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A Rec(Md of Settlement, Organization, Progress and 



Local liistoiy is tlie ultimate substance of national history— Wilson 





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liKITISH RULE IN ILLINOIS 1 763- 1 7/8 39 


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TEM 135 
















TIES 261 










ATHY 347 






















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"Tlie student of history delights in a good foundation on which to start to 
write history, without which, it is like beginning in the middle of a story." — 
Rufiis Blanchard. 

The history of Peoria is one of unusual interest. Emerging as it does grad- 
ually from the dim, unknown and unknowable past, it connects the myths, fable, 
and fancy of the Indian with the wonderful things of our modern life — the 
Piasa bird with the flying machine. At the time when the first persons who 
were able to write permanent and intelligible records of what they saw and 
heard visited this country, the beautiful valley of the Illinois was in the posses- 
sion of the "Illinois," a confederacy composed of five Indian tribes, the Kas- 
kaskias, Peorias, Cahokias, Tamaroas, and ^litchigamies. The nanne of the 
confederacy is now seen and will be forever recognized in the names of our 
glorious state and our own lovely river connecting the great lakes on the north 
with the great river, "Father of Waters," on the west. 

I feel inclined to call the Pe-o'-rias our tribes, because their melodious name 
is made imperishable in the name of our own fair city and our beautiful lake. 

The Kaskaskias, who were the strongest tribe of the confederacy, have 
given their name to one of the largest rivers in Illinois and also to the first 
capital of the state. 

The Cahokias are remembered in the name of a town near St. Louis which, 
in many ways, is closely connected with the history of Peoria. 

Sixty miles southeast of St. Louis the City of Tamaroa perpetuates the 
memory of another tribe and the Mitchigamies have given their name to the 
great lake on our north-eastern borders. 

Thus, although the melancholy tale of the sufferings and extermination of 
these Indians is read in the setting sun, their names will remind us forever of 
those who were here before the coming of the white men. 

When the first missionary asked the Indians what they were called, they 
replied that they were "Illini" saying the word meant perfect, manly men. 
The missionaries added the letters "ois" a French termination meaning a race 
or tribe; hence the word "Illinois" means a race of perfect manly men. May 
it long be truly characteristic of those who shall live within our boimdaries ! 

Peoria is situated near forty degrees and forty minutes north. 

Peorians sometimes complain of the climate. It does occasionally change 
a great many degrees in a short time but it changes more rapidly in some other 
places in the temperate zone. Of course, in the far north it is always cold and 
in the torrid zone it is always hot and little change either place and for some 
ailments of persons of delicate health the Peoria climate is not suitable, but 
for persons in good health, it is probably as healthy a climate as can be found 
anywhere and it is believed that for the majority of such persons there is no 
climate more desirable. 

If we desire to learn what other places are situated in our latitude and would 
follow our latitude eastward, we would pass near Logansport, Indiana ; Lima 



and Canton, Ohio ; Pittsburg, Pennsylvania and a little south of New York 
City ; crossing the Atlantic, we would land about one-third of the way down 
on the coast of Portugal ; pass near .Madrid, Spain ; pass through the north end 
of Sardena; then near Naples and Brindisi in Italy; Salonika in Greece; near 
Constantinople and Erzerum ; near Baku on the western side of the Caspian, the 
great oil country ; then in Central Asia ; near Bokahra and Samarkand in the 
Steppes of Central Asia where it is often fifty degrees below zero in winter 
and of tropical heat in summer, although it is about the same latitude as Peoria ; 
then near Peking, China; within sixty miles of the north end of the great Jap- 
anese island of Nipon; and crossing the Pacific land on the Pacific coast about 
half way between San Francisco and the southern boundary of Oregon ; then 
near Salt Lake City, the northern line of Colorado ; through Lincoln, Nebraska ; 
and Burlington, Iowa, to Peoria. 

Peoria is eighty-nine degrees and forty minutes west of Greenwich. If we 
would follow that degree of longitude south, we would pass near Cairo. Mem- 
phis and New Orleans and out in the Pacific Ocean, five hundred miles west 
of Panama, going past the South pole and coming north on the opposite parallel, 
we would pass near Calcutta ; Lasso, the great religious center of Thibet, the 
holy capital city of the Buddhists ; thence through Siberia to the North pole 
and from there down on this side of the earth, through the center of the west 
one-third of Hudson Bay and through the west one-third of Lake Superior. 

The contour of the earth's surface in this valley of the Illinois was of course, 
the same when first seen by white men as it is now ; but in some portions of it, 
swamps, the ancient habitant of ducks and wild geese, beavers and muskrats, 
have been drained and turned into the most valuable of farms, gardens and 
orchards, happy homes for happy families. This section of Illinois is very pro- 
ductive, well watered and well supplied with coal and it will receive attention 
in a subsequent chapter. 

The vegetation has greatly changed. At that time, along the rivers and the 
ravines leading to them, there were forests of hickory, oak, elm, walnut, locust, 
ash, Cottonwood, hard maple or sugar trees, soft maple, wild cherry, red haws, 
black haws, pers'mmons and pawpaws, together with wild plums, crab apples, 
blackberries, raspberries, grapes, strawberries and gooseberries ; and away from 
the streams were broad prairies covered with a kind of coarse tall prairie grass 
— the seed stems of which were six or eight feet high — interspersed with rosin 
weeds and with a blue flower so that at certain seasons of the year the prairies 
seemed blue and purple, and in other seasons, gray, green or yellow. This vegeta- 
tion, we are told by early pioneers, grew so high that horsemen on the level prairies 
two or three hundred yards apart could not see each other ; and when in full 
growth, it was waved by the summer breeze like the rolling billows of the deep 
ocean, blue and green, very beautiful and enchanting. Some of these prairies 
were fifteen or twenty miles wide and some of them extended in all directions 
as far as the eye could reach. If at the season of the year when this prairie 
grass was dry, it happened purposely or accidentally to be ignited, the confla- 
gration was at once terrible and magnificent, and could be seen for a score of 
miles. All these varieties of trees may still be found in reduced numbers here 
and there, along the streams, but the prairie grass, the golden rosin weeds, and 
the purple flowers are almost entirely things of the past though a specimen may 
be found here and there, perhaps, in some country church yard that has never 
been cultivated or pastured. 

The Illinois valley was from its earliest history known to be a remarkable 
producer of Indian corn. It seems to have been "The Corn Belt" from the very 
start. The Indians also cultivated beans, melons and squashes. The productive- 
ness of this part of the country was recognized from the beginning by the In- 
dians in the name they gave their village, Peori.^. which signifies "The Land 
of Fat Beasts." Marquette says of it that his party had seen nothing like the 
Illinois valley for fertility. 


The animals consisted chiefly of the bison wliich roamed in immense herds, 
numbering thouscUids. These when stampeded could neither be stopped nor 
turned aside, and one's only safety was to escape out of their way. The bison 
were generally mis-called bulYalo by the inhabitants. They were not much like 
the bufifalo. They were called "cattle" by some of the early missionaries and 
explorers but they were not cattle in the sense in which we now use the word. 
They were a separate and distinct species peculiar to this part of the world. 
What we now call cattle in this country were lirst brought over to America by 
Columl)us on his second voyage and from that time on were frequently 
imported by the Spaniards. The bison were not valuable as dairy animals; 
they furnished very little milk, although what they did give was rich 
and good. Moreover, notwithstanding what Hennepin says, they probably were 
not, and could not have been made useful as draft animals or for any domestic 
purposes. Some of the early missionaries and pioneers tried to take them when 
young and train them for draft purposes but on reaching their growth, they 
would often run away to join any herd of their wild roving kindred coming 
into the neighborhood ; si.x months afterward they might be found with the herd 
with their halters or harness still on them. From the earliest time of which we 
have any knowledge they were extremely numerous but about the time the 
Indian left, they all migrated to the west in a body apparently and our Illinois 
country knew them no more. Their departure was sudden and complete. 

The Indians had no horses. These too were brought over from Europe by 
the Spaniards, and probably by others of the white race. They eventually 
became numerous ; and at the present time large herds of wild horses, the de- 
scendants of the early importations, are found on some of our western plains. 
These wild horses or ponies are smaller than those in our domestic use, but 
hardy and enduring, and cattle ranchers use them because they can live on the 
short grass of our semi-arid plains summer and winter without other food or 
shelter. It was only after the Indians obtained and learned to use them, that 
they were able to inhabit or migrate across the prairies. 

Bears were to be found and the Indians greatly prized their meat for food. 
There were also turkeys, ducks, geese, rabbits and foxes. The bears and foxes 
are gone. The wolves that then abounded are now very scarce and rapidly 
passing away. There were wild pigeons by the million but these are jow no 
more. There were prairie chickens but now one can seldom be found. There 
doubtless were c|uail and we still have them as well as the rabbits among us; 
and thanks to our game laws, the quail may be preserved, for although they 
are not a domestic bird they do not seem to flee from civilization. 

It is not known that the Indians had any domestic animal except prol>al)ly 
the dog. 

The rivers, especially the Illinois, were at that time as now, filled with an 
al)un<iance of the finest kind of fish and they were largely used for food by the 


"There's a sweetness in thy name, 

Illinois, Illinois! 
That betrays from whence it came, 

Illinois, Illinois! 
Soft and mellow are its sounds, 
Loved beyond thy river bounds, 
Land of prairies and of mounds, 

Illinois, Illinois! 
Land of prairies and of mounds, 

Illinois, Illinois !" 

There is indeed music in the word Illinois (Ill-i-noi). 

Historians agree that the Indians who were in the valley of the Illinois when 
it was first visited by the missionaries were neither the original inhabitants nor 
their descendants, but that this whole country in the valley of the Mississippi 
river comprising the states of Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana, to- 
gether with some other northern states and also Arizona and New Mexico were 
formerly inhabited by a race which has either perished from the earth or, going 
farther south became the forefathers of the Aztecs, Toltecs and other ancient 
peoples of Mexico and Central America. This early race has received the name 
of Mound Builders because mound building was one of their chief characteris- 
tics and the one by which we now know of their existence. Their mounds are 
found without number in Ohio and other central western states. Many scores 
of them are found opposite St. Louis on the Illinois side of the Mississippi 
river and some within the boundaries of St. Louis itself. Some such mounds 
have been seen by the writer in Arizona. There are some smaller mounds on 
the east side of the Illinois river near Peoria and some within Peoria County near 

These ancient people seem to have been tillers of the soil, and from the rec- 
ords which they have left, such as they are, ethnologists have concluded that 
they did not live chiefly by hunting or fishing. It is thought that the buffalo 
were not here in their day. Whence the mound builders came or whither they 
have gone is as yet a matter of conjecture. It is an interesting study which the 
limits of our history do not permit us to pursue. 

Mankind in ancient times and in many ancient countries as well as in 
Mexico have built mounds of somewhat similar character, sometimes building 
of stone, sometimes of sunburnt brick. In North America, they are often 
built in terraces, the lowest part reaching a height of twenty or thirty feet, 
upon which one or more smaller mounds are superimposed, as is the case 
with the great Cahokia Mound. They are supposed to have been built as places 
of religious worship and those who have built them are generally supposed to 
have been worshippers of the sun. 

There are many of these mounds in the United States, some of them being 
regular and perfect pyramids or cones of earth, not faced with stone. The 


largest group is situated on the level plain of the rich lowland bordering the 
Mississippi opposite the city of St. Louis, within the bounds of our own Illinois 
confederacy at the time of the first discoveries. In the midst of this plain 
where its width is ten or twelve miles, there are still to be seen remains of a 
mound builders' city, which in the interest, and extent of its ruin will compare 
favorably with anything of the kind in the world. There are a great number 
of mounds and earthworks there. In the midst stands the great Cahokia pyra- 
mid, which, though not so high is said to be larger in the amount of ground it 
covers than the largest of the pyramids of Eg}'pt and reaches a height of one 
hundred and two feet. It covers an area of sixteen acres. Three sides, the 
north, south and east, still retain their straight lines. The other has been some- 
what washed away, probably by rains and from the pasturing of cattle on the 
sides. From the terrace, a well eighty feet in depth penetrates the base of the 
structure, which is seen to be composed almost wholly of the black sticky soil 
of the surrounding plain. This is not an oval mound but a pyramid with straight 
sides. A picture of it is presented on the adjoining page. 

We may readily suppose that this large mound was built by manual labor, 
the earth being simply carried and deposited in a pile. 

The curious may study further details in regard to the Cahokia Mound in 
"The Antiquities of Cahokia" where it is described by Breckinridge who visited 
it in 1811. 

The mounds in Illinois have never been as thoroughly investigated as we 
could wish, but among the works of similar and probably related pre-historic 
people is a mound which the writer has seen in Arizona about seven hundred 
or eight hundred feet long and half as broad and probably twenty-five feet 
high, about ten miles northeast of Phoenix. It has been explored by several 
reliable parties and reports of their explorations may be seen in the office of 
the Smithsonian Tnstitution. 

The ancient cliff dwellers may have belonged to the same or a similar race. 
Neither thev nor the INIound Builders seem to have known anything of the use 
of iron. They and the Mound Builders had all disappeared before the Indians 
came who occupied that territory both in Illinois and Arizona when first dis- 
covered by white men as appears from the fact that the Indians of Illinois when 
first seen by white men were unable to tell anything about the builders of any 
of the mounds, or the houses of the cliff dwellers, or when they were built, or 
why. They seem in fact hardly to have noticed their existence. 

Among' other remains of these prehistoric people are painted rocks, with 
their scarcelv intelligible records. The most remarkable of these pictographs 
in Illinois were found between Alton and the mouth of the lUlinois river at the 
mouth of the Piasa (pronounced Pi"-a-saw ) Creek. They are the two pictures 
of the Piasa Bird— half dragon and half bird— cut into the rock one hundred 
feet up the face of the cliff and painted in extremely durable colors of green, 
red, and black. Near these pictures of the Piasa bird there were several pic- 
torial writings which archaeologists think they are able to interpret. Who 
will be the Champollian who shall read these Rosetta stones? Unfortunately 
the Piasa bird and other ]3ictographs in that neighborhood are now gone for- 
ever for within the last generation those bluffs have been quarried by the m- 
mates of the Alton penite'ntiary to obtain rock to manufacture lime. However, 
several earlv copies were made and are to be found in books of history and 
romance. The picture of the Piasa bird as described by Marquette and copied 
from the drawing which he is said to have made is given on an adjoining page. 

^larquette, who was the first white man to see it, gives the following de- 
scription : t • 1 J 

"As we coasted along rocks (near Alton), frightful for their height and 
length, we saw two monsters painted on one of these rocks, which startled us 
at first, and on which the boldest Indian dare not gaze long. They are as large 
as a calf, with horns on the head like a deer, a fearful look, red eyes, bearded 


like a tiger, the face somewhat Hke a man's, the body covered with scales, and 
the tail so long that it twice makes the turn of the body, passing over the head 
and down between the legs, and ending at last in a fish's tail. Green, red, and 
a kind of black, are the colors employed. On the whole, these two monsters 
are so well painted that we conld not believe any Indian to have been the 
designer, as good painters in France would find it hard to do as well ; besides 
this, they are so high ui)on the rock that it is hard to get conveniently at them 
to paint them. This is prettv nearh- the tigure of these monsters, as I drew 
it off." 

The pictures of that Piasa Bird as seen by white men before the rocks were 
destroyed were much larger than calves. Marquette must have been deceived 
by the distance they were from his canoes. 

The Piasa Bird, on account of its being such a work of art and so terrible, 
has become the subject of traditions amongst the Indians since Marquette's 
time, but such traditions as ignorant and imaginative people might originate 
themselves. It is possibly worth our time to relate one of' these traditions. It 
is as follows : 

"Many thousand moons before the arrival of the pale faces, when the great 
Magalonyx and Mastodon, whose bones are now dug up, were still living in the 
land of green prairies, there existed a bird of such dimensions that he could 
easily carry oft' in his talons a full-grown deer. Having obtained a taste for 
human flesh, from that time he would prey on nothing else. He was as artful 
as he was powerful, and would dart suddenl}- and unex])ectcdly upon an 
Indian, bear him oft' into one of the caves of the bluft'. and devour him. Hun- 
dreds of warriors attempted for years to destroy him, but without success. 
Whole villages were nearly depopulated, and consternation spread through all 
the tribes of the Illini. 

"Such was the state of affairs when Ouatogo, the great chief of the Illini, 
whose fame extended beyond the great lakes, separating himself from the rest 
of his tribe, fasted in solitude for the space of a whole moon, and prayed to 
the Great Spirit, the Master of Life, that he would protect his children from 
the Piasa. 

"On the last night of the fast the Great Spirit appeared to Ouatogo in a 
dream, and directed him to select twenty of his bravest warriors, each armed 
with a bow and poisoned arrows, and conceal them in a designated spot. Near 
the place of concealment another warrior was to stand in open view, as a victim 
for the Piasa, which they must shoot the instant he pounced upon his prey. 

"When the chief awoke in the morning, he thanked the Great Spirit, and 
returning to his tribe told them his vision. The warriors were C|uickly selected 
and placed in ambush as directed. Ouatogo offered himself as the victim. He 
was willing to die for his people. Placing himself in open view on the bluff's, 
he soon saw the Piasa perched on the cliff eyeing his prey. The chief drew up 
his manly form to his utmost height, and, planting his feet firmly upon the 
earth, he began to chant the deathsong of an Indian warrior. The moment after, 
the Piasa arose into the air, and swift as the thunderbolt darted down on his 
victim. Scarcely had the horrid creature reached his prey before every bow 
was sprung and every arrow was sent c|uivering to the feather into his body. 
The Piasa uttered a fearful scream, that sounded far over the opposite side 
of the river, and expired. Ouatogo was unharmed. Not an arrow, not even 
the talons of the bird, had touched him. The Master of Life, in admiration 
of Ouatogo's deed, had held over him an invisible shield. 

"There was the wildest rejoicing among the Illini, and the brave chief was 
carried in triumph to the council house, where it was solemnly agreed that in 
memorv of the great event in their nation's history, the image of the 
should be engraved on the bluff. 

"Such is the Indian tradition. Of course I cannot vouch for its truth. This 
much, however, is certain, that the figure of a huge bird, out in the solid rock, 
is still there, and at a height that is perfectly inaccessible. 


"How and for what purpose it was made I leave it for others to determine. 
Even at this day an Indian never passes the spot in his canoe without firing his 
gun at the figure of the Piasa. The marks of the balls on the rock are almost 

These works of the ])re-historic races are interesting to us because they are 
within the territory occupied by our Illinois confederacy, and the story of the 
Piasa bird because it was probably the invention of the Illinois and had the 
chief of that tribe for its hero. The fact that the Indians who were here when 
Marquette and other missionaries came really knew nothing about these old 
ruins leads archaeologists to believe that the mound builders had gone long 
before our tribes came, as otherwise our tribes would probably have had some 
tradition of their presence or of how they were driven out. The mound builders 
seem to have enjoyed a higher state of civilization than the Indian tribes who 
succeeded them. Sic transit gloria miuidi. 

The Indians who were found here were a barbarous and savage race, as 
were most of those then found within the present territory of the United 
States, though our tribes were probably not so fierce and brutal as many others. 
Much as we most sincerely regret the fate of the Indians who seem to be passing 
away, the author — as a present representative of a family which, for seven 
generations, has lived each generation on the Indian frontier, — may be pardoned 
if he suggests that there seems to have been some excuse for the maxim of the 
old pioneers that "there were no good Indians but dead Indians." This, like all 
rules, of course, is to be understood with its exceptions, some of which will 
have attention later. There were some noble red men, and many of them were 
barbarously treated by infamous white men. It is a painful fact that the selfish, 
cunning and strong from that day to this have always imposed upon, trodden 
down and destroyed the weak, unwary and unwise, whether white, red or black, 
and are doing it in our very midst to-day notwithstanding all our efiforts and 
all our constitutions and laws made to prevent it. 

The laws of nature and the laws of God. which are the same thing, forbid 
that the magnificent prairies and forests with which He has blessed mankind 
should be permitted to remain in their primitive state as pasture ground for 
bison and bears in order to accommodate Indians who were unwilling to work, 
thus violating God's first command to man — "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
eat bread" — while men who are willing to work and who can make one acre 
produce more food than an Indian obtained from a whole section must be al- 
lowed to go hungry. The Indians had no title to the land, and they could not 
use it. They did not even have possession of any of it except for villages in 
which they made no valuable improvements. They lived here and there. 
Wherever" thev could find fishing, they set up their wigwams or built little 
cabins sometimes of logs plastered with mud and covered with grass. 

We must also remember that the first white men that came to visit the 
Indians came for the purpose of teaching them a better mode of living, a thing 
they needed to know but were very slow to learn. 

The most beautiful parts of Virginia and Kentucky, the Shenandoah \'alley 
and the P>lue Grass region of Kentucky were never settled by the Indians at 
all but were left wildernesses and were the constant scenes of their internecine 
wars, savages fighting savages in a war of destruction and extermination, and 
this before ever the white men came. The name Kentucky, which the Indians 
gave to that country meant in their language "the dark and bloody ground" 
and they had made it such, while now to many "the old Kentucky Home" is 
the most heavenly place on earth. 

Nor can the white men be charged with killing ofif the Indians by fightmg 
them; for between the time the first white men came and the time when they 
could exert any influence over the Indians or fight them aggressively, many 
more Indians were killed by Indians than were ever killed by white men. 

It is the usual characteristic of all Indian warriors that they indulged in 








polygamy, made slaves of their squaws, refusing to work themselves, tortured 
their captives, offered human sacrifices to their pagan gods and fought neigh- 
boring tribes to extermination. 


VVe are now ready to be introduced to the Peorias and as it is the first time 
that we have met them and as Marquette is our only mutual friend, we will 
permit him to introduce us in his own way. 

The time is the 25th of June, 1673; the place, the western bank of the 
Mississippi, between Burlington and I'^ort Madison at the mouth of the Des 

Manjuette's introduction is somewhat long but very interesting and he gives 
us a pretty good description of their manner of life and their hospitality. Al- 
though neither he nor Joliet had ever met this tribe, each party had learned 
something of the other through the traders and Marquette and Joliet under- 
stood to some extent the languages of the Indians in this part of the country. 
In his own words as translated for our better understanding by John G. Shea, 
Marquette says : 

"We advanced constantly, but as we did not know where we were going, 
having already made more than a hundred leagues without having discovered 
anything but beasts and birds, we kept well on our guard. Accordingly we 
made only a little fire on the shore at night to prepare our meal, and after sup- 
per kept as far from it as possible, passing the night in our canoes, which we 
anchored in the river pretty far from the bank. Even this did not prevent one 
of us from always serving as a sentinel, for fear of a surprise. 

"At last, on the 25th of June, w-e perceived footprints of men by the water- 
side, and a beaten path entering a beautiful prairie. We stopped to examine it, 
and concluding that it was a path leading to some Indian village, we resolved 
to go and reconnoitre ; we accordingly left our two canoes in charge of our 
people, cautioning them strictly to beware of a surprise; then M. Jollyet and I 
undertook this rather hazardous discovery for two single men. who thus put 
themselves at the discretion of an unknown and barbarous people. VVe fol- 
lowed the little path in silence, and having advanced about two leagues, we 
discovered a village on the banks of the river, and two others on a hill, half a 
league from the former. 

"Then, indeed, we recommended ourselves to God, with all our hearts ; and, 
having implored His help, we passed on undiscovered, and came so near that 
we even heard the Indians talking. We then deemed it time to announce our- 
selves, as we did by a cry, which we raised with all our strength, and then 
halted without advancing any farther. At this cry the Indians rushed out of 
their cabins, and having probably recognized us as French, especially seeing a 
black gown, or at least having no reason to distrust us, seeing we were but two, 
and had made known our coming, they deputed four old men to come and 
speak with us. Two carried tol)acco-])ipes well-adorned, and trimmed with 
many kinds of feathers. They marched slowly, lifting their pipes toward the 
sun as if offering them to him'to smoke, but yet without uttering a single word. 
They were a long time coming the little way from the village to us. Having 
reached us at last, they stopped to consider us attentively. I now took courage, 
seeing these ceremonies, which are used by them only with friends, and still 
more on seeing them covered with stuffs, which made me to judge them to 
be allies. I, therefore, spoke to them first, and asked them who they were; 
they answered that they were Illinois, and, in token of jjeace, they presented 
their pipes to smoke. The\- then invited us to their village where all the tribe 
awaited us with impatience.' These pipes for smoking are called in the country, 
calumets, a word that is so much in use that I shall be obliged to employ it 
in order to be understood, as I shall have to speak of it freciuently. 


■'At the door of the cabin in which we were to be received, was an old man 
awaiting us in a very remarkable posture, which is their usual ceremony in 
receiving strangers. This man was standing, perfectly naked, with his hands 
stretched out and raised toward the sun, as if he wished to screen himself 
from its rays, which nevertheless passed through his fingers to his face. When 
we came near him, he paid us this compliment: "How beautiful is the sun, O 
Frenchman, when thou comest to visit us I All our town awaits thee, and thou 
shalt enter all our cabins in peace." He then took us into his cabin where there was 
a crowd of people, who devoured us with their eyes, but kept a profound 
silence. We heard, however, these words occasionally addressed to us : 'Well 
done, brothers, to visit us !' 

"As soon as we had taken our places, they showed us the usual civility of 
the country, which is to present the calumet. You must not refuse it, unless 
you would pass for an enemy, or at least for being impolite. It is, however, 
enough to pretend to smoke. While all the old men smoked after us to honor 
us, some came to invite us on behalf of the great sachem of all the Illinois to 
proceed to his town, where he wished to hold a council with us. We w-ent with 
a good retinue, for all the people who had never seen a Frenchman among 
them could not tire looking at us ; they threw themselves on the grass by the 
wayside, they ran ahead, then turned and walked back to see us again. All this 
was done without noise, and with marks of a great respect entertained for us. 

"Having arrived at the great sachem's town, we espied liim at his cabin-door, 
between two old men, all three standing naked, with their calumet turned to 
the sun. He harangued us in a few words, to congratulate us on our arrival, 
and then presented us his calumet and made us smoke ; at the same time we 
entered his cabin, where we received all their usual greetings. Seeing all 
assembled and in silence, I spoke to them by four presents which I made: by 
the first, I said that we marched in peace to visit the nations on the river to 
the sea; by the second, I declared to them that God their Creator had pity on 
them, since, after their having been so long ignorant of Him, He wished to 
become known to all nations ; that I was sent on His behalf with this design ; 
that it was for them to acknowledge and obey Him ; by the third, that the great 
chief of the French informed them that he spread peace everywhere, and had 
overcome the Iroquois. Lastly, by the fourth, we begged them to give us all 
the information they had of the sea, and of the nations through which we 
should have to pass to reach it. 

"When I had finished my speech, the sachem rose, and laying his hand on 
the head of a little slave, whom he was about to give us, spoke thus: T thank 
thee, Blackgown, and thee. Frenchman,' addressing M. Jollyet, "for taking so 
much pains to come and visit us ; never has the earth been so beautiful, nor the 
sun so bright, as today; never has our river been so calm, nor so free from 
rocks, which your canoes have removed as they passed ; never has our tobacco 
had so fine a 'flavor, nor our corn appeared so beautiful as w^e behold it today. 
Here is mv son, that I give thee, that thou mayest know my heart. I pray thee 
to take pitv on me and all my nation. Thou knowest the Great Spirit who has 
made us ail; thou speakest to Him and hearest His word; ask Him to give me 
life and health, and come and dwell with us, that we may know Him.' Saying 
this, he placed the little slave near us and made us a second present, an all- 
mysterious calumet, which they value more than a slave; by this present he 
showed us his esteem for our governor, after the account we had given of him ; 
by the third, he begged us, on behalf of his whole nation, not to proceed further, 
on account of the great dangers to which we exposed ourselves. 

•T replied, that I did not fear death, and that I esteemed no happiness 
greater than that of losing my life for the glory of Him who made all. But 
this these poor people could not understand. 

"The council was followed bv a great feast which consisted of four courses, 
w hich we had to take with all their ways ; the first course was a great wooden 


dish full of sagnniity. that is to say, of Indian meal boiled in water and seasoned 
with grease. The master of ceremonies, with a spoonful of sagamity, pre- 
sented it three or four times to my mouth, as we would do with a little chil.l; 
he did the same to M. Jollyet. I""or the second course, he brought in a second 
dish containing three fish ; he took some pains to remove the bones, and having 
blown u[)on it to cool it, put it in my mouth, as we would food to a bird ; for 
the third course, they produced a large dog, which they had just killed, hut 
learning that we did not eat it, it was withdrawn. Finally, the fourth course 
was a piece of wild ox, the fattest portions of which were init into our mouths 

"After this feast we had to visit the whole village, which consists of full 
three hundred cal)ins. ^Vhile we marched through the streets, an orator was 
constantly haranguing, to oblige all to see us without being troublesome ; we 
were everywhere presented with belts, garters, and other articles made of the 
hair of the bear and wild cattle, dyed red, yellow and gray. These are ihcir 
rareties ; but not l^eing of consequence, we did not burthen ourselves with them. 

"We slept in the sachem's cabin, and the next day took leave of him, promis- 
ing to pass back through his town in four moons. He escorted us to our canoes 
with nearly si.x hundred persons, who saw us embark, evincing in every possible 
way the pleasure our visit had given them. On taking leave, I personally 
promised that I would return the next year to stay with them, and instruct 
them. Rut before leaving the Illinois country, it will be well to relate what 
I remarked of their customs and manners. 

"To say Illinois is, in their language, to say 'the men" as if other Indians 
compared to them were mere beasts. And it must be admitted that they have 
an air of humanity that we had not remarked in the other nations that we had 
seen on the way. The short stay I made with them did not permit me to 
acquire all tlie information I would have desired. The following is what I 
remarked in their manners : 

"They are divided into several villages, some of which are quite distant from 
that of which I speak, and which is called Peouarea. This produces a diversity 
in their language which in general has a great affinity to the Algonquin, so that 
we easily understood one another. They are mild and tractable in their dis- 
position, as we experienced in the reception they gave us. They have many 
wives, of whom they are extremely jealous ; they watch them carefully, and 
cut off their nose or ears when they do not behave well ; I saw several who bore 
the marks of their infidelity. They are well-formed, nimble, and very adroit in 
using the bow and arrow ; they use guns also, which they buy of our Indian 
allies who trade with the French ; they use them especially to terrify their 
enemies by the noise and smoke, the others lying too far to the west, have never 
seen them, and do not know their use. They are war-like and formidable to 
distant nations in the south and west, where they go to carry off slaves, whom 
they make an article of trade, selling them at a high price to other nations for 

"The distant nations against whom they go to war, have no knowledge of 
Europeans ; thev are acquainted with neither iron nor cojjper, antl have nothing 
but stone knives. When the Illinois set out on a war jiarty, the whole village 
is notified by a loud cry made at the door of their huts tlie morning and evening 
before they set out. The chiefs are distinguished from the soldiers by their 
wearing a scarf ingeniously made of the hair of bears and wild oxen. The face 
is painted with red lead or ochre, which is found in great quantities a few days' 
journey from their village. They live by game, which is abundant in this coun- 
try, and on Indian corn, of which they always gather a good crop, so that they 
have never suffered from famine. They also sow beans and melons, which are 
excellent, especially those with a red seed. Their s(|uashes are not of the best; 
they dry them in the sun, to eat in the winter and spring. 

"Their cabins are verv large : they are lined and floored with rush mats. 
Thev make all their dishes of wood, and their s])oons of the bones of the buffalo, 
which thev cut so well that it serves them to eat their sagamity easily. 


"They are liberal in their maladies, and believe that the medicines given 
them operate in proportion to the presents they have made the medicine-man. 
Their only clothes are skins ; their women are always dressed very modestly 
and decently, while the men do not take any pains to cover themselves. Through 
what superstition I know not, some Illinois, as well as some Nadouessi (Sioux 
or Dacotas), while yet young, assume the female dress, and keep it all their 
life. There is some mystery about it, for they never marry, and glory in de- 
basing themselves to do all that is done by women ; yet they go to war, though 
allowed to use only a club, and not the bow and arrow, the peculiar arm of men ; 
they are present at all the juggleries and solemn dances in honor of the calumet; 
they are permitted to sing, but not to dance; they attend the councils, and 
nothing can be decided without their advice ; finally, by the profession of an 
extraordinary life, they pass for manitous (that is, for genii), or persons of 

"It now only remains for me to speak of the calumet, than which there is 
nothing among them more mysterious or more esteemed. Men do not pay to 
the crowns and sceptres of kings the honor they pay to it ; it seems to be the 
god of peace and war, the arbiter of life and death. Carry it about you and 
show it, and you can march fearlessly amid enemies, who even in the heat of 
battle lay down their arms when it is shown. Hence the Illinois gave me one, to 
serve as my safeguard amid all the nations that I had to pass on my voyage. 
There is a calumet for peace, and one for war, distinguished only by the color 
of the feathers with which they are adorned, red being the sign of war. They 
use them also for settling disputes, strengthening alliances, and speaking to 
strangers. It is made of a polished red stone, like marble, so pierced that one 
end serves to hold the tobacco, while the other is fastened on the stem, which is 
a stick two feet long, as thick as a common cane, and pierced in the middle ; 
it is ornamented with the head and neck of difl:'erent birds of beautiful plumage; 
they also add large feathers of red. green and other colors, with which it is 
all covered. They esteem it particularly because they regard it as the calumet 
of the sun ; and, in fact, they present it to him to smoke when they wish to 
obtain calm, or rain, or fair weather. They scruple to bathe at the beginning 
of summer, or to eat new fruits, till they have danced it. They do it thus: 

"The calumet dance, which is very famous among these Indians, is per- 
formed only for important matters, sometimes to strengthen a peace or to as- 
semble for' some great war; at other times for a public rejoicing; sometimes 
they do this honor to a nation who is invited to be present ; sometimes they use 
it to receive some important personage, as if they wished to give him the en- 
tertainment of a ball or comedy. In winter the ceremony is performed in a 
cabin, in summer in the open fields. They select a place surrounded with trees, 
so as to be sheltered beneath their foliage against the heat of the sun. In the 
middle of the space they spread out a large parti-colored mat of rushes; this 
serves as a carpet, on which to place with honor the god of the one who gives 
the dance; for every one has his own god, or manitou as they call it, which is 
a snake, a bird, or 'something of the kind, which they have dreamed in their 
sleep, and in which they put all their trust for the success of their wars, fishing, 
and hunts. Near this 'manitou and at its right, they put the calumet in honor 
of which the feast is given, making around about it a kind of trophy, spreading 
there the arms used by the warriors of these tribes, namely, the war-club, bow, 
hatchet, quiver, and arrows. 

"Things being thus arranged, and the hour for dancing having arrived, those 
who are to sing take the most honorable place under the foliage. They are the 
men and the women who have the finest voices, and who accord perfectly. The 
spectators then come and take their places around under the branches ; but each 
one on arrival must salute the manitou. which he does by inhaling the smoke 
and then puffing it from his mouth upon it. as if offering incense. Each one 
goes first and takes the calumet respectfully, and supporting it with both hands, 


makes it dance in cadence, suitiiii,' himself to the air of the song; he makes it 
go through various figures, sometimes showing it to the whole assembly by 
turning it from side to side. 

"After this, he who is to begin the dance appears in the midst of the as- 
sembly, and goes first ; sometimes he presents it to the sun, as if he wished it to 
smoke ; sometimes he inclines it to the earth ; and at other times he spreads 
its wings as if for it to fly; at other times, he approaches it to the mouths of 
the spectators for them to smoke, the whole in cadence. This is the first scene 
of the ballet. 

"The second consists in a combat, to the sound of a kind of drum, which 
succeeds the songs, or rather joins them, harmonizing cjuite well. The dancer 
beckons to some brave to come and take the arms on the mat, and challenges 
him to fight to the sound of the drums ; the other approaches, takes his bow 
and arrow, and begins a duel against the dancer who has no defence but the 
calmnet. This spectacle is very pleasing, especially as it is always done in time, 
for one attacks, the other defends; one strikes, the other parries; one flies, the 
other pursues ; then he who fled faces and puts his enemy to flight. This is 
all done so well with measured steps, and the regular sound of voices and 
drums, that it might i)ass for a very pretty opening of a ballet in I'rance. 

"The third scene consists of a speech delivered by the holder of the calumet, 
for the combat being ended without bloodshed, he relates the battles he was in, 
the victories he has gained ; he names the nations, the places, the captives he 
has taken, and as a reward, he who presides at the dance jjresents him with a 
beautiful beaver robe, or something else, which he receives, and then he presents 
the calumet to another, who hands it to a third, and so to all the rest, till all 
having done their duty, the presitling chief presents the calumet itself to the 
nation invited to this ceremony in token of the eternal peace which shall reign 
between the two tribes." 

Indian customs form a very enticing study but space forbids more being 
said about them here. H. H. Bancroft in discussing these questions says that 
his work embodies the researches of some five hundred travelers. 

Hennepin gives the following account of the village of the Kaskaskias near 
Starved Rock. 

"It contains four hundred and si.xty cabins made like long arbors and cov- 
ered with double mats of flat flags, so well sewed that they are never pene- 
trated by the wind, snow or rain. Each cabin has four or five fires, and each 
fire has one or two families, who all live together in a good understanding." 

This was probably the largest and best built village in the territory occupied 
by the Illinois tribes at that time. 

More frequently they lived in wigwams, a kind of a rude tent made by 
setting a circle of poles in the ground, tying the tops together and covering them 
over with skins of wild animals. These wigwams they could take down and 
move as quickly as a soldier could move his tent. This they did frequently, and 
would leave even their villages in .-i body for their hunting grounds, only re- 
turning with the change of season. 

Concerning tribal boundaries, H. H. Bancroft says: 

".Accurately to draw partition lines between primitive nations is impossible. 
Migrating with the seasons, constantly at war, driving and being driven far past 
the limits of hereditary boundaries, extirpating and being extirpated, over- 
whelming, intermingling: like a human sea, swelling and .surging in its wild 
struggle with the winds of fate, they come and go, here to-day, yonder to-mor- 
row. A traveler passing over the country finds it inhabited by certain tribes ; 
another coming after finds all changed. ' One writer gives certain names to 
certain nations; another changes the name, or gives to the nation a totally dif- 
ferent locality. An approximation, however, can be made sufficiently correct 
for ])ractical purposes." 

The location of our Illinois tribes is somewhat difficult for they made no 


permanent improvements. They never owned their land in severalty. Xo 
Intlian could point out a piece of land as belonging to him and to his family 
after him. and as being his to improve it for their benefit. 


The location of our Indian tribes is shown as definitely as possible by the 
adjoining maps. 

I'ractically, when first discovered, our Illinois tribes occupied the Illinois 
\'al!ey and the banks of the Mississippi for a little distance below it. { See 
first cut on the adjoining page.) 

Our own Peorians occupied a village where Peoria City now stands and 
one on the west bank of the Mississippi river, almost due west from Peoria 
together with all of the territory between the Illinois and ^Mississippi rivers, 
south of a line connecting these two villages. 

The Kickapoos were found between the Rock River and the Mississippi. 
The Pottawottomies in the southeastern corner of Wisconsin and our tribes 
were bounded on the northeast by the W'ea Aliamis and on the southeast by 
the Piankeshaw Miamis, while the powerful and bloody Shawnees extended 
over into the southeast corner of Illinois along the Ohio river. 

Eighty-one years later in 1765 (see cut number two), when this territory 
was ceded by France to England, the Indians had moved further south. The 
Sauks and Foxes then inhabited the territory between the Illinois river and the 
Mississippi. The Pottawottomies had come to occupy the territory about the 
southern end of Lake Michigan. The Kickapoos who were at first found in 
the neighborhood of Galena were now occupying central Illinois east of the 
Illinois river, and the Illinois tribes, very much reduced in number were driven 
down and were living about the mouth of the Kaskaskia river opposite St. 
Louis. Yet later, at the outbreak of the war of 1812, between the Americans 
and the English, w'hile the W'innebagos had crowded down and were occupying 
part of the territory north of the Rock River, the Sauks and Foxes were still 
up along the Mississippi river. The Pottawottomies, who so mercilessly mas- 
sacred the Kaskaskias near Starved Rock, were occupying the northern half 
of the valley of the Illinois and the Kickapoos were in the southern part of 
Illinois. The Piankeshaw Miamis were driven over into Indiana and the rem- 
nant that was left of our poor Illinois tribes were occupying a little territory 
down near St. Louis. 

General William IJ. Harrison in a letter dated 1814 says that when he was 
first appointed governor of Indiana territory, in 1800, our once powerful Illinois 
confederacy was reduced to about thirty warriors of whom twenty-five were 
Kaskaskias, four Peorias and one a Mitchigamian. A furious war between 
them and the Sauks had reduced them to this forlorn remnant and they had 
taken refuge among the white people of the towns of Kaskaskia and St. Gene- 
vieve. Since 1800 they have been moved from reservation to reservation until 
in 1872 they had dwindled to forty men, women, and children, and were located 
in the northeast corner of what is now Oklahoma, having merged with the 
!Miamis and other tribes. 

The Illinois confederacy had already commenced to decline when the first 
white men came here, but they were once a powerful organization. Father 
^lembre says that in 1680 they had seven or eight thousand souls in their one 
village at Starved Rock. In the days of their power, they had nearly exter- 
minated the \\"innebagos, and their war parties had penetrated the towns of 
the Iroquois as far east as the valleys of the Mohawk and the Genesee. Mar- 
quette himself says in the passage quoted above, "They had an air of humanity 
that we had not remarked in the other nations we had seen." 

A daughter of a sub-chief of the Peoria tribe gave birth to a son in 1793 
where the Kaskaskia and the "River of the Plains" unite to form the beginning 



of the Illinois and called him Eaptiste Peoria. His reputed father was a French- 
Canadian trader named Baptiste. The son was a man of large stature, pos- 
sessed of great strength, activity and courage and was like Keokuk, the great 
chief of the Sac and Fox Indians, a fearless and expert horseman. He soon 
came into prominence and his known integrity and ability secured the confidence 
of all so that he was for many years in the employ of the United States govern- 
ment. By precept and example he spent the better portion of a busy life in 
persistent efforts to save the fragment of the Illinois and Miamis by encourag- 
ing them to adopt the ways of civilized life. He finally collected the remnants 
of the scattered tribes of Indians and in 1867 led them out to the northeast 
corner of Indian Territory, where he died at the age of eighty years. 

It will be interesting to those who now reside in Peoria and vicinity and 
own and occupy the land once occupied by the Peorias as hunting and fishing 
grounds when the white men first came, to know what has become of the rem- 
nant of the Indians who lived here at that time. 

The different tribes composing the Illinois confederacy were amalgamated 
with each other and they all then jjecanie known as the Peorias, and then again 
thev were amalgamated with the Miamis and were called the Peoria-Miami 
Indians and we have seen that they moved out to northeastern Oklahoma to a 
reservation there, where they are now living, under the leadership of Baptiste 
Peoria, one of their leading men. 

All but five of the one hundred forty-four Peorias wear citizen's dress — 
that is, white man's dress. 

The Indians in the accepted sense have disappeared leaving a race in which 
white blood predominates — a people having nothing in common with the Indian 
and having everything in common with the whites. 

As long ago as 1890, of the one hundred sixty Indians, one hundred forty 
could converse in English well enough for ordinary purposes. 

Twenty years ago, all the Peorias were made citizens of the United States 
and of Oklahoma. Those people are self-supporting, not having received any 
pension for the last twenty years. In that community there are three white 
persons to each Indian. 

Upon their reservation is incorporated a town called Peoria, where they 
have a postofTice, about twelve miles northeast of Wyandotte, with a popula- 
tion in 1Q04 of two hundred, at which time out of one hundred ninety-two 
Peorias, there were seventy-one half blood or more and one hundred twenty-one 
of less than half blood. 

In estimating the number of Indians now living and in estimating their in- 
crease or decrease a mistake is almost always made. They count every person 
of more or less Indian blood as an Indian just as fully as if he were a full 
blooded Indian. It might be if this process was kept up long enough we would 
all be counted as Indians. For this reason, in really estimating the number of 
Indians of the Peoria-Miami tribes in existence at present, of the two hundred 
who are half bloods, more or less, that ought to be considered as one hundred 
Indians and one hundred whites. The whites are as well entitled to count a 
half blood as the Indians are. According to this way of reckoning, it will be 
seen that the Indians of the Peoria-Miami tribe now .should be considered as 
er]ual to one hundred full blood Indians. 

The restriction on the sale of their homesteads of our tribes will expire in 

in marriage and divorce and all other matters, they follow the laws of then- 

^ince they have become citizens, the government of the United States has 
no further control over their persons. .Although some Indians are poor, the 
Peorias, as a rule, are in comfortable circumstances according to the standard 
of communities such as theirs. They are a fairly well-to-do people, there being 
among them some thrifty and successful farmers and stock raisers. Therd are 


a few uneducated ones in the tribe. A number of them are people of intelli- 
gence, education and refinement, comparing more than favorably with a large 
proportion of the whites who have settled among them. Several reside and 
are engaged in business in Miami, Oklahoma, a modern town of about three 
thousand people located within the agency on the Neosho river. 

There remain a very few full bloods, yet among these are some of the best 
citizens. Many of the tribe are members of the Society of Friends and others 
belong to various denominations. 

The wife of the present member of the legislature from their county is a 
Peoria, a member of one of the old and respected families of the tribe. 

Soon the Indians like the Angles, the Saxons, the Danes and the Celts, the 
Normans and the Gauls will cease to exist among us as a separate people. 

Should some future Bulwer Lytton write the romance of "The Last of the 
Roving Red Monarchs of the Prairies" his hero would be Baptiste Peoria. 


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"I beg pardon, once and for all, of those readers who take up 'history' 
merely for amusement, for plaguing them so long with old fashioned jjolitics, 
and Whig and Tory, and Hanoverians and Jacobites. The truth is, I cannot 
promise them that this story shall be intelligible, not to say probable, without it." 
— Sir Jl'alter Scott. 

There prevailed in Europe in the days of Le Grand Monarque and the great 
protector, about the middle of the seventeenth century, many fundamental 
principles and ideas influencing society, ecclesiastical and civil, which were 
strenuously contending with each other for supremacy. These warring ele- 
ments prompted and controlled the discovery and settlement of North America 
and influenced our development, determining the character and progress of our 
people and being still efl:'ective in the shaping of our institutions, our laws, and 
our civilization. The predominance of some of them in North America and 
their former suppression in South America have made the difference that 
exists to-day between the people, the laws, the civilization and progress, the 
happiness and glory of these two continents. Our southern sister republics are 
now making great advances and for several decades have been but this has come 
about largelv through their efforts to follow our example and because they have 
been under the shadow of our flag. In all probability there would not be a 
republic there to-day if the United States had not demonstrated the proposition 
that a government of the people, by the people and for the people can live, at 
least for a hundred years and more. 

The colonies in South America were a hundred years old at the inception 
of those in North America. This was perhaps a disadvantage to them for they 
were begun at a time when civil and religious liberty were little understood any- 
where in the whole world, and they were controlled by Spain and other nations 
which in these respects were the least progressive of all — church and state were 
allied and autocratic ; and the greatest ambition of the people was the acquisition 
of gold. Only one party was allowed in Spain, the leaders being selfish, cor- 
rupt and tyrannical while the working people were little better than serfs or 
beasts of the plow. 

On the other hand when our continent was colonized personal liberty, espe- 
cially the liberty of the mind, had begun to be developed ; men were beginning 
to pursue their own wav of thinking and to express their opinions freely and 
IHiblicly and the plain working people were more respected through all luirope. 

In England at this time four great classes of fundamental principles of gov- 
ernment were at work each represented by a political party and each favoring 
and favored by some special religious faith and form of church government. 
The churches differed from each other as much in their form of government as 
in their creeds and each endeavored to have the civil government brought as 
nearly as possible to the rules and forms under which it controlled its ecclesias- 
tical matters. The Independents carried their radical democratic principles not 
only into matters of church but into matters of state as well. The Presbyte- 

VoL 1—2 _ 



rians were in both respects more conservative and stood for the principles of 
representative republican government. Then there was the established Episcopal 
Church with its prelates and bishops, its hierarchy in church and its specially 
favored nobilitv and gentry, its primogeniture and entailed estates. The fourth 
party was that of the Roman Catholics, a powerful element in the state. Charles 
II was a professional member of the Episcopal Church but in his heart he was 
a sympathizer and lover of the Roman Catholic Church and died in its confession. 
His brother and heir apparent to the succession was an open and pronounced 
Roman Catholic and wdien he came to the throne, lived on a pension from Louis 
XI\' the grand master of absolutism. The kings of France and England both 
believe in the right of kings to rule absolutely by divine appointment and with- 
out the consent of the people. Fortunately no one of these four principal politi- 
cal parties had the uncontrolled power for any great length of time. 

In France, under Louis XI\", the last of these four principles of absolutism 
held full sway. The church and state were absolutely allied and thoroughly 
autocratic, and the king allowed no opposition to his own views or wishes. He 
surrounded himself with able men who merely executed his will and whose 
highest aim was to increase and spread abroad the glory of the king. Colbert, 
his great promoter of French industry, manufactures and trade, and his gen- 
erals Turenne, Conde and A'aban surpassed the statesmen and soldiers of all 
other countries while Louis himself was pre-eminently able, efficient, and accom- 
plished among the kings and princes of his time which he rendered the most 
illustrious in the French annals. He caused the court of \'ersailles to be every- 
where admired as the model of taste, refinement and distinction but he sought 
nothing but the gratification of his own selfishness and love of pleasure, his 
pride and desire of renown and splendor. His reign became the grave of free- 
dom, of morals, of firmness of character, and of manly sentiment. Court favor 
was the end of everv effort of his subjects and flattery the surest means of 
reaching it. \'irtue and merit met with little acknowledgment. He built up 
the glory and magnificence of his own age and nation while he destroyed the 
only sure and permanent foundations of government. Without the free power 
in the people to conscientiously criticize superiors with impunity, no country can 
be progressive and enduring. Louis permitted nothing of the kind in either 
church or state. Without power in the citizen to act according to his own in- 
dividual judgment and on his own initiative, controlled only by necessary and 
equitable laws and his own conscience undominated by the dictation of auto- 
cratic superiors, no people can be intelligent, progressive, courageous, strong or 
safe. This power in either church or state, Louis completely crushed out in his 
kingdom. The magnificent centralization of wealth and splendor in his tnne 
ended after a few generations in a terrible downfall and the horrors of the 
French revolution and Louis and his wrong principles were responsible for it. 
There was onlv one clause in the constitution of France and that was made by 
the king himself. It reads thus, "The State, I am the State." 

Spain too was a monarchy under the absolute control of the Catholic Church. 
There were other feebler nations that made settlements in what is now the 
territory of the United States. But the three great kingdoms of Europe — 
Spain, England and France — were almost equal in strength, and for hundreds 
of years it was the policy of European nations to preserve, if possible, the bal- 
ance of power. 

At the time the history of Peoria begins, from the Gulf of :\Iexico to the 
North Pole, there were very few European settlements situated more than ten 
miles distant from a port accessible to ocean vessels and these were small and 

Florida was held bv the Spaniards. St. Augustine is the oldest settlement 
in the L^nited States. It was and is a walled town, founded in 1565 by Spaniards. 
Possibly Santa Fe. New Mexico, also Spanish, was the next. French Calvinists, 
under the patronage of Admiral Coligny, had made a settlement a short time 


before at St. John in Florida, Ijui the Spanish navy ruthlessly destroyed the 
place, murdering the women and children and making slaves of the men whom 
they did not murder. These peoi>le were destroyed because they were Protes- 

Meanwhile the Fnglish were planting enduring colonies. The Dutch had 
settled in New York and the Swedes in Delaware but their control was of 
short duration. Except for these little colonies, which were soon absorbed by 
the English, the Atlantic coast was settled from Florida to Canada under the 
auspices and protection of the English government. However, the colonies dif- 
fered greatlv in character. Each one of the four parties of England was spe- 
cially interested in its own particular colony and the people of each colony par- 
took of the characteristic of the party, church or sect which colonized it. 

New England was colonized by the Independents. They were divided into 
different sects and were not always tolerant of each other, but they did not differ 
greatly in the character of their people or even in important matters of creed 
or of ecclesiastical and civil government. 

The Dutch colony of New York (New Amsterdam) soon passed into the 
control of the Duke of York, a Roman Catholic, but all religions were tolerated 
and most were to be found there. 

Pennsylvania belonged to a Quaker and Quakers predominated there ; but 
it also contained man\- Presbyterians and men of other sects, all of whom en- 
joyed religious liberty. 

New Jersey and Delaware were settled partly by Swedes and Quakers and 
largely by Presbyterians. 

Maryland belonged to a Roman Catholic proprietor but although thus owned 
and governed the majority of the people were Protestants from a very early 
day. Religious liberty prevailed there until 1692 when it passed for a short 
time under the control of the PZpiscopalians. 

The leading \irginians were from the beginning lovers and imitators of the 
English gentry. They loved the English Episcopal Church, which was the es- 
tablished church until after the beginning of the Revolutionary War, and it was 
rather intolerant in the lower counties, nevertheless the \'irginians were always 
strong and valiant defenders of liberty. For business reasons, the Lutherans 
were tolerated by sjjecial statute at an early date ; and the valleys of the Shenan- 
doah and Holston rivers were first settled by the Scotch and Scotch-Irish Pres- 
byterians, whom Gov. Gooch sought to introduce, on account of their heroic 
fighting qualities, as a defense against the Shawnees, Cherokees, and other war- 
like Indians promising that they should be allowed to enjoy their own religion 
in their own way. There were also some Dutch immigrants who were Protestant 
dissenters. It will be seen in another chapter that Virginia was really Illinois' 
mother country. 

Neither of the Carolinas nor Georgia was sufficiently settled before the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century to make it an appreciable element in early colonial 
life or politics. 

At the time of the discovery of Illinois, there were jirobably 150,000 white 
people settled on the shores of the .Atlantic Ocean within the present territory of 
the United States ; to the west of them in a territory bounded ijy the great lakes, 
the Mississippi river, and the Gulf of Mexico, there were approximately an 
equal number of Indians (150,000). Probably Plymouth had 6,500 whites; 
Connecticut, 13,000; Massachusetts, 19,000; Maine, New Hampshire, and Rhode 
Island had about 3,500 each; New York, icS,ooo; Virginia about 42,000; Mary- 
land probablv ifi,ooo; Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware possibly 6,000; 
the Carolinas and Georgia together, 7,000. 

We have given this review of the condition of the eastern colonies because 
they were at that time establishing and developing those great principles of 
civil and religious liberty upon which they united and formed of themselves a 
great nation which from the days of George Rogers Clark and his \'irginians 


protected and defended us and of which we ourselves have since become a 
part so that their destiny and ours have become one ; and further because the 
men of heroic character, indomitable energy, self-rehance and individual initia- 
tive who made Peoria were themselves the unique product of those older 

There was not a prelate of any church or sect within the territory of the 
colonies until after the Revolutionary War nor a nobleman, except those who 
were made noble in nature by the grace of God and their own efforts. 

The attempt of France to colonize the new world had not been very success- 
ful. They made their first permanent settlement at Port Royal three years 
before Jamestown was settled. Champlain established a colony at Quebec in 
1608. In 1644 Cardinal Richelieu organized the "Company of New France" 
which was to have the monopoly of trade for fifteen years and on the other hand 
it agreed to take three hundred French Roman Catholic settlers each year to 
the colony and to provide each settlement with three priests. 

In 1660 there were no more than two thousand French settlers in New France 
and there were not probably more than two or three times that many at the time 
Marquette and Joliet visited Illinois. 


"Thou too sail on. O ship of State! 

Sail on, O Union, strong and great! 

Humanity with all its fears, 

With all the hopes of future years, 

Is hanging breathless on thy fate ! 

We know what .Master laid thy keel. 

What Workman wrought thy ribs of steel. 

Who made each mast, and sail, and rope, 

What anvils rang, what hammers beat, 

In what a forge and what a heat 

Were shaped the anchors of thy hope." 
■'Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee, 

Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears, 

Our faith triumphant o'er our fears, 

Are all with thee, — are all with thee!" 

In the foregoing pages we have given something like a "flying machine" view 
of the forces that united in the making of Peoria and have controlled its destiny 
It remains to see how, when, and for what purpose, those various influence; 
explored and finally colonized and developed our city and county. 

We have seen how our beautiful valley of the Illinois and the whole valley 
of the Mississippi were inhabited successively by two great races which have 
moved away forever or perished from the earth. Meanwhile the forces oi 
history were preparing for the coming of the third, — the white race. We have 
seen that in Euro])e \his race was then divided into four great parties, each 
of which was represented in America, and we have seen how they differed among 
themselves in principles and ideas of government. We have omitted discussion 
of the Quakers and other small sects, which did not much believe in any form 
of government. How these great parties contended on the farther side of the 
Atlantic and on this side, and have continued to contend to the present day. and 
how their principles have affected us and still affect us and how we Americans 
have endeavored with more or less success to eliminate the bad and retain the 
good of each, are among the interesting questions now before us. 

Earlv in the seventeenth century the French had commenced to establish 
trading posts and missionary stations on our northern lakes. There was one 
of these at La Pointe near the southwestern corner of Lake Superior, surrounded 
by the Apostle Islands, almost due north from the western part of Peoria 
County. It was from there in 1653. — twenty years before Marquette and Joliet 
started on their vovage of discovery, when the Grand Monarch has been ten 
years on the throne of France, ten years after the formation of the first con- 
federacv between the New England colonies for the purpose of resisting the 
encroachment of the French and Indians, and about the time Cromwell was 
dissolving the Long Parliament — that a missionary. Father Jean Dequcrre. a 
Jesuit, early in 1653, started for the Illinois and, it is said, established a flourish- 



ing mission — the first mission in the Mississippi valley — probably at the place 
where Peoria is now situated. "He visited various Indian nations on the borders 
of the Mississippi, and was slain in the midst of his apostolical labors in 1661. 
"In 1657, Father Jean Charles Drocoux, Jesuit, went to the Illinois, and re- 
turned to Quebec the same year." 

"In 1663, Father Claude Jean Allouez was appointed Vicar General of the 
north and west, including Illinois. He preached to the Pottawottomies and 
Aliamis about Green Bay; in 1665, he returned to Quebec, and went to the Illi- 
nois in 1668, and visited the missions on the Mississippi." 

"In 1670, Father Hugues Pinet, Jesuit, went to the Illinois, and established 
a mission among the Tamarois, or Cahokias, at or near the present site of the 
village of Cahokia, on the borders of the Mississippi. He remained there until 
the year 1686, and was at that mission when Marquette and Joliet went down 
the Mississippi. In the same year M. Bergier, priest of the Seminary of Quebec, 
succeeded him in the mission to the Tamaroas or Cahokias: and Father Pinet 
returned to the mission of St. Louis (Peoria), where he remained until he died, 
the i6th of Tulv, 1704, at the age of seventy-nine." 

"In 1670," M'. Augustine Meulan de Circe, priest of the Seminary of Quebec, 
went to Illinois. He left the mission there in 1675 and returned to France." 
"Thus it will be seen that for tzventy years, to wit. from 1653 to 1673, anterior 
to the discovery of Marquette and joliet, there was a succession of missions in 
the Illinois." "There are no other memorials of these missions now extant, 
as known to us, except those preserved in the Seminary of Quebec, from a copy 
of which the above notices are taken. The only object is to show, that for 
years before Marquette and Joliet visited the country, the 'Illinois' and 'Mis- 
sissippi' had been discovered, and missions actually established on their 
borders. That these good fathers made notes on their travels, and rendered 
accounts of the various Indian tribes which they visited along the Father of 
Waters, to their superiors, there can be no doubt. What have become of these 
memorials of early western adventure and discovery now? It is impossible to 
say. That they would throw much light on the early history of the west, there 
can be no doubt." 

The Grand Monarque who always had in his service the most alert, ac- 
complished, able and devoted officers, i'n 1873 had Count de Frontenac as governor 
of Canada, M. Talon, as Intendent, or Supervisor of the Civil Government, 
and Claud F. Dablon, as the Father Superior of the Jesuit :\Iissions. These 
able men knew the importance of the' discoveries made by the missionaries and 
traders, for they had been told about the Mississippi and believed that it emptied 
either into the Gulf of California or into the Gulf of :\Iexico; and they now 
determined to have that matter thoroughly and officially explored. For this 
purpose they selected Sieur Jollyet, who was a most able and thoroughly com- 
petent young man, born in this" country and endowed with every quality that 
could be desired in such an enterprise, having experience and a knowledge of 
the languages of the Ottawa Country, where he had spent several years; hav- 
ing moreover the tact and prudence necessary for an expedition so dangerous 
and difficult, and a courage that feared nothing. 

For several years, Father James Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, has longed 
to have the great river and the prairies of Illinois explored and the Gospel car- 
ried to the Indians; and when an opportunity was offered of accompanying 
Toliet he at once accepted it with delight and enthusiasm, putting their expedi- 
tion under the protection of the Blessed \'irgin Immaculate, and promising 
her that if she did him the grace to discover the great river, he would give it the 
name of "Conception." In 1669 while stationed at Che-goi-me-gon he selected 
a young Illinois as a companion by whose instructions he became familiar with 
the dialect of that tribe. . , t ■ 

Toliet and Marquette with two canoes and five service men started on their 
trip the 17th of May, 1673, from the Mission of St. Ignez opposite Mackinack. 


They coasted along the northern shore of Lake Michigan and entered the waters 
of Green Bay ; from its head they passed the portage into the river Wisconsin 
and down that into the Mississippi, the great river, tiien without a name, and 
named it Conception River. This discovery was made on the i/th of June, 
1673, just thirty days after they started. Without many interesting incidents 
they followed down the Mississippi until they arrived at three little villages of 
the I'eorias, members of the Illinois Confederacy, on the western shore of the 
Mississippi almost directly west of Peoria. Marquette's description of this visit 
has been already quoted. From there they went on south to the vicinity of the 
Arkansas River where they found a different and more warlike people. They 
were already convinced that the great river emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, 
and they were told that it w^ould be very dangerous for them to go any farther, 
not only because the Indians there were unfriendly and warlike, but because 
they might meet Spanish explorers. For these reasons they wisely concluded 
to return and report their valuable discoveries rather than to go on further and 
by their own deaths cause the loss of all they had gained. They therefore 
started up the .Mississippi River but on reaching the mouth of the Illinois they 
determined to take it as a shorter route to the lakes. Near Alton they dis- 
covered the pictures of the Piasa Bird and other pictographs already described. 

It was on the 17th of July, just thirty days after their discovery of the 
Mississippi, that they began their return voyage. Marquette expresses his 
admiration of what he saw in the Illinois valley in the following language: 

"We had seen nothing like this river for the fertility of the land, its prairies, 
woods, wild cattle, stag, deer, wild-cats, bustards, swans, ducks, parrots and even 
beaver ; its many little lakes and rivers. That on which we sailed is broad, deep, 
and gentle for sixty-five leagues. During the spring and part of the summer, 
the only portage is half a league." 

^Marquette was a very devoted missionary and never lost an opportunity to 
publish the Gospel to the Indians whom he met. He stopped three days at the 
village of Peoria, preaching his faith in all their Cabins. As he was embarking, 
the Indians brought to him at the water's edge a dying child which he baptized 
a little before it expired; deeming this, as he says, "an admirable providence" 
for the salvation of that innocent soul and one by which all the fatigue of his 
voyage was. well repaid. 

We regret exceedingly that Manjuette did not more fully describe his visit 
to our Peoria village. He says nothing of the previous visits of Father Jean 
Dec|uerre, or by any of the other priests that are said to have been here before 
him. Perhaps he may not have known atwut these visits or he may have had 
his own reason for not mentioning them. I believe he does not mention the fact 
that the Indians here were the same tribe that he met in Iowa but this was 
undoubtedly the case. At any rate, he seems to have been well received and to 
have spent a busy three days with them and to have baptized a child.^ Perhaps, 
though he does not refer to it, the Indians already knew something of Christianity 
from former missionaries. 

This expedition of Jolict and .Marquette "was a w^onderful journey," says 
Stephen L. Spear, "without serious accident or misadventure from start to 
finish. Xo deaths, no sickness, no desertions, no dissensions among them- 
selves, no conflicts wdth the natives, no fatal scarcity of corn, no waste of time, 
no change of plan, none of the usual misfortunes accompanying such expeditions 
in those days — a canoe voyage of more than 2,300 miles in bark canoes over an 
uncharted route without map or guide — without shelter from scorching sun 
or pelting rain or driving wind — anchoring near mid-stream at night, not daring 
to go forward for fear of rock and rapids ; not daring to camp on shore for fear 
of surprise by hostile natives ; refraining from shooting the game with which the 
country abounded for fear of attracting the attention of unwelcome neighbors — 
their little stock of corn and dried meat the only commissary on which they could 
draw for supplies ; yet 20 miles a day upstream and down, through foul weather 


and fair, including all stops and portages, returning to their point of departure 
without a mishap worthy of record." 

Marcjuette has generally been considered the historian of that exploring 
expedition. Joliet lost his instruments and his memoranda and nearly lost his 
life at La Chine Rapids, yet he nevertheless prepared a map from memory, 
which was sent to France by Frontenac. The report of Marquette was intended 
as Joliet's official report of his voyage. 


The last chapter gave an account of the discovery of the Illinois country. 
This will describe how it was claimed and held for the French King and the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Eight years before Joliet and ]\Iarquette made their historic exploration, 
Jean Talon, Coun.selor and Intendant to Louis XIY, wrote to John Colbert, 
the King's Prime '^Minister, as follows: 

"Canada is of such a vast e.xtent that I know not of its limits on the north, 
thev are so great a distance from us. and on the south there is nothing to prevent 
his Majesty's name and arms being carried as far as Florida, New Sweden, 
New Netherlands, New England ; and that through the first of these countries 
access can be had even to Mexico. All this country is diversely watered by the 
Saint Lawrence and the beautiful rivers that flow into it latterly, that com- 
municate with divers Indian nations rich in furs, especially the more northern 
of them. The southern nations can also be reached by way of Lake Ontario, if 
the portages (beyond) with which we are not yet acquainted, are not very 
difficult, though this may be overcome. If these southern nations do not abound 
in peltries as those of the north, they may have more precious commodities. 
And if we do not know of these last, it is because our enemies, the Iroquois, 
intervene between us and the countries that produce them." 

Talon does not seem to consider the possibility of reaching the southern 
country by the way of the Illinois and Mississippi, or even by the way of the 
Wabash and Ohio, which afterwards were avenues of trade and travel. Per- 
haps he was not sufficiently sure about them. His plan seems to have been 
to follow up some river and make a connection by a portage with the 
head waters of the Ohio. Talon's scheme would probably have been better 
than the western ones if he could have succeeded and held it, because it would 
have confined the Atlantic colonies east of the mountains more easily; but it 
would have been more difficult to hold because the portage would have been 
longer and the Iroquois and the colonies were dangerously near. 

Talon also wrote Colbert in 1671, two years before Marquette's expedition, 
as follows : ■ . 

"I am no Courtier, and assert, not through a mere desire to please the King, 
nor without just reason that this portion of the F"rench Monarch will become 
something grand." "What I discover around me causes me to foresee this, and 
those colonies of various nations so long settled on the seaboard already tremble 
with afifright in view of what his Majesty has accomplished here in the interior 
within seven years. Measures adopted to confine them within narrow limits 
by taking possession, which I have caused to be effected, do not allow them to 
spread, without subjecting themselves at the same time to be treated as usurpers 
and to have war waged against them, and this truth is what, by all their acts, 
they seem to greatly fear. They already know that your name is spread abroad 
among the savages' throughout all those countries and that he alone is there 
regarded by them, (the savages) as the arbitrator of peace and war. All detach 
themselves insensibly from other Europeans and excepting the Iroquois, of 



whom I am not as yet assured, we may safely promise ourselves to make the 
others take up arms whenever we please." 

The King's able minister and his intendant saw the great importance of tak- 
ing possession of the valleys of the ^Mississippi, Illinois, and Ohio, and of hemming 
in and confining the Atlantic seaboard colonies to the eastern side of the Alle- 
ghany Alountains, for they belonged to rival nations in Europe and were founded 
on theories of government — as regards both church and state and social life — 
very different from those of P'rance, besides being aggressive competitors for 
the Indian trade. 

La Salle was an extraordinary man. "It is easy to reckon up his defects 
but it is not easy to hide from sight the Roman virtues that redeemed them. 
Beset by a throng of enemies, he stands like a King of Israel, head and shoulders 
above them all. He was a tower of adamant against whose front hardships 
and dangers, the rage of men, of the elements, the southern sun, the northern 
blast, fatigue, famine and disease, delay, disappointment and hope deferred, 
emptied their cjuivers in vain.'' 

Four years before Joliet's discovery La Salle had fitted out an expedition 
to explore the Ohio from its source to the sea, and had actually started on 
the expedition ; but owing to disagreements with the ecclesiastical part of his 
associates, he was diverted from his purpose and returned home without even 
reaching the Ohio. Then for some years he led the life of a "Runner of the 
Woods,'' but he was more than a runner. He was of good birth and education 
and of correct habits, a promoter of great enterprises whose management he 
imposed on himself, a man of great ambition and tenacity, shirking no hard- 
ships, apparently incapable of discouragement and unconscious of defeat to the 

Joliet, after his return from his exploring expedition with Marquette, met 
La Salle at Fort Frontenac. Here the two celebrated explorers conferred 
together as to the geography of the country and its future possibilities. La Salle, 
enterprising and ambitious as he was, saw in its development a great opportunity 
and seized it with delight, energy and enthusiasm. He applied to the King for 
a charter, which was granted. May 12, 1678. This authorized him to build a 
new and much stronger fort at Fort Frontenac, (now Kingston, Canada) granted 
him a large tract of land in the vicinity and authorized him to take possession 
of the country, of which they hoped to make a glorious New France, and to 
fortify it and hold it for the great King and the Roman Catholic Church. 

His party was soon gathered. Chevalier Henri de Tonti, an Italian by birth, 
son of the merchant who invented the Tontine system of accumulating money. 
a professional soldier with much experience in European wars, a brave and able 
man, who afterwards proved himself to be a most faithful and loyal friend of 
La Salle, was introduced to him by Prince de Conti ; and they, together with 
Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan Friar, Father Gabriel de La Ribourde, and Zeno- 
bius or Zenoble Membre, all members of the Franciscan order of the Roman 
Catholic Church, furnished the ability, intelligence and character for the new 
expedition. The priests of this order were sometimes called "Gray Friars," 
and they were also known in Belgium, Holland and France as "Recollects," 
while the Indians called them "Bare Feet'' or "Gray Gowns." La Salle seems 
to have preferred this order to that of the Jesuits, although both orders were 
prominent and devoted to the missionary work everywhere ; and the writings 
of these two orders constitute nearly the entire written history of this valley 
until it was ceded by France to England in 1763, or even as late as July 4th, 
1778, when George Rogers Clark under a commission from Patrick Henry, the 
Governor, took possession of this country for Virginia. 

La Salle and Tonti organized their expedition and built at Fort Frontenac, 
a ship called the Griffon, with whicli they expect to keep up the communication 
with the settlements on the western lakes and carry on their commerce. La 
Salle, Tonti, Hennepin, and the two Recollects, with thirty-two persons in all 


sailed from Fort I-'rontenac the 7tli of August, 1679, after the "Te Deum" and 
amid the firing of cannon, bringing a good supply of arms, merchandise, and 
seven small cannon. 

La Salle's plan was to seize and fortify the Mississippi and Illinois rivers and 
establish trading posts and missionary stations which should be put under the 
charge of the Friars. 

Reaching Mackinac with his party in September, 1679, he passed on to 
Green P)ay and remained there until their vessel, the Griffon, was loaded with 
furs. This was sent back with a pilot and five good sailors for Montreal to 
dispose of the cargo and return as soon as possible with the additional sup- 
plies needed for the furtherance of the expedition. Among other things it was 
to bring iron and material to build and equip a vessel on the Illinois river to be 
used in navigating that river and the Mississippi. La Salle and fourteen men 
then proceeded with four canoes, considerable merchandise and a quantity of 
utensils and tools to the southern bend of Lake Michigan and built a fort at 
the mouth of St. Joseph's river, where he was joined by Tonti with twenty addi- 
tional men. 

On the third of December, La Salle with thirty men and eight canoes ascended 
the Miami river to a point near South Bend to make a portage to the Kankakee 
and thus reach the Illinois. When they reached the village of the Kaskaskias 
at Starved Rock, they found it deserted. The Indians, however, as was their 
custom on leaving their villages in the fall for a hunting season in the. south, 
had stored some corn for their use on their return. La Salle was compelled to 
take about twenty bushel of this for he was out of provisions. 

With these fresh supplies he passed on down the Illinois to Peoria Lake. 
Here they saw a number of wooden canoes on both sides of the river and about 
eight cabins full of Indians, who did not see them until they had doubled a point 
behind which the Illinois were encamped within half a gun shot. La Salle and 
his men were in eight canoes abreast with all their arms in their hands. At 
first the Indians were alarmed and ran away. He managed to call them back 
and after a day spent in dancing and feasting, Hennepin notified them that 
they had come not to trade but to preach. For this purpose, they assembled the 
chiefs of the villages, which were on both sides of the river. La Salle explained 
that the French desired to be their allies and that they would bring over addi- 
tional Frenchmen, who would protect them from the attacks of their enemies 
and would furnish them all the goods they needed, and that they intended to 
build a great wooden canoe and sail down to the sea bringing them all kinds of 
merchandise by that shorter and more easy route. The Indians agreed and gave 
a description of the Mississippi river. 

At Peoria La Salle met a large number of t!ie Kaskaskias returning to their 
village. La Salle explained to them that he had taken some of their corn as a 
matter of necessity and he settled with them for it to their satisfaction. La Salle 
now decided to' remain at Peoria until the opening of the river in the spring. 

The next day after they landed, a Miami chief named Monso arrived with 
a lot of kettles, axes, knives, etc.. in order bv these presents to make the Illinois 
believe that the F"renchmen intended to join their enemies who lived beyond the 
Colbert (Mississippi) river. One of the Illinois chiefs, named Omaouha, notified 
La Salle that the Miamies were working against them. La Salle believed that 
Monso had been sent by other Frenchmen who were jealous of his success for 
he was surprised to find that Monso knew all about his affairs in detail. 

Nicanape, a brother of the most important of the Illinois chiefs, made a speech 
at the feast trying to persuade the Frenchmen to abandon their idea of going on 
down the river, telling them that the river was unnavigalile. full of falls and 
sandbars and infested with dangerous enemies. .After the meal La Salle explained 
to Nicanape that when Monso was plotting with him the night before in secret. 
La Salle had not been asleep and his manifest knowledge of the motive of 
Nicanape silenced him. In the meantime Monso started back. The Indians sent 


runners after Monso to bring him back for cross-examination but as his tracks 
were hidden by a recent fall of snow they were unable to overtake him. Never- 
theless La Salle's men were somewhat disheartened and six of them deserted. 
They were at that time probably on the western side of the river near Birket's 

La Salle, having gotten consent of the Indians, now commenced to build a 
fort, a stockade of logs. This was soon finished and named Fort Creve Coeur. 
Concerning the location of this fort there has been a great deal of controversy 
and argument. It seems certain, however, that the main fort was built at the 
southern extremity of the lake on the eastern side of the Illinois river: some think 
it was located above the lower end of the lake near the upper free bridge, and 
some that it was located three miles below, near Wesley City. Each of these 
locations has been marked by a stone and both are on high points of the bluff. 

It is now confidently asserted by Daniel R. Sheen, Esquire, of this city, that 
Fort Creve Coeur was situated just across the river from Peoria on the line of 
Fayette street, and on a little mound only a few feet above high water mark. 
Notwithstanding the fact that both of the other locations for Creve Coeur have 
been endorsed by enthusiastic societies and marked by monuments, I am rather 
inclined to think that Fort Creve Coeur was located in the latter place, not only 
because it seems to meet the descriptions given by the builders better, but because 
it is the most reasonable place for such a fort built for the purpose for which 
this was constructed. At that place and from there on down, the river is always 
open in the spring several weeks earlier than it is above. There is also at that 
place a bend in the shore and a slough making a kind of port or harbor. The 
ground is high enough to avoid the danger of overflow in high water and it is 
low enough for boats to be brought up close to the fort or even within the pali- 
sades. It is manifest that this would be desirable as the fort was not built for a 
temporary purpose only, but as a protection to the commerce they hoped to 
establish on the Illinois river; and for this latter purpose it would be necessary 
that it should be close to the harbor and to the boats that were to be protected. 
The white men had no cannon of long range; and the Indians had none at 
all, while their muskets were only short range guns. They did most of their 
fighting with clubs and bows and arrows. Thus a fort on a high point of the 
bluff would afiford no protection to a boat in the water below. jNIoreover it 
would be hard to keep a fort so located supplied with provisions and water, a 
very essential thing. From a military point of view it seems to me altogether 
probable that the fort would have been built on a little bay near the water's 
edge at a place where the water from the numerous springs coming into the 
river would keep it open and free from ice a much greater part of the year 
than it would be a little farther up, and where the boats would not be threatened 
with floating ice as they would have been if anchored near where Wesley City 
now stands. Also, it would have been placed near enough to the village of 
Peoria on the western shore to be in easy communication with it and yet free 
from danger of an attack from it. The location of this fort is a very interesting 
question because the buildings there were the first ones erected by white men 
in Illinois. 

It would be well to have careful examination made into this matter and to 
examine the old remains of the fort that are alleged to be found at the place 
named h\ Mr. Sheen and perhaps erect another monumental stone to show the 
location of the first building erected by white men in Illinois. Peorians are 
specially interested in this location for if the fort were standing now where Mr. 
Sheen claims it stood it would face our city and be plainly visible from our 
steamboat landing. 

At the same time that the fort was being built the keel for a vessel was laid 
near the fort, but before the work on the boat had advanced far, some of Tonti's 
men deserted, partly from want of pay, perhaps partly through a disposition to 
cut lose from restraint and perhaps from fear of the Irociuois. This made it 


necessary to suspend work on the vessel and La Salle and Tonti agreed that 
the former should go back on foot to enlist a fresh force of men and bring the 
necessary supply of materials for finishing and furnishing the boat and that 
Tonti should liave the river explored farther west and south. 

A young Illinois passing La Salle's shipyard traced for them with coal a 
fairly accurate map of the Mississippi river, assuring them that there were no 
falls or rapids between them and the gulf, giving the names of the nations along 
the shore. The next morning, after public prayers, La Salle visited the village, 
where he found the Illinois assembled having a feast. They again tried to per- 
suade him of the dangers of proceeding down the river. La Salle informed them 
that he knew all about it and the savages thought he had learned it all in some 
very mysterious way. Tlie Illinois then apologized saying that they had told 
him their false stories only with the desire to keep the Frenchmen with the 
Illinois ; and they then all admitted that the river was navigable to the sea. The 
chief Oumahouha ( Omaha ) adopted Zenoble Membre as his son. Tiie tribe 
lived at that time only half a league from Fort Creve Coeur. 

Early in March La Salle left Tonti in command at Fort Creve Coeur and 
taking five men went back to Niagara to look after the Griffon and secure neces- 
sary supplies. Hennepin started down the river Illinois on his exploring expedi- 
tion. February 29, 1680. He describes the river as skirted by hills, ascending 
which you discover prairie further than the eye can reach. Hennepin reached 
the Tamaroas, two leagues from the mouth of the Illinois, Alarch 7, 1680. The 
Tamaroas then had their village six or seven leagues below the mouth of the 
Illinois and west of the river ^Mississippi. On April 11, 1680, Hennepin was 
captured by Indians on the upper Mississippi. After a long captivity and much 
suffering, he was rescued by Daniel Greysolon Duluth, a cousin of Tonti. 

When Hennepin and La Salle were gone, Tonti commenced the construc- 
tion of another fort on the western side of the river, supposed to be where the 
old pottery stood near llirket's Hollow. In all this work the French were 
doubtless very greatly assisted by the Illinois, who as well as the French would 
feel the need of it as a defense against their terrible common enemies, the 
Iroquois. When Tonti was left by La Salle in command of F'ort Creve Coeur, 
he was supplied with powder and lead, guns and other arms to defend himself 
in case he was attacked by the Iroquois. 

La Salle while on his trip east sent back orders to Tonti to go to Starved 
Rock and build a strong fort there, and for this purpose Tonti started north- 
ward. On the way, however, all of his men deserted except two Recollects 
and three men newly arrived from France, taking with them everything that 
was most valuable. Tonti went back to hold Fort Creve Coeur with his six 
men and did hold it all summer. 

On September 10, 1680, sudden as a clap of thunder, the Iroquois invaded 
the Illinois. Tonti had only a few hours notice and in trying to negotiate with 
the Iroquois came near being treacherously killed. The Illinois fled down the 
river, leaving everything behind, even their corn, which was destroyed. Tonti 
and Zenoble met the Irof|uois in council .September 18, 1680. The Iroquois 
told Tonti they were going to eat some of the Illinois before they went away, 
whereupon Tonti resenting the inference that he might be persuaded to desert 
his friends, kicked away their presents and the parley broke up in anger. I'onti 
expected to be killed before morning and resolved to sell his life dearly. At 
day-break, however, the Iroquois told Tonti and his men to depart, which they 
promptly did knowing they could no longer, by remaining, be useful to the Illi- 
nois. Tonti was wounded during the parley but was allowed to start for Green 
Bay with his few men. The next day. September 19th, after Tonti started 
back. Father Gabriel Ribourde, who had retired a short distance for private 
prayer was killed by a band of renegade Kickapoos. The Iroquois returned to 
New York taking a large number of female jirisoners with them. During the 
continuation of this parley, the Iroquois must have been encamped or had a 


village near Fort Creve Coeur. This probably was a very temporary village as 
well as temporary fort because the Iroquois had come in only eight days before 
like a clap of thunder. Their fort must have been near Creve Coeur because 
they exchanged messages several times a day. 

Tonti went on up to Canada hoping to join La Salle but for the time being 
failed to find him. 

La Salle, meanwhile, on returning to Peoria, finding that his fort was de- 
stroyed and that the Indians had been driven away, passed on down the river 
seeking for Tonti. but not finding him, he returned to Fort St. Joseph. There 
he met Tonti and proceeded with consummate ability to organize a great con- 
federacy of the western Indians, including the Illinois, ]\Iiamies, Foxes, Shaw- 
nees, Tamaroas and others, forming an alliance offensive and defensive with the 
French and each other against their mutual enemies, the Iroquois, who were the 
allies of the colonies east of the Alleghanies. La Salle then returned east for 
new supplies, again leaving Tonti in command. 

La Salle again rejoined Tonti in December, 1681, and started on the third 
winter's journey down the Illinois for the mouth of the Alississippi river with 
a party of twenty-three Frenchmen and thirty-one Indians. This time they 
crossed Lake Michigan and entered the mouth of the Chicago river. From there 
they followed down the course of the Deep Waterway Canal (which was not 
built then, and is not yet. but will be soon) and halted at Peoria long enough 
to repair their canoes and transfer their supplies from the sledges to the boats, 
for this trip as far as Peoria had been made by placing their boats on sledges 
and drawing them by hand on the ice on the frozen rivers and on the snow 
across the portage. They then successfully passed on down the Illinois and 
Mississippi river to the Gulf of ^Mexico, and took possession of the country and 
all its seas, harbors, ports, etc., including the long string of particulars that in 
those days were included in documents of that sort, in the name of the "most 
high, mighty, invincible and victorious Prince Louis the Great, by the Grace of 
God, King of France and Navarre, P^ourteenlh, by that name," April 9. 1682. 

They then started on their return. La Salle fell sick and had to be left behind 
at Chickasaw Bluffs, while Tonti came on ahead. La Salle followed later and 
joined him at Alackinac. All this magnificent domain was then, according to 
the charter granted him by the Grand Monarch, "La Salle's Country" to be 
held by him for and in the name of the French King and for his own profit. 

La Salle on his return proceeded, in the winter of 1682 and 1683, to erect a 
fort at Starved Rock called Fort St. Louis du Rocher, about which he gathered 
the remnant of many western tribes, twenty thousand or more Indians. This 
was to be the military headquarters of La Salle's Country, the principal trad- 
ing post of the whole region, the rallying point of all of the western red war- 
riors in opposition to the Iroquois. \\'hen it was finished, he placed Tonti in 
command and early in the summer of 1683, La Salle left his glorious domain — 
never to see it again. Some time after he was gone. Tonti led or accompanied 
his Illinois allies and joining a body of French and Canadian Indians drove the 
Iroquois back to their home villages and punished them severely. 

La Salle's friend. Count Frontinac, had been succeeded by La Barre. who was 
an enemy of La Salle's and thwarted him in every possible way; so that now 
La Salle was compelled to return to France and appeal directly to the French 
King. There he was successful and organized a new expedition with the inten- 
tion of returning to America and establishing a fort and a commercial city for 
his territory at the mouth of the Mississippi river. It was a grand conception 
and if he had not accidentally missed the mouth of the Mississippi, landing 
further west on the shore of Texas, thus losing his ships and his life in an 
efifort to return, it is hard to determine how great a colony that able man 
might have developed. His plans were magnificent. His ability was great. His 
life was terminated by the treachery of one of his own men. 


Joliet and Marquette, La Salle and Tonti had come and gone like meteors 
in the sky, wonderful in their brilliant achievements as any of the knights of 
old. After them there is little to be told of the French occupation of the Mis- 
sissippi valley that is creditable to the mother country. 

Tonti was left by La Salle in charge at Starved Rock of all his fortifications 
and headquarters for all his wide domain and for the confederacy of the west- 
ern Indians which he had organized. But the enemies of La Salle were in charge 
of Quebec and they sent Chevalier de Bogis to supersede Tonti in his com- 
mand, which he did but retained Tonti as a captain of troops. They remained 
in charge of the Fort at Starved Rock, representing different interests and hav- 
ing but little symi)athy with each other's plans. In the following March, the 
approach of their common enemy, the Iroquois, compelled them to unite in a 
defense of their post, where they were besieged for six days by two thousand 
warriors. Their position, however, was so strong and their means of defense 
so adequate that the hitherto victorious Iroquois were repulsed with loss and 
compelled to abandon the siege. This was the last invasion of the savages from 
the east. From this time on for many years, the Illinois and allied tribes re- 
sumed their yearly residence in the vicinity of the fort without molestation. The 
protecting guns of the French and the presence of Tonti, who made the fort his 
headquarters for many years, rendered their safety secure. It was also the 
abode of many French traders and merchants with their families. 

From this point Tonti roamed the Western world over, and trading, fight- 
ing, and exploring, he made six trips up and down the Mississippi and visited 
Montreal. i\lackinac and points on Lake Michigan. In 1702 he was deprived 
of his command and joined d'Iberville to aid him in his efforts to colonize lower 
Louisiana, and the fort at Starved Rock was ordered abandoned. It was, how- 
ever, occasionally occu[)ied as a trading port, until 1718, when it was raided by 
the Indians and burned on account of the licentiousness of the French 

In 1686-9 he accompanied Rev. J. F. Buisson Sentsome on his trip with a 
company of priests from Mackinaw down to Natchez. 

To the Recollet monks of St. Francis was first assigned the care of the 
American mission l)Ut Cardinal Richelieu superseded this order and confined the 
spiritual welfare of the natives and settlers of Canada to the Jesuits. There 
were accremonious quarrels between these two rival religious orders, which 
were intensitied by the ])articipation therein of the civil authorities and which 
continued until the suppression of the Jesuits in most of the provinces of France 
and their expulsion from the province of Louisiana, in 1763 or before, and from 
the entire Dominion of France in 1764. 

After the departure of La Salle there was luit little done by the French in 
Illinois for the next thirty years. An account of the succession of priests, who 
were sent to the missions at Peoria by the religious orders to which they be- 
longed to care for the spiritual welfare of the French traders and Indians, is 
all there is to keep up the continuity of the story. It is a melancholy tale of 



suffering and death, and an evidence of the warmth, zeal, and piety of these 
faithful followers of the cross. 

Father Gabriel Lanibronde, Jesuit, went as a missionary to the Illinois in 
1678 and was slain at his mission in 1680. 

Father Maxime Le Clerc went to the Illinois in 1678. He was killed by the 
Indians in 1687. 

Father Zenoble Membre, Recollet, went to the Illinois in 1678, returned in 
1680, and was employed in visiting the tribes on the Mississippi. 

Father Louis Hennepin went to the Illinois in 1678 with La Salle; was oc- 
cupied in making discoveries on the Mississippi where he was made prisoner 
in 1680 and afterwards ransomed. 

M. Jean Bergier, mentioned as the successor of Father Pinet, priest of the 
Seminary of Quebec, went to the Illinois in 1686; was at the Tamaroas or 
Cahokia mission; died there in 1699; was buried by Father Marest, who was 
in the mission to the Kaskaskias. 

During the year 1694-5 Father Grevierre attended his labors among Peorias 
until 1699 when he was recalled. He returned to the Illinois mission in 1700 
and continued his labors with the Peorias, where he was assaulted by a med- 
icine man of the tribe from whom he received a severe wound which finally 
resulted in his death, at Mobile in 1706. 

Peoria then was left without a priest until the Indians had promised better 
behavior, when Father Deville was sent to them. 

M. Phillip Boucher, priest of the Seminary of Quebec, was sent to the Tam- 
aroas or Cahokia mission, to assist M. Bergier; remained with him until 1696, 
when he went to visit the Arkansas and other Indian tribes on the lower Mis- 
sissippi: returned and died at Peoria in 1719. 

In 1692, Father Louis Hyacinth Simon, went as missionary to "St. Louis," 
(Peoria) ; went from there in 1694 to visit the different establishments and posts 
on the Mississippi; returned to Quebec in 1699. 

Father Julien Benettau, Jesuit priest, went to the Illinois in 1696; labored 
at the mission of (Peoria?) St. Louis with great success; died there in 1709. 

M. Francois Juliet de Montigney, priest, in 1696 was sent to Louisiana in 
the character of vicar-general, by the bishop of Quebec. He visited the mis- 
sions in Illinois. St. Louis, the Tamaroas or Cahokias, while M. Bergier was 
there, traversed the whole country, and returned to Quebec in 1718. 

M. Michael Antoine Gamelin, priest of the Seminary of Quebec, accom- 
panied him. They descended the Mississippi, and went as far as Mobile. 

Father Gabriel Marest, Jesuit, went to the Illinois in 1699; fixed his resi- 
dence at Kaskaskia ; died there in 1727. 

Father Antoine Darion, priest, went in 1700 on a mission to the Tunicas, a 
tribe living on the Mississippi; and adjoining the Natchez. He went from 

Rev. Phillip Boucher labored a while at St. Louis (Peoria) and died there 
in 1718. 

Under the French government the territory of Illinois was at first under 
the administration of the governor of Canada, the seat of government being at 
Quebec. The region being so very remote and the population so exceedingly 
sparce, little if any civil authority was exercised over the people. As the Illi- 
nois country had been settled by Frenchmen coming through Canada, who had 
left manv relatives there, and as they liad always traded there, the affections 
of the old French settlers still remained with Canada ; but in consequence of 
La Salle's discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi and of his taking posses- 
sion, in the name of his king, of all the countries drained by it, the people of 
France now began to come into the Mississippi valley by way of the Gulf, as 
La Salle had foreseen and planned. As early as the year 1700, they had pene- 
trated as far north as the River Maramac, not more than twenty miles south 
from St. Louis, and had there begun the smelting of lead with which that region 
was supposed to abound. 




PKdlMA WAIKi; l-Kn\r. I-|;(IM TIIK l.oWKi; KUKK ISKIDiiK 


In 171 1 that portion of Canada or New France in which this part of the 
State of IlHnois is located was detached from Canada and attached to the prov- 
ince of Louisiana, and thereafter continued for many years to constitute a part 
of it. 

In those days fabulous stories of the great wealth of Louisiana in gold, 
silver, pearls and precious stones were circulated in Europe. Such paltry 
things as the great fertility of the soil, or as coal, iron, and lead were uot much 
thought of. Adventurers explored the country throughout its entire extent in 
search of the precious metals, little of which was found, but great discoveries 
were made of lead, iron and mineral coal. 

In the spring, 1712, the French at Fort St. Louis "The Rock" (Starved 
Rock) established a trading post here at Peoria Lake, and a number of families 
came thither from Canada and built cabins in the Indian village. For fifty 
years French and half-breeds continued to live in the town with the Indians as 
one people, and during that time peace and harmony prevailed between them. 

On August 17, 1 71 7, John Law, the celebrated financier, procured from the 
king a charter for the Company of the Occident for the whole of the colony of 
Louisiana, which included Illinois, with power to sell and alienate the lands in 
such manner as they might think proper, and with power to appoint governors 
and other superior officers and to dismiss them and to appoint others. They 
were also given a monopoly of the tobacco and slave trades and the 
exclusive right to refine gold and silver. In pursuance of this charter, 
a government was organized over the whole territory, including the Illinois 
country. On the 9th of F"ebruary, 1718, there arrived at Mobile by ship from 
France, Pierre Duque Boisbriant, a Canadian gentleman, with the commission 
of Commandant at Illinois. He was a cousin of Bienville, then governor of 
Louisiana, and had already served under him in that province. In October of 
the same year, one hundred years before Illinois became a state, accompanied 
by several officers and a detachment of troops, he departed for the Illinois coun- 
try, where he was ordered to construct a fort. Late in the year Boisbriant 
reaclwJ Kaskaskia and selected a site for his fort sixteen miles above the vil- 
lage,|^n the left bank of the JMississippi. Merrily rang the a.xes of the soldiers 
in the forest by the mighty river, as they hewed out the ponderous timbers for 
IJalisades and bastian. And by degrees the walls arose, and the barracks and 
commandant's house, and the store house and great hall of the Indian company 
were built and the cannon, bearing the Coat of Arms of Louis XIV, were 
placed in position. In the spring of 1720 all was finished and the lilies of the 
Bourbons floated over the work which was named "Fort Chartres." 

In 1719, while Fort Chartres was in process of erection, the company of 
the East Indies, established years before by Colbert, was tmited with the Com- 
pany of the \\ est under the name of the Company of the Indies, which latter 
company then assumed jurisdiction over the province of Louisiana. Under its 
authority a provincial council for Illinois was established. 

This council speedily made Fort Chartres the center of the civil govern- 
ment and of the colony, and its members executed grants of land upon which 
some titles still rest, though but few permanent improvements and actual settle- 
ments were made. They dispensed justice, regulated titles and administered 
estates, in fact established the court which for more than forty years decided 
the causes which arose in the Illinois country according to the principles and 
mode of procedure recognized by the civil law. 

Phillip Francis Renault, director general of the mines of the Company of 
the Indies, and formerly a banker of Paris, reached Fort Chartres before its 
completion and made his headquarters at the post. He brought with him two 
hundred and fifty miners and soldiers and five hundred slaves from San Do- 
mingo. This is said to have been the beginning of slavery in Illinois. 

Renault, as director of the Mines, pursued for years with indefatigable en- 
ergy the exploration of the Mississippi valley for mineral, carrying his pros- 


pecting far up the Missouri to the Rocky Mountain and up the Ohio and its 
tributaries to the Alleghanies. He obtained a concession to himself of several 
tracts of laud some of which are known to have contained valuable mines. The 
concession in which we Peorians are most interested embraced a tract of land on 
Peoria lake, which under the name of Renault claims gave rise to much contro- 
versy in congress, as well as some unrest at Peoria. 

This claim was described as: "One league in front at Pimiteau ou the 
River Illinois facing the east and adjoining to the lake bearing the name of the 
village, and on the other side of the banks opposite the village for a half league 
above it with a depth of five leagues, the point of the compass following the 
Illinois river down the same upon one side and ascending by the river of Arcary 
[de d'Arescy, elsewhere called the des Arcouy. — Ed.] which forms the middle 
through the rest of the depth." 

The wording of this grant goes to show that at that time, June 14, 1723, 
there was a village located on Lake Pimiteau, or Lake Peoria, the precise loca- 
tion of which is not definitely stated. The heirs of Renault have, from time 
to time, set up a claim to the land so granted at Lake Peoria. Their last claim 
was that it embraced a tract lying on both sides of the Kickapoo creek at its 
mouth extending up the river as far as Bridge street, and following the creek 
as its middle line for a distance of five leagues, or fifteen miles by one league, 
or three miles, in width. The description however is of such an uncertain na- 
ture it was not possible to locate it with any degree of accuracy, and it never 
has been recognized by the government in any of its surveys. 

Here we have the fact well authenticated by a grant of land based thereon 
that in 1723 there existed at Pimiteau ( Pimiteoui ) a village bearing the same 
name as the lake upon which it was situated. Whether or not this was the 
same village mentioned by IMarquette, St. Cosme, and Grevierre, does not appear. 
But that it was a French village can scarcely be doubted. Tradition says that 
the object of this grant was to secure control of a lead mine, of which some 
evidence had been found. In the light of the present day it would seem more 
highly probable that Renault's aim was to secure control of the valuaWPKSroal 
fields which, it was evident, bordered upon the Kickapoo creek, then calT^anhe 
Arcary or Arcoury. 

In 1732 the charter of the Company of the Indies was surrendered, and 
Louisiana, including what is now the state of Illinois, was thereafter governed 
by officers appointed directly by the French crown, under a code of laws known 
as the Common Law of Paris. These laws however not being adapted to the 
exigency of civil or social relations in a new country were not generally en- 
forced ; the commandant exercising an arbitrary but mild authority which was 
acquiesced without complaint. 

The majority of the colonies who had come with the Indies company were 
poor and illiterate and for the most part they took themselves to hunting and 
iDoating. Few men of talent and enterprise remained and became merchants 
and traders on a large scale with the Indians. 

In 1734 Pierre d'Artaguiette was appointed commander of the Illinois dis- 
trict and his administration was popular and successful. In 1736, however, he 
conducted a disastrous expedition against the Chickasaws who had long op- 
posed the advancement of the French settlers on the Mississippi. His force 
was composed of a part of the garrison of Fort Chartres, a company of vol- 
unteers from the French villages, and a large portion of the warriors of the Kas- 
kaskias. making an army of two hundred French and four hundred Indians. 
The Illinois and Miami Indians were under the command of chief Chicagou. 
Major d'Artaguiette had been promised re-inforcements from New Orleans 
but they failed to arrive and there was nothing left to the brave young com- 
mander but to fight. He was severely wounded in the engagement as were 
manv of his officers. His Indian armies fled and the Chickasaws soon remained 
masters of the bloody field. D'Artaguiette and some other Frenchmen were 
taken prisoners and burned at the stake. 


We have reached the point where the names of Washington and Virginia 
come into our story. 

In 1611, March 12th, the English king had granted to the Virginia company 
all the land between parallels thirty and forty-one nmning from the Atlantic to 
the western sea. The northern line of \'irginia under that charter ran about 
three miles north of Peoria county, so that the whole of Peoria county was in 

As the French and English colonies increased in population and extended 
their settlements, the question of the boundary between them became one of in- 
creasing importance and brought the two rival nations into collision with each 
other. The first strong competition took place on the head waters of the Ohio 
river. The first exciting cause of this was the formation of the Ohio Com- 
pany under a grant from the English crown. Not an Englishman had at that 
time settled northwest of the Ohio river. The Indians held the whole country 
with a tenacious grip and had not even a distant fear that the English would 
ever be able to dispossess them. 

The grant to the Ohio company was obtained for a tract situated within the 
present limits of the state of Ohio. The company was composed of eight asso- 
ciates, of whom Lawrence Washington, Augustine, and George Washington 
were three. Measures for the occupancy of these lands were taken by com- 
mencing to build a fort near where Pittsburg now stands but the men there 
employed were driven away by a large force of French and Indians. This was 
the beginning of the French and Indian war, which lasted from 1754 to 1759. 
It involved nearly the whole of Europe in the struggle, for its issue was en- 
tangled with the old question as to the balance of power on the continent. 

The Canadian tribes of Indians sided with the French ; the Iroquois and 
others sided with the English, and all of the Indians were on the warpath on 
one side or on the other to help settle this question, one of the momentous ques- 
tions of the world's history, as events have proven. 

Washington had investigated the situation on the head waters of the Ohio 
to learn what was the strength of the enemies and of their forts and what they 
were proixibly ])lanning to do. The information brought by Washington con- 
vinced the governor of Virginia that the French were preparing to take posses- 
sion of the Ohio valley, and Major Washington, as he then was, was ordered 
to the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers to superintend the 
completion of a fort there. V^hen he arrived at the place, he found that it had 
already been taken possession of by the French with a force of a thousand men. 
He thereupon determined to proceed to the mouth of Red Stone Creek where 
the warehouses of the Ohio company were situated. He encountered Sieur de 
Jumonville de \'illiers, who had been despatched with a military force and a 
summons to Washington to require him to withdraw from French territory. On 
May 28th, Washington successfully attacked him, killed ten of the French in- 
cluding De\'illiers, and captured twenty-one prisoners, while his own loss was 
one killed and three wounded. This was Washington's first battle, in which he 
was twenty-two years old. 

Coulan, a brother of the deceased French general, was sent from Montreal 
with twelve hundred French and Indians. As Washington only had three hun- 
dred all told, he retreated to Fort Necessity. Here he was attacked on July 3rd 
and compelled to surrender. 

Fort Chartres, Illinois, at this time was garrisoned by a regiment of grena- 
diers and the fort had just been rebuilt of stone, for it had been of wood, at a 
cost of a million dollars. 

Upon learning of the defeat of Jumonville de Villiers, Captain Neyon de 
Villiers of Fort Chartres was despatched with a company to join the force of 
his brother Coulan from Fort Duquesne to aid in overcoming "Monsieur de 
Wachenston." The result of this campaign brought to the gallant Captain 
\'illicrs and his post on the Mississippi a well earned distinction, for the Illinois 


country was largely depended upon for supplies, which were transported in 
boats down the Mississippi and up the Ohio to Fort Duquesne, in which ser- 
vice Neyon de Villiers rendered valuable aid. His honors in this war were 
dearly bought for he was the only one of several brothers, who was not slain 
in the defense of Canada. 

Five years before this time, that is, in 1749, the British white population of 
the thirteen colonies was estimated at one million, fifty-one thousand. That of 
the French in all of New France, exclusive of their Indian allies, was about 
fifty-two thousand. 

The desire of the English colonists to speculate in the lands northwest of the 
Ohio was very strong and many prominent men were connected with all such 
schemes, including Ijesides the Washingtons already mentioned, John Murray, 
Earl Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, and the Franklins, father and son. 

The French and Indian war which was begun as we have seen, at what is 
now Pittsburg, was practically ended five years later, Sept. 13, 1759, on the 
plains of Abraham at Quebec where the gallant and able commanders on each 
side lost their lives. From this time forth France lost all power and control 
in Canada and the whole north west. 

As soon thereafter as the dilatory movements of the governments could bring 
it about, France surrendered all her claims to her remaining possessions in 
North America to Great Britain by the treaty of Paris, which was signed in 
1763. She had ceded her territory west of the Mississippi to Spain the year 

Thus ended the magnificent scheme planned by La Salle for making in the 
Mississippi valley a new France, even greater than the old. It failed because 
it was not based upon proper fundamental principles of government. Abso- 
lutism and despotism cannot succeed in a new country such as this was. 

At the end of almost ninety years of French control, it will be interesting 
to consider w-hat Illinois gained by it. In the year 1763 when France ceded this 
country to Great Britain, what did she transfer within that part now included 
in Illinois? A population consisting of about two thousand whites and five or 
six hundred negro slaves — and a system of legalized slavery. The soil and 
forests as nature had made them. Here and there a little wooden town; a 
magnificent stone fortress, the grandest that up to that time had been built within 
the present borders of the United States, standing on a sandy foundation too close 
to the channel of the erratic Mississippi ; a rude wooden village insecurely 
founded on the same treacherous stream ; three or four other villages scarcely 
worth naming and a few inefficient water mills located on unreliable streams. 
And wdiat else besides? No agriculture beyond the supply of immediate wants, 
and possibly for export, as much flour, bacon, pork, hides, tallow and leather 
as would be produced on one good prairie farm of six hundred acres ; no build- 
ings but the rudest and they of wood — there were no brick; no commerce ex- 
cept trade and barter with the natives of the forest ; no mines developed ; no 
looms or churns in use and no factories built, no schools established, no print- 
ing press set up, no roads except the trail of the Indian and the buff^alo, no 
bridge other than an occasional tree felled across a narrow stream and no trans- 
portation facilities superior to those of the red men : no civil officers, no popular 
election ever held, few people outside of the priests who were able to read, and 
there were not many of them — the Jesuits having just been expelled in a sum- 
mary manner — no civil courts and no legislatures. There were only a few 
homesteads so owned by the occupants, that they could develop and improve 
them, leave them to their heirs with a good title. There was nothing to broaden 
and strengthen the intellectual life of the people or their political life. There 
was nothing to produce the strong, active, self-reliant, progressive, and courage- 
ous characters that are necessarily found in the successful frontiersman or 
pioneer. There was little or no inducement to the citizen to do anything for 
the progress of the country, and little ability on the part of the people to ac- 


complisli it if they had so desired. All of this was the fault of their institu- 
tions. The government was centralized and autocratic both of church and state. 
The initiative was not accepted or desired on the part of the private citizen, or 
indeed permitted to them. Without these no new country can prosper. I-"rench 
institutions themselves on both sides of the sea were tottering. The Grand 
Monarque had died many years before. The financial interests of the country 
had been committed to John Law, the author of the Mississippi bubble, and the 
bubble had burst and John Law had died in poverty. Even the kingdom of 
France was approaching its downfall. The whole institutions of government in 
every branch were resting on foundations as insecure as the foundation of their 
magnificent fort. It remains to be .seen when Clarke and his \'irginians come 
what can be done with the same natural advantages by free men under free 
institutions which allow the citizens a large degree of personal, religious, and 
civil freedom and cultivate in him self-reliance and energy, train him to do his 
own thinking, and offer him an opportunity to labor for his own benefit and 
the benefit of his children and heirs, guaranteeing to him the reward of his 
labor. The government heretofore has existed for the benefit of the governing 
class and the result shows beyond a doubt that such a government will ulti- 
mately be a failure evervwhere. The French made no effort to establish colonies 
of self-supporting, self-governing people. 


We have already seen that the government of the I'rench over this region for 
eiglity years or more had been of httle or no benefit to the people of Illinois. 
We will now see that the government exercised by the English was worse, for it 
was as damaging as they could make it. 

The English government desired colonies solely for the benefit they could 
derive from them in the way of trade and they used every means to keep them 
in such a state of subjection that England could monopolize that trade, a policy 
which they had already so successfully and so cruelly carried out in the case of 
Ireland. This they hoped to be able to do in the colonies along the sea-coast, 
for by their navy they controlled the ocean ; but they felt sure they would not 
be able to secure any considerable amount of benefit to themselves from the 
inland settlements, for the transportation from there to Great Britain for pro- 
duce and from Great Britain to them for manufactured articles would be so 
great that such commerce could not be made profitable. For this reason they 
discouraged settlement in the northwest. 

Another strong reason they had for not wishing to encourage such settlement 
was that they hoiked by use of the Indian tribes on the frontiers to be able to 
keep the eastern colonies in a more servile state of subjection. In furtherance 
of this policy, they continually made large presents to the Indians and endeav- 
ored in every possible way to prejudice them against the colonists, and prom- 
ised them that the vast territory of the Ohio and Illinois valleys and western 
lakes should be kept as one vast hunting ground for the red men. 

Notwithstanding this, after England had driven the French from Canada and 
the Northwest, the Indians fearing they could no longer rely upon the protection 
of the French, and that they would be entirely within the despotic power of the 
English when the colonies and the king should be united, shrewdly concluded 
they must at once make a strong and desperate defense of the country west of 
the .\lleghanies or be driven from the lands of their fathers. 

They had been taught by the French to hate the English and many of the 
tribes near the colonies who had been friendly to them up to this time, began to 
think that they must unite with their red brethren of the west or be rendered 
entirely helpless. 

Pontiac, who has been called the Colossal Chief of the Northwest, the King 
and Lord of all that country. Chief of the Ottowas, respected and adored in a 
manner by all of the Indians, a man of "integrity and humanity" according to 
the morals of the wilderness, of a comprehensive mind, fertile in resources and 
of an undaunted nature, conceived the idea of uniting all of the Indian tribes 
and entirely driving out the whites from the whole of the northwest and the 
Mississippi' valley. He proceeded with consummate ability to execute his plan. 
He secured the co-operation of nearly all of the Indian tribes and planned that 
on one and the same fateful day, May i, 1763, they should surprise, attack, 
and destrov all of the forts of the white men west of the Alleghanies. This 
they carried out within sixty days in a way that would seem incredible. The 
forts were all surprised and destroyed except two. 



Jt would be an interesting story to tell how each of these forts was captured 
without any intimation of the coming calamity, and men, women, and children 
massacred. The only two forts in all the country that were not surprised and 
captured were those at Detroit and Pittsburg. They managed to withstand a 
siege until they were relieved. Except them, the entire northwest was in the 
power of Pontiac. Under his able leadership this unexampled and magnificent 
confederation of Indians had intended to make this a war of extermination of the 
whites west of the Alleghanies. They hoped to get rid of the white men at 
once and forever in all this country and so terrify the English that none of 
them would ever attempt to enter their hunting grounds again. "They roamed 
the wilderness, massacring all whom they met. They struck down more than 
a hundred traders in the woods, scalping every one of them ; quaffing their 
gushing life-blood, horribly mutilating their bodies. They prowled round the 
cabins of the husbandmen of the frontiers ; and their tomahawks struck alike 
the laborer in the field or the child in the cradle. They menaced Fort Ligonier, 
at the western foot of the Alleghanies, the outpost of Fort Pitt. They passed 
the mountains and spread death even to Ikdford. The unhappy emigrant knew 
not whether to brave danger, or to leave his home and his planted fields, for 
wretchedness and poverty." Of course we know that Pontiac and his allies 
were fighting against the inevitable. His people with their methods of life, with 
their civilization and their government such as it was, were unable to develop 
the strength of the wonderful regions they possessed and must submit to the 
power of Great Britain, which sent in regiments of regular soldiers and called 
out the volunteers and militia and soon put an end to Pontiac"s reign. It had 
not been possible for him to know the tremendous forces of the colonies and the 
king beyond the Alleghanies and the ocean, wdiom he had set himself up to 
oppose, or he W'ould never have tried it. 

Amherst, the British commander, then stationed at New York and represen- 
tative of the British government in North America, treated the Indians with con- 
tempt. He issued an order, August lo, 1763, offering one hundred pounds to 
anyone who would assassinate Pontiac and ordered his soldiers to take no pris- 
oners but to put to death all that fell into their hands. He deemed the Indians 
as unfit to be accepted as allies and unworthy to be respected as enemies, and he 
ordered his soldiers to take no prisoners but to put to death all that fell into 
their hands of the "nations who had so unjustly and cruelly committed 

Pontiac appealed to the French for further assistance but was told that the 
French had ceded this country to the English and could no longer assist them. 
Despondent, yet revengeful, he returned to the Illinois country. Here is where 
he had first received the encouragement which determined him to make the 
attempt to drive out the English, and here at least he thought he would find a 
friend in Neyon de \'illiers, the only survivor of six brothers who lost their lives 
in fighting the English ; but receiving answer that he had already been sent word 
that France and Great Britain were at peace and that his scheme was imprac- 
ticable, and when he was still further assured by Crogan that the French would 
adhere to their treaty with the English and could no longer oiifer the Indians 
any support, his feelings can be more easily imagined than described; seeing 
that his cause w^as lost, he surrendered and made peace, a treaty which he there- 
after respected. 

As compared with the officers of the English government who attempted to 
secure the assassination of the peaceful farmers and traders of their own blood 
and religion, by offering gold and trinkets to bloody savages for the scalps of 
citizens murdered by stealth in their quiet homes, and who finally offered five 
hundred dollars for the assassination of Pontiac himself, Pontiac — considering 
that he was raised a barbarian — was a man of integrity and honor worthy of our 
esteem. He had led out his Ottowa warriors to assist in Braddock's defeat. 
He organized his brother red men in order to drive the invader from the land 


of his fatliers, led them and ])lanned for them with consummate abihty until 
overwhelmed by superior force. 

It is said that Pontiac while visiting^ his old friends, St. Ange and Chouteau 
at St. Louis, then a Spanish colony, learned that the Indians were carousing 
at Cahokia and concluded to join the party. While he was there and they were 
all drinking heavily, a hired assassin, for the promise of a barrel of wdiiskey, 
stole up behind him and buried his tomahawk in his brains, and left him lying 
where he fell until St. .Ange claimed his body and buried it in St. Louis, early 
in April, 1769. 

Pontiac's red friends of the Northwest most wrongfully blamed the Illinois 
Indians with the murdering of Pontiac and resolved to exterminate them. They 
attacked them at their chief village, La Vantum, in sight of Starved Rock, where 
the most of them were at that time assembled, and after terrific and bloody 
fighting for a whole d^y, in which a large proportion of the Illinois warrior's 
were slain, compelled them to retire during the night to the summit of Starved 
Rock. There they were starved to death and perished, all but one young warrior 
who during a severe rain-storm and darkness of the night took a buckskin cord, 
which had been used for drawing water, and fastening it to the trunk of a cedar 
tree let himself down into the river and thus made his escape, the only survivor 
of this fearful tragedy. This young warrior was partly white, being a descend- 
ant, on his father's side, from the French who lived at Fort St. Louis many 
years before. Being alone in the world, without friends or kindred, he went to 
Peoria, joined the colony, and there ended his days. He embraced Christianity, 
became an officer in the church, assuming the name of Antonia La Bell, and 
his descendants were living in 1882 near Prairie du Rocher, one of them, Charles 
La Bell, being a party to a suit in the United States court to recover a part of 
the land where Peoria now stands. 


Going back to four years before the death and Imrial of Pontiac. we find 
that the first step of the English toward taking actual possession of the north- 
west was to send George Croghan on an expedition down the Ohio on his way 
to Illinois. On reaching the soil of Illinois, just below the mouth of the Wabash, 
he was attacked, on the 6th of June, 1765, by eight Kickapoo warriors and com- 
pelled to surrender. When he had been taken as far as Vincennes, the Indians 
found they had a man not to be trifled with, since he was the representative and 
agent of the great and powerful nations which had just put a successful end to 
Pontiac's War. They released him on the i8th of July and he started for the 
Illinois villages. On the way he met Pontiac at the head of a detachment of 
Indians. Now for the first time, Pontiac's stubborn resolution gave way and he 
consented to confer with Croghan as to peaceful relations, which resulted in his 
renouncing his hostile policy and promising to use his influence in favor of 
peace. This made it unnecessary for Croghan to go further and he started for 
Detroit, where he had a council with other Indians. 

A detachment of the 42d regiment of the Highlanders under Captain Stirling 
was sent to Fort Chartres, where they arrived on the loth of October, 1765, by 
the way of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and on that day the last flag bearing 
the lilies of France within the state of Illinois fell from the flag staflf and the 
cross of St. George rose in its stead. 

The first English court ever convened in Illinois held its first session at Fort 
Chartres, December 9, 1768, under orders from General Gage. By proclama- 
tions from George III, dated 1765 and 1772, private ownership in the soil was 
forbidden. The inference was plain that he intended to divide the whole country 
up into baronial estates, still following the policy that the country was to be 
governed for the benefit of the rulers rather than of the people, a policy which 
could not succeed in a new country to be settled by independent Americans. 


The thirteen colonies were already beginning to be insubordinate and were still 
further provoked by the act of June 2, 1774, called the Quebec Bill, by which 
parliament extended the limits of Canada to include all of the territory north 
of the Ohio, in seeming utter disregard of the jurisdictional rights of \'irginia 
and some other colonies under their charter from the king. The people com- 
posing the French province were of a character much more easily to be ruled 
by the autocratic decrees of their superiors than were the people of tlie thir- 
teen colonies. 


This policy of suppression led to the Declaration of Independence on the 
4th day of July, 1776. Although this northwestern territory was not repre- 
sented in the convention that adopted that declaration, wrongs to the north\yest- 
ern territory were given as some of the reasons for the dissolution of the political 
bands. The charges against the king were that "He had endeavored to prevent 
the population of these states ; for that purpose obstructing the laws for natural- 
ization of foreigners; refusing to pass others, to encourage their migration 
hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands." His consent 
to laws "for cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;" "For abolishing 
the free system of English laws in a neighboring province (Canada), establish- 
ing therein an arbitrary government, enlarging its boundaries so as to render it 
at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into 
these colonies ;" and, "he has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has 
endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian 
savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all 
the ages, sexes and conditions." 

Virginia's conquest of the northwest 

The attack of the Indians on the American frontier had become so numerous, 
so treacherous, and so bloody, and were so evidently excited by the British, 
that George Rogers Clark, one of the great men of the frontier, who had been 
appointed by Mrginia to organize the militia in what was afterward the county 
of Kentuck'v, concluded that the proper way to prevent those attacks was to 
drive the British out of the Northwest. For this purpose he called on Patrick 
Henry, the governor, and received a commission to raise volunteers for the 
defense of Kentucky. The success of the expedition depended so largely on the 
celerity and the secrecv with which it should be carried out, that it was not 
thought practicable to take anyone into confidence except the governor, Patrick 
Henrv, and George \\'vthe, George Mason, and Thomas Jefferson. They gave 
Clark twelve hundred pounds in money and promised to use their influence 
to secure three hundred acres of land for every man who should engage in the 

The secret instructions to Clark were to go west ostensibly for the purpose 
shown by his commission and open letter of instructions, and then under a 
private letter of instructions, suddenly to attack the British at Fort Chartres 
and \'incennes and then at Detroit. \Mien he told his men at Louisville, Ky., 
the object of his expedition, a considerable part of them refused to go further. 
W'ith one hundred and fifty-three men, instead of the three hundred and fifty 
which he expected to have, he concluded to press forward. He had been notified 
by spies whom he sent out for that purpose, of the condition of affairs at Fort 
Chartres and Vincennes. He passed down the Ohio in boats with his oars double 
manned and working night and day continuously, reached the soil of Illinois, 
landed and at once proceeded on foot without any sort of baggage wagons to 
Fort Chartres, which he reached in six days more, making ten days from Louis- 
ville to Fort Chartres. He arrived in the evening of the 4th of July, and con- 


cealed his men on the east side of the river until dark, in the meantime sending 
out spies to reconnoiter. After dark he proceeded to and took possession of the 
old ferry house about a mile above the town, making prisoners of the family. 
They waited until the town was wrapped in slumber, when, with his men as- 
sembled around him, Col. Clark delivered to them a short address. This 
address is printed in full as nothing could so well, so authoritatively and plainly, 
describe the motives and feelings that compelled these men to undergo the 
privations they did : 

"Soldiers, we are near the enemy for which we have been struggling for 
years. We are not fighting alone for liberty and independence, but for the 
defense of our frontiers from the tomahawk and scalping knife of the Indians. 
We are defending the lives of our women and children, although a long distance 
from them. These British garrisons furnish the Indians with powder and lead 
to desolate our frontiers, and pay gold for human scalps. 

"We must take and destroy these garrisons. The fort before us is one of 
them, and it must be taken. \\'e cannot retreat, we have no provisions, and 
we must conquer. 

"This is the 4th of July ; we must act to honor it and let it not be said in 
after times that \'irginians were defeated on that memorable day. The fort and 
town, I repeat it, must be taken at all hazards. 

"After these stirring remarks they began crossing the river in silence, to 
accomplish which took about two hours. He immediately divided his little 
army into two divisions and marched half his men quietly into the town at one 
end, and half at the other. When in the town they raised their horrible, un- 
earthly yell, which struck terror into all of the inhabitants, for it was the first 
intimation they had that the "Long Knives' were in the country. The garrison 
oblivious of an enemy were taken completely by surprise. 

"Simon Kenton, at the head of a small detachment, sought the quarters of 
Gov. Rocheblave, and found that official peacefully sleeping beside his wife, he 
having no intimation of danger until Kenton, tapping him on the shoulder, 
informed him he was a prisoner. 

"The capture of the post was complete. 

"What little knowledge of French the Americans possessed was utilized in 
proclaiming to the French inhabitants tliat if they remained in their homes 
cjuictly they would not be molested, but if they acted to the contrary, they would 
be annihilated." 

Clark's policy was to terrorize the inhabitants at first and make them feel 
their helplessness and then show them leniency. 

The next day when the priest came to ask permission to have religious services 
in the church to seek the divine blessing before leaving, and asked permission to 
take some of their provisions with them, Clark suddenly changing his aspect, 
wished to know why they wanted to go away, telling them that he had come to 
take them in as citizens of the United Colonies and did not wish to interfere 
with their religion, or their property, or their laws, or their business; but that 
if any of them desired to leave, they might peacefully withdraw. He also 
told them that the king of France had united his armies with those of the Ameri- 
cans, which was news to them and greatly pleased both the French and Indians 
and added to their confidence in the American cause. The inhabitants were 
so well pleased that the French immediately took the oath of allegiance to the 
United Colonies with enthusiasm. 

Col. Clark was disposed also to deal leniently with Rocheblave, and invited 
him to dine with him; but instead of meeting his courtesies half-way and making 
the best of his misfortunes, the disgruntled Franco-British officer became violent 
and insulting. To such a length did he carry his insolence that the colonel felt 
compelled to place him in irons, and soon after sent him to Williamsburg as a 
prisoner of war. In 1780, breaking his parole, he made his way to New York, 
where, in 17S1, he applied for a command and authority to recapture the Illinois 


posts. His slaves were confiscated and sold, the proceeds, amounting to five 
hundred pounds, being distributed among the troops of Col. Clark. 

When Clark was about to proceed to V'incennes to capture that post, Gibault, 
the priest, persuaded him not to do it but to send him over as ambassador, which 
Clark did ; Gibault went over with a small party and as there were no forces 
there except French and Indians, easily persuaded them to take the oath of 
allegiance to the United Colonies. Captain Helm of Clark's regiment, who had 
gone over with Gibault, took charge. 

When Hamilton at Detroit learned what had happened, he took a detach- 
ment of three hundred fifty warriors in October, 1778, to retake possession of 
Vincennes. As he approached the fort and was within hailing distance. Captain 
Flelm haulted him, standing by his gun with a lighted fuse. When Hamilton 
called for his surrender at discretion. Helm refused unless he was granted the 
honors of war, which was done. He then surrendered himself and one man, 
all he had. 

When news of what had happened came to George Rogers Clark, he knew 
that his own situation was desperate. He was receiving no support from 
Virginia and his forces were too small to withstand a siege, although he com- 
menced to prepare for one, the best he could. Just then Francis \ igo, an Italian 
trader of St. Louis, arrived from \'incennes and informed Clark that Hamil- 
ton was confident that nothing would be done until spring, at which time he 
proposed to make an advance in force ; but in the meantime had weakened him- 
self by sending out his force of Indians in dift'erent directions, especially down 
to the Ohio river to prevent Clark from returning to \'irginia and to prevent 
reinforcements being sent to Clark. The genius of Clark came to his relief. 
He knew and said that he must immediately take Hamilton prisoner or Hamilton 
would take him. He thereupon called together all the forces he could, a con- 
siderable part of which were Frenchmen, and on the 7th of February started 
across the country to capture \'incennes. In eleven days he reached the edge 
of the drowned lands of the Wabash river, which were flooded. To cross these 
required five days more, during two of which they had to travel in water up to 
their breasts at times. 

Hamilton was one of the most bloodthirsty of the representatives of the 
British government in this country. He was methodical in his use of the In- 
dians. He gave standing rewards for scalps but offered none for prisoners, 
thereby winning for himself the nickname of "The Hair Buyer." His contin- 
uous volunteer parties composed of Indians and whites, spared neither men, 
women nor children. 

He promised that in the coming year as early as possible all of the nations 
from the Chickasaws and Cherokees to the Hurons and Five Nations should 
join in the expedition against A'irginia. 

Clark's force on reaching dry land made no delay whatever but with drum 
beating and white flag flying, entered Mncennes at the lower end of the vil- 
lage. The town surrendered immediately and assisted in the siege of the 
fort, which was immediately invested. During the night Clark threw up in- 
trenchments within rifle shot of the fort, and under their protection his riflemen 
silenced two pieces of cannon. In the forenoon when Hamilton asked for 
parley, Clark demanded his surrender at discretion, to which the British replied 
they would sooner perish to the last man; and oft'ered to capitulate on the con- 
dition that they might march out with the honors of war, and return to Detroit. 
Clark replied that he could by no means agree to that. He said. "I will not 
again leave it in your power to spirit up the Indian nations to scalp men, women, 
and children." Before night Hamilton and his garrison, hopeless of succor and 
destitute of provisions, and overestimating Clark's strength, surrendered as 
prisoners of war. 

Steps were immediately taken to conciliate the Indians, "who, observing the 
success of the Americans in obtaining possession of so many important British 


posts, began to reflect whether it was not for their interest to make friends with 
the winning side. The consideration which most inlliicnced their decision, how- 
ever, was the fact, repeatedly urged upon them, that 'their old father, the king 
of the French, had come to life again and was mad at them for fighting for the 
British.' A council was held at which all the tribes of the Wabash were repre- 
sented, who declared themselves to have changed their minds in favor of the 

The forces that X'irginia had raised to send to reinforce Clark were neces- 
sarily diverted to an attack upon the Cherokees, who were part of the force 
relied upon by Hamilton and who were terribly punished by those X'irginia 

For the rest of the year the western settlements enjoyed peace, and the con- 
tinued flow of immigrants through the mountains of Kentucky and the country 
on the Holston river so strengthened them that they were never again in danger 
of being broken up by any alliance of the savages. 

This ended the control of the liritish, such as it was. over the state of Illi- 
nois and the northwest. It lasted for fifteen years, during which time the 
British government had shown itself unfriendly to the people of this country 
and during the last three years of which she had been carrying on ilie war of 
the Revolution, with the aid of the Indians. From this time on the govern- 
ment passed to the commonwealth of Virginia. 


With the capture of Kaskaskia and the fort there on the 4th of July, 1778, 
the Northwest ceased to be a part of the British dominion and became a part 
of the Commonwealth of Virginia — at least as far north as the limits of the Vir- 
ginia charter — and it so remained until March ist, 1784. 

During all of this time except the last months the Revolutionary war was 
still pending, and through all of that time there were murderous excursions by 
the Indians, prompted by the English, into all of the Northwest, into Kentucky 
and the western part of X'irginia. These were stealthy parties, as a rule, and 
were of almost weekly occurrence, but they were at this time usually confined 
to the country now within the states of Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and western 
\'irginia ; Illinois being comparatively free from them. 

We have seen that the regiment that was raised by the Commonwealth of 
\^irginia to re-inforce Col. Clark was diverted to intercept the Cherokees. who 
were preparing to come to the support of the British in the Northwest. That 
attack was very successful but it left Col. Clark unsupported. With wonderful 
ability he succeeded in securing and retaining the support of the French and 
Indians and managed to hold the country for X'irginia. 

The \'irginia llouse of Burgesses or delegates proceeded immediately to 
extend a civil jurisdiction over the country, and in October, within three 
months of the capture of Kaskaskia, it enacted a law establishing the county 
of Illinois, which included then all of the Northwest, and provided for the 
appointment of a county lieutenant or commandant, who should take the oath 
of fidelity to the commonwealth according to his own religion, whatever that 
might be. .All of the civil officers to which the inhabitants had Ijeen accustomed, 
necessary for the preservation of peace and the administration of justice, were 
to be continued and the officers, except those of the militia, were to be chosen 
by the majority of the citizens at elections to be convened for that purpose in 
their respective districts by the county lieutenant or his deputy, such officers to 
be commissioned by the county lieutenant. 

Patrick Henry being then the governor of X'irginia. thus became ex-officio 
the first governor of Illinois. He appointed Col. John Todd of Kentucky 
county, the first commandant of the county of Illinois and gave him a letter 
instructing him to cultivate the good friendship of the French and Indians, for, 
if unhappily this territory should be lost to the French, it might never be again 
secured, since early prejudices are so hard to wear out. 

As the head of the civil government. Todd was to have command of the 
militia, who were however not to be under command until ordered out by the 
civil authority to act in conjunction with it. 

Col. Todd was born in Montgomery county. Pa., but was reared and edu- 
cated in X'irginia by his uncle, the Rev. John Todd of Hanover county, \'a., 
who conducted a school or college there. Todd studied law and settled in Fin- 
castle in X'irginia. where he practiced for several years and about 1775 moved to 

Col. John Todd immediatelv entered upon the duties of his office as county 



lieutenant and was seldom absent from his government up to the time of his 
death. He was authorized to raise a regiment for the defense of the frontier. 
His career was ended by his death in the llattle of Blue Licks. He was a man 
of fine personal appearance and talents, an accomplished gentleman, universally 
beloved, and died without a stain upon his character and without even one enemy 
upon earth. 

The elections provided for by this act of Virginia are believed to be the first 
elections held in Illinois under authority of law, and, the settlers there being 
mostly French, they resulted in the election of Frenchmen to nearly all of the 
offices except those in the militia. 

To prevent the taking uj) of large tracts of land by prospectors and specu- 
lators, Todd issued a proclamation enjoining all persons from making any new 
settlements of lands and requiring the exhibition to duly appointed officers of 
the evidence of title of those already in possession. To those who are ac- 
quainted with the difficulties arising from the complication of title in a new 
settlement or country by speculators under doubtful laws, and where the lands 
had not been properly surveyed in advance, this will be recognized as a very 
wise provision. 

Licenses to erect factories, conduct stores and traffic in general merchan- 
dise were granted without restrictions. 

Under instruction from Governor Henry, Todd proposed to the Spanish 
authorities in St. Louis and St. Genevieve, the establishing of commercial rela- 
tions between the governments of Spain and Virginia and oft'ered military as- 
sistance in case it should be needed. This offered friendship was in the end 
basely betrayed. 

In 1779 Todd was commissioned colonel of a \'irginia regmient and was 
thereafter actively engaged in military operations throughout the west but con- 
tinued to fulfill his duties as commandant as well as distance and the calls of 
duty upon him would permit. 

August 5th, 1779, Gen. Clark turned over his military command of Ilhnois 
to Col. John Montgomery with headquarters at Kaskaskia, who assigned Capt. 
Linetot to duty along the Illinois river. 

It was feared that the English would endeavor to recover the territory of 
Illinois and it was not clear that the Spaniards would not willingly suffer these 
Illinois settlements — although they were their allies — to fall into British hands, 
hoping in that case for an opportunity to retake them and make them 
Spanish territory. The governor of Canada did proceed, under instructions 
from home, to organize an attack upon the Spanish posts along the Alississippi 
and upon the Illinois settlements, and the governors of the British garrisons 
were instructed by secret circular letters to co-operate in the movement. This 
was discovered by the interception of letters by the Spanish governor at New 
Orleans, who immediately attacked the English stations in the vicinity and thus 
prevented the re-inforcements expected by the British in their attack on St. 
Louis, St. Genevieve, and the Illinois settlements. 

The English expedition arrived on May 26, 1780, before St. Louis and pre- 
pared to make the attack. Clark, who had been informed of this while at the 
Falls of the Ohio, hastened to and arrived at Cahokia with a small force twenty- 
four hours' before the appearance of the British and their allies. His mere 
presence was a tower of strength. 

The commander of the English expedition reported to his superior that they 
failed on account of the infidelitv of some of their Indian allies but boastfully 
claimed that sixty-eight of the enemy were killed, eighteen black and white 
people made prisoners, many cattle destroyed, and forty-three scalps brought m. 
The retreat of the English was a very hasty one, they being closely followed 
by Col. John Montgomery with a force of three hundred fifty men, including a 
party of" Spanish allies. 'Montgomery followed them to Peoria lake and thence 
to Rock river, destroying towns and crops on the way. Thereafter, the In- 
dians were not disposed to attack the people of Illinois 




Some time after the repulse of this invading force of the liritish, a company 
of only seventeen Illinoisans, commanded by Thomas Brady, a patriotic citizen 
of Cahokia. retaliated by attacking the British post at St. Joseph in what is now 
the state of Michigan, and capturing it; but he was ambushed and defeated on 
his way back to Illinois and most of his command taken prisoners. He escaped 
and St. Joseph fell again into the hands of the British. Thereupon the author- 
ities at St. Louis and Cahokia, joining the forces of the Illinoisans and the 
Spanish, organized an expedition of about thirty Spaniards under the command 
of Don Ugenio Pourre, and aijout thirty French under the command of Jean 
(John) Baptiste Maillet. and some two hundred Indians, and proceeded to re- 
take it. The Spanish officer was senior in rank and had command of the ex- 
pedition. They placated the Indians on the way and captured St. Joseph again 
without striking a blow; the British flag there was replaced by that of Spain 
and possession taken in the name of his Catholic Majesty who claiined not only 
St. Joseph and its dependencies but also the valley of Illinois river, an extreme 
exhibition of infidelity to the Illinoisans who had assisted in the campaign. The 
Spanish commander made such reports to .Madrid as to create an important 
complication in the final settlement of the treaty between England and the 
United States and might have given Spain the country north of the Ohio river 
but that his Catholic Majesty demanded too much from the British, including 
the cession of Gibralter. To this demand the British never would consent but 
were prompted by it to release their claim to the Northwest to the United States 
to prevent it from falling into the power of Spain. Since St. Joseph at the time 
it was captured was not a part of the Illinois country, either as a district or 
territory, the claim of the Illinois river as a sequence to the capture of that fort 
was a l)arefaced fraud without a shadow of evidence to supj)ort it ; nevertheless, 
it required all of the sagacity, firmness, and wisdom of Jay, Franklin and Adams 
to prevent the claim from being allowed. If Spain had succeeded in making 
the Northwest Spanish territory instead of American, it would have been the 
death blow to the prosperity of Peoria and all of the Northwest, as well as to 
the whole United States, and would have made the Father of Waters a private 
Spanish canal. 

This Jean Baptiste Maillet is the same man who settled in Peoria in 1778, 
and in 1779 was commissioned captain of militia for Peoria, receiving his com- 
mission from Cahokia to which district Peoria then belonged. It is probable 
that at the time this expedition started, he was at Cahokia, for the French had 
been driven down there temporarily and most of his men, although they may 
have been Peorians, were probably there at the time they started for St. Joseph. 
This is the same Maillet also who started Ville de Maillet or Lower Peoria 
about 1778 about where Bridge and Llarrison streets are, which new village 
was named for him. Maillet deserved to have the new village named for him 
for in his time he was one of Peoria's greatest men. He extended his trading 
operations far and wide even to the Rocky Mountains. He was killed in 1801. 

This is the last expedition during the Revolutionary war in which Peorians 
or other Illinoisans took part. 

On account of the attention of Virginia being diverted to resisting the at- 
tacks of the Indians n.earer home, the county of Illinois received very little at- 
tention and was practically without a government imtil it passed beyond the 
control of \''irginia by the cession of the country to the United States. 

Through this interim the French inhabitants were the greatest sufferers, be- 
ing easily imposed upon and not being of the character of people to defend 

Several years before the close of the Revolutionary war, it began to be ap- 
parent that the confederation of the colonies did not confer power enough upon 
the general government to enable it to preserve its own existence, and that a 
closer bond of union must be provided or the government would fall to pieces ; 
but the smaller colonies which had no territory west of the mountains, feared to 


go into a closer bond with the large colonies with their great expanse of terri- 
tory for fear they would be overruled and be deprived of their equal rights in 
the government. Congress, therefore, in 1780 recommended to those states 
which owned territory in the west, to cede it all to the United Colonies. This 
they finally concluded to do. 

Virginia by an act passed January 2, 1781, authorized her delegates in the 
confederate congress to transfer her claims to western lands, as well as her 
jurisdiction over the country, to the United States on certain conditions. This 
tender was accepted by the general government and Virginia by a new act of 
December 20. 1783, authorized her delegates in the confederate congress, by 
proper deed under their hands and seals, to convey, transfer, assign, and make 
over to the United States in congress assembled, for the benefit of said states, 
all right, title, and claim, as well the soil as the jurisdiction which the common- 
wealth had to the country within the limits of the Virginia charter lying north- 
west of the Ohio river — upon the condition that the territory so ceded should 
be laid out and formed into distinct republican states, having the same right 
of sovereignty, freedom, and independence as the other states, congress to pay 
\'irginia the necessary reasonable expenses incurred by that state in subduing 
the P.ritish forts and maintaining forts and garrisons and defending them. That 
the French and Canadian inhabitants who had professed themselves citizens of 
\'irginia should have their possessions confirmed to them and should be pro- 
tected in the enjoyment of their rights and liberties. Also, that a quantity of 
land, not exceeding one hundred fifty thousand acres, promised by Virginia to 
George Rogers Clark and the soldiers of his regiment, should be laid ofif in one 
tract, to be afterwards divided among the said officers and men in due propor- 
tion "according to the laws of \'irginia. All other lands, which were more than 
one hundred and sixtv-six million acres, should be considered as a common fund 
for the use and benefit for the United States, including the state of Mrginia. 

The provisions of this act of the House of Burgesses were carried out on 
March i, 1784. by a deed of cession signed by Thomas Jefiferson, Samuel Hardy, 
Arthur Lee, and James Monroe, who were then delegates for the commonwealth 
of \'irginia in the confederate congress. Two of the signers of this deed by 
\'irginia to the congress afterwards became presidents of the United States. 

This document was signed, sealed and delivered in a little less than seven 
weeks after the definitive freaty of peace with Great Britain was ratified by con- 
gress, and from that time forth Illinois ceased to be a part of the State of Vir- 
ginia or in any way under its control and became territory of the United States. 


By the deed of cession of ^larch i, 1784. not only all property interest but 
the right of sovereignty passed from X'irginia to tiie continental congress and 
Virginia no longer attempted to exercise any control over the territory. Con- 
gress, as soon as a proper bill could be prepared, on April 23, 1784, passed an 
ordinance to establish a form of government from the entire region from the 
gulf to the lakes, although possession had not at that time been entirely acquired. 
This law was never put in force and was repealed by the ordinance of 1787. The 
territory continued to exist vuider the laws in force at the date of that deed as 
they were administered by the otiticers then in power. 

That transfer provided that the Erench settlers should Ijc protected in all 
their rights and that they should be allowed to live under their old laws, which 
they did in a satisfactory way, for they were not a quarrelsome or litigious 

From the time of the cession of this country by Virginia, congress was so 
engaged in its efforts to secure concessions from other colonies and to secure 
a re-organization of the United States by the adoption of a constitution to 
"create a more perfect union'' that little attention was paid to the Northwest 
territory until 1787. During this period of three years, the power of Virginia 
to control had ceased and the government by congress had practically not begun 
so that the people were without any superior control and were without any sub- 
stantial protection from congress. 

In 1785, an ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of lands in the 
western territory was passed by the continental congress which provided for 
the present plan of surveying and platting the land into townships six miles 
square and numbered consecutively from south to north and in ranges numbered 
east and west from a base line and section one mile square, also numbered con- 
secutively. Sections numbered sixteen of every township were reserved for 
school i)urposes. which reservation has been continued through all forms of 
government to the present time. This platting of the land into townships and 
sections before selling it, is a wonderful advantage in locating and finding the 
land, in describing it, and in indexing and abstracting the title. Nothing was done 
under this law at this time in Illinois, which was then a neglected wilderness 
harrassed by the predatory incursions of Indians, although none were of suffi- 
cient importance to be called a war. 

On July 13, 1787, the congress of the confederation passed the celebrated 
ordinance of that date by which they provided that the whole territory northwest 
of the Ohio river should be constituted one district for the purpose of temporary 

It will be interesting to notice the provisions of this ordinance at some 
length for two reasons. It attempted to determine what the future laws of the 
Northwest should be, and in this manner, to make it a sort of a bill of rights 
for all time to come. It is also to be studied as a most valuable indication of 
the progress of ideas, for it is a fact not generally understood that laws are not 
made. They grow in the minds of the people from time to time and are a con- 



trolling power before they are enacted into statutes, and sometimes they have 
not much force after they are enacted because they are not grounded in the 
hearts as well as the minds of the people. 

By a study of this ordinance of '87, we will find how far social and political 
ideas had progressed up to that time and be able to learn what advancement 
we have made since. It provided for the descent of property in equal shares, 
substantially as under our present laws. This just principle was not then 
generally recognized in the states; (it, however, reserved to the French and 
Canadian inhabitants who had become citizens of Virginia the laws and customs 
under which they had lived, relative to descent and conveyancing.) 

The governor was to be elected for three years and was required to be the 
owner of at least one thousand acres of land. The secretary's term was four 
years and he must be the owner of five hundred acres. A court was provided 
for of three judges, who must each be the owner of five hundred acres. It will 
be noted that their term of ofiice was during good behavior. All the above 
officers were elected bv congress and were required to have been residents of the 
district for the three years last past or to have been for the same time citizens 
of one of the states, and to take an oath of office. 

In considering these laws, we must remember that the people were so scat- 
tered that some provisions that we would consider essential to good government 
would have been utterly impossible of operation at that time, for the people 
could not assemble in convention and it was not possible for them to consult 
with each other as we can do, and they had necessarily very, very few news- 
papers, if any. This may excuse the provision that as a protection against unwise 
experiments, they could adopt only laws that were already in force in some one 
of the original "states, and even after adoption, congress might disapprove of 
them and they were to remain in force only until the organization of a general 
assemblv, which might alter, repeal, or re-adopt them. 

The' governor was constituted commander-in-chief of the militia, with the 
power to appoint all officers below the grade of general, and, until the organiza- 
tion of the general assembly, the governor was to appoint all of the civil officers 
in each county. He was to establish counties from time to time to whose limits, 
legal process 'was to run. When the territory should have five thousand free 
male inhabitants of full age, it was to be entitled to a general assembly, the time 
and place of election to be" fixed by the governor. Each five hundred voters were 
entitled to one representative until the number reach twenty-five, after which 
the legislature itself was to regulate the number. 

A member of the legislature was to be elected for two years and was required 
to be a resident in the territory for three years, or have had a citizenship in some 
state for three years and a present residence in the territory and a fee simple 
right to two hundred acres of land within the territory. 

" The makers of this ordinance had confidence in the immigrants to the dis- 
trict who came from any one of the states. He was supposed to be a developed 
American. We have already seen the importance of studying in the beginning 
the development of the older colonies for it was in them our first lUinoisans 
were made. . 

An elector must have been a citizen of one of the states or have a residence 
of two years in the district and in either case have a freehold of fifty acres. 

The'assembly consisted of the governor and council and the house of repre- 
sentatives. The council was to consist of five members, three to constitute a 
quorum, term of service five vears unless the members were sooner removed 
by congress. Congress w^as to 'select the council from ten men-residents of the 
territory, each having a freehold of five hundred acres— nominated by the House 
of Representatives. Bills to become laws must be passed by both houses and 
be approved by the governor. The two houses by joint ballot were to elect a 
delegate to congress who was allowed to debate but not to vote. An oath of 
office was to be taken by each of these officers. 


It will be seen from the following extract from the ordinance that it was 
intended to make it in many respects practically perpetual. 

"13. And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious lib- 
erty, which form the basis whereupon these republics, their laws, and constitu- 
tion, are erected ; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, 
constitutions and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the 
said territory ; to provide, also, for the establishment of states, and permanent 
government therein, and for their admission to a share in the federal councils on 
an e<|ual footing with the original states, at as early periods as may be consistent 
with the general interest : 

"14. It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, that the 
following articles shall be considered as articles of compact between the original 
states and the people and states in the said territory, and forever remain unalter- 
able, imless by common consent." 

Among the unalteraljle provisions were these : That any one demeaning 
himself in an ortlerly manner shall never be molested on account of his mode of 
worship or religious sentiments. That the inhabitant shall always be entitled 
to the benefits of the habeas corpus and of the trial l)y jury; of a proportionate 
representation in the legislature and of judicial proceedings according to the 
common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless for capital ofifenses, where the 
proof shall be evident and the presumption great. All fines shall be moderate, 
and no cruel or unusual punishment shall be inflicted. No one shall be deprived 
of his libertv or property, but by the judgment of his peers, and the law of the 
land. Private property shall not be taken for public use nor shall particular 
services of anyone be required without full compensation made for the same, 
and no law ought to be made or have force in said territory that shall in any 
manner whatever interfere with or afi^ect private contracts or engagements 
bona fide and without fraud, previously formed. 

It will be seen that this in many respects is wonderfully like the old Magna 
Charta of King John. 

"Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and 
the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be 

The utmost good faith was required toward the Indians. Their land and 
propertv should never be taken from them without consent and their property 
rights and liberty should never be invaded or disturbed unless by just and lawful 
wars authorized by congress ; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall 
from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them and for 
preserving peace and friendship with them. 

States formed from the territory were to remain forever a part of the gen- 
eral government and to pay their proportionate part of the national debt. The 
states were not to interfere with the disposal of the public lands by congress 
nor tax those lands, nor to tax the land of non-resident proprietors higher than 
they did that of residents. The navigable waters were to be forever free, as 
well as the carrying places between the same, and should become highways to 
the citizens of the United States. The territory was eventually to be divided in 
not less than three nor more than five independent states. 

It was provided that there should be neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude in said territory otherwise than in punishment of crime whereof the party 
to be punished should have been duly convicted. 

From the celebrated ordinance of 1787, which was the charter or constitution 
of the Northwest territory, we have been able to learn something of the ideas 
of the members of the continental congress at that time in regard to what was 
necessary and expedient for the organization and construction of a govern- 
ment for the people in a country such as the Northwest. 

Major General Arthur St. Clair, who had been an officer in the English 
army but resigned and settled in Pennsylvania, had rendered distinguished service 


iiiuler Wolfe in the storming of Quebec in 1759, and had also served with honor 
during the Revolutionary war, was elected by congress, governor of the North- 
west territory. The three judges required by that ordinance were also elected 
and entered upon the duties of their office July 15, 1778, and they with the gov- 
ernor proceeded to legislate for the territories. 

We must remember that many of the laws we now have would have been 
impossible of execution under the circumstances of the country at that time. 
There were no jails, workhouses, or penitentiaries in which convicts could be 
confined, and the people were too poor and too widely scattered to build them ; 
conse(|Ucntly that mode of punishment so common with us could not be adopted 
by them. Some of the offenses, such as horse-stealing, which are the hardest to 
suppress in new countries, were punished more severely than we would think 
advisable. Their punishments were summary: Death for murder, treason and 
arson (if loss of life ensued therefrom) ; whipping with thirty-nine lashes and 
fine for larceny, burglary and robbery; for perjury, whipping, fine or standing 
in the pillory : for forgery, fine, disf ranchizement, and standing in the pillory ; 
drunkenness, fine, for non-payment of which to stand in the stocks ; for non- 
payment of fines generally, the sheriff was empowered to bind out the convict 
for a term not exceeding seven years ; obscene conversation and profane swear- 
ing were admonished against and threatened with the loss of the government's 
confidence; morality and piety were enjoyed and the Sabbath pronounced sacred. 

President Washington wrote to Governor St. Clair that one of the most 
important things to be accomplished as soon as possible was to quit the titles 
to the lands of the settlers, and publication was made that all persons claiming 
titles should bring them in to the government to be examined, approved if found 
correct, and recorded. The difficulties of those in charge of this work were 
very great, ^lany of the titles presented were fraudulent, forgeries, or issued 
without authority. When a title was found correct, it became necessary to make 
an accurate survey of the ground and stake it ofif so the owner not only would 
know what his title was but would know exactly the boundaries of his land. The 
law provided that the cost of the surveying and marking corners must be paid 
by the owner of the land. Many of the settlers at that time were very poor, 
indeed. They were not good managers. They had been harassed by warfare 
and by the uncertain condition of business, and unfortunately at this same time 
there had been unusual overfiows of the .Mississippi, destroying most of their 
crops for a year or two in succession, so that they were utterly unable to pay 
the necessary cost of staking off their land. The result was that their lands, 
many of them, fell into the hands of land speculators who advanced the money 
to pay for the cost of surveying. Many of the French inhabitants petitioned 
congress to relieve them of the cost of surveying. Their pathetic and earnest 
petition was drawn up by Father Gibault, the same priest who was so efficient 
in securing the support t)f the French at Kaskaskia and also at Vincennes for 
George Rogers Clarke. It certainly appears to us at this time that congress 
should have paid that cost of surveying from the treasury. 

The instructions of congress to Governor St. Clair were to promote peace 
and harmony between the Indians and the United States, to defeat all com- 
binations or confederacies between them and to neglect no opportunity to ex- 
tinguish the Indian titles to lands westward as far as the Mississippi and north 
as far as the forty-first degree of latitude. Why they should limit it in this man- 
ner, does not appear. We" know that the forty-first degree was the northern line 
of the claim of Virginia under its charter, but why stop at the boundary fixed by 
the charter of old Virginia? 

In 1790, there was only one lawyer in the Northwestern territory but he 
was a very able man of Welsh descent, an accomplished linguist with a classical 
education and a thorough knowledge of law, a hard worker and a forceful 
speaker. Later when the territory of Indiana was organized, he moved to 
Vincennes and rendered important services in revising the statutes for the terri- 


tory of Indiana. His name was jolin Rice Jones. He left several distinguished 

A curious record is mentioned by Governor Reynolds of a trial at Prairie 
du Rocher which indicates the ai)sence of states attorneys or any other lawyers. 
The jury, wishing to indict a negro, examined what books they had and con- 
cluded to and did indict him, and under the indictment convicted him of the 
"murder" of a hog. He had not stolen it, only shot it as a piece of malicious 

The neighborhood of Peoria was free from Indian massacres, incursions, or 
battles, during the existence of the northwest territory but there were two or 
three battles of importance farther east. 

General St. Clair suffered a disastrous defeat November 4tli, 1791, on a 
small branch of the \\'abash. He lost eight hundred ninety men out of a force 
of fourteen hundred engaged in battle. Six hundred skulls were found three years 
afterwards and buried Ijy men from General Wayne's army. The Indian force 
consisted of one thousand forty men under the command of Little Turtle, chief 
of the Aliamis. This battlefield was afterwards known as Fort Recovery. 

Afterward, the conduct of the war was placed in the hands of General 
Anthony Wayne, whose home was in the immediate vicinity of Valley Forge, 
Pennsylvania. His campaign during the summer of 1794, culminated in a very 
decisive victory on the 20th of August on the Maumee river. This was fol- 
lowed by negotiations with (ireat llritain in which the king pledged a firm 
peace with the United States and agreed to withdraw all his troops and garri- 
sons from the posts within the boundary lines of the United States as fixed 
by the treaty of 1783. This took away from the Indians the last hope of 
British aid and the various chiefs hastened to the headquarters of General Wayne 
during the winter and signed preliminary articles of peace which resulted in 
the treaty of Greenville, in which all the sachems and chiefs of the confederacy 
signed a lasting treaty of peace on the 3d of August, 1795. 

Governor St. Clair, as we have seen, was himself a Pennsylvanian l)y adop- 
tion and it appears that four-fifths of the laws, which were all imported from 
other states, were from Pennsylvania. Among other things they adopted the 
common law of England, and the statutes of parliament in aid thereof of a 
general nature not local to that kingdom, down to the fourth year of James I, 
which is the law in Illinois to this day except as varied by statute. 

In 1796, the ]iopulation of the territory had become so large as to entitle 
it to a delegate in congress and Shadrach Bond was elected. He was after- 
wards the first governor of the state of Illinois. The representatives in the 
legislature of the territory nominated ten men, in accordance with the provisions 
of the ordinance of '87, from which President Adams selected five, who con- 
stituted the legislative council. These were confirmed by the Senate and on 
the i6th of September, 1799, both houses met and perfected their organization 
on the 24th. This was the first time that the people of this country through 
representatives elected by themselves enacted their own laws for their own 
local government. The legislature confirmed many of the laws enacted by the 
governor and judges, and passed forty-eight new ones, of w-hich the government 
vetoed eleven. They were prorogued December 17, 1799. 

This territorial government existed for only a few months, for on May 7, 
1800, the territory was divided. 


Congress, l)y an act approved 'May 7, 1800, divided the immense territory 
of the northwest and the present states of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and 
Indiana, except a little strip on the eastern side, were constituted the territory 
of Indiana and so remained for nine years, which were not very eventful ones. 

The act|uisition of land titles from the resident Indian tribes, and the settle- 
ment of land titles, were the principle subjects receiving attention. 

Captain William PI. Harrison, afterwards president, was appointed governor 
and superintendent of Indian affairs and given full powers to negotiate treaties 
between the United States and the several resident Indian tribes for the cession 
of their lands. 

There had been only one term of court with jurisdiction of criminal matters 
held within that territory for five years. 

In 1799, while Harrison was secretary of the great territory of the northwest, 
he had been elected delegate to congress, and it was largely through his influence 
that congress had created the territory of Indiana from the territory of the 
northwest, and also provided for the sale of public lands in tracts as small as 
three hundred twenty acres, upon cash payment of one-fourth the price, the 
balance to be paid in one. two, and three years. Before that time, the smallest 
tract sold was four hundred acres and cash payments were recjuired. 

The first term of the general court under the law for Indiana Territory was 
held on the _^d of March, 1801. It was about this time that the able, accomplished, 
and distinguished scoundrel and traitor, Aaron Burr, attempted to organize an 
independent nation including a large part of the coimtry between the AUe- 
ghanies and the Mississippi river. After a long trial he was not convicted, 
although universally believed to be guilty. 

All the territory between the Illinois and the Mississippi rivers was acquired 
from the Sac and Fox nations, by the treaty of St. Louis, November 3, 1804, 
the Indians surrendering all jurisdiction over it and giving up all claim of title 
to the lands, but it will be seen that the country was practically not opened to 
settlement for several years, for the lands had not been surveyed and there was 
no opportunity to acquire title to them, which is the chief object of the pioneer. 
Land offices were established in T%:}:-at Kaskaskia, in which district Peoria /%0 
county was situated, and the settlement of disputed land claims was begun. 
This proved to be an exceedingly difficult matter. The register and receiver 
examined eight hundred ninety land claims, of which three hundred seventy 
were supported by perjury and a considerable number were forged. It seems 
there was no less perjury and graft in that day than in this, and it is unpleasant 
to contemplate that the names of many of the most prominent, respected, and 
influential families were tarnished. This placed a terrible responsibility upon 
the commissioners, who were compelled to resist these claimants who attacked 
them viciously in every way. The commissioners felt this grievously and closed 
their report with the following words : 

"We close this melancholy picture of human depravity, by rendering our 
devout acknowledgments that, in the awful alternative in which we have been 



placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in support of the claims before 
us, or having it turned against our characters and lives, it has, as yet, pleased 
Divine Providence which rules over the affairs of men, to preserve us both from 
legal murder and private assassination." 

By vote taken in 1S04. September nth, the people adopted the second grade 
of territorial government, under which they elected a general assembly. The 
members elected to the legislature from Illinois were Shadrach Bond, afterwards 
first governor of the state, William Biggs of St. Clair, and George Fisher of 
Randolph. The legislature elected ten men from whom the president was author- 
ized to select five to act as members of the council. The president waived that 
right to nominate them and delegated that power to Harrison, only asking him 
that he reject "land jobbers, dishonest men, and those who, though honest, 
might suffer themselves to be warped by party prejudice." Perry and Menard 
were selected for Illinois. 

The legislature met the 29th of June, 1805. This was the second time that the 
people of this country, through their representatives, exercised the law making 
power for their own local government. 

The governor in his first message recommended the passage of laws to pre- 
vent the sale of intoxicating liquors to the Indians saying: "You have seen our 
towns crowded with drunken savages ; our streets flowing with blood ; their 
arms and clothing bartered for the liquor that destroys them ; and their miser- 
able women and children enduring all the extremities of cold and hunger; 
whole villages have been swept away. A miserable remnant is all that remains 
to mark the situation of many warlike tribes." 

The legislature enacted many general laws and provided for a thorough 
collection and revision of the same by a commission. This was done by John 
Rice Tones and John Johnson and the laws were printed in a bound volume, the 
paper for which was brought on horseback from Georgetown, Kentucky. These 
laws were not very different from those already in force. Gambling, profane 
swearing, and Sabbath breaking were each punished by fine. 

During the continuance of the territory of Indiana, the expedition of Lewis 
and Clark to the far west was organized. This Clark was a brother of George 
Rogers Clark. This expedition extended and preserved our boundaries west- 
ward to the Pacific Ocean. 

Here ends the work of Colonel Rice on the manuscript for this history. 
"Man proposes, but God disposes," is an aphorism which has been fully exem- 
plified in the plans of the author of the foregoing pages of historical events. 
His aim and ambition were to leave to Peorians a work that would meet their 
wishes and approval and. at the same time, redound to his credit and come up 
to the anticipations of his many friends. He had given the matter his earnest, 
sincere and careful attention, laying out a plan which would cover the subject 
truthfullv and completelv : but, the'hand of death unexpectedly intervened and. 
while in 'the full flush of apparently good health, he was laid low and another 
was delegated to continue the program as mapped out by him and in accordance 
with his wishes. 


The spirit of former times, and the hopes, desires, and ambitions of the old 
pioneers, tlie motives that caused them to move to a new country, the spirit 
that governed them in their social life and business, their trials, hardships and 
their pleasures, the difficulties they had to overcome and the methods they took 
to accomplish this and makeshifts they were compelled to resort to, their modes 
of entertainment and the happy spirit they preserved with it all are best shown 
by permitting them to tell their own story in their own way. Therefore, a 
number of reminiscences and recollections of the old settlers themselves, ex- 
pressed in their own words as nearly as practicable are embodied in this history. 
Nothing else could give us such a vivid picture of those early days or could it 
make it so attractive. In reading these reminiscences, we know we are getting 
a description of the situation at first hands, and, if in some cases, their views 
were different from ours, it indicates the progress of civilization and develop- 
ment, for better or worse, as the case may be. 

These early reminiscences will give the origin of many of the families now 
living in Peoria and will be doubly interesting to their descendants because 
given in the language of the actors in that stirring time. 

Considerable effort has been made to secure as many of these reminiscences 
as possible and make them as full as the lapse of time will permit. 

The first one presented will be that of Airs. Julia M. Ballance who came to 
Peoria in 1835 and became the wife of Charles ilallance who wrote one of the 
first histories of Peoria. 

Mrs. Ballance at the time these recollections were penned was an old lady 
but her remembrance of persons and events was remarkably full and clear. 
The reminiscences here given were written at the request of the Herald-Trans- 
script, and printed in that paper in 1899, but one year before her death. 


My father's second wife was a Presbyterian, unused to slave labor and with 
no faculty for controlling them. Naturally she disliked the blacks, a feeling 
they were all too ready to reciprocate, and when Rev. Isaac Kellar, who was 
married to my father's sister, moved to Illinois and wrote back glowing accounts 
of the promise of the new country my step-mother added her entreaty to his 
that we should break up our home in Alaryland and join the Kellar's in Peoria. 
One line of argument had great weight with my father. He had four sons 
rapidly approaching manhood, his farm was not large enough to settle them all 
with the corresponding negro hands, other good farm land in the neighborhood 
was scarce as well as high in price, and there seemed no better way to provide 
for all these boys than to seek a new country. Accordingly in 1835, after the 
crops were all gathered, he closed up his business, sold or rented his slaves 
and started for the land of promise. 


The journey of course had to be made overland and for that purpose he 
provided a large covered wagon drawn by four and sometimes five horses for 



the accommodation of my brothers, John, David, Washington and Henry, my 
sisters, Susan and Amanda and myself ; another wagon drawn by two horses 
in which clothing, camp equipage and food were carried ; and a covered carriage 
for father, his wife and two little children. Our horses were large, strong ani- 
mals, our wagons provided with every comfort and convenience, experience or 
ingenuity could suggest, and one beautiful sunny day in October we started on 
our journey. It must have been hard for the older people to leave all that was 
dear to them by association or recollection, but the young looked forward rather 
than l)ack and in the excitement of that first day's travel my brothers and I 
drew beautiful fancy pictures of the life that was before us. 

So far as I can recollect our journey through Maryland and Pennsylvania 
was uneventful. The road was perfect, the weather fine, and we easily made 
a drive of twenty-five miles per day. As a rule there was no difficulty in obtain- 
ing accommodations at a hotel or farmhouse, but if these failed we young 
people thought it no hardship to spend the night in the wagons. Bedding was 
abundant, and we were exceedingly comfortable. F"ather was particular about 
the observance of the Sabbath, and we always laid by from Saturday till Mon- 
day morning, but these stops must have been at unimportant points, for I remem- 
ber none till we reached Wheeling, Virginia. Here we remained for two or 
three days to readjust the loads of goods, the heavy and bulky articles being 
separated from the others and shipped by water down the Ohio and up the 
Illinois river to Peoria. This we accomplished through Mr. John R. Forsyth, 
a commission merchant in Wheeling, who took charge of and shipped them to 
the care of Andrew Gray, a commission man in Peoria, and our only knowledge 
of the shipment for many long weeks was through this latter gentleman, who 
was finally notified when they were transferred to another boat at St. Louis. 
It may be mentioned in passing that Mr. Forsyth was the father of Henry 
Forsvth, for a number of years clerk of our county court, and the grandfather 
of Airs. C. R. \Varner. He removed to Peoria soon after we did, and formed 
a partnership with Mr. Gray, whom all old citizens will remember and who 
is still represented in our midst by his daughter, Mrs. John McDougal and her 
sons. Both of these gentlemen were from the north of Ireland and were fine 
specimens of that elocjuent and courtly race. There was much to interest us 
in Wheeling, but unfortunately we had all been made more or less ill by eating 
pawpaws gathered by the wayside and were unable to avail ourselves of half 
our opportunities. One thing, however, we felt that all must see and that was 
the steamer Algonquin, on which our goods were being stored. The Chesapeake 
and Ohio canal was in operation and the older members of the family had in- 
spected the boats on the canal and considered them a triumph of luxury, but 
not even my father had seen anything so fine as a steamboat and to all of us 
it seemed a floating palace. The boys were especially excited and could not 
sufficiently admire its various parts from the wheel in the pilot house to the 
conveniences for storing freight in the hold. 

Another curiosity and. delight was the glass factory still in its infancy but 
quite sufiiciently developed to draw crowds of interested observers. I remained 
at the hotel, too unwell to undertake such an" expedition, but grew quite familiar 
with its wonders at second-hand in the long days that followed. 

On Monday we were all feeling much better and with our load of goods 
greatly lightened, took up our journey across Ohio, still keeping to the National 
road. Various schemes for facilitating travel were being urged but Illinois knew 
of these things only by distant rumor. On the whole the greatest civilizer of 
this and neighboring states was the National Road,* of which such fre(iuent 

* This National Road at the time it was built was probably as important to the people 
as the Union Pacific was at the time it was built and it cost the general government in 
proportion to its means as much as the Transcontinental Railroad. It was built by Con- 
gress under desires to provide for the mail service and was operated as a mail route, very 
important in that particular and very important to bind the nation together by union of inter- 




and grateful mention is made by early settlers. Starting from Cumberland it 
was finished as far as Wheeling in 1820 at a cost of $17,000,000, but was subse- 
quently extended across Ohio and Indiana. In the language of Professor 
Andrews, "It was thirty-five feet wide thoroughly macadamized, and had no 
grade above five degrees." As it was kept in repair for the sake of the govern- 
ment mail it can easily be imagined what a boon it must have been to immigrants 
with their heavy wagons and helpless families. The first stop that I remember 
was at Zanesville, which was considered a flourishing town, and for some 
reason had an especial attraction for us, but I cannot remember why. Columbus 
also met with our approval, but we drove briskly through it till we reached some 
shade trees, where we rested and ate luncheon. W'e especially commended the 
apples which were very fine and abimdant. 

At this point my father decided to go by way of Dayton, so we left the 

National road and drove through mud and slush for half a da)' to reach it. I 

am not sure whether it was by appointment or accident, but at Dayton we met 

a family of the name of W onderlich. the father of whom was an uncle of my 

communications. It is proliable tliat railroads by facilitating intercourse as well as commerce 
between different neigbborboods and states are not only among tbe greatest civilizers by en- 
abling eacb portion of tbe country to learn the best tilings from otber parts but it enables the 
people to become acquainted with each other. 

"East of Alton was the town of Vandalia, where ended tbe unfinished National Pike. 
The construction of that famous highway was begun at Cumberland, Maryland, in iSii; but 
so slowly did the work progress that six years passed before tbe first mail-coach rolled over 
it and entered Wheeling. Two years later Congress decided to continue the road from 
Wheeling to some point on the Mississippi between St. Louis and the mouth of the Illinois 
River, and appropriated ten thousand dollars for preliminary surveys. But five years elapsed 
before a dollar was provided for building the road, and ground was broken at St. Clairs- 
ville, a little town in Ohio, a few miles west of Wheeling. Columbus was reached bv 1830, 
and when tbe last appropriation was made, in 1838, the road was finished as far as Spring- 
field, and graded, bridged, and partially completed to Vandalia. 

"In Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the Cumberland Road wound and twisted 
through the mountains, feut once across the Ohio the route was to be as straight as pos- 
sible from Wheeling to the Mississippi, regardless of towns along the way. Against this 
the General .Assembly of Illinois protested, and asked that tlie road should join the capital 
cities of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. When tlierefore, the first appropriation for construc- 
tion was made it was ordered that the great highway should pass through Columbus, In- 
dianapolis, and Vandalia. then the capital of Illinois. Straightness, however, was not de- 
parted from, and the road was built with little regard for topography. Hills were cut 
through, lowlands were crossed on high embankments, and streams, large and small, were 
spanned by massive stone bridges, the like of which cannot be found on any other road in 
all our land. 

"lo keep such a highway, eighty feet wide, in repair was .so costly a matter that Congress 
ordered gates put up and tolls collected at regular intervals. This, in the opinion of Monroe, 
was going too far; it was assuming jurisdiction over the land on which tbe road was built; 
and tbe bill came back with his veto and a long dissertation on the intent and meaning of 
the Constitution. Thereupon Congress repaired the road so far as built and turned it 
over to the States through which it passed to be by them kept in repair forever. ,\s new 
portions were constructed they, too, passed to tbe care of tbe States, wdiich at once put up 

"No highway was more travelled, more crowded, more interesting. Over it each day 
went thousands of mail-coaches, passenger-coaches, freighters, .•\long its route had sprung 
up hundreds of taverns, beneath whose roofs the travellers lodged, and hundreds of wagon 
houses, where entertainment was provided for the teamsters and their beasts. Before tbe 
doors of such taverns as went back to tbe early days of tbe road, might still be seen the 
old-fashioned sign whereon was rudely painted tbe Green Tree, the Golden Lamb, tbe White 
Horse, tbe Golden Swan, or tbe Indian Queen, by which the bouse was known. Those of 
a later date had verandas and bore on their signs tbe names of their owners. Only the 
newest were called .'\merican House. United States Hotel. National House, or Buckeye Hotel. 

"On tbe outskirts of tbe towns and villages and at short distances along the road were 
the wagon houses, plain frame buildings with great yards, long watering troughs and huge 
barns, in many of which a hundred horses might rest. None but teamsters found enter- 
tainment at such places, and at any of them after nightfall a group of wagoners might be 
seen gathered at tlie bar or seated around the huge fireplace, and sleeping on tbe floor in 
winter or in the great yard in summer. 

"From each important town along tbe route stage lines ran out north and south." — 


step-mother. Tliis man was the grandfather of Mrs. Calvin Schnebly, of 
Rich woods, and her mother was a young girl at the time and assisted in enter- 
taining us. We remained two or three days with these kind friends, resting 
and preparing for the worst part of the journey. 

I remember little of Indianapolis, except from there on the road was very 
had, and we seemed a long, long ways from home. The turnpike existed only 
in spots from this time, and we would sometime jolt for hours over a corduroy 
road formed of trees roughly cut and dropped carelessly into the oozy soil. 
The prairies were uncultivated, and while the grass waved above the heads of 
the horses the wagon wheel would suddenly sink to the hubs in an unsuspected 
slough. This meant long delay. With a groan the boys would clamber from 
their seats, double up teams, perhaps have to pry the wheels out of the mud, 
and then repeat the process with the vehicles in the rear. Sometimes such 
experiences would occur several times in a day, and were fiery trials to patience 
and temper as well as weary bodies. Xow and then we would overtake movers 
with oxen, and as it was a law of the road that each should help the other 
these were often of great assistance to our lighter loads. The first question of 
all such was: "Where are you going stranger?" and the almost invariable reply: 
"To Logansport, Injianny." "Don't they have ague there?"' we would ask, and 
the reply was: "Oh yes. sometimes." In fact malaria was the rule throughout 
the state. In many houses where we stopped there was not a single well person 
to wait upon the sick, and all the settlers looked bleached and sallow. Still all 
were cheerful under the affliction and looked for better times in the spring — 
not one was preparing to give it up and return east. 

As we left the well settled portions of the country behind, we became more 
dependent upon ourselves in the matter of food. We had brought with us a 
liberal supply of potatoes, coffee, tea and dried fruit, nuts of various kinds 
abounded in the woods and apples might generally be had for the asking ; eggs, 
milk and butter were found at every farm house, and fish in every stream ; but 
the great annoyance was the diflficulty of obtaining bread. Public bakers were 
scarce and I recall one town where but a single loaf could be obtained. With 
so large a family, this became a serious matter and at length my step-mother, 
with the energy that distinguished her, took the matter in hand. Wherever we 
might chance to camp at night, by the roadside or in the bleakest prairies, she 
would set her bread to rise and then in the dim morning hours finish her baking 
before the early drive began. The only utensil for this purpose was a large, 
round iron pot or pan, with feet and a right cover, called a "Dutch oven," which 
was heated by heaping coals beneath it and spreading a layer on the lid. In 
the light of our present conveniences this appears a slow and troublesome proc- 
ess, but after all these years it still seems to me that no cakes or bread or biscuit 
were ever so sweet or so well baked as those turned out of that old "Dutch oven." 

The ride through Indiana was dreary in the extreme ; we had seen no one 
we knew anything about for days and when we reached Terre Haute and were 
invited to dine with a J\Ir. StoU whom father had know-n as a boy the invitation 
was eagerlv accepted. This gentleman was soon after appointed territorial 
governor of Iowa and of course left the country, but I still think of Terre 
Haute tenderlv for the sake of the dinner he gave us. 

Richmond is also pleasantly remembered; the people were kind and hospitable 
and we laid in a bountiful supply of provisions to last us through the wilderness 
which stretched before us. 

At another town in Indiana we had to lie by on account of the sickness of 
a favorite mare named Dolly. I had never seen an animal doctored by filling 
a bottle with medicine and forcibly pouring the dose down its throat and it 
seemed very cruel, but in this case, at least, it was efficacious and the next day 
DoUv was able to travel. 

When we reached the Wabash the difficulties of the journey were greatly 
increased. Hitherto we had crossed all streams by means of bridges, but here 


there was only a rope ferry boat and when we drove on board all felt as if we 
were taking our lives in our hands. For a long distance beyond this ferry we 
drove through dark and forbidding woods and when at length we were called 
upon to camp in their shadows we were all much depressed. To make the 
situation more unpleasant we entirely lost our beloved National road from this 
time. It had been surve^etl and partly graded in Illinois, but not a foot macad- 
amized beyond the state line. For some reason our route lay midway between 
Decatur and Springfield, and we passed no town in the state of sufficient im- 
portance to vary the monotony. 

Paris, our first stopping place, was not calculated to rouse our courage. The 
ague was widespread and there was not an able bodied person in the town. As 
a conse(|uence provisions were scarce and wc went on our way with many 

The next day to our great surprise we met three cousins of father's who 
had been through Iowa and Illinois buying land and were returning to Maryland. 
Two of these gentlemen had made the entire journey on horseback, while the 
third, who was lame, had driven in a buggy. We were much delighted to see 
them, though our greetings were exchanged in the middle of a big prairie and 
the visit lasted less than an hour. Their account of what they had seen did much 
to encourage our party and we went on in far better spirits. 

Pieyond Waynesville we had in a small way a really serious trouble, though 
it seems insignificant enough in the retrospect — we lost our mush pot! Every 
old housckeejjer will remember the value attached in the days before porcelain- 
lined and galvanized \\are were invented, to any iron vessel that was perfectly 
smooth and warranted not to discolor the most delicate food. Such a one was 
our mush pot and valuable as it was under any circumstances, it was doubly 
so in the present crisis. It had been tied throughout the journey to the wagon 
pole and came loosened and rolled away. My step-mother felt ruined so far 
as good cooking was concerned and would have driven back in search of her 
treasure if mv father had not discouraged the attempt. 

Coming through Indiana we became acquainted with a family by the name 
of Boone, and as they were traveling to the same section of the country we 
were often thrown together. The party consisted of the old gentleman, his 
wife, who weighed over two hundred pounds, and six grown daughters, and a 
married son with his wife and two children. Each family had what was called 
a "Jersey" wagon and a pair of little horses to take them from their distant 
home in the eastern part of Pennsylvania to central Illinois. Although pleasant 
acquaintances they became a great drawback to traveling. Their horses were 
quite unequal to the load they had to draw and several times a day our teams 
would be unhitched to drag them out of the mud. Finally one of the young 
ladies was taken sick, and as the family was unable to travel in consequence, 
our boys hastened on, much pleased to think we were rid of them. But their 
joy was short lived, for by means of early rising our friends soon overtook 
us and we continued to help them out of the mud till we reached Mackinaw. 
Here they remained for a couple of weeks, but eventually came to Peoria to 
spend the winter. Miss Susan Boone afterwards married Dr. Maus, of Mack- 
inaw, and they moved to Pekin. Hopkins Boone, the son. and his family went 
to loliet, where they had relatives, and I lost sight of them. 

Another family we met in traveling was that of Major Walker. They left 
us to go to Springfield, but eventually settled in Lewistown. 

A disease as much dreaded by immigrants as ague was the "milk sickness," 
which we heard of in Illinois. It was said to come from a weed the cattle ate, 
which poisoned the milk, and was thereby communicated to human beings. Our 
first knowledge of I'ekin was through a report that milk sickness was especially 
prevalent there, though indeed every new place was suspected of the same con- 

From Mackinaw we struck across the country, expecting to come through 


Tremont, hut accidentally took the wrong road and passed down Deacon street 
instead, and soon came to the bluffs overlooking Peoria. It was a beautiful 
afternoon, and as the sunlight gilded the tops of the trees and played hide-and- 
seek among the shadows, the panorama that stretched before us was most at- 
tractive. The hardships of the long weary way over which we had passed 
were forgotten as we looked at the glistening river and the village so pictur- 
es(|uely hidden by the surrounding bluffs. Even the horses seemed to feel that 
rest was near and cantered briskly down the long slope that led to the ferry, 
which plied at the foot of Bridge street, and over which we must pass before 
reaching our destination. By the time we got to Main and Water streets dark- 
ness had set in, and strangers as we were it was impossible to find accommoda- 
tions for so large a party. At length an old man by the name of Hardesty, who 
lived in a little house where the Colburn & Birks' building now stands, oft'ered 
to shelter my father and mother. He had but one room to offer, and even that 
had no bedstead, but we sent over our own bedding and made a bed upon the 
floor. This would not have been considered a privation by persons who had 
lived as we had through the last six weeks of our journey, but unfortunately 
a terrific storm of rain and wind came up in the night, the rain drifted under 
the outer door and ran in streams to the bed, which was thoroughly soaked, 
and the occupants driven to chairs and tables for protection. Those of us who 
had slept in the wagons were dry and warm but much frightened, and altogether 
our first night in Peoria was not a happy one. Nor can it be wondered at; 
but it is rather a surprise that any of us lived through the hardships of the 
first season, to tell the truth. The girls especially had been delicately reared, 
and had never done a stroke of work unless for their own pleasure. Servants 
had always been plentiful to attend to their slightest wish, and the transition 
from a life of ease to the labor and deprivations of pioneer life was enough to 
appal the stoutest heart. 

The Rev. Isaac Kellar, who was married to my father's sister and had lived 
near us in Maryland, moved to Peoria in the s]iring of 1835 and it was at his 
solicitation that we determined to make our new home in the same place. After 
a few months' residence in town Uncle Kellar had purchased a farm about five 
miles in the country which included what is now Kellar Station on the Rock 
Island & Peoria Railroad. Here he hastily put up a house and moved his family 
into it, but so difficult was it to get workmen that when w^e arrived, November 
10, it was a shelter and no more. The walls and roof were up but the winter 
wind whistled between the unchinked logs and the only partitions upstairs were 
formed of strips of carpets or blankets. As there was not a house to be had 
and it was too late in the season to think of building we thankfully accepted 
the offer of a share in this unfinished house and seven Kellars and eleven 
Schneblvs clustered together as best they could under one roof. All hands 
immediately set to work to make the place more comfortable. Such apology 
for carpenters as could be obtained were put to laying floors and making and 
hanging inside doors, and in the meanwhile big fires were kept burning day 
and night. As the new^er family, we were able to add many comforts to the 
general store. There were too many of us to be lonely or low-spirited, and in 
spite of hardships, we were not unhappy. Air. John Kellar had bought the 
farm adjoining his brother's, and gradually we came to know other neighbors, 
all of whom were most kind. 

Nevertheless it was a dreadful winter. The intense cold set in on the 15th 
of November, 1835, a full month sooner than was anticipated, and found no 
one prepared for it. Provisions were scarce not only with us but in the stores, 
and the Illinois river, the only highway to the base of supplies, was frozen over. 
Snow soon fell to a greater depth than had ever been known before and ren- 
dered the country roads well nigh impassable while it was fresh and entirely 
so when it turned to mud and slush. At the new house it sifted through every 
crevice and it was no raritv to shake several inches of snow off' our beds in 


*"^ ■ 

7^ ' 

The folliiiK'iii;/ iiaiucd [^hiccs arc represented as folltrn's: 

a. The foot of l-'erry Street aii<l llie ferry, since called ISridge Street and the 


b. Orin Hamlin's tlour mill. 

c. The court hotise. 

d. The first home of Charles Pallance. 

e. .\. S. Cole's warehouse. PjCtween Cole's warehouse and llallance's first home. 

in \\'ater Street and in Liberty Street, full\- lilling l)0th of them, was 
Fort Clark at a former day. 

f. Curtenius & Ciriswold's general store. 

g. Slough's, or L'nion Hotel. 

li. h'irst two brick buildings erected in Peoria. 

i. Clinton House. 

j. Asahel Hale's home. 

k. Delweiller's 1 lotel. 

1. \'oris Bros.' general store. 

m. A, S. Cole's store in 1S43. 

n. I'^armers' Hotel. 

o. The notorious W hig flagstaff in 1S44. 

p. The old court house. 

q. Old Hamilton Street Baptist Church, now the site of the county jail. 

r. The old Peoria House. 

s. John Rankin's flour mill. 

t. The residence of Isaac L'nderhill, for whom the |)icturc was painted, now the 

site of St. h'rancis Hospital, 

V. Orr &; Schnel)le\'s saw mill. 


the morning which had settled upon us in the night. The situation was not 
helped by the knowledge that there was no lack of money to make us com- 
fortable but that this was a time when money was of little use. There were 
few mechanics of any kind in the state and if there had been many, there was 
a dearth of materials with which to work. Every foot of lumber for building 
purposeswas obtained by cutting logs on the farm, hauling them to a saw mill 
on the Kickapoo where they were sawed on the shares, and then hauling them 
back. Teaming was a business for which there was good demand, and as we 
had the best horses in the neighborhood our boys were often importuned to do 
something of the kind. On one occasion brother John and an assistant was em- 
ployed to take the boiler of a sunken steamboat to Chicago; for this job he 
received $ioo, which does not seem a munificent sum for the time and labor 
expended, but he was probably glad of the opportunity to see the country and 
satisfied to pay expenses. On his return he brought a load of lumber, which 
was considered an exceedingly bright thing to do. 

As the winter progressed provisions of all sorts became scarce and ex- 
pensive. Flour, I remember, was $12 per barrel. New Orleans molasses $1.25 
per gallon, and butter unknown. The only thing our family had in plenty was 
coffee which we had brought with us and which seemed to be providentially 
inultiplied till the spring. Flour gave out altogether and many of us were made 
sick by the constant use of corn-meal. At length we obtained a little wheat 
from a neighbor but to be ground it had to be taken across the river to 
Crocker's Mill at the Narrows, the only flour mill in that section of the country, 
and so great was the pressure of business that our messenger had to wait three 
days for his turn. \Mien he returned with the beautiful white flour we wel- 
comed him with open arms. He also brought some middlings which we made 
into battercakes. and though we had no proper griddle and had to bake the 
cakes on the stove lid, after our long course of corn they seemed a great luxury. 

The necessity for provisions finally became so great that teams were sent 
to Beardstown where a steamer from St. Louis had been frozen in the ice, to 
bring up her supply of groceries by the wagon road. I'^rom this time we were 
not so badly oft", though even when the river opened, boats were timid about 
coming so far. Citizens were much in the habit of betting as to the time when 
the river would open and this year heavy odds were offered that it would not 
be before January 3. Fortunately the thaw came on the third to the delight 
of people generally, though it made those who had lost wagers unhappy. 

Among Uncle Kellar's earliest acquaintances in Peoria was Mr. Charles 
Ballance who had come out from Kentucky in 183 1, and, when the Kellars came 
in 1835, was already well known as a prosperous young lawyer, land agent and 
surveyor. He had i)urchased a house on the corner of Water and Libertv streets,! 
the site of old Fort Clark, and here his sister kept house for him. As any sort . 
of shelter was hard to find, wdien the Kellar family arrived, he invited them 
to stop with him till they could get a house of their own. This hospitality they 
accepted for two or three weeks and then rented a house belonging to Mr. 
Dakley on the corner of Hamilton and Adams streets, where they remained 
till they moved into the country as already described. When, therefore, father 
began to look for a farm. Uncle Kellar took him to see Mr. Ballance as one 
likely to know where such a one as he wanted could be found. It happened 
that Mr. Ballance was in X'andalia at the time, but as soon as he returned he 

t The picture "Peoria in 1831" shows this house of Mr. Ballance and also shows some 
of the old stubs of the burnt pahsades. John F. Kinff. a contractor of Peoria, in putting a 
sewer down on Liberty street cut throujjli the foundations of the bastion of this old fort. 
It stood so as to nearly obstruct Water street and Liberty street if it had been still standing. 
The main part of the fort connected with the bastion extended down Liberty street and 
down Water street and included probably nearly all of the ground on which the power plant 
of the Electric Light Company now stands. The Daughters of the American Revolution 
have put up a brass tablet on the corner of the power plant of the Electric Light Company 
to show the former location of Fort Clark. 
Vol. 1—5 


rode out to the Kellar farm, partly on business, partly to make a social call. 
Unfortunately in selecting land father was hampered by the idea that ground 
which did not produce big trees would not produce big corn,* and as the rich 
alluvial prairies which appear ready-made for the plow had no charms for him 
and the wooded lands near the streams were generally taken up, this caused 
some delay. At length, however, a place was found that seemed to fill the 
requirements, and it happily belonged to a man who wished to sell. To us 
its surroundings seemed primitive, but the owner, "Sammy" Elson, was one 
of those restless nj^en who always flee at the approach of civilization and the 
bargain was soon made. The purchase included a small house, which after- 
wards became a part of the Schnebly homestead, and into it my brothers moved, 
taking sister Susan with them as housekeeper. C ' - -> 

As early as possible after coming to Peoria, ^Uncle Kellar had begun to 
preach in a frame building on Jackson between Adams and Washington streets. 
Here he would no doubt have done well, but unfortunately the discussion which 
resulted in new and old school Presbyterians was rife even in this distant place 
and had resulted in the formation of two Presbyterian churches where there 
was hardly room for one. On the 21st of December, 1834, Joshua Aiken, Aloses 
Pettengill and Enoch Cross with the assistance of Rev. Flavel Bascom and Rev. 
Romulus Darnes had organized a church of eleven members with new school 
proclivities, and on the next day Samuel Lowry, a zealous Presbyterian from 
the north of Ireland, and Rev. John Birch had organized a second church with 
old school preferences. This latter organization included Samuel Lowry, Mrs. 
Andrew Gray, Mrs. Matthew Taggart, John Sutherland, Nelson Buck and others. 
All this occurred before I came to Peoria and had created not a little feeling, 
but in my first knowledge of the place both churches were leading a precarious 
existence, and Uncle Kellar was preaching for the so-called old school body. 
When my father came with his large family and a little later Mrs. Lindsay with 
hers and identified themselves with this latter church, it seemed established on 
a firm basis. And so it might have been but for enemies within the fold, who 
were far more destructive than those without. The real cause of the trouble 
which resulted in dismemberment does not appear on the records but in the 
language of a contemporary arose from "a strong disposition on the part of Mr. 
Lowry to rule whatever he was concerned with and an equally strong disposition 
on the part of Mr. Kellar not to be ruled." Be that as it may, it was said at 
the time that Mr. Lowry had taken the deed to the church lot in his own name, 
and that he subsequently sold the lot, took the money and went away never to 
return. To straighten the matter out the synod sent a commission to investigate 
the matter and this commission dissolved the church which Mr. Lowry claimed 
to have organized and established another in its ruins, of which Mr. Kellar was 
elected pastor, and such he continued to be for several years. 

Miss Kate Kellar and I, being the young ladies of the family, usually ac- 
companied him to church. As soon as possible father purchased a carriage for 
the use of the family, but during the first winter our only mode of traveling 
was on horseback. I remember that Cousin Kate and I had cloaks alike, made 
very full, wadded and lined and pleated into a yoke. As we rode along these 

* Mr. Schnebly seems to have preferred timber land to tlie prairie because he tliought 
it was more fertile. Mr. George Poage Rice, the father of tlie editor, came to Illinois first 
in 18,^4 and was in Peoria. He went west and settled in Monmouth. His idea was that the 
prairie land was the best farm land but that farms could not get along without timber to 
build houses, make fences and for fuel. He took up his farm land in the edge of the prairie 
adjoining the timber and spent all the money he could spare in buying timber land amongst 
the breaks thinking that he was getting the key of the situation. Some money he had to in- 
vest for his sister, he put all in timber land and also when his nephew wished to come and 
open a farm he sold forty acres of the timber and took up as good farm land as there is 
in Illinois with the money. One could sell forty acres of that farm land a day without im- 
provements for enough to buy a section of timber land, even with the timber standing on it 
as good as it was in those days. 


cloaks would fill with wind like a balloon and must have presented a funny 
appearance if there had been any spectators on that lonely road. Both Mrs. 
Gray and Mrs. Lowry were very kind to us and often asked us to spend a day 
or two at a time with them. On one of these occasions we were invited to a 
dance given somewhere on Main street, but as neither of us knew how to dance 
and would have been thought dreadfully wicked if we had, the party was not 
a success as far as we were concerned. 

As we had come from a country where snow was plenty, sleighing was one 
of our ciiief amusements. We had only a home-made jumper, it is true, and in 
going up and down the hills had to cling to each other to prevent falling off, 
but youth and high spirits atoned for all shortcomings and we enjoyed it. On 
one occasion we took the "jumper" and went by invitation to spend the evening 
at John Clifton's. There was but a single room when we arrived, and the only 
light came from a huge log fire about which the family was gathered. After 
a while with some difficulty they rigged up a witch's lamp — a piece of rag drawn 
through a potato and set in a saucer of oil — and that furnished the balance of 
the illumination. We were made most welcome, however, and before our de- 
parture the lady of the house jjassed around a dish of raw turnips — the only 
refreshments she had. It was most kindly meant, but we were too recently 
from the land of apples not to be struck with the fun of it, though our own 
entertainments were little less primitive, being confined to hickory nuts or 
parched corn, to which the children sometimes added potatoes roasted in the hot 
ashes. It was years before we had any fruit of our own raising. 

For many reasons the family reading took a narrow range that season. Two 
weekly papers, the I'liiladelphia Presbyterian for religious items, and the Hag- 
, erstown Torchlight for news of our old neighbors, bad been ordered to our new 
home, and were carefully read. In addition we had our choice of the Bible, a 
voluminous Concordance, Josephus, a treatise on the Whole Duty of Woman, 
Grimshaw's History of the United States. Lives of Washington, Calvin, Frank- 
lin, Marion, Patrick Henry, and for light reading Scottish Chiefs, Charlotte 
Temple and the Children of the Abbey. How these latter managed to creep 
into such dignified company I cannot remember, but I, at least, read them with 
avidity, 'and was thereby beguiled of many weary hours. A little later, through 
the kindness of a friend. I had access to all of Cooper's novels, then just coming 
into vogue, and had a new world opened up to me even though the noble red men, 
as there portrayed, had no resemblance to the specimens with which vve oc- 
casionally came in contact. 

The winter of 1835-6 dragged its slow length along, as has been said. 
In February my stepmother presented us with a tiny addition to the family, 
and notwithstanding many discomforts inseparable with our crowded quarters, 
as well as the newness of the country, mother and baby both throve well. A 
few weeks later Mr. Ballance and I were married, Uncle Kellar being the 
officiating clergyman. My gown was of white jaconet, the material for which 
I had providentially brought from ^Maryland, and my one bridesmaid was Miss 
Amelia Boone, one of the family who traveled with us in our journey through 
Indiana. There were but two carriages in the town, and one of these Mr. 
Ballance hired for the wedding, but owing to the darkness of the night and 
the miseral)le condition of the roads it was thought best to defer the drive into 
town till morning. Our homecoming was naturally an event of some importance 
in the little town, and Miss Prudence liallance had issued invitations for a ])arty 
in our honor. It proved to be a large gathering and an elegant one for the 
times, but after all these years I can recall no one who was there but the 
Grays, Lowrys, Taggarts, Vorises, PickettS and Boones.* The house where 
I began my married life and where my three older children were born was on 

* This Miss .Amelia Boone was a cousin of the author's mother and was a relative of 
the pioneer hunter, Daniel Boone of Kentucky. Their family settled at an early day in 
Pennsylvania, fifty or sixty miles north of Philadelphia. 


the lower side of Water street at the foot of Liberty street, and was considered 
a superior one for the times. It was near the site of old Fort Clark, w-hich 
was built in 1813, and which burned in 1819. The fort had been made of logs, 
standing on end and the charred remains of these were sometimes found about 
our garden as long as we remained there. One was in such a state of preserva- 
tion that we used it years as a hitching post until its -age and history made it 
too valuable for that purpose and when we moved away a man by the name 
of Drown sawed it into walking sticks which he readily sold for 50 cents apiece. 
The corner on the south of us had been a powder magazine, but nothing re- 
mained of it but a few stones and the hole where the powder had been stored. 
Below this and a little nearer the river — there was not a street laid out south 
of this till you reach the ferry, now Bridge street — was the old Court House.* 

In the rear, the house was generally sixty or seventy feet from the river, 
but in the spring it often happened that the water came up to our back steps, 
and it was not unusual at such times to attach a fishing rod to the back door to 
catch a fish for the next meal. The front yard was quite barren when I came 
to the house, but the next year we had it fenced in and wandering pigs fenced 
out, so that I soon had a garden, gay with all colors of old-fashioned tiowers. 

After we left this house for a larger one on South Adams street it was 
rented to various tenants, but rapidly went to decay and the site is now so 
changed by business houses and railroad tracks that even I find it difficult to 

'Most of those who had been invited to my wedding reception were strangers 
to me, but ^Irs. Andrew Gray seemed like an old friend. She and her husband 
were warm hearted Irish people, and had been kind to me from my first arrival. 
Indeed, to the extent of their means, they kept open house to all comers. 
Among their frequent guests were William, generally called "Billy" Mitchell, 
and two young ladies, Margaret and Louisa Heaton, who lived near where 
(ubilee now stands. Mr. Mitchell was a young Englishman and at that time 
and for years afterwards was clerk of the county court. Whether Mrs. Gray 
had any hand in making the match I do not know, but these young people met 
often at her house and the day before we were married Uncle Kellar was called 
upon to perform the same services for Mr. Mitchell and Louisa Heaton. After 
his marriage, Mr. Mitchell took his bride to live in the house on the bluff now 
occupied by Mrs. Thomas Hurd and her daughter, Mrs. Hotchkiss, and soon 
after he was joined by his mother and a sister who eventually became Mrs. 
James Crawley. 

Of the Lowrys I have spoken before. They were staunch Presbyterians 
and according to their ideas of things good people, but Air. Lowry was a man 
of determined will and strong prejudices, and it was impossible for him to see 
any good in a scheme which ran counter to his preconceived ideas. Mr. Bal- 
lance was fond of quoting Hudibras with reference to him where he described 
the English Presbyterians: 

"Who never kneel but to their God to pray, 
Nor even then, unless in their own way." 

He was a prominent citizen for a few years, but became involved in the 
church quarrel before alluded to and left the place. 

Mr. Taggart was another Irishman ; his wife was a sister of Mrs. Lowry, 
and a most excellent kindly woman. They had two daughters. Jane and Mary, 
the latter of whom was not fully grown at this time, but some years after mar- 
ried Mr. Dalmain, an artist. In the first Peoria directory issued in 1844 Mr. 
Taggart would seem to have no business, but the word "gentleman" is opposite 
his name. On the same page appears the business card of Jane Amanda Tag- 

*TIiis old courthouse is shown on the picture "Peoria in 1831." 


gart's Select School, wherein is taught "i'hilosophy. History, Arithmetic, Geog- 
raphy, Grammar, Reading and Spelling. Terms, $2.50 per quarter." 

Mr. Ballance came from Kentucky to Peoria in 183 1 and soon afterward 
induced his friends, the Vorises to join him here. The family consisted of Air. 
and Mrs. Francis Voris, two younger brothers, Abram and Sam, a sister, 
Hortensia, and Miss Sarah Congleton. The brothers kept a general store, 
which de%'eloped into a forwarding and commission business. They also went 
into the packing of ])ork in winter, which they would pack in flat boats and when 
the river opened in the spring send it down the river where there was always a 
ready market for provisions. Their store was located on Water street for 
years and their various interests furnished employment for a number of young 
men. Miss Hortensia \'oris married Dr. Hogan, a practicing physician, but in 
a year or two they moved to Texas and I lost sight of them. Mr. Abram Voris 
went down the river as supercargo of a line of flat-boats, and while in the 
neighborhood of Natchez took the cholera and died. A year or two later Mr. 
Samuel \oris married .Miss Congleton and for more than a c|uarter of a century 
the two brothers, Francis and Samuel, with their families, lived together in 
the homestead in perfect accord. As children grew to maturity and were mar- 
ried, additions would be made to the original house, but so long as the first 
couples remained there was no thought of separation. As time went on they 
prospered and for years were considered among the wealthiest as well as the 
most hospitable peojjle in the county. The house or rather the collection of 
houses that sheltered so many was near the corner of .Adams and Oak street, 
but has so fallen into decay that it is no longer habitable. The beautiful lawn 
is entirely destro\cd. The garden that was the pet and pride of the neighbor- 
hood had not left even a trace, and the fine old trees are all dead and gone. 
It is a melancholy spectacle and one that I would gladly forget. 

As I came from a southern state and belonged to a family of slave owners, 
mv sympathies were naturally opposed to everything savoring of abolitionism. 
In these days when the Christian world is unanimously convinced of the iniquity 
of slavery, "it is difficult to realize the intensity of feeling fifty years ago (A.D. 
1846) for and against the institution. As years went by sympathy on either 
side developed into hatred, families were divided and the solid south was 
arrayed against the solid north, but in New England was to hold him up to 
approbrium and he must be singularly brave and conscientious who would avow 
his-ielief in the hated doctrines. 

U'hatever elements might have entered in to divide that most conservative 
of l)odies, the Presbyterian church, it is certain that the crowning trouble was 
the dift'erence of opinion on the subject of slavery. The north saw but one 
side, and believing that it was wrong felt that it must be pulled up, root and 
branch ; that it must be done at once regardless of consequences, and the results 
be left to God. Many in the south on the contrary believed it to be a divine 
institution, sanctioned by Scripture and the usages of antiquity; others of Africa 
in touch with the civilizing influences of the whites, and all felt that right or 
wrong, the blacks were here and to set them free was to, involve the country in 
far greater troubles than could possibly arise from continuing them in slavery. 

It would seem that whatever the moral aspect of the question it need not 
have afl:'ected anv relations in the center of a free state like Illinois, but beliefs 
are not bound by geogra]ihical lines and the old school Presbyterian church with 
its supersensitiveness on the slave question and the new school, the offspring of 
Puritan parents, were the results. 

I do not undertake to give a history of this new school of Main street 
church, as it was called, but I remember many of the people connected with it. 
The leaders were Joshua .Aiken, Moses Pettengill and Dr. Cross, but William 
A. Nurse, Robert E. Little. Dr. Castle, the Piurlingame brothers, a man by the 
name of Tarleton and Mrs. Jeffries did much to make it a success. 

One of the first j^astors was Rev. William T. .Alien, who was noted for his 


anti-slavery i)roclivities, and wrote after his signature, "Preacher of righteous- 
ness," as descriptive of his calhng. Joshua Aiken, who is now remembered 
principally as a relative of the late Mark Aiken, lived at Cottonwood, the farm 
afterwards bought and improved by the late S. S. Clark. He owned a small 
flouring mill on the Kickapoo about three miles south of town, which was cap- 
able of turning out fifty barrels of flour per day. He afterwards added a saw 
mill to it and ran both together till on one of its periodical floods the creek 
carried the whole plant away so successfully that not a suggestion of it can now 
be found. It must have been a serious disappointment to those concerned, as 
the vicinity had been staked ofl: into lots and a considerable amount of business 
done in the way of selling building spots in the town which was called Peoria 

Moses Pettengill was one of the earliest merchants of the place and as he 
was a careful business man whatever he undertook was a success. Although 
stern, he was very pious and exceedingly conscientious. He was an avowed 
abolitionist and it was said that he was connected with the so-called underground 
railroad and gave protection to slaves who fled across the border. It was even 
told with honor that Mrs. Pettengill had entertained colored women in her 
parlor and the tale produced a large sized scandal. I am not sure that the 
story is true, but feel that if either of these good people had felt it their 
duty to entertain the lowest of the black race they would not have hesitated 
a moment to do it. 

Another prominent member of the new school church was Amos Stevens. 
He was an educated man and opened a school when he first came to Peoria, 
but left it in a year or two and went to Baton Rouge. Here he made the ac- 
^quaintance of a family by the name of Silliman, who, perhaps, through his 
influence, spent several summers in Peoria and built the houses occupied by 
Singer & \\'heeler on Water street. After being away two or three years Mr. 
Stevens returned and soon after married a Miss Morrow, who was a teacher 
and a sister of Mrs. Rufus Burlingame. 

Enos Cross belonged to the same organization. He was a practicing physician 
of some ability and a brother-in-law of Mrs. Pettengill. 

All of these had the reputation of being very serious men and as far removed 
as possible from any hilarity. On one occasion the congregation undertook to 
give a church social and Jim Alexander, who was considered the wit of the 
town, was invited to attend. He remained but a short time and gave as a reason 
that there was no one there but Moses and Aaron and Enoch, and it was too 
near the flood for him. 

]\Ir. Nurse was the first man to introduce fanning mills into central Illinois, 
and furnished the nucleus that finally developed into the Proctor business. In 
his advertisements he proudly announced that for wheat fans he made cross 
wove riddles. 

A valuable member of this church was Mrs. Jeffries, grandmother of Mrs. 
Edward Gale. She was a widow with a large family of daughters, and a 
devoted church worker. The young ladies were noted as capable, industrious 
women, and as they came to maturity were married, three of them as I remember 
becoming the wives of Theodore Adams, John Bolton and Alexander Allison. 

Like all new settlements Peoria had its share of eccentric people. One of 
them was |ohn G. Bryson. When he first came to the country he taught school 
in Richwoods township and was very acceptable in that capacity till Jack Hines 
started the story that he was in the habit of correcting his pupils by hitting 
them over the head with stove wood. After that he clerked first for Aquilla 
Wren and then for the \'oris Brothers, and finally had a dry goods store of 
his own on Main street. This he ran in a slow old-fashioned way till more 
progressive men monopolized the business. Those who knew him in later years 
as an eccentric, taciturn recluse, will be surprised to hear that he was once 
engaged to be married, at which time Mr. \'oris said he walked so much around 


a certain tree, meditating on his beloved that the grass refused ever after to 
grow on the spot. He was a great man to argue and whatever the (luestion, 
he might safely be counted on the contrary side. 

Early settlers will have no difficulty in recalling an old Pole named Klopiski, 
who kept a sort of restaurant for many years on Main street. The boys dubbed 
him "Old Pork and Beans" and on ordinary occasions he was rather addicted 
to soiled linen and old slippers run down at the heels, but when dressed he 
was a noble looking man and every inch a cultivated gentleman. He came to 
America during the troublous times of Poland and professed to have been a 
nol)leman and a military leader. He was very fond of chess and Mr. Ballance 
used sometimes to invite him to the house that they might have a game together. 
Very often the game would be forgotten and the old gentleman would talk for 
hours of outrages practiced upon his native country. As I look back I think 
we did not appreciate him as we should, and if he was still alive believe the 
present generation would be disposed to make a hero of him. 

One of the most conspicuous if not as he thought the greatest man of the 
day was H. W. Cleveland. Where he came from or what his previous history 
might have been I do not know, but he suddenly ap])eared among us in several 
unexpected roles. Somebody had taken it upon himself to raise a company 
of militia, though in a spirit of bragadocio they paid it the compliment of call- 
ing it a regiment. Cleveland was a candidate for colonel, and. owing to the 
unpopularity of the other aspirants, was elected, as much to his own surprise 
as that of others. • He immediately appointed a complete line of staff officers 
as though it was a full regiment, among whom I recollect Dr. Rouse as medical 
officer and Mr. Ballance as quartermaster. About the same time the colonel 
got a charter for a new ferry across the river which was to be propelled by 
horse power and the lucky thought struck him to have a parade of his new 
regiment and a jubilee over the launching of his new boat at the same time. At 
length the auspicious day arrived. Horses were scarce but every officer that 
could get one was mounted for the parade. The colonel resided in a frame 
house on the corner of Madison and Jackson streets and in front of his door 
he had a table set with wines and all sorts of liquors and every time the parade 
went around the town the head of the column stopped at his door for refresh- 
ments. The more they refreshed the more foolish they became, and one by 
one the more dignified dropped out of the parade. There was a character 
named "Tig Tom" who being a little in doubt as to his military duties hunted 
up Dr. Rouse for advice. The doctor was a good deal disgusted by this titpe 
and growled out, "if this stuff makes the colonel sick it's my duty to physic him 
and yours to wait on him !" 

After much fuss and feathers the parade finally reached the new boat and 
Colonel Cleveland proceeded to make a speech, the opening words of which 
were remembered and repeated by Peorians for many a day. He said : : 

"Fellow citizens and countrymen : Let us now proceed to cominemorate 
the memory of the immortal Washington who has long since been laid in the 

The whole thing became so ridiculous that the regiment was never again 
heard of and even the boat seemed to partake of the general fooling and was 
soon after sold to a circus company and taken down to St. Louis. 


Times were very bad when we arrived in Illinois. There was no money 
in the state ; no sale for grain except to travelers or emigrants ; groceries, boots 
and shoes had to be paid for with cash ; pork was all the farmers had that 
would sell for money. Fisher & Chapin l)Ought hogs at Lacon, and always 
paid for them with Traders Bank of Boston bills. The money was new, 


stamped F. & C— I'isher & Chapin. It paid taxes in Peoria, Marshall and 
Woodford counties. It was currently reported that Fisher paid sixty cents on 
the dollar in gold for money and had to redeem every dollar of it in gold that 
came back to the bank in Boston. That was good financiering for both parties, 
and a fair sample of early day business. Fisher always had a New Orleans 
boat come up every spring during the high water to take his pork to New 
Orleans. One spring, about 1843, or possibly a year or two later, David Heats, 
a merchant of Chillicothe, sent one hundred sacks of corn to St. Louis and sold 
it for money, getting about fifteen cents per bushel. Immediately on getting 
returns from the shipments he sent word all around that he would take grain 
in payment for boots, shoes, groceries and debts. That was the first shipment 
of grain that I ever heard of. A little later that same year Isaac Underbill, of 
Peoria, had Captain Moss, of Peoria, come up and take a load of his "rent" 
corn to St. Louis, where he received cash for it. After harvest he sent word 
to the farmers of La Salle Prairie that on a certain date he would have a boat 
at Rome if they wished to sell their corn. They all availed themselves of the 
opportunity, as that was the first chance they had had to sell grain for cash. 
There were two boats loaded with corn at Rome that fall. After that there was 
a market for grain at some price for cash. 

My father made three trips to Chicago with wheat. On one of these trips 
the load brought forty cents per bushel. He brought back shoes, tea and a 
dollar's worth of cofifee and sugar, which mother made to last until the middle 
of the next summer. I think this was in 1841. During thedry year — the year 
of the big prairie fire — the mill race at Senachwine dried up and no flour could 
be obtained. My mother grated corn on a tin pan punched full of holes and 
made corn bread and cakes for about two weeks until we could get a grist 
ground at Crown Creek mill, east of Chillicothe, about where the Santa Fe 
railroad is now located. 

Two of my mother's brothers, Elijah and Norman Hyde, came to Peoria 
about 1823 or 1824. Norman was county surveyor, postmaster and county 
judge when Chicago was in Peoria county. I have in my possession his text- 
book and surveying instruments. I have a chest of drawers and some dishes 
that belonged to my grandmother at the time of her marriage in 1790. In the 
line of ancient documents I have a history of Greece, printed in 1699, and a 
copy of a political discussion, published in 1671. 


The house now ( 1904) being torn down on the southeast corner of this 
place is one with many thrilling historical events. It was built in the '40s, the 
first house in Lawn Ridge, by Deacon, or Nathaniel Smith. The frame was 
of large square-hewn timbers, some pieces eight by ten, mortised and braced 
and cross braced so it might be sure and stand the howling winds from the 
northwest. The other lumber was hauled from Chicago with ox teams, taking 
up a load of wheat and bringing back lumber, the round trip taking about a week. 

This house in the early '50s was one of the many depots on the underground 
railroad. The next one on the south was Deacon Purge's of Farmington, and 
the next on the north was Owen Lovejoy's of Princeton. Many a time when 
the slaveholder, with sherifif and posse, backed up by the Tegeft slave law which 
allowed him to call on any one to assist him to run down his slaves, and if they 
refused, be liable to a fine, would be only a few hours behind his slaves as they 
passed the place. The old house standing there looked so solemn and innocent, 
that they never suspected that down in the cellar were three or four badly 
frightened men and women trying to escape to free Canada, and waiting for 
the excitement to go by and night to come so they could be transported on to 



After occupj-ing this house a few years. Deacon Smith bought and built over 
on the west side of the road a similar one, where he lived a number of years. 
He was still depot master and fed the runaway slaves the same as before. He 
was a great character. He was not only a farmer, but a blacksmith, and a 
good one, too. He was an all around man. He could make a good speech and 
make it interesting on any subject. He took the lead in all advance movements, 
church and politics, established and maintained Sunday schools in all the country 
around. Later in life, he drifted to the west and linally returned to his old 
home in New York state, where he died. No doulit Deacon Smith had his 
faulfs but on the whole I believe him to have been a great and good man and 
one that helped to make this county what it is. 

Deacon Smith sold this place in an early day to a man by the name of Job 
Brown, or "Joby" Brown, as he was called. He was more of an inventor than 
a farmer. There is no doubt but what Job Brown was the real inventor of 
the corn planter. It was in this house that he studied and thought out the 
great problem of planting corn by machinery. It was here by the door he first 
pulled his machine by hand, and then with one horse, and finally made a planter 
something similar to planters now in use. only dropping three rows, and instead 
of wheels had sled runners. The dropping part was the real invention. It is 
said the inventor seldom gets the profits ; it was so in this case. It was in this 
house he signed away all his rights in the planter for the price of a horse, and 
another person became rich from the manufacture of the corn planter. 

Brown was also the inventor of a seed sower, and a scalding tub, that could 
be moved from one farm to another, in which hogs could be cleaned much 
faster than in the old way. This was in the days when farmers dressed their 
hogs at home for market and this machine could easily run out seventy or 
eighty a day. He was a very odd and eccentric man but known in his day all 
over the land as an honest, good man. 

After a time Brown, too, sold out and moved away. Some twenty years 
ago there came a man by the name of Scoon who lived in the house. He had 
only one arm. He made and sold what he called Peoria bitters, made of several 
kinds of drugs, a little whiskey and lots of water ; but it would make you drunk, 
and that was enough. He did a thriving business for a while, sold it in pint 
bottles, one dollar a bottle. The business increased, so he rented a small build- 
ing on the east road, within a few rods of the Cornell house. He fixed it up 
with shelves and counter and a big lamp in the center of the room and on the 
opening night set the bitters up to the boys, went home late and to bed, and, I 
suppose, fell into a sound sleep. It was one of those calm, still nights and not 
a breath of afr stirring, when at midnight, or a little later, there was a terrible 
explosion which was heard for miles. The next morning when Scoon came 
down after breakfast, he found his sho]) and bitters blown to flinders; so that 
ended Scoon and his bitters. But who put the jug of powder and laid the fuse 
under the house will never be known. Many detectives came and lay around 
from I^eoria but went back without solving the mystery. 


About 1820 Lewis Hallock came to Peoria county. He had been a trapper 
and fur trader among the Indians of Wisconsin and the northwest. Soon 
after coming to the county he located on the land at the mouth of Hallock hollow 
in Hallock township. He was a Quaker and was ojiposed to war and i^loodshed. 
his life among the Indians and his kindness and truthfulness to them winning 
for him great influence with them. 

In 1825, Namac|ua, an Indian of the Pottawatomie tribe, killed a Frenchman 
in a drunken brawl. He was arrested, and there being no place of confinement 
nearer than the .Springfield jail, Hallock furnished bail. No one ever sup- 


posed that the Indian would appear, but Hallock knew he would and on the 
first day of the term of court Namac|na was on hand. He was tried and sen- 
tenced to death at the November term of court that year, but through the in- 
fluence of Hallock and others, who believed the sentence was unjust, his case 
was taken to the supreme court, where it was reversed and remanded for a 
new trial. The trial was put off from time to time, Hallock always appearing 
with his prisoner. He remained a lifelong friend of Hallock. 

In 1S31 the winter was very severe, a big snow falling early, some three 
feet deep and drifting l)adly, and later was covered with a thick crust. A party 
of Indians on a hunting trip were caught in what was later called Gimblet 
hollow, west of Sparland. Hallock, knowing of their peril, went to their as- 
sistance, piloting them down the hollow to the river, then on the ice to Sen- 
achwine creek and up the creek to Northampton, along the liluff to his place, 
where he had a pen of corn and his cabin, which he shared with them. He 
and the braves took turns at breaking the road through the snow, the women 
and ponies following. It took three days to make the trip. The deer could not 
escape and Hallock had the Indians secure enough venison to last until spring. 
When the Black Hawk war was first inaugurated, Hallock knew the peril 
of the whites, and having made many trips to the lead mines near Galena, he 
had many acquaintances between that place and Dixon, whom he determined to 
warn, faking his rifle he started and as the dusk of the evening approached, 
he arrived on a hill overlooking the Pottawatomie camp near "Indiantown" 
now called Tiskilwa. 

The young braves were holding a war dance and working themselves up to 
a fighting mood. Hallock knew all the war whoops of the difi^erent tribes. 
The Iroquois being their worst and most feared enemy, he gave their war cry 
and rushed down the hill through the brush, landing at the chief's tent, who not 
being fooled, sat quietly smoking, while all the "braves" ran for cover. Upon 
seeing a lone white man they came out, brandishing their tomahawks and 
making warlike demonstrations. Hallock stood his rifle against a tree, lit his 
pipe and advised the old chief "to spank them papooses and send them to bed." 
A wave of the old chief's hand and all slunk away. Hallock then handed his pipe 
to the chief, who refused it. He then stepped back and said: "What! refuse to 
smoke the pipe of peace with the white man that never sheds blood, that pro- 
tects the red man from the anger of the pale face and from starving when hungry? 
Who fed your tribe when the snow was deep? Hallock !" Slowly the chief arose, 
took the pipe, gave it the customary whifif and returned it, then he produced his 
sack of salt, took a pinch, and handed it to Hallock, who did the same. And all 
the tribe knew Hallock was a friend and not an enemy. After supper with the 
chief, he demanded safe conduct to the camp of Black Hawk. On the morrow 
two Indians accompanied him on ponies. Near Dixon on the edge of some heavy 
timber, thev came in sight of a band of some five hundred Indians, who, on dis- 
covering a white man in charge of two Indians, sent a troop of about fifty Indians 
out to meet them. They came galloping down upon them in full war paint, 
demanding the pale face for sacrifice. A wave of the hand and announcement 
of safe conduct to Black Hawk from their chief, caused them to fall in behind 
in silence. Of Black Hawk he demanded a safe conduct to Galena, which was 
granted. Two Indians escorted him to a point where they told him he was beyond 
danger, and as he went along he gave the alarm and all white settlers, about thirty 
families, fled to the block houses for safety. 

For some years the lead mines of Galena were the only place where settlers 
could get cash for their cattle or produce. Hallock often went there with cattle 
and sometimes came back on horseback by way of Dixon, but more frequently 
he came down the river to Rock Island, or a near point west. Sometimes he 
floated down in a canoe, and at other times came with a flat boat, loaded for 
St. Louis. From this point he would walk across the hundred miles home, always 
carrying his rifle and camping wherever night overtook him. 


After the war in 1832, Black Hawk and his hand located in Iowa near Des 
Moines, and they, too, often went to Galena to trade. 

And now comes the tradition of Hallock. Many people called it "Hallock's 
dream." Some say it was a squaw after the death of Namaqua who showed 
the vision to him, but from my boyhood recollection, having heard the tale from 
many and from some to whom he had told it himself, I think Hallock's version 
was this: Some years after the Indians left. Hallock made one of his trips to 
Galena and there met Namat|ua, the Indian he had stood by in trouble and who 
had never ceased to hold Hallock as his saviour. White men sometimes forget a 
favor, an Indian never! He told Hallock he was going down the river and across 
the country to his band and wanted him to accompany him in his canoe, which 
Hallock consented to do. They floated down the Mississippi and at sunset they 
landed, made their cam]) fire, ate their supper and smoked the pipe of friend- 
ship. Namaqua said, "Would you like to see where the 'wliite bullets' come 
from?" Hallock said he would. 

In early days the Indians had many silver bullets which, until they learned 
their value to the pale face, they traded pound for pound, as they were hard 
and the Indians preferred the lead bullets. Namaqua said, "If my tribe knew I 
had shown a white man this they would kill me. Promise you will never tell 
of this until I am dead." Hallock promised and never revealed the story until 
after Namaqua's death several years afterward. He blindfolded Hallock, they 
got into the river, where he whirled the canoe around until it was impossible for 
Hallock to tell the direction. He then rowed about an hour and landed. They 
walked a short distance, waded what seemed to be a creek, went up an incline 
for some distance and then stopped. Fie could hear him remove some stones. 
He then told Hallock to crawl after him, which he did for a couple of rods. 
The Indian then removed the blindfold and lit a torch. They were standing in 
a passageway, which they followed a little distance and came into a cave, possibly 
200 feet across and 20 to 50 feet high. On examining the walls he saw where 
a large amount of silver had been dug out of crevices, some pure silver, other 
places streaked with lead. Hallock was allowed to examine it and satisfy him- 
self that it was silver and lead, but he was not allowed to carry any away, nor 
did the Indian take any. There seemed to have been large quantities removed 
and there was any amount of it in sight. Namaqua said none had been taken 
away for a long time. They returned as they came and before landing at their 
camp, the canoe was whirled until direction was lost. Hallock said they might 
have rowed several miles, or as many rods. They may have crossed a creek 
before going up to the cave, or they might have waded in the edge of the river 
a few feet. Indian strategy and shrewdness threw all chance of tracing the route 
to the winds. 

Years afterward Hallock scanned and searched again and again for the silver 
cave, but in vain. His belief was that it was on the Iowa side of the river. 

Many persons said it was a dream of Hallock's ; others thought it was truth, 
as Hallock was always truthful. Inasmuch as the Indians did have silver bullets 
in early times and as but few places have been found where they could have 
procured them and those places far to the north, and as quite an amount of 
silver has been found in the lead mines of Galena, there is no good reason that 
the "silver cave" does not exist. I am inclined to believe that the gratitude 
of Namaqua in showing Hallock the cave was covered by the fact that his treach- 
ery to his own tribe was death and he made the find so secure that years miist 
elapse after his death before even a vigorous and systematic search could dis- 
cover his treachery to his tribe. 

Hallock believed it. And the reader can follow the legend in the same mys- 
tery as have others in the years gone by. Do not lose sight of one fact, in your 
judgment. The red man never forgot a friend or a friendly act, even in time 
of war, w hen all the bloody passions of his race were called into play. I have 
penned this for the eye of many who have heard the tradition as it was handed 


clown through tlie years, often mutilated, and its truth destroyed. Such is one 
of the legends of Hallock townshi]) of eighty years ago. 


Lest the historic old brick schoolhouse, located upon Blue Ridge, in Hallock 
township, and the many things, mostly educationally and socially, wdiich clustered 
around it in the pioneer days should be forgotten, we have been tempted, partly 
by our own feelings and partly by the solicitations of others, to attempt to write a 
little sketch of the early days of the community who built it. We have often felt 
that there were many things worthy of note that would be of abiding interest 
to the present and future generations connected with the history of this com- 
munitv, that so far as we can ascertain have never been made a matter of record, 
which, with the lapse of time, must pass into oblivion. While at this late day 
any record that we can write must be more or less defective for want of details, 
still we feel that we have been very fortunate in finding two living witnesses 
whose lives are practically contemporary with the first settlers of the little com- 
munity of Blue Ridge, and they are the only ones living, so far as we can ascer- 
tain, who were old enough to furnish items from personal recollections as far 
back as 1837. We refer to James Will, now (1910) past eighty-five years of age, 
and his brother George, two years his junior, who were for many years oiar 
friends and neighbors in Illinois. It is through the courtesy of Mrs. Lura Will 
Johnson and George Will and daughter Hulda, who have furnished us with much 
of the memoranda in substance from which we write. 

The earliest settlers on Blue Ridge were Leonard Ranstead, Zenus G. Bliss, 
E. C. Root, Lucas Root and Egbert Palmer. The exact time of their settling 
there is not known to us, but we think we are safe in saying not later than 1836. 
William B. Will. Elihu Stowell, Roswell Nurse and son Isich, and Ebenger Stowell 
came in 1836, the latter three making the trip from Chenango county, New York, 
on foot, .\fter looking over the country and locating land they made the trip to 
the nearest land office at Quincy and made their entry; returning, they built a 
cabin. Leaving Isich in possession, the other two, Roswell Nurse and father, 
returned to New York state late in the fall by way of the lakes. Roswell Nurse 
with his familv moved to Illinois the following spring. Our father did not move 
with his family until 1843. In 1837 Robert Wilson with his family moved to 
this little community from Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. 

In 1840 the little brick schoolhouse was built, the necessary funds being 
raised by subscription, which certainly meant almost a sacrifice offering in those 
early days of scarce and hard-earned dollars. Robert Wilson, a stone and brick 
mason bv trade, assisted by his son George, did the mason work, while Zenus 
Bliss and Egbert Palmer looked after the wood work. While the house would 
hardly stand as a model for these more modern days, we doubt if a house was 
ever built which was more highly appreciated by the public or served a better 
purpose of general utility for all sorts of public gatherings. The first school 
taught in this house was by William Atwood, who received twelve dollars per 
month for his services. The school was thoroughly patronized for many miles 
around, starting with fiftv scholars, which was soon increased to the fullest pos- 
sible capacity of the house to accommodate. Everybody took in boarders, going 
upon the old time pioneer plan, as we suppose, of "come in, if you can get in." 

It was while Robert W'M was working upon the old Jubilee college building 
at Tubilee that he met the old pioneer preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
Father Cummins, whom he invited to come to Blue Ridge to preach. It was he 
who organized the Methodist church at the settlement in 1840, with John Furge- 
son and wife, Jacob Booth and wife and two daughters, and Maverick Pratt 
and wife as charter members — an organization that stands to this day. The fol- 
lowing spring a revival was held, which increased the membership to forty. It 


is said that some young men of a rowdyish turn of mind went out from Chilli- 
cothe with the avowed object of lireaking up the meeting but with such men 
as John h'urgeson, Jacob Ilooth and Maverick Pratt in the front rank, men with 
the courage of their convictions and the physical abihty to defend them, the 
rowdy crowd reconsidered the matter and concluded that under these circum- 
stances "discretion was the better part of valor," and as they rode away one of 
them called out '"I name this place Blue Ridge," and P>lue Ridge it has been called 
from that dav to this. 







The contents of this article, showing the physical features of the county, 
are taken from the "Geological Survey of Illinois," and from articles prepared 
by William Gifford, of Radnor township, to be found among the collections of 
the Peoria Scientific Society : 

"The cretaceous and tertiary periods are not represented in this or adjacent 
counties. They were probably lost by denudation, together with some of the 
upper coal veins, during the long and turbulent period. 

"The four divisions of the quaternary are well defined. They rest directly 
on the upper carboniferous, a coal measure. The alluvial deposits are confined 
chiefly to the right bank of the Illinois river, forming a terrace of about twenty- 
four square miles, called La Salle prairie, one of the best corn producing sections 
of Illinois. 

The great geological feature of Peoria county consists in its coal measures, 
which are coextensive with its borders. Only two veins (four and six) are 
worked to any extent. Coal from vein four is brought to the surface by hori- 
zontal tunnels at an expense of one cent per bushel, and half a cent in localities 
where it can be stripped. At no place in Illinois, or perhaps in the world, can 
coal be mined and brought to market so cheaply as in this county. It is now 
delivered to consumers in the city of Peoria for one dollar and fifty cents per 
ton. The thickness of this vein is from three feet, ten, to four feet, eight inches, 
and is generally covered with a ferruginous shale and concretions of bi-sulphuret 
of iron, richly stored with marine fossils, which are eagerly sought for by scien- 
tists. Its horizon is thirty-two feet above low water of the Illinois river. 

Coal vein six is also worked with little labor, by horizontal tunnels. It is 
sixty-two feet above coal vein four, and is a good blacksmith coal, makes a hard 
vitreous coke, and is exclusively used in Peoria and contiguous cities for making 
gas. It contains but little pyrite, and in most localities has a good limestone cov- 
ering. One distinctive mark of this vein is a clay seam, or parting, from one to 
two inches thick, dividing the coal horizontally into two equal sections. The 
fossils overlaying this vein are well preserved and the species numerous. Among 
the most common are nyalena angulata, i)leurotomania carbonana, solenomia 
radiata, and productus pratteninus. 

"Coal vein five has no reliable outcroj} in this county, but its horizon is well 
defined in the towns of Limestone, Jubilee, and Kickapoo by its characteristic 
fossils— fusalina ventriccosa, hempunites crasa, chonetas messeloba, etc. The 
horizon of this vein has furnished a number of fossil coal plants, which have been 
figured and described by Leo Lesquereux, and published by the state of Penn- 



"Coal veins seven, eight and nine are the only other veins represented in this 
county above the Illinois river, and they are too thin for mining and not easily 

"The horizon of coal vein nine in this county has given to paleontologists the 
most perfect coal-measure fossil found in this state, if not in the world. Coal 
vein three lies one hundred and thirty-three feet below four, consequently about 
one hundred and twenty feet below the Illinois river. It is about three feet 
thick, and is considered a good coal. It is not worked in this county. One hun- 
dred and twelve feet below three, a coal vein was reached in Voris' boring — 
opposite Peoria — three feet thick, which is considered coal vein one of the Illi- 
nois field, and the base of the coal measure resting on the conglomerate, twenty 
feet above the St. Louis limestone. Coal vein two has not been explored in Peoria 
county, but crops out on Spoon river in the southwest part of Fulton county. 

"Sandstone of good quality may be obtained from the beds overlying coal 
Xo. 4, which at some points on the Kickapoo, is fully twenty feet in thickness 
and it outcrops at many points under very favorable conditions for quarrying. 
The rock is a brown micaceous, and partly ferruginous sandstone, in massive 
beds, some of which are two feet or more in thickness. It presents a bold 
escarpment at many points where it outcrops, indicating a capacity for with- 
standing well the ordinary influences of the atmosphere. The ferruginous layers 
harden very much on exposure, and would form the best material for bridge 
abutments, and for all other purposes where a rock was required to withstand 
well the influences of frost and moisture. 

"On Aiken's and Griswold's land, on the south side of the Kickapoo, on sec- 
tion 24 (Limestone township) this sandstone has been somewhat extensively 
quarried, and the bed presents a perpendicular face of solid sandstone fully 
twenty feet in thickness. It is rather soft when freshly quarried and can be easily 
dressed, and splits freely into blocks suitable for building and for foundation 
walls. These quarries are located just above the level of the railroad grade, 
and very conveniently situated for the transportation of the stone by railroad to 
the city of Peoria, or wherever else it might be in demand. 

"At Lonsdale's quarries, on section 14, town 8 north, range 7 east, the lower 
part of the limestone affords a durable building stone, though the layers are not 
usually more than from four to six inches thick. This rock is in common use in 
this part of the county for foundation walls, and there are several small build- 
ings in this neighborhood constructed of this material. That portion of the beds 
which affords a building stone is from four to six feet in thickness. 

At Chase's quarries, three miles northeast of Princeville, the limestone is 
nearly twenty feet in thickness, and though for the most part thin-bedded, yet 
the greater portion of it can be used for foundation walls, flagging, etc., and is 
the only building stone available in that portion of the county. The thickest 
layers are at the bottom of the bed here, as well as at Lonsdale's, but the rniddle 
and upper portion is more evenly bedded at this point, and may be quarried in 
thin, even slabs of large size. 

"The limestone coal over Xo. 6 may answer for rough foundation walls where 
it can be protected from the atmosphere, but is generally too argillaceous to 
make good building stone. 

"Concretionary bands of iron ore occur in the shales overlying coals No. 4 

and 7, but not in sufficient quantity to be of any economical importance. In the 

south part of the county, concretions of iron and clay, the former mostly in the 

• form of the bi-sulphuret, are quite abundant in the roof shales of No. 4 coal. 

Some of these concretions are two feet or more in diameter. 

"No beds of fire or potter's clay were found in this county in connection 
with the coal seams that appear to be sufficiently free from foreign matters to 
be of much value, but excellent brick clays are abundant, the sub-soil clays over 
a large portion of the uplands throughout the county being used for this pur- 
pose, and furnishing an abundant supply of brick of good quality at a moderate 





cost. The best beds of fire and potter's clay known at the present time in this 
state are associated with coal Xo. i, of our general section of the Illinois valley 
coals, and, should a shaft be sunk to that horizon in this county, good clays 
may proliably be found here and mined successfully in connection with these lower 

"The modified drift deposits, forming the terrace upon which the city of 
i'eoria is mainly built, will furnish an inexhaustible supply of sand of various 
qualities adapted to the varied economical uses to which this material is applicable, 
and it will also aiTord an excellent moldcr's sand, in quantities sufficient for the 
supply for all the adjacent region. 

"An inexhaustible supply of clean gravel may be obtained from the gravel 
beds forming the bluffs at Peoria, and along the north side of the Kickapoo for 
a distance of eight or ten miles above the outlet of that stream. All the railroads 
in the state might obtain here an ample supply of ballast for their road beds, 
without greatly diminishing the amount of this material to be found in this 

"There is an ample supply of timber in this county, the proportion of timber 
and prairie land being originally about the same. The timbered land is mostly 
confined to the ridges and valleys of the streams, though occasionally fine groves 
are met with on the level land adjacent to the prairie. The growth on the upland 
is mostly black and white oak, pignut and siiell-bark hickory, elm, linden, wild 
cherry, honey locust, wild ])lum and crabapple, wdiile on the bottom lands and 
the slopes of the hills, we find white and sugar maple, black and white walnut, 
pecan, cottonwood, sycamore, ash, red birch, cofifeenut, hackberry, mockernut, 
liickory, post-Spanish and swamp-white-oak, red-bud, dogwood, persimmon, mul- 
berry, serviceberry, buckthorn and three or four varieties of willow and box 

"As an agricultural region this county ranks among the best in this part of 
the state. The western and northern portions of the county are mostly prairie, 
and generally level or gently rolling. The soil is a dark, chocolate colored loam, 
rich in organic matters, and producing abundant crops annually of corn, wheat, 
rye, oats and barley, and, with judicious cultivation, this kind of soil will retain 
its fertility for an indefinite period of years without the application of artificial 
stimulants. On the more broken lands adjacent to the streams, the soil is of a 
lighter color, but when it is predicated upon the marly beds of the loess, it is 
still productive, and scarcely inferior to the best prairie soils. Where the soil 
overlies the yellow driftclays, the timber is mostly white-oak and hickory; the 
soil is thin and would be greatly improved by the annual liberal application of 
manure. These lands, however, produce fine crops of wheat and oats, and are 
excellent for fruit orchards and vineyards. The soil on the terrace and bottom 
lands is a sandy loam, and generally very productive." 


Though the city of Peoria is centrally located in one of the prairie states of 
the Upper Mississippi valley, its immediate surroundings present a diversity of 
surface that would hardly ])e looked for from its geographical location. The 
city is situated on the west bank of the Illinois river, the main part on a plateau 
beginning at the river and gently sloping upwards, until terminating a mile or 
more back in a chain of prominent and ])icturesque bluffs, that completely encircle 
it, in a natural amjshitheater. 

This chain terminates above the city, in a commanding eminence, rising 
almost abruptly from the river, known as Prospect Heights, and affording a 
panoramic view of the beautiful Illinois valley for miles. 

The river at this point known as the "Narrows," spreads out into a placid 
sheet of water termed Peoria Lake, so shallow on the east side, as to afford a 
most congenial home to a rich aquatic flora. The east bank of the river is very 


low, subject to overflow and still heavily wooded, running back to a chain of 
bluffs similar to those on the Peoria side. From these bluffs numerous springs 
gush forth, and making their way towards the river, form cold bogs affording 
a home to a peculiarly characteristic flora, that would be sought for farther 
north. The bluff's on both sides are frequently intersected by deep rocky defiles, 
the sides of which under the influence of moisture and shade, support a luxuriant 
vegetation. The splendor of the prairies, owing to the march of civilization, 
has almost disappeared, and the prairie flora, is now, nearly confined to the 
right of way of the railroads, or the gravelly and sandy bluffs, when it has crept 
up from the original prairie, and secured a foothold it is likely to maintain, 
as these bluff's are not susceptible to cultivation. The flora of the vicinity of 
Peoria is a rich and varied one. About 900 native trees and plants grow in the 
immediate vicinity of the city, and fully a hundred introduced plants have found 
a congenial home of adoption. It has drawn outlying types from all points of 
the compass, who foregather here in a harmonious whole. 

The cold bogs and springs in the river bottom, furnish perfect conditions for 
certain species of northern origin, which find their southern limit here. 

Two Iseautiful dwarf willows {Sali.v Candida and myrtilloidcs) grow in these 
bogs and upon Dr. Brendel, our first and foremost botanist, sending specimens 
to Dr. Bebb a famous authority on willows, he commented thus on the find: 
"Widely distributed in sub-arctic regions, extending southward along the Pacific 
coast to Oregon, and on the Atlantic side to New Jersey. Its occurrence so far 
south in the Mississippi valley as found by Dr. Brendel, taken in connection 
with the equally unexpected finding of 5". Candida, indicate an exceptionally cold 
spot for the latitude." Most of the woodland flora of the east is at home here. 

Many of the characteristic plants of the great plains west of the Mississippi, 
have pushed their way eastward to Peoria. Many of our strictly prairied plants 
do not pass our state borders into Indiana and Ohio. 

From the sunny southland, numerous species have crept up the Mississippi 
and Illinois rivers to this favored locality of ours. Here the pecan tree finds 
its northern limit in the alluvial river bottom, growing in vigor and producing 
its delicious nuts. 

The same niav be said of the persimmon whose astringent fruit becomes 
so palatable after the advent of frost. Peoria and vicinity must have been a 
heavily wooded country on the advent of the whites, as after nearly a hundred 
years of cutting and clearing it still presents a varied and interesting tree growth. 

The river bottom is still well covered with forest and every knoll and bluff 
are clothed more or less. 

In its tree growth Peoria is specially favored. 

Of course from its location we would not look for cone bearing evergreen 
trees and have only one representative, the common Juniper occurring in- starved 
looking specimens on the brow of rocky bluffs.. But the deciduous tree growth 
is rich in species. In the alluvial river bottom lands, the timber is mainly Syca- 
more, Soft Maple, White Elm, Slippery Elm, Black Walnut, Butternut, Swamp 
Hickory, five species of Ash, Cottonwood, Hackberry and scattering specimens 
of Swamp White Oak, Pecan, Coff'ee Bean, Honey Locust, Mulberry, Box Elder, 
Ohio Buckeye, PawPaw and Persimmon. 

The first three sometimes attain a very large size, specimens five feet in 
diameter not being uncommon. 

On the bluffs and uplands the forest growth is materially different being rep- 
resented by the Basswood, Wild Cherry, Sugar Maple, Shell Bark Hickory, 
Pignut, Aspen White, Chestnut, Scarlet, Red, Bur and Laurel Oaks. 

Not desiring to go into extreme detail, we will mention some of the most 
obvious and characteristic features of our flora. Our first harbinger of spring 
is the beautiful little Trillium nivalc. that in favorable seasons puts forth its 
white waxy flower the last week in March, often in the proximity of some 
lingering snow bank. 


It is soon followed by the Liverwort, so common on wooded slopes, Dntch- 
mans Breeches and Hlood Root. 

A little later the woods are gay with the exquisite lUue Bells and a Phlox 
with lavender bloom called Sweet \\'illiam. 

Among the leafless woods the Service P.erry and Wild i'lum are conspicuous 
in their snowy dress, while the Red Bud gives the brooks the appearance of 
purple ribbons in the landscape. Turning to the prairie we meet with the Caro- 
lina Anemone with its pretty star like blue and white flowers. In company with 
it are the yellow flowered Puccoons, Pink Sorral and the almost extinct Troximon 
crespidatiim with its showy dandelion like head. 

The open bogs are golden with the Marsh ]\larigold, and the ill smelling 
Skunk Cabbage pushes its flowers through the oozy mud. With the advent of 
May, nature dons her brightest garb. The trees are putting forth their foliage 
and the landscape, so bare but a few weeks before, is gay with a varied flora. 
The Plaws, Crab Apple, Sassafras, \'iburnum and Bladder Nut are bursting 
into bloom. Of interesting plants we would mention the rare Phlox bifida. It 
clothes the precipitous sides of Rocky Glen and, with its pretty star like flowers 
varying through every shade of pink, white and lavender presents a beautiful 
sight when in full bloom. Growing with it is I'iola pcdata with two of the petals 
as velvety as a pansy and known locally as '"Rocky Glen Pansy." 

On the prairie grows a Baptisia, with its ample raceme of showy pea shaped 
cream colored flowers. 

As June approaches our Sedges and Grasses are a marked feature of our 
flora. While inconspicuous individually, their abundance and variety challenge 

We have seventy-eight species of Sedges and eighty-one Grasses native 
to our flora. One of our representative prairie plants comes into bloom as the 
Purple Cone Flower. 

The large head with its pendulous jnirple rays makes it a showy plant. On 
sandy barrens, we meet with Chrysopsis villosa, bearing a profusion of golden 
yellow heads up till frost. In rich shady woods can be found the dainty Yellow 
Lady Slipper while a little later its sister the rare and beautiful Royal Lady 
Slipper appears in the cold springy bogs of the river bottom. 

The woodsnare adorned with clinging vines — several species of grapes. Bit- 
ter Sweet, Yellow Honeysuckle, Aloonseed and W'oodbine. Julv with its intense 
heat forces a luxuriant vegetation. About the first w-eeks of the month our 
Climbing Rose {Rose sctigcra) puts forth its flowers. It grows in large clumps, 
its long flexible branches clambering rather than climbing over other shrubs and 
when loaded down with bloom is a glorious sight lighting up the dense shades 
of the river bottom where it delights to grow. In the cold rills and bogs of the 
river bottom, one of our most beautiful plants, Queen-of-the-Prairie (Spiraea 
lobata) finds a congenial home. 

Its masses of peach colored blossoms are so delicately beautiful and appar- 
ently so out of place in its uninviting surroundings, that no matter how often 
one meets with it in a ramble, each succeeding plant brings out a fresh exclama- 
tion of delight. On sand hills Callirhoc triamjidata occurs and all through July 
produces its brilliant blossoms of purple. In foUow^ing uj) the rocky defiles of the 
bluffs our attention is directed to Hydrangea arborcsceus with its showing radiant 

Occasionally specimens are seen with the flowers all radiant like the garden 
species. High up the rocky sides, the Goats Beard {Spiraea arincies) is con- 
spicuous by its ample feathery panicles of staminate flowers. 

The shallows on the east side of the river nourish a rich aquatic flora. Acres 
upon acres are covered with the pads of our Water Lily ( Casta! ia tHbcrosa). 

The lovely flowers are very large, with a manifest perfume, though usually 
described as odorless, and find a ready sale on the streets of our city. 

In company with it but not so common, is Nelumbrium lutcurn, with its immense 
leaves and cream colored flowers borne on stalks a foot or two above the water. 


differing thus from the preceiiing which spreads its flowers on the surface of the 
water. Intermingled with these plants are the Sweet Flag, Iris, Arrow Flead, 
I'ickerel ^Vecd, Common Reed, Wild Celery and Wild Rice. The last two are 
special dainties with the water fowl. In August the great order Compositse 
becomes predominant. 

The intense heat forces the Silphiuns, Sunflowers, Tickseeds, Con'e-flowers, 
llawkweeds, etc., in a continual procession ending with the Asters and Golden- 
rod in more variety than I know of in any other local flora. By the latter part 
of the summer the rich soil of the alluvial bottom has produced a rank and 
lu.xuriant vegetation that taxes one's efforts to push a way through. Near to 
the river bank Hibiscus mililaris grows in abundance. Its peculiar halberd shaped 
leaves and its showy flowers of flesh pink with purple throat render it a striking 

The Cardinal flower with its spike of intensely red flowers makes a very 
vivid bit of coloring in the somber shade of the bottom. With it grows its near 
relative the Blue Lobelia. In the upland woods grows Gerardia grandiyora, 
bearing a profusion of showy lemon yellow flowers. 

In this summary of our flora we have touched upon, only, the most char- 
acteristic features of our vegetation but one who undertakes the careful study 
of our flora will find that this vicinity will afford him unbounded material and 
a constant source of delight. 

Many of our native trees, shrubs and flowers have been brought under cultiva- 
tion for ornament. 

As to trees might be mentioned the White Elm, as the leader of them all as 
a shade tree. It is towering in height, with a graceful spread of branch, vigorous, 
long lived anil in our climate becomes the equal of the "lordly elms of New Eng- 
lan(l." On account of its height and spread, it should stand in the open for best 

The Sugar Alaple while slow growing is most desirable on account of its 
compact crown and the luxuriance of its beautiful foliage. Alagnificent examples 
of this tree can be seen across the river on the Spring Bay road. Its near ally, 
the Silver Maple, is frequently planted. Though of quicker growth than the 
preceding it is not as desirable on accovmt of its softer wood and brittle branches 
which suff'er severely in heavy windstorms. 

One of our commonest shadetrees to-day is the so-called Carolina Poplar. 
It will surprise most people to know that this euphonious name is simply a dis- 
guise of the well known Cottonwood so frequent along watercourses. 

The male tree only is planted, as the cotton from the female tree creates such 
a litter as to make it undesirable. 

The chief thing in its favor is its very rapid growth. 

The Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) is a desirable shade tree. Its low and 
wide spreading branches are covered with a foliage, fully as beautiful and almost 
as dense as the Sugar Maple. Beautiful examples can be seen near the work- 
house and at the turn of High street. 

The Catalpa native from southern Illinois, southward is often planted. Its 
quick growth, ample heart shaped leaves and showy flowers make it a favorite. 
It has only one drawback — it is the last tree to unfold its leaves in the spring 
and the first to shed them in autumn. All the evergreens do well in this 
vicinity though not planted near as much as formerly. 

From a cultural standpoint all the grains and fruits of the Temperate Zone 
find congenial conditions here. 

Some complain the apple does not seem to flourish as in the past, but this is 
due mare to the ravages of insect ]3ests, that go hand in hand with civilization, 
rather than changes in climatic conditions. Give our orchards the same attention 
they would receive in Oregon, and there would not be as much talk about the 
decadence of Illinois as an apple country. \'iewing our vegetation in its every 
phase, only emphasizes the conclusion, that few localities are so generously 
favored as ours. 




The territory of Indiana was divided February 3, 1S09, and the new territory 
of llhnois organized. The counties of St. Clair and Randoliih, which had been 
formed at the time of the division of the Northwestern Territory in 1800, were 
continued, their boundaries being designated and described as follows : "The 
county of Randolph shall include all that part of Illinois territory lying south of 
the line dividing the counties of Randolph and St. Clair as it existed under the. 
government of the territory of Indiana on the last day of February, 1809, and 
the county of St. Clair shall include all that part of the territory which lies north 
of said line." 

The following oflicers were appointed for the county of St. Clair: John Hays, 
sheriff; William Arundale, formerly of Peoria, recorder; John Hay, clerk of 
the court of common pleas, or county clerk ; Enoch Moore, coroner ; John Mes- 
singer, surveyor. Among the justices of the peace appointed were Antoine Des 
Champs, who lived at Peoria, and Nicholas Boilvin. The latter resided at Prai- 
rie du Chien. He was the father of Nicholas and William C. Boilvin, who 
became quite prominent in Peoria business circles. 

Eventually, St. Clair county was divided into other counties. In 1812, Madi- 
son was organized, within the limits of which was Peoria and so remained until 
1821, when it became part and parcel of the newly created county of Pike. Many 
conveyances of land in Peoria had been recorded in Madison county, at 
Edwardsville. which have been transcribed and now are included in the records 
of this county. 

Pike county was organized in 1821 and for two years thereafter Peoria 
countv was embraced within its boundaries and all records of conveyances of 
land were kept at its county seat. During this period the following persons 
were at the head of afifairs of Pike county; Abram Buck, probate judge, from 
February 12. 1821, to June 11, 1821, when he resigned and was succeeded by 
Nicholas Hanson, who also resigned and was followed in the office February 15, 
1823, by William Ross; April 2, 1821, Leonard Ross, John Shaw and William 
Ward were elected county commissioners, Bigelow C. Fenton, sheriff, and Dan- 
iel Whipple, coroner. At an election held August 5, 1822, James M. Seeley, 
David Dulton and Ossian M. Ross were elected county commissioners, Leonard 
Ross, sherifi, and Daniel Whipple, coroner. During this period Abner Fads, 
John Shaw, Daniel Whipple, William Ross, Henry Tupper, Leonard Ross and 
William Ward were appointed justices of the peace for Pike county. For the 
same office Ebenezer Smith and Stephen Dewey were commissioned on May 
26, 1821, Ossian M. Ross, November 29, 1821 ; John Bolter, .\ 29, 1821 ; 
Charles B., January 22. 1822; Amos Barcroft, May 22, 1822. 

Sangamon county was organized at the same session of the legislature as 
Pike and on January 28, 1823, the county of Fulton was formed, the boundaries 
of which were described as follows: "Beginning at the point where the fourth 



principal meridian intersects the Illinois river, thence up the middle of said 
river to where the line between ranges tive and six east strikes the said river, 
thence north with said line between ranges five and six to the township line 
between townships 9 and 10 north, thence west with said line to the fourth 
principal meridian, thence south with said line to the place of beginning." It 
will be observed that within these boundaries the townships of Trivoli and 
Elmwood were embraced. 

On tlie second Monday of April, 1823, an election was held and Joseph 
Moffatt, David W. Barnes and Thomas R. Corell were chosen as county com- 
missioners, Abner Eads, sheriff, and William Clark, coroner. Later, on August 
2, 1824, James Gardner, James Barnes and David W. Barnes were elected county 
commissioners. Ossian M. Ross, sheriff, and Joseph Moffatt, coroner, all of 
whom were in office until after the organization of Peoria county. At this point 
it is worthy of note that in the list of officials, both for Pike and Fulton coun- 
ties, Peoria countv was well represented. 

Abner Eads, who was elected the first sheriff" for' Fulton county, was a 
Peorian, and his chief opponent for the office was Ossian Ross, who had only 
been defeated in his ambition by one vote. Ross contested the election of 
Eads, setting up as his grounds of complaint that some of Eads supporters lived 
on the east side of the river and, consequently, were not residents of Fulton 
county and, further, it was contended that Eads was illiterate and could riot 
write,' therefore, incompetent to fulfill the duties of the office. The case was tried 
before judge Reynolds, a brother of Governor John Reynolds, in a log cabin at 
Fort Clark, which served as an office for 'Squire John Hamlin, and Eads was 
declared elected and qualified to the office of sheriff. 

The counties of Schuvler, Adams, Hancock, \\'arren. Henry, Putnam and 
Knox were formed by an act of legislature. January 13. 1825, and on the same day 
and with the passage of the act herein mentioned, Peoria county was created, 
under the provision of an act entitled, "An Act to form a new county out of the 
country in the vicinity of Fort Clark," which provides as follows : 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented 
in the General Assemblv, That' all that tract of country within the following 
boundaries, to wit: Beginning where the line between towns 11 and 12 north 
intersects the Illinois river ; thence west with said line to the line between ranges 
4 and 5 east: thence south with said line to the line between towns 7 and 8; thence 
east to the line between ranges 5 and 6; thence south to the middle of the mam 
channel of the Illinois river; thence up said middle of the main channel to the 
place of beginning, shall constitute a county to be called Peoria." 

Section 2 provided "That all that tract of country north of town 20, and west 
of the third principal meridian, formerly part of Sangamon county, be, and is 
hereby attached to said county of Peoria, for county purposes. Provided, how- 
ever, The citizens of the attached part of said county are not to be taxed for the 
erection of public buildings, or for the purchase of the quarter section herein- 
after mentioned. r • 1 r 
"Section 3. Be it further enacted, That the county seat of said county ot 
Peoria shall be established on the northeast quarter of section 9. town 8 north, 
range 8 east and that the countv commissioners of said county are hereby auth- 
orized to purchase said quarter 'section of land of the United States as provided 

for by the law of congress. , ^ , r ht 1 

"Section 4 Be it further enacted. That on the first day of .March next 
(182s) an election shall be held at the house of William Eads, at which time 
there' shall be elected one sheriff, one coroner and three county commissioners 
for said county, which election shall, in all respects, be conducted agreeably to the 
provisions of the law now in force regulating elections. Provided, That the 
qualified voters present may select from among their number three competent 
electors to act as judges of said election who shall appoint two qualified voters 
to act as clerks. 


"Section 5. Re it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the clerk 
of Sangamon county to give public notice in said Peoria county and the at- 
tached part, at least ten days previous to the election to be held on the first 
Monday in March next ; and in case there should be no clerk, then the sheriff 
of said county shall give notice, as aforesaid, of the time and place of holding 
the election." 

Section 6 provided, "That the county of Peoria should receive two hundretl 
dollars out of the public treasury, as full compensation for their proportion 
of non-resident land tax, in the same way as the county of Pike might or could 
do under the act entitled An Act amending an act entitled an act providing for 
the valuation of lands and other property, and laying a ta.x thereon, approved 
February 15, 1821." 

Section 7 provided, "That the said county of Peoria and the attached part 
of said county mentioned in section 2 (the portion detached from Sangamon — 
Ed.) should vote with the county of Sangamon for representative and senator 
to the general assembly." 

Section 8 declared, "That all that tract of country north of said Peoria 
county, and of the Illinois and Kankakee rivers, be, and the same is hereby 
attached to said county, for all county purposes. This did not include any of 
the newly formed counties of Knox, Henry, Warren or Mercer." 

While Cook county and what is now the great and wonderful city of Chi- 
cago was embraced within the territory set off to Putnam county, yet for the 
next six years after the formation of Putnam, Cook county was attached to 
Peoria county for county purposes and all its county affairs were administered 
in Peoria. 

Under the act creating the county of Peoria, provision was made for the 
election of officers and the first day of March, 1825, was designated as the time 
for holding said election. Another section of the act, however, required notice 
of the election to be given for the first Monday in -March. This was a confusion 
of dates, and, as a result, the election did not take place until the 7th day of 
March, of the year mentioned, when Samuel Fulton was chosen for the office of 
sheriff; William Phillips, coroner; William Holland, Nathan Dillon and Joseph 
Smith, county commissioners. 


The officers chosen by the electors of the county duly qualified, so tliat juris- 
diction over public matters pertaining to the county vested in them and they at 
once took up the duties of their respective offices, and the next day after the 
election the commissioners' court was organized. Xorman Hyde had been chosen 
clerk, at about the same time of the passage of the act creating the county. The 
following named persons were appointed and commissioned justices of the peace 
for the county at the time of its organization : Thomas Camlin, George Ash, 
John Phillips^ Stephen French, Nathan Dillon, Isaac Perkins, Jacob Wilson, 
Joseph ^loffatt, Austin Crocker, John Kinzie. 

The first duty devolving upon the commissioners' court was the purchase of 
land for a county seat and the securing of title thereto. Congress had passed an 
act providing that new counties might locate their seats of government upon 
public land subject to preemption and purchase, upon the same terms as individ- 
uals, and in pursuance thereof, the general assembly had designated, in section 
three, a tract of government land, upon which the county seat should be estab- 
lished. However, when the commissioners endeavored to follow out the require- 
ments of the law they met with unanticipated objections at the land office. 

The contentions of the land office were that the quarter section chosen by the 
legislature was a fractional one and for that reason was not subject to entry. 
Another objection upon which much stress was laid was the existence of certain 
French claims. The third contention was that one James Latham, who set up an 


e(|uity in the land 1)V reason of a private entry, liad interposed a counter-claim to 
the land. And it was not until nine years later that the county came into its 

A concise history of the struggle of Peoria county for a seat of government 
is well worth relating and to further that end no better means can be adopted than 
to present here the minutes of the commissioners' court and other documents 
relating to a subject, which is still one of interest to many now living. 

The county commissioners held a special term of their court on April i6, 
182s. at which time Nathan Dillon, one of the members, was authorized to make 
application at the land office, in Springfield, for the right of preemption of the 
northeast quarter of section 9, town 8 north, range 8 east, which was designated 
in the act creating the county as the site for the county seat, for the purpose of 
establishing thereon the county seat of Peoria county, under the provision made 
and enacted by congress. Pursuant to instructions, Commissioner Dillon made 
application to the register of the land office for leave to enter the said quarter 
section of land and was refused, the reason being advanced that the tract was not 
subject to entry. Thereupon, a memorial was addressed to the president of the 
United States in relation thereto, by the board of commissioners. This the presi- 
dent referred to the land oiSce, and on November 23, 1825, the register at 
Springfield was instructed by the commissioner as follows : 

'"Gentlemen: A memorial from the Comrs. for the county of Peoria and 
other citizens thereof stating 'that application had been made to your office to 
enter the N. E. quarter of Sect. 9, 8 N., 8 E., for the Seat of Justice for said 
County, and that entry had been refused because said quarter section was a frac- 
tional one,' was addressed to the President & lately referred to this office by him, 
with instructions to admit the entry if the objection stated is the only one to its 
admission. If there are others you will report the facts in relation to the case 
to this office. "I am, etc., 

"George Gr.\h.\m." 

It would appear by the foregoing that Peoria county had a friend at court 
and it was surmised at the time by those most interested that Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, the only representative from Illinois then in congress, had used his good 
offices in her behalf. At any rate, the people were highly gratified by the prompt 
consideration of President Adams. This feeling is indicated by the fact that on 
the 6th dav of Alarch, 1826, the clerk of the county commissioners, acting under 
authority of that body, transmitted to John Quincy Adams, president of the 
United States, the thanks of the court for his prompt compliance with the prayer 
of their petition for leave to enter the fractional quarter section of land, on 
which to locate their county seat ; the president by the same token, was informed 
that his intervention in behalf of Peoria county had not produced the desired 
result. On the 8th day of March, 1826, the following was made a matter of 
record ; 

"Ordered that lohn Di.xon be and he is hereby authorized in behalf of this 
court to make application officially to the Register and Receiver of the Land 
Ofifice at Springfield for a written statement of the obstacles and objections (if 
any exist) which prevent the entry by the Commissioners of said County of 
the North East fractional quarter of Sec. 9, Township 8 North, Range 8 East of 
the fourth principal meridian, on which the Seat of Justice for Peoria County 
is located, pursuant to an act of Congress by Statute of this State. And as it is 
anticipated that some objections may arise on account of the exact quantity of 
land in said fractional c|uarter not being accurately known, he,_the said John 
Dixon, is further authorized after procuring from the Land Officers aforesaid 
a statement of all the said objections, etc., to proceed to St. Louis and apply to 
the Surveyor General for a plat of the survey of the above mentioned quarter 
Section, and if no plat can be furnished without a re-survey, to contract with the 
Surveyor General for that purpose, at the expense of this county, for a speedy 


completion of said survey, and request a plat thereof to be immediately made 
out, properly authenticated and forwarded to the said Register and Receiver. 

"And the said Joiin Dixon is further authorized, if no objections are made, 
to enter the said fraction in behalf of and for said county of Peoria." 

At a special term of the commissioners' court, held Alay 2, 1826, this entry 
was made and forms a part of the history of the county : "Ordered, that John 
Dixon be and he is hereby autliorized to borrow on the credit of Peoria county 
one hundred and eighty-four dollars 62)/, cents, by him to be paid to the Receiver 
of the Land Office at Springfield, in payment of the N. E. fractional qr. Sec. 
No. 9, Town 8 North, Range 8 East of the fourth principal (meridian), and 
that he be authorized to issue orders on the Treasurer to such persons as shall 
loan the county the above money, at any interest not exceeding 25 per cent per 
annum until paid." Tradition has it that when the money by loan was not 
forthcoming, a number of the loyal citizens made up the desired amount out of 
their own pockets and helped solve one of the county seat problems. 

At the time of the organization of the county, James Latham, who had set 
up a counter-claim to the tract of land set off by the legislature as the site for 
the county seat, was in possession of a house on the land, and this, in a measure, 
was made use of as a basis for his contention. On the 12th day of July, 1826, 
the commissioners' court caused to be entered of record the following: 

"Ordered that Isaac Perkins, William Woodson and Henry Thomas be 
summoned by the sheriff to be and appear at the next regular term of this court, 
on the first day of said term, to assess the damage, if any incurred, by James 
Latham, in consee|uence of being deprived of his claim to the land on which the 
county seat of Peoria is located, the improvement of which was purchased 
previous to the location of the said county seat." .Soon after this entry Latham 
died, leaving to his heirs the prosecution of his claim. 

At a regular term of the commissioners' court, held December 5, 1826, a 
change in the personnel of the court appears. The sitting members at this time 
were Nathan Dillon, William Holland and John Hamlin. Under their direc- 
tion, at this term, an entry in the records was made as follows : 

"That William .S. Hamilton be authorized to act as counsel on behalf of 
this court for the purpose of obtaining the title to the land on which the county 
seat of Peoria county is located, with full power for said purpose, except that 
of commencing suit at law. Also that the clerk of this court inform said Hamil- 
ton that compensation will be allowed only in event of their obtaining said title." 
It is rather remarkable, but true, that the William S. Hamilton referred to, was 
a son of Alexander Hamilton, who figured so largely in the colonial and early 
history of the United States. William S. Hamilton was a brilliant lawyer and 
his name appears more than once in these pages. 

On January 26. 1827, Commissioner Graham of the land office at Wash- 
ington addressed the following letter to Colonel William McKee, surveyor gen- 
eral at St. Louis: 

"Sir: — The act of congress passed on the 3d of March, 1823, confirming 
certain claims to lots in the village of Peoria, in the State of Illinois (the 
French claims — Ed.), declares that it shall be 'the duty of the Surveyor of 
Public Lands of the U. S. for that District to cause a survey to be made of the 
several lots, and to designate on a plat thereof, the lot confirmed and set apart 
to each claimant, and forward the same to the Secy, of the Treasury.' As the 
plat above required to be made has not been received, and a Mr. James Latham, 
having entered the N. E. fr. J4 9. 8 N. 8 E. of the 4th P. M. under a 'Vincennes 
pre-emption,' I will thank you to inform me if the survey of the village has been 
made, and if it has. to furnish me with a copy of the survey, exhibiting the con- 
nection between it & the adjacent pulilic surveys. I am, etc., 

"Geo. Graham. 

"P. S. — It is presumed that the Regr. at Edwardsville who acted as commr. for 


the settlement of these claims furnished Gen. Rector with a copy of his report 
on the subject; if he did you can obtain a copy from the Regr. Office at that 

An election was held August 4, 1828, when a new commissioners' court was 
made up bv the selection of George Sharp, Isaac Egman. and Francis Thomas 
who, in their official capacity, addressed a memorial to Elias Kent Kane and John 
McLean, senators from Illinois, and Joseph Duncan, the successor of Daniel P. 
Cook in congress, in which was set forth in detail the problem of the county seat 
title, and a request that they use their influence with the president, to induce him 
to permit the entry of the land to be made in the name of the county, and if that 
was not feasible, to put forth every eft'ort to have passed by congress a special 
act to afford the relief desired. 

On the 28th of January, 1830, Senator Kane received the following letter 
from Commissioner Graham of the land office at Washington: 

"Sir: — I return the letter of Messrs. Hyde & Stillman enclosed in your let- 
ter of the 26th inst. 

"Upon examination it appears that in 1825 the commissioners for the county 
of Peoria made application to the Land Officers at Springfield to enter the N. E. 
frac. >4 of S. 9 T. 8 R. 8 E. under the provisions of the act of the 26th of May, 
1824, granting pre-emption to certain counties for their Seats of Justice (Land 
Laws, page 86g) which, being refused by these officers on the ground of the 
tract being a fractional quarter section, they memorialized the President on the 
subject, and, under his instructions at that time, had they entered and paid for 
the land, there would have been no difficulty in the case, but they having failed 
to make such a payment, that tract was entered in November, 1826, by James 
Latham under a pre-emption certificate, granted by the Register at Vincennes 
under the 2d section of the act of the nth of May, 1820 (Land Laws p. 778), 
and payment in full made to the Receiver and regularly entered in the returns 
of those officers to this office. The letter of the Register to this office that cov- 
ered this entry by Latham also enclosed a protest against it by William S. Hamil- 
ton as attorney of the County Commissioners. 

"In consequence of the belief entertained at this office that that fractional 
Section included the lots which had been confirmed to certain individuals at 
Peoria by the act of the 3d of March, 1823 (the French claims — Ed.), and that 
therefore it could not be legally granted to either the County Commissioners 
or Mr. Latham, the Register was informed in January, 1827, that this office, 
not being in possession of a survey of those confirmed lots, could not decide upon 
the rights of the respective parties until it was ascertained that there was no 
interference between those lots and that quarter section. A survey has not yet 
been forwarded to this office of the confirmed Peoria Claims, and until one is 
received the Case will have to be suspended." 

On the next day Senator Kane addressed to Stephen Stillman, of Peoria, the 
following letter : 

"Dear Sir: — I have delayed to (answer?) you until I could hear in answer 
to the application of your County Commissioners something satisfactory. I 
have waited, however, only to be informed of the embarrassments which surround 
the subject. I send all the papers received from the Comr. of Gen. Land Office, 
which gives as full a view of the matter as can be obtained. Present me respect- 
fully to the Commissioners with the assurance that it will at all times give me 
pleasure to attend to their requests whether made in an official or individual 

"With great respect, your obt. st., 

"E. K. Kane. 
"S. Stillman, Esq." 


On the 3d of March, 1830. the county commissioners' court made the fol- 
lowing order: 

"Ordered that Stephen Stillman be and he is hereby appointed a Special 
Agent on the part of the county of Peoria for the purpose of ol)taining for the 
use of the county the right of soil to the North East fractional quarter of Section 
No. 9, in Town Eight North and Range Eight East — with full power to act for 
the county in the Name & in behalf of County Commissioners, and that he be 
particularly instructed & re(|uired to use his utmost exertions and all necessary 
means to procure if possible the title to said quarter Section, as it is considered 
of the utmost importance that it should be obtained immediately. 

"The Commissioners on the part of the county do hereby agree to accept 
any part of said quarter Section (be the same more or less) that may remain 
after deducting that which is appropriated by the law of Congress for Peoria 
Claims in lieu of a full c|uarter allowed by law to each new county. 

"The County Commissioners recommend that a special act of Congress be 
passed, granting to the county of Peoria the remaining part of the fractional 
quarter section after deducting the Peoria Claims, as aforesaid, let there be 
more or less." 

On the 5th day of February, 1831, Elijah Hayward, Commissioner of the 
Land Office, addressed the following letter to Senator Kane: 

"Sir : — In replv to your inquiry respecting the entry of the village of Peoria, 
I beg leave to refer you to the letters to you from this office of the 28th of Janu- 
ary & 5th of May, 1830, and to state that as the Commissioners of the county of 
Peoria did not enter the fractional quarter, at the time they might have done 
so, under the instructions to the Land Officers, and as there now exist conflicting 
claims under different laws, to the same land, no entry of it by the County Com- 
missioners will be authorized without special legislative provisions on the sub- 
ject. With great respect. Sir." 

On the /th day of March, following, the county commissioners' court, which 
then consisted of John Hamlin, George Sharp and Stephen French, made the fol- 
lowing order: 

"Ordered that Abner Fads be and he is hereby authorized to make a tender 
of money to the Register & Receiver of the Land Office at Springfield, sufficient 
to purchase, at the rate of one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, the frac- 
tional quarter section on which the County Seat is now located, being the N. E. 
of S. 9, T. 8 N. R. 8 E. in behalf and in the name of the County Commissioners 
of Peoria county, for the use of said county, and obtain from said Land Office a 
certificate of entry that a patent may be speedily obtained if possible. Said 
Eads is authorized to assure the Register & Receiver of the Land Office, that 
the Com. of Peoria county for said county are willing to accept that part of the 
fractional quarter section before named which may remain after deducting what- 
ever portion may be set apart by the act of Congress granting Peoria Claims 
to the Old French settlers as surveyed by W'm. L. Hamilton in 1823. And said 
Eads is hereby authorized to call on the Treasurer for all specie or U. S. paper 
said Treasurer may have on hand and borrow the balance or a sufficient sum to 
purchase said fractional qr. Section." 

And the years were still going into history with the matter unsettled. But 
no link in the chain has been left unrecorded, save that, on the 14th day of March, 
1831, a letter was addressed to the register of the land office at Springfield, the 
author of which is in doubt. From the fact, however, that it sets forth the case 
of the county in detail, it is presumed that William S. 1 lamilton, who had been 
retained by the commissioners to take charge of the matter, prepared it. 

On July 3. 1832 the record shows the following entry: 
"Ordered that John Coyle and Atiuilla Wren, two of the members of the 
court, receive two" hundred' dollars from the county treasurer for the purpose of 


making a tender of the same in the land oiifice in payment for the fraction of 
land vipon which the town of Peoria is located. 

"Ordered that the treasurer furnish the said Coyle & Wren with twenty- 
five dollars to bear their expenses on the foregoing order." 

When the September (1832) term of the commissioners' court sat, its mem- 
bers were composed of John Coyle, Aquilla Wren and Edwin S. Jones, and it 
was ordered that the treasurer pay Aquilla Wren nine dollars and John Coyle 
four dollars and fifty cents, to reimburse them for money expended in visiting 
the land office at Quincy, where they tendered the money for the county seat 
land. It might here be mentioned that the land office at Quincy had been estab- 
lished after the last memorial of the commissioners had been sent to congress. 

On the second day of the term the following entry was made: 

"Ordered that Jolm Coyle, one of the members of this Court, receive of the 
County Treasurer two hundred and twenty dollars and repair with the same to 
the Land Office at Quincy, to make payment for the fraction of land upon which 
the County Seat is located. If the necessary papers or returns have not been 
furnished by the Surveyor General in the case the said Coyle is directed to go 
to the Surveyor General's Office in order to procure the papers that may be 
wanted ; he is also directed to keep a bill of his expenses." 

At last congress, presumably through the efforts of the Illinois senators and 
congressmen, took a hand in the matter, and, on the second day of March, 1833, 
passed an act permitting the county of Peoria to enter the land assigned it by 
the Illinois legislature for county seat purposes. But this did not end the trouble, 
although it was the beginning of the end thereof. In so far as Peoria county 
and the national government were concerned the incident was closed and a 
patent for the land was issued. 

John j\I. Aloore, acting connnissioner of the land office, on the 24th day of 
June. 1833, addressed the following letter to Isaac Waters, clerk of the county 
commissioners' court : 

"Sir: — Your letter of the sth ulto., has been received and I enclose herewith 
for your information a copy of a letter of this date to the Land Officers at Spring- 
field, 111., in relation to the entry of the fractional quarter Section in which Peoria 
is situated, under the provisions of the act of Congress of the 2d of March last." 

And on the same day the same officer addressed the following letter to the 
register and receiver of the land office at Springfield : 

"Gentlemen : — Under the provisions of the act of Congress of the 2d of Alarch 
last "to authorize the County Comrs. of the County of Peoria in the State of 
Illinois to enter a fractional quarter section of land for a Seat of Justice and for 
other purposes,' you will permit those Commissioners to enter & pay for the 
fractional quarter Section mentioned in said act. 

"The receipts, monthly returns and the certificate of purchase must all 
designate the entry as being made under this act, and the Certf. of Purchase 
must conform to the proviso to the ist Section of the act by declaring that "the 
said purchase shall not be so construed as to interfere with the claim or claims 
of any other person or persons to the said fractional quarter section,' and at 
the same time of making the entry the Commissioners should deposit with you 
for transmission a duly executed instrument of writing stating that in making 
such entry they expressly exclude therefrom any lands or lot, within the limits 
of the fractional quarter Section, belonging to or lawfully claimed by another 
person or persons." 

The last chapter in the long struggle of the county to secure a perfect title 
to the land for its county seat ended when a compromise was effected with the 
heirs of James Latham, in settlement of their claim against the property. The 
first step in this direction led to the adjustment of the matter when, on the 28th 
day of May, 1834, an action of ejectment was commended in the circuit court, 


a "friendly" action nominally to recover two lots in the town of Peoria, but 
actually to settle the title to the whole tract of land. The case was decided by 
the court on an agreed (by the attorneys) state of facts and taken to the supreme 
court. However, the case was finally settled out of court as the following will 
show : 

"lientlemen : — 1 have this day been able to etTect a compromise with the 
Lathams in the suit to recover our town. They have withdrawn their entry at 
the Land Otifice, given up their certificate of entry, and taken their money ; and 
also withdrawn the suit now pending. I have given them my notes for seven 
lunidred dollars as you will perceive by the receipts herewith enclosed. $500 is 
to be paid to them in six mos. and the other two hundred in twelve. You will 
perceive the arrangement is much less than what I was limited at. 

"As I have made myself responsible for the payment of the money, I wish 
the Court to pass orders in my favor for that amount and payable at the time 
these notes are due to enable me to meet the payment of the same. Say one 
order for $500 to be paid on the 17th of May, 1835, and one of $200 to be paid 
on the 17th of November, 1835; I was not able to get them to relinquish up the 
bond they held for the two lots. Richard & Philip Latham, who I saw would 
not take any responsibility on their part on account of the other heirs ; if it 
should be thought expedient to give them anything for their claim to those two 
lots it can be done yet, but the grand obstacle in the way of improvement is now 
settled and people can now make investments with perfect safety; I saw all the 
papers at the Land (Jffice canceled and given up. If Mr. Waters has not yet 
made out a transcript of the docket he need not do it." 

This letter was accompanied by the following document signed by Stephen 
T. Logan, attorney for the Latham heirs: 

"John Hamlin has this day executed to Richard Latham for the use of the 
heirs of James Latham his note for five hundred dollars payable in six months, 
also for one hundred dollars payable in twelve months, also at the request of 
said Lathams his note to S. T. Logan for one hundred dollars payable in twelve 
months, in all amounting to seven hundred dollars, on a compromise of a suit 
l)rought by said Latham Heirs against said Hamlin &- as a compromise by which 
Lathams are to withdraw in the Land Office at Springfield their entry on the 
fractional c|uarter Section on which the Town of Peoria Stands." 

On the 5th day of December, 1834, the county commissioners' court of Peoria 
county entered the following orders : 

"Ordered that the Treasurer pay John Llamlin five hundred dollars on the 
17th day of JMay, 1835, ^s compensation for a note for the said amount due at the 
said 17th Alay to the heirs of judge Latham as a compromise of a law suit, etc." 

"Ordered that the Treasurer pay John Hamlin two hundred dollars on the 
17th day of November, A. D., 1835, as comi)ensation a note given him to the 
heirs of Judge Latham comi)leting the payment of the compromise on the law 
suit, etc." 

"The $700 of the two last orders is the price of the compromise with the 
said heirs of Judge Latham relinquishing their claim and withdrawing their 
entrv at the Land Office for Peoria Town fraction." 







Owing to the importance of the county seat controversy, much space has been 
given that subject and the general proceedings of the commissioners' court 
ignored. iSut while that matter was taking its course and reaching a final adjust- 
ment the business affairs of the newly created bailiwick were in good hands and 
looked after in a business-like manner. The election for county officials had 
been held March 7, 1825. and on the next day the commissioners, Nathan Dillon, 
of Mackinaw Point, \\'illiam Holland, of Peoria, and Joseph Smith, of Farm 
Creek, met at the house of Joseph Ogee, below the ferry landing, where the court 
was organized by its members taking the prescribed oath of office, and they at 
once proceeded to perform the duties for which they were elected. Their first 
act was to appoint, or rather accjuiesce in the a])pointment of Norman Hyde 
as clerk. Then Aaron Hawley was selected by the court as county treasurer 
and the county seat was named Peoria. Another measure of imjiortance tran- 
sacted was the levying of a county ta.x of one-half of one per cent upon the 
taxable property of the county. 

The next session called for the performance of an important function of the 
commissioners, that of selecting a grand and petit jury, as the first term of the 
circuit court would sit in the following June. The sheriff was ordered and 
performed his duty in summoning the following named j^ersons to serve as grand 
jurors: William Kads. Abner h:ads, Alva Moft'att, Elijah Hyde, Noah Beacham, 
Sr., William Wright. John Ridgeman, Robert I'.errisford, Josiah Fulton, Thomas 
Gamblin, John l'liillii)s, George Ish. David Matthews, Jacob Wilson. Elisha Fish, 
Isaac Perkins, Nathaniel Cromwell, Walter Dillon, William Davis. Alexander 
McNaughton, George Sharp, Austin Crocker, Augustus Langworthy, Allen 
Dougherty. The following were selected as petit jurors: Stephen French, 
Joseph Ogee, Abner Cooper, George Love, Joseph O'Brien, Elias P. Avery, 
Thomas Dillon, Jesse Dillon, Seth Wilson, John Klein. George Klein. Stephen 
Carle, James Walker. At the June session these names were added : Horace 
Crocker, Noah Beacham, Jr., Aquilla Moffatt. Henry Neely, William Smith, 
Charles Love, John Sharp, William ISarker, John Cooper, David Hukey. Philip 
Latham. It was at this term of the commissioners' court that Norman Hyde, 
who had been elected probate judge, as stated heretofore, resigned his office as 
clerk, to take up the duties for which he first had been chosen. For services ren- 
dered as clerk and stationery furnished by him the treasurer was ordered to pay 
him $12.50 and the court appointed John Dixon as his successor. At this same 
June session Rivers Cormack was appointed by the court to take the census of 
the county, but declined to (|ualify and at a subsequent term of the court John L. 
Bogardus was selected for the work desired. Being empowered to a]:)point 
justices of the peace, under confirmation of the governor, Stephen French, Nathan 
Dillon, John Phillips and Jacob Wilson were so selected immediately after the 



organization of the county and during the same year John Kinzie, of Chicago, 
an<i John Dixon and John L. Bogardus, of Peoria, were appointed. During the 
July session of the court other recommendations were made to the governor 
for the appointment of justices, and Fredericl< A. Countryman, Elijah Hyde 
and Hiram M. Curry were appointed constables. For the same office Archibald 
Clyborne, of Chicago, was appointed. But, in 1827, the legislature passed an 
act making the offices of justice of the peace and constable elective, so that no 
further appointments to them were made by the commissioners' court. 

At the December term the sherift made his report, which is here given, as it 
is an index to the financial condition of the county for the first fractional year 
of its existence, and the attention of the reader is called to the fact that the 
"state paper" which is an important item mentioned was, at that time, worth 
about tifty cents on the dollar : 

"Dr. To amount of taxes as returned by Assessor, including 

twenty dollars received from Clerk for tavern license. . . . $339-i5 

Cr. By amount of bad debts $ 29.90 

By County orders and percentage on same 105.04 

By State paper 46.50 

By State paper, including interest thereon 21.60 

^y $3345 i'l specie, being equal in State paper 66.90 

By State paper . 19.21 $289.15 

At this term the county was divided into three election precincts. "The Chicago 
Precinct"' to contain all that part of the county east of the mouth of the La Page 
river where it empties its waters into the Aux Plain ; the elections to be held at the 
Agency House or "Cobwel) Hall." and Abner (Alexander?) W'olcott, John Kinzie 
and J. B. Beaubien to be judges at all general and special elections. 

"Peoria Precinct" to contain all that tract of country north and west of the 
Illinois river and (east of the river — Ed.) north of township twenty-four and 
west of the third principal meridian, the elections to be held at the clerk's office 
and Stephen French. Abner Eads and John Phillips to be judges. 

"Mackinaw Precinct" to contain the residue of the county, the elections to be 
held at the house of Jesse Dillon, and Isaac Perkins, William Eads and Thomas 
Dillon to be judges. The Mackinaw precinct was the smallest, territorially, of the 
three, doubtless for the reason it had a greater population. 

Another election precinct was added to the others, at the March, 1826, session 
and designated as the "Fox River Precinct." It contained all that district of 
country north of Senachwine creek and the Dupage river, and it was ordered 
that the ]3lace for holding elections therein should be at the house of Jesse Walker, 
near the junction of the Illinois and Fox rivers, and that Aaron Hawley, Henry 
Allen and James Walker be the judges. Still another precinct was added, at the 
June session, known as the "Fever River Precinct," which comprised the counties 
"of Warren and Mercer. The house of Dr. Garland was chosen as the place for 
holding elections. At this term Stephen French and Isaac Perkins were appointed 
overseers of the poor and John Hamlin and Archibald Allen "fence viewers." 
whatever that may have been. 


.\t the September term of the commissioners' court, the following persons were 
ordered paid certain allow-ances : 

To John Kinzie, John B. Beaubien, and B. Caldwell, judges, and Archibald 
Clvborne, clerk, each one dollar ; and to John K. Clark, sixteen dollars, for return- 
ing polls of the election held at Chicago in the preceding month of August (1826), 
and to John Kinzie $1.50 for a ballot box used at said election. This was the 
first election ever held in Chicago and a much more peaceful one than some others 
of later vears. 




In the election of 1826, which took place in August, the candidates for county 
commissioners were Nathan Dillon, William Holland, John Hamlin, Stephen 
French, Hiram M. Curry, Rivers Cormack and Gideon Hawley. The successful 
ones were Nathan Dillon, William Holland and John Hamlin. This court held 
a term in December, at which time the sheriff made his second report as follows: 

''To amount returned by Assessor's books $ 855.93 


To amount in State Paper equal to 641.93 

To balance in treasury, December, 1825 54-i5^ 

To overcharge for collecting the above 10.25 

To order on State Treasurer, 1825 100.00 

To amount of tines collected 16.50 

To amount of tavern licenses 3.00 

To amount of sale of town lots 21.00 

To amount of State Treasurer, 1826 168.75 

To amount collected from list of bad debts, 1825 6.825^ 



"P>y amount of delinquent tax list for which the Sheriff is allowed until 
the March term to collect, it being .State Paper, $416,695/2 

equal to $312.52 

P)y amount lost by collecting at Chicago at 50 per cent 27.05 

By county orders amounting to 358.65 

By percentage for collecting the above $64,405^, on which commission 

has been paid 22.08 

By percentage on above orders 7-i73^ 



A special meeting of the commissioners was held in March, 1827, and a tax 
levy was made of one-half of one per cent. George Sharp was appointed county 
treasurer and his bond fixed at $2,000. If Sharp served as treasurer it could 
not have been for long, as the records show that at the April term John Birket 
was appointed to the office, but having declined the honor (if any), Norman Hyde 
was chosen in his stead. .A session of the court was held in June. A new elec- 
tion precinct was created and named "La Salle Precinct." It embraced all that 
territory north of the south line of township 10 north, and south and west of 
Sand river ; and Peoria precinct to embrace all of Peoria county proper, south of 
the north line of township 9 north. It also appears by the record that further 
difficulty had been encountered in securing a suitable person for the office of county 
treasurer, for the reason that Simeon Crozier had been appointed to succeed Nor- 
man Hyde and his bond fixed at $2,000. 

As has been heretofore related a new commissioners' court had been elected 
in .\ugust, 1826, but at the June term of 1827 only one of the members elected, 
John Hamlin, was present. His associates were George Sharp and Henry Thomas, 
but by what process they superseded Nathan Dillon and William Holland, the 
records fail to denote. At the October term it was ordered that state paper be 
received by the county treasurer at seventy-five cents on the dollar, which would 
be an indication that the credit of the state had improved in the course of two 
years at least twenty-five per cent. 

The members for the commissioners' court elected in August, 1828, were Isaac 

Egman, George Sharp and Francis Thomas. Orin Hamlin, sheriff. A session 
Vol. 1—7 


of the court was held in September and John llaniUn was appointed treasurer 
with bond at $1,000. At this term "Henderson precinct" was created, embrac- 
ing Alercer and Warren counties. Francis Thomas did not ciualify as commis- 
sioner until the December term. 

The office of county treasurer seems to have "gone a beggin'." Several ap- 
pointees to the office had declined or failed to (jualify. The last one to decline 
the office was John Jlamlin, at the May session of the year 1829, and in his place 
Henry li. Stillman was named, with bond in the sum of $1,000. Stillman served 
almost a year and within that time furnished the county with seals ; one for the 
commissioners' court, one for the probate court and one for the circuit court, and 
at the September term he was allowed live dollars for each. Judge McCulloch, 
in his history of Peoria county describes the seal of the circuit court as having 
been "a flat piece of metal like a coin; a piece of paper would be laid on the 
face of it and rubbed with lead to give the impression of the inscription, and this 
would l)e fastened to the official document by means of a large wafer." 

Once again the personnel of the county treasurer's office was changed. At 
the March term Isaac Waters was appointed county treasurer, assessor and 
census taker, his bond being placed at $1,000. John Dillon resigned as clerk 
of the commissioners' court and Stephen Stillman became his successor. 

Fox River precinct was reorganized at the June session, its new boundaries 
being fixed as follows : Commencing at the northeast boundary of the Military 
Land and including the country north and west of the Desplaines river as far 
north as the north line of township 34 north, extending west as far as the east 
line of Jo Daviess county. 

In August, 1830, George Sharp. John Hamlin and Stephen French were 
elected county commissioners and at the September term of the court were 
sworn into office. An interesting item recorded at that term was the allowance 
of five dollars to Elisha Fulton for carrying the abstract of votes to Fulton 
county and one dollar to Augustus Langworthy, for the use of his horse' upon 
which Fulton rode to his destination. The minutes of the December session show 
that the clerk was ordered to transmit to the sheriff of Warren county the tax 
books maintained for that county, at the request in writing of the county com- 
missioners' court, and that the said commissioners' court of Warren county be 
requested to send the amount of sixteen dollars, due Peoria county for assessing 
the property, by mail as soon as convenient. This item would indicate that 
Warren county had taken control of its own atifairs and had been released from 
the jurisdiction of Peoria county. 

At the April (1831) session of the court. Resolved Cleveland qualified as 
county commissioner and fulfilled the duties of George Sharp, whose death had 
made a vacancy. Isaac Waters was appointed county treasurer. 

By this time, the counties of Cook, \\'arren, Tazewell, Putnam and other 
counties which had remained attached to Peoria county when the latter was 
created, became separate organizations and for that reason the Chicago. Hen- 
derson and Fox River precincts became extinct. 

Those remaining in 183 1 were Peoria, La Salle and La Marsh, and the 
judges of elections were thenceforth only appointed for those precincts. 

In December a session of the court was held and John Hamlin having re- 
signed as a member, John Coyle was qualified as his successor, Coyle previously 
having been elected to the office. At the session held in '^Nlarch, 1832, Aquilla 
Wren became a member of the court, Stephen French having resigned. 

The members of the court in the session of September, 1832, were Edward 
J. Tones, John Coyle and Aquilla Wren. At this term Isaac Waters was allowed 
$1.50 for a record book purchased for the court, and seven dollars for attending 
the canvass of votes for senator and representative at Hennepin. Jesse W'alker 
was allowed sixteen dollars for bringing the election returns from Chicago in 


Seth Fulton was allowed one dollar, at the ]\Iarch term of 1833, for the use 



of a room in which the presidential election had been held the previous year. 
Orin Hamlin, Alva and Aijuilla Moffatt were granted leave to build a mill dam 
in Limestone township, on section 13, long known as the Monroe mill. For this 
session of the court Stephen Stillman was allowed five dollars for the use of a 
room. Before the e.xpiration of the year Asahel Hale was appointed county 
treasurer and reappointed in 1834 and 1835. F'rom the fact that his bond was 
fi.xed at $10,000 under the last two appointments, the reader may gather that 
the affairs of the county were "looking up" and the responsibilities of the office 
were "assuring proportions." As a matter of fact, the sum of $5,560.37 passed 
through the treasurer's hands in 1835, the largest amount the treasurer had 
ever handled in his official capacity. This can be accounted for by the generous 
sale of town lots, going on at that period and which had been delayed throughout 
the previous years, by reason of the difficulty the county experienced in securing 
a patent for the land from the government and perfecting its title thereto. 

At the April session of court, in the year 1835, the infirmities of years and 
other disabilities of Isaac Waters had become so apparent that he was removed 
from the office of clerk of the county commissioners' court and William .Mitchell 
was appointed his successor. Waters had been one of the faithful pioneer ser- 
vants of the new county of F^eoria and had served as clerk five continuous years. 
By reason of his infirmities of body and brain it also became necessary to ap- 
point in his stead a clerk of the circuit court. This was accom]jlishecl by the 
selection of Lewis Bigelow, for the position. Judge Thomas Ford, afterwards 
governor of the state, making the appointment, July 13, 1835. 

The court for the September term, of the year 1834, was made up of Andrew 
Thorpe, John Coyle and Orin Hamlin, and continued in office until August, 
1836, when .\quilla Wren, William J. Phelps and Samuel T. McKean were 
elected. These latter were succeeded, in .August. 1838, by Smith Frye, Clark 
D. Powell and Moses Harlan. From this time on the tenure of the office was 
three years, one member being elected each year. Those elected to the office 
under the new law were: Clark D. Powell, August, 1839; W'illiam Hale, January 
10, 1840, to fill the vacancy made by the election of Moses Harlan to the legis- 
lature; Nathaniel Chapin, August, 1840; Smith Frye, August, 1841 ; Thomas P. 
Smith and Clementius Ewalt, August, 1842, one to fill the vacancy caused by 
the election of Smith Frye to the office of sherifif ; William Dawson, 1843; 
Clementius Ewalt, 1844; Thomas P. Smith, 1845; Thomas Alooney, 1846; 
James L. Riggs. 1847; Joseph Ladd, 1848. On the 23d day of November, 1849, 
the last term of the coimty commissioners' court was held. 

By the year 1837 the population had been greatly increased, so much so that 
the necessity for a larger number of precincts was self evident. Therefore, at 
the June term of the commissioners' court the county was laid off into thirteen 
precincts, namely: 

No. I to consist of fractional township 11 north, range 9 east (now Chilli- 
cothe) known as Senachwine precinct, the election to be held at the house of 
William Dunlap in Chillicothe. 

No. 2. Northampton, to consist of township 11 north, range 8 east (now 
Hallock), the elections to be held at the house of Reuben B. Hamlin. 

No. 3. Prince's Grove, to consist of townships 1 1 north, range 6 east, and 
II north, range 7 east (now Princeville and .\kron). the elections to be held at 
the schoolhouse at Prince's Grove. 

No. 4. Rochester, to consist of townshi]) 11 north, range 5 east (now 
Millbrook), the elections to be held at the schoolhouse in Rochester. 

No. 5. Charleston, to consist of township 10 north, range 5 east and east 
one-half (properly west one-half) of township 10 north, range 6 east (that is 
to say all of l>rimfield and the west half of Jubilee), the election to be held at 
the house of Daniel lielcher in Charleston (now Brimfield). 

No. 6. La Grange, to consist of sections No. i to 24 in each of the town- 
ships No. 9 north, range 6 east, and 9 north, range 7 east, the east half of town- 


ship lO north, range 6 east, and all of township lo north, range 7 east (.that is 
to say the north two-thirds of townships Rosefield and Kickapoo, the east half 
of Jubilee, and all of Radnor), the elections to be held at the house of Lewis 

No. 7. La Salle, to consist of townships 10 north, range 8 east, and 10 
north, range 9 east (all of Medina and Rome), the elections to be held at the 
house of Jefferson Taliafero. 

No. 8. Peoria, to consist of sections i to 4, 9 to 12, 13 to 16, 21 to 24, 25 to 
28, 33 to 36 in township 8 north, range 7 east ; sections 25 to 28 and 32 to 36 in 
township 9 north, range 7 east, and all of fractional township 8 north, range 

8 east (that is to say, the east two-thirds of Limestone and eight sections ad- 
joining the same in the southeast corner of Kickapoo, and all of Peoria and 
Richwoods), the elections to be held at the court house. 

No. 9. ^liddle, to consist of township 8 north, range 6 east ; sections 25 to 
36 in township 9 north, range 6 east; sections 5 to 8, 17 to 20, 29 to 32 in town- 
ship 8 north, range 7 east ; and sections 29 to 32 in township 9, range 7 east 
(that is to say all of Logan, the south one-third of Rosefield, the west one-third 
of Limestone and four sections in the southwest corner of Kickapoo), the elec- 
tions to be held at the house of Thomas P. Smith, at Smithville. 

No. 10. Harkness, to consist of township 9 north, range 5 east (Elmwood), 
the elections to be held at the house of John Ewalt. 

No. II. Copperas, to consist of township 8 north, range 5 east (Trivoli), 
the elections to be held at the house of Joseph Berry. 

No. 12. LaMarsh, to consist of township 7 north, range 6 east, and 6 north, 
range 6 east (Timber), the elections to be held at the house of William Duffield. 

No. 13. Lafayette, to consist of township 7 north, range 7 east (Mollis), 
the elections to be held at the house of Francis Johnson. 

At the March term, 1840, township 10 north, range 7 east (Radnor) was 
constituted an election precinct to be called Benton, the elections to be held at 
the house of Alva Dunlap. 

At the same term township 9 north, range 8 east (Richwoods) was consti- 
tuted an election precinct by the name of Jackson, the elections to be held at 
the house of John Clifton. 

At the September term, 1841, the name of LaMarsh precinct was changed to 
Lancaster precinct. 

At the March term, 1842, sections 31 and ^2 in township 11 north, range 

9 east all of fractional 10 north, range 9 east; sections i, 2, 11 and 12, 13, 14, 
23, 24, 25, 26 and 33 in township 10 north, range 8 east (that is to say, the south 
tier of Chillicothe, all of Rome and one-third of I\Iedina) were formed into a 
precinct called Rome, but at the June term, 1842, sections 31 and 32, township 
II north, range 9 east, were taken from Rome and re-attached to Senaclnvine. 
At the June term, 1843, sections 25 to 36 in township 9 north, range 7 east and 
sections i to 17, 20 to 30 and 34 to 36, in township 8 north, range 7 east (that 
is to say, the south one-third of Kickapoo and all of Limestone, with the excep- 
tion of five sections in the southwest corner) were constituted a precinct to be 
known as the Limestone precinct, the elections to be held at the house of James 

This was the condition of the county when S. De Witt Drown published 
his map of the same in 1844. Subsequently at the June term, 1847, section 32, 
8 north, 7 east, was taken from the middle and added" to Limestone precinct. 

At the June term, 1848, the Rome and La Salle precincts were vacated and 
a new precinct called La Salle was constituted out of the following territory : 
Sections i. 2, 3, east half of 4, east half of 9, all of 10 to 15, the east half of 
16, east half of 21, all of 22 to 27, east half of 28, east half of 33, all of 34 and 
35, in township 10 north, range 8 east, and all of fractional township 10 north, 
range 9 east (that is to say, all of Medina east of a line running through the 
center of sections 4, 9, 16, 21, 28 and 33, and all of Rome), the elections to 


Ije held at the house of Thomas ^Mooney. subse(|uentlv in obedience to a vote 
of the people at the August election, changed to the house of Thomas B. Reed. 
In 1849 this section was visited by the scourge of cholera and many were 
the deaths that followed in its trail. The stricken became so numerous and 
the disease was so deadly that few of those left untouched by its ravaging 
hand had the temerity to nurse the sick and dying. Hence it was that the 
Peoria board of health was forced to find some place to house and segregate 
cholera patients and, on July 11 of the year above mentioned, the county com- 
missioners' court was prevailed upon to grant the use of the three upper rooms 
in the court house for hospital purposes. In addition, the county furnished beds 
and necessary medicines and delicacies for both town and county patients. At 
a special term of the court held in September, Alva .Mofifatt was given the 
contract to furnish coal for the court house and jail at five cents a bushel, and 
William Compher was authorized to procure three hundred dollars to be ex- 
pended in Pittsburg for iron used for the roof of the county jail. At this time 
William Alitchell was clerk, but before the next session of the court, held in 
November following, he fell a victim of cholera. Ralph Hamlin was appointed 
his successor and, on the 23d day of November, 1849, the last term of the com- 
missioners" court was held, it ceasing to e.xist, a county court having been jjrovided 
for by law. 


.At the election held in the fall of 1849, Thomas P)ryant was elected county 
judge, who superseded the county commissioners' court in the transaction of 
the county's business. The first term of the county court was held on the 3d 
day of December, 1849, but in the spring of 1850, a board of supervisors had 
been elected, which took full management of the county's afTairs on the 9th of 
July following. The (|uestion of adopting the "township system" of govern- 
ment had been submitted to a vote of the electors in the fall of 1849, which 
resulted in a majority vote of 2,128 being cast in its favor. There were only 
nineteen votes in the negative. David Sanborn, George Holmes and Mark Aiken 
were appointed commissioners to divide the county into townships and the first 
election of supervisors was held in April, 1830. The newly elected body held 
its first meeting on the 8th day of April, 1850, at which time the twelve town- 
ships then organized were represented by the following named persons: 

Townships Supervisors 

Hollis Stephen Wheeler 

Rosefield John Combs 

Orange Samuel Dimon 

Rich woods Josiah Fulton 

Chillicothe Charles S. Struther 

Benton Jonathan 1 Jrassfield 

Akron Benjamin Slane 

Limestone Isaac Brown 

Princeville L. B. Corn well 

Jubilee William W. Church 

■Millbrook Clark W. Stanton 

Trivoli David R. Gregory 

Samuel Dimon was elected by liis fellow members chairman of the board, 
and Charles Killette was clerk. 

In the June (1850) meeting of the board Orange township was given the 
name of Kickapoo, Benton was changed to Fremont and later the name was 
discarded for that of Radnor, in honor of one of the pioneers of that region. 

The last session of the county commissioners' court was a special one, which 


lasted three days and adjourned on Friday, November 23, 1849. The first term 
of the county court was held December 3, 1849, ^nd the last term on the 4th 
day of June. 1850. 


In the legislative act creating the county of Peoria, provision was made for 
the election of a probate judge for the county, whose tenure of office should be 
during good behavior. The probate courts were first established by law Feb- 
ruary 10, 1821, and their jurisdiction was similar to that of the probate courts 
of the present day, although many changes had been made as the years went by. 
They were courts of record and the judge also acted as his own clerk. Norman 
Hyde was the first incumbent of this office and was elected within a day or 
two after the passage of the bill organizing the county. Governor Edward 
Coles issued to him his commission on the i8th day of January, 1825, but he 
did not qualify until the 4th day of June following, John Di.xon, clerk of the 
circuit court administering the oath of office. In the meantime, Air. Hyde had 
been appointed clerk of the commissioners' court and performed the duties 
of that office until his induction into the office of probate judge. On the 6th 
of June, 1825, Judge Hyde opened his court, but there being no matters for 
settlement, an adjournment was taken until the next term, and so on for the 
next four terms the court was without anything to do and at once adjourned 
for that reason. It was not until the 30th day of September, 1825, that the 
first estate of a deceased person was entered in the court. On that day John 
P.arker took out letters of administration upon the estate of John O'Brien, giv- 
ing bond in the sum of S800, with John L. I'.ogardus and Daniel Like as securi- 
ties. The court then adjourned, that having been all the business before it. 
Nothing came up before the court until December 5th, when the will of Isaac 
Remsden, Jr., made in Muskingum county, Ohio, dated May 13, 1825, was 
probated. The witnesses to the will were Thomas Bell and Gilbert Crandall. 
Letters of administration were issued to Jacob Crooks. 

No business was brought before the court until April 11, 1826, several ad- 
journments having been taken in the meantime. On this day Isaac Perkins was 
appointed administrator of the estate of Elza Bethard. deceased. However, 
at the October term. Handy Bethard proved himself to be the next of kin and 
the letters of administration granted Perkins were revoked and Bethard was 
appointed in his stead. 


Alexander Wolcott appeared at the .A.pril (1826) term of court and made 
proof of the death of John Crafts of Chicago, a prominent member of the 
American Fur Company. Upon filing a bond of $3,000, Wolcott was issued 
letters testamentary, having for his sureties John Kinzie, of Chicago, and John 
Latham. On the 20th day of November, 1826, Wolcott submitted his appraise- 
ment and sale bills of the estate, which were recorded. The appraisers were 
John Kinzie and "Billy" Caldwell, both of Chicago. On this day also came 
Jacob Crooks, administrator of the estate of Isaac Remsden and filed his ap- 
praisement of the estate, made by Alexander McNaughton, John Griffith and 
Hugh Montgomery, and sworn to before 'Squire John Dillon. 

On the 10th day of December. John P>arker, as executor of the estate of 
Joseph O'Brien, filed his appraisement of property of the deceased, which had 
been sworn to before Stephen French, justice of the peace. On the next day 
Margaret Latham and Richard Latham, her son, were appointed administrators 
of the estate of James Latham (the same who claimed title to part of the town 
site of Peoria) "deceased, Benjamin Briggs. Grant Blackwell and John Hamlin 
becoming their sureties on a bond of $2,000. 


The first final settlement of an estate in Peoria county was that of Joseph 
O'Brien, John Barker, on the i6th day of April, 1826, having filed his final 
account, which showed a balance for distribution among the heirs of $416.31^. 

The appraisement of the property of James Latham was made by Peter G. 
Cowerdin, Charles Finley and Grant Blackwell, and an additional appraise- 
ment was made by John Hamlin, John Barker and Henry Neely, and sworn 
to before John L. Bogardus, of Peoria. The papers showed that after the 
deduction of expenses a balance of $968.21 remained. This appraisement was 
filed b\' Richard Latham, April 19, 1827. On the 8th day of January, 1828, 
Richard Latham filed the sale bill of James Latham's property at Elkhart 
Grove, Sangamon county, amounting to $722.46, of which the widow's award 
was $301.75. 

Alexander Wolcott, administrator, closed up the afifairs of the estate of 
John Crafts, in which, among other items, he charged himself with $2,500, 
received from the American Fur Company in New York, Craft's share of 
profits on the Chicago assets for 1825-6, according to the award of Thomas 
Addis Emmet, a noted lawyer of New York city, arbiter in the matter. After 
crediting himself with an item of $784, being the amount of an account of the 
American Fur Company against the estate, one of John Kinzie's for $87.88 
and one of Gurdon S. Hubbard for $22, a Ijalance was shown in favor of the 
heirs in the sum of $1,454.25. On the same day Wolcott made proof of the 
death of John Kinzie, of Chicago, and was granted letters testamentary on 
his estate, the bond being placed at $3,000, with John Beaubien and James 
Kinzie as sureties. On the I'gth day of May, W'olcott filed a schedule of the 
property of John Kinzie, made at Chicago, on April 22d, by Alexander Doyle 
and J. P.. Beaubien and acknowledged by R. A. Kinzie, clerk. The property 
amounted to $805.40, plus a sale bill amounting to $254.87^/2. 

josiah Fulton applied for letters of administration upon the estate of his 
brother, Samuel Fulton, late sheriff of Peoria county, December 4, 1829. He 
was appointed administrator and the bond was fixed at $1,000. An appraise- 
ment was made of the estate by H. B. Stillnian and Norman Hyde and filed 
with the court. 

On the 17th day of December, 1830, John B. Beatibien obtained letters of 
administration upon the estate of Francis La Frambois, of Chicago. John 
Hamlin and David Hunter were his sureties on a bond of $3,000. On the same 
day, David Hunter proved the death of Alexander Wolcott and was appointed 
administrator, dcbonis iioii of the estate of John Kinzie, late of Chicago. His 
bond was $3,000 and with him signed John B. Beaubien and John Hamlin. 
By this time the reader must have gathered the idea that the two men just 
mentioned were professional bondsmen. 

Francis Sharp, on the 27th day of January, 183 1, proved the death of his 
father, George Sharp, a member of the county commissioners' court. Letters 
of administration were granted him and Elizabeth Sharp, the widow of the 
deceased, with bond of $4,000. The sureties were John Hamlin and Alexander 
Caldwell. The inventory and sale bill of the estate was filed in May, which 
showed a personal estate amounting to $524.06^4- On the same day David 
Hunter, administrator of the estate of John Kinzie, filed a report, showing he 
had received from various sources the sum of $740.25 due the estate. The 
report also showed that the sum of $2,190.12 was due the estate from the 
American Fur Company, with interest at five per cent from May 12, 1828. 

The David Hunter here mentioned was a man of no ordinary distinction. 
He was an officer in the regular army and was for some time in command of 
Fort Dearborn. During the Civil war he became one of the leaders among 
the many brave commanders in the army and rose to the rank of major-general. 

The last entry made by Judge Norman Hyde was the notation on his record 
of the adjournment of court February 6, 1832, as his death occurred soon 
thereafter. His successor, in the person of Andrew M. Hunt, was commis- 


sioned as judge of the probate court, by Governor John Reynolds, November 
lO, 1832, and on the 15th day of November took his seat on the bench. On the 
2ist day of November John Hamlin and Simon Reed filed the will of Norman 
Hyde, in which John Hamlin, Simon Reed and Andrew M. Hunt were named 
as executors. Only the first two could qualify, as the latter had become the 
judge of the court before whom the estate must be settled. 

The office of probate judge was abolished by act of the legislature March 
4, 1837. Ikit an additional justice of the peace, styled probate justice of the 
peace, was elected in August of that year, whose jurisdiction was the same as 
other justices, in addition to which he was clothed with authority and minis- 
terial powers in probate matters and jurisdiction when executors or adminis- 
trators were parties to a suit to the amount of $1,000; also the same judicial 
powers of a probate judge. However, all his acts were subject to the approval 
of the circuit court. It will be seen, therefore, that Judge Andrew M. Hunt's 
ofiicial career was a short one. At the election held in August, 1837, George 
B. Parker was elected the first probate justice of the peace. In 1839 he was 
succeeded by Dr. Edward Dickinson, who served until 1843, when William H. 
Fessenden was elected. Thomas Bryant followed Fessenden in 1847 ^^'^ re- 
tained the office until November 29, 1849, when the office was abolished. 





One of the first orders entered in the minute book of the county commis- 
sioners' court, at its tirst term, was for the selection of a site and the erection 
thereon of a court house, the same to be twenty feet square and nine feet from 
the floor to the joists, with a good plank or puncheon floor; also a clerk's office 
fourteen feet square, with a good puncheon floor, both to be of good materials 
and finished in a workmanlike manner — the clerk's office to be ready for occu- 
pancy by the 20th day of April, and the court house on the 25th day of May. 
Four (lays later the order for these buildings was rescinded. 

The first court house, or rather, the first meeting place of the county com- 
missioners, was at the house of Joseph Ogee, below the ferry and some dis- 
tance from the tract of land designated by the legislature for the county seat, 
and for the use of the house Ogee was allowed one dollar. This place had 
also been chosen in which to hold the circuit court, and the records show that 
the November term of the circuit court was held at the Ogee home and the 
May term of the commissioners' court in 1826, for the use of which Ogee was 
allowed three dollars. The next term of the circuit court was held at the 
house of Louis Beeson, who at the December term, was allowed for the use of 
his house the sum of $16. Joseph Ogee was a half-breed, with a strain of 
French blood. His wife was a Pottawatomie. He was in the employ of the 
American Fur Company, as was also Beeson. The Ogee house was reputed 
to have been the best in Peoria at the time of which we write, being con- 
structed of hewn logs, and this probably accounts for his place being chosen by 
the courts for their meetings. It is surmised that the Beeson house was the 
same as that mentioned as Ogee, for the latter had moved from the settle- 
ment soon after the May (1826) term of the commissioners' court. In Drown's 
Historical \"iew of Peoria, published in 1844, a writer, presumably John Ham- 
lin, says the house in which the court was held in November, 1826, was "a log 
building on the bank of the river, in whicli jurors slept on their blankets on 
the floor." 


In the session of the legislature which convened in December, 1824, the 
judiciary of the state was reorganized and divided into five judicial circuits 
and in the same act five circuit judgeships were created. Prior to this, members 
of the supreme court of the state held the circuit courts. The first circuit was 
composed of the counties of Sangamon, Pike, Fulton, Morgan, Greene and 
Montgomery, and the judge for this district, as for the others, was elected by 
the general assembly, their commissions being dated on the 19th day of Janu- 
ary, 1S25. John Sawyer was elected to the first circuit, to which Peoria county 
upon its organization, was attached. The first term of the circuit court in the 



first district convened on the 14th day of November, 1825, with John York 
Sawyer, judge: John Dixon, clerk; Samuel Fulton, sherit? ; James Turney, 
attorney general. Judge Sawyer was a large man, physically, and of an impos- 
ing appearance. He was a terror to evil-doers and severe upon criminals. An 
incident related of him in this connection is that of a man who had lieen con- 
victed of petty larceny, the penalty for which was a whipping on the Ijare back, 
the stripes not to exceed forty. The attorney for the defendant had made a 
motion for a new trial, but before the question was argued the attorney's atten- 
tion was called temporarily to some other matter and in his absence the judge 
ordered the ofifender to be punished according to law by being tied to a tree 
near the court house. It is said that Judge Sawyer witnessed the whipping 
from his seat on the bench, counting the stripes as they were laid on. When the 
job was finished, and not until then, the defendant's attorney appeared and he 
was informed by the judge that he could have a new trial if he wished; but the 
defendant was averse to anything of the kind, having protested that he had had 
trials enough. 

It will have been seen that the county commissioners' court at its April 
terrn in 1825 had ordered the sheriff to summon grand and petit jurors selected 
at the first term of the court to appear on the second Monday in June, but 
there is no record of any court having been held on that date and it is therefore 
presumed that the first term was convened in the month of November. Only 
sixteen of the twenty-four grand jurors selected, appeared, namely: John Ham- 
lin, Stephen French, Thomas Dillon, Henry Thomas, George Harlan, Isaac 
Waters, Augustus Langworthy, George Sharp, Seth Wilson, John Klein, George 
Klein, Isaac Perkins, John Phillips and ^lajor Donaho. The grand jury re- 
turned five indictments, one of which was for murder, two for assault and two 
for minor offenses. 

The murder case referred to brought to Peoria nearly all of the settlers 
of this locality. The prisoner at the bar was an Indian named Nomaque, who 
was charged with the killing of a Frenchman by the name of Pierre Landre. 
Jacques Alette and Joseph Ogee were appointed interpreters. William S. Ham- 
ilton ^vas counsel for the defendant but great difficulty was encountered in 
obtaining a jury. The following named persons, however, were empaneled: 
Austin Crocker, Allen S. Daugherty, Alexander AIcNaughton, Nathan Dillon, 
Henry Neely, William Woodrow, Peter Dumont, Aaron Reed, Abram Galentine. 
Josiah Fulton, Cornelius Doty and David Matthews. This jury convicted 
Nomaque, and Hamilton carried the case to the supreme court, where he ob- 
tained a reversal of the judgment, but the Indian was held as a prisoner until 
the next grand Jury should pass upon the case. The other indictments found 
at this term were against Joseph Ogee and Jacob Frank for an affray ; Levi 
Ellis and Lyman Leonard charged with a like offense ; Abner Cooper for as- 
sault and battery ; and John Griffin, charged also with assault and battery. 
During this term William S. Hamilton was twice fined by the court for con- 
tempt. At this term Judge York issued peremptory writs to compel the ap- 
pearance of Louis Beeson, Pierre Chevilire, Francis Borbonnie, Sr., Francis 
Borbonnie. Jr., and Antoine Borbon, who had failed to recognize the original 
summons for their appearances as witnesses in the Nomaque case. 

The duration of the first term of court was four days and no other term 
was held until in October, 1826, when Judge 'S'ork again sat upon the bench. 
The most important case to be tried was that of Nomaque, the Indian, against 
whom a second indictment had been found. Of this second trial and its results 
an interesting description is given by one of the grand jurors in Drown's direc- 
tory for 1844: 

"In the year 1826, I lived three miles from Mackinaw river, on the Peoria 
and Springfield road, in what is now Tazewell county, but then attached to 
Peoria, and being that year twenty-one years old, I was summoned upon the 
grand jury. There were not then enough adults in Peoria county proper to 

i'i;(isi'i;( I' \.\i.i.i-.'i i'i;iisi'i:( 'I' iii-;i(;iirs 


form the grand and petit juries, hence they were summoned from the attached 
portion. All the grand jury but two were from the east side of the Illinois 
river, chiefly my acquaintances and neighbors. We took our provisions and 
bedding, the latter being a blanket or quilt for each. It was the practice also 
in those days to take a flagon of liquor, and this was not omitted on the occasion 
spoken of. In truth, so faithfully was the flagon put under requisition, that 
but two of our number were sober when we appeared in court and received our 
charge. Judge Sawyer was then the presiding officer ; James Turney the prose- 
cuting attorney ; and Messrs. Cavarly, Pugh, Bogardus and Turney, the entire 

"There were about eight bills of indictment found by the grand jury, one 
of which was against an Indian nained Nomaque for murder. He had been 
tried the fall before; but obtaining a new trial, he was indicted again this term. 
There being no secure jail, the sheriff (Samuel Fulton) kejit him under guard 
in the house of Mr. Allen. At night about a dozen drunken Indians met to 
rescue him. and attempted to enter the door for that purpose. Allen sprang 
out of a back window, and seizing a clapboard, rushed to the front of the house 
and laid aliout him with great fury. He felled four of the Indians to the 
ground before they could recover from their consternation, when the others 
retreated. Allen pursuing the hindmost, continued his blows, the retreating 
fellow crying out 'Schtop, white man! for God's sake schtop!' Felling him also, 
the five laid till morning, when they were able to crawl off. Nomaque after- 
wards made his escape — joined Black Hawk in the war of 1832 — was wounded 
in Stillman's defeat, and afterwards found nearly dead by some Peorians, who 
humanely shot him through to put an end to his sufferings. 

"The court house was a log Iniilding on the bank of the river, in which 
the jurors slept at night on their blankets on the floor. There was a tavern 
kept by Mr. Bogardus, but it was not large enough to furnish sleeping accom- 
modations for them. The grand jury room was a lumber cabin in which Bo- 
gardus kept saddles and other cattle fixings." 

The session of the legislature held in 1827 reorganized the judiciary by 
abolishing the office of circuit judge and assigning the judges of the supreme 
court to do circuit duty. The first circuit was then composed of the counties 
of Peoria, l-'ulton, Schuyler, Adams, Pike, Calhoun. Greene, Morgan and San- 
gamon, to which Samuel D. Lockwood was assigned. This jurist is said to 
have been a most scholarly and polished gentleman and the peer of any judge 
that had ever sat on the supreme bench of the state. It was said of him by a 
recent historian that "he stands out conspicuously as the beau ideal of a judge. 
His appearance on the bench was the very personification of dignity, learning 
and judicial acumen." Judge Lockwood presided over this court from the 
May term, 1827, to the October term, 1828. At his first term held in Peoria, 
the sheriff', Samuel Fulton, was indicted for malfeasance in office. The charge 
was negligence in allowing the Indian, Nomaque, to escape from his custody. 
The indictment, however, was twice quashed on the ground that no capias had 
been issued, requiring the sheriff' to take him into his custody. 

Another change in the judiciary was made by the legislature in 1829. A 
circuit was established consisting of the territory west and north of the Illinois 
and Kankakee rivers, embracing that portion which had formerly been at- 
tached to the county of Pike. At this same session of the legislature Richard 
M. Young was elected and commissioned on the 23d dav of January, 1829, as 
judge of this circuit. His first term of court in Peoria was in June. 1829, and 
his last was the October term of 1834. Judge Young was the first judge elected 
to preside in the third circuit and on the formation of the fifth circuit just 
designated, he removed to Quincy, where he resided during the time he was 
upon the bench. In 1836 he was elected United States senator and served the 
full term of six years. In 1843 he was elected to the supreme court and held 
the office until 1847. when he was appointed commissioner of the land office 


at Washington. In 1850 he was appointed clerk of the national house of repre- 
sentatives. His later years, however, were quite tragic, as his intellect became 
impaired to the extent that it was necessary to send him to an asylum, where 
he died. 

John Di.xon resigned as clerk of the circuit court and on the 8th day of 
June, 1830, Stephen Stillman was appointed his successor. 

Still another change was made in the judiciary in 1835. In that year the 
state was again divided into circuits and five judges in addition to the one 
already in office were chosen. These new judges were Stephen T. Logan, Sid- 
ney Breese, Henry Eddy, Thomas Ford and Justin Harlan. Thomas Ford was 
assigned to the sixth district, in which Peoria was situated. For some reason, 
however, Judge Breese presided at the first term of the circuit court in Peoria. 
At the September term Judge Stephen T. Logan presided. He resigned his 
office in 1837 and was again elected by the legislature in 1839, but declined to 
accept and never afterwards occupied a position u])on the bench. Judge Logan 
was one of the ablest lawyers and jurists of his time. He had been profession- 
ally associated with Abraham Lincoln for three years and also filled many posi- 
tions of public trust, for which he was ably fitted. Thomas Ford, who was 
assigned to the sixth circuit in which Peoria was situated, afterward became 
governor of the state. The first term at which he presided was May, 1836, 
but in March, 1837, he resigned and was succeeded by Dan Stone, one of the 
noted men of his day. Judge Stone presided from the May term, 1837, until 
the May term, 1838. One of the noted cases decided by him was political in 
its character which touched upon the right of aliens to vote at the general elec- 
tion. The matter was carried to the supreme court but before a final decision 
had been reached the eighth and ninth judicial circuits had been formed by the 
legislature and Thomas Ford, on the 25th day of February, 1839, had been 
elected and commissioned as judge of the ninth district. The controversies 
growing out of the decision of Judge Stone in the case above referred 
to led the legislature to again reorganize the judiciary of the state and by an 
act, February 10, 1841, all former laws authorizing the election of circuit judges 
or establishing circuit courts was repealed. The act then provided there should 
be appointed by joint ballot of both branches of the general assembly at that 
session five additional associate justices and the three associate justices then in 
office should constitute the supreme court of the state. The state was then 
divided into nine circuits and the chief justice and his eight associates were 
recfuired to hold court in these circuits. Thomas Ford was elected one of the 
five new justices of the supreme court, February 15, 1841, but he resigned 
August 1st, 1842, to accept the office of governor of the state, to which he was 
called soon after being elected. While acting as supreme judge he again pre- 
sided over the circuit court at Peoria from 1841 until 1S42, and Judge Richard 
M. Young again held court here as one of the supreme judges at the May 
term, 1843. Judge John Dean Caton presided over the circuit court at the 
October term," 1842, and the October term, 1843, and from thence on to the 
October term, 1848. He was a member of the supreme court for twenty-one 
years, having succeeded Governor Ford upon his resignation in 1842. He was 
reappointed by Governor Ford in 1843 to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of Judge John M. Robinson. He resigned in 1864. 

After "the adoption of the constitution in 1848, T. Lyle Dickey presided at 
the May and October terms of 1849, and William Kellogg, of the tenth circuit, 
to which Peoria then belonged, from the March term of 1850, to November, 
1852. fudge Kellogg had been commissioned as judge of the tenth circuit, 
February 12, 1830. Resigning in November, 1852, he was succeeded by Heze- 
kiah M. Wead, but before the latter could hold a term of court the sixteenth 
circuit, composed of Peoria and Stark counties, had been formed, of which 
Onslow Peters had been elected judge. Judge Wead, however, held court here 
at the fall term of 1863 to finish up certain cases in which Judge Peters had 


been engaged as counsel, judge Kellogg was elected to congress in 1856 and 
again in 1858 and i860. 

There is some uncertainty as to where the courts were held in the two fol- 
lowing years. At the January term of the county commissioners' court, the 
sheriff was authorized to procure a house for the holding of court but the 
records do not show where the place or places selected were located. At the 
March term, 1829, a record was made of the purchase from John Hamlin of a 
log house 16x14 feet, under which was a cellar, which subsecjuently served as 
a jail. This building John Hamlin, in consideration of $75, conveyed to the 
county, as the following instrument indicates : 

"I do hereby assign to the county commissioners of Peoria county for the 
use of said county, all my right, title and claim to a certain log house situated 
in the town of Peoria for and in consideration of $75 — the said house known 
as the one built hy Simon Crozier and formerly occupied as a store house by- 
said Crozier. 

"John H.-\mlin. 
''Peoria, Illinois, .March 3, 1829. 
"Witness, John Di.xon." 

It was therefore ordered at this same term that the treasurer pav John 
Hamlin $75 for a house to be used for county purposes and here it might be 
well to explain that this house is also said to have been situated below the pres- 
ent railroad bridge. ^Ir. Ballance, who arrived in Peoria soon after its pur- 
chase, in his history of Peoria says in a description of the building that it was 
located "at or near where the Fort Clark mill stands," to which Judge ]\IcCul- 
loch in his history of the county of more recent date adds "which was on the 
river bank on the northeasterly side of Harrison street. The building remained 
standing until 1843, when it was replaced by Orin Hamlin's steam flouring 
mill." A pencil sketch of Peoria in 1831 said to have been executed by J. Al. 
Roberts, indicates from the grouping of the l)uildings that the historians,' Drown 
and Ballance, were correct in their location of this building and that it was 
the cabin on the site upon which the Fort Clark mill stood and now covered 
by the warehouse of the Peoria Transfer Company. 

.\t the June term (1829) it was ordered that the lower story of the court 
house, as the building was now termed, be used as a jail, and at the Septemlser 
term, 1830, John Hamlin, from whom the building had been purchased, was 
given the use of the cellar until the month of April following, for the sum of 
$3, which same amount had been paid by F. Bournonait the preceding winter 
for storing goods therein. 

At the September term, 1830, the clerk was authorized to have certain 
repairs made on the court house. That is to say, "plastered in the joints, 
weather boarded, a window with glass on the river side, and a plank floor laid 
loose on the joice above — the work to be done on as good terms as could be 
had reasonable and that he should present his bills to the next commissioners' 
court properly authenticated." At the same time John Plamlin was given au- 
thority to buy a ten plate stove, with the necessary pipe, the cost of which was 
not to exceed $30. Whether or not these repairs were made the record does 
not show.. However, at the June term, 1831, the following entry was made: 

"Ordered that the treasurer pay $16 for repairs to the court house as fol- 
lows : .\ desk, the boarding and casing to be of walnut plank 6 feet long, 43/^ 
feet high, 31,2 feet wide from the wall, sided in front and posts cased at their 
end; narrow strip on front top. from that inward slope 12 inches, floored with 
any kind of sound plank, one step from the room floor, all but the floor to 
be planed, a narrow strip on the inside end of the slope — four benches, two 14 
feet long, or the length of the room, two 6 feet long, one and one-half inches 
thick, with an additional strip or piece where the legs are put in. The lower 


room, tlie three hewed logs missing to be put in place, that is, replaced with a 
door cheek, a door to be made of- strong inch plank, hinges, pad-lock and staples 
to be furnished by the workmen. Also two benches for table." 

It is very probable these improvements were all made, for an allowance 
was made to Moses Clifton of $16.75 ^or repairs to the court house. The 
building, however, was not adequate for the purpose it was intended when pur- 
chased, as the record shows several orders subsequently made for the use of 
private houses by the commissioners. However, an entry indicates that on July 
10, 1834, leave was granted (some one not shown) to keep a school in the 
court house for a quarter, except in term of court or when needed by the county 
commissioners or for elections. The building was also used for religious meet- 
ings but was sold to Bigelow & Underbill in 1835 for $60. 

The year 1833 finds the county without a building specially constructed for 
county purposes, and however necessary might have been a court house at that 
time, the necessity for a jail was more present. Thieving and outlawry in the 
county was becoming more prevalent and many arrests in cases of a petty 
nature were being made at shorter intervals, which placed the authorities at a 
disadvantage, from the fact there was no proper place in which to incarcerate 
the culprits pending trial of their cases. A gang of thieves had made their 
appearance in the county and it became necessary to send one of them to 
Schuyler county for trial and two others to the jail in Putnam county for safe 
keeping. This the authorities maintained was putting the county to much ex- 
pense. The items below would indicate that the county commissioners were 
not far from wrong in their contention : 

To Giles C. Dana for arresting and keeping L. Thomas and 

Joseph McMeehan $ 2.50 

Amos Stevens for conveying Thornton Hollis to Schuyler 

county 49-50 

William Compher for conveying Webster Evans to Putnam 

county 29.00 

William Compher for conveying Joseph McAIeehan to 

Putnam county 29.00 

William Compher for pursuing Thornton Hollis 9.37 

William Compher for bringing two prisoners from Put- 
nam jail 3100 

Obadiah JMolley, sherilt Putnam county, for keeping Evans 

from November 21 to April 22 68.50 

Obadiah ]\Iotley for keeping McMeehan November 28, to 

April 22 65.37 

Total for three prisoners $284.25 


It was therefore ordered that lot 3 in block 37 be set apart for the site of 
a jail. The contract for the building was let to George De Pree, who was awarded 
on his contract at the April term, 1835, the sum of $381, which was probably but 
a portion of the contract price. The description of this building in Ballance's 
history is as follows: "About the year 1834 a jail was built of square logs, on 
the alley between Main and Hamilton and between Monroe and Perry streets. 
It was sixteen feet square and fourteen feet high. The lower story was con- 
structed of three thicknesses of logs, two lying horizontally and the one between 
them standing perpendicularly, so that should any attempt be made to bore the 
logs, the perpendicular ones would come down and stop the hole. The upper 
story was only one thickness of logs. To give strength, these logs were dove- 
tailed at the corners. Above the strong room there was a strong floor and trap 

•lAii. AM) (orirriKii sK ix is4.-, 

I'EoKlA's FIKST ( ( H irii i( ush:. iirii/r i\ is:;(i 


door. Through this trap door prisoners were passed and then the ladder drawn 
up. The rtoor of the lower part was made of timbers fitted close together and 
the whole covered with oaken planks sjjiked down." Xo mention is made of 
any windows in the lower story and when the building was first constructed 
there probably were none, for at the March term. 1839. Henry Hahn was ordered 
to put one in. This was the only jail building in the county until 1849. when a 
new one was erected. When it was replaced the lot was sold to Halsey O. .Merri- 
man, June g. 1847, for $150. Soon after the erection of the jail a log cabin 
was built on the same lot for the use of the janitor. Daniel Bristol was the 
contractor and was paid $2.70 at the June term for his work. 


The second jail was erected in 1849 on the corner of Washington and North 
Fayette (now Eaton) streets. On June 7, 1844, the commissioners' court had 
ordered notices to be published in the Press and Register, newspapers then pub- 
lished in Peoria, inviting the submission of plans at the coming September term 
for a jail to be constructed of stone. The records do not show that anything 
further was done in this matter until December 4. 1845. when a contract was 
let to George O. Kingsley for the erection of a jail for $6,640. At the March 
term, 1846. lot i. No. i of the subdivision of lots i and 3 in block 18, was chosen 
as the site for the new bastile. Chester Hamlin was appointed superintendent 
of the work, for which he was to have two per cent commission. Charles Ul- 
richson, an architect, was allowed $10 for examining the plans and specifica- 
tions, but what they were, the records do not show. After having made some 
progress in his work, for which he was paid $616, Kingsley 's contract was re- 
scinded at the September term 1846. For that reason the work was suspended 
and nothing further was done until the December term, when the clerk was 
directed to advertise for proposals to be submitted at the January term, 1847, 
for the building of a jail according to plans and specifications in the clerk's 
office. On January 6, 1847, the contract was let to Thomas Turbit, Thomas P. 
Smith and William Smith, farmers, then living in that part of the county which 
afterwards became known as Logan township. The contract price was $7,450. 

Three years after it had been commenced, or, to be exact, on April 14, 1849, 
the new jail building was accepted as fullv completed and on settlement there 
was found due the contractors the sum of $1,695.99. This sum w-as allowed, 
notwithstanding the contractors had placed upon the building a temporary roof 
instead of a copper roof required of them in the contract. From this it seems 
they had been relieved. 

That part of the new .structure which fronted the street liad the appearance 
of an ordinary brick building. It was brick and was used for the sheriff's 
home, while the rear portion, or jail proper, was stone. The cells were on the 
first floor and arranged around the outer walls, in which grated windows were 
inserted. A hall separated the two ranges of cells. On the second floor was a 
large room called the debtor's room, which w'as intended for the imprisonment 
of imfortunates not able, or refusing to pay their debts. As this barbarous 
practice became illegal, the room was later used as a place of confinement for 
female prisoners. 


In 1867 the board of supervisors bought the lot on wliich the present jail 
is located, for the sum of $6,000. It had originally belonged to the county but 
after having olitained title to the county seat site, the county commissioners 
had sold the lot for $75. The new jail was completed at a cost of $75,000 and 
was placed in custody of the sheriff on the 24th day of January, 1869. 



It was at the June term, 1833, that initial steps were taken for the building 
of a court house. The clerk was ordered to advertise in the Sangamon Journal 
for sealed proposals to be delivered at the clerk's office until the 9th day of July- 
following, for the furnishing of 150,000 brick on the public square, at which 
time contracts would be awarded, also at the same time contracts would be let 
for the stone and lumber that might be wanted in the construction of a court 
house. .At the l^larch term, 1834, Reuben B. Hamlin, one of the contractors 
for furnishing lumber, was allowed $15 for a drawing of the proposed court 
house. Bids for brick were received at the July term, 1833, and the contract 
for the same was awarded to Samuel Hackelton at $5 per thousand, and the 
firm of Moffatt & Hamlin was awarded the lumber contract. The brick used 
in the building was burned at the foot of the bluff near Knoxville avenue by 
Moore & Pitt, who had in their employ at the time Robert Smith, later a resident 
of Mossville. 

At the January term, 1834, John Hamlin was made agent to procure rock 
and have it placed upon the ground for the foundation and also to procure 
hewn timber for the court house upon the best terms obtainable. The clerk 
was directed to advertise in the Sangamon Journal, Beardstown Chronicle and 
St. Louis Republic that sealed proposals would be received at the clerk's office 
ujitil the third day of the next term for the mason work in the foundation 
walls and also the brick work, the county to furnish the materials. Proposals 
were also asked for the carpenter work exclusive of the doors and windows, 
plans and specifications to be sent to the clerk's office. 

The query might here arise as to why these notices were not published in a 
Peoria paper, and the answer is, there was no paper published in Peoria at 
that time. 

The contract for the mason work was awarded to Charles W. McClallan, 
and the carpenter work to George B. Macy, at the March term, 1834. John 
Hamlin was released as agent to procure materials, and at the April term fol- 
lowing Francis Voris was selected to superintend the erection of the building 
and served in that capacity until July 10, when he was succeeded by Isaac 
Waters. By this time work was progressing on the new county building, and 
at the June term, 1834, orders were entered for the payment for the first work 
done thereon : 

F. Voris, digging 853^ yards foundation at 10 cents 

per yard $ 8.50 

C. W. McCkllan for quarrying 58 window sills at 62^4 
cents each, 2 door sills at 623/^ cents each, and 200 

feet water table at 6yi cents per foot 50.00 

Alvah Moftatt for hauling 16.621^ 

George .Martin for pine plank 283.00 

John H. Dusenberry for time and $5.00 advanced for 

quarrying rock 6.123^ 

From what has been related the reader will at once see that a great deal of 
work in connection with the new court house devolved upon the commissioners' 
court. At a special term held in July, 1834, Joseph Mitchell was paid for haul- 
ing caps, sills, water tables and scaffold poles. Alva Moffatt was refunded 
$150 for money advanced to purchase lumber; C. W. McClallan $50 for mason 
work ; and John Pitt for hauling caps and sills. At the October term John 
Hamlin was again appointed agent to procure materials, the lack of which had 
caused delay in the progress of the work. 

The first plans for this building made no provision for ornamentation but 
after the four walls had reached completion it was determined that a portico 

.MOTl)l!( V( I.K I'Ol.K i;.\li:.\ L\ FlldXI (iF ( 11 V I'KISOX 



and cupola should be added ; consequently, at the April term, 1836, Joshua 
Bowman was awarded a contract for foundation stone for the columns, the 
same to be four feet square, ten inches thick and to cost $35. 

At the August term, Joshua ISowman was awarded a contract to furnish, 
cut and lay stone steps around the piazza and up to the back door of the court 
house at 62^^ cents per foot. On October i6th Charles W. McClallan was 
ordered paid $100 on his contract for plastering, and soon thereafter the No- 
vember term of circuit court convened and seems to have been in the new 
court house while in an unfinished state, for at the December term, Reuben 
Hamlin, William P. BUxton, Nathaniel Dyes, John Brown, Albert Hurd and 
Job Ross were allowed compensation for suspension work on the court house 
during the sitting of circuit court. At the same term Henry Gilbert on the 
part of the county and \V. A. I'.lair on the part of Reuben B. Hamlin assessed 
the additional compensation demantled by the latter, as follows : 

To additional size of building $ 300.OO 

To one extra window 1 1.50 

To extra work on windows 75oo 

To balustrades around bell deck 50.00 

To damages for failure on part of contract S/O.oo 

To hindrance for lumber this summer 50.00 

To glue 20, at 31^ cents 6.25 

To extra work on capitals 150.00 

To cash paid for labor 1.50 

To cash paid for drayage .50 


At this time, while the court house had not reached completion, it was far 
enough advanced to admit of occupancy of a portion of the first story, which 
was divided into six rooms. Plorace P. Johnson, an attorney, was granted 
leave to occupy room No. 2 from and after the 9th of December. On the nth 
Joshua Bowman was awarded a contract for building and erecting four plain, 
round columns in front of the court house, to be completed by the ist day of 
July following, at $10 per foot, running measure. C. W. ]\IcClallan was also 
given a contract to ornament the court room by putting a cornice around the 
ceiling. Both these contracts were settled for at the June term 1836, and the 
court house was practically finished. 

It seems to have been the aim of the county commissioners, business man- 
agers of the county, to make the court house in a measure pay for itself, for 
there are entries showing that several rooms were rented to parties who had 
no official relation to the county. As has been stated, Horace P. Johnson was 
granted leave to occupy room No. 2 on the ground floor of the building, for 
which he was assessed as rent $50 per year. Others to whom rooms were rented 
were Charles Kettelle, who secured room No. 3, and E. N. Powell, room No. 5, 
all at the same rent. The grand jury room given over to A. M. Hunt at $45 
the year, with liberty of the grand jury to occupy it during the sitting of the 
circuit court. At the July term, 1837, No. 4 was rented to Onslow Peters until 
the December term, for $12.50. At the December term there was a re-letting 
as follows : No. 2, to Horace P. Johnson and Jacob Gale ; No. 3, to Charles 
Kettelle; No. 4, to Onslow Peters; and No. 5 to E. N. Powell, at $50. There 
was a re-letting of the rooms the next year. Horace P. Johnson retained No. 
2; Charles Kettelle was given No. 3; Peters & Gale, No. 4; George B. Parker, 
who had recently been elected probate justice of the peace. No. 5 ; and Frizby 
& Metcalfe, No. 6, at $50 a year. The jury room was let to Lincoln B. Knowl- 
ton at the June term, 1839. with the condition that the jury should use it when 
needed. Later some of the partitions were removed and the enlarged rooms 

Vol, 1—8 


occupied l)y the sheriff and circuit clerk. On the left of the hall was the county 
clerk's office, which was afterwards used by the board of supervisors. Xext to 
the county clerk's room was a small one occupied by the county judge, who 
also shared it w-ith a hrm of attorneys. 

The court room was in the second story, on each side of which was a jury room, 
but some years later a balcony was constructed in the portico, which was ap- 
proached by thin stairways, one on each side of the main entrance. From that 
time onward the court room occupied the entire second floor. 


I'.v the year 1838 the court house became insufficient for the needs of the 
county and a more secure place for the records became a matter of prime neces- 
sity. It was therefore determined to erect a new temple of justice, which was 
begun on an elaborate plan that year, but only the first story of the northeast 
wing was erected. It was divided lengthwise into two rooms, which were occu- 
pied by the circuit and county clerks. It was thoroughly fireproof and although 
not pleasing to the eye served the purposes for a period of nearly twenty years. 
The present court house is the second and last completed building of the kind 
erected in the county. The plans for the one contemplated in 1858 had been 
abandoned after part of the building had been completed, but it was not until 
the December session of the board of supervisors that concrete action was taken 
toward the erection of a new and adequate court house. On the loth of De- 
cember, 1874, Horace G. Anderson, chairman of the committee on public build- 
ings submitted a report to the board of supervisors in favor of the building of 
a new court house. The report concluded with the following resolutions : 

"Resolved, i. That the county of Peoria needs a new court house and 
that in order to build the same it is necessary to issue county bonds. 

"2. That the question of issuing county bonds to the amount of $250,000, 
to run not to exceed ten years and to draw not to exceed 8 per cent interest, be 
submitted to the legal voters at the next April election. 

"3. That the county clerk be instructed to give the proper notice that the 
question will be submitted to be voted upon at that election and that he cause 
to be printed on the ballots to be used at that election "for county bonds' and 
"against county bonds' as provided by law." 

After amending the resolutions so as to change the time of voting from 
April to the next November election, they were adopted by a vote of 16 to 9. 

The vote on the question of issuing jjonds was submitted to the electors of 
the county at the November election of 1875 and the proposition was carried by 
a majority of 1,516. There were 6,910 votes cast. Plans were at once adver- 
tised for and after many had been submitted for examination, those of the 
firm of Wilcox & Miller." architects of Chicago, were adopted March 31, 1876. 
The contract for the building was let to Philip H. Decker, of Chicago, May 
12, 1876, his bid being $206,071.31. Work at once began on the new building 
and on Saturday, September 30, 1876, the corner stone was laid, with very 
simple ceremonies. Addresses were made on that occasion by Jonathan K. 
Cooper, one of the pioneer members of the bar, and Hon. Joseph "W. Cochran, 
judge of the circuit court. After the speeches, Thomas Cratty, member of the 
bar, and Mark M. Aiken, one of the oldest settlers of the county, placed within 
the stone a number of documents and articles of historical value. 

Early in the month of November, 1878, the building was completed, and on 
the 1 8th the event was celebrated by a grand reception to the public, which ter- 
minated with a banquet, at which time a number of speeches were delivered, 
being preceded, however, with prayer by Rev. J. D. Wilson, rector of Christ 
English Reformed church. The orators of the occasion were Judges David 
McCulloch, loseph W. Cochran and Sabin D. Puterbaugh, and Messrs. Law- 
rence W. James, Washington Cockle, Thomas Cratty, ^McCoy, Tipton, Cremer 



and Fuller. The day was spent by a vast throng of visitors to the building and 
by night time their numbers liad increased amazingly. The banquet was pre- 
pared by Charles H. Deane, proprietor of the Peoria House, which was dis- 
cussed by about 250 persons. The total cost of the building, to which, as a 
matter of course, various additions and changes have been made after the plans 
had been adopted, was $248,968.70. The clock in the tower was manufactured 
by the Seth Thomas Clock Company, of New York ; the bell, which weighs 
four thousand pounds, was made at the McNeely & Kimberly bell works, Troy, 
New York, both bell and clock furnished by the American Clock Company of 
New York, cost $2,495. 

The architects' description of this beautiful building is as follows: "Style, 
Venetian Italian; plan, cruciform, with grand colonnade entrance or porticoes, 
42 feet wide on the two fronts; at Main and Hamilton street fronts, two story 
colonnades and arcades; size, 177 feet front by 90 feet on Main and Hamilton; 
height to cornices, 90 feet, and to top of lantern, 166 feet from the base line. 
Material of exterior w'alls Amherst stone from the Clough cjuarry near Cleve- 
land, Ohio." 

"The old court house was sold to David P)Urns for $250 to be removed 
within ten days. On Saturday, the 13th of May, the members of the Peoria 
bar, many of whom had grown old in the practice of their profession beneath 
its shadow, assembled in the court room of the condemned structure for a 
formal leave-taking before the work of demolition should commence. Jonathan 
K. Cooper presided, speeches were made by Judge Gale, E. G. Johnson, E. P. 
Sloan, D. '5lcCulloch, Judge I.oucks and John Holmes. The speeches were 
full of reminiscences incident to the court houses, lawyers and judges of early 
times. Some of them were historical, some humorous, but all appropriate to 
the occasion." 


Every commimity has its helpless and indigent individuals who through 
stress of circumstances, disease or shiftlessness become a care and oft times a 
burden upon the community at large. Provision for supplying them with food 
and shelter are incumbent upon the taxpayers, and in conseciuence of this fact 
the county commissioners' court on the iith day of December, 1847, purchased 
of William Alitchell the south half of the northeast c|uarter of section 9. town- 
ship 8 north, 7 east, to be used as a comity farm, for the sum of $i,ocxd. There 
were buildings on the place at the time which were considered sufficient for 
the needs of the county, and provisions were made to prepare them for occu- 
pancy by the ist of February, ensuing. Furniture and provisions were secured 
and the commissioners in person made all necessary arrangements for the sup- 
port and accommodation of those who should come under their care. From a 
number of ap]ilicants, Hiram Partridge was selected as superintendent of the 
infirmary, and on tiie 2(1 day of February, 1848, he w^as appointed to the posi- 
tion, at a salary of $275, after giving bond to the county in the sum of $1,000. 
On the 9th of Alarch notice w-as published in the newspapers requiring all per- 
sons chargeable to the county to be conveyed to the new home for the indigent. 
On the 7th of February, 1849, Hiram Partridge w-as reappointed superintendent 
for another year, and for his wife's services and that of his three boys, also the 
use of a cow and a yoke of oxen, he was to receive $373 for the ensuing year. 
This was Partridge's last appointment by the commissioners' court, but he was 
kept in the position for several years by the board of supervisors. 

In 1865 the board of supervisors bought a tract of land, consisting of one 
hundred and sixty acres, known as the Herron farm, adjoining the land already 
secured, for which was paid $9,000. This increased the county farm to two 
hundred and forty acres. In February, 1869, the building committee of the 
board reported, among others, a bid for the construction of an infirmary build- 


ing according to plans and specifications already adopted, by G. L. Royce for 
$50,000. The rejjort also set forth that the committee had prepared a bill to be 
presented to the legislature, authorizing the board to issue bonds to the amount 
of $0o,ooo, to pay for the erection of the building, but the board determined 
to only spend 830,000 for that purpose and accordingly let the contract to 
Charles Ulrichson. In the month of February, 1870, the building was com- 
pleted and turned over to the county by the contractor. The total cost, including 
lieating apparatus and outhouses, amounted to $37,950. To this should be added 
$500, voted by the board to be paid Contractor Ulrichson, in recognition of the 
faithful and honest performance of his work. 


At the December ( 1880) session of the board of supervisors a committee 
was appointed to secure plans for a building to l)e used in caring for the insane 
of the count} . Plans were adopted by the committee and so reported at the 
following March term, but no action was taken thereon, as legislation pertinent 
to the subject was at that time progressing in the general assembly. The matter 
again came up before the board at the March session of 1882, Charles Ulrichson 
submitting plans for a building to cost $28,390, w'hich were adopted, and no 
further action was taken until at the September session, when the proposition 
to issue $50,000 in bonds was carried by the board and ratified by the electors 
of the county at the November election. 

In April, 1883, the board of supervisors awarded to A. F. Miller the con- 
tract for the erection of the main building for the insane, which was completed 
the following December at a cost of about $37,000. The structure is of brick 
and three stories in height. It was built contiguous to the main building of the 
infirmary and when the latter was destroyed by fire in March, 1886, it was not 
touched by the flames. 

The main, building of the county farm, the walls of which were standing 
after the fire, was rebuilt by Contractor Fred Meintz, and completed in De- 
cember, 1886, the total cost of which was $17,021. The insurance money re- 
ceived on the old building, $14,030.43, went a long way toward meeting this 
unanticipated expense. The last extension improvement made here was the 
erection of a hospital building. This building was started late in 1896 and com- 
pleted in the early fall of 1897, at a total cost of $11,419. It has a capacity of 
sixty patients and is modern in its conveniences. There are now two hundred 
inmates at this home for the infirm and indigent of the county, who are well 
provided for. The present superintendent is D. J. Davis. 


One of the great eleemosynary institutions of the state, the Illinois Asylum 
for the incurable insane, is located at the suburban town of Bartonville, in Lime- 
stone township, and to certain energetic, charitably disposed women of Peoria, 
may be given credit for the selection of Peoria as the location for this great 
home for the state's unfortunates. In his report to the governor in 1904, Dr. 
George A. Zeller, superintendent, among other things, had the following to say: 

"As local federations of charities multiplied and county supervision of alms- 
houses became more strict, the necessity of state care for incurables became more 
and more apparent, and finally culminated in the formation of an organization 
of Peoria women, headed by that able, energetic and public-spirited woman, 
Clara Parsons P.ourland. then, as now, president of the Women's Club. 

"These women agitated the question through the local and state press be- 
fore meetings of men and women in many localities, they besieged the conven- 
tions of both parties and secured endorsement of their views and finally sent a 
lobby to Springfield to present the matter to the legislature, where, in the ses- 

liriu'ial KitrlH'ii('a|Jarity I'iftccii 'riKuis.iihl McaU Daily 

'I'Ih' Xiirsi's" Home, witli (liiiii|i .ii Iiiiiiatr> in tlii' lMirc.i;iiiiiiiil 

'l'y|iifal t'dttafic \ iiii's and Flowers. Sliowini; Inmates' ( are 

HAirmw ii.i.K .\svi.i\\i Fill; insank 


sion of 1895, they finally succeeded in securing an appropriation of $65,000 
for the erection of a main building, so constructed as to permit of extensive 

"In the meantime an organization of Peoria citizens became active in secur- 
ing desirable sites and a commission named by Governor Altgeld, consisting of 
Hon. John Finley, of Peoria, Hon. J. J. McAndrevvs, of Chicago, and Hon. 
Henry \\". Alexander, of Joliet, selected the site oftered by the people of 
Bartonville — a clean donation of three hundred and eighteen acres of land, paid 
for out of voluntary subscriptions secured by a commission headed by Joseph 
P. Barton, and others. 

"The fact that the first building was found defective and unsafe, owing to 
the discovery that it was located over abandoned coal drifts, perhaps proved 
a blessing rather than a misfortune, since it enabled the succeeding governor, 
John R. Tanner, through his al)le adviser, Dr. Frederick H. Wines, secretary 
of the State Board of Charities, to re-plan and re-construct it upon the present 
magnificent and niotlern lines. Its construction occupied the whole of Governor 
Tanner's term and he left no greater monument than the splendidly eciuipped in- 
stitution. It came into the hands of Governor Yates as the unfinished task 
of two previous governors, and he made it the object of his special solicitude, 
succeeding not only in securing for it the necessary funds to permit of its 
opening on February 10, 1902, for the reception of seven hundred inmates, 
but in the legislature of 1903 he again urged measures which doubled its ca- 

'1 he original plan was for one large building with wings, the building of 
which was practically completed when the scheme was changed to the cottage 
system, and in all probability that was the real reason for discarding the struc- 
ture already erected at a large expenditure of money, for as a matter of fact, 
while the building was located upon an abandoned coal mine, the roof of the 
mine was one hundred and fifty feet from the outer surface of the ground. 
The change of plans, however, was a most desirable one. The cottage system 
was selected and now, in addition to the administration buikling and nurses' 
home, there are some thirty or forty cottages. 

In 1910 a beautiful octagonal building, the circle being composed prac- 
tically all of glass and capable of seating one thousand patients, was con- 
structed as a dining hall, and otTers a most pleasing contrast to the numerous 
cottages of uniform design. 

In 1 9 12 the construction of a new administration building was commenced, 
which, when finished, will cost about $75,000. The last biennial report, pub- 
lished in June, 1910, showed the actual daily average jiopulation present at 
this institution during the entire two years of 1909 and 1910 was 2,089. 

Dr. (leorge A. Zeller is the present superintendent and has been in charge 
of the institution since it was first opened in 1902. 


The Peoria Agricultural Society was formed in the year 1841. Smith 
Dunlap was the first president; John C. Flanagan, recording secretary; Amos 
Stevens, corresponding secretary ; and Peter Sweat, treasurer. There were 
fifteen members in all. I'Vom this time on it held its annual meets at various 
places, the third one in the town of Kickapoo. That year new officers were 
elected. William J. Phelps was chosen jiresident ; John Armstrong and Samuel 
T. McKean, vice ]iresidents ; John C. I'lanagan, recording secretary; Thomas 
N. Wells, corresponding secretary. The records were kept in so indifferent a 
manner as to make it impossible to give any account of subsequent meetings 
of the association up to the year 1855. However, that year twenty acres of 
land, now known as the Taole Grove Addition to the city of Peoria, was pur- 
chased, and in 1856 a fraction over two acres more were added. Buildings 
were erected and fairs were held there for several vears. 


The society was reorganized in 1855 under the name of Peoria County 
Agricultural and Mechanical Society, and fairs were held under that name 
until 1872. The board of supervisors who had purchased the ground, leased it 
to the society May 4, 1871, for a period of ninety-nine years, upon a nominal 
rental of one dollar per year, and upon condition that the county fairs should 
be held there annually. At this time it was thought probable that state fairs 
would at times be held here but the grounds were so remote from railroad 
stations and difficult of access that they were found unsuitable and the Peoria 
Fair Association was organized early in the year 1873, with a capital stock 
of $50,000. This new society purchased a tract of land lying on the east side 
of the Rock Island & Peoria railroad, containing about thirty-five acres, and 
fitted the grounds for the accommodation of the state fair, as well as for county 
fairs. State fairs were held there in the years 1873 and 1874, with a fair 
measure of success. In the '90s the state fair was permanently located at Spring- 
field, and the capital being within such easy distance for the people of Peoria 
county to reach with a small expenditure of time and money, the local meet- 
ings were superseded and have ceased to be held. 


Nathan Dillon, 1825-27; Joseph Smith, 1825-26; William Holland, 1825-27; 
John Hamlin, 1826-28; George Sharp, 1827-31; Henry Thomas, 1827-28; Isaac 
Egman, 1828-30; Francis Thomas, 1828-30 ; Stephen French, 1830-32; John 
Hamlin, 1830-31; Resolved Cleveland, 1831-32; John Coyle, 1831-36; Aquilla 
Wren, 1832-34; Edwin S. Jones, 1832-34. 


Norman Hyde, March to June, 1825; John Dixon, 1825-30; Stephen Still- 
man, (resigned) 1830-31; Isaac Waters, 1831-35; William Mitchell (died ii 
office) 1835-49; Ralph Hamlin, (to fill vacancy) 1849; Charles Kettelle, 1849 
65; John D. McClure, 1865-82; James T. Pillsbury, 1882-90; James E. Walsh, 
1890-94; Charles A. Rudel, (resigned) 1894-1900; John A. West, June 16, (to 
fill vacancy) 1900; Lucas I. Butts, 1900-06; Oscar Heinrich, 1906-. 


Norman Hyde (died in office), 1825-32; Andrew M. Hunt. 1832-37; George 
B. Parker, 1837-39; Edward Dickinson, 1839-43; William H. Fessenden, 1843- 
47; Thomas Bryant, 1847-49. 

At this point the office of probate justice of the peace was abolished and juris- 
diction in probate matters was conferred upon the county courts created by the 
new constitution. The constitution of 1870 provided for the reorganization of 
probate courts in counties having 70,000 population. Peoria county having in 
1890 attained the requisite population, the office of judge of the probate court 
was revived, the following being the list of incumbents since that period : 

Leslie D. Puterbaugh (resigned), 1890-97; Joseph W. Maple (to fill vacancy), 
1897-98; Mark M. Bassett, 1898-1906; Leander O. Eagleton, 1906-10; A. M. 
Otman, 1910-. 


George M. Gibbons, 1890-94; Fitch C. Cook, 1894-98; Charles A. Roberts, 
1 898-. 


Thomas Brvant (with two assistants for county business until 1850). 1849- 
57; Wellington Loucks, 1857-61 ; John C. Folliott, 1861-65; John C. Yates, 1865- 



82; Lawrence \\'. James, (resigned), 1882-1890; Israel C. Pinkney, 1890; Samuel 

D. Wead, 1890-94; Robert H. Lovett, 1894-1902; W. I. Slemmons, 1902-10; 
Clyde E. Stone, 1910-. 


Aaron Hawley, March 8, 1825; George Sharp, March 14, 1827; Norman 
Hyde. April, 1827; Simon Crozier, June, 1827-28; John Hamlin, 1828-29; Henry 
P. Stillnian, 1829-30; Isaac Waters, 1830-32; Asahel Hale, 1832-37; Rudolphus 
Rouse. 1837-38; Ralph Hamlin, 1838-39; Joseph C. Fuller, 1839; Allen L. 
Fahnestock, 1865-67; Thomas A. Shaver, 1867-69; Edward C. Silliman, 1869- 
71; Isaac Taylor, 1871-82; Frederick D. Weinette, 1882-86; Henry H. Forsythe, 
1886-90; Charles Jaeger, 1890-94; Adolph H. Barnewolt, 1894-98; Jacob F. 
Knupp. 1898-1902; Frederick Olander, 1902-06; William P. Gauss, 1906-10; 
Lewis M. Hines, 1910; Amos Stevens, 1839-41; Charles Kettelle, 1841-43; Wil- 
liam M. Dodge, 1843-45; Ralph Hamlin, 1845-51: John A. McCoy, 1851-55; 
Joseph Ladd, 1855-59; Isaac Brown, 1859-65. 


John Dixon, 1825-30; Stephen Stillman, 1830-31; Isaac Waters, 1831-35; 
Lewis Bigelow, 1835-39; William Mitchell, 1839-45; Jacob Gale. 1845-56; Enoch 
P. Sloan, 1856-64; Thomas Mooney, 1864-68; George A. Wilson, 1868-76; lohn 
A. West, 1876-80; James E. Walsh, 1880-88; Francis G. Minor, 1888-92; James 

E. Pillsbury, 1892-96; Thaddeus S. Simpson, 1896-1908; Richard A. Kellogg, 

state's ATTORNEYS 

Prior to tlie year 1853, '' does not appear that Peoria had any resident state's 
attorney. After the formation of the sixteenth circuit, and until 1870, the state's 
attorney was elected for the entire circuit. Since the adoption of the new con- 
stitution of that year, each county has elected its own. The following is the list 
of state's attorneys from 1S53 until the present time, all of whom have resided 
in Peoria. 

Elbridge G. Johnson. 1853-56; Alexander McCoy, 1856-64; Charles P. Tag- 
gart, 1864-67 ; George Puterbaugh. 1867-72 ; William Kellogg, 1872-80 ; Alva 
Loucks, 1880-83; John M. Niehaus, 1883-92; Richard J. Cooney, 1892-96; John 
Dailey, 1896-1900; William \'. Teft, 1900-1904: Robert Scholes, 1904-. 


Samuel Fulton, 1825-28; Orin Hamlin, 1828-30: Henry B. Stillman, 1830- 
32 ; John W.Caldwell, 1832-34; William Compher, (resigned), 1834-35; Thomas 
Bryant, 1835-40; Christopher Orr, 1840-42; Smith Frye, 1842-46; William 
Compher (vacated office — left deputy in charge), 1846-50; Clark Cleveland, 
(depty), 1850; James L. Riggs, 1850-52; Leonard B. Cornwell, 1852-54; David 
D. Irons, 1854-56; Francis W. Smith, 1856-58; John Bryner, 1858-60; James 
Stewart, 1860-62; J- A. J. Murray, 1862-64; George C. McFadden, 1864-66; Frank 
Hitchcock, 1866-68; Samuel L. Gill, 1868-70; Frank Hitchcock, 1870-80; Samuel 
L. Gill, 1880-82; Cyrus L. Berry, 1882-86; Warren Noel, 1886-90; Cyrus L. 
Berry, 1890-94; Charles E. Johnston, 1894-98; John W. Kimsey, 1898-1902; 
Daniel E. Potter, 1902-06; Lewis M. Hines. 1906-10; Francis G. Minor, 1910-. 


Jeriel Root. 1831-33; Andrew M. Hunt, 1833-37: Charles Kettelle. 1837-45; 
Ezra G. Sanger, 1845-47; Clark B. Stebbins, 1847-51: Ephraim Hinman, 1851- 
55; David McCulloch, 1855-61 ; Charles P. Taggart, 1861-63; William G. Randall, 


1863-65; X. E. Worthington, 1865-73; ^I^ry E. VVhitesides, 1873-77; James E. 
Pillsbury, 1877-82; Mary Whitesides Emery, 1882-90; AloUie O'Brien, 1890-94; 
Joseph 1'.. Robertson, 1894-1902; Claude U. Stone, 1902-10; John Arleigh Hayes, 


Norman Hyde, 1832; Charles Ballance, 1832; Thomas Phillips, 1835-39; 
George C. .McFadden, 1839-49; Henry W. McFadden, 1849-53; Daniel B. Allen, 
1853-57: Samuel Farmer, 1857-59; Richard Russell, 1859-61; Daniel B. Allen, 
1861-65 ; Luther F. Nash, 1865-67; Charles Spaulding, 1867-69; Arthur T. Birkett, 
1869-75; Robert Will, 1875-76; Daniel B. Allen, 1876-96; Leander King, 1896-97; 
Charles H. Dunn, 1897-. 


William E. Phillips, 1825-26; Henry Neeley, 1826-28; Resolved Cleveland, 
1828-32; William A. Stewart, 1832-36; John Caldwell, 1836-37; Edward F. Now- 
land, 1837-38; Jesse Miles, 1838-40; James Mossman, 1840-42; Chester Hamlin, 
1842-44; tereniiah Williams, 1^844-48; John C. Heyle, 1848-50; Charles Kimbel, 
1850-52; Ephraim Hinman, 1852-56; Milton McCormick, 1856-58: John N. Nig- 
las", 1858-60; Charles Feinse, "1860-62; Thomas H. Antcliff. 1862-64; Willis B. 
Goodwin, 1864-68: Philip Eichorn, 1868-70; Willis B. Goodwin, 1870-76; Michael 
M. Powell, 1876-82; John Thompson, 1882-84; James Bennett, 1884-92; Henry 
Hoeffer, 1892-96; Samuel Harper, 1896-1904; R. Leslie Baker, 1904-08; William 
B. Elliott, 1908-. 

"old peorias" home of the French and Indians founded about 1763 — in 1778 




At the time ni the cession of the Ilhiiois countr\' l)y France to England (1/63), 
there was a village composed of I'rench and Indians, on the west bank of Lake 
Peoria, near the foot of Caroline street, which extended as far as "Birket's 
Hollow." Here a fort had been erected and the place was known as "Old Peoria's 
Fort and \'illage." When the fort was built is not definitely known. It was 
probably put up soon after the destruction of Fort Creve Coeur. In his "Pioneer 
History of Illinois" Governor Reynolds says : 

"The Traders — their voyageurs, and others in their employment, occupied 
this post, more or less, ever since its first establishment. As it has been said, 
the Indian trade of that section of the country was better than at any other point. 
This made it to the interest of the traders to occupy the place. 

"Peoria never, in ancient times, was as large a village as either Kaskaskia or 
Cahokia, but it is more ancient than either of them. La Salle, when he first saw 
the country, was charmed with the beauty of the place and established a fort 
there. He also knew the resources of the country arising from the In<lian trade, 
which was another, and perhaps a greater, inducement to erect his grand depot 
here for the Indian trade than for any other consideration. 

"In the first settlement of the country, the missionaries settled at this point, 
and had their flocks of the young natives around them. Peoria can boast of 
a higher anti(|uity than any other town in Illinois, and about the same date with 
St. Josephs, Green Bay, Mackinaw and Detroit. 

"The French cultivated some ground, more or less, at Peoria, for more than 
one hundred years past. They cultivated at the old village to some e.xtent and 
at the new one since the year 1778, when it was commenced by Maillet. It will 
be seen by the report of the United States officers, sustained by positive proof, 
that one .-\ntoine St. Francois had a family in Peoria in the year 1765, and 
cultivated a field of corn adjacent to the village. 

"Other inhabitants also resided there at the same time and lone before. It 
is true, most of the citizens were Indian traders and those living on the trade ; 
but this trade required support by men and provisions which were both furnished, 
to some extent, by the settlers of Peoria." 

Peoria was in the early and strenuous days an important military and trading 
post, as shown by the famous treaty of Greenville. Under that treaty sixteen 
military or trading posts were ceded to the government, one of which was de- 
scribed as "one piece (land) six miles square at Old Peoria's Fort and \^illage, 
near the south end of the Illinois lake, on the said Illinois river." Thus it will 
be seen that the village of Peoria was one of a chain of trading posts with a fort, 
extending from Detroit by way of Michilimackinac and Chicago, to the mouth 
of the Illinois river. 

Of the remote history of Peoria and when it was first settled liy white men 




there are some discrepancies among historians. It is said, however, that in the 
spring of 1712 a party of Frenchmen came from Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) 
and estabhshed a trading post among the Indians at this place ; but that is dis- 
puted. It is a fact, however, that for many years the only inhabitants of the 
primitive village of Peoria were the French and Indians ; and the houses were 
built about one and a half miles above the lower end of Lake Peoria. Later, 
about 1778, one Jean Baptiste Maillet, formed a settlement about one and a half 
j miles i)elow the old village, which was known as Fort Clark. By 1797 the old 
' village had been entirely deserted for the new. 

N. Matson, long since deceased, who had been one of the pioneers of Prince- 
ton, the capital of Bureau county, published a small volume of history in 1882, 
which he entitled "The Pioneers of Illinois." In the preface to this work Mr. 
Matson tells his readers that he had visited descendants of French pioneers, then 
living in the "American Bottom," and had heard them relate the stories of their 
forebears. As these persons were of the third and fourth generation a repetition 
of their narrations can only be given in the way of tradition, especially that part 
pertinent to the village of Peoria and its people. Mr. Matson says: 

"According to the statement of Antoine Des Champs, Thomas Forsyth and 
others, who had long been residents of Peoria previous to its destruction in 18 12, 
we infer that the town contained a large population. It formed a connecting link 
between the settlements on the Mississippi and Canada, and being situated in 
the midst of an Indian country caused it to be a fine place for the fur trade. 
The town was built along the beach of the lake, and to each house was attached 
an outlet for a garden, which extended back on the prairie. The houses were 
all constructed of wood, one story high, with porches on two sides, and located 
in a garden surrounded with fruits and flowers. Some of the dwellings were 
built of hewed timbers set upright, and the space between the posts filled in with 
stones and mortar, while others were built of hewed logs notched together after 
the style of a pioneer's cabin. The floors were laid with puncheons and the 
chimney built with sticks and mud. 

"When Colonel Clark took possession of Illinois in 1778 he sent three soldiers, 
accompanied by two Frenchmen, in a canoe to Peoria to notify the people that 
they were no longer under British rule, but citizens of the United States. Among 
these soldiers was a man named Nicholas Smith, a resident of Bourbon county, 
Kentucky, and whose son, Joseph Smith, was among the first American settlers 
of Peoria. Through this channel we have an account of Peoria as it appeared 
a century ago, and it agrees well with other traditional accounts. 

"Mr. Smith said Peoria at the time of his visit was a large town, built along 
the beach of the lake, with narrow, unpaved streets, and houses constructed of 
wood. Back of the town were gardens, stockyards, barns, etc., and among these 
was a wine press, with a large cellar or underground vault for storing wine. 
There was a church with a large wooden cross raised above the roof, and with 
gilt lettering over the door. There was an unoccupied fort on the bank of the 
lake and close by it a windmill for grinding grain. The town contained six 
stores, or places of trade, all of which were well filled with goods for the Indian 
market. The inhabitants consisted of French, half-breeds and Indians, not one 
of whom could understand or speak English. 

"Among the inhaljitants of Peoria were merchants or traders who made 
annual trips to Canada in canoes, carrying thither pelts and furs and loaded back 
with goods for the Indian market. They were blacksmiths, wagon makers, 
carpenters, shoemakers, etc., and most of the implements used in farming were of 
home manufacture. Although isolated from the civilized world, and surrounded 
by savages, their standard of morality was high ; theft, robbery or murder were 
seldom heard of. They were a gay, happy people, having many social parties, 
wine suppers, balls and public festivals. They lived in harmony with the Indians, 
who were their neighbors and friends, adopting in part their customs, and in 
trade with them accumulated most of their wealth. 


"The dress of both men and women was very plain, made of coarse material, 
and the style of their wardrobe was partly luirop'ean and partly Indian. The men 
seldom wore a hat, cap or coat, their heads being covered with a cotton handker- 
chief, folded on the crown like a nightcaj), or an Arabian turban. Instead of a 
coat they wore a loose blanket garment called capote, with a cap of the same 
material hanging down at the back of the neck, which could be drawn over the 
head as a protection from rain or cold. The women wore loose dresses, made 
mostly of coarse material, with their heads covered with a hood or blanket, and 
their long hair hanging down their back like an Indian s(|uaw. But these women 
were noted for sprightliness in conversation,, with grace and elegance of manners, 
and notwithstanding the plainness of their dress many of them were not lacking 
in personal charm." 

Under the treaty of 1783 between Great Britain and die United States, the 
French became citizens of the United States, and when the war of 1812 broke 
out the French inhabitants of Peoria were suspected of giving aid to the British, 
by furnishing arms and ammunition to the hostile Indians. Especially was this 
the case with the leading man in the village, Jean Baptiste Maillet, who was 
captain of militia and posed as the friend of the government and as such had 
been rewarded. He had been openly charged with stealing cattle and turning 
them over to the Indians and Captain Craig had been sent to Peoria, in the autumn 
of 1812, to investigate the matter. There being no roads between the southern 
part of the territory and Peoria, Captain Craig with his command ascended the 
river in small row boats and on the 5th day of November reached Peoria. Upon 
his arrival, so he reported to Governor Edwards, he was told the Indians had 
all left the village, but this was not true, as his sentinels on the boats had seen 
Indians passing through the town with candles and heard their canoes crossing 
the river all through the night. On the following night, one of their boats dragged 
its anchor and drifted ashore and so, the report continues, in the morning the 
boat was fired on, as the Captain thought, by ten or more Indians. He then gave 
battle, but the Indians at once took to their heels and esca])ed. This convinced 
Captain Craig that the French were in league with the Indians and guilty of 
treason and he took all of them prisoners, after having located them all in one 
house. How many there were he does not state in his report. He then finished 
his work by setting fire to the buildings and practically destroying the town. 

In 1820 many claims to title in the land in and about Peoria were set up by 
these same French settlers and their representatives. At that time Edward 
Coles was register of the United States land ofiice at Edwardsville, and he was 
deputized to take proof of these claims. In November of that year he submitted 
a report to the secretary of the treasury, part of which is here cjuoted, as it gives, 
in a measure, a description of the village which was the forerunner of the present 
thriving and growing city of Peoria : 

"The old village of Peoria was situated on the northwest shore of Lake Peoria, 
about one mile and a half above the lower extremity of the lake. This village 
had been inhabited by the French previous to the recollection of any of the present 
generation, .About the year 1778 or 1779, the first house was built in what was 
then called La\ ille de Alaillet, afterwards the new village of Peoria, and of late 
the place has been known by the name of Fort Clark, situated about one mile 
and a half Iselow the old village, immediately at the lower point or outlet of Lake 
Peoria, tlie situation being preferred on account of the water being better and 
its being thought more healthy. The inhabitants gradually deserted the old 
village, and by the year 1796 or 1797 had entirely abandoned it and removed to 
the new village. 

"The inhabitants of Peoria consisted generally of Indian traders, hunters, 
and voyageurs, and had formed a link of connection l:)etween the French residing 
on the waters of the great lakes and the Mississippi river. From that happy 
faculty of ada])ting themselves to their situation and associates for which the 
French are so remarkable, the inhabitants of Peoria lived generally in harmony 


with their savage neighbors. It would seem, however, that about the year 1781 
they were induced to abandon the village from apprehension of Indian hostilities ; 
but' soon after the peace of 1783 they again returned, and continued to reside 
there until the autumn of 1812, when they were forcibly removed from it and 
the place destroyed by Captain Craig of the Illinois militia, on the ground, as it 
is said, that he and his company of militia were fired on in the night, while at 
anchor in their boats, before the village, by Indians, with whom the inhabitants 
were suspected by Craig to be too intimate and friendly. 

"The inhabitants of Peoria, it w-ould appear from all I can learn, settled there 
without any grant or permission from the authority of any government; that 
the only title they had to their lands was derived from possession, and the only 
value attached to it grew out of the improvements placed upon it. That each 
person took to himself such portion of unoccupied land as he wished to occupy 
and cultivate, and made it his own by incorporating his labor with it, but as soon 
as he abandoned it his title was understood to cease, with his possession and 
improvements, and it reverted to its natural state, and was liable again to be 
improved and possessed by any who should think proper. This, together with 
the itinerant character of the inhabitants, will account for the number of persons 
who will frequently be found, from the testimony contained in the report, to have 
occupied the same lot, many of whom, it will be seen, present conflicting claims. 

"As is usual in French villages, the possessions in Peoria consisted generally 
of village lots, on which they erected their buildings and made their gardens, 
and of outlots or fields, in which they cultivated grain, etc. The village lots con- 
tained, in general, about one-half of an arpen of land ; the outlots or fields were 
of various sizes, depending on the industry or means of the owner to cultivate 
more or less land. 

"As neither the old nor new village of Peoria was ever formally laid out or 
had defined limits assigned them, it is impossible to have of them an accurate 
map. ... I have not been able to ascertain with precision on what par- 
ticular quarter sections of the military survey these claims are situated." 


Congress passed an act on the 3d day of March, 1791. in which was a provi- 
sion that four hundred acres of land be given to each of those persons who in 
the year 1783 were heads of families at Vincennes or in the Illinois country, 
and who since then had removed from one place to another within the district, 
and also to such as had removed out of the limits of the territory specified, upon 
condition of their returning and occupying said lands within five years. The 
further provision was made that when lands had been actually improved and 
cultivated within the limits mentioned, under grants presumed to be valid, issued 
by any commandant or court claiming authority in the premises, the governor 
was empowered to confirm said grants to such persons, their heirs or assigns, 
or such parts thereof deemed reasonable, not to exceed four hundred acres to any 
one person ; also, "That the governor be authorized to make a grant of land, 
not exceeding one hundred acres, to each person who hath not obtained any grant 
of land from the United States, and who on the first day of August, 1790, was 
enrolled in the militia at Vincennes or in the Illinois Country, and has done 
militia duty." These provisions resulted unsatisfactorily, however, and congress 
passed an act on March 26, 1804, establishing land offices at Mncennes and Kas- 
kaskia. Michael Jones was appointed register at the latter settlement, and Elijah 
Backus, receiver, "who were vested with authority to receive proof of all claims, 
coming under the acts mentioned, and adjudicate them. This commission made 
several reports and continued in existence until 1815, when it was terminated. 

The grants of land were separated by the register into four classes — ancient 
grants; donations to heads of families; donations on account of improvements; 
donations to militia men. The records of the land office do not show, however. 



Note tho lirownll gables 

Te.Corherof Apams . 


rrAPPEAREPir< 1844 ♦ • 


that any claims were filed by Peorians under ancient grants from the I'Vench or 
English proprietors, but a number were made under the classification herein 
noted, and the following claims were recommended for confirmation: 

"Pierre Troge, in the right of his wife Charlotte, who was the daughter and 
heir-at-law of Antoine St. Francois, was reported as entitled to four hundred 
acres on account of improvements and cultivation, and four hundred on account 
of St. Francois, the ancestor having been the head of a family at Peoria in 1783. 
It was proved by Louis Pilette, an ancient inhabitant of Cahok'ia, that St. Francois 
was the head of a family at Peoria and that he cultivated the land, having a small 
field in which he sowed corn in the year 1765; and that he remained there sev- 
eral years thereafter; also that Pierre Troge married his daughter. This little 
item of evidence lets the light in upon the life of "Old Peoria" at the time when 
the sovereignty of the country was transferred from France to Great P>ritain. 
The fact that St. Francois remained after that period raises the presumption, at 
least, that he became a P.ritish subject ; and the fact of his heir having been 
granted land by the government of the United States afl'ords almost conclusive 
evidence that he had become a citizen of Virginia or of the United States at or 
after the time of the Revolution. Of his wife's name or parentage we have no 
information. Nor do we know anything of Pierre Troge, except that he married 
the daughter. The name of Louis Pilmette is closely and inseparably connected 
with the history of Peoria. It also appears from the report of Edward Coles 
that this same Charlotte Troge, nee St. Francois, laid claim to a lot containing 
two arpens, situated two miles above Fort Clark, near "Old Fort Peoria." We 
therefore discover in this one instance the name of five persons who lived at 
"Old Peoria," namely : Antoine St. Francois and his wife, his daughter Char- 
lotte, her husband Pierre Troge, and Louis Pilette. 

"That Louis Pilette was a good and loyal citizen is shown by the fact that he 
received a donation of one hundred acres of land from the government upon 
Governor Harrison's confirmation, on account of military services. 

"The claims of a large majority of the inhabitants had been sold before being 
proved, principally to Nicholas Jarrott, Isaac Darneille, William Russell and 
William .Arundel, in whose names the proofs were made. These purchasers will 
be disregarded and the names of the original claimants given as the donees. 

"To Louis Bihore there was confirmed four hundred acres on account of 
improvements and four hundred acres on account of his having been the head 
of the family at Peoria in 1783. That Bihore was a very early inhabitant of 
Peoria is shown by the fact of his having been a witness on behalf of some of 
the oldest claims. 

"To Jean Baptiste Sheonberger, alias St. Jean, were confirmed four hundred 
acres on account of improvements near the "Old Fort" of Peoria. No other 
claim having been made on his behalf, it is to be presumed he was neither the 
head of a family nor a militiaman within the terms of the law. 

"To Louis Chattlereau were confirmed one hundred acres as a militia man, 
four hundred as head of a family at Peoria in 1783, and four hundred on account 
of cultivating about forty acres of land and improving the same by building a 
house, a horse mill, etc., thereon. 

"To Pierre Verbois, alias Blondereau, were confirmed at Peoria one hundred 
acres as a militia man. No other information obtainable. 

"To Pierre Lavassieur ( dit Chamberlain) were confirmed one hundred acres 
as a militia man. This man was also a claimant before Edward Coles for a 
lot containing two arpens in the "Old \'illage" and of another lot containing twelve 
arpens near the same. 

"To John B. Chevy were confirmed four hun<hed acres on account of improve- 
ments and four hundred acres as head of a family. It was proved by Louis La- 
perche, Louis Boisman and Louis Bihore that Chevy was an inhabitant of Peoria, 
that he was the head of a family and cultivated ground, planting it in corn, as early 
as the year 1779. 


"To fean 1!. Jourdain, who lived at Peoria, were confirmed four hundred acres 
on account of improvements made upon and the cultivation of a farm on Maillet's 
river (probably the Kickapoo) where he had a house and jjlanted corn as early 
as 1783. 

"To Jean B. Amlin, who lived at Peoria from 1779 to 1799, were confirmed 
four hundred acres on account of improvements l)y cultivating land and planting 
it in corn, also four hundred acres as head of a family in 1783, and one hundred 
as a militia man. 

"To Francois Arcoit were confirmed four hundred acres on account of 
improvements and four hundred acres as the head of a family at Peoria in 1783- 
It was proved by Baptiste Pelitier, Pierre Verbois and Jean B. Parent that Arcoit 
was the head of a family at Peoria in 1783; that he made improvements near the 
village; that he had a house and cultivated ground by planting corn in 1782, but 
had to leave on account of the Indians. 

"To Louis Brunette were confirmed four hundred acres as head of a family 
at Peoria in 1783, which was proved by Jaque Ducharme and Francois \'ailett; 
also that he continued to reside there for some time thereafter. 

"To Jean B. Parent were confirmed four hundred acres as head of a family 
and four hundred on account of his improvements. It was proved by Jean B. 
Pointstable (Point de Saible), Jaque Ducharme, Louis Bihore and Pierre Valois 
that before and after the year 1783 Parent was the head of a family at Peoria, 
that he had a house built and cultivated land near the "Old Fort" in the year 1780, 
and that he had a farm and raised crops. 

"To Antoine Grandbois were confirmed one hundred acres as a militia man, 
which had been confirmed by Governor St. Clair. The location of this grant is 
not given, but it is known that Grandbois was a resident of Peoria. 

"To Francis Babo (Babeau) were confirmed at Peoria, one hundred acres as 
a militia man. 

"To .-Vugustus Roque were confirmed four hundred acres on account of 
improvements made near Peoria, and four hundred acres as the head of a family 
at Peoria in 1783. 

To Francois Bouche ( lioucher ) were confirmed four hundred acres on 
account of improvements about one league from Peoria (Old Fort), four hun- 
dred acres as head of a family at Peoria in 1783, and one hundred acres as a 
militia man. 

To Etiene Bernard were confirmed four hundred acres as the head of a 
family at Peoria in 1783, and on account of improvements four hundred acres near 
the River Coteneau (Kickapoo), within three miles of Peoria. 

To William Arundel were confirmed on account of improvements three 
hundred acres near Peoria, he having already had a military bounty under the 
fourth class, also as head of a family at Peoria in 1783 three hundred acres, he 
having received a militia right confirmed by the governor. 

William Arundel was a man of fine education. He was born in Ireland, 
had lived in Canada and some time prior to 1783, came to Peoria with his family 
and became a trader, or merchant. Some time thereafter he removed to Cahokia, 
where he kept a general stock of merchandise and at the organization of the ter- 
ritory was appointed recorder of St. Clair county. He^ was the first secretary 
of the first lodge of Masons, which was organized at Kaskaskia, June 3, 1806, 
and at an extremely old age died at Kaskaskia, in 1816. 

lean Baptiste Point de Sable (often called Pointstable) was another person of 
note whose history makes a part of this and Cook county. As the head of a 
family his claim for four hundred acres was confirmed and also for another four 
hundred acres on account of improvements. Pointstable, as he was called, most 
likely for the sake of brevity, was a negro, but as the Indians designated all races 
other than Indians as "white," this man became noted as the first white settler 
in Chicago. As to the exact date of his arrival in Chicago there is no evidence, 
but it was prior to his residence in Peoria, which commenced about 1782. The 


most authentic account is in part quoted here, as taken from Mrs. John H. Kin- 
zie's (of Chicago) "W'aubun :'' 

"Jean Baptiste Point-au-Sable, a native of San Domingo, about the year 1796 
found his way to this remote region and commenced life among the Indians. 
There is usually a strong affection between these two races (negro and Indian), 
and Jean Baptiste imposed upon his new friends by making them believe that 
he had been a great chief among the whites. Perhaps he was disgusted by not 
being elected for a similar dignity by the Pottawottomies, for he quitted this 
vicinity and finally terminated his days at Peoria, under the roof of his friend 
Glamorgan, another San Domingo negro, who had obtained large Spanish grants 
in St. Louis and its environs, and who at one time was in the enjoyment of an 
extended landed estate." 

It was, probably, not until after the treaty of 1783 that some of the inhabitants 
returned to Le \'ille de Alaillet, or New Peoria. Jean Baptiste Maillet, as has 
been said, founded this village about the year 1778. Here a new fort had been 
built, in which his son, Hypolite, was born, from which the reader may take 
it that Alaillet, who was captain of militia, resided for some time in the fort. He 
was killed in an aft'ray with one Senegal, in the latter part of the year 1801. 

The two donations of land, consisting of four hundred acres each, which had 
been confirmed under Maillet's claim, were conveyed by Maillet by deed on the 
6th day of July, 1801, to Isaac Darneille. The deed was simply signed "Maillet," 
without the given name. To prove the authenticity of the deed affidavits were 
made before Antoine Des Champs and Raphael Belongier, justices of the peace 
of Indiana Territory, on the 17th day of May, 1802. Des Champs later became 
manager for the American Fur Company in this section. 

Isaac Darneille, on the 5th day of October, 1807, executed and delivered a 
deed to William Russell, of St. Louis, alienating among other tracts of land, 
those mentioned in the deed conveyed by Maillet. Also "one lot of land and a 
house at the "Old Peorias Fort' and a tract of land near said 'Peorias Old Fort,' 
quantity unknown, purchased of Jean Baptiste Point Sable, assignee of Jean 
Baptiste Maillet, by deed dated Alarch 13, 1773." This plainly indicates that 
Pointstable was at Peoria in the year just mentioned. Another description of 
property located in Peoria was "a house and lot in the town of Peorias and a 
(|uantity of land near the same, bought of Theresa .Maillet, widow Cattenoir, 
assignee of Francis Babeaux by contract dated October 11, 1778. 


Isaac Darneille, whose name figures so largely in the initial transfers of prop- 
erty in the county, was the first lawyer to make his appearance in Peoria. Gov- 
ernor Reynolds, in his History of Illinois Pioneers, has the following to say 
of him : 

"In the year 1794 the celebrated Isaac Darneille arrived in Cahokia and re- 
mained in the west for several years. He was the second professed lawyer that 
emigrated to Illinois, John Rice Jones being the first. He was a classic scholar, 
and was, in his person, genteel and agreeable ; he possessed the easy and graceful 
manners of a polished gentleman. He was large and portly, and made it a sine 
qua non to be extremely neat in his dress and attentive to his personal appear- 
ance. He studied all the arts and mysteries of gallantry, and thereby made a 
very deep and rather lasting impression on his female friends. Darneille studied 
the ladies more than he studied his profession of the law. He was benevolent 
and kind to all mankind, and ]:>articularly to the ladies. 

"While Darneille retained his youthful vigor, this life passed off very well; 
but when old age crept on him his former pursuits were abandoned, from neces- 
sity, and he remained an old man, without sincere friends or means of support. 

"He taught school in the western part of Kentucky, where he died,_ rather 
humble and neglected, in 1830, aged sixty years. 


"If Darneille had abandoned this one failing, the excess of gallantry, he 
would have enjoyed the character of one of the most honorable and respectable 
gentlemen in Illinois." 


It might be well to note here, in passing, that among the prominent inhabitants 
of New Peoria was one Antoine Le Claire, who had come to the town from 
Canada. He subsequently, after removing to Iowa Territory, owing to his 
familiarity with several Indian languages, and of his own people, was educated 
by the United States government and under its authority acted as interpreter 
for the government in its dealings with the Indians, prior to and after the Black 
Hawk war. He was adored by the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians and when they 
ceded their lands in Iowa to the government, it was provided in the treaty that 
Le Claire should have a tract of land, consisting of some thousands of acres, 
and that a certain tract should be set apart and given to Le Claire's wife, 
Marguerite, the daughter of an Indian chief. Part of this land is now the site 
of the important city of Davenport, founded by Le Claire and others, chief 
among whom was Colonel Davenport, a trader on the island of Rock Island, after 
whom the city was named. Le Claire became the wealthiest man of his time, 
was a benefactor to his community and died, mourned by that whole section of 
the country. Le Claire, an important village near Davenport, which he at one 
time confidently hoped would be the metropolis and seat of government of the 
county, was named for him. 

Probably the most noted citizen of Peoria in its primitive days was Thomas 
Forsyth, to whom allusion has heretofore been made. Another pioneer citizen 
who played a notable part in the affairs of the community was Michael La Croix. 


Colonel George Davenjiort, who was a contemporary of Antoine Le Claire, 
was a non-commissioned officer in Captain Owen's company of the regular army, 
and took part in a primitive expedition against the Indians in 1813, organized by 
General Howard, ex-governor of the Territory of Missouri. The little army 
numliered about eight hundred men and marched up the Mississippi bottom to a 
point above Ouincy and thence to the Illinois river about forty miles above 
Peoria, and then on down the river to that village. From Colonel Davenport, 
Historian Matson obtained the following account of the proceedings of the 
expeditionary party at Peoria : 

"On arriving at Peoria Lake, the soldiers commenced building a block house 
for storing the baggage as well as a protection against an attack from the enemy. 
A well having been dug near the block house to supply it with water, it became 
necessary to have a sweep to draw it ; consequently, Mr. Davenport, with two 
companions, went into the woods to get a grapevine for that purpose. Having 
found one suitable, Davenport climbed the tree to cut it ofif, and while doing so 
he discovered a large body of Indians skulking in the timber, going in the direction 
of the block house. On seeing this war party, Davenport and his companions 
gave an alarm and in all haste fled toward the block house, but finding Indians 
in that direction turned their course for the gunboats, which were moored in the 
lake. With all speed the fugitives ran for the boats, closely followed by the 
Indians, who fired at them many shots, while yelling like demons. The soldiers 
on the gunboats, thinking only of their own safety, pushed them of? from the 
shore but fortunately one of them grounded on a sand bar, which was the means 
of saving the life of Davenport and his companions. The fugitives ran into the 
water waist deep, pushed the grounded boat off, and jumped on board of it, while 
the Indians fired on them, many of the rifle balls whizzing by their heads and lodg- 
ing in the sides of the vessel. The boats went ofif some distance from the shore, 





'V AND KAS-|- 1>E()I!IA. liiOO 


nevertheless the Indians continued to fire on them, but without effect. A cannon 
on one of the boats was brought to bear on the savages, but in the excitement of 
the moment its muzzle was raised above the port hole, and the ball tore off a por- 
tion of the side of the vessel. The Indians also attacked the block house, which 
was in an unfinished condition, but met witii a warm reception from those within. 
The cannons on the boats having been brought to bear on the Indians, they fled 
from the thick timber where thev had taken shelter, and the fight ended." 

Colonel Davenport, as has been said, was the government's agent at the island 
of Rock Island, and accumulated a fortune trading among the Indians. He had 
built a home on the island, where he was enjoying the fruits of a strenuous life, 
when he was murdered by a band of thieving cuttiiroats in broad daylight, dur- 
ing the absence of his family at Rock Island, who were attending a Fourth of 
July celebration. 

In a letter written in 1850, by one of the participants in this expedition, John 
S. Brickley, to John Lindsay, then a prominent Peoria lawyer, among other things 
mentioned was the following: 

■'When the mounted riflemen arrived at Peoria they found the village con- 
sisting of a great number of huts, all deserted a few days before, and two or 
three frame houses, one thirty or forty feet long (said to have been built by the 
French), although they did not appear to have been inclosed or covered. The 
Indians in their flight had left nothing but some dried pumpkins, corn and beans, 
which were found in some of the houses, but much more was found wrapped 
up in skins and hid in the ground, all of which was seized and used by those who 
found them. Every house in the village was demolished the same day we en- 
tered .... and used for fuel during the stay of the army at that place. . 

"As the army- approached Peoria from the northwest and got a first view of 
its situation from the high land prairies, two or three miles from the lake, looking 
easterly and southerly, beheld the smooth prairie gradually descending to the 
town, the lake stretching miles far to the northeast, the gunboats lying quietly 
at anchor upon the water, the towering forest across the water, and the lovely 
prairies bounded only by the horizon, there was an involuntary halt — the men 
all gazed in silence for a moment, and then of a sudden, as if moved by one im- 
pulse, expressed universal admiration of the beauty and grandeur of the pros- 
]:)ect s]iread out before them. At this time there was no road to Peoria except 
the Indian trail, not a forest tree amiss, not a house within one hundred miles 
(except the town before described), no plow had ever broken the turf that cov- 
ered the rich soil beneath. The lake was covered with wild geese, ducks and other 
water fowls ; game such as deer, bear, elk and turkeys everywhere in the thick 
woods and adjacent prairies. Bees and honey were found in almost every hollow 
tree, and, notwithstanding express orders to the contrary, the men would and 
did, on the march, fre(|uently stop and cut down the trees and get large quan- 
tities of the most delicious honey. While employed in building the fort, many 
of the men were well supplied with venison, fowls, honey and sometimes with 
fish caught in the lake. This description fully justifies the Indian name of the 
place, 'Pimiteoui — The Land of Plenty." 

"For want of suitable timber and materials within several miles of the place, 
on the west side of the lake, on account of the country back from the river being 
prairie, it became necessary to obtain all timber from a fine forest on the east 
side of the Illinois river at the lower end of the lake and raft it over. The 
men commenced felling the trees, the most of which were white oak, and for 
the palisades cut them about eighteen feet long and each log not less than fifteen 
or eighteen inches in diameter — the timbers for the block houses at the corners 
of the enclosure were much longer; the era (area) inclosed for the fort con- 
tained, according to my recollection, two or three acres. While a portion of the 
men were cutting, others were employed in hauling and rafting the logs over 
to the opposite side of the lake, and from there to the site for the building ; 
having no carriages of anv description, all the materials were drawn bv men 

Vol. 1—9 


on trucks, by means of large ropes, a distance of from one to two miles. Thus 
was I'ort Clark erected where Peoria now stands, in less than two months, by 
the Missouri and Illinois volunteers of mounted riflemen, in September and Oc- 
tober in the year 1813, at a distance of more than one hundred miles from any 
white settlement, and with no other means than above described." 

Colonel Davenport's description of the building of the fort is here added to 
the above for obvious reasons : 

"Preparations having been made to build a fort on the site of the old French 
town for the purpose of holding possession of the country, timbers were cut on 
the opposite side of the lake and floated across to build l)lock store houses, and 
enclose them with palisades. On a high piece of ground near the bank of the 
lake a fort was built, consisting of stockades made of two rows of split timbers, 
and the space between them filled with dirt. A ditch surrounded the fort, and 
at two corners were bastions for mounting cannon. Inside of the stockades 
was a large block house, two stories high, and on three sides of it were port holes, 
so the inmates could fire on the enemy in case of an attack. Besides this block 
house were store houses and quarters for officers and soldiers. 

"When the fort was completed and cannons mounted on its ramparts, with 
flags waving on each bastion. General Howard ordered all the soldiers on duty, 
forming in double file, fronting the gateway. A speech was made by the com- 
manding officer, drums beat, soldiers cheered, the cannons fired a salute, and with 
much enthusiasm the fort was dedicated and named 'Fort Clark' in honor of 
General George Rogers Clark, the hero of Kaskaskia and X^incennes." 

Ballance, in his History of Peoria, gives the dimensions of Fort Clark. He 
says : 

"This fort was about one hundred feet square, with a ditch along each side. 
It did not stand with a side to the lake, but with a corner towards it. The cor- 
ner farthest from the lake was on the upper side of Water street, near the inter- 
section of the upper line of Water and Liberty streets. From there the west 
line ran diagonally across the intersection of Water and Liberty streets nearly 
to the corner of the transportation warehouse, at the lower corner of Liberty 
and Water streets, x^t this corner was what I suppose military men would call 
a bastion, that is, there was a projecting corner made in the same manner as the 
side walls, and so constructed, as I imagine, as to accommodate a small cannon 
to command the ditches. And the same had, no doubt, been at the opposite cor- 
ner, but when I came to the country in November. 183 1, there was no vestige of 
it remaining. In fact at that time there was but little to show that there had 
ever l.een a fortification there, except some burnt posts along the west side, and 
a square of some ten or twelve feet at the south corner with a ditch nearly filled 
upon two sides of it, and on the west side of the square." 

To the above, Judge McCulloch, in his History of Peoria County, takes ex- 
ceptions to the dimensions of Fort Clark, as given by Mr. Ballance, in the fol- 
lowing paragraph : 

"Observing, iiowever. that Water street is one hundred feet wide at the point 
indicated, and that the location of the magazine which must have been within 
the fort was very close to the base of the smokestack of the electric light plant, 
some distance below Water street, the conclusion is forced upon us that his esti- 
mate of its dimensions is erroneous. If the fort was of a square form and con- 
tained one acre, one side of it would measure 208.7 ^^^t, which would correspond 
more nearly with the points given by Mr. Ballance than does his own estimates." 
How long Fort Clark was occupied has not been definitely settled by those 
who have taken the pains to delve into the matter. Some say it was abandoned 
in 181 5. others, not until i8j8. It would appear from Matson's account that the 
former contention is the correct one, for he has this to say in that relation: 

"The gate of the fort having been left open, it became a lair for deer and a 
roost for wild turkeys. In the fall of 1816 a party of hunters from St. Clair 
counlv came to Fort Clark and found about twentv deer in the fort and the 


floors of the block house covered with manure. The hunters cleaned out this 
building and occupied it as a residence during a Stay of ten days while hunting 
deer and collecting honey in the river timber. Fort Clark stood unmolested until 
the fall of 1818, when it was burned by the Indians." 

There is no doubt that the fort was partially destroyed prior to 1819, but 
there must have been part of it left standing, for in the year last mentioned, the 
first American settlers (permanent) arrived here and they sj^eak of it in a way 
to leave the impression a remnant of the structure remained at that time. 


In the sjjring of 1819, a party of hardy and venturesome pioneers, composed 
of Scth and Josiah l-'ulton. Aimer Fads. \'irginians; Joseph Hersey, of New 
York; J. Davis, S. Doug^herty and T. Russell, natives of Kentucky, left Shoal 
Creek, now a part of Clinton county, where they had lived for some little time, 
found their way to the east bank of the river and, on April 15, 1S19, Hersey and 
Eads, placing their horses in a boat, ferried across the river and landed at Fort 
Clark. Two days afterward they were joined by their companions. Josiah 
Fultcr often related the following details of the advent of this pioneer band of 
settlers to Fort Clark : 

"We found the walls of two small log cabins, which we supposed to have been 
built by the soldiers of the garrison stationed there, and at once set to work to 
cover tlicm over and finish them up for dwelling places. While we were em- 
ployed at this work we made out to be comfortable in the shelter of our tents 
and boats. The cabins stood on what is now Water street, and almost directly 
in front of the Germania Hall building. These cabins were the first American 
dwelling places at what is now the city of Peoria. 

"There were also rails enough, which the soldiers had made, to inclose fifteen 
acres of ground. The ground was broken up and planted to corn and potatoes, 
from which a pretty good crop was gathered in the fall. The north line of that 
first field ran west from the river and not far from Fulton street. 

"About the first of June, Eads, Fulton and Dougherty returned to Shoal 
Creek with their two horses to move Eads' family, consisting of his wife and 
two children, to their new home. After settling up his affairs in that neighbor- 
hood Eads loaded his household effects, wife and children on a two-horse wagon 
and headed across the country in the direction of the beginning of Peoria — the 
new settlement at Fort Clark. They reached and crossed the Illinois river at 
the present site of Wesley City, where there was a trading post, and where 
Indians and Indian canoes were nearly always to be found. Some of the canoes 
were secured, the household goods were unloaded from the wagon, and with the 
family transferred to the canoes and carried over to the west side of the river. 
The wagon was then taken to pieces and carried over in the same manner. The 
horses and cattle were made to swim across. 

"Mrs. Eads was the first American woman to see the site of Peoria." 

Captain Jude Warner came into the settlement from St. Louis on the loth of 
June, in a boat loaded with provisions and fishing nets. With him were David 
W. P.arnes, James Gotif, Isaac De Boise, William Blanchard, Theodore and 
Charles Sargent. This arrival swelled the number of Americans to fourteen 
men. Mr. Fulton's recital continues: 

"We were about as happy a little circle as has ever lived in Peoria. We were 
isolated, completely shut out from the rest of mankind, it is true. We heard but 
little from the outside world, and the outside world heard but little from us. 
I'>ut little was known at that time about the Fort Clark country. There were 
no roads, nor steamboats, nor mail routes, nor communications of any kind, so 
that in point of fact we were as much a community by ourselves as if our cabins 
had been built on an island in the middle of the sea. Our postoffice was St. 
Louis, and we never got our mail, those of us who got any, only when we went 


there for supplies, and then our letters cost us twenty-five cents, and we couldn't 
muster that much money every day. 

"•Mrs. Eads was duly installed as housekeeper, and the rest of the company, 
except Hersey, who didn't remain long, boarded with her. It was a pretty hard 
winter on us, but we managed to get through. Bread stufif gave out and we had 
to fall back on hominy blocks and hominy. It was a coarse kind of food we got 
this way, but it was a good deal better than none, and served to keep hunger 
away. Hominy blocks went out of use long ago, and there are thousands of 
people in Peoria county who never saw one, but they were a blessing to hundreds 
of the pioneers of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, and in fact to the 
first settlers of the entire country, and were the means of keeping many of the 
pioneers and their little ones from starving to death." 

Two of these pioneers, Seth and Josiah Fulton, were attracted bv the east side 
of the river and selected claims on Farm creek in that locality, remaining there 
until 1834, when they sold out and returned to Peoria county, and both proved 
themselves good citizens and gained their full meed of respect from their neigh- 
bors. Seth Fulton, however, lending an ear to the tales then told of the rich 
lead mines at Galena, removed to that place and remained there for a while. He 
afterwards removed to Henry county. Josiah Fulton spent the rest of his life 
in Peoria county and died March 4, 1894, at the age of ninety-four years. 

Abner Eads, another one of the first seven, who came to Peoria, bought the 
northwest quarter of section 17, in wdiat is now Peoria township, on which Lin- 
coln Park is situated. He also came into possession, by purchase, of valuable 
coal mines on Kickapoo creek, which was subsequently developed by others. He 
became a man of importance in the community and served valiantly as captain of 
a Peoria company which marched under General Stillman in the Black 
Hawk war. Absorbing the lead mine fever, he removed to Galena about 1833, 
from which district he served in the legislature two sessions. In 1854 he went 
to California and having started back for his family, died on the way, with fever. 
He was buried at St. Louis. 

Hersey and Dougherty, the latter a reckless Kentuckian, after a residence of 
some little time, departed for other scenes of activity not known to the writer. 
Davis first settled on Farm creek and after a while removed to Sangamon 
county. He then went to Texas, where he died. Russell was here but a short 
time and then went to St. Louis, and was last heard of as a river man. 

Of the Captain Warner party, \Mlliam Blanchard soon after his arrival re- 
moved to Woodford county, which was his home until his death, which occurred 
but a comparatively few years since. Barnes and the two Sargents became prom- 
inent citizens of Fulton county, and Jacob \\'ilson, one of the county's first jus- 
tices of the peace, on the 22d day of March, 1825, officiated in the marriage of 
William Blanchard with Betsey Donohoe. This was the first marriage ceremony 
performed in the new county. 

John Hamlin, in company with several others, arrived in Peoria in 1821. In 
March, 1822, he had his personal belongings removed from his former home at 
Elkhart Grove, then in Madison county, and from that time on he made Peoria 
his home. In 1823, with William S. Hamilton, who had a contract to supply 
Fort Howard, now known as Green Bay, with beef cattle, Mr. Hamlin, on ac- 
count of his knowledge of the Indian character, accompanied the expedition 
made up by Hamilton, to that place. The journey was made in thirty days. On 
his return to Peoria, in his capacity as justice of the peace of Fulton county, he 
performed the first marriage cermony at Fort Dearborn, the parties most in- 
terested being Dr. Alexander Wolcott and his bride, a daughter of John Kinzie, 
the first permanent settler of Chicago. This was the first marriage ceremony to 
take place in the great city of Chicago. John Hamlin, as will be seen further on 
in this volume, was intimately connected with the early history of this county 
and became one of its most prominent and influential citizens. 

Gurdon S. Hubbard, of the American Fur Company, spent the winter of 


Born in ISOO— Died :\Iaroh 4, 1S94 

LiiMili'd iit a place called Fort Clark, now the city of Peoria, on April 15, 1819 


1821-2 along the Illinois river. Reaching Bureau Station, he says, he found 
Mr. IJeebeau in charge, though much enfeebled on account of age. Hubbard 
also relates that: "After resting a few days and selecting the goods and men to 
be left at that post (Bureau), we proceeded on our way, making our ne.xt halt at 
Fort Clark-, where we found several families located^ among whom were Mr. 
Fulton, the first settler at that point, who still resides in that county, and a Mr. 
Bogardus, a brother of General Bogardus, of Xew York, a highly intelligent 
gentleman, and his estimable wife. Two miles below, at a point now known as 
W'esle)- City, was Mr. Beeson's post, and there we remained about one week, 
during which time I went almost daily to the fort." 

During the period between 1821 and 1825 a number of new settlers arrived 
in the territory now embraced in Peoria county. Among those who settled at 
Peoria were \\illiam Fads, brother of Abner Fads, Judge James Latham, with 
whom John Hamlin had made his home in Madison county ; Joseph A. Moffat 
and his three sons, Alvah, .Atjuilla B. and Franklin, also two Miss Moffatts, 
daughters; Isaac I>"unk, Xorman Hyde, Elijah Hyde, William Holland, John 
Dixon. Isaac Waters, George Sharp and Dr. Augustus Langworthy. 

From an assessment made in the year 1825 by John L. Bogardus, the distri- 
bution of population and wealth of the new county of Peoria is well shown. At 
Peoria the following named persons were assessed in the amounts here given: 
Archibald Allen, $150; Noah Beauchamp, Sr., $200; Noah Beauchamp, $200; 
John Barker, $400; John L. Bogardus, $500; Joseph Bryant, $300; Cornelius 
Brown. .$150: John Di.xon, $350; William Fads, $350; Abner Fads. $Soo ; Sam- 
uel Fulton, $300; Lsaac Funk, $200; Jesse Harrison, $50; John Hamlin, $400; 
William Holland. ,%Soo ; E. and N. Hyde, $700; Jacob M. liunter, $50; Charles 
l.ove, $150; Augustus Langworthy, $200; J. Latham, $300; Philip Latham, $100; 
Daniel Like. $50; Alvah^ Moffatt, $60; Aquilla Mofifatt, $40; Jesse McLaree, 
$25; Henry Neely, $150'; Martin Porter, $100; Amherst C. Ransom, $100; 
George Sharp, $600; Joseph \an Scoik, $50; Isaac Waters, $100. 

At Chicago the following assessments were made: John B. Beaubein, $1,000; 
Jonas Clyborne. $625 ; John K. Clark, $250; John Crafts, $5,000; Jerrv Clermont, 
Sioo; Louis Cantra, $50; John Kinzie, '$500 ; Joseph Laframboise, $50; C. La- 
framboise, $100; David AicKcc, $100; Peter "Piche, $100; Alexander Wolcott, 
$572; Antoine Wilniette, $400 — thirteen in all. 

At the Trading House (Wesley City) Antoine Alscome, $50; Francis Bour- 
bonne, S200; Louis Beabor, $700; Francis Bourbonne, Jr., $100 — four in all. 

At Mackinaw Point (near which is the village of Dillon) Allen S. Dougherty, 
$100; Walter Dillon, $250; Nathan Dillon, $400; Absalom Dillon, $200; Thomas 
Dillon, $300; Jesse Dillon, $727; John Dillon, $93; William Davis, $200; Hugh 
Montgomery, $200; Alexander McNaughton, $150; Eli Redmon, $35; Henry 
Redmon, $35 ; Peter Scott, $30 — thirteen in all. 

At Ten ^lile Creek, William I'.lanchard, $150; Elza Bethard, $275; Reuben 
Bratton, $135; Thomas Banks, $50; Hiram M. Curry, $225; Major Donahue, 
$200; Seth Fulton, $100; David Mather, $200; John and William Phillips, $400; 
John Stephenson, $40; Edmond Weed, $174; Jacob Wilson, $300 — twelve in all. 
At Farm Creek, Andrew P.arker, $100: Austin Crocker, $200; Thomas Cam- 
lin. $300; Stephen French, $200; James Fulton, $12.50; Josiah Fulton, $150; 
Elisha Fish, $200; Jacob Funk, $500; Joshua Harlin, $150; George Ish, $250; 
Joseph Smith, $550 — eleven in all. 

At La Salle Prairie, Elias P. Avery, $200; Stephen Carroll, $150; Gilbert 
Field, $150; John Griffin, $50; George Harlan, $150; Lewis Hallock, $50; John 
Ridgeway, $100; Hugh W^alker, $50 — eight in all. 

At Illinois Prairie (Tazewell county) George Cline. $70; John Cline, $264; 
Nathan Cromwell, $300; Jesse Egman, $100 ; Levi Ellis, $25; William Clark, 
$250; Levi Gilbert, $25; James Latta, $200; Levi McCormick, $50; Joseph Ogee, 
$200; Isaac Perkins, $400; John Sommers, $300; Ephraim Stout, Sr., and Jr., 
$500; Jonathan Tharp, $100; Ezekiel Turner, $150; Seth Wilson, $200; Samuel 
Woodrow, $150; Hugh W^oodrow, $250 — eighteen in all. 


At Fox River, Robert Baresford, $50; Fred Countryman, $50; Aaron Haw- 
ley, $200; Pierce Hawley, $300; John L. Ramsey, $200; Jesse Walker, $50 — 
six in all. 

At Little Detroit, Thomas N. lirierly, $100; Abner N. Cooper, $120; Peter 
Du Mont, $50; George N. Love, $350 — four in all. 

At Prince's Grove ( Princeville ), John Patterson, $20 ; Daniel Prince, $200 — 
two in all. 

It will have been seen by the reader that in the year 1825 or two years after 
the organization of the county, there were but one hundred and twenty taxable 
inhabitants, one-fourth of which were assessed at Peoria, forty-four in all, living 
in what is now Peoria county. The others were at Chicago, Mackinaw Point, 
Ten Mile Creek, Farm Creek, La Salle Prairie, Fox River, Little Detroit and 
Prince's Grove. 





It is liighly prohahle that at the time of the huihling of Fort Clark there 
was not a white man's cIwelHng witliin man}- miles of it and the only roads, if such 
they may be called, were Indian trails. However, the public surveys of Tazewell 
county, made in 1823, show a thoroughfare marked "Road to Fort Clark," which 
on the map indicated that the road run along the township line between Grove- 
land and Fond du Lac, at the head of a ravine through which meanders Cole 
creek. This was the original course of the road running from Peoria to Spring- 
field, and it might be taken for granted, there was a road, as described above, 
from Fort Clark to the lower settlements anterior to the birth of either Peoria 
or Springfield, and was used by the soldiers of the fort. If such is the case, 
then this was the first road coimecting the future Peoria with the outer world. 

.\ history of Illinois was published Ijy Rufus Blanchard in 1883 and the map 
it contained shows a trail styled the "Fort Clark and Wabash Trace," running 
from Fort Clark to Terre Haute. Historian Blanchard says: "It was a well 
traveled road from the settlements of southern Ohio and Indiana to Fort Clark 
in an early day." This was, in all probability, the road marked on the Tazewell 
surveys. This survey also shows a road called "Kellogg's Trail from Peoria to 
Galena, 1825," on practically the route chosen for the Galena state road, after- 
wards laid out by way of Princeton. Of this Air. Blanchard says: "This trail 
shows the first overland route from Peoria to Galena. It was made by Mr. Kel- 
logg, an old pioneer settler, in 1825, and subsequently became a well known 
route." Another road, as shown by the map, was laid out or in existence in 
1822, and was designated as a mail route from Peoria, by way of Lewistown to 
Rushville, and diverging from the latter place to Quincv, Pittsfield and Jackson- 

The first road laid out by the authorities of Peoria county was that for which, 
at the June session (1825) of the county commissioners' court, Norman Hyde 
and Alexander McXaughton had been appointed viewers, with authority to lo- 
cate. This road led from the ferry landing opposite the hamlet of Peoria to the 
"Old Crossing" on Sugar creek, near Robert Musick's where the remains of a 
bridge were found. As this road trended south, it is presumed the old Fort 
Clark road crossed the creek at this point. Two years after the laying out of 
this road by the county, the legislature, on the 12th day of February, 1827, made 
it a state road, and it became the stage and mail route between Peoria and Spring- 
field. In the act of creating the state road Springfield. Musick's on Salt creek, 
Thomas Dillon's and Peoria were mentioned as l)eing on its line. 

On January 23, 1826, an act of the legislature was passed providing for a 
state road leading from Peoria to Danville, the county seat of \'ermilion county. 
and thence to the state line. Abner Eads, Samuel Fulton and Dan W. Beckwith 
were named in the act as viewers to locate the road. These men performed their 
duty and were assisted by Orlin Gilbert and James Barnes, chain carriers, and 
William Rowan, who blazed the trees marking the line of direction. A special 



act passed by the legislature in 1831, five years later, by which they received pay 
for their labors, was secured. 

At the January (1826) session of the county commissioners' court, viewers 
were appointed to locate a road leading from Peoria to a point at the northern 
boundary of the county and also for a road leading from Peoria to as equally 
an indefinite point at its southern boundary. These roads were subsequently 
ordered to he opened a sufficient width for the passage of teams. At this same 
term viewers were appointed to locate a road from Peoria, passing the "Trading 
Post" — later Wesley City — and the house of Isaac Perkins, to intersect the 
Springfield road at or near Prairie creek. 

The first road laid out leading in the direction of Chicago was provided for 
by the commissioners' court, when, at its September (1826) session, John Barker, 
George Harland and Samuel Fulton, viewers appointed to locate a road from 
Peoria to the eastern boundary of the county, made their report and the road was 
established. Later, in 1833, the legislature appointed Lewis Bigelow, of Peoria 
county, John M. Gay, of I'utnam county, James B. Campbell, of La Salle county, 
and James Walker, of Cook county, viewers to locate a road from Peoria to the 
mouth of Fox river (South Ottaw'a) and thence to Chicago. That part of the 
road mentioned to run "from Peoria to the mouth of the Fox river," was sub- 
stantially the one located by the viewers appointed by the county commissioners 
at their'june session of 1826. It went by way of Metamora (Hanover), Mag- 
nolia, Union Grove, Ottawa and thence to Chicago. It will have been seen by 
the reader that by this time, the year 1833, Peoria had secured the state roads of 
great importance to the settlement — one to Springfield and the south, one to Dan- 
ville and the east — which became the main thoroughfare for immigration, and the 
other, to Chicago and the great lakes. 

The lead mines at Galena early attracted that class of settlers who were short 
of ready money, and they sought the wages paid there with which many of them 
subsequently bought land here and in other settlements. .\ thoroughfare to 
Galena, therefore, became a matter for the consideration of those in authority 
and consequently, at the September term of the commissioners' court Isaac 
Waters, Norman Hyde and John Ray were appointed viewers to locate a road to 
"the lead mines." At the March term, 1828, the order was modified so as to read, 
towards the lead mines as far as the jurisdiction of the court extended. From 
this beginning the famous Galena road came into existence and the legislature, 
on the i8th day of January, 1833, declared it to be a state road. It commenced 
at the public square and followed the line of Adams street to the limits of the 
city, thence by the river road to a point near Mossville, thence on a line north 
through Northampton, Windsor (now Tiskilwa), Princeton, Dixon's ferry, 
thence northwesterly to the west line of Stephenson county, where it intersected 
the Chicago and Ga'lena road and from there on to Galena. From this time on 
roads were laid out when needed, but it was several years before another state 
road was established in the county. 


The first ferrv in Peoria is supposed to have been located at the foot of the 
bridge, but when'and bv whom remains in the dark. It was there in 1821, when 
Ossian Ross came to the mouth of the Spoon river and learned of this ferry and 
the only other one on the river, which was at Beardstown. He at once saw the 
virtue of another ferry, as the two then doing business were ninety miles apart. 
He, therefore, established a third one at what is now Flavana and prospered, his 
enterprise yielding him, so history has it, an annual income of $2,000 for many 
years. .McCulloch, in his history of the county, relates that "James Eads, son 
of William Eads, says his unc'le, Abner Eads, established the first ferry at 

The legislature in 1827 passed an act re(|uiring all ferry keepers chargmg toll 



A FINK lirNDKKl) TIlorsAM) IKil.I.AR STRt'( 'irill': 


to procure a license from the county commissioners" court before commencing 
operations and by the same legislative measure the court was vested with author- 
ity to grant such licenses, fix the toll rates and license fee and sit upon complaints 
against keepers not observing the law governing their vocation. By the same 
act ferry keepers were required to have good boats and eiiuipment, to run their 
boats from daylight until dark, and, upon call, to carry passengers at any hour 
of the night and charge double for the service if they so desired. And it seems 
that passes for public servants were in vogue even at that early day, for the act 
also stipulated that public messengers and expresses, and jurymen while on their 
way to court, should be carried free of charge. 

The custom had been heretofore upon the granting of a ferry license to fix 
the rates of toll. For example, John L. Bogardus had been authorized to make 
certain charges at his ferry and those licensed after him were allowed to fix 
the same rates. However, at the June term, 1826, the county commissioners' 
court fixed the tolls to be charged on all ferries crossing the Illinois river as 
follows : 

For each foot passenger 634 cents 

For man and horse 121/2 cents 

For Dearborn, sulky, chair with springs 50 cents 

One-horse wagon 25 cents 

For four-wheeled carriage drawn by two oxen or horses ZlY^ cents 

For cart with two oxen 37>4 cents 

For every head neat cattle, horses or mules 10 cents 

For each hog, sheep or goat 3 cents 

For every hundred weight of goods, wares and merchandise 6^4 cents 

For each bushel of grain or articles sold by the bushel 3 cents 

All other articles in equal and just proportion. 

It was further ordered by the court that the Bogardus ferry might collect 
double rates when the river should be out of its banks and prevent a landing at 
the first material bend in the (Farm) creek from the ferry. 

At the December, 1829, term of the county commissioners' court George Miller 
and James Scott were licensed to keep a ferry at Hennepin, and at the June term 
William See, a Methodist minister, was authorized to keep a ferry on the Calu- 
met river, at the head of Lake Michigan. In July, 1830, the list of ferries given 
below paid licenses as follows : 

William Haines, Pekin $ 4.00 

\\'illiam Eads, Trading House 2.00 

John L. Bogardus, Peoria lo.oo 

Matthew & Chandler, The Narrows 2.00 

Miller & Scott, Hennepin 2.00 

James Adams, Little \'ermilion 2.00 

Clyborne & Miller, Chicago 2.00 

^^'illiam See, Calimink 2.00 

Other ferry licenses were granted from time to time to Jesse Egman, Septem- 
ber 30, 1830, at Kingston; Thompson and Wright, December, 1830, at Au Sable; 
Abner Eads, January, T831, at foot of Liberty street, near the ravine. In March, 
1832, the license of ]\Iatthews & Chandler, at the Narrows, was revoked and 
one granted to Yincent Barton, father of W. C. H. Barton, for whom the vil- 
lage of Bartonville was given its name. The ferry in a year or two thereafter 
passed into the control of Charles Ballance. In 1832 a license to keep a ferry 
at a point opposite the extinct village of Allentown. between Rome and Chilli- 
cothe. was granted Samuel Allen. 

With the advent of bridges the ferries soon went into a state of "innocuous 


desuetude." The first attempt to build a public bridge in the county was in 
March, 1827, when the county commissioners' court "then proceeded to examine 
and ascertain a suitaijle site for a public bridge across Kickapoo creek and, after 
thorough examination, decided on the following place: 'Immediately above the 
present crossing of the iniblic road from Peoria to I.ewistown.' " The matter 
went no further than this until the December term, when the proposed location 
was again inspected and a contract was awarded John L. Bogardus for the build- 
ing of the bridge, whose bond was fixed at $500. This he gave with John Dixon 
and Augustus Langworthy as sureties. Bogardus failed, however, in making 
good his contract and at the ]\Iarch, 1828, term it was ordered that suit be 
brought against him and his bondsmen. 

Another order was entered by the commissioners' court, June 13, 1829, for 
the erection of a bridge across the Kickapoo creek at the ford on the Lewistown 
road frni Peoria, "164 feet in length, to rest against two certain trees, one on each 
side marked 'B.' " The contract was let to John Cameron, who finished work 
the same year, which was accepted and a balance of $50 due him was paid. The 
total cost of the structure has not been recorded. Subsequently the building of 
bridges became more frequent and today, wherever a road crosses a stream of 
any importance, there a good bridge is standing for the accommodation of the 
public. And the Illinois, as wide as it is in this locality, is spanned at more than 
one point in the county, by both wagon and railroad bridges, made and erected 
to meet the requirements of a busy and prosperous community. 

Early in the year 1912 a magnificent new bridge crossing the Illinois river was 
completed by the Peoria & Pekin Union Railway Company, at a cost of about 
$750,000. The work was begun on the structure early in 1909. It is 1,032 feet 
in length and the channel opening is 127 feet in the clear. While in course of 
construction two attempts were made to blow up the structure by dynamite. An 
unex]>loded bomb and mechanism attached to it was happily discovered in time 
and it is suspected that John and James McNamara, recently convicted of dyna- 
miting the Los Angeles Times building, in which a number of lives were lost, 
were implicated in the movement to destroy the Peoria bridge. This new high- 
way across the river, it is estimated, has increased the transportation facilities of 
Peoria at least one hundred per cent. 


There are not many people in this vicinity nor in the locality where the people 
are more interested in the matter, who are aware of the fact that a Peorian was 
the primary means of the founding of the city of Dixon, but such is the case. 
Judge McCulloch, in his history of Peoria county, gives the facts in the follow- 
ing short paragraph, and as they relate to men who were pioneers of Peoria 
county, they are here preserved as a part of local history : 

"John Dixon, who had for some years been clerk of the circuit court of 
Peoria county, had taken a government contract to carry the mails every two 
weeks from Peoria to Galena. To facilitate the work Joseph Ogee, the half- 
breed heretofore mentioned, was sent, or went of his own accord, to establish a 
ferry across Rock river at the present site of the city of Dixon, which was for 
a short time operated by him ; but his management not proving satisfactory to 
Dixon, the latter bought him out and removed with his family to that place. The 
ferry was ever afterward called Dixon's Ferry, and it was in this way and by 
two Peorians, the city of Dixon was started and received its name. The viewers 
were Joseph B. Meredith, of Peoria county ; John D. Winter and Joseph Smith 
of Jo Daviess county, and Cliarles Boyd, of Putnam county. Meredith drew from 
the treasury of Peoria county $50 for his services as surveyor." 

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The first travelers of the white race came to Peoria by way of the Illinois 
river and for many years thereafter, before land vehicles were available, the 
canoe, skiff and flatboat were used by the Indians, hunters, adventurers, voy- 
ageurs and settlers. The Illinois river was the favorite thoroughfare for the 
transportation of articles of value and until the advent of the railroad traffic by 
water was of no inconsiderable consequence and value. 

Tradition, or history has it that the first steamboat seen at the city of Peoria 
was the "Liberty,"' which had arrived at this port in December, 1849, but from 
whence no one knows. In the spring of 1830 the "Triton'' tied up here, having 
come from St. Louis with a stock of merchandise for John Hamlin. This same 
John Hamlin, whose name appears in this volume many times, secured a half 
interest in the "Fairy," in 1832, which on its return trip from Peoria was lost near 
the mouth of the Alissouri river. In 1839 the "Friendship," the "Exchange," 
the "Utility" and the "Peoria" were all in these waters. 

By 1834 immigration to Peoria had set in steadily and river traffic increased 
to a comparatively large extent. The "Winnebago," the "Argus," the "Herald" 
and "Jo Daviess" plied between ports all along the river and carried many tons 
of freight to and from Peoria. All of these vessels did a passenger business and 
brought a number of distinguished visitors to the growing city. The "Jo Da- 
viess" was owned in Peoria, by its captain. William A. Hall and his brother, 
David. The craft was sunk near the mouth of the Spoon river early in 1836. 
There were other citizens of Peoria who had an interest in vessels touching here. 
Captain W. S. Moss, a prominent merchant, bought the hull of a damaged boat, 
at St. Louis, and brought it to Peoria, where it was completely rebuilt. By 185 1 
the traffic had become so large that Drown, in his history of the times, gives con- 
siderable space to the subject and mentions the landing of 1,236 vessels at Peoria 
during the year. 

When the Illinois and Michigan canal was completed in 1848, the river trade 
at Peoria began to suffer. There was an alert and vigorous rival with which to 
contend. Chicago held out inducements to those engaged in the river business 
and the tide of commerce turned her back on Peoria and headed for the embryo 

In 1851, the "Illinois River Express Line," with its packet boats made weekly 
trips from St. Louis to La Salle, one leaving St. Louis every day except Sunday. 
These vessels, the "Ocean Wave," the "Connecticut." the "Gladiator," the "Ava- 
lanche," the "Prairie Bird" and the "Prairie State" catered principally to pas- 
senger business, but on their lower decks merchandise and other articles of com- 
merce were shipped in large quantities. One of the noted river men of those days 
was Captain Thomas I'.aldwin, master of the "Aunt Letty.'' named after his 
wife. He had also commanded the "Lucy Bertram." The Captain became one 
of Peoria's most esteemed and influential citizens and at the time of the Civil war 
was placed in command of the United States gunboat, Romeo. 

Other boats of the early day that might be mentioned were the "Bell Gould," 
the "Amazonia."' the "Cataract," the "Hibernia," "Sam Gaty," "Sam Young," 
"Louisville," "F. X. Aubrey," "Altoona." "Americus," "Brazil," "Polar Star." 
"Challenge," "La Salle," "Lacon," "Schuyler," "City of Pekin," "City of Peoria," 
"Illinois" and "Beardstown." 

The advent of the railroad was the forerunner of the doom of river traffic at 
this port. The trade be.gan to dwindle almost from the start until today it might 
well be termed a negligible quantity. But few boats touch at Peoria and most 
of the traffic is by the passenger boats, which depend almost entirely on their 
revenues from excursionists during the summer months. 

Strange to relate, the city of Peoria has not one trunk line entering its con- 
fines, ijut to offset this seeming disadvantage, it is the terminal for fourteen 
branch roads, arteries of some of the greatest systems of railroads in the United 


States. Coupletl with these is the famous Illinois Traction System of interurban 
railways, which not only brings into the city each day visitors and shoppers, but 
also contributes to storehouses and busy marts shipments of vast quantities of 
merchandise and other valuables. A statistician connected with the Peoria As- 
sociation of Commerce has, by research and computation, arrived at the conclu- 
sion that I'eoria "outranks every other city of its class in the United States in 
transportation facilities." The railroads centering in P'eoria are : 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway. ( Eastern terminals, Chicago 
and Peoria.) 

The Chicago, Burlington li- Quincy. (Eastern terminals, Chicago, Peoria 
and St. Louis.) 

The Iowa Central. (Eastern terminal, Peoria.) 

The Rock Island and Peoria. 

The Toledo, Peoria and Western. ( Under control of the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany. ) 

The Lake Erie & Western. (Under Lake Shore & Michigan Southern con- 
trol and ownership. ) 

The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. (\^anderbilt system.) 

The \'andalia Line — Terre Haute & Peoria. (Under control of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company.) 

The Illinois Central. (Peoria, Decatur & Evansville Division.) 

The Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis. 

The Chicago & Alton. 

The Chicago & Northwestern. 

The Peoria & Pekin Union Railway. (Terminal line.) 

The Peoria & Pekin Terminal Railway. 


For the convenience of citizens and the traveling public, omnibus lines were 
the first means of conveyance in Peoria, but these were not regularly established 
by organized companies, their existence being due simply to the enterprise of livery 
men. .As the city grew and the railroads increased their passenger traffic, the 
need of more rapid transportation in and over the city became apparent. This led 
to the application of certain capitalists in 1867 for a charter, to empower the 
'Central City Street Railway Company" to build a line of street railway in Peoria. 
The board of directors were De Witt C. Farrell, John C. Proctor, John L. Gris- 
wold, Horace C. Anderson and Washington Cockle. These gentlemen resigned 
and a new board was elected in August, 1S68, the project up to that time not 
having made satisfactory progress. William R. Burt was made president of the 
board. Nelson Burnham, secretary, and Edward PI. Jack, treasurer. Nothing, 
however, was accomplished that year and the year 1869 was well on its way when, 
in October the last named members of the board of directors were superseded by 
William Reynolds, John L. Griswold, Washington Cockle, Henry R. Woodward, 
Joseph W. Cochran, Joseph H. Wight and James T. Rogers. William Reynolds, 
president, Joseph W. Cochran, secretary, and James T. Rogers, treasurer. On 
October 6, 1869, the company was granted a franchise by the city council, for 
the construction of railway tracks over a stated portion of the city. December i, 
1869, two miles of track commencing on South street was finished and four horse 
cars in operation. The enterprise proved a success from the start and within a 
month therefrom the line was continued from Alain street to the vicinity of the 
American pottery. The company had purchased the land known as Central Park 
and in the spring of 1870 tracks were laid to the pleasure grounds. November 
10, 1871, the Peoria Horse Railway Company received from the council a fran- 
chise for a double-track line along Washington street from Persimmon to Main, 
along Alain and the Farmington road to Elizabeth street, along High from Main 
to Elizabeth and on Elizabeth north to the city limits ; also for a single track 



The liiiilge •■frowd" say "good-bye" 



along Floral street to P.ourland, on Bourland to Hansel, on Hansel to the city 
limits; along North street from Main to Armstrong avenue, and on Armstrong 
avenue to Taylor street and to liluflf street; also along the Knoxville road from 
Alain to the city limits. 

May 17, 1873, the Fort Clark Horse Railway Company was organized by 
Jacob Darst. John S. French, John H. Hall, William E. Bunn and Jacob Littleton. 
Under the franchise granted the company had authority to lay track, some of 
which paralleled the "Central's." which eventually led to the last named company 
absorbing its rival. 

April 20, 1 888, the Central City Horse Railway Company was reorganized as 
the Central Railway Company and changed from horse to electric power. The 
Fort Clark Company was given authority to adopt electric power May 18, 1891, 
and changed its corporate name to the Fort Clark Street Railway Company, 
March 11, 1892. 

The Peoria Rapid Transit Company was organized December 10, 1891, mainly 
to benefit the Central Company and laid tracks on Monroe and Fifth. These 
tracks with others of the Central paralleling the Fort Clark road, made the lat- 
ter's business hazardous to its stockholders and as a result the Fort Clark road 
lost its identity by being merged with its competitor. 

The Peoria Heights Street Railway Company was organized October i, 1892, 
and the Glen Oak & Prospect Heights Railway Company, May 7, 1896. The 
latter company operated a single track road, which began at the intersection of 
Main street and Glendale avenue and from thence run to the old Mount Hawley 
road at the "Alps." Im-oui there the line continued past Glen Oak Park and 
Springdale cemetery to the village of Prospect Heights. The stock of this road 
is largely held by the Central City company. 


The Illinois Traction System known as the McKinley Lines runs from Peoria 
through Springfield to St. Louis, a distance of one hundred seventy-four miles 
and is the only railroad between these two points that has its own rails all the 
way, its own terminals and liridges. Trains run from the courthouse s(|uare in 
Peoria to the corner of High and Twelfth streets in St. Louis, the very heart of 
the hotel, business and theatre district. 

Over forty-five passenger trains and cars a day enter and leave Peoria. 
From Peoria the traction also runs to Bloomington, Decatur, Champaign, Urbana 
and Danville, also to Springfield. Decatur and Springfield are connected, mak- 
ing five hundred miles of high speed lines owned and ojierated by this road. 

The station in Peoria is located at the corner of Hamilton and Adams streets 
where the offices of the X'ice President, Executive, the tJeneral Counsel, the Chief 
Surgeon, the Chief Operating Engineer, the Purchasing Agent and the Depart- 
ment of Publicity are also located. At the corner of Washington and Walnut 
is located the freight house, the car barns and the power house. The freight 
house has but recently been enlarged and afl^ords shipping facilities unequalled 
by other roads. 

The Illinois Traction System is the only electric line in the world to operate 
sleeping cars. These run nightly between Peoria and St. Louis. They leave the 
station in Peoria at 11 130 p. m. arriving at St. Louis at 7:05 a. m. These cars, 
designed by officials of the Traction System, are said to be the finest sleepers on 
wheels, being much superior to Pullmans. They have windows in the upper 
berths. Steel lockers for valuables are placed in the wall at the head of each 
berth. The berths are not made into seats and have six inch -spring beds and 
are six inches longer than standard Pullmans. They are as comfortable as a 
bed. These cars are lighted by storage batteries with lights in each berth. 

Another innovation for an electric line is parlor cars. These have every 
convenience and were designed for comfort and easy riding. They have large 


observation platforms, comfortable arm chairs and for a small charge offer 
privacy and luxury. These cars run to Springfield, Bloomington, Decatur and 
St. Louis. 

The System also handles all classes of freight. Rapid delivery of freight is 
a big feature. Goods delivered to the freight house in the evening reach any 
point on the Traction the ne.xt morning. This is true of all terminals. Regulation 
freight ecjuipment is handled by the Traction which has elevators and connections 
with steam roads for its freight business. Belt lines around Decatur, Spring- 
field, Edwardsville and Granite City have recently been completed for the more 
rapid handling of its freight trains. 

The lines were built and put in operation from Bloomington to Peoria in 
1906 and 1907, and in 1908 from Mackinaw Junction to Springfield. 

The street car lines in Peoria were acquired by the System in 1904 and 
work was started on the McKinley bridge across the Illinois. The power house 
was rebuilt and enlarged to furnish current for the local lines and the interurban. 

Since acf|uiring the street car lines they have been practicallv rebuilt and to- 
day are said to be the best in the west for a city of the size of Peoria. 

The Illinois Traction is in every respect a railroad doing all classes of rail- 
road business. It operates freight trains and gives an unexcelled passenger 
service. Cars leave Peoria for all points every hotir and arrive on the same 
schedule. This frequence of service is a great convenience for travelers. The 
local cars stop at all highway crossings making it possible for the farmer to visit 
the city as he pleases. The limited cars stop at stations only and make as good 
time as the steam roads. 

At St. Louis across the Mississippi the System has built the McKinley Elec- 
tric Bridge at a cost of four million, five hundred thousand dollars. This is the 
largest bridge ever built by an electric railroad and the heaviest in carrying 
capacity of any that crosses the river. A handsome passenger station and ter- 
minal facilities have but recently been finished. 

During the last year, the Traction has installed a complete system of auto- 
matic electric block signals. These are absolutely automatic in their operation 
and assure perfect safety in train operation. They are placed at all meeting 
points, curves and subways and render collision practically impossible. It is 
interesting to note that the Traction has more signals of this type than an)- other 
electric road in the United States. 

In the northern part of the state the INIcKinley interests own and control 
the Chicago, Ottawa and Peoria Railway Company. This interurban operates 
one hundred miles of track connecting Princeton, La Salle, Spring \'alley, 
Ottawa, Streator and Joliet. Eventually these lines will enter Chicago and be 
connected with the Illinois Traction System, making a continuous interurban 
from St. Louis, Missouri, to Chicago, via Peoria. 

William B. McKinley is the founder and builder and president of these inter- 
urban lines. He is also well known from his public life, having represented the 
nineteenth district of Illinois in congress for six terms. He is a member of the 
committee of foreign affairs and was for four years chairman of the committee 
on coinage weights and measures. 

H. E. Chubl)uck, vice president and general manager of all the McKinley 
interests, lives in Peoria. Sir. Chubbuck is one of the foremost men in the "elec- 
trical business in the United States. His father and grandfather also spent their 
lives in the electrical inilustry. His grandfather then living in LTica, New York, 
had the distinction of collaborating with Morse in the invention of the telegraph. 
His father invented the sounder and established the first factory for the manu- 
facture of telegraph instruments in the United States. Mr. Chubbuck is the 
head of an organization of more than three thousand, five hundred men. His 
offices are in Peoria and he has made this city his permanent home, having bought 
property on Moss avenue. He is well known in Peoria, taking an active interest 
in all its business and social affairs. 






The story of the Roman Catholic church in I'coria county can best lie told 
under several general headings. 


As with Columbus the church came to this continent so came it also with the 
sons of France who first rowed down our unknown streams and penetrated our 
trackless forests. The e.xplorers were catholic : the missionaries, as well. Fre- 
()uently the same individual was both the one and the other. Witness the names 
of Marquette, Hennepin, Allouez, Rasle and Gravier. 

The spring of 1673 saw Father James Marquette, Joliet and five fellow 
countrymen rowing down the Wisconsin river to the Mississippi, thence down 
its current to the place where the Arkansas pitches itself into the Father of 
Waters. Here, satisfied that the Mississippi emj^ties into the Gulf instead of 
the Pacific ocean, they started on the return voyage. Just a little curious that as 
Columbus was seeking a short route to India and discovered America, so these 
seven Frenchmen in seeking a short passage to India opened up a territory com- 
pared with whose wealth the lure of India drops into utter insignificance. Mar- 
quette's Journal of his first glimpse of the Illinois country says: 'AVe had seen 
nothing like this river for the fertility of its land, its prairies, wood, wild cattle, 
stag, deer, wild cats, swan, ducks, parrots and even beaver: its many lakes and 
rivers." Prophetic forecast, for the golden harvests of Illinois now find their 
wav to Bendemeer and liosphorus ! 

Having satisfied themselves that the Mississippi afforded no short cut to 
India, they began the return and when at the mouth of the Illinois river they 
were told by the Indians of the place that this river offered a shorter way to the 
lakes, they ascended it and in that ascension we are privileged to chronicle the 
fact : 

Peoria County First Pell Upon White }hiu's I'ision 

The exact date of this potent event we do not know, but the month and the 
year we are able to record. June 17, 1673, saw Marquette and companions 
entering the Mississippi and two months later, we note him spending three days 
with the Indians of the Peoria village, announcing the Catholic faith to them 
and baptizing a dying child which was brought to him on the water's edge as he 
and companions were embarking to continue the journey to the Great Lakes. 

With the preaching of Father Marc|uette and the administration of the Sacra- 
meiit of I'.aptism .\ugust, 1673, we are able to fix the humble beginning of the 
Catholic church in Peoria county. Its beginning is caezvl icith the adi'ent of the 
first Zi'hitc man to these parts. 

In this voyage up the river a stop was made at the principal village of the 



Kaskaskias — a mission station was established, and from this estabhshment dates 
the authentic period of the Illinois history (1673). Seven years later La Salle 
descended the Illinois river on his way to the mouth of the Mississippi and while 
on that journey built Fort Creve Coeur, opposite the present city of Peoria. This 
marks the second step in the opening up of Illinois. While neither settlement 
was made in Peoria, they were both made in the portion of Illinois which since 
1875 is known in church geography, as 

The Diocese of Peoria 

April 8, 1675, finds Father Marquette at the first Kaskaskia village — on the 
high ground north of the Illinois river and south of the present village of Utica. 
The narrative tells us that five hundred chiefs and old men were seated in a 
circle round the priest while the youth stood without, to the number of fifteen 
hundred besides the many women and children. Marquette preached to them 
and on the following Thursday and Sunday — Holy Thursday and Easter Sun- 
day — celebrated Mass, the first clean Oblation ever offered to God in Illinois. 

April iith and 14th, 1675, are the dates of the first Masses ofifered in the 
Diocese of Peoria. A little more than a month later this first missionary passed 
to his reward near the mouth of the St. Joseph river, on the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan. His thirty-eight years ending on the i8th of May, 1675, make 
the historian, however crude, feel they were the beginning of immortality and 
the Middle West places him among names she cannot afford to let die. 

After the death of Illinois' and Peoria county's first missionary. Father Allouez 
came to Kaskaskia on the Illinois ( 1677). Father Rasle, who was later murdered 
by the New Englanders at Norridgewock, Maine, in 1724, also visited Kaskaskia 
before 1700. 


The era of the discoverer passes and the missionary gives place to the explorer 
and the colonist. The idea grows upon us as we behold in Fort Creve Coeur 
( 1680) the fourth of that chain of fortresses which La Salle's far-reaching plans 
contemplated. He had already established Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario, 
Fort Conti on the River Niagara and Fort Miami. With these the church 
historian is not particularly concerned except as he finds them centers of mis- 
sionary activity. We have already noted Marquette's visit to Peoria county, 
1673, and a little more than seven years later we chronicle the advent of the 
second missionary or rather band of missionaries. For New Year's day, 1680, 
witnessed La Salle, Tonti and twenty-five followers and three Franciscan mis- 
sionaries landing to begin the construction of Fort Creve Coeur. The mission- 
aries were Fathers Hennepin, Gabriel de la Rebourde and Zenobe Membre. 

March i, 1680, saw the fort nearly finished. We cannot do better than let 
Hennepin tell the story in his own words: "Our fort was very nearly finished 
and we named it Fort Creve Coeur because the desertions of our men and the 
other difficulties which we labored under had almost broken our hearts. And we 
heard nothing of our ship and therefore wanted rigging and tackle for our bark 
— M. de La Salle did not doubt then that his beloved Griffin (i. e. his transport 
and trading ship — Ed. ) was lost, but neither this nor the other difficulties dejected 
him — his great courage buoyed him up, and he resolved to return to Fort Fron- 
tenac by land notwithstanding the severe and unspeakable dangers attending so 
great a voyage." 

Hennepin tells again of long consultations had and the resolve that La Salle 
set out with three men and bring back with him all the necessary things for their 
discoveries. La Salle was intending to navigate the Mississippi to its mouth 
and Hennepin and two companions to go by the mouth of the Illinois to the upper 

The missionaries who had accompanied La Salle to Creve Coeur are now about 



to scatter themselves for more widespread effort. We cannot do better than 
hear again the story in Hennepin's own words : "We were three missionaries 
for that handful of Europeans at Fort Creve Coeur and therefore we thought 
lit to divide ourselves. Father Gabriel de la Rebourde, being very old, was tc 
continue with our men at the fort. Father Zenolire Membre was to go among 
the Illinois, having desired it himself, in hopes to convert that numerous nation, 
and I was to go on without discovery." 

Tonti was left in command of the fort as La Salle with three men set out 
overland for Canada. Father Hennepin and two companions went down the 
Illinois and began his memorable e.xploration of the upper Mississippi. Mean- 
while Father Membre lived in the cabin of the chief Oumahowha but the brutal 
habits greatly discouraged him. Gradually, however, he accjuired their language. 
Tonti was deserted by most of his men and the aged Father de la Rebourde was 
adopted by Asapiata. an Illinois chief. 

In September, same year, the Peorias and Kaskaskias were attacked by an 
Iroquois army and tied. Tonti and the missionaries narrowly escaped and seeing 
no alternative set out for Green Bay in a wretched bark canoe. The following 
day being compelled to land for repairs while Tonti and Father Membre were 
making the repairs, Father de la Rebourde retired to the shade of a neighboring 
grove to recite his office. This was the last seen of him. Three Kickapoos had 
come upon him and killed him and thrown his body into a hole. His breviary 
eventually fell into the hands of a Jesuit missionary. 

Thus September 9. 1680. bears n'itncss to the first martyr of the Illinois mis- 
sions in the person of Father Gabriel de la Rebourde, who in the seventieth year 
passed from earth, far indeed, from his native France. 

From the breaking up of Fort Creve Coeur in Autumn, 1680, to 172 1, we 
Ijehold the Catholic church in the ministrations of Father Gravier, Jesuit, who 
was here in 1693 and 1694, and who tells us of fervent Christians among the 
Indians. Even in the absence of the missionary the men assembled in chapel 
for morning and evening prayers. 

The year 1700 we see h'ather Gravier again in Peoria, but this time the medi- 
cine man incited a sedition in which the missionary was dangerousl}^ wounded 
and narrowly escaped his life. 

h'ather Moreat resided here for some time after Father Gravier's experience 
in 1700. The mission then became vacant, and the Indians in punishment for 
their cruelty to Father Gravier were cut oft" from the French trade. Father 
Moreat came a second time to them in 171 1, and found them somewhat subdued 
and conscious of their former cruelty. On his return to Kaskaskia (on the 
Mississi])]3i ) he sent from there Father de \'ille to renew the faith among the 
I'eorias. The next priest to visit this site was Father Charlevoix in 172 1. At 
that time the chief's little daughter was dying and he brought her to the mis- 
sionary to be baptized. The chief wore on his breast a cross and figure of the 
Blessed \'irgin. 


From 1721 until early in the next century silence falls upon missionary effort 
among the Indians in the Illinois country. This is so for the reason that tribal 
wars of the bitterest kind made such effort impossible. That their wars were 
relentless yet having in them elements of the noblest daring and greatest heroism 
the reader need but advert to the memorable siege of Starved Rock, where, like 
Schamyl, on Gunib's height, ninety years later, valiant warriors looked down 
upon the enemy. But what traitors or new found paths could not do hunger and 
thirst did. 

Another explanation is found for a prolonged interruption of the missionary 

story in what here follows. In 17 12 the French government began to send white 

settlers to this and other colonies, which stretched all the way from New Orleans 

to the Great Lakes. It granted valuable franchises to Crosat and Cadillac. The 
vii. I— 10 


grant ended in disaster in 1717 and was quickly followeil by the bursting of 
Law's bank in 1720. This was known in those days as the Mississippi Bubble 
and was doubtless Illinois' first experiment in high finance. The white settler 
lost his all. In 1736, war broke out with the Chickasaws and the Illinois troops 
met defeat. Illinois' tirst governor, D'Artaguiette and its second martyr priest. 
Father Senet, were put to death by slow torture at the stake. 

The Illinois troops under Bienville again tasted of defeat at the hands of the 
Chickasaws. Then came \'andruel, as governor of Louisiana, who later in 1760 
surrendered Montreal and the whole of Canada to England. 1763, just ninety 
years after Marquette's visit to Peoria, witnessed the passing of our city and 
surrounding territory from French to short-lived British rule. 


From Father James Marquette's visit, then, in 1673 to the proclamation of 
General Gage bearing date December 30, 1764, the catholic was the only form of 
the christian religion known or proclaimed in Illinois. Bearing upon the fact : 
the early missionar)- ]3hase of religion was exclusively catholic, ^liss Jones, in 
her painstaking work entitled "Decisive Dates in Illinois History" writes: "Two 
strong motives led the French into the wilderness. One was the fur trade and 
the other was the love of their church which sent them as missionaries among 
the American Indians. Wherever a trading-post was located, a mission was 
established. The priest with his altar on his back went side by side with the 
explorer and the trader. This was the case from the time of the building of 
Quebec, the first permanent settlement in New France by Samuel Champlain in 


The first proclamation of the first English Governor of the newly acquired 
territory has to do with religion and reads as follows. General Gage says: 
"And His Brittanic Majesty grants to the inhabitants of Illinois the liberty of the 
Catholic religion, as has already been granted to his subjects in Canada. He has 
consequents given the most precise and efifective orders to this end that his new 
Roman Catholic subjects of the Illinois may exercise the worship of their religion 
according to the rites of the Roman church." 

The British held possession of all this northwest territory until 1778 \yhen 
Col. George Rogers Clark dislodged them. That Father Gibault greatly assisted 
the colonel the records show. Through him messengers were dispatched to 
Vincennes and Peoria (\'ille du Maillet) assuring the French residents they 
were American allies and enemies of the English, against whose rule their racial 
feelings had protested for the past fourteen years. Father Gibault's services 
in this episode of the militant gospel were recognized in public eulogium in the 
legislation of \'irginia in 1780. 


From the period of the revolution just adverted to, the local historian asks 
the reader to make a good long mental jump of more than fifty years. There 
are no records covering the intervening half century ; in truth, there seems little 
to record other than a settling back into primeval wilderness and silence from 
which our territory was first awakened by Father .^Marquette on a memorable 
August day, 1673. 

To be exact in dates, the mental jump brings historian and reader to Decem- 
ber, 1837, and August, 1839. The former date tells of .A lass celebrated in the 
house of Thomas Alooney", who in 1835, with his family came to the La Salle 
Prairie about sixteen miles up the river northeast of the present city of Peoria. 
Mr. Mooney's name attached itself to this early homeseeking in Peoria county 
and the place is rightfully called Mooney Settlement. The priest who first paid 
the few Catholic settlers there a visit was a fellow countryman of Father Mar- 


cjuette. IJorn at Lyons, I'Yance, 1804, and ordained at St. Louis, by ISishop 
Rosati, April 6, 1833, the Rev. J. j\I. J. St. Cyr. has the distinction of being the 
first resident priest of Chicago and of building its first church — St. Mary's. 
He has also the pilgrim's experience of walking from (Chicago) l'"ort Dear- 
born to St. Louis. This foot journey enables us to chronicle his visit to Mooney 
Settlement and to resume the story of the Catholic church in Peoria county 
after more than fifty years of silence. 

The village of Kickapoo lays claim to possessing the first permanent Roman 
Catholic church edifice built in Illinois. The little stone church is still in use 
and its cornerstone was laid August 4, 1839. Fortunately the record of this 
most interesting early event has been preserved. 

"By the authority of the IJishop, the illustrious and Rt. Rev. Joseph Rosati, 
I have this day blessed and placed the (first) cornerstone of a church to be 
erected by the faithful in Kickapoo, a mission connected with this parish and 
situated in the county of Peoria about sixty miles from La Salle, said church 
to be erected to the glorv of God and of St. Patrick, ISishop of the Irish People." 
August 4, 1^9. ' J. B. Raho, C. M^ 

The local historian finds himself noting the passing of the early Jesuit and 
Franciscan missionary and their places taken by the Lazarist, who is to occupy 
no small space in the church history of central Illinois after the event chronicled 
by their worthy son, who came from the center of their religious activity at La 
Salle, Illinois, to lay the cornerstone of the first permanent Catholic church in 
Peoria county and perhaps in Illinois. Father Raho's name is closely associated 
with the beginnings of the Catholic activity, which has remained down to the 
present in the city of Peoria. He paid a short visit here in 1838 on his way from 
St. Louis to La Salle and a year later returned and celebrated Mass at the home 
of Patrick Ward on tlie Jefferson street lot adjoining the present St. Mary's 
parochial school. 

From this date Mass was said now and then at the houses of various early 
settler Catholics. 

Services were held in a public building for the first time in 1840. The distinc- 
tion belongs to Father Raho and the place the u])per room of a frame building, 
corner Main and Adams, where the AIcDougal drug store now stands. Father 
Raho was assisted by Fathers Parodi and Staehle. For a few years, the Sunday 
Mass was celebrated about once a month. From 1841 to 1843, public services 
were held on the lower side of Washington street about half way between Main 
and I'ulton streets in what was known as Stillman's Row. 

The year 1843 bears witness to the visit of the first Catholic bishop to Peoria. 
P>ishop Peter Kenrick of St. Louis came and celebrated Mass in Stillman's Row 
and also in the old courthouse. His visit w^as quite an event bringing Catholics 
from Galena, La Salle, Black Partridge and Kickapoo. He confirmed twenty- 
seven and remained for some days delivering addresses for three consecutive 
evenings to mixed audiences in the courthouse. 

It was this visit which brought about the purchase of the ground which later 
became the site of old .St. Mary's church — so many years the pro-cathedral of the 
diocese of Peoria. To-day the church building has passed but the grounds 
remain ornamented by a new and up-to-date parochial school which is the prop- 
erty of the parish and retains the name of St. Mary's. 

From Bishop Kenrick's visit to 185 1 and 1852 when the first St. Mary's 
church was built, services were held in various places about the city chiefly in a 
little brick building on the alley between Madison and Jefferson streets. For 
many years afterward this same spot was the site of the first parochial school 
in Peoria. St. Mary's church, whose opening under Father Montuori, July 4, 
1852, we are all privileged to chronicle was dedicated some months later, April 
17, 1853, by Bishop \'an de \'elde — the second bishop of Chicago. From the 
opening of St. Mary's church in 1852 its abandonment May, 1889, in favor of 
the cathedral which now stands a thing of imposing beauty, sixteen pastors pre- 


sided over its destinies. Among the best known were Father Abraham J. Ryan, 
later known as "The Poet Priest of the South" and Fathers M. J. Hurley and 
Benjamin J. Spalding, whose early death was bemoaned but who left in the new 
St. Mary's, corner Madison and Green streets, an enduring monument to his 
memory and an evidence that his ten years of pastorate were busy and fruitful 

Tlic Diocese of Peoria 

The setting apart, into a diocese bearing the name of our county seat, of a 
certain territory stretching across the entire width of central Illinois gives a 
new and significant prominence to the Catholic church story of Peoria county. 

The diocese of Peoria was erected by Papal Brief, February 12. 1875, and its 
first Bishop Rt. Rev. John L. Spalding was consecrated in New York city by 
Cardinal McClosky, May i, 1877. Twenty-two days later he came to Peoria and 
for more than thirty years or to be exact until November, 1908. when his resigna- 
tion handed in two months previous, was accepted by Rome, he directed the 
destiny of the Catholic church in Peoria with rare administrative power ; with 
wisdom, catholic in the broadest sense ; with universal sympathy and with a gift 
of eloquence that would have marked him in any age or country ; with a pen 
unfailing and chaste. All this lifted the diocese of Peoria to a place not explained 
by numbers or distinctive early history, however interesting. Doubtless in last 
analysis the historian in explanation, finds himself saying as Sir Arthur Helps 
said of Cardinal Ximines, "He is like a city on the margin of deep waters such 
as Genoa, where no receding tide reveals anything that is mean, squalid or 

When Bishop Spalding took up his residence in Peoria, May, 1877, there were' 
besides St. Mary's, St. Joseph's and St. Patrick's parishes. The year 1855 bears 
witness to the erection of St. Joseph's church. It was in every way uripretentious, 
a frame building fifty by thirty-two. Its first pastor and builder was Father 
Gipperich — formerly of Black Partridge — who remained until 1857. Among the 
well known and more prominent pastors of this church are Fathers Boers, 
Dieters, Baak, Rotter and Greve, who yet remains. The distinction of building 
the present permanent church dedicated in 1880 belongs to Father Baak, who 
began his pastorate in 1872. 

St. Patrick's, the largest of the Catholic parishes of the city of Peoria, began 
its particular history in 1862. Father Coyle, rector of St. Mary's, built a stnall 
frame church there for the wants of the growing population in "The Lower 
End." It was attended from St. Mary's, and became strong enough to stand 
alone. May i, 1868, when Father Hurley resigned the pastorate of St. Mary's 
to become the first and much loved pastor of St. Patrick's. He built the present 
permanent church, which was tried as by fire, but which arose again and 
was dedicated November 27, 1881. Father Hurley died December 11, 1892, and 
was succeeded by its present rector Rt. Rev. Bishop Peter J. O'Reilly. 

The parish of the Sacred Heart, whose proximity to the city hall makes the 
visitor know the church is in toimi and suggests possibly the balance of civil and 
religious government — this church was the first of the new parishes which fol- 
lowed in fairly rapid succession under the stimulus of the first bishop of Peoria. 
Begun in 1880 it was for more than a decade cared for by the Capuchin Fathers, 
who in 1892 were succeeded by the Sons of St. Francis of Assissi. They have 
changed all the temporary buildings into permanent structures of approved 
architectural beauty. 

The year 1881 finds the population of "The Lower End" demanding nearer 
church accommodations and in this demand arose St. Boniface's parish. Its first 
rector and organizer was the Rev. F. Von Schwedler, who built a frame church 
and school and brick parochial residence. He was succeeded, 1892, by the Fran- 


ciscan Fathers, who later erected the permanent church and school. The parish 
remains under their charge and shows yearly gains in membership and religious 

St. John's parish took birth July, 1890. It found reason for its existence in 
the growth covered up by that somewhat mystic but comprehensive phrase "The 
Lower End." It was most fortunate in its first rector, who like the first rector 
of St. Boniface, came from Oilman, Illinois. 

The Rev. John P. Ouinn had youth, vigor, industry, enthusiasm and eloquence. 
They were assets that counted. January, 191 1, he was advanced to the Deanery 
of Ottawa, Illinois. His twenty years of residence in St. John's left a void in 
many hearts ; they also left four permanent buildings in which to carry on the 
parochial life. He was succeeded by the Rev. T. E. .Madden, of Arlington, 

St. Mark's parish made a beginnmg July, 1891. Its first rector and organizer 
was Rev. Francis J. O'Reilly, who came from Utica, Illinois, to do the work. 
He remained in charge until June, 1897, when he was advanced to the rectorship 
of St. Mary's cathedral and made chancellor of the diocese of Peoria. His six 
years of living on the West Bluff witnessed — after a year of temporary organiza- 
tion — the completion of the present permanent church and rectory. 

He was succeeded by Rev. James Shannon, who in December, 1910, was 
succeeded by Rev. John H. Burke, of Bloomington, Illinois. Father Burke, its 
third rector still cares for the spiritual needs of the growing parish. 

St. Bernard's, the newest of the congregations of the city of Peoria proper, 
was born of the spiritual needs of the people of the Catholic faith who sought 
homes in what is locally called the East Bluff. The parish was created and the 
church built in 1904 by Father F. J. O'Reilly, while rector of the cathedral. 
Its first resident rector was appointed on the day of dedication, October, 1904. 
He remains and reigns successfully in the person of Rev. M. P. Sammon, who 
has since added to the parish e(|uipment a parochial residence and school, both of 
permanent character and architectural beauty. 

St. Peter's, Averyville, came into existence humbly enough toward the end 
of December, 1897. In August, 1898, the present church was dedicated and 
later a parochial residence was acquired. These things were done by Rev. F. 
J. O'Reilly while rector of St. Mary's Cathedral. The priests of the cathedral 
answered all its spiritual demands until August, 191 1, when its first and present 
rector came in the person of Rev. Enos Barnes. 

Extra-Urban Territory 

Brimfield, Dunlap, Princeville, Elmwood, Edelstein, and Chillicothe all have 
churches and four of them are administered by resident priests. 

Brimfield claimed its first resident priest in 1867 and the honor fell to Rev. 
J. Murphy who has had twelve successors — among them Rev. Max Albrecht, 
Canon J. Moyinhan, \'ery Rev. James Shannon, present Vicar General of the 
Diocese of Peoria and the Rev. A. Mainville, rector since 1899. 

Elmwood for several years attended from lirimfield, secured a resident rector 
in 1892. Rev. D. A. Kelley to whom that distinction came was succeeded after 
a few months by Rev. J. W. Callias, who in turn was followed by Rev. N. 
Dempsey, the present incumbent. 

Chillicothe after being an out-mission of Henry for some years, became a 
distinct parish entity in 1904, when the Rev. E. M. Hayden arrived as its first rec- 
tor. The present church building was erected by Rev. Edward Kniery, while 
coming now and then, as rector of St. Joseph's, Henry. The parochial residence is 
due to Father Hayden, who remained until autumn, 1911. He was succeeded 
by Rev. J. E. Roach. 

Catholicity came to Princeville with the early Irish and German settlers. 
At that time there was no church nearer than Kickapoo or Peoria to which 


places they were accustomed to drive. While the present Peoria diocese was 
part of the archdiocese of Chicago, the Catholic people of Princeville township 
were ministered to by priests from Peoria city. On September 7, 1867, the Rev. 
T. Alurphy was appointed lirst rector of Princeville and his successors in turn 
have been, Rev. Max Albright, Rev. Chas. Wenserski, Rev. Father .Moore, Very 
Rev. I. Canon Moyninhan. Rev. H. Schreiber, Rev. P. A. McGair, Rev. C. A. 
Hausser and Rev. C. 1'. O'.Xeill. 

It was in Father Murphy's time that the old Presbyterian meeting house 
was purchased and made into a Roman Catholic church, the first in Princeville. 
Father Albrecht built the first rectory. The handsome new church was the 
work of Father McGair, while the present fine new rectory, together with the 
Christ chapel and the fittings for the church are the results of the labor of Father 
O'Neill, the present rector. 

Attached to the mother church in Princeville are two missions, one at Dun- 
lap and the other at Edelstein. At the former place is a strong parish composed 
of many of the leading citizens. The first church was built in 1879 by Father 
Moyninhan on ground given by Alva Dunlap. This church known as St. Rose's 
served the congregation till the November of 1909 when it was destroyed by 
lightning. It has been replaced by a handsome new brick and stone structure 
in the English Gothic style and is now known as St. Clement's. 

St. Matthew's in Edelstein was the result of a gift by Matthew :\IcDonnell, 
one of the early settlers of Hallock township and a staunch Catholic. It _ was 
built in 1 90 1 and although the parish is small the members make up in enthusiasm 
what they lack in numbers. 


Roman Catholic Institiifions 

Apart from distinct parochial organization and equipment, which is similar 
to that found elsewhere, the Bishop of Peoria was eager and persistent in the 
establishment of parish schools. It is noteworthy therefore, that in the city of 
I'eoria each parish has its own school. Most of the buildings are new and models 
in equipment and efficiency. Five sisterhoods direct their progress. 

Higher education is represented by the Academy of Our Lady of The Sacred 
Heart, corner Brvan and Madison, and bv the Spalding Institute, corner Madison 
and lackson streets. The former began in 1863 and has gradually added to its 
mateVial endowment so that it is stronger to-day than at any time during the 
past half centurv. It has continued under the management of the founders and 
their successors in the same sisterhood — Sisters of St. Joseph's, Carondelet, Mo. 
Many of the women of the leading families of Peoria and surrounding counties 
lovinglv call it Alma Mater. 

Spalding Institute, which in 1901 opened its doors for young men seeking 
a higher education classical, commercial and scientific other than that obtainable 
in the ordinary graded school, is the personal gift of Bishop Spalding. Born of 
his brain and pocket book, it continues as it began, under the direction of the 
Brothers of Mary of Dayton, Ohio, to send forth its yearly quota of young 
men ec|uipped in things of the mind for the more serious and strenuous problems 
of modern life. The building itself is one of the architectural triumphs of the 

citv of Peoria. , , •, 

' From the educational institutions we pass to the charitable and philanthropic, 
which have found material expression in the St. Francis Hospital, Home of the 
Good Shepherd and St. Joseph's Home for the Aged. 

St. Francis' Hospital began in 1876. Four 'of the Bismark— exiled sisters 
were brought to Peoria bv the Rev. B. Baak, rector of St. Joseph's church. 
They rented the Bradley home place on Adams street and remained there until 
the autumn of 1877, when Bishop Spalding secured for them the site on Glen 
Oak avenue, which thev still occupv. Thev have not only annexed neighboring 


lots for tlie needs of newer and up-to-date buildings and equipment at home; 
hut they liave gone al)road and almost annexed surrounding states. To a modern 
and highly efficient hospital and Motlier Mouse in I'eoria, they have added ten 
new hospitals in Illinois, ^Michigan and Iowa. The acorn is now the oak. 

The Home of the Good Shepherd threw open its doors July, 1891. The 
impelling power was Bishop Spalding, who called on the various parishes of the 
tliocese to lend the helping hand. The Catholics of the city of Peoria and many 
non-Catholics as well have continued their interest in and appreciation of the great 
sacrifices made by the sisters for the fallen and dangerously-near of our race. 

The local chronicler finds himself dwelling upon the bond which ties Peoria 
in its Catholic history to St. Louis. The first bishop to visit Peoria was Bishop 
Kenrick of St. Louis, the first priest to say Alass here after the discoverer and 
the explorer had passed was sent by Bishop Rosati of St. Louis. The Sisters of 
St. Joseph's who opened the first Catholic school of learning here came from 
St. Louis. The Brothers of Mary who direct the Spalding Institute iioiv look to 
St. Louis as their Mother House and headquarters. The Sisters of the Good 
Shepherd came from St. Louis and as their home here grows they turn to St. 
Louis for other "Angels of Buena Vista" to continue the work. Though tried 
by fire they have prospered and are to-day more flourishing than ever. Not 
Peoria county alone nor many counties of Illinois but neighboring states are 
indebted to their zeal for relieving them of many of the cares and burdens of 

St. Joseph's Home for the Aged is a home-grown charity. It was given its 
first impulse by Rev. C. Rotter, rector of St. Joseph's church. December, 1902, 
found it beginning in a humble way on Smith street. The present modern 
Iniildings twice added to are an index of the need for such an institution and of 
the aliility to make things go which stands back of it in the humble garb of Mother 
Pacifica. It has since sought other fields and con(|uered them. Nine schools 
and homes look to it for supi)ly and guidance. Just now a new building to be 
used for training sisters as a mother house is lifting itself skyward on the West 


We interrupted the story special to St. Mary's parish when we noted the pass- 
ing of old St. Alary 's church, May 14, 1889, corner Jeflferson and Bryan streets, 
in the cathedra], corner 'Madison and Green, which since May 15, 1889, has been 
not only the center of the parochial life for the people of St. Mary's but — being 
the Bishop's church and seat — of the directive Catholic life of Peoria and sur- 
rounding counties as well. The day of the opening of the new cathedral was also 
the day of its dedication. Archbishops P^ehan ant! Ireland, Bishops Ryan of 
.\lton, Janssens of Bellville, Cosgrove of Davenport and Hennessy of Dubu<iue 
were prelates present. The Mass was celebrated by Archbishop Feehan and the 
sermon delivered by Bishop Hennessy. The next event which in the story of the 
parish had a wider than parochial interest was the consecration of Rt. Rev. P. J. 
O'Reilly as Bishop .Auxiliary to Bishop Spalding. This event took place Septem- 
ber, 1900, and brought to Peoria many visiting Bishops. The consecra^or was 
the apostolic delegate later known as Cardinal Martinelli. 

Far and away the most important and most imposing event in the history of 
St. Mary's gathers itself around the silver jubilee of Bishop Spalding who. May 
I, 1902, celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his consecration. There were 
present Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore; Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul; Arch- 
bishop Keane of Dubuque; Archbishop Kain of St. Louis; Archbishop Riordan, 
of San Francisco. Bishops Gabriels of Ogdensburg, N. Y., McOuaid of Roches- 
ter, N. Y. ; liyrne, of Nashville; Foley, of Detroit; Messmer, of Green Bay; 
Shanley, of Fargo, North Dakota ; Cotter, of Winona, Minnesota ; Scannell, of 
Omaha; Burke, of St. Joe. Missouri; Dunne, of Dallas, Texas; Cosgrove, of 
Davenport; Glennon, of Kansas City; Muldoon, of Chicago; Ryan, of Alton; 


Janssens, of Belleville, Illinois; Aloeller, of Columbus, Ohio; and Conaty, Rector 
Catholic University, Washington, D. C. 

Since the dedication of St. 'Mary's cathedral it has had four rectors ; Rev. C. 
F. H. O'Neill, Rev. Martin O'Conner, Rev. F. J. O'Reilly and Rev. James Shan- 
non, present incumbent. The two former — after a pastoral direction of six years 
passed to their reward. The Rev. F. J. O'Reilly, succeeding to the rectorship, 
June, 1897, and with the distinction of serving longest in point of years, was 
transferred to Danville, Illinois, December 8, 191 1. The \'ery Rev. James Shan- 
non, who now directs its spiritual and temporal interests is also Vicar General 
of the Diocese of Peoria. 

January 6, 1905, Bishop Spalding was suddenly stricken with paralysis, which, 
while not fatal nor wholly incapacitating him for the work here recounted and of 
which he had been so large a part that the narrator must thrust him forward and 
hang around his virile and constantly growing personality the story of more than 
thirty years of the Catliolic life of Peoria county — the affliction so handicapped him 
that in September, 1908, he voluntarily laid down the burden. 

That diocesan work did not locally confine him or take up all his energies 
cannot better be told than in the words of a cosmopolitan newspaper which 
chronicling his resignation September, 1908, said "when John Lancaster Spalding 
became the Roman Catholic Bishop of Peoria, in 1877, he was an ardent young 
churchman, and his missionary labors were fruitful. He was not then, as now 
internationally famous as scholar, writer, orator and sociologist, but the thirty 
odd years of his episcopacy brought this and more. 

"Illinois has claimed as sons some great idealists. Foremost among them 
stands John Lancaster Spalding, a gentle, saintly prelate in his church relation- 
ships and a lion in strength as educator, sociologist and humanitarian. An 
ideal American bishop was Spalding, for his teachings were American. He 
was a natural leader in the group of progressive churchmen including Gibbons, 
Ireland and Keane. who have helped to make American Catholicism what it is 

September t, 1909, witnessed at the cathedral of Chicago the consecration 
of Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne. Eight days later the newly consecrated came 
to Peoria and was installed as successor to Rt. Rev. John L. Spalding. The 
second bishop of Peoria has youth, vigor and sympathy — one to the manor born, 
and a cosmopolitan grasp — the result of many years' study abroad. He is a 
linguist, eloquent of speech in his own tongue and the first native of Illinois to 
be advanced to an episcopal see in Illinois. 


The identity of a church may be established or distinguished by, or discovered 
from its form of government or its system of doctrine. The Presbyterian church 
has both marks and takes its name from the governmental conception of the 
church as outlined in the New Testament and exemplified in Jewish worship 
maintained in the synagogue services. Presbuteros or elder is the "office" that 
gives the name to the church. Presbyterians have a definite scriptural creed and 
a constitutionally defined and equitable form of government and a consistent 
history. Denominationallv considered, a Presbyterian church is defined as a 
church constructed on the Presbyterian polity or form of government whose 
creed is in harmony with the consensus of the Reform church. That consensus 
lies in the confessional agreement in five fundamental features : First, the 
supremacy of the Holy Scriptures as the only rule of faith, doctrine and duty ; 
second, election by free grace; third, atonement by the blood of Christ; fourth, 
justification of faith alone; and fifth, the doctrine of the sacraments. 

The polity of the Presbyterian church is defined by a written constitution, by 
the terms of which the government of the church is administered by chosen 
representatives of the people. This polity clearly distinguishes three great prin- 






















|— ; 








ciples : First, the parity of official equality of the clergy ; second, representative 
government by the people ; and third, the unity of the bodv of Christ. 

The soul requirement for admission to membership in this church is an open, 
honest confession of allegiance to Jesus Christ as Lord and Master. No creedal 
test or obligation is met at the door of the Presbyterian church by one who would 
enter. That door of entrance is as wide as the gate of Heaven and as narrow 
as Jesus' declaration makes it, "No man cometh unto the Father but by me." 

The I'resbyterian church stands today, as of yore, for important Christian 
prmciples essential to the formation of sturdy character, vital to Christian citizen- 
ship—two things for which the world has real need. It is also a church most 
catholic, most fraternal in its spirit, most cordial and courteous in its attitude 
toward and treatment of other comnumions of the Lord's people. It cultivates 
an irenic spirit and temper and extends to the Christian world the right hand 
of fellowship by reason of its ecumenic creed, and with confident hope prays 
for and seeks to anticipate the reunion of Christendom. 

Having been reared in this faith, early settlers coming from the south or 
east and across the seas brought with them to this region their religious habits 
and fond desires to enjoy after their wont divine services and to rear their 
children in the Presbyterian faith. Accordingly, they founded churches in every 
comnuinity where they found any considerable number of people of like religious 
training with themselves. This favored generation has small appreciation of 
what it owes to the early settlers, who as Christians maintained their integrity, 
worshiped God, planted churches, created and left over and handed down to 
their descendants a rich religious legacy for which they endured privations and 
made sacrifices in this, then new country, in order that they might provide houses 
of worship, estated ministry, and gospel privileges for themselves, their neighbors 
and their children. 

in the following sketch it is purposed to trace the early history and later 
developments of what may be called the pioneer churches and to give a brief 
statement concerning the organization and growth of the later churches estab- 
lished in Peoria county. Some of these early churches answer perfectly to that 
description of the patriarchs who "served their generation and fell on sleep," 
for a changing and complex population. Removals by death and immigration 
have depleted to exhaustion some churches that early in their history flourished 
and gave religious tone and moral vitality to the communities in which they were 

The task of one who essays to write of the early churches of Peoria county 
is made difticnlt liy reason of the fact that the early records kept of the organiza- 
tion of the churches and their subsec]uent transactions were very few and scant 
in the first place, and many of them through lapse of time have been lost or 
destroyed. It is a great pity that they were not made more complete or had 
i)een better preserved and that resort for data need not be made to such civil 
records as may be found for incidental reference, in order to present a historical 
narration. The attempt is here made to describe the main items of interest and 
importance connected with each congregation. 

The earliest Presbyterian church planted in the county of Peoria, whose 
history remains unbroken from its beginning till now, is the Princess Grove, or 
Princeville church, founded .August 16, 1834. At the organization of this cliurch 
under the leadership of the Rev. Robert Stewart and Theron Baldwin, we find 
such names enrolled as White, Morrow, Garrison, Peet, Miller, as charter mem- 
bers ; indicating that they were of English and Scotch blood. We see them 
living through the dangers of the Black Hawk war of the two years before, 
guarding their flocks and herds from coyotes, wolves, lynxes and wild cats, while 
building their huts of logs cut from the grove, and then having raised small crops 
of wheat or corn, hauling it to Chicago and on their return trip bringing back 
with their ox team, shingles and finishing lumber for their church house, for we are 
told that they built the first house of worship from stone gathered near by and 


sawed walnut siding by hand from the trees of the grove and hewed the dimen- 
sion timbers and erected the building by volunteer labor. 

These were days of devoted self-denial on the part of both ministers and 
people. The Princeville pulpit was occupied in the early days by Rev. C. W. 
Bal)bit, George D. Sill, Robert ISreese, and Robert Campbell, all able, consecrated 
men, and they have had their successors of. like attainments and consecration, 
who have proved themselves by their service to Christ and the church. To this 
church such men ,as Dr. Robert Henry, George Rowcliff, Lemuel Auten, B. H. 
Weir have devoted themselves in the ruling eldership, serving in an unstinted 
and loyal way the churcli of their love. This church celebrated its seventy-hfth 
anniversary, and the historical sermon preached by the present pastor, the Rev. 
Max B. Wiles, is replete with interesting reminiscences and may be found in 
the "Princeville Telephone" of August 19, 1909. 

The first Protestant church founded in Peoria was what is now known as the 
First Presbyterian church . It owed its existence largely to the devotion and 
determination of one Salnuel Lowry, who was its earliest ruling elder, with con- 
siderable em]:)hasis on the adjective. But neither his rugged faith nor unflinching 
adherence to what he saw fit to call "principle" are to be spoken of lightly. That 
he was intensely human, an active member of the church militant, there is no 
doubt, and from his appearance as shown in a daguerreotype one might conclude 
that had he lived a little earlier, he would not have been an unequal antagonist 
of the rather famous, or infamous, Claverhouse. but making due allowance for 
his fighting spirit, when it is known that it was his privilege to have been born 
on Londonderry battlefield, much might be said to his credit. ]\Ir. Lowry, co- 
operating with the Rev. John Birch, gathered in Peoria a congregation and on 
the 22d of December, 1834, the First church was organized by Mr. Birch, as 
"The Ohio Missionary," in Mr. Lowry's home, and it was in all probability the 
last church organized by this devoted and heroic soldier of the Cross, for he 
perishefl on Delavan prairie the night of the awful Friday, December 16, 1836, 
when the temperature fell rapidly without warning and he was overtaken by 
the storm while making his way on horseback to his appointment in Peoria, and 
was found next day frozen to death. 

Succeeding him, came the Rev. Isaac Kellar from Hagerstown, Maryland, 
who served and brought faithfully in this church — encountered the opposition 
of the world — the flesh, and Elder Lowry. But all the mistakes made that became 
steps leading up or down to unhappy contentions over church property — litigation 
in the church courts — could not have been all on one side, anci it is quite possible 
that Samuel Lowry was about half right and half wrong, the other contending 
parties dividing the burden with him in about the same proportion. However, 
time, changing circumstances, and the coming of new people affected changes in 
the church life, and out of controversey and division, and by the dissolution 
of a sporadic organization, the First church persisting came to inherit "all the 
rights and privileges to the title appertaining," and is therefore the "First Church 
in Peoria" with its Presbyterian complexion, historically and continuously since 
1834 to the present. 

The Rev. Isaac Kellar was first in the succession of such able, scholarly and 
worthy pastors as Addison Coffey, Robert Johnston, Jonathan Edwards — all of 
whom "wrought nobly in the work of the Master," and have been called to meet 
their reward. Surviving in this succession are John H. Morron, Jesse C. Bruce, 
Newell D. Hillis, Thomas A. McCurdy, Chauncey T. Edwards and Hugh Jack, 
each of whom has contributed his particular part in building this Zion, having 
had the earnest cooperation of the people of the First church, who have always 
had "a mind to work," and from their ranks have furnished such able men and 
women as Christian workers as the Weises, the Griswolds, McCoys, Powells, 
Reynolds, Schneblys, Batchelders, Johnstons, Louckes, Mcllvaines, .McKin- 
neys. Fishers, and others whose names are in the Book of Life. 

The First church has been the mother of churches. Through her activity 


from lier membership the Second. Calvary, Grace, Arcadia and Westminster 
churclies of Peoria and the Pottstown church were formed, each in succession 
being developed from a mission Sabbath school established and conducted by 
active and devoted men and women from the First church. This church has 
given to the Presbyterian ministry eight of her sons, namely : John W C. Nellis, 
James M. Batchelder. Wellington E. Loucks, Charles M. and Herbert H. Fisher, 
Charles E. and Chaunccy T. Edwards and A. W. McCurd}-, who all have done, 
and the surviving members of this band are still doing faithful and fruitful work 
for and in the church in which they were reared and to which they have devoted 
their lives. 

Places of worship occupied by this church were first, the county court house, 
a small and insignificant building; then the First church building in Peoria 
county at the corner of Adams and Jackson streets ; then a frame building on 
Fulton street, between Adams and Jefiferson ; the brick building now standing 
at the corner of Main and Madison; and the present commodious structure on 
Hamilton boulevard and Crescent avenue. 

This church celebrated its seventy-fifth or "Diamond .Anniversary," December, 
1909, with attractive, appropriate and impressive services, participated in or con- 
tributed to by all the former living pastors, and with greetings from the children 
of the church unable to be present, a full account of which may be found in a 
i)ooklet called the "Diamond Anniversary" of the First Presbyterian church, 
Peoria, Illinois, and which may be consulted at the Peoria library. 

It appears that from 1849 to 1854 a number of churches were formed in 
the county, namely : La Marsh, Rochester, Orange Prairie, West Jersey, etc., 
all of which served a good purpose, flourished for a time and because of the 
incoming of the railroads and the shifting of the population to the new towns 
erected on these highways, were abandoned and became physically and legally 

An early church was that of Brunswick, organized by the Classis of the 
Reformed Dutch church, September 19, 1840, and was then known as the 
Protestant Dutch church of Copperas. After the establishment of the Bruns- 
wick postoffice, the name of the church was changed to Brunswick and in 1844 
the church was admitted to Presbytery, and is still connected therewith and 
maintains stated services and a Sabbath school. 

The location is beautiful for situation, commanding a view of some of the 
best farms in Peoria county and magnificent scenery for miles around in either 
direction. Among the early workers and later laborers in this old church are to 
be found the names of the Ramseys, Wellses, Fahnestock, Erford. Love. 
Graham, Wilson and Eslinger, and it has had as its ministers the Revs. Sill, 
Eraser, Martinis, McFarland, Ferguson, Johnston, Scott, McMillan, Keiry, Mul- 
len and Smith. 

The influence of the church on the communit}- life was for years very 
marked and its fragrance lingers still. On the east slope between the highway 
and the church lies one of the most-cared-for country cemeteries and in it 
sleeps the dust of former pastors of the church and members of the Pjrunswick 
flock. (3nce a year the Cemetery Association of Brunswick holds a reunion, at 
which the ancient traditions are discussed and the holy memories of the things 
done by the fathers and mothers are revived and the fund replenished, and serv- 
ice of grateful love goes on in care bestowed on the grounds that enclose those 
beds of green, beneath which rest the mortal part of those who "served till 
set of sun" and entered into the "rest that remaineth." 

After Brunswick comes the Salem church, organized in 1849 by Revs. S. C. 
McCune and William McCandlish. William .Stewart and James H. Patterson, 
were its first elders, and their successors have been such men as John L. Clark. 
R. W. Francis, C. H. X'orthrup. This church has been ministered to by the 
Revs. McFarland. Hanna, Cameron, Marquis, Johnston, Scott, McMillan, Flem- 
ming, Keiry, Alullen and Smith. In the removal of the church to Hanna City, 


and the building of a new and attractive house of worship, steps were taken to 
change the name to the llanna City church, by which name with Presbyterial 
and legal sanction that church has become the successor of all the historical and 
ecclesiastical rights and prerogatives of the old Salem church. 

Since its removal to Hanna City the church has taken on new life and activity 
and gives good promise of ministering successfully to the spiritual and social 
needs of its community. 

The Prospect church was organized by the Revs. Addison, Coflfee and R. F. 
Breese in 1850, its first ruling elder being Joseph Yates. "The Prospectors" 
who knew the meaning of the family altar and the worth of worship came from 
West Virginia, near Wheeling, and were of that thrifty sort who made farming 
a business and a success, and they built their first "church house" on a hill in 
the year 1854, near what is now Prospect cemetery on "a parcel of ground" 
belonging to Adam Yates. In that building they worshipped until the church 
was removed to Dunlap, one mile east, after the completion of the Peoria and 
Rock Island railroad, where they dedicated the present ijuilding in 1877. 

Prospect church has been served by the following ministers in succession, 
viz. : Revs. Hervey, Turbit, F. F. Smith, Cairns, Simpson, Gardiner, Winn, 
Cooke, Nevius, H. Smith, Townsend, Randall, Thomas, Jones, Campbell, and 
the present, the Benjamin of the band, L. H. McCormick. 

Serving as ruling elders we have such names as Yates, White, Dunlap, Hervey, 
Jones, Berry, Hitchcock, Harker, Gray, and of noble women not a few, Kelly, 
Parks. Dunlap, and such church workers as the Keadys, Parks and others. 
Prospect gave also of her sons to the Presbyterian ministry — George Dunlap, 
Thomas C. Winn, William Jones and Frank F. Brown. 

Prospect celebrated its Jubilee in 1900 with fitting services, and a souvenir 
of the occasion may be found in the homes of many of the older members. 


French Grove church was organized in October, 1851, by the minister who 
performed the same services for Prospect. Its early ruling elders were William 
Reed, and George S. Pursell, and after them came the Alwards, McDonald, 
Warner, Moore, Coe, Todd, Slocum, McRill, McCune and the Reeds, either as 
elders or as church workers — devoted, self-sacrificing and efficient. 

The ministers serving the French church were the Revs. McFarland, Fraser, 
Smith, Carruthers, Boyd. Hillman, McClelland. Butter, Jones, Sturm, McCluer 
and others. The days of its early history were days of prosperity and for years 
it gave out an increasing and heljiful influence to its community that made for 
its moral and spiritual betterment, but removals westward and heavenward, 
coupled with the changing racial and religious character of the population have 
depleted this old church, which still stands a silent reminder of the better things, 
while near by in the beautiful little cemetery, so well kept and cared for, repose 
the mortal remains of former ministers, elders and members of the French Grove 

y\mong the churches planted in the county, flourishing for a time but now 
extinct, are New Scotland, Brimfield, Valley Ridge, and Elba Center, which were 
in their time once the soul and life of their communities. 


Upon the petition of parties for the most part connected with the First 
church, and evidently with the concurrence of the pastor and session of that 
church, the Presbytery organized the Second church of Peoria, December 7, 
1853, with a membership of twenty-eight, and John L. Griswold and John C. 
Grier were elected elders. The Rev. Robert P. Farris was their first minister. 
Contrary to the usual order here, the Second church was first and the Sabbath 


second, in point of organization. The first house of worship erected by this 
congregation was built on the present site, corner of Madison and Jackson 
streets and dedicated in 1855, and here Mr. Farris was installed. He continued 
to serve the Second cliurch until failing health compelled him to relinquish the 
charge in 185S and the remainder of the life of this devoted servant of Christ 
and the church, was spent in educational and editorial work, largely in connection 
with the publications of the Presbyterian church in the United States (Southern 
Presbyterian), of which body he was from its beginning till his death, the per- 
manent clerk of its general assembly and once or twice its moderator. 

The Rev. Samuel Hibben came next, succeeding Dr. Farris in 1859 and was 
installed pastor December 4th, the sermon on that occasion being preached by 
that stalwart and versatile scholar and eloquent biblical preacher, the famous 
Xathan L. Rice, then professor of theology in the Seminary of the Northwest 
(now McCormick). L'nder his leadership the church prospered, for Mr. Hibben 
was an exceptional man and minister, scholarly and saintly, modest and frank, 
gentle and faithful. 1 lere he marrieiFMiss Elizabeth Grier, the daughter of that 
worthy elder, John C. Grier, a man thrice honored by the Presbytery of Peoria 
with a commission to the general assembly. To this worthy couple was born a 
son, John Grier Hibben, president of Princeton University. Declining health led 
Mr. Hibben to resign his charge and in the hope of recruiting it by outdoor life, 
he accepted the chaplaincy of the Fourth Illinois Cavalry, but he continued to 
decline and returned to L'eoria, where he died in 1862. His successor was the 
Rev. W. E. McLaren, afterwards bishop of the Episcopal church, who was in- 
stalled pastor May 8, 1864. and remained in this pastorate upwards of two years. 

The Rev. Henry \'an Dyke Nevius, succeeded Bishop McLaren, in 1867, and 
served this charge until 1872. He was a preacher of power and a man of God. 
Of him one has written, "Few men were better equipped mentally for their 
work and hence he was a workman that needed not to be ashamed ; few men 
lived more in sympathy with God's word and Son — hence his spiritual power." 
After him the Rev. William L. Green came to this pastorate an(l remained until 
1875. Mr. Green, like his jiredecessors. was a well furnished man, of strong 
mental calibre, clear in his conceptions of related truth, versatile and virile in his 
statement of it. 

He was followed by the Rev. Lewis O. Thompson, who was pastor from 
1876 to 1882. Mr. Thompson was an able man, a painstaking scholar — a his- 
torian of no mean ability, who did the church great and good service in many 
ways through his hooks, "Nineteen Christian Centuries," "The Prayer Meeting," 
etc. lie met a tragic death by drowning at Henry, where he was pastor of the 
F"irst Presbyterian church. 

The Rev. Tliomas X. ( )rr came to this pastorate and served for ten years, 
when impaired health led him to seek rest for a season. During his administra- 
tion the present unique, churchly and commodious house of worship was erected. 
Since his retirement from the pastorate of the Second church, Dr. Orr has 
resided in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where his services are continually called 
for, he being always an acceptable preacher, a genuine man, genial, kindly, oblig- 
ing, "a man greatly beloved." 

Dr. Orr was succeeded for a brief time by the Rev. Samuel M. Moore, a large 
man in many ways and whose pastorate, though brief, was not unmarked with 

The present pastor the Rev. Arthur M. Little, Ph. D. D. D., came on in the 
apostolic succession, being installed in ^May, 1900, and after twelve years of 
service continues to hold the afifection of his people of the Second church and 
is named among the progressive men of the city. 

This church has been served through the over half century of its life by 
such able men and church workers as the Griers, the McCoys, the Ruggs, the 
Clarkes, the McCullochs. the Rices, and by noble women, not a few, whose 
names are set down in the "Impartial Record," kept at present from mortal eyes. 


This church celebrated with appropriate services its semi-centennial in 1903. 
The "Semi-Centennial" of the Second church of Peoria, a pamphlet attractively 
arranged, contains matter of special interest to all connected with this congrega- 
tion and to any others who would know just in what manner the Second church 
has been used of God, for the good of men, and it may be found in the homes 
of the members of the Second church and should be also found in our city 


The Elmwood church was organized June 5, 1856, with fourteen members. 
John Rodgers served as its first elder. Its first church building was purchased 
from the Congregational church and removed from its then country site to the 
town of Elmwood. During the ministry of the Rev. William H. Mason the 
present building was erected at a cost of something over $6,000, and in architec- 
tural efl'ect and adaptability for its purposes it is a model. 

Among the men who have served in the eldership of this church we find the 
names of J. B. Stewart, N. B. Love, S. M. Coe, Castor Patterson, and after 
them the present efficient elders. The ministers serving Elmwood church have 
been J- A. AIarc|uis, J. H. Smith. J. R. Reasoner, Wilson. Duncan, and the present 
scholarly and able pastor, the Rev. Benjamin Y. George. Messrs. Reasoner, 
Mason and George each served the church for a period of upwards of ten years. 
The present incumbent has served faithfully and acceptably since 1895 in this 


The Limestone church was founded in 1S59 with fifteen members, with John 
Cameron and William Jones as ruling elders. It has had as its ministers such 
men as Dr. T. G. Scott and John bleming, and is at present served by one of 
the younger men of the Presbytery, the Rev. H. L. Todd. Names appearing 
among its ruling elders are C. Greenwood, William Cameron and William Taylor. 

This church has stood as a beacon on a hill, a perpetual invitation to worship 
the Lord God Almighty, and a constant reminder that "It is not the whole of 
Life to live, nor all of Death to die." 


Calvary church was organized in 1867 and had as its first minister the Rev. 
John Weston, D. D., who after years of service was called to other fields, and 
again recalled to the pastorate at Calvary church. Its successful pastor, whole- 
souled, kind-hearted and helpful preacher, the flexible, sympathetic and generous 
friend of every member of the flock, passed from the scene of labor to his 
eternal reward while still pastor of Calvary church. Dr. Weston has had follow 
him in this pastorate such men as Dr. A. Z. McGogney, Andrew Christy Brown, 
D. D., and after the latter's death, for a time, Dr. A. L. Howard. The church 
is now ministered to by the resourceful, active and luodest .Mexander Lewis. 

Its eldership has been adorned by such men as that efficient Sabbath school 
worker, William R. Reynolds, William Schroeder, William Guyer, A. Water- 
house, T. J. Love, Peter Hulsibus, James McGill. and the younger men who now 
constitute the present efficient session. 


Grace church was organized in 1868. with George H. Mcllvaine and Theodore 
Higbie ruling elders. Among the devoted workers in this church from the be- 
ginning of the enterprise we find the names of Bush, Lyons, Linsey, Baldwin, 
Coe, Voorhees, Angier, Andrews, Isele, and Eakin. 


Grace cliurch has had among its ministers Levi C. Littell, Dr. Farris, A. 
F. Erwin, and the sainted James Alvin Sankey, whose successor, Rev. Walter 
M. Elliott, gives promise of doing a great and good work in its congregation 
and the city of Peoria. 


This church was organized September 29, 1887, by a committee of Presby- 
tery, composed of Revs. I. A. Cornelison, Rev. A. F. Irwin and Elder David 
McKinney. The organization started with fifty-nine memliers and elected Henry 
Marmine and Ireneus E. Wliite, elders. Mr. White has remained in continuous 
service ever since and has rendered the church devoted and self-sacriticing serv- 
ice in almost every capacity, in which one might serve his church. The church has 
lieen ministered to bv the Revs. .Andrew Christv Brown, D. D.. C. \\'. Whorrall, 
George A. Phlug, \\'. W. Tait, D. W. :\IcMillan, W. E. Edmonds, but is at 
present without a pastor. The church has always maintained an interesting 
and growing Sabbath school and has been of great help to many in its vicinity. 
Being situated in a growing part of the city, it has a mission to perform in that 
neighborhood, ministering moral and spiritual helj) and comfort to the coming 

.\RC.\DiA .WExri-; ciri'RCii 

The Arcadia Avenue church was organized October 6, 1896. with twenty- 
three members, with Isaac Kellar and Robert E. Lauren, elders. 

This church grew out of a flourishing mission Sabbath school instituted and 
conducted largely by members of the First church, and in 1897 called as its 
pastor, the Rev. James Benson, who has continued to serve the church with 
signal ability and devotion. The harmony of mind and action in this congrega- 
tion is witnessed by the beautiful and serviceable building at the corner of Ar- 
cadia and Piigelow. by the flourishing condition of both Sabbath school and 
church and last but by no means least, the growing liberality of the members 
shown in the increased ofiferings to the boards of the church and in general 
lienevolence. Situated as it is, in a beautiful and growing residential district 
of the city and meeting as it does the religious needs of its vicinity, Arcadia church 
may be expected to grow in influence as well as in numbers and continue to be 
an important factor in the moral and social life of the city. 


Out of W^estminster chapel and the Sabbath school meeting there grew West- 
minster church. It was organized by the Presbytery June i, 1897, with twenty- 
four members, who elected Messrs. P. W. Petrie, Theodore Higbie and C. R. 
Kuhn, elders. The Rev. William Parsons, the first pastor, has been followed 
by Revs. J. B. Farrell, Theodore H. Allen, D. D.. and the present minister the 
Rev. Clinton J. Greene, a young man, who enters upon the work in Westminster 
under circumstances that augur success. While still in the active service of this 
church. Dr. Allen was suddenly called to higher .service in the Church Trium- 
phant, leaving behind a precious legacy to his children, in a life of devoted service, 
even that of "a good minister of Jesus Christ." With a splendidly equipped and 
beautiful house of worship, situated on the West Bluff on Moss avenue, with a 
growing Sabbath school and a devoted membership, Westminster shouUl "make 
good" to its constituency and do excellent work for God and men. 



The first of these was the meeting of the general assembly in the First church 
Peoria, in 1863, amid the stirring and critical scenes of the civil strife. This 
meeting was presided over by that justly celebrated, scholarly and devoted pioneer 
missionary to India, John Hunter Alorrison, D. D., of the Presbytery of Lodiana. 
The assembly listened to stirring debate and united in earnest prayer over the 
questions that were uppermost in both the civil and religious life of the country 
and besought the God of our fathers for his special favor in those trying times 
and that he would most graciously bring an early end to the awful strife and 
send peace and prosperity throughout all our borders. In many respects this 
was a most remarkable assembly and a recital of some of its deliberations and 
conclusions might properly be made here did space admit or judicious selection 
of matter out of such a mass of good things were an easy task. 

The second, that of administration, which after an overture sent up to the 
general assembly from the Presbytery of Peoria, relative to the erection of the 
standing committees of the general assembly, was adopted and known as "The 
Peoria Plan." 


To that worthy Presbyterian elder, James Alontgomery Rice, whose connec- 
tion as editor-in-chief of this history of the county of Peoria, and whose sudden 
departure for "Home" has left this part of it to less capable hands to finish 
that task, together with the justly esteemed Isaac A. Cornelison. D. D., pertains 
the honor of the conceiving and inaugurating the above named plan. It may be 
said that the plan was made necessary because of the large number and import- 
ance of the standing committees of the general assembly, which the new moder- 
ator was called upon to appoint immediately after taking the chair, and being 
neither ubiquitous nor infallible, could not by any possibility have personal ac- 
quaintance with or knowledge of the fitness of all commissioners for the tasks 
to be assigned them ; and besides, it was thought the principle of representation 
began to be threatened because too much power was found reposing in the hands 
of one or two officers of the general assembly. 

To avoid the danger lurking in this symptom of centralization of power ; 
to avoid being "managed ;" to reconquer from custom the right to govern them- 
selves out of the hands of "Ecclesiastical Bosses," this plan was devised and 
provides a method at once simple, just and clear for the selection of the standing 
committees of the general assembly so that all sections and interests of the 
church may be fairly represented. 

In brief, the plan conserves the fundamental principle of Presbyterian church 
government, viz. : an equitable distribution of administrative power. To this 
end the church is geographically divided and grouped by Presbyteries or Synods 
into twenty districts, there being twenty-two standing committees consisting of 
twenty-two members each — the commissioners from the whole church make up 
twenty-two electing sections, which are numbered consecutively in the order in 
which the standing committees are numbered. The commissioners constituting 
an electing section assigned to it from a certain given territory assemble at the 
sitting of the general assembly, elect their own chairman and secretary, vote 
directly for moderator, and choose either a minister or an elder, as may be its 
province ; to each one of the standing committees, from their own number such 
persons as may be thought best fitted for the discharge of the respective duties 
required of them. 

The plan liriefly stated is that the odd numbered sections in odd numbered 
years elect a minister to the odd numbered conunittees, and an elder for the 
even numljered committees. The even numbered sections elect the other com- 
mitteemen and in even numbered years the committees are reversed and the 

IU!ST llAI'Tlsr I lUiaiJ 

III, I) ( IIUISTIAX Clirilfll 



KPiscoi'Ai, (;Hn:ril 


sections elect reversely. This gives each district a member, either an elder or a 
minister, on each standing committee, each year, and to every committee its 
proper number of members. 

This plan adopted after lengthened discussion and amendment became what 
is known as standing rule Xo. 5, and since its adoption the standing committees 
of the general assembly have been named by the commissioners themselves, as- 
sembled in their electing sections and with general satisfaction to the church. 

"women, who l.xpgred with I'S " 

Much credit for the many achievements wrought in these regions, by the 
church is justly due to the piety, presistence and devotion of the women, who 
have "manned" the various aid and missionary societies in the churches of 
Peoria county. 

They have in many localities, through the drouth of summer and the biting 
cold of winter, maintained local religious interest, kept up the church services, 
repaired the house of worship and at the same time have been large factors in 
promoting the work of the church in other fields and in other lands. 

By mutual counsel, by interchange of religious ideas, by social intercourse, 
by consecrated womanly wa}-s, by practical efforts to relieve distress among the 
unfortunate and the ill-circumstances, they have succeeded in setting forward 
the kingdom of Christ. 

In their planning and their doing, they have furnished a stimulating example 
to the "Presbyterian Brotherhood," a men's organization, for which there is 
great and pressing need as well as large room. 


It is a peculiar mark — one of the signal glories of the Presbyterian church — 
part of her heritage from John Calvin, that she has favored and fostered liberal 
learning and wherever she has gone on her mission to men, she has planted 
the school and the college as well as the church and sought to provide every 
educational advantage for her constituency. 

She has believed in popular and progressive education. She has never sought 
to supplant but rather to supplement the early training of our common school, 
with the higher and more advanced forms of education. 

The early Peoria county Presbyterians were not remiss in this particular. 
In the early 'fifties, they planted academies at Brunswick and Princeville, pro- 
jected Peoria University in 1857. Here on the Bluff' they began the erection of 
a brick building, which when all ready for the roof, was wrecked by a tornado 
in 1858. Because of the general financial depression prevailing throughout the 
country at that time, the stress of which fell heavily on the west, the re-financing 
of the project was too heavy a burden for the limited means of its promoters, the 
local enterprise was therefore abandoned and the attention and the means of the 
church were turned to the larger institutions, like Knox College and which ever 
since have had a fair share of the patronage and financial support of Peoria 
county Presbyterians. In the west as in the east, Presbyterians have sought to 
bind together thorough scholarshijj and practical religion, that thus they might 
do their share in the devcloimlent of the moral and religious character of men 
and make as large a contribution as possible to humanity's uplift. That in this 
undertaking they have made a creditable showing, is witnessed by deeds of loving 
and notal)le service to men and a loyal allegiance to Jesus Christ, the changeless, 
eternal Head of the church. 


This church was first organized as a Presbyterian society in December. 
1834, and so continued until 1847, at which time it dropped its connection with 


the Presbyterian church, adopted the congregational form of government and 
changed its name to that of the Main Street Congregational church. Rev. 
William H. Starr became pastor under the new organization and ministered to 
the people until October, 1848. In November of that year Rev. Levi Spencer 
was called to the pastorate and so continued until April 14, 1853, when his death 
occurred. During his pastorate a new church was erected at a cost of $8,000. 
For some time following Rev. Spencer's death there was considerable dissension 
in the church and eventually twenty-two members withdrew to form a new con- 
gregation known as the Union Congregational church. This was consummated 
December 8, 1857, and was organized as a Presbyterian church, known as the 
Fulton Street Presbyterian church, identified with the "New School" branch 
of that denomination. Rev. Isaac E. Cary was pastor of this newly organized 
society from the time it came into existence until August 29, i860, and his suc- 
cessors were Revs. Wilber McKaig, November 2, 1860-June 2, 1862; Samuel 
Wykoff, November 24, 1862-October 3, 1864; Asahel H. Brooks, July 3, 1865- 
March 4, 1868; Horace C. Hovey, January 5, 1869-April 13, 1873; Robert 
Condit, October 27, 1873-November 10, 1874. 

The two branches (Old and New School) of the Presbyterian church, having 
in the year 1870 become united under the name of The Presbyterian Church of 
the United States, and there being at least four churches of that denomination 
in the city, and there also being in the Fulton street church a large element in- 
clined to the Congregational form of government, a movement was set on foot 
which eventually resulted in tlie union of the Fulton street church and the Alain 
street Congregational church, known as the First Congregational Church of 
Peoria. This was consummated January 31, 1875. The pastors of the church 
as it was originally organized, succeeding Rev. Levi Spencer, have been : Revs. 
J. W. Marsh, January 2, i853-.May i, 1854; Henry Adams, September, 1854- 
November, 1855; J. Steiner, December, 1855-Julv, 1856; A. A. Stevens, Decem- 
ber. i8s6-June, 1866; G. W. Phinny, June, i866-June, 1867; J. A. .Mack, 
April I, 1868-June 8, 1870. In September of the latter year. Rev. A. A. Stev- 
ens was again called to the pastorate of the church and so continued until Febru- 
ary I, 1882, and it was during his term that the New School, or Fulton Street 
Presbyterian church, became united with this church, and that the commodious 
church building at the corner of Alonroe an<l Hamilton streets was erected. 
Rev. Stevens resigned in February, 1882, but during the last two years of his 
service here he had had an assistant in the person of Rev. J. Homer Parker. 
The present magnificent church structure was completed and dedicated September 
9, 1883, at a cost of nearly $90,000, and the pipe organ, costing more than $5,000 
was donated by the ladies of the congregation as the Stevens Memorial. The 
successors of Rev. Stevens have been: Revs. E. Frank Howe, 1882-87; D. K. 
Nesbitt, 1888-92; Caspar Wistar Hiatt, 1893-97; \V. C. Haskell, 1898; John 

Out of this congregation have grown the Plymouth church. South Peoria 
Congregational church, the North Peoria Congregational church, the Averyville 
church, Pilgrim .Mission Sunday school and Washington Street Mission Sunday 


In the spring of 1869 the First Congregational church established a Sunday 
school at the corner of Fourth and Spencer streets. This was given the name 
of Plymouth Mission. Funds were at once secured for the erection of a house 
of worship, which was twenty-eight by fifty-six feet in size, and cost $2,000. 
From time to time the question of organizing a church was raised but this plan 
did not materialize until December, 1888, and it was not until June 2, 1889, that 
a society was duly organized, with ninety-six members. The pulpit was sup- 
plied Ijy various pastors until 1889, when, on the 13th of February of that year, 


Rev. C. C. Harrah was installed as the first regular pastor. Those who have 
served the church since that time are: Revs. D. B. Spencer, 1890-94; S. W. Meek, 
1S94-98; F. G. Smith, 189S-1900: J. W. Nelson, 1900- 

In the summer of 1896. the old church having hecoiue inadequate to the needs 
of the congregation, a magnificent brick structure was erected on the site of the 
old church, at a cost of $14,000. 


July 20, 1884, a Union Sunday school was organized in the northern part of 
the city of Peoria and immediately a frame church was erected at a cost of 
$2,000, this being located at Pennsylvania and California avenues. January i, 
1890, a church society was organized, first as a Union church, but in 1893 '^ was 
changed to the Union Congregational church. Jn 1894 a new church was built 
at Illinois and Dechman avenues. This structure cost $14,000 and was dedicated 
December i, 1894. The list of pastors who have served the church are: Revs. 
F. S. Chandler, 1890-92; D. G. StoufTer, 1892-94; Alexander Monroe, 1894- 
1900; W. J. Johnson, 1900- 


This society was organized December 6, 1895, with a membership of si.xty, 
many of whom withdrew from the German Reformed church. In 1896 a 
church edifice at, a cost of $8,000 was erected at Reed and Maple avenues. The 
following have served as pastors: Revs. T. H. Schmidt, 1895-98; William Fritz- 
meier, 1898-1901 ; William F. Essig, 1901- 

This society was organized in 1848 by Rev. J. S. Chamberlain, minister in 
charge. In 1850 a small brick church was erected on Main street and in 1854 
this building was enlarged to meet the needs of the growing congregation. In 
1873 plans were procured and arrangements made for the erection of a new 
church, and to this end the old church was demolished and a temporary structure 
built at Xorth Jel¥erson and Jackson streets. But about time a division in 
the congregation occurred, which resulted in the formation of the congregation 
of the Reformed Episcopal church, and this rendered it impossible to carry out 
the proposed plans. The temporary building was then removed to the site of the 
old church and was occupied until the present house of worship was erected at 
a cost of $33,000. 

Prior to the organization of the Reformed church, St. Paul's jjarish experi- 
enced many difficulties, resulting mainly from difference between the high and 
low church elements, .\lthough there was an organization in e.xistence at a very 
early day, known as St. Jude's parish, yet it seems to have fallen under the ban 
of the bishop, after which only a mission was maintained until 1848, when St. 
Paul's was regularly organized. Later a new parish, known as St. John's was 
formed and a building was erected at the corner of South Jefferson and Liberty 
streets, which was later occupied by the Jews, but this parish was short lived. 
St. Paul's is now in a prosperous condition. The rectors have been : Revs. J. S. 
Chamberlain, 1848-30; John \V. Cracraft, 1850-S7: Henry N. Strong, 1857-60; 
Joseph M. Wait, i8r.o-65; Warren IT. Roberts. 1865-69; J. W. Coe, 1869-70; J. 
W. Bonham, 1870-72; L. Townsend, 1S72-75; William Bryce Morrow, 1875-81 ; 
Robert Ritchie, 1881-89; Sidney G. Jeffords, 1889 — . 

ST. Andrew's parish 

This society is the outgrowth of a donation of land made by John Birket 
many years prior to his death. On the 7th of November, 1857, Mr. Birket con- 


veyed to Henry J. Whitehouse, bishop of Illinois, and to his successors, in office, 
certain lots, including those upon which St. Andrew's church now stands. The 
organization of this society was effected July lo, 1897, with thirty members. A 
hanilsonie stone church was erected in the fall of 1897, at a cost of $20,000, and 
a rectory was built, at a cost of $10,000, the property being located at North 
Madison avenue and Mary street. Rev. Samuel G. Wells became the first rector 
of the cliurch, assuming charge November 22, 1897. His successor was Rev. 
Webster Hakes, who took charge June 15, 1900. The present rector is Rev. 
Thomas Hines. 


The contest between the high and low church elements in the Protestant 
Episcopal church, which led to the separation of one party from the other and 
the formation of the Reformed Episcopal church, was waged W'ith vigor in the 
diocese of Illinois. The bishop was uncompromising in his high church pro- 
clivities, while among the laity there was a tendency toward a more liberal 
church government. When news was received of the organization of the Re- 
formed Episcopal church in New York, December 2, 1873, the movement was 
regarded with favor not only by the low church element but by members of 
other churches. An invitation was extended to Bishop George D. Cummings 
of the Reformed church, to visit Peoria to look over this field, with a view to 
establishing a church. The members of the Second Presbyterian church ofifered 
the use of their church that the Episcopalians might hold a meeting, and this 
offer was accepted. A meeting was held December 16, 1873, at which time an 
organization was effected. Subscriptions were solicited for the support of a 
rector and so liberal was the response that Bishop Cummings was authorized 
to secure a rector. At the time of the organization there were fifty members 
but this number was soon increased to one hundred. Rev. 'Mason Gallagher, of 
Brooklyn, New York, delivered the first sermon on the first Sunday in January, 
1874. A call was extended to Rev. Joseph D. Wilson, of Pittsburg, and on the 
17th of February, that year, he began his labors. Steps were at once taken to 
erect a church and in July, 1874, the building was completed, at a cost of $13,000. 
The congregation also owns a rectory on Perry avenue, which was built at a 
cost of $5,700. Rev. Wilson was succeeded by Rev. E. B. England, who re- 
mained with the church about six years, his successor being Rev. J. W. Fairly, 
who remained ten years. Rt. Rev. B. B. Ussher then came and remained two 
vears, and was followed by Rev. Henry I-". Milligan. 


This mission grew out of a mission Sunday school, organized on Thanksgiving 
day, November 29, 1888, under the auspices of Christ (Reformed Episcopal) 
church, by Rev. J. W. Fairly, who was at that time the rector, and members 
of the church. Meetings were first held in a store building at No. 206 Bridge 
street, and later at No. 602 South Adams street, until October 9, 1892, at which 
time the new church, erected at a cost of $8,000. on Chestnut street, between 
Adams and Warner avenues, was completed and occupied. It is named in mem- 
ory of Charles F. Bacon, a prominent member of Christ church, who was called 
from this life in the midst of his useful labors. His wife, j\Irs. Elizabeth Bacon, 
later went to India as a missionary but was soon called from this life and an 
orphanage and chapel at Lalipur, India, have been established as a monument to 
her memory. Rev. Edward T. Munns, assumed charge of the congregation, 
' September 9, 1891, and has been with the church to the present time. 



The Baptists were among the first to organize a society in Peoria and the 
First church congregation built a house of worship, which was dedicated October 
17, 1846. On the 14th of November following. Rev. Henry G. Weston was 
called to the pastorate and continued with the congregation for twelve years. 
During his term of service the church became self supporting, it having formerly 
received aid from the American IJaptist Home Missionary Society. June 10, 
1859, about twenty-five members withdrew and formed themselves into a society 
known as the Tabernacle church, but after four years the two congregations 
were reunited. A number of years later, however, twenty-four others withdrew 
and organized what became known as the Peoria Baptist church. July 27, 1864, 
the I*"irst church congregation exchanged their property on Hamilton street for 
a lot and church building at the corner of Madison avenue and Fayette street, 
where the Women's Club building is now located. In 1890 an elegant and com- 
modious building was erected at Hamilton boulevard and Glen Oak aveiuie, the 
cost being $65,000. Out of this church have grown the Bethany church and 
Olive Street ^fission. Those who have served as pastors of the church since 
Rev. Weston, who was the first regular pastor, are : Revs. D. E. Holmes, 1862- 
63; A. Jones, 1864-66; A. H. Stowell, 1866; J. D. Page, 1867; S. A. Kingsbury, 
1869; Alexander McArthur, 1872-74; C. J. Thompson, 1874-80; C. E. Heath, 
1880-90: D. D. Odell, 1890-93; L. Kirtley, 1894-1900; George H. Simmons, 1900- 


This society is the outgrowth of a mission Sunday school, organized in 1877, 
by W. C. Tapping. In 1882 a chapel was erected on North Jefiferson street, 
between Hay ward and Abingdon, at a cost of $1,600. A church society was not 
organized, however, until May 10, 1891, with thirty-eight members. In the 
following year, 1892, the church building was removed to its present site, North 
Madison avenue and iriayward street, and greatly enlarged, at a cost of $7,000. 
Rev. E. O. I.ovett was the first regularly installed pastor, who served the church 
from its organization until December i, 1895. He was succeeded by Rev. R. S. 
Sargent, who assumed charge IMay 11, 1896, and remained until November i, 
1897. Rev. J. W. Bayles took charge July 10, 1898, and remained until March 
4, 1899, and on the ist of May of that year Rev. T. K. Reynolds took charge. 


This society was organized .August 24, 1853. by Rev. John H. Krueger. who 
had been engaged as a missionary of the Baptist Home Missionary Society, and 
held services sometimes in the courthouse, while at other times services were 
held in his own home. He was chosen as the first regular pastor, remaining until 
November, i860, when, on account of his health, he was forced to resign. The 
membership gradually increased and worshipped in the basement of the First 
church until 1862, when a lot was leased on the corner of South Jefferson (now 
Warner avenue) and Maple streets, where a small frame church and parsonage 
were erected. In 1875 they purchased a brick Iniilding on Monson street, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth, which had been erected by the Cumberland Presby- 
terians. This building was remodeled and built to, at a cost of $3,200. In 1897 
a new structure was erected at Fourth and Fisher streets, at a cost of $3,000 
and the congregation still occupies the same as a house of worship. The pastors 
who have served this church since i860, at which time Rev. Krueger resigned, 
are: Revs. C. D. Menger, 1862-66; J. Merz. 1866-69; S. H. Downer, 1869-78; 
H. S. Deitz, 1878-81; J. Albert, 1882-86; F. Frederick, 1887-90; A. Vogel, 1891- 
96; A. Jansen, 1897-igoi ; 



This societ}' was organized in April, 1876, with a membership of twelve. 
In 1879 a neat house of worship was erected at Seventh avenue and State 
street, at a cost of $5,600. Rev. ISenjamin N. Murrell is the present pastor. 


The denomination to which this church belongs is not of foreign origin as 
might be supposed, but was founded in Pennsylvania nearly a century ago, by 
German speaking people. It was originated by Jacob Albright, a devout man, of 
Methodist proclivities, after whom it was sometimes called the "Albright church." 
The official designation appears to be the Evangelical Alliance, or the Evangelical 
Association of North America. In all essential points it follows tlie organization 
and polity of the I\Iethodist Episcopal church. 

The church has a general conference, annual conferences, bishops and pre- 
siding elders, and also an order of deaconnesses similar to the .Methodist Epis- 
copal church. The main difl'erence seems to be in the fact that their bishops and 
presiding elders are elected for specific terms of four years each, and then must 
abide by the decision of new elections. The bishops have coordinate general 
supervision. They have twenty-two conferences in the United States and all 
bishops reside in this country. They also have a conference in Canada, two in 
Germany, one in Switzerland, and one in Japan, and missions in China and 
Russia. They have publishing houses in Cleveland, Ohio, and in Stuttgart, Ger- 
many; also colleges in Schuylkill, Pennsylvania, and Ruetlingen, Germany, and 
seminaries in Tokio, Japan, and Naperville, Illinois ; also a Deaconess Home 
and Hospital in the city of Chicago. This church has the itinerant system, the 
pastors being assigned to the various churches by the conferences. 

The church in Peoria was organized in 1843, with fifteen members, Bishop 
John Seybert preaching the first sermon. However, they had no fixed place of 
worship until 1847, when they erected a small church building on Chestnut 
street, between Prairie street and Warner avenue, costing $600. In 1853 they 
built a church at the corner of First and State streets, at a cost of $2,500, which 
was occupied until 1873, when the present frame building was erected at a cost 
of $5,700. This building is now for sale and the congregation contemplates 
the erection of a modern church building. On account of the frequent changes 
of pastors, it is not deemed advisable to enumerate here all who have served 
this people in nearly seventy years. The presiding elder of this district at the 
present time is Rev. H. J. Kiekhoefer, there being four districts in Illinois. The 
present pastor of Trinity church is Rev. G. W. Engelter. Mrs. Mary S. Harsch 
is Sunday school superintendent. The board of trustees consists of George 
Koerner, C. P. Schlenker, John Rudell, J. W. Green and H. J. Kopp. The 
Sunday school enrollment is 100, organized into classes, home department and 
cradle roll. The Young People's Alliance, with B. F. Shirer as president, has 
about 120 members. The denomination maintains old people's homes at Buf- 
falo, New York, and Cedar Falls, Iowa, and an orphanage at Flat Rock, Ohio. 
We have been thus specific about this church because probably very few Ameri- 
can church people know anything concerning it. 

There is a second church of this denomination in the city known as 


This church is located at the corner of Stanley and Humboldt streets. Regular 
preaching services and Sunday school are maintained. Rev. G. J. Degenkolb is 
the present pastor. 

This church was commenced as a mission German Sunday school in 1896, 
in the South Peoria town hall, by Rev