend, without a serious 
cause :— seek the opinion of one who knows what that cause is. 



DYSPEPSIA.— INDIGESTION, 

NEEVOUSNESS, &c. 

BY THB KDITOB. 

No.IL 
THE CAUSES OF rNDIGESTION— (cosTUnnn)). 
Setxbai occupatioivB have an injurious tendency on the stomach,' and 
become causes of indigestion ; those which are sedentary, and confine the 
individual for a long time in a sitting posture, are so in an espiBoial degree; 
hence we find tailors and shoemakers generally of a sallow complexian, 
somewhat attenuated in figure, and lacking that vigour of 'frame which de- 
notes healthy digestion. Persons who are confined at the deck, writing for 
twelve or fourteen hours, are seldom free from uneasiness after eating, which 
is occasioned as well by the pressure of tho desk against the "pit of the 
stomach," as by the want of proper exercise; engravers and watchmakers 
suffer for the same reason. Engineers, who are constantly inh a l i n g a 
heated and moist atmosphere, are for ever complaining of impeiftot diges- 
tion ; and laundresses, engaged alternately at the washing-tub over the warm 
relaxing vapour of hot water, and in the mysteries of the flat-iron, tat ecpuiiy 
susceptible of that misery, a "bad stomach." Milliners, who " ply needle 
md thread" both day and night, in confined rooms, heated with the loeatb 
of their ffeUow slaves, and perhaps two or three gas-hnmers, soon find all 
enjoyment of their food driven away, and, in sad aiohang^ experience a 
fainting or sinking sensation both before and after eating, and thus the 
first strand in the oord whieh holds together health and spirits is broken. 

Another constant cause of indigestion in females is "tight lacing," by 
which the contents of the chest and abdomen are compressed into a most 
unnaturally small compass. The corset is a most barbarous piece of 
armour, whidi cabins, cribs, and confines the ftminino proportions of 
woman in an utmalural form, and in the phice of natural symmetry, exhibits 
artificial defonnity. Imagine the Tenns de Medici reduced to a spider- 
■waist by a pair of stays. 

IlTTEUFXSAircs hss 'Cver been considered, and with just reasoa- a foe to 
digestion; the unnatural stimulus which it oflfers, especially to the liver, 
causes that organ to secrete an excess of bile, whitth, by a revulsive action, 
enters the stomach, and by its acrimony, irritates the lining membrane, causes 
sickness and nausea, and stops or impairs all healthy function. Smoking in 
excess is decidedly another cause, inasmuoh as the peculiar medicinal pro- 
perties of tobacco are in themselves hurtful j and the loes of saliva, consequent 
upon spitting, deprives the stomach of an essential requisite for digestion. In 
all things, it should be borne in mind, that "moderation is the silken string 
running through the pearl duun of all virtue." Surrounded by all tho templa- 
tiona to err, which on every side allure the inexperience and indecision of 
YOUXH, it cannot occasion surprise that — 

" Some begin life too woii,— like uUon thrown 
Upon ft ihore where common things look ttrange." 
Dear b the price hereafter to be paid for this precocity ; imprudence or 
excess may be indulged in, while strength and youth have power to neutral- 
lise the immedioto effects of folly ; but when these are exhausted, and 
disease turns the balance, rapid is its onslaught, and, it may liappen, docisive 
is the victory. 

CUMATB, temperatuTCi, and the state of the weather, exert a peculiar in- 
fluence on digestion ; so much so, that the stomach acts in some persons as a 
kmd of barometer and thermometer, either anticipating or indicating those 
vicissitudes to which the English climate is liable; during hot weather tho 
appetite is deficient, and tho food remams for a long time undigested; on > 
transition to cold, the appetite is restored, and digestion becomes more 
perfect. In like manner, a dull gloomy atmosphere invariably oppresses 
tho stomach, impairs digestion, and adds another item to tho sufferings of 
the melaucholy and desponding, which b frequently removed by the brociag 
effect of a sharp keen frost Ago and sex exert but Uttlo control on this 
mahidy, as it attacks indifll-rently male and female, the young and the old. 
I come now to speak of those causes of dyspepsia connected witli our daily 
habiU and tastes, wliich, by prudence and attention, may bo deprived of much 
of their evil tendency. Impmdcnoe in diet, not only as regards quantity aud 
quality, but also the i«gularity with which food is taken,musteverbo ostoomed 
the most frequent disturber of all qniot in the stomach. It is excess in the 
quantity, rather than paucity of food, that creates tho mischief; the amount 
generally consumed being more than tho real wanU <rf tho system require; if 
this indulgence be persisted in, or extend to gluttony, the disorder will not be 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



18 



confined to fonctiooal dei«iigaD«gat, but will induce influnmstion and 8trnc- 
tnial change in the coats of the stomach, and perhaps permanent disease in 
that organ. When the stomach is overgorged with food, it is impossible 
that it can eany on its natnnl actions, which pmienta the exterior matiee 
of ita contents to the gastric joice, and thns gradually dissolTca the mass, 
beginning at the circumference, and gradually trorking to the centre; the 
(bod, therefore, remmns for some time, acting as a foreign, irritating body, 
produeiog distressing pain, until it ia tardily reduced to the reijuired pulpy 
state. The bad consequences, independent of the internal mischief, resulting 
bom habitually omloading the stomach, are) setf-oridant; we firequootty 
Me great and excessive eaters, who aie thin, meagre, unhealthy-loddiig crea- 
tures, which {nnrcs tliat excess in the quantity of food seldom atbrdsincreosc 
of nouriahment. When tho appetite is once satisfied, CTCiy mouthful after- 
wards swallowed imposes additional labour, and that fatigue wliicli, sooner 
or later, prodvioeB debility of the stomach, and its sequel, indigestion. 

l^e quality of food capable of inducing indigestion is, of course, vanabla, 
on account of the peculiar sympathy or antipathy of indiTiduab; as a 
general rule, we should eat and driuk only of tliat food, and in that quan- 
tfty, which experience convinces ua ia suitable to our constitutions, and 
resolntely avoid all other. 

TAi(VBSi3r& with Mkoioiki, aud the iiijudicioua use, and the penaver- 
mee in the nse of drastic purgatives, such as are contained in some " quack 
medicines," are the cause of much of the evil such remedies profess to cure. 
It is a mistaken notion that every disorder of the stomach requires cither 
an "antibilioQS pill," or a severe purge; and we find those who habituate 
themadvea to the vile practice of " taking physio" soon become confirmed 
valetudinarians. The use of narcotics, as opium or laudanum, lapidfy 
disturbs the natural energy of the stomach, and becomes, even in small 
doses, as effectual, though a slower poison, than the draught of the suicide. 
As well as the cauaea now recited, there are many others, as, the want of 
proper exerciae, impure air, and the absence of cleanliness, which, under 
certain circumstances, predispose us for, if they do not excite, an attack of 
indigestion. 

THK waaTQUB or iNDiessnox. 
Tlie gnciTOxa of indigestion are variable, not only in character, but 
also in degree; they are occasionally so well marked as to enable the most 
superficial observer to trace tlie cause of bodily discomfort to tlie irregular 
performance of tho function of the stomach; and occasionally they arc so 
obscure, so ill-defined, or anomalous, aa to mislead the moat wary. In 
desnitnng such as more frequently present themselTea, I shall endeavour to 
point out those tjla<fef of symptoms, which, although trivial in themselves, 
become in the aggregate important, as well as those which are more dis- 
tinctly dis^oetic of the disorder. 

Althog^h an attack of indigestion may come on suddenly, yet it usually 
h^>pens that the disorder is slow and progressive, and until the symptoms 
become severe, or many are accumulated together, it obtains little, if any, 
attention from the patient. Tho early and promiuent signs gCDCrally 
appear in the following order: — Shortly after eating, pain, or uneasiness 
and oppression, is felt in the stomach and its immediate neighbourhood; 
there is considerable flatulence, as though the body, particularly that part 
known as the "pit of the stomach," was distended with liquid or wind, 
which creates a continual " rumbling" in the bowels and frequent eructa- 
tions, which are' acrid and bimiing (heart-bum): sometimes tliere is sick- 
ness, always nausea ; the tongue is either clammy and unnaturally soft, or 
'ii parched and coated with a white fur; pain iu the head, giddiness, and 
confosion, soon supervene, attended with diaturbance around tho eyes, 
either amounting to actual pain, or to intolerance of light and impaired 
vision; the patient is overcome with weariness and lassitude, and disinclined 
for the least exertion, which increases tho discomfort tliat now pervades 
the whole frame. In some cases the symptoms arc moat distressing when 
Ote stomadi is empty; wo then notice that the appetite ia oapiioioua, soroe- 
timea craving for the most uncommon, perhi^ unwholesome, artiolce of 
food; the nneasinesB and weight at the stomach is oppressivo and sicken- 
ing; flatulence is excessive, and tho eructations arc acid, and accompanied 
with a flow of an insipid limpid fluid, like clear saliva (x)yr0Bi8) ; a firequcnt 
aud sudden pain, not unlike a spasm, is experienced iu tlu) stomach and 
abdomen, whidi may become so severe as to simulate gout. 

In other cases there is a continual burning or gnawing at the stomach 
which ia Batolerabl^ causing a jenaation as though the coata were nipped, or 



twisted, or groimd together; a feeling of linking and ezhaostion prostratea 
alike tho mind aud the body; the thirst ia constant; the tongue paidted and 
dry: a bitter or sour diaagfeeable taste cloyi the mouth; the breath is 
ofifaisive; the akin ia hot and harrii, and there is moie or leaa general fever. 
In all cues the bowels are irregular, either constipated or idased ; but the 
former state occurs' more frequently than the btter; when relaxed, the 
evacuations are scanty, and the desire to void tlMm almost constant. 

These we may term the loading features of indigestion; but with them 
we find a geueral disturbance of the system, preaenting auoh cbamdion-like 
symptoms, changing not only in diflrent individnala, but also at diflbrant 
periods in the same individual, that it' is necessary to premise that those 
wliich we are now about to detail must bo considered ratiier aa the probable 
than tho invariable^attandants on the disorder. The chancier of the FAnr 
iu a dyspeptic stomach is aeldom alike in all caoea; it may be either aaute 
and darting, or dull and oppressive, and ia genaially increased by poresaiue 
with the lumd or diea8;'aometimea it is rather a sensation of heat or 
burning tliau actual pain; when this ooonr* there ia oonsidorable flatulence^ 
and the aaoape at wind is attended witli an acid or burning sensation in the 
throat ; iu some cases the pain ia more intense at the back, partienlaily be- 
tween the shoulders or "blade-bones." When the stomach becomes so 
irritated that food directly aggravates the pain, sickness frequently follows, 
and the food ia ejected nearly in the same state aa when swallowed: occa- 
sionally it ia mixed with a greenish bitter fluid ; sidmeaa occurs more fi«- 
queuUy early in the day, cither at or after break&st. If the pain continue 
for any length of time^ it is for the ntoat part attended witb a feeling of at- 
houstion, £untneas,'aad anxiefy; the patient will deseribe the sebaotion aa 
a "loss of the stomach," or " ainking into the ground;" he baa no energy 
for business or recreation; he craves for something, without being able to 
say what he really wants; the tamper becomes irritable and peevish; he is 
low and desponding, he feela disAmtented and miserable. 

HsiDAOBZ is seldom absent, as the brain sympathises with every distur- 
bance in the stomach; the pain is, in some instances, violent and throbbing 
in others it is dull and opproaaive^ aa though a weight was pressing oa the 
skull; the eyea ache, and teA aa if protruding from the orbits, and the 
least touch with the finger to the boll of the eye afforda exquisite pain; the 
sight becomes ofieoted, either by a mist or spots floating before the e^es, or 
by a confusion of objects; reading aggravates not only the distnrbahde in 
tlis eyea, but also the pun in the head. 

The APFXTixx is fickle, without the usual reliah of food ; the patieort 
frequently imagines he can eat all that may be set before him, and imme- 
diately he sees the food prepared, he turns away sickened, but not satisfied; 
other* sit down daily to their meals, more as a matter of custom than from 
any desire to eat, and although they may manage to play tobnbly wdl thesr 
part, it is without that enjoyment which is the best sauce and the greatest 
promoter of digestion. In some the appetite is voracioua, and more food a 
awallowed than con be properly digested even by a sound stomach. Again, 
others are dainty, and have on indiuatiou to eat, but only of the most delicate 
and savoury dislies. Frequently there is no appetite whatever, and the mere 
idea of eating aggi-avates the existing discomfort. Thirst ia troubleaome and 
constant ; the meuth is clammy, and vitiated by a viscid or ropy saliva of a 
moat unpleasant taste ; the tongue is flabby and hot, the lips burning, and the 
odour of the breath disagreeable. 

Tho BOWBza, as we have already stated, are irregular, and the evacua- 
tions deranged and unhealthy ; when constipation is habitual, and the consti- 
tution becomes accustomed to tite retention, there is not experienced much 
iuimediate annoyance, although this state of tilings keeps up the original dis- 
order. In many instances tho bowels aro bound for three or four days, and 
tlien relaxed for some time without the aid of medicine ; when this hai^cns 
there is generally some pain or griping, as well aa irritation, bearing down, 
or burning at the lower part of the body ; if frofli other causes there exists 
I predisposition for lusmmrrhoids (piles), they also become painfel and trou- 
blesome. 

FMUiiTxnov o> TUB Hjsast is one of the moat diatresoing and fteqoent 
symptoms ; it is ahirming, not only to the patient, but also to hia frienda, who 
imagine tliat all the pain, flutteHng and akixiaty onginate in disease of the 
heart itself, while, fortunately, it may only be a functional derangement 
caused by sympathy witli^ and proximity to, a disoidered stomach. In soine 
persons the least exertion, aa going up stairs, walking bat, or stooping, brings 
on a flattering; and any tudden lurprisej even being called by nomc^ a door 



Digitized by 



Google 



1« 



THE HBOPLB'g MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



' TioleDily, • postman'i knodc, iiMteiitly cauim that oppiemhe 
Moiation popolavly known u " tka bMii leaping into the mouth." When 
th«a ii inornaed or itregnlar actioii of the heart, the whole frame Bympa- 
thiaes with the vumatunl oonditioni the pulae i« quick, weak and inter- 
mitting; the temperature of the ikin i* ohangeabk, at one time being hot 
and dry, at another oorered with a cUnuny disagreeablfl moisture, and then 
again soiRued with a burning heat, or flnthesj serare diilla or rigours are 
£ur from being unoommon, and the feet and palms of the hands are either 
bott or bedewed with a damp nnhealthy perspiration. When palpitation is 
oooitant, it is attended with pain at the left side, sddom aonte, but alwajrs 
"gnawing" and exhausting; inrolnntarj' sighing is also an occasional 
symptom in saoh cases. 

CovsH and difficulty of breathing are mgMit symptoms, which may be 
mistaken for actual disease in the hings, whan they are in reality only 
sjrmpathotic derangements ; it may easily be oonetrired that, from the close 
neighbourhood of the stomaeh to the longs, whatever distends the former 
^ust of necessity press upon and annoy the latter ; thns we inrariably 
find that there is more or less tightness or constriction across the chest; 
somftimea pain on inspiration, and always a consciousness of breathing, 
whioh is not compatible with health. From the irritation thus excited, a 
tiekling is induoed in the windpipe, which gives rise to a frequent and dis- 
tressing oongh, either "dry," or aoeompanied by an increased expectoration 
ofmneos. Should consumption be latent in the system, a continued cough, 
thns produced,' is frequently a snIBcient stimulus to call the disease into 
aetifity* 

Some derangement of the ixm generally accompanies all oases of indi- 
gestion : and although disorder or disease of that organ is frequently a cause 
of dyspepsia, In like manner it reciprocates any departure from the healthy 
action of Hba sfawiaeh. In some instances the seat of all the disturbance is 
referred to the right side, whioh is painibl, especially on the least pressoM; 
the patiant eKpariences a difficulty in sleeping on t^ side, in consequence 
of a dragging or tearing pain ; sometimes the eracnations are deficient in the 
quantity of bile, and in others Uiere is an excess in those secretions as wall 
as in the stomach, which indneea a twisting or nipping pain, and vomiting. 

The ILXIP of a dyspeptic invalid is always troubled and unrefreshing; 
it frequently happens that a continued rastiessness and wakefulness entirely 
.t)anish the "sweet restorer," or, it comes only at intervals, and is disturbed 
with frightful dreams, or the nightmate. " In a half-waking or intersom- 
nius condition," saith the learned Dr. Ton ]>rufiU, of Berlin, "you behold 
a monster of some kind — a goblin, a fiery horse, a wild gigantic man — glide 
slowly towards yon. This ^iparitiom seats itself on the pit of the stomach, 
and dresses you wiUi such a crushing weight, that you can neither breathe 
nor more a limb." Tou are not asleep; you are sufficiently awake to know 
that could you but move yonr little finger, the charm would be broken, and 
the vile nightmare gallop away. After such a night's rest (P) the patient 
, awakes in the morning, scarody refreshed, indeed almost as fatigued as 
when be zetiied to bed. In other oasea there is a constant drowsiness and 
Mhaigy, so mudi so at to induce the patiant to drop into a stupor or dose 
the momeot he is seated. 

Xizeroiae, whioh before could be imdertaken without the least annoyance^ 
now becomes painful and fiitigning; the limbs ache; the knees and ankles 
tremble, and there is a general deficiency of that natural energy which the 
■daily avocations of busy life constantly require. 

Tbt gensnl a^yearanoe of the body indicates the sinount of suff'erings 
endured by the patient; the complexion is sallow or pale, the countenance 
is emaciated, care-worn, and anzions : tbe eyes recede far book in their 
sockets, and are sometimes surrounded by a dark areola, or ring; the body 
becomes attenuated and lean, and the whole aspect bears evidence of deficient 
.nutrition. Spots, pimples, or blotches, frequently disfigure tiie iisce, and 
aftnd mnch tiouble by t&or itritation and itching; in some cases they are 
not otmflned to the face, but pervade the whole body, so as to cause a doubt 
whether they may not be a specific disorder, and, under this ide^ may be 
minoperly treated as a scurvy, or toorbutia eruption. A troublesome itch- 
ing or pribkmg is occasionally Mt in diiferant parts of the body (unattended 
with any entaneous eruption or pimples), whidi is oratinnally adding to the 
Aiaoomfort of the patient, and aa it is invariably inoteaeed l^ soratching or 
friction, the imtatioa keeps th* tnihrer in a state of perpetual restlessness. 
(7b >r eoaMiiMil <• OMr If«gr0. 



CASB at BSinnoir ov mosaa ynxa ooxrLsm rxfixitiov. 

The foUoiriug interesting case recently occurred in the practiceof Ur. Denny. 
Mr. Denny says, a labouring man applied to me to dress the thumb and 
fore-finger of the left hand, having, as ha statad, met with an accident, 
whilst cutting or chopping a handnd of grass with a sickle. Vpon esamina* 
tion I found he had, t^ a clear incision, cut out of the thumb a triangular 
shaped piece, the incision extending from the end down the centre o? tlie 
nail, nearly to the root, then outwards to. the fore-finger. The piece thus 
disunited consisted of the portion of nail described, integument, muscle, and 
a minute portion of bone. From the finger he had nearly sUeed off a piece 
of musde and integument on the side next to the thnmb. I sent Um baek 
the distance of two miles, to search among the grass for tbe dismembeted 

ntion, whioli he succeeded in finding, and which, upon his return, I care- 
y washed with warm water, and Mjusted it in exact apposition to the 
surfaces from where they were cut. I freely applied collodion, so as eflec- 
tually to exclude the atmosphere, and prevent any ftirther hemorrhage, and 
with various pieces of strapping, held them firmly in the positian in which 
I had placed them. The result has been the perfect re-union of both 
pieces, leaving little or no cicatrix. I should mention that the period that 
elapsed^ from the occurrence of the accident to the replacing of the parts 
was four hours; also that the pain, which was very acute, from the expo- 
sure of the cut sur&ces to the atmosphere, ceased hnmediately that tbe 
parts were rephu;ed; and the man experienced little or no pain afttrwardm 

PBSSOBtBDfa DBCaOIflTB. 

A Coboseb's inquest was held in Liverpool on the body of a child between 
six and seven months old, who died soon after " three to four drops were 
given to it, of a liquid sold at the shop of Mr. S — n, druggist, for syrup of 
poppies." After a lengthened investigation, " the jmy, aJter some minutes 
mvestigation, brought in a verdict of 'wance medlev,' as aflbcting the parents, 
and appended to their verdict their strong reprenension of the negligent 
conduct of Mr. S — n in conducting his business." The LherptMl Sttuiard 
from which we quote the above, states that, within about six weeks, no less 
than three cases of death, produced by the ignorance and presumption of 
prescribing drug^ts, have formed the subject of judicial mvestigation in 
Liverpool alone. 

cuiABOiOBir. 

A SZAIH from chlorofotm lately ocooned in Berlin, and made a great sen- 
sation. A young kdy died two days after ao unsueoessfiil attempt had 
been made to extract a tooth while under anesthetic infiuence, — the re-ac- 
tion, it is said, operating upon the brain. The dentist has been examined 
before the judicial authorities, and charged with having administered the 
drug without the oresence of a surgeon or physician, as required by law,—' 
not that such autaorisatioiv would have savaa the patient; but "tbe law 
allows it, and the court awards;" and the effect will be to cheok the indis- 
criminate and indbcreet use of chloroform, which is here as Cuhiousble as 
it seems to be in your northern capital. It has also given rise to many 
discussions among scientific men. Langonbeck, the successor of Dieffeii- 
bach in the University Clinic, and formerly Professor at Kiel, has availed 
himself of the opportunity to publish Us " experienoea" on the matter. 
He has used chloroform in all ages, — in the ohila of a few hours old, and in 
palioits of 80 years of age. He haa had but one death from it, and that in 
a sailor with comminuted fracture of the ankle, requiring amputation. 
While tying the artery, Langenbeok observed bUck blood and gas bubbles 
issuing from tlie wound, and the patient died half-an-hour after the opera- 
tion. The same ooourrenoe also lately took place in La Charite, dnring the 
operation for exeision of the lower jaw. On dissection, mudi black and 
frothy blood was found in the right heart. By the way. Professor Baum- 
gartner annomices some illustrations of tbe cure of diseases of the respiratory 
organs by chloroform. — Berlin Correspondent of the JUedical Timt*. 

A nrw BBMXDT >0B HTBBOPHOBU. 

M. RocRXB D'HxsioorBT, who has lately jwtumed from a voyage in 
Abyssinia, has brought with him numerous specimens of a plant, the root 
of which, reduced to powder, is a cure for hydrophobia, both in men and 
animals. Of its virtues M. d'Hericourt had practical proof; three dogs 
and a man having been bitten by a mad dog, were, by application of the 
remedy, cured of the hydrophobia wliich ensued; whileafourth dog (bitten 
at the same time by the same animal), to which the remedy was not given, 
perished in all the agony of that horrible disease. The virtue of the plant, 
and the maimer of preparing it for use, were explained to the traveller by 
a potentate of the counter, who assured him wttt it was theregenerally 
used, and never failed, xhe specimens brought over by M. d'^ricourt, 
have been submitted to the Academy des Bcienoes, and a Committee of 
that learped body has been appointed to test their efficacy. If, as it is con- 
fidently hoped, the plants hare not lost their virtue in tUs European 
climate the world wilt soon be put in the possession of the aeans ct earing 
one of tbe most frightful disoasM to wliioh flesh is heir, and H. Bocher 
d'Hericourt will have the |^ry of having oonfened an insstinubb Vt***ing 
on wiBiaai.-'iuk doKisoalmi of t£« Utirm fitttttt. 



Digitized by 



yljoogle 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



tA 



FAMILY PBESCRIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

Th» TB^ninrr o» Cbilblain*.— la the MrKeit ttage, fHetion, 
fiftn employed diy m vMi bnuady, or camphorated ipMta, ii the aimplest 
tnd best meani ; when the paiti have beeome red sad sUtiing, bnt before 
nlrersttoB faaa taken pUH:e, the ftiUowing appUeatton may be wed with the 
gicalert advanlage. Take camphor, one drachm i ctaentiid oil of torpen- 
tinr, eight ooneea. Oinolva and apply as an embrecatioii. After ulcera- 
tioa haa eommoiced, the bsat remedy is an ointment thus made. Take, 
hrd, en« ounea i Goulard's astcaet, twelve drops | extract of opinn, three 
graias; oeaaote, ten drops. Mix, and spread on old rag or lint, and 
apply to the som, night and morning i a bread pouUlee to dean the 
vound majr ba oceasioBally requisite. 

Embxocatiov roa Spraiks, Barisieg, and Rhedmatissi,— Take soap 
liniment or opaiMae, one ounce and a half; spirits of camphor, two 
drachms ; oQ of origanum, half a drachm ; rectified spirits of wine, one 
drachm and a half. Mix. This Liniment may be made more stimulating 
bj the addition of one drachm of strong water of ammonia : — it may be 
made anodyne, by the addition of two drachms of laudanum, 

OiKTHBST Fon H^MOKMOina ( Pilm),r-7ik», powdered galls, mm 
ixtAm ; powdered opium, one sontple i lard, one ounae, Mix. Apply 
vi^t and momlng, or more frequently. 

FAiicTtM*.— A person in a fatating-fit should be placed perfectly flat j 
unmonia, or other soweiM stimulant, should be applied to the nose ; as 
•oon as he eaa awallow, a small quantity of brandy and water, or sol volatile 
ud water may be given. If th*re be great coldness of tlie extremities, hot 
ibnnels, or hot bottles of water, shoula be applied to the feet and legs. 

Cpilxpsv.— During an epileptic fit, the patient should be placed on a 
bfd, or sofa ; if he falls down in the street, a coivt or rug should, if possi- 
ble, be placed beneath him : the head must be raised, and every thing 
tight around the throat and diest removed; to avoid injury to the tongne, 
s cork, or piece of wood, should be placed between die teeth. Vinegar 
and watcri or cold water should be applied to the head, 

Apon«ZT.<>-The fiHt thing to ha dona, in all eases, is to loosen the 
pstient'a nacterchief and shirt roHar, raise his head, or place him, if con- 
Tenient, in a chair, and open the window of the apartment Not any thing 
should b« given, until the airival of a medioal man, who should be sent for 
immediately; ahould tima dapae befeae his arrival, apply leeches to the 



DIETARY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC. 

To Maks VHim, IhnkBinnrnn BncAn.-^Take flour, a pound and a 
half; bi-eaiiwMl* «f soda In powder, two dradi ms ) spirits of salt Oiydro- 
cbloiic or mpiatia acid), two and a half fluid drachms. Water, thirteen 
ounces) etunmon salt, a third of an ounce. The flour and soda must be 
caicftiUy niwd by the hand. The salt is to be flrst dissolved in the Water, 
and tkm to haw the acid mixed iritfa it. fbo Ingredients are now to ba 
very careAiUy and uniformly stiirad together with a wooden spoon, and the 
BMss iato 1^ pat timae4iiitel]p into a quick oven for half an hour. 

To Makb BaowM TTtfriKintirrcn Bbkao.— Take white meal, a pound 
and a half I U-carbonate of sods, two drachms and ten grains; spirits of 
salt (hydrochloric or mwriatic acid\ two and a half fluid drachms and 
twelve drops i water, fifteen ounces ; common salt, a third of an ounce. 

To Boil Rick.— Wash weU in two Mparata watei* a found of the belt 
Carolina rice, then have two i;|uarts of water (boiling) in a slew-pan into 
which throw your rice ; boil it until th^ee parts done, then drain it on a 
seve; butter the interior of a stew-pan, in which put your riee, place the 
fid on tight, and put it in a warm oven upon a trivet until the rice is per- 
iM^teadcr, or by theiideof thefire; sfrv« it separate with curry, or anlF 
i^er dish where required. Prepaied tbwi) every grain of lioe will be 
separate and quite wliite. 

MuTTOW Bnom.— Pnt two scrags of mnUon (having previously jointed 
the bMM*), with two onions, three tomips, and one carrot, fill up the stew- 
pan wi A a gallon of watee, and place it upon the fire ; when boiling set it at 
the earner, where let it simnier for three hours, keeping it wen skimmed ; 
tlcn cut a anaH camt, two tomlpa, an oalOB, with a Uttie leek and celery, 
into MMUaqnaia pieces, whidi put into auo&er stew-pan, with a wine-glaas 
of pcad4>arlqrt sUmeverypartufleef fct from the broth, whli^ pour through 
a hai( aim* eff«r ttc barleys let &tt whole biril gently at the comer of the 
be Mtil IIm biriey ia tender, when it' is ready to serve. The meat may be 
tiimmed iada.Bett pieeaa aaU served with the broth, or separate with melted 
batter and parsley, or ostiaa anncc. Half, ov even a qnarteri of the above 
ipiantily can be made b^iedacing the ingpKdleliii in proportion. 

PoBatOGS.— When children are delicate, porridge is often preferable to 
bread and mSk. Fnt two table-spoonsful of Scotch grits or oatmeal in 
Am milk sMiWpan, whidi moisten with half a pint of milk ; let it boil ten 
i^autea, keoMsg well stirred, «dA a tatall pi«ce of butter, vfii. a Uttle 
SBgsr, and it Ik itady for tuf. 



AOVBRTItCMINTS. 

■ I H i 

Price 2$. 1 bu pott, 2».6d. 

rjONBUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE j the Cauws, 
^^ Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the means of Prevention. 
By T. IL Ybowaw, M.D. 

'• There ia so much good sense, identifie knowledge, and uaefol InAsr- 
mation in this little volume that we gladly assist in giving it pubUeity. si, 
Ybouan discountenances oil empirical modes of treatrafnt, at the aan* 
time that he suggests some safe and beneficial rules for the cure or ame- 
lioration of the fiseaae. The remarks on the healthy dlsdpUne of home 
show that the author is a sound sodal philosopher, as well as an espe. 
rienoad physieiaa."->n« Bribamim, ASsa. 11, 1848. . 

" There is no assumption or quaiikery in (his little voliune— .it is just 
such a work as might be anticipated from an intelligent and experienced 
physician. The suggestions and recommendations of Dr. Yeoman are 
extremely valuable, and maybe nnhesitatingly an4 advantageously adopted 
by all who are interested in the health and wdl-being of the rising genera, 
tion."— Jftm%.H«ra«, Oct 83, 1848. 

Also, by the same Anlhop, price a*. 
A 8THMA. BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH ; 
**' the Causes, BymptiMns, and Rational TreattMnt. 

' This is an excellent little treatise by a clever and clear^hetded practi. 
tioner. Dr. Yeoman is well known by his ^Vork on Consumption, and the 
present publication will add to his feme."— JTecWy Z>tipa/cit, Jan. 14, 1849. 

London: Sampsow Low, 169, Pleetstreet; BvnttORAM Witsojr, 11, 
Royal Exchange; W b bstbb ano Co .. 6 0, Piceadilly; and all Booksellers. 

ROOFFS IMPROVED RESPIRATOR, (Patent,) for Con- 
'*°* sumption, Asthma, &c, has separate channels for the inspired and 
cx^red air ; wanss and purifies the atmosphere without beeoming dogged ; 
It neither rei^uires cleaning nor repairing, has no tmsightly appearance, 
and may. b$ had resembling a baodkeichief held to tlie mouth.! TeatinM* 
nials to be seen, and descriptions had, on application. DepAt, 189, 
Strand, near Norfolk-street 

¥ OHN MILES, (Late BUTLER and CO..) DISPENSING 
^ CHEMIST, 78, Graoeehurchotreet, reapectftdly informs the PubHft 
that the most vigilant care and attention ia dways paid by Um to the 
selection of the purest and best Drugs imd Cbenieals;'the too frequent 
dangerous adulteration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the 
exact action of which depend the health and safety of our fellow creatures, 
induces J, Mit«8 to pledge himself &at every article sold at his establish- 
ment is genuine, and that dl FiMcriptlons are dispensed by well-qualifled 
assistants under his own immediate direction. 

Agent for Roqf's Patent Improved BMpirator. J. M. has now a large 
supply of Coo Livaa Oil, prepared from the finest Fish of the Season. 

rpBUSSES.— 8. SMITH, TnuM-maker, 1, High Hdbom, 
-*- three doors firom Orsy's-inn-lane, renieetfully annouacea to the Pub. 
He that TRUSSES can be had at his establishment, at the foUowina low 

S rices: Double TVusses, 16s. each; single ditto, 8s, Manufacturer ofLace 
toehingB, Knee-cap^ Suspensory Bandages, Riding Belts, &c.— Mrs. 
Stnith attaids on ladles. \ \ 

ri^HE TEETH.— Mb. SMARTT, DENTIST and CUPPER. 

-*■ 25, Snn-street, Bishopsgate, London, Invites attention to his IM- 
PROVED ARTIFICIAL TBETH. They are fixed witiiout extracting the 
roota of the previona Teeth, no pdn is eaused, they defy detection 1^ the 
most scrutinising observer, and are goaranteed to answer all the pnrposes 
of mastication, filling up the void produced by the loss of the naturd 
Teeth, thereby restoring fadd beauty, and enabling the patient to speak 
with fluency and comfort Irregularities and dsfomitiea of tin Teeth 
removed where practicable. Mb. SKAnr* attends at 48, Harmer-alreet, 
Gravesend, every Friday. '^ 

PR. ARNOTTS HYDROSTATIC or FLOATING BEDS. 
— ^Thlsvaluable invention, affording such relief to oil patientalongcon- 
fined to bed, is now presented to the public, greatly improved in mannfaO' 
tnre, by which it is made much more durable; andata price which it is hoped 
wlU conduce to make its advantages more generally available. £ s. .d. 
No. 1. Hydrostatic Bed, with Castors, &e............. 8 8 

No.2, Ditto, pldn „ 7 7 • ■ 

FOB h»b. 

Ho. 1. First Month .,..' ..; 115 

„ Second and succeeding MontUi ......ri 12 6 

No. 2. Pfant Mondi ; , .',.,........... 1 10 

„ ' Second and snccecdtng Months .....,.,....., 17 6 
The Hire of the Bed, with waterproof Sheet and Carriase, to be paid in 
advaaee. 

Wan nfa ctnred, Sold, and Let Out on Itlre, by Edwaro Spknobb & Co. 
18, Biffiter-steeet,' and 116, Penchw^-sb«et,. London. Mann&c^iirers of 
the aiQnsting and other approved Sorglcal and Invalid Beds.' 
A itedt oithwe Beda kgpt ahnqra wady fer immediate tm. . 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



16 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



HEALTH OF LONDON DUBING THE WEEK, ENDING 

DECEMBER 29. 
In the last week, tlie dcathn registered in the metroiH^tsn districts were 
1053 ; the weekly average of this seanon, corrected for increase of popula- 
tion, is 11G2. Tlie mortalit]' of Inst week is, therefore, less than the esti- 
mated amount by 109 deaths, and is nearly the same as that of the prerious 
week. Of the 1053 persons, whose deaths are inclnded in this Return, 
841 had medical attendants, and written statements of the diseases which 
proved fatal, distinguishing in many cases tlie primary and secondary 
forms, are entered in the register-books; 15 had no m«lical attendance; 
in 15 cases the cause of death was not certified, and in these it does not 
appear whether or not the patients had professional aid ; 7 children are 
retomed as having died of suffocation in bed ; 5 deaths are ascribed to 
intempenmre, of which one was the case of a girl of 14 years, who died 
after 38 hours' illness, of congestion of the brain and other organs, from 
drinking gin ; a child died of want ; a man of 40 years, in the sab-district 
of St. Andrew East, of " exposure to cold and destitution," and a pork- 
batcher of 27 years, on the third day after odmlssion into the workhouse 
of St Martin-in-thc-Fields, from the effects of " starvation and neglect" 
A woman who had no medical attendance died in Somers-town, of "inilam. 
maUon of the lungs ;" she is stated to have arrived at the advanced age of 
100 years. The following is the number of deaths occurring from some of 
the more important special causes . — 



Bnmehids 78 

Chokts « 

CUldbittb II 

Conniliioiu 41 

Dlnrima 9 

Dnpqr 19 

EryapdH 9 



Haart .... 
Hooping Coagh 
HjdiDcepbalut . 
luaan* . , 
Urer .... 
Lungs . . . 
Mcsdei . . . 
PinijtU . . . 



. at I PUthUa . 
, st ' Pneumonis 
. 14 I Saristloa 
I S SaasU-piB 
, 10 ! "■ 
, 8 
. 4* 
, SI 



. .lU 

. . « 

: : I 

Teething 5 

1>phiu 31 

Uterat a 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Notice. — All communications for the Editor must be addressed, pre-paid, 
to his house. No. 25, Llotd Sqvake, Pkntokvilli:. It is indis- 
pensable that letters requiring a private answer conttdn a postage 
stamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of the 
applicant Invalids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who arc unable to consult him personally, can 
have, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giring answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interview, in many instances, may be avoided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment Notes of eveiy 
case snbmitted to the Editor will be recorded in his private case-book, 
for the flKiIity of reference at any future period. 

Thb Editor is at home every day until one o'clock ; and on the Evenings 
of .Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He attends 
at M«. MiLBs'a Mboioai. ano Sdboical Establisrkemt, No. 78,- 
Gracechurch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 
half-past One until Three o'clodc. Surgical advice may be obtained 
at the above establishment, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday 
evenings, from Six till Nine o'elock. 



We particnhu'Iy request Correspondents who do not attach their 
pri^r names to ther communications, to avoid all such signatures 
as "A Subscriber,"— " Constant Reader,"— " WeD-Wisher," &c. 
Where the correct name is not given, it will insure the identity of the 
« answer" to the query proposed to us, if oar correqtondeats add the 
name of the town or street from which they write : thus— O. P. Q. 
(Bath)— Dblta, (Manchester Square). 

W. W.— We never haxard an opinion, and never prescribe for or direct a 
patient through our columns, unless the histoiy of the case furnished 
to ns is so clear and distinct, that a douit as to the proper treatment 
cannot posdbly exist Your letter leaves us in doiAt 

P. L. (Dumfries).- All our prescriptions will be according to the " Lon- 
don PbarmaCopoeia," and they wffl invariably be written in plain 
English. ' 

Thb Txktb.— We have etenr reason to repose confidence in Mr. Saurtt's 
ability as a dentist His charges we know are moderate {—moderate 
in /be/,— not in the Fleet-street-advertiring acceptation of the wonL 

A. W. J. (Bridport).— We have seen several cases of periodical deafness 
^milar to yonrs, and have found fUl dose* of quimne of great service. 
Local appncations are of no use. Your letter does not go snffidcmtly 
into deMl to enable ns to direct precisely the required treatment. 



iNaviEBB (Marylebone). — We are mudi gratified by your good wiahfcs. 
To your first question, Yes; every practitioner in Midwifery is, or 
ought to be, prepared to employ chloroform in dnldbirth. To the 
second query, we will quote the words of Dr. Conquest : — " In the 
practice of medicine every new suggestion and alteration has been 
deemed an innovation ; and, long before its univetaal adoption, has 
been denounced by prejurliee and igneranoe as unneeeasary aad un- 
called for. Tliese observations apply with peculiar Caeee to the reeent 
introduction and employment of CBLOBOvonM to subdne the feaifnl 
agonies hitherto endured by some women whilst giving Uith to their 
children ; and I have no doubt in a few yean it will be a matter of 
extreme surprise, if not of iacredulity, that aach oIncetfoM as now 
exist should hiive met with any to support them ; and most likely, in 
days to come, it will not be a question whether the use of this anaes- 
thetic agent be justifiable or not, but rather whether, medical men will 
be warranted in withholding it, — / do not tay in ordinaty and ualarai 
delhtrjf, but whenever the pangs and anguish of an intensely and pain- 
fully protracted labour, or the imperative interference of maaual or 
instrumental assistance, shall demand its administration." 

CuiTBiNO. — Calico is the preferable fabric to.wear next the skin. Do,Iet as 

grayyoo, employ sempstresses youtaelf; do not wear a stitdi of clothing 
ought at the advertising slopselleit. Shirtswith ridiculous names — Bm- 
tkmuf, Boltilifue — ^though sold so cheap, are made with costlier ma. 
teriaJs than thread and Whitechapel needlJea, — they are made with wo- 
man's heartstrings — they are paid for by woman's d^radatioii. " I 
used to work at slop-work," said the poor Magdalene, to that admira- 
ble man, the metropolitan special correspondent of the jfonuiy CSIb-0- 
nick; "atshirt-work— the fine frill-fronted white shirts; Igot2id.each 
for 'em." Oh! may shirts paid for at this price ding coldly aud damp 
to the thoiuhtless man who would clothe nimself in such "fine linen." 

T. J. (RoIIaway). — Call. You shall meet with every consideration. 

"Ebvalbvta," "Revaleuta," "Oribntal Farina," are the ^sci names 
given to the flour or meal of the common lentil — (the Brvum Lent of 
botanists). Lentils are kept by all respectable seedsmen and corn- 
chandlers. The price is about one shilling a quart When sold noder 
the above advertising names, the price is six or seven shillings. Thei« 
cannot be any donbt of their value as an artide of wholesome diet. 

IiroDianirso.- An aneurism is a pulsating tnmonr containing blood, and 
commnnicating with the interior of an artery. 

SuEPtBss (Wisbeacb).- Take, tincture of opium, ten drops; symp of 
poppies, one drachm ; compound spirits of ether, one drachm ; nitrate 
of potash, six grains: camphor mixture, eleven drachms. Mix, for a 
draught to be bdcen a bed-time. 

A Pooa Ma*-.— We fear you have got hernia (mpture). CaMupon Mr. 
Smith, truss maker in High Holbom; he is aoingeaioas medianic,and 
has great ability in adapting the instaruments he makes to individual ne- 
cessities. We have employed him for the last six years, and have al- 
ways been satisfied with hisworiunaaship and the lownessof bU eha^ea. 

Jambs.— Certainly. We will receive yon at the hour you have appointed. 
It b lawful to heal on Uie Sabbath day. 

A SnoPMAN.— Take four graina of the conmomid rhubartt pill, half an 
hour before dinner. Do not cat cooked vegetables, fish, pastry, nor 
salted meata. Drink "bitter ale" in small quantities, and £an spiriu 
as you would sin. 

RoBBRT B .—We would willingly comply wiUi your request, could we 

do so with a prospect of benefit to yon, or satisfaction to oursdves. 

We beg to direct attention to one of the greatest boons for tiie sick cham- 
ber yet presented to the invaUd ; we refer to Spencer's adjusting bed, 
the use of which will entirely prevent those dreadful sores that so 
eonstantiy irritate the hips, &e. of patients confined for any length of 
time to tiie reenqifient position. 

Baw«vo (Cheapslde).— a white tongue is not always an indication of the 
necessity of "taking opeidng medidne" and "living on low <Uet" 
You will seriously injure the digestive organs if yon continue "quadc- 
Ing" with the pills you name. 

A PooB Shobm AKBB (Northampton) —Take four gndns of compooad rhu. 
barb pill every night for a week. Also, take, trisnitrate of . bismuth, 
onescnple; tincbireof hops.sixdiaduna; infusion of bodin, five aad 
« half ounces. Mix. Doae, two table.«poonaAa twice ■ day. 

PRBSCBipnoNB are left wiUi thb Dibpbnkb, 78, Obabkgbvbob Stbbbt. 
for the following correspondents :—B. 8. h. (SonthamptOD-at). J 
Brown (Greenwich). Ahu B. (Mile End). A MECBainc, bImi a pri. 
vote note. Jovbnis, also a private note. W. K. (Kinged Road). 
Captain a. fTumer Street). G. P. (De Bewwolr Tswn). H.A.i. 
(Hoxton). W. B. (Poplar), and a private BolB. . 

Cob next Number will contain the first of a aeries of artides On n« Dia. 
BASES op Women. It will be our great aim to reader these papers 

worthy Of beingp laced in the hands o f ever y daui^htcr by her. motLer. 

'*.^. ^S »M«.„Cltritenwell. m tbe Oooatj of mMtman snd Palj^, te Iha fto. 



Msra, by Ososoa Vickssa. at as and W, HfolyWdl.Stnet, 8tnndl,lB Dw Enirti 
St. Clement Danaa, in th« add Coantj of MiddlaaSK. i«if.,,-t,w. «a«^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

rAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



EDITED BY T. fl. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 3— Vol. L] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 1850. 



[oHBFxnnr- 



OH THE DISEASES OF WOMEN & CHILDREN. 

No. I. 

!Feeqcekti.t though health he hailed as the greatest of all 
hlessings, and invoked as a boon granted by our Cbeatob, 
snperior to all others, how few there are who can say in what 
hnlth. consists! and how few there are^who stop to consider 
upon what a pinnacle it is poised ! 

Health is that condition of the body in which all the func- 
tions of life are performed harmoniously, with ease, and with a 
feeling of well-being. Each organ acts unconsciously ; the 
whole bodily energies seem to play their part together : and the 
tnion is so complete, that we neither feel nor care to inquire 
how the machine works : — we are only sensible that its move- 
ments are simultaneous. Every deviation firom this state de- 
notes, if not the actual presence, at least the approach, of disease. 

When it is remembered that life' may be shortened, by an 
appargntly trifling derelicdon from this just balance of our func- 
tions, it behoves every person, having ciire or thought, to watch 
with anxiety and earnestness any alteration or obstruction in 
their due performance. 

" nia imall at fint, grow luger from delay. 
And ilowly eat their sad and cankering vrajr ; 

. Tbui, by sncoestiTa throes, the frame is torn, 
mi health and peace of nund alike are gone." — Da. DAawnr. 

The Diseases of Females have always held, with great jus- 
tice, a prominent place in Medical literature : for whether we 
jT^ard the protean form they so often assume — their frequent 
danger, or the interesting objects of their attack, they posse<-s 
peculiar claims on our solicitude and attention. In another 
point of view the study of these diseases is most important ; 
'tor there is no class of maladies the treatment of which imposes 
greater responsibility on the physician, or where his chancter 
and skill are more frequently placed in jeopardy. 

Beyond the functions which are essential to the life of Man, 
there is ont rhamcteristic of Woman, upon the correct perform- 
ance of which depends, in the greatest degree, her health, her 
peace of mind, her Existence ; there is no other function in 
the human body which exerts such a decided influence over her 
well-being, neither is there any other which sympathises so 
largely with her life's organisation. The age at which this cha- 
Tacteristic Ainction, the catamenia, — mmttruation, — " th» eiutom 
of teamen" {Ometis), — commences in our climate varies irom the 
'thirteenth to the fifteenth year. There are, however, instances 
in which it appears earlier, and others in which it ii retarded. 
At this period (puberty) the whole system undergoes a conside- 
rable change, and becomes more fully developed ; the bust is en- 
larged, the neck elongated, the eye sparkles wi^ vividness and 
'expression, indicative of soul and feeling ; girlish playhilness is 
exchanged for bashfnlness and retiring modesty ; and in her de- 



portment, the girl gradually merges from a child, and assumes a 
womanly character. 



' By degrees. 



The human blossom blows ; and erery day, 

Soft as It rolls along, shews some new charm, — 

The fiither's lustre, and the mother't bloom." — Thoxsoit. 

The Girlhood of Woman, like the budding of a cherished 
flower, requires constant care, guidance, and watching, lest a 
worm, a canker, with insidious stride, eat its devouring way, 
lea'ving nought save a 'withering blight and foul deformity, when 
we hoped alone for beauty and enduring fragrance, it is at 
this agp that the dearest object of a mother's solicitude merits 
her constant care and watching ; it is now that the buds of in- 
herent or acquired disease are matured or crushed, and the pro- 
spect of continued health and strength permanently influenced ; 
it is now that the slightest deviation from her accustomed habits 
must be noticed 'with unremitting accuracy, and the indication 
afforded be so acted upon, that we may gently assist nature, 
rather than rashly or violently interfere with her beautiful ope- 
rations. 

The immense importance of this, the first crisis in the life 
of Woman, should, with all delicacy and caution, be impressed 
on the mind of every young female, .in order that we may gain 
her co-operation in securing for herself an immunity from those 
diseases which at this period threaten the future stability of her 
constitution. 

The PBTsiCAT. BTHPTOMS which are attendant upon ihis re- 
volution in the female system are so varied by ihe peculiar 
organisation of individuals, by peculiar temperament, and, it 
may be also added, difference in the mode of living and educaa 
tion, that it would be a tedious task to enumerate every sign 
which may accompany the development of this function. On 
the first appearance of the catamenia there is generally eX'> 
perienced considerable languor, attended with nervous timidity, 
the animal spirits become depressed, and a fieeling almost 
amounting to dread pervades the mind : the countenance is 
chans^able, at one moment flushed with unwonted redness, at 
another, deadly pale. The youthful invalid now feels a pain, 
weight, or dragging sensation about the loins and around the 
lower part of the body ; the breasts, sympathising, as they al- 
ways do, with the uterus, become tense and full, and darting 
pains occasionally extend to the armpits. Headache is either 
constant, periodic, or occasional, as also a feeling of tightness 
across the brows : the stomach becomes disordered, and heart- 
bum, with flatulence, f^quentiy creates much distress ; the 
bowels are torpid, and an unpleasant taste is experienced in the 
mouth ; tiie sleep is disturbed, and annoying dreams frequent ; 
the skin is hot, and the pulse increased in rapidity. 

These symptoms will continue for some days and then sub- 
side ; hut they should never be allowed to linger any length Of 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



time ; by timely aid they ratty be mitigated in severity, their 
i«ciirrence prevented, and the event, irUch they would other-, 
wise tardily usher in, hastened. 

After a succession of attacks of indisposition timiltr t«'that 
described, a trifling discharge .will be noticed, iwhieh at fipst 
lypears Kke watN'B}ightly' tinged wi& blodd ; 'this «oon be- 
comes of a redder colour, and then ceases. When these symp- 
toms terminate, they are succeeded by a feeling of languor and 
faintness which enervates the wbole fcanie, «Bd the physkian is 
now called upon to allay that initatJfliD, »nd.feD'rest<»e t^atma- 
t\iral equilibrium of the system, which has been disturbed by 
the most important organ in the female economy taking upon 
itself, for the first time, the performance of its appointed fiuic- 
tion. At this crisis, whilst nature is struggling to overcome the 
barriers which interrupt her legitimate offices, we would impres- 
sively call upon every parent, as she values the health and the 
happiness of her child, to seek that advice which is now so 
eminently required, and which experience can so readily afford. 

At the lapse of some months the symptoms just detailed 
return, with a more proflise and deeper-coloured discharge, and 
after recurring two, three, or more times at hregular periods 
menstruation will be, if proper precaution be exerted, and judi- 
cious treatment adopted, fairly establi^ed ; and should neither 
pregnancy, nursing, nor disease intervene, the discharge will 
jretum with almost mechanical regularity, every twenty-eight 
days, until the second crisis in the life of Woman namely, 
the cessation of the catamenia. 

There are several circumstances which materially influence, 
sot only the age at which the catamenia first appears, but 
also its continuance and regularity. To some of these it will 
be necessary briefly to allude : fkst. Temperament. A robust 
state of the constitution fitvours the appearance of the menses, 
.a delicate one retards it. We have observed that those who 
have fair hair are more backward in commencing than those 
whose hair is dark ; and it has been remarked by Briere de 
Boismont, that in some women of tall stature it occurs later 
than in shorter figures. Olimate: in the higher latitudes 
•where all nature attains, maturity eariier than in colder regions, 
adolescence occurs at the eighth or ninth year ; in the colder lati- 
tudes it is delayed until the twentieth ; and Xonnaeus has as- 
serted, that in Lapland the function of which we are now speak- 
ing happens only during the summer months. In Europe, the 
^e of fourteen is admitted to be the average period : females 
Jiving in the country most frequently commence earlier than 
those living in large towns. We know instances where young 
jgirls immediately after leaving " the purple heath, or where 
the wild thyme grows," to reside in large towns, experience not 
only a diminution in the just quantity, but in some cases a total 
.suppression for one or more periods. In like manner, women 
who arrive in England from warmer climates discover a pro- 
portionate alteration ; this effect of climatorial influence was 
brought prominently under our notice within a very recent 
period, in the case of a lady by whom we were consulted. She 
had returned from India with her husband, in the enjoyment 
of favourable health, the catamenia had ceased, and she foncied 
.herself to be pregnant: from collateral circumstances we were 
induced to suppose this was not the case, and the result prov^ 
that the check depended alone on the influence of climate, and 
some change from the indolent and luxurious habits of the East. 
Education : a very carefully attended religious and moral edu- 
cation has the eficct of delaying the catamenia, or restraining it 
until nature ordains its appearance ; on the contrary, a neg- 
lected education, with lewd associates, induces precocity, and 
consequent delicacy of health inasmuch as the general strength 
.and development of the system does not keep pace with the 
-. forced action of the uterine organs. Oca/Cation exerts a decided 



influence : between the ruddy, robust peasant, and the ema- 
isiated little factory-^rl — ^between the well-fed and well-clothed, 
daughter of wealth, and she who plies 

— •" btnaMdIe andcthsmd 

la po««i«y, hSBter, wid 4iit," 

there is.a 4na&cd difference, aas twclllin tke growth .and per- 
fection of the frame, as in the performance of aU its healthful 
offices. In the former we find nature gradually and beautifully 
Qompletiag her 0'Tnafdmir«ble°atfieme ; whilst amongst the chil- 
dren of piwei^ ske is Uistnrbed and thwarted, untU disease be 
added to the' horrors Of ill-requited labour and want. Organic 
and other, disease*, affection* of the head, heart, lung*, liver, ths 
mesenterk gUm^, a sickly infancy and youth, materially retard 
this ciiMs ; aad it should be the aim of the physieisB'to {ndnee 
the secretion, as the most powerful auxiliary he can have in the 
removal of pre-existing disease, and the perfect restoration of 
health. Mental emotion is also a cause of maturing or delayiujg 
this period,'. the influence exerted being dependent onthe-excit- 
ing or depressing passion which may be moved into action. 
There are other influences which bear upon this crisis, to which 
allusion will be made hereafter. 

(To be continued in onr next.) 



DYSFEFSIA.-INDI6ESTI0N. 

NERVOUSNESS, &c. 

BT THE EDITOB. 

No. III. 

(QuUinued from page 14.) 

HTPOCHONDBIASIS OR liOW SFIBITS. 

Ai.TBQUOH> HTrocuoNSBiAsia night be daited with propriety a* a lepsiat* 

diiorder, baving dytpepiia for its chief (ymplom, itill, ai the two are iniepai^ 

ably cennected with each other, and a* indigestion is more frequently a cause 

than an effect of the mental malady, we thall now conaider low spirits as a 

symptom or result of dyspepsia. 

Attending all cases of indigestion, even the most simple departure from 
health, there is invariably some depression of the animal spirits, and loss of 
that mental energy without which we can neither cheerfully nor efficiently 
pursue our daily duties, nor enjoy life ; as the disorder advances or becomes 
confirmed, we find that hypochondriasis, or " low spirits," is one of the most 
urgent and distressiag symptoms which harass and make wretched the victim 
of a " bad stomach." 

Hypochoodriasis is a morbid disease of the mind, in which the patient is 
tormented with a Ttsionsry or aggravated sense of pains or some concealed 
disease ; an irksomeness and weariness of life, often -without any specfic rea- 
son whatever ; a whimsical dislike of peculiar persons or things ; or ground- 
less apprehension of personal danger and poverty. The imagiaary evils thos 
induced ate more painful to be borne than tba most acute bodily suffering 
the mental misery commences with anxiety, and rapidly rnns through all tke 
grades of a distarbed sSind, until it ends in melancholy, despair, and perhaps 
suicide. Allhongh it would be a difficult \ulk. to describe ill the symptom*, 
the doobts and fears, which distress a hypoohondriac, we shall nevertheless 
attempt to give such an outline of tba affliction as may enable our raadsn to 
recognise the leading features, and ta<derive some consolation, from the know- 
ledge that so much torture may be rightly referred to causes which will yielS 
to judicious moral and medical treatment. 

The individu^ who labours under this malady, seldom present* aay 
decided external indication of disease— indeed, he ha* often the appearance df 
sound tobnsl health ; thus he obtains but little sympathy from those aroood 
him, while he has " that within which passath ahow," which robs life of aU 
ilsjoys, and embitters each hour of his existence witii overpowering dread aad 
asguish. As we have alnsady described the corporeal symptoms, we shall not 
dwell upon the flatulence, the constipation, head-ache, giddiness, palpitatiaq, 
sleeplassncM, Sm!., but confine our remarks to those alone which, are mental; 
we may, however, add, that at some period or other of the disorder almoit 
every organ, and every part of the body, is afflicted with pain or discomibrf , 
real or imsginary. 

The earliest symptoms mhich the patient ex]>erieiices are, anxiety or drea4 
of ioiae impeadiug evil without any adeqaata canisi the mind become* cloudM 



Digitized by 



Google 



AN1> PAMK.Y PHYSrCIAN. 



1^ 



If die mpf rabenaoa of a cUamily which will taar aithar hi* worMly pnwpacti 
or lii« fcaakk; tk* oidiiiarj e?«ntf of life miim a gloomy ehuaetn; bininea, 
wluch befora iru hit dalight, fraqnently beeomei the gtaMcat enemy to hia 
peaca; ha diea^ inaolvancy, yet he hai not the energy to arraat it; he oannot 
fix kta attantion upon any aabject of impartanoa, or engaga in anything that 
'I-— ~l- Tigaur or courage ; hia temper becomei peevish and irritable ; he 
" map! at his wife, icoldi hii children, aad kioki hii dog ;" he has a distaste 
for all that previooily added to his comfort ; he loses all relish of life, and 
pimya that his sufferings ware tarmiDated. 

In some instances, the morbid fears of the patient revert to a particular 
fubjeet: we have now under our care an individual in the meridian of life, 
peesessed of sufficient property to insure for his family, as well as himself, all 
the requirements as well as the comforu of life, who is continually harassed 
with the fear of ending bis days in a workhouse : his income i> fixed and secure; 
hk is neither dependent on commerce nor at the caprice of an employer ; in 
bet, poverty can never come to him, unless he zealously and strangely court 
it, and 3ret the dread of want is the one sad thought of his mind. 

In others we find an apprehension of every disease within the bills of mor- 
tality ; thay complain one after another of every organ ia the body; now the 
head, then the lungs, and most flrequently the heart is the seat of all their suf- 
teing; sometimes the sight is snpposad to be affected ; they do not see so well 
aa fuimrly, and directly, they are convinced that a cataract, at the least, is 
tke causa of the impaired vixioB. 

The tear of immediate or sodden deatk is occasionally the appalling symp- 
tom; the patiant apprehends that every moment will be his last, thatthehand 
a(dea<h is alteady npan him; and under this idea we have known persons settle 
their a&irs, make their wills, take leave of their Mends, and in all things " set 
their honaa in order," when in radity — as hr as organio disease may be con- 
ccmad — there can be no vuffloient reason to look for a fatal result. Sauvages, 
who has described this type of the malady as tmlanAoUa Angliea, in conse- 
quence of its frequency among our countrymen, says, they " put an'ond to 
their lives by hanging, poison, or other means ; exhibiting a wish to die, not 
from insanity or severe grief, but fraaquilly, from a mere tadituH vita, or 
irksomenesa of existence." 

Of all the phases which this malady auumes, none is more frequent or 
distressing than that condition which brings with it an inaptitude for busiuen 
aiid inability to perform those duties which the sosial position of the individual 
demadds ; such cases are continually presenting themselves to our notice. The 
patient complains of liatlessness, or constant languor, which prevents him fol- 
lowing his employment without the greatest fatigue or distaste ; he takes no 
iatemt in his daily labour, which he performs truly as a task — a most irksome 
one ; his mind is confused, his ideas wander, his memory is treacherous, he 
nsgleets soma important command, his temper is quarrelsome and impatient 
of control ; a sharp word throws him into a paroxysm of passion ; with the 
ihA to retain the good opinion of his superiors, he yet cannot satisfactorily 
UUX his^Btias; ho ia charged with carelessness when he ought to be pitied 
as an tnvaM; ha allows yeuoger, and perhaps less qualified, men to be pro- 
maled over Urn, aad, imdar bodily and mental suffering, he is deprived of the 
vsty mea^ vl sobsistande. 

Men who have in early liiis man earaar of dissipation, devoting themselves 
t« scosaal gratifications, by which the stook of enjoy mant is exhausted, and 
the powers of the mind and body worn out before the midway of existence has 
been attained — men who are hiait, or " used up," whose constitutions are 
" shattered" — soon feel a want of the habitual stimulus which, to them, is life 
itself ; they consequently fall into low spirits, and become unhappy ; without 
tke tasto or euergy to eogaga in profitable or rational pursuits, they drag on a 
ckeerlesa and miserable existence, mistrusting and envying those around them. 
To those who are on the threshold of such a life, we would tender the advice 
of Dr. Johnson in Rasselas, — " Let us, therefore, stop, while to stop is in our 
power ; let us live as men who are sometime to grow old, and to whom it will 
be the most dreadful of all evils to count their past years by follies, and to be 
reaiioded of their former luxuriance of health only by the maladies which riot 
. has produced." 

Another fSnrm of hypochondriasis is frequently found in persons who, hav- 
ing been actively engaged fbr many years in business, suddenly quit the scenes 
of bnsy life and speculative or iudustrial employment; to such, the cares, the 
faligae*, the anxietfts-of becopation have, by lofag custom, become the very 
sowca of sILanjcTinaat, andc hcking thb— without a taste for reading, with- 
oat a relish for country life, and dreading inactivity — they readily fell into a 



" low way;" they ate dissatisfied, irascible,' and mottiss; miserable themselves- 
and rendering all connected with them the same. The tale of the tallow 
chandler, who sold his business with the proviso that he might attend fur his 
amusement on " melting day," is no fable. Hen who arrive at, or something 
past, the meridian of life, should be careful how they adopt any sudden change 
from that routine which for years has maintained them in health and peace. 

There is a class of afflictions which, although they may originate in dys- 
pepsia, rather belong to tnvnotntnia, or hattmination, than to hypochondriasis; 
we allude to those whims or fancies which induce the invalid to believe ha 
has undergone some corporeal change, — that he is either as light as a feather or 
as heavy as lead ; one believes he is a giant, another a dwarf. Were it not 
a melancholy retlectloa that the wisest and best of mankind are open to thia 
disturbed imagination, the recital of their whims would be ludicrous, if not 
amusing. Marcellus Donatus makes mention of a baker of Ferrara, who 
thought himself a lump of butter, and durst not sit in the sun nor near the fire 
lest he should be melted. Sometimes the hallucination turns to an individual 
whom they suspect and dread ; sometimes they are auspicious of their friends 
and relatives, imagining they design to poison them; sometimes a particular 
spot is haunted by a ghost or hobgoblin ; and every act of their lives is tinc- 
tured with superstitious fear and timidity. Many instances have been recorded 
in which the unhappy invalid supposed himself to be a criminal who had per- 
petrated a dreadful offence, for which the officers of justice were about to ap- 
prehend him. Trincavallns had a patient that for three years together could 
not ba persuaded but that ha had killed a man, and at length sunk into a con- 
firmed melancholy, and madk away with himself for fear of the gallows. 

Burton, in his glorious work, " The Anatomy of Melancholy," has so well 
described the mind of a misanthrope, that wa offer no excuse for quoting it 
varbafim. " They are soon tbed with all things : they will now tarry, now 
be gone; now in bed, they will riso ; now up, then go to bad ; now pleased, 
than again displeased; now they like, by-and-bye dislike all, weary of all, 
discontented,disquieted; upon every light occasion, or no occasion, object;ofteA 
tempted to make away with themselves ; they cannot die, they will not live. 
They complain, weep, lament, and think they lead a most miserable life : never 
was any man so bad. Every poor man thay see is most fortunate in respect of 
them; every beggar that comea to the door is happier than they are; ja»> 
lousy and suspicion are common symptoms ; they are testy, pettish, peevish, 
distrustful, and apt to mistake, and ready to snarl upon every occasion, aad 
without any cause, with their dearest friends. If they speak in jest, the hypo- 
chondriac takes it in good earnest ; if the smallest ceremony be accidently 
omitted, he is wounded to the quick. Every tale, discourse, whisper, or ges- 
tilre, he applies to himself ; or if the conversation be openly addressed to him, 
he is ready to misconstnie' every word, and cannot endure that any man should 
looksteadfestly athim, laugh, p&int the finger, cough, or sneeze. Every ques- 
tion or movement works upon him, and is misinterpreted, and makes him alter- 
nately turn pale and red, and even sweat with distrust, fear, or anger." 

Tha nnhappy victim of all these mental sufferings should ever be the 
object of compassioa, rather than be derided for what some are pleased to call 
" weakness." How frequently do we hear some insensible, thiek-skinned crea- 
ture exclaim,—" Why, how is it pouibla you can let such a Kttte thing trou- 
ble your' Will he reflect, and learn with what eagemais his low-spirited 
friend would prevent this "little thing," whatever it may be, annoying him 
ifht could; the inability to do so u his disease, not his inclination. 
[Ta be continued in our next.] 



WARH BBDDIMa FOB WINTER. 

We have been much struck by an examination of acme coverlets, the 
manufacture of which has been recently introduced into this neigh- 
bourhood, which seem to combine the lightness and warmth of the eider- 
down quilt, with a cheapness far greater than that of ordinary blankets. 
Thay are composed of a cotton wadding of a snperior kind, enclosed and 
quilted in glazed calieo ; and we understand that a coverlet having a 
warmth equal to three or four of the commoner kinds of blankets, can 
ba manufactured at the cost of « few shillings. As thero are few thiugs 
in which the families of tke poor are more strikingly deficient than in warm 
bedding, the invention ia likely toprove of essential importanoa to them ; 
and it is by no means without its utility to the rich, especially when suffer- 
ing under protracted siehness and confinement, when a heavy weight of 
bea-elotkes frequently becomes almost unendurable. In such oases, one of 
these wadding coverlets, the pressure of which is so alight that it literally 
cannot be felt, will give qotte ju much warmth as con > be reqniradjeven 
during the severest weatoer, and in the coldest:apar(men(. — Mamc/mtir 
Guardian. 



Digitized by 



Google 



?o 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BX T. H. YEOUAN, K.D. 

Ko. IIL 

©BY CATARRH, OB COUGH WITHOUT BXPBCTOBATION. 

(Continued from pat/* \Q.) 

Dry catairl), or cough unaccompanied by expectoration, is caused 
by those influences, already detailed, which induce a common 
cold. 

The first effect of cold applied to a mucous sur&ce is to render 
it dry, — its secretion is suspended : it becomes tumid, swollen, 
and thicker than before, and as these effects increase, the parts 
affected become in a state of inflammation, and this inflamma- 
tion, when the membranes of the air-passages are implicated, 
constitutes bronchitis. 

The symptoms of dry catarrh are dependent on the extent of 
mucous membrane implicated in the disease : in some cases it may 
excite little disorder of the general health, the only symptom being 
a slight shortness of breath, with increased difficulty of respira- 
tion during the least exertion, and the occasional expectoration, 
especially in the early part of the morning, of a small portion of 
tough tenacious mucus of a grayish colour. In other cases, and 
they are the most frequent, there is a*tickling, teazing cough, 
which comes on in paroxysms ; the difficulty of breathing is in- 
creased, and sometimes threatens suffocation ; there is consider- 
able tightness and oppression across the chest, which is ultimately 
relieved by the expectoration of hard dense pellets of mucus of a 
yellow colour ; sometimes these pellets are surrounded by a copious 
secretion of phlegm, and occasionally they are brought up almost 
as a substance. After a time the expectoration becomes more 
copious, and is of a white glairy colour ; in the advanced stages 
of extreme cases it loses its mucous character, and becomes muco- 
purulent or purulent, and occasionally it is tinged with blood. 

I have seen many instances in which the cough was trifling, 
scarcely sufficient to excite observation, and then oppression at 
the chest or difficulty in breathing was the only symptom that 
gave uneasiness. In such cases, when expectoration was induced, 
and the bronchial tubes become less embarrassed, the patient 
continued, for a time, free from disturbance. 

A dry cough is most exhausting to the strength of an invalid, 
as the repeated ineffectual attempts to obtain relief by expectora- 
tion severely strain not only the muscles of the chest, but also 
the lungs ; and without relief be quickly obtained, inflammation 
is set up, and we have then to contend with the more alarming 
disease, bronchitis. 

Dry catarrh, if it does not terminate favourably within a few 
days, either runs into humid catarrh, bronchitis, or becomes 
chronic. 

Chronic catarrh occurs more frequently in persons advanced 
in years, especially those who have lived freely, and have a dis- 
position to gout or rheumatism ; it is a common result of func- 
tional derangement of the stomach, liver, and bowels, and 
individuals disordered or "used up" by long-continued excesses 
and irregularities are rendered most susceptible of an attack on 
the least exposure to cold. 

The outward signs of dry catarrh sometimes assume the ap- 

r'arance of asthma, for which disease it is frequently mistaken, 
may here notice the valuable auxiliary we now possess to enable 
tu to distinguish correctly each and every disease, and condition 
of the chest, by means of the stethoscope, which, in fact, gives to 
the physician another sense, and enables him to detect with cer- 
twnty the precise disease and its precise situation. A short 
account of this instrument will not be irrevalent here. 

The stethoscope was invented in the year 1816, byLaennec, 
a Fteneh physician. It is generally made of cedar wood, of a 



cylindrical form, about ten inches long, about an inch broad, 
having a cylindrical perforation throughout its whole length, an 
expansion or cup at the end, and a flat surfiuse at the other; in 
effect, it is a wooden tube. Its use is to convey the sound emitted 
in the chest to the ear, and enable us to practise ttudiate autetd~ 
tatioH — that is, listening to the sounds and movements of the ' 
heart, lungs, &c. We all know that when a person has a cold, 
and the bronchial tubes are loaded with mucus, the air rushing- 
through them gives rise to a tekeenng in the chest, or a rattle 
in the throat ; and if we apply the ear to the side of a person, we 
may hear the heart beat. It was left to Laennec to notice, and to 
turn to practical account, the indications thus afforded of the actual 
state of the working machinery of our internal organs. At the 
time of his discovery he was physician to the Necker Hospital, in 
Paris, and in its wards he instituted a series of observations and 
experiments, first to ascertain the regular and healthy sounds 
which were elicited in natural, vigorous respiration and inspira- 
tion, and afterwards those alterations and changes which were 
caused by disease. The result of his experiments was, to use 
his own words, " a set of new signs of diseases of the chest, for 
the most part simple, prominent, and certain, and calculated, 
perhaps, to render the diagnosis of these diseases as positive and 
circumstantial as that of many affections which come within the 
immediate reach of the hand or instruments of the surgeon." 

One of the first physicians who introduced the stethoscope 
into England was my respected teacher, the late Dr. Thomas 
Davies, who was the friend and pupil of Laennec, daring the 
time he was perfecting his discovery. Dr. Davies, on his return 
from Paris, where he paid much attention to the nature and 
treatment of pulmonary and heart-affections, opened a class at 
his own private residence, which was attended by many practi- 
tioners in the metropolis, and from that period the value of the 
stethoscope has neither been doubted nor neglected. 

Dry catarrh, when unattended with aggravated symptoms, 
rarely comes under the notice of a physician ; when, however, 
the symptoms I have recited increase in violence, when the 
cough is frequent and suffocating, the expectoration difficult, the 
breathing gasping and laborious, the pain and constriction op- 
pressive, darting, and deep-seated, the disease has then become 
bronchitis, the too-frequent sequel of a neglected cold. 

THE TKEATHENT. 

The treatment of dry catarrh — conjointly with that advised 
for cold in the head, — must be so dnrected as to remove the 
thickened and congested state of the bronchial membrane, and to 
facilitate the expectoration of the dense mucus that obstructs tbe 
tubes. In the first place, it is necessary that the patient should 
avoid exposnra to a cold, foggy, or irritating atmosphere ; the 
chest should be protected and kept warm ; and the general 
health, which is usually impaired, amended. 

Increased warmth will be beneficially afforded to the chest, 
by wearing next to the skin a piece of chamois, or stout " wash 
leather ;" it possesses many advantages beyond flannel ; it is fte« 
from the annoyance and irritation which " warm plaisten" of all 
kinds induce ; it is cheap, cleanly, and superior to all the flannel 
or hare-skin " bosom friends," " breast-plates," and " chest-pro- 
tectors," that were ever invented. When the avocations of the 
invalid compel him to be exposed to variable temperatures, he 
should breathe the warm, bland atmosphere which is afforded by 
Rooff's respirator ; in the absence of this invaluable boon to suf- 
fering humanity, a silk gauze, several times folded, or quilted, 
should be worn across the mouth during inclement weather. 

The diet must be free from all that is rich, indigestible, and 
stimulating ; the bowels should be gentiy acted upon daily ; and 
we should endeavour to give tone and vigour to the lyatem, b; 
tonic medicines and moderate exerciae. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



21 



The next indication is to facilitate the expectoration, and this 
is best accomplished by the use of remedies called " expectorants;" 
as squills, ipecacuan, lobelia inflata, &c. Ipecacuan, exhibited 
in nauseating doses, will sometimes give immediate relief, hj un- 
loading the bronchial vessels ; and, if continued in lesser doses, it 
trill prevent the mucus accumulating ; squills are of the greatest 
service when tlie cough is frequent and teazing ; vrhen there is 
much irritability of the system, with disturbed rest, powdered 
squills may be advantageously combined with the extract of co- 
nium, — as one grain of the former with four grains of the latter, 
to be taken as a pill at bed-time and again during the day. Opiates 
in this form of cough are inadmissible ; they may afiford some 
momentary relief, but they keep up the cause of the cough, by 
diminishing the secretion of the mucus, and rendering it more 
difficult to expectorate. Opium is the basis of all the quack ad- 
vertised nostrums for cough, asthma, and consumption; the 
increasing supply which the system demands when once habi- 
tuated to its use, is not the least favourable point to those mer- 
cenary speculators who make the health of their fellow-creatures 
the object of commercial enterprise. 

When the cough is "hard," great relief will be experienced 
iirom Inhaling the steam of boiling water ; and I have in many 
instances witnessed considerable benefit by the water being pourer 
on a few hops, and the vapour inhaled through the spout of a tea- 
pot. 

The following are formuls for the preparation of " cough 
mixtures" that are useful in promoting easy expectoration. 
Tak* — Ipceaeuao powder, 8 graiai; 
Oxymel of (quilli, 4 drachm*, 
Pimento water, 1 ounce; 
Mix. Doee — A tea ipooDful every three houra. 
Or, 

Tak»— Vinegir of iqnillf, I fluid drachm; 
Oxjrmel of iquills, 6 drachnu; 
Cinnamon water, 5 drachma ; 
Hix. Dow.— A leaipoooful occaaianally 
Or, 

Take— Diatilled vinegar, 1| drachma; 
Antimonial wine, 1 drachm ; 
Syrup of the balaam of Tola, 1 ounce ; 
Water, S oancei ; 
Mix. DoM — ^Two table ipoontfol to be taken occantmally. 
Tbere are many suggestions bearing upon the treatment of 
CRtaTrh which will be considered when we come to the treatment 
of bronchitis. 

(To be continned in otir next) 

8CICIDK. 

Ik the great life-intnrance eilabliahmenta in England, a vait pro- 
portion of the parsons who ipsnre their lives are persons enmpelled to do 
so by their CTeaitors ; while three-fourths of those who voluntarily insure 
tkrir lives are professional men, linng in great towns, and experiencing the 
anxieties and fatigues, the hopes and disappointments, of professional life. In 
one of these establishments in London, out of 330 deaths, it was found that 
eleven died by suicide, being one in thirty, implying the existence of an ap> 
palling amount of mental suffering. The number of persons belonging to 
an insuTance office who perish by suicide is sure to be accurately known, 
death by suicide rendering the policy void. It would be most erroneotu to 
suppose that these persons put an end to their existence under the mere in- 
fluence of the mental states of disappointment and despondency. The Bind 
reacted npon the body, produced physical disease, probably inflannatioa 
of the brain, and under the excitement of this physical disease, the acts of 
stiicide were committed. More than one case has come to my knowledge ia 
which inflammation of the brain having been excited by mental suftring, 
suicide was committed by catting the throat. During the flow of blood, which 
was gradual, the brain was reUeved; the mind became perfedly ralional, 
and the patient might have been saved had a surgeon been upon the spot, or 
had the persons about the patient known where and how to apply the pres- 
sure of the finger to staunch the flow of blood till sorgical aid conU be pro- 
enred/— TV. Soullaeood Smith. 



aUACKERY AND SUPERSTITION. 

The following narrative is copied from the Sim evening paper of 
Januarv 1st. 

An extraordinary development of the existence of supersti- 
tion and quackery has just taken place in the course of the pro- 
ceedings of an inquest held on the body of a child at East Dean, 
Gloucestershire. It seems that the children of a shoemaker, 
named Haynes, were playing together, when one of them, aged 
four years, named Louisa, put the tongs into the lire, heated 
them, and then wantonly seized her younger sister, Emma, with 
them by the neck, thereby inflicting two very severe bums. The 
children were left in the care of an elder broUier, who did not 
perceive the intentions of his mischievous sister, until too late 
to prevent them. Flour, linseed oil, and lime water, were ap- 
plied to the bums, and for four days the child's wounds were 
healing in a satisfactory manner ; when by the advice of some 
old women in the neighbourhood, the parents of the child suf- 
fered a Mrs. Milling, living near, to apply an ointment spread 
upon cabbage-leaves to the wounds, in lieu of the previous ap- 
plication of linseed oil, &o. This had the effect of creating oon- 
sideruble local inflammation ; and, after two days, the cabbage- 
leaves were removed, and another quack doctress was allowed to 
practise upon the little sufferer. The second woman, whose 
name is Jane Yeman, and who lives at Cinderford, in the Daaa 
Forest,' and who professed to have cured many people by the 
application of an ointment and pronouncing a " mysterious 
charm," got her sister, Ann Bradley, to prepare the salve which. 
gho (Yeman) applied, at the same time muttering the following 
charm, as she called it, in a peculiar dialect : — 

" Three angels come out of the whost; 
One cries ' Firs ,' another ' Prost f 
To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." 

The poor child gradually got worse. The inflammation and 
sloughing of the wounds increased ; but the infatuated parents, 
believing in the supernatural powers of the woman (Yeman), and 
putting implicit faith in the pronounced charm, suffered their 
of&pring to linger in torture for five days longer, when death 
came to her release, Medical assistance was at hand, and might 
readily have been obtained at any time ; but the ignorant parents 
refused to call for it, and the child died in consequence. Of 
course, when the fiicts came to the knowledge of the authorities, 
a coroner's inquest was held, and, after one adjournment of the 
jury, who hesitated whether it was not their duty to find a 
verdict of manslaughter against Yeman, Bradley, and Milling, 
returned a special and lengthy vwdict, finding, " That Ann 
Milling had prescribed a dangerous and rash remedy, and was 
otherwise guilty of negligence." They also found " That Yeman 
was rash in relying on the ointment applied by her, and in her 
impious and presumptuous charm ; and also in prohibiting the 
parents calling in medical advice at the time when the deceased 
was in danger and gradually sinking." Lastly, they found that 
•' Although the conduct of Jan© Milling and Ann Yemaa 
amounted to great and serious culpability, rashness, and negli- 
gence, yet the same does not, in our opinion, amount to a legally 
criminal and felonious culpability, rashness, and negligence." 
The jury also expressed their opinion that it was the duty of the 
parents to have had recourse to better assistance, and to the 
easily available medical assistance in their immediate neigh- 
bourhood ; and they expressed a hope that the result of the 
investigation would lead to a discontinuance of the system of 
quackery, which prevailed to a considerable- extent in the 
neighbourhood of the Forest of Dean. 



A SAD TRUTH. 

TBBgreaterpart of mankind employ their first yean to make their last 
nisetable^>Z>« la Bntj/trt. 



Tbb excesass of our youth are draft* upon our old i^, payaUe ateqt 
twsnty years after date. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2Si. 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



THE HABIT OF "DRUGGING" AND "PHYSICING." 
The habit of using medicine inordinately is peculiarly baneful 
to healthful people ; and, strange as it may appear, some of the 
most healthy are addicted to the habit, and have a perfect 
mania for bolua-s wallowing. The debility of which many per- 
sons complain is frequenUy owing, not to disease, but to the 
improper and indiscreet use of drugs designed to remove some 
zaal or anpposed malady. These drain off the nutritive juices 
fSrom the stomach and bowels, before they have had time to be 
absorbed into the system ; or else produce excessive discharges, 
xcnderiog the blood, in oonsequence, of a thin and watery con- 
sistence. In chronic stomach complaints, in particular, the 
practice of continnally harassing the stomach with " physic" — 
not allowing it a moment's repose — is extremely hurtful ; for as 
these disorders frequently arise from irritation and weakness, 
the daily throwing into the stomach of an irritating agent — for 
such medicine in general is — tends only to keep up this irrita- 
tion and debility. The more proper treatment in numerous 
instBiices would be, simply to allow the disordered organs to 
Impose. If, therefore, the stomach is deranged, let us interdict 
it from work as far as possible, in the same way that we should 
fmbid an inflamed eye to exercise itself in vision. Of course, 
m here speak very generally, as there are innumerable im- 
portant cases of disordered stomach which involve very remote 
and serious derangements of the system, requiring not only me- 
dical treatment, but, when under proper supervision, very 
active medical treatment. Young medical men, are particularly 
apt to forget the importance of this natural law of repose ; they 
hope every thing from medicine, and are only taught by ex- 
perience bow little medicine, by itself, can effect. The pill 
vendor lives by keeping " the bowels in an uproar ;" and ex- 
perience only teaches him that if he cam get silly people to swal- 
low twenty pills instead of ten, his income will be doubled. 

OATMBAI. KOBE NUTRITIOOS THAU WHEAT. 

The foUowing playful comparison between the relatire alimentary powers 
it oatmeal and wbeaten flour, is copied from a useful article on Practical 
Alfricnlture in "Blackwood's Magazine :" — Professor Johnston, iu the recent 
edition of his '' Elemrats of Agricultural Chemistry and Geology ," tells us that, 
ijrom experimenti mado in the laboratory of the Agricultural Chemistry 
^issuciation of Scotland, it turns out that oats are far richer in muscalar 
matter, fat, and starch, than the best wheat flour grown in any part of 
Bngland— that they contain eighteen or twenty per cent, of that which forms 
iiuncle, five to eight of At, and sixty-fire of starch. The account, therefore, 
\^lweeii shelled oats (groats) and fine wheaten flour stands thus. One hun- 
4red pounds of each contain — 

Wheat. Oats. 

Muscnlar matter, 10 lbs. 18 lbs. 

F•^ 3... 6... 

Starch, 50... 65... 



63 lbs. 80 lbs. 
Vfhat do yon say to these numbers, Mr. Cockney ? You wont pity us, Scotch 
oatmeal-eaters, any more, we guess. Experience and science are both on our 
nde. 'What makes your race-horses the best in the world may be expected 
to make our peasantry the best loo. We ofler you, therefore, a fair bet. You 
shall take ten £nglish ploughman, and feed them upon two pounds and a 
half of wheaten flour a-day , and we shall take as many Scotch ploughmen, and 
feed them upon the same weight of oatmeal a-day — if they can eat to much, 
for that is doubtful ; and we shall back uur men against yours for any sum 
jon like. They shall walk, run, work — or fight you, if you like it; and they 
shall thrash you to your heart's content. We should like to convince you 
that Scotch parritch has some real solid metal in it. We back the oatcake aud 
the porridge agaiiut all the wbeaten messes in the world. We defy your 
Imne-mada bread, your bakers' bread, year household bread, your leaven 
bread, and your bronn Georges — your fancy breed, and your raisin bread — 
Tour baps, rolls, scones, muffins, crumpets, and cookies — your bricks, biscuits, 
bakes, and rusks — your'Bath buns, and your Sally Lunns — your tea-cakes, and 
saffron-cakes, and slim-cakes, and plank-cakes, and pan- cakes, and soda-cakes, 
■ad currant -cakes, and apongc-oakes, and seed-cakes, and girdle-cakes, and 
singing hinnies — your shortbread, and your currant-buns — and if there be any 
other names by which you designate your wbeaten abominations, we defy and 
detest them all. We swear by the oatcake and the porridge, the substantial 
baniiock.aiid the btose — long may Scotland prodare them, and Scotchmen 
live and fight iipon them. 



A COUMTRT SUaeSBT. 

Makt of our readers will recognise the accuracy of this short description 
of the small sanctum of a village apothecary : it is taken from Mr. Bell's 
excellent tale "The Ladder of Gold," now publishing in Bentletfi Mlteettany, 

" The dispensary wu a small dark shop, scantily lighted, and discloaing 
a dusky array of battles and jars, a narrow counter full of drawers 
with paper labels pasted on them, and a weighing machine in the shape of 
a tall wooden chair standing bolt tapright in one comer. The parlour be- 
hind I, was separated from the dispensary by a door, in the upper part of 
which was a window with a green curtain hanging inside. A roand table 
stood in the centre of the parlour. One side of the room was occupied by 
a range of book shelves, slightly out of the horizontal; filled with books 
much broken and tattered, and apparently not very carefully arranged, 
some being up-side-down, and others scattered about in odd volumes, varied ■ 
by stray gallipots and unknown surgical instruments, .a fractuned plaster 
cast of the head of Galen, some Chinese or Indian curiosities smothered 
up in dust, and here and there sundry mysterious particles preserved in. 
spirits, and fragments of bones suspended on threads. A glass case on 
another side exUbited a couple of punch-bowls, &e., a hospitable supply of 
tumblers, interspersed with divers articles in plate and china. The room 
had a disorderly appearance, but was thoroughly warm and comfortable, 
a merry fire, throwing a broad glow over the decanters and glasses that 
covered the table, gave it a cozy and cheerful aspect." 

A LONDON SUBOEOK's SBOP. 

Wb extract the following paragraph from a clever pamphlet on the state 
of the medical profession, published a short time since. " In the windows 
of qualified surgeons in London we have seen cigars, ptint brushes, lolli- 
pops, and glue— we don't mean medicated lozenges, but such as would 
lead us to suppose that we were In the shop of a confectioner, or an oil- 
man- Ought such things to be ? If surgery is at such a discgunt, pray 
do not associate with it a license to sell tobacco. Yet this is to be seen in 
civilised and exemplary London. The humblest village apothecary would 
scorn to profane his professson by sack contamination ; or to exhibit all 
kinds of bandages and apparatus, to attract the speculative iuquiry of their 
neighbours, as to what may be their purpott or use. All these things are 
systematically done, by qualified men, and proclaimed to ithe world by 
lights of every colour. Pills a penny a dozen, and draughts for the price 
of the phial and cork, are to be seen iu many shop windows of surgeons,— 
a mode of proceeding which any respectable publican or b^ur would be 
ashamed to adopt.'' 

THB OBOLEEA OF 1833 AND 1849. 

The following comparative statistics of epidemic cholera, as it pfevailed 

in Paris during the years 1832 and 1849, may be interesting. 

AmmaiSMment. 1832. 1832. 1849. 1849. 

]>eaths. PopolaUoD. Deailis. Pe^olAttsn. 

1st 600 66.497 83G 108,019 

Soil S3S 79,087 919 117,388 

Srd 403 49,071 »00 63,710 

4Ul S28 4J,19I 449 48.«33 

Sth 619 66,974 1,023 96,628 

6lh 817 81,037 1,120 103,795 

7Ul 1,021 «8,944 837 72,893.. 

8th 1,306 72,729 61.143 109,112 

Stb 1,239 4I,89S 717 «l,30!l 

10th 1,689 81,480 1,137 98,639 

llth 1,041 60fiW S14 68,«8t 

12Ul 1,191 70,189 1,799 98,100 

11,168 799,139 10,990 1,034,286 

Deaths in Hospitals 7,234 8,041 

Total deaths U,402 18,991 

The above columns at owe sbew, that the epidemic of 1849 has beea 
more severe in Paris than that of 1832, There were 589 more than in 
'32, but this is accounted for by an increase of population amounting to 
300,000 souls. If we estimate both from the number of deaths in propor- 
tion to the population, we have 23 l-3rd per 1,000 for 1632, aad 18 l-3rd 
per 1,000 for 1849. 

Pasxbt cooxa shops ore to children a very abomination, aad an in- 
tolerable nuisance. Tliere is no method so common by which foolish parents, 
friends, and nursery-maids, express their attachment, feigned or real, to 
childieo, a* by stuffing them with the gross and vile dainties of a confec- 
tion's or pastry-cook's shop. When it is recollected that saeh dainties are 
made to lell, and that hog's lard, common fat, salted and not very fresh 
butter, dripping, and solid grease, as well as flour and eggs, enter into 
their composition, we cannot be surprised that the stomachs of these Innocent 
creotares beeome clogged and disturbed, and that they are made ill ; and 
then because they ate sick, and disposed to cat nothing else, notlung else 
is offered to them. Medieal men, and all sensible people, who look on 
children without tint mistaken and blind fondness which misgiiides their 
parents, know too well that this habit is a prolffic source of disease, vitiates 
the appetite, and disinclines it for simple and wholesome food. While no harm 
can result from occasionally giving ■ chUd a'plain bun, a fniit-tart, a biscuit, 
ora'pleee of gingerbread, the abuse of the pmetice, and the reitdcring it 
a doily habit, cannot be too severely reprobated. — Dr. CoTtquut. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



2» 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS & MEDICAL PREOEPTS. 

Tablb of tbb Dosmb at iMlioiiie which m»j bo given at iWfcnBt igai 
on the ■appMUiaa that tbo dw« for the adult is lapiaeiited by 40. 
Tana. » » l» 14 n U II 10 9 8 7 



» » l» 14 n U II 

40 as M M » » K 



10 9 8 
IS 34 13 



II 10 B « 



8 S 4 3 3 'I 
U SO M 16 18 10 

* ■ } 
4 11 



Thai if «ightMB ^gMva of a powder were givea to s bojr foor yesn 
old, two grains would be the dose of the ■aiiie powder for aa inihat one 
mmthold. 

TaJtpaRAroKB or Pooi>> — It Is of aoaie moBteat (hat the temperatiire 
of our food be attended to. Asagvnaral rate. It nay be laid down that 
fbe temperatoie should not be either mneh above, or lieiow, the tempera' 
tore of the stomach. If abave Um aataral beat, the sloaaaeh becomes en- 
feebled, and especially when distended with a large quantity of heated 
floid, as tea or coffee ; if below, there is less mischief to be apprehended 
from an occasional departure fiom this rule, provided the quantity be unall. 
Still, the most serious evils may result even fnim this, if the body l>e over- 
heated, and the exercise which has raited lis temneratuTS above its ordinary 
stale, be discontinued. Many well-anthenticatea instances of this descrip- 
tion are on raoord, in which sadden death has fbllowcd the Imprudent use 
•f water, beer, cider, or any ether fluid taken cold into the stomach, when 
the system waa excited and heated by previous exercise- 

Oassus rowL 8o>B Throat. — Take, cayenne pepper, five grains ; boil- 
Jag water, eight oaoees ; iwoey of rotes, and thictore of myrrh, of each 
bar draehms. Mix. To be used often. 

LoTiOK xw Wjiak Eras.— Take, alnm, six grains; snlpbateof ziur, 
two graina ; vinum opii, one drachm ; rose water, eight ounces. Mix. 
To be used freqoaatly. The proportion* of the sidphate of sine and alam, 
may l>e iaereated or diminished acoordiag to the degree of stimniation 
produced. 



DIETAHY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC. 

laiSB Stsw — Cut up about two pounds of the neck of the mntlon into 
small cutlets, wbieh put into a proper-siEed atew-pan with some of the fat of 
the mutton, season with three spoonsful of salt, half an ounce of pepper, the 
same of sugar, six middle-siied onions, a quartofvrater; set them to boil and 
simmer for iialf an h«or, then add six middling^ixed potatoes, cut them in 
halves or quarters, stir it together, and let it stew gently for about one hour 
longer ; if too &t remove it from the top, init if well done the potatoes 
woald absorb all, and eat very deUeala ; any other part of mutton may 
beaerred in the sane way. — M. Safer. A itlorions fellow, who knows 
Ae scieaee of eating and eookinit too, says, (in Biacktoood^* Uagazint of this 
■onth): "The butchers' meat which you buy in England Is tender 
enongh when it comes ; but domestic cookery sends it up hard. Don't 
tell me the hardness is in the meat itself. Nothing of the kind; its alto- 
gettier an achievement of tiie cuitine. I appeal to a leg of mutton ; I appeal 
to a beef-steak as they usually come to table ; the beef half-boiled themut- 
ton half-roasted. Judge for yourselrrs.'* — Thus oar friend would «aek an 
Irishstew. "Thebeef— and what-not besides — is whipped intothesanee-pan ; 
the sauce- pan is set among the embers upon the hearth, and there it stands 
— not boiling — scarcely simmering — suppose we say digesting — throughout 
ibe fSmaoon, and till you are ready to eat. Long before dinner, savonry 
tteaai annonncea a normal process of the cvume, a process both leisurely 
■ad eflfeetaal. At length, the rich repast awaits you — the whole Is tamed 
oDt, and smokes apon the table ; the bomlfi is tender, the « Jus*' appetising 
and sniiatantia], the tmit-enstmble excellent." 

To Cook STr-aoson. — Those of our readers who may have seen and 
yarchaaed a portion of the right-royal fish that graced the shop of Hr. 
Sweeting, Cheaptide, last week, may be obliged by the following receipts 
ofM. Si^er:— 

Eeonomieat Mode of Cooking Sturgeon. — Take a piece of sturgeon about 
two ponada weiglit, and on sending a piece of meat to the baker's to be baked 
•a a ataad in a disfa, put the sturgeon under it, with a little water, salt, pep- 
pv, &e., and a little chopped eschalot may be used ; you can also put pota- 
toes rooad it. 

To Boast SturgeoH.—Ttike the tail part, skin and bone it; fill the part 
where the bone comes from with some stuffing, as for a flUet of veal; put 
batter and paper ronnd it, and tie it np like a fillet of veal ; roast, and serve 
it vriih melted batter and gravy, 

Staigeon may be cooked as veal, in large or small pieces, aa for fticaa- 

B, papillotc, &&, and salted in imitation of tunny. 

Baked APFi.Es are much used by invalids: have a common yellow 
dish, snch as you frequently sec in farm houses. Into which put about twelve 
a p p les (previonsly well wiped), and about a gill of water, and put them in 
a hot oven for half aa boor, or rather more should the apples be laige ; 
when wdl done, take them ont to get cold upon the dish, and eat them 
esld, either with powdered lump, or moist sugar. 



A OVERT l_S_E M E N T S. 

Priet 2s. ; btj pett, 2t. M. 

CONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; the 
Canaet, SymptooM, and Jtatioaal TnatmcDt, with the attant of 
Prevention. By T. H. Ybomax, ILXi. 

<' There is so much good sense, scientific knowledge, and aseful infotat*' 
tion in this little volume tliat vre glarlly assist in giving it publicity. Dr-- 
Ysojf AN disconutenances all empirical modes of treatment, at tlie same time 
that be suggests some safe and beneficial rules for the cure or amelioration' 
of the disaase. The remarks on the healthy discipline 6f home shew that tks' 
author is a sound social philosopher, as well as aa axaenenced pbyiiciaa. ' 
—The Britannia. Nov. 1], 1818. 

'■ There is no assumption orqaackery in this little volume — It is jastsnelt 
a work as might be anticipated from an intelligent and cxperiencei physician^ 
The auggestions and recommendations of Dr. Yeoman areextremely valuabla 
and may be unhaaltatingly and advantageously adopted by all who are in- 
tereated in the faealib and well-being of the rhing ganeratloa."— lfora<a|^ 
BeraU, Oct S3, 1818. 

Also by the same author, price 2s. 

ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH, 
the Causes. Symptoms, and Ratianal Treatment. 
" This is an excdleat little treatise by a clever and clear-headed practi- 
tioner. Dr. \ BoHAN is well known by his Work on Consumption, and tha 
present publication will add to his fame." — Weekly Dispatch, Jan- 11, 1849. 
London: Samp8oi<Low, 160. Fleet Street; EF F iH OHA «-WiL8«nr, H; 
Boyal Exchange ; Waarrca & Co., 60, Piccadilly ; and all Booksellers. 

OOFFS IMPROVED RESPIIU.TOR, (Patent.) for tJoa-" 
sumption. Asthma, tut., has separate channels for Uie inqiiredr and' 
expired air ; warms and purifies the atmosphere without beeomiag dogged;, 
it neither requirra cleaning nor repairiug, has no unsightly appearance, and 
may be had resembling a handkerchief held to the mouth. Tcstimoniids to- 
be seen, and descriptions had on application.— DepOt, 163, Strand, near 
Kerfelk-stieet. 

JOHN MILES, (Late BUTLER and CO.) DISPENSING 
CHEMIST, 78, Gracecburch Street, respectfully informs the Pnblio 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always pud by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drags and Chemicals ; the too frequent dangerons adul- 
taratioa and oareless preparation of Kedioines, npon the exact aotion of which 
depend the health and safety of our fellow cnatares, indaees J. ttoMs to 
pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified assistants nnder his own 
inanediata diMotioo. 

Agent ton Boorv's Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. Ins now a largo 
supply of Cod Liver Oii., prepared from the finest Fish of the Season. 

TRUSSES.— 8. SMITH, Truss Maker, 1, High Holbom, 
three doors from Gray's Inn Lase, respaetfoUy anaannces to the Public 
that TRUSSES can be had at his EitablisliBaent at the feUowaig Low 
Prices: — Double Trasses, 16s. itach ; Single Ditto, 8s. 

Manufacturer of Lace Stockings, Knee-caps, Suspensory Bandages, Rid- 
iOK Belts, he. Mrs. Smith attends on Ladies. 

HE TEETH.— Mb. SM.^RTT, DENTIST and GUPPER, 
25, Sun Street, Bishopsarate, London, invites attention to his IM- 
PROVED ARTIFICIAL TEETH. They are fixed without cxtnetfaig the 
roots of the pravions Teeth, no pain is eaosed, they defy detection by thetnost 
scrutinising observer, and are guaranteed to aaawer all the parpasea of masti- 
cation, filling up the void produced by tiie loss of the natural Teeth, thereby 
restoring facial beauty, and enabling the patient to speak with fluency and 
comfort. Irregularities and deformities of the Teeth removed wheie practi- 
cable. Ma. bKAKTT attends at 48, Harmer Street, Qrevcsend, every Friday. 

E. ARNOTT'S HYDROSTATICOR FLOATING BKDS. 

—This valaable invention, affording such relief to all patients long con- 
fined to bed, is now presented to the public, greatly improved In manufucture, 
by which it Is made much more durable ; and at a price whidi It l.i hoped will 
eonduee to make its advantages more generally arailable. £ s. d- 

No. I. Hydrostatic Bed, with Castors, &c 8 S 

No. 2. Ditto plain a.. 7 7 

POR HIRB. 

Ko. 1. Pint Month 115 

„ Second and aaeeeeding Months 1 t 6 

iro.2. Pint Month .,-. IW 

„ Second and succeeding Months ». 17 6 • 

The Hire of the Bed, with waterproof Shcot and Carriage, tobe paUt 
in advance. 

M»nuf«cturcd, Sold, and Let Out on Hire, by Edwakd SraiioBe, & 
Co., 18, Billiter Street, and 116, Fcnchurch Street, London. Hanufacturen 
of the adjusting and other approved Surgical and Invalid Beda. 
A stock of these Beds kq>t always ready for immediate nss. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



S4 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



HEALTH OF LONDON DURING THE WEEK 
ENDING JANUARY 5. 

Trs deathi regist«red in the metropolitan districts, in the week ending 
last Saturday, amonntrl to 1133. In the first week of ten previous years 
(1840-9) they ranged from 869 to 1510 ; and th»aTerage of the ten cor- 
responding weeks, riUsed according to increase of population, which is 
estimated at 1-65 per cent, annually, is 1252. As compared with deaths 
aegistared weekly in last December, the present retnm exhibits an increase 
of aearly 100. The mortality from bronchitis has increased in two weelu 
from 78 deaths to 103, while that from pneumonia has increased from 69 
to 95; the arerages of the two diseases in the same week of ten preTious 
years are 57 and 104. From phthisis there were 129 deaths, which is 
slightly under the corrected arerage. From small- pox there were only 8; 
im the ten corresponding week of 1840-9, this epidemic ranged firom 5 
to 86. Hooping-cough, which was fatal to 23 children, is also under the 
nsnal number. Measles, scarlatina, and typhus, produce nearly the ordi- 
nary amount of mortality; but all the fire epidemics, with the exception 
of measles, are now much less fatal than in the same week of last year. 
From diarrhoea there were only 8 deaths; but 6, which is rather more 
than usual, occurred fh>m dysentery. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

KortCB. — All communications for the 'Editor must be addressed, pre-paid, 
to his house. No. 25, Llotd Sqcabb, PiMTOimLLB. It is indis- 
pensable that letters requiring a priTate answer contain a postage 
stamp, or stamped enTelope, whereon is written the address of the 
applicant Inralids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, eanr 
hare, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giring answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interriew, in many instances, may be aToided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment. Notes of erery 
ease submitted to the Editor will be recorded in his priTate case- book 
for the fheility of reference at any future period. 

Tbb Eoitob Is at home every day until One o'clock ; and on the eTcnings 
of Mondays, Wednesdays, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He 
attends at Ma. Miles's Msdioal asd Sinioic«.L Estabubumbmi, 78, 
Gracechurch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 
Two until Three o'clock. Surgical ndrice may be obtained at the 
above establishment, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday even- 
ings, from Six till Nine o'clock. 



Wb particularly request Correspondents who do not attach their 
proper names to their communications, to avoid all such signatures 
as "a Subscriber,"— "Constant Header," — Well-Wlshcr," &c. 
Where the correct name is not friven, It will insure the Identity of the 
"answer" to the query proposed to ns. If our correspondents add the 
name of the town or street from which they write : thus — O. P. Q. 
(Bath)— Dblta, (Maacbester Square). 

J M N s (Peter Street).— Call in Lloyd Square on Sunday morn- 
ing. The Iwok Ton name is the property of one of the " worthies'' 
alinded to in the letter of " Victim," published in the Psorus's Ms- 
DICAL JonBNjLl. of last week. 

Cbbkicus. — We are obliged by your note. We here known much mis- 
chief to occur from the use of the highly explosive gun-cotton in 
making collodion: when applied it hns rent the sound skin asunder, 
and made greater the wound it was intended to heal. Few private 
persons would attempt to make collodion, and the fact alluded to above 
IS now well known to chemists. 

Thb Medicai. Pibbciobt.— We well know the " quackish" propensities 
of the persons referred to. There are innumerable errors in the 
edition for 1817 ; the one to which yon allude has l>een corrected in 
•nbseqnent editions, and did not exist in the former. 

JoBH (Westminster). — IT yon call in IJoyd Square our best services will 
lie at your command. 

X. C. (Stepney Causeway).— Take of the compound inrusion of horse- 
radisb, five ounces ; spirits of nitric ether, four drachms ; syrup of 
orang»feel, four draohmt. Mix. Cose, two table-spoonsful twice 
• day. 



JiMTiHO Ha. Clow, — Mr. Weiss, surgical instrument maker, Strand. 
East Lomdom.— Cleanliness; a lotion composed of one grain of sulphate 
of sine (to Ite increased to two or three) ; one drachm of vinnm opii ; 
and rose water six ounces. Alterative medicine; as one grain of 
hydrargyrum cum creta, and three grains of rhubarb powder; every 
other day. Wean the child. We shall be glad to have your proferred 
history of the case in question. 
J. VL Jobbs (Merthyr Tydfil). — Creosote may be obtained at any drug* 

gist's at a reasonable expense. 
Acid (Newcastle-on-Tyne). — Desist firom using the instrument. Take k 
warm bath twice • week, or foment the part; omit all medical treat- 
ment. Write to ns, and say where a private note will meet you. 
QoBBisT. — At fourteen or fifteen years of age. To your second query. 

Mo. We doubt the object of your question.— Virtue ! 
J. J. (Glamorganshire) . — Cleanliness ; attention to the bowels ; temper- 
ance ; and the absence of all local irritation. Send your private 
address. 
Adolbbcbns (Surrey. — We must know much more of your case previous 

to advising. Say where a private note will reach you. 
Am AprBBBTiCB. — "Nervous Debility" is a verjr convenient term, and is 
6na that is in high favour with etrfoits empirics. Thu nervous iBflnenca 
may be exhausted by many causes, and, as a consequence, the whole 
irame loses its natural energy and tone. Debaucheries of all kinds pro- 
duce a subsequent languor of the nervous system ; sometimct the stomach, 
at others the lungs and circulation, are more directly affected. Ocea- 
donally the braia itself suffers first; heoce epilepsy, apoplexy, and de- 
lirium tremens. 

J. S. (Camberwell). — Mobal Mbdicimb is that science which teaches us 
to carrecl the exce« or misdirection of our passions and affections, and 
to prevent their morbid influence on the body. The practice of thiB 
science is the noblest office of the physician; compared to it the mer« 
prescribing of drugi is secoudary, and yet how frequently is the moral 
management of a patient overlooked I Your case demands more of this 
control and proper direction, and less physic. 

JOHK (Barnsbury Road), — Your question is answered in detail in the first 
paper on Indigestion, kc, published in No. I. of the Pbofle's MxoiCAt. 

JOUBNAL. 

H. Tatlob (Ware). — Until you get rid of the causa, so long will yon b* 
Annoyed by the worms. Tape worm is more frequently an «feet 
than a cause; as long as the stomach and intestines generate diseased 
secretions, so long will worms be fostered and nourished ; like other 
parasites, they revel in unclean things. Oil of turpentine, and the male 
fern root, are excellent "cxpellers," Init there their virtues end. We 
cannot spare space to go into the required treatment of your case in this 
culamn. 

J. H. (Rochdale). — Take, tincture of the seiqui-chloride of iron, three 
drachms; tincture of opium, two drachms ; spirits of nitric ather, three 
draehnu. Mix. Dose — thirty drops, in water, three times a day. Take 
a warm hath, if possible ; live sparingly ; lake a small quantity of weak 
gin and water, one or twice a day. If not better in a week, send your 
private address. 

M. B. (Nun's Street, Derby).— Take, compound extract of coloeyath, and 
compound rhubarb pill, of each one scruple. Mix. and divide into eight 
pilli. Take one every night. Take, ten grains of carbonate of soda, and 
five grains of powdered ginger, in a small quantity of water, two or thre* 
timrs a day. • Do not eat any vegetables, and driuk sparingly of all kinds 
of liquids. 'Forsake that dreadful habit of taking laudanum. 

B. (Whitby.)- Write to Colonel Maberly, Post Office, London. Your stat«> 
ment is of sufficient importance to obtain his immediate attention. 

T. Tdfpbb (Lombard Street).— Say where a private note will reach you. 

Catrbbihb (Pimlico). — Take four grains of the compound aloatic pill every 
night for a fortnight. Use a hip bath (hot water). Write again, or calL 

PuBscBimoBS are left with Thb Dispbitsbb, 78, Gbaoeohdbch-stbbbt, 
for the following correspondents: — B. G. (Walworth Koad), also » 
private note. Jakbs (Old Broad Street). A Clbkk (Coal Ex- 
change), also a private note. Mrs. Q. (Jamaica Terrace), also a private 
note. Bob. (Old Dockhead). J. Jbnkibs (Cutler-street). B. B. B. 
(Bemers Street). FuiLLia (Upper Ground Street). A Waitbk 

(Strand). A Mats (East India Road). Johm C K (Lucas 

Street). F.F.F. (Seymour Street), also a private note. Q. O. B. 
(Hackney Road), also a private note. J. It. F. (Manchester Square), 
also B privBte note D. W. V. (Old Bailey), also a private note. 



Printed bjr CatsLxi Abami, st lili FtlnUns Office 6, St. Jtixs't Walk, In the PsrMi of 
St. JuiMs's, CleTkenweD, In the Coiuit7 of Mlddleiez ; and pukliilied, for th« Pn>|iriM<ira« 
by OBOBsa VicssBS, Strand, In the Parldi of St. asmaat Daoss, ta the laid fXfaUj of 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S ^MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

ICUN. 





EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 4.— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 26, 1850. 



[»■ mwr. 



DYSPEFSIA.-INDIOESTION. 

NERVOUSNESS, &e. 

BT THE ZUITOB. 

No. IV. 
(OontiMitdJrompaffe 19.) 

THE theatment of indigestion. 

Wl fear we sliaU, in thit euay, fall short of realiiing the anticipations of lucfa 
ef onr readen as expect to find in our "treatment" of iDdigestion, a full, 
particular, and minute detail of drug and dose with which they are to cure 
tkenuelTe* : this fear cannot be ill-founded, after perusing the following note, 
ukra from amongst several of a similar tenor, which wo have received dur- 
i^ the last we«k: — ^"Sir, I have been reading your account for diHerent 
£sarders in Ths Pbopls's Mbdioai. Jodbmal, but you hare not pat 
uj receipt* how I am to cure myself, for I feel just as yon have named in the 
ptper, and wiah you would send me the receipt to cure myself and family. 
Yob will oblige your obedient servant, —,'' — Mow, we will asic any rea- 
iOBablc being, whether thia demand can be safely complied with ? As well 
■ight a boot-maker attempt to fit the feet of all his customers with boots 
Bade from the same last, or a mercor endeavour to match every shade of 
green from one web of silk, as eta we remit our correspondent receipts to 
" core himaelf and fiunily," or lay down one precise and unchanging rule for 
the treatment of this varying and variable disorder. To do so would be to 
uphold the basis of empiricism which now overruns the country, and grows 
rich at the expense of the public health j it is by such professed universality 
of remedies that John Bull, in his credulity, permits his body to be weakened 
uJ ht> purse lightened ; in fact, treating every case alike, administering the 
same remedial agents, in the same quantities, to the weak and to the robust, 
to the yowng and to the old, is the key-stone of quackery. It will be aO- 
Bitted that no two persons exactly resemble each other in stature, in features, 
ia complexion, and in strength ; equally variable are the internal organs, 
their susceptibilities anil their peculiarities; bearing this in recollection, we 
have only to repeat a remark made in another paper. " Each individual 
case, be the disorder what it may, must be coiuidered to ascertain extent 
wiginal, differing in some, and perhaps some important particular, from others 
which have preceded it;" and a moat accomplished writer, in' reference to 
the same subject, sa}s, — " The perfection of medical skill is most unquestion- 
ably the talent of applying to each individual case its precise and, as it were, 
individual core, — an object which, although difficult to attain, ought 
aevevtbclces to be the constant aim of the physician, the object which he ought 
aaeeasiBgly l« pursue, and never rest until he has overtaken," We dwell 
apon this topic, because we have, daily, examples of the injury which false 
aotioos of self-treatment and empiricism entail upon our fallow-creatures; and 
we know of no other disorder in which it is carried to such a fearful extent as 
dyspepsia ; in fact, the craving for, and the faith in, new remedies, is almost 
s symptom of the malady, and we are convinced that the most confirmed 
cises may justly be attributed to the vile practice of continued drugging and 
taoiperiDg with medicine. It is not by treating symptoms that disease can be 
tcBOTcd; we all know that calomel and colocynth will, for a time, remove 
couiipaiion, and that carbonate of soda will allay acidity; but do they not 
kare the system as proue as before for a return of the annoyance — do they 



affect the cause of the constipation and of the acidity ? To cure disease w« 
must attack the enemy in his lair, and totally vanquish him; we do but lera* 
porary good in patching up, or varnishing over, the inroads he makes in hij 
repeated assaults. 

After this preamble, it will not excite surprise if we endeavour to instruct 
our readers how they may preterf heaUh, rather than teach them how to 
eurt diieatt ; wlien, however, the means to be adopted are so simple and safe 
as to be left to the discretion of the patient, we shall not withhold the 
information. 

In the treatment of indigestion, we have two indications of cure to follow : 
first, to palliate the exciting distress, and, secondly, to prevent a reeurrenee 
of the attack. So that we may avoid all ambiguity and confusion, we shall, 
in describing the means by which these indications may be fulfilled, consider the 
treatment of each symptom separately. 

Acidity on the stomach, as is well known, may be temporarily counteracted by 
the use of an alkali, at soda, chalk, or magnesia; to each of these, in some 
cases, there is an objection ; the constant lue of soda exerts a baneful effect, 
not only on the stomach itself, but also on the whole frame; it acts powerfully 
in diminishing the nutritive properties of the blood, rendering it thin, watery, 
and deficient in the rich red particles. We remember a ease attended by Dr. 
Cumin, of Glasgow, of a lady who was in the constant habit of taking carbo- 
i»te of soda, who observed each time she pricked her finger in sewing, that 
the blood which escaped was almost colourless; a violent attack of inflamma- 
tion rendered bleeding from the arm necessary, and the result was such a per- 
fect fainting, that animation was with the greatest difficulty restored. Persons 
who are habituated to the use of soda, entail upon themselves continual 
debility, even if they relieve the acidity. Chalk and magnesia when long 
persevered in, are apt to form balls or calculi in some parts of the intestine*, 
and thus produce a very troublesome obstruction, if not colic ; under judicious 
management, these antacids are of great value — it is their abiue, not use, that 
can be injurious. The greatest benefit may be derived in some cases by the 
employment of lime water or Seltzer water, and in others soap is the most 
valuable remedy ; when combined with a small proportion of opium, it not 
only neutralises the acidity, but alleviate* the pain. If the acidity be accom- 
panied by " water-brash," the trisnitrate of bismuth is serviceable ; occa- 
sionally some of the aromatics are required, as ginger, cubebs, nutmegs, anise, 
&c. ; and Dr. Mason Good says, " speedy and effectual relief may be obtained 
by the simple and pleasant remedy of eating six or eight almonds." It will 
now be seen that several remedies will produce one effect, namely, the cessa- 
tion of the acidity ; to select for each individual case that which will attain 
this end the more readily, without exciting any opposing peculiarity, must be 
the result alone of tact and experience, not mere chance. 

Flatulence, giving rise to painful distension of the stomach and distress to 
the neighbouring parts, is frequently encouraged and increased by the impro- 
per efforts of the invalid to expel the wind, in the expectation of obtaining 
relief by its escape ; we have now under treatment a patient, who, on his first 
visit, in describing this symptom, said he was constantly exciting "belching," 
and, as a proof of the facility with which he accomplished his object, he re- 
peatedly struck his chest violently, and each blow wu followed by a welt- 
toned report ; such practice ia decidedly injurious, as it offers to the stomach 
a constant impulse to continue this irregular and unnatural process. When 
we have reason to suppose that the flatulency is caused by some undigested 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



fermenting Bubitaace, which najr be lurkiag in the stomscb, an emetic will 
lometime* a£Ford immed late rolisf, ^nd in this manner wormi hare at timw 
been thrown up, as weUasmoraeUorundigeeted fruit, or, other materidtlt, M 
plum-stouei, or the fragment! of a pear or apple. We hare, however, more 
frequently to attribute the continual generation uf wind to the inability of the 
stomach to digest its contents, and want 9f toae io it« muicular coat* ; and 
permanent relief, in such cases, can only bf qbtaiAe<I by perfectly ra^lnvigof 
ating that organ. As palliatives, ii|ai^«ierabl« remedies are iq T«gue, which 
vary in their several eCFects according to the variety of the idiosyncrasy, or 
the actual state of the stomach ; amongst those which may be considered as 
domestic remedies we may name, thyme, rosemary, peppermint, peimyroyal, 
coriander, dill, ginger, cloves, capsicum, &c. When the circulation is weak, 
and pain is entirely absent from the stomach, some slightly stimulating remedy 
may be employed with advantage — as camphor, the aromatic spirits of am> 
nonitu «' <^ imiiU qu^Qtity of hot brandy and water. If the subject of fla- 
tidence be of a nervous or hysteric temperament, some of the fetid gunu will 
give great relief. Distension of the stomach from flatulence frequently givei 
rife to alarming symptom* in old people, producing spasms, sometime* con- 
vulsions, and apoplexy. In such cases the stomach loses, to a great extent, 
its coatrs^ctility and susceptibility, and thus the tuual remedies prove inert ; 
i( Willi therefore, be necessary to apply a mi^tard poultice to the stomach, 
whilst we gi^e internally a strong infusion of mustard-seeda, or the tinctvre of 
horse-radinh,, in camphor mixture. We (hall allude to the food whii'h should 
be taken when this symptom is least urgent, when we come to speak of the 
diet for dyipeptics. 

Nittse^ and vomiting, when excited by crudities or offensive substance* 
lodged in the stomach, are frequently best relieved by a full discharge of its 
contents, either by encouraging the vomiting, when it does occur, by repeated 
draughts of tepid water, or by an emetic, S3 as to remove the cause of the dis- 
tress, and thoroughly wash out the stomach. It may happen that there is 
constant namea, without the ability to vomit, and then a gentle emetic, eithez 
of sulphate of sine or mustard — which doe* not create the same degree of 
nausea as antimony or ipecacuanha — may be used with much benefit. When 
the vomiting occurs, a* it more frequently does, from irritability «f the 
stomach, which readers it unable to bear the stimulu* of the most eimpl* food, 
it will be prudent to administer, with estrem* care, a proper doaa of opivm, 
01 hydrocyanic acid ; from the latter we have found the greatest benefit in 
thaae cases in which the foo4 u ejected, in its original crude state, Immediately 
aftxr it ha* been swallowed ; e£fervescing draughts, or soda water, sometime* 
allay the uneosinesi, but if they do not quickly effect thie, their use should not 
be penialed in. If the stomach be overloaded with bile, an emetic should be 
given without delay, and the bowels excited to action by an aperient opeedy 
ia its operation, as the tartrate of potash, combined with some warm tincture. 
After the full emetic effect has been obtained, we should endeavour to restore 
the proper tone to the stomach by an aromatic cordial draught, containing, if 
requisite, ten or fifteen drops of laudanum. When the sickness proceed* from 
a ohronic debility of the stomach, as well a* strengthening the whole system 
>y diet, exercise, and moral means, it will be useful to employ the lighter and 
warmer bitter tonic*, a* an infusion of orange peel, cascarilla, or calumbo. So 
long OS the dyspeptic invalid suffers from want of tone and deficient nervou* 
energy in the stomach, so long will he be liable to a return of sicknesa ; the 
meanstobeadoptedto regain this greatdesideratamwillbaexplained hereafter. 

We come now to ipeak of the allevialioa of pain induced by indigestion. 
When pain i* a (ymptom which does not yield to the treatment already re- 
cited, we may with reason attribute its continuance to some degree of irrita- 
tion or infla m ma t ion in the stomach, and it will then be necessary to have 
recourse to those means whichare employed to subdue ioflamntation generally . 
When the pain >« acute, darting, and increased on pressure, eight or ten 
leeches should be applied to the region of the stomach, and afterwards warm 
fomentation* freely , used. When the pain i* dull, obtuse, and deep-seated, 
only incieaaed oy firm and long-continued preKure, we have ordered with 
great beikafit the tartar emetic ointment to be rubbed in every night, so as to 
produce a good crop of pustule* around the pit of the stomach. If the pain 
be severe, but irregular, returning now and then like a«pa«m, a largemustard 
poultice may be applied with advantage; and a* this remedy is perfectly in- 
nocent, it may be repeated two or three times until it produce* the desired end. 
Of opiates it is useless to speak, as so many contingencies must be considered before 
they can be employed, that a profesaional man alone canjudge of their expediency. 

Ia our next we shall speak of the 'general treatment of indigestion, 
dietetic*, &c. 



DISEASES OF THE QHE&T. 

BY T. a. TEOUAN, K.D. 

No. IV. 

UUMip CATARRH, OR COUGH WITH EXPECTORATION. 

(ContinMad from page 1\.) 

HtiMiD CATABRB, Or cotigh with expectoration, is produced bj 
thoS9 causes which incite other forms of cold : it may succeed 
to a dry cough, and is a frequent result of disordered or weak- 
ened dtgestion, disease of the liver, syphilis, or the imprudent 
u«e of ^mercury; it ia also an oeeaaio^ »H»ndaitt upoa gotU 
and rheumatism, and sometimes it is produoed by inhaling irri- 
tating or noxious effluvia. The aged and weak are seldom free 
from a periodical attack in the fbrm of a ** winter cough ; '* and 
persons who are addicted to intoxicating bereroiga, irregulari- 
ties, and excesses, frequently suffer this severe penalty for their 
follies. 

Humid, or mucu-; catarrh, in its acute form, more generally 
attacks persons of a bilious temperament, and usually becomes 
chronic — that is, constant and devoid of immediately urgent 
symptoms, — in those of a lymphatic or serofulotis habit 
Unlike many other diseases, the predisposition is increased by 
each invasion, and one attack is frequently followed by another; 
indeed, many individuals aie affected several times in the course 
of a year, they get a cold upon a oold, aud are scarcely ever 
exempt from catarrh. 

In numerous instances, the disease wben ohiOBic presents 
all the general, and some of the functional symptoms of ooq« 
sumption of the lungs, and becomes the eaus* of coaaiderable 
anxiety to the friends of the invalid. It is a too comm<m eus' 
torn with some medical practitioners who are so wanting ia caa« 
dour as to assert that consumption is oureble, to call every affec- 
tion of the chest by that name, when, in truth, the existing dis- 
ease may be far less formidable, and, to some extent, free from 
danger : so that, under ordinary treatment, the patient gets well, 
the practitioner gets fkme, and the case is dotted down in a book 
as another victory won from the enemy, consumption. I am 
daily consulted in cases which I am assured are consumptive, 
but which, on examination, I find to be mucus catarrh of long 
standing ; and the ease with which the symptoms are relieved, 
and the cure ultimately obtained, is positive evidence of the less 
dangerous nature of the complaint. 

THB SYMPTOMS. 

The symptoms, being tolerably familiar to every one, need 
not detain us long in description, were it not that " cough" of 
every degree is popularly considered as one and the same com- 
plaint, anid consequently treated alike in all cases : such a course 
is fraught with uncertainty and risk, that may be avoided when 
the character of the disease is correctly distinguished, and the 
treatment adapted to the peculiar state Siod cause of the affection. 

The earliest symptonis are those of common cold, with a 
tickling or feeling of roughness at the hack part of the throat, 
and at the commencement of the windpipe ; the cough come* 
on in paroxysms, attended with difficulty of breathing, and 
tightness or pain across the chest ; th(»'e is hoarseness or huski- 
ness of the voice, and in some cases the patient can scarcely 
speak above a whisper. The expectoration is at first a thin, 
colourless, glairy fluid, " frothy on the surface, and underneath 
like the white of an egg diluted with water : ^ ailer a time it is 
of a thicker consistence, and puts on the well-known appearance 
of phlegm ; it accumulates rapidly in the air-passages, and in- 
duces a constant irritation and inclination to void it by cough; 
the windpipe becomes sore, and every breath of cold air adds to 
the pain, and aggravates the other symptoms. 

As well as these pulmonary symptoms, there ia some con- 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



27 



ndenble diaturbance oC the general healtli : the pulse is acce- 
leiated, and the surface of the body is alternately flushed with 
heal, or damp fthd chill with cold perspiration ; the spirits are 
depressed, the patient is languid and indolent, and the eyes be- 
token dulness and want of expression. As the disease pro- 
grenes, the tightness across the chest becomes more oppressire, 
the cough is aggravated by the least exertion, particularly by 
walking fast or going up stairs : its frequency renders the chest 
tender and sore, or, as patients sometimes describe it, " raw" | 
occasionally there are sharp darting pains across the breast ; or 
pain closely resembling that of rheumatism, If it be not actually 
iheumatiain, ia experienced in the muscles of the chest, the 
ibooldetn, and between the blade-bones ; the appetite is precari- 
6as,and the patient gradually loses strength. All these symptoms 
aregenerallymore violent towards evening, and during the night. 

When the expectoration ia profuse, the patient is seized with 
1 fit of oenf^ing so soon as he ia in the horizontal position ; in 
iscme instances the cough is severe in the morning, and returns 
vith violence three or &ur times during the day, the expectora- 
tion is then thin, firothy, and abundant, but the attack is usually 
of short dnration. 

In humid catarrh of old people, the expectoration is thick and 
TiKid, and the cough exhausting and prolonged : young children 
lad debilitated persona suiler aoutely from this form of cough, 
00 aeeonfit of their inability to use sufficient force and exertion 
to clear the tubes of accumulated mucus ; in such cases, the air 
contained within the bronchial jpassages may be distinctly heard 
gargling wad wheezing, as it becomes obstructed by the increased 
tecretion. 

After the disease has existed for some days, or when the 
catarrh is chronic, the expectotation becomes thicker, more ropy, 
snd less in qnantity, and, as it decreases in quantity, so it be- 
comes tiiickeir ; it !a also usually ckaaged in appeannoe, aad is 
ef a yellow, greenish yellow, grey^ sometimes darker, or even 
blniah-blaek colour. 

The expectoration in catarrh is essentially mnons, although 
in seme instanees it assumes a purulent aspeet. The diEGerenee 
between macns and purulent expectoration is of considerable 
importance, as one denotes merely a disordered condition of a 
natnral secretion, «nd is the resnlt of eatarrh and bronchitis ; 
whilst the ether — purulent expectoration — ^is the result, for the 
most part, of disease and disorganisation of structure,and as such, 
is the sign and product of the ulceration of the lungSi and of 
consumptiTe tnbercles. Mucus is a visdd fluid, resembling in 
its healthy state, the white of an egg, but capable of undergoing 
in disease the changes I have just named ; it has a slightly mline 
taste, and acquires apparent fluidity in water *, it is of less spedfio 
gravity than water, and floats on A$ turfaeg ; it is soluble in 
dilute snlpfanrie acid, and is blackened by the oonoentrated acid. 
Pus is a yellow fluid, somewhat like oream ; it is found in ab- 
scesses, snd is formed upon the surface ef what an ealled healthy 
sorss ; it is composed of globules of a whitirii fluid contained in 
« transparent liquid ; it does not cot^ate by haat; it is heavier 
than water, atid tMa When deposited in it. 

The duration and iniportanoe of humid catarrh is variable, 
and dependii on the state of the individual at the period of its 
attack ; of itself it is Hot neeesearily a dangerous disease, but 
when the invalid is labouring tmder other (iomplaints, or is en- 
feebled by prBTiotts illness, it may prove fatal in a few hours. 
If neglected, the bronchial membranes rsadily inflame, and cause 
arate bronchitis; if the subjeot has weak or irritable lungSj the 
voret consequences tnay be apprehended, iiiflammation of the 
Itmgs of of the pleura— pleurisy — may ensue, blood may be 
oraghed up. add the end may be the developmwtt of pulmonary 
consumption. I believe I am wltiiin the mark when I say that 
ten eases ont of ^ery tw«lT« of consaniption may be traced to a 



neglected cold and cough, by which the latent disease is called 
into dangerous activity. By long continuance, a cough which is 
lightly thought of or scarcely heeded, will impair the strength, 
waste the body, and perhaps bring on disease of the heart, or 
otherwise so affect the vital functions as to place the life of thfl 
patient in jeopardy. When, however, the subject is strong and 
healthy, witliout predisposition to disease, a cough may, in some 
rai-e cases, continue for years without materially interrupting thfl 
health, being, nevertheless, a sad drawback on the comfort and 
repose of the individual. 

I may remark that in general far less serious results follow 
a mucus cough that comes on in paroxysms, although most dis- 
tressing at the time, than when the cough is less sevo-e, but 
constant. 

THB TREATMENT. 

Mucus catarrh demands the same general treatment as cold in 
the head, pursued, perhaps, with more activity : befbre other reme- 
dies are employed, itwill be prudent to act gently upon the bowels by 
a mild purgative, so as to lessen the liability to inflammation, and 
to promote the more certain action of other medicines. We 
most then endeavour to remove the accumulated mucus, snd re- 
strain its excessive secretion by preparations of those expectorant 
drugs that cause the separation and discharge of the viscid phlegm 
with which the air-passages are loaded. The best expectoraiit 
for this purpose is ipecacuan, which, when the symptoms are acute, 
may be given in such a dose as will act as an emetic, or at least 
maintain a nauseating effect for some short time. On the Con- 
tinent it has been the practice to use tartar emetic (antimony) with 
the saine intent, and in some cases recorded by Laennec and 
Rasori, the mostheroi(i doses appear to have been prescribed with 
much success: I consider, however, that the debility consequent 
upon its excessive use is greater than the urgency of the symp- 
toms in ordinary humid catarrh demands ; in acute bronchitis, 
antimony in full doses is invaluable. The lobelia inflata is a 
most valuable remedyt but requires the greatest watchfiilness 
during its exhibition, as it is apt to induce vertigo and derange- 
ment of the stomach. Squills are vary useful, imd when con- 
joined with acid, as they are in the oxymel and vinegar of squills, 
their efiicacy is increased. I subjoin two or three prescriptions 
from which benefit may be anticipated in this form of cough. 

Take— ]bec«eium wine, 4 irachm* ; 

Tincture of byosciamui, S drachins ; 

Syrup of morshmallow (E:diii. Fhsr.) 6 draduha ; 
Mix. Doie— A te»-8poonfnl every three or four hoars, 

Or,- 

Take— Tincture of sqnilla, 4 draohmt ; 

Extract of henlMne, bttlf a-clmdnii ; 

5itrie ttcid, 80 itop»; 

Syrup of red poppiei, 4 disehms ; 

Water, one ounce ; 
Mix. Doie — Two te«->poonsM occasionally. 

Or,- 

TRke^Ozymel of iqaiUsi 
Tincture of squills ; 
Tincture of liops, of each 4 drachms i 
Mix. I>os»-'Atea-^oonfUoocuiai»lly, in half awine-tjlafisrul of water. 

Or,- 

Take — Ipecaeuim powder; 

Powdered sqiiHls, of each 10 gnllot; 

£U tract of coniuni, 2 scruple*; 
Mix accurately, and divide into 18 ^mi. Dose — On« evtty l^hi 

Great relief will be obtained from the frequent taking of such 
mild expectorants as honey, caildied hore-hound, or the jelly of 
currants or raspberries ; the pulp of a ripe orangfe, or a roasted 
apple is grateful and not improper ; small quantities of bland de- 
mulcent drinks, as gum mncilage, linseed tea, barley water, Ac, 
made agreeably acid With lemon juice, may be tfaken occasionally 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



80 as to soothe the irritated mucous surface ; — liquorice maj be 
used for the same purpose. 

The diet should be plain and nutritive, and consist chiefly 
of light puddings, with a very small proportion of animal food. 
All spirituous and fermented liquors must be strongly prohibited. 
Strong coffee, made by infusion, not by boiling, is the best morn- 
ing and evening beverage. 

At the time that we attend to the local affection — the cough 
— we must not neglect the general health ; we should endeavour 
to give tone and vigour to the system, so as to gain for it a power 
of endurance and resistance to cold ; the clothing should be warm 
and always uniform ; sudden and unprepared-for exposure to cold 
should be avoided, and during convalescence daily exercise in a 
bracing atmosphere should be persisted in. 

When the catarrh becomes chronic, especially in old people, 
with a viscid secretion expectorated with great difiQculty, and 
laborious breathing, we may employ warmer and more puugent 
expectorants than those I have before named ; such as the sti- 
mulant gum resins, ammoniacum, benzoin, and styrax ; garlic is 
occasionally of very great utility. Friction to the chest, by means 
of a flesh-brush, or what answers equally well, a coarse towel, 
should be used night end morning ; and the application of a 
slightly stimulating embrocation is invariably productive of 
benefit 

In that form of mucus cough which is attended with irrita- 
bility of the system, and thin frothy expectoration, I have pre- 
scribed the tincture of hops, with the oxymel of squills, with 
good effect : I am averse to opium, and rely chiefly upon hyos- 
ciamus and conium when there is occasion to employ a narcotic : 
piussic-acid is an invaluable remedy from its power to diminish 
general sensibility without affecting the functions of respiration 
and circulation ; I need not add that it requires the greatest cau- 
tion in its administration. 

(To be continaed in on n«xt.) 



' SrOHTAMBOVS tBFARATI«N OF A LAIOS TUMOUB FBOM THE THIGH, AFTBR 
AM OnaDCCBSSFUL ATTBIiPT AT RBNOVAL BT OFBRATIOH. 

' Thb following very remarkable case has recently been discharged from 
the hoepilal, a perfect cure. We arc, therefore, enabled to gi?e a complete 
report of the man; intereating points belonging to it from the commencemeDt 
to the close. 

Eran Davies, a thoroughly robust and healthy-looking man, about 46 
years of age, waa admitted into " Henry" Ward, Bartholomew's Hospital, 
under the cara of Mr. Lawrence, on the 4lh of October, 1649. He had a 
large tumour on the front of the right (high, just above the middle. It was 
of a nearly spherical shape, between four and five inches in diameter, uniform 
on the surface, compact and elastic to the feeL It was, evidently, deeply 
imbedded in the thigh. As one might expect of a tumour so situated, it could 
be moved very little independently of its surrounding connexions; at the 
same time, there was no reason for believing that it was in any way fixed to 
the bone. The superincumbent skin was quite healthy, and so was all the 
rest of the limb. 

We gathered from him the following history. About nine months ago, 
while engaged in the execution of his duty at a constable, he was kicked on 
that part of the thigh where the diseane subsequently appeared. The kick 
was so severe that he was compelled to remain at rest for a few days, and ap- 
ply leeches to the affected part. Not till two months, or thereabouts, after 
this injury, did he perceive any trace of the tumour. Various means were 
then tried with a view to disperse it, and amongst others a thorough salivation ; 
but the lump steadily progressed in size, and became gradually more painful, 
especially after unusual exercise. Under these circumstances, he determined 
to come up to London for the benefit of the best surgical advice, and had 
the good fortune to fall under the care of Mr. Lawrence. 

Mr. Lawrence, after maturely considering all the circumstances of this 
case, recommended the man to submit to an operation for the removal of the 
tumour, and on these grounds : — I. The disease could be got rid of in no 
other way, and was progreuing in siie ; 2. Its nature, though uncertain, was 
in all probability innocent ; 3, Its mobility and connexions were such as to 
justify the hope that it might be entirely removed ; 4. The patient was in the 
best possible health. Accordingly, on the 23rd of October, with the approba- 
tion of all his reUeagues, Mr, Lawrence undertook the operation, the patient 
being under the influence of chloroform. A free crucial incision was made 
through the integument. The tartorius muscle, which crossed over the 



tumour, was than divided, and thus the entire front of the disease was laid 
bare. It was firm in texture, and so exceedingly vascular, that it bled pro- 
fusely at the least touch of the knife. After a little further dissection, it was 
soon apparent, that the deep-seated connexions of the tumour were such as to 
render its removal next to impossible. On the one side it was firmly incor- 
porated with the rectus and vastus intemus ; on the other, with the adductor 
muscles ; and a portion of it seemed to be prolonged upwards towardii the 
pelvis. Thus, scarcely any part of its circumference could be detached. 
Moreover, ia attempting to do this, a very large artery was divided, and bled 
profusely before it could be secured. The operation was then given up, but 
not before so much blood had been lost, that fean were entertained lest the 
patient should die on the table. 

Notwithstanding the profuse hemorrhage, the patient suffered less then 
might have been expected from the operation. He soon rallied, and the 
wound began to granulate. On the sixth day it was discovered, that the 
tumour was beginning to ilough. The sloughing increased with such rapidity, 
that, by the eighteenth day, the entire tumour bad perished, and become de- 
tached from its connexions; so that Mr. Lawrence drew out the disease 
en matte from its bed in the thigh. On careful examination of the disease 
thus removed, the femoral vessels were found running through the centre of it. 
This circumhtaace accounts for a symptom which we have not hitherto men- 
tioned, namely, the considerable swelling of the whole limb after the oper- 
ation. 

The large excavation in the thigh left after the separation of the slough, 
has been filled up by healthy granulations, and the patient has left the hospital 
with the perfect use of the limb, and with every prospect that there will be no 
return of the disease. 

The chief practical point deduciblc from this case is the caution with 
which we ought to estimate the connexions and extent of a tumour by its 
looseness and mobility. In this instance, there was no reason to suppose 
that the tumour had such deep connexions as would prevent its complete re- 
moval ; but it proved otherwise. The subsequent spuntaueoua detachment 
of the growth by sloughing is a most rare occurrence. 



ON THE DISEASES OF WOMEN & CHUDSEN. 

No. n. 

(Continued from page 18.) 
The influence which tJiis function in return, exerts over the 
female system must be so apparent to the most unthinking per- 
son, that it will require but few words to explain the injurious 
result of any impediment to its proper and natural secretion. It 
is the disturbance of this function which is the cause of the 
majority of female maladies, and not th* effect. Indepen- 
dent of the painful and distressing diseases peculiar to the 
organs implicated — and which will be noticed hereafter — 
irregularity calls into action many diseases, which otherwise might 
have remained dormant, and by a healthy and vigorous youth 
entirely overcome and eradicated from the system. Chief in 
the dire catalogue of diseases, which at this period of life may be 
brought into destructive activity, stands that insatiable tyrant 
eonmmption, which almost exdusively attacks the fairest and 
loveliest of our species, and strikes down those who are bounding 
blithely from the starting post of life, rather than the decrepit 
beings who are hastening to its goal. How many thousands of 
early victims to this destroyer may^attribute his iattd grasp to neg- 
lect and carelessness at this, the first crisis of woman's life ? Far 
be it from us to assert that eoDsumption must of necessity exist 
when this secretion is absent, irregular, or imperfect; but that 
these conditions will, should there be the least pre- disposition, 
rapidly rouse phthiiit into action, and aggravate its conse- 
quences, if it already exists, can neither be denied nor questioned. 
With consumption must be included all its cruel atteudants, , 
namely, spitting of blood, palpitation of the heart, exhausting 
cougb, sleepless nights, kc, which are all, more or less, ccn trolled 
by the state of this fimction. The uterine system sym- ' 
pathising so largely and so directly with the whole nervous 
system, and its seat, the brain, causes the catamenia to influ- 1 
ence, to a considerable extent, every complaint referable to 
diseased action in these vital organs : thus, the symptoms of I 
epilepsy and chorea, are greatly increased in severity by delayed ' 
or impaired menstruation, and the prospect of a favourable isscie 
to each must be regulated by improvement iu the state of thla 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



29 



secretion. Should it not appear at th^it period designed bj 
nature, the uterus itself, as well oa other org.ins of the body, 
sofEiers from the revulsion of its legitimate function, and Ibe 
result may be inflammation of the womb and its appendages, 
attended with alarming symptoms, and frequently with a fatal 
result; and in the event of these terrific maladies being subdued 
It proper treatment, the foundation of severe climacteric diseases — 
IS cancers, tumours. &c., may be established, and the prospect of 
becoming a mother banished for ever. 

From these remarks it will be seen, that freedom from the 
most disastrous diseases which afflict the life of woman is con- 
tingent upon her health at this crisis ; that an uninterrupted en- 
joyment of health and happiness, as far as human precaution can 
ensure these blessings, and her ability to fill her appointed po- 
sition in society, as the beneficent dispenser, under divine 
Providence, of all those joys and comforts which gladden the hours 
of man, depend in the greatest degree on her first assumption 
of the functions and endowments of her sex. 

We will now endeavour to point out the remedies which will 
enable the youthful female to escape those perils which hover 
around her path, and to direct the attention of parents to this 
all-important crisis; but, in doing so, we must not be supposed 
to lay down one constant and invariable practice, applicable alike 
for the robust and the delicate ; such a course would be as fal- 
lacioos as injurious ; the treatment of every malady being 
modified by the peculiar symptoms, organisation, temperament, 
habit, &c. of the individual. 

In strong robust girls it may be considered that nature will 
effect her own purpose, without requiring the aid of art ; fortu- 
nately, in the majority of cases this is correct; but there are 
instances, and they are far from being infrequent, in which this 
plethoric habit renders the subject more liable to an alarming 
issae, — ^namely, inflammation. To avoid this, great attention 
should be paid to the state of the bowels ; and at the time that 
we guard against constipation, wo should not resort to violent 
drastic pnrgatires, especially those containing aloes or scammony, 
which, acting as they do more especially on the lower intestines, 
are apt to excite too great irritation in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the uterus : neither should " taking physic" become a 
custom, than which nothing is more injurious to tlie health. At 
the outset a brisk cathartic should be administered, and the 
action thus induced continued for a short period by means of 
some domestic laxative, or the lenitive electuary (compound 
confection of senna); and by soliciting nature at regular intervals, 
it will generally happen that a correct state of the evacuations 
will be established. The diet should be regulated with some 
care, and whatever tends to over-stimulate the system prohibited ; 
fortius reason "made dishes" "highly seasoned are improper; 
the food of young persons at this age should be light but nu- 
tritive ; animal food may be taken once a day, and plain joints 
of beef or mutton preferred : pastry and new-baked bread are 
improper, and shoidd seldom be indulged in. Milk may with 
advantage form the principal article of the morning and even- 
ing repast ; should tea or cofiEee be substituted, they ought never 
to be drank too warm, — a practice much to be reprobated. The 
meals should be taken at regular intervals, and suppers banished ; 
if, however, this superfluity be persisted in, it should always 
precede the time of retiring to rest at least one hour. As a prac- 
tice, the nse of wine, spirits, or malt liquor is most injurious, — 
spirits, under any circumstances, should never he permitted ; to 
an occasional glass of wine or porter there is not that decided 
objection, but the daily taking of either, especially porter at 
dmner, should be discouraged. 

For those who are of a nervous, bilious, melancholic, or deli- 
cate constitution it would be, perhaps, not unattended with 
danger to prescribe a routine of treatment : there are so many J 



circumstances which modify, and which in one case might indi- 
cate and in another oppose the adminstration of a remedy, or 
the quality of the diet, that we forbear to suggest a general 
practice : every cose should be considered, as it invariably is, 
original, difiiering from others which have preceded it ; and a 
course of treatment adapted to the existing symptoms and con- 
stitutional peculiarities of the individual, should alone obtain 
the confidence of the patient or other friends. 

An important part of the hygenic treatment, and one which 
seldom obtains much attention in reference to health , but which 
is of all-absorbmg interest in regard to fashion, must not be 
overlooked: namely, dress. The clothing of young females 
should always be suited to the season and temperament of the 
individual, and proper care observed to avoid any abmpt change 
either in texture or quality. Nothing can be more hazardous 
than the too common practice, during the inclemency of winter, 
of girls clad in the daytime in an dmost Siberian costume of 
furs and shawls, at night exposing themselves, in crapes and 
gauzes, bare-necked, and only protected by silk stockings, to 
the sudden changes of temperature, from theatres and heated 
ball-rooms, to the cold air of lobbies, passages, and damp 
pavements. 

While alluding to dress, we cannot avoid reprehending the 
dangerous and ridiculous fashion of tight lacing, which confining, 
as it does, the viscera in a narrow and unnatural space, must 
of necessity impede their regular offices, and disastrous uterine, 
as well OS thoracic, disease may originate in this foolish practice. 
If the probability of such efiects are not sufficient to deter our 
fair readers from twitching themselves in that barbarous and 
most foolish piece of armour, — the corset, — let them remember 
that there is as much barbarism in English women drawing in 
their waists and cribbing up their shoulders, as in the pinching 
of the feet by the Chinese, or the flattening of the head by some 
of the Indians. A spider waist is not a sign of beauty. 

Exercise is a most essential auxiliary in maintaining health, in- 
vigorating the body, and promoting the due performance of the secre- 
tory system ; indeed, without regular exercise in the open air, health 
cannot possibly be preserved, for beauty, like other flowers, 
needs exposure to the air and the light of the sun. In the early 
years of female life strict attention should be paid to the carriage 
and means by which the muscular system becomes developed ; 
the aid of calcsthenics may be with advantage resorted to, as 
well to preserve health as to secure that ease and grace of move- 
ment which adds the greatest charm to feminine loveliness. To 
shew the benefit of exercise, we have only to contrast the damp 
hair, the pallid features, and attenuated form of the young mil- 
hner, confined in a room for sixteen — nay, eighteen or twenty^ 
hours, with the rosy tint \ind bloom of spring-tide freshness of 
the more fortunate girl who is allowed to take her daily prome- 
nade. In boarding schools too much time is devoted to sedentary 
studies, and in the desire for accomplishments many useful and 
healthy occupations are neglected. Dancing is highly condu- 
cive to health as a means of expanding the frame, and bringing 
into play the entire muscular system ; the midnight ball, how- 
ever, at this age must not be sanctioned ; the body, in a half- 
feverish state from the exertions of the day, is ill able to sup- 
port additional excitement at an hour when the system requires, 
and has been habituated to, repose. 

Without going beyond our ofiice as physician, we would, 
with much sincerity, direct the attention of parents to the vast 
importance of the moral and inteUectual, as well as the phytieal, 
care of their offspring, at this critical period of their lives. The 
mind is now prone to receive lasting impressions, eithei: of good 
or evil ; and habits once acquired, whether vicious or amiable, 
become so readily a part of our existence, that a heavy respon- 
sibility is attached to those who have under their control the 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



education of the daughters of England : with them rests the 

foundation of that character which must be 

" ■ ■ ■ nnstaiiied nnd pure 
As is the lily or the monatain rose," 

to become, as it is ordained, the greatest blessing to man, and 
the brightest ornament to society. It is now that the mind 
rushes into a new world ; new thoughts, new feelings, engage 
the attention, and they should be so guided that health and 
peace of mind are the grand objects which ere gained. 

It is necessary that all gloomy or dispiriting ideas should be 
dispelled, and whatever tends to depress the mind or lower the 
animal spirits should be avoided with the greateet circumspec- 
tion ; cheerfulness of disposition and equability of temper should 
be courted, as well by affectionate and instructive conversation, 
as by the numerous elegant and rational amusements which are 
now every where to be obtained. The greatest discretion should 
be exerted in the selection of those who are to beconte the inti- 
mate companions of the youthful female ; there are so many cir- 
cumstances dependent on this, which materially affect the future 
health and well-being of woman, which every anxious mother 
will readily comprehend, th$t they require only to be referred 
to in order that their importance be acknowledged. 

At this period the girl, inexperienced, uncertain of the na- 
ture of her disorder, and irresolute in the course to be pursued, 
requires that advice and management which maternal experience 
is BO competent to bestow ; this, however, should be rendered 
without alarming her ausceptibility, or too much exciting her 
curiosity ; the peculiar temperament and disposition of her child 
will beat guide the anxious mother how this delicate duty may 
be performed. But should any symptom exhibit itself out of 
the Usual cour8e« professional aid should be immediately en- 
gaged, aa the knowledge even of " experienced matrons" is en- 
tirely inadequate to the urgency of a case which might by delay 
or tampering become serious in its result 
(To be ooDtinned.) 



HONOURS TO MEDICAL MEN. 
Ws bhitbed for the ingratitnde of the Engliih nation and government when 
we read iutbc French journals last week that the President of the Republic, 
on the report of the Minister of Marine had conferred the Decoration of 
the Legion of Honour on twenty naval surgeons, as a recompense for their ez- 
ertions and derotedness during the prevalence of the cholera at the naval 
ports. A few weeks back we suggested that the government ought lo confer 
some honorary distinction — a medal, for instance — upon those heroic and 
devoted members of the medical profession who stood forth when the fearful 
plague was ravaging our city, and struggled, at the imminent risk of their 
lives, to cheek its destructive progress. But we found no generous statesman, 
no exalted philanthropist, to respond to our plea for noble deserving. I'hey 
might have thought that the danger was past, and that (he medical practi- 
tiollers had only ddne their duty ; but we ask, hat the country done its duly 
by Men wbo dittioguished themselves in the time of danger t Will they have 
the teeollection of the rewards and honours bestowed upon them for past 
services, to stimulate them to future exertion in the cause of humanity and 
srieare t No I In Gngland a medical man has nothing to expect, beyond 
hii anaieusly and laboriously earned fees, n-cm a gratefbl country oi an en- 
lightened ministry. As Slerna said, '<they manage these things better in 
FWnce.'— *»»i*iy Timtt. 

svrpLT OP WATsn ik lorsok. 
We can state upon most rrspeclable authoril;, that the goveranrcnt are 
determined to take measures in (he ehsning scstiuii to correct tome of the 
abuses connected with the present supply of water for Ihe metropolis nod 
neighbourhood. Committees arc to be appointed in bolL hotues lo lake 
evidence, and report upon the subject, after which measures will be htongfat 
forward by bill on govemoient responsibility, and backed by the reports of 
the committees. Of the existing evils of scarcity, impurity, and enoimily of 
charge, there will be no quesliun — there can be none. The thief luhject for 
inqairy by the comtnittee will be the best mode of refomihg the acknow- 
ledged etU with tk«.Uast (nj«ry to caltting iMereit«..^£k«ifoy 7>'m«. 



ANALTses or con Livsn oil. 

Akaltsbs of three kinds of cod-livef oil have been made in America, 
which seem to corroborate the opinion that "light brown" is best, containing 
more iodine, and, which we are inclined to look on as not leu of value in this 
medicine, phiapkanii. Dr. Williams's experience, which has been the 
chief cause of its immense use in America, has been very remarkable. He 
prescribed it at the time of publishing his results in over 4U0 cases of tuber* 
clet of the lungs ; in 100 eases of incipient softening ill effsctf were decided 
and lasting ; and in 206 out of 234 maikeil and unequivocal improvement 
almost immediately followed its exhibition. Kay, among the appalling 
ravoges of Ihe third stage of the disease, in over 60 cases, he found il of very 
great value. Its mode of action is, of course, open to much specnietion. In 
an analysis of Ihe blood in an individual taking the oil, the animal matters 
were found nearly doubled > the iibrin, usually high in phthisis, was reduced. 
There seems some reason, then, fur supposing that, in addition lo this healthy 
nutritive matter, (a sort of magazine to the s} stem,) that the oil supplies cer- 
tain fat molecules, which appear essential to forming the nucleoli of the pri- 
mary cells of ordinary liasues — fht, oceording to Ascberton, having the phy- 
siological power of coagulating albumen around it, — iledical Timet, 

[We shall always be dSeairous of giving an impartial detail of the experi- 
ence of our brother physicians ; at the same time we shall fearlessly express 
our own convictions. Cod-liver oil, in our practice, has alvrayi been most 
deceptive in its rcsulli; improving the appearance, perhaps the condition, of 
the patient to-day —to leave him in greater prostration and danger to-morrow. 
Cod-liver oil is a pretty varnish, that polishes over a decayed spot, and al- 
lows the canker silently to work its way benealh the surface-] 

MfcwirBitT. 
Aboot Ave months ago considerable sensation was creeled in Sheffield 
by the publicity given to ihe extraordinary conduct of an elderly woman of the 
name of Hannah Cushforth, one of the midwives of the Sheffield Public Dis- 
pensary, displayed during the exercise of her vocation in the case of Harriet, 
the wile of Francis Mappin, a file forger. On the 27lk of June, Mr*. Cush- 
forth, some time in the afternoon, cntnmencsd the critical operation which 
she had undertaken. So uusucceaeful were her effects, that she separated 
the body of Ihe infant from the boad, and afterwards made a barbarous use 
of a common meat'hook as an instrument to oid her in the completion of the 
operation. The agonised mother began lo sink under Ihe treatment, when 
Mr. Moore, surgeon and druggist, who had been fetched by a neighbour, ar- 
rived, and speedily completed, at about six in the evening, that which the 
midwife had so unskilfully attempted. Mrs. Mappin, afterwards revived, 
and ultimately recovered. An investigation took place, and the result was 
that the jnry found Mrs. Cushforth guilty of manslaughter in respect of the 
infant. She was committed to York for trial. Before the bill of indictment 
had been presented to the grand juiy, however, the judge, who had looked 
over the depositions, intimated to the conductors of the prosecution that he 
did not think it possible that the evidence would bear out the charge of man- 
slaughter, inasmuch as it could not be proved that the infent was alive when 
the midwife undertook the rase. Bis lordship, thetefore, advised that Ihe 
prosecution should be abandoned. The bint was at once adopted, and the 
consequence was, that on Thursday Mrs. Cushforth was discharged ft'om cus- 
tody after an incarceration of nearly five months. — BedforrI Tima- 



CBIAXOFOaK IN 0B8TETBI0 rBAOTIOX, 

Has recently gained many adherents in Ireland, A report was read at 
Ihe Obstetric Society some time since by Dr, Denham, of a highly aatisfac- 
tory character ; the pains are diminished in force, frequency, and duration ; 
Ihe muscles of animal life are those first effected ; the pupils remain natural 
during the fitat stage of its effects; but, when full asthenia is produced, they 
become dilated ; the vagina and os externnm also become sensibly relaxed. 
It bas never influenced the infant. 



THE SSEtS OF CHItnnBH. 

It is nnfurtunately the fashion with many ladies of the present time to let 
their children be exposed with bare neck, anus, and legs, until the skin be. 
comes mottled by a stagnant venous cirenlation (bluenes* of skin). In such 
circumstances tubercles, early consumption, the seeds of so much malady and 
Ihe source of so many hcart-pungs, are, I am persuaded, ficquentlydeveluped ; 
so that the cold surface is equally the source of present misery lo Ihe little 
child and of fulnre soHow lo the parent. Of Ihitlreatmeiit, scrofula and esn- 
sumption in their various forms are the frequent results. In children, espe- 
cially, the skin should be excited by rubbing, sponging, &C., and protected 
by a just and general clothing, light in summer, warm in winter, with calico 
next Ihe surface at all limes. There may be circutostanres bf health and 
atmosphere in which exposure may be Kght enough ; but these rarely coincide 
in infancy (particularly in our climate) or last the wholt day. 

SIGNIFJCANT FACT. 

A ToMDSToMB in Neif Jersey, America, bears the following epitaph :— 
" Died of thin shoe*, Jannary, A.D. 1839." 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



31 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

CosTDLsioss IS Childugn generally arisoeltbor from a dUorderod 
sUte of the bowels, or teethiag : the age of the cliild will matcrinll}- assist 
OS in formiam ^ j>i>t opinioa. If they occur before the fifth month, the 
pratiability is that the bowels are icainly at fault ; if about the usual 
period when dentition has begun, it is equally possible that this is the 
rtiue, with which also a disordered state uf the bowels may co-operate. 
Here yoa mustuorer neglect to give purgatiTes so ai thorou(;hly to cleanse 
the bowels ; lance the gums if necessary ; and put the child into a warm 
hatk at 98* for ten mluntes, in order to tronquillise the nervous system. 

Sckovob*. — Th« prinoiplew on which the Ireatmont of sorofula should 
be founded are three : — First, to make better blood : Seonndly, to 
strengthen the solids: and Tliirdly, to gire vigorous action to the circu- 
lation. Th« two firit indications are to be fulfilled by payin"; attention 
to diet Medicine is a secondary consideration, and cc-rtaiiiiy may be 
used with adv^intage as an auxiliary. The last indication may bo more 
especially answered by a duo attention to exercise and air. 

ALTB&s.TiT> PowDRR voB BcBoriiLous CiiiLDaEN. — Take, powdeied 
rkabixb, a sempla to half a drachm ; of hydrargyrum cam creta, half a 
acnipla to a scruple; carbonate nf iron, fifteen to twenty graiss; (ulphate of 
qtiaiDe, four to six grains; whits sugar, one drachm ; aromatic powder, one 
■raplc Mix. Dirid* iato ten powders — one to be taken every night, or 
•ftry otkar night. 

McBiciMAL PaonRTiBS or W&TB«'«RBas. — Water-creu ads as a gen- 
tle stimulant and diuretic ; for those purposes the expresied juice, which 
esstains the peculiar taste and pungency of the herb, may be taken in doses of 
■a ounce or two, and continued for a considerable time. It should be at the 
nne time eaten fur breakfast, also at dinner and surq>er, to experience benefit 
iroiB the virtues of this herb. 

8iB HaMPRBT Daw's Cobh Solvbnt. — Potash two parts; salt 
iorrel, on* part. Mix in fine powder. I^ay a small quantity on the corn, 
far foar or flvs saocessive nights, bindiwg It on with n^t. 

Da. Lettsom ascribes health and wealth to water, and all diseases and 
crimes to the use of spirits. 



DIETARY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC, 

HaftB SoilP. — Skin an old hare and wash it thoroughly dean ; divide it 
iaU joists Al to serve st table, and place the whole into an earthen pan or ja<- 
withafcw cloves, whole allspice, pepper and salt, a sliced carrot and an onion. 
Cover well with water or broth ; close the mouth as tightly as possible, (some 
jars are made with lids fitted to them, which ara excellent for such purposes as 
this,) and place the jar in a cool eves all night. The next day take out (he 
hare; trim it neatly, strain the biolh, put it into a stew-pan ; warm and thick- 
en with "brown roux,** which is a little butter melted, then thickened wirh 
flour, and browned gently of a nut-brown colour over the fire. To this the 
broth should be added grailually, that it may be perfectly smooth ; add ihe 
pieces of hare, and warm the whole together- Skim o6f uuy fat from the top 
before serving. A few fried forcemeat balli may be added with a little cur- 
rant jelly and port wine, or serve the currant jelly in a boat. This is the 
best way of dressing an old hare. A young hare can be done in the same 
Bianner, but docs not reouire stewing so lonf to make it tender. From one 
to ISO hours will be amply sufficient, as the joititi will be done in about twenty 
minutes alter the water has attained the boiling heat, 

TuE Fbench Method of Makiko Whey. — Mix together equal parts 
of best vioegat and cold water ; a table-ipooaful of each will saSce for a 
pint of milk. Itis not, howsver, all to be pat in, whether necessary or not ; 
but when tho milk just boils, pour in just as much of the acid as will turn it, 
and ae aaos*. Beat up to^ etlMr the white and shell of one egg, which boil up 
in the whey. Then set it ssids till quits clear. Pour it off very steadily 
Ihrough a muslin strainer. Sweeten to taste with loaf-sugar. This whey is 
very pleasant and answers every good purpose of white wine whey, while it is 
aotliable to the objection of being heating, and is also very much leu expensive. 

M. SoTBB recommends that to make a good cup of tea, the teapot, with 
the tea ia it, shall be placed in the oven till hot, or heated by means of a spirit 
Ua-.p, or in front of the fire, (not too close, of course), and Ihe pot then filled 
•ith beiliag wetrr. The result, he says, will be in about a minute a most de- 
heieas cup of tee, much superior to that drawn in the ordinary way. 

PBOsBLaw Cutlets. — Take » piece of veal, say one pound, firom any 
part of the calf, with a little fat, chop It up, but not too fine, add to it two 
teaspoonsful of chopped eschalot, one of salt, half a one of pepper, a little 
grated notmeg, chop It a little more, and make it into pieces of the liie of two 
vahrats, which give the shape of a cutlet ; egg and bread-crumb each, keep- 
ieg the shape ; tatiU in fht, oil, lard, or butter, give it ten minutes on a slow 
fire till a nice brown colour, dish and serve with sauce, in which put a talde- 
^weoful of Harvey's ; they may be served with stewed vegetables. Any 
•thsr meat nay be «sed •* well »s vaaL 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Prict 2s. ; by pott 2s. 04. 

pONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; the 

^ Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the means of 
Prevention. By T. U. Vbouait, M.D. 

" There is so much good sense, seicntifle knowlcdfre, and usefta 1 tnforma< 
tion In this little volume that we gladly assist in giving it pabllclty. Dr. 
YaOM AN discounlonanees all ompirloal mo<las of treatment, at tbs same time 
that he suggests some safe and benufluial rules for the cure or ameUoratiOB 
of the illscusc. The remarks on the healthy discipliuc of homeshew that the 
autlinr is a sound siiclal philosopher, as well us an experienced physician." 
— The Britannia, Nov. 12, 1849. 

" There is no assnmptlon or quookery In this little volsme— It isjost sneb 
a work as mijght be anticipated from an Intelligent and ciporieaecd pliysleiaa. 
Tlic 8uj;i;cstions nnd ri?coramcndutions of Ur. Yeoman areextremely volaaUe 
and may \Se uuhcsitutingly and oilvantiigeously oiloptcd by all who are In. 

tcrestcd In the health and wcll-b..-in ' of the rising generation." MonUna 

Herald, Oct. 29, 1848. ' 

Also by the same author, price 9s. 

ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH, 
the Canses, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, 
' This is an excellent little treatise by a clever aud clear-headed praetl- 
tiuner. Ur. Veom<i>< is well known by liis Work on Cousumptiua, and the 
present publication will add tolas fame." — Wetkly Ditpalch, Jan. 14 1849 
London : Sampson f^w, 160. Fleet Street ; Kpfingham WtLSOK, 11, 
Royal Exchange ; WE BSTBa U Co.. 00. Piccad illy } e nd all B ooksellers. 

ROOFF'S IMPROVED RESPIRATOR (Ptitent,) for Con- 
sumpth>n. Asthma, &e , has separate channels for the inspired and 
expired air ; warms and purifies the atmosphere without becoming clogged; 
it neither requires cleaning nor repairing, has no unsightly appearances and 
may be had resembling a handkerchief held to the mouth. I^stlmaaials to 
be seen, and descriptions had, on application, — Depot, 183, Strand, near 
Worfollc Street- 

JOHN MILES, (Ute BUTLER akd CO.) DISPENSING 
^ CHEMIST, 78, Gracechurch Street," respectfully informs the Pnblie 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals; the too frequent dangerous adul- 
teration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of which 
depend the health and safety of our fellow creatures, induces J. Milbs to 
pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified assistants under his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for HooFr's Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
supply of Con Livr.n Oil, prepared from the finest Fish of the Se ason. 

''rRUSSES— S. SMITH, Truss-maker, I, High Holborn, 
■*- three doors from Gray's-inn-lane, respectfully announces to the Public 
that TRUSSES can be hod at his establishment, nt the following low prices; 
Double Trusses, 16s. each : single ditto, 8s. Manufacturer of Lace Stockings, 
Knee-caps, Suspensory Bandages, Riding Belts, ftc. — Mrs. Smith attends 
on ladies. 

''PHE TI:ETH.— Mb. SMARTT, DENT 1ST and CUPPER, 
-'- 25, Sun Street, Bishopsgnte, London, invites attention to his IM- 
PROVED ARTIFICIAL TEETH. They are fixod without extracting tho 
roots of the previous Teeth, no pain is caused, they defy detection by the most 
scrutinising observer, andiure gu.arnnteed to answer all the purposes of masti- 
cation, filling up the void produced by the loss of tho natural Teeth, thereby 
restoring facial beauty, and en.-vbling the patient to speak with fluency and 
comfort. Irtcgtilnrities and deformities of tho Teeth removed wher« practi- 
cable^ Mn. Smaktt attends nt 18, Harmer Street, Gravcsend, every Friday, 

T)r7aRN0 TT'S HYDROS TATIC ou FLOATING^BEDS. 
-*-' This valiuihle invention, afibrding snob relief to all patients long con- 
fined to bed, is now presented to the public, greatly improved in mannfaeture, 
by which it is mode much more durable ; aud at a price which it is hoped Will 
conduce to make its advantoEcs more generally available. £ s d. 

No. I. Hydrostatic £d, with Castors, &o 8 8 

No. 8. ditto plain ,.., 7 7 

roB UIRB. 

No. 1. First Month 1 15 

„ Second and succeeding Months. 18 6 

No. !. First Month ...., 1 10 

„ Second nnd sacccoding Months 17 6 

The Hire of the Bed ,withwAterpiT)ofSbcet& Carriage, to be paid in advance. 
Mnnufticttired, Sold, and Let Out on Hire, by EuwABO Sfgkceb & Co. 
16, Billiter Street, and ll6, Fcnchnrch Street, London. Manufacturers of 
the A4jiutiag and other approv«d Surgical and Invalid Beds. 
A stock of these Beds kept always ready ft>r immediate use. 



Digitized by 



Google 



dd 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



HEALTH OF LONDON DURING THE WEEK. 
The average of deaths for ton prerious years, corrected for increase of 
population, is 1260, the deaths having ranged in that week from 929 in 1844 
to 1457 in 1848, at wliich latter period the mortolitjr was much increased 
by influenia, then on the decline. The deaths in the present return are, 
therefore, leas than the average, by 195. The mortality from small-poz, 
though it shews a tendency to increase, is still less than half the average. 
Scarlatina and hooping-cough also cause less than the usual number of deaths, 
only 1 1 having occurred last week from the former epidemic, though the 
corrected average is 37 ; in the corresponding week of last year the deaths 
from scarlatina rose to 63. From typhus, which ranged in the same week 
of ten previous years from 2S to 83, the deaths returned last week were 
33, or rather leas than the average ; but the mortality from measles is at 
present rather above it. The only complaint which is now fotal to a con- 
siderable extent is bronchitis, from which 25 children under 15 years, 
31 persons between 15 and GO, and 64 at 60 years and upwards, died in the 
week ; its increasing fatility daring the last three weeks, in which the 
weekly mean temperature has been successively 33°, 35", and 30^, is 
marked by the numbers returned, viz. 78, 103, and in last week 120. 
Of the 1065 deaths, 303 were those of persons of 60 years old or upwards. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS, 

KoTiCB. — All communications for the Editor must be addressed, pre-paid, 
to his house. No. 35, Lt,oTD Squars, Pbniontii.i.8. It is indis- 
pensable that letters requiring a private answer contain a postage 
stamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of the 
applicant. Invalids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, can 
bare, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interview, in many Insttnees, may be avoided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment. Notes of every 
case submitted to the Editor will be recorded tn his private case-book, 
for the facility of reference at any future period. 

Tai Editok is at home every day until one o'clock ; and on the Evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He attends 
•t Mr. Mileb's Mbdical amd Sdbgical Establishhent, 78, 
Oraccehurch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays from 
half-jiast One until Three o'clock. Surgical advice may be obtained 
at the above establishment, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday 
evenings, from Six till Nine o'clock. 

H^ Wa particnlarly request Correspondents who do not attach their 
proper names to their communications, to avoid all such signatures 
as " a Subscriber" — " Constant Reader " — " Well -Wisher," &c. 
Where the correct name is not given, it will insure the identity of the 
" answer" to the query proposed to us, if our correspondents add the 
name of the town or street from which they write: thus — O. P. Q- 
(Bath)— Delta, (Manchester Square). 

J. C. (Vicarage Place, Hunslet).— Take, extract of hyosciamus, two scruples; 
camphor, ten grains. Mix, and divide into ten pills. Take one every 
night. 

P. (Hyde Park). — We cannot spare room for all the directions you require. 
Call or send your address. 

Claudb Mblnotte, (Norwich). — As a palliatira chew a piece of orris root 
occasionally. If jou suspect it ii caused by the unguarded use of mer- 
^"^t you will require constitutional means to bo employed. Does it 
arise from a caried tooth ? — if to, get it extracted, 

H. O. H. (Derby). — There must be a eatwe for " despondency" and " shat- 
tered health.' Your letter is not sufficiently explicit. 

Ellbn. — Palpitation of the heart may arise from so many different causes, 
that it will be imprudent to advise you, guided only by the scanty in- 
formation your note contains. Believe wa are willing to render you any 
assistance in our power. 

R. S. P. (Manchester). — Is it possible we can publish the instructions you 
require in this column ? Say where a private note will reach you. 

T, Dob (Wandsworlb). — Take your daughter to Gracechurch Street, on 
any day that we attend there. You detail the symptoms clearly enough, 
but do nut refer to the cause. 

SoaiM THB Bow. — We object to answer questions bearing such absurd signa- 
tures as the one you have adopted. 



T. B. S. (Chancery Lane). — Get a bandage at Mr. Smith's, High Holborn ; 
the cost will not be more than two shillings or balf-a-erowo. 

A Clerk (Mark Lane). — The passions and affections possess a sad power of ^ 
troubling our bodily functions, and deranging health. The power to stib- * 
due (he former and coutroi the latter ia what you require, not drugs. Five 
minutes' convorialion will do more for you than a bushel of pills. 

WiLLiAH Coos (Cation),— We can only reply to your note privately. 

U. X. Y. (Nottingham). — First remove the cause ; pay strict attention to the 
state of the evacuations ; live temperately in all things ; and as a tem- 
porary palliative, apply a mustard poultice. Your letter is too indefinite 
for us to advise more minutely. You must send your private address if 
you desire an opinion in detail. 

East London. — In our answer last week, for "professed,'' reti profsrred. 

A Poon Patient. — We do not profen to have interest sufficient with the 
weekly Board of the Hospital in question to cause an inquiry to be made 
into your complaint. We know there are more old tcojnen attached to 
Charing Cross Hospital than Nurse Mary. We sincerely hope you never 
may have occasion again to apply to charitable institutions. 

A Victim. — We have received a most distressing note from the correspondent 
whose letter on Quack Consulting Sui^eous we published in our Second 
Number. The " firm" in question, having seen his letter inserted in our 
journal, sent copies of " Victim's" correspondence with them to 
his father, and to his late employer, the consequence of which is, that 
he has lost his father's confidence and affection, and the xealous interest 
of an established merchant. We would insert his letter, but under a 
natural excitement he has employed epithets to the men, who certainly 
deserve the most severe phrases in our language, which we cannot con- 
descend to apply even tu the lonest of pretaBdets- We would, however, 
earnestly caution intending dupes not to place the least reliance on ad- 
vertised " inviolable secrecy.' 

Albxis. — Relate the cause ; — we may then probably bo enabled to direct you. 

J. F. W. — Apply to Mr. Smartt, he will effectually stop the decayed tooth. 
Some dentists stop one tosth, and drill holes through two. If you wish 
to know to whom we allude, walk trom St. Paul's to Temple Bar, and 
read all the little hand-bills you receive in your journey. 

B. W. J. (SomcrsTown). — Have two; one to wear during the night, the other 
during the day. Never sleep in your day linen. 

J. 0. G. (Accrington). — We do not possess a divining rod. We can do 
nothing fur you without you relate more of your symptoms than you 
have hitherto done. 

E. E. £. — Your cough, in a very great degree is sympathetic with de- 
ranged digestion, and is the natural result of farmer irregularity. A pre- 
scriptiou is left for you at 78 Graccchurch-street, together with a note, 
instrncting you as to diet and regimen. 

Sauvbl T. (Bolton). — Your note is not suiBeteBtly explicit. 

Delta (Holborn). — To your first query : — Yes, under proper treatmentiand 
guidance. — 2od, There are two, both of bad repute— 3rd, Yes. 

A. B. (VVatling Street^ — We would do much to save you from falling into 
the hands of the ignorant advertising consulting surgeons, but we cannot 
print the information you ask for. Could a mother or sister read it 7 
Uur journal ia a Family Journal. Communicate privately. 

iKQUinBn, — He is only known as a clover speculator in hot water, and as the 
writer of prurient books. 

A Motiibb ( Bishupstukc). — Keep the bowels gently moved by castor oil: drink 
pl'ntifolly of barley water, to a pint of which add about ten grains of salt- 
petre ; avoid animal food for a few days, aud keep perfectly quiet. 

Jaspbb. (Alnwick) — Send your address. 

W. J. (Barnsbiiry Road). — Both are proper ; when there is mnch relaxation 
of the tonsils, alum is preferable : the proportions will be about ten grains 
to a six-ounce gargle. 

A Clbrx. (Eagle Street). — Sarsaparilla is an expensive and usefesf remedy 
—don't touch it. We have left a prescription and private note for you 
at 78, Gracechurch Street, according to your request. 

Tub Peoplb's Medical Jovbdal, although bearing date Saturday, ia 
published in Lnndonon the preceding Wednesday: the journal is printed 
un Tuesday ; consequently letters arriving after 10 o'clock on Monday 
morning cannot be noticed in the current number. — This to many corre- 
spondents. 

Pbbscbiftions are left with tub Dispeksbr, 78, Gracechurch Street, for 
the following correspondents: — N. D. (Deplford), also a private note. 
HIOUT, also a private note. E, C. R. (Stamford Street). A Houss- 

MAID. D. E. (Norton Folgate). Mna. B x (Walworth Road), 

A Mecuamic, also a private note. MisERT, also a private note, 

Mb, G D (Hattun Garden), Maby, (Brick Lane). L. S. D. 

Annbttb. a Hattbr (Bermondsey Street). W. B. (St, Martin's 
Lane), also a private note, WolSBY (Plaiatow), JoBM (Westminster), 
also a private note. 

Printed t>r Cbaelsi ADAva. U hli Priming Ollloe, 8, St. Jomea'a Walk, in tlie Pariah 
of St. Jamea'a, CIcrkanwell, in the County of Middleaez; and pubiiabed, tor the 
Proprietors, by Osoaoc Vicxaas, Strand, in the Psrlsh of St, Clement Danes, la 
the sold County of Middlesex, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

FAMILY PHISICIUN. 



EDITED BY T. ?. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 5.— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1850. 



[onnonrr. 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BT T. B. TKOHAX, K.D. 
KO. V. 

THE IKFLUENZA, OB SPIDEMIC CATABRB. 

(CoMtimii fnm pagt S8.) 

Tbs teim influenxOy which may he fairly considered an English 
vord, is derived firom the Italian, and had its origin in the sup- 
position that the disease which it serves to denote was caused, 
or nded by the influence of the stars. From the earliest period 
oS. medical literature, this epidemic has engaged the attention of 
awdical writers : and the history of the disorder, handed down 
to u by Sydenham, accurately corresponds with its character in 
the present day ; its invasion, however, is more frequent than 
formerly, and it has occurred not only in the autumn, hut in 
every season of the year, whether hot, cold, damp, or temperate, 
and of all epidemics is now the most universal. 

Sydenham regarded the disease, in 1075, as a general cough, 
produced by cold and moist weather, gprafted upon the autumnal 
e^ndemy, and varying its symptoms ; whence the fever, which 
hiad hiUierto chiefly attacked the head or bowels, now transferred 
its violence to the chest, and excited symptoms which had often 
a semblance to those of genuine pleurisy. 

During late years it has invariably followed the bilious 
cholera, wUch prevails in the months of September and October. 
Its most virulent appearance was in 1837, in January and Feb- 
rnary, and in the winter months of 1847 and the commencement 
of 1848, since which time, indeed, England, especially the me- 
tropolis, has not been free from the malady. 

It has been observed that influenza seems to bear the same 
relation to ordinary catarrh, that epidemic cholera bears to the 
common English cholera that happens every year, and that it ap- 
pears to be dependent on some peculiar condition of the atmo- 
sphere. Sydenham ascribes its existence to " some occult and 
inexplicable changes wrought in the bowels of the earth itself, 
Vj which the atmosphere becomes contaminated with certain 
eihiria, which predispose the bodies of men to some form or 
other of the disease." As it is well known that a specific miasm, 
or morbid principle of the atmosphere, is the cause of intermit- 
tent and remittent fever, we may readily allow that some specific 
srial influence is the primary cause of influenza. Corrobo- 
rating this opinion is the fact that many domestic animals, as 
horses and dogs, have been attacked simultaneously with 



The proximate causes are, great and sudden changes of tem- 
pcratnre, either from warm to cold, or from cold to warm, with 
dampness and fogs ; and the prevalence of easterly winds may 
be considered as a natural indication of its advent. The great- 
est fetality from the disease in 1847 was in the months of No- 



vember and December, when the prevailing winda were south- 
west or south-south-west. 

There is much diversity of opinion aa to the contagious or 
non-contagious character of the disorder; and although the 
popular feeling is in favour of its being non-contagious, it mutt 
be remarked, that it has seldom appeared in any one coimtry of 
Europe, without appearing successively in every other part; 
that it sometimes affects every member of a family at the same 
time, and sometimes it affects them in succession, and that it 
attacks indiscriminately persons out of doors and in doors. On 
the other hand, I have heard of the crews of vessels on the open 
sea having suffered severely, when there could be no possible 
communion with infected individuals. 

Persons of all ages, the healthy and robust, are liable to its 
attack, but children less than others ; in 1837 the fatality among 
elderly people was considerable ; in 1847 it overcame the youth- 
ful, the middle-aged, and the aged. 

Influenza, although lightly treated — (" Oh, it's only a touch 
of the influenza !") — is a most formidable disorder ; lets so, how- 
ever, on account of its immediate symptoms than by its power 
to excite and perpetuate other diseases. The general symptoms 
bear a close resemblance to those of common catarrh, consider- 
ably aggravated in degree ; it may be readily distinguished from 
the latter complaint by the extreme debility that attends and 
follows it. At the onset there is universal chilliness, or rigors, 
succeeded by sudden flushes of heat ; the skin is at first hot and 
dry, afterwards covered with perspiration ; great pain is felt in 
the head, which seems as if hound and tightened, there is also 
considerable confusion or noise in the ears ; constant flying 
pains are experienced in the limbs and back, especially the loins, 
and the entire body feels sore and bruised, as if beaten with a 
stick ; the strength is suddenly prostrated, there is entire loss of 
energy, and the patient is overcome with fatigue and lassitude ; 
the spirits are depressed, and he is borne down by mental as 
well as bodily debility. There is pain and constriction across 
the chest, particularly at the lower margin of the ribs, accom- 
panied at first M'ith a dry teazing cough and hurried respiration, 
which causes much anxiety and distress; there is a tingling 
sensation at the nose, frequent sneezing, and watery eyes, and, 
as in coryza, a profuse secretion from the nostrils ; the face feels 
stiff and uncomfortable, the lips are frequently covered with an 
irritable, smarting eruption, and the temples and cheek hones 
are sore and painful. The throat seldom escapes, the tonsils 
become inflaoned and relaxed, and the soreness is severe and 
burning : the windpipe is dry and irritated, and the voice hoarse 
or entirely lost ; there is loss of appetite, aversion to food, and 
sometimes nausea or sickness ; the tongue is furred and parched, 
or covered with a ropy, unpleasant mucus, like cream ; the thirst 
is considerable : the bowels irregular, and the urine scanty, thick, 
and turbid. 



Digitized by 



Google 



34 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



The symptoms I have just recited are generaJly present dur- 
ing the first twenty-four or forty-ei^t hours, and if within thik 
time they do not snccnmb to proper treatment, the violence of 
the disease is concentrated in one particular organ, most fre- 
quently the head or the chest. If in the former, the headache 
is intolerable, shooting up to the crown, with a feeling as if the 
head were splitting ; the pulse is rapid, sometimes running np 
to a hundred and twenty or forty ; vertigo ftdlows, succeeded 
by incoherence, and the nights are paased in delirium. When 
the chest is more especially affected, the disease puts on the ap- 
pearance of inflammation, either in the substance of the lung, 
tha pleura, or the air-paaaages. I am, however, confident in 
saying that these symptoms are not the result of inflammation, 
but of some specific infiuence with which the blood is tainted. 
ApMOf that it is not inflammstion bnt real debility we have to 
eneoonter is, that bleeding reduces the patient without ameliorat- 
ing the symptoms : that it may ultimately end in inflammation 
of the pleora or of the hugs, I have seen many examples, bnt I 
hold diat the disease perse is not one of inflammation. The 
cough, which before was almost a secondary symptom, soon be- 
comes constant and harassing, the expectoration thick, opaque, 
and viscid, like bird-lime,- it is expectorated with difficulty, and 
after a time assumes a purulent appearance ; the tenderness 
abont the ribs is augmented, the breathing is laborious and difiS- 
cnlt, a pain or stitch is felt in the side, and there is much nneasi- 
ness and fluttering around the heart ; the languor and debility is 
greatly increased, and all the several symptoms become more 
violent. 

In a mqority of eases, when influenza is not complicated with 
some severe local affection, the real danger is slight and the di- 
sease is usually overcome in three or four days ; when, however, 
the individual attacked is of feeble constitution, or has any latent 
disease of the lungs, or is advanced in years, we may then appre- 
hend a more alarming result ; for influenza affects each particnlar 
infirmity of constitution, it assists all ill tendencies, and gives the 
last blow to si^ness and to old age ; the weak lungs, the weak 
head, the weak throat have to stand the brunt of the affliction. 
If unchecked by remedies, a neglected attack of influenza may 
terminate in, or be complicated with, inflammation of the wind- 
pipe, of the pleura, or of the lungs ; the brain or its membranes 
may be inflamed and typhus follow ; or the stomach and bowels 
may more severely suffer, and induce diarrhcea or dysentery ; in 
some cases rheumatism supervenes, in others certain skin 
diseases, or erysipelas. 

The recovery is always slow, and during convalescence, the 
invalid is liable to a renewed attack, and a return of the symp- 
toms in increased rigour ; debility prevades the whole frame, and 
is greater than that which follows other diseases of greater severity 
and longer continuance. I have seen patients so weakened, that 
they could not rise from the horizontal position without fainting, 
for many weeks after an attack. 

THE TREATMENT. 

The treatment of influenza in mild cases is similar to that 
required in ordinary catarrh : we must endeavour to allay the 
fever, diminish the irritation, and afterwards restore vigour to 
the system. When the symptoms are greater in degree, it will 
be necessary to confine tiie patient to the house, if not to his 
bed ; the bowels should be gentiy moved by rhubarb, or other 
mild aperient, — especially avoiding excessive purging, for the 
whole mucous membranes being affected, that of the stomach 
and intestines ha« an increased tendency to inflammation when 
irritated. A diaphoretic, — as ten grains of Dover's powder, 
three grains of nitrate of potash, and half a grain of the potossio- 
tartrate of antimony, should be taken at bed-time, — and during 
the day a saline medicine containing an antimonial, should be 



prescribed, so as to jnduce a healthy perspiration. When th^ 
eough is tronblesome, the expeetoiation shoiild be premotad by # 
squills or ^ecacuan, or the former combined with gum ammo- 
niac ; the tincture of the lobelia inflata, in fifteen minim doses, 
ebnjoined with almond emulsion, or mucilage of gum arable, is 
an. excellent remedy. Opiates at the commencement of an attack 
invariably increase the febrile heat and aggravate the head-ache ; 
they also diminish the expectoration, and increase the tightness 
in the chest ; as the disease subsides, and the more urgent 
symptoms are subdued, they are then of service in tranquillising 
the system, and lessening its susceptibility. In many cases I 
have found great benefit from the early use of an emetic, par- 
ticularly when there was much pain in the chest, as well as s 
disordered stomach. The soreness of the throat, which is 
frequently a most painful symptom, may be greatly relieved by 
some stimulating and astringent gargle ; as infusion of roses 
with alum ; or, port wine with a little tincture of capsicum. 

The food should be light, and free from all stimulants, the 
usual spoon-diet only being allowed. 

When thedisease assnmes an aggravated character, with much 
fever, a hard, dry cough, and great pain in breathing, it will be 
necessary to give frequent bnt small doses of c^omel with 
James's powder, or tartrate of antimony. Two pills, composed 
as follows, should be taken at bed-time, and one repeated twice 
during the day. 

Tak»— Dover*! pow«ler ; 

Extract of hyosciamas ; of each, 8 grains; 
Camphor, 4 ftnins. 
Mix, and dlTide into 4 pOli. Two to be taken at bed-time, and repeat 
one ereiy six or eight hoon* 

The cough should be soothed by some simple cough medi- 
cine, in which the tincture of lobelia, in ten or fifteen minim 
doses, is a constituent When the fever is subdued, a blister 
applied to the chest is of essential service. General blood- 
letting should rarely be adopted, and however urgent the symp- 
toms may appear, however closely they may resemble inflam- 
mation, it must ever be borne in mind that the debility is real, 
not the result of oppression of the nervous power, but a depression 
of strength : in fact, until we are confidently satisfied that the 
chest-symptoms are the result of active inflammation, bleeding 
should never be rekorted to, scarcely thought of. 

By pursuing for thirty-six or forty- eight hours, a mode of 
treatment similar to that I have described, we may look for some 
amendment in the symptoms. The respiration wiU become 
less frequent, fuller, and easier; the pulse will decrease ia 
rapidity, and the surface of the body may, happily, be lightly 
bedewed with a genial moisture. When the treatment advances 
thus favourably, we may endeavour to diminish the debility, at 
the time that we allay the cough, by a combination of lobelia 
and ammonia in the following proportions ; — 

Take — Decoction of icnega, 1 oonee ; 

Setqiiicarbonate of ammonia, 3 grains, 

Tinetnre of lobelia, 15 minima ; 

Compound tincture of camphor, 30 minims. 
Mix, for a dnnght, to be taken every fonr or fire honrs. 

As soon as the chest- symptoms disappear, we may cautionsly 
direct a more generous diet, and as soon as there is inclination 
for solid food, and the state of the pulse does not forbid, a por- 
tion of lean mutton, broiled, may be allowed daily, together with 
a table-spoonful of brandy diluted with water. A light tonic, 
as a wine glassful of the infusion of cascarilla with a tea-spoonfiil 
of common vinegar may he taken twice a-day for a short time, 
and afterwards the sulphate of quinine with dilute sulphuric acid 
and water may be substituted. 

[To be continued in our next.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND. FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



35 



as THE VSE or STAYS AHS GOBSETS. 

FROX ▲ OORaZarOROKKT, 

Maxt young females, fnmi the us* or rather abuse of stays, 
grow up to be sickly iromen, scavcely ever enjoying health for a 
week together. They become unhealthy motiheis, producing un- 
healthy ofispring, often with the ibrfeit of their lives. All phy- 
siologists and medical practitioners are agreed as to the injury 
ind deformity caused by the pressure of stays. Woman how- 
ever waspish she may sometimes be in disposition, was never in- 
tended to appear to the eyes of mankind in the form of a wasp. 
A free expansion of the chest is requisite for the purposes of 
life, and this caimot be accomplished with a supematuraliy small 
oist, squeezed into minute dimensions by the pressure of stays, 
intenerer a small waist is seen in a woman it is a deformity, 
ud bespeaks, as plainly as tongue can do, an unnatural contU- 
tion of the body, and therefore on imperfect state of health. In 
the moat mddy and blooming females such a fdhn of waist is in- 
compatible widi heahh ; and the judgment must not be cheated 
bj the appearance of a pair of rosy cheeks or sparkling eyes, fre- 
qaently arising £rom a determination of blood to the head, brought 
on by the pressure of stays on the cheat and stomach ; the pres- 
sme on the latter organ, when distended with food, occasionally 
produces, oren in very young persons, fainting, and sometimes 
sanguineous apoplexy and instantaneous death. 

Stays are commonly put upon children of six or seven years 
old. with a view to control tneir growth and give them good 
fignres : — as if nature were apt to err, and reqmred correction ! 
Ills controlling of the growth of children is like the practice of 
tbose who, by pruning timber trees, pretend to correct and im- 
prove nature's works, whilst they inflict incurable injuries upon, 
aod diminish the life of the tree, deteriorating, at the same time, 
from the quality of the timber. In like manner, the mother im- 
pedes the growth, by encircling with whalebone or steel the body 
of her child, who will thus grow up to be a sickly and deformed 
woman. Take fifty of our countrywomen of the middle classes, 
and we shall find thirty at least a£3icted with curvature of the 
spine; and this disfiguration and malformation may be referred 
to the use of stays, and to the absence of proper muscular exer- 
cise. Weakness of the loins and back is invariably increased by 
the use of steel and other contrivances made to *M and to cure. 
I once knew tax establishment in which there were fifty young 
ladies, forty-nine had curvature of the spine, and the right shoul- 
der of each had grown considerably out of its place. This was 
caused by the girls being compelled to write for hours together 
on a Sat table, upon which the left elbow rested, whilst the posi- 
tion of the arm raised the right shoulder, and caused a lateral 
depression of the spine. 

The women of India are remarkably for beauty of form : this 
is also the case among the American Indians, and among the still 
savage tribes of Polynesia. In our own country some rational 
|ikj3icians have in their own families prohibited the use of stays, 
ud, in consequence, their daughters are most beautifully formed. 

Pressure by stays, as every one of experience will admit, 
totally breaks down the finest forms of nature at a very early 
age. There are few girls in England whose beauty of shape 
it not permanently destroyed before they are twen^ years of 
*ge: they are therefore obliged to continue to wear stays, in 
order to preserve a semblance of that symmetry and firmness 
of contour which usually distinguish the young maiden from the 
elderly matron. The elastic step is impeded, and the grace- 
Ail carriage totally prevented, by the encasement of the whole 
figure, from the shoulder to the hip, in jean, whalebone, steel, 
and wood. As well mig^t a woman be encased in wooden staves, 
and hooped like a cask, — it vrould! scarcely infiict a gretiter in- 
jury upon her than the stays of the present generation. 



When a girl goes to school, if she has never worn stays befot«, 
she is now made to do so, and the poor child is tan^ to look 
with a feeling of gratified vanity on what caoses her great incon- 
venience, and very often grwit pain. If straight before, she wiU 
now perhaps begin to grpw crooked, and her spine gra^udly 
swerves from the perpendicular line, whilst the chest, especially 
in a weak and delicate girl, will be forced to contraot. Can any 
person wonder that, at the adult age, indigestion and stomach 
eomplaints should result firom such a system of physical edncation? 

Stays having been worn frinn infancy, and the support of the 
body made dependent upon them, by the destruction of all power 
of action in moat of the muscles of the back, abdomen, and chest, 
they become indispensable to those by whom they have been con- 
BtanUy used. The busk and bones might, however, be left off 
gradually with excellent efiect. I need not dwell on Ae evil 
of tight-lacing further than to state what cannot be too often re- 
peated, that it often leads to sudden death by apoplexy. There 
was an instance in London, a very short time smce, of the sud- 
den death of a healthy young woman twenty years of age, who died 
of apoplexy about an hour and a half after she had eaten a hearty 
dinner, the action of the stomach being paralysed by the pres- 
sure of the stays, and the blood driven to the brain. There is, 
however, a point, oonnected with the lacing of stays, to which I 
would fain call the attention of every woman in the land, as it is 
a matter of great importance to all. Ever since the existence of 
long stays it has been the practice to lace them from the top to 
the bottom, whereby a downward pressure is given, that forces 
down the bosom, the stomach, and the intestines ; and besides 
the lamentable accidents that frequently occur, the form of youth 
is destroyed, to be replaced by the appearance of age at the mere 
outset of adult life. The pressure of the busk bears heavily and 
painfully on the sternum or breastbone, producing a permanent 
bruise on the skin, and ultimately disease of the bone itself. 
There is scarcely one female received in any of our hospitals, that 
does not bear this mark upon her chest And what is the con- 
sequence ? — constant pain, and very frequently the breaking out 
of a torturing disease, which sometimes attends the auflferer 
to the grave. Ladies of rank frequently wear French corsets, 
laced upwards, and though they inflict the same injury on the 
muscles of the body that every kind of stays will do, they do 
not so frequently cause curvature of the spine and deformed waist. 

OH THE TEETH: 

THEIR USES, DISEASES, AND HANAGEHENT. 
BY CBABLES SMABTT, B84., SUBGEOK -DENTIST. 

" Fbou what innumerable and unsuspected sources is the stream 
of human happiness supplied, and by what apparently trivial cir- 
cumstances is it arrested ! A grain of sand in the eye, or the 
most trifling injury or exposure of the fine nervous thread which , 
is found in the centre of a tooth, is su£Scient to suspend all or- 
diiuirj occupations and pursuits." In the whole range of our 
wonderinl formation, a more beautiful instance of minute and 
exquisite mechanism can scarcely be found than that which forms 
the subject of these hints. And furthermore, when we consider 
the general ignorance on all matters coimected with the teeth, 
we shall more readily perceive the necessity for some short and 
popular essay on the treatment and management of these important 
structures. Probably not one individu^ in fifty, or even a hun- 
dred, can tell you how many teeth he may ha]^en to have ; and 
perhaps not one in five hundred is aware of the number he is 
entitled by nature to possess. The superficial observer, or the 
man who does not observe at all, is at a loss to account for the 
apparently sudden decay of his masticating organs, and feels par- 
ticularly uncomfortable because he cannot properly enuncute 



Digitized by 



Google 



36 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



his words when deprived of his front teeth, and suffers from in- 
digestion, and all its attendant evils, in consequence of the loss 
of his molars or grinding teeth. To aid in explaining the cause, 
and to point out the mediod to be adopted in avertiag this af&ic- 
tion, is the purpose of the following contributions. 

The teeth of the infant are twenty in number — ten in each 
jaw ; and in the adult or full-grown person, the number is in- 
creased to thirty-two, being an addition of twelve molar or 
grinding teeth. These teedt are distributed as follows, — six- 
teen in the upper or superior jaw, and the same number in the 
lower or inferior maxilla. The anterior or front four are termed 
the incisors, their use, as their name implies, being to make an 
incision or cut ; on each side of the jaw there is a canine tooth, 
for lacerating or tearing the food ; and beyond the canine are 
found five molars or grinding teeth. Thus formed it will readily 
be perceived how indispensable they are to the perfect mastica- 
tion of food, the first step towards proper digestion, without 
which the whole human fabric soon becomes diseased. During 
the performance of mastication the teeth minister materially to 
the sense of taste. These beautiful, though frequently neglected, 
little organs are, however, essentially necessary for other pur- 
poses besides those of mastication and taste. From time almost 
immemorial, and by all tribes of people, the teeth have been re- 
garded as one of the most important essentials to beauty. Our 
daily observation teaches us the disagreeable effect produced by 
decayed front teeth, and how perceptibly the character and sym- 
metry of the face is altered by their loss. From their effect on 
the features they call for particular attention from those who 
consider a good countenance a good letter of recommendation. 
There is a quaint saying, that " no woman can be beautiful in 
spite of her teeth." The hearty and kindly laugh is deprived of 
half its joy by the deformity presented. We must not term it 
ugliness ; for if the mind be charitable and well stored, its dia- 
monds will yet sparkle around, undamaged by the ruined pearls. 
The removal of these " pearls" reduces the length of the visage 
by one inch and a half. Their loss will also painfully remind us 
of their value as aids to articulation. If the great and pre- 
eminent prerogative of man is the possession of speech, that 
speech can never be perfect or complete unless the teeth modu- 
late the sound, and give proper utterance to the voice. Observe, 
for instance, how one deprived of teeth would pronounce the let- 
ters t, d, s, z, and the diphthong t/i. This remark is verified by 
the fact of the infant making but little attempt to speak uutil the 
teeth begin to protrude through the gums. 

[To be continiied in our next] 



omiiF. 
Time has two characters: it is a healor and a destroyer. Tho gnawing of 
• feeling tuch as nief is not like the eternal voracity of (he vulture which 
fed on the entraUa of Prometheus. The load is (gradually lifted ; and, as 
the most brawling stream runs on the most shallow bed, the most riolent 
sorrow is commonly the most readily oxhansted. In some minds, indeed, 
the traces left by grief are surprisingly transient. Every active tempera- 
ment, however it may feel stricken when the blow falls, however it may 
resolve to nourish its grief as a sacred inmate of the bosom, from its very 
nature rises elastic from the weight. Bitter davs pass over, and these may 
be lengthened into weeks and even months ; but the voice will soon re- 
gain its full-throated ease, the faco its unbidden smile, and the step its 
careless tread. This mav be predicated of the majority of people. Those 
on whom sorrow sinks donrn with a leaden weight are the subjects of 
intense contemplative sentiment, disappointed hopes, or the flatterers of a 
morbid melancholy, which, the more causeless it is, is oherished the more, 
and appears to commnnicate sensations of singular satisfaction. The more 
pains that are taken to study the annals of psychology, the more certain 
will be the inference, that in the soundest minds grief finds its most 
transitory home. 



Am Amtidotb pok Absbnic has been discovered by Dr. Bunsen, in the 
hydrated peroxide of iron,a simple preparation, and one which ought to have 
a place on the shelves of every druggist in the kingdom. In Germany, if 
we ore rightly informed, every druggist ami apothecary who sells Uie 
poison is bound by law also to sell the antidote. 



I>T8FEFSIA.-INDI0ESTI0ir. 

NERY0CSNS88, kc 

BT XBK BOIMK. 

No.V. 

THE TREATMENT OF IITDIOBSTIOK. 

{CoittinMid fitm pag» 16.) 

Imdiobstiox arising from a solitary error in diet will, in many eases, subside 
so soon as the cause is removed, and the iqjury thereby incurred has been 
repaired ; thus, if, by an unwholesome meal the stomach is irritated, and the 
bowels confined, we may expect to find the symptoms abate after we have 
ejected the offending matter from the stomach, and freely purged the bowels, 
and the probability is that the disturbance will then cease. An accidental 
attack of dyspepsia utualljr presents itself, and may be treated, in the fMowing 
manner: — After .a hearty undigettible meal, pain and weight is felt in and 
around the stomsch, attended with nausea, sickness, and giddiness ; we may- 
then give an emetic of zinc, or infusion of mustard seeds, or antimony, to 
cleanse throughly tte stomach ; and after the emetic effect has ceased, some 
simple soothing draught, containing a little warm cordial tincture, or a small 
quantity of brandy and water may be taken to allay tiie nneasiness of the 
stomach; we must direct the patient to abstain from all solid food during the 
next four-and-tweaty hours, and to restrict himself to gruel, made with oatmeal 
or arrow-root, or dry toast and weak green tea, without much milk or sugar. 
When the stomach is not so irritable as to cause nausea or vomiting, ur when 
the attack has continued so long as to preclude the hope of relief by the aid of 
emetics alone, we must then have recourse to purgatives, which, by virtue of 
the sympathy existing between different parts of the alimentary canal, fre- 
quently restore the function of the Btomach by exciting that of the bowels. 
The purgatives to be preferred in such eases are those which act quickly, and 
are warm in their nature ; those persons who require a powerful remedy to 
move the bowels, may take the compound extract of colocyath : but, in the 
majority of cases, rhubarb probably is the best ; it may he taken in the form 
of the compound rhubarb pill, or combined with magnesia or carbonate of soda ; 
the following formula will be found useful : — Take powder of rhubarb, fifteen 
to twenty grains ; tartrate of potash, two scruples to a drachm ; compound 
tincture or cardamoms, one drachm; cinnamon water, one ounce and half. 
Saline purgatives, as Epsom salts, or seidlits powders, should never be used 
alone ; neither is it prudent to give mereoiials in large doses. After the 
bowek have been freely moved, we may expect to find the state of the stomach 
materially improved, so much so, as to induce a desire in the patient for solid 
and savory food; this, of coarse, should be prohibited, in order to allow tiM 
lately irritated organ to regain its healthy function by repeee, and freedom 
from everything capable of disturbing its present quiet ; a small quantity of 
beef tea, or light pure broth, without vegetables, may be allowed, togstbar 
with stole brmd, dry toast, or biscuit. As the stomach acquires its natural 
tone and sensibility, a moderate quantity of animal food that is palatable and 
easy of digestion may be permitted; and a broiled lean mutton chopafforda 
both these properties in a greater degree than any other kind of food. The too 
common practice of stimulating a stomach weakened by an accidental attack 
of indigestion, with brandy, wine, and even medicinal bitters, cannot be too 
much reprobated ; its action ought never to be hurried or farced, and until the 
natural tone be recovered, they are not only directly injurious, but may tend 
to fix and perpetuate the disease. As well as the absence of all discomfort, 
the state of the tongue is the best indicator of the proper quality and quantity 
of food; so long as it remains dry and foul, we have still disease to contend 
with ; when, however, it is clean and moist, the patient may gradually return 
to his accustomed diet, avoiding all seasoned dishes, soaps, sauces, pastry, and 
other articles, which his former experience has proved to be hurtful. It will 
be necessary to continue for a few days the action of the purgative, by aona* 
gentle aperient, Uken early in the morning. 

Should the atuek be not so simple in its effects as we have presumed ia 
the foregoing remarks, but attended with other sympathetic derangements, ■■ 
flatulence, heartburn, nausea, fcc, we must then resort to the means detailed 
in the essay treating on those symptoms in the fourth Number. 

We have now to speak of the treatment of continued or chronic indigestion^ 
and the manner in which we are to endaavoar to attain the second iodicatioa 
of cure-i-namely, preventing a recurrence of the paroxysm. 

In order to accomplish this, the patient must be coavinced of the impera- 
tive necesnty of abandoning whatever may have been the eatMS of his iadis- 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



37 



pontHM : he mokt b« gnidad by a ntw role of eoodnctt and, in the wordi of a 
lite accomplished phyiidaa, " he miut be deeply impreoed with the idea that, 
thaegk he maj have conttoaed bU late plan of life for a considerable period 
oftiBie irithout baring laniibly luffered for it, yet now that he is suffering, 
soiling bnt conforming to another plan will remove his present complaint.'' 
Exceare eating and hard drinking, most gire place to plain wholesome diet 
sad tsmperance ; long-eontiaaad stndy, eonSnement, and sedentary occupa- 
rioa, BOM be exchanged for relaxation and exercise; in all things there 
Bot be moderation and regularity. Thus our first object is effected by 
fnratioa imther than by positire remedies. We have, in the next place, to 
tMbmthe harmoniou* actum of the different parts of the alimentary canal, 
ud It thr sanae time to give ton* and strength to the stomach and the whole 
rntna. In our endeavour to give increased activity to the excretory organs, 
tspnUy the bowels, so that the effete and useless part of the food, &c., may 
kciiried oS, we should bear in ndnd that the constipation which is so fre- 
fsotija symptom, is a chronic and not a temporary disorder, and, conae- 
(satly, tiiat violent purgatives are. of all things, to be avoided. We should 
loB at isaitating the efforts of nature, by recalling the peristaltic action, 
inteid of irritating the bowels by a laborious excitement. For this purpose 
vc stay daily employ small doses of laxatives to induce that regular action 
*Weh atteodb health} and when judiciously combined, they may also assist 
is oar chief intent by assisting to promote the general vigour of the frame. A 
bvgnitts of rhubarb with Colombo powder, sulphate of iron with aloes ; the 
cospoand rhubarb pill ; sulphate of quinine, with rhubarb or aloes, taken once 
or twice a day, will, in general, produce the desired end; but beyond all 
inp in permanent utility, is the habit of soliciting an evacuation at a certain 
knt; we thus establish a custom grateful to the economy of the system which 
viQ W departed from only by our own neglect or imprudence. 

nw direct medicinal means which have the power of ronsingf and 

ionpmting the stomach are bitters, astringents, and stisiulants; the value 

of bitters, as quassia, columbo, gentian, &c., is increased by their property 

sfimsting any tendency tti fermentation, which is always a prominent 

icatare in dyspepsia, and the chief causa of flatulence and acidity. Adds, 

both ve^t^le and mineral, are valuable astringents when there is not an 

excess of acidity ; they should theroFore be employed with mnch caution, 

and only when this morbid tecretion of the stomach has been overcome. 

The mineral astringents, a* iron and tine, are important agents, but 

sboaid be need afUr some progress has been made towards recovery, and 

the stomach ha* acquired an increased degree of tone : the sulphate of iron, 

and the tincture of the muriate of iron, are welUknown for their tonic 

propertiea ; and mora benefit might be derived from their use if they were 

emplojedas aeooodary, rather than primary remedies : the preparation of 

iron on which we place the most reliance, is the Uqmrfarti oxgtulphatU 

•f the Dublin Pharmacoposia. It may be useless to recommend the waters 

of Spa, Fy rmont, Swalbeck, or even those of Strove, at Brighton, to such as 

may be unable to travel farther than Windmill-hill ; they are, however, 

mott useful when the indigestion is unattended with any derangements of 

the liver. Quinine, like the preparation of iron, should only be employed 

sfer some amendment has been produced by the use uf the other vegetable 

tnies, and, even then, more with a view lo lessen the debility of the 

ijstem generally, than of improving the stomach individually. Stimulants 

tte nmediej in which we have very little faith, and we fear they are those 

«teh are the most frequently resorted to by dyspeptics ; like a spur to a 

gosU horte, they may for a time arouse increased activity, to be foUovred, 

ioeeTH, by a corresponding degree of depression ; they should never be 

enployBl aloae, except is oases of temporary pain, or spasm ; combined 

viii a bitter they may be beneficial when there is much general debility, 

or when, from habit, the stomach requires some stimulus. 

It will be impossible to enumerate all the remedies which may be 
in<]iiiied in the treatment of this capricious disorder 5 we therefore confine 
oiraeWes to inch generalities at will indicate the principles by which we 
oust be guided. 

While pursuing a proper course of medicinal treatment, we must so 
tcgulate the diet a* to render the process of digestion as easy as possible, 
St the same time aflbrding the greatest nourishment without exciting 
saeasy sensations, or irritating the secreting surface of the stomach and 
iiicstines ; without we aocoroplish this, all medicines and the utmost pio- 
&»ional skill are without avail. Animal food which is light and easy of 
igwlion, should form the basis of the nutriment ; it should consist only 



of one dish, taken at the mid-day meal. Mutton is preferable to other 
meats ; it is more easily digested, and offers greater nourishment ; beef is 
not so soluble, though scarcely less nutritive ; broiling is the beet, na/, 
the only mode in which a chop or steak should be cooked for an invalid : 
cold meat, and meat prepared a second time, aa hashes, stews, and made 
dishes, are improper. Vegetables must be used sparingly, if at all ; when- 
ever there is flatulence, or acidity, they must be prohibited ; the same remark 
applies to new bread, sugar, confectionery, and pastry. A small pro- 
portion of fluid only should be taken, so as to prevent the natural healthy 
juices of the stomach being too much diluted ; they should follow, never 
precede a meal, and should be taken slowly, and in a small quantity at % 
time ; by custom, we are all so habituated to tea and cofitse, that the attempt 
to remove these beverages ttom the daily diet requires some resolution ; 
exceu in their use is highly injurious, as they are invariably conjoined 
with two other objectionable ingredients — sugar and milk ; milk, whether 
in butter, creams, custards, puddings, or cheese, invariably dissgrees with 
a dyspeptic stomach. Malt liquors, particularly the ale and porter usually 
sold in public-houses, are frequently causes of indigestion — their continued 
use, therefore, muat be objectionable ; when they create flatulence, or 
acidity, they must always be avoided j if the stomach oan bear stimulns 
with impunity, and the individual has been aocustomed to their use, he 
may substitute pale ale, or Indian beer, with advantage, ^s, from the 
additional (quantity of hops which it contains, it is less liable to ferment 
in the stomach ; weak brandy and water, or old port and water, or hock, 
may also be allowed in similar cases. 

Exercise should be taken daily, either by riding on horseback, or 
walking ; and out-of-door amusements, as gardening, field-sports, gym- 
nastics, tos., are of great utility. The mind should be engaged with 
pleasing amusements, lively society should be courted, and the Invalid pre- 
ventedjby that best of all cordials, cheerful conversation, from brooding over 
his desponding thoughts ; — the sociality of his fireside should be increased 
by those domestic comforts which render home the best, the most loved 
spot, in sickness and in health. 

n'o be continued in our next.] 

a DEgCaiFTIOlC OV THE APPAKA.TU8 FOB BkPLOTtMO TBB XBCHAKICal. 

LEECHBS.* 
BT f. J. TWBBD, BBQ., SITBOBOM. 

EvBBT medical man. in the course of practice, must have experienced the 
disadvantages, as well as the advantages, of applying the living leech. JTot 
to mention, in the first place, the trouble and difficulty sometimes experienced 
in making them adhere to the surface, the uncertainty attending tho quan- 
tity of blood which may flow from the orifice is also a great objection ; in 
one case, perhaps, being exceedingly deficient, amounting to a mere nothing; 
in another, as is frequently tho case In children, being very profuse and 
Indefinite, so much so, as to turn the scale unfavourably for our little pa- 
tient. We cannot possibly measure tho quantity of blood lost, nor order a 
definite quantity to be drawn, as by bleeding and euppinp, but prescribe 
so many leeches to be applied, and ten chances to on<^ we are disap- 
pointed In tho result. Instances must occur to every one's mind, in which 
important time has been lost, in the early stages of bronchitis or pneumonlK 
in children, through the leedies ordered not having " taken," or the flow of 
blood being much leu than anticipated ; on the other hand. In the more 
advanced stages, when the loss of blood is ill borne, a much larger amount 
bos escaped than was intended, great prostration induced, and In oonse- 
queace, a fatal termination to the case. Even in adults, the bnmorrhage 
from a leech bite is often exceedingly troublesome, and, although in them, 
cupping is generally prescribed, yet, there are some parts of the body upon 
which it is Impossible to apply a glass of that size, especially in emaciated 
subjects: moreover, the services of an experienced capper arc not always at 
hand, and, if they were, the poorer class of patients cannot affbrd to pay the 
fee. In the country, the surgeons are compelled to take that department 
of surgical practice into their own hands, and yet how few perform it with, 
any thing like dexterity or success. To these gentlemen, I cannot conceive 
but that the mechanical leeches will prove a great desideratum. A village 
practitioner is frequently obliged to send three or four miles or more, to the' 
nearest country town, in order to obtain a supply of the living leeches, and 
that, perhaps, a easa of great emergency. 

I propose now, to explain the manner of employing these mechanical 
leeches. In the first place, particular care should be Uken that the tubes 
and scarificator are In good order, act easily, and the piston well greased 
with the lard contained in the box for that purpose. 



• Our readers wfll remember that we noticed the Introduetlon of the 
leech iu the Arst numher of the PaorLa's Ussical JovaaaL. 



Digitized by 



Google 



38 



THE PEOPLFS MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



The oidinary box containi twelra g]«M tabet or laecbn, s Mcrifleator, 
style, and other minor appantus. 

Each tube or leecb is about two inches and a balf lonj;, with a diameter 
about that of a aizpence, two-tbirds, or nearly so, of whidi are covered with 
leather ; one extremity of the tube is open, the other closed, by a circular 
pbrte of bone or wood, wliieh Is pierced by a small apertnra in tb« centre ; 
within the tube, and attached to the under surCwe of tUfi jiitt, by means 
of Indian-rubber, Is • piston, closely adapted to the tube. 

The sacriflcator conaists of a glass tube three inches in length, with a 
diameter rather smaller than that of the other tat)ea ; it Is entirely corered 
with leather, open at one extremity, 8nd closed with the piston and cirenlar 
plate at the other ; to its upper part is affixed a stem, two-thirds of an inch 
high, upon which mores a steel arm or Icey, one end of which Is free, and 
tenninates in a round knot, the other having attached to it a piece of 
caoutchouc, which constitutes a spring, and boicath which is concealed a 
three-edged lancet, or scarificator. Besides this, there is a small hook, near 
the closed end of which, when the extremity is depressed, receives it. 

The style merely consists of a rounded piece of steel, three Inches long, 
llxed in a handle, for thie convenience of using pressure. 

DisBCTioNs FOB UBiHS. — Any numl)er of tubes may be applied at the 
same time, according to the quantity of blood we wish drawn. 

The part to be operated on must first be wetted with tepid water; we 
then take the sacriflcator, and having removed the ease, which protects the 
lancet, we depress the free extremity of the key, till it reaches the hook, 
underneath which it is carried, and there held; this of course elevates the 
opposite extremity, and it is then said to be charged. 

We now introduce the style into the small aperture of the circular piece 
of wood, and using firm but steady pressure, we push down the piston about 
three-fourths of the tube, and in this way apply the open end to the part to 
be operated on ; holding it in this position firmly with the index finger and 
thumb of the left hand, we remove tlie style,; the piston is drawn back by 
the elasticity of the caoutchouc spring, and a nodule of flMh is thus drawn 
into the tube; the key is then released from the lock, or unsprung, the lancet 
deseecds simultaneously, and, without the slightest piUn, maJtes thepnncture. 

The sacriflcator is then removed by depressing the piston and one of tbe 
tubes applied in the same manner. In this way we can apply as many as 
we wish, and the same tube several times over the same puncture, if uecea- 
aary to draw more blood. 

Particular care should be taken — 

Ist To have the piston well greased. 

2nd. Not to apply the tubes upon the skin before having first pushed 
down the piston, until it may be seen below the leather which covers 
the tube ; as the leather covers the whole of the tube of the sacrifl- 
cator, the piston In it should be pushed down rather more than two- 
thirds. If the parts to which the tubes are to be applied are soft and flabby, 
the skin should be put upon the stretch with the thumb and finger of the 
left hand, as tbe tube then adheres much better ; if the parts are covered 
with hairs these must be cut with scissors. 

Cleaning the Tubes. — To do this, it is necessary to withdraw the circular 
disc and piston, wash the tube In water with the little brush provided for 
that purpose, and afterwards dry It. The piston must not be wetted, but 
greased every time it is used ; it Is also necessary, hetoie using it, to work 
the piston twice or three times, so that it may act easily upon the interior 
.of the tube. — ihdieal Time*. 



CHOKING BY THINGS GETTING INTO THE GULLET. 
[Wo extract the following artiole iirom an admirable little woric by 
Mr. South, one of the Surgeons to St. Thomas's Hospital, entitled " Household 
Surgery." In his preface Mr. South says, "It is Tery possible that some 
observaUons may be made on a Hospital Surgeon writing a book of this kind, 
intended for general use. I am very oarelcas on this point, as I have had no 
unworthy object in view. The way in which, and the purport for which, the 
book has been written, are my apology if any be needed, whioh I do not ad- 
mit ; and if I desired precedent, I need scarcely remind my readers how many 
of the aUest persons in science and art have held it no degradation to their 
high standing to render their particular branch of knowledge aocessibis, not 
only to adults, but even to children, by cheerfully written works in simple 
language, ofl«i accompanied with homely illustrations."— This is the rery echo 
of the feeUngs we entertained when we prqected Thb Pxoplb'b Mbdicax. 

JOUBHAJ.] 

People are sometimes choked and kUled in a few minutes when eating 
nuicklv and carelessly. This happens in two ways. 

First, by a large piece of meat sticking in the throat and preyenting the 
air passing into tbe windpipe, of which I knew an instance in a man who was 
eating leg-of-beef soup for his supper, rather greedily it maT be presumed, as 
he got into his throat a piece of meat a couple of inohos long and about three 
indies round. He left the table immediately, went out at the street-door, and 
aboatai|uarter of an hour after was found dead. It was supposed ho had died 
of apoplexy, but on examination of his body this large laeoe of meat was found 
in Ms tluxKit, and there could be no doubt it was the cause of his death. Had 



the accident been suapeoted the nnat might hare been easily pulled out 
with the finger and thumb, as it was quite within reach. This was of 
course a veiy extreme case. But hasty eaters are often liable to great 
pain and distress in bolting large pieces of food, which for a time stick 
in the gullet, sometimes higher, sometimes lower. This may usually be over- 
come by taking large draughts of water and making great eiSbrts to swallow ; 
the (quantity of water distends the gtiUot above tihe lodged food, alters its 
position, aod both water and ibod pass into tbe stemanh with a sudden jaik. 
If this do not succeed, a medical man must be found to pass an instrument 
called a bougie into the gullet and push the lodgment down. 

The second way in which a person may be choked requires no large piece 
of meat, and may happen to any rery cautious eater, if the meat he (£ews bo 
stringy. In this case the meat may be chewed snffleieBtly amall, but two 
pieces of it remaining attached, like a chain-shot, one piece is swallowed whilst 
the other is entangled in the teeth, and the consequence is that the sbiug, C(Ki- 
neeting the two, i^uts down tbe little trap at the top of the windpipe, and stops 
the breathing ; and the greater the effort to swallow the more tightly the trap 
is shut down. It is, therefore, always advisable when any choking occurs 
during eating to thrust the finger and thmnb as far back into tlie throat as 
possible, and if tliere be anything there, to pull it out forthwith. 

Pieces of bone, more commonly fish-bones, are sometimes swallowed at 
meal-time, or a woman will occasionally swallow two or three pins, when 
guilty of the foolish practice of holding pins in her mouth, instead of fixing them 
in any convenient port of her dress. Sometimes both bones and pins pass down 
the gullet into the stomach, either gently scratching the gullet as they go along 
or not even produoing any immediate inoonianienoe. But at other times the 
bone or the pin lodges, and the point running into tbe gullet, there it remains. 

These are rarely dangerous accidents, but they are veiy distressing, cause 
mnch pricking in every attempt to swallow, and are sometimes accompanied 
with violent cough and vomiting. Occasionally, without any thing being 
done, after a few hours or a few days, the bone or pin, by some accidental 
movement, changes its poution and passes into the stomach. 

Generally after a fish-bone or pin has been swallowed and passed into tbe 
stomach, sometimes when it has been vomited up or been removed by asustancc, 
there remains tlie feeling of the throat being scratched, and of pricking when 
anything is swallowed, as if the intruder were still there. Usually it is onlr 
the scratch which remains, and we are not therefore wrong in consoling tlie 
patient by telling him that it will go ofl^ in two or three days. But we may 
be mistaken about this, for I have knovm an instance in which a fish-bone was 
swallowed and pulled out iu the course of a few hours ; but the distress and 
difficulty in swallowing continued, in consequence of which a bougie was pas- 
sed on die fifth day, and readily descended into the stomach, so that it seemed 
quite sure there was no obstruction. But on that very same evening a violent 
fit of coughing came on, and a second bone was thrown out immediately, upon 
which the relief was complete. Hut at other times it is shot up by vomiting, or 
by a violent fit of coughing. Sometimes if the bone or pin be near the top of the 
throat, it may be got out by pushing the finger for down, and hooking it up with 
the nail. Bnt it below the reach of the finger, the best thing to try for immc- 
mediate relief is to take some crust of bread or some hard apple into the month, 
chew it ooarsdy, get down two or three monthtrils without swallowing it com- 
pletely, and then to swallow quickly three or four full gulps of water, which 
acts like a rammer to the bread, and forcing it against the bone or pio, not 
nnirequently carries it down into the stomach, and there the matter ends. If 
this do not answer, tbe doctor must be applied to, but if there bo none to be 
had, these attempts should be repented. 

Children sometime swallow jneces of money, buttons, shells, nails or any- 
thing else they can put into the mouth and get down. The parants are gen- 
erally exceaaively fiightened and anxious to get them away, on which account 
it is common to purge again and again till the intruder is expelled. These acci- 
dents are very rarely of any consequence ; the money or other substance usually 
accompanies the food through the bowels, and is in due time, sometimes sooner 
sometimes later, discharged witii the motion, and the more solid the latter is the 
more likely itis to eotanglethemoney; and therefore purges are,anthawliole, best 
avoided. The celebrated deceased sculptor Chantrey, indeed, proposed feeding 
on suet-pudding for a few days, as a good trap for the money or other sub- 
stance swallowed, and the notion is not by any means a bad one. 

Dr. Monro, however, mentions tbe case of a boy who got n halfj>enny fixed 
£ut in his gullet where it remiuned for three years, when the boy died of 
consumption. 

DBATH FKOX XiLTIHO CAKS OBHAmHTB. 

An inquest was a short time since held at Sudbury, on the body of Maria 
Louisa French, aged eight years, who died fi-om eating some ornaments on a 
twelfth cake. On examining tbe green particles discharged fiom the stomach, 
they were found to consist of Scheue's green, or areenite of copper, a deadly poi- 
son. Thejury returned the foUowrngverdict: — " That the diseaasd oame to her 
death firom accidentally eating ornaments fiom cakes of a poisonons nature, and 
from no other cause. The jury unanimously add, that from the number of 
fatal accidents that have of late yean happened by the useless, bnt common 
practice of using various poisonous ingrsdients in embellishing cakes and other 
articles of confectioneTy, it is theu: decided opinion that a pnx^ice freu^t with 
danger to the Ihnea or health of her Mqasty's sulgects ought to bo immedi- 
ately restrained. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



39 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS t MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

ADxnnKTSBixo Apebibst* to Childbeit. — Phoaplutte of >oda may be 
Qjed coorenieiitly u a oondimeiit in >onp in the place of common salt. Chil- 
CRS mar be nnoonacioasly beguiled into the taxing of the medicine in this 
HIT, ind it -win be fbond an excellent purgative. 

Poisox in TUB Si.rcBPij;. — A correspoodent of a Hampdiire paper warns 
tbc psblic epriimt the tua of iroa saosepana lined with a imooth white enamel, 
IS le finds that the enamel is partly composed of iead, and impregnates the 
nter boiled in the saucepan. On testing some distilled water after it bad 
bsED boiied in ooe of the saneepans whioh had been aome time in use, the 
Tits vs> found to contain lead ; and on examining a piece of the enamel, 
'.oA in erasderahle quantity was detected. Snoh saucepans ought to be ban- 
i&ed baa the lutchen. 

SnswOBM TUATBB BT TBB APPUCATIOK OF BLUTSB8. — Dr. 
W-iA[H»n Iins foond that this troubleaoaie ffisease, when it exists on the scalp 
bi IK or two detached spots, or when it appears on the face, nsok, or arms. 
ci7, if takoi in time, generally be euzed in a few days, and prevented fiom 
§pm£iif, by bliatering the sni6u:e thoroughly, and dressing the blisters with 
essaa. The bliater must be a little larger thaik the affected spot, and it will be 
isti to be more manageable than tha caostict frequently uasd. 

ExTBACTtov or Pabticlbs raax tbb Bte. — A german writer has 
rfcectly propoaed that when a foreign body, sneh as a particle of straw, 
do^ ic, gets between the eyelids and the globe of the ^e, but without being 
infiacted, a solution of gum arabic dropped into the eye, may be advantageously 
fsflayti far ita extraction, as the solution does not produce any disagreeable 



XpvbotuaIi FaBBlFUOB. — Nitrous acid gas possesses the property of des- 
trcriiig contagion, and preventing its spreading. By the following simple 
nabod the gas nuiy be procured at a very small expense : —Place a little pow- 
iai. saltpetre, or nitre, in a saucer, and pour on it as much oil of vitriol as 
vXjut cover it. A copious discharge of nitrous acid gas will instantly take 
^Ux. Ht quantity of which may be regulated by lessening or iucrrosing the 
qBB&T of the ingredients. The saucer may be placea in any convenient 
j<c: of the bed-room. 

Smru Mods of Pubzftibo Watsb. — It is not so generally known 
19 'A on^t to be that poanded alum possesses the property of purifying water. 
A tsble^spoonftil of palrerised alnm sprinkled into a h(^;shead of water (the 
ntcr stinred sit the time) will, after a lapse of a few hours, by preciintating to 
the botton 4h» iaspon particles, bo purify it that it will be found to possess 
nearly aU the freahness and clearness of the finest spring water. A pailful, 
"^rtmnmg fggT galloiis, may be purified bj a single tea-spoonfuL 



DIETARY.— WHOLESOME AND ECONOMIC. 

Fbeiccb Pasaoa, far aged PeopU, Imalidi, and Children^ — ^Bzeak a 
4ale penny roll into a stewpan, in' which pour juat sufficient water to cover 
the bread, stir weU over the fire, allowing it to bml five minntes, then add 
half a tea-spoonful of salt, and two ounces of fireeh butter, mix them, and 
take from the firaj have one yolk of egg wdl beateo, with two tahle-q>aanfuls 
'€milk (if handy) or water, which pour into the panada, stinting very qaiokly 
°ur half a minate, it is then ready to pour into a bsum and serve. Any oom- 
nan iread woald do for panada, but would not eat so li^t as when made from 
a roll. PanaJA aai^ to be rather thicker than gmd, and may likewise be 
qsde of milk, but ««ter ia prefaroUe, especmlly when for bilious peopI& 

Stbitvd Chops ob Octtct. — Put it into a stew-pan or small sauce- 
Tan, with a pint of water, and a BItle salt and sugar ; let it stew as gendy as 
7<wUe for sn boor and a half to two hours, dcim off oil the scum and fat, 
aad tiie patient may partake of both ehop and broth ; if seasoning is allowed, 
?K 1 «a-spooniiil of pearl-barley, wiA a little celery, leak and tumq), cut up 
Terr auU, into the stew-pan wiA die water, when yon first put the chop on, 
^i pncccd as before ; serve the broth m a saiq> bann, widi the chop in it ; 
^iuoiij tlie meat happen to be tong^, let it stew rather longer; the broth 
fboaU be redneed to half a pint.— if. Stjfer. [They serve this nourishing 
lEcai in sdmirable style at FurselTs, the Coofeetionn's, Ludgate Hill. — £U.] 

Ybast. — The bitter taste may, in great measure, be removed by mixing 
*itli it a little carbonate of soda and a few lumps of sugar. 

Db. Frabxun's &vourite breakfast was a good baan of warm gruel, in 
vludi there was a small slice of butter, with toasted bread and rnttm^ Thi 
ifoiie of thia will he about throe halfpence. 

Fabswip Bbsahu — Hr. Petit, of Cottsn-laae, Buy, ia making bread, four 
:«rts parsni;^ and five pnta wheat ib«or. It eats rcmarkahly well— is nutii- 
iom and wholesome. 

To Sw bbtbb Bttttzb. — Add S} drachms of carbonate of soda to lib. of 
ihtT fresh or salt batter, possessing a disagreeable flavour, it is therriiy rau- 
:er«d piiiftelly sweets Soda psodaces the same results when added to other 
.ilmary greases, as dripping, lard, ke. 



ADVER TISE MENTS. 

Friet St.; }y po»f, it. 6d, 

CONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE; the 
Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the meau of 
Prevention. By T. B. Yboxan, M.D. 

Also by the same Author, price Sj. 
A 8THMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH; 
■*^ the Causet, Symptemf, and Rational Treatment. 

" This is ao excelleat little treatise by a clever and clear-headed praeti- 

tiauer. Dr. Ybomah is well koown by his Work on Coasnmption, aad the 

preeent publication will add to bis brnt/'—fFeMy Di^fcUeh, Jtm, 14, 1849. 

London: Saupson Low, 169, Fleet-strset; Effinohax Wiuok, 11 

Royal Exchange ; Webster amd Co. 60, Piccadilly ; and all Booksellers. 

T> OOFF'S IMPROVED RESPIRATOR, (Patent,) for Con- 
-L^ sumption. Asthma, &c., has separate chaaneb for the inspired and 
expired air ; warms and purifies the atmosphere without becOBiiof clogged ; 
it neither requires cleaning oor repairing, has no unsightly appearance, and 
may be had resembling a handkerchief held to the mouth. Teatimoaials to 
be seen, and descriptions had, on application. — DepAt, 183, Strand, neat 
Norfolk-street. 

JOHN MILES, (Latk BUTLER akd CO,) DISPENSING 
CHEBIIST, 78, Gracecburch Street, respectfully informs the Public 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals ; the too (Veqaent dangerous adul- 
teration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of which 
depend the health and satsty of «ar feUow craatores, indnces i. Milbc to 
pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified assistants luder his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for Rooft'b Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
apply of Cod Livbb Oil, prepared from the finest Tisk of the Sesson. 

RUSSES.— S. SMITH, Tnias-maker, 1, High Holbom, 

three doors from Grav'a-inn-Ianc, respectfully announces to the Public 
that TRUSSES can be bad at his establishment, at the fallowing low prices: 
Double Trusses, 1 6s. each; single ditto, 8s. Manufacturer of Lace Stock- 
ings, Koee-eaps, Suspeanry Bandages, Biding Belts, te. — Mrs. Smitk 
attends on ladies. 

'■PHE TEETH.— Me. 8MARTT, DENTIST and CUPPER, 
■*- ib, San Street, Bishopsgate, London, invites attention to his IM- 
PROVED ARTIFICIAL TEETH. They are fixed without extracUng tha 
roota of the previous Teeth, no pain is caused, they defy detection by the most 
scrutinising observer, and are guaranteed to answer all the purposes of masti- 
cation, filhag up the void produced by the loss of the natural Teeth, thereby 
restoring facial beauty, and enabling the patient to speak with fluency aad 
comfort. Irregularities aad deformities of the Teeth removed where practi- 
cable. Mb. Skabtt attends at 48, Harmer Street, Gravesend, every Friday 

R ARNOTT'S HYDROSTATIC OR FLOATING BEDS. 
— Thb valuable invention, affording such relief to all patients long con- 
fined to bed, n now presented to the public, greatly improved in manufacture, 
by which it is made maeh more durable; and at a price which it is honed will 
conduce to make its advantages mora generally available. £ f a. 

No. 1. Hydrostatic Bed, with Castors, fte 8 8 

No. 3. Ditto plain 7 7 

FOB HIBB. 

No. 1. First Month 1 15 

„ Seeond and saeceediiig Months 12 6 

No. 2. First Month „ 1 10 

« Second and saeceeding Months 17 8 

ne Hire of the Bed, with waterproof Sheet and Carriage, to be paid io 
■dvaoee. 

Manufactured, Sold, and Let Out on Hire, by EdwaBD SrEWCKB, k Co'' 
18, Billiter Street, and 116, Fenchurch Street, London. Mannfacturers of 
the ai^stiiig aad other approved Surgical and Invalid Beds. 
A stock of tiiese Beds kept always ready for immediate use. 

"W'KVILLS PATENT FLOU^ of LENTILS,— 
•*-^ a pleasant, nutritious, and agreeable Food for Invalids, l>yspepties, and 
persons ■aOSnwg ftom ConstipatioD, or any other chrome derangement of tha 
Digestive Organs — also for making Cruel. It is the only food that does not 
distcAd «r turn acid on a weak Slomadi. It will be found invaluable for 
Delieate Children and Snffoers boca Debility. 

Sold Wholesal* by Nbvux and Co., 16a, Ckiciiester Fkoe, Otays Inn 
Hood, Louden; and Retafl I7 T. Cabbick, 127, Cmwfbrd Street ; T. Sbarp, 
44, Bishopsgate Stnet Withfa; Mbm, QnamktaA Street, City; uid 
may be obtaiaadfrom all zespeetaUa Shopkeepma ia the Khs8dem,in Packets, 
fid. and Is. each, and 6 lb. and 1 2 lb. canister*, 5s. 6d. and 10s. fid. each. 



Digitized by 



Google 



40 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



HEALTH OF LONDON DURING THE WEEK. 
Ik the week onding lut Saturday, 1 156 deaths were registered ui the Metro- 
politan districts ; the average for ten corresponding weeks of previons years 
(1840-9) is 1125, which, if a correction be made for increase of popnlationi 
hecomes 1227. The lowest number in the ten weeks was 916 in 1840 ; the 
highest was 1401 in 1848. Though the rate of mortality has much increased 
unce December, and the present return shews an increase of nearly 100 on the 
previous weclE, the deaths are still less than the average by 71. To the cold- 
ness of the weather may be chiefly ascribed the increase of mortality which 
recent returns have exhibited. In the hut three weeks the deaths from 
phthisis, or consumption, have been respectively 129, I4(>, and 157 (the cor- 
rected average for last week being 146) ; from bronchitis, 103^ 120, and 131 
(the average being 73) ; from asthma, 19, 35, and 27 (the average being 52) ; 
and Scorn pneumonia; 95, 83, and 85, whilst the average is 117. Of the 85 
persons (comparatively few) who died, last week, ftma pneumonia, 60 were 
children ; but of the 131 who died lirom bronchitis, which much exceeds the 
average, by fiir the larger proportion were persons of advanced age. Epidemic 
diseases continue to be less fatal than usual, except measles, which is rather 
more than the average. This disease ranged, in the corresponding weeks of 
ten previous years, from 8 the 51. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

IToiiCB. — All communicatioiu for the Editor must be addressed, pre-paid, 
to his house, Ko. 25, Llotd Squakb, Pkntontille. It is indis- 
pensable that letten requiring a private answer contain a postage 
•tamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of the 
•pplicant. Invalids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, can 
have, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interview, in many instances, may be avoided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment. Xotes of every 
case submitted to the Editor will be recorded in his private case-book 
for the ficiUty of reference at any futnre period. 

Tbb Editor is at home every day until One o'clock ; and on the evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He attends 

•t Mb. MiLBS'S MbDICAL AKD SvBOICAL ESTlBLUHlflMT, 78, 

Gracechnrch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 
Two till Three o'clock. Surgical advice may be obtuned at the 
above establishment, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Satnrday evenings, 
from Six till Nine o'clock. 



We particularly request Correspondents who do not attach their 
proper names to their communications, to avoid all such signatures 
as •' a Subscriber,"— " Constant Header," — Well-Wisher," Stc. 
Where the correct name is not given, It will insure the identity of the 
'* answer" to the query proposed to us, if our correspondents add the 
name of the town or street from which they write : thus — O. P. Q. 
(Bath) — Delta, (Manchester Square). 

We crave the indulgence of many subscribers. The sale of our Journal has 
so far exceeded our calculation, that No. 1. was "out of print" last 
Wednesday. It has been recomirased, reprinted, and the second edition is 
now ready for delivery. Wo beg our Headers to accept our best thanlu 
for their kind and cheering support. 

Wk. L. — In moderation it can do you no harm : we speak &om personal 
experience. 

P. K. (Sandwich.)— We never heard of the word- it is not to be found in 
any standard authority, neither can we trace its derivation. We imagine 
it is a spurious coinage from a quack mint. Many poor creatures are 
gulled by fine words. 

JoBN Stbvensos (Nowcastle-on-Tyne). — Calico. 

A. Y. — Your letter is rigmarole. We guess your meaning, but guecung in 
Medical matters won't do. Send your address. 

T. E. B. — (LAmbeth). — He is an "orthodox" quack— that is, a qualified 
quack ; nevertheless he is not one Jot less dangerous than other quacks. 
His baths ore good. 

W. H. F. (Kent). — Foment the ear with boiling water poured on a few hops; 
if not better in a week send your address. 

& P. D. (King's Road). — Is there any remote cause for the impaired vi- 
sion? If so, local means are only to be considered as secondary a^n- 
vants. Dash the eyes with cold water — pnmp water. Wear eye-preserv- 
ers, neither convex nor concave, made of glass the colour of " London 
Smoke." These yon will procure at Whitehonse's the Optician, Leicester 
Square. He is a practical man, and charges voiy moderately. 



H. 6. H. (Derby). — Take compound golbannm pill, oomponnd rhnbarb 
pill, blue pill, of each one scruple. Mix. Divide into twelve pills. 
Take one every night. Also, take trisnitrate of bismuth, three grains ; 
carlranate of soda, ten grains. Mix, for a powder, to be taken twice a day 
in chamomile tea. Diet — animal food; not any vegetables; not any fish;, 
not any Iwer ; a sinall quantity of weak brandy and water : drink spar- 
ingly of all fluids, and never take any very hot : take plenty of exercise, 
and actively employ your mind. 

E. JOHES. — Yon do us great injustice if yon suppose we should advise in such 
a case. — Engage Stdrey Gamp. 

P. C. (Mary Hill).— Continue as before. 

W. B. (Glasgow). — If scotch-kail" causes acidity, dont touch it ; stick to 
the parritch and bannock. 

William Oliframt (Monkweannouth). — Articles on Asthma will be. 
publifhed in early numbers of our Journal. 

Thomas Williahb. (Crewe). — The exposnre of advertising oonsnltiDg 
surgeons was published in the second number of The People's Mboicai.. 

JOUBNAL. 

A Travellbr. — You are right, and yon are wrong. There is nothing 
" specific" in the treatment of the " disqualification," " debility," or " weak- 
ness" — every physician knows, or ought to know, but eveiy physician 
has not the moral courage to probe his patient on the remote cause of his- 
head-ache, his loss of memory, his impaired vision, his palpitation of the 
. heart, his lassitude, weariness, distaste of life, and misery. Hence the 
cases to which you refer get into the hands of bearded quacks; men who 
pay a premium to our Exchequer to be allowed to rob the people, destroy 
their health, and make barren and wretched the hearths of families. The 
merest tyro in the medical art — an apprentice in a village surgery — & 
nurse at a hospital, — Betsy Prig, would be a safer guide to " res- 
tored vigour" than are advertising" consulting surgeons." Far, far be it irom 
ns to say one word in disparagement of the Jewish nation — but whatever 
of evil, whatever of roguery, whatever of swindling, is, or has been attribu- 
ted to this people may be found in its most aggravated degree in the 
persons of the authors' of the bestial books for the " Cure, &c." We repeat 
again, there is nothing in the treatment of the maladies referred to that may 
not be comprehended and properly treated by any qualified physician. 
There is nothing "specific" in the disease or the treatment — Youth of 
England ! add not folly to sin — avoid the advertising quack surgeon 
OS we hope you will avoid the error that has caused his accursed vocation 
to be brought to your remembrance. Hetenont a net mmUon* — 
friend Traveller. For a casual introduction of the instrument a guinea 
is a fair fee, for the frequent or constant introduction it is extravagant. 
Many, many thanks for your letter and good will 

A Young Man. — The worms that trouble you ore the small thread wormSr 
for which the male fern root is not an " expeller. " — ^Take proper doses of 
calomel, scammony, and rhubarb. 

A Hawkbworth. — All animal substances contain sulphur ; notice its action 
on a silver spoon n-hen eating on egg. — We really cannot account for its 
presumed exhalation from your body. 

G. R. G. B. (East London). — Call in Graoechurch-itreet, on any day- 
Dr. Yeoman attends there. 

S. R. (Southampton). — How foolish to eat food of " an indigestible nature," 
and to persist in doing so. — See answer to "Peter "in No.l. 

R. M. B. (North Britain). — Continue the hydriodate of potash: gradnally- 
increase the dose, rub both limbs with a coarse flannel soaked in strong 
mustard and water ; use plenty of friction ; omit all violent means, as 
caustic ; pay attention to the bowels ; and take moderate exercise. 

M. 0. P. (Birmingham). — Take two grains of calomel every other night, for 
six doses. Take five drops of muriatic acid, in water, three times a day. 
A warm bath twice a week. * If necessary write privately. 

William Simms (Rochdale). — Our edition is that of 1848. Redwood's is 
the best. 

A. M. — To an ounce of " bear's grease" add two draohms of tincture of can- 
thorides, let it be well brnshed in night and morning. 

Edw. B. H. (Poplar).— See answer G. B. G. R. 

C. E. (Grreat Yarmouth).— See answer to M. 0. P. 

Nbvill's patent flour of lentils, advertised in our Journal, is the some prepoia- 
Uon sold as " ervalenta,'' " revalenta," and " oriental fiuina." 

Hekrt. (Shoreditch). — Call on Sunday morning. 

The third paper on Diseases of Women and Children is unavoidably postponed 

Pbescriftioss and private instmotiona as to diet and regimen are left with 
THE Disfemseb, 78, Gracechnrch Street, for the following correspon- 
dents. — ^Y. R.D . (Walworth). Johh Eicuakdsor, (Broad Street, Citv). . 
W. J. S. (Haggerston). J. P. (City Road). Capt. R. (Burr Street). 

AJoiNSB. hoBT. J K. Zbta (Hackney). Rctm. X.Y.Z.(Milk 

Street). M. K. Wiluam T. (Cold Bath Fields). P. S. W. C (Hol- 
bom). H. GowBB (Stratford). 

Printed by CBiaLBS Aoans, at his Printing Ollloe, 8, St. James's Walk, In thi! Parish of 
St. James's, CletkoDWSIl, In Uie Coanty of HIddlacx ; and palillshod, tar the Proprietors, 

' 1)7 OEoaea Vicxxas, Sttaod, In th* Parlili of St. CtoiMBt Danes, In tbs said Coontx "(■ 
HMdleMX. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



A»I> 




HYSICII 



EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 6.— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1850. 



Toss FEinrT. 



OYSFEFSIA.-INDIOESTIOir. 

irERVOlTSirESS, tec. 
Hr THE KBITOB. 

Jfo. VI, 
(Continued from page 37.) 
CONSTIPATION. 
CoHfTirATlOK, ciUieT M a eante or u aD effect, it a coiwUnt compaDton of 
indigestion ; and, althongb no other deriatioo ftront the stale of health require! 
greater cliteriininatton, or more preciM and correct rolee of practice, nre mmt 
admit that the treatment of thii frequent and lometimes dangerous complaint 
it sadly mismanaged; mora, howerer, by the wilfulness of the patient than by 
the want of caution in the practitioner. Those who sufier the annoyance of 
continually taking aperient medicine, and wlio, as continually, experience the 
necesticy fur taking it, can only estimate the great drawbaclc on their comfort, 
and ultimately on their very existence, such a habit entails. 

Constipation, or a confined state of the bowels, as connected with indiges- 
tion, may he cauaeil, either by food which is impcrreclly soluble in the na- 
tural fluids of the stomach; by debility and a sluggiabness of the peristaltic 
motion of the intestines ; by a vitiated state of the biliary secretions ; by want 
of proper exercise ; or it may be habitual, the result of one or more of these 
causes, and the vain attempts to diminish the tardiness of the eracutions by 
violent or improper remedies. Each of these forms of the disorder requires 
different means to be employed to promote the evacuations, or remove the 
obstruction. 

Food which is indigestible, or received into the stomach in a crude, half- 
masticated state, or that which is too astringent — as bread containing an excess 
of alum — is perhaps the most flrequent cause of constipation, but happily one 
which admits of prompt relief, and the probability of a return of the delay will 
be commensurate with the discretion of the individual in avoiding those articles 
wUeh produce the effect. It is in such cases that those remedies known as 
" brisk purges" may be used ; and, provided there be no other symptom, save 
the constipation, to excite apprehension, or no idiosyncrasy to prohibit the 
exhibition of a particular remedy, it i* almost immaterial which of the many 
drags that will excite the intestines into action be employed ; care should, 
ktwever, be taken, so that the aperient be regulated in ill strength and pro- 
perties, by the age, sex, and vigour of the invalid. The popular blue pill and 
black draught, or six or eight grains of the' compound extract of colocynth, 
with two, three, or four grains of calomel, followed in a few hours by a Seid- 
liti powder, will, in most cases, be all that is required ; and, if the patient, 
previous to the attack, was of a regular habit of body, the bowels will, in all 
probability, speedily resume their wonted action ; if, on the contrary, the con- 
stipation returns, after the primary cause has been removed, it will be prudent 
to take tome gentle stimulant, as a wine-glassful of the compound decoction 
of aloes early every morning, gradually diminishing the quantity, until the 
aatoral and unsolicited efforts of the intestines be sufficient, rather than re- 
peat the more powerful remedies just named, 'When, however, the food, or 
whatever may have caused the constipation, produces so much irritation as to 
induce some degree of inflammation, our treatment mutt then be more guarded, 
and, in place of the irritating dmgt which may be tafely employed in the ab- 
sence of an tenderneti ud pain, we matt rely on laxativas, otthe mildett and 
a 



least irritating remedies; as castor oil, manna, or tartarited soda; but as these 
are seldom in themselves sufficientlyactive or speedy, all prejudice and fastidious- 
ness must be banished by the patient, and he should have an enema immediately 
thrown up, consisting of a pint, or a pint and a half, of warm gruel, barley- 
water, or even tepid water, in which is dissolved a small quantity of common 
salt, or electuary of senna. 'We may as well here express our great dependence 
on this valuable auxiliary in the treatment of disease, and we would earnestly 
impress its safety, simplicity, and facility of employment on our readers : we 
have daily experience of the difllculty in overcoming the prejudice of patients, 
in respect of lavements, but we still hope the day is not far dittaut when their 
use will supersede the dangerous and powerful cathartics contained in adver- 
tited nostrums. 

'When constipation arises from debility, the treatment requires the greatest 
care and watchfulness, so that we avoid depressing the general strength of the 
invalid, or too greatly irrilating the stomach and intestine canal; in such cases 
we find the evacuations scanty in quantity, and hardened, shrunk, and shri- 
velled in character ; in some instances, in which the expulsive powers of the 
intestines are extremely feeble, the feces frequently accumulate in surprising 
quantities. This degree of constipation requires such a combination of mild 
aperients with tonics, as will gently urge on the peristaltic movement of the 
intestines, without producing irritation or violently exciting them to discharge 
their contents; powerful purgatives, in such cases, frequently cause so much 
disturbance at will completely paralyse the intestines,' and increase every other 
symptom of the indigestiou, assisting at the same time to weaken the general 
strength and dimluish the natural tone of the bowels. We, therefore, depend 
more upon mild purgatives in small doses, and, if occasion be, frequently re- 
peated, than upon a single violent purge; rhubarb is the best remedy, as it 
acts chiefly through the medium of the nervous system; it may be cither given 
alone or combined with magnesia and a few grains of aromatic powder ; next 
to rhubarb, the sulphate of magnesia, in doses of one or two drachms dissolved 
In the infusion of rhubarb or camomile flowers. When wo have reason to 
suspect an accummulation of feces in the large intestines, small doses of aloes 
may be given with great benefit ; but their use is always prohibited when there 
is the least predisposition to piles,.or irritability in the lower part of the body. 
If purgatives of the mildest class excite much aggravation of the general symp- 
toms of indigestion, as they sometimes do, we must forego their use, and tbeu 
have recourse to lavements, repeated at regular intervals ; sometimes friction 
over the abdomen will afford a sufficient stimulus to the torpid bowels. The 
diet most be altogether of a liquid consistence, being at the same time suffi- 
ciently nutritive, until the bowels are disposed to act without the assistance of 
medicine. 

Sluggishness or torpitude of the bowels is occasioned also by a vitiated or 
deficient state of the biliary and other secretions poured into the intestines, by 
which they are deprived of their natural stimulus, or are irritated by its de- 
praved quality ; it is now that mercury it the meant, we could almost say the 
only meant, on which we can depend; this remedy is, without doubt, the most 
valuable in the whole Materia Medica, but at itt action it modified by the 
quantity and frequency of the dose, and as some constitutions ere peculiarly 
and delicately susceptible of its influence, it is not surprising that so many 
mischances occur when it is injudiciously administered. When blue pill or 
calomel is given in a full dose, it acts almost specifieally in stimulating the 
gaU-ducts to throw into the intettinw t greater quantity of bile, which bile 



Digitized by 



Google 



42 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



•cfs upon the bowds ; so that • mercarial ptuYative may b« confidered rather 
as a preparative for actm puigatives than a purgative itself. If the liver be 
torpid, and does not secrete the required amount of bile, we must then obtain 
the alterative effect of mercury by snuller doses, repeated with some frequency. 
Attending every disturbance of the liver, there is always greater or less oppres- 
sion of the whole system, which is frequently removed by a proper dose of 
calomel or blue pill, combined with the extract of colocynth, followed op in 
the morning with a solution of salts in infusion of senna ; this may, with safety, 
be had recourse to in the first instance with marked advantage, but if the 
symptoms are only mitigated, not removed by its action, it will then be neces- 
sary to obtain the alterative effect »f the remedy, by repeating the dote in 
smaller quantities every night or every other nighU A valuable adjunct will 
be found in the extract, or infusion of the extract, of taraxacum or dandelion, 
which, without a chance of exciting that annoyance to the system which ealo- 
nrf «nay d*. •aorte • b«Btfleial effect in reitari^ the beidtby secretions of the 
liver. The cases which more especially indicate the latter mode of treatment 
are those in which tfie e vacuationii are of a pale colour, and the complexion of a 
sallow, dusky hue ; and we find persons whose occupation is sedentary more 
liable to constipation of this character than those who are actively employed. 
Want of proper exercise, which in general affects the health and well-being 
of ns all, exerts a peculiar influence in retarding the alvine sivacuations ; the 
necessity for exercise is so necessary to promote the natural secretions, that 
a walk for that express purpose has been termed with much propriety — " a 
constitutional ;" some men of literary habits, who devote themselves to study 
and mental exertion, leave their loved books, and walk daily a distance of 
four or six miles, with no other object than to preserve that regularity which 
alone will keep them in health ; and how ft-equeutly do we notice persons 
who, while confined within doors, are irritated, nervous, and low-spirited, and 
obliged to take medicine to regulate their bowels, lose all their distressing 
symptoms, and have daily evacoatioos, when they forsake for a time their con- 
finement and take moderate out-of-door exercise. 

Habitual constipation is the most frequent form in which this complaint is 
presented to the notice of the physician, and is unfortunately the most tedious 
to treat, as it is only after much mischief, by delay and improper treatment, 
has been incurred, that advice is sought for. Habitual constipation is iu 
general occasioned by one of two causes; either the culpable neglect of the 
individual in refusing instantly to respond to the calls of nature, or the con- 
tinned use of powerful purgatives. It is of great consequence, in all such cases, 
to establish regularity both with respect to the times of taking food and the 
general tenor of the daily habits; the patient should habituate himself to eva- 
cuating the bowels at a certain hour of the day, and should daily solicit nature 
to this effect, though he may not always be succeaAiL Fuigatives ought not 
to be too frequently taken, as, by the excitement they produce, they cause a 
hasty, irregular, and imperfect secretion of the bile and other fluids, which is 
highly injurious to the function of digestion, and they invariably induce a sub- 
sequent costiveness, after their immediate effecte have subsided ; thus it is that 
a person who frequently takes strong opening medicines finds a constant ne- 
cessity for continuing them, and increasing the quantity, which in the end 
probably brings on some organic disease of the stomach or intestines. The 
treatment of such cases requires botli resolution and prudence on the part of 
the patient; after the bowels have been frealy acted upon by a general purga- 
tive, — and we know of none better than three or four grains of calomel, with 
eight grains of -the compound rhubarb pill, — he should take periodically, say 
every morning, a wine-glassful either of decoction of aloes, or of a mixture 
composed of sulphate of magnesia, senna, and ginger, so that he may gently 
keep up the aperient action already excited by the calomel and rhubarb ; in 
the course of time he will find that a less quantity of the decoction will be suffi- 
cient, which he may gradually diminish, and if he is careful in diet and inezer. 
cise, the neceauty for all medical tisatment will, in many cases, be entirely 
done away with. 

In the foregoing remarks we have conndered constipation as a symptom 
of indigestion only ; it ihay, also, result from inflammation of the serous and 
other textures forming the coats of the bowels ; or from the spasmodic con- 
traction of their muscukr coat, as colic ; it is cMised as well by strictwre of 
the intestines; by hemorrhoids, worms, &c. 

In onr next niimber>e diaU describe the influence of Indigestion oo other 
disease*. 



Oir THE MANAGEMENT OF THE TEETH. 

No. II. 

BT CHAKLBS 8IULBTT, ESQ., SCBOEOK-DEHTIST. 

If cleanliness be essential to other parts of the body, it is pecu- 
liarly neceesaiy 'with respect to the mouth, through which is the 
opening for carrying on the two great processes essential to tlie 
contintiance of animal life, — digestion and breathing. If, then, 
the food, from undeanliness of the mouth, be tainted in the pre- 
paratoiy step of mastication, the process of digestion must intro- 
duce into the system a tainted chyle, pregnant with the seeds of 
putrefaction. If the air inhaled receive tiie same impregnation, 
it cannot animate the body, or give vital energy in a proper de- 
gree. Thus in all cases of unclean teeth, a putrid matter is 
daily passing into the body, and acting as a slow unclean poison 
on every part of the human system. 

Should an individual brush his teeih only once in the twenty- 
four hours, the operation should be performed previous to retir- 
ing to rest. I advise the night in preference to the morning for 
this reason, — at night the teeth have the accumulations of the 
day on and around them ; during the night the doors and win- 
dows of the room are closed, and probably we are snugly esconced 
in bed, with the curtains drawn closely aroimd us — a very bad 
practice, by the way, — and thus we are inhaling a heated and 
unwholesome atmosphere, and while sleep holds ns in her aims, 
the mouth is generally closed, and all the deposit which should 
have been removed is diligently engaged in its work of destruc- 
tion ; there is not even the apertare of the month to cany off the 
foul exhalations from within, or to receive pure and cool air team 
without. Hei^ce the necessity fbr perfectly cleansing the teeth 
at night; they should, however, be thoroughly washed in the 
morning. The water used should in all seasons be slightly 
warmed, occasionally adding a tea-spoonful of tincture of myrrh 
to a tumbler of water. Many will object to the practice of 
cleaning the teeth at bedtime, and give, as an excuse, the fa- 
tigue caused by the occupations of the day ; but surely this is a 
lame plea. We " deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us," 
if we merely by word return thanks to the Almighty for the care 
he has vouchsafed us during the day passed, and ask his protec- 
tion for the coming night, if we n^lect the necessazy attention 
to our bodies, whim are tmdoubtedly a trust, for the proper main- 
tenance and care of which we are deeply responsible ; and fur- 
thermore, it is our duty to ourselves and feUow^ereatures that our 
mouths shotild be in such a state as to cause those with yibom. 
we converse and associate to be in no dread of coming within a 
yard or two of us. 

The proper description and method of using the brush is im- 
portant. The brush should not be large, but consist of three rows 
only of bristles, slightly separated, thus reaching the interstices 
of the teeth. In cleaning the teeth it is necessary to brush the 
grinding surfiEuses of the molars,-— that is, the back teeth, — and 
also between them, particularly at the necks, or that point where 
the gums terminate : with reference to the front teeth, or inci- 
sors, it is more important to brush them at the back than in the 
front, because it is at th& back of these teeth, in the lower jaw. 
that the saliva enters the mouth ; and here, moi^ particularly, 
the salivary tartar or calculus accumulates, the -effects of which 
are, to cause a recession of the gums and a rapid loosing of the 
teeth, and also a foetid breath. Early and constant use of a toler- 
ably hard brush, such as described, together with the following 
powder, will in many cases prevent this disagreeable accumula- 
tion. 

Take — Prepared chalk, 1 <ft. 

Fine cnttle flab, 1 ox. 

Orris root, 1 ox. 

Powdered myrrh, | w. 

Qainine, 10 gniM. Mix. 



Digitized by 



Google 



/ 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



43 



Tiaa may be coloured with a little Termilion, and scented, if 
desired. It is porticnlarlj important to avoid all concoctions 
containing acids ; — those, for instance, " 'warranted to whiten the 
teeth," which they undoubtedly may do for a short period, but 
at the same time they effect the decomposition of the enamel, 
and leave only the yellow dingy bone of the tooth, which, of 
course, soen gives way. And I may here add, that while acids 
speedily destroy the enamel, or outer coating of the teeth, heat — 
Iwt liquids, for example— destroy the interior or bony structure. 
Qmll tooth-picks, not metallic, are useful in removing the larger 
paitides of food which lodge between the teeth during meals, and 
whidi, if permitted to remain, act very perniciously on the ciys- 
ti] of the enamel. Many persons may object to the use of the 
irsb, because the gums are tender and bleed easily. When- 
mr this is the case, tartar will be found to have accumulated 
Bore or less, giving rise to irritation, which irritation is in some 
degree removed by the bleeding. Hence it is rather beneficial 
thtm otherwise ; and so far from occasioning fear, may be con- 
sdered as a useful mode of allaying inflammation. 

(HT THE DISEASES OF WOMEN ft CHILDREN. 

No. iir. 

(Continued from page 30.) 
CHLOaOSIS. 

HivDia considered the initiatory symptoms which announce the 
niital of the first crisis in woman's life, wa will next apply our- 
idTcs to those disorders to which she may hereafter be liable. 
Ihe most frequent is chl<»osis, which is that state induced by 
the non-appeairance of the secretion at that age when the system 
is prepared for the requisite evacuation, namely, at the age of 
puberty. The subjects who are most prone to this malady are 
those who are naturally of a weakened or delicate constitution, 
those who have sufiEered fh>m illness in childhood, and those who 
have been deprived of proper nourishment, clothing, and exer- 
cise : as well as the delicate, the more healthy, vigorous, and 
robust axe not exempt from this form of disease. There are 
other causes which will contaminate, and readily induce chlorosis, 
if not sedulously giXarded against, or their effects speedily re- 
moved. The immense influence which the passions and affections 
exert over the female economy is now at its zenith, and the ten- 
derest emotion is not nnseldom the harbinger of disease. He, 
who is the " poet of aU ages" and of all circumstances, has, by 
his intimate and accurate knowfedge of every condition of hn- 
nuinity, beantifiilly and truly described this influence in the oft- 
quoted words : — 

'* She neTer toM her love. 
Bat let concealnwDt, like a worm i' th' bud. 
Feed on hei damsak cheek." 

The general appearance of the female under this disordered 
state is most characteristic, and we are compelled to say it is 
neither attractive nor prepossessing : the frame, frequently from 
too npid growth, is slender, weak, and fragile, the lips are 
porhed and bloodless, the eye is surrounded by a dark areola, 
sod the face loses its naturally brilliant colour, it becomes of a 
pale or greenish-yellow hue, and from its melancholy, almost in- 
animate, expression, bears more resemblance to a piece of wax- 
work than " the human &ce divine :" at the break&st-table it is 
poffed up or tumid, but as the day advances this subsides, and at 
ni^t the ankles and feet are affected in a similar manner — in 
bet, the whole body becomes flaccid and sdematons. In addi- 
tion to these personal symptoms, we may mention the condition 
of the nails and the hair ; the former we have observed in chlorotic 
patients to be generally wrinkled, to grow irregular, and of a 
paler color than those of a heahhy person, whilst the hair loses 



its glossy i^pearance, becomes weak, and falls off in eoriisiderable 
quantity. 

The tymptouM experienced by the patient are most distres- 
sing : she is overpowered by extreme nervous weakness ; the 
mind is either excited by imaginary fears and dismal forebodings, 
or becomes wrapped in melancholy; the temper is irritable, and 
her usual occupations and amusements neglected. Without vi- 
gour and without enei^, she is borne down by lassitude, and 
dreads alike bodily or mental exertion. The whole circulation is 
affected, and the blood becomes torpid and watery from being 
overcharged with serum. Within a recent period we were con- 
sulted by a lady labouring under this malady, on account of her 
alarm in consequence of wounding her finger, and observing that 
the blood was watery and of a pink colour — the pulse was re- 
markably feeble, and the least fatigue produced exhaustion. We 
advised, in addition to the medicinal treatment, absolute quiet, 
and that every thing likely to agitate or disturb tte mind should 
be removed, fearing lest the energy of the system would be insuf- 
ficient to restore animation should fainting supervene : the case 
ultimately did well. The least exertion produces violent palpi- 
tation or fluttering of the heart, with difliculty in breathing ; 
walking quickly, or ascending a staircase, creates additional un- 
easiness and dyspnea. The bowels, in the generality of cases, 
are torpid and constipated, the evacuations being of a dark color 
and offensive odour ; the tongue is thickly coated and edematous, 
frequently indented by the teeth ; the mouth is dry and parched ; 
the breath loses its wonted sweetness and becomes fceted ; flatu- 
lence is most troublesome, and the eructations are of an acid 
acrid character — in fact, the whole digestion is gone. The appe- 
tite is irregular, though not deficient, but occasionally depraved, 
the patient craving for the most unnatural things, such as chalk, 
cinders, or other more strange, if not offensive, articles. Head- 
ache, with nausea or sickness, is a frequent attendant on chlorosis. 
The local symptoms are pain or a dragging sensation around the 
loins, which extends to the fore-part of the body, accompanied by 
a feeling of distension and discomfort, which adds materially to 
the anxiety of the invalid : the thighs, particularly on the inner 
side, suffer from occasional aches, and towards evening the ankles 
are swollen, painful, and tender to the touch. The patient is at 
times afflicted with spasm, about the fore part of the body, to a 
degree that excites the greatest alarm, and after it has subsided, 
she is left in a state of great depression and exhaustion. 

In the plethoric girl there is some modification in the symp- 
toms just described, but the leading diagnostics are alike. The 
whole system is in a state of over-distension, and the most im- 
portant organs require that relief which the natural uterine se- 
cretion would afford. The head, in particular, suffers from this 
repletion, and subjects the individual to that state which is com- 
monly, but improperly, called " determination of blood to the 
head." The circulation is hurried, and the breathing impeded 
by the almost conjested state of the Itmgs. In girls of this habit 
nature frequently makes an effort to relieve herself by e^tpistaxis, 
or bleeding from the nose ; when this happens it should always 
be encouraged, as a ready and safe means of diminishing a part 
of the load which overburdens the system. 

Hysteria, in one or more of its countless forms, is the invari- 
able companion of chlorosis — indeed, these two maladies are so 
closely allied, that one may be said to be dependant on.the other. 

We shall in an early ntunber detail the treatment of this dis- 
ease. 

nUMAN BBOTHBEHOOO. 

The race of mankiud would perish did they ceaae to aid each other. 
From the time that the mother binds the child's head, tiU the moment that 
tome kind assistant wipes the desth-damp from the brow of the dying, we 
cannot exist withont mntnal help. All, therefore, tiiat need aid, have • 
right to ask it from their fellow-mortala ; no one who ksldi the power of 
granting can refnse it withont guilt. — iStV fy. Scott, 



Digitized by 



Google 



44 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BT T. H. TEOU^N, U.D. 

No. VI. 

COMPLICATIONS OF THE INFLUENZA. 

(Contimud from page 34.^ 

The most general, nay, the universal complication and result of 
influenza is debility,— debility of body, debility of mind, and 
loss of animal spirits. It is surprising how symptoms which 
frequently are so trivial, scarcely surpassing those of an ordi- 
nary cold, should entail on the invalid such a tardy convales- 
cence, and so much loss of strength and vigour. In some cases 
the term debility, or weakness, most inadequately expresses the 
condition of the sufferer, who is prostrated to the helplessness of 
an infant after labouring under symptoms entirely devoid of 
present danger for a period not longer than twenty- four hours. 
It sometimes happens that the patient cannot tiun, or elevate 
himself in bed, his limbs are powerless, whilst the whole frame 
possesses increased sensation, and increased sensibility. The 
muscles are painful and tender, the back and loins are racked 
by pains equal to rheumatism or lumbago, the ankles tremble, 
the knees ache, and the joints are in a condition similar to those 
of a ilovice after a twenty-mile journey on a hard trotting-horse. 
The spirits are depressed almost to a state of melancholy ; the 
mind wanders from every agreeable or social idea, to dwell alone 
upon despondency and care ; the temper is irritable, peevish, and 
discontented, and the invalid cares only to wrap himself up in 
his own misery, and the warmest blanket he can find. 

In those cases in which debility is the leading feature, un- 
connected with structural disorder, we must rely as much upon 
the art of the ccok, properly directed, as upon the drugs of the 
apothecary, and conjoin to both quiet yet cheerful society, which 
ever proves the happy and efficient helpmate of the physician 
during the convalescence of his patients. 

The diet must be simple and generous ; broiled mutton, or 
beef, or chicken, with toasted bread, forming the basis of all 
nourishment : fluids of all kinds must be taken sparingly, and 
never hot ; wine (sherry) and water may be taken in sm^ quan- 
tities two or three times a day ; vegetables, fish, soups, and pas- 
try, — and I would include " slops" as well — must be prohibited; 
in fine, the patient must have a plain, dry, and nutritious diet. 

By way of medicine, a wine-glassful of the infusion of cas- 
carilla bark, in which has been dissolved five grains of the car- 
bonate of ammonia, may be taken two or three times a day for 
four or five days, to be then succeeded by three grains of the 
sulphate of quinine daily, for a week or two longer. During 
this time due attention must be paid to the state of the secre- 
tions ; and, if required, the bowels must be gently moved by 
some warm aperient, as rhubarb or the compound rhubarb pill. 
A short run out of town for a few days, to Brighton, or some 
other healthy bracing locality, will be of essential service. 

The convalescence of elderly persons demands sedulous care 
and good nursing ; every trifling change of temperature, and the 
least exposure to draughts of cold air, must be guarded against, 
their chambers must be of a genial and equ^ warmth ; their 
clothing ample, and the feet maintained at a comfortable heat. 
Their diet must be generous and nourishing ; the energies of 
life should be supported and gently stimulated by aromatirs and 
tonics, w^hich ought for the most part, to be combined with every 
medicine they taike. Wine in small quantities should be allowed 
several times during the day ; and that best of all cordials, kind, 
soothing and affectionate regard from those by whom they are 
surrounded, should constantly promote the efficacy of all other 
remedies. 

Influenza occuiring in young persons frequently arouses any 



latent disposition to other diseases that may be lurking in the 
system ; scrofula in all forms may be thus disturbed from iti 
lair, and its most constant and dangerous result — cofMumptum, 
nursed to a hopeless maturity. With the youthful, all our treat- 
ment during the period of debility aod convalescence from infln- 
enza should be directed to prevent a relapse of the original dis- 
order, and to give a new tone and fresh vigour to the constitiu 
tion. 

BroJichitU is a frequent result or complication of influenza ; 
in the treatment of such cases, however urgent the symptomi 
may be, we must resort to blood-letting with the greatest cau- 
tion ; indeed, it is only in extreme cases, threatening iuffbcatioii, 
that the lancet is permissible. The remedies appropriate for 
this complication of influenza will be described hereafter. 

Pleurity is sometimes complicated with influenza : the sym- 
toms of which may be briefly stated to be — ^hurried respiration, 
the breathing being performed by a succession of short, jetky 
gasps ; pain or stitch in the side, of an acute, sharp, lajiciag 
character ; hard and dry, but not frequent cough ; the pulae 
strong, hard and rapid ; die tongue loaded with a thick fur ; ex- 
cessive thirst; scanty and high-coloured urine; absence of 
sleep, and the countenance expressive of considerable anxiety 
and suffering. Under ordinary circumstances, the treatment of 
pleurisy might be summed up in four words, — bleeding, mercu- 
rialising, starving, and purging ; but when the disease attends 
or succeeds influenxa we are deprived of the chief means oiaue, 
namely, bleeding ; for we have not only to aim at the remonl 
of existing symptoms, but also to guard against the sequence of 
a fever of a low typhoid character. General bleeding mjA 
therefore be resorted to with much caution ; leeches may be ap- 
plied to the side with less hazard, and if the relief be not spee^i 
their application must be followed by a blister, not stinted in 
its dimensions. Mild purgatives should be used freely, and Ae 
usual cooling medicines containing antimonials should be legu- 
larly administered. As well as subduing the active inflamma- 
tory action by antiphlogistic measures, we have to guard against 
the effusion of fluid, or coagulable lymph, in or between the t«o 
pleurae, and this we must endeavour to do by the employment 
of mercury, — blue pill, or calomel ; small doses of the latter, 
from one to three grains, combined with a sixth of a grain of 
opium, to prevent its too fi«e action on the bowels, should Ik 
ordered every three or four hours. 

Infiammation of tlie Lungt is another complication ; ^ 
leading signs of which are acute pain in the side ; respiratiei 
hurried and painful ; difficulty of lying on the affected side; * 
hard, short cough, with viscid and rusty-coloured expectoration; 
fever urgent ; pulse frequent, strong, and hard ; the tongue 
coated with a thick fiir ; thirst, restlessness, a hot skin, «» 
scanty, and high-coloured urine. In the treatment of infi'"' 
mation of the lungs, our chief dependence is in the lancet, oo' 
when it is connected with influenza, the risk of the patient Up>' 
ing into a typhoid state after depletion renders ^e propiie'} 
of bleeding doubtful, if not hazardous : in extreme cases v^ 
the loss of blood is indispensible, we must produce an effect up^ 
the system with the smallest possible loss ; to this end the blood 
must be made to flow from a large orifice. Ai^Tien we dare not 
abstract blood from the arm, leeches may be applied to the chest, 
or four or five ounces of blood taken away by cupping-gl****" 
Blisters are unquestionably of the greatest importance, but tiiey 
should not be applied whilst the pulse is hard, nor until the ioT» 
of the fever has been lowered by leeches or bleeding. Repeaten 
and small doses of calomel and tartar emetic should be persisted 
in, and in some cases it may be necessary to contLnue the nle^ 
cury until the gums are affected. The practice of employ^ 
tartar emetic as the chief, the only means of treatment, as the 
custom is on the coutiuent, has not hitherto gained many aii^'"* 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



iS 



cates in England : the want of success that has attended its ex- 
tensive use may, in all probability, be attributed to the amount 
of stomach disorder with which inflammation of the lungs is 
generaUy complicated in our climate, especially during the pre- 
valence of influenza. 

If the inflammation goes on to suppuration, with all the 
attendant typhoid symptoms, stimulants are then called for ; of 
these the best are ammonia, aether, wine, and brandy. 

A free expectoration being the means which nature most 
-commonly adopts for carrying off an inflammation within the 
chest, it might be supposed that expectorant medicines would 
prove useful ; in practice, however, the reliance to be placed upon 
them is very smidl. 

The diet in the earlist stage of inflammation must be abso- 
lutely "low;" if typhoid symptoms appear it must then be 
nourishing and stimulant ; and during convalescence nourishing, 
bnt not stimulating. 

When influenza degenerates into feeer of a low typhoid char- 
acter, all the general symptoms exist in an aggravated degree ; 
the countenance wears an expression of anxiety, and the features 
appear shrunken ; there is great pain in the head, dulncss, con- 
fusion of thought, and dejection of mind ; the patient is drowsy, 
but his sleep is disturbed by frightful dreams ; he is roused with 
dii&culty, and replies to questions in a low muttering tone. 
After a time delirium of a raving character comes on ; he is then 
restless and makes repeated attempts to get out of bed, and 
afterwards lapses into a low muttering stupor, not sleep. The 
pulse is frequent, weak, and often intermittent; the tongue is 
coated with a dry, brown fur, which as the disease progresses 
becomes almost black ; the heat of the skin is excessive, and 
gives a burning sensation to the touch; the urine is scanty, 
high-coloured, and sometimes foetid; the bowels are relaxed, 
the evacuations black and offensive. These symptoms afford 
ample evidence of deranged function in every organ of the body. 

The detail of the treatment of continued nervous, or typhus 
fever would occupy a little volume ; I must therefore only refer 
to the indications of treatment, which are, to remove all existing 
causes of irritation, to diminish febrile excitement, to subdue 
local inflammation, and above all, to economise and support 
the strength. 

Tlie other complications and terminations of influenza, as 
rheunaatism, dysentery, skin diseases, &c., demand treatment pe- 
culiar to these several affections, — modified by the cause which 
has called them into action and the debility which it has induced. 

In ova next we shall speak of Bronchitis, or Inflammation 
of the Air-Tubes. 



SIKOULAR IKCIDBM IK A. MAOUOOIB. 

Tub Botfon Herald, V. S., nentioiu that •ome time aince a lingular 
and romantic incident occurred in the City Lunatic Hospital. A mother and 
daaghter (emigranta) both became inmates at different dates, and were placed 
in the same aiorey of the biulding, ivhere they bad access to the same hall, 
'i'hty met and recognued each other, though one had left the other yean ago 
in Ireland. They had each crossed the ocean, become residents to New York, 
and lost all knowledge of the other's history or fate ; both became bereft of 
reason, and iu a madhouse : snrroimded by those who were hopelessly insane, 
the child and parent met: though reason waa dethroned, and they were there 
Kith minds diseased, yet nature triumphed oyer the clouded intellect, and for 
a brief inoiBent they conTersed on the land of their birth, and of their se- 
paration. 

XeCBI4TI0KS. 

Let your recreatioDs b« manly, moderate, seasonable, and lawful: the 
use of recreation is to strengthen your labour and sweeten your rest. Bnt 
there are some so rigid or so timorous, that they avoid all diversions, aad dare 
not indulge lawful delights for fear of offending. These are hard tutors, if 
Lot tyrants to themselves; whilst they pretend to a mortified strictness, they 
are injurious to their own liberty, and the liberality of their Maker.— Steefe. 



NURSING THE YOUNG. 
The care of the young is the peculiar duty of women. Good and sufficient 
food, pure air, cleanliness, exercise, are essential to the health of the young, 
as of their elders; and they are more absolutely necessary, for the tender 
frames of the young suffer more readily from the absence of these easentials, 
than the frames of their more seasoned eldera do. Iu providing that inbaU 
have pure air, care must be taken that they are not exposed to cold winds or 
to draughts of air, for their bodies are very apt to suffer from these causes, 
and, indeed, they are among the most common cause of illness in infants. The 
food of infants should be carefully regulated ; give neither too much nor too 
quickly. The mother's milk is the most proper food of infants, and if th» 
infant takes more than enough of that, or takes it too quickly, it readily throws 
it up again ; but if it has been fed with spoon-food, especially with thick 
spoon-food, and has taken too much or too quickly, the food commonly re- 
mains on the stomach, and the infant is mode ill by it. 

It is necessary that the skin and clothing of an infant should be kept very 
clean, because, in addition to the ill effects of uncleanliness in stop|iing up 
the pores of the skin, and thereby preventing the healthy excretion from the 
skin, and the proper action of the air on the external surface of the body, the 
skin of an infant is very tender, and if it is not kept clean and dry, it will b« 
covered with sores. Uxercise gives strength to the body even of young in- 
fants, aud therefore their limbs should be free, and should be moved about 
often ; but they should not be kept long sitting up in their nurse's arms, 
whilst their backs are too weak to hold up their heads. It is especially ne- 
cessary that we should carefully guard infanta from all the causes of ill health, 
because the young body requires increase of growth, whilst the older body 
requires ouly to be kept in its present state, and because the young do not 
known how to take care of themselves. 

From the very beginning of infant life, the affections should be carefoUjr 
trained. The infant is capable of afl'ectious, which are productive of pain or 
pleasures from the beginning of life, and these affections arc becoming habita 
in an infant, which will influence the after-character for weal or woe. Tlie 
causes of the good and evil affections of infants and of young chihlrrn, are 
principally the good and evil affections which they witness in their nurses. 
If in very early life a child is frightened or distressed by a nurse's cross-looks, 
or ill-tempered word, it will grow up timid or' ill-tempered, and every repeti- 
tion uf the cause will more readily produce the ill effects ; and, therefore, an 
infant ur very young child should never be scolded or be allowed to per- 
ceive the expression of any ill-feeling. A young child should never require^ 
scolding, because the nurse should never allow it to do anything which nurtea 
call wrong. She should be ever diligent and watchful to prevent the child 
doing ill, by exciting and encouraging it to be continually doing well. By 
smiles, fondling, and sweet words, she should make the child happy ; and 
wheu it can use its little hands and feet and tongue, she should say pretty 
words and do pretty things in play, and it will imitate her — ^it will be doing 
like her. — Iiettont in lloiueaifery. 



AKTIFICUL LIMBS. 

I 

At the Academy of Sciences in Paris lately, M. Magendio read, in the nama 
of the committee of the academy, composed of MM. Ganibcy, Kayer, Vclpeau, 
and Hmself, n report on an artificial arm, the invention of M. Van I'ctcrses, 
a Dutch sculptor, and presented by him to the academy. The report was 
highly favourable to the ingenious aud benevolent inventor. The members 
of the committeo state that they had seen the apparatus tzicd upon fivs 
mutilated persons, and that it auswered in ever}- case admirably. Cue of thesa 
persons vros an invalid who, in the wars of tlie Jimpirc, lost both arms, retaining 
only the mere stumps. With the aid of two of these artificial arms, he ^Yas 
able to perform many of the functions which had hitherto been performed for 
bim by others. In presence of the committee, ho raised, witli one of tlia 
artificial hands, a full glass to his moutli, drauk its oontcuts without spilling a 
drop, and then replaced the glass on the table from which he had taken it. Ba 
also picked up a pin, a sheet of paper, &u. These facts are conclusive as to the 
mecluuiical skill evinced by M. Van Petersen, and which is particularly shewn 
in the lightness of his apparatus, each arm and hand, with all its articulations, 
weighiug less than a pound. The mode iu which tlic motion is impaited to 
the articulations of the apparatus is exceedingly ingenious. A sort of 
stays is fixed ronnd the breast of the person, and from this are cords made 
of catgut, which act upon the articulations according to tlio motion given to 
the natand stump of ^c arm. The invention fails ouly when the member 
that is wanting has been entirely removed from the socket, which is of com- 
paratively rare occurrence. The report ends fay stating that M . Vun Petersen's 
invention is superior to any substitute for the untunil arm hitherto mode, 
and expresses a hope that he will bo able to get his artificial anus manufactured 
at so low a cost as to be accessible to poor persons and mutilated soldiers. — 
Fnm a French neatpaper. 

UOOEEATIOK. 

Let your desires and aversions to the common objects and occurrences in 
this life be but few and feeble. Make it your daily business to moderate your 
aversions aud desires, aud to govern them by reason. This will guard you 
agaiiut many a ruffle of spirit, both of anger and toriow,— IfoMs. 



Digitized by 



Google 



49 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JCAJRNAL, 



RESUSCITATION. 
Tbx parpote of rcfpiratien u to expote the portion of the blood which hu re- 
tuned to the heart, after it haf circulated through the body, and wllich has 
acquired during that eirenlation the properties of dark or Tenon* blood, to the 
ioflnence of atmoipheric air in the lungi. The oxygenous portion of the air lo 
nceived into the lungs converts this Tenons blood into florid or arterial blood ; 
that is, into a state for bein^ again eircnlaled through all parts of the system. 
Any intenuption to this process — by submersion in water, exposure to choke- 
damp, strangnlation, and the like — if continoed beyond a few minutes, is de- 
■trucliTe of life. BecoTery is, howeTer, possible within certain limits ; hence 
the resuscitatiTe appliances to casss of 'suspended animation.' 

The restorativesgenerally resorted to are warmth, friction, electricity, and, 
aboTe all, supplying of the lungs with f^esh or proper oxygenated air, either by 
free expoenre to an external current, or by artificial injection. The cause of 
the latter appliance is sufficiently obvious, as the cessation of the heart's action — 
technically called lupkfxia — isoccssioned by the interruption of respiration, or 
lathar by the interruption of the effect produced by that fiinctionon the blood. 
Any means, therefore, that cau restore the process of respiration, or otherwise 
■npply itsplace, till the action of the heart has been established, must be of ralue 
in resuscitation, and especially so where they can be applied with ease and rapi- 
dity. Various apparatus hare been invented for the injection of common air; 
but as this fluid contains only about twenty parts in the hundred of pure oxygen, 
ita effect upon the blood in the lungs cannot be so rapid as that of a mixture con- 
taining a greater proportion, and still less so than oxygen itself. This gas has ac- 
cordingly been long recommended ; but the difficulty of obtaining it with suffi- 
cient rapidity has hitherto proTed a barrier to its application. A new mode has, 
however, been proposed by Dr. George Wilson of Edinbatgh, by which an 
unlimited supply ran be obtained and administered in a few minutes, and it is 
to this that we would direct more general attention. 

It ha* been some time known that the chlorate of potass, if mixed with 
a metallic oxide — such as the peroxide of iron, or the black oxide of manga- 
nese—and heated to redness, will give off oxygen In a copious stream, and 
withant any interruption, so long as there is any of that gas in the compound. 
The proportion of the metallic oxide to the chlorate is a matter of difference 
among chemists; but Dr. Wilsoij has found by repeated experiment that about 
one of the former to five of the latter is the most advantageons. We were 
recently invited to witness in his chemical class-room an exhibition of the 
apparatus by which he proposes to administer the gas, and which, in the opinion 
of medical men, is likely to prove efficacious, fa this case the supply was on 
a limited scale only — some 6U0 or 800 cubic inches in four minutes — but from 
the rapidity and certainty with which the gas was produced and administered 
to a fictitious patient, it left the most favourable impression upon the minds 
of the spectators, A glass retort containing four or six ounces of the mixture 
was heated with a ipirit-lamp, and in a few seconds the gas began to be evolved, 
the evolution increasing in rapidity, till at the second minute it flowed over in 
a continuous stream, and was conveyed into an ordinary telescope gasometer. 
From this reservoir it was extracted by means of injection bellows fitted with 
flexible tubes, and then conveyed to the lungs of the supposed patient. This 
contrivance was next abandoned, and the head of the patient placed in an 
air-tight box, into which the gas was conveyed from the gasometer. This 
box was fitted with a glass-slip for watching the changes produced on the 
coimtenance of the patient; and the necessary inspirations and expirations 
were caused by external pressure on the chest, as is done in ordinary cases of 
administering atmospheric air. Indeed several metboua of applying the gas 
were suggested ; but to these we need not advert, as the great merit of the 
proposal consists in the rapidity with which the supply can he produced and 
administered. On this h«ad we think Dr. Wilson deserving of the thanks of 
the public, and especially for the pains he hss taken in laying it before the 
medical faculty, the directors of humane societies, and otherscapable of mak- 
ing the application. Of the individuals who are asphyxiated by submersion, 
exposure to choke-damp, &c., only a small per centagc are resuscitated by the 
appliance* at present in use ; but there is every reason to conclude that if a 
mpply of oxygen were obtained by tfae means above proposed, and kept in 
readiness at the offices of humane societies and otherwise, the recoveries would 
bo trebled, or even quadrupled. It is agreed on all hands that pure oxygen 
is more efficaeiou* in asphyxia than common air; and certainly no plan could 
be more rapid or economical than that of Dr. Wilson, — Chamben' Journal, 

HOW XAHT CKEAIDRES A MAN OF SSTBKTT HAS BAIBR, 

A COKRESPONDEKT has calculated what a man might consume on the 
average in seventy years, " taking ten years off' for infancy— which is too 
much." Yes ; far " too much," Mamma's darling Jacky, as papa knows 
to his cost, is carnivorous long before the completion of his tenth year ; 
but "taking ten years off for infancy," although " it is too much," and 
allowing a man "4 poimd of flesh meat per week," the consumption at the 
close of three score years and ten amounts to 12,480lb,, or 899 St. ; or to 
156 sheep of 80Ib, each, o>- 20 bullocks of 44^ St.; or, to take it another 
■way, to 78 sheep and 10 bnllocks, " with 6 St. over," which may stand for 
poultry, fiab, &c., '• say 20 of each in the year," or liOO poultry and 1200 
aah." Bnt, if w* take it in shrimps and shell-fish (and "all is fish" that 
comealo onr eorrMpondent's net), " Beaven only knows what animal life 
i* destroyed to kaep up the life of that one animal— Man." 



TO THE READERS OP « THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL 
AND FAMILY PHYSICUN." 

Mt Fbibmss. — My bantling is now uz week*' old. May I believe it wjts 
well formed at its birth? It has breathed in an atmosphere of honesty of in- 
tention; yon have given it a good oiicolation. Can we, then, wonder at ita 
healthy infancy — ^may we not anticipate a robtiat matority, and lode forward 
to a vigorona old age? 

Thb Peoplb'b Hbdicai. Jocbmal aus FAXibT Pamcuii i* now an 
established Periodical. 

The numeroui kind letteta of congratnlation I have leceiTed, prore hoir 
much such a work was required, — especially amongst the Indnstiions Classea. 
To benefit the intellectnal, the steady, hard-working opeiatiTe, to furnish 
him with hints and instruotions for the pieservatian of hla health — (how often, 
his only stock in trade ?) — to improve his sodal position^ — wore the cfaiefest pur- 
poses of my adTentnre. To this end I haTe become, in fiMt, a working— a hard- 
working—physician. This will be admitted when I say that since Janoary 5 
the daily average nnmber of letter* I have reoeiTed requiring priTote answers 
has been twenty-fiTe, and thot I have replied to each by the same day's post, 
— exclusive of consultations, the literary management of the Jonmal, and 
my own priTate practice. 

I am free to confess that when I projected a pnblieation devoted to Poptt- 
LAB Mbozcinb I was timid ; not only of it* probable luocess, but also of the 
fiuiaied loss of caste a plgriician of ten years' standing might snstam 'm his 
endeaTourto make the Pjcoflb comprehend the mysteries of hi* profesdon. 
Both apprehensions wen gzonndleia. 

I wish rather to be jndged by the past than to make promises for the fii- 
tore : I may, howeTer, add, that the same simplicity of diction, the same prac- 
tical information, the same attention to correspondents, the same hatred of 
qnaokaiy in all ita form* that has, I hope, favonrably marked the first six 
nombers of the Journal, shall be continned in those which will follow. 

May I be pardoned all this egotism? 'Tis tbe only time Thb Editor shall 
speak in the first person ; my doing so now was an affair of gratitude. 

VTah my best thanks to the 7500 Snbsoribera to " The People's Medical 
Jonmal,''— I remain their hkithfU servant, 

Feb. 5, 1850. T. H Ybomak. 



To THB Editor of tub People's Medical Joubhal. 
Sir, — I trust you will not deem it impertinent in a perfect stranger send- 
ing a line to congratulate you on the appearance of the very useful Medical 
publication of which you are the editor ; bnt, more especially, ought the 
public to welcome its appearance, as it appears well calculated to fill a vacuum 
which has long existed in our periodical literature, vii,, a space devoted to 
the lashing and exposure of the quacks and scoundrels with which the empire 
teems. I am, in conjunction with my brother, carrying on the business of a 

druggist in the adjacent large and papulous city of ; 1 have, therefore, 

an excellent opportunity of witnessing the mischief these rascals are continu- 
ally perpetrating, and the villauous robberies they commit on the unfortunate 
dupes they entangle in their toils. But the public wdl now trust to you, Mr. 
Editor, so to lift the veil fhim these extortionate Jew monsters, that they may 
be at length driven from their dens, and the world rid of such pests of society. 

A fellow named D " dc Co.," has just established himself in Norwich, 

and advertises weekly in the local journals; your publication, however, which 
I understand is likely to have an extensive side in that locality, will, I hope, 
save many victims from his tangs. 1 have been somewhat amused by obser- 
ving thai mjpitnu " Old Grandmother," the Homing Herald, has several of 
these advertisements every morning; the " Ttmas," very properly, refusing 
them. Granny, notwithstanding her piety, thus renders the paper, with its 
columns of beastly advertisements, quite unfit for admission into a house where 
females are resident. I am also sorry to find that, with I believe one excep- 
tion (th* Suffolk CArenicleJ, the advertisements of these fellows (who are, 
by the way, continually changing their names,) are inserted weekly the whole 
year round, in every paper in these counties. You may judge, then, of the in- 
calculable evil inflicted on society, and thn desperate expedients some of their 
poor dupes arc put to, to raise money to satisfy their cruel demands, sometimes 
accompanied with threats of exposure, if other means of extortion have little 
or no effect. Let me entreat you, Mr. Editor, to relax not in your good work 
until your powerful pen has been the means of extirpating from our country 
all the host of charlataBB who prey on the unwary, and use the public press 
only to outrage public decency and commoo sense. — I am, sir, yours, &c. 

E.H. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



47 



FAMILT PRESCRIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

DinKn Piixa. — ^Take, aloei,. on* Knipla ; powdered riinbarb, half • 
dncha ; ipaeaeoan pinrder, five gnini ; oil of camnrajre, nz drapi. Mis. 
Biride into twelve pilli; one to be taken one boar before dining. 

CaAMOMlLB Tkjl. — ^Take cbamomila flowers, five dracbmi ; boilingwater, 
a pint. Macerate for ten minutes in a loosely covered vessel, and tben strain. 
Wbra cold it is a ligbt tonic, and may be taken in dyspepua and hysteria ; 
it ii also naeful as a vehicle for more active remedies. When taken warm, it 
acts as a gmtle emetic. 

Tbb host AouBABLJi TotMOUi IX TBB Fhauuoofjbu.— Take, spirit 
«f Fnaeh wise, (say brandy) ; ciaBamon water, of each four oiuces ; the yolk 
of tiro tfgt i refined sugar, half an ounce ; oil of cinnamon, two minims. 

Beat tk eggs to a frotli — add the otiier ingredients gradually. Dose, as mncb 

as vill " do you good. " Vn, — to promote eODviviality. 

Tamlm Bbu is tha beat vehiele in wUeh to take that naaseoas medicine, 

ialoB of copaiba. Drop the pur* balsam gaatly on the sarfaee of the beer, 

■ta yoor eyes, and swallow. 

A Bl^ck Ets is generally no more than a bmite of the eye-lids, spreading 
■ore or lean over the face, according to the site of the instrnmen^ by which 
it it inflicted. The greater number of penons who get a black eye deserve it, 
sad, so far aa I am aware, there is no remedy save warm bathing, which will 
bsDra its removal ; but it is often a very tedions business. The only thing to 
tt borne in mind is not to get a blaek eye ; if you do, you must be content to 
tear the disgrace (br a few days, if yon deserve it. But if it have been an acci- 
deat, there is nothing to be adtamed of, and a small dranght of patience will be 
I lovereiga remedy. — Mr. SntM. 

TisBOAB. — The presence of lead in vinegar may be detected by hydrosul- 
fkuiic acid, or by sulpburet of soda ; the former giving a brown precipitate, — 
salj^iret of lead, — the latter a white precipitate — sulphate of lead. A clean 
;J^ of iron immersed in the acid, will present a rose-coloured coating of 
ofpcr, if that metal be presenL Amnonia also detects copper by producing 

a uore bine colour. Iron is detected by prusfiate of potass, producing a 

Uat irecipilate. 

DIETARY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC. 

UmoULM Jxu.T.^Before using isinglass for the fonoatioB of jellies, it is 
advisable, in order that the jelly may be clear, to reduce the isinglass to small 
pieces, either by beating it first in a mortar, or only piclcing it in shreds; and 
then washing it well in clear water. To boil an onnce of isinglass, a pint of 
water is allowed ; boil till it has lost one-lialf ; it must be skinuned while 
boiling, and when done strained tlirongh a sieve. 

HaanMaBlt Jbllt.— Boil half a pennd of hartshom-ehavings in three 
^naits «f water till IIm gelatiiie is estiaeted from them ; strain the jelly while 
hot into a aaacepao, and add to it a pint of Rhenish or sherry wine, and a 
quarter of a poond of loaf aogar. Froth tlie whites of four egg, and mix them 
with the jelly ; boil it for a few minntes, and then add the juice of three or 
four lemons; boil again, and whencardled, poor it through a jelly-bag several 
tines, till it is qeile dear. You raaj flavour it in what way you please, and 
tben fill your jelly glasses with it. It is, perh^^s, bast to keep out the whie 
tUl the jally isclarifiad, and then add it. 

Cjti-TBS Fest Jbixt. — Cnt scalded calves feet into pieces, and boil them 

gently tot several hours in water sufficient to cover them ; strain off the liquor, 

sad the next day, when it is completely cold, take off the fat, and wash 

the jelly in warn vrater, to make it perfectly clean. Put it into a stew-pan, 

sad diaolve it over the fire, adding such condiments to flavour it as you may 

choose, such as lemon or Seville orange- juice, white wine, sugar, a bit of le- 

mm-peel. cinnamon, fte. Whisk it up with some whites of eggs, and boil it 

(ntly for a quarter of an boor or more, taking off the seam ; run it through a 

IsBBd bag till it becomes quite bright. When nearly cold, fill your shapes 

vsh it. ^lis jelly is not essentially different from one made with isinglass or 

fa ni hs iu aiiaviogs, only it requires a little more care in the preparation to 

Bake it clear and free finim fat. 

Turn Jbixt. — Three calves feet are to be boiled down in four quarts of 
■aler, till the water is reduced rather more than one-fourth ; strain it off, 
sad, when cold, remove the settlement, and boU it with the following articles: 
The white* of deven eggs, well beaten up, a quart of Madeira wine, a pound 
sad a half of loaf sogar, the juice of an orange, three large lemons, a little 
powdered cloves and cinnamon, half aa ounce of isinglsM, prepared a« directed 
fcr isinglass jelly. Stir the mixttire well } let it boil up three times ; strain 
A, and when eoU remove tha settlement ; then warm it again, and fill your 
ihapes. 

Savobt Jbixt. — Make a atreag jelly with a kauckU of veal, which must 
W boiled tilt all the hones drop eut; then strain it through a sieve, and let it 
•and till it is cold, when all the fat must be taken clean off. Add some 
Tartagaa viaegso', and a few juni p e i -he iii as, to flavow it. It must ha clarified 
•s Greeted for calves fast jeUy. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

CPriet Si. ; by port 2«. 6d. 
ONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; the 
Canaei, Symptoms, and Batlonal Treatment, with the means of 
Prevention. By T. H. Ybomak, M.D. 

Alio by the same author, price 2«. 

A STHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH, 
-'^>- the Cause*. Symptoms, and Bathmal Treatment. 

" Thia is an excollent little treatis* by • elever and clear-headed practi- 
tioner. Dr. Ybokah is well known by bk Woric on Consomptfam, and tha 
present publication wUl add tohis fame."— ITsei/y Di^atek, Jan. U, 1849 
London : SaxpsonLow, 169. Fleet Street; ErpiNaBAX Wiuox, 11, 
Royal Exchange ; WBBgT BB & Co., 80, Piccadilly ; and all BookseUen. 

"DOOFF'S IMPROVED llESPIRATOR (Patent,) for Con-. 
■'-^ sumption. Asthma, &c., has separate ehannds for the inspired and 
expired air ; warms and purifies the atmosphere without becoming clogged; 
it neither requires cleaning nor repairing, has no unsightly appearancct and 
may be had leaembllng a handkerchief held to the mouth. Testimonials to 
be seen, and descriptions had, on application, — Depot, 183, Strand, near 
Worfelk Street. 

JOHN MILES, (Latb BUTLER and CO.) DISPENSING 
V CHEMIST, 78, Gracechnrch Street," rcspectfuUy informs the PnbUe 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals; the too frequent dangerous adul- 
teration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of whioh 
depend the health and safety of our fellow creatures, induces J. M11.B8 to 
pledge himself that eveiy article sold at lus establishment is genuine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified assistants under his owu 
immediate directum. 

Agent for Bootf's Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
supply of Cod Livkr Oil, prepared from the finest Fish of the Sea son. 

npRUSSES.— S. SMITH, Truss-maker, 1, High Holborn, 
-■- three doors from Gray's-inn-lane, respectfiilly annoimce* to the Publio 
that TRUSSES can be hod at his establishment, at the following low prices: 
DonUe Trusses, 16s. each: single ditto, 8s. Manufacturer of Lace Stockings, 
Knee-caps, Snspensoiy Bandages. Riding Belts, &c — lbs. Smith attend* 
on ladies. 

T'HE TEETH.— Mb. SMARTT. DENTIST and CUPPER, 
■*- 25, Sun Street, Bishopsgate, London, invites attention to his IM- 
PROVED ARTIFICLU, TEETH. They are fixed without extracting the 
roots of the previous Teeth, no pain is oaused, they defy deteotion by the moat 
•omtinising observer, and are guaranteed to answer all the purposes of masti- 
cation, filling up the void produced by the loss of the natiural Teeth, thereby 
restoring facial beauty, and enabling the patient to speak with fluency and 
comfort Irregularitie* and deformities of the Teeth removed where practi- 
cable. Mb. Smabtt attends at 48, Eaimer Street, Gravesend, every Friday. 

"T^R. ARNOTT'S HYDROSTATIC or FLOATING BEDS'. 
-'-' This valuable invention, affording such relief to all patients long con- 
fined to bed, is now presented to the publio, greatly improved in manniaeture, 
by which it is made much more durable ; and at a price whioh it is hoped wiU 
condnce to make its advantages more generally available. £ s dl 

No. 1. Hydrostatic Bisd, with Castors, &C. 8 8 

No. 2. ditto plain. 7 7 

fob bibb. 

No. 1. Fint Month 1 16 

„ Second and succeeding Month*. 18 6 

No. 2. First Month 1 10 

„ Second and succeeding Months 17 6 

Tbel£^ of the Bed,with waterproof Sheet &Canriage,to be paid in advaaoe. 
Manu&ettued, Sold, and Let Out on Hira, by Eswabd Spbitckr & Co. 
18, Billiter Street, and 116, Fenchnrch Street, London. Monofhcturer* of 
the Adjusting and other approved Surgical and Invalid Beds. 
A stock of these Beds kept always ready for immediate nse. 

"^EVILL'S PATENT FLOUR of LENTIL 8,— 
-*- ' — a pleasant, nutritions, and agreeable Food for Invalids, Dyspeptics, and 
persons suffering fcom Constipation, or any other chronic derangement of tha 
Oigeetive Organs — also for making Gruel. It is the only food tiiat does not 
distend or tnm add on a weak 8t<miadi. It wUl be ibnnd invaluable ibr deli- 
cate Childron and Sufferers from Delulity. 

Sold Wholeade br Nbtill and Co., Itk, Chidiesttr Flaoe, Grays Inn 
Road, London; and Retail fay T. Cabbiok, 127, Crhwford Street; T. Shabp, 
44, Bishopsgate Street Within; Hum, Oracechnrch Street, Cibr; and 
may be obtdned finm all resectable Shopkeepers in the Kingdom, m FaDketa, 
ed. and Is. each, and 6 lb. and 12 lb. eaniften, Ss. «d. and 10s. 6d. each. 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Notice.— All commnnlcationt for the Editor most be addressed, pre-paid, 
to his house, Ko. 25, Lu>td S40AKB, Pbxtontillb. It is indis- 
pensable that letters requiring a prirate answer contain a postage 
stamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of the 
applicant Invalids resident in the country, and otlicrs desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are nnable to consult him personally, can 
hare, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interview, in many instances, may be avoided without detri- 
ment to the sneeessfnl issue of the required treatment. Notes of every 
ease submitted to the Editor will be recorded In his private case-book, 
for the facility of reference at any future period. 
, Tas Editob is at home every cUy until one o'clock ; and on the Evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He attends 
at Mr. MiLBg'a Medical amd Surgical Establishu ext, 78, 
Oracechurcb Street, on Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays from 
Two until Three o'clock. Surgical advice may be obtained 
at the above establishment, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Satnrday 
evenhigs, from Six till Nine o'clock. 



' We particularly request Correspondents who do not attach their 
proper names to their communications, to avoid all such signatures 
as " a Subscriber" — " Constant Header" — " Well -Wisher," &c. 
Where the correct name is not given, it will insure the identity of the 
** answer" to the query proposed to us, if our correspondents add the 
name of the town or street from which they write: thus — O. P. Q- 
(Bath) — Delta, (Manchester Square). 

The Monthly Part of the People's Medical JounN al, containing the first 
Five Numbers, is now ready, price, in a neat Wrapper, 6d. 

We have received many applications to publish separatel}-, in a small volume, 
the articles on Indigention, which will be completed in our next number. 
Should this wish be more generally expressed by our readers, we shall 
do so. The price not to exceed fourpence, by post sixpence. 

H. E. S. A. — To your first question, — Ho. To your second, — According to 
the position and circumstances of the patient ; one, iwo, three, nay even 
four, consultations for a guinea. 

J. MiLBRAY. — We should not recommend cod-liver oil ; neither can we sug- 
gest any ether treatment, having no other data than your scanty note 
from which to form an opinion on the case. 

W. J. (Northampton). — See answer to H. G. H. in No. S. 

IiAORBMCB FoBBKS (Putocy). — Be contented. You have not any reason* 
able cause for suspicion. Repose every confidence in her assertions. 
Bemember 

" .— — — — all who joy would win- 
Must share it. Happiness was born a twin." 

BiCBABD Datis (Abingdon Street).— From three to fire grains of the com- 
pound soap pill ; five grains, contain one grain of opium. 

J. T. P.(Bamsbnry Boad), — In all rases of arterial bleeding, pressure should 
be applied to that side of the orifice that is nearest the heart. To your 
second question, we do not »hinlc the subject of snfiicient practical utility. 
If you have discovered anything original on the subject we shall be glad 
to hear from you. 

T. Batmek (Halifax). — Try the blister, as advised in No. 5 ; or paint the 
ring-worms with tincture of the muriate of iron. We will shortly pub- 
lish an article on this troublesome and frequent disease of the skin. 

J. F. Rbtsof (Camden New Town). — We are glad that the anxiety of your 
wife is lessened. For yourself, see answer to A. M. in No. 3. 

M. A. C. (Birmingham). — You must send your private address. 

H. Jokes (New North Road). — We must see the child. 

S. W. J. (Weymouth)..— Your anxiety need be only of short duration if you 
would pay religious attention to proper advice. Communicate privately. 

Habt S N (York). — Take, compound decoction nf aloes, four ounces ; 

compound iron mixture, three ounces and a half; tincture of valerian, 
four drachms. Mix. Dose; three table-spoonsful early every morning. 

A SvFFEBBR. — A short series of articles on Bhbdhatism will he com- 
menced in No. 9. 

H. R. C. S.— We are obliged by your polite offer, which we are compelled 
to decline, as all our literary arrangements are complete. 

A Dysfeftic. — Use NeviU's flour of lentils to one meal at least, daily ; 'tis 
the same preparation as Rsvalenta — at about one-eighth of the price of 
that advertised aitiele. 

B. B. (Fleet-street). — We would willingly comply with our correspondent's 
request if we could. We do not know, although we have seen, " the medi- 
cal practitioner" who rolls about the City in a tilbury, driven by a negro.— 
Is be Baron Spolasco ? A black groom in a white coat, white choker, and 
white rioves, is certainly a capital driver for an advertising van. 
J. JoNBf (Putney). — We do not notice such cases in these columns. Ton 
must apply personally, or by private latter. 



AMXioua. — The " German physician " yon name was once placed at the bar 
of the Old Bailey to take his trial for manslaughter. That is all the 
good and all the evil we know of him. 

Z. (Leeds). — The remedy required most vary aeeordiiv to the cause that 
has produced the disorder. 

Nekyoi;s, OB MiMO Complaimts. — We would earnestly caution our readers 
against one of the most determined quacks in the whole empire, who 
advertises under the title of " Reverend Doctor." — His book is uonr 
before us ; from the commencement to the end 'tis a farrago of nonsense, 
impossibilities, and untruths. Oh ! that there were a society like the 
Mendicity Society, to bring to the felons' bar, imposters — book-writers — 
who, like the begging-letter writers, obtain money on false pretences. The 
pillory and duclung stool were good, wholesome punishments in the days 
of onr forefhthers. — Revive them. 

James. (Rotherhithe). — You will find all the information you ask for in the 
article on Indigestion, in No. 'I. 

Morisom's Pills. — We will give these poisoners an advertisement gratis, and 
copy from the rtm<< of Dec. 19, 1849, the following:—" The enormous 
sum of £1 15,000 has been paid to the English Government for stamps oa 
Morisou's Vegetable universal Medicine, which represenU 82S,0UO,UUO 
pills." Will the proprietors of this vegetable poison add to tlie above 
information, how often they or their agents have been committed for 
manslaughter ? Will they tell us the number of deaths that have resulted 
from their Universal gamboge and scammony 7 Shame ! shame ! on an 
Exchequer that bolsters up its deficiencies by "stamp" money that 
" stamps " a poison, and " stamps " death on the silly victims of 
blinded credulity. 

A Clebk. (City). Observe moderation in all things, even in obtaining 
'* gratuitous advice. " If moderation is not in your vocabulary, at least 
practice patience. We have advised yuu twice in a disorder that does 
not merit much commiseration : yuu must not stand in the way of more 
deserving casea A prescription and note await you at the place you 
name. 

Wu. _R s (Colchester). — We will attend your appointment, although the 

time and place are extremely inconvenient. 

P. C. (Leeds). J. Jones (Putney). — We do not advise in such cases ic 
the columns of our Journal. Communicate privately. 

A. Z. (Oxford-street).— We are not in possession of any •'ufallible receipts " 
There is a house in the New-road, guarded by a lion on the ro<if, apply 
there, or at "two doors from Tomple Bar." A. Z., is not a Y. Z. 

F. Frarcis. Use NeviU's flour of Lentils. We are never without it — it saves 
many doses of physic. 

A. H. (Fife).— Hold the head over the vapoor of boiling water; anoint the 
nostril with elder-flower ointment. 

A YovKO Man. — Twenty grains. 

J. O. G. (Aecrington).— Still imperfect. Yon really must be most careless 
of your health if you would follow any suggestion that may be offered 
to you. If you desire our opinion, you must write privately, when we 
will endeavour to put you in the way of describing your symptoms with 
some approach to correotness. 

William Gbtmbs. See answer to H. G. H. in No. !>. 

Thomas Rokesby (Mill Hill). — To use a vulgar phrase — "cntit." Ko 
harm can ensue. Be oarciul whom yon engage to operate. 

Chablottb (St. George's East). — Rest ; plain nourishing diet j attention 
to the bowels and skin ; a warm hip-bath ; friction, by means of a 
coarse towel ; not any beer ; two table-spoonsful of unsweetened gin 
in a tumbler of cold water ; and take compound iron mixture, four 
ounces ; compound decoction of aloes, five ounces and a half ; tincture 
of ginger, fi>nr drachms. Mix. Dose ; two table-spoonsi^l, twice 
a day. 

W. L. B. Certainly. We have more confidence in the effects of prescrip- 
tious dispensed at chemists whose drugs we know to be pure, than in those 
" prepared" at the cheap shops in Leather Lane, Clerkenwell Green, 
Norton Folgate, or Ratcliff Highway. The chemists we recommend arc 
Miles, Gracechureh Street ; Savoiy and Moore, Bond Street; Apothe- 
caries Hall ; Allen's, Plough Court; Jacob Bell, Oxford Street. Many 
druggists of an inferior grade, too frequently, far too frequently, presume 
to substitute one article, which they may have, for another which they 
have not; thus the patient is injored — the physician disappointed, and 
his reputation jeopardised. 

Fbbscbiptions and private instructions as to diet and regimen are left with 
The Dibpekseb, 78, Gracechureh Street, for the following correspond- 
ents : J. Good, (Homerton). T. B.C. (Wandsworth). John S n, 

(Stepeny Green). Thetis. William Jackson. An Apphektice.. 
(London Wall). W. B. C. (Lower Road, Islington). Fanny, (East- 
cheap). Alfboxso, (Tavistock Place). J. F. (Dartford). A Watch- 
maker, (Clerkenwell). An Ofbbative. Ax Old Patibbt. Mbs. 
Gbbbm. Mrs. Davy's Cbilo. W. O. (Islington); C. G. L. (Brix- 
ton). D. J. L. (Islington). Johk (Westminster). 



Fitnted tv Cbablxs Adaks, at Ills Printing Office, 8, St. JunM's Walk, In the rarlsli ot 
St. James's, Cterkcnwtn, In tlie Coonij o< Middlesex ; and published, ibr the Froptictor<. 
t>7 OEoaoa Vicuss, Strand, in the fatlsb of St. Clement Danes, in the said Coanty of 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

AXD 

FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 7.— Vol. L] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1850. 



[tanrxnn 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BT T. B. TSOKAK, X.D. 
KO. VII. 

BRONCHITIS— INFLAMMATION OF THE AIR 
TUBES. 
(fiBtUinued from page 4S.) 

BsoKCHiTis, or inflammation of the mucons lining of the air tubes, 
is a disease of most ^quent occurrence and of the greatest im- 
portance, as irell from the serious results \rhich may immediately 
easae, as from the diseases of which it may become the founda- 
ti«i. It may exist as an idiopathic, or original disease ; as the 
aeqael of catarrh or influenza ; as a complication of continued 
ferer; or, as an accompaniment of measles, small-pox, scarlet 
fever, and hooping-cough. There is, probably, no other disease 
which is 30 variable in its consequences. In some cases it is 
scarcely considered an interruption to health, and in others it 
becomes rapidly dangerous and fatal ; these extreme results de- 
pend on the condition of the persona aSected, the extent of 
nraeoius surbce implicated, and the intensity of the essential 
symptoms. 

The cause of acute bronchitis might be summarily described 
in one word, — cold ; but as this acts in different modes and by 
different media, some of which are at the time little suspected 
of inducing disease, or if known, too often neglected, I shall dwell 
a moment on this part of the subject. 

The most injurious efiCect produced by cold on the respiratory 
organs, is when it suddenly alternates with warmth ; consequently 
we may frequently trace catarrh or bronchitis to exposure to a 
cold, damp atmosphere, immediately after leaving a heated and 
crowded room. How often in our amusements do we acquire a 
disease which shall embitter, if it does not shorten, the future 
of onr lives. I would earnestly impress this remark on the re- 
collection of my female readers, and pray their especial attention 
to the effects which may follow carelessness or imprudence, either 
in ouire, or in change of temperature. Fashion should be sub- 
serrient to health ; and, with some little care, the one would 
loae none of its attractions, and the other would attain continued 
abilitj for enjoyment. Nothing can be more hazardous than the 
too common practice, during the inclemency of winter, of women, 
who in the day time are clad in a Siberian costume of furs and 
shawls, exposing themselves at night in muslin or gauze, to the 
cold air of lobbies, passages, and damp pavements, immediately 
after I>eing heated by exercise in a crowded ball-room, or after 
inhaling the heated atmosphere of a theatre. Two of the most 
sexere cases of bronchitis that I have attended this winter had 
their origin in such a cause ; the one, a young lady, who remained 
a short time, on a damp, foggy night, at the door of one of the 
theatres, waiting for her carriage ; the other, a gentleman who 
when on a visit to the suburbs, ran a considerable distance to save 



the " last "bus," which on his arrival was filled inside ; instead 
of walking leisurely home, he imprudently mounted the box, 
suddenly became chilled, and the next morning, he was, as he 
told me, " barking like a dog." Some people appear so reckless. 
or so convinced of the supposed hardihood of their frames, that 
it is only when on a sick bed that they will admit they are sus- 
ceptible of ordinary influences. 

Cold, when conjoined with moisture, as tliat occasioned by 
remaining in damp clothes, particularly wet stockings and boots, 
and sleeping in damp beds, generally induces an attack. I havB 
recently had under my care three or four cases of bronchitis that 
were referable to a cause which I fear is fiir from being uncom- 
mon : namely, inhabiting newly-built houses whilst the walls and 
plaster are still reeking; with moisture. Dwelling in kitchens 
flagged with stone, und imperfectly drained, has, in many in- 
stances known to me, proved a constant cause in several mem- 
bers of the same family. 

Irritating gases and vapours frequently excite inflammation 
of the brondiial membranes, and the disease is rife amongst 
brassfounders who have to inhale the fumes of zinc and spelter ; 
artisans employing the mineral acids, also frequently sufiier from 
an attack. 

Bronchitis, like the majority of inflammatory diseases, pre- 
sents itself under two forms, the one difiering materially from 
the other in the aggravation or diminution of die symptoms. I 
shall, therefore, first consider ac«f«frronc/ttti*; that is, when the 
inflammation is intense, and the disease makes rapid progress ; 
ftud afterwards chronic bronchitis, or that condition in which the 
cough is constant, the fever absent, and the disease, of itself, 
divested of urgent or acute symptoms. 

ACUTE BnONCHITIS. 

Acute bronchitis presents the general symptoms of cold on 
the chest, considerably increased in intensity, with a greater de- 
gree of fever. The disease usually commences with some dis 
turbance of the whole frame, as chilliness, lassitude, diminished 
appetite, stiffness of the limbs, dry skin, quickened pulse, end 
the ordinary attendants on fever ; when the attack is slight, little 
inconvenience may be experienced, nevertheless it is capable of 
becoming one of the most fearful complaints to which the respi- 
ratory organs are liable. 

The first symptom of a local character is a feeling of dryness 
and roughness in the windpipe, which induces the patient to 
make repeated attempts to clear the throat by cough, and each 
attempt is succeeded by greater roughness, or a sense of titila- 
tion ; the cough soon becomes frequent, hard, and dry ; and in 
a short time there is an expectoration of a thin mucus, having 
a saline taste ; this, like the discharge from the nostrils in 
eoryza, appears to be acrid and irritating in its nature, and adds 
to Uie existing inflammation. With the increased cough there - 
is pain and oppression in the chest, the breathing is difficult and 



Digitized by 



Google 



50 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



uneasy, so that the patient is conscious of, and apprehensive of 
each inspiration, and consequently inspires deeply and deli- 
berately. 

The cough frequently comes on in violent and irresistible 
paroxysms that excite almost a feeling of sufTocation, and reader 
the breathing more laborious if not gasping ; during such attacks 
the blood is propelled with increased force to the head, the face 
is reddened, the eyes sufifusad and injected mth blood ; and oon- 
fusion, noise in tbe head, giddiness, or a throbbing headache 
supervenes. 

So long as the expectoration continues thin, watery, and saline, 
the cough remains harrasing and frequent ; but as it becomes 
thicker, it loses a part of its irritating properties, and a cessatioa 
of the cough takes place, the constriction of tbe chest is then 
less and the breathing comparatively free ; the pulse which before 
was rapid, loses its frequency, and the skin is cooled by a genial 
perspiration ; the severity and progress of the disease may be, 
in many instances, estimated by the condition of the expectora- 
tion; a thicker, more opaque, and tenacious phlegm, easily 
coughed up, always indicating an amelioration of the symptoms. 
This change in the character of the expectoration takes place in 
favourable cases about the fourth or fifth day, after whidi it be- 
comes whiter and less abundant ; — ^this state is sometimes called 
r^pmimg of the expectoration ; — as the disease draws to a termi- 
nation, the cough and expectoration is less during the day, caus- 
ing, however, some annoyance to the patient in the morning and 
towards evening ; after a few days, the disease may subside alto- 
gether, or gradually decline into chronic bronchitis. 

. I have now described bronchitiB in its mildest form, in which 
but a small extent of the bronchial tubes are afikcted ; we will 
next turn to the disease in its more acute degree, when the in- 
flammation is not confined to the larger air tubes, but extends 
to their minute ramifications throughout the lungs. 

In some cases the general or constitutional symptoms denote 
a considerable departure from health ; at the onset there are fire- 
quent rigors, or shivering, followed by flushes of heat ; the pulse 
is quick, full, and irritable ; the skin is hot, harsh and dry ; pain 
is felt in the head, particularly across the eyes, down the back, 
the shoulders and chest ; the tongue is foul and white ; the 
\irine scanty and high-coloured ; the patient suffers from loss of 
appetite, sickness, lassitude, and prostration of strength ; — in 
eflect, he labours under a sharp attack of fever. The symptoms 
referable to the respiratory organs, are difficulty in breathing, 
and tightness or constriction of llie cheat ; the lungs feel as 
though pressed upon by a weight, and the oppression renders the 
the patient anxious and fearful ; the cough is frequent, severe, 
and distressing ; each paroxysm greatly aggravates the pain in 
the chest, which is now acute and lancinating, especially at the 
part immediately around the breast-bone ; tibe voice is hoarse, 
and the effort of speaking is attended with pain. The expectora- 
tion, at first small in quantity, is glairy, frothy, and occasionally 
streaked with blood ; it soon becomes copious, but its evacuation 
affords no relief to the symptoms, in fact its secretion and accu- 
mulation irritates the tubes and aggravates the cough ; towards 
evening it is more profuse, the fever runs higher, the respira- 
tion is more embarrassed, aadallthesymptomsattain greaterforoe. 

These symptoms having continued in this state for five or six 
days, the patient gradually begins to recover, or gradually begins 
to grow worse. 

Wkeu by neglect, or by treatment insufficiently active, the 
disease takes an unfavourable turn, we usually find on the fourth 
or fifth day, that the invalid is reduced to a state of debility, or 
coUapse ; the pulse becomes quick, irregular, and feeble ; the 
countenance j is pallid, betraying considerable anxiety, and the 
soi&ce of die body covered with a oold, clammy sweat ; the 
strength is exhausted by repeated efforts to relieve the longs of 



the accumulated mucus, the cough is less frequent, feeble, and 
insufficient in power to clear die bronchial tubes, and each at- 
tempt to expectorate threatens suffocation ; (be mucus collected 
in tjbe larger tabes obstructs the passage of air, which can now 
be distinctly heard to wheeze and tattle, and the patient is in'a 
position of imminent danger. This state is quicluy followed by 
lividity of the countenance, delirium, and stupor, indicating that 
by the thickened state of the membranes and the increased secre- 
tion in the smaller tubes, the blood is not presented in tbe cells 
of the lungs to the action of the air, and that unarterialised 
blood is circulating in the brain. 

Acute bronchitis in its worst form is remarkably rapid in its 
progress ; a state of high fever and extensive local inflammation 
is quickly followed by great prostration and extensive debility, 
and in some cases, the result is &tal in two or three days. 

[To be conttaned la our next.] 



BTSFEFSIA.-IirDia£STIOH. 

NERVOUSNESS, 4c. 

aT TBB BOIIOS. 

No. VIL 
THE INFLUSNCB OF INDIOBSTION ON OTHER 
DISBASBS. 
(jConeltuMJrompag* iS.) 

Iw concluding the esuy* on indigMtion, to diall briefly notice the influence 
which thia diiorderererts apon other diieaiei: acme of which follow or attend 
dyipepiia, «s an inevitable conaequenoe; othan — ^latent in the system — sre 
called into activity ; and all are more or less aggravated by its eoalinusaee . 

The elements of nutrition being supplied to enry part of the body by the 
blood, and this deriving its nutritive matter from the aliment taken, and the 
mode in which it is digested in the stomach, it follows that when the fnnetioD 
which thus prepares the food to become blood is impaired, the blood itaelf 
must be deficient in its nutritive properties, and thus disease may be eng«a- 
dered by the want of sufficient nutrition, or debility. 

In healthful digestion, the ordinary action of the stomach is equal to its 
own demand; but the moment it labours tmder any degree of debility, or w 
consequence of being overloaded, or loaded with indigestible materials, its 
ordinary action is not sufficient, and it becomes necessary that it should b« 
supplied with an additional flow of nervous energy to enable it to meet the ex- 
cess of duty imposed upon it. The surplus of sensorial power, under 
sneh circtmutauces bestowed upon the stomach, is taken from the general 
supply to the system at large, as from a common stock, every organ contribut- 
ing its proportion. If, therefore, thia demand of a feeble stomach occur in a 
system in which there is weakness, or predisposition to disease in the respira- 
tory organs, as an effect, the longs become irritated, a sympathetic disorder 
is induced, or it may be that latent disease, as consumption, is excited 
into action. Tlie same oocuis with the other organs, and thus disease followa 



Tbe importance of correctly distlngnishiog every derangement of the heart 
and lungs, the reeult simply of disordered digestion, firom organic disease in 
which there is actual change of structure, most be self evident; without this 
be accomplished, the treatment must be vague and uncertain, and in some in- 
stances injury may be added to injury. We are inclined to think that caaea 
of consomptioD, lo caOtd, which have been successfully treated, and added to 
the list of recoveries from consumption, should be considered as dyspeptic con- 
sumption rather than that which proceeds from scrofula or phthisical dispo- 
sition of the constitution ; when the actual cause of the pulmonary affection 
can be traced to irregular digestion and defective nutrition alona^ we may 
sanguinely expect a fltvourable termination. Would that we could say the 
same when the disease is caused by scrofulous tubercles. 

Tbe earliest sign of disturbance in the respiratory organs prodooed by 
dyspepsia, is in the larynx, which, becoming irritated by its proximity to the 
ossophagus, causes a tickling cough, at first dry, or only accompanied by 
atrifling expectoration of mucus. After a time the membranes of the lungs 
are implicated, and, if there be any disposition to scrofula or tubercles, thia 
disposition is likely to be excited into action by the sympathetic initation, nnj 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



51 



then coDiumptian of tha eommon and fttml kind will toon b* daTeloped. In 
dyipeptic coainaiption, the complexion ii more nllow than in the idiopatUc 
form, and Um qiiriti are more deprewed. The paiox7ami of congh are gener- 
ally after eating and early in the moning, or when the patient ii lying on bii 
left dde in bed, Ai the diaeaae progreues, the expectoration becomes mora 
copioos, iti character changes, and, ficom being limpid and glairy, it becomes 
thick and ropy, with some tnspiciou points of a purulent character ; leipira- 
tion is peiluimed with difficulty, the strength hils, and the condition of the 
patient, with reason, excites tha apprehensions of his friends. When these 
symptoms are the result of a secondary disorder, they will in a n^jority of 
eases yield to proper treatment. " I have obserred,** says Mr. Abemetby, 
*' a cough attended with expeeloimtion to cease upon the correction of the dis- 
order of the digestiT* fbnctioB f and the experience of ereiy physician will 
eonCnn the remark. Distension of the stomach and bowels by flatus, and a 
loaded state of tha large intestines, flrequently cause fits of breathlessnest, or 
" short wind," or '■ broken wind," which closely imitate asthma ; the 
dimensions of the ebsst being narrowed, and the natural expansion of the lungs 
impeded. Of the valne of the stethoscope in enabling us to arrive at a correct 
diagnosis in all the afleetians of the ckast, we have already spoken in aa> 
other series of articlei. 

Painful sympathetic affections of the heart are consequences not less com- 
mon, and are often the most troublesome symptoms that accompany disorders 
of the stomach, and are always the most alarming to the patient. They 
appear under various forms, and frequently assume, in a very great degree, 
all the characters of fixed disease of the heart or large vessels. The slightest 
and perhaps the most common form, consists of a momentary feeling of rolling 
or trembling motion of the heart, like tliat which is produced by a sudden 
smprise or fright, and it is accompanied by an intermission of the pulse. This 
feeling may ocenr once or twice, frequently, or only at long intervals ; it is 
•ometimes accompanied by a sensation aa if the heart were violently grasped. 
In other cases, the affection assumes the form of continued fits of palpitation, 
or strong and irregular actios of the heart, which continue without any re- 
mission for an hour or more at a time, and recur in this manner daily. They 
tu'e of course accompanied by irregularity of the pulse, when the action of the 
heart itself is irregular ; but frequently there is no irregularity in the action ; 
the affection merely consisting of a strong pulsation, which the patient feels, 
or hears throbbing in his ear, and can count distinctly by the sound, espe- 
cially when he is in bed. The affection is always vary alarming to tha patient, 
and sometimes perplexing to the praetitionar ; for, from the permanency of the 
symptoms, they often assume the eliaiaeter of diseases of the heart, and may 
even exhibit some of the stethoteopic signs, when, in truth, th«y are caused 
alone by the disarder in the stomach. Flatulent distensions of the stomach 
may produce pressure on the aorta and other large blood-vessels, and arrest 
the flow of blood, and it is in this way that apoplexies after full meals are 
produced ; the blood, in its course to the lower extremities, being impeded by 
the pressure of a heavy stomach on the aorta, is forced to the superior part of 
the body, and the carotid arteries too strongly inject the brain. 

Indigestion frequently affects the nervous system, or some part of it, 
directly, producing either general or partial debility, or violeiil nervous pains^ 
as tie doUnaeux, neuralgic pains in the shoulders, loins, and thighs; and, in 
•pite of all local treatment, they will continue to distress the patient so Iqng 
as the digestion ii in error. Mr. Abemetby, who, if not the first, was cer- 
tainly the most strenuom, in referring such disorders to the stomach, says, 
" They can only be successfully treated by means which operate upon the 
constitution in general." The influence of dyspepsia on the mind, we have 
abeady noticed in the essay on " Low Spirits." 

ScTofala is a disease peculiarly influenced by disorder of the stomach, 
•nd we moat ftvqnenUy observe that formidable complaint attended with 
considerable distnrbaiiee in this organ, which is neglected by the patient 
until the more obtmsiva disease make* its appearance in the enlargement 
of the glands, either of the ncek, arm-j^t, or, in fbmalea, the breasts. 
Abemetby relatea several cates in which patients came to town for the 
purpose of having the breast removed by operation, who retained in health 
with ft sound breast, after having the disorder in the stomach and digestive 
apparatus, which was the cause, not the effect, of the glandular afliaetion, 
TeUeved. Ws have at this time several cases under treatment, in which 
the patients suffered the greatest alarm, fearful they were afflicted with 
malignant disease of the breast ; this apprehension it quickly yielding 
with the improvment in the digesUon and general health. Even in cancer, 
disorder of the digestive organs is antecedent to the local disease, which 



is aggravated by every irreguhoi^ in the stomach; the same oeenrs &i 
gont, rheumfttism, and certain disorders of the bladder and kidneys. The 
prodnction of worms is, in many cases, referable to a dsbiHtatad state of 
the alimentary canal ; piles are sggravatsd, jf not induced, by pressure on 
the large blood-vessels by the oppressed stomach, as well as the initatsd 
state of the lower intestines ; and strictnn, pwlapsns, or fistula, mmr 
arise from the same cause. 

That profound observer of nature, and able suigeon, Abemetby, did 
humanity good service in directing attention to the constitntional origia 
of many local diseases. He found that many wonnds which lesiated all 
the means which the surgeon could employ, were attended with a dis- 
ordered sUte of the digestive organs, and yielded readily when tha duo 
performance of their fiinctions was restored; nay, that some wounds, as 
ulcerated legs, indolent sores, and other local complaints, had no other 
origin than that state of the health which attends irriution of the stomach 
and boweb. Sometimes but one local disease of this description exists ; 
but in general they break out in different parts of the bo^, which is a 
proof— indeed, tha proof,— that they depend upon some error in the health 
in general, rather than upon a local cause. How frequently do we notice 
ulcers on the legs, of tong standing, which have resisted all the lotions, 
ointments, strapping, and bandaging which ingenoity could devise, heai 
quickly when, by attenUon to the irregnUr state of the stomach and 
bowels and care in diet, the i^mction of digestion has been improved, and 
a healthful oondition of the oircnlation obtained. 

Numerous skin diseases have their ade origin in dyspepsia, and others, 
which are specifio and hereditary, can only be relieved and cured by amend- 
ing the general health, removing every obnoxioBS caaae, and faegitating 

the process of assimilation, so that good and pure blood may be eliminated. 
We might go on to greater length in ennmermting the evil efliiets of 
neglected indigestion ; as it is, we have said enough to psove that there ia 
scarcely a disease which afflicts the human body that can be correctly 
treated if the natore of the diseaae of the digestive organs be not well 
understood. It has been justly said, " A thorough knowledge cS dyspepsia 
in all its forms and varieties may be considered the key to the cure of 
many acute and of most chronic diseases." 



ON THE DISEASES OF THE TEETH. 

No.nL 

BY CHABLE8 SMABTT, ESQ., SXHIOEON DENTIST. 

Having in our previoua observations pointed out the uses and 
purposes of the teeth, and the necessary means to be adopted 
for their preservation, we now proceed to explain the nature and 
effect of the diseases to which they are liable. In order to be 
better understood, it will be as well to devote a short space in 
describing their formation and structnre. The anatomist divides 
the teeth into three portions. The surface or top of the teeth is 
termed the crown ; that part where the gum terminates is named 
the neck ; the remaining portion, which is embedded in the al- 
veolus, or socket, is the root or fang. 

The teeth are composed of an organic and inorganic substance : 
the enamel is inorganic, or without life, and the interior is or^ 
ganic, or with life. They are sparingly supplied with blood> 
vessels and nerves, from which they derive vitality and nutri- 
tion, and an exquiste degree or sensibility. The outer covering 
is the enamel, a vitreous crystalline-looking body, which is 
easily destroyed, as before observed, by acids ; beneath this we 
have the bone, speedily affected by heat, and in the interior we 
find a small cavity, or canal, containing piilp, in tdiich are the 
blood-vessels and nerves. These obtain their entrance at the 
end or extreme point of the fang. Between the fangs of the 
tooth and the alveolus, or socket, in the jaw, there is a very fine 
membrane or skin, the purposes of which are to retain the teeth 
firmly in their position, and to prevent the jar which would 
otherwise occur when the mouth is violently closed, in the act, 
for instance, of biting hard substances ; and we may here state] 
by the way, that when the teeth are used for the purpose of 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



cracking the shells of nats or biting threads, they are applied to 
a purpose nature did not intend them for, which is ruinously in- 
jurious to them. There are few among us who require to be re- 
minded that the teeth are liable to disease, decay, and excruciat- 
ing pain. The most common — we might almost add, all com- 
mon — diseases are salivary calculus or tartar, caries or decay, 
and their result, — tooth-ache. 

Salivary calculus, or tartar, is an earthy deposit, formed by 
the saliva or spittle. Hence we find it in greater quantities 
around the necks of the incisors, or front teeth of the lower jaw, 
and the small molars or bicuspids of the upper, as it is at these 
points that the saliva enters the mouth. The small vessels con- 
veying the fluid are termed the salivary ducts. The effects of 
this unfortunate accumulation are always pernicious, — an altered 
condition of the fluids of the mouth, diseased gums, the loosen- 
ing and ultimate loss of the teeth, and the gradual destructioil 
of the socket, or alveolar process. When allowed to remain any 
length of time, the gum becomes sensitive, and the brush cannot 
be used without great pain ; consequently the brush is given up, 
the deposition rapidly increases, and the teeth, one after another, 
fall victims to its desolating ravages. It frequently occasions 
the discharge of a foetid matter from the gums, thereby render- 
ing the breath exceedingly offensive, so much so, that the atmo- 
sphere of the whole room is speedily tainted. The method which 
the dentist adopts for the removal of this filthy mass is termed 
tooling. This necessary and important operation, when care- 
fully and properly performed, is unaccompanied by pain or any 
disagreeable consequences ; and when, by its removal, the gums 
are restored to a healthy state, its future accumulation can in 
most cases be stayed, by a regular and constant use of the 
brush and powder mentioned in the previous article. In some 
constitutions, however, its deposition is so rapid and obstmate 
of removal, that periodical visits to the dentist alone can pre- 
serve the teeth from its injurious effects. 

Caries, or decay, may arise from many causes. Mercury- 
(calomel), which, necessarily, is frequently administered by the 
surgeon, is a fearful and deadly enemy. Inflammation, arising 
from cold, and a febrile and heated state of the body, generally 
lay the seeds of this decomposition of the structure of the 
teeth. 

In the first instance the bony structure of the tooth decays, 
and subsequently a dark spot shews itself in the enamel, which 
speedily breaks through. The nerve thus becomes exposed, 
and is liable at all times to be affected by the draughts of cold 
air drawn into the mouth, or the slightest pressure of the food, or 
liquids, required for the sustenance of life. Thus diseased, if 
the decay has not progressed too far, the dentist will carefully 
remove all the carious or dead portion of the dental member, 
and then fill up, or what is termed ttop, the tooth ; and if this 
apparently simple operation is carefully and scientifically per- 
formed, the tooth may be retained for useful and ornamental 
purposes many years. It is essentially important to seek pro- 
fessional aid at an early stage of the appearance of disease. 
Let us counsel our readers not to hastily part with so useful a 
portion of their body as a tooth, because it causes pain. The 
object, or rather duty, of a dentist is to preserve our teeth, not 
to extract them. If disease or accident befal a limb, we do 
not ask the surgeon immediately to amputate it. We eaniestly 
entreat him to preserve it, and so it should be with the teeth : 
like the old lady with her flannel, we do not really know their 
value until we miss them. 

Tooth-ache, which Bums characterised as the " Hell o' a' 
diseases," — this excruciating and tormenting afiliction generally 
arises in consequence of exposure of the nerve by caries or de- 
cay of the tooth. Thus a tooth which has been felt to be un- 
sound, but has never been the cause of more than temporary 



pain, suddenly breaks through, and portions of the food are forced 
upon the sensitive pulp. Immediate inflammation takes place, 
and we have tooth-ache with all its racking and distressing 
agony. During the paroxysm a little camphorated spirit, or eau 
de Cologne may frequently be applied with success ; all foreign 
substances should be removed from the cavity, which should 
then be filled with wax, and this allowed to remain there not less 
than six hours. By this time the inflammation will probably in 
a great degree have subsided, and the patient may then submit 
his mouth to the dentist, for the purpose of having the tooth 
stopped or filled. When tooth-ache arises from cold, or a de- 
rangexent of the digestive organs, it may be mitigated by mild 
aperient medicines, assisted by a warm bath, and the applies^ 
tion of a leech to the gum. 



SPECIFICS. 

What is meant by the term " specific " ? It is a property 
which some remedies are $aid to possess of removing disease in 
every case with certainty ! We do not believe in this theory : 
we maintain that the action and effect of every drug in the 
materia medica must vary in different individuals ; that the 
action of every remedy must be modified by the condition of the 
patient at the time it is administered — the same remedy having 
a different action upon the same individual at different periods ; 
and that it must be influenced by peculiar constitutions, pecu- 
liar temperaments, and by peculiar ages and habits. That drug 
which would be inert when taken by a strong robust man, might 
act with dangerous activity in a debilitated frame, and vice versa; 
indeed the condition of man while labouring under disease varies 
almost daily, so that that which was beneficial to-day might be 
injurious to-morrow. Did we know a remedy which would act 
upon disease like water in extinguishing fiie, producing one con- 
stant and invariable effect, it would indeed merit the appellation 
of a specific : unfortunately none such is known. 

For one disease mercury is accounted a specific, and certainly 
its effects in some cases approach the nearest to a specific action 
of any we are acquainted with ; but even mercury does not act 
with precision — its effects are not invariably the same ; its action 
is influenced by age, by sex, by constitution, by habit, by idio- 
syncracy, by climate, by the state of the system at the time it is 
used, and by a predisposition, hereditary or acquired, to disease. 
Thus a dose of blue pill which would purge one individual vio- 
lently, might in another remain dormant in the system, and pro- 
duce salivation ; again, mercury taken by one person of uninw 
paired general health, might cause a sore to hesd readily ; taken 
for the same purpose by a subject affected with a scrofulous taint 
it would aggravate the wound, perhaps produce sloughing, and 
materially increase the disease for which it was taken as a cure. 
As another example of the impossibility of any medicine hav- 
ing a speciflc and universal effect, take ipecacuanha, which in a 
large majority of cases is a most valuable agent for the relief of 
many disorders of the respiratory organs, especially asthma ; yet 
when prescribed for some peculiarly constituted patients, it ac- 
tually excites this very disease. Wedonotadmitthespecific action 
of any remedy ; various drugs will produce one effect ,* some are 
known to attain this easier and more speedily than others ; it 
therefore behoves the physician to select that which he can 
administer to his patient with the greatest certainty of success, 
and with the least risk of exciting any opposing peculiarity. In 
medicine, we must consider the end to be obtained, more than 
the means ; the medical practitioner should not be wedded to a 
routine of practice, but consider every case, as it' invariably is 
originally, differing from others which have preceded it. We 
would earnestly and sincerely warn the suffering invalid not to 
place any reliance in a specific or empirical remedy ; we would 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



53 



urge liim not to submit to a routine of practice which promises 
a core, alike for the robust and the debilitated! for the young 
and the old, for the man of active life, and him whose occu- 
pation is sedentary ; it is contrary to reason to suppose that 
tie same agent can produce the same effect in these opposite 
and extreme conditions. We would advise every patient to 
hare his disorder considered with reference to himself alone, 
and to pursue a course of treatment prescribed for the existing 
sTmptoms of his individual case. 

QUACK ADVERTISING SURGEONS. 
"We copy this article from Tht Mtdieal Tim*t, 

A correspondent sends us the foUowiug illustration of the 
pnitection £rom quackery at present enjoyed : 

" Having, for some time past, a young gentleman under my 
cire. with ' htemoptysis,' and the symptoms now yielding to the 
treatment adopted, he returned to his paternal home, viz. Plais- 
tow, for a few weeks. Rccoveiy was slow : but, from the effects 
ofa fright, the hemorrhage returned. This was caused thus : the 
ronng gentleman called upon a Mister L ' t, of advertising 
celebrity, who ' asked his name ?' And, on hearing, said, ' You 
must pay me a pound.' It was done. ' Who previously at- 
tended you V Answered. ' Young man, you'll die ; but I can 
save you : — what money have you got about you V The young 
man took out the silver he had, viz. 10s. ; it was seized, with 
ibe remark, ' You must bring me £9 10s. more by three o'clock, 
01 five o'clock at farthest, without fail.' The young man then 
left the house, and has been seriously indisposed since. I have 
l>een also informed of a similar case, where the young man al- 
lowed £4 to be taken from him by the ' advertising doctor,' 
tiurough fear alone. With your suggestion and advice (which 
the father of my patient is now determined to act up to), he will, 
if possible, shew this individual to the world in his true light." 

To this the edi:or of TJi» Medical Time* answers : — " We 
fear nothing can be done with the demoralising and murderous 
empiric. Even exposure is no punishment, for a change of 
name is as easy to such fellows as a change of garment. They 
ivill contioae doing mischief as long as the law is as it is, and 
the press opens its columns to their filthy advertisements." 

" Receivers are as bad as the thief," is an old and apt pro- 
verb. Palmam qui meruit ferat. Messieurs Proprietors of News- 
papers and other advertising media. 



COD LIVBK OIL. 

Ix the fonrth anmber of the People's Medical Jocbkal we said, " Cod 
Urer oil, in our |>nietice, bas always been most deceptive in its remits ; 
iaproviog tbc appearance, perhaps the condition, of the patient to-day— 
TO leaTe him in Krcster pmstralion and danger to-morrow. Cod liver oil 
i< a pretty vamtsfa, that polishes over a decayed spot, and nllnvs the can- 
ker silently to work its way beneath the surface."— This remaric has caused 
asrany of our professional friends to elevate their eyebrows : some have 
iHad--"Poob!'' one said with great emphasis — "Nonsense!" but onotlier, 

* gnoi old physician, exclaimed " I believe your're right." And so says 
Dr. Benson in a paper read before the Surgical Society uf Dublin last week. 

* II is, perhaps, too much a custom, when a patient is made to take the 
oil. to look on it as a last resource, to the neglect of all other means ; by 
i'J iu« the apparent symptoms improve much quicker than the physical 
oigns; in other words, the tubercular irritation and inflammation are al- 
lowed to go on, vndtrafaUe thew of retutninff heallit.'' 

We repeat. Cod liver oil is only a fashionable remedy — in ten years 
it will be superseded by some other navelly. 



CBBJtTlMO A WAMT. 



TBI Rev. Dr. Trench, the last archbishop of Tuam, though a wealthy 
was extremely simple and temperate in his mode of living — a plain joint 
eat supplied bis dinner. Whenever he saw one of his children about to 
try m new dish, not tasted perhaps at any time before, he always said, with a 
:aule, " Now, you are going to crtate a want.'* 



of 



E-XCISION OF A TUMOUR. 

StTDATBD IK THE IKTEBIOB Or TUB rABOTID OLAMD, BEMEATB THB 
BBAHCUES or TBI FACIAL MBBVB. — FEaPBctf BECOVEBT. 

Thb following operaUon, one of singi^lar interest, and highly creditable to 
surgery, was performed within the walls, though not publicly in the wards, of 
St. Barthomolew's Hospital. The subject of it is a well-known and highly- 
esteemed member of the Medical Profession, practising at Salisbury. About 
five years ago, this gentleman discovered a small, elastic, moveable tumour on 
the right side of his face, just below the zygoma. At £rst he took little notice 
of it ; but, finding that it gradually increased in size, he subsequently came up 
to London to consult the surgeons of the old Hospital in which he had been 
educated. They were unanimously of opinion, that the tumour was one of a 
das* commonly called parotid, and that, since it was propiessively enlai^ng, 
it onght to be removed. Upon this opinion, however, the gentleman in ques- 
tion did not feel disposed to act, becanse the tumour caused hun no nam or 
inconvenience. In this respect, his decision was probably biassed by the fact 
of his being himself the patient, — for wc are sure he would bare been the last 
man in the world to have allowed the slightest weight to such an argument 
in any other case but his own. In this state of uncertainty, he suifered five 
years to elapse before ho mode up his niind to part with the tumotur. Mean- 
time, it had slowly grown larger, so that it hiid now attained the size, and 
pretty nearly the shape, of a large iit-alnnt, with tlie long axis in the direction 
of the roasseter muscle. In other respects no other change had taken place. 
It was still elastic and moveable, yet not 'so moveable that the ramus of the 
jaw could be felt behind it. I1iis circumstance led to the inference that a part 
of the tumour at least was probably embedded in the substance of the parotid 
gland. 

The operation was performed by Mr. Stanley, ably asusted by Mr. Paget, 
whilst tlie patient was kept under the infiuenoe of chloroform by Dr. Snow, 
An incision was made over the long axis of the tmnour. A very little dissec- 
tion was sufiicicnt to show that the tmnour was seated in the substance of the 
parotid gland, and that the primary branches of the facial uen-e not only 
crossed in front of it, but that they were also firmly united to it. This circum- 
stance, of course, complicated the operation exceedingly. To remove the dis- 
ease without dividing the nerves, it was necessary to cut it away piecemeal. 
On the first incision into it, there escaped a quantity of thin fluid; thus it 
proved to bo a cyst, and its walls immediately collapsed. The subsequent 
part of the operation was indeed a very tedious and delicate affair, and can be 
easily imagined by those who are familiar with the dissection of the portio dura 
in the parotid gland. While the operator was cnUing out, bit by Ut, several 
portions of the cyat, which extended irregularly in this and that direction, the 
nerves were stretched and drawn out of the way by hooks, and therefore nn- 
avoidably rather roughly handled. It was curious to see how one or other of 
the muscles of the face tH-itched, as this or that branch of the facial nerve wa« 
disturbed. Every part of the cyst having been at length removed, there re- 
mained a wide gap in the situation of the parotid gland, and an excellent dis- 
play of what we had never before seen in the living sulgoct, the so-called pe* 
anierinus of the portio dura. 

From a letter recently received from the patient, wc quote what remuns 
to be told of the case, as well as a yery graphic account of his sensations dur- 
ing the inhalation of the chloroform. 

" For the first four or five inspirations, I felt a slight sensation of constric- 
tion opposite the first bone of tiie stemnm. This was followed by an over- 
whelming noise resembling the combined sound of many threthiug machines 
or steam carriages, so near as to bewilder me. This increased until a sudden 
shooting sensation passed down all the limbs, conveying the con^-iction that 
sensation was gone; and, lastiy, an agreeable ecstory, ending almost instanUy 
in complete unconsciousness, ti?om which I never recovered for an instant nntil 
I awoke in bed, an hour and a half from the commencement of the opei-ation. 
I sufiered for some hours fi?om vomiting, for three days from nausea, headache, 
aching of the knees, and general mnl-aue, and firom a distressing sensibility 
and want of command over the expression of my feelings. Those feelings all 
ceased instantiy on the free action of my bowels. The wound healed in its 
upper half by the first intention. There was slight venous hsmoiThage on 
the second night, which Mr. I'aget aiTCstcd by the removal of the sutures and 
coagula, and by applying cold water dressing. On the fifth day after the 
operation I led my room, and on the thirteenth I returned to Salisbury. Saliva 
escai)cd at first from the wound on taking nourishment ; this has gradually ceased, 
and on this, the thirtieth day after operation, the wound is entirely closed. 
The last drop of sali>'a continued obstinately to escape, until my iVicnd Mr. 
Wilkes, house surgeon to the Salisbury Infirmary, proposed and practised an 
injection of a solution of two grains of the nitmte of silver to nn ounce of dis- 
tilled water, when it ceased entirely. The only existing evidence of my lukV- 
ing imdergone this operation are the cicatrix, a difficulty in winktng with my 
right eye, and a very slight difference in the distance between the eyelids, 
those of the right eye being the most separated, and even these results of the 
bruising ofa branch of the portio dura are rapidly subsiding." — iltditvl Timtt„ 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



THE SIGNS 07 DISEASE. 
Tha linis or tTniptoiDa of disease are exttmal, and aceessIUe to the 
pereeption of others j op interna/, and only rerealed to the inward sensa- 
tion of the paUent himself. They are vinNe, oiormu, tactile, oTMOustte. 
The wiito tiffnt are drawn from the physiognomy, the modifications 
of the cntaneons nurfkee, the general appearance of the body, the penpin- 
tion, the urine, the feces, the expectoration, the matters ronuted, «o. 
The odermtM tignt are manifested by the exhalation from the skm, 
the breath, the urine, tha fteces, the matter from Tomiting, the discharge 
from ulcers, &c. , , 

The tactile aigna are those which are afforded by the movements of the 
circulation— that is to say, the pulse ; the displacement of gases, of h^mds, 
or of solids, beneath the skin ; and the disengagement of heat, with or 
without moisture. ... . . 

Aanutic tigru are had recourse to for the purpose of discoTering those 
symptoms of health and disease, which, by their depth, are concealed 
fhan the sight, the smell, and the touch. We judge at a distance of the 
tone and afieration of the voice ; but it is by applving our ear me^ately 
or Immediately upon the chest, or by shaking the body, that wo judge of 
the state of the deep-seated parts. The one of these proceMes is named 
auieultation, the othar ptreiunon. We anscnlUte the heart, the lungs, the 
stomach, the intestines, the uterus while in a sUte of gesUtion, by apply- 
ing the ear, or the stethoscope, upon the regions corresponduig to these 
organs. Percussion is practised principally over the chest and abdomual 
regions, for the purpose of disc^ering the condition of tha organs in 
these cavities. , 

Internal aignt o/'rfueof«.— We understand by the mtemal signs of disease, 
those of which the patient alone is cognisant, and for which we are 
obliged to depend on his evidence simply. Among these we may enumer- 
ate the following:— First, the light is disturbed and weakened, as soon as 
the centra] system participates in the progress of the evil} the patient sees 
okjeota turn around him ; there is a horror of light ; the eye loses the 
aensation of ordmary ooloors ; objeets are seen donble with both eyes ; 
things which are sUtiooaiy, seem to be agiteted, or move around; black 
spots float about the fbcua of vision, &e. The iatte becomes blunted, 
vitiated, or destroyed, should the papillae or nerves of the tongue become 
implicated, the secretions which arrive at this organ vrill be deranged. 
The tmell is vitiated more readily than the taste. The hearinff becomes 
obtnsa, or deranged in various ways, as well from the accumulation of 
MmnMn or wax, or the presence of foreign bodies, as from the effects of 
inflammation of the delicate structures of this organ. The touek, in like 
manner, is more or less disordered: it is bv this sense that the patient re- 
omves impressions tnm all parte of the body ; whether it be the crawling 
of a worm, the displacement of a liquid, or of a solid body, the itohing, or 
vmritus of a moving atom, the introduction w the escape of air, the_ im- 
pcessions of heat and cold, of increase or arrest of transpiration, of shiver- 
ng, or of fever, &o. All theso sensations are convej-ed to the patient 
throngh the medium of the touch. 

finally, as to the eonteiotmuts, that sixth sense, if it may so bo termed, 
so clear in its workings to the patient, yet so obaonre to the observer: 
this also may bocomo a symptom of disooso, whether by ite uanatwral 
exaltation, or by its depression. 



A CHEAF smsTITUn VOB A. TAFOtlS BATB. 

Db. SxiutE (d' Alois) recommends the following means of indudng abund- 
ant tranqiiration : — " Take a piece of quick-lime, about half the siie of your 
fist, and wrap around it a wet cloth, sufficiently wrong to prevent water mnning 
fion it. A dry cloth is to be several times wrapped around this. Place one 
of these packets on each side the patient when in bed. An abundant humid 
heat is soon developed by the combination of the lime with the water, which 
induces copious transpoation j the effect of the appaiatas lasting tor two horns 
at least. When sweating is fUly esteUished we may withdraw the lime, 
which is now rednoed to a powder, and is easily removed. In this way, neither 
copious drinks, nor loading the bed with coverings, is required." 



ADULTERATION OF DRUGS. 

Mr. Lloyd Bnllock, in an interestingp lecture (printed for private 
circulation) on the state of pharmacy in England, gives some 
pregnant examples of the inefficiency of drugs, and their adul- 
teration by some unprincipled dealm. The adulteration of 
morphia, so as to be reduced in strength one half, is, he says,, 
of frequent occurrence. He remarks that there doubtless are 
many wholesale druggists and chemical manufacturers, most 
honourable and upright men, incapable of practising deception, 
or taking advantage of the ignorance of their customers ; but 
there are some few who deem such practices as diluting with an. 
innocent substance a costly drug, no crime, and therefore prac- 
tise it without remorse. Resides, there are many causes which 
may bring into the dispenser's bottles a substance so weak as to 
be inefficient, or so different to the one intended to be kept there, 
as to be more than worthless, positively mischievous, in cases 
wherein It is usually prescribed. Many substances are manu- 
fitctured in large quanties, and these must be prepared by work- 
men who do not understand the processes which they practise. 
A few years ago a phyddan in one of the great metropolitan 
hospitaJs, a bold experimenter, among other things, began to 
examine the effects of the iodide of potassitun. He commenced 
by prescribing a few grains, but not perceiving any result, he 
increased the dose ; still, as no effect followed, he added more 
and more to his prescription, until he reached several drachms. 
At last it occurred to somebody to inquire whether the substance 
given in such large doses was pure or not, when it was found 
ihat it contained more than seventy-five per cent of carbonate 
of potash, and the wonder was then easily explained. The 
remedy for this state of things is, that the man who prepare* a 
preieription thouid be etqxMt of making an analytis — he aught to 
be a leiei^Jie eA<mist ; the real fact being, that the majority of 
chemists and druggists in this country are totally ignorant of 
chemistry, and yet these persons, who are so ignorant of their 
own business that they cannot detect by analysis an adulterated 
specimen of the iodide of potassium when set before theOi. claim 
the privilege of prescribing for the sick, for which they are 
equally or more disqualified. They undergo no examination ; 
they are under no restrictions. A grocer may displace his 
canisters any day he pleases, an oilman his casks, and supply 
their places with substances, single grains of which may consign to 
death their equally ignorant neighbours. The boy who has carried 
out the medicine of the genenl practitioner, learns to spell the 
names of the bottles in the dispensary, and he is forthwith quali- 
fied to be a pharmacien. He takes a shop, writes up "chemist," 
and the confiding public ei^oys the precious boon. Not a few 
instances have occurred where the errand boy has proceeded a 
step further, and dubbed himself a practitioner in medicine, or 
even donned the " professor's" robe. • 



TBB aoos Ann XEJOinroh. 

Max is so inclined to give himself up to common pursuits, the mind be- 
comes easily dulled to impressions of the beauty and perfect, that one should 
take all possible means to awaken one's perspective faculty to such objects, 
for no one can entirely dispense with these pleasures; and it is only the being 
unaccustomed to the enjoyment of anything good that causes men to find plea- 
sure in tasteless and trivial olgects, which have no recommendation but that 
of novelty. One ought every day to hear a little mnsic, to read a little poetry, 
to see a good picture, and, if it were possible, to say a few reaioaahle wvcda. 
— Goethe. 



' THB ponns ow thx sur. 

Ha. Wilson has made the following curious calculation, he says: — On 
tiie palm of the hand the number of perspiratory pores is 3,528 in the square 
inch. Now each of these pores, being the aperture of a little tube a quarter 
<^ an inoh long, it follows that, in a square inch of skin on the palms of the 
hand, tiiere eziste a length of tobe equal to 882 inches, or 73| feet. On the 
polpe of the fingers, where the ridges of the sensitive layer of the true skin are 
somewhat finer than in the palm of the hand, the number of pores on a square 
inch a little exceeded that of the palm of the hand, and on the heel, where the 
ridges are coarser, the number of pores on the square inch was 2,268, and the 
length of the tube 567 inches, or 47 ieet To obtain an estimate of the length 
of tube of the persjnntory system of the whole surface of the body, I think 
that 2,800 might be taken as a fair average of pores in the square inch, and 
700 cooseqnently of the number of inches in length. Now, the number of 
square inches of sor&ce in an adult of ordinary height and bulk is 8,500, the 
nnmberof pores therefore, 7,000,(KX); and the number of inches of perqwatorr 
tube 1,750,000 ; that is, 145,833 feet, or 48,60<1 yards, or nearly 28 mUes of 
superficial drainage. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



55 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS ft MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

Znc OlBTMSMT ii made bj nibbiag well together OM oanee of oxide of 
ziae, end mx oanece of bogt* lard. It U oommoDljr lued for dreMio; the lorei 
T CT i ai n in g after lealdt and burnt, to abiorb the great ditchaige which generally 
fgOawf ; and it it a verjr good applieatioa to eiaeked ekin, f^om which a 
W1MI7 tmi ooaai aad irritates the neighboaring tkiu. 

To Rbmotb CORMt. — Coma being prodnced by prettnre, it it only by 

the temoral of that pretnue they can be effeetoally eradicated ; paring them 

-eill afford bat temDorary relief, and it a daogeroot expedient. The tafeit 

aethed of getting ria of theie troubleiome appendant, it by tomething which 

win ierre aa a proteotioa egeintt the prettnre of the boot or thoe. Very 

ckict little pad* of all liiei, having peiforatioat in the centre, made of an 

dailie Baterial, auiy be obtained at any retpeetaUa dmggittt'. They readily 

adtyt fh e m e u lTei to the toe or foot, and are worn without the leait iaconveai- 

eact They are far more beneficid than all the plaittert, talrei, and aolTenti 

tfrr invented. 

Aqca Sikapii. — According to M. Heailer, by the dittillation of 18 on. 
•f csanely-powderod ;hlaek mnitard, with 8 on. of alcohol, aad tufficieat 
etter until 36 oxa. have patted over, a liquid ia obtained, which, when applied 
t> the tkia on linen moittened with it, actt more quickly and powerfully than 
aa ordinary muatard poultice. 

B&La&iuc VnrsoAa roa Bicx CH^nBU, tec — ^Bne, aage, roaemary, 
Itrender, caatia, and doret, of each 1 ounce; camphor (powdered), 3 ouncea ; 
itroog Tinegar, half a gallon. Steep for one weeld 

To Akbbbt Balshbsb, oit BxaT trb Falliho Off of thb Haib. — 
In two annrea of tpiritt of wine tteep two drachma of cantharidat (pnlverited) 
fcr a fortnight or three weekt, thaking it repeatedly during that lime. Then 
fiber it, and rub np one-tenth of the tincture ao procured, with nine-tentht of 
cdd hog's lard. Scent it with a few dropi of any kind of perftime, and rub it 
*cU into the head every momiag and evening, 

Cbiuisxm ihould drink plain water or milk, or a mixture of both. No 

c-cid 'a natorally fond of wine or beer; and when thete fluids are offered they 

«iZ7 generally turn from them with diagnat, until their taste becomes reoon- 

dled to their nse, which indeed, unlets they are given as medicines, cannot be 

justified. — Dr. Conguttt. 

DIETARY.— WHOLESOME AND ECONOMIC. 

MoixiOATAWMT Soup. — Cot up a knnekla of veal, whidi pntinto attew- 
paa. with a piece of butter, half a pound of lean ham, a carrot, a tumlp, three 
onions and ux applet, add half a pint of water; set ijie stewpen over a sharp 
fire, moving the meat round oocaaionally ; let it remain nntil the bottom of the 
stewpan it covered with a brownish glaze, then add three table-spoonafhl of 
carry powder.oae of onrry paate, and halfa ponnd of flour, ttirweUin, and 611 
the atewpan with a gallon of water; add a apoonfnl of aalt, the half of one of 
500^; when boiling place it at the comer of the fire, and let it simmer two 
hours and a bill^ skimming off all the fat at it rites, then press it through a 
tammy into a tureen, trim some of the pieces of veal, and put it back in the 
stewpan to boil, and serve with pluu boiled rice separately. Ox-tails or pair 
of rabbits, chickens, &&, left from a previous dinner might be served in it in- 
stead of veal. The veal it exceedingly good to eat. 

Atflb FBiTTms. — Fan the largett baking ^iples yon can get, take out 
the core with an apple scraper, out them in round slices, and dip them in 
batter, made as for pancakes, bj them crisp, and lerve them up with mgar 
grated over them. 

Batteb FAinuiau. — Beat three eggt with a ponnd of floor very well, 
put to h a pint of milk and a little salt, i^ them in lard or batter, giate angar 
era them, cot them ia qnartov, and serve them up hot 

FtVB Paxoakxs. — ^Take a pint of cream, eight eggs (leave ont two of the 
etites) Uiree large apoonsftil of orange-flower water, a little sngar and grated 
nntiifg; melt a small quantity of batter with the cream over the fire, then 
add tkiae qxxmafal of flour, and mix well together. Butter the firying-pan for 
theibat; let them run at thin as yon can in the pan, fiy them quiok, and 
scad them up hot. 

A PxKK-coi«UltBO Pahoakb. — ^Boil a Urge beet roor tender, and beat 
it fine ia a marble mortar, then add the yolk of four eggt, two tpoontful of 
fisor, and three tpoontful of good cream ; iweeten it to your taste ; grate in 
half a nutmeg, and put in a glass of brandy ; beat them all together half an 
hoar, trj them in batter, and garaith theai with green tweetmeats, preserved 
aprieou, or green sprigt of myrtle. It it a pretty comer dish for either dinner 
<r sapper. 

To Makb k. LtoBT PcoDiiro. — ^Take one table-tpoonful of Nbtills' 
patent flour of I.BIITII.8, and mix with a wine*glaitAil of cold milk, upon 
whteh paw one |riat of teaUiag Okilk; thaa add a tiiee of butter, and two 
eggt. Flavour with nntmeg, lemon-peel, bitter almondt and augar. Be care- 
fal to keep ttiniag with each aixttue. Bake it in a tlnw oven half aa hour — 
[Cftjitri.] 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Print 9t.; hf poit, St. M. 
CONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE; the 
y^ Caotea, Symptoms, and Hational Treatment, with the meana of 
Preventioa. By T. H. Ysoxur, M.D. 

" Thia compendious little treatite it marked by mnch good tenae, careful 
obaervation, and apecific views as to the nature of the terrible disease of which 
It treaU The subject ia treated in a popular form: and the volume ahould 
be «>naalted by every one who ia interested in thu dtseaae : and who is not. 
m thu itt favourite region f— Court Journal, October 14, 1848. 
Also by the tame Author, price 2i. 
A STHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH; 
-'-■- the Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment. 

" Da. Yboxait in his admirable little treatise on Consumption, has already 
very satiafsctorUy proved that ia certain casea medical knowledge may be 
popularued with safety. This ia an excellent sequel to the former work."— 
fVeekly Timet, January 19, 1849. 

London: Sakpson Low, 169, Fleet-atreet; Effikokaic WiLtos, II 
Royal Exchange; Webstbb a kd Co. 60, Piccadilly ; and all Bookaellen. 

JVTKVILL'S PATENT FLOUR of LENTILS,— 
■*-~ a pleasant, nutritious, and agreeabl^kod for Invalids, Dyspeptics, and 
persons suffering 6;om Constipation, or an^Dier chronio derangement of the 
Digeitive Organs — also for making GroeL It is the only food that does not 
diitend or turn acid on a weak Stomach. It will be fijond invaluable for 
Delicate Children and Sufferers fiom Debility. 

Sold Wholeeale by Navni and Co., 16a, Chichester Place, Grays Inn 
Boad, London; and Retail by T. Cabbicx, 127, Czawfi>rd Stxeet; T. Shabp, 
44, Biahopsgata Street Within; Mii.ss, Gracechurch Street, City; and 
may be obtained irom bU reapecUble Shopkeepers in the Kingdom, in Facketa, 
Sd. and la. each, and 6 lb. and 12 lb. canisters, 5a. 6d. and lOs. 6d. each. 



17 S. CLEAVE H'S WINTER; SOAP.— This Soap is a 
-■- * combination of the Gennine Honey Soap, Camphor, and Testable OUs, 
consequently the very best for this Season of the year, and at all times for 
tender skins. Invaluable as a Shaving Soap. Sold in large non-angnlar Tablets, 
at 3d. each ; and monsters 6d. each. To be had at the manufactory, 1 3, Red 
Lion Square, Holbom, and at all Chemiats, Perfumers, &c., in the United 
Kingdom. 



JOHN MILES, (Late BUTLER and CO,) DISPENSING 
^ CHEMIST 78, Gracechurch Street, respectfully informs the Public 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals ; the too fVequent dangerous adul- 
teration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of which 
depend the health and safety of our fellow creatures, induces J. Milbi to 
pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that ill Prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified assistants under his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for Roofv's Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
npply of Coo Livbb Oil, prepared from the finest Fish of the Season. 



THE TEETH.— Mr. SMARTT, DENTIST and CUPPER. 
S5, Sun Street, Bisbopsgate, London, invites attention to his IM- 
PROVED ARTIFICIAL TEETH. They are fixed without extracting the 
roots of the previous Teeth, no pain is caused, they defy detection by the most 
tcratinitiiu obterver, and are guaranteed to answer all the purposes of masti- 
cation, filling np the void produced by the loss of the natural Teeth, thereby 
restoring facial beanty, and enabling the patient to speak with fluency and 
comfort. Irregularities and deformities of the Teeth removed where practi- 
cable. Mb. Smabtt attends at 48, Harmer Street, Gravesend, every Friday 



DR. ARNOTT'S HYDROSTATIC OR FLOATING BEDS. 
— This valuable invention, aflbrding such relief to all patients long con- 
fined to bed, is now presented to the public, greatly improved in manufacture, 
by which it is made m ich more durable; and at a price which it is hoped will 
conduce to make its advantages more generally avaiUble. £ s* d. 

No. 1. Hydrostatic Bed, with Castors, &c 8 8 

No. 2. Ditto plain „ 7 7 

POB RtBB. 

No. I. First Month 1 15 

„ Second and succeeding Montht 12 6 

No. 2. Firtt Month 1 10 

y Second and tncceeding Months 17 6 

The Hire of the Bed, with waterproof Sheet and Carriage, to be paid in 
advance. 

Manu&ctnred, Sold, and Let Out on Hire, by Bdwabo Spbmcbb, A; Co 
16, Billiter Street, and 116, Penchurch Street, London. Manufacturers of 
the adjusting and other approved Surgical and Invalid Beds, 
A stock of thete Beds kept always ready for immediate use. 



Digitized by 



Google 



56 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

NoncB. — AH commniiicatioiu for the Editor must be addreuad, pre-paid, 
to hi* boDse, No. 85, Llotd Sqdabe, Fbitoktille. It ii indis- 
pensable that letters requiring a prirata answer contain a postage 
stamp, or stamped enrelope, whereon is writtea the address of the 
applicant. Invalids resident in the eonntry, and others desiring the . 
opinion of the Editor, who are nnable to consult him personally, can 
hare, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giring answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interriew, in many instances, may be aroided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment. Notes of every 
case submitted to the Editor will be recorded in bis prirate case-book 
for the facility of reference at any future period. 

The Editor is at home every day until One o'clock ; and on the evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. He attends 
at Mr. MiLGS'g Medical juid SmiaiCAL Establubxrkt, 78, 
Gracechnrch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 
Two till Three o'clock. 



We particularly rcquestjCprreapondcnts who do not attach their 
proper names to their coi^PRnicationii, to avoid all such signatures 
as "a Subscriber,"— "Constant Reader," — Weil-Wisher," 4c. 
Where the correct name is not given, it will insure the identity of the 
"answer" to the query proposed to us, if our correspondents add the 
name of the town or street from which they write : thus — O. P. Q. 
(Bath) — Delta, (Manchester Square). 

The Monthly Fart of the People's Medical Jovrkal, containing the first 
Five Numbers, is now ready, price, in a neat Wrapper, 6d. 

We have received many applications to publish sepaialely, in a small volume, 
the articles on Indigestion, which are now complete<l. Should this with 
be more generally sxpreued by our readers, we shall do so. The price 
not to exceed fourpence, by post sixpence. 

Observer (Coalville). — Try a shower-bath — pay attention to the stomach 
and bowels — take exercise out of doors. Exerciae the memory thus : — 
Bead a paraeraph that interests you in the morning, write the same, 
from rcrollection, at night — do this often. 

AxATOR SciBNTi.s.— Take some of the preparations of iron, as the citrate; 
and employ a shower-bath. The person about whom you inquire is an 
ignorant quack as lejnrds the cure of disease, although he may under- 
stand the makinit (and selling) of galvanic apparatus. 

Fedon (Strand). — Wear eye-preservers of blue or green glass— dash the 
eyes night and morning with the coldest water you can procure — and 
omit the laudanum. May not the stomach assist to increase the annoy- 
ance? 

A. B. C. — Tlirre should always be perfect conSdenee between the physician 
and his patient. The confesiional is not more sacredly con8dential 
than the consulting-room. Nevertheless, we care not whether yon are 
A. B.C. (to be left at the Post Office) ; or Mr. Smith, No. 17, Blank- 
street, London. 

T. T. C. (S^— r-g).— Try the tartar-emetic ointment to the breast-bone (» 
piece about the size of two peas to be rubbed in every uisht, until an 
emption is induced) ; and take, twenty drops of tincture of squills, and 
ten drops of elixir of vitriol, in water, three times a day. 

X. O. O.- Tour's is a singular case. If there is an outlet for one secretion, 
there must be also one for the other. We shonid not recommend an 
operation by the knife- The case is of sufficient importance to merit 
your best attention. We are obliged by the paragraph you have en- 
closed ; it docs not refer to our Jonmal. 

C W. (Crosby Square). — We have received the correspondence dated from 
a pUee " leading to Great Marlboro' Street,*' and, a<:recab1e to your 
permission, shall make use of it. You had better " Fat'* what you will, 
" Dsikk" what yon like, and '' Avoid" quackery, than have your 
health impaired and your purso lightened. — •' And so, my friend, Sue- 
well." FatchouUi! 

WiLUAXf Foster (Screvcton).— See answer to E. G. H. in No. 6. 

M. M. Q. (Boltun). — Were you to mind your own business, instea of 
quacking your neighbours with lobelia, and meddling with affairs which, 
Judging from your letter, you are totally unfitted by education to com- 
prehend, we are certain your children wonld be better fed and better 
cared, fo^, and their father would mn less risk of seeing the inside of the 
county-Jail. If you are a cobbler, stick to your last. 

Cbakles Mcir (Stirling).— You will find all the information yon ask for 
in the artlrle on Hypocliondrissit, or Low Spirits, published In No. 3. 

J. E. yv—n (Manchester).— Bee answer to H. O. H. in No. 6. If not bet- 
ter in a week) send your address. 

J, F. (John Street).— Yonr question is an InTidion* one, vhich we declioe 
answering. 



a. K. (Kettering).— Sometiasc*. partienUuly in the Sontbem and Western 
States of iunarica — tar, in the absence of tliat, molasses, mixed with 
feathers, is worn next the skin. Nevertlicleas, we siill advise calico- 
How silly, to suppose we eonld devote a whole eolunn to answer a silly 
qoestion for yonr eapceial behoof! 

Alpha (Clidaea). — Do not take eolchienm, nnleas under medical direction. 
Move the bowels fifldy, and take five gnias of the eomponad galbannm 
pill every night. 

Mart Ash — Tour atatement i* not sufficiently dcseriptiva of the " emp- 
tions." 

H. W. ( Halifax).— We are extremely gratefnl for the interest yon appear to 
take in the success of our Jonmal, but fisar we ahall be oiiable to insert 
yonr promised contributions. 

£L A, (Gateshead). — The original price was 4s. fid. A cheaper eopymay some- 
times be purchased second-hand. Phillips' Translation is the best, price 
8s. 6d. 

D. W. (Vanxhall Road). — You require moral medicine as well as drugs — Fee, 

according to the drenmstanoes of the patient 

C. M. — Few things, few practices injure health so decidedly as t])p hiU>U of 

taking drugs or remedies to excite the action o{ the bowels. Ox-gall 
" pilU" are valuable occasionally — their constant use is injurious ; knock 
at the door regularly, and nature will soon open it. 

Maria. — Mr. Smartt, cert:unly. His writings prove him to be an accomplished 
gentleman; his operations prove him to be an accomplished dentist — and 
his moderate charges prove him to be a liberal man. 

J. T. F. — Yes : We shall be glad to read yonr p^ier on dreams ; if appro- 
priate we will insert it Brevity and ntility are what wo require. 

J. W. F. (Cornwall). — Tour's is another case of swindle: Second: — it is cnra- 
bla by proper remedies and yonr own moral management The remedies 
can bo as easily procured in your own town as in London. 

B. 6. (Wilmington Sqnve) Housenuuds' knee, or iajlamtd buna. Rest, 
cold lotion j, and purgatives. If matter lias formed, warm poultices and 
a liuicet. 

Z. (Preston). — Yes. 

E. L. — The cold water is dongerons — mturderous; the vinegar most iqjurioiis, 

and will not fulfil the purpose supposed. 

William Sxithsosi. — See tlw t. chap. 2d. Kings and Sth and Cth verses. 

Rreuxatibh. — ^We shall commence a short series of Papers on this moladv- 
in oxu: next 

J. W. (Leeds). — Take the second prescription given in the third article on 
Diseases of the Chest, published in No. 3. 

Robert Hawsoh. — We do not profess to give advice, indiscriminately, vrithout 
fee ; there is n wide difference between honest poverty, and poverty of 
spirit The former will always meet with the utmost consideration at our 
hands, and our serrices will be cheerfully rendered. Will your lawyer 
preserve your property without his " charges"? Why should a medicnl 
man who preserves your health be the only man who is expected to work, 
brain and hand, gratis? " The labourer is worthy of his hire," whether 
he be a baker, tailor, or doctor. 

T. B. H. (Derby). — Take, of the trisnitrate of bismuth one scmple ; powdereil 
squills, ten grains; poivdere'I rhnbarb, two scruples ; syrup sufficient to 
form mass, carefully beat together. Divide into eighteen pills. Take 
one three times a day. 

D. E. (Belfast). — Abstemiousness ; mild purgatives, at compound rhubarb 

pill, and plenty of exercise. A tepid bath occasionally. 

E. X. (Chelsea). — We suffer from the same annoyance. Wear a cluth boot ; 

pressure, even that of a new and tight lock, aggravates the pain ; place 
the foot in hot water, and give it all the rest you can until the uneasinesa 
has abated. 

TnB followiko Corrbspokdbhts can only be answered privately: — Thes- 
Pius (Woolwich). T. R. F. j(Bri8tol). Matthew M. (Liverpool). 
P. M. (New Boad). Charlxb Stanlet (Birmingham). A. B. 
(Tooley Street). W. B. LAKSfERHniR. A Friohtbhid One 
(Southampton). W. B. (A poor clerk). P. V. (Manchester). S. Thovt- 
aoM (Bishopsgato Street). An OldPatibkt (Whitby). W. Hikton, 
A Poor Man (Chelsea). A H. (Newcastle-on-Tyne). B. B. (Ed- 
monton). 

FRBSCRimOKg and private instructions as to diet and regimen are leil with 
The DiSFEirSER, 78, Gracechurch Street, for the following corres- 
pondents : P. M. J. W. A F. (Red Lion Street). Jcvekis 

MARr. E.8.(TowerUill). A.Mbcrakic. William T 1 (Bow). 

Alomzo. a Working Max (Rotherhithe). Mrs. C (Aldgate). 

A Sailor (East Greenwich). A Clbbk (Sidney Street). Paul. 
Potter. W. B. (Wapping Wall). Graoblbss. B. B. (Bethnal 
Green). Edwabd C. (Barbican). 



Frlnted l)y CHAniEt AoiMS, at bis PrIntinK Ofllw, S, St Junn's Walk, In the Pariah of 
8t. Jsnws't, Clerkenwell, In the Conatjr or WdOlttex ; and puliUahed, fiw the Propiicton, 
b7 OEoaoB VicKxas, Strand, In tiM I'srish of St Utmsnt Donos, In the said Cooatjr of 
Middlesex.. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

FAMILT PHYSICIAN. 



^m^ft^^ n ttmm^^^^t 



EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 8.— Vol. L] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1850. 



[omcFEBirT. 



BHEUMATISM. 

BT THB BDiTOB. 
No. I. 



Rbeukatish is a painful item in almost every Englishman's 
inheritance ; there are few who reach the summit of the incline 
plane of life, without enjoying their legacy ; and still fewer who 
make the descent without lumhago or rheumatism becoming an 
annuity — ^in many instances, paid quarterly. 

Rheumatism is the term applied to pain, inflammation, and 
Mness about the larger joints ; when its seat is in the back, it 
is termed lunAago ; when in the neck, it has been called a crick 
h the neck. When the sciatic nerve is painfully affected, and 
the disorder known as sciatica is induced, it was common to refer 
it to rheumatism ; this is incorrect, sciatica is a disease of the 
nerve itself. Rheumatism is an inflammation of the fibrous tis- 
sues, as the aponeuroses, or tendinous expansions of the muscles, 
the fibrous sheaths of the tendons, the ligaments surrounding 
the joints, and the periosteum, or membrane immediately cover- 
ing the bones. Some pathologists consider the substance of the 
muscles to be equally the seat of rheumatism. 

The common remote cause of rheumatism is cold or damp 
applied when the body is heated ; hence it is that we find it at- 
tributed, in a large proportion of cases, to sleeping in damp beds, 
living within damp w^Is. sitting in damp clothes, or working in 
damp situations. Children are seldom the subject of acute rheu- 
matism, it rarely occurs until the age of puboty ; ahd out of one 
hnndred cases, ninety are above the age of sixteen. The strong 
and the active, those of a sanguine temperament and plethoric 
habit of body, are the most prone to its attacks. Daily experi- 
ence proves that both sexes are alike liable ; ifwomen more &&• 
quendy escape, owing perhaps, to their less robust constitution, 
and their being generally less exposed to cold and damp, they 
are still known to be particularly susceptible when, after being 
tenderly brought up, they are exposed to the exciting causes, 
and their tendency to be attacked is known to be increased by 
mterruption of that regularity which is essential to the health of 
lemales. Women, therefore, between the ages of forty and fifty, 
fieqaently suffer from it. Rheumatism prevails principally in the 
months of December and January, and least firequently in Au- 
gust and September. 

Khenmatism occurs both in an acute and chronic form ; the 
latter is by far the most constant and obstinate affection. 

Acute Rheumatism, or Rheumatic Fever, is ushered 
in by a sudden attack of rigors, followed by a high degree of 
fever ; there is great pain and swelling of the joints, with utter 
inability to move them; there is no joint except perhaps 
the extreme and minute joints of the fingers and toes, but is 
susceptible of its attack, although it usually commences in, and 
even confines itself to, the larger. Among these, however, it 



frequently wanders most capriciously, passing rapidly from the 
shoulders to the elbows, wrists, loins, hips, knees, or ankles 
without observing any order, or enabling us in any way to prog- 
nosticate its course ; it always enlarges the part on which it 
alights, and renders it peculiarly tender to the touch. The pains 
are aggravated towards night ; and (contrary to chronic rheuma- 
tism) at all times increased by the applicaticm of external heat; 
the swelling or puffiness of the parts does not in every case take 
the form in the joint affected, but is diffused over the cellular 
membrane in its neighbourhood. The accompanying fever pre- 
sents several important peculiarities : the pulse seldom exceeds 
100 to 110 in the minute ; but, instead of the hardness which 
characterises other inflammatory fevers, it is full, soft, and, as it 
were round. The skin, instead of being hot, harsh, and dry, is 
commonly in a state of profuse perspiration, from which escapes 
an excee^ngly sour smell. The tongue is always deeply loaded ; 
the papillte, or little red points, appear elongated, and stand up 
like the pile of velvet, and are covered with a thick and abun- 
dant mucus ; there is great thirst, but rarely any nausea or vomit- 
ing ; the bowels are constipated ; the urine is at first pale, but 
soon becomes high-coloured, and deposits a red sediment. 

Unlike other inflammations, acute rheumatism never ends in 
suppuration or in mortification ; there may be some effusion of 
a transparent gelatinous fluid, but this is soon absorbed, and it 
is seldom that any permanent injury is done to the joint. When 
the disease subsides, there is not that itching of the part which 
precedes the departure of gout, neither does the skin ped off. 
Acute rheumatism is not, generally speaking, attended with 
danger ; sometimes, however, it induces inflammation in parts 
of great importance to life, by the strong tendency which is pe- 
culiar to this disease to shift its situation (meUutaiis). The parts 
to which the rheumatic affection is thus translated, are tiiose 
which partake more or less of the ligamentous or fibrous dssue : 
the periosteum is a structure that is frequently attacked ; hence 
those aching pains in the bones by which patients are severely 
tortured. The pericardium is another organ to which the rheu- 
matic inflammation is frequently directed ; this is indica- 
ted by great pain in the region of the heart, and great disorder 
in its action : this is the most dangerous sequel to rheumatism. 
The pleura in like manner may be affected, causing pleurisy : 
sometimes the dura mater, another flbrous membrane, suffers ; 
the patient being afflicted with keen headache, and often falling 
a victim to the disease. In all cases of acute rheumatism, we 
must carefully examine the chest, and watch any sign of inflam- 
mation in the organs contained within. 

There is no disease that is so liable to relapse on slight oc- 
casions as rhettmatism. Going out a litUe too early in the open 
air, too much exercise of a particular joint, or an excess in diet, 
have frequentiy brought back the disease in all its former violence. 
" I leave you to guess," wrote Madame de Sevigne, to her 



Digitized by 



Google 



58 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL. JOURNAL, 



daughter, " what is that which comei the swiftest, and departs 
the slowest; which brings you nearest to convalescence, yet 
places you at a greater distance from H ; which places within 
your reach the most agreeable prospect, yet prevents you ei^oy- 
ing it ; which gives rise to the fairest hopes, but places the rea- 
lisation beyond your reach. — Can you not guess it ? well, then, 
it is rheumatism !" 

Acute rheumatism may be distiB^ishad from gout by being 
but little connected with indigea^on ; the pain is severe certainly^ 
but not of the violent, horrid kind, like a dog gnawing the joint, 
experienced in gout ; neither does it, like gout, commence in 
the evening or at night, but at any time. Rheumatism attacks 
tho iflsgCj gtKch the inriitii joHitHi ana tse totsotst wsy be utTSR* 
ably referred to exposure to cold and damp. Bbeumatism, when 
it attacks the head and face, has been mistaken for tic-doulour- 
eux ; in: the latter affection the pain may be traced to a common 
centre, fivm which diverge in Unes, the torturing pangs ; in 
rheumatism, the pain is di£bsed over the head, face, and neck. 
It may be distinguished from sciatica by the absence of swelling ; 
indeed in seiaUca the whole limb, instead of continuing to swell, 
soon wastes away, and the emaeiation extends to the buttocks 
of the afflicted side, so that the muscles have neither strength nor 
substance, while the thigh seems elongated. Shakspere's Timon 
says, — 

" Th* cold sciAncA 

Cripple our nnatort, that tbeir liatb* m»7 hilt 
Aj lamely u their nuiuiuf." 

Lumbago has sometimes been confounded wth inflammation 
of the kidney, or with stone in the kidneys or ureters ; the diag>. 
nostic signs of retraction, numbness shooting down the thigh, 
and irregularity in the secretion of urine, which mark the nepbri- 
tic affection, are stifSciently clear to proclaim the real state of 
things. 

The trealmeTU of acute rheumatism must, in the first instance, 
be similar to that pursued in other active inflammations ; when 
the fever is violent, and especially when the frame is robust, our 
only effectual remedies are bleeding and the use of diaphoretics ; 
by the former we subdue the inflammation, and by the latter we 
follow the indication of nature by relaxing the pores of the skin, 
and thus endeavouring to throw off the disease by perspiration. 
Bleeding by the lancet must not be carried too far so as to weaken 
the system unnecessarily, for it should be remembered the in- 
flammation is not in an organ essential to life : in weak and irri- 
table constitutions we must be content with abstracting blood 
locally by leeches or cupping : it is not, however, in every case 
that the loss of blood is required. The most useful diaphoretic is 
Dover's powder, which may be employed in union with the ace- 
tate of ammonia and camphor. Aperients are always necessary 
at the commencement. Small doses of calomel combined wiUi 
opium frequently arrest the disease; but while it (^ntinues, 
neither opium, hyosciamus, hemlock, or other sedatives, have 
much power in alleviating the pam. When the inflammatory 
action has subsided, we may employ that well-known remedy in 
rheumatic and gouty affections — colchicum ; it should be given 
with magnesia, and continued till it purges the patient thoroughly, 
and as soon as this is effected it shoidd be discontinued ; it is a 
drug which is apt to gripe severely, and the stomach will seldom 
bear it without annoyance—each dose may therefore be conjdned 
with one, two, or three minims of hydrocyanic acid. Colchicum 
is a far more potent remedy in chronic rittumatism than in the 
form of the disease on which we are now writing. There is a 
remedy for rheumatism which appears to have been strangely 
overlooked by English practitioners, although dteservedly held 
in high fisvoor by Russian phyaiciaas : we allude to the rhodo- 
dendron ehrysaMhmt, a plant which is a native of the snowy 
summits of the Alps, and mountaina of Siberia ; we have fre- 



quently met with it in drug establishments in Edinburgh and 
Glasgow, but it is difiacnlt to procure in London ; the dose is 
from five to ten grains of the powdered leaves. It, acts as a 
powerful, diaphoretic and narcotic, and has the power of imme- 
diately lowering the pulse ; its use requires great care, as it is 
i^t to produce vertigo and nausea. 

As soon as all the inflammatory symptoms have abated it 
will be prudent for the patient to persevere in the employment 
of small doses of quinine for some days. The use of bark as a 
remedy for rheumatism during its inflammatory stages, is now, 
properly, exploded. 

In acute rheumatism, local applications to the affected joints 
are of little service — or, rather, in most cases of no service at dl. 
This remark applies equally to fomentations, cold lotions, rube- 
facient liniments, plaisters, and blisters. In this complaint the 
fiitictions of the stomach are often little impiured, nevertheless a 
strict attention to diet is necessary; a free indulgence of the 
appetite protracts the complainl^ fiwstiBtes the effects of reme- 
dies, and certainly contributes to give to rheumatism that 
character of tediousness which makes it the golden harvest of 
quack medicine proprietors. 

Chronic Rheumatism in our next. 



OX THE HASTAOEHENT GF THE TEETH. 

No. IV. 
BT CHAELKS SKABTT, S8Q., 8CBOSON DBBTI8I. 

In an essay written in popular phrase, it will not be necessary 
to enter minutely into the ways and means of extracting teeth ; 
suffice it to observe, that this being an operation not unfre- 
quently attended with pain, it is much dreaded, although the 
experienced practitioner will generally succeed in removing the 
offending member without inflicting any serious amount of suf- 
fering. It would be quite out of place here to offer advice to the 
patient as to the method of extraction, and he need not be re- 
minded that although it is perfectly possible the village black- 
smith and penny barber may succeed in pulling out a tooth, 
nevertheless it is essentially important that he assure himself, 
when seeking the advice of the dentist, that his adviser is pos- 
sessed of a perfect knowledge of his art, both physically and 
mechanically. Without the first, extraction and other dental 
operations must necessarily be performed per chance, and fre- 
quent fractures, not only of the teeth, but of the jaws also, will 
occur ; and without a combination of the two he can never 
succeed in properly and usefully fitting artificial teeth in the 
months of those who may have the misfortune to be deprived of 
their natural teeth. Having in a previous article directed atten- 
tion to the uses of the teeth, not only as the handmaids of beauty, 
but also as helpmates to articulation and digestion, we need not 
urge upon our readers the almost vital necessity of obtaining the 
aid of art to replace, as far as possible, the decay of nature. 
And it is surprising that any person shoiild be so unwise as to 
exhibit the &Ise delicacy fiequently observed in these matters. 
How many there are who hesitate not to wear a -wig, although, by 
interfering with the escape of perspiration, they injure the scalp ! 
What lady is deterred from encasing herself in false ribs (stays) 
whereby she suffers all the ill effects of tight lacing ! And we 
might mention another portion of female dress even more mon- 
strous and unnatural, perfectly useless and imsightly, but 
equally as universal. The ancjfnts paid much attention to dental 
matters, the more especially as among the Egyptians it was their 
custom to punish some crimes with the extraction of the teeth 
— hence arose the necessity of replacing the loss which might arise 
in them from punishment or decay. The mechanical dentists of 
the present day appear to have approached as near as possible to 
perfection in their art ; so much so, that when formed by the 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



59 



experienced workman, artificial teeth should answer all the pur- 
poses of the originals,' not only in speech, but in mastication and 
appearance. Properly fitted, teeOi do not cause pain or uneasi- 
ness beyond what we may naturally expect to be experienced for 
a few days in wearing a considerable substance in tJie mouth to 
Thich we have been uBaecastmned. This feeling is, however, 
soon outgrown, and we are persuaded that when from any cause 
the artificial teeth are removed from the mouth, either for cleans- 
ing or replacing them, the patient feds much mare diacomfort 
from their absence than he did from the feeling of fUness ia the 
fintinstanoe. 

ne teeth uaed are either natnnl or arUficaal, according to the 
jmdilection of the patient, or sometimes the fancy of the dentist. 
Ikse are mounted, in some cases, on plates of gold made to fit 
ucuiately the surface presented by the gum ; or where extenaive 
absorption has occurred, ivory is employed. This ivory is fbrmed 
from the tusks of the hippopotamus or sea-horse, the only objection 
to which is the odour that it acquires from the salines and fluids 
leceiTed into the mouth. This may, however, be avoided in a 
great degree by ocgaaianally placing the teeth in spirits of wine, 
having previmiBly well eleaiiaed and bmahed them. Ivory is 
seldom required where only a few teeth are lost. In these cases 
gold plates are employed. Silver is occasionally xnade -use of, 
bat ai it speedily becomes oxidised, it is not really so ecoiMnBical 
as gold, although cheaper. 

The method adopted for ranoving the irregularities of the teeth 
imst of course depend upon the position of the malplaced tooth. 
Seme eases require an ivory wedge, so placed, that wbai the 
ffloath is closed, the teeth are gradually pressed into dieir {ooper 
position. Other cases require a gold plate round the inside of the 
month ; attached to this is a spring fiutened to the inegnlu 
tooth, and by this contrivance it is drawn into its coireet station. 
Few cases present themselves that cannot in time and with perae- 
Teiance be caused to yield, and thus the most Ul-foimed set of 
teeth may be made to present a regular and pleasant appearance. 



DISEASES OF TEE CHEST. 

BX T. H. YlCaUJS, UJ>. 

Na Vin. 

ACUTE BHONCHTnS. 

(Continued from page 50.) 

Th£ sikptous of aoate bronchitis ar« materially modified by age. 
In joang children the disease wmetumes advances so insidiously 
as not to present any very alarming aspect, until a fatal tennina- 
tiou appears inevitable : — there may be only a little fever, with- 
out pain or frequent cough, or indeed any indication to excite 
neater apprehension than would be caused by a common cold. 
Bj attentive observation, however, the breatmng will be found 
honied, and attended with a wheezing, or whistling in the chest, 
the child is restless, the cotmtenance pale and heavy, the pulse 
lock, and the respiration oppressed. This condition, if not 
^Kdily relieved, is soon followed by extreme dificul^ of breath- 
ug, and great rapidity of the pulse, which again may abate for a 
time, and then the cluld will probably fall into a distxtrbed sleep; 
won after the dyspnoea (di£Scnlt breathing) returns with increased 
violence, and suffocation ensues. 

The aged, and persons of a weakened constitution, are some- 
times attacked with bronchitis in a &rm that closely resembles 
inflammation of the lungs, — described by medical writers as pg- 
ripnewnonia notha, or spurious inflammation of the lungs. In 
mch cases the di£Bculty of breathing, accompanied by a peculiar 
wheezing, is the first and most urgent symptom; the fever is less 
acute ; Uie temperature of the skin is scarcely increased, except 
towards night, although the pulse is usually quick and wiry ;— 



tiie stomach is affected, there is nausea, a loaded tongue, and 
great thirat ; the expectoration, which at first is scanty, afterwards 
becomes copious, and the patient has frequent attacks of dy^HMsa 
which prevent him lying down ; the voice is greatly weakened, 
occasionally altogether lost Bronchitis of this type commonly 
follows humid catarrh, and lias a great tendency to pass into the 
nuranic form. 

The diagnosis of bronchitis is simple; it is fUstbaguiBhed 
fhmi inflammation of the lungs, by the absence of the red, or 
msty tinge, which the expectoration acquires in the latter dis- 
ease; and, as has been correctly remarked "there is little like- 
lihood of its being confounded with any other affeetion ; the only 
fear is, that in its more insidious forms it may escape attention 
altogether until the mischief is irremediable." 

The physical or stethoscopic signs dearly iwficate the precise 
disease ; the mucous membrane of the tubes heSatg thickened by 
inflammation, their calibre is diminished, so that in certain parts 
of the chest the air may be heard passing through with a imist- 
ling, or wheezing, or hissing sound, which, oocasionaOy, is more 
prolonged and of a graver tone, like a note of aviolonoello, or the 
cooing of a dove ; when the mucus accumulates in the tubes, it 
gives rise to a bubbling sound, and the natural murmur of re- 
spiration is partially lost. 

The prognosis, or probable result, of acute bronchitis is of 
course dependent upon the extent of the disease. In mild cases 
in which the inflammation is confined to a few of the larger 
bronchial tubes, with only a slight attack of fever, and not mudi 
difficulty in breathing, it may terminate favourably in six or serve* 
days, or be protracted, without any aggravation of the symptoms, 
to three or four weeks, and then it may become chronic. The 
character of the expectoration will always afford a true indication 
of the advance towards health ; when it becomes opaque, consis- 
tent, and a pearly white colotir, it invariably becomes less in 
qnanti^, and the disease speedily terminates ; if, on the other 
hand, it remains glairy and fluid, we may expect a more pro- 
longed attack. Dunng ihe progress towards recovery, the greatest 
caution should be maintained, as by a fresh accession of cold the 
symptoms may return with renewed violence, and we then find 
that the expectoration immediately changes, and becomes again 
thin, watery, and irritating ; such a relapse is invariably more 
severe than the original invasion of the disease, the cough is 
more distressing, the breathing more oppressed, and what was 
before almost a harmless complaint, is converted into one of a 
dangerous tendency. 

When the inflammation is more extensive and acute, and the 
other symptoms are increased in proportion, the prognosis must 
be guarded : if an amelioration doesf not quickly follow active 
and judicious treatment, we may then fear that a state of collapse 
will succeed, and the patient may be threatened with suffoca- 
tion ; the countenance affords a correct index of this change ; it 
is anxious and sharp, at first deadly pale, and afterwards purple 
or livid ; a mucous ratde or gurgling is heard throughout the 
lungs, and the absence of the respiratory murmur gives faithfal 
evidence of the alarming position of the patient When bronchitis 
succeeds to the sudden suppression of an eruptive fever, as the 
measles, small-pox or scarletfever, the result is generally adverse. 

In some cases acute bronchitis terminates in inflammation of 
one or both lungs ; in othere it may induce tmphytma, or escape 
of air into the cellular membrane, and it firequently lays ^e 
foundation of some serious disease of the heart. 

In severe cases in children the inflammation generally extends 
to the .tubes of both Inngs at the same time, and considerable 
danger maybe apprehended ; sometimes the disease changes into 
croup. That form of the disease to which old people are mora 
particularly subject — j>*riprmimonia notha, is attended with dan- 
ger, in consequence of the strength of the patient being insufficient 



Digitized by 



Google 



60 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



to clear the air passages of the mucus •which is sa freely secreted, 
and. as the longs in advanced age lose a great part of their resi- 
liency, they are ill able to bear any abric^ent of their respira- 
tory power. 

XHB TRBATUEKT. 

The treatment r^uired yaries greatly according to the form of 
the disease and its intensity : liha more simple cases seldom come 
under the notice of the physician in their earlier stages, as ipe- 
cacuan, syrup of squills, warm gruel, and the foot-bath, are the 
familiar, and in some cases, sufficient remedies, and from the 
frequency of the attack, every person imagines he can cure " only 
a cough." In addition to these popular remedies, the diet should 
be devoid of all that can stimulate, animal food should be used 
sparingly, or not at all ; fermented liquors of all kinds are to be 
avoided, tiie bowels moved by gentle laxatives, and the patient 
confined to the house. • 

When consulted at the commencement of a Cold on the chest 
in which the bronchial tubes are inflamed, I prescribe a mild 
aperient, to be followed at bed-time by a full dose of Dover's or 
James's powder, the feet to be put into hot water, and perspira- 
tion encouraged by copious drinks of barley-water, gruel, or other 
bland fluid : when the desired efifeots are produced, namely, a 
free evacuation of the bowels and a profuse perspiration of the 
skin, the attack is already checked, if not cured, and by confining 
the patient to home for a day or two, and " loosening" the cough 
by small and frequent doses of ipecacuan, or tincture of squills 
combined with liquor potassae, the inflammation will subside, 
and bo followed by a free secretion of easily expectorated mucus. 

When the symptoms are more acute, the cough frequent, 
the feeling of tightness across the chest urgent, with high fever, 
and a quick, full pulse, there can be no doubt as to propriety of 
bleeding, more or less freely, according to the urgency of the 
symptoms and the strength of the patient ; when general blood- 
letting is contra-indicated, leeches rfiould be applied to the chest, 
or a few ounces of blood abstracted by cupping-glasses ; after the 
action of a brisk purgative, as three or four grains of calomel 
with a scruple of jalap — saline medicines containing nauseating 
doses of tartarised antimony should be given every second or third 
hour, which wiU have the eSect of lowering the fever, modifying 
the mucus secretion, and facilitating its expectoration. Mercuiy 
given in small and frequent doses is of the greatest service ; it 
may be conjoined with the tartarised antimony in the proportion 
of half-a-grain of the latter to two grains of calomel ; all the 
dangerous symptoms frequently yield the moment the gums are 
made sore. When the frequency of the pulse is diminished, and 
the irritability of the system subdued, some counter-irritant should 
be applied to the chest ; blisters I consider objectionable in many 
cases, as the amount of irritation and uneasiness they create 
before they " rise" frequently adds to the local inflammation, 
and certainly increases the irritability of the whole system : con- 
siderable benefit wiU frequently follow the use of tartar emetic 
ointment, and in some extreme cases I have seen the spirits of 
turpentine of the greatest service ; a mustard poultice is perhaps 
the speediest, as it certainly is the safest counter-irritant that 
can be employed. ... 

DigitaUs is sometimes administered with the view of lessen- 
ing the action of the vascular system, and thus diminishing the 
difficulty of breathing and the cough ; it is a remedy,— I could 
add, a dangerous remedy, — ^that demands constant watching, and 
should bo immediately discontinued whenever it induces any 
irregularity in the pulse ; in preference to its use I generally in- 
crease the quantity of antimony when the symptoms are so urgent 
as to demand an immediate effect on the circulation. 

To relieve the cough, the compound squill pill, alone, or in 
combination with extract of conium, may be given three or four 



times a day ; or ipecacuan and squills, in some bland fluid, as in 
the following prescription, may be ordered. 

Tske — ^pennacetii S drachms; 

The yolk of one egg, beat together ; then add gradually. 

Water, 7 ouncei ; 

Ipecacuan wine; 

Tincture of iquilli, of eaeb 3 draebm* ; 

Syrup of baliam of Tolu, 8 drachms ; 
Mix. Dote — A table spoonful. 

When the cough comes on in fits, a lozenge containing a 
sixth of a grain of extract of stramonium often proves service- 
able ; lozenges are admirable vehicles for pectoral remedies — 
their gradual solution in the moutJi assists to lubricate the throat 
as weU as to fiusilitate expectoration. — The following is a valuable 
recipe for a lozenge that may be prepared by any respectable 
lozenge maker, if not at home. 
Take — Sugar, 3 ounce* ; 
Manna, 1 ounce ; 
Extract of lettuce, 30 grains ; 
Ipecacuan powdered, 1 drachin ; 
Squill powder, 16 grains ; 
Mix accurately, and make into a paste with mucilage of gum trsgt- 
canth. To be divided into lozenges of 15 grains each and dried 
on a hot tinned plate. One to be taken occaneoally. 

In the bronchitis of yom^ children, tartarised antimony must 
be given in such a quantity as will prove emetic, and continued 
for a time in nauseating doses; the bowels should be freely 
purged, and if the symptoms are severe it may be necessaty to 
apply leeches to the chest. So long as inflammatory symptoms 
are present the diet must consist alone of gruel, arrow root, and 
the like innocent food. 

If the disease runs into the collapsed stage, when the whole 
system is in a state of debility, we must have recourse to very 
opposite remedies from those already detailed ; it will be neces- 
sary to clear the bronchial tubes of the mucus which threatens 
suffocation, by some stimulating expectorant, as the sesquicar- 
bonate of ammonia, in five grain doses, with five minims of lauda- 
num in an ounce of camphor mixture, or decoction of senega ; 
sometimes it is better to give an emetic and repeat it daily ;— 
I have found great benefit from the use of an alkali that has the 
power to dissolve and loosen the collected expectoration, and for 
this purpose the liquor potasss is preferable. When the rest 
is greatly disturbed it is necessary to procure sleep by opiates, 
and the best is the sixth or quarter part of a grain of the muriate 
of morphia. In all cases the powers of the patient must be up- 
held by wine, good nourishment, particularly strong jellies, and 
the duly use of cascarilla or quinine. 

(To he cotttiDQed in otu- next) 



AnVAMTAQES OF FLAllia IM TBB SWELUXOB OP TBS POOR. 

If plants were grown in the dwellings of the poor, I think it would be lay- 
ing the axe to the root of the tree ; that you would do more good to the poor 
by the adoption of some such plan than can be conceived ; that by the intro- 
duction of those plants you would induce the poor to get out into the woods 
round London instead of going to the public houses ; and that it would be an 
occupation of the most interesting nature to the women and children. The 
expense (of one of Mr. Ward's cases) would be trifling. Glazed and puttied 
frames can be obtained at a shilling the square foot, which might be put in 
their windows and little yards, and they would repay the expense of the case 
within a twelvemonth by the growth of salad or flowers. These cases are 
becoming more common, and furnish the most delightful blinds which can be 
imaginea. There cannot be a doubt that plants have a direct influence in 
diminishing the quantity of carbon or deleterious ingredient. The concurrent 
testimony of all naturalists proves that the vegetable respiration couoler- 
balancn animal respiration by purifying the air which animals vitiate, and in 
many cases where ordinary drainage could not be eSisctetl, a similar effect 
might be secured by the introduction of vegetation, and the_ effect would be 
in proportion to the amount of vegetation- The most putrid ditches and ponds 
will be purified by plants growing in them, and the water preserved in a 
state fit for animals to drink. There are some plants whose odours may be 
injurious to certain individuals, but, generally speaking, pla-nts have no other 
eflfect than that of purifying the air. — If. B, Ward. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND PAMILY PHYSICIAN; 



61. 



INPLUBMCE OF NEWLY-BUaT HOUSES ON HEALTH. 
Sb. Biidsl of Berlin, in ■ paper of great merit aod intarett, ha* leceatly 
difMted attention to tiie iiyarioai inflaeaee of newljr-buUt hoiuei on tlie 
iMaltli and life of tlieir occnpiera. Altar mantioniog toe iatinate connexion 
kept ap between the external air and the human organiaation, thnnifh the 
neliDm of the ikin and langi, bn rafen to experience to ihow the iloir and 
dugerooa diacaaet to which inhabitants of inch houie* are exposed, and eon- 
odm it therefore to be the duly of the nnitaiy police to remore or check 
ihsse crils by means of prahihileijr measiues. It i$ well known that the 
nmosphere is eompeaed of nitrngaSi oxjrfea, aad carbonic acid, in certain 
dc&niic proportions, and that less or more of invisible vapour is always dis- 
iolnd in it. Anrthing which tends to derann this normal compotition must 
be bjiiriaua to the human system ; and it is j)r. Baidel's object to show that 
MwlT-httilt apartments are a fertile source of such derangement. Furtt, In 
■u* ksBsea there is generally an increased proportion of water in the atmos- 
pkic which we breathe. This arises from the wooden materials, which may 
it iM new and damp ; from the stone-work, which only becomes dry ttber long 
a/amn ; or from the materials used for cementing the stones, and for eo- 
faoinf and Tamisliing the walls. The walls of those houses remain damp 
fafot which bare been plastered immediately after their completion, be- 
euse the dried lime forms an external layer vary difficult of penetration. As 
accidental causes, which may reader houses damp, it is necassaiy te mention 
nt weather when boilUing, damp situations, large cellars, and enclosurs by 
«her high edifices, which prevents the free access of sun and wind. Steond, 
Tha proportion of carbonic acid is diminished by the mortar, which attracts 
it from the air ; it may also be attracted by certain colours, such ss those 
eootainiag acetate of copper. No direct injury would, however, be caused 
by the diminution of carbonic acid, as it belongs to the matters given o9 by 
the faings and skin. TMrd, Certain deleterious ingredients, arising from the 
sew materials, are mixed with the air. Thus particles of lime have been 
pned beyond deubt to exist in the atmosphere of new habitations, being 
as peo ded by the evaporation of the moisture ; oils and metallic colouis also 
Vos «r more evaporate. Combinations of lead, copper, and arsenic are em> 
;la;«d in the preparation of painters' colours; and many of these volatilise, 
*Bij may be taken into the system Beiides these, there are ilifferent che- 
nical exhalations from new wood, mould, fungi, and grasses, which arise 
•ad putrefy in damp habitations. 

Attention has alio been directed to the mould with which the furniture ot 
newly>built houses is covered, and to the constant moisture of the clothes 
aod linen, from which circumstances alone, influences injurious to the inha- 
bitants may be expected ; for, on account of the increased humidity of the 
saxnmading atmosphere, not only is the skin prevented from free transpira- 
tion, bat it is even induced to attract more moisture. This is also the case 
with the lungs, and thus the compotition of the blood is rendered unnatural, 
a* 0iay be seen in the pale face, wasted muscles, and sluggishness of all the 
functions wbieheasue. In other cases, protracted rheumatism, inflammation 
of the joints, contractions or paralysis, are produced. In addition, the sa> 
jonra in a damp atmosphere is a frequent caiue of the development of scro- 
fula, intermittsnt and typhoid fevers, scurvy, quinsy, croup, &o. Wounds 
and ulcers mote quickly assume an unhealthy appearance, and have a ten- 
dency to take on gangrenous inflammation. The evaporation from organic 
substances broDn the production of miasmata and contagions, for in do situa- 
tions did the cholera occur more frequently than in new damp habitations. 
The inipiratian of lime-particles may dispose to diseases of the chest or 
apoplexy ; and there can be no doubt that the lead employed in painting the 
walla, volatilising at a high temperature, may produce in those who are con- 
^antly exposed to its injurious exhalations symptoms of chronic poisoning, 
diiturbed digestion, cholic, and paralysis. Chronic poisoning may also be 
produced by being exposed to the evaporation of Seheele's green, from which 
anenious compounds escape for a long time after it has been put on the walls. 
LatOf the constant moisture of the clothes and bads, and the frequent eflisct 
SB the food, cause certain injurious consequences on the constitutions of the 
inhabitants. 

Since, then, the early occupation of newly-built houses and receatly- 
fhiltred rooms cause* so many diseases, and imparts to children the germs 
of prslonged sickness and misery, it becomes, argues Dr. Reidel, the duty 
«/ (te State to prevent these evils by all possible means. The following are 
(te measares which he cunsideis necessary : — Official examination of the 
aHlerial* before th* commencement of the building, and the enforcement of 
|«opcr arrangements as regards the structure itselL Thus, in public eon- 
tiacts for any building to be erected in summer, the condition ought to be 
Bade, that the materials should be procured and dried during the preceding 
winter, and the term of completing any edifice should always be regulated 
according to the weather. Lead and arsenical colours for painting the walls 
should be entirely fbrbidden. 3. A house should not be inhabited before a 
fixed tinw after its completion bad elapsed. Considering the different effects 
of situation, a bouse in town should remnin uninhabited for a year,, and in 
the coontiy, where sun and air have ftee accaas, for half a year after it has 
been finished. Shotdd any house be dried before the time appointed, the pro- 
prietor might requast the sanitary commission to examine it, when, if suf- 
ficiently dry, it might be inhabited. 3. A commission should be appointed 
for tlie purpose of examining every newly-built bouse, and testifying to it* 



soundness before it is inhabited. 4. Instruction of the people as regards the 
injuries caused by inhabiting newly-built houses, Icc^ ana «s regards the meana 
to be taken for the purpose of eounterading these ii^nrie*. 

In absence of such a commiuion, people ought at least to be informed of 
the diseases to which they are liable by exposure to such noxious evapora- 
tion ; and if compelled by circumstances to submit, they ought to lue the 
followiog precautions pointed out by Dr. Beidel : — Thorough drying and ven> 
tilation should not be eonflned to one room, but to all the adjoining rooms. 
Mould, fungi, Itc., should be rubbed and washed off withathe greatest cars ; 
fires should be frequently lighted,, and the windows opened ; and muriate of 
lime or sulphuric acid should be put in different places to attract the mois* 
ture. To purify the air from other injurious matters, chlorine, nitric acid 
vapours, fumes of sulphur, evaporation of vinegar, coarsely-powdered and. 
moistened charcoal put in different places, and other fumigations, should be 
resorted to. For rooms already inhabited, a solution of chloride of lime is 
the most proper subtunee. Drawers and other furniture should not be placed 
too near the damp walls, and if the latter should be covered with mould,, 
tiiey ought to be touched with a solution of the chloride of lime. - In addition, 
warm and dry clothes must be provided, and the bed must not stand too near 
the walls. Straw or feather bed* should be changed fraqnently, or exposed 
to the sun. 

Such is the abstract of Dr. Beidel's paper, which is replete with important 
but too much neglected instruction. We trust, however, that the plain and 
convincing manner in which he has placed his vfows, will be the meaiu of 
directing attention to an eril to which a large section of our population is con> 
tinually exposed. 



SYMPATHETIC AND LOCAL IRRITATION. 

When there i* irritation of one organ, it is very common for 
another to sympatMse with it ; that is to say, there may be disease 
of one joint, and the next to it will suffer pain, although there 
is. nothing the matter with it ; for instance, in disease of the hip, 
the knee sympathises with it, and there is great pain in the latter 
joint ; so in ilisease of the knee joint, the ankle is painful. In 
arthritic rheumatism this is peculiarly well exemplified ; the 
disease goes from one joint to another in a most remarkable 
manner, and there is nothing for certain to account for it. Again, 
when there is stone in the bladder, pain is felt at a more remote 
part ; in disease of the prostate gland, pain is experienced in one 
or both thighs. A blow on the head causing concussion of th6 
brain, will induce vomiting; a blow on the stomach, death ; a 
sudden cessation of a discharge from the urethra, hernia humoralia 
(more correctly orehitit); in fact, the instances of sympathetic irri- 
tation are too numerous to mention. They are to be accounted for 
through tlie nervous system. The nerves of the limbs are connected 
with the spinal marrow, and through it with the brain, and thus any 
injury to the limbs will account for irritation of the whole system. 
Likewise, any injury to an internal part will, through the sympa- 
thetic nerve, accoimt for the same. But they both sympathise 
with one another, and, therefore, wherever the injury may be, the 
whole nervous system will be deranged. But local irritation is 
not always to be explained through the nervous system. In many 
instances local irritation takes place through the absorbents. For 
instance, an individual has an ulcer on the foot, a hang nail, a 
very painful com, or an irritable sore of the leg ; the absorbents 
inflame, the glands in the groin become enlarged, and in some 
instances even pus forms. It is not uncommon for a patient to 
present himself with enlarged inguinal glands, not knowing the 
cause ; on examination, there may be generally detected an irri- 
table ulcer on the leg or foot, from which proceeds a red line 
denoting inflammation of the absorbents. Many exemplifications 
could be adduced. ' The wound received in dissection is a good 
instance. A gentleman opens a body, or dissects ; he pricks his 
finger, pain at the spot follows, the absorbents inflame, and the 
gltmds in the arm-pit become enlarged. Pus forms at various 
spots along the absorbents, or in the glands, and symptoms of 
the greatest danger supervene. 

A. DHCXKABD. 

The five cardinal. pmnts forn drunkard are a fiiceof biass, nerve* of »teel, 
lungs of leather, heart of stone, and incombustible liver. 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 



THE PEOPLirS MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



HAI& DYES. I 

BT SB. Wlmua, OF liCXIOH. 

BAn-Brn baing KnctioM* attended wkh duger, it may tew^d to gir* 
tlM two following which vie fcifHtly iawcMt :— Tke int UpynftMe acid, 
irUch git« the hair a browa colour. It i* prepared br ia>o«otiiig not-gaiU, 
coanely powdered, to a dry di^tiUatlDB at a moderate heat ib a retoit. One 
patt wfll nhlime and reat in the neck of the retoit, whibt the other will dirtil 
over 81 a ilaid. Diiaolve the mblimate ia the seek of the «etart m diitilled 
water at a moderate heet, and dilate the diatilled aeid-liqaidwith it; alter 
fttBOviag the greater part of the empyreimatie oil, by meant of a Slteiiag 
flinael, shake the watery of Ae pyrogallic acid, adding to it animal charMU 
to diminiih the bad smell, and filter it, waihing it for eoma time with distilled 
iTater and removing the charcoal. The (olatien of pyt«gaIHe acid thm be- 
comea almost transparent and without smell, and mast now be coneeabmted 
by evaporating at a moderate heat ; it must then be difaited agun with spirits 
of wine, and shonld some bad smell (till adhere, it can easily he concealed by 
a fbw drops of a fraerant ethereal oil. By nsing this tincture, the grey hairs 
Aadually become light-coloured, and Uien permanently brown. Care must 
tie taken not to soil the hands or other parts of the body with it, on account 
of the great difficulty in removing the colour. It must idao be remarked that 
the preparation of pyrogallic acid must not be interrupted, becaoie it posiesses 
&e property of absorbing oxygen very rapidly tnm the air, and becomes 
transformed into a dark brown pigment (temine) almost insoluble in water 
and spirits of wine. 

A second very curious hair-dye is the nilphuret of lilvm; which gives a 
durable black colour. To prepare it, two liquids are necessary ; a diluted 
solution of nitrate or acetate otiilver, and a rather concentrated one otnilphtmt 
of potauiiim, or n^vret of tedivst, procnnd by reduci^ sulphate of potass, 
or suliihate of soda, by means of coals. The following is themode of applica- 
tion : — At night, before going to bed, dip a small br«h or a fine eomb into 
tin solution of silver, and brush or comb the hair carefully throagh, and then 
cover it by a close fiuing oil-sldn cap ; gloves ought to be used during the 
application, to prevent the fingers being soiled. The next morning dip an- 
other fine comb into the solution of the sulpfauret, and comb the hair through 
carefuUy ; the latter operation produces sniphnrat of silver. i«stly, d^ the 
other comb into the solution of the silver again, and comb the hair through 
repeatedly and carefully. As soon as the hair is perfectly drj, treat it in the 
usual way with pomatum, to give the natural snppleneu and lustre. JTo 
spare many seeuess inquiries, the Editor begs to add that die above recipes 
are not sanctioned by his own experience is, or knowledge at, their ntilUy. 
Having received many letters on die sabject of Ha^-dyes, he has sought for 
the best authority, and here gives the result of his recearch.] 



THE MOD£X NUBSB. 

The Model Nurse is most punotnal to her time j lathor the day before than 
after. She is never idle. She cuts op an old glove for the door-knocker. 
She has quite a stud of horses ready aired with linen for " the dear little pop- 
pet." She has taken ofi^ her goloshes, hnng up her pattens, and pot on her list 
alippers. Her big nightnap lies ready for actioa. fiha is onita bieathlasa. 
8be only leaves the bedside tqnn the greatest aaargaaay. Notbing bot siq>- 
per will tear her away from it. She has her little vamties, and is much 
tickled with straw in the street. 

MThen l2>e happy moment has arriTed, her ooolnest, bar nerve, her import* 
aaoe, her power of conunand, bar bosda, ouaot ha eaaeeded. If tte hnd)and 
<lares to pot his nose into the room, he is immediately pushed oat The whole 
bouse is at her disposaL Grandmamma, even, is put into a comer — the Doc- 
tor nnks into a mere black shadow — the servants run quickest at her orders. 
Ko one moves, not a person comes in, without her crying out, in a wMsper of 
agony, " Hnt-s-di.'' SheaUme has die power of opaning the bed-room emtaia, 
—she alooe has the authority to withdraw tha bolt of &» door^— ahe alone has 
the M"'^'"'C of baby and the privHege of withdrawing the flannels that are 
curled round it, like a hot roll, to keep it warm — and shewing its face, and 
hands, and feet, to its young l^&ers end risters. No one is iJlowed to take 
it out of the cradle withoat Nurse's permission.. Yomsgladies, who have such 
an eztraordinaiy love (in public) for evoybody's bahtes, are not aUowed to 
kiss, kiss, kiss it again and again, and toss it np and clatter " chukyi choky 1 
chnky !" until it cries, without the express sanction of Nurse. Man, daring Oxe 
itrst thirty days of his enstence, is the property of the MontMy Nurse. Every 
one most ibel tins, for if there isona thaag traar than anodier in the aoeptieBl 
world, it is that "we all have been babies onae." If there is a woman who oait 
contradict that, I hope I may never meet her. 

The Model Nurse can sleep anywhere — in an arm-chair, on a bed-Etool, or 
on a sofh. " Nature's gentle reAorer" visits her at a single wink. She diies 
aotmi»«. A toueh,n righ almeet, wakes her up, and, in a seeond, she is by 
theheadof herpatien^ ofiiaring allaortsof reme£e4,andtiiiootlungthe pQlow. 
She does not tiUce snuff. 

It is curious ahe never goes to bad. At least, during my long experience, 
I never recollect an instance of a nurse nndressng. A nightcap and a myk- 
tariooa black bottle, and she would sleep like a perfect top, I thiiik, on the top 
• of tiw spre of Sttasbuis Cathednl/— Horace Mayhev. 



OZONE. 

Trii peculiar anbttanoa, the aatare of which is yet fhr from being n nder- 
stood, has rsoently attracted mach sKteution on account of its supposed coo- 
nesion with afedcmie disetses, M. Seheenbein, of Bale, has aubtnitied it to 
sane aew ezperinetteh the vesnlls of which were oommanieatad by M. 
BeoqoereL «t the last meeting of the AMidemy of Soienoes. 

M. Sehoanbein proearai oione in large quantHiei, by endeaing a small 
quastity of water in a baUaob havag a eapaeity of tan to flileeB qutns. Small 
bitsoTphoHphonu, of one centimetre in diameMr, are then placed, half in 
tha water, half in the air of the halla— ; tha laMer is closed imperfectly, aod 
iu coBlaata saised to a temperatnre of 60 io «8 dcg^tees Fahr. When the 
cqieratian is completad— a cimnastaace readSy known by the peculiar tmeU 
<rftheair inthefaalloon, the latter is tuned dowtt over water, to get rid of the 
pfao^hons, and than agitated to wash the eoBpoand. A cork, supporting two 
toiica, is BOW attaohed to tha balloon, aad thrangh one tube some water i> 
iatrodaeed, while the ether gives tadt to the otene. Tlus substance, when 
coBoentrated, has an odour resembling that of cUerine ; when mixed with 
air, it gives o«t an adoor like that canttedfhnn an deetric machine, while in 
motion. Air, thoraaghly chaigad with ozone, pradnees some diillcalty of 
bteathing, and, aeeordiag to M. Seheenbein, b often the cause of catarrh 
affsctnna. Small animals placed in it die qoicfcly. Otone is insobble in 
water; it destroys rapidly orgaaie cotearing matters, at well as those havlo; 
albumen aod ligneum for their base. According to the author, it is the tub- 
ilBBce which has the graateit affinity for oxygen of all kiiDWii bodies. Ai it 
is invariably produced in (he air fay the action of artifieiBl electric diteharges, 
it matt be produced in the atmosphere under the inflnenee of the same cauw, 
when natural. Nothing is more easy than to detmniiie the presence of oiose 
in the atmosphere, and the variatian of quantity it presents. For thii put- 
pose we have acrdy to test the air with smne paper impregnated with & sols- 
tion of iulpfaate or maiiate of magnesia. The oxene decomposes the salt rt- 
pidly, and the paper assames • brown tint. Gtnserally speaking, this actioa 
on the paper is found to be stronger in winter than iu summer. M. Sehoco- 
bein observed, that it was always stronger during falls of snow than at lay 
other ptnod. Cp to tlie present moment this curious bedy has defied efaeiiii. 
cal analyris. M. Marigaae thinks that it is a pecular modificatien of oxnoi. 
M. ScboeBbeifl regards it as a bis-oxyde of hydrogen, or a aufastanoe prwtbly - 
containing a greater quantity of oxygen than oxygenated water. — Oaz.Uti., 
Jan. 



XDXJt FOR ASMISUISKINO CBMBOIOUC- 

SL DcOAvr, a dentist, who has had wry extensive experience of cUorofom, 
prapoees the following rule for determining the degree to wlaicfa the infaaUtion 
of this eneigetie agent sbeold be eairied. On theone hand, it is necessarr to 
produce a certaiB ammmt of intensibiKty, and on the other, it is dtiigerons 
to ^ash Ais iosentibilt^ toe tut. By what sign are we to know tiiat 
the mhalation has been carried to the proper extent F M. Dndart thinks ire 
Bsay find this sign in the species of frttnitu which affects th« elevator musclu 
of the lower jaw. When the jaws and teeth are pretty firmly pressed agsisst 
each ether, and some feret is required to separate them, we shonld niipeid 
the inhalation, and may perform the most painfhl operation in full security, 
for the patient has ceased to feel. 



amOULaK CiLBB OF XHB AIITAMTi«E OF LIFB JtMintairCB. 

A WORKIKO man was recently admitted a member of the Plymouth branch. 
of the Western Provident Association, fbr a small life assurance. A day or 
two prerions he had met with a slight scratch in his arm, so trifling that 
no notice was taken of it by himself, or by the medical gentlemen who 
examined him, to teat his fitness for admission to the society. Some fen- dart 
afterwards inflammation arose, and from this inrignifieant cause, within a 
week, this man, before strong and healthy, died. He bad made but one masth's 
payment, a mere trifle, to the association, and, in return, his widow and 
family have received, by means ef the assurance, a must timely and impoi- 
taot aid. — Wetiem Timet, 



COMPAKT. 

Tebbb is a certaiB magic or charm in conpaay, for itwtU aasimilate and 
make you like to them by amdi conversation vrith them. If they be good 
company, it is a great meant to make yon good, or confirm you in goodnesi ; 
bat if they be bad, it it twenty to one but they will oorrapt and infect you- 
Therefore be wany and Ay in choosing and eotertaining, or frequenting any 
company or compeBisa ; be not too hasty in committiBg yourself to them ; 
stand off awhOe dll yon have acquired of tome (that yo« know by experience 
to be Crithfld) what they are; observe what cmapaay they keep ; be not too 
eaiy to gaiB acyw iB ta nc a, but ttaod off and keep a distuce yet awhile, till 
j«u havwobeervod and leannd toBching them. Men or women that txf 
greedy of aequaintaBce, or huty in it, ate oftentimes snared in ill company 
befoe they ure awsn, aad entanf^ to that they cannot easily get loose from 
it after whan they wcudd^— A'r ilmhtvi Sale, 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



63 



FAMILY PfiESCKIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

A Bun TOK ITiTXSBS.— Whan exceniTe doses of quack medieuiu dutroy 
hit, the mother or >ttendant, who adminiBtend them, ought to be held ac- 
eoantablc fcr the fttal result. As they vary lo much in their composition,— 
some prodnciug death hy excessive palpation, and prostration of the strength, 
others by nnmbing and paralysing the nervous functions — it is in^ossible to 
{ire (fiivctiaas how to temporarily remedy their evil resnUa.^Z>r. Conqtuit. 

Snt Hbwvi Hjluoxd's Gout Punmtivt.—Ti.ku bicarbonate of potaih, 
fifiMs graina ; tiactwe of rhnharb, one drachm ; infusion of gentian, one and 
a half oonce. Mix. W* gira this on the aothority of Beasley. 

Qcurm. — Gof «• eoneeala the iataoce bittonaaa of this TilnaUa mtedy 
bttM tkan any other lahiele. 

AnBUnx'B Pnxs. (Seot'e Pillt). — Tike, one drachm of aloes ; one 
diadas af gMBbog*; ten drops of oil of aniseeds. Mix, and di*id» into t>ills 
of Ibv gnias ••». 

Glcttoxt.— Inordinate appetite arise* fkom habitual indulgence in ex- 
cosre sieala, in conaequence of which a large portion of the nlal and nerroiu 
oBgj b«ng directed continuaDy on the stomach, and accustomed to be ex- 
jicaded in that organ, a craTing for a repetition of su^ ample meals, and a 
Jnliag of; B8 it ware, unemployed digestive energy, is experienced, which con- 
cratly demands new materials for exercise ; and thus the unfortunate and 
bntal habit of surfeiting is kept up. Sometimes, also, inordinate appetite 
ahses not from bad habit, but a peculiar state of the stomachic nerves ; thus 
ve »« maniari consume vast quantities of food. 

'Et««iRTB» acts Uka a tooic, condensing the muscles and the arteries on the 
cohuDB of blood ; the heart's action ia felt more strong after it than before. 
The heart alao seeas to ac^re anre enargy ; or rathn, the sixe of the in- 
lirnal vassala being contiacted by the tonic effect of exercise, the red particles 
v! Uood are farced into the capillary or minute vessels of the snr&ee, aa may 
be seen in the redness of the (ace, and other axtsraal parts, when tha body is 
excited by asercise. 

Gbbasb iok thb Hair.— Soak half a psund of dear beef nsamw, and a 
posal of OBaaked ttrnk lard, in water two or three day*, changing lad beating 
!t ivsqr day* Pot it into a sieve ; and, when dry into a jar, aad ^ jar aito 
a aocepaa of water. When melted, pour it into a baain, and beat it with 
rvo spoessfBl of biaady ; drain off the fanndy, and than add esMnea of Isnun, 
bergasBOt, ar any other seeat that is liked. 



DIETARY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC. 

Pkas Sow fo> Lbkt. — Fnt three pinti of bine boiling peas into five 
^narta of soft sold water, three anchoiviea, three red harrings, and twa large 
onions, stick in a clove at each end, a carrot and a parsnip diced in, with a 
busch ef sweat herbs ; boil them all together till the sovp ia thick.^lraia it 
throngh a caUender, then slice ia the white paitofahaad of celeryvagood 
lump of butter, a little pepper and salt, a slice of bread toasted and battered 
w ell, and est into little diamonds^ put itinto a dish, and ponr tha soup upon it ; 
add a little dried mint, if yon ohoose it. 

To Baxaa a Salt Cod.— Steep your salt-fiih in water, all night, with a 
glass of vinegar, it will fetdt out the salt and make it eat like fresh fidi ; the 
zksxt day boil it ; when it is enough, pall it in lake* into yonr dish, than pour 
egg-sauce over it, or parsnips boiled and beaten fine with batter and cream ; 
«ad it to the table on a water-plate, for it will soon grow cold. 

Ece SArcB fok a Salt Coo — Boil your eggs bard, first half chop the 
vhires, then put in the yolks, and chop them both together, but sot very small, 
■pa them into half a poimd of good melted butter, and let it boil np, then put 
it on the fish. 

Coo's SoVMSS UKB LiTTLS TtiBKBTB. — BoQ TOUT sounds as for eating, 
hi aoltao much, take them up and let them stand till they are quite cold, then 
'Au a forcemeat of chopped oysters, crumbs of bread, a lump of bntter, nut- 
s<t, pepper, sa^, and the yolks of two eggs, fill your sounds with it, and skewer 
lam in the shape of a turkey, then lard them down each side as you would 
do t mkey's breast, duat them well with flour, and put them in a tin oven to 
roast before the fire, and baste them well with butter; when they are enoagh, 
pour on them oyster-sauce ; three are suCBdent for a side dish; garnish with 
barberries i it is a pretty side dish for a large table fbr a dinner in Leat. 

PiTCHCOCK Eiui.— Skin, gut, and waah your eels, then dry them with a 
tlab, spriaJtIe them with pepper, salt, and a little dried sage; turn them 
leeward and forward, ana skewer them; rub your gridiron with beef -suet, 
btsil them a good brawn, end garnish the dish with fried parsley. 

CoMMax CoRABS.— Tdke a quart of good crtam, sat it oyer a alow fire, 
with a little eianaaMB, and four euncfs of sugar ; when it is boiled take it off 
the fije ; beat the ydka qf eight eggSt put to them a spoonful of orange-flower 
»ater to prevent the cream from cradcii^, stir them in by degrees u your 
<Maa coob, pnt the pas ever a ▼ety dow £re, atir them oaiefiiUy one way 
tin it i* almost boiling, then put it into cups, and serve them np. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Priu 2». ; ijr jMtt U. M. 

rjONSUMPTION of Um LUNGS, or DECLINE ; the 
>' Caoeea, SymatMaa, and lUtioaal Tiaatment, with the meaaa of 
FnventiOB. By T. H. Yxomav, M.O. 

• There i* so mneh good sense, srieetififl ksMsledget and uefU iaferma- 
tiea ia this litUe volsme that we giadly aasist ia giving it pabUeity. Dr. 
YaoMAif diseaantenaaeee all empirical modaa of treatment, at the same time 
that he suggesu some safe and beaaCeial rnlea itar the care or amalioratiott 
ofthndiieeaa. The remarks on the healthy diseipUna of heme riiew that the 
author is a sound aocial philosopher, u wall aa an axoeiieaced phvsicMa " 
—Tie B riUu mimt ifot. 11, 1848. ^^ 

**Theie is oe aaiamptlon orquaekcry In thlaUttla Tolamo— it isjaat snch 
a work as might be anticipated firom an intelligent ta* exparicaced physician. 
The auggeations and recommendations of Or. Yeoman areextremely valuable 
and may be unhesitatingly and advaatageooaty adopted by all who ai« In- 
«««ated in the heaUh and weU-being f^Qa liifasg genernUm."— JTomtn^ 
Herald, OeL 33, 1848. 

Alaoby OeMitte antbor, price 2k. 

A STHMA, BRONCHITIS. INFLUENZA, and CATARRH, 

■^^ the Causes. Symptoms, and Batlonal Tieatment. 

"Tbiaia aa exeaOasU little traatiae by aalever aad claar-baaded praetU 
tfaaaer. Dr. YaoxAR is well known by his Work oa Censomption, and the 
pMsenl poblieatioa wUl add to hia &me."— IFe«k^ DugutcA, Jan- U, 1849 

I^ndon : Saitpsoic tow, ISO. Reet Street; BrantSHAK WiLsoir, II, 
Royal Exchange ; WKBarnn A Co., 60, FlecadUly ; and all Booksellen. 



XTEVILL'S PATENT FLOUR <rf LENTILS,— 

■^^ a pleasant, nutritions, and agreeable Food for Invalids, Dyspeptios, and 

Sirsons suffering iiom Constipation, <sc any- other ehronio derangement of the 
igestive Organs— also fbr making Gmel. It is tbe only food that does not 
distend or tnm add on a weak Stomach. It win be fooBd invi^aUe for 
Delicate Children and Sufferers firom DebiBty. 

Sold Whflbaaie by Nanu. and Ca, 16a, ChkhcBter Flase, Grays Inn 
Bead, Loodoa; and Betail by T. Cabmck, 127, Crawford Street; T. Shabp, 
44, Biahopsgate Street Witiiin; Mmn, Graoechnzch Street, City; and 
m«ir be obtned tnm aU reapeetable Shopkaepeis m the Kingdom, in Packets, 
6d. and la eaeh, and 6 lb. and 1 a lb. oaaiatera, Ss. 6d. and 1 Os. 6d. each. 



FS. CLEAVER'S WINTER SOAP.— TMs Soap is a 
* comhinatJOB of the Gennine Boney Soap, Camphor, and Vegetable Oils, 
eoaseqaently tiie very best for this Season of the year, and at all times fbr 
tender skios. Invaluable as a Shaving Soap. Sold In large non-angular IWets, 
at 3d. each; and meostsra 6d. each. To be had at the manufiustory, 13, Red 
Uon Sqnarey Holbom, and at all Chemists, PerfUmers, Ac., in the United 
Kingdom. 

THE TEETH.— Mb. SMARTT, DENTIST akd CUPPER, 
85, San Street, Bishimsgate, London, invites attention to his IM- 
PBOVBD ARTIFICIAL TEETH. They are fixed without extracting the 
roots of the previous Teeth, no pain is caused, they defy detection by the most 
sctuCiaiaing observer, and are gturanteed to answer all the purposes of masti> 
catieo, fiUiog up tha void prociuced by the loss of the natural Teeth, thereby 
restoring facSu beauty, and enabling the patient to speak with fluency and 
comlart. Irregularities and deformities of the Teeth removed where practi> 
cable. Mb. Skabtt attends at 48, Harmer Street, Gravesend, every Friday. 



JOHN MILES, (Latk BUTLER and CO.) DISPENSING 
CHEMIST, 78, Graoechnrch Street,* respectWly inibnns the PuUio 
that the most vigilBnt care and attention is always paid by him to the seleetioD 
of the purest and best Dmgs and Chemical*; the too fireqnent dangeroo* adnl- 
teratlon and carries* preparation of Mslidnea, npoa the exact aotioa of which 
d^nd the healtli and safety of onr iUlow ereatnree, indoees J. Hilbb to 
pledge himself that ev wy article sold at his establldtmaat is genuine, and 
that tXL Preseiijitlons are dhrpensed by well-qnalified isaietantB undar hi* own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for Boon's Fatant lapMved Respirator. J. M. has now a Uii:ga 
supply of Cos LraiB Ou., prepand from, the finest Fish of the Season. 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND • FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

NonoB. — ^All commiulcatlont for the Editor most be addmsed, pre-paid, 
to hii home, TSo. 25, Llotd Squaxs, Pxxtohtillb. It b indis- 
peoMble that letters requiring a prirate answer contain a postage 
stamp, or stamped envdop«, whereon is written the address of the 
applicant. Invalids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, can 
hare, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers tliereto, the neeessity of a 
personal interview, in many instances, may be avoided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment. Notes of every 
case submitted to the Editor will be recorded in his private case-t>oolc, 
for the facility of reference at any Aiture period. 

Thb Editor is at home every day nntU one o'clock ; and on the Evenings 
of Mondsy, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Mine. 

Hb attends at Mr. Hilbs'b Hbdical axo SvbozcaIi Estaxusbmbitt, 
78, Oraeechurch Street, on Hondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays from 
Two until Three o'clock. 



Wb have received many tpplicatioos to publish separately, in a small volume, 
the aiticles on Indigestion, which are now completed. Should this wish 
be more generally expressed by our readers, we shall do so. The price 
not to exceed fourpen re, by post sixpence. 
N. L. (Lambeth). — We are obliged by your note and question. The subject 
is one of importance, and in an early nnmber of our Journal ws will in- 
sert an article on the various actions and effecta of calomel — mercury — 
on the human system. 
Jamb (Paradise-place, Hammersmith). — Local applications are worse than 
useless; the child being over-run with icrofula, constitutional means only 
will be of any permanent benefit. Keep the sores perfectly clean, and 
let them be dressed with the most simple material. If possible send the 
boy to the sea-side. Let his diet be generous ; attend strictly to his 
bowels; and give him three drops of the tincture of the muriate of iron 
in water three times a day. Proper advice at the present time may spare 
the child from being a cripple — a burden to yon, and his existence a 
misery to himself. 
T. H. (Newcastle).— See answer to H. G. H. in No. 5. 
Sblta (Irvine). — We have compared the sample of Du Barry's Revalenta 
that you forwarded to us with NeviU's patent flour of Lentils. Ws are 
unable to detect any difference. Continue to lue either the one or the 
other. NeviU's packets are about five times cheaper than Revalenta, 
Ervalenta, or Oriental Farina. (We may here repeat onr approval of the 
lentil as an article of wholesome diet } and we recommand our fair readers 
to try the " light padding" mentioned in our last number. 
Sluooard (Birmingham). — Your letter is a very candid one ; yon are a laxy 
fellow. Use a shower bath ; purge the bowels freely, and afterwards 
keep up a gentle action by the compound decoction of aloes; eat leu; 
drink less ; and exert moral courage and resolution. 
Lambbt, Curtis, Brosib, Lucas. Pbbry, are all relations and Jews. 
" Lamert" itthe family name. Curtis and Lamert are brothers. Brodie 
ii an assumed name. Lucas has changed his name and his residence. 
Ferry is an assumed name. Culverwell is not a Jew. HoUoway 
is dying. Morison ia dead. Prout is a comb-maker. Parr's Pills 
are, or were, the property of the proprietors of " the Illustrated News." 
Locock's Wafers contain opium. The quack who advertises to cure 
ruptures without a truss, and who keeps thousands of trophies in the shape 
' of old trusses, is not a member of " (he Society for the Protection of 
Trade." We doubt if be would be admitted. Many " water doctors" 
have been committed for manslaughter. The faomoeopathists drink their 
"grog" stronger, far stronger, than they mix their globules. The qua- 
lified medical man who sells quack medicines respects his purse more 
than his reapeciability. We do not know whether the Bev. Dr. Willis 
Moaeley ig a Ranter, a Mormunite, a Jumper, a Shaker, a Howler, or a 
" Johanna Southcote,'' but we do know thai fas is a venerable (net vene- 
rated) quack. This paragraph will answer the questions of fifty corre- 
spondents. 
Ctbbmius (Ashton) — Your first suggestion is about being carried into effect. 
It would be hazardous to comply with the second. We should be very 
sorry to employ Brande's Enamel to uur own teeth, therefore would not 
recommend it to you. 
Chabus Stahlet (Birmingham).— Threegrains of calomal; four grains of 
scammony ; twelve grains of rhubarb. Mix. To be taken at bed-time 
in preserve, honey, or treacle. Take on the following morning a wine 
glassful of the compound decoction of aloes. If you are troubled with 
worms, this dose will give you demonstrative proof of their existence. 
You had not seen No. 7 at the time you wrote your second note. 
E. H. (Blofield).— The action brought by the quack dentist did not escape 
onr notice. W« were really pleased with the verdict, and wish all silly 
people who 'place confidence in such scamps may be made to suffer in 
purse; this may spare their health at some future period. 
J. T. F. — Your paper <mly fulfils one requirement, namely, bravity ; the 
utility is nil. 



£. 



ScotTTfSt. Johns.)— You are suffering iiom bronchocele^oitre, which is a 
scrofulous enlargemeat of the thyroid gland (in the neSk). The ^. 
meat can only be directed by a medical man ; the remedin requiredan, 
wo potent to be trusted to the management of a youngladv, •'ased 20 " 
Bemoval from the district in which the disease originated is often if 
great benefit, and the sea coast should be preferred. Thedmes to be 
employed are iodine in the form of tincture or ointment extern Sy • and 

d^^'!h™.M'[f"^""j"'"^'- Sometimes leaches are requir^', the 
aiet should beplain and nutritious. 

LoKDiKBuais.— \^ere we to notice aU the kind— we may add llatterinR- 
commumcations we receive, our columns would be filled with laudslToiis 
ana thanks; we cannot, however, aUow a note written in a tone so amis- 

v„!.!*/ f"f5, 'u PVT""'^'*^ ^""» »* •" f*^^' "d "'" "dea. 
vour to rulfll the high purpose expected from our exertions. On lookioc 
over the Sunday papers of the 17th instant, we notice the advertisement 
of several «lf.called "Doctors," who profess to cure rupture for ux 
sniuings without mechamcal means. That they are not medical men we 
are certain ; that they are imposters, quacks, and scamps, may be fsirlv 
assumed. One of these " Doctors'' under the style of ■• Miss" profesi/s 
to enable hu dupes to « see themselves as olhers see them," on the receipt 
or thirteen pontage stamps, aod a letter in the applicant's calligraphj' 
Another styling himself Von Something— professes to foretelthe " lot of 
me of his <• customers,'' on receiving a "a lock of hair"* ! He is an 
expensive soothsayer, and requires "24 uncut post-stamps." Nob 
really, the amount of fools that these baits catch must be considerable to 
make the swindle profitable— advertising is a dear way of seeing yourself 
in prinL To your second question : A stricture mat/ be cured without 
mechanical means; but in nineteen cases out of twenty, the instnimeot 
T -"^!f "' «™Ployed, IS the safer, the easiest, and the most certain remedy. 
J. r. Kbtsoff (Camden New Town).— We cannot answer the question ri- 
remng to your child without seeing him, or knowing more of the esse 
than your note detaUs. For yourself, have a duplicate set of flanneU, 
one for the day and one for the night. 
James Smith (Edinburgh).— It is occasionally given internally, in very mi- 
nute doses ; the effect is the same as if inhaled. Qoack pills are danger- 
A .""i.PpJ'ono"' :— " D'- (bah De Roos't " pills are quack pills. 
A. J- (Maidstone).— Scaling is the most effectual mode of removing the tsrtsr 
from the teeth ; the operation is simple, and should be painless. 
C. (Fakenham).— If a rosy cheek and the robust health of •• a dairymsid" 
give you trouble, and if your " mamma is pained to see you look n m- 
lady-like," we fear we must be so ungaUantas to tell you— you are both 
very silly ladies. 
ClBBicus — We doubt the possibility of the " itch" existing in the same sub- 
ject for 25 years. Ordinary itch may be cured in eig ht or ten honn, lit 
means of the compound sulphur ointment, and a wans bath. Merctny 
is not required. All thelinen worn during the continuance of the infec- 
tion, should be boiled, or baked, or, better still, destrojed. 
0. J. (Kbight Street). — We sympathise with yon. Do you not look at your 
troubles through a microscope? A mother's nnkindness is hard indeed 
to endure, but is the daughter never in error F Our object is "to preserve 
health," so yon will see the error you have committed in applying to ui. 
You may have kindness shewn to you " without being ill past recoverv." 
X. Y. Z. (Putney). — Mechanical means assisted by medical and dietical 
treatment. Smith, High Holbom,is one of the best and cheapest truss- 
makers. You will see liiat your second question is already aosvered. 
We shall shortly publish an article on Varicose Veins. ' 

The PsorLE's Medical Joubhal is published in Monthly Parts, sail will | 
be ready for transmission to the country along with the magazines (or 
March. — It is requested that orders may be immediately given to the I 
local booksellers and newrrendors. j 

Erratum.— In the last number, page 52, second column, three lines from the 

hoxtom— for originally read original. | 

The following Corbesponoents can only be answered privately, in person I 
or by letter:— Chables Cokarn (St. John's Wood). W. B. (Camden I 
Town). A. K. (Fife). T.Kibxaldt (Newcastle). A Weaver (Netting- I 
ham). THOMAs(Maidslone). RS.H.(Norwich). MiaBRT.CATRBRniiS. 
Amothbb Victim. Doubtful. M. A. B. (Wisbeach). T. R. (Maid- 
stone). O. Y. E. W. Stamp. P. P. P. (Wandsworth). Ak Esgi- 
KBER (Greenwich). W. Wbioht. Annabella. A Fokbstbr. J. 
G. (Deptford). Bbfbmtamce. A Poor Widow. ' Hobatio. 
PBiaCRlFTiOHa and private instructions as to diet and regimen are Ittt with 
Thb Dispedsbb, 78, Uracechurch Street, for the following corres- 
pondenU: L. W. (Lambeth). 8. T. (Blackfriars' Road). Mrs. M A. 
a. Dorothy. A Clbrx ^othbury). Bertxamd. Mrs. Dods. 
A Nebblbwobkir. John Briogb. Wm. Nicholson. A Nbioh- 
BouR. J. J. (Victoria Park). Alt Excibemam. F. R. One who 
BAi BEEN Duped. M. Tbeb. P. (Cannon Street Road). A Poor 
Scholar. T. R. B. (Cambridge Heath). Prmcbiul (Newington 
Causeway). K. W. (Leytonstone). 



Frlnted kj CnsaLxs Adams, at IiIm Printiiw oaioe, 8, St. James's Walk, in the ParUh at 
St. James's, ClerksowsD, In ths Coontr of Hlddkeex i tut potlUlMd, fbr the PnpiMon, 
br Obobob Vicebes, Strand, In the radsh of at CkOMM Daass, la the saM County of 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

ilLI PNYSICIAN. 



EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 9— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 2, 1850. 



[ovEFxinrr- 



DEATH BY aUACEEBY. 

The number of deaths occturing in England and Wales in the 
space of ten years may be computed at three and aquarter millions : 
yre will assume that this fatality implies at least 160 millions of 
cases of sickness. Let it be admitted, first, that under efficient 
medical treatment 3 millions would have died ; secondly, that if 
left to nature, 4 millions would have perished ; thirdly, that if 
the whole 160 millions of unfortunate patients had been placed 
at the mercy of quacks and uneducated prescribing drug^sts, or 
other pretenders, the fatality would have been increased, either 
by a frustration of the efforts of nature, or by the administration 
of unsuitable medicines, to 4^ millions. This is a moderate 
computation, but after every possible deduction has been made, 
the deaths which are likely to occur from the ill-treatment of the 
sick by quacks and prescribing druggists throw into shade all 
the murders and all the deaths from violence that could happen 
in any state of society, the murders of war being excepted. 

A murder, it is true, becomes speedily notorious ; the cry for 
vengeance upon the shedders of human blood is loudly and 
widely heard, while persons whose deaths are wrought by the 
quack and the medical pretender fall silently into the grave, 
and are lost, unheeded, amid the numbers which no skill can 
preserve. Many fatal events, indeed, are consummated by mis- 
adventurous patients themselves, in prescribing for their own 
diseases, unfortunate in their own judgment, and unfortunate in 
their friends. The quaek, or the prescribing drug^st, will tell 
us that he visits his patients from motives of humanity, and not 
from mere love of lucre. But what is the result of his conduct? 
a drowning man vociferates for " help ! " a knave intrudes in the 
garb of the Humane Society, and, seeming to " help," prevents 
efficient aid from being rendered by others, and the victim of 
his imposition perishes, plunged beneath the merciless waters. 

A distinction will be drawn between an instant murder, com- 
mitted by violence, and a slow, or a sudden death, under the 
hands of a prescribing druggist, pretender, or quack. In the 
latter case, the patient voluntarily places his life at the disposal 
of an ignorant person ; no violence is perpetrated. But can the 
community sanction such an act of suicide ? Should a govem- 
inent, professing to represent the intelligence and the humanity 
of the nation, suffer men to play such desperate games with their 
own lives ? or allow reckless mercenaries to swindle the poor, 
the ignorant, and the superstitious, by impudent lies and cajolery, 
out of existence ? 

If any measure were brought before parliament for the entire 
suppression of quackery, objectors would arise, and ask if the 
attempt were not an infringement on the liberty of the subject, 
—whether an impotent old man might not, if he chose, use 
"Balm of Zazezizozu;" or a yoimg man " Antiallsortsof- 
diseaseandinfection Drops ;" or one of the other sex consult a 



druggist on the mysteries of the " turn of life," and feminine 
disorders, — without the interference of parliament; or whether 
the people should be denied the use of "aperient pills," or 
prohibited from " purifying their blood," by legislative enact- 
ments? And in the event of suppression, what " was to 
become," it would be asked, "of the thousands of prescribing 
druggists, the vendors of patent medicines, the quacks, and 
other such practitioners of all descriptions ?" 

These inquiries develope two circumstances on which the 
existence of quackery depends, — the propensity of one part of 
mankind to indulge in extravagant follies, and the interest of 
another class in furnishing aliment to those follies. Resting on 
these, unhappily too secure, foundations, quackery can no more 
be entirely suppressed than theft; but it may be greatly di- 
minished if the law, instead of sanctioning, forbade the sale of 
quack medicines, and punished quacks and pretenders, in what- 
ever garb they might be found. The public would, assuredly, 
sanction any regulations which, while they secured an abundant 
supply of able, well-educated practitioners, protected the ignorant 
and the weak-minded from the arts of dea^-dealing pretenders ; 
for, although many quack nostrums are inert and innoxious, 
others are violent in their action, and in the highest degree 
dangerous. 

The great mass of chemists and druggists in England receive 
no professional education ; they are ignorant of the scientific and 
practical parts of chemistry, and they have no general acquain- 
tance with pharmacy, as it is understood in Germany and in 
France. To say that they have not the slightest knowledge of 
the human frame, or its diseases, is unnecessary. The only 
means of improving this important department of the healing 
art would be to subject every chemist and druggist in the 
kingdom to an examination in pharmacy. 



CHBONIC RHEUMATISM. 

BY TBE £SII0B. 
{Continiudfrompagti&.') 
Chrokio Rheumatism is seldom preceded by Acute Rheuma- 
tism ; acute rheumatism is comparatively of rare occurrence : 
chronic rheumatism, on the contrary, is constantly met with, and 
this circumstance alone is sufficient to point out that it is not 
often the result of the acute form of the disease. In many in- 
stances it is a distinct complaint, marked by symptoms of its 
own, and demanding very different treatment. 

Chronic rheumatism is characterised by pain of the larger 
joints and surrounding muscles, which is increased by motion ; 
the parts affected are stiff and rigid ; the several structures around 
are thickened, or there may. be.'au effusion of fluid into the syno- 
vial bags of the joints ; there is rarely any swelling, redneM, or 
increased heat, and fever is seldom present ; the limb spontane- 



Digitized by 



Google 



66 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



oiuly and easOy grows cold, and its action and movements are 
considerably weakened, if not entirely crippled. These may be 
described as the leading features of chronic rhetunatiBm, but in 
some casas the symptoms are vatiaUe, and danand a mwe 
minute description. 

In Aat form of tile disease Icnown as sub-iteute rhatmatum, 
the pain frequently shifts its situation from one joint to another, 
and is increased by warmth, especially at night by nd^jrinnal 
bed-clothing. There is swelling of the part^ of a vliite, shiay 
appearance, like marble, of aa'cedematous chwacler ; this is Esore 
particularly observed at those joints which are surrounded by a 
large mass of muscles, and those which are constantly excited, 
as the hips, and the lower part of the spine. Tbis state of ehronie 
rhenmnri— im smsMfisH in»k m wMte to^oe, Hiint, a quick- 
ened pulse, and a costive condition ef the bowels. 

Another form of the disease is marked by the total absence 
of every constitutional symptom ; there is not any increased 
excitement in the system, the pulse is not quickened, the toqgue 
is clear, and the bowds regular ; in fact, the patient has his 
usual bodily health, but is quickly reminded of his infirmity by 
every change in the heat and moisture of the atmosphere. The 
pain is often not felt, except on moving the limbs, and generally 
subsides as soon as tranqiuTlity is regained ; to some extent the 
limb loses the power of motioUj and becomes useless, as though 
affected with a degree of paralytic torpor. The part afiected is 
always cold and stiff, and the pain is relieved rather than in- 
creased by the warmth of bed ; pressure on the part doea not 
iifford pain, neither is there any puffineas or swelling. 

There is another species of chronic rheumatism, which is at- 
tended with permanent derangement in the structure of the joints, 
especially those of the fingers, and sometimes, also, the ankles 
and knees. This species of the disease is sometimes called 
rheumatic gout. The periosteum, the ends of the bones^ and the 
ligaments of the joints, become thickened, and lumps, or nodes, 
form upon them, often to such an extent as to distort the joint 
in the most unsightly manner. The pain is violent and acute 
—sometimes pulsating and throbbing as though matter were form- 
jng in the joint; it is felt with increased severity during the night 
Women who have passed the meridian of life are more liable to 
this type of rheumatism than men. 

We frequently hear patients complain of rheumatism in the 
bead and &ce, and certainly the symptoms approach closely to 
those of rheumatism in the joints ; the parts throb, are hot and 
swollen, and the eyes water. The complaint, however, is more 
of a neuralgic than of a rheumatic character ; it may be properly 
described as rheumatic neuralgia, or dieumatie nerve-ai^e. In 
audi cases, the disease arises from cold, and those causes which 
induce ibenmatism ; there is, in the first instance, a great deal 
of heat, pain, and tenderness — not producing a pain I'^ c an 
electric shock, as in tic-doloureux — but tenderness of the part 
upon the slightest touch, or even if blown upon. This kind of 
nervous rheumatism is frequently periodical in its attack, and 
generally comes on in the evening at a fixed hour, continuing for 
a certain time, and then ahcOing in severity ; in the intervals of 
the attack, there is usually a constant dull, or " dead" pain in 
tike part previouriy the seat of the violent stabbing, plunging 
pun of the neuralgia. 

Chronic rheuaiatism may eontiane for an mdefinite period, 
and sometimes it only tmninates with Hfb itself; it may be al- 
together absent for sosne time, but a peiBoo oneeattwAed should 
always be prepared for, and guard against, a renewed attack. 
It sometimes happens that the affected joizft is debilitated in the 
utmost degree, ao that, when Oe acute pain is not present, tbe 
weakness reaembfes that of a stroke of palsy. 

Cold, the common cause of acute rheumatism, is also a com- 
soon oauee of the chronic disease, even where the aente species 



has not preceded; cold, when combined with moisture, as in 
damp sheets, damp walls, and wet feet, is the most likely to in- 
duce the disease, and sitting in a partial current of cold air has 
a like effect. Sprains, strains, bruises, and even an attach of 
syasBS, ficqura^y act m exciting eauaes. Chronic rheumatism 
is dso one of the most common effects of the syphilitic pdson, 
the imprudent use of mercury, and neglected gonorrhcea. 

THX TE£ATICSNT. 

In nine caaes out of every ten, chronic rheumatism is a dis- 
ease of debility, and Ae mode of treatment must be founded 
upon this idea ; certainly to such an extent as will prevent all 
depletory means being employed to reduce or exhaust the system. 
It may oceur, in some severe attack of lumbago, that die ab- 
straction of a few ounces of blood by cupping may be proper, 
but, as a general rule, the lancet, cupping, and leeches ore in- 
adnusaihle. 

Chronic Rheumatism is a difficult and tedious disorder to 
combat ; it is almost as much beyond the control of medicine as 
acute rfaenmatiBm is under it. At the moment a cure is sup- 
posed to be effiMSted, a relapse takes place, the treatment must 
eovmence de novo, and tiius the patient loses fidth in his medical 
attendant and the remedies he may apply, to &I1 a prey to the 
vendors of quack pills, mixtures, draughts, drinks, and oils, 
which promise " immediate relief" and " astounding cures." 
The disappointment is the same ; and the regular practitioner, 
tiie nostrum sellers, and the Lady Bountifuls, are equally baffled 
by Chronic Rheumatism. 

It unfortunately happens that no general rules can be laid 
down for our guidance ; our best attention, however, should be 
directed to the state of (be constitution and general health of the 
patient, before we attempt to nuke any permanent impression 
on the chronic disorder : thus, if we ^Mover the stomach to be 
ont of order, the bowels costive, and the tongue much loaded, 
we must thoroughly cleanse out the intestina] canal. If we find 
there is mudt fever present (but this seldom occurs in the chronic 
form of the disease), we must then lower the system by 
purging and saline medicines, and with a low diet. When 
there is much debility, with feeble pulse, and a decided loss of 
tone in A« system, we must then employ stimaUatts, cordials, 
and tonics — as myrrh, guaiacmn, benzoin, steel, quinine, and it 
may be, even wine and brandy. When die discMise is purely 
local, without any constitutional disturbance, it may be treated 
by blisters, stimulating embrocations, sharp and long-continued 
fictions, warm fomentations, and other local means. 

Having restored the system to better health, we may with 
better success attack the specific disease. In detailing the treat- 
ment, it must be borne in mmd that both internal and external 
remedies must be varied according to their effects, and the 
particular circumstances of each case : we have already stated 
diat chronic riieomatism must be considered a disease of debility, 
and that the mode of treatment must be founded on this idea. 
We also stated that in some sub-acute forms of the affection, as 
lumbago and rheumatism of the hip joint, the local abstraction 
of blood may be productive of great benefit, and that when there 
is much pain and swelling of a joint from distension of the 
synovial membrane, a flew leeches should be applied ; in all other 
eases, blood-letting is improper. The cure of chronic rheumatism 
may be occasionally effected by promoting diaphoresis — a 
deteimination to the skin — perspiration. This mode of treat- 
ment is adapted to those cases in which there exists some degree 
of febrile excitement, where the pains are of recent date, and 
shifting from one point to another. A draught composed of 
Dover's powder, liquor amnamia diacetatis, and camphor mixture 
should be given repeatedly during the day — or, what is pre- 

Iferable, inasmuch as it acts as a stimulant as weD, tbe ammoniatei 
tincture of gmuxcum should be employed. This is a medicine 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



67 



giyen in various doaes, from thirty drops to a dtaebn at- a time; 
and Dr. Ellittoii has known padeDts who took cix drachms 
three or four times a-day. The grand prop e r ty of this medicine 
is that it not only excitea a proftue perspiration, bnt alao pro- 
doces great yrxnnA is the btaae, which the patient retains for a 
considerable time. Bvary rinevmatic patient luiows how desirable 
this is, and, by a proper course, this warmth may be retained and 
kept up, and all the painful symptoms alleviated. Sometimes 
diia preparation of gnaiarom purges — sometimes it pioduoes tke 
nettle-rash ; nevertheless, it is an admirable remedy. With this 
diaphoretic treatment should be conjoined the warm bath, which 
may be directed twice or three times a-week. Stimulants of all 
Imida have been found serviceable, and have at different times 
ban highly lauded. Warm, active balsams and resins, essential 
cils from resinous substances, as turpentine and amber, aromatic 
a pungent plants, as camphor and mustard, and especially 
ojeput, the green distilled oil from the leaves of the ndakuea 
ktcodendron, have all been employed in their tnm ; sometimes 
alone, when they combine a sedative with a stimulant power, 
IS camphor and ctgeput, and sometimes in union with opium, 
which very often proves a very valuable addition. Most of these 
drugs arc also powerful diuretics, and are therefore doubly 
terriceable ; horse-radish and garlic, for a like reason, are bene- 
ficial. 

In the same description of cases which are benefited by dia- 
phoretics, the preparations o£eolehieum, or meadow safiron, may 
he had recourse to with great advantage. Colchimun is, without 
Joubt, the most valuable internal medicioe which we possess far 
tk treatment of rheumatism ; its action is both purgative and 
diuretic ; it seldom effects any decided good until it purges 
briskly ; and it has been remarked, " when it once purges the 
patient thoroughly, the disease gives way." It would be fortu- 
nate were this always the case. In our practice, however, we 
ncTer repeat it after its full purgative action has been obtained. 
It is too powerful a drug to be incautiously administered ; the 
gn^og which it may excite is very violent, and an over- dose 
caoses great debility and tmeasy sensations, which are, fortu- 
nately, of short duration. Whenever it induces heat in the 
stomach and bowels, and pain on pressure, it should be omitted. 
Colchicum is generally given, combined with magnesia, and 
guarded by two or three drops of hydrocyanic acid. 

Mercury is frequently necessary and useful, especially in those 
cases in which it is supposed a syphilitic taint may be lurking in 
tlie system, and keeping up the disease. Nothing is more com- 
mon than for persons who have chronic rheumatism, who suffer 
great pain, which is .increased towards night, and when warm in 
bed, to receive no benefit whatever, till they have had a course 
of mercury, and as soon as the month is tender, they loea all 
fain. 

In all cases of chronic rheumatism we must endeavour to miti- 
gate the pain as speedily as possible ; and, in general, opium 
snd its preparations, laudanum, morphia, &c., will be found the 
colj effectual resource. Ten or fifteen grains of Dover's powder 
ihinld be given every night at bed-time. Whenever opium dia- 
<grees with the system, producing head-ache and fever, the ex- 
tracts of conium and hyosciamus may be substituted. The cos- 
tiveness, which all narcotics occasion, should be carefully obviated 
bj some aperient, as a wine-glass full of the compound decoction 
of aloes, taken the following morning. 

When chronic rheumatism assumes an intermittent form, it 
must be treated, in some measure, as intermittent fever, by giving 
> large dose of quinine just before a paroxysm is expected, and 
smaller doses in the intervals. The arsenical solution has been 
saccessfblly employed in such cases ; but, in practice, we prefer 
die quinine, which seldom fails. The waters of Bath and Buxton 
posses^ considerable fame for their curative properties. 



We now have to speak of external amd local remedies. There 
is no remedy, perhaps, of such gpaeal iq^ilication in the traat- 
ment of chronic rheumatism as hwal wann bathiag. Ib that 
severe ftmn of the disease called nodosity of the joints, seafealy 
anjrthing else can be reUed on to soothe the pain, and relax die 
rigid fil^es. Fomentations of poppy-heads, oumin seeds, brine, 
&&.. are sometintes advised, bnt simple water, ss hot as can be 
borne, is equally efllcaeioaB : we know of nothing that will ewotiie 
the pain and insure a good night's rest more certainly than a 
general warm bath immediately before getting into bed. 

Local stimulants of all kinds have been employed, and same 
with coDsiderable advantage. Poultices of oamin and mustard- 
seeds, occasionally intermixed with ammonia, euphotbinm, or 
cantharides ; embrocations with ammonia and croton oil ; oint- 
ments of tartar emetia; shocks of eleetrittty; pewerfol frictioB 
with horse-hair gloves ; shampooing ; the mmu (burning German 
tinder on the part affected;) acupunctnration, which consists 
in pushing five or six finely-pointia needles, at a small l^^irt^^n4^ 
from each other, to the depth of from half an im^ to an inch into 
the seat of the pain, taking care that the part is museolar, not 
tendottous ; sulphurous fumigations, &c 8cL, have had, and have 
their advocates. 

It is unnecessary to add, that in every fimn ef chrome rheu- 
matism httle benefit can be derived wiAout strict attemtaos to 
the diet and clothing be enjoined : it is one of the few diseases 
in which flannel ahomdbe worn next the skin. 



iiwLmiroB ov an Aim xzaaciis «■ nmLum. 

In ^oof of the iafloonee wUek even temporar; ptysical adacation sorts 
npoD the haaaae finuao aid iti itamina, may bo HioBtioged the toUowing ez- 
anplo >—ia the suaaMr of 1839, we had an opportnaity of wi f eoi iu r one of 
the trial races of Osenfl, at that time one of the oiriftest ruBBers in Bngiaod. 
On the oecation we speak of, ho Tan 120 yards in deven Mcoads ; his pulse, 
jost before stafting, beat 61 strokes per mioate, and at ^ teraunatioa of his 
extraordinary ilsat it beat only 94! When it is farther takon Into aceoaaa, that, 
whilst in the act of ruBning, he never undo a complete iaspiratieB or Bxpii». 
tioB, the perfonnaaee can M eoa^erad litUe short of wonderful. We won 
infbimed l>y the B»n himaeK that thongh he was iBtanlly remarkable for 
nisable-fcotedness, be was anything but " good-winded,'* Two months pre- 
▼ioady, ha had bean taken from a stockiag-fl«me, and, by a prpceaa of nersiy 
carefiU training, was brought iato the state of bodily condition alluded to. 
Had it boon possiUe tat Um, before cornmencing to train, to iiave mn the 
distance in the time stated, the eflbrt, if it had not kilM, would have nesriy 
aaphyxialed lum. He would have been braatUng for has UCs, and Ua polaa' 
could not have been eounted. As it waa, at the completion of hb task, hv 
biaathed without difficulty, and his pulse was increased oaly 33 beats per 
minute I After such of ideaee as this— «nd it is only one of a multitnde of ex- 
amples with which the world is fhmiliar— ao man, not actually diseased, need 
despair of becoming active and vigorous, if he will only attend to the ampl* 
mies which are to gnide his physical diseipliae. The saaa of whom we have 
spoken had not a good chest, ftor which reason he oonld aot, under any circum> 
stances, have mn a long race ; and his coafignratlon of thoi«z waa even op* 
posed to an effort of speed fOr a thoit distance; but the natural obstada wm- 
orereome for the time being by temporary training! We are, perhaps, not 
justified in saying ex una di$ceamnet; but at least we can say, that if two 
short months of rigid living, and exercise in pnre air, can do so much for a. 
man's constitution and itreogth, how much more permanent service may bo 
done by a continued obMrvaoce, though in a milder degree, of the principles 
of proper training ! How many listless and enfeebled frames would be roused, 
re&esBed, and made lit fbr the wear and tear of a protracted life ! How many 
minds, sinking into imbecility tnm actual lassitude, or oppressed by the- 
melancholy of hneied cares, would be stirred by the busy and cheert^ ubjeeta 
of worldly enterprise ! We would fhia teach the man too ardently devoted to 
laamiag, to sdanoe, or to worldly business, that with all his toil, and care, 
aad penury of time, he is not a gainer ; he may appropriate to his idol object 
an hour that should be sacred to his own service, and in so doing he iaa loser 
of twain ; lat him husband hia moments u sinwdly as ho wiU, then is a cer- 
tain vaekMiag which he mast daily have with hiasaelf, a certain time in his 
own RSt aad refreshment; and if that time be aot granted, it becomes no 
msMar of idle debtanhip— day after day rrgisters a fresh aceomt against him, 
and, at the end of a few years, tha unsaspMted fact ef presaatoR aid ag« is 
announced by decrepitude, decay, and death.— ifeifica/ Tim»$. 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



"STOPPING" TEBTH. 

Thb rollowing are lome of the most approred formulM for the preparation of 
compotmdi for filUng op deoayed teeth. 

A COKMOir SucoBDAXBOX FOB THB Tbbtb. — To fill decayed teeth, 
prepare a concentrated lolation of gum sandaroe, maitick, eolophonium, in 
ether or pore alcohol, which ought not to amount to more than a third part of 
the weight of the whole mass. Take, for instance, twelve parts of sandarac, 
iix parts of mastSek, one part of powdered amber, and six parts of ether, and 
distribute the solution into smaU phials corked air-tight, bound over with a 
bladder, andk^t in a cool place. It is the tooth nuutick,— is like balsam of 
copaiba in colour and consistence. Exposed to the sir, it thickens very 
rapidly, becoming viscid at first, and drips gradually, but remains for a long 
time soft. With alcohol the mass is turned into a milky white solution. 

Thb CBLBBBiiTBO Dr. Gakobb's Tooth BAi.SikM, is a sort of mastick 
prepared witli pnre alcohol, and principally used in St Petersburgh. It is 
prepared in the following way : — Dissolve two oonces of choice mastick in tliree 
ooncesofpure alcohol: decant the solntion and ponr it into a dry bottle 
Capable of holding two pounds; add nine ounces of dry balsam of tola, and 
aecelerate its solution by a moderate heat, and by turuin; and sha3dng the 
bottle, which must be corked air-tight all the time. Then place the fluid for 
some time in a warm place, in order »hat the insoluble parts may separate from 
the rest, and distribute the liquid into wide-monthed little phials, which must 
be corked air-tight, immediately. This tooth-balsam is thick and tough, and 
becomes pretty solid by the oontoct of the lur, and u neither affected by 
saliva nor by any other Uqnid. To fill hollow teeth and alleviate the tooth- 
ache, tiie hoUow'is first cleaned and dried by cotton or blotting-paper i then a 
pieceof cotton is rolled up, dipped into the balsam, and introduced into the 
tooth. If the cement falls out after some time, the stopping mnst be repeated 
immediately. This is a substitute for the lead usually introduced in Gennany. 

ViEmrx SuccBOikKBUii bob Tebsh. — Herr Von Wirth, the learned 
apothecary of Vienna, has conceived the happ^' idea of substituting asbestos 
for cotton, and of keeping it mixed with the resinons moss. At the same time, 
a brown tooth tincture is used, which is prepared with alcohol and acetic 
ether, from guaiacum, myrrh, &c. M. Patu Ostermaier, of Munich, analysed 
the above cement and tincture, and succeeded in preparing them. West 
Indian copal is finely powdered, and exposed for some weeks to amoderatel}' 
warm air; then it is dissolved in absolute alcohol, mixed with a few drops of 
oil of peppermint. After the evaporation of the alcohol, the mass will retain 
a certain elasticity and softness. The asbestos mnst be finely triturated before 
being mixed with the solntion of copal; wide-mouthed phials must be used 
and closed air tight. The prospectus given with the two phials sets forth 
that die cement) by filling the tooth, will stop decay, remove the bad smell of 
the mouth, protect the nerve against external injury, and make the tooth fit 
again for mastication. The tooUi which is to be stopped mnst first be cleansed 
by dry cotton, then filled with another morsel of cotton, previously dipped in 
the mixture; the cotton is taken out and the cement pressed into the tooth 
with the finger; the accees of saliva during the operation mnst be prevented. 
In tooth- ache the tincture alone ought to be used. The stopper and neck of 
the phial must be ouefully cleansed after being used. 

OsTBBMAiBR'sSuccGDAiiBCxroR Tbbir.— M. Otto Ostermaier pro- 
duced pAot/>Aa<e of /iflM within the tooth in the following manner: — he first 
obtidned phosphoric acid by burning phoephoms in dry air under a large pot; 
with forty-eight ports of the acid be mixed fifty-two parts of newly burned 
quick lime, and pressed them together into the bottom of the tooth,pmio«</y lirMii 
teiU gnat can. If the tooth be not carefully dried, the mass will expand and 
flow over. The remaining mass cannot be used afterwards, because it hardens 
after a few minutes. 

PonDBB Mbtaluqcb (the celebrated Parisian Snceadaneum). — Having 
nnderstood that it is kept in mercury, and that a smell of ammonia appears 
after removing the mercaiy, it is supposed to be prepared fiom ammonia, silver, 
and mercury in excess. If the excess of mercury be removed, and the mass 
exposed to air and water, the ammonium loses one port of its hydrogen and 
escapes as ammoninm, whilst the silver, with a small portion of mercury, 
remauis in the tooth and becomes hard. 

TO THB BDITOK OF " THB PBOPLB'S MBOICA.L lODBNAL." 

Sib, — There is a new system adopted by the puffers of nostrums, which, 
in the country, most operate very ii\juriously to the public. The other day, 
travelling in the country, I met with a person who, in proof of the good per- 
formed by a Quack meiUcine, pulled ont of his pocket a hoad-biU, in which 
were stated the opinotu rftltt leading jaurtiab if th* metnpolti, of course 
highly laudatory of the nostrum in question. The plan formed to deceive the 
public is as follows: — An <iifcer(ifenteii< is sent to perhaps half a doien leading 
journals, contomiDg the puff intended to be npubUthed in the hand-bUU o/' 
theadtertiir. As soon, however, a* the advertisement has appeared, it is 
printed on the hand-bills as if coming firom the editor of the paper in which 
it was inserted as an advertisement, and thus many ignorant persons really 
believe it to be lh« opinian of the journal quoted. 



London, Feb. 23d, 1850. 



I am, Sir, yonr obedient servant, 

A Scb-Editob. 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BY T. H. TEOHAN, H.D. 

KO. IX. 

CHBOiriC BROVCHITIB. 

(fitntimitd fnim pag* 61.) 

Chronto BB0KCHITT8, although more frequently tlie sequel of aa 
acute attack, commences also as a common cold, wiUiout any 
highly inflammatory symptoms ; it becomes constant for a month 
or longer, and returns at certain periods, particularly during the 
winter. It differs from the acute disease in its greater mildness 
and longer duration, and in many instances it is complicated with 
other disorders, either of the circulatory or digestive organs. 

When chronic bronchitis occurs in early life, it generally 
succeeds hooping cough, small-pox, measles, or disease in which 
there is some cutaneous eruption ; it is in more advanced years 
that it follows on attack of the acute form. I hare frequently 
obsen-ed the affection gradually advance without any decided in- 
flammatory symptoms, and at length induce cough, expectoration, 
and the pectiliar wheeze, equal to that which sapervenes to an 
acute attack, or to the periodical bronchitis of aged people ; such 
cases occur in persons who lead an irregular life, indidge freely 
in intoxicating beverages, and are exposed to every change of the 
weather at all hours of the day and night The disease thus en- 
gendered may be often detected in a class of men who are from 
their avocations subject to these influences, namely, the drivers 
of public vehicles, cabmen, omnibus drivers, and the now almost 
obsolete coachman ; the husky cough, the hoarse voice, the red- 
dened countenance, the muffled throat, are frequently the out- 
ward signs of the disease under consideration. The constant or 
frequent inhalation of an atmosphere loaded with dust or powder, 
is often an exciting cause ; thus we find the disease rife amongst 
feather-dressers, leather-dressers, and packers ; if the particles 
of dust are in themselves of a pernicious or irritating nature, the 
disease, as a consequence, is more firequent and more severe in 
its effects ; plasterers, stone-cutters, jet-polishers, drug-grinders, 
those who powder the materials for making china, fork-grinders, 
and needle-pointers, are seldom, if ever, free from an attack. 
Sailors rarely suffer from this complaint tdthough exposed to so 
many advierse influpnces ; this immunity may arise from hardi- 
hood of the frame acquired by constant habit, or by the unirritat- 
ing salts contained in a marine atmosphere. 

In the mildest cases of chronic bronchitis the patient com- 
plains — or probably does not complain at all, for in some persons 
approaching the down-hill of life the disease is habitual, and 
obtains but little consideration — in the mildest cases tbe patient 
has a frequent cough with expectoration, which is increased by 
certain changes of the weather, as from a warm or temperate, to 
a cold, damp, foggy, or " raw" atmosphere ; consequently it is 
during the winter and spring that this form of the disease is 
most prevalent 

As the complaint assumes a more severe character, so does 
the difficulty in breathing become greater, and with this symp- 
tom we discover others that denote a serious amount of obstruc- 
tion in the respiratory organs. A dull, heavy, oppressive pain 
is felt in the chest and in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
heart, which palpitates violently and occasions much distress ; 
the cough is severe and frequent, and towards night is constant 
and exl^usting ; there is generally some considerable degree of 
fever, and the digostive organs are always disordered ; there is 
little inclination for food, and as soon as any is taken it causes 
pain in the region of the stomach, and augments the tightness 
in the chest ; the tongue is foul, the mouth hot and clammy, and 
the bowels confined. Should the symptoms continue for any 
length of time they seldom fail to waste and weaken the bod j ; 
we then find the pulse small and feeble, there is great debility 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



6d 



and emaciation, the breathing is more oppressed, and in some 
cases the patient is totally unable to brea^e when in the recum- 
bent position, and requires to be propped up with pillows, or re- 
frains from going to bed ; the least movement or exertion brings 
on increased oppression and palpitation, and he will try every 
postnre to enable him to breathe with greater freedom. We fre^ 
quently notice patients during a paroxysm support themselves 
with both hands while seated on a chair or sob, by which they 
elevate the first rib and thus slightly enlarge the cavity of the 
chest. The voice is hoarse and indistinct, and sentences are 
spoken with difficulty or disjointed. When the cough is very 
violent, and the collected mucus difficult to expectorate, the 
vessels of the face become gorged with blood, the countenance is 
red or livid, and the patient struggles for every gasp of breath ; 
sometimes a small blood-vessel is ruptured, and spitting of blood 
«nsue8 ; if the expectoration assumes a purulent character the 
patient is weakened by continual uigh^sweat8, diarrhoea is invari- 
ably present, together with hectic fever, and other symptoms that 
closely resemble pulmonary consumption. 

The expectoration undergoes every possible change, and the 
alterations in its character merit the best and constant attention 
of the physician, as they afford him the surest indication of the 
condition and progress of the disease. It may be copious or 
scanty, watery, viscid, or even puruleui ; it may in colour be of 
every shade, from white or greenish-yeUow, to black, or it may 
be streaked with blood ; it is sometimes inodorous, at others, of 
a faint or foetid smell. In the milder cases it is discharged with- 
out great difficulty, it is tolerably copious, thick, uniform in its 
consistence, and perfectly opaque ; the colour is usouUy yellow, 
or greenish-yellow, and the odour and taste slightly foetid. When 
the disease presents itself in an aggravated degree, the expecto- 
ration generally assumes a muco-purulent appearance, and then 
loses a part of its glutinous nature and becomes cream4ike ; it is 
frequently tinged with dots or specks of a black colour, and not 
unfrequently traces of blood may be discovered ; sometimes these 
little specs are abundant and surrounded by a more fluid secre- 
tion which is occasionally of a broAvnish or ash colour. We may 
often notice several little hardened lumps not unlike pieces of 
glue or jelly, coughed up with an accumulation of more fluid 
mucus ; after these are expectoi-uted, the patient experiences 
cousiderable relief until they again collect in the bronchial tubes. 
If the disease is permitted to run on unrestrained by remedial 
treatment, the expectoration will become purulent, streaked with 
-blood and presenting all the characters of true pus ; in such cases 
the constitutional symptoms indicate a state of imminent peril : 
the pulse is nq)id, die strength prostrated, hectic fever is estab- 
lished, and the patient sinks under the efiects of night sweats, 
diarrhoea, and profuse expectoration, in the same manner as in 
fatal cases of consumption. 

The signs detected by the stethoscope ore nearly similar to 
those whi(£ mark the acute form of the disease ; the respiratory 
murmur is sometimes heard distinctly, and often louder than 
usual, occasionally it is obscure and accompanied by a mucus 
gurgle or rattle in different parts of the chest ; wherever the 
tubas are obstructed by a collection of secretion, or wherever the 
internal membranes are thickened, maybe heard a hissing, sonor- 
ous, snoring sound. When the inflammation has continued for 
dby length of time, some alteration generally takes place in the 
structure of the bronchial membrane, it may become softened, 
thickened, and ulcerated ; these states may be clearly diagnosed 
by attention to the general symptoms and stethoscopic signs. 
Sometimes one or more of the tubes become dilated, and in 
several ports of their course form small sacs or pouches, which 
.are, for the most part gorged with pns ; the expectoration then 
acquires a remarkably foetid odour. 

Chronic bronchitis is easily distinguished from all other 



affections of the chest except eonsnmption, in severe cases it so 
closely resembles this fearful disease, that it is only by careful 
examination and narrowly watching the constitutional symptoms 
that the one can be distinguished from the other ; in both dis- 
eases, as they draw to a close, we find nearly the some signs, 
particularly hectic, night-sweats, emaciation, and diarrhoea. It 
is by the absence of those symptoms which mark eonsniqptioB 
that we must chiefly depend to arrive at a correct diagnosis, and 
these negative proofs must of necessity be less satisfactory than 
those which are positive. 

In simple cases of chronic bronchitis, the individual may 
labour under an attack for some time, or for several succeeding 
winters, without any considerable derangement of health, or 
abridgment of the ordinary term of life ; and we frequentiy ob- 
serve elderly people who, with the exception of tiie distress 
which a paroxysm of ctfugh induces, are in all other respects free 
from bodily ailment. In others who are more delicate or have 
any latent disease, the immediate effects are severely felt, and as 
well as the affection of the bronchial tubes, the mucus mem- 
brane of the stomach and bowels is frequently implicated ; irrita- 
bility, irregularity orcongestion of the circulation, may beinduccd, 
and consumption hastened in its progress. When tiius compli- 
cated, one or more diseases acting in concert, the progress of both 
will be accelerated, and the result rendered more doubtful. In 
severe cases of long continuance we usually find the disease 
complicated with some disorder of the liver, stomach, or bowels ; 
if the abdominal derangement be repaired, and the healthy nu- 
trition of the system insured, the patient will frequently recover 
from a condition that appears surrounded with danger. 
(To be oontimied in onr next.) 



FACTS IK AKATOMT AXD rHTUOLOOT. 

The average weight of an adult mu, ued 40, is UOlb*. 6oz. ni« 
skeleton geneniUy consists of 840 bones, but S48 hare oooasionally been foand, 
and weifibs about Ulbs. The height of a man when olive bemg 5 feet 8 
inches, the skeleton will be about 5 feet 7 inches. The average weight of the 
brain of a man is 3)lbs., that. of a woman, Slbs. lloz. The oitcolating blood 
is ilSlbs. An ordinary sised man consumes about 46,000 cable inohes of 
oxygen per day. The average number of respirations are '20 per minnte. 
The forces that circulate the blood are four ; contraction of the left ventriola 
of the heart, elasticity of the arteries, muscular action propelling the blood in 
the veins, and expanuon of the chest during inspiration. Total abstinenee 
above seven days is fatal to man; but there are instances of surviving after a 
longer period. The poise of children is 120 ioaminute; at puberty 72 to 80; 
and St 60, only 60. 

LOMOEVITT. 

Therb is nothing in the system of nature which, in onr present state 
of knowledge, appears so unintellipble as the scale of longevity. It most 
be admitted, indeed, that our knowledge upon this subject is verv im- 
perfect; tar all that is known of domesticated' animals, and the aociaental 
facts which have been preserved concerning others, tend to the siranga 
result, that longevity bears no relation either to strength, size, complexity 
of organisation, or intelleetoal power. True it is that birds, which seem 
to rank higher than beasts in the scale of being, are also much longer lived. 
Thirty is a great age for a hone ; dogs nsually live only from fourteen 
years to twenty; bat it is known that the goose and the hawk exceed a 
cenlnry. But fish, evidently a lower rank in creation than either, are 
longer lived than birds; it has been said of some species, and of certain 
snakes also, that they grow as long as they live, and as far as we know, 
live till some accident puts an end to their indefinite term of life. And 
the toadl it cannot indeed be said that the toad lives for ever, but many of 
these animals who were cased up at the general delude, are likely to live 
till they are baked in their cells at the general confl^ration. — Southtf. 



PASSION. 

KoTHtKO doth so fool a man as extreme passion. This doth both 
make them fools which otherwise are not, and anew them to be fools that 
ore so. — Bishop Hall. 



INSBCTUAI. LSAPWO. 

Tbs flea, grasaiiopper, and locust, joaip SCO tiraei their own length, 
equal to a qoarter of a mile for a man. 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



CI.A48IPiCATiON OP BB11BDIE8. 

Tax lollowiaf suauarj «r Un priaoipal cIum* of 

Dr. Guy, ii m cltwly «^pre«ad, tkat tlie caiml nmitt Bay laadily an- 

pT*b«nd ua outline of tb» wieiic* of tkcnipaiitiBl. 

CXtfB I. STiWiLUm. — (a) gmurai, (>) iecM^ eoieni^ (tiiMiAiate az- 
dte all tlie orgaai ud functioiu of tb« body — ibe cwculatian, tba Amctioof 
'«f Um brain and nertoni lyitem, tbe leerctioii*, Itc. In bealthy penoni tbe; 
«atM » freqiMst, taB, aad qaick piriw; is eCtrenw debility, they render the 
pulie leu (re^ocat, but more faU. The eihuatiim irhish foHmn Un exoe- 
(ive uw of them Ksenblei the eSeeti of the dopreaMBli or naraotiai. 

Local itimulanti act on one or more organs of the body, either directly or 
through the circulation. They excite thoK organi to the active performance 
«f <Aeir apiariqiriate fiinctioni ; and thii excitement ii generally accompanied 
liy incrwiMd datumination of blood. TJm reaction «Uch fcllowa their abaie 
diowi itf eU in iluggifh fimction and cirooUtiflB. la lo««l debility tb^ aoc 
at local tonics. 

The gentrai stimnlaatt most common in nie a* medicines, are the Tarious 
Cmrma and preparations af alaoliol,e|]iar, and smmotia, and cold employed as 
• shook. Amongst the stinudant raaedies of his power, are soma of those 
whidi are commonly designated antispasmodics, as valerian, assaAstida, musk, 
fte. To these may be added, seipentary and oontiayerra, which appear to 
combine (be Tiitues of a stimulant and tonic, and are employed with advantage 
JBbnpbaafcvCT- 

titere are certain ramodiat also wUob maybe raferrad to Ae dais of gsae- 
ral stimulants, as they are administered by tba month, enter the circulatien, 
ud affect particular systems and tissues. To this class belong nux vomica, 
and the aative principles strychnia and bmcia, which affect the muscular 
•ystem by prodnfing tetanic q^asms; tba metallic preparations, esperaally 
mercury, arsenic, and antimony, whlck appear to act upon the aatii« capil- 
lary system, including tba capillaries of tba eecratory oigana; and the b a l sa m s , 
vrfaicb affect the mucous membranes. 

Tbe Iteal stimulants comprise those which are applied directly to the body 
«a'haat, tba ascharotica, aaa rabebciants, applied to the skin ; (he stomachics, 
caiminaiivas, and amatlos, taken into the stomach ; llm sevaml claMaa Of 
purgatives, applied to the mucous membrane of tbe bowels; and those which, 
after entering tbe elrculatibn, act only on certain oixans, as the sudori&ca, tbe 
diuretics, the emmeuagogues, ftc; and the stimulating remedies so advan- 
tageously employed in (Paeases of tbe nrinaty passages — ^viz- copaiba and 
cubebs. Some of tiieaa ramedies have a specific action upon one part of the 
tnme, aa tba eigat af lye, wbieh stimulates themusonlsr fibres of the uterus ; 
idalst others have a more estansive range of action, but affect some one organ 
in a marked degaaa, as caatbaridea, which a«ts most strengly on tbe rnnscnlar 
«oat of tbe bladdai. 

Cl>aw IL Tomes. — (a) gtmnU, (i) hcml. Tbeae are remediea wUeh 
yroduee Iktla or no direct sensiUa efiset on tbe eircnlation, nor on tbe more 
obrioas functions of the brain and narvoas system. Their action is gradual 
•nd ooasitia, at tbe term implies, in giving tone and firmnesata all the tex- 
tutas of tbe frame, by improving tbe state of tbe blood, or by increaaing the 
aoatractlllity of the oapiUariea of every part of tbe body. 

QtntTOi tonics are either strong stimulants given in small dosta, or weak 
stimulants in larger ones. As they are adminislered in states of debility, the 
characteristic effect of the stimulant on the circulation is not pereeptibla. 

liOeeU tonics are those ramedies which restore the relaxed capillaries of parts 
to which they are applied to their baalllqr condition. These, too, are stimu- 
lants applied with caution, and of strength proportioned to tbe condition of 
tbe parts affected. 

The principal y«iiera/ tonics are the stronger metallic preparations in small 
doses, or the less active, air zinc and steel, in larger qnanlttias; tbe minaial 
acids, and a varietur of veyaiable substances, at myrrh, cascaiillt, gentiaii, 
tjuastia, scrpei-taiy, cinchona, quinfi, &c. To these must be added cold, ap- 
plied repeatedly in the form of shock, and followed by reaction. Tbe lotai 
tonics are, nitrate of silver, sulphate of copper, cold in tb« form of iouth*, &a. 

Class III. Dsfbessamts*— The action of depressants is the tevena of 
that of stimulants. They prostrate tba powers and functions of the entire 
frame. They increase the frequency, but diminish the fulness and force of 
tbe heart's contractions, except where they remove an existing disease accom- 
panied by a frequent, fill, and bard pulse : in this case tliey render the pulse 
less frequent, smaller, and softer. 

The oest depressant which we possess, next to blood 4etting, is tartar- 
emetic. The lobelia inflata belongs to the same class. Tobacco is still more 
powerful, but it is a narcotic at well as a depressant. Digitalis, ipacacuanha, 
squills, and colchicum possess this quaLty in a high degree, but with certain 
peculiarities of action. 

Cutas IV. Sedativu. — (a) gentnUt (&) loeal. This class comprises 
those remediea which soothe excitement of the nervous syatam, without pro- 
ducing a state, approachiog to syncope, on the one hand, or that of nvcotism, 
on the other. They bear to depressants nearly the same lelation that tonics 
do to stimulants. Local sedatives are remedies which blunt nervous sensi- 
bility, soothe pain, and allay spasmodic action of tbe muscular fibresr 

Among general sedatives, cold is tba meet important. Belladonna, conium, 
Md itraaonium, are of tk» svaa class. The same aubstaaees locally applied 
are heal sedatives. Nitrate of potash, trisailivta of bisiautb) tha-preparati0M 



of lead, and creoaota, belong alto to this class of ^aco^sadatifas. Dapseasaats 
in small dates become sedatives, as stimulants in small doaes are tonics. 

CukBS T. Nascotici. — "Hie property of this doss is to produce sleep, 
and whan given ia j>aiseiMia doaes, cona and apoplexy. Voipbia is tbe type 
•fthitciaat, to irfaicb balaag catbcatB aaid, carbamo axUa, and tdpbatatted 
bydrogan gates, hyaacTamus, lantnnariiim, ramphar, (aadii|ydroarnaic add () 
Opium and nutmeg combine a narcotic and stisauIaiUjfropartj, whilst (he lu^ 
is a narcotic and tonic. 

In aMition to tbe forsgoiag dames of remediea, tfaer« are otbcr groups of 
lait impartanoa, wbaeb laqnire only a cnraary mention ; soeb arathe «mo(- 
Hants, A» aatarids, tba antUitbics, taa anthrimiatirs, fcc. 



TO THB BSITOk OP "TBS VXOFLB's MSMgeAL MDMIAL." 

Bib, — Of all our fellov-ciiaatures in this country, I think poor little chil- 
dren suflisr most ; I mean tbe little children of poor peo]de. Tbe poverty of 
tba kiadeat parent is abarad and Mt by tba ebUd ; but the fkte of that child 
whose parents are m^ind, itbonid; naglactad, baltatarvad, petbapa disetseJ, 
turned nearly naked into tbe street ; uneared for, anpitied, avea in bis tender- 
ett years, how many a scene of woe and suffering does he pass thnugb! 
Tniere bodily comfort is so little cared for, can it be wondered at that there 
is no prevision made for Aa mind, and that spiritual things are never heaid 
of? Is it surprising that cbildian ao raaiad, thamsalvas Mlow their parsnts' 
steps? Can she rear her own o&priag Idndlv, mho aevir banaH teoaivtd 
maternal kindness ? What thousands of cbilaren abound in our streets, act 
tbe ofipring of tbe destitute -alone, but of (be careless, the idle, the druoka, 
the improvidant — removed aotae grades from abject poverty — whose case is 
fully as wretched as that of tbe taally destitote t 

Have not those excellent institutions, tbe Bagged Schools, brengiit tt 
light numberlaas urchins, without protector or guide, so3ely dependcat ob 
themselves for food, clothing, and shelter, who procure th«se neceaariei in- 
variably bj crime— crime, committed almost in ignorance tbat it is such. Oh! 
surely it ia the boundaa intj of tbe citiiant of tbit greaS onpira ta find t 
remedy for this — to feed and taacb these poor abandoned onaa. How to t> 
complish this great end is difficult, perh^M, to plan ; bmt that it is a duty, 
none, I think, can deny. Tbe poor laws are sappoaed to provide for the 
daatitate; and yet bow many, many thousands of poor datldran are witboat 
food, clothing, or moral or religious t ' ' 



Sunpose that no place be permitted to be used for tba Miaiiiiati af Diviis 
vorsbip, unless also appropriated as, or provided with a auBtabla tcbod-ieoB, 
free to adl who chose to attend, and where attendance should entitle each diiU 
to a meal (even if only of oatmeal porridge;, at the expense of the com. 
munity 7 Surely the maciiinery naad not bis aery latricat a, nor tbe expense 
great, to obtain such an end ; and tbe amended charaaters, even sach s 
modicum of education and food would produce, would, I think, amply itpty 
tba coat. 

To you, sir, who, as a pbyaidaa, no doubt must have an enlarged nqw- 
rieace of tbe haunts of misery and destitution — far tfaes* diaease, we know, 
assumes its moat appalling forma, and there tba unaean and unknown charity 
of tbe medical philanthropist mostly exerts itself, — to yota, sir, I would sp- 
paal; for diit question it not simply a mural-or a religious one, but a medi- 
eal one as well. Your powarfnl pen, wielded in sneb a cK.use, would surely 
procure attention ; and should it ba the means of aUeviatiagr the taisary I hsve 
endeavoured to put before you, would it not add a halo ta tlia Ame yon are at 
deservedly gathering, by your efforts to simplify and make intsUigible to ;lsia 
people, like myself, the mysteries of your profession. I am, sir, &c. 
Sootbaa^toik. K. 

[WepnbHsb this latter cbeerfnlly, although, to some extent, it most be 
considered txtra-Hmitei. We fear tba amiable writar overrates our abilitr 
to do good; but ha cannot ovcr-ettimata our aaal, in tbabenavolant purpose 
to which be has called attention.] 



RAXlr Alio aOPT WATEB. 

Ix it well known that aome inters are eaBed "hard,"' and areunBtted fbr 
tbe purposes of washing and brewing. Tbit ia owing to siob watern holding. 
dissolved In them, either cbalk or gypsum (carbonate of lime, and sulphate of 
lime), either of which, by decompoiing, renders more e^penaive the use of tbt 
soap, and materially r^Mndt tbe extraction of the sugary matter from malt. 
Bam-watar, finan the total abtenae of tbeae two subatenees, is the ' softest'' 
and bast of all water for vrathisg, brewing, andgardaoizc.^ and if proper can 
is token in iti collection and storing in tanks, no family naed ba vrhbout an 
abundant supply of it ; for it has been determined, that suffioisnt rain &1U (n 
every bouse in En^ud for the use of its inhabitants. Although the M 
variflt m amsBnt in diflhsant diaddsts, yat the average annual depth which falls 
in England ia about 24 inches, or ante than I2 gliosis on every ajusre foot of 
the roof (a gallon contains 277,274 inches) ; so that, tnppoaing the roof to be 
15 feet square only, more than 2800 gallons of water, or about 8 gallons po- 
day, fall upon it in rain every year. It would tend also to the general use of 
lahirwatar, ifan eai^idatv wldab I faave feimd wiy nseihl in Surrey, was 
adoptedjOf nBakiiigiBin>w«tarpaaB thrau^ tome wbte tand in its way totiie 
tank. By this means, all the leaves, toot, and otter meebanionUy antpended 
matters are removed ,an d .the isin-watar, in coaseqaance, keepa iweet for auy 
lengtii of tiiiM>— ^. ff. MaioH. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



71 



FAMILY PRESCMPnONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

A HiLD Tome in oonvainMBOs ft«a f)rrM>, wWk Ae toogn* hu be- 

lAeakMaooL lUn, twaat^dronofdHmtsnitrie aeid ; 

€■ flyii^ 01 offuigv-ptei I Mia twMV6 drMuBM o( tnftttion of om- 



A DimoRio ftr eHarly peneai.— TMe, fix dtraehns of the oomponnd 
i^ilivf JaoiMr ; cigfct eoneei of the eomponnct inftition of honersdiah. 
Kx. Two tM> lo tpootwM to bo taken time tioMf » day. 

Like Watu is {V«qaantlT med intentallT u am ont-acid i it is aUo 
infill, In anall qnantitiei, mixed witli milkt m soiu letotalauM aCbotions 
-u ridteta, .in ehiUrea ; ft is soasetiiiMs enployad as an in|s«iti«i in 
Itgcwrboea, and ■• an enema for the remon^f the small thiaad-worm. 
Ai I lotion it is most raloakle. It is thw im|ared : Take half a peand 
ol Mlacked Ume, and three-qnartets of a piat of water; put tlh» lime 
aUu earthen pot, and poor a little of the water apon it, and as the lisM 
iUapoor the water on by UHle Mid UtUe, and stir np wiA a stick. The 
ntar mwt be added very slowlj, otherwise the lime will if abont io all 
dinctions, and the great heat suddenly piodiioed will crack or bceak the 
isael which eontains iL Aftac thrae or foot hoax*, whan th* siKked 
Erne has sank to tba bottom, the clear flaid may be ponred off, and nit in 
t itopped bottle away from the light. Lime water should ba pedectly 
(olounesi, and brilliantly transparent. 

Guooar's Powsbr. — Take pwrderadsjauenanedrathni; oowdered 
tlisnoaiihi two dnuikms ; powdarid rhnban^ Mr draehais ; iian»onairi of 
■ipiwis, one onace. llix. 

AsoKAne WiWi vr Qoiiriam>— Take, af tte dS-salphate of qmnine, 
eijktcen grains ; citric acid, fifteen grains ; somd dry orange wine^ one 
hvk, or twan^foar omaea. 

Van chfldren are aHawed to cry mtO thdr ftrength is ezhaasted, they 
ok iatn long and nawholasome sleep. It shonld be remembered that these 
Tialni eSmti to gaia relief, enaHy spoil thcit tamper, and disorder their 
aaliMioa, aad that when a chuiTs tnriralent passions are so eady awakened 
alnereiaed, there a reason to fear they will materially inflnaace ha liiture 
Apoiilion. 

LmosADI. — Cut tvo lamoas in sUces, poar on them a pint and a half of 
l(iitii( water, inffaae for an hour in a covered viael, then add two oances 
«< sigir, and strain. Or, take, one draciun of citric acid ; two ounces of 
ai{tr; water, a pint and a half ; spirit of lemon, one drachm. Mis, and 
Knii. 



DIETART, WHOLESOME ic ECONOMIC. 

K Sormi^a FniTAi>n,LA, (twmlf rtetipt* Ai one). — ^Pat half a poond of 
<™iMerhread tosoak inapintafaold water, take the sameijnantity of any 
kmj of toast or beOadmeat, tntk alittle flit, chop it np like sausage meat, then 
pet your bead in a dean elott, press it to extract aQ the water; pot into a 
<te»-paD t«i> onnees of butter, a taUe-spoonfbl of chopped onions, fry for two 
immta,t]Ma add the bread, stir with a wooden spoon until rather diy, then 
add the neat ; lesaon wHli a tea-spoonfhl of salt, half the same of pepper, a 
little pttti ntmeg, the same of lemon-peel, atir continually until very hot ; 
tben sdd two tggi, one at a time, well mix together, and pour on a dish to get 
cold. Then take a piece as Ug as a smaQ egg, and roll it to the same ahus, 
Ittea itaUttle, egg and bread crumb eTerikeeping the shapes, do aU of it the 
'"He wiy, then put into a sant^pao a ijnarter of a pound of lard, or clear &t, 
otml; when hot, but not too much >o, put in the j^eoes, and aautfa TOty nice 
TeDoveoloor, and serve yery hot, jdain, on a napkin, or on a boarder of mashed 
V^itoea, with any sauce or gamituie yon may fiucy. Fritadella can be made 
*iifa the remains of ain- kind of meat, poultry, game, fish, and even Tegetables ; 
^ tgg> or cold mashed potatoes may be introduced in small qnantwes, and 
a^ be IKed fatstead of aant^ hi which ease put abont two ponnos of fat in the 
^Tng-paa, and if care is used, it will do several times. This is an entirely 
i^tod very economical and palatable dish, and fit for all seasons, and if once 
^vonld be often repeated. The only expense attending it ia the purchase 
«i nail wire liere tar&6 bread-cnunbi. " Tlie reason (says U. Soyer) I call 
^^ty receipts in one is, that all kinds of food may be naed for it, even 
'■'raps, oystcra, and lobsters." 

UiKRow FuoDixo. — Four on the crumbs of a pennyloaf a piatof orean 
°^^ hot, cat a ponnd of betf-macrow vary thin, beat fbu eggs very well 
''^mgar and nutmeg to your taate, and mix them all well up together; you 
■Mr other boil or bake it; tfuree quarters of an boor will do it; cut two oonoea 
ii dtroD very thin, and stick them all over it when yon diah it np^ 

Bid Saoo Prasnia.— BoU two onnees of sago till it is onto thUk, in 
«*< heat six eggs, leasing ont three of the whites, pot to it half a pint of 
"**■!, two spoonsfhl of Auiy, nvtmag and sugar to your taste ; pat a paste 
"oaii jour dish. 

To GsiLi. X Bbiast of Muttok . — Score a breast of moKoB is diaiaonds. 
''•nib ii over with the yolk of egg, then strew on a few bread crumbs ana 
wMpaidey.pot it in a dutch aven to bioil, basta it with fresh butler, pour 
a the diihgMid caper aaaee, and servo it ap. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Zm ttt fnu, pri*» 4iL, fty pait, ftt*, Gd. 



INDIGBSTION, NERVOUSNESS, LOW SPIRITS. 
The Oaaaaa, Syiantsii, and Hatiiisal Ti iH^iniint. 
^y T. uTTaoKAX, lUX 
London ; Publiahed hj tha Astho*. ^b, Lloyd Ssaarsk PantMiTillc; 
and sold by Onoaon VicuBSi Straad». and all Bookaallara and Naws> 
randora. 

Alko by the same anther, priee 3k. ; by past 9s. fid. 

CONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; the 
Causes, Symptoms, and Battooal Treatment, with the mean* of 
Prevention. 

" There ii lo mneh good seme, seieatifie knowledge, and nseftil iaCorma- 
tion in this Ulth votanae that we risdiy assist in giving it publicity. Dr. 
XttmaM disinnatsnaatss all esipfrieal modes of treatment, at the same time 
that he aaggasts soosasafa and heee^ial ralas Ibr the care or ameKoratioa 
of the disease. The remarks on the healthy diacipliaa af hoMe shew that the 
author is a sound social philosopher, as well as an experienced physician." 
—Th» BrUamaa, Abe. I], 1848. 

'< There Is no aaanmptlon or qnaekery In this little volnme— it is tact sneh 
a work as might be antlapated flnm an intelligent and experienced physician. 
The •nggeatioBi and recommendations of Dr. Teomaa are extremely valoable 
and nay be unheslta&igly and advantageously adopted by all who aro In- 
terested in tbe health and wril-belng m the dsfaig genetation."— ifbrauiir 
Berald, Oct S3, 1848. 

Also by tlw aaaa aathar, psios 3s. 

ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, tmd CATARRH, 
the Causes. Symptoms, and Rational Treatment. 

"Tha paiisai of the pablicati<»a before na^ vhich turas upaa (our ef tha 
most prevalent evils to wUch flesh is heir in these lands, cannot iiaU to prove 
most beneficial to sufferers aaosg all parsons ef seasa. and ta fiirther ■iMtti 
fol medical treatment."— JBrittsi Btmm. Monk 2l, I84l9. 

■■ This work emanates from a geatiaaian thosaagUy well vened ia the 
sN^t,aBd whahasobiainad grmt and deeerred ealebrity by his nwda et 
treatment.— ^itts Widart, JiaMWy l«, IMV. 

"TUisanesedknt Httls treatise by a clever and eleai^headed praetl- 
ttoner. Dr. Vbomaw is wwll known by Us Work on OrasamptlM, and the 
present pabBcation will add to Idsfcme."- ITeMiy DitfialfiK, Jan. 14, 1849 

Lswlon: SAKr«MtI«v,lS&.FIaat StreH; SrawtwAM Wiimh, 11. 
RoyalSaehaastI WMaxanftCo^OO, Piaetditty i and aU jMokaellen. 



NEVILL'S PATENT FLOUR of LENTILS.— 
a pleasant, nutritious, aod agreeable Food fi>r Invalids, Dyspeptlos, and 
persons suffering froaa Goostipatiaa^ or any other chronio derai^ament of th* 
Di^vo Qigus— also te wskiBg QraaL It is the only faod that does nek 
distend or tnxn acad on a vaak StomaoU. It wUl ha fonnd mvalnaUa for 
Ddicate Caiildren and SoOerars fixmi Debility. 

Sold Wholesale by Nbyell and Co., 16*. Chiebester Place, Grays Inn 



6d. mid is. each, and 6 lb. and IS lb. canisters, 5s. 6d. and lOs. fid. each. 

FS. CLEAVER'S WINTER SOAP.— This Soap is a 
* oomUnsUea of the Genaioe Hon^ Soap, Camphor, and Yegrtdble Oils, 
consequently the very best for this Seasou of the year, and at all times fitr 
tender skins. Invaluable as a Shaving Soap. Sold in large non-aDj;ular Tablets, 
at 3d. each; and monsters 6d. each. To be bad at the manufactoiy, 13, Red 
Uon Stnaie, Holbota, and at all Cfaotnists, Perfumers, &&, in the United 
ICogdon. 



JOHN MILES, (Lais BUTLER AMD CO.) DISPENSING 
CHEMIST, T», Qraoeehnrah Sfereet,' reepeetlblly infbnos &e PnbUo 
that the most vigilant oare and attention is always paid by him to the seleatioa 
of the pnreet sad best Drags and Chemicals; tha too flreqnent dangeroos adul. 
teration and careless preparation of Medicmes, upon the exact aotioa of which 
depend the health and safety of onr fellow ereatoree, faidaces J. ]In.>8 to 
pkdge himself tint every artide sold at his eeteblisbmeBt is genahie^ and 
Oat an Presotjplioas are dispensed by weU-qaalified assistants wader his own 
imme£ate dbeetion. 

Agent for Bowr's Patent Improved Eespirator. J. M. has now a Iarg« 
supply of Cod LiVEa Oil, prepared from the finest Fish of the Season. 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

NomCB. — All commnnications for the Editor matt be mddretied, pre-paid, 
to his hoase, No. 25, Llotd Sqdarb, PBRTOinriu.B. It is indis- 
pensable that letters reqniring^ a private answer contain s postage 
stamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of the 
•ppUoant. Invalids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to oonsnlt him personaliy, can 
have, on applieation, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a 
personal interview, in many instances, may be avoided without detri- 
ment to the sncceisful issue of the required treatment. Notes of every 
ease submitted to the Editor will be recorded in his private case-book 
for the facility of reference at any future period. 
The Editor is at home every day until One o'clock ; and on the evenings 

of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. 
He attends at Mk. Miles's Mboical aso Surgical Establubxbht, 78, 

Gracechurch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 

Two till Three o'clock. 



Wx partleularly request Coneipondents who do not attach their 
proper names to their communicationii, to avoid all such signatnres 
as « a Subscriber," — " Constant Reader," -y- ■Well-Wlshcr," tee. 
Where the correct name is not given. It will insure the Identity of the 
'' answer" to the query proposed to ub, if our correspondents add the 
name of the tovrn or street from which they write : thus — 0. P. Q. 
(Bath) — Delta, (Manchester Square). 
" AoviCB Obatis."— Preaeribing Druggist loquitur — " Now, ma'am, take 
these tliree pills,— they will do you good — price 3d. ; and this mixture, 
ma'am,— price 2s. 9d." (Aside, to Mr. Cardamoms)—" That will do 
me good." 
A'Stbahobb IK LoNBOK.— One route from Temple-Bar to Kensal Grsen 

Cemetery is by the way of Hollowav'i pilli 
JUTBHIS (Maidstone). — Your letter displays sufficient good sense to convince 
us that you only require to know what ia proper, to do what is proper. 
Say where a private note will reach you. 
J. B. L. (Aldgate).— Separate the toes by means of cotton wool; after using 

a poultice, bathe the toe with strong vinegar and water. 

A YooMO WoMAK.— Apply fkequently to the wound a small quantity of the 

tincture of benxoin ; avoid eating salted or acid viands, and all that can 

irritata. You will aee a hint that may be of service to your friends, 

should you again hare a fit, in the aecond number of our Journal, 

T.' B. (Stratford) . — Employ a atimulating embrocation, aa the one published in 

Mo. 2. — Hold the foot occasionally under a pump. TJae plenty of friction. 

Hbkbt Wilsox (Halifax). — We will take an early opportunity of mailing 

use of your commnnication. 
J. M. (George'a Row). — Apply to Mr. Smartt. 
B. G. O. (Ryde, lale of Wigfai).— Not so nutritive as the yolic. 
Ehma (Manchester). — Read the srticlea on Indigestion. Yon will find an 

excellent tooth powder, prescribed by Mr. Bmartt, in No. 6. 
J. W. — The London Orthopoedic Institution ia in Bloomabury Square. Mr. 
LoBadale, the aurgeon, is most succeasful in hia management of deformi- 
tiea, especially of " club feet." 
T. B. (Mark Lane). — See answer to Robert Hawaon, in No. 7. 
F. M. C, (Manchester). — Move the bowels gently with castor oil, or con- 
fection of senna ; apply warm fomentations, and use the ointment pre- 
scribed in No. 2. 
MuBDBB TKOH QoACXBBT.— ^t Prcstou, a man was killed by a dose of 
cayenne pepper dud herb tea, administered by a quack. In Burnley, 
Martha Lord, aged eighteen, waa also killed by a quack, who prescribed 
a decoction of heterogeneoua herba.— SUntfay Timts, February 24tb. 
Can any of our readera favour us with authentic information in reference 
to these murders ! 
Cod Ln-BK Oil. — An order waa lately preaented at one of our leadug dmg 
houae* for " four gallons, oil of sweet almonds," when the following con- 
versation passed between the clerk and the bearer of the order: CUrk — 

Who is this for ? Lad— Mi. . Cltrk — la he a druggist 7 Lad— Ho, 

sir. CJ«r*— What ia he, then? Lad— Cad-livir oil maker, nr. [The 
preaent price of almond oil ia one ahiUing per pound ; the price of cod 

liver oil ia truly, we don't know — perhaps 300 per cent dearer 

than almond oil.] 
W. C. (London). — Apply cold cream, or dder-ilower ointment to the sore 
nose ; use a cambric kerchief. Move the bowala aharply with six grains 
of the compound extract of colocynth, and three grains of calomel, in 
the form of three pills, and let this be fullowed by a wine-glaasful of the 
compound decoction of aloea every morning. 
A. O. W.— Tell OS the cause, we will then suggest a remedy. 



A WABBHOusBMAif.— We are " at homt" every day until 1 o'eloek, Sunday 

Included. 
P. M. (Maryhill).— Your note ia deficient ia detaO. 

JOHS Bakbb (Wharton Street). — ^Diet, plain animal food— not any fiah or 
aalted meata ; eat plentifully of water ereaa; do not use irritating soap ; 
a powder-puff will give you ease. Take Bosom salts, one onnee ; cream 
of tartar, four drachma ; bruised ginger, half a drachm ; boiling water, 
one and a half pint ; Strain — Doae, a wine glaasAil early every morningt 
and a five-grain compound rhubarb pill, twice a week. 
T. G. — We cannot prescribe for a akin disease merely diaenoaed by yourself. 
D. D. — (Anglesey).— We are sorry that you did not look before you leapt. 
The poetical quack — or rather the quack who quotes poetry — is only 
•upenor to the Manhood and Self- Preservation gentry in the possession of 
a dildoBW, which he deifca. , 

Ombboit. — See answer to John Bakkb ; in addition to the treatment there 
advised, take a warm bath at 98^, twice a week, and use a flesh brush daily. 
Dbafxbss (Lonlh). — Glycerine may now be obtained of any respectable 
druggist. We have much faith in its utility in many cases of deaf^ 
ness. It is thus employed : the ear or ears should bo carefully cleaned 
by means of cotton held between the blades of a pair of forceps, and 
dinned frequently in warm water ; the can^s are nflerwaros to be 
rubhed with dry cotton held the same way. The glycerine is then 
applied by the aame means, the cottcn being well soaked in it, care 
being taken to apply it direct to the tympanum. The glycerine should 
be used three or ronr times a week. 
T. Wills. — We grieve fior you — we rejoice for ourselves. No2ofonr 
Journal is out of print, and will shortly be rqnioted. The reprint of 
the articles on Indigestion, in a amaU volume will, we hope, dipUnish 
your disappeintment. 
A. I. Z. (Hammersmith). — Caution, not daspaJr. We must s«a you. 
P. Owen (Eccles). — The person about wham you inquire, is an irregular 
practitioner. If a man is a tanner, he can't be a physiciaiu You will 
aee a remark about deafneaa in another part of tbia column. 
Wb hare hitherto lefVaiued from aoiliog our pagea by any alluaion to thoee 
despicable wretches who allure victims to their dens by means of hand- 
bills delivered in the streets. The cotreapondeuce in reference to this 
class of quack viUians so accumulates, that we cannot avoid noticing 
them. We have now before us a detail of robbery, injury, and con- 
spiracy, committed by a gang who have their realing-place in Bartlett's 
Buildings, Holborn : also a cruel case of extortion perpetrated by a 
quark of similar grade, residing in Great Queen Street. In our next we 
shall, w must, — even at the risk of offending the delicary of some of our 
readers, expose these vampires, who feed on the credulity, fean, and igno- 
rance of their dupes. 
Sfobsok (Hanley). — Laudanum, as a constant remedy, is injurious in all 
chest diaeases; it will arreat the cough for a time, and check the expec- 
toration, but it doea not remove the cauae of the cough, nor the secr^ioa 
of the expectoration, which accumulates in the bronchial tubes and 
" clogs" the lungs. Any expectoration tinged with blood cannot be con- 
sidered otherwise than a dangerous symptom. Looking at the case alto- 
gether, we must add that it is one that merits the greatest caution. 
Tub Fbovikcial Pbees. — Wo beg reapecfully to tender our best thanks to 
the Editors who have generously criticiaed our Journal. It shall be 
our endeavour to merit their continued approbation. 
The Journal ia published in Monthly Parts, and ia ready for delivery with 

the Magazines. 
Thb Pboflb's Medical Jodhnal, although bearing date Satuiday, ia 
publiabed in London on the preceding Wednesday, and can be obtained 
in every town in England on tne day on which it ia dated. The Jouknax. 
is printed on Tuesday, consequently letters received after 18 o'clock OD 
Mondaya, cannot be noticed in the Current Number. 
The following CoBBBsroNDKNxs can only be answered privately,in person 
or by letter: — Geobob Dawson. T. R. (Salford). A Junior Clbbk 
(New Inn). ABM Mosoam (Old Broad Street). A. B. (City). 
Mabtba James. A Poob Tailob (Romford). Mr. Abbot. Cathe- 
RtNB (West End). A Millinek (Great Portland Street). O.P. Q. 
W. iKSLis. FiBSCO. KuPEBT (Hounslow). St. Nicrolab (New- 
castle). Mbs. Bubt. a Custom House Offices. Bobt. Hbartlb-v. 
R. Watts (Chatham). P.P. (Bradford). MB8.BosiNBOii(Peckhain). 
PBBSCRIPTIONS and private instructions as to diet and regimen are left with 
Thb Dibfenseb, 78, Gracechurch Street, for the following corres- 
pondents : Stetboscopb. W Jackson (Farmer Street). P R. T. 
(London Wall). Mb. Dabct. Eliza. K. T. (Bonner's Fields). 
Mb8. Fbancis. Geobob (Stepney). A Sropman (Blackman Street). 
Bobebt Roberts. A. R. (Mile End Road). Wildcats. SAMUBt. 
(Farringdon Street). A Seaman (Trinity Square). Maa. Martin. 
BuDiOA. Mb. Setmoub (St. George's East), An Ehoihebb (Mill 
Wall). JobnR T. A Clbbk (Milk Street). Pbtbb (Bastcheap) . 

Mb«. SMITBSON. I'UBAL Caih. 



Printed bf Chmlss Aoams. at lili Prlntlns Ottce, 8, St. Jamea's Walk, In the Parlali or 
St. Jmes'a, Ocrkcswcn, m the County of MIMIascx ; sad pokUsiiaa, ftir tlw PropilHorm 
hr GBoaeB TiCKBBa, Strand, In tlw I'aiWi of St. OoMat Oaass, In tb* aaU Coont/ of 
Jllddlcacx. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

AKD 

sicim. 





EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN. M.D. 



No. 10.— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 9, 1850. 



[ont Tsmn, 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

OP TBB 

DSFECnyE STATS OF THE LAW OF lUNACT, 

WITH 

SUGGESTIONS FOR ITS AMENDMENT. 
*' 1>im)(0 the trouble! of the 15lh centorr, it rack vas introduced into the 
Tower, tnd waa oecarionally used, under the plea of political neceuity ; but 
H would be a great error ^> infer, from such im-gularitie>, that the English 
aonarchi were, either in theory or in practice, absolute. We live in a civi- 
UmhI society, in which intelligence if so rapidly diffused by means of the press 
and the post-office, that any groas act of oppression, committed in any part of 
our island, is in a few hours discussed by millions. If an English Sovereign 
■were now to immure a subject in defiance of the Writ of Habeas Corpus, or 
to put an English subject to the torture, the whole nation would be instantly 
electrified by ihe news. In the Middle Ages the state of society was widely 
different. Rarely, and with great difficulty, did the wrongs of individuals 
come to the knowledge of the public. A man might be illegally confined 
during many months in the Castle of Carlisle or Norwich, and no whisper of 
the transaction might reach London. It is highly probable that the rack had 
been many years in use before the great majority of the nation had the least 
aaq>icion that it was erer employed." — Macaulay't England, Vol. I., p. 33. 

The Mcoust which the learned historian here gives of the wrongs and 
cruelties which might be inflicted upon individuals seme centuriei ago, and 
the causei which must prevent their recurrence in this more enlightened age, 
contrast strangely enough with those cases of injustice and oppression, which, 
in connection with the administration of the law of lunacy, have recently been 
brought to light in our public courts. The historical eye recognises at once 
the outward and visible landmarks of social progression on the great highway 
of legislation ; but statutes frequently and almost surraptitinusly spring into 
existence in the secret by-ways of legislation — so to speak — which are arbi- 
trary and cniel in their operation, and with the proviuons of which the public 
ii little acquainted. They are concocted by men who arc mere theorists, and 
who do not understand practically the subjects upon which they legislate. 
This is eminently the case with the Act 8 and 9 Vic. c 100, " An Act for the 
Begtilation of the Care and Treatment of Lunatics ;" and we donbt much if 
our accomplished historian, amidst all his immense and diversi6ed stores of 
reaearch, could find any enactment so incongruous and iutoleraut, even among 
the obnoxious statutes which were passed during the flagitious reign of James I. 

This Act of Parliament passed with little or no discussion, and without 
any opposition, through the House of Commons and the House of Lords, in 
the session of 1845. The subject probably excited little attention and less 
interest ; for, so slowly are the sympathies of the world excited in behalf of 
this class of sufferers, that while the trial and conviction of a political de- 
magogue might raise a ferment throughout the island, the poor lunatic might 
remain within the gloomy precincts of .Bethlehem or St. Luke's, chained by 
his watat to the wall, or with his arms fixed and pinioned on his chair of suffer- 
ing, a more abject prisoner than ever pined away in the cells of the Inquisi- 
tion. We are told, it is true, that a brighter day ha* dawned ; but, when we 
come to investigate this matter, it would appear, that so tardy has been the 
progress of legislation for the amelioration of the condition of the unbefriended 
lunatic, that while our French neighbours could long ago boast of an admir- 
able system of management, and of hospitals which have served as models for 
imtiation throughout Europe, our institutions, public and private, have lagged 
behind the progress of science, and the theory of legislation seems to have con- 



sisted only in devising forms of statistical returns, which are so meagre and 
unmeaning, and which require so little sagacity to keep, that, instead of de- 
manding the supervision of a Board of Commissioners in Lunacy, they might 
just as well be kept in order by a board of custom-house clerks. But the lu- 
natic is, in France, a State-care; in England and Wales he is a cast-off en- 
cumbrance, left to the mercy and caprice of irresponsible individuals, who too 
often prey like wreckers upon the little remnant of whatever fortune he may 
possess. There is no mendicant in so pitiable a condition. His malady not 
only deprives him dl his social rights, but removes him beyond the pale of 
humanity; for, immured within the walls of an asylum as impenetrable as 
were those of Carlisle or Norwich, or any fortress of the middle ages, no one 
cares to heed what may be his treatment or his sufferings ; nor is a whisper as 
to his real condition suffered to escape. It therefore becomes a matter of 
serious importance — nay, of public duty — to ascertain upon what principles 
persons are pronounced to be insane, and whether the forms prescribed by the 
Act are sufficiently well devised and guarded to protect the liberty of the 
subject. 

Before a private patient can be legally detained in any house, there must, 
according to the 45th and 46th sections of the Act, exist an order for the re- 
ception signed by a relative or friend, — and two medical certificates, signed 
by two medical practitioner*, each of whom has examined the patient separ- 
ately ; after which the Medical Superintendent of the Asylum, when the 
patient has been confined seven days, forwards a third certificate, describing 
his mental state and bodily health and condition. In theory these different 
certificates may appear very valid and conclusive evidence in proof of any 
person's insanity; but when wo examine their real and intrinsic value, it is 
only marvellous to think that such documents should be recognized as legal 
instruments at all ! Here we have to begin with an order requesting the pro- 
prietor of a lunatic asylum to receive a person as a lunatic into his home, 
signed by a relative or friend, who may have the most cogent motives for 
wishing such a person to be shut up. It seems never to have entered into the 
head of Ihe Solon who devised this extraordinary piece of legislation, that the 
relation signing this order of reception might be governed by impure or cri- 
minal motives. He is required, therefore, to take no oath — make no deposi- 
tion — attest no affidavit; but can sign away the liberty of his " fair kinsman" 
with as much felicity and as little form as he may use in drawing out the most 
simple household memorandum. In what other court in the kingdom would 
a document so irresponsible in its consequAices be received ? Again, we do 
not charge the medical men signing such certificates, even wrongfully, iu any 
case, with fraud, collusion, or conspiracy ; but it is notorious, that among the 
vast number of medical practitioners — some highly, some imperfectly edu- 
cated; some very talented and discriminating, others slow and impervious to im- 
pressions — the diagnosis between sanity and insanity may be very hastily and 
imperfectly made; yet are these certificates tantamount to a warrant for the 
absolute deprivation of social rights and personal libeity. There are few men 
who, even in their sound senses, would like to abide by the judgment of so 
irresponsible a tribunal — nay, we may go further, quoad the knowledge of 
our profession in this matter, by stating a fact well known to the Commis- 
sioners in Lunacy, that these very certificates are frequently so imperfectly 
drawn up that they are constantly sent back for revision and amendation. 
We do not accuse, however, the profession generally, either of ignorance or 
collusion; but we maintain that the forms prescribed by the Act 8 and 9 
Vic, cap. c, do not afford sufficient protection for personal liberty; in ex- 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



emplification of which we will cite an illiulration, the details of which may, 
to a certain extent, be lappoaititioui ; but the outline will couve; a veritable 
likenen, which wiU not faU to be recognixed b* all thoie who have had anf 
experience in the management of private lunatic aijrluini. 

A gentleman about forty years of age, having neither profession nor for- 
tune, married a few years ago, a lady somewhat older than himself, who enjoys 
in her own right about £4U0 per year, which is paid to them by her trustees 
for their conjoint maintenance. The husband is fond of society ; his wife 
being a little ptuaie prefers sitting at home, where their life is chequered by 
those domestic storms which spring up as suddenly ai they subside, and pre- 
vail, it is said, more or less, in all quarters of the g]obe. Unhappily, the 
lady wu by birth more highly connected than her husband ; hence a constant 
disparity in tastes and opinions; she had been, also, on account of her per- 
sonal attractions, a spoilt child, and had acquired almost every accomplish- 
menti excepting the art of governing her tamper. She was therefore the Xan- 
tippe of her own domestic hearth, where she might have exhausted the philo- 
sophical patience of Socrates himself. The husband would gladly have left 
her, but then her income was the pecuniary chain which bound him, like 
Ixion, to his wheel of torment. There was — so it appeared to him — no escape, 
vatil, one evening, a wily lawyer suggested to him, that he might easily enough 
shake off his matrimonial burthen, yet still preserve its only advantage — his 
wife's income. " But how ? In what way ?" " By getting her shut up," 
was the reply, " in a madhouse ; nothing can be easier, if you only know how 
to set about it :" whereupon followed a conversation, the tenor of which may 
be easily inferred from the circumstance that a few evenings afterwards the 
worthy husband presented himself at the gates of a lunatic asylnm in die 
aeighbourhood of London, and asked to see the proprietor. He is forthwith 
introduced to him, and gives a very exaggerated and ex-parte account of his 
wife's state of mind, professing, all the time, the most ardent affection for her. 
Hereupon the proprietor of the asylum sympathises with him, and telb him, 
that the best authorities in lunacy are now convinced, that the disease is most 
TeadUy curable in its incipient and early stage, and that she should be placed 
immediately under medical treatment. " And how is this to be done ?" The 
Proprietor rises, goes to his writing-desk, and produces a bundle of printed 
folio papers. " There (he observes) are the forms for the admission, which 
may be bought by the quire at any law stationer**. You have to fill up the 
ISrst page, entering, at the places marked, the particulars required— her 
Christian name, age, social condition, place of abode, religious persuasion, 
&c., and direct the order for her reception to me." " This can euily be 
done," cries the husband, cheerfully. " You must then get two medical men 
to visit her separately, when she is in one of her paroxysms, who will fill up 
these certificates on the opposite page; so that there is no difficulty in the 
matter. When was she last in one of these states?" "Oh!" replies the 
husband, " she was in a high state of exaltation when I left her, and I shall 
£nd her certainly in all her glory upon my return." " Then," said the Pro- 
prietor, thoughtfully, " you had better call in a couple of medical men on 
your way home. We can receive her here at any time — even at midnight — 
in fact, noisy patients are better brought at night, it saves exposure in the 
public streets." 

Here, again, we wish that the sections of the Act 8 and 9 Vic. c. c, should 
Im brought closely to bear upon every step of this narrative. Nothing has been 
done, or shall be done in the slightest degree illegal, and yet, under the very 
provisions of this Act the lady will be made unjustly a prisoner. " The 
Sovereign," says Macaulay, " cannot now-a-days immure a subject in defiance 
of the writ of habeat corput." No ; but any relation or friend, who will 
«ign such an order as the above, backed by a couple of medical certificates, 
can do so, and without the interposition of any judge or jury. But to proceed. 
Upon arriving near his own house, the husband steps round the corner into 
the shop of an apolfaeiary, and affecting the greatest distress, tells him that 
his wife is in a state of mental derangement — nay, he proves it by relating a 
thousand acts of indefensible violence and irrationality, and winds up his case 
by stating, that, under the best medical advice, he has been to a lunatic asy- 
lnm, where ha hu arranged the terms for her admission, and, producing the 
printed paper, he requests the apothecary will kindly step across, and certify 
the state in which he finds her. He consents, and they proceed. The par- 
lour door opens, and she stands before them both, flushed and indignant. 
" What t intrude upon me a strange man in my deihabillel'' and never wind 
whistled louder in the shrouds of a man-of-war than did her voice round the 
comer of that small room. The husband — to satisfy the 45th section of the 
Act — precipitately retired, leaving the apothecary to deal k ith her alone, who 
had not the sagacity to discover that some portion of this hyiteriea pattio was 
perhaps due "to a certain quantity of wine, which her husband, anticipating 
(he consequences, had considerately left within her reach. In a soft and 
silken tone of voice, the apothecary, approaching her gently, says, " My dear 
Vrs. B., don't you know me f " at the same time endeavouring to pat her 
playfully on the shoulder. She starts from him with all the gestures of a 
tragedy queen, flings open the door, and orders him, upon peril of his life, to 
leave the house ! The apothecary, too happy to effect his escape, hastens out 
of the room, and turning round the comer of the passage, is beckoned by the 
husband into the adjoining study. '■ She is in a dreadful state," exclaims 
the husband. " Very sad," adds the apothecary, and thereupon he fills np 
the printed medical certificate, which runs as follows: — 

** I, William Dioecorides Cullea, being an apothecary duly authorised 



to practise as such, hereby certify, that I have this night, separately from any 
other medical practitioner, visited and personally examined A B, the person 
named in (his statement and order, and that the said A B is a lunatic, and a 
proper person to be confined, and I have formed this opinion from the follow- 
ing facts, viz., that she is labouring under great cerebral excitement, very 
noisy and incoherent, and appears to be dangerous to herself and to others. 
" Name,— William Dioscorides CuUen, 
" Plaoe of abode — — — ^— street. 
'* Dated, this l^wenty-eighth Day of October, One Thousand Eight Hun- 
dred and Fort^-eight." 

AU this (oufa schedule c. sec. 45) is in strict form. To obtain the second 
medical certificate the husband crosses the road, and calls upou a very worthy 
Member of the College of Surgeons, to whom he relates the grievous cala- 
mity that las befallen hioL He dwells upon the perfection of his wife, 
if she only had retained her senses ; he enlarges upon the deep affecti&n 
he entertains towards her, and the distreu which her jemoval to an asylum 
will give him; he explains that her fatal malady has been progressing 
gradually ever since the very day of her marriage, and now that the poor 
creature is so completely estranged from herself that he would hardly know 
her to be the same person ; he thinks her attending a Methodist Chapel im- 
bued her mind with some religious delusions which forbade her leaving her fire- 
side ; and he has observed, that at about the change of (be moon she has al- 
ways one of these maniacal paroxysms imder which she is now labouring ; 
finally, he implores him to step over the way, and certify according to his 
conviction, leat she do herself, or him, or some of the servants, some bodily 
harm during the night. The friendly surgeon consented to see her ; but, when 
the parlour door was thrown open, and another man imceremoaiously walking 
in, she waa literally frantic. She stood before him in the attitude of a fury, 
her hair hung dishevelled roundher neck and.shoulders, for she was undressiog 
to go to bed ; her face was flushed ; her eyas, which were injected, seemed 
to flash fire from their inmost sockets ; and her quivering lips only half- 
articulated the torrent of invective which she triad to utter. In vain did the 
surgeon attempt to appease or soothe her ; she would hear laothing he had to 
say, and certainlyansweredhimveryincoherently; she said thai her husbaudwu 
not her husband; that she was under the anathema of herfamily ; that she was msr- 
ried and not married ; that she should be goaded to kill Una first and herielf 
afterwards. In truth, she had the physiognomy and demeanour of a mad womsa 
in the eyes of any person who might not look a little deeper into the secret cssn 
of her excitement, or who had not an opportunity of visitmg her more frequeatly; 
for, be it observed, that a single and short visit from a physician, surgeon, or 
apothecary, is sufficient to justify his signing tha eertificate prescribed by the 
Act. The surgeon, we need scarcely say, was eonscientiooaly latisfied, and 
wrote the following certificate :— 

" I, Bobert Hunter Parry, being a Member of the Royal College of 
Suigsons, duly antkoriaed to practise as such, hereby certify, that I have this 
night, separately from any other practitioneT, visited and paraonally examined 
A B, the person named in the accompanying statement and order ; and that ths 
said A B IS a lunatic, and a proper person to be confined ; and I have formed 
this opinion from the following facts, viz , that she is obstreperous and violent, 
abusive and incoherent, and is said to labour under religious delusions, and 
threatens both her own and her husband's life. 

" Naaw,— Robert Hunter Parry. 

" Place of abode , Great Boad. 

" Dated this Twenty-eight Day of October, One Thousand £ight Hun- 
dred aud Forty-eight,'* 

We have now all the forms completed which are prescribed for the trssi- 
ference of any one of Her Majesty's subjects into a lunatic asylum. 

The hiuband now hastens, with this warrant (if we may so designate it) is 
his hand, to the proprietor of the asylum ; who looks over It very much u 
the governor of the Bastlle may be depicted examining one of the Mtrss d* 
cachet, signed by Louis XIV. And is not the document itself, to all intents 
and purposes, t, Uttre de cachttt The person accused of being insane is 
kept in utter ignorance that such a process is pending, — nor is it necessary to 
reveal who signed the order of reception, or either of the medical certifi- 
cates. On the contrary, it is the general rule in all asylums to refuse any 
Information on these points ; and patients are constantly heard hazarding all 
manner of conjectures as to who can possibly be the authors of their detensiool 
The proprietor, glancing over the signatures, observes that it Is all en rtglt ; 
and forthwith gives orders that a stout Amazonian attendant, and an ex- 
police-man recently engaged as keeper, shall go with all possible expedition 
for the refractory lady, taking along with them a strait waistcoat, straps, pair 
of wrist-locks, &c With all due diligence — as fast as tha asylum horses can 
keep pace — the attendants proceed, but do not arrive at the house of the un- 
fortunate lady until she is in bed and asleep. Her atteutive servant, being 
on the watch, opens the street door quietly, and shows them directly up to 
her mistress's bed-room. They aoon rouse her tram, her slumbers, telling her 
she must get up and go with them. " What I " cries she, " are yon going to 
murder me ? Help ! help 1" — but she can only oppose a feeble resistance to 
her powerful assailants. They soon pull her out of bed, — hurry on her day- 
clothes clumsily over her night-dress, — and, in accordance with a humane 
suggestion of the male attendant, that they had better put on the strait waist- 
coat to prevent her breaking the windows of the carriage and cutting herself, 
as well as to keep her warm, the course brown hoUand sack is pulled over 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



75 



ber, tnd her hands drawn into it> long deevn, which an secured \>y tape- 
itniigs tied three or four times under her arm-pits. In this helpless state, 
kickuig and plunging as well as she could, — calling for help and screaming, — 
■ke is carried down and thrust into the rehide at the street-door. A poliee- 
asn upon duty comes up to know what is the matter, when the male attend- 
ist draws himself up with the air of a man of authority, and, producing his 
Utn dt cachet, says, " By orderj of the Commissioners in Lunacy — a mad 
hdj — carrying her away to an asylum." The policeman looks over the 
jmtei paper, which he does not understand, supposes that it is all right, and 
doircs them to shut the door and drire away as quietly as possible. Arrived 
It the ■sylnm — ^whieh the hnabaiid has only jnst left— they alight, and the 
fslitBt is ushered into a smiJl parlour, where the matron, proprietor, and 
npointendent reeeiTe her. ** Where am I," she cries in distraction, 
" ~ " I which, the matron, as- 

t us take this nasty thing 
_ ) attendants begin to untie, 

ai, as the sleeves are loosened, and she emancipates ber arms frem the 
Btttint, "Oh !" she exclaims, "gire me pen, ink, and paper — let mn 
■rile to my sister or brother," " A. cnp of tea, mv dear," says the matron, 
■sill do you more good I" " Oh no !" she ejaculates, " let me see a ma- 
gjittste, a clerg^yman — are there no police ?" ■' A shower-bath," whispers 
die proprietor, " will be of service." " Not yot," interposes the superin- 
tradcnt, " shul] be quiet presently !" And, at length, after a great deal 
of trpmentation, persuasion, and circumlocution, intermixed with remon- 
itnnce and sotne threatening, Ao poor crentnre is half led and half car- 
ried up stairs, when she might have born put to sleep in a dormitory sur- 
nnmded by other Imiatics, had not her husband generotuly been induced by 
tbe proprietor (who made an extra charge for it) to allow her a private 
mom, which was abont the size of a cell in a common gaol, with a narrow 
iKm bedstead nmning along the side of the wall, covered with the usual 
qssntity of bedding. Here she was quickly undressed, and, lying down 
OS s harder mattress than she had been fust torn from, thoroughlv ez- 
litiisted, she fell into a disturbed ^d imrefreshing sleep. She awoke in 
I few hours, and raising hrr heold wistfully from off her pill«w— in the 

Sey dawn of the morning — she looked around the narrow room with a 
idder s there was no furniture excepting a chair in it, and the window, 
ihich was high up in the wall, she perceived was secured with iron bars ; 
—she rememnerea all that had transpired the previous night, for tho fumes 
of the wine had vanished and the excitement of her over-sanguine tem- 
persoent hod subsided, and she sat up in her bed alone, contending with 
tier grief and asking within herself—" Who hath done this?" " Can it be 
he'." "By whose authority am I here?" Alas I poor lady ! These are 
but Tsin questions, which it will behove none to answer. A sudden ap- 
prcbension of some heavier calamity fell upon her, and, in a state of utter 
bewilderment and dread, she burst into tears and laid her head down upon 
her piUow with a bursting brain and a breaking heart 1 Talk of " the 
nek having been in use in England before the great majority of the na- 
tion bad wo least suspicion of it," — ^what excruciating mental tortures 
have not been inflicted by the cruel operation of this Act of Parliament ! 
(8 and 9 Vic cap. o.) ** The wretch," says Junius, " who sutlers on the 
rack is pssuve ; but when the mind is so tortured, humanity sinks under 
the greatest possible amount of suffering.— Jfeiikia/ Tim*». 



GOUT. 

BT THE EDITOB. 

The origin of the term "gout" is little known, or rather is 
almost forgotten ; in French it is termed goutte; in Latin, yutta ; 
aod here, probably, we may trace its derivation to the ancient 
&tory that the disease arose from a disposition of some morbid 
"drops" in the joints. Gout has obtained distinctive names 
xxording to its seat ; thus, it is called podagra, when in the feet ; 
cUrofra, when in the hands ; and gonagra, when in the knees ; 
od these several forms are now induded in the term arthritis. 

Gout is characterised by pain, inflammation, and swelling of 
tbe smaller joints, which inflammation never suppurates ; it 
Ktams after intervals, and is often preceded by, or alternates 
with, disorder of the stomach, kidneys, or other internal parts. 
The resemblance between gout and rheumatism is so close that 
the one is often mistaken for the other ; both attack the same 
stnictures ; the terminations of the two diseases are similar, and 
they have a mutual tendency to affect some internal organ by 
^eUutatit ; that is, by suddenly changing their situations. The 
leading points of difference between the two diseases are to be 
found in the joints principally affected : — ^in gout, the small joints 
are attacked ; in iheumatism, the large ; the latter mostly begins 



in the shoulders or elbows, gout always begins in the foot or 
ankle ; gout is hereditary, rheumatism is rarely or never so ; gout, 
in nine cases out of ten, is connected with a dyspeptic state of 
the stomach, — in rheumatism, indigestion is only occasionally met 
with. 

Gout is a disease of the system, dependent on a peculiar dia- 
thesis, or state of the constitution, transmitted from generation 
to generation. In some instances, however, it is original, as 
there are many persons in whom this complaint makes its appear- 
ance, who can trace no such affections in their ancestors ; and as 
such persons are specially distinguished by a habit of indolence, 
luxury, and indulgence, particularly in the pleasures of the table, 
it is from this habit that the gouty diathesis is supposed to ori- 
ginate. Grout or a gouty diathesis may remain dormant, and not 
discover itself for years, till it meets with some occasional cause 
of excitement ; indeed a man bom of gouty parents may pass 
through a long life without ever being attacked, whilst his child 
may become a martyr to the disease. Gout is a complaint of the 
middle and advanced periods of life, and is rarely met with until 
the age of thirty-five ; when it occurs at an earlier age, it is in 
those individuals who possess a strong hereditary predisposion, 
and to whom the exciting causes have been strongly applied. 
Dr. Heberden, whose experiente in gout was probably more ex- 
tensive than that of any physician who ever Uved, never saw an 
instance of the disease before puberty. Women are seldom 
afflicted with gout ; when it does appear, a decided hereditary 
predisposition will invariably be met with, acquired from the 
mother's as well as the father's side : those who are attacked are 
generally robust and healthy-looking, and possess a masculine 
frame. A gross and corpulent habit of body, with fulness of the 
veins, and a relaxed or loose state of the muscle;, a circular chest, 
short neck, and broad head, are the outward physical signs that 
denote a tendency to gout ; it is seldom found in those who have 
a large or high forehead. Occasionally persons who are the very 
reverse of this formation of body are prone to the disease, and 
we may meet with it in extremely thm, spare, and emaciated 
subjects. According to Hippocrates, eunuchs are not liable to 
gout. 

The exciting and occasional causes of gout are numerous ; for 
when ihe diathesis exists strongly, almost anjrthing that is capa- 
ble of producing a general disturbance in the system, or of throw- 
ing it off the balance of ordinary health, is sufficient to become a 
cause. Whatever induces a state of irritability and weakness in 
a plethoric habit of body must ever be considered a chief cause 
of the paroxysms ; therefore, excess in eating — excess in the 
quantity, and richness in the quality of food — intemperance, 
particularly in the use of aseeseent wines, are probably recog- 
nised as the progenitors of the disease. The wines which most 
favour a tendency to gout are champagne and claret ; spirits are 
said, by some, to prevent the disease ; and a great authority. Dr. 
EUiotson, writes, " I hardly know an instance of a person, who 
has committed a great excess in spirits, labour under this disease, 
although wine drinkers have it every day." We, however, can 
call to mind some cases of gout occurring in confirmed topers, 
who indulged only in " Old Jamaica," " Old Tom," and " Cog- 
nac."' Excess in all sensual pleasures invariably entails upon 
the votary some severe bodily punishment. There is a Gnek 
epigram, which may be thus translated : " Of limb-relaxing 
Bacchus, and limb-relaxing Venus, is bom a daughter, the limb- 
relaxing Gout." The truth of this, and a similar doctrine, con- 
tained in the adage, " Bacchus pater, Venus mater, et Ira obste- 
trix Arthritidis," is confirmed by the testimony of succeeding 
ages. Violent emotions of the mind, particularly the depressing 
passions, as grief and terror, frequently bring on an attack ; on 
the contrary, some instances are recorded in which gout has been 
immediately expelled by the influence of an unexpected fright. 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL/ 



An old author relates of one of his patients suffering under a 
paroxysm of this disease, that having his feet and legs wrapped 
in poultices of turnips, a hog entered his room, and beginning 
to feed on the turnips, so alarmed him, that he begun to race and 
jump, and all his gouty pains straightway vanished. Among 
the other causes may be enumerated intense study, and severe 
application of the mind, protracted so as to break in upon a due 
allowance of sleep ; sudden exposure to cold when the skin is in 
a state of perspiration ; cold or wet applied to the feet ; great 
labour of the body, producing excessive fatigue ; accidents, as 
sprains or contusions of the joints ; excessive evacuations of any 
kind, or their sudden suppression ; the imprudent use of cold 
flatulent fruits and acidulous drinks ; and, lastly, very sudden 
changes in the manner of living, not only from a low to a full 
diet, but, what is of great importance in practice, from a full to a 
very spare diet. 

Gout attacks the rich more than the poor : it is a fashionable 
complaint ; it is by some considered a creditable disease — ^they 
long for it ; and declare they have it when they have it not ! 
Strange fatuity 1 Gout seldom attacks those who are employed 
in bodily labour, who live much upon vegetable ailiment, or take 
no wine or fermented liquors. Fulfilling the axiom, " live 
upon sixpence a day and earn it,'* is an excellent preventive. 
Van Swieten states, that the gout was unknown in Holland till 
wine was substituted for beer ; and in Turkey, where wme and 
fermented liquors are not used by the common people, the disease 
is altogether unknown. According to the same authority, some 
people, who after being in comfortable circumstances, have been 
reduced to labour for their sustenance, and to exchange a 
luxurious table and indolence, for a spare diet and activity, have 
never suffered from gout again. He mentions particularly the 
instance of a certain priest, who enjoyed a rich living, and had 
been an old and constant sufferer from gout ; but happening to 
be taken by the pirates of Barbary, he was kept constantly at 
work for two y^ars ; " which had this good effect, that after- 
wards, when he was ransomed from captivity, having lost all his 
troublesome and monstrous fatness, he never once had a fit, 
though he lived several years after the event." This and simi- 
lar examples, related by Schenckins and more recent observers, 
confirm the remark of our late talented townsman. Dr. Bateman, 
that " much exercise will often counteract the influence of in- 
temperance, and when combined with temperance will counteract 
even the hereditary disposition to the disease." 

Whether particular climates or countries are more disposed to 
favour the existence of gout than others, independent of the occa- 
sional causes to which we have adverted, may be doubted; such 
an opinion, however, has prevaled in most ages : thus, among 
the Greeks, it was a popular belief, that Attica was the hot-bed 
of gout, as Achaia was of opthalmia — 

" Oout dogs the feet in Attica, the tight 
Fulls in Achaia." — Lccbbtiub. 

In more recent times we learn that China is exempt from the 
gout ; certain it is that the disease is by no means common in 
hot climates, and that the summer in this country materially 
diminishes the number of cases. It may be laid down as an 
universal rule, that the jvnt attack of gout occurs in the months 
of January and February. 

Gout, in its regular form, is a genuine inflammatory affection 
of the fibrous membranes, running a defined course, and attended 
by the common symptoms of inflammatory fever. In this, the 
regular, or acute species of the disease, there is considerable 
pain, swelling, and inflammation of the affected joint, which con- 
tinues for several days, then gradually resolves, and leaves the 
constitution in its usual, or even in improved health. As in 
other inflammatory affections, there is also a chronic form of the 
complaint, called in common language, the irregular gout, or 



atonic gout, or lurking g^ut, by reason of its regular symptom* 
lieing disguised, and lurking in the constitution, and thereby 
producing derangement in the digestive or other fiinctions, with 
only a slight and temporary affection of the joints. To these 
two forms of the complaint may be added a third, namely, the 
retrograde, recedent, or misplaced gout, in which a metastasis 
takes place to some internal organ, thereby fixing the disease in 
the stomach, heart, &c., instead of in the joints, and giving rise 
to symptoms either of visceral congestion, or of inflammation. 
(To he eontinned in our next.) 



FHABMACOLOOY. 

The knowledge of the properties of ramediei, their action, and doses, and 
the application of thif knowledge, conititutes the basis uf the art of heal- 
ing ; and as such an amount ofinformation should l>e in the possession of 
every educated person, — less, however, for the purpose of drugging him- 
self than for the purpose of assisting him to go hand-in-hond with the 
physician in the hour of sickness, — we propose inserting a few articles oa. 
the materia mediea, and the science of therapeutics- 

Bemedies maybe diviJed into, first: AuaBXTABTMaSlOiNAL AoBBTs,— 
(a) VUuentt ; (b) Vemukentt and SmoUientt. Second: EvaOitants, — (»> 
Ifiaphoretia ; (b) Srrhinet; (c) SialogOjfuet ; (d) Sxpectorantt ; (e) 
Smstiis; (J) Cathartict ; (g) X)(uref<e( ; (h) Eminenagoguet. Third: 
Local and Qbnbeial Stimolakts, — (a) Sp'upattia ; (b) DeobstruentM. 
(stimulating the lymphatics) ; (c) Attringentt ; (d) TonicM ; (e) Carmma- 
tiaes; (f) Antitpatinoiia ; (fi) Nanotiet. Fourth: Cbbkical Aobkts, — 
(a) Aeidt ; (b) Alkaline*; (o) BefrigeranU, 

I. — Alikbntart Medicimai. Aobhts. 

DrLUBNTS are watery liquids, which, being absorlied into the circu- 
lating mass, increases the fluidity of the blood. They am employed in 
febrile and inflammatory diseases ; the following list comprises the chief 
of this class of remedies. Water, tea, barley-water, oatmeal grnel, millr 
whey, diluted lemon-juice, infusion of tamarinds, supertartrate of potash 
and sugar, (imperial,) small, very small, beer, soda-water. 

Deuulcskts and Exolliemts are those medicines which obviate the 
e&cts of acrid substances ; either by enveloping them in their mucilagia- 
ous particles, or by previously sheatiiing the surface to which they aro 
applied. Emollients are analogous, in their action to demulcents ; bat 
they also act by insinuating themselves amongst the particles of the solids, 
and in this manner diminish their cohesion. Of this class are the decoc- 
tion of the leaves of the common mallow, mucilage of gum arabic, ex- 
tract of Uqnorice-Toot, tago, tapioca, cassava, arrow-root, decoction of 
Iceland moss, barley-water, infusion of linseed, olive oil, hartshorn, isin- 
glass, honey, wax, spermaceti, mutton suet, lard. 

II. — ^EVACUANTS. 

Diafhobbtics. — Under this title is comprehended all medicines ealea- 
Isted to promote a discharise by the skin, either by insensible perspiration, or 
by sweat. The term " dUphoretic," it often applied by authors to the first, 
and "sudorific" to the second. Some of these agents produce their effectt by 
exciting the general circulation ; others by causing an excitement of tlie 
perapiratory vessels, through sympathy with the stomacli, or by tome pecn- 
liar action on the cutaneous nerves- Those causing " insensible pertpim- 
tlon" are : 

Ouaiaeum (Uznum vitie). — ^A zygophyllaclous plant Imported from St. Do- 
mingo. Piat» nsed — the WMd, rcain, and bark : the wood in the form 
of slwTingt, wherewith to form decoction; the resin, or as it is improperly 
called, the gum, to make the tincture, and compound tincture c^ 
guaiacum. Dose, of the former, one to three drachms; of the latter. 
half a drachm to a diachm. Ths bark Is not recognised in England. 
Satsufrtu.—A tree of the order Lanracete. Part used — the wood : the bever- 
age called " saloop" consists of sassafras tea mixed with milk and 
tngar; it is the chief ingredient in the compound decoction of taraa- 
parilla. 
SartapariUa. — A tree or thmb, like a bramble or vine, imported from Ja- 
maica, the Brazils, and Honduras. Part used — the root. It ia pre- 
pared in the form of decoction, c«mponnd decoction, and extract. 
Dose of the decoction, three or four ounces, twice or three times a day 
— of tlie extract, ten grains to a drachm. 
Senega. — The root of the polygala senega; native of the mountainous parta 
of the United States ; it is called " snake-root," from its having bcea 
employed by the Seuegaroo ludians, a* a remedy for the bite of the 
rattlesnake. Part used — tlie root. Ordered to i>e made in the form 
of decoction. Dose, a wine-glassful two or three timet a day. It i» 
also an expectorant and diuretic. 
Zjiquor qf the Acetate of Ammonia, prepared by addhig the sesqui-earbonata 
(^anunoaia to acetic acid to lataration. Dose, two di»ehmt to half 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



77 



a^ ovnea, ia water or CMnphor mixture. It k also nieful in wme dla- 
orden of the eye, in tite form of lotion or collyrlam. 

lAqwroffht Cilmtt of AmmoHia,ii prepared bjr adding lemon-Jaice to tite 
■eiqai-earlionate of ammonia, a* atmre. 

Sttfphur Sublimatum, commonly called " flowen of salphnr," from iti 
oecaring in tlie form of a tsriglit yellow powder, Date, half a draehm 
to a drachm 
Those ludoriflei eaoilng " lensible penpiratlon," or " sweat,'* are — 

■Jpeeaewmha.-rthe root of the eephaelit ipeeacwmha; natire of the Bra- 
zil* and Pern. Employed in the form of powder, compound powder, 
wine, and componnd piU. Dose, of tlie powder, half a grain to 
fonr Kraini ; in larger dose* it Is emetic ; of the compound powder, 
five grains to a scruple ; of the wine, twenty to forty drops— in larger 
doses, it is emetic ; of the compound pill. Are to ten grains. 
Opium, is the juice wlilch exndes from inctsiuns made Into the half-ripe 
capsnle of tlys paparer somniferam. It is imported from Turlcey, and 
India. It is employed offieinally in tlie confection of opinm, which 
contains une grain of opium in thirty-six grains of confection. Soap 
pill vith opium, which contains one grain of opinm In every fire grains. 
Powdered chalk joilh opium, two scruples contain one grain of opium. 
Con^xtund Ipeeaeuanha powder, (Durer's powder.) ten grains contain 
one grain of opiam. Compound kino powder, twenty grains contain 
one grain. Tincture of opium, (laudanum,) nineteen minims contain 
one grain. Compouud tincturt qf camphor, (paregoric,) one ounce 
contains two grains, /fine of opium, nineteen minima coutain one 
main. As a diaphoretic, opium is more fr^ucntly prescribed in tlie 
form of Dover's powder, the dose of which is from fire grain* to a 
scruple. 

(To be continued in our next.) 

DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 
No. X. 
THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS. 
(Continued from page (i9,J 
When the disease is of recent date, and is the termination of an 
acute attack, a complete cure may speedily be effected ; in cases 
of longer duration, especially those in which the texture of the 
bronchial membranes has undergone a morbid change, the return 
tb health is more tardy, and more difficult to attain. Our first 
object should be to allay the more urgent symptoms as they arise, 
and, aa in all cases that require time to complete the recovery, 
we must maintain the stamina of the frame by regulating the 
habits, diet, clothing, exercise, etc.. and in every way possible 
economise the strength of the patient, to enable him to sustain 
the continued irritation and exhaustion which chronic bronchitis 
invariably produces. 

General blood-lettiug, or local depletion, is rarely required, for 
ia the majority of cases the disease is one of debility, and 
-when bleeding is injudiciously employed, we always find the 
-weakness of the patient, which is commonly the worst symptom, 
greatly increased, without one particle of benefit being obtained 
in the chest affection. 

Blisters, which in acute bronchitis increase the general irri- 
tability of the system, and therefore effect only a qualified good, 
ore of considerable service in the chronic form, when there is not 
so great a degree of excitability ; but as the benefit accruing from 
their use is for the most part limited to the continuance of the 
discharge, and as many patients have a valid objection to the 
pain caused by their frequent repetition, we can seldom rely on 
them alone for the removal of the deep-seated inflammation in 
the bronchial tubes ; the best counter irritant we possess is the 
tartar-emetic ointment, which may be controlled by attention, to 
any degree of irritation we desire ; the effect of this preparation 
is to excite a crop of pustules, in appearance closely resembliug 
the eruption in smalUpox, which speedily discharges a healthy 
pus that may be easily regulated by the cessation or renewal of 
the application. In innumerable cases of severe chronic bron- 
chitis, I have seen the worst symptoms quickly subside so soon 
as a part of the surface of the chest discharged a healthy matter ; 
I have seen the expectoration, which before was decidedly purulent, 
become mucus, and the cough which hitherto had been suffocating 



and exhausting, become less frequent and loose. It was on the 
counter-irritation caused by this ointment that the arch-empiric, 
St. John Long, relied as his panacea for all disease of the 
lungs ; — ^another example of abuse of a remedy being mistakea 
for its use. 

The use of expectorants in cases attended with profuse ex- 
pectoration has been condemned by many writers and practi- 
tioners, — they say. Why increase a discharge which is already ex- 
hausting the patient ? This argument, I admit, would hold good 
did they only keep up or increase the expectoration ; but they 
do more, — they also modify its quality. , As a proof of tliis we 
have only to refer to their effect on the expectoration in acute 
bronchitis ; that which was watery, saline and irritating, becomes^ 
by the employment of expectorant medicines, thicker, bland, and 
ultimately less in quantity; and from constant practice I aia 
convinced of their like beneficial action in the chronic disease. 
Their use, however, deserves the greatest circumspection when- 
ever the expectoration is purulent, or whenever there is any 
approach to hectic. When the expectoration is viscid and 
coughed up with difficulty, we may with considerable advantage 
increase the dose of an expectorant, such as ipecacuan, until it 
produces an emetic effect, which may be safely repeated so fre- 
quently as the breathing is obstructed by an overloaded state of 
the bronchial tubes. In mild cases where there is no attendant 
disorder of the stomach, ipecacuan is a most valuable remedy 
and may be given in the form of powder or of- wine — a grain, or 
two grains of the former, thirty drops of the latter — three or four 
times a day, with decided benefit ; it is also a proper adjuvant to 
other remedies, its use being forbidden only when there are profuse 
night-sweats. Squill ranks next in importance, and when com- 
bined with an alkali, as the liquor potassse or the subcarbonate of 
potash, has the property of solving and faeiliating the discharge 
of the ropy, tenacious mucus ; as it also acts upon the kidneys 
it may be prudent to add a minute quantity of morphia, to pre- 
vent it passing off too quickly in the urine. Squills are impro- 
per when there is any purulent expectoration. ' 

The lobelia inflata is a remedy which I think is not appre- 
ciated in this country as it deserves ; from long, and I may be 
excused when I add extensive experience in its use, I am justi- 
fied in classing it amongst the most valuable remedies we possess 
in all cases of bronchitis in which the cough is violent and suf^ 
focating, and expectoration difficult ; it relieves the dyspnoea, 
soothes the irritated mucous surface, and in some cases will im- 
mediately check what otherwise would be a severe paroxysm. 
The acids, particularly the nitric, acetic, and benzoic acid, are of 
essential service, tliey assist in " cutting the phlegm " as patients 
sometimes describe it, they are sedative and tranquillisc the sys- 
tem, and are tunic and add to the strength. by improving Uia 
appetite. 

Balsamic medicines, as the balsam of Peru, myrrh, tui-pen- 
tine, and that nauseous drug copaiba, are often useful wheu there 
is not any tendency to active inflamraatioit or disorder of the 
stomach ; they appear to diminish tlie bronchial secretion by 
their astringent properties, and at the same time they render the 
secreted matter easy to expectorate and gently stimulate the lungs 
to throw it off. 

Ammonia, musk, and assafcetida may be occasionally em- 
ployed with benefit to patients greatly debilitated : when the 
cough is spasmodic or convulsive, the following forms a valuable 
pill : — 

Take— Assafcetida, 1 scruple ; 

Ipecacuaa powder, half a drachm ; 
Powdered squills, 10 grains ; 
Castile *oap ; 

Syrup of tola sufficient to form a ma** : to be divided inta 
sixteen pills— One to be taken every four hours. 

Whenever ihere is great irritability of the system mth sleep- 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 



THE PEOPLil'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



less nights, we must have recourse to narcotics, bat as thej are 
liable to check the expectoration and hazard local congestion, 
they require the greatest care in their administration, and should 
only be given occasionally for the purpose of affording a night's 
rest. Opium is the chief ingredient, perhaps the only medicinal 
one, contained in advertised cough nostrums, and the deadening 
of the sensibility and probable absence of the cough whilst the 
patient is under its influence, isin^too many instances looked upon 
as a permanent benefit ; the sufferer is, however, soon undeceived 
by the return of all the symptoms in greater force, and the 
disease becoming confirmed and lasting. Conium and hyoscia- 
mus are far preferable to opium, as they yield all the soothing 
effect of the latter without so great a risk of doing mischief. 

I do not stop to notice medicated inhalations for the reason 
that I have no faith in this mode of treatment. 
(To be continued in oar next). 



HJEMORRHOIDS OR PILES. 

Piles consist in the enlargement of the yeins at the extremity 
of the lower bowel ; and very commonly arise firom the straining 
necessary to relieve the bowels in habitual costiveness. By de- 
grees one or more of the veins become gorged with blood, part 
of which not being returned, but lodging there, a little tumour 
is formed, which gradully enlarges. Sometimes it remains within 
the bowel, and is only forced down at the time the bowels are 
relieved, after which it either soon returns, or can be pushed up 
with the finger. But after a time it is continually down, about 
the size of a smaU bean, and becoming irritated by the perspira- 
tion, it often chafes, and renders walking very ^stressing. If 
the bowels be more costive than usual, and their relief need more 
than ordinary effort, the pHe becomes much gorged with blood, 
which is unable to return. The littie swelling then becomes veiy 
full and black with the blood it contains ; is very painful, often 
inflames, and either bursts and empties itself, which affords im- 
mediate ease, or it runs on to the formation of an abcess, which 
after a time discharges, and not unfrequentiy lays the foundation 
of a fistula. Occasionally the yeins inside the bowel become 
Tery large and their walls thin, so that the mere effort of reliev- 
ing the bowels, without much straining, causes them to bleed, 
and sometimes very freely. 

TBEATUEMT. 

The most likely mode of preventing the formation of piles is 
attention to the bowels, which ought to be relieved daily once or 
twice, and without forcing. Their proper action is equally bene- 
ficial to the health and temper, of which the celebrated Lord 
Chesterfield was well aware, in the advice he gave to a suitor of 
making certain inquires of a great man's valet before venturing 
to ask a flavour. It is best that nature should be invited at 
regular periods. There is no need of continually taking medicine, 
if the person be of a naturally costive habit ; for if the relief be 
made to depend on this, the quantity taken will sometimes need 
to be very considerable, as in proportion to the frequency of 
taking purgative medicine does its dose require to be increased. 
Begular exercise is generally sufficient to excite the bowels to 
proper action ; but some persons find it convenient to take a 
tnmbler of cold water immediately on leaving their bed, which 
serves as a gentie and sufficient laxative. If, however, this be 
insufficient, it is a most excellent practice to throw up into the 
bowel, every morning, half-a-pint or a pint of lukewarm water, 
either with an Indian- rubber bottie, or one of the noauy syringes 
for this purpose, which are now so common. 

When there is a disposition to piles, the person should always, 
after relieving the bowels, press up very' carefully any littie knot 
or swelling which can be felt, and generally by attention to this, 
and keepbg the bowels gentiy lax, the ailment is got rid of. 



It is advisable also to bathe with cold water and to pass up the 
bowel a smaU portion of lead or gall ointment ; and a teaspoonful 
of lenitive electuary may be taken ocasionally. 

When a pile becomes very much swoUen, full, and cannot 
be emptied by gentie pressure continued whilst the patient is 
lying down, and by the application of linen dipped in cold water, 
it will be necessary to put on two or three leeches, which may 
be repeated once or twice ; and this will be more especially 
needftd if the pile have become inflamed. Crreat relief under 
the latter circumstance is often obtained by finely opening the 
pile with a lancet, and letting out the clot of blood which often 
then has formed; this, however, had better be done by the 
doctor. The person troubled with swollen or inflamed piles 
should keep at rest for a few days in the horizontal posture, 
and when tiie irritation ceases may get up. 



FBMAUI XXHPBX. 

No trait of cfaaneter is more Talnable in a female than the possesdoa 
of a sweet temper. OhI he cannever be made hap^y wiAout it. It is 
like the flowers that spring np in our pathway, renrine and cheering bs. 
Let a man go home at nignt, wearied and worn by the toils of the day, and 
how soothing is a word dictated by a good disposition! It is sunshine 
fallin^on his heart. Heis happy, and the oares of life are forgotten. A 
sweettemper haa a soothing influenco orer the minds of a whole fiaiiiily. 
Where it is fonnd in the wue and muther, yon obserre kindness and lore 
predominating orer the natural feeling of a bad heart. Smiles, kind words 
and looks characterise the children, and peace and lore hare their dwelling 
there. Stndy, then, to acquire and retain a sweet temper. It is more 
valuable than gold; it captirates more than beauty; and to the close of life 
retains all its freshnMs and power. 



siMOviam DisaasB of tkb btb. 

A 8IK01II.AX ease occurred last week at the Glaigow Eye lafimaiy. A 
girl, of sixteen years of age, having applied on account of loss of sight of her 
left eye, the cause was ascertained to be the presence of a liring worm or 
hydatid (the cyttieercut of scientific naturalists; in the eye, close before the 
pupil, which it completely obstructed. This species of animal consists of a 
roaad bag about the sixe of a small pea, from which on one side ipriDgs its 
body, which is a filament, consisting of anmerons rings, and capable of being 
elongated and retracted at the creature's will. The body ends in a neclc and 
head, and the latter is supplied with four lateral suckers. All this was plain 
to the naked eye in this instance, bnt appeared still more so when the animal 
was viewed throa^ a microscope. As the existence of such a creatnre in 
the interior of the eye not only prerenta vision, but ultimately destroys the 
whole texture of the organ, it wis resolved to remove it br operation. Iliis 
was auccesifully efiected on Saturday last. The patient behaved with perfect 
steadiness, and found her vision immediately restored. The hydatid continued 
to live for mora than half an hour after being extracted. As only four similar 
cases are on record, the worm excited much curietity, and was examined by 
numerous visitors, both lay and medical. — Oltugote Chroniek. 



KAXaOEIIKXT or BUaTBBS. 

Db.Robbbt«oh gives the following directions for the management ofblisters, 
as the result of nearly seventeen years' experience. The blistering plaster 
should be spread thinly on paper or linen, not sprinkled over with powdered 
caatharides on the surface, out instead thereof, a few drops of olive oil rubbed 
on it and allowed to remain. Used in this way, he says, the blister acts 
qteedily, and without causing irritation, and with him it has never caused 
strangury. He objects to a blister spread upon leather, because the leather, 
by the heat of many parts of the body, becomes dry, partially crisp, and with 
difficulty adheres to the ^in, and thereby prevents it from acting well, and 
generally over the whole part intended to be blistered. The blister should be 
spread thinly, because the outer surface only is efficient, and when it is used 
in a thick layer, it becomes irregular, and consequently partial in its opera> 
tion. The powdered cantharides should not be sprinkled on it, because they 
will not add to its effldeocy, as they act but sUghtly on the ddn ; but the 
active principle of the Spanish fly being soluble in olive oil, affords a raaaon 
for the nse of the oil on the snr&ee of the blister. Dr. Bobertson concludes 
by remarking, that every one can make this blister for himself, of the com- 
monest materials at a very trifling expense ; and, if this be any recommenda- 
tion, it will act three, lata, or six tinea, if aniojared, and the oil (ently 
renewed on its surface. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



79 



FAMILY PEESCHIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS, 

Salihb Effirvescinq Draught. — Take lub -carbonate of potaib, one 
KTupie; one drachn of STnip of orange-peel; two draehau of einnamon water; 
ou ounce of loft trater. Add, a table-epoonfiil of freih lemon-juice, and 
iiink it immediately. 

SoDAic PowDEBi. — These coniiit of two powden; that in tlie blue paper 
«ia>i>t> ol half a draekm of the bi-carbonate of loda; that in the white of 
twcsty-fire grains of tartaric acid ; theae powden require half a pint of water. 
ne Mlation ti not fimilar to" loda water," in which the lodaii in combination 
only with carbonic acid# for the solution of the " iodaie powden" is that of a 
lentnl salt, with a portion of fixed air diffosed tknwgh it. 

SsinLiTZ PowDCU. — These consist of two different powders; that in the 
Vhc paper consists of tartarised soda, two drachms, and bi-carbonate of soda, 
two temples; that in the white paper of thirty-fire grains of tartaric acid. 
Diaolre the former in half a pint of spring water, and add the latter. 

Dalbt's C^RMiKATirB. — This quack nostrum is thus prepared. Take, 
•rboBste of soda, two scruples ; oil of pepparment, one drop, of nutmeg two 
dropi, of aniseed three drops, of the tincture of castor thirty drops, of assafce- 
iU fifteen drops, tincture of opiam fire drops, spirit of penny-royal fifteen 
topv compound tincture of cardamoms thirty drops, peppermint water two 
•iBces. Mix. 

Yellow Wash, is sometimas applied to phagedenio ulcers, and other 
dmish and unkealthy wounds; it is made by the decomposition of corrosiT* 
nblimate in lime water, which occasions a precipitate of deep yellow colour, 
being a peroxide of mercury, containing a little muriatic acid. 

Black Wash, is formed by the decomposition of calomel by lime water, 
■kicli tarns it black in consequence of its precipitating the black oxide of the 
Bcttl. It is composed of a drachm of calomel in half a pint of lime water, 
hihould always be well shaken before using, as much of the calomel drops to 
the bottom of t he bottle. This wash is often rendered more serviceable by 
adding a tea-spoonful of laudanum to the above quantity ; and sometimes in 
ttrj initable sores one ounce, or two table-spoonshil, of thick gum water may 
tin be added with advantage. 

Whitb Wash, or Lbad Wjlsh, may be made by dissolving one drachm 
•f nigar of lead in a pint of water, to which add a drachm of proof spirit. 
Wkto used as a wash for the eyes, two grains of sugar of lead are to be dis- 
tdved in two table-spoonsful of water. 



l5lETARY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC. 

PoTTBD Sauiom. — When you have any cold salmon left, take the skin 
off, udbone it, then put it in a marble mortar, with a good deal of clarified 
butter : seatoa it pretty high with pepper, mace, and salt, ihred a little fennel 
vtij ansll, beat them all together exceedingly fine, then put it close down 
isto spot, and cover it with clarified' butter. 

Salt Lma or MtrrroM. — Pound one ounce of bay salt, and half an ounce 
of nltpetre, and mb it all over yonr leg of mutton and let it lie all night ; the 
next day salt it well with common siUt, and let it lie a week or ten days, 
then hang it np to dry. 

Haricot of Hottom or Lamb. — Cut a neck or loin of mutton or lamb 
is nice steaks, and fry tbem a light brown, have ready some good gravy made 
of the scrag of the mutton and some veal, with a piece of lean bacon and a- 
few capers, season to your taste with pepper, salt, thyme, and onions, which 
Bitt be strained off and added to the steaks, just one hour before you send 
ibem to the table ; take care to do it on a slow fire, dish them up handsomely 
sith turnips and carrots cut in slices, with a good deal of gravy, thickened 
«itk a piece of bntter rolled in a very little flour ; if they are not tender they 
till not be good. Send them up vary hot. 

SnwED Spinaoc— Wash your spinage well in several waters, ptit it in 

inllender, have ready a large pan of boiling water, with a handful of salt, 

I* it in, let it boil two minutes, it will take off the strong earthy taste; then 

fct it into a sieve, squeeze it well, put a quarter of a pound of butter into a 

long-pan, put in your spinage, keep turning and chopping it with a knife 

util it be qnite dry and green; lay it upon a plate, press it with another, 

ud cat it in the shape of sippets or diamonds. 

I To Frt Smblts. — Dry them in a cloth, and dip them in flour ; then have 

I a oonce of butter or clear fat melted in a basin, into which break the yolk 

I tf t«o eggs, with which rub the smelts over with a brnsh, dip them in bread- 

I crjmbs, fry in very hot lard, dress them on napkin, garnish with parsley, aud 

•ore with shrimp-sauce in a b(»at. 

Wbitb Bait. — Put them in a cloth, which shake gently so as to dry them; 
ibea place them in some very fine bread-crumbs and flour mixed ; loss them 
lifbil; with the hands, take them out immediately and put them in a wire 
biiket, and fry them in hot lard; one minute will cook them ; turn them out 
•0 a cloth, sprinkle a little salt over, and serve very hot. (should you not 
bars a wire basket, q>rinkle tbem into the pan, and as soon as they rise take 
Ibem out. While bait spawn in winter— they make their appearance early 
>> March. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



On JTattdsy (Ac Utk init., witt btpMMed, priea 44^ by pott, 6d. ' 

INDIGESTION, NERVOUSNESS, LOW SPIRITS. 
The Causes, Symptoms, and lUtional Treatment. 
By T. H. Ybomak, M.D. 
This Work is a corrected reprint of the papers on Indigestion published 
in Tkb Pboplb's Medical Journal, with much additional information. 

London : Published by the Author, 2S, Llovd Square, PeatoaviUe; 
and sold by Obobob Vickbbe, Strand, and all Booksellers and News* 
vendors. It is requested that all orders for oopiea to be sent by post majr 
bo forwarded to the Author, so as to insure punctual dispatch. 

Also by the same author, price 2a. ; by post 2s. 6d. 

pONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; tlia 
^ Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the means of 
Prevention. 

" There is to much good sense, scientific knowledge, and useful informa- 
tion in this little volume that we gladly assist in giving it publicity. Dr- 
Ybouan discountenances all empirical modes of treatment, at the same time 
that he suggests some safe and beneficial rules for the cure or amelioration 
of the disease. The remarks on the healthy discipline of home shew that the 
author is a sound social philosopher, as well as an experienced physician." 
—The Britannia, Nov. 11, 1848. 

'* There is no assumption or quackery in this little volume — it is j ust such 
a work as might be anticipated from an Intelligent and experienced physician. 
The Buggestions and recommendations of Or. Yeoman areextremely valuable 
and may tw unhesitatingly and advantageously adopted by all who are in- 
terested in the health and well-being of the rising generation." — Morning 
Heraid, Oct. S3, 1848. 

Also by the same author, price 2i. 

ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH, 
the Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment. 

"The perusal of the publication before us, which turns upon four of the 
most prevalent evils to which flesh is heir in these lands, cannot fail to prove 
most beneficial to sufferers among all persons of sense, and to further success- 
ful medical treatment." — Brituh Banner, March 21, 1849. , 

" This work enunates from a gentleman thoroughly welt versed in the 
subject, and who has obtained great and deserved celebrity by his mode of 
treatment.— fr<2<s Standard, January 16, 1849. 

" This is an excellent little treatise by a clever and clear-beaded practl- 
Uoner. Dr. Yeomah is well known by his Work on Consumption, and the 
present publication will add to his tame."— Weekly DttpoteA, Jan- 14, 1849 

London: Sampson Low, 169. Fleet Street ; Effihoham Wilsos, 11, 
Royal Exchange ; Wbbbtbb & Co., 60, Piccadilly ; and all Booksellers. 

EVILL'S PATENT FLOUR of LENTILS,— 

a pleasant, nutritious, and agreeable Food for Invalids, Dyspeptics, and 
persons suffering fiom Constipation, or any other chronic derangement c^ the 
Digestive Organs — also for making GmeL It is the only food that does not 
distend or turn acid on a weak Stomach. It will be found invaluable for 
Delicate Children and SoiTerers from Debility. 

Sold Wholesale by NBym. and Co., 16a, Chichester Place, Grtys Inn 
Road, London; and ReUil by T. Carrick, 127, Crawford Street; T. Shabp, 
44, Bishopsgste Street Within; Miles, Gracechurch Street, City; and 
may be obtained from all respectable Shopkeepers in the Kingdom, in Packets, 
6d. and la each, and 6 lb. and I21b.canisters, 5s.6d.and 10s. 6d. each. 

FS. CLEAVER'S WINTER SOAP.— This Soap is a 
* combination of the Genuine Honey Soap, Camphor, and Vegetable Oils, 
oonseqnentiy the very best for this Season of the year, and at all times for 
tender skins. Inviduable as a Shaving Soap. Sold in large non-angular Tablets, 
at 3d. each; and monsters 6d. each. To be had at the manufactory, 13, Red 
Lion Square, Holbom, uid at all Chemists, Perfiimers, Ice, in the United 
Kingdom. 

JOHN MILES, (Late BUTLER and CO.) DISPENSING 
CHEMIST, 78, Gracechurch Street,* respectfully informs the Pnblie 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals ; the too i^nont dangerous adul> 
teration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of which 
depend the health and safety of our fellow creatnres, induces J. Milbs to 
pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is gennine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by vrell-qnallfied assistants under his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for RooFP'g Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
supply of Cod Liteb Oil, prepared from the finest Fish of the Season. 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

VonCB. — All eomtnniileBtloiM for the Editor must 1>e addrctted, pre-paid, 
to bii house, No. 25, Llotd Square, Pbntontillx. It is indis- 
pensable that letters requiring a priTato answer contain a postage 
•tamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of the 
applicanL InTalids resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, can 
hare, on application, a series of questions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers tliereto, the necessity of a 
personal interview, in many instances, may lie avoided without detri- 
ment to the successful issue of the required treatment. Notes of every 
ease submitted to the Editor will be Kcorded in bis private ease-book, 
for the facility of reference at any future period. 

Thb Editor is at homo every day until one o'clock ; and on the Evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. 

He attends at Ha. Miles's Uedxcal akd Surgical EsTABLtsHUEKT, 
78, Oracechnrch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays from 
Two until Three o'clock. 



Air Ufortumats. — Mr. Smith, No. I, High Holbom, has for many years 

supplied our patients with trusses : apply to him. 
FaiLO-VBRlTAC. — We feel honoured by your communication, and thankfully 
receive your admirable remarlis on the treatment oi' deafness. We give our 
entire adherence to your doctrine that in nine cases out of ten local ap- 
plications, as the so-called " acoustic drops'' and glycerine, are only to be 
considered as secondary agents, " and that the general state of the pa- 
tient's health must be inquired into, and, if weak, strengthened — if 
dyspeptic, restored to a proper regularity." We know there is much 
quackery abroad touching deafness. Saville Row appears now to be 
the favoured locale. , 

Mrs. Edwards (Great Yarmouth).— Seo answer to Cbarlottb, in No. 6. 
Alfred Wuliams. — You are not equal to the task you propose to yourself : 
before you quote Latin, spell yonr own language correctly; before you 
criticise the College of Physicians, pay greater attention to your own 
P's and Q's. Ae tutor ultra erepidum. 
P. H. (East London). — We are too sensible of the great responsibility that 
belongs to our office to venture to prescribe for vou, guided only by your 
meagre history. If you value our opinion, you must take greater trouble 
to obtain it. We nerer hazard an opinion : — we do not guess. 
O. B. (Holborn). — The complaint will readily succumb to proper medical 
treatment. What that treatment should be in your case we can't tell 
you, without we see you. 
W. A. — The "professed herbalist" is an acknowledged quack ; he has not 
the smallest claim to the title ''medical man," even by the education 
acquired as a druggist's errand boy. Some cf his agents or partisans, 
having caused death by the administration of his poison, have been com- 
mitted for manslaughter, — and were cabined, cribbed, confined, and 
coined in York Castle. 
William Hatdom (Southampton). — If you have been accustomed "to 
wash the body all over with cold water" aud it agrees with yon, do not 
discontinue so wholesome a practice. " Cleanliness is next to godliness." 
D.W, (Strand). — The prescription for the dentifrice that you sent us is a good 
one. Mr. Craigie, Finsbury Square, is the City Cartwrigbt. Mr. 
Smart is liberal in his charges. 
H. J. (Hull). — How is it possible we can tell you how many legacies Dr. 

Tumbull has received ? 
A. T. S. (Strand). — Remove all pressure from the toe by wearing a very 
easy boot ; if the neighbouring toes add to the pain, separate them by 
means of the elastic cushions, sold at all chemists. If the bone is dis- 
eased, the above treatment can only be considered palliative. 
Francis Edek (Macclesfield). — The noise in the ears, frightful dreams, and 
fear of death maybe, and in all probability are, the efiects of indigestion. 
If you give a more detailed account of yotur case, the necessity for a 
journey to Ixtndon may be obviated. 
Red Gaomtlet. — Avoid all that may stimulate or excite you ; eat sparingly 
of animal food, aud do not touch wine, spirits, or beer. Use a warm hip- 
bath twice a week — and lake, powdered cubebs one ounce, sugar two 
drachms, mucilage of gum arable two ounces, cinnamon water six ounces. 
Mix. Dose, two table-spoonsful three times a day. 
Bachbl (Shrewsbury).^Local applications will only be of temporary ser- 
vice ; the disease is eoustitutioual. 
Ax Asthmatic. — Yon will find the information you seek for in an early 

number. 
HannaR ( Homsey). — Tumours and swellings of t he breast are in geberal too 
serious aflisirs to be lightly treated. We cannot advise any treatment 
without seeing the case. 



JoBM WiLsoM (Helper).— If the surgeon in attendance will communicate 
with us, we shall he most happy to communicate to him our opinion on 
the case. 

Proposed New Park and Esplahadb roR the Borovou op FiKSBiniT.— 
We are delighted in being able to announce to our readers the probabi- 
lity of this much wanted sanitary improvement being carried into effect. 
The proposed site is Highbury, in the immediate vicinity of Park Ter- 
race, which presents the great advantage of a running stream of water,- 
the New River, passing through it. What a boon this will prove to the 
inhabiuqts of the crowded localities of St. Luke's and Clerkenwell ! We 
heartily wish God speed to the good work. , > 

A. B. M.— .Three for twenty-one. 

>f . B.— (Carlton).— Use the embrocation prescribed in No. 2, with the addi- 
tion of the water of ammonia in the proportion of one drachm to two 
ounces of the soap liniment. Exercise the limb in every possible way, 
by swinging it round, lifting weights, stricking the arm out fairly front 
the shoulder. 

Z. T. (Knight Street). — Your letter is not sufficiently accurate in descriptios. 
To your second question, — ^half a guinea. 

Wm. Barksbee (Camden Town). — We must examine you with the stethos- 
cope before venturing an opinion. 

W. Hall (City). — We decline complying with your request. Yon will find 
in after life that " honesty is the best policy." 

W. H BDTON (Theobald's Road). — Wa wrote to you on the 26th ult., directed 
as you requested. The letter has been returned marked " Not known." 

L. W. L. — However useful the papers you suggest might be, we fear we can- 
not publish articles on SyphUis ; you will bear in recollection that our 
Jeurnal is a Family Journal. I'he subject, however, shall remain under 
consideration ; in the meantime we shall be happy to take into consider* 
ation yonr individual case. 

Geobcb (Scarborough). — Do not part with "the usual consultation fee of 
£\." The " Company" of Consulting Surgeons are a company of ignor- 
ant, swindling quacks. Jews by birth, rugucs by nature, impostors by 
inclination. You will lose healtfa aud money, if you are seduced by 
their boastinginviolable secrecy, and obscene " coloured engravi ngs." Tie 
" Yorkahireman" newspaper, from which you quote, has excluded itself 
from the tables of all respectable families by the insertion of their dis- 
gusting advertisements. 

W. 8. (St. Martin's le Grand). — Diet, nourishing but not stimulating; mut- 
ton once a day ; light puddings occasionally : nut any ale, beer, spirits, or 
wine: moderate out-of-door exercise in fine weather; a bath at about 
94° once a week, and take the following : — compound iron mixture, four 
ounces; compound decoction of aloes, four ounces. Mix. Dose, three 
table-spoonsful twice a day. 

Mrs. Smitbsom. — Your daughter is sufiering fh>m hysteria, and a compli- 
cation of (ymptoms which have their origin in the disturbance of the 
system natural to the critical period of her life. The palpitalioa at the 
heart is, in all probability, the result of sympathy, not of disease in that 
organ. Lose no time in obtaining competent medical advice. 

Qeorob Llotd (Barton). — Take ten grains of the extract of catechu every 
night. 

AmxioDs (High Holbom).— Use this lotion, — Take, vinum opii two drachms, 
acetic acid one ounce, spirits of wine one ounce, rose water six ounces. 
Mix. The parts to be kept constantly wet. 

The followiho Corbespomdehts can only be answered privately, in person 
or by letter: — Oxomibmbis. Bradcar (Leicester). Civis (Dublin). 
W. P. (Hackney Koad) — it is not our custom to take notice of letters 
written in pencil ; as your note refers to an urgent cose, we make it an 
exception. Onb Who Deplores (Maryle^ne). G. (Leitb). F, 
Galilee (Hartlepool). Mrs. Robinson (Stroud). T. B, K. PiTz- 
Smitu (Belfast). J. Davidson (Berwick). Eliza (Porlsea). Caft. 
DoDD (Poole). An Odd Fellow. Misery. A Small Shopkeeper 
(Paddington). William B. (Droitwich). Amicus (Halton). Hart 
(Sudbury)- A Cordwainbr. Mrs, Dudley (Aylesbury). A Gck 
Smith (Birmingham). Thomas Harrison (Hull). Florence. 

Prescriptions and private instructions as to diet and regimen are left with 
Thb Dispenser, 78, Graccchurch Street, for the following corres- 
pondents;— R. B. (Bethnal Green). G. T. (Stratford). Mrs. Healo 
(Commercial Road). William D. (Kennington Lane). A Gbockr's 
Appbbntice. D. D. D. (Osborne Streetl. Faithful. B. E. S. S. 
A. C. (Wynyalt Street). A. B. (Farringdon Street). Thus. A 
Salbsman (Newgate Market). Resolution. Mrs. Heweom's Chii.p. 
One of the People. A Printer (Whitefriars). Mrs. B — S*s 
Child. Remo. Robert Tinlet (Skinner Street). A NovicB. R. S. 
(Tooley Street). Despair. Mrs. Blake. W. C. (London). 



Printed by Cuisi-xi Adami, at his Printing Office, 8, St. Jamei'i Walk, In the Pariak at 
St. James's, ClcrkenwelL In the Coontr of Middlesex ; and published, ft>r the ProprlvtuTs. 
bj OEOBoa Vicxxis, Strand, In tlie Tsiish of St. Clement Danes, In the sold Cosntjr oC 
Middlesex. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

AXS 

FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN, M.D. 



No. 11— Vol. I.] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 16, 1850. 



[OHBPEHHT' 



MEDICINE NOT A M7STEBY. 

It has been justly remarked tfaat ho^rever well acquainted per- 
sons of a certain degree of edacation may be with the moral 
and political sciences, with the fine arts, and various other ob- 
jects of study, which are more ornamental than useful, they exhibit 
evidence of deplorable ignorance of all matters connected with 
the science of medicine, though it is one with which their tem- 
poral happiness and welfare are so intimately connected. 

This may partly depend on the supposition that medicine is a 
science sui gentris,—OBe apart from all others, not to be ap- 
proached by the unlearned ; net comprehensible, even in its 
slightest details, save by those who have devoted their lives to 
its cultivation. The popular notion to which we have just 
alluded is. however, we fear, sanctioned, if not promoted, by the 
conduct of too many members of the profession. Some, even 
amongst the self-styled heads of that profession, affect to envelope 
all their proceedings in a mystery and secretness which, in the 
estimation of all rational men, savours strongly of charlatanism, 
but which the afore-mentioned " distinguished" persons consi- 
der as being absolutely necessary for a successful practice of the 
healing art. 

Individuals of this class will order a drachm of bread-crumbs 
or flour to be made into pills, and, with the utmost gravity im- 
ginable, will assure you that their doueh balls are little inferior 
ia excellence to those of a Moiison, Holloway, or Lamert ; while, 
to keep up a sembladce of decency, they attribute their " uni- 
Tersal" effects to the mysterious workings of the human ima- 
gination. 

Others, again, iufluenced by better intentions, but equally 
mistaken in their views, contribute to support the popular errors 
-which prevail with regard to medicine, by catching up the most 
absurd and extravagant theories respecting the action of un- 
known agents, which they designate by new-fangled terms of 
foreign origin, and by exhibiting to the astonished and admiring 
vulgar a series of phenomena, which, if not the result of trickery, 
could only be produced by something more than iiuman power. 
Need we say that we allude to mesmerism, clairvoyance, second- 
sight — Okey et pokey ! 

True knowledge never shuns the li ght ; the beauties of science 
are, like those of nature, most captivating to all classes of men 
when unclothed ; the minds even of the uneducated classes readily 
comprehend sKch principles of political and moral economy as 
are laid before them in plain, unadorned language ; and it may 
be safely assumed that the science of medicine would attain a 
much more sound and healthy condition than it now exhibits, 
xtere every veil and cloud of mystery removed from it, and the 
mass of the commimity accustomed to r^ard it simply as one of 
the inductive sciences. 

It is not necessaiy that anatomy should form part and parcel 



of the education of our youth, though the best instructed amongst 
them could not fail to derive improvement from a study of the 
noblest work of his Creator ; neither do we contend that the 
different branches of knowledge which, united together, consti- 
tute the science of medicine, should form items in the sum of 
what is called '* general education ;" what we are desirous of 
seeing is, an avoidance, on the part of all medical men, of that 
mysticbm and secrecy in which medicine has hitherto been in- 
volved ; we should wish to witness the triumph of common sense 
in the rejection of all words and terms of foreign and barbarous 
origin ; we would admit the public, in part at least, behind the 
scenes, and not. by an affected employment of imcouth symbols 
and unknown words, endeavour to give to the art of meicine a 
factitious degree of importance, and, as it were, sanctity, which 
every honest and true votary disclaims. 

The progress of quackery, and the infatuated ignorance which 
prompts men to prefer the charlatan to the educated practitioner, 
have been the subject of long and loud complaint. There is no 
doubt but that the infatuation of the public is great, and that 
the quack nuisance is becoming insupportable : the evil is at 
present irremediable, but we trust that legislative measures will 
soon sweep away the abuses in which all the medical institutions 
of this conntry, without exception, abound. In the meantime it 
may be worth while to inquire how far the present progress of 
quackery may not have been promoted by the conduct of medical 
practitioners themselves. 

What is the essence of quackery ? Secrecy. Without it the 
quack could not exist ; mysticism and ignorance form the body 
and blood of quackery : ignorance on the part of the recipient ; 
mysticism on the part of the distributor. If this view of the 
subject be true, — if, to use a professional phrase, we have dis- 
covered the morbid elements which constitute the disease, the 
discovery of a remedy and its application will not present obsti- 
cles of unsurmountable difficulty. " Remove the cause, and the 
effect ceases," is a well-known medical adage. Bemove ignorance 
from the people, and mysticism from the practice of medicine, 
and the quack's avocation will soon be gone. 

The daily improvement which is to be observed in the means 
of education offered to the poorer classes, leads us to hope tliat 
the source of one evil just alluded to will ere long be dried up ; as 
knowledge progresses, as the people become more familiar with 
the operations of physical agents, more accustomed to obseiTe 
and trace the connexion between cause and effect, the power of 
the quack must diminish ; but, on the other hand, we must not 
forget the beam which sticks in our own eye ; we, of the medi- 
cal profession, must consent to abandon all show of mysticism 
and secrecy ; we must adopt the vernacular tongue instead of the 
barbarous dialect which we are pleased to denominate the " lan- 
guage of the Romans;" we must exchange our symbols and our 
hieroglyphics for intelligible terms ; and we must seize every 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



opportunity of rendering the fects and principles connected with 
tile science of medicine approachablo by, and comprehensible 
to, the public. If the Peoplb's Mbdical Journal can assist 
in this great, good, and national improrement — vre shall not 
haTe lived in vain. 



QOTJT. 

BY THf EDIXOB. 

No. II. 

(Continued from page 16.) 

ACUTE, OR REGULAR GOUT. 

An Bttaek of acute gont sometimes comes on suddenly, and 
usually makes its first onset, just like asthma and some other 
diseases, at about two or three o'clock in the morning. The pa- 
tient slumbers quietly till the time we have stated, when he is 
aroused by an excruciating p£un, most frequently in the ball of 
the great toe, or sometimes in the heel, or in the calf of the leg, 
or at the ankle. The pain of gout is most distressing, and has 
heen variously described. By some it is said not to be unlike 
that caused by a dislocated bone ; others declare it produces a 
sensation of boiling water poured orer the part. Sydenham, in 
writing of his own sufferings, compares it to the gnawing of a 
dog ; aud patients who have suffered from it severely, say they 
can distinguish between the pain of gout and that of rheumatism ; 
we have heard the distinction thus drawn — if you put your toe 
into a vice, and screw it until you can bear the pain no longer, 
you give the pain of rheumatism ; after you have attained this 
pitch of endurance, give the vice another turn, and you give the pain 
of gout ! Symptoms of fever, preceded by more or less shivering, 
soon set in ; the skin is hot and dry, the sleep is disturbed, the 
urine is scanty and high-coloured, the bowels are costive, and 
there is frequently some cough, with expectoration of mucus. 
In a few hours the joint becomes swelled and red, and intensely 
painful to the touch ; the local pain and swelling soon increase 
in violence, the joint assumes a fiery redness, and the whole 
hody is in a state of great restlessness. For about four<and- 
twenty hours the patient continues in this state of torture ; the 
symptoms begin to remit towards the next morning, a gentle, 
soothing sleep comes to his relief, and he awakes in a free per- 
spiration. The pain, however, returns during the succeeding 
night, though in a more tolerable degree, and the modified attack 
is repeated for several days and nights, or even a week. The 
disease then frequently declines, the inflammation subsides, the 
part affected loses its cuticle, and there is violent itching for 
some days. After some time the same thing occurs again ; per- 
haps attacking both toes, or first oqe and then the other ; or it 
may change its seat, and seize upon the hands, knees, or wrists, 
and in some cases, during the same attack, it will run about 
amongst these joints, being first seated in one, then in the other. 
The more frequently it comes, the greater the chance of it attack- 
ing the larger joints, perhaps even the elbow or shoulder ; but 
it invariably begins in the smaller joints, and continues in them 
till the last, affecting the others only occasionally. As the dis- 
ease advances the intervals of the attacks are shorter, and 
the duration of the paraozysms becomes longer. At the com- 
mencement of the disease, the return of it may be annual, 
or not oftener than once in three or four years ; but it is per- 
petually encroaching on the constitution, and its visitations may 
be so frequent that the patient is hardly ever free from it, except 
perhaps for two or three months in the summer. 

Although gout more frequently commences as suddenly as 
we have just described, yet in some cases the fit is often preceded 
by certain hints, which those who have suffered from it before 
very sufficiently understand, and uniformly take as a warning ; 
amongst them may be named a coldness or numbness of the 



lower limbs, alternating with a sensation of pricking or creeping 
along th«T entire length ; frequently cramps of the muscles of 
the legs ; thick or clouded urine, which deposits a reddish or 
white sediment ; slight shiverings over the surface of the body ; 
languor and flatulency of the stomach ; and sometimes a palm 
over the eyelids, or in some other organ. 

There is one favourable peculiarity in regular gout, which is, 
that it frequently leaves the patient in renewed health ; the foot 
almost instantly recovers its vigonr, as though nothing had been 
the matter with it ; and if the patient have been previously 
indisposed, he enjoys, as on recovering from the ague, an ala- 
crity of body and mind that he has not experienced for a long 
time before. 

In the inveterate and protracted form of regular gout, in 
which the constitution falls more and more under the influence 
of the disease, it makes corresponding encroachments on the in- 
ternal organs as well as the joints. Persons who have thus 
become tiie victims of gont frequently become asthmatic, or 
have chronic bronchitis ; others labour under disease of the 
kidneys, or organic disease of the stomach, liver, and intestines ; 
very frequently disease of the heart supervenes, and disease of 
the brain, or congestion, may occur, so that the patient dies 
apoplectic. In such violent and continued cases, the joints re- 
main not only weak and stiff after the termination of the fit, 
but they become at length so contracted and disabled, that, al- 
though the patient can stand, and perhaps walk a little, yet it 
is very slowly, and with great lameness and difficulty. In many 
persons, though not in aJl, this immobility of the joints is fur- 
ther increased by the formation of concretions of a chalky ap- 
pearance on the outside of them, and for the most part imme- 
diately under the skin ; they accumulate during the intervals of 
health, and when fresh inflammation comes on, they aggravate 
very considerably the sufferings of the patient. The secretion, 
or deposition, of this matter is characteristic of the disease, be- 
ing the consequence of gouty inflammation alone. It seems to 
be deposited at first in a fluid form, but afterwards becomes dry 
and firm ; in which state the concretions have the appearance 
of a friable earthy substance, and have been erroneously called 
chalky sUma. They do not, however, contain any calcareous 
or earthy matter, but consist of lithic or uric acid combined with 
soda, forming what chemists term the lithate or urate of soda. 
These concretions occur principally about the joints of the toes 
and fingers in little lobules, or lumps, which Sydenham com- 
pares to crabs' eyes ; but sometimes they appear about the larger 
joints, where they occasion a whitish swelling almost as large as 
an egg. A curious case is related by Mr. Watson ; the patient, 
who was a martyr to gout, had so extensive a deposition of urate 
of soda, that the concretions not only enveloped the joints of 
his great toes, formed tumours on his legs, and rendered the 
synovia of the large joints as thick as cream, but " the joints 
of the fingers were swelled and knotty, every knot being a lump 
of {guaH) chalk ; and I was told (says Mr. Watson) that, when he 
played at cords, he used frequently to score up the game with 
his knuckles." We have seen a man write his name by the 
same means. A case is related by a recent writer, of a lady 
" not more than thirty years of age, the mother of several chil- 
dren, who was in such a state from deposits of urate of soda 
around almost all her joints, that her limbs were' of little or no 
use to her. When her knees were bent and extended, a rattling 
noise was produced, like what would be produced by shaking a 
bag of marbles. 

IBREOtjLAR OOCT. 

This form of the disease is sometimes termed lurking gout, 
disguised gout, or atonic gout. 

In irregular gout, the local symptoms are slight in compari- 
son with those observed in acute gout ; the appearances of ex- 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



83 



tenial inflammation are trifling, and, in place of the fiery red- 
ness we observe a puffiness of the part of an oedematous charac- 
ter, which /»ls (that is, leaves a white indentation,) when pressed 
upon by the point of the finger ; there is always much weakness 
in the neighbouring muscles, so that the motion of the joint is 
greatly impaired. The constitutional symptoms assume the gais« 
of varioua diseases, and are always attended with more or less 
danger: dyspepsia, hysteria, hypochondriasis, palpitations of 
the heart, vertigo, hemicrania, with several modifications of 
palsy, or apoplexy, are the most frequent. 

The stomach and bowels, as may be supposed, &>Tm the chief 
teat of this type of gout ; the appetite is fastidious or destroyed, 
and when food is taken, it causes immediate and considerable 
annoyance ; there is felt acute and burning pain, with an uneasy 
sensation of weight and distension, as though the stomach was 
bunting with wind ; occasionally there is also a spasmodic pain, 
which can only be compared to the violent nipping, or grinding 
together of the sides of the stomach. Nausea and sickness con- 
stantly prevail ; the stomach is irritable, and the most simple solids 
01 flnids are speedily ejected ; eructations of sour, acrid wind, 
and all the torments of heartburn, ore seldom absent for any 
length of time. The bowels are costive, and when moved, the 
evacuations are attended with severe griping pains, resembling 
the cholic. There is invariably present severe headache ; vio- 
lent palpitation of heart, with pain at the left side ; difficulty of 
breathing ; a teazing chronic cough ; deficient secretion of urine, 
which deposits a gravelly sediment of some compound of lithic 
add : a quick, irritable pulse, and a hot, diy state of the skin- 

With these symptoms we also find great languor and dejec- 
tion of mind and body ; the strength is prostrated, and rarely 
renewed by any refreshing sleep ; the nights are passed in rest- 
lessness, or in broken slumbers, disturbed by distressing cramps 
in different parts of the body. The spirits are depressed as much 
bj gloomy forebodings as by present pain ; sometimes terrific 
fiincies ttdce possession of the mind with the same intensity and 
tenacity as in delirium tremens, and in the mildest cases the 
patient is unfitted alike for mental amusement or occupation. 
In the worst cases, the body wastes, and that general depravation 
of the whole habit is induced, which is commonly called a shat- 
tered, or broken-up, constitution. 

This irregular form of gout is that which more frequently 
exists in systems of infirm and delicate health, in which there is 
a want of enei^ to work up, if we may so speak, a fit of regular 
or acute gout, and thus throw off the disease as its appropriate 
outlets. TVe may, in such cases, detect slight and fugitive pains 
in one or more of the joints, making an ineffectual eflbrtto Undle 
np a paroxysm of proper inflammation, but which there is not 
sufficient energy in the system to accomplish, so that the gouty 
pains in the joints cease almost as soon as they appear, and the 
constitutional derangement is renewed. Sometimes the internal 
distnrbance continues for several weeks, and at length slowly 
(ubsides ; sometimes it exhausts and wears out the entire frame, 
irnd in others it terminates in abdominal or general dropsy. 
Misplaced Gout and the treatment of Gout in our next. 

DEATB BY SPOMTAIIEOtlS COMBUSnON. 
The Timet of feb. 26, Mjs, the foUowiDg exlnordinary occurrence is 
niated in (he Gaeetle det TrUmnavx. " A few dayi ago. In a taTem near the 

Barri^e lia I'EtoUe, a joumeyaiaa painter, named Xavier C , well known 

for hit intemperate faabita, while drinking with aome comradea, laid a wager 
thai he would eat a lighted candle. Hia bet was taken, and scarcely had be 
iatioduced the flaming candle into his month, when he uttered a slight cry, 
and fcU powerless to the ground. A bluish flame was seen to flicker about 
Us lips, and on SD attempt being made to offer him assistance, the bystanders 
were horror-ttruck to find be was burning internally. At the and of half an 
hour, his bead and upper part of hia chest were reduced to charcoal. Two 
medical men were called in, and reoogniscd that Xavier bad fallen a victim 
to spoataneotw combuation. This conflagration of the human fk'ame is fright- 
fully rapid in its progress ; bones, skin, and muscles, all are deronred, con- 
sumed, and reduced to ashes. A haiadfiil of doat on the spot where the 
ridim fell is al that remains." 



DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 

BT T. a. TEOMAN, XD. 
ITo. XI. 
COMPLICATIONS OF CHROmC BR0XCHITI8. 
(_Contnttied from page 78.) 

When aged persons suffer from a severe attack of chronic 
bronchitis, the result of repeated and neglected invasions of the 
disease, we find in a large majority of cases that the patient at 
the same time labours under some derangement of the geiteral 
health, the e£fects of which are aggravated ^ the exhaustion and 
debility produced by the cough and expectoration. 

If the bronchitis be complicated with indigestion, the patient 
complains of distension of die stomach with wind and a choking 
sensation when it is expelled ; the cough is increased so soon as 
food is taken, and the lungs feel as thi)ugh pressed upon by an 
unnatural weight ; there is pain in the right side, and at the right 
shoulder in particular ; the region of the stomach is tender, and 
the least pressure affords intense pain, the tongue is foul, the 
appetite lost, the evacuations scanty and of an unhealthy colour, 
the urine is high coloured and turbid, the skin at one time hot 
and dry, at another bedewed with a clammy perspiration. In 
such cases the abdominal disorder merits equal attention with 
the more prominent symptoms of the chesty uid until we restore 
a healthy action in Uie digestive organs we can hope for but little 
permanent relief. Small doses of blue-pill should be given ao 
as to produce an alterative effect and gently stimulate the liver 
to pour out healthy bile ; the flatulence and acidity should be 
corrected by the occasional exhibition of alkalies, especially the 
trisnitrate of bismuth ; the tone of the stomach should be re- 
gained by cascarilla, columbo, and quinine, and, paramount to all, 
the cause of the disordered stomach should be removed by strict 
attention to a proper diet. 

We have two objects to attain by means of diet ; first, to pre- 
vent the stomach being irritated and impeded in its function ; 
second, to support the strength without stimulating or exciting 
the system. In disease, I would advise every one to pay the 
same attention to bis diet as he would do to the drugs prescribed 
for his cure; I sLall therefore condense my remarks on the 
regimen for chronic bronchitis complicated with indigestion to a 
prescription. 

Take, for breakfatt, coffee, strong, not boiled, but infused ; 
in quantity not exceeding half-a-pint ; little sugar, little milk ; 
dry toast or biscuit, as much as satia&es the appetite. Dinner, 
a lean mutton chop, broiled, stale bread, and half-a-pint of bitter 
ale ; the meat to be well masticated, the ale to be sipped, so as 
to mix with the solids, and not drank at a " gulp." Tea, the 
same as breakfast. In the evening, at least one hour before 
going to bed, a biscuit with a wine-glassful of sherry in half 
a tumbler of cold water; a little cold boiled rice with black 
currant jelly, raspberry jam, or marmalade. During the day sip 
occasionally a small quantity of linseed tea or barley water, 
slightly acidulated with lemon juice, so as to moisten the mouth, 
diminish thirst, and lubricate the throat. The smaller the quan- 
tity of fluids taken the better for the stomach, for if that organ 
be distended by liquids its natural juices are diluted, they become 
insufficient to dissolve the solid matters, digestion is arrested, 
and the nutrition of the body, as a consequence, is deficient. 

Occasionally the patient labours under some considerable de- 
gree of fever — more than usually attends chronio disease ; the 
tongue is then florid, the thirst frequent, the bowels constipated, 
the skin dry, and the pulse accelerated ; there is continual rest- 
lessness and anxiety, the nights are passed without sleep, and 
there is great dislike for food ; so liiat by the irritability and 
debility of the system the disease is involved inconsiderable 
danger. We must then endeavour to relieve the bowels by a 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



purgative, such as a scruple of rhubarb powder with a drachm of 
the tartrate of potash in simple water ; the fever must be com- 
batted by saliue medicines combined with such as will ease the 
cough, and the diet must be confined to gruel, sago, arrow-root, 
and other fiuinaceous and milky food. When there is much 
tenderness over the abdomen, as frequently happens, it may be 
advisable to apply a few leeches, or to keep the body fomented 
with hot flannels. Incases attended by fever all the symptoms 
are greatly aggravated towards night. 

Retention of urine, or difficulty and pain in passing it, is a 
constant cause of uneasiness in the chronic bronchitis of the 
aged : the fluid is of a thick or ropy consistence, unpleasant and 
pungent in its odour, and small in quantity ; much pain is felt 
around the lower part of the body, and darting pains are experi- 
enced at each attempt to obtain relief. Full doses of squill 
with the infusion of buchu leaves, combined with mucilaginous 
drinks so as to afford a diuretic as well as an expectorant effect, 
give great relief. When the urine is pungent and of an am- 
monical smell, small doses of nitwc acid and tincture of hyoscia- 
mns in the infusion of pareira brsva, is an excellent remedy. 
The patient will derive great comfort from the frequent use of a 
warm hip-bath. 

General or local effusion of fluid — dropsy — ^is frequently 
associated with the disease : within a very recent period, I have 
attended three cases in which, as well as bronchitis, the patients 
suffered £rom water on the chest ; the disease thus complicated 
is one of the greatest danger. The legs and ankles are frequently 
infiltrated with fluid, which renders them painful, tense and 
throbbing. The least swelling or puffiness around the lower 
eye-lid, especially on getting out of bed in the morning, is a 
symptom that demands the immediate attention of the practi- 
tioner. 

Chronic bronchitis is a constant cause of debility that may 
reduce the strength of the patient to the lowest ebb. In the ab- 
sence of fever we must endeavour to give tone and power by a 
generous diet and tonic medicines, particularly columbo and 
quinine, and occasionally stimulants, as wine and brandy in 
guarded quantities, are required. When profuse perspirations 
add to the exhaustion, smdl doses of dilute sulphuric ac|^ will 
have a good effect, and the chest may be sponged with tepid 
vinegar and water, and afterwards carefully dried. 

It is of the greatest importance that those who are subject 
to this disease should avoid exposure to cold ; the rooms diey 
inhabit should be kept warm and of a uniform temperature, they 
should be careful in guarding against any sudden transition from 
this temperature to the cold air of passages or other rooms not 
equally warmed, and when obliged to encounter the change, the 
mouth should be protected by a respirator or silk handerchief. 
The feet must be kept warm, and the same description of attire 
constantly worn ; it is most imprudent to wear a double-breasted 
waistcoat one day and a single-breasted one the following ; 
equally hazardous is it in women abruptly to change a woollen 
or silken dress for one of muslin or other light and insufficient 
material. 

Change of air and strict attention to regimen, will frequently 
do more for chronic bronchitis than medicine ; in cases of long 
continuance, the removal to a locality which the experience of 
the patient has proved to agree with him, will, in some instances, 
effect more good in twenty-four hours than the most persevering 
" drugging " for as many weeks. 

The means that should be employed to prevent a recurrence 
of chronic bronchitis are such as will give greater tone and power 
to the whole frame and render it less susceptible of the causes 
which produce the disease. 

Every day it s little life, snd our whole lift it but a day repeated. 



PHAfiMACOLOGY. 

No. II. 
EVACUANTS. Svj)omtCB.— {Continued from page 77.) 

Woodjf Nijhithait. — The Solanum Dulcaman: — a deadly poiton ; teldon 

uied at a audorific. Ordered to be exhibited in the form of decoctioo. 
laMia Inflata.— The bladder-podded Lobelia, ladiao tobacco, or emetic 
weed. Seldom iiied at a audorific. We ihall ipeak of thit drug whm 
we come to expectorants. 

Camphor, — The camphor-tree, a lauraceout plant, the wood and leave* of 
which yield the officinal camphor by meant of dry ditlillation. It it 
a native of Japan, Formoia, and Batavia, whence it it chiefly imported. 
Dote, from three graini to a tcruple ; of camphor mixture, one ounce to 
two ouncet ; ai water ditaoWet very little camphor thli preparation it 
only uted at a rehlcle for more important remediei. The following formt 
an excellent diaphoretic dranght, producing agenial penpiration. Take, 
camphor mixture, one ounce and a half ; liquor of this acetate of ammo- 
nia, two drachma; antimonial wine, ten dropt. Mix. 

Antimony, (Stibium). — Is a brittle wbitiih metal, utuolly fonnd atioeiated 
with sulphur. In type foundriet it it much uted, to gire hardneit to 
lead, in the alloy called type metal. The etymology of the term hit 
been fancifully derived from itt fatal effects upon toms monlct (anfi- 
motne), upon whom itt propertiei were tried by Valentine. The pore 
metal it termed the regulut of antimony. The pharmaceutical prepan- 
tioni are antimonial povxler, known also at James's powder, an excellent 
tudorific ; dote five graint to ten. Antimoitii polanio-tartrat — tartar 
emetic : do«e as a tudorific, the tixth part to the half of a grain ; in 
larger dotet it ii emetic. Antimonial wine: dote, fifteen to thirty 
dropt. 
Heat and exercite, when assisted by warm diluents, are very powerful sud- 

orifics. Warm and vapour baths are alto very effectual in promoting copi- 
ous sweating. 

EaRHiNBS, or «(<niu(a<or«et, are thote medieinet, which when applied topi- 
cally to the lining membrane of the nostrils, induce sneezing, and increue 

the natural secretions of the nose. First in the list standt — 

Tobacco, the dried leaves of the Nicotiana iabaeum, a plant, native of America. 
At an errhioe, it it uted in the form of snuff. Tobacco given intentUy 
it a most poisonout drug, that readily producet fearful praatratioii, 
collapse, and death. The diitreuing ticknest, giddiuett, clammy cold 
tweat, which every novice iu the use of " the weed*' bat undergone, 
are the mild tymptomt of the poisonous effects of tobacco. 

Ei^horbium. — The gum retin of the Euphorbia ogfcittarum ; when powdered 
it it a mott powerful tternntatoiy. Diluted with ttarcb, or any mild 
powder, it it tnuffcd up the nottrialt in amaurotit (drop-ierene — blind- 
nett caused by diieaie in the retina, the optic nerve, or the brain), 
lethargy, chronic opthalmia, and all catet where a copious discharge it 
required from the membranes lining the nottrilt. 

WUte Hellebore, (Veratrum album). — A mott dangerous drag that requiret 
the greatest caution in its exhibition ; it it sometimes uted to promote a 
discharge from the note in apoplexy, and in lethargy ; it it then ordered 
to be snuffed up *t bed-time, in quantity not exceeding two or three 
grains. 
All irritating lubttancea arc more or lest ttemutatoiy, when applied to the 

mucous membrane of the nottrilt. 

SiLiAGoauKS are either topical or general; the firtt act on the tali vary gltndt 
by direct application during procett of mastication ; the latter induce 
salivation or ptyalitm, by internal use, through the medium of the cir- 
culation, at it effected by the mercurial preparationt. 
The topical tiliagoguet are — 

The Common Sweet Flag, (Acorut cslamut). — Itt tatte it aromatic, warm 
and bitter. It it seldom uted. 

Borte Radish, (Cochlearia armoraeia). 

Ginger, (Amomum zingiber). — The root-like ttem of the narrow-leaved 
ginger, conititutei the ginger-root of commerce. 

Pellitory of Spain. — The root of the Anacyclut pyrethrum, imported from 
the Levant. It it tometimet chewed to relieve touth-ache. 

Tobacco it a powerful tiliagogne ; the practice of chewing tobacco is as de- 
structive of health at it is disgusting in practice. The man who chewt 
tobacco cannot be other than a selfish man : he gratifies his own de- 
praved taste and offend* all with whom he may come in contact. 

ilaitiche it a resinout tubeunce, in little globular, irregular, yeUowitb, temi- 
trantparent mattet, called teart, produced by the FMaeia lentiteiw. It 
hat been recommended to be chewed in catet of paralysii of the tongue. 

Mexereon. — The bark of the Daphne mezereon, which it native of the north 
of Europe. It it tometimet employed in palty of the tongue, alices of 
the recent root being ordered to be chewed : itt taste it acrid and burn- 
ing. The fresh bark soaked in vinegar it useful in keeping opon Ittnet. 
It wai vaunted at a remedy in the venereal diioaie, but ita efficacy is 
doubtful: it it one of the ingredientt in the compound decoction of lor- 
saparilla. There it a decoction ef mezereon ordered in the Edinburgh 
and Dublin Fharmacopceiat, the dote of which it a wine glaasful three 
timet a-dajr. 

(To be oontiiiiMd in ocr next.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



85 



ON THE USE AND ABUSE OF MERCURY. 

In the following remarki we shall consider the action of mer- 
cury on the human system, in reference alone to the treatment 
of syphilitic disease. From among various theories of its modus 
4>perandi, it may be assumed that it acts " by exciting in the 
system a general fever, which overcomes and subdues the syphi- 
litic action." A remedy having such power requires the utmost 
cauUon in its administration. In few things has medical science 
made greater progress than in the correct use of mercury and its 
preparations ; we now but seldom hear of an unfortunate wight 
doomed, by ignorance, to swallow blue pill by the drachm, until 
lie spits pints of foetid saliva daily, for weeks, or even months ; 
the error and danger of such practice is acknowledged, and mer- 
cury, in the hands of a competent practitioner, takes its rank as 
the most valuable and safe remedial agent we possess. In the 
treatment of the primary symptoms of Uie venereal disease, mer- 
cury is generally prescribed in the form of blue pill, which, when 
uncombined, too frequently produces considerable irritation, with 
increased pulse and the general symptoms of a feverish state, if 
not of fever ; it is also apt to purge the bowels, and thus frustrate 
the intent of its exhibition, by passing off by stool without affect- 
ing the system. To counteract its irritative and purgative pro- 
perties, and to insure its absorption into the system, it should 
1)6 given in small doses, often repeated, in conjunction with 
opium ; a four grain pill, with a quarter part of a grain of opium, 
taken three times a day, will, in general, affect the system in 
four or five days. The test of its having done so are, tender- 
ness of the gums, a metallic taste in the mouth, a clamminess of 
the saliva, accompanied by a peculiar foetor of the breath. When 
this state is excited, it is in general, unnecessary to increase the 
salivation, and the quantity of mercury taken should be so re- 
gulated as to continue this moderate action for five or six days. 
It is an erroneous and dangerous notion, to suppose it necessary 
to induce such a degree of fytalism as to cause the patient 
to spit continually, to make the gums spongy and the teeth 
loose; this is not required and should never be permitted. 
During a mild mercurial course, the bowels should not be re- 
laxed ; one evacuation a-day is amply sufficient, and if unso- 
'licitedby aperients, the better; the usual diet may be continued, 
forbidding salted meats and acid condiments. A small quantity 
of malt Uqnor may be taken, but spirits of all kinds are im- 
proper. Exposure to rain, a damp atmosphere, and those vicis- 
situdes of the weather which are liable to produce cold, should 
be guarded against. As well as the mercurial, the patient should 
take such remedies as wUl allay any irritation which may exist, 
or as sometimes happens, to diminish any depression or exces- 
sive languor. When the full mercurial effect is obtained, he 
should take one or two brisk vegetable and saline purgatives, 
to remove any of the mineral lurking in the system, and continue 
for a short period a gentle alterative or tonic treatment, either 
sarsaparilla, quinine, or iron. In treating the secondary symp- 
toms of syphilis, we can but seldom go on so smoothly. The 
tsonstitution is vitiated and debiliated by the destructive power 
of the venereal virus, which has been for weeks circulating in the 
system, at the very time that we must administer a remedy 
-which, of itself, induces a " general fever." Here is the diffi- 
culty ; to omit mercury is to allow the ravages of syphilis to 
gallop onward ; to g^ve mercury is to hazard injury to the 
general health. We must, however, for the most part, consider 
the syphilitic disease as tiie cause of all the disturbance, and 
direct our efforts to subdue its force. In some cases the use of 
mercury is inadmissible until the general health is improved, and 
-In persons tainted with scrofula, or where the sloughing process 
ha* commenced, it can scarcely ever be prescribed. To mitigate 
the various evils attendant upon mercurialism in diseased con- 



ditions of the body, many extremely valuable preparations hftve 
been recentiy introduced into practice, which contain the min- 
eral in so modified a form as to preclude the possibility of in- 
jury, at the same time that they arrest the syphiltic action ; some 
of tiiese, as the proto-ioduret of mercury, ai« advantageously em- 
ployed externally by friction, at the time that the constitutional 
disturbance is relieved by internal treatment. Various drugs 
produce one effect, some are known to attain this easier and more 
speedily than others. Happily this is the case ; and although 
mercury does the most readily restrain syphilis, several pre. 
parations of iodine and of gold have been proved to possess a 
similar property, and for those cases in which the mineral cannot 
be employed, we may resort to those important substitutes with 
confidence. The diseases which may originate in the excessive 
or imprudent use of mercury, are as frightful as any which 
syphilis is capable of inflicting ; among them may be named 
salivation to such an extent as ta destroy the gums and cause 
the teeth to drop out; hydrargyria, or mercurial fever, attended 
with an eruption of the skin, an alarming state, inasmuch as 
death may ensue, either from exhaustion of the nervous energies, 
or congestion of the lungs ; mercurial ulcers of the mouth and nose, 
and of the mucous membranes generally ; mercurial Neuralgia, 
or nervous pains in the extremities, which may terminate in 
paralysis, and other fearful maladies. 



BATHS. 

A Warm Bath is 97° Fahrenheit; a Hot Bath, lOO" Faliren- 
heit. On entering a hot bath, a certain spasm takes place some- 
what resrabling that experienced on entering the cold, only there 
18 no shiver. The body for a moment contracts, but imme- 
diately after enlarges ; a ring, lately loose, feels tight on the 
finger ; the skin reddens ; the pulse rises ; the respiration is 
slightly affected ; the eyes grow prominent ; the arteries of the 
head throb; perspiration breaks out. One begins to feel un- 
comfortable ; palpiution and oppression come on ; and if one 
does not now hurry from the bath, giddiness, fainting and apoplexy 
are apt to ensue. A tendency to perspire, even though the in- 
dividual is unclothed and in the cool air, remains for some time ; 
and for a period after the bath there is considerable feebleness! 
On the day on which such a bath is taken the stomach is less 
energetic ; walking causes great fatigue ; and the intellectual 
faculties ai-e languid and dull. 

The medical effects of a hot bath are an acceleration of the 
pulse ; a softening of the muscular structure ; a sudden expan- 
sion of the liquids of the body; a loss of fluid by transpiration. 
This last effect it is which makes the hot bath obtain and merit 
the character of being debilitating. This result, however, may 
be obviated by quitting the bath before perspiration is fully 
established, and by adopting means to moderate its subsequent 
effects. The advantages of a hot bath shortly and judiciously 
employed, are to disembarass the skin and natural organs, by 
letting off by means of perspiration, redundant fluid. In so 
doing, it lightens and invigorates the body ; and is therefore, 
when so duly regulated, a tonic remedy as well as the cold bath| 
though in an opposite mode. 

The Tempekate or Tepid Bath. This bath is neither cold 
or hot Its effecte are a soft and agreeable heat, a softening of 
the skin, yet a bracing of the frame. If it be of a temperature 
equal to that of our body, the pulse and respiration remain un- 
changed. If lower the former is checked and the latter is ac- 
celerated. If above onr natural temperature, both are quickened. 
Such a bath calms excitable youth, and the nervous female pa- 
tient, and is therefore suitable equally to young boys and girls, 
whose hysteria is the result of strong passions. After quitting 
a tepid bath, a slight sensation of cold is experienced, which 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



vanishes as soon as the dress is resumed, and is then succeeded 
by an agreeable warmth or glow. The feeling of freshness, 
agility, vigour, continues during the day, and all the functions 
of life are exercised with pleasure and comfort This bath is 
soothing and tonic. 

A Cold Bath is between 32° and 63° Farenheit. The first 
effect of such a bath is a shiyer, caused by the nervous shock 
passing &om the circumference to the centre of the body. The 
skin corrugates ; a convulsive disagreeable sensation is felt, the 
breathing is irregular and hurried. After a short time these 
feelings go off, the vital force rallies, and the pulse rises. If the 
bather remain for too long a time in the bath, the pulse again 
sinks ; another chill and shiver ensues ; the skin, red at first, 
becomes pale, and the body contracts, so that a ring will drop 
from the finger which it lately accurately embraced. It is by 
this time proper to quit the bath. The cold hath used in mo- 
deration, not too frequently, and not remaining ia the water 
for too long a time, is most invigorating and bracing ; a delight- 
ful sensation of warmth ensues, we feel refreshed and vigorous. 
To a feeble constitution, the consequences are frequently in- 
jurious ; chilliness, lassitude and depression often result. A 
cold bath taken for a short time, the temperature of which is 
not too reduced, exerts on the person employing it, provided he 
bo not too feeble, a tonic effect; but if too prolonged, too cold, 
or if the individual who receives it be not endowed with su£Q- 
cient powers of reaction, the bath proves more or less sedative. 
Thus, it invigorates and hardens a constitution which it suits ; 
bnt only the more enfeebles a constitution which is not suffi- 
ciently robust to receive it with benefit Those who find the 
cold bath too permanently chilling when employed before break- 
fast should make trial of it after that meal has given a stimulus 
to the circulation, before utterly abandoning its use. 

DEATH CAUSED BY A QUACK. 

Am inquest wai held on Monday before John Hargreavea, £itq., coroner, 
•t King's Armi Inn, Burnley, on the body ef Maria £ord« The first Kitness 
examined wan, Ann Lord, of Mill-lane, Burnley. She said deceased was my 
daughter ; she was 18 years of age, and was a weaver. She had been poorly 
for some weeks ; had a severe cold, and was also troubled with a disease pe- 
culiar to females. On Monday, the 2lst. Jan., she became wone. I then 
tent far John Todd, an herb dispenser, to come to see her. He came on 
Tuesday, and brought some herbs with him, of which he made a decoction in 
my presence, and gave it to the deceased. It purged her very much. He 
called again on Wednesday, and brought some mora herbs with him, which 
he used as before, and gave the deceased to driuk. The deceased got still 
worse. 

Mr. Smerthwaite examined, said — I visited the deceased on Thursday 
morning at ten o'clock. Ifound herlaidinacomotosettate; the face, neck, and 
arms, were highly congested, and there was a mottled appearance on the 
breast, face, and arms ; the pupils of the eyes were dilated ; there was no 
pulte in the wrists, and the breathing was laborious. The general surface of 
the body was warm. A paper was shown me containing some dried herbs ; 
also two utentils were shown containing some herbs and water. I sent for 
John Todd, who came, and I then inquired of him what the herbs were which 
he had given to the deceased. He said they were simple herbs. The de- 
ceased died about half an hour after my first visit. Death was caused by 
congestion of the brain and lungs. That cosgestiou might be produced by 
narcotic poison. 

A person styled in the " Preston Guardian," — •' Dr. Grindrod''— evi- 
dently a friend of the quack Mister Todd, was examined : We do not dis- 
cover Dr. Grindrod's name as a qualified practioner in the "Medical Direc- 
tory"— he deposed that be considered the herbs prescribed by Mister Todd, 
<* had a tendency to the improvement of the deceated," — that " he attributed 
Mr. Smerthwaite'* evidence to au error in judgment" — that '■ he did not 
tnspeci death tu have arisen from poison ^f any kind." And thereupon Dr. 
Ch'indrod, ground out an eloquent speech in behalf of his friend Mister Todd. 
The coroner summed up, the jury retired, the jury returned, and on their re- 
turn, brought with them a verdict that the deceased " Died from natural 
caoses." They at the same time requested the coroner to caution John Todd 
against prescribing medicine to any person in future. And so John Todd, 
thanks to his croney Dr. Grindrod, chuckled and went his way rejoicing. 
What became of the mother of the poisoned Maria Lord — the chronicler of 
this miwdventnre does not report. 



HINTS ON SOME SCROFULOUS AFFECTIONS. 

RCKOFULOCS IRVLAXMATION Of THE GLAKSS 
IN THE N£CK. 

When the glands in the neck are swollen and painful, though 
not inflamed, we should apply leeches and a lotion composed of 
spirit of wine and water. ITie bowels should be opened with 
calomel and rhubarb. If suppuration takes place, as soon as 
the skin is bluish or reddish we should make an opening with 
a lancet transvesely in the natural creases of the skin of the 
neck, and by this plan the deformity of a scar will be avoided. 
We should not wait for intense redness, for when this occurs, it 
is better to apply poultices than make an incision, as less de- 
formity will be induced. It is a matter of some moment to 
recollect this advice in cases, of females as deformity from scars 
on the neck are great blemishes. The whole fluid should be 
pressed out, and the sac injected with a lotion composed of 
fifteen grains of the sulphate of zinc, and a pint of distilled 
water. The best dressing is a drachm of the ointment of the 
hydriodate of potass, and an ounce of cetaceous cerate. In 
cases of adults we should exhibit the solution of the hydriodate 
of potass of the Dublin Pharmacopceia, and apply the ointment 
of the same remedy. The diet should be generous, and a resi- 
dence near the sea side will materially assist the utility of all 
medical treatment. 

SCOFULOUS AFFECTIONS OF IU£ JOINTS. 

When children are taken out for the benefit of air by nurses, 
they are often compelled to walk and keep pace with the woman, 
the child takes two steps for her one, and does not feel fatigued, 
as its attention is eo keenly fixed on surrounding objects, liext 
day, however, it is ill and feverish, and cries when it is moved. 
On examination of its lower extremities, it vrill be discovered 
that the knee or hipjoint is pained on motion. If the attendant 
overlook this point, he may suppose there is some derangement 
of the digestive organs, and content himself by ordering febrifuge 
remedies; inflammation and suppuration of the joint will speedily 
occur ; the suffering will be great, and the recovery extremely 
tedious. 

Treatment. Cold lotions, should be applied, such as, spirits 
of wine, one ounce; acetic acid, one ounce ; water, a quart 
The bowels should be regulated; the system soothed, yet nourished, 
and the joint kept in a state of perfect rest. Blisters and 
leeches are, in some cases, required. 

When the knee ia affected, and the disease proceeds, a splint 
should be applied from the hip to the heel, to prevent curvature 
of the joint dtuiug the process of anchylosis (a stiff joint caused 
by bony union). No surgeon of science could allow^ ihe leg to 
be permanently fixed at a right angle with the thigh. Ulceration 
of the knee-joint in adults is a tedious, painful, and fearful dis- 
ease ; it may be removed by time, even after the most severr 
constitutional irritation. 

When the hip-joint is inflamed from too much exercise, the 
same plan of treatment is to be adopted ; and should an abces.s 
form, it ought not to be opened with a lancet, but allowed tu 
open by ulceration, which it will do at n considerable distance 
from the joint ; whereas if opened early, the joint would be ex- 
posed, and great constitutional and local irritation produced. 
When suppuration is established, the strength should be sup- 
ported by nutriment, wine, quinine, &c., and the child might be 
allowed to walk very gently with the aid of a crutch. Repeated 
or perpetual blistering over the joint is advantageous, but a very 
small blister should be applied, as otherwise too much irritation 
would be produced. The antimonial ointment is a very valuable 
counter-irritant. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



87 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

Ax EsETio for naloading^ tll« stomkch in ordinary etses.— Take pow- 
docd ipeeacmaha, one scrapie; ipaoaooaiiha wine, two draohms ; aimple 
nter, lix draehmi. Mix. 

Ax Ekbtic to be employed in casei of poisons haring been taken into 
thestumieh, and in the commencement of the paroxysm of intermittent 
ftrti. Tkke sulphate of zinc, half a drachm ; distilled water, one onnre 
ud a half. iHx. 

Ax ExBTic to be administered immediately in cases of poisoning. — 
Tiie inlphate of copper, fifteen grains; dilute snlpburic acid, two dr^ ; 
^stilled water, one ounce. Mix. 

Ix FaxscBiBiMO, the practitioner should always so rebate the in- 
tOTab between the doses, that the next dose may be taken before the 
efict produced by the first is altogether efiaced ; for, by not attending to 
iliiicircamatance, the cure is always commencing, bat nerer proceeding. 

Texfkbatorb or Baths.— The hot bath, from 96 to 106 degrees. The 
nnn bsth, from 96 to 98 degrees. The tepid bath, from 62 to 96 degrees. 
Hie Tspour bath, from 100 to 130 degrees. 

HoxET was formerly considered as a medicine of some efficacy, parti- 
cularly in chest affections; but more correct views of these diseases hare 
dcserredly thrown it into neglect. It acts on the bowels, but in other 
nspeeta possesses no adrantages over symp. 

Clijutb. — Medicines act differently ou the same indiridual in summer 
ud in winter, and in different climates. Narcotics act more powerfully in 
hot than in eold elimatea ; hence smaller doses are required in the former, 
bottke reTerse is the case with respect to oslomel. 

A COXFOBT lOB FaaULBS TKODBLBD WITH HaBITDAI. CoeCITXHBSS. 

—Take compound decoction of aloes, and camphor mixture, of each diree 
iiaaces ; Bpsiom salts, one oance ; tincture of jalap, fonr drachms. Hix. 
Odw, a wine glsMsfnl aariy erery momiog. 



DIETARY, WHOLESOME & ECONOMIC. 

LixTtu. — Put into a stewpan one ^art, add two quarts of cold water > 
oae ounce of butter, a little salt, one omon sliced, a bouquet of parsley, set 
00 the fire, simmer till tender, which may be in two hours. Put the lentils 
isaitewpan, with two ounces of butter, a little salt, sugar, pepper, and a 
tiblMpoonfuI of chopped eschalots, set it on the fire, put in butter and 
flora, mix well, boil ten minutes gently, and diah in a border of potatoes 
or is a deep dish. They may also be cooked thus : — By firying tiu brown 
one sliced onion, which, with the boiled lentils, put in a stewnan, with two 
omen of butter, a little flour, a gill of grary, and season as above ; stir 
veil, boil, tad aerve hot. — if. Soj/er. 

Ltoxxaise. — The remains of cold potatoes may be used thus:— Put 
tiree ounces of batter in a frying-pan, in which you fry rather white three 
iliced oaions ; put in the potatoes, out in thin slices about the size of half 
a crown, and sante them until they have a nice yellow colour ; add a 
spoonful of chopped parsley, salt, pepper, and the juice of a lemon, saut£ 
well, and mix well together, dish and serve very hot ; they are excellent 
to serve with chop, steak, or any joint. — M. Soytr. 

TiTRBOT.— To cook it ; cut an incision in the back, rub it well with a 
jood handful of salt, and then with the juice of a lemon ; set it in a turbot 
»ltle, well covered with cold water, in which you have put a good handful 
■f salt; place it over the fire, and aa soon as boiling, put it at the side 
ivlxre it mast not be allowed to more than simmer very slowly, or the 
5sh wobW have a very unsightly appearance.) A turbot of ten pounds 
'«{ht will take about an hour to cook after it has boiled (but, to be cer- 
i<ii!, ascertain whether the fish will leave the bone easily) ; take it out of 
1^ water, let it remain a minnte upon the drainer, and serve upon a nap- 
's, with a few sprigs of parsley rotmd, and lobster sance or shrimp sauce 
itiloat " ' 

loBSTBK Savcb 1 lA CbImb.— Cnt a small lobster into slices the 
s^aofbalf crown pieces, which put into a stewpan; pound the soft and 
*»ile parts, with an ounce of batter, and rub it through a sieve ; pour ten 
^^sfnl of melted, and two of cream, over the slices m the stewpan, add 
W a blade of mace, a saltspoonsfnlof salt, a quarter ditto of pepper, and 
«liiUe cayenne; warm gently, and when upon the point of boiling, add 
ue batter and two tablespoonsful of thick cream, shake round over the. 
arenntil quite hot, when it is ready to serve.— If. Soger. [Not very 
foolesome, not very economic, but most delicious.] 

To Stew FLOiraBBBS, Pioicb, or Solks.— Half fry yonr fish in three 
oaaces of batter a fine brown, then take your fish, and put to your butter 
^Suart of water, and boil it slowly a quarter of an hour with two ancho- 
"«• and an onion sliced, then pnt on your fish again, and stew them gently 
'*!<"7 minutes, then take out your fish and thicken the sance with butter 
>M flour, and give it aboil, then strttin it through • hair-sieve over the 
on, and send them up hot. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Nom rtady, priet 4d., ig poH, M. 

■NDIGE8TI0N, NERVOUSNESS, LOW SPIRITS. 
The Causes, Symptoou, and lUtional Treatment. 
By T. H. Tbokait, M.D. 

i. T^i^^l^ '' a corrected reprint of the papers on Indigestian pabli.hed 
m Th« Pboplb s Mbdicai, Jo^^UlA^ with much additioaal iaformatioB. 
.n?*!?!?*!; ^'>l'»'>«>,^y theAtrrHOB, 3S, Lloyd Square, PeBtonville, 
!»,l^ by 0»o«o. ViCBjtBB, Strand, and all Booksellers and News- 

Zf^lJ*,". 'S?"?'^ **" '" '*'^*" f"' ""P'w to be sent by post mar 
be forwarded to the Author, so as to insure puDstual dUpateh. 

Also by the lame author, price 2s. ; by post «s. 6d. 

rjONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE ; tli« 
^ Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the mean* of 
rrevention. 

"There is no assumption or quackery in this little volume— It isjastsach 
awork as might be anticipated from an InteUlgent and experlenoei physi oiaa. 
The suggGstiotts and recommendations of Dr. Yeoman are extremely valuable 
and may be unhesitatingly and advantageously adopted by all who are in- 

'^'^'fr.l" **"* ^^*^ andvrell-beingofthe rising generaUon."—Mbr»ino 
Herald, OcL 83, 1848. ^' 

Also by the same author, price 2s. 
A STHMA. BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH, 
-'"*• the Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment. 

"The perusal of the publication before us, which turns upon four of the 
most prevalent evils to which fleah is heir in these lands, cannot fail to prove 
most beneficial to sufferem among all persons ofsenae, and to further succeae- 
ful medical treatment."— BrttuA Banner, March 2l, 18*9. 

, ." ^'•'* 7""^ emanates from a gentlemau thoroughly well versed in the 
subject, and who has obuined great and deserved celebrity by hia mode of 
treatment.— ;f»tt« Standard, Jmwary 16, 1849. 

" This b an excdlent little treatise by a clever and daar-headed practi- 
tioner. Dr. \ BOUAN is well known by hia Work on Consumption, and the 
present publication wUl add tohis fame."— JFeotiy Ditpateh,3m. U, 1849 

London : Sampson Low, 160, Fleet Street; Epfinobak Wilbov, 11, 
Royal Exchange; Webbteb t Co ., 60, Flecadllly j and all BookseUeia. 

'TRUSSES.— S. SMITH, Truss Maker, 1, High Hdb^, 
k rilil^" ^°°^ ^""° 0™y'" Ion Lane, respectfully annsuncea to the Public 
that rBUSSBS can be had at his Eatablishment at the following Low 
*^ne"!— Double Trasses, 16a. each ; Single Ditto, 8a. 

Manufacturer of Lace Stockings, Knee-capa, Suapenaory Bandsfea, Eid- 
mg Belta, ftc. Mra. Smith attend a on Ladiea. 

ATEVILL'S PATENT FLOUR of LENTILS,— 
■*- ' a pleasant, nutritions, and agreeable Food for Invalids, Dyspeptics, and 
persons suffering fiom Constipation, or any other chronic derangement of the 
Digestive Organs— ahm for making GmeL It U the only food that does not 
distend or turn acid on a weak Stomach. It will be found invalusbla for 
Delioate Children and Snfierers firom Debility. 

Sold Wholesale by Nbtill and Co., 16a, Chichester Place, Grays lun 
Road, London; and Retail by T. Cabbick, 127, Crawford Street; T. Shabp 
44, Bishopsgate Street Witiiin; MiUM, Graoeohurch Street, City; and 
may be obtained from all respectable Shopkeepers in the Kingdom, in Packets, 
6d. and Is. each, and 6 IK and 12 lb. canisters, Ss. 6d. and 10a. 6d. eaeh. 

T^ S. CLEAVER'S WINTER SOAP.— This Soap is a 
-•- * combmation of the Genuine Honey Soap, Camphor, and Vegetable Oils, 
consequently the very best for this Season of the year, and at bU times for 
tender skins. Invaluable as a Shaving Soap. Sold in large non-angular TableU 
at 3d. each; and monsters 6d. each. To be had at tiie manufiwstory, 13, Red' 
Lion Square, Holbom, and at all Chemists, Perfumers, 4eo., in the United 
Bjngdom. 



JOHN MILES, (Latb BUTLER akd CO.) DISPENSING 
Y CHEMIST, 78, Graceohoroh Street," respectfiilly informs the Pnblio 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selection 
of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals; the too frequent dangerous adul- 
teration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of which 
depend tiie health and safety of our fellow creatures, induces J. M11.E8 to 
pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that all Prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified assistants under his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for Boon's Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
supply of Cod layax Oil, prepared tarn the finest C^ of tbe Seasoaa. 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

KoTiCB. — All commanications for the Editor must be addressed, pre-paid, 
to his house, No. 35, Llotd Squabe, FjiRTOirnLLE. It is indis- 
pensable that letter* requiring a prirate answer contain a postage 
stamp, or stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of ue 
applicant. InTalida resident in the country, and others desiring the 
opinion of the Editor, who are unable to consult htm personally, can 
haTe, on application, a series of qnestions proposed to them, and by 
attention on their part, in giving answers uiereto, the necessity of a 
personal interriew, in many instances, may be avoided withont detri- 
ment to the successful issno of the required treatment, Kotes of eretr 
case submitted to the Editor will be recorded in his private case-book 
fbr the facility of reference at any future period. 

The Editob is at home every day until One o'clock ; and on the evenings 
of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. 

Hs attends at Mk. Milbs's Mbsicai. and Suroical Estabushxbnt, 78 
Gracecburch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 
Two till Three o'clock. 



The first fire numbers of the " People's Mkdical Joubnal" are about 
being reprinted, Nu. 1 for the tbird time. Subscribers who have only 
the laat five or six numbers are assured they will be enabled to procure 
the early numbers in the course of a few weeks. 
It will spare many correspoudenis and ourselves much trouble if they will 
bear in mind that we do not direct the moral, medical, and dietetical 
management of any case originating in vice, folly, or indiscretion, with- 
out a fee : at the same time, we may add, that we regulate that fee, to 
the circumstances and position of the patient. 
E. C (Fakenham). — To answer your note with the hope of benefit to you 

and credit In ourselves would occupy a page: this we cannot spare. 
A Labourimo Man (Birmingham). — You are suffering from the deplorable 
effects of mercury imprudently taken : you must communicate privately. 
Uabt K. (Bothwell).— Your daughter appears to be suffering from hysteria, 
and the accumulation of evils attendant on a scrofulous constitution. 
There are so many particulars necessary for the physician to know, 
which you cannot describe, that the best advice we can give you, is, to 
consult some respectable physician in your own neighbourhood. 
BOBBRT Bbvcb (Norwich). — Let your mother take the following pills. Be 
most careful in having them prepared at a respectable chemist's, and 
impress upon him the necessity of the greatest care in compounding 
them: — Take strichnia, one grain; muriate of morphia, two grains ; sul- 
phate of quinine, thirty grains ; confection of roses, one drachm. Mix 
well and accurately. Divide iuto 30 pills, one to be taken twice a-day. 
L O. U. (Derby). — Your initials, we expect, are redeemable. We have no 
faith in galvanism in cases of " indigestion and its long train of alarming 
maladies." Our doctrine is — Moral medicine, diet, regimen, few drugs, 
much caution. Make your food your medicine, not medicine your food. 
B. P. H. (Retford). — Touch the fleshy excrescences with the pure nitrate of 
silver. "The prescription in No. 8 was for a child, and we take it you 
are an infant of larger growth. 
Civis (Dublin). — Say where a private note will reach you. Wo have 
good reason for auerting that the admirable letter signed *■ A 
Victim," published in the second number of our Journal, has been the 
means of rescuing unfortunate creatures, to the number, not of dozens 
but hundreds, from falling into the clutches uf the advertising self-styled 
" Consulting Surgeons." A part of your note is so true that we insert 
it. " This precious medical work" (the bestial publication which better 
deserves the name of ' Public Enemy' than the one its proprietors give 
to it) — " is written in a style calculated to terrify the young and inexpe- 
rienced, and is moreover filled with disgusting plates. The perusal of 
this book struck me with horror, while its specious pages concealed the 
quackery that lurked within. I believed its representations, and sought 
aid for a malady which afflicted me, and now I can say with * Victim,' 
< I am a wreck in frame, in peace, in purse."' We receive twenty or 
thirty letters weekly similar in purport to the one from which we have 
quoted. We are in possession of such facts relating to these quack 
swindlers, that our surprise is excited that, from the mass of dupes, one 
man has not been found possessed of suflScient moral courage to bring the 
extortioners to the bar of criminal law, and thiu expose their craft. 
D. (Oxford). — Tbe books you mention are the property of two desperate, 
ignorant quacks The fire is certainly the best place for such obscene, 
unnatural, productions — see Victim's letter in No. 2. Tbe "cases" 
are imaginary. To your second question ; — much will depend on tbe 
extent of injury inflicted on the constitution " eight years ago." We 
doubt if perfect recovery would ensue, merely by removing the cause. 
JofBF. — Your's is not a case for gratuitous direction. 
L. U. or L. N.— See answer to C. M. 
WATBa.^Pnre water is scarcely less essential to health than pure air. To 
such of our readers who love prevention better than cure w« would strongly 
recommend LincoMBB'a filters. We have had one in constant use four 
yean. It filters three gallons of water » day. It cost twelve shillings ! 



Jambs Hilton (York). — We received your letter, but it did not contain the 
envelope or address. 

A StTFTEBBR (Norwood). — We take great interest in such eases. Our first 
attempt in medical literature was a paper on Diabetis, read before th« 
London Hospital Hediral Society, in 1831. The tieatment in yaur case we 
fear can only be palliative. Abstain from allsubstancesthat havcadioretic 
property: use all liquids in moderation ; broiled mutton and beef, with, 
stale bread, should form the basis of your nourishment. Avoid sugar, 
and vegetables that may be converted into sugar. Take eight grains of 
Dover's powder at bed-time, and ten grains of the carbonat* of iron 
three times a-day. Any constitutionid symptoms must be treated as 
they arise. 

J. F. (Charlton).— Discontinue it gradually, by wearing one of thinner 
texture. 

JoBN Tbvrrbli. (Connaught Mews). — Tbe blistered tongue proceeds from 
disordered stomach ; improve the digestion, and the local complaint will 
subside. 

iNYBSTiaATOB SalutM (CcpiDOS ?).— We have carefully read yoiir letter of 
twelve folios! Did yon expect an answer in the few lines we ran de- 
vote to each correspondent in this column ? If so, we must disappoint you. 

R. N. 8.— See a notice respecting such cases in another part of this column. 

QtniBlsT. — " Ozoena" is an ulcer, situated in the nose, discharging a foetid. 

furulent matter, and sometimes accompanied with caries of the bones, 
n its early state it closely resembles common cold in the head, as it 
advances it may be mistaken for cancer. 

C M. (Lambeth). — We cannot direct the required treatment unless we see you. 

R. N. S. — See a notice respecting such cases in another part of this column. 

W. B. (Langport). — A light diet ; avoid all that can stimulate or excite ; 
coax the bowels to relieve themselves daily at the same hour. Take, 
compound extract of colocyoth, compound rhubarb pill, of each half a 
drachm. Mix, and divide into twelve pills. Dose, two or three occa- 
sionally. 

RiCBABD (Gateshead). — " How oft tbe fear of ill to ill betrays." Bemorse 
now is fruitless. Resolution will do you more good. Bend your address. 

DxBPONDBKOT (Ramsgate). — Tat, man ! courage I See " Much ado about 
Nothing " — act ii. scene 3. Read the last four or five lines of Bene- 
dick's speech — the one immediately before the entrance of Beatrice. 

P. M. (Hammersmith).— ^Your daughter's care is too important, your history 
of her present and past condition is too vague for us to venture any 
opinion without seeing her. The leading symptoms that you have de- 
tailed ma^ be only the signs of disordered action, not of diseased struc- 
ture ; whichever they may be, our best advice is;— Obtain advice 

D. W. (Strand).— You will see the address of the Dentist abont whom you 
inquire ia his advertisement in one of the first Numbers of the JournaL 

W. Ibblamd (Birmingham). — The expectoration yon discribe is more cha- 
racteristic of consumption than of bronchitis. 

John Perxiks (Liverpool). — ^Ynur symptoms are such as forbode much dis- 
tress and disease, if not speedily removed. The only advice we can give 
you through this medium is, Do not be bled again ; you appear to require 
better blood manufacturing in your system ; not the loss of what you 
have. You must apply privately, if you wish a detailed opinion. 

E- M. (Lambeth). — We cannot direct the required treatment unless we see 
yen. 

The roLLOwnta Cobrestondbnt8 can only be answered privately, in person 
orby letter;— G.B. (Borough). E.N., orE. U. R. W. Leigh. Ma- 
tilda. (Highbury). A. O. W. Mrs. Bbown (Westminster). Faith. 
An Bhoinbeb (Deptford). Rupbrt. A Musician. F. 8. T. Abel. 
Mrs. Jukes. B. F. (Poplar). T. T. (South Shields). Padot (Wa- 
terford). A Fabher (Peterborough). Robbbt Jameson (Sheffield). 
A Tailor (Liverpool). W. S. (Liverpool). P. (Harrogate). Wii,- 
UAM Green (Oxford). A Rbformbd Rake. Robert W. (Windsor). 
John the Sbcomd (Exeter). A. B. C. (St. George's East). Hobace 
(York). 

Pbxscbiptioxb and private instructions as to diet and regiwen are left with 
thb DiapBKSEE, 78, Gracecburch Street, for the foUowing correspon- 
dents; — A Faiiitbb. B.E. U. William (Stepney). Delta.. Joiin 
Gbbbn. Mbdicus. Victim (Chelsea Walk). Tbddt (High Hul- 
bom). Fbbd. (Somerset House). A Poor Player. Juvbnis (Bow). 
F. I. D. (West India Road). Obanqbs (Lower Thames Street). A. 
Mothbs (Homsey Road). A Clbbk (Mark Lane). James (Mil- 
bank). A Cabikbt Maker. Dbspebation. Olivbb Twist. B. 
(Watling Street). Mrs. Daubnbt. Mrs. Habvbt's DAucHTsr.. 
Mart (Horseferry Road). M. E. D. E. R. (Aldgate). 



Printed ij Cuktivn Aoahs, at tils Filntln( OfBce, 8. St. Junes's Walk, In the Pariah of 
Bt. James's, ClerkenwelU In the Connt;^ of Wddlesex ; and pobUihed, Ibr the Pniprictont, 
by GEoaox TicKzas, Stnmd, In the Forlsh of St. Clement Danes, la the said CoustT- o. 
Klddlesez. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



AMD 



lilL 




EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN. M. D. 



No. 12.— Vol. L] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 23, 1850. 



[qhepehxt. 



HEADACHE. 



BT THE EDITOS. 



Although the term Headache appears to be so significant as 
not to require any explanation, it is nevertheless complex, and 
even vague, in reference to the actual state and amount of disease 
which it serves to denote. Headache, properly speaking, is a 
geiteric term, and does not apply to a single affection of the head, 
bat to many ; for we may have headaches, so called, produced by 
different causes, exhibiting different symptoms, and demanding 
different treatment. With the hope of rendering the direction 
of the latter effectual, we propose to arrange these distressing 
affections — to some of which we are all more or less liable — 
under certain heads or classes. 

For the most part, headache is a symptom of another disease, 
or arises in consequence of the sympathy which exists between 
the head and some other organ, rather than as an original 
j^rder. A " sick-headache " is an example of the former ; a 
"rheumatic headache" of the latter. 

There are but few complaints to which humanity is liable that 
may not claim kindred with headache. It is the offspring of 
fever, of a deranged stomach, of an irritated or torpid liver, and 
of an ordinary cold. It is the faithful and sympathising attendant 
upon almost every deviation from that just balance which main- 
tains health. When symptomatic, or sympathetic, the most 
frequent form in which it presents itself is the Dytpeptie, or 
Skk Headache, which invariably accompanies every offence 
committed against the laboratory of the body — ^the stomach. 
Fortunate is the man who has not experienced the annoying 
symptoms which appertain to this disorder ; so that he may pro- 
long this happy ignorance, we will shortly notice, and thus 
enable him to avoid those causes and conditions that are 
most favourable to the introduction of such an unpleasant 
acquaintance. 

Whatever tends to injure or damage, either temporarily or per- 
manently, the tone of the stomach, necessarily causes headache ; 
and this immediate sympathy between the brain and the stomach 
nuy be easily conceived when the close alliance which exists 
between the two organs, by means of the nervous system, is 
taken into account. Were we to enumerate all the causes 
which induce this loss of tone, we should have to repeat the 
minutise of indigestion. We shall now confine ourselves to 
such generalities that cannot be withheld without rendering this 
paper somewhat obscure. Imprudence in diet, especially excess 
in quantity, and grossness in quality, is a fruitful source of sick 
headache, and we find those individuals who indulge in the 
pleasures of the table, and eat a variety of dishes that are rich 
and difficult of assimilation and digestion, are seldom free from 
an attack. Particular articles of food which are harmless to 
some persona, cannot be used by others without exciting irritation 

M 



and impeding digestion. Thus veal or pork may be eaten by 
one individual without any unpleasant effect, whilst in another 
they will produce headache and other annoying symptoms, 
which continue so long as the stomach retains the offending 
mass. Food which is apt to create acidity, flatulency, and all 
the disturbance which is comprised in a "foul stomach,*' must 
always be considered aa an exciting cause. Prolonged absti. 
nence will produce a similar effect to excess. A sick headache, 
however, when thus excited, is attended with a feeling of sinking 
and exhaustion, which differs materially from the giddiness and 
nausea occasioned by a surfeited and oppressed stomach. The 
intemperate use of spirituous and fermented liquors, and such 
sensual indulgences as induce a sudden and increased rush of 
blood to the liver, and stimulate that organ to an excessive 
secretion of the bUe, is another cause. A constipated state of 
the bowels, and the presence of those acid crudities which it 
generally creates, is usually attended with sick headache. When 
the constipation is habitual, the constitution in some instances 
becomes so accustomed to the irregularity that little inconveni. 
ence is sustained ; in others, the Ifeast error in diet will bring on 
a violent attack. Persons whose occupations are sedentary or 
confining, are the most subject to this class of headaches; 
intense mental application, anxiety, the hurry and cares of 
business, afford a twofold predisposition, inasmuch as there is 
then present mental disturbance as well as a powerless or im- 
paired state of the stomach. During early and middle life, dys. 
peptic headache is frequent and violent ; as age increases, and 
the irritability of the system gradually diminishes, it becomes 
less and less severe. 

The symptonu of headache are, we apprehend, tolerably well 
known, and are so characteristic as to prevent much doubt 
existing as to the real nature of the complaint. Although the 
head is the chief seat of the pain, still the disturbance which 
pervades the system is general ; it usually commences with a 
sensation of chilliness creeping over the whole surface of the 
body, the feet are cold, while the face is flushed, and the fore- 
head burning ; a feeling of fatigue and lassitude is experienced, 
which is increased by every movement, and the patient is rest- 
less, although all his symptoms are aggravated by each change 
of position. The pain, which varies in its character, is at first 
diffused over the whole head, and afterwards is usually seated in 
the forehead or one of the temples ; it is sometimes duU and 
heavy, at others intense and shooting, and is attended with a 
sense of weight, or tightness, or fulness, as though the blood- 
vessels were over-gorged. This tightness, or pressure, is more 
particularly experienced over the eyes, which feel as if they were 
protruding from their sockets ; ^e sight is impaired, as by 
a film or mist floating before them, and sometimes small spots, 
like particles of soot, or " blacks," are continually seen dropping 
around ; the temporal arteries pulsate with violence, and this 
adds to the pain by rendering it "throbbing;" the veins, espe- 



Digitized by 



Google 



90 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



clallj those of the forehead, are distended with blood, and the 
temperature of the head is considerably increased. In some in* 
stances, the sensations experienced in the head scarcely amount 
to pain, but are rather these of the most distressing confusion, 
-with dimness of sight, and a singing o> buzzing in the ears, 
which completely distracts and confoimds the patient. When 
the pain is fixed, either in one temple, or in the comer of the 
eye-brows, or, as sometimes happens, in the ball of the eye," it is 
most excruciating, and its continuance, for any length of time, is 
sufficient to lay prostrate the faculties of the mind as well as the 
vigour of the body. During the paroxysm, the eyes are unable 
to b^ar the least glare of light ; the most trifling mental ex- 
ertion is painful and irksome; the sufferer is incapable of 
applying his attention either to business or recreation; his 
thoughts ar« distracted and confused, his memory is impaired, 
and he dssires only to be kept free irtnn all noise and intrusion. 
Attending this pain and disturbance in the head, there is consi- 
derable nausea and squeamishness at the stomach, which may 
induce sickness and vomiting ; when this occurs, we notice that 
the matters first thrown up are the remains of an undigested 
meal, or merely a tasteless fluid mixed with frothy mucus. 
When, however, the vomiting continues for any length of time, 
there is generally some tinge of bile, which is donoted by its 
acid, acrid taste, as well as colour ; if, by violent straining, a 
copious quantity of this yellow or green fluid be ejected, the 
patient will frequently find considerable, and perhaps imme- 
diate, relief, although the act of vomiting itself aggravates the 
pain, by forcing an increased quantity of blood to the head. 
There is generally a free escape of flatulence, which, by its 
irritating and tinpleasant savour, pretty clearly indicates the 
state of the stomach ; the mouth is clammy, and the saliva thick 
and ropy ; the tangue is coated with a white or brown fur, the 
taste is disagreeable, and the breath offensive. A greater or less 
degree of fever is usually present,' the pulse is quickened, the 
skin is dry and perched, and the palms of the hands in parti- 
cular are burning hot ; the thirst is urgent, but the fear of 
ejecting whatever is swallowed restrains tiie patient from 
satisfying it. 

The paroxysm, in the majority of cases, commences when the 
individual awakes in the morning, probably after a disturbed and 
unrefreshing sleep. It may at first be slight, but, as the day 
advances, it increases in severity, until he is compelled to obtain 
quiet and the recumbent position ; in other instances, the symp- 
toms begin suddenly in all their intensity. 

The frequency of the return of this species of headache 
is very irregular ; some persons suffer from it every two or 
three days, some enjoy an interval of two or three weeks, 
and others are favoureid with a longer respite. The dura- 
ration of the attack diSeia in different individuals: in some, it 
subsides in two or three hoiirs ; and in others, it continues for 
twenty-four hours, or even longer. During youth, the paroxysm 
soon goes off; but, after the malady has been a companion for 
years, its continuance is more lasting; the system then be- 
come debilitated by the frequency andaeverity of the symptoms ; 
and, in some instances, the intellect is seriously impaired. 

In directing a plan of treatment for the removal of this pain- 
ful affection, we must not be supposed to lay down one constant 
and unswerving rule to be followed in every case. Such a pro- 
ceeding would be ridiculous, and not altogether unattended with 
inconvenience ; " each individual case of disease, be the disorder 
what it may, must be considered to a certain extent original, 
differing in some, and perhaps some important, particular, 
from oti^ers which have preceded it." We have also to take into 
account that the action of every remedy is influenced by the 
condition of the patient at the time it is administered, the same 
remedy having a different action upon the same individual at 
diiterent periods ; it is also influenced by peculiar constitutions. 



by peciiliar temperaments, and by peculiar ages and habits. 
The treatment of sick headache must be, in the first instance, 
palliative, and afterwards curaUve, so as to prevent a recurrence 
of the attack. Nature gives us an indication how we may ac- 
complish the first in het attempt to dislodgg the offending 
matters from the stomach by vomitiiTg ; we should, tbereiorc, 
encourage their discharge by directing the patient to drink 
copiously of warm water, or camomile tea ; and if this be insuf- 
ficient to procure the complete emptying of the stomach, an 
emetic, either of mustard or sulphate of zinc, may be taken ; 
after tiie complete action of this, an interval of perfect repose 
should be enjoyed. At the lapse of a few hours, a full dose of 
rhubarb and magnesia, conjoined with some warm aromatic, as 
ganger, should be g^ven, so as to act moderately vpon the 
bowels ; and when this object is attained, the patient may be 
allowed some bland farinaceous diet, as gruel or arrow-root. 
When the headache proceeds decidedly from acidity on the 
stomach, and there is not much nausea, a few grains of the sub- 
carbonate of ammonia, or the common carbonate of soda, in a 
wine-glassful of water, may procure a cessation of the pain ; we 
have found great advantage in the addition of a tea-spoonful of 
eau-de-Cologne to the last named remedy. Some persons are 
relieved merely by swallowing a cup of strong tea or coffee. The 
use of stimulants to the nostrils is frequently resorted to, and 
sometimes with temporary benefit. Ammonia, or "smelling salts," 
aromatic vinegar, ether, &c., may be employed, but certainly 
without the least hope of permanently removing the disturbance. 
Local applications to the forehead are used with the same inten- 
tion, a napkin wrung out in cold water, clothes saturated in 
vinegar and water, or spirituous lotion; sponging the brows 
with iced water, or wetting the forehead with eau-de-Cologne, 
are the tisual means adopted. When the dyspeptic headache 
depends upon a graver cause than is presumed in the foregoing 
remarks, we should not be content with such almost passive 
treatment, but must insure the removal from the stomach of its 
ill-digested and noxious contents, either by an emetic or mild 
cathartic, or, if need be, by both. In our practice, if we see the 
patient early in the day, we immediately give a brisk purgative 
— speedy in its action — such as a few grains of calomel, followed 
in an hour or two, and repeated, if necessary, by a wine-glassful 
of decoction of aloes, wiUi thirty or forty ^ops of the aromatic 
spirits of ammonia, or the common black draught ; this will 
readily cleanse the whole intestinal canal, and in general remove 
the cause of the pain ; if, during the interval preceding its 
action, the nausea continue, a glass of soda water, or other 
effervescing draught, may diminish the irritation of the stomach. 
When the headache depends upon an excess of bile, we must, 
after the treatment just advised, continue for a time to give the 
patient small doses of blue pill combined with the compound 
extract of colocynth, so as to counteract and remove the disor- 
dered action of the liver. Some natural saline waters are also 
of the greatest efficacy during a course of such itreatment, and 
Cheltenham has obtained deserved fame for the curative pro- 
perties of its springs, which are the hope and succour of valetu- 
dinarians returning to England — " nabobs with diseased livers " 
— from a tropical climate. The Spa, at Norwood, we believe 
to be little inferior in its chemical constituents to the more 
fashionable pump-rooms of Cheltenham; and Seltzer water, 
when recently imported, equal to either. 

If the complaint be dependent on constipation, the bowels 
should be freely evacuated ; much care is required in the ma- 
nagement of habitual constipation, as each succeeding purga- 
tive increases, to a great extent, the necessity for its repetition, 
by inducing, after its immediate action has ceased, a more 
torpid state ; by attention, much of this inconvenience may be 
obviated, and we know of no better method than by continuing 
a purgative action by a gentle fillip, as a wine-glassful of decoc- 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



91 



tion of aloes taken regularly every morning for a short time, 
gradually decreasing the quantity, — and soliciting natoie at 
regular periods. During an attack of sick headache, we need 
scarcely enjoin onr patient to perfect repose and quiet, — his 
own feelings peremptorily dictate this; the mind should be 
relaxed, and erverytjnng likely to create anxiety or trouble care- 
fully banished. 

Now, dyspeptic headache being a complaint entirely sympto- 
matic of disturbance in the digestive organs, it will be apparent 
that we cannot look for perfect relief so long as tiie liver, 
stomach, or faowels, remain in an unhealthy state, and so long 
as fuel is added to the fire by injudicious diet and intemperate 
habits. There are some persons who possess so little self- 
command, and delight so much in the gratification of their 
tastes, as to forbid all hope of entirely freeing them from such 
a just penalty for their indulgence ; they would, however, escape 
many pains were they to pay as much attention to the hints of 
nature as they do to the seasoning of a ^h. If they will not 
forego their feasts, at least let them assist to digest what they 
swallow, by rendering their stomachs more able to bear the extra 
labour they impose on it ; this may be done by courting legu- 
larity in the action of the bowels, taking proper exercise, and 
invi°;orating the body by such bitter stomachics and tonics as 
arc known to act beneficially on the digestive organs. Others 
who are more heedful of their health, may, without much diffi- 
cnlty, prevent the frequent recurrence of an attack ; it is not 
easy, for the reasons before alluded to, to point out the articles 
of diet, or the quantity of food which should be taken or avoided ; 
individual experience, if carefully attended to, is the best moni- 
tor. When, despite all precaution, the headache returns and 
returns agMn, as it frequently will do, the treatment must then 
be especially directed to that organ most .at taxilt, which, in a 
large majority of cases, is either the liver or the stomach. 
(Bheumstic headache in oar next) 

COKTTTSIONJS, OB BBTTI.SES. 

Slight bruises seldom meet with much attention ; but, when 
they are severe, very bad consequences may ensue, and these 
are the more likely to occur when such cases are not taken 
proper care of. 

In all severe bruises, besides the inflammation which the 
violence necessarily occasions, there is an instantaneous extra- 
vasation in consequence of the rupture of many of the small 
vessels of the part. In no other way can we account for those 
very considerable tumours which often rise immediately after 
injuries of this nature. The black and blue appearance, in- 
stantly following many bruises, can only be explained by there 
being an actual effusion of blood from the small vessels which 
have been ruptured. Even largish vessels are frequently burst 
in this manner, and very considerable collections of blood are 
the consequence. Blows on the head very often cause a large 
effusion of blood under the scalp. 

Besides the rupture of an infinite number of small vessels 
and extravasation, which attend all bruises in a greater or less 
degree, the tone of the fibres and vessels which have suffered 
contusion is considerably disordered. Nsy, the violence may 
have been so great that the parts are from the first deprived of 
vitality, and must slough. 

Parts at some distance from such as are actually struck may 
suffer greatly from the violence of the contusion. This effect is 
what the French have named a contri-eoup. 

The bad' consequences of bruises are not invariably propor- 
tioned to the foree which has operated : much depends on the 
nature and situation of the part. When a contusion takes 
place on a bone which is thinly covered with soft parts, the' 
lattsr always suffers very severely, in consequence of being 



pressed at the time of the aeoident between two hard bodies. 
Hence, bruises of the shin so frequently cause sloughing, ulcers, 
and troublesome sores. Contusions affecting the large joints 
are always serious cases ; the inflammation occasioned is gene- 
rally obstinate, and abscesses and otiher diseases, which may 
follow, are consequences truly enough to excite alarm. 

In the treatment of brubes, the practitioner has three indica- 
tions, which ought successively to claim his attention, in the 
progress of such cases. 

The first is to prevent and diminish the inflammation, which, 
from the violence done, must be expected to arise. The bruised 
parts should be kept perfectly at rest, and be covered with linen 
constantly wet with a cooling lotion, composed of two parts 
vinegar, one part spirit, and four parts water. When there are 
muscles bruised, they are to be kept in a relaxed position, and 
never used. 

If the bruise should have been very violent, it will be proper 
to apply leeches, and this repeatedly, and even in some cases, 
particularly when joints are contused, to take blood from the 
arm. In every instance the bowels should be kept well open 
with saline purgatives. 

A second object in the cure of contusions is to promote the 
absorption of the extravasated fluid by discutient applications. 
These may at once be employed in all ordinary contusions not 
attended with too much violence ; for then nothing is so bene- 
ficial as maintaining a continual evaporation from the bruised 
part, by means of the cold spirit lotion, and, at the same time, 
repeatedly applying leeches. In common bruises, the following 
lotion is of great utility: Take muriate of ammonia four 
drachms; spirits of wine and distilled vinegar, of each four 
ounces, water eight ounces, mix. Many surgeons are in the 
habit of ordering liniments for all ordinary contusions, and 
certainly they do so much good, in accelerating the absorption 
of the extravasated blood, that the practice is highly praise- 
worthy. The common soap liniment, or camphor Uniment, are 
as good as any that can be employed. 

In many cases unattended with any threatening appearances 
of inflammation, but in which there is a good deal of blood and 
fluid extravasated, bandages act very beneficially, by the remark- 
able power which they have of exciting the action of the lym- 
patics, by means of the pressure which they produce. 

A third object in the treatment of contusions is to restore 
the parts to their proper tone. Rubbing the parts with embro- 
cations has a good effect; but notwithstanding such applications, 
it is often observed that bruised parts continue for a long while 
weak, and even swell and become infiltrated with fluid when 
the patient takes exercise, or allows them U> hang down, as 
their functions in life may require. Pumping cold water two or 
three times a-day on a part that is affected is the very best 
measure that can be adopted. A bandage should also be worn, 
if the situation of the part will permit. These steps, together 
with perseverance in the use of liniments, and in exercise 
gradually increased, will soon bring every thing into its natural 
state again. 



SUBOICAL OPERATIONS. 

" OrEBAiiONS," said the greatest surgeon which this country ever pro<1aced, 
John Hunter, "are ft reflection on the healing art ; they are a tacit acknow- 
ledgment of its insufficiency. It is like an armed savage, who attempts to 
get that by force which a civilized man would get by stratagem. No surgeon 
shomid approach the victim of his operation without a sacred dread and 
reluctance, and should be superior to that popular eclat generally attending 
painful operations, often only because they are so, and because they are 
expensive to the patient." 

It is good and elevating to believe that there Bremen who preserve in man- 
hood the boyish bloom of their open-hearted teens ; but as it is a rare fortune to 
meet tliem; let ns honour, chflriiii, and love them, in proportion to their scarcity. 



Digitized by 



Google 



92 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



GOUT. 

BT THE XSIXOB. 

No. ni. 

iOm&nudJrom page 83.) 

MisPiiACED QoTTT, also known as compKeated gout, retrograde 
gout, or retroeedent gout. 

In misplaced gout, the disease fixes on some internal organ 
instead of on the joints ; or is suddenly transferred from the 
joints after having fixed there ; and produces in the internal 
organs affected, debility or inflammation, according to the state 
of the constitution. 

It sometimes occurs, that whilst the general constitution of a 
patient liable to gout is tolerably sound and healthy, there may 
be one or more of the internal organs that form an exception to 
the general rule, and are less healthy than the rest ; so that, 
upon the accession of gouty inflammation in the gouty habit, 
the inflammation seizes upon the weakest part of the body, 
and makes its assault upon such organ rather than upon the 
hands and feet ; or, if by chance, it commenced in the small 
joints, it is readily transferred to the seat of internal debility or 
disease. 

The parts more liable to misplaced gout, are the head ; the 
heart, especially its membrane or bag — ^the pericardium; the 
stomach ; the kidneys and the bladder. A recent writer (Dr. 
Barlow), whose opinion deserves to be received with much 
respect, says — " A paroxysm of gout can be regarded only as a 
constitutional disturbance of an inflammatory character, at- 
tended with local inflammation of a peculiar kind, in one or 
more joints runninga determinate course, and, in the earlier acces- 
sions, terminating in health for the most part within a few days. 
Such being the character of simple gout, there is no reason why 
the complicaltom so much dwelt on should be considered as 
specially belonging to it, or regarded otherwise than as accidents 
arijing from peculiarities of constitution, contingent derange- 
ments of health, or the lesions, or morbid tendencies entailed by 
preceding accessions." We cannot accede to this conclusion. 
Our opinion is, that there is something specific in the diseases 
induced by misplaced gout ; for instance, the symptoms, the 
pains and sensations of gout in the stomach are totally dissimilar 
to those experienced in any ordinary attack of inflammation — in 
fact, they are such as can only be the results of gout, not its t'lt- 
cidental companions. 

When gout afiects the brain, we have all the symptoms of 
inflammation in that organ, with the exception that there is, 
perhaps, less delirium ; the pain, which is at first of a maddening 
character, changes to oppressive horror, in which the patient 
suddenly starts from sleep almost as soon as he has begun to 
doze ; he is aroused by the hideousness of the ideas that rush 
across his mind, and by distracting dreams. The sensation of 
gout in the stomach, when of an active character, has been 
described to us by patients, as though that organ contained a 
fiery coal; the least pressure is insupportable, and there is 
constant vomiting. When the general system is below the 
standard or tone of ordinary health, the organ afliected may 
evince great langour and painful inertness, rather than acute 
inflammation ; in such cases the pain in the stomach is of a 
heavy grinding character, as if the " fiery coal " were changed 
to a cold lump of lead. The fit is sometimes transferred to the 
bladder ; in which caJse there is acute pain at the neck of that 
organ, inability to pass urine, and a discharge of thin acrid 
mucus from tlie urethra. Not unfrequently the kidneys are 
attacked ; there is then violent pain in the region of the loins ; 
a scanty secretion of urine, which is high coloured, sometimes 
red, and deposits a gritty sediment containing lithic acid. The 
rectum, it is said, has also been occasionally the seat of mis- 
placed gout, which has e>'inced itself as a simple vehement 



pain, or in spasmodic contraction, or by hemorrlioidal tumour*. 
Thi TxxATicxirr or Goirr. — In applying the art of medi- 
cine to the cure or alleviation of gout, our attention must be 
directed to the state of the patient during the paroxysms, and 
during the intervals ; and particularly to the state of his consti- 
tution or previous habits, which, according to ^tbeir character, 
may demand a different and even an opposite'mode of treat- 
ment. 

It was formerly the belief that an attack of gout was an efl%»t 
of nature to throw ofi' from the constitution, and thereby restore 
it to a state of perfect health, some ofiending matters, which 
formed the proximate cause of the disease ; and it was hence 
also conceived in addition, to adopt thd language of Sydenham, 
that the more vehement the fit, the sooner it will be over, and 
the longer and more perfect would be the intermission. Aiid in 
this view of the subject, there can be no question, Aat the 
wisest plan must have been that of leaving the paroxysm to run 
through its regular course without interruption — in fact, to com- 
mit the patient to " patience and fiannel" alone. This hypothe- 
sis, and the practice based upon it, has long fallen into discredit. 
In our endeavours, however, to subdue the inflammation of a 
gouty paroxysm' by the ordinary means resorted to ininflamnna- 
tions of any other kind, as bleeding, purgatives, sudorifics, local 
astringents, and even refrigerants, we must be on our guard, and 
wary of the danger of repelling the disease to some internal 
organ of more importance, and thus converting a regular 
paroxysm into a case of atonic or misplaced gout. We have 
already said that the specific inflammation of gout has a pecu- 
liar tendency to fix and expand itself upon the weakest parts of 
the system, and, where several parts are equally weak, to pass in 
sudden transitions from one part to another, though transitions 
are rare when the sjrstem is sound. In hetdthy constitutions, the 
weakest parts are the extremities ; consequentiy, these are the 
parts in which gout first makes its appearance. It commences 
in the hands or feet, and runs through its course, seldom chang- 
ing its seat, or, when it does migrate, only passing from foot to 
foot, or from one of the feet to one of the hands ; and it limits 
itself to these parts, because they are the weakett in the system. 
In unhealthy constitutions the extremities are not the weakest 
parts of the system : but we find the stomach, or the heart, or 
the head, or the lungs, or some other organ, more debilitated; or, 
several of these organs may be equally (Usordered and weakened, 
acccording to the idiosyncrasy of the person affected, or to acci- 
dental circumstances. True, therefore, to the specific character 
of the disease, we see the gouty principle, when roused into 
action in habits of this kind, fix itself from the commencement 
on one of those important viscera, rather than on the extremities ; 
or it roams from one to another, alternating its course from the 
stomach or head to the extremities, or from the extremities to 
one of these organs. This sudden change, or metastasis, which 
is rare when the system is sound, becomes frequent in propor- 
tion as the body becomes diseased or debilitated. 

It will now be seen that the treatment of gout must be ruled 
by the individual peculiarities of the invalid. If gouty patients 
were to commit this axiom to memory, and afterwards act upon 
it, what a loss would ensue to the revenue in the diminished 
sale of stamps for quack nostrums ! — what a panic would ensue 
amongst advertising professors and pill-makers ! — How much 
bodily suffering would be spared, how many lives would be 
saved I • ■ ■ •: ■ r 

When a paroxysm of regular and acute gout attacks the hand 
or foot of a person otherwise in good health, having a sound 
constitution, there is no good reason why the treatment appK- 
cable to the same degree of general fever and inflammation, 
occurring from other causes, should not be employed; the anti- 
plogistic regimen is therefore to be enforced. The efficacy of 
colchicum, in checking the first approach of a fit of the gout. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



93 



and moderating its violence when it lias come on, is nov esta. 
Uished by very ample observation. For tliis purpose half a 
diachm of the VMum eokkiei, mixed with some other purgative, 
as the sulphate of magnesia, — ^because it is required to act 
speedily, — should be given every four or six hours. We may 
thus produce purging in twenty-four hours, or sooner, and 
when that takes place, the patient is generally relieved at once : 
any other active purgative may have an equally good effect, but 
colchicom appears to afford relief with [greater rapidity ; , it 
shonld also be combined with some cooling laxative, so as to 
quicken the purgative action, and lessen the griping which it so 
constantly induces. As well as colchicum or other purgatives, 
occasioned saline draughts should be taken, so as to duninish the 
general fever. Bleeding, in young and very inflammatory sub- 
jects, may be required in some cases, but generally it is uncalled 
for and improper. Leeches, applied to the part, are frequently 
productive of very great alleviation : tepid evaporating lotions, 
composed of alcohol or ether, vinegar and water, frequently 
give comfort. Cold local applications should be forbidden; 
they are most dangerous, and seldom give a moment's relief. 
Harvey was accustomed, when attacked, to plunge his feet into 
a pail of coM water ; alluding to which practice, Dr. Elliotson 
says, "I kno w persons that do this, but no medical man is jus- 
tified in recommending it, for it has frequently happened that 
some disease has begun within ; there has been apoplexy pro- 
duced, or inflammation of the stomach, or an affection of the 
heart, and the patient has died very shortly." When the pain 
is very acute, the use of opium must not be omitted, for while it 
aSotda temporary ease, it diminishes the duration, as well as the 
violence of the disease, and it should never be forgotten that it 
is a law in the history of gout, that the frequency and violence 
of the succeeding paroxysms are measured by the violence of those 
which have preceded. A liniment composed of oil of almonds 
with laudanum, rubbed for some time with a gentle friction, is 
highly serviceable in mitigating the pain. 

Conjoined with this treatment, the patient should live abste- 
miously ; the diet must be below the standard to which he has 
been accustomed, though to guard against a metastasis to the 
stomach, we must be cautious that we do not reduce the quantity 
and quality of the food too much. It is impossible to lay down 
any universal rule ; and to say that a man disposed to gout 
should not drink wine, should not drink beei;, should not eat 
meat, would be absurd. There are some gouty patients who 
would be better if they abstained from fermented liquors; others 
would be better if they went farther, and ate no meat, but con- 
fined themselves to vegetable diet and milk; there are other 
cases again, where this would be wrong, as the patient could not 
lire without meat ; and there are other cases where it is neces- 
sary to allow a certain quantity of wine. The rule should be 
to let patients live as low^as they can, to be in good health ; and 
the regimen that will secure this must of course vary in different 
individuals. The patient's chamber should be well ventilated, 
his dress light and easy, and he should be enjoined to take as 
much pleasant exercise as possible, being cautious, at the same 
time, that his health is not impaired by its violence. 

Under this treatment, a fit of regular gout occurring in a 
healthy constitution will subside gradually ; when the paroxysm 
is over, gentle and long continued friction by the hand or flesh- 
brush, with or without some salt and water, should be freely em- 
ployed to the parts lately the seat of the disease ; the general 
health must be improved, and the whole tone of the system in- 
rigorated. If all this be done, and the patient's life be continued, 
the disease becomes comparatively trifling — certainly it will not 
be so constant nor so painful as it would be if the patient trusted 
alone to "patience and flannel," and committed excesses in diet 
and in intemperance. 
We must defer the conclusion of this article tiU our next. 



FHABMACOLOGY. 

Smuooonxs. — {Contmtedfiom page 84.) 

The principal siliagognes that act on the salivary glands^ throngh the 

medimn of the circulation, are the preparations of 

Mercury, at QukktOoer. — No substance with which man has been fhiniahed 
by the bonntlfol hand of Natnre, has nndercone more strict icnitiny than 
mercoiy. It has been investisated with me greatest ardour, and with 
the fondest expectation of obtaining iiom it the most unbounded sources 
of riches and of health. Mercoiy in its pure state is always fluid, and 
from this circumstance, together with its likeness to silver, it iias obtained 
different names expressive of these characteristics— hmce the TSn gljuh 
word quicksilver, or living silver, and the Greek name hydxargymm, or 
watery silver. It is the most brilliant and shining of metals ; its divisi- 
bility is extreme : Leibaecht, by striking a globule of mercury six lines 
in diameter, distributed it into such extremely minute globules, that by 
a microscope he could see one hundred million of them. It is of great 
weight, two hundred being its proportional, and it is also extremely 
volatile. Some of the characteristics of mercury are peculiarly striking. 
Thus, it always assmnes the form of globules, perfectly round ; its dila- 
tion by heat is so uniform, that we are enabled to ascertain with the 
greatest precision the force of heat, and hence are enabled to construct 
such perfect thermometers : and another marked property of the metal is 
its phosphorescence. There are four well ascertained ores of mercury: 
the first, native mercury; the sulphnret of mercury, or cinnabar ; alloyed, 
or amalgamated mercury; and the red muriate of mercury. There are 
other ores which have not been generally recognised. Quicksilver has 
been employed to some extent in this country in its crude state, aa a 
remedial agent. It ^ipears, that in the days of Charles the Second it 
was much used by the beauties of his court, and other ladies ambitions of 
a clear complexion, or wishing to remove a freckle, as an alterative 
capable of giving a pearly lustre to the skin ; and a chronicler of that 
age says — may we repeat it without a blush — "It was not .unusual to 
find globules of quicksilver scattered about after a dance." In all !the 
forms in which mercury is exhibited, it requires care and caution ; but 
when it is combined with the powerful acids, as is the case in corrosive 
sub'imate and calomel, it becomes a most dangerous tool in the hands 
of yte ignorant or half-educated man. The fwowing are some of the 
preparations of mercury ordered in the Londonlpharmacopoeia: — 

Hydrargyri BicUoridium,— Corrosive sublimate — Dose the eighth to[a quarter 
of a grain : used as a merctirial alterative when it [is required to affect 
the system rapidly. It is a dangerous remedy, and a fittal corrosive 
poison in larger doses. 

Hydrargyri CUoridmn. — Mild mercury, calomeL Dose, as an alterative^ 
bau a grain to a grain, every six hours ; as a purgative, four grains to 
ten. Calomel is an extremely efficient purgative!; it is alterative, anti- 
venereal, and a valuable remedy in ol»tructions and disorders of the 
liver. It is particularly useful in the diseases of children, and tlu^ fre- 
quently bear larger doses of it than adults. 

Hydrargyrum cum Oe(£.— Mercury with chalk, is one of the mildest of the 
mercurial preparations; it is an excellent alterative for scrofulous chil- 
dren having diseased mesenteric glands; the dose ranges from three 
grains to a scruple. 

PSida Hydrargyri. — Blue Pill, is by far the best form for the internal exhi- 
bition of mercuiT; when it is intended to act upon the system as an al- 
terative it should be administered in doses of from four to six grains ; 
should it act as a purgative, or excite irritation, opium may be advan- 
tageously given with it. In doses from five to twelve grains^ it acts as a 
mild but efficient purgative. 

Pilulte Hydrargyri Chloridi Cbmponte.— Compound Fills of Chloride of 
Mercury — Plummer's Pill. This pill is much employed in cutaneous 
eruptions, and in secondary syphilitic symptoms, particularly when 
affecting the skin. Dose, five grains to ten, night and moming. 

Hydrargyrum lodidum. — Iodide of Mercury ; this has been given internally 
in scrofulous affections, in doses of from one grain to three; but it la 
chiefly employed in the form of ointment for dressing scrofulous sores. 

Hydrargyri Bisvlphuretum. — Bisnlphuret of Mercury. This is only employed 
for the purpose of mercurial fumigiitions, by heating half a drachm of it 
on a red-hot iron; this mode of affecting the system with mercury is 
often required in some venereal eruptions, and in such cases wharem a 
mercurial action must be immediately obtained. 

Vnguentum Hydrargyri Fortius. — Strong ointment of mercury — ^Blue oint- 
ment. This ointment furnishes a prompt, and probably one of the least 
exceptionable modes of introducing mercury into the system. It is 
generally applied by rubbing half a drachm to a drachm, on some part 
of the body where Uie skin is thin: generally, in svphilitic cases, on the 
inside of the thigh; in chrtmic inflammation of the liver, it is usnaUy 
applied in the region of that organ. 



Digitized by 



Google 



'94 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



Unguentum Hi/drargifri Mitiu. — ^Milder Meitsnrial Ointment This is nsed 
as a dressing, and for those purposes in which tlie preceding preparation 
would be too powerful. 

Unguentum Hj/drargyri Kitratis, — Ointment of Nitrate of Mercury, is a 
stimulant and a detergent (a substance used to clean a woand)^ When 
its strength is diminished by the addition of lard, it is a local remedy of 
great efficacy in eruptions and various skin diseases. 

JanimentutH Hydrargyri .Compositum. — Compomid Liniment of Merctiry, is 
stimulamt anddiscatient (capable of dispersing tmnours, &c.) One drachm, 
which contains nearly ten grains of mercury, may be robbed on the 
part aSectod night and morning. It is said to saliTate sooner than mer- 
eorial ointment, when freely employed. 
"We must defer the consideration of the different actions of merenry, and 

Its preparations on the human frame, until onr next. 

CORPULENCY. 

AccoRBiKO to Bichit, considerable fatness, or embanpoint, far from being 
■A sign of health, almost always denotes weakness of the absorbents intended 
to take up the fat again, and that, in this [respect, it has more analogy with 
senms infiltration, that is, the effosion of fluid in the cellular membrane, 
Aaa is commonly suppoced. This assertion is proved by varioos fiicts. 
IM. Every kind of extraordinary corpulence is attended with a weakness of 
mnscnlar power. 2nd. In the man in whom force and vigoor predominate, 
that fatty plumpness which hides the mnscular pronunences is not seen ; on 
the 'contrary, the muscles are strongly marked, and the form and develop- 
nent may be easily seen. 3rd. Frequently the causes, which obviously 
weaken the powers of life, produce a considerable accumulation of fat : such 
are sloth, rest, copions hemorrhages, the convalescence of certain acute 
diseases, in whidi the forces yet languish while the fat abounds. 4th. The 
fttty state of the muscles is fbr them a state of palpable debility. 5th. 
Bicbat was sometimes convinced, from examining certain emaciated limbs, that 
the little size which they retain is partly owing to the fat which they contain, 
•nd which, in pn^>ortion, is nearly equal to what the healthy limbs contain; 
while all the other ports are shrunk — the muscles in particular. 6th. Cas- 
tration, which abstracts from the vital powers a part of their activity, and 
from nutrition a part of its energy, is very frequently followed by an excessive 
degree of obesity. 7th. On the other hand, as a certun degree of develop- 
ment in the vital powers is requisite for generation, individuals who are too 
&t, and in whun that degree of development is deficient, aro generally badly 
qualified for this function. In women this fiict is remarkable ; and it is not 
less so in man. In animals, the some thing is observed : in proportion as 
hens are fattened for our tables, they become less and less suited for laying. 
Most domestic animals- are subject to the same law. 

"Prom the facts above specified, Bicbat infen, that if the moderate deposi- 
tion of fat indicate strength, its redundance ,is almost always a sign of 
weakness, and that, in this respect, there is a kind of connection between 
atty and serous infiltration. 

Very iirequently groasness, or fatness, accnmnlates, more especially in the 
internal organs, and the viscera may be more or less buried in &t, so that the 
individual may suffer under a dropsy of animal oil, instead of a dropsy of 
water. Fat, thus deposited, generally overloads the omentum, and gives that 
projecting rotundity to the abdomen, which is vulgarly distinguished by the 
Bamc of Pot Beixt, and is wcU described by Prince Rtoxf, in his address 
to Falstaff, as a " huge hill of flesh— a globe of sinfiil continents." 

In attempting to cure this disease— for disease it really is— the 'first step is 
to avoid idl the common and more obvious causes as mnch as possible. 
Hence as a life of indolence, and indulgence in eating and drinking, are 
highly contribatoiy to obesity, the remedial treatment should consist in the 
Bse of severe, regular, and habitual exercise, a- hard bed, little deep, and dry 
«nd scanty food, derived from vegetaMes alone, except where, from a singu- 
larity of constitution, farinaceous food is found to be a chief source of fatness. 
And when these are insufiiclcnt, we may have recourse to such medicines as 
freely evacuate the fluids, whether by the bowels or skin. 

Generally speaking, howeter, the diet and regimen just recommended; 
with' a spare allowance of water, will be suflkient to bring down the highest 
degree of fatty corpulency. Of this we havo a striking example in the case 



of Mr. Wood, the noted miUer of Bellerieay, in Bases. Bora of inteiii)ie. 
rate parents, he was accustomed to indnlge himsdf ia eating, drinkng, md 
indolence, till, in tiie forty-fonrtii year of his age, he became imwieUlj 
firom his bulk, was almost snfibcated, ' laboured under very ill health ftm 
indigestion, and was subject to fks of gout and epilepsy. Fottnmtelf a 
friend pointed oat to him the Life of ODmaro, and be instantly detenaiitd 
to take Comoro for his model, and, if necessary, to snrpass his abridgneiitt 
'With great prudence, however, be made his diange from a highly snpeifliiais 
to a very spare diet gradually : first diminishing his de to a pint a dsj, rad 
using a much smaller portion of animal food ; till at length, finding tho phn 
work wonders, as well in his renewed vigour of mind as of body, he limiled 
himself to a diet of simple pudding made of sea-biscuit, floor, and skhsmcd 
milk, of which he allowed himself a pound and a-half about fonr or in 
o'clock in the morning for his breakfast, and the same* quantity at noon lot 
bis dinner. Besides this, he took nothing either of solids or fluids, for h: 
had at length brought himself to abstain even from water, and found, bimsdf 
much easier withont it. He went to bed about eight or nine o'clock, rarelr 
slept for more than five or six hours, and hence rose usually at one or too a 
the morning, and employed himself in laborious^exercise of some kind or o'la 
till the time of his breakfast. And by this regimen he reduced himself to die 
complexion of a middle-sized man of firm fiesfa, well-coloured oemplexioo 
and sound health. 

When the reduced mode of living thus described has been uunectssinlr 
and injudiciously entered upon, and followed up with great pertinacity, bin 
coses where young females are desirous of becoming celebrs<ed ut a 
elegant ( !) slendemess of fbnn, it has often been productive of a serious, ai 
occasionally a fatal result. Professor Prank gives a striking example of lius 
in a yoong lady who had for nearly twelve months greatly diminisUd tut 
daily food, nsed severe horse exercise, and drank every day a large quatA 
of vinegar. She, at ibe end of this time, was labouring tuder indigeitK 
hysteria, and a dry cough, with an acute pain in bsr side, hectic sweats, mi 
cccasionaUy, purulent expectoration.- she was pronounced in the list stage ci 
consumption, and her life was entirely despaired of. Prank, however, eoC' 
ceeded in averting this event, by the gradual renewal of a more nntritiot- 
diet, and the nse of tonics. 



BELF>]U]>K KEK. 

Colnmbns was a weaver; 'Franklin a jonmeyman printer; SixtssT. 
was employed in herding swine ; .Ssop was a slave ; Hogath r 
engraver on pewter pots ; Ben Jonson was a bricklayer ; Forson n< 
the son of a parish clerk ; Akenside was the son of a butcher— s» «-' 
Wolsey; Cervantes was a common soldier ; Halley was the son of a w;' 
boiler ; Arkwright was a barber ; Belzonl was the sou of a barber ; BJck- 
stone and Southcy were sons of linendrapers ; Crabbe was a fisherman j^'i 
Keats the son of a Kvery-stable keeper; Buchanan was a former; Gawa tkc 
aon of a mason ; Captain Cook began his career as eaUn boy ; Hsyds vc-- 
the son of a poor wheelwright ; Hogg was a shephertL 



kaxdbe's abibiocract. 

It is ftom within now that we mnst iook for change, for <|^ 
education, based upon correct knowledge of our constitution, sluill «"! 
raised the man, there will be found no impediment to tho aJ™" 
of the whole race to all that is necessary for tho enjoyment ol "^ 
highest pleasures of which his nature is susceptible. In proportion as tin 
higher'feeliogs of our nature gain strength and predominate, and tlie la»i' ^ 
universal brotherhood is written on the heart, and not merely ufca^ | 
tongue — in proportion, in fact, as real Christianity prevails,— tlie petty ^* 
tinctions of a savage age, which form the present scale of society, will u'-'- 
appear, and we shall no longer seek to be distinguished by mere wealth «i" 
external advantages, gained at the expense of the excessive labour of ctha'' 
but for the sopnamacy in us of all that distinguishes us from the brutes ; >if 
all that saves toil, instead of inoreasing it, and that affords time to every Dtt 
for the development of high moral and intellectual power. Distinction »" 
be based upon worth alone, and we shall bow to an aristocracy of pa'""^ * 
which the present is but the symbol If God gives us superior abilities. '^' 
shall not giorify ooiselves, but Him, and hold them in trust for the S*^ 
mankind ; and wherever soperior worth and talent is recognized, tM^ 
will be acknowledged the fiuuro Noble — bis badges, not stars and pi«^ 
bnt the nnmistakeable expression of nobility which habitual "'•"'if"^- 
that which is true and good and beantifal invariably bestows,— •fin"*'** 
of the Fedmgt, by Ckaties Br^. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



95. 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS & MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

DunnTBEyg PoxASB FQB TRB coitB OT 'BiMJonsB. — ^Bcef muToir, ax 
oancc9 ; nervine balsam, two ODiicea ; thii is made by meltmg together fonr onnces 
each of beef marrow, and oil of mace, aod adding two drachms of balsam of 
tola, and one drachm each of oil of cloves and camphor, dissolved in half 
an oonce of rectified spirits; extract of caotharidex. sixteen grains-, (Fans 
codex, — made by evaporating the tinctture of catharides, which consists of one 
pan Spanish fiies, to eight part spirits.) Melt the maoow and the nervine 
balsam, with the oil, strain, add the balsam of Pern, and lastly the extract, 
dissolved in a draclim of rectified spirit. This pomade should be applied 
night and morning, and be well brushed in; the head being previously 
Tabbed with salt and water, and tha hair kept short. If any soreness is 
prodnced it should be leas ireqaently applied. 

£.iuu£ CoLOOHB. — ^Take essence of bergamot, forty drops; essence of 
kmon, forty -five drops; oil of roaemary, ax drops; oil of orange peel, twenty- 
twu drops ; essence of neroli, twelve drops ; highly rectified spirit, six oonces. 
Mix. 

Boss DsximucE. — Powdered mynh, two drachms ; hicaibonate of 
^l4a, two drachms; powdered oris root, two ounces; cuttle-iisbbone powdered, 
t«-(i ounces; precipitated chalk, sixonnoes; otto of roses, sixteen|drops. Mix 
Tell together. This tooth-powder may be coloured with rose pink to any 
detired shade. 

Dr. Kitchzhzs's Psbutaltic Pbb8ua]}sb& — Turkey rhubarb in pow- 
der, two drachms ; oil of carraways, ten drops ; simple syrup, one drachm. 
Mix and divide into forty pills. Dose, two, or three, or more. " From two 
to lour will generally produce one additional motion within twelve hours. The 
best time to take them is early in the morning." 

Mode of AjonvnsTEJLisa the Maub Fekh Boot in cases of tope loorm 
(tenia) Take of the powder of male-fetn root from a drachm and a half to 
three drachms ; peppermint water, a wine-glassiiil. Mix for a draught ; to 
be taken early in tJie morning on an empty stomach, and followed in two 
hoars by six grains of calomel, and ten of powdered gamboge, made into 
pills uiih syrup. This is the C(jebrated remedy of Madame Kou£Ser. The 
quantities here metttioDed must be considered the fall doses, proper only for 
a stmog adalt. 

'Spbiso Phtsic." — Infitrion of senna, two ounces and a-half; tartrate of 
potash, twelve drachms ; sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salts) one ounce; 
manna, four drachms; tincture of senna, one ounce; tincture of ginger, two 
drachms; aromatic spirits of ammonia, two drachms. Mix. Dose, a wine- 
glassful early in the morning. 



DIETARY, WHOLESOME AND ECONOMIC. 

ALvDK Disa FKOM Jonrre tbat have beex fbbviotj8i.t sestxd. — 
Cat the meat into slices, about a quartet of an inch in thickness, then put the 
remainder, vegetables and gmry, if any, in a pan ; if not, with water and 
piece of glaze ; season with a little salt, pepper, sugar, a bay-leaf, and the 
juice of a quarter of a lemon ; simmer genUy for twenty minutes on a slow 
fire, dish the fillets in the form of a crown, lay the vegetables in the middle, 
pour gravy over, and serve : — Or, what remains, cut into very small slices, put 
in a pan, shako a little flour over, season with a little salt, pepper, sugar, bay- 
leaf, an d the juice of a quarter of a lemon, then moisten it with milk, sufficient to 
make a sauce, warm it for ten mijiutea, add half an ounce of butter, stir it well, 
and serve very hot : or, if you prefer it brown, leave out the milk and throw a 
few chopped mushrooms and eschclots in, and moisten with a little water, 
toVhich add a little browning or catsup; it ought never to be too thick. 
Poached eggs may be served with these. — JW. Soi/er. 

Ljlsib Chops in paper with fine Herbs. Cut a piece of foolscap paper in 
the shape of a heart (and safiiciently large to fold a lamb chop in,) nib a 
little oil over the paper, then season the chop with a tea spoonful of chopped 
eschclots, one of chopped parsley, a little pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg, wrap 
the chop in the paper, which plait down at the edges, lay it upon a gridiron 
over a slow fire, tumkig it frequently; it will take about tweiity minutes to 
hroil properly; when done serve in the paper very hot. 

GiNGEK Bees. — Take one ounce of sliced ginger root, half an oonoe of 
dried orange peel, tie them in a bag and boil with two gallons of water, and 
strain; add three quarters of an ounce of citric acid, twenty-five drops of 
essence of lemon, and twenty -four ounces of loaf sugar. When sufiiciently 
cool add two table spoonsful of fresh yeast; let it work for twelve hours, and 
hottle it. 

GmoER Bees Fowsebs. — Take fine Jamaica ginger, powdered, four 
diachms; bicarbonate of soda, three ounces and a half; refined sugar in 
powder, foorteen ounces; essence of lemon, thirty drops. Mix, and divide 
into five dozen powders ; or, for a single powder, take five grains of powdered 
pn;;er; twenty-eight gr^ns of bicarbonate of soda; 112 grains of powdered 
I'ugar; and h^ a drop of essence of lemon. Each powder requires about 
ihiny grains of ciuic acid, ot thirty -three grains of tartaric acid, to produce 
effervescence. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Xfcw mdg, print 4(1, ^p»*t, 6d. 
INDIGESTION, NERVOUSNESS, LOW SPIRITS. 
■^ The Causes, Symptoms, and national Treatment. 

By T. H. Ybomau, M.D. 

This work is a corrected reprint of the papers cm Indigestion puUisbed 
in Tbs P£ori.E'B Medical Jodbsai., with mudh additional information. 

Loudon : published by the AuiuoB, 25, Lloyd Sauare, Pentonville ; 
and sold by GioBaB Vickxbs, Strand, and all Bookselieis and Newsven- 
dors. It is requested that all orders for copies to be sent by post may be for- 
warded to the Author, so as to insure punctual dispatch. 

Also by the same author, price 2g, ; b^ post 28. 6d. 
QONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE; the 

Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the means of Freven- 
tion. 

" There is no assumption or quackery in this little volume — it is juet such 
a work as might be anticipated from an intelligent and experienced phyn- 
cian. The suggestions and recommendations of Dr. Yeoman are extremely 
valtmble, and may be unhesitatingly and advantageonsly adopted by all who 
are interested in the health and well-being of the rising generdtion.'' — 
Morning Herald, Oct 23, 1848. 

Also by the same author, price 2s. 
ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH. 
■"■ the Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment. 

" The perusal of the publication before us, which turns upon four of the- 
most prevalent erils to which flesh is heir in these lands, cannot fail to prove 
most beneficial to suflerers among all persons of sense, and to further success- 
ful medical treatment."— JBrttisA Banner, March 21, 1849. 

"This work emanates from a gentlemian thoroughly well versed in the sub- 
ject, and who has obtained great and deserved celebrity by his mode o 
treatmenL''-~Tf t/te Standard, January 16, 1849. 

" This is an excellent little treatise by a clever and clearheaded practi- 
tioner. Dr. Ykomax is well known by his work on Consumption, and the 
present publication will add to his fame."— TTsdUy Diipuldt, Jan. 14, 1849. 

London: Samfsok Low, 169, Fleet Street ; Effikoham Welboh, 11, 
Boyal Exchange ; Websteb & Co., 60, Piccadilly : and all Booksellers. 

rriRUSSES.--S. smith. Truss IMaker, 1, High Holborn, 
-*- three doors from Gray's Inn Lane, respectfully announces to the Foblic 
that TRUSSES can be had at his Establishment at the following Low 
Prices: — Double Trusses, IBs. each; Single Ditto, 8s. 

Manu&cturer of Lace Stockings, Knee-caps, Suspensory Bandages, Biding'. 
Belts, &c. Mrs. Smith attends on Ladies. 

EVILL'S PATENT FLOUR OF LENTILS,— 

a pleasant, nutritions, and agreeable Food for Invalids, Dyspeptics, 
and persons suffering from Constipation, or any other chronic derangement 
of the Digestive Organs— also for n)aking Gruel. It is the only food that 
does not distend or turn acid on a weak ^mach. It will be found invalu- 
able for Delicate Children and Sufferers from Debility. 

Sold Wholesole by Netim. and Ca, 16a, Chichester Place, Gray's Inn 
Road, London; and Retail by T. Caekick, 127, Crawford Street ; T. 
Shabf, 44, liishopsgate Street Within ; Miles, Gracechurch Street, Cit^; 
and may be obtained from all respectable Shopkeepers in the Kingdom, in 
Packets, 6d. and Is. each, and 6 lb. and 12 lb. canisters, 9s. 6d. and lOs. 6d. 
each. 

■p. 8. CLBAVKR'S WINTER SOAP.— This Soap is » 
* combination of the Genuine Honey Soap, Camphor, and Vegetable 
Oib, oooseqnentiy the very best for this season of the year, and at all times 
for tender skins. Invaluable as a Shaving Soap. Sold in large non- 
angular Tablets, at 3d. each ; and monsters 6d. each. To be had at the 
mannfactory, 13, Red Lion Square, Holborn. and at all Chemists, Perfumers, 
&c., in the United Kingdom. 

JOHN MILES, (Laxk BUTLER and Co.) DISPENsTng 
*' CHEMIST, 78, Gracechurch Stree^ respectfulljr informs the public 
that the most vigilant care and attention is always paid by him to the selec- 
tion of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicah); the too frequent dangerous 
adulteration and careless preparation of Medicines, upon the exact action of 
which depend the health and safiety of our fellow-creatures, induces J. MU.BS 
to pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that all prescriptions are dispensed by well-qualified asaistanta under his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for Boon's' Patent Improved Respirator. J. M. has now a large 
supply of Cod Litxb Oil, prepared from the finest fish of the season. 



N 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

NoncB. — ^AIl commanicatioiu for the Editor nnut be addressed, im-paid, 
to his h6ase, No. 25, Ij<otd Squiss, FsHTOimixs. It is indispensa- 
Ue thil letten teqairing a private aniwer contain a pottage stamp, or 
stuaped enyelc^ whereon is vritten the address of ^» apphcant. 
LiTauds resident in the oountiy, and others desiring the opinicm of the 
Siditor, who are unable to consult him personall;-, can have, on applica- 
tion, a series of questions proposed to them, and by attention on their 
jMurt, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a personal interview, in 
many instances, mav be avoided, withont detriment to the saccessfU 
issue of the required treatment Notes of every case submitted to the 
Editor will be recorded in his private case-book fbr the fadlity of refe- 
rence at any fhtore period. 

Tki Editor is at home every d^ nntil one o'clock ; and in the evenings 
on Mondqr, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. 

Bx attends at Mr. BIiles's Medicai. akd Soboiou. Estabubhhbiit, 78, 
Oracechurch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from Two 
tiU Thne o'cloi^ 



Not. 1 and S of the Psopls's Mbsicai, Joubxal are reprinted, and are now 
ready for delireiy (No, 1. for the third time). Nos. 3, 4, and 5, are at 
presE^ and will be ready on the 27th instant. Part 1 will be re- 
usued on the 30th instant We again thank onr subscribers; our circn- 
lution is greater than any living or defunct Medical periodical ever at- 
tained. It will be onr constant endeavour to maintain and deserve this 
pre-eminence. 

Db. Ds Boas. — Vfo have placed this person's case in the hands of onr so- 
licitors. 

S.C. (Mansell Street).— We will endeavour to answer all your questions ; but 
do not for six months, at least, favour us with another such a category. 
We really regret that the omission of a prescription for scalds in onr 
Journal has caused you to be " laid up" for two weeks instead of two 
days as you flatteringly say would have been the duration of your con- 
■ finement had you seen ** a prescription for the same." If you had sent 
us word before^ we would have requested Sir Benjamin Brodie, Mr. 
Luke, and Mr. Curling to have held a consultation on your case. In 
Pharmacology, careless S.C., the doses are given, and being arranged in 
classes, the drugs " are good for" those cases in which such danes ot 
drugs are required. We ^eree with you, a portfolio for the journal is 
required. Knight, Fleet Street, sells them. We do not know Mr. 
Smart's tariff. Your friend, aged .'ve, will see a prescription suitable for 
him in'the first column of page 7 of the Journal. Your ether friend who 
"Jspits a great deal of phlegm, having a little cough," will see a remedy 
applicable to his case in page 31, the second prescription. Now what 
do yon say, considerate S.C., to our patience 7 Don't try it again. 

W. Gibson (Warriston).— See page 17, pamphlet on Indigestion. 

A. Mabkock (Cannon Mils, Edinburgh). — ^The symptoms yon mention 
need not prevent you emigrating. 

A. B. (Soothwark). — You say von wonld "like" to take Qregoty's 'powder 
made into lozenges. You have a queer taste. Consult some lollypc^ 
maker on this important subject 
- Sabar (Fimlico). — ^Let the child be put in a vi-ann bath twice a-week, and 
on the night that she does not take a bath, give her eight gruns of 
rhubarb powder ; three grains of Hydrargyrum cum creta ; and four 
grains of carbonate of soda. Diet, puddings and vegetables. 

Thouas K — g — t (Monkwearmouth), — To your first query — ^it wonld be 
vanity and vexation. To the second — all may be restored. To the 
third— moderate. 

Box (Hope Street).— See page 12, in the Editor's pamphlet on Indigestion, 
beginning at " Dear is the &c." 

A Salopian (Sbrewsbniy). — ^We are glad that you approve of what has 
been done. 

WiixiAX Hali. (City). — If yon have anything to forward, it can be sent 
direct to onr residence. We are much pleased to hear that yon are im- 
proving. 

Enqtubbb (Hill Street^. — ^AH tnjaries to the head are of importance, how- 
ever trifling the original accident may be. Communicate your address. 

Jaxxs Fbabson (Ashton-under-Lyne).— The diet yon mention is not proper 
Take more animal food; you require nourishing and strengthening. 
"Chickweed and rice-milk" will not do this, friend Pearson. 

J<»x CgimBBT.AKD. — We could not make the alteration yon suggest in the 
atnngement of the Journal without doubling its cost Do not take 
violent exercise on " an empty stomach." 

Zb E. Z. (Chester). — The cough and expectoration appear to be sympathetic 
with a deranged stomach. The ** wonchial Sedative " yon mention is 
• raeqnack preporatkm. 



Jamm Moobb (Xondon).— Unil yon call in Uoyd-aqpare? 

Ik Ik M. (Brook-street, Holbocn).— The dandelion is a venrvalnable remedy. 
It may be taken as « morning beverage, in the form of danddion coflToei, 
which is sold by Hooper, Fall Mall East, and Hnrford, Backknjbuiy. 
The extract of dandelion may be obtained at any chemist'a. 

Tm IvonuT on Mabia Iobd.— Wa bavt received an aathentieated 
letter vindicating the chantctar of John Todd, which entirely exculpates 
him from any complicity in this giri's death; the verdict being "that 
the deceased Maria Lord died (tma natural causes, to wit, congestion 
of the brain, and not from any hurt or injury received from any person 
whatsoever." " This being the verdict," says onr carrespondent and we 
entirely concur in the remark, " by Englishmen on their oaths, I think 
it too bad to have a man, who was honourably acquitted, stamped as a 
murderer." Dr. Grindiod, it appears, is Consulting Physician to the 
Toxteth-patk Hospital, and as such, must hold a first-rate degree, al- 
thongh it is not mentianed in the MJsdieal Directoiy. 

Thokas Wabd (Notdngham). — Skin diseases will be noticed in the JoomaL 

J. W. B. (Msrthyr). — Sassalras cannot by any possibility do you any injury; 
it may benefit yon. The lobilia is a fearful herb in the hands of the ig- 
norant The " doctor" yon name is not a qualified physician. 

Lbba (Ash-Oill). — Salted meats are improper. Take a warm bath at ninety- 
six degrees; move the bowels with some mild purge, as fifteen grains of 
rhnberi), and t^ee of calomeL Yon mnst commnnicate privately if yoa 
desire a detailed opinion. 

Maboebt. — We ani obliged to arrange our articles to suit veiy vairing 
tastes : you mnst remember you are only one amongst our many thou- 
sand subscribers. The diseases of women and children are not for- 
gotten. 

Gbumblbs. — Take, aromatic spirits of ammonia, three drachms ; spirits of 
lavender six drachms ; tincture of cardamoms, four diachms ; eomponnd 
tincture of cinnamon, four drachms ; cinnamon water to make up fonr 
ounces. Dose, a large spoonful in water. Once or twice a day. 

J. C. (City). — Water cress is a most wholesome vegetable : you will see a 
short notice of its properties in No. 4. 

Abthub, (Portman Square).— The sickness is dependent on indigestion. 
Occupation, temperance, or intemperance, irregularity, age. the mind, 
the temperament, and how many other circumstances, influence this 
disorder ? We can do nothing for yon, unless yon describe your con- 
dition and position definitely. 

Jaxbs Olitbb (Somerstown). — ^All the symptoms have one and the same 
origin — that is, indigestion. As yoa say this cannot proceed from 
intemperance in eating or drmking, we must look fur some other provo- 
cative of disorder ; tee mspect one, but our opinion cannot be confirmed 
nnless we see you. 

LrVEBFOOI. AND THB NeIORBODBHOOD. — Mb. JOtSPH ShXTHBBIIv (99. 

Scothind Boad,) is the agent who supplies this district with onr Jounul; 
send yonr orders to him. 

P. B. (Manchester). — Yon are in the hands of "Quacks," men "whose se- 
cresy is inviolable" Bah ! they will extort, not only one pound, but 
every farthing you are goose enough to part with : and in the end, yon 
will be worse in pocket 'and in health than if yoo had been withont 
advice ! Place yourself under the care of some respectable praotitionar 
in yourcity, (Manchester ii a ci^) or compound with a physician of known 
respectability. 

Pbescbiptions and private instmctions as to diet and regimen are left with 
the Dispknsbb, 78, Gbacechcrch-stbeet, for the following corre- 
spondents: — A Y. (Stoke Newington). William Pebkins (Hoxton). 
J. Jeffbt (Blackfriars). W. W. W. (Old Ford). Racbasl (Baker- 
stnset). Mre. Mubpht's CHILD. Edith (Chamomile-street). A Poor 
Man (Wapping Wall). J. B. (Kingsland Boad). Ph<ebe (Paradise- 
street). IJamm Donald (Millbank). David C n (MUe End). 

Chablotte. a. Bonald. Jack Reynolds. A. K. Pbiscilla 
Wood. An Old Patient. Anne Babclat. Zeta. Ah Engikebk 
(Bermondscy). A ci-detant HoiKEPATHisr. N. P. (Hackney 
Boad). 

The pollowtno Coebespondbnts can only be answered privately, in per- 
son, or by letter:— J. M. J. C. T. C. (PiccadiUy). A VicTiif (Sccnn- 
dus). A. Stone (Dalston). Mabtha Dubant. Ebus. A Tyro. 

P. P. B. (Milk-street). James B t. Bupebt (Bath-street). W. 

K. (Whitby). A Watcumakeb (Wynyatt-street). B. S. A Worbino 
Man (York Boad). Mrs. Dodd. Francis T. (Bamsbury Boad). 
Bobert Boberts. L. M. N. B. S. (Liverpool). Ben (Hartlepo(4). 
A. B. C. (St Helen's). H. A. B. (PentonvUle). Mrs. Howarth's 
CHILD. A Clebk (Mincing-lane). 



Printed by Wim/icodbv asd Co., «t their Printlntr OBee, it, BmithfleM ; ind Pnb- 
Ushcd, for the Proprietoni, br Oxopok Tnxxsa, Stnnd^ In the Parish of St Qement 
- in the Coonij of Hiddueez. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 

AMD 

ILI PifSiC 





EDITED BY T. H. YEOMAN. M. D. 



No. 13.— Vol. I] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 30, 1850. 



[ommnr. 



ANATOMY. 

Amatomt, as tbe science of organisation, embraces inquiries 
connected both with vegetable and animal structure. 

The organisation of vegetables falls within the scope of the 
science of botany, and the organisation of animal matter more 
particularly within the province of anatomy. Even when thus 
restricted, anatomy, from the numerous and important subjects 
it embraces, has been branched out into various and somewhat 
independent subjects of investigation. Hence, we have different 
kinds of anatomy, as human and comparative, general and spe* 
cial, descriptive and surgical, healthy and diseased, philosophical 
and transcendental. 

Human anatomy is the science that treats of the structure and 
organisation of the human body. A knowledge of this depart- 
ment of anatomical science is of pre-eminent importance to the 
medical practitioner, and can only be attained by a long-con- 
tinned and careful investigation of the human structure itself, 
and by a profound study of all the other branches of the science 
of organisation. 

The structure of the human body is usually investigated by 
dissection : a process Which, in the first place, enables the ma- 
nipulator to obtain a view of every organ and texture of the body ; 
and which, secondly, imparts a facility in the use of the dissect- 
ing instrument, that cannot fail to prove of incalculable benefit 
to the student as a surgical operator. 

Dissection may be employed either for the purpose of obtain- 
ing a knowledge of the existence, physical qualities, and relative 
aituation of the larger parts and masses in the body, as the 
bones, muscles, blood-vessels, nerves, viscera, £cc. — a species of 
knowledge which may be turned to many useful purposes in the 
practice of medicine and surgery ; or it may be used for disclosing 
the more minute and intimate structure of any organ : a kind of 
knowledge which is calculated to lead to important conclusions 
regarding tbe functions of organs, both in their natural and dis- 
eased condition. 

For accomplishing the first of these piuposes or performing 
the coarser kinds of dissection, the common dissecting instru- 
ments sold in the shops will be found necessary and sufficient ; 
but in prosecuting the minuter anatomical investigations, the 
mbjeet requires first to be injected with some fluid material, as 
melted tallow or wax, or, if a very minute injection is required, 
with turpentine, size, or quicksilver; then macerated in water, 
or hardened, it may be, with alcohol or other means, and after- 
wards dissected, sometimes even under water, or traced imder 
the guidance and magnifying influences of the microscope with 
some delicate instrument, as the point of a cataract needle. 

The elementary constiluente of the human body have been 
found to consist of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, 
phosphorus, chlorine, fluorine, potassium, sodium, calcium, mag- 
nesium, manganese, sUicium, iron. The first four are found in 
o 



all animal bodies, and constitute uniformly the principal in- 
gredients. The others are found only in isolated textures, and 
some of them in extremely minute quantities. These elemen- 
tary constituents of animal bodies combine under the operations 
of the living system, and form every variety of animal organic 
texture. By the combination of these elementary constituenta 
in certain definite proportions, as three and three, four and 
four, &c., the proximate principlet of animal bodies are formed, 
and of which the following are the most important : — albumen, 
gelatin, fibrin, mucus, olein, casein, uric acid, urea, and osma- 
some. 

The various parts of the human body exist either in a flmd 
or eoUd form : the solids being the only parts that are strictly 
organised, imparting form and character to the living body; 
and the fluids, besides serving other purposes, afibrding ue 
requisite pliancy to the solids, and thus adapting them for the 
better performance of their functions. The fluids of the human 
system predominate over the solids, in the proportion of nine to 
one; and, although fluids and solids differ so much in their 
physical properties, yet they are mutually dependent — analo- 
gous in their chemical composition, and convertible into each 
other. 

The Fluid* of the animal system have been variously arranged 
by different physiologists. The older physiologists seem to have 
been guided in their arrangement by the physi^ qualities of the 
fluids : in more modem times, physiological properties chiefly 
attracted attention, and at the present day, the best arrangements 
are founded upon chemical qualities. Probably the most scien- 
tific that has yet been published is the following of Dr. Bos- 
tock : — First, the aqueous ; second, the albuminous ; third, the 
mucous ; fourth, the gelatinous ; fifth, the fibrinous ; sixth, 
the oleaginous ; seventh, the resinous ; and eighth, the saline. 

The animal Solid exists in one of two forms. It is either 
concrete like gelatine or glue, or fibrous like muscle or brain. 
The concrete is an inorganic product diffused or secreted 
from the living textures; while the fibrous is the part trulj 
organised, and constituting an essential ingredient of every tex- 
ture. These fibres present in different textures a twofold ap- 
pearance. In some they retain the form of threads or fibres, 
and in others, so disposed as to form laminee or plates. Hence 
every organised texture is either fibrous or laminous. 

All the organic parts of the body may be comprehended, stSl 
more particularly, under the following designations: — First; 
globules ; second, filaments ; third, fibres ; fourth, tissues ; fifth, 
organs ; sixth, apparatus ; seventh, systems. We may view the 
animal globule as the real elementary tolid. By the union of a 
number of globules in a lineal direction, a filament is formed; 
the apposition of a number of filaments constitutes a fibre ; a 
peculiar arrangement of fibres constitutes a tissue ; an organ is 
a more compound body, consisting of a determinate arrangemeaft 
of different tissues ; an apparatus is an assemblage of organs, all 



Digitized by 



/Google 



98 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



of which assist in the production of one grand result, as the 
apparatus of digestion ; and a system is an assemblage of organs, 
all of which have a similaritf of structure, as the osseous system, 
the mnscular, the vascular, the nervous, &c. By the anion and 
CMtveniogpi of globules into filamanta, of filaments into fibres, 
of fibres into tissues, of tissues into organs, and of organs into 
apparatus and systems, the complicated animal machine or body 
is formed. 

Guided by an arrangement founded upon physiological prin- 
ciples, the organs of the human body, though forming a grand 
whole, may be viewed still further as consisting of three classes. 
First, — ^Thosc of relative life, or those which connect us to ex- 
ternal nature, and enable us to discover, appreciate, and enjoy, 
the relationship in which we are placed. Second, — ^Those of 
vegetative or nutritive life, or those under whose influence the 
whole system grows, is repaired, and continuously supported ; 
•and third, — Those of reproductive life, or those that conduce to 
ihe preservation of the species, or by which the new being is 
-formed, elaborated, and rendered susceptible of an independent 
existenee. 

The first class includes the passive and active organs of loco- 
motion, as the bones and muscles ; and the sensitive system 
generally, including the brain and spinal cord — the nerves, and 
the external organs of sensation. 

The second class comprehends the organs of digestion, ab- 
sorption, circulation of the blood, respiration, and secretion. 

And the third class, the organs peculiar to the two sexes, viz. 
fhose of copulation, conception, gestation, and parturition. 

Such an arrangement, although not perfect, is simple and use- 
fttl. It shows the connection that subsists between anatomy and 
the kindred science of physiology ; leads the student to investi- 
gate the general operations of the animal machine ; and to ob- 
serve the functional bearings which the i»rftt'irf«a/ organs hold to 
each other. 

In describing the structure of the human body, we are called 
upon to refer frequently to Comparative anatomy. In the human 
being, the organs exist generally in a high, and not unfrequently 
in the very highest state of development or complexity. Diffi- 
culty is consequently experienced in determining the accessory 
from the essential parts of any organ. In man, besides, there 
exists a reciprocal influence among those complex organs, which 
produces overwhelming difliculties in determining the precise 
■uses of Aich organ : but in the lower animals we obtain a view 
of all the organs in varied degrees of complexity, and in every 
Tariety of combination. In some animals we find an organ or 
organs in the greatest complexity ; in others, the same organ is 
stripped of all its accessories ; and in others, the whole organ is 
■withdrawn, and the effects of these modifications and depriva- 
tions exposed to our view. No human physiology can be sound, 
which is at variance with general physiology ; and general phy- 
'siology cannot be perfected, except by observing and comparing 
the functions of all animals to which any peculiar modification 
T»f structure has been imparted. In this way only can we ever 
liope to keep the facts of special physiology within proper bounds, 
and ascend to the general laws that regi^ate the whole of the 
animal creation. 



CDXM roR JLL-rmtawt. 

A sensible woman or the doctor's 'acquaintance (the mother of a yoang 
fiunily) entered so far into his views upon this sabjcct, that she tsngnt her 
ehiMren from the earliest childhood toconsiderill-humonrasadisorderwhieh 
was to be enred by phjsie. Aecordinglv, she had always small doses readv, 
«i>d the little patients, whenevor it was thought needful, took rhobard Jar Ae 
crotauu. No pnnishmsnt was re(|iiired. Fcerisbness or ill-temper and 
rhnbarb, were associated in their mmds always as canse and effect. — The 
Secur (by Southey). 



BHEUMATIC HEADACHE. 

BT THE EDITOB. 

Idiof ATH I c headache — that is, headache occuxring as an original 
disease, notas a symptom of another complaint — is generally con. 
fined to the skull or its integuments, but does not affect the brain 
itself; the most frequent form of this class is rheumatic head- 
ache, which may either be confined to the muscular covering of 
the cranium, or may extend to the face. 

In rheumatic headache, the attack may be traced to some 
partial -exposure to cold or damp air, to washing the head in cold 
water when the body is heated, or to sitting at or near an open 
window, or other situation, where a cold current ialls directly 
upon the uncovered head. Thus, when a person sits. immediately 
underneath an open skylight, a violent pain afterwards attacks 
the crown of the head ; or, if one side of the head be exposed, 
that side only is affected, and constitutes hemicrania. Some- 
times the eye is affected, and then rheumatic opthalmia is induced. 
The pain in muscular or rheumatic headache is generally con- 
fined to the forehead and temples, although it is in some cases 
diffused over the greater part of the head, and may extend to the 
face and teeth, and fugitive pains are occasionally felt at the neck, 
and around the shoulders. It has happened that the pain has 
been so decidely referred to the teeth, as to canse one after 
another to be drawn without affording relief, while the real nature 
of the complaint has remained hidden, until a rhe-umauc attack 
in a distant joint has given a key to the real affection. The 
symptoms are a dull and heavy, though severe and remitting 
ache, especially across the forehead and sides of the head, with 
a feeling of tightness and tenderness upon the least presanre; 
the pain will continue for several days, fixed in the same place, 
and is always most violent at night. At the commencement of 
the attack, there is some disturbance of the stomach, accompa- 
nied by a slight degree of fever ; the quickness of the pulse is in- 
creased, the- tongue is foul, and the general disquietude of the 
patient drives off sleep. There is no determination of blood to 
the head, nor unhealthy beating of the temporal arteries, as in 
other forms of headache, neither is the head hot ; but, on the 
contrary, a feeling of coldness is sometimes experienced in the 
part affected. Hendcrania, which is also known by the familiar 
name of megrim, affects only one-half of the head ; it begins with 
uneasy feelings, or creepings, over a part of the scalp, which in- 
crease to an acute and often throbbing pain, sometimes fixed over 
one eye, which the patient will often describe as an opening and 
shutting of the skull. The stomach is deranged, and , occasionally, 
nausea or sickness is present. Hemicrania frequently assumes 
an intermittent tjrpe, coming on at certain intervals like an ague; 
hence it has been called an '* ague in the head." This form of 
headache has been noticed in several members of the same family, 
also to be hereditary for two or more generations. Occasionally, 
women who are subject to hysterical affections are attacked with 
a violent shooting pain over the temple, which they compare to 
the driving in of a nail, so torturing is the agony. 

Rheumatic headache is never a dangerous disorder, though 
frequently most obstinate to remove. The Ireaimtnt, in the first 
insUtnce, should be directed so as to reproduce the insensible per- 
spiration, which has been checked by the exciting cause of the 
malady; the head should therefore be kept warm by flannels, 
&c., and the forehead and temples rubbed with a warm anodyne 
embrocation, composed of about a drachm of laudanum to sn 
ounce of soap liniment. A proper dose of some diaphoretic — 
as Dover's powder, or antimony — should be taken at bed-time, 
in gruel or other warm liquid ; and perspiration promoted by 
additional bed-clothing ; or a warm bath or foot-bath may be 
used, when the patient can immediately afterwards vetire to bed. 
During the following day, a brisk purgative may be teken, and 
if eare be employed to avoid fresh exposure, the painful symp- 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



99 



tarns wiU, in a aM^jocity of cams, nilmde -within ttrenty-four 
IxniTs; left-ving, however, an inereaaed tRwceptibility in the parts 
for a renewal of the- complaiitt from very slight causes. When 
the attack is more inveterate, it will be necessary not only to 
Goatinne the above treatment, but also to apply leeches to the 
temples, and ti» administer ihose remedies which are known to 
influence rheumatism in particular — as guaiacum, colchicum, &c. 
The management of the complaint must th^ necessarily be re- 
moved from, the guidance of the patient alone, as colchicum is a 
remedy too fickle' and powerful to be left in the hands of a non- 
professional person, or one not thoroughly acquainted with its 
sometimes insidious action. 

As preventive of a return of the attack, the tone of the system 
should be invigorated, and the patient " hardened," so as to en- 
sble him to bear with greater impunity any sudden exposure to 
cold or humidity ; he should be much in the open air, and the 
shower-bath, or cold effusion to the' head — beginning with tepid 
water and gradually decreasing the temperature — should be em- 
ployed daily. The use of tonics, as quinine, or some of the pre- 
paratiens of iron, must be persisted in for a time ; and the diet 
so regulated as to afford nourishment and strength, without 
stimulation. In hemicrania produced by similar causes as rheu- 
matic headache, the same treatment may be adopted. When, 
however, it is periodic, returning at a certain hour of the day, 
and continning, as it sometimes does, for a fixed time, we have 
< more obstinate malady to encounter. After the bowels have 
been freely cleansed, we must give quinine, or bark in substance, 
Juring th* inUrmitnon from pain; and if the regularity of the 
secession assimilate wi^ ague, it may be prudent to employ the 
jBsenical solution. Local treatment will be of little avail, even 
when the pain is so violent as to approach tic doloureux, for which 
it has been frequently mistaken. During the paroxysm, we have 
found a fulT opiate, conjoined with' suTphuric setKer, afibrd tem- 
porary relief. When hemicrania exists in connexion with some 
nerrous or hysteric affection, it may then be considered to have 
lost its original character, and become a symptom of another 
disorder, and little permanent benefit can be expected until a 
better state of the general health be obtained. 

Pesiosxeai. Hsajdaohe, or inflammation of the delicate mem- 
brane which immediately covers the bones of the head, is 
another form of original headache, and is produced by similar 
causes as the preceding one : a blow, considered trifling at the 
moment, will also bring on an attack. The pain is usually deep, 
seated and intense ; it is aggravated by the nwvements of the 
mnsclcs of the head, especially in eating, sneezing, or other 
violent acticm. Slight pressure on the parts may be borne with- 
oat inconvenience, but firm pressure gives great agony : the pain 
is continuous, and does not soon subside. Sometimes the upper 
part of the nose and the bony parts of the gums are affected, 
and then much uneasiness is experienced, if the patient ventiu-e 
suddenly into the open air. These symptoms are always at- 
tsnded with considerable disturbance of the whole system ; the 
pulse is full and quick, the tongue foul, and the skin hot and dry ; 
the patient is restless and irritable, and the sleep disturbed and 
unrefreshing. 

This is, decidedly, an acute disease, and requires active treat- 
ment; local bleeding, either by cupping or leeches, should be 
immediately employed, followed by the careful use of cold spLri- 
toons lotions. A full dose of calomel and jalap must be given, 
after which, such cooling aaUne medicines as will allay fever : if, 
at the commencement of the attack, there is much nausea, an 
emetic may be given, previous to the other remedies, with ad- 
vantage ; the efficacy of opiates is doubtful — in some cases they 
are injurious. li is absolutely necessary that the utmost composure 
ofmind should be maintained, and everything likely to agitate 
the patient, ax intetfere with perfect quietude, must be obviated: 
we-need soBicely add, tbat the diet must be confined to groelt^ 



sago, arrow-root, &c. After the acute symptoms have been 
subdued, vigilant attention will be required to guard against a 
relapse ; the susceptibility of the pericranium may be diminished 
by the moderate use of cold washing, followed by gentle friction; 
and after this has been persevered in for a time, the shower-bath 
may be employed. Change of air, or a residence in a dry situs- 
tion, with out-of-door exercise, will be of the greatest utility ; 
persons liable to this form of headache, should avoid long-con- 
tinued study and all mental excitement. 

There are several forms of headache, which, althongh not 
distinctly " original," are still independent of disorder in the 
brain ; amongst these may be named such as are referable to the 
bones, the scalp, and fleshy covering of the head. The irritation 
excited by tumours on the scalp, and some skin diseases, occa- 
sionally creates a pain, which may properly be described as 
" headache." Disease of the bones of the head, more frequently 
is the result of some specific disorder, and, as a consequence; 
the perfect removal of the headache thus produced, mast be oon- 
troUed by the cnre of the constitutional complaint. 
(Nerroas Headache in our next) 

DEATH OUT OF TOWN. 

Thb Report on intramnnl interment ii a nuMt disconrocin^ docament 
It trsata death as a nuisance, and ought, therefore, to arouse me oppoatian of 
those woitiiT^ men— the geniu Laubib and Hjcks— who look npoo a London 
tomfaatone as bearing, only^ with a ditftrenee, an extract from the Great 
Chaster. With the recommendation embodied in the Beport, once carried 
into eficct, and all London chorch-bells are henceforth dumb— dumb ia so 
fai aa fiineieal solemnities appeal to them. The giddy calcalating wayfitreis 
of London streeta, are, moreover, deprived of a most tonofaing raonl lesson ; 
for they will not hai« their idle or commereial feelings deepened into medi- 
tation by the frequent apfManmoe of walking AuMrals,shoiildering and edging 
their way through a crowd of busy life. This, no doubt, is only another 
attack upon another vested right, and — bat wo leave the measnre in the hands 
of Sm f STBB XtXxsKtx, who will, we fear it nol^ behave with beeoBing 
indignation npon so important a matter. 

The Bepoit recommends a vast eemeteiy for the million be estaUiriied. 
Brith is s<ud to be the spot pointed at. To this spot there will be easy aocess 
by railway; and Anther, by steam-boat, that, at several appointed stotiuiui 
shall, on certain days, take up its ftcight of mortality. How civic bodies, in 
then: gilt barges, rowed to iced punch and whitebait, will snSer the death- 
boot to poison the Thames and their sense of animal enjoyments, is yet to be 
known. The measnre has not yet been approved of by toe Court of Alder- 
men, and that Conrt boasts at least a Laubib. 

The Report further recommends that the cemetery be planted with trees. 
For— 

" It appears that daoomposition invariably goeson mora rapidly near the 
roots of trees than in any other parts of ^ buriol-gronnd; that the earth is 
always mnch drier near the roots of trees than elsewhere; that the fibres of 
the roots are drawn towards the site of the grave, and are often observed to 
penetrate right through the dacayedwoodof me coffin-lid." 

" The prodncts of decomposition an recombined," soys the Bepoit, " into 
living and healthfU vegetable stmctores," and thna, what were the maital 
elements of men and woman, may become yew and cypress, and weeping 
willow. In lieu of poisoning a city otmosplMre, the hnman earth is trans- 
ferred into a thing of bealchhU beauty. Very old, indeed, is the thought^ 
bat no less wdeome in the admirable Report before uai How solema—how 
profoundly significant is the old legend of Adam and the Tree of Paradise ! 

" Adaji, being now ready to die, felt a fear of death, and desired earnestly 
a branch from the Tree of Faradise. He therefore sent one of his sons thither 
to fetch one, in hope that he might escape this dreadful reward of sin. The 
SOB went, and made his petition to the diemb who gnarded the gate, and 
received from him a bough, but Adak meanwhile had departed, llierefore 
the son planted the bongh upon Adam's grave. It struck root, and grew 
into a great tree, and attausted the whole nature of Asaw to its nutriment. 
This tree— say the Talmudists — together with the bones of Adah from be- 
neath it, was preserved in the ark. After the waten had abated, NoAa di- 
vided these relics among his sona The skull was Shxk's sharei He boned 
it in. a mountain of Jndna, planting the tree with it, and the place was 
called ttxaa thence Calvary and GMgotba, or the place of a Sknll. And of 
that me was- made the Cross, so that he who perpends the matter well " — 
Unites oar old author— " shall find that whole Adah as it were is recollected 
in and under the cross, and so, with an admirable tie, oonjmned to the vivi- 
ifical natan itaelC" 

Beantifal and sostaining is the Aongiit of this solemn legend t It dcsesnds 
with an esiieciid coabrt firem chnrcbyard yew and cypnaSi— i'xMA. 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



FHASMACOLOGY. 

Na IV. 

SiUAOOOUM.— (OmtumerfyWw page 94.) 

Tie Aelum ofMeraay on the Human Sjfttem.—'Tbe medicinal virtues of thia 
mineral were almost totally unknown to the ancients, who considered it 
■s a poison. It wns first employed for purposes of medicine by the An- 
Uans, who made use of it in the form of ointments, for the cure of certain 
diseases of the skin, and the killing of vermin. In modem times, mer- 
eoiy is one of the most important articles of the materia medica. It has 
«n advantage over all others in being a specific remedy for a disease, 
which tends more than any other to the destruction of the hnman species, 
wid which, without this inestimable discovery, would probably have con- 
tinued incurable to the present day. Mercury, token into the stomach 
in its metallic state, has no action on the body, except what arises from 
its weight, or bulk. It is not poisonous, as was vnl^^jr supposed, but 
perfectly inert. But, in its various states of combination, it produces cer- 
twn sensible effects. It quickens the circulation, and increases all the se- 
' eretions and excretions. According to circumstances, the habit of the 
body of tiw patient, the temperature in which he is kept, the nature of 
the preparation, and the qtumtity in which it is exhibited, its effects are, 
indeed, various. SomeUmes it more particularly increases one secretion; 
■oraetimes another; but its most characteristic effect is the increased^flow 
of saliva, which it generally excites, if given in sufficient quantity. It 
has been said, that the efficacy of mercury in curing the venereal dis- 
ease, was an accidental discovery; but it seems more probable, that the 
good effects, which it produced in cutaneous diseases, first led physicians 
to make trial of it in tne venereal one, which frequently coming on with 
eruptions on the dtin, ulcers, &c seemed to present an analogy to tlie 
•ffeedoni^ in which mercury had already been found successful. In the 
times immediately following the fiitt origin of the venereal disease, piBC- 
tittoners only ventured to employ this rraiedy with timorous caution, so 
that, of several of their formulie, memuy scarcely composed a fourth 
part, and few cures were effected. On the other hand, the empirics who 
noticed the little efficacy of these small doses, ran into the opposite ex- 
tmne, and exhibited mercury in such large quantities, and with such little 
caie, that most of th^ patients became suddenly attacked with a moat 
violent salivation, frequenUy attended with very dangerous, and even fatal 
symptoms: or such as, after making them lose their teeth, left them pale, 
emaciated, exiiausted, and subject ror the rest of their lives to tiemblmgi, 
or other more or len dangerous affisctions. With regard to the prepa- 
ntions of the medicine, and the modes of applying it, we are to consider 
two things; first, the preparation and mode attended with the least troa- 
ble or inconvenience to the patient; and secondly, the preparation and 
mode of administering it, that most readily conveys the necessary qnan> 
til7 into the eonstitatioo. Mercury is carried into the constitution in tlie 
same way a* other substances, either by being abaorbed fixxn the surface 
of the body, or that of the alimentary canaL It cannot, however, in all 
cases, be taken into the constitution in both ways; for, sometimes the ab- 
■orbents of the skin will not readily receive it; at least, no effect is pro- 
dnoed, either on the disease, or constitution, fnm this mode of appUca- 
tion. In this circumstance, mercury must be given by the mouth, ol- 
thoi^h the plan may be very improper in other respects, and ofien in- 
convenient On the other hand, the internal absorbents sometimes will 
not take up the medicine, or at least, no effect Is produced on the disease, 
or the constitution. Mercury has two effects, one as a stimulus on the 
eonstitntion and particular parts; the other as a specific on a diseased 
actionof the whole body, or of parts. The latteraction can only be com- 
puted by the disease disappeanng. In giving mercury in the venereal 
disease the first attention should be to the quantity, and its visible effects 
in a given time, which, when brought to a proper pitch, are only to |be 
kept up, and the decline of the disease to be watcned; for by this we 
judge of the invisible, or specific effects of the medicine, and know what 
variation in the quantity may be necetsary. The visible effects of mer- 
cury aftct either the whole constitution, or some parts capable of secre- 
tion. In the first, it produces universal iiritability, making it more sus- 
ceptible of all impressions. It quickens thepulsc^ increases its hardness, 
and occasions a und of temporary fever. In some constitutions, it ope- 
rates like a poison. In some it produces a kind of hectic fever; that is, a 
small quick pulse, loss of appetite, restloasness, want of sleeps and a sallow 
complexion, with a number of consequent symptoms ; bat such effiects 
commonly diminish, on the patient bowming a ^little accustomed to die 
medicine. Mercmy often produces pains like those of rheumatism, and 
■odes of a scrofakias natnie. Mennty occasionally attacks the bowels, 
and caaaA violent purging, even of blood. This effect is remedied by 
intermitting the use of the medicine, and exhibiting opium. At other 
timet, it is suddenly determined to the mouth, and produces inflammation, 
idoeration, and an excessive flow of saliva. To obtain relief in this cir> 
cmiBCance, purgatives, nitre, sulphur, gum-arabic, lime-water, camphor, 
bark, kali snlplwratam, blisters, &&, have been advised. Mr. Abemelby's 



mode of pursuing his mercurial coarse was cautious and regular, and 
during many years' practice we have bad ample proof of its efficacy. 
He prescribed only small doses, taking care that the error so often faU«a 
into, of increasing the quantity when any benefit was perceptible, should 
be avoided. Nouiing can be more injudicious than the augmentation of 
the quantity of this medicine without sufficient reason. In small doaes 
the biliary secretion is corrected, and the digestive organs are placed in 
a healthier condition; larger quantities exert an infiuence on the whole 
constitution, and alter the state of the nervous system, thus controlling 
disease dependent on an irritable and disturbed state of the nervous 
fanction ; but in still larger quantities, it never fails to irritate and weaken 
the system, and thus to derange the digestive organs. Five grains of 
blue pill, taken at night, will not irritate the bowels, but, generslly speak- 
ing, throe are sufficient, and may be continued for some days: occasion- 
ally the mouth becomes affected, with a very few night's repeUtion of the 
dose, but this often depends upon the badness of the bine pill. It some- 
times happens that; whilst the secretions from the liver are materially im- 
proved, as the secretions testify, that dyspeptic symptoms supervene ; 
in such cases the blue pill is to be discontinued, and again had recourse 
to at a future period. During moist states of the weather, mercuiiil 
preparations should be sparingly prescribed, and when, from the diseaied 
state of the nrstem, they caimot be dispsnsnl with, very great attention 
should be paid to the clothing. Females of a delicate, nervous, irritable 
frame, whilst taking mercury, are rendered languid, peevish, and incapa- 
ble of fulfilling their usual duties; they feel chilly, they easily shed lean, 
are sometimes almost hysteric, and though they nave no actnal suffering 
to endure, are almost as miserable as if they hod it to encounter. On the 
other hand, the stout; robnst, plethoric individual, who probably has to 
bear very great pain, from the nature of his disease, seems quite insensi- 
to any unwonted effect; it, however, more generallv acts upon such a 
constitution with greater energy, and leaves behind it a more decided 
state of debility, if it be persevered in for any length of time, or if it be 
often repeated. 

There are numerous other substances, both in the vegetable and minenl 
kingdom, which will produce very considerable salivation. Amongst 
the minerals, the salts of gold, of antimony, and of copper, are the 
most remarkable; croton oil and digitalis amongst vegetatuesi and the 
imagination, too, has great influence. 

GOUT. 

BT THB ZDIXOB. 

No. IV. 
(Comtauud ficm page 93.^ 

The Tbeatkzht of Gottt ik Unhbaltht Subjbcm.— 
When we know, or when we have reason to suspect, that the 
constitution of the patient is not sound and vigorous, but that 
there is debilitj, or predisposition to disease, in one or other of 
the internal organs — as when the stomach is dyspeptic, or the 
lungs asthmatic, or the heart subject to palpitation, or the bead 
to nervous pains or drowsiness; — we must then treat the gouty 
paroxysm not merely as a local affection, but as one immedi- 
ately and importantly complicated with internal derangement. 
Were we to endeavour to cut short an attack of acute gout in 
persons of weakly habits, by bleeding, violent purging, cold lo- 
tions, &c., we must, as a natural result, expect to find that, as the 
gout ceases in the hands or feet, so speedily does it fly to some 
debilitated vit^ organ ; and by thua transferring ths diseased 
action, we change a comparatively harmless attack to one of 
imminent peril. 

In debilitated constitutions, or whenever there is an accidental 
disorder of any particular organ, we should, from the onset of 
every attack of gout, be watchful of the least increase of, or 
alteration in, the internal symptoms : indeed, as far as the local 
gout is concerned, we are sometimes compelled to commit the 
patient to "patience and flannel," and direct our whole attention 
to the constitutional disease. In doing so, the treatment must 
be based on the same principles as would guide us in our treat- 
ment of the same symptoms, occurring in the same organs, in- 
duced by other or ordmary causes, modified, of coarse, by the 
individual peculiarities of the case— «« the freqnenc]| of the at- 
tack, the previous exhaustion experienced ander similar attacks, 
and the general state of the strength and constitatioiu In re- 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ato FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



101 



ference to such treatment, a deceased physician says :— " Here 
professional judgment is to be called into exercise, and the prac- 
titioner is to draw largely upon that skill and discrimination 
vhich it was the object of his education to bestow upon him ; 
and thus bestirring himself, he will rarely fall into an error." 
While pursuing the constitutional treatment— to which we shall 
have to refer when we apeak of the treatment of irregular and 
misplaced gout— we need not condemn the sufferer to unmiti- 
gated^torture, for it will often be in our power to palliate his 
pain, and not unirequently to expedite his cure, without incur- 
ring a risk of affecting his general state of health. The local 
treatment, however, must be of the most soothing character ; a 
few leeches maybe applied when the pain is very violent, and the 
state of the patient will permit the loss of a small quantity of 
blood ; -warm fomentiitions, either of simple water, or of an in- 
fusion of poppy heads, or hops ; ur poultices containing some 
anodyne, as laudanum, or a small proportion of the extract of 
belladonna, may be frequently repeated. The best local applica- 
tion we consider to be an embrocation, composed of almond oil 
and laudanum, used with a moderate degree of friction — ^the 
same as that to which we referred in the last paper. 

Thx Tseaimert of IbbeouiiAB Gout.— In irregular 
gout, which commences without any local symptoms, our con- 
stant endeavours should be directed to produce a transfer of the 
disease from the internal part on which it has seized, and to fix 
it on the extremities. Our first intention must be to lessen the 
severe sufferings under which the patient labours, for whatever 
organ may be the seat of the malady, the pain is almost insup- 
portable ; if in the head, it is maddening, attended with great 
horror, or the patient appears as in the stupor of apoplexy : if 
in the stomach, there is a faintness like that of death, with the 
sense of a cold lump of lead lodged within it ; or there is a gnaw- 
ing or a burning agony, or a spasmodic stricture which cuts the 
body in two, and renders breathing almost impossible ; all these 
sufferings are constantly attended with a rapid and sinking pal. 
pitation of the heart, In most cases during the paroxysm, and 
especially when the stomach is affected, the warmest cordials are 
necessary, as brandy, the aromatic spirit of ammonia, the tinc- 
ture of ginger, or of capsicum ; and with these aromatics, when- 
ever the bowels are confined, it will be necessary to add some 
warm aperient, as aloes or rhubarb. Dr. Good says, " The best 
aperient, and at the same time stimulant medicine that I know 
of (in this form of gout), is the essential oil of turpendne ; which, 
as uniting the powers of an active cathartic and a camphorate 
cordial, gives us all the qualities we can look for. I do not 
know that this valuable medicine has ever yet been brought into 
general practice in any form of gout ; but I may venture to pre- 
dict, that those who try it, in tiie modification before us, will 
seldom have to repent of their experiment. The dose should be 
about six drachms, swallowed unmixed." We confess that we 
cannot from our own experience speak of the efficacy of this 
remedy. Ether is an invaluable remedy, particularly wh^ there 
is that icy coldness of the stomach we have before alluded to, 
accompanied with a numbness of the limbs and a rapid palpita. 
tion of the heart. Musk, in many instances, has been employed 
with decided advantage, especially in those cases in which the 
head is affected as well as the stomach. Without opium we can 
do but little; it is indeed our sheet-anchor, and should be ^ven 
freely, for small doses will be of litUe or no avail ; it should be 
exhibited in union with some preparation of antimony, so as to 
act towards the surface generally, " and thus to restore to the 
living power its interrupted equUibriom." That great medical 
authority of a past generation, Dr. Cullen, thus records the per- 
fect safety with which large doses of this drug may be employ- 
ed : he writes, " In a case of the gout in the stomach, I have by 
degrees gone on to the dose of ten grains twice a day ; and when 
tbe disease was overcome, the dose of opium was gradually dimi- 



nished, till, in the course of two or three weeks, it was none at 
all ; and in this no harm appeared to be done to the system. We 
frequently find that when a strong irritation is to be overcome, 
very large doses may be given without procuring sleep, or showing 
any of those deleterious effects that, in other cases, appear from 
much smaller quantities. All this appears now well Known from 
practice in tetanus, mania, small-pox, gout, and syphilis." This 
potent drug, in such doses, should only be thus employed under 
the constant personal superintendence of the medical practitioner. 
Constantly, during the employmentof the means just advised, we 
should solicit the paroxysm to the extremities, by putting the feet 
into warm water, and cause gentle friction to be made by the 
hand, flannel, or a soft flesh brush. External irritants sometimes 
are of service, particularly those of rapid action ; the region of 
the stomach may be rubbed with the compound camphor lini- 
ment, or a strong poultice of newlyprepaied mustard may be 
applied. We shall speak of the treatment during convalescence 
and during the intervals of the attacks at the conclusion of this 
paper. 

Thk Tbeatment op MispiACED GotJT. — When the disease 
has shifted from the hands or the feet to an internal organ, the 
treatment to be pursued is the same as when the disease com- 
mences in an internal organ. When the gout lingers in the 
extremities, sometimes going and frequentiy returning, and when 
with this inconstancy there are symptoms of internal disorder, 
we should endeavour to increase the morbid action in the hand 
or foot, by local irritants applied to the joints, as camphor, am- 
monia, bUsters, mustard-pomtices, or the moxa ; and at the same 
time prescribe a light but generous diet, with rather more wine, 
or other stimulant, than the patient is in the usual habit of taking; 
care should be exerted, at the same time, that the bowels are 
moderately moved by rhubarb, or by small doses of aloes, or the 
compound decoction of aloes. 

Tbeatkeki subiho the Intebvaxs of the Diskase.— 
During the interval, the treatment is of as much importance as 
that required during the paroxysms. The great objects of atten. 
tion are diet and exercite. The patient should go into training ; 
and whatever is known to be an exciting cause must be sedulously 
avoide^. Where the diet has been too rich, it must be lowered ; 
and where too spare and abstemious, made more liberal. Luxury, 
indolence, and a sedentary life, must give place to regular exer- 
cise ; and over exertion of mind or body must be exchanged to 
repose and quietude. In every change, however, it is better to 
proceed slowly, rather than rush from one extreme to another, 
for nothing has so great a tendency to prepare the internal organs 
for gouty disease as sudden and violent transitions. The bowels 
should be kept in regular order ; the functions of the stomach 
properly attended to ; the slightest indication of indigestion in- 
stantly combatted and removed, and the whole tone and vigour 
of the system increased. 



A HKAVT BLOW AOAIVSI QUACXKST. 

An action has been tried at the Northern Circuit, before Mr. Baron Alder- 
lon, in which a dmggist named Kirkus was plaintiff, and another named 
Atkinson was defendant. The action was to recover damages for manufac- 
tming and selling pills, called "Torr's Family Fills." It appears that the 
phuntiff manied the daughter of Torr, and thus came into poasession of the 
recme. He sold the Fills under the title of Torr's Family Fills mauufiictured 
bv Kirkos. The defendant succeeded to Ton's business, and he sold the pills 
also, but as Tarr"! Family Fills manufactured by Atkinson. The labels were 
the same in both instanceiL The counsel tot the defence o(H>tended that, so 
long as the defendant did not profess to sell Torr's Fills, as mvmfactnred by 
Kirkus, he bod a right to manufacture and sell Toir's Pills, as manufactured 
for himself. The judge charged for the defendant, who obtained the verdict. 
Thus, then, the right to a patent or quack medicine, may be defeated hj the 

penon making it merely adding to the label, " as manufactured by !" 

This will, we fiincy, be one of £e heaviest blows yet given to the patent medi- 
cine system 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOURNAL, 



INTESTINAL WORMS. 

It bu been laid, that nature has proTided ever; aiiimal with other animals 
to prey apon it, and make a habitation of it. It is said that a fiea has its 
flea — and no doubt many of onr readers hare observed one or two small 
Insects, less than a mice, under the wings of the common house fly. The 
parasites that piost injuriously affect the human subject are worms, and it 
tias been said, one-half of the total number of children have either the roond 
or thread worm. 

There are five species of worms capable of inhabiting the intestines of 
man ; namely the Ascaris lumbricoides, the lumbricus teres, or long round 
worm ; Ascaris vermicularis, or small white thread, or maw worm i Tricba- 
lis or tricocepbalus dispar, or the long hair-tailed thread worm ; Tsnia 
solium or tape worm ; Taenia lata, or broad tape-worm. 

The Tape-worm is the most rare species that is found ; an estimate has been 
made, that in France, only one individual in a hundred suSbrs from it. Only one 
kind of worm is commonly found in the same subject, and that, most frequently, 
is of the lon^ round species: yet it is not very rare to find two species existing 
together in uic alimentary canaL Tlie records of medicine iumish examples 
of patients, who even voided simultaneonsly thread worms, long round worms, 
and a tape worm. Generally speaking, the smaller the worm the more nume- 
rons th«y are; and the ttenio, the largest, has received the epithet of solatm, 
from the supposition, that it is always solitary, which was the notion of Hip- 
pocrates; but this is a mistake, for in the human subject several may be met 
with together, and in animals, especially dogs, tape-worms sometimes exist 
together in great nnmbersi 

Worms sometimes produce the most distressing effects, so as to make life 
a burthen, and at other times they produce no symptoms at all, and a person 
only knows that he has them because he discuarges them. When worms 
exist in the alimentary canal, the symptoms are usually headache, sometimes 
sharp, sometimes dull, and frequently there is a stabbing of the temples, hea- 
viness, giddiness, and even convulsions, perhaps irregular epile|ny, some 
authors have even ascribed lock-jaw to tb« presence of worms, and always 
great depression of spirits. There is a black circle round the eyes; the 
face is pale; a constant itching irritates the noso; the tongue is foul, the taste 
nnpleasant, and the breath ofi'cnsivc; a cough is frequently present, and oc- 
casionally the patient spits blood. The appetite is depraved, there is constant 
nsnsea, occasionally vomiting; a gnawing pain is felt at the pit of the sto- 
mach, and occasionally nil over the abdomen; the character of the pain 
varies; it may be only tenderness, or a pricking pain, but more frequently it 
ia a griping, gnawing, exhausting pain. In many instances the belly is 
swollen and hard. The bowels ate iircgular, sometimes pui-ged, often con- 
stipated ; itching of a similar degree to tluit experienced in the nose is felt at 
the fundament and in the genitms ; with the evacuations there is a discharge 
of mucus; the patient is feverish, and tlierc is loss of flesh and strengtli. Of 
coarse these signs and symptoms arc not found in every case: we have noted 
them as the probable diagnostics of the presence of worms. 

THB LOKO BOUND WOBU. 

The head of this worm is slightly bent inwards, having a slight contraction 
betow; its mouth is triangular, body transparent, of a light yellow colour, 
with a faint lino down the sides; it is very lively, and ranges from four to 
liileen inches in length. It inhabits principally the small intestines of thin 
persons, generally about the ileum, but sometimes ascends into the stomach, 
and has been known to creep out of the mouth and nostrils^ occasionally it 
travels to the rectum, and passes away by the onus, frank notices an in- 
stance of eighty of these worms, rolled up into a ball, being expelled by a 
patient during a fever. 

In its general appearance the long round worm bears so striking a resem- 
blance to the earthworm (lumbricus terresirw), that by many naturalists it 
lias been regarded as the same. Yet^ to attentive obson-ers, there is a consi- 
derable dificrcncc, both in tbeir form and movements. The body of the 
int&stinnl worm is round, its colour yellow, or of a pole red, and, in moving, 
it curls its body into circles, from which it extends its head. The earth worm 
is flat towards the tail, and lus bristles on its under side, which it can erect 
At, pleasure. Its colour is dusky red; its head has bnt one vesicle, and it 
moves by a continuous course of action propagated from ring to ring. 

This worm will sometimes remain so quiet as to give no signs of its exist- 
ence but by its discharge. Frequently, however, it is a troublesome and 
mischievous intruder, pixiducing an intolerable feeling of fainlness, great 
emaciation, and most of the symptoms just recited. 

This species of worm may be readily removed by proper treatment, which 

consists in the administration of such purgatives as are known to act on that 

part of the intestine in which they most delight to dwelL For an adult the 

following medicines shoold bu persisted in for sMne time, say for a fortnight. 

Take— Calomel, five grains; 

Powdered scammony, six grains; 
Powdered ginger, two grains; 
Mix for a powder, to be taken in preserve ev«ry third night. 
Or Take— Catomel, three grains; 

Gum gamboge, fom' grains; 
Powdered jal^i, fifteen gmias; 
Mix for a powder. 



On the succeeding morning a draught thus composed may be reqoiied:— 
Take— Decoction of does, ten drachms; 

Tincture of jalap, one and a half drachm; 
Tincture of ginger, half a drachm; 
Mix for a draught, to m taken early in the morning. 
The patient should drink copiously of blond diluents, as barley-water or 
rice-water; the diet should be plain, dry, and nutritive — that is, broiled 
mutton, stale bread, and weak black tea, with a modicum of pale ale. After 
the evacuations from each purge show that the unpleasant tenants have left 
the premises, a light bitter shouLi be persisted in for some time, as the in> 
fusion of calumbo, and the strength should be gradually and honestly regained 
by good diet, proper exercise, and cheering occapation — not by stinuilantaL 
(To be continued.) 

THINGS m THE EYE. 
Thih<m of various kinds occoaionally gtl into the ej/e as it is commonly called 

not meaning thereby, that they get into tlie eve-ball itself, though this indeed 
sometimes happens, but only that they get within the eyelids, between them 
and the balL A small fly may dash in, or road sand, a small piece of straw 
or soot, or any other small body may bo driven in by a gust of wind ; or, whilst 
grinding a steel instrument a delicate fragment may be thrown up by the 
wheel into the eye. If the body be soft, or if it has not been darted in with 
much violence, it rarely fixes on the globe, but is quickly transferred bam. it 
to the inside of one of the eyelids, generally of the upper, so that it is not at 
first perceived, and its presence only supposed in consequence of the uneasy 
feeling and the fioa discharge of tears, which ore secreted in great abundance 
as a natural eSbrt to wash the offender out. If, however, it be driven with 
violence, it beds itself more firmly in the surface of the cyc-ball, and can then 
be seen as well as felt when the lids are opened. 

When a person feels that something has got into his eye, the first thing he 
does is to close the eyelids violently, open them partially, close them again, 
and compress the eye-ball in every way the muscles will admit, or, in common 
but very expressive language, " screw the eye up," for the purpose of squeeang 
out the unwelcome intruder ; whilst at the same time be rubs the eye-lid 
smartly with his knuckle. This is often followed by a gush of tears which 
floats the little body from its lodgement, and entangles it in the eye-lashes, 
whence it is easily removed. Not uncommonly, however, this proceeding is 
unsuccessful, and if the intruder, instead of lying loosely on the sorfaoe of the 
globe or eye-lid, has fixed itself, the more rubbing the leas likely is it to be 
detached ; therefore, imdcr any circumstances, it is better to proceed in a 
different manner. 

The most simple plan is, to keep the eye-lids closed, and then gently pass 
the finger over them, fhim tlie outer to the inner comer, which is the natoril 
course of the tears, in their passage from the gland secreting them, on the 
upper outer part of the orbit, to the little passage by which they run into the 
nostril. After thus passing the finger a few times, the little substance is 
often found at the inner comer of the eye, and may be wiped out with a hand- 
kerchief or with the finger. Another, and very good method, if the lodgment 
be either on the eye-ball or within the upper lid, is to take hold of ^e eye- 
lashes of the npperUd, and lift it completely over the lower, the lashes of which, 
being thns interposed between tlie upper lid and the cyc-bolI, serve as a deli- 
cate brush, and entangling the subsbiuce, bring it out with them, when the 
upper lid recovers its place. A third proceeding, is to lift up the lid, and in- 
sert a piece of blotting paper between it and the globe, and, giving it a gentle 
sweep, the intruder is caught by and removed with it. Sbonld neither of 
these methods, however, produce any relief, if the uneasiness and the watering 
of the eye continue, then it is better to ascertain the precise situation of the 
intruder, so as to act more cfBciently on it. For this purpose, with the finger 
gently draw doMTi the lower eye-lid, which will completely expose its inner 
surfuoo, and the whole lower part "of the eye-ball, both of which are to be 
examined. To look at the upper lid, which requires being turned inside out, 
is more difficult, but may be done with gentleness and a little dexterity, in the 
following way: with the finger and thumb of one hand, take hold of the 
lashes of the upper eye-lid, and pull it forward fVora the globe; then, with the 
other, lay the blunt end of n bodkin, or of n small steel netting needle, npon 
its outer surface, and press down gently, at the same time lifting the lashes 
tom-ards the cyelxow. This turns the inside of the lid out, and it may then 
be well examined. 

If the little substance bo found nnfixed, it may be either gently sucked off 
with the mouth, or with n piece of blotting paper; but-if partially embedded, it 
will need probing rather firmly, with the end of a bodkin, wrapped round 
with Ismail piece of lint, and thns removed. 

Occasionally it happens, that the intruding substance is got rid of uncon- 
sciously in rubbing the eye, but having wounded and irritated the surface of 
the eyC' ball or lids, the iiritation may continue for some time, and in some 
cases produce supcrficinl inflammation of the ball or lids. Generally, faow- 
evwv the uneosinesB sabsidcs; but if it cantinne and increase, it ia moat likely 

that tl«e cause of irrit ation is still rcmsiiung. 

MaTOisiD, .physician to the Kii^ of France, was so fond of administering 
'• medians^ that, seeing all the phials and piU-boBts of his patient' ooiapletely 
' emptied, «nd ranged in order on the mantle-piece, he said, " Ah 1 sire, it givei 
'. me pleasure to attend you — j-ou desen-e to bo ilL", 



Digitized by 



Google 



AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



103 



FAMILY PRESCRIPTIONS AND MEDICAL PRECEPTS. 

Djlsiieuon Boots, maj be thas prepared for meclicinal pnrpoiea. Take 
nine onnces of dandcbon roots, cleaned, dried, and diced ; inln^e them for 
twenty honn in water sufficient to cover them. Press them and set ande, ifkcr 
a short time, pour off the clear liquor, and heat it to almost 180 degret a ; filter 
it whilst hot, and evaporate it before the fire or in an oven not too hot, uii. il ^e 
product shall weigh seven ounces ; add about one ounce of spirit of wine eg 
that it may " keep." Dose of this extract about a teaspoonfuL Taraxacum, or 
the dandelion, is a favourite "spring medicine i" it is a mild aperient ; it is 
useful in obstructions of the liver, and in many forms of indigestion, 

Tasat fifty to six^ years, the body begins to show symptoms of lo;g of 
power, and sluggishness of function, the prelude to that slow decay of which 
the progress is marked by diminished sensibili^, impaired memory-, muscular 
weakness, scanty secretions, calculous affections, osseous depouts, organic 
diseases of the principal viscera, and malignant degenerationt. 

Q uM i un . — ^The following is an excellent fonn of exhibiting quinhie^ so as 
to conceal its intense bitterness. Take half an ounce of fresh ground Mocha 
coffee, infine in five oonoet of boiling water ; strain, or prepare the coffee by 
tbe aid of ft percolater, and odd twemy-fonr grains of the sulphate of 
quaniae, and half an canoe of mgar. Doee, a taUe-epooniiiL 

Retzstios op 0B1WB. — Take, spirits of sweet nitre, three drachms ; spirits 
of juniper, one ounce ; inftision of Bnchu, six onnces, and a-half. Mix. Dose, 
two table-spoonsful three times a day. 

FsECKi-Ea. — The following preparation has been recommended for the 
removal of freckles. Take muriatic scid, one drachm.; distilled water one 
pint I ean-de-cologne, two drachms. Mix. The face, and neck (if required) 
to be washed two or tliree times a day, by means of a soft sponge. 

Thb Icb Cap. — ^In inflammation of the brain, or of the membranes of the 
Inin, (arachnUes) great benefit is derived from applying to the head, a 
Uadder, one-third fiul of pounded ice. It acts as a coiwtant source of cold; 
and, if it were required, its force might be augmented, by adding a little 
nmriate of soda (cooomon salt) to the ice, by which its solution is greatly 
accelerated, and the cold produced augmented. It nuist thus be qieedily 
nnewed. 

DIETARY, WHOLESOME AND ECONOMIC, 

FuBB OsxAzoxE, OB Ssseuce op lOEAT. — Take two pounds of the flesh 
of any animal or bird (the older the better for obtaining the true flavour), as 
ftee mim sinew as possible, and mince it well ; place it in a Florence oil- 
flask, and cork it ; put this in a sucepan filled with cold water, leaving the 
neck nncoYered ; place it on the side of the fire nntil the water arrives at 1 60 
degrees Fahrenheit, at which temperature it must remain twenty minutes ; 
Aen remove it, and strain the contents through a tammie, pressing the 
meat gently with a spoon ; should it require to be kept for some time, put 
the liquor in a bas^n or cup, which place in a saucepan ; subject it to a 
boiling heat until it is reduced to a consistency like treacle, removing the 
icnm ; this, when cold, will become solid, and will kpcp for any number of 
years. Osmozome is known under various names in different cookery books, 
as ' fumet," " essence," &c., but which are obtained in a different way, which 
causes the gelatine to be produced with the osmazome ; bm. by the above 
plan, it is left in the meat, and the osmazome, with a small quantity of the 
albomen, is extracted, and the albumen is afterwards removed as the 
scQtn. 

Fbkhcb Hsbb BROm. — This is a &vorito beverage in France, as well with 
people in a state of health as with invalids, especially in the spring, when the 
Serbs are young and green. Put a quart of water to boil, but have previously 
prepared about forty leaves of sorrel, a cabbage lettuce, and ten sprigs of 
chervil, the whole well washed ; when the water is boiling throw in the above, 
with the addition of a tea-spoonful of salt and half an ounce of fresh batter ; 
cover your saucepan close, and let them simmer for a few minutes, then pass 
in through a sieve or colander. This is to be drunk cold, especially in the 
spring of the year, after the change from winter. "I generally drink about 
a quart per day for a week, at that time," says M. Soyer, " but if for sick 
people, it must be made less strong of herbs, and taken a little warm. To 
prove that it is wholesome, we have only to refer to the instinct which 
teaches dogx to eat gross at that season of the year. I do not pretend to say 
that it woiUd suit persons in every malady, because the doctors are to decide 

rn the food and beverage of their patients, and study its changee as well 
nge their medicines." — The Malem Soiuewi/i, by AUxU Soger. 

CiBWBT FtroDiKO. — Boil one pint of milk, with a piece of lemon peel, 
.poor it on one oanoe of sponge bisieoits, let it soak half an hour, thai add 
three egga, half an ounce of currants, and very little sugar ; steam it in a 
hmtcfed moold, lined with raisins, one bom*. 

Trkacle Beer. — Take brown sugar, one pound; treacle, one pound; 
bcaiscd ginger, one ounce ; hops, a quarter of an ounce ; boil for a few minutes 
1b three quarts of water, strain, and add five quarts of cold water; add a 
(poonAil <M fresh yeast; let it work all night, ana bottle in the.iooniing. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Naw nadg,price *d^ bupoit, Qd. 
INDIGESTION, CONSTIPATION, NERVOUSNESS, AND 
•^ LOW SPIRITS. 

The Causes, Symptoms, and Ratinoal TVeatment. 
By T. H. Vboilui, M.D. 

This work is a corrected reprint of the papers on Indigestion published 
in The People's Medicai, Jodrnai., with much additional information. 

London : published by the Author, 25, Lloyd Square, Pentonville ; 
and sold by Georoe Vickers, Strand, and all Booksellers and Newsven- 
dors. It is requested that all orders for copies to be sent by post may be f«r> 
warded to the Author, so as to insure punctual dispatch. 

Also by the same author, price 38, ; by post 2s. 6d. 
CONSUMPTION of the LUNGS, or DECLINE; "the 
'-'Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment, with the means of Preven- 
tion. 

. " There is no assumption or quackery in this little volume— it is just each' 
a work as might be anticipated from an intelligent and experienced physi- 
cian. The suggestions and recommendations of Dr. Yeoman are extremely 
valuable, and may be unhesitatingly and advantngeonsly adopted by all who 
are interested in the health and well-being of the rising generation."— 
Morning Herald, Oct. 23, 1848. 

Also by the same author, price Ss. 
ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, INFLUENZA, and CATARRH. 
■"• the Causes, Symptoms, and Rational Treatment. 

" The perusal of the publication before us, which turns upon four of the- 
most prevalent evils to which flesh is heir in these lands, cannot fail to prove 
most beneficial to sufferers among ail persons of sense, and to further success- 
ful medicil treatmenu'— £rt<uA Banner, March 21, 1849. 

" This work emanates from a gentleman thoroughly well versed in the sub- 
ject, and who has obtained great and deserved celebrity by his mode of 
treatment."— TFib* Standard, January 16, 1849. 

_ "This is an excellent little treatise by a clever and clear-headed piaeti- 

tioner. Dr. Tkoxak is well known by his work «i Consumption, and the 

presentpublication will add to his fame."— TTeeAfyDt^MifcA, Jon. 14, 1849. 

London: Sampson Low, 169, Fleet Street ; JEpfinoham Wilsox, n, 

Royal Exchange ; Webster & Co., 60, Piccadilly : and all Booksellers. 



npRUSSES,— 8. SMITH. Tmss Maker. 1, High Holbom, 
-*- * three doors fW>m Gray's Inn Lane, respectfully announces to the Public 
that TRUSSES can be had at his EsMblishment at the following Loir 
Prices: — Donble Trusses, 16s. each; Single Ditto, 8s. 

Manufacturer of Lace Stockings, Knee-caps, Suspensory Bandages, Biding 
Belts, &c Mrs. Smith attends on Indies. 

■fJEVILL'S PATENT FLOUR OF LENTILS,— 
A pleasant, nutritious, and agreeable Food for Invalids, Dyspeptics, 
and persons suffering from Constipation, or any other chronic derangement 
(rf the Digestive Oigans— also for making Orad. It is the only food that 
does not distend or turn acid on a weak Stomach. It will be found invalu- 
able for Delicate Children and Sufferers from Debility. 

Sold Wholesale by Nevill and Co., 16a, Chichester Place, Gray's Inn 
Road, London; and Retail by T. Carsick, 137, Crawford Street ; T. 
Sharp, 44, Bishopsgate Street 'Within ; Miles, Gracechureh Street, City; 
and may be obtained from all respectable Shopkeepers in the Kingdom, in 
Packets, 6d. and Is. each, and 6 lb. and 13 lb. canisters, Ss. 6d. and lOs. 6d. 
each. 



"P. S. CLEAVURS WINTER SOAP.— This Soap is » 
combination of the Genuine Honey Soap, Camphor, and Vegetable 
Oils, consequently the very best for this season of the year, and at all times 
for tender skins. Invaluable as a Shaving Soap. Sold in large non- 
angular Tablets, at 3d. each ; and monsters 6d. each. To be had at the 
manufactory, 13, Red Lion Square, Holbom. and at all Chemists, Perftimers , 
&c, in the United Kingdom. 



TORN MILES, (Late BUTLER amd Co.) DISPENSING 
** CHEMIST, 78, Grtceehnreh Street, respectfully informs the public 
that the most vigilant eare and attention is always paid by him to the seleo* 
tion of the purest and best Drugs and Chemicals; the toomquent dangerons 
adulteration and careless preparation of Medidnes, upon the exact action of 
which depend the health and safety of our fellow-creatures, induces J. Miles 
to pledge himself that every article sold at his establishment is genuine, and 
that all prescriptiims ore dispensed by well-qualified assistants under his own 
immediate direction. 

Agent for Rooff's Patent Improved Respirator, J. M. has now a lai^ 
supply of Cod Lnrxa On, prepared ftvm the finest fidi of the wasoo. 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 



THE PEOPLE'S MEDICAL JOUBJNAL AND FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

NoTicx. — ^Alt oommnnicationa for the Editor mnst be addressed, pre-paid, 
to hia honae. No. 25, Llotd Squabb, Psbtomtiixk. It is indispensa- 
ble tliat letters requiring a private answer contain a postage stamp, or 
stamped envelope, whereon is written the address of tne q>pliciui(. 
Invalids resident in the coantiy, and others desiring the opinion of the 
Editor, who are unable to consult him personally, can have, on applica- 
tion, a series of questions proposed to them, and by attention on their 
part, in giving answers thereto, the necessity of a personal interview, in 
many instances, may be avoided, without detriment to the snccessfiil 
issue of the required treatment Notes of every cose submitted to the 
Editor will be recorded in hia private case-book for the facility of refe- 
rence at any future period. 

The Editob is at home every day until one o'clock ; and in the evenings 
on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from Seven to Nine. 

He attends at Mr. Milks'b Medicai. and SuaaiCAi. Estabubbmsht, 78, 
Gracechnrch Street, on Mondays, Thursdays^ and Saturdays, from Two 
till Three o'clock. 



WitH this number, the first five numbers of the Fsoplb's Medical Jock- 
HAL are re-issued. Fort I will be re-published with the April Maga- 
zines, and all back numbers are now in prin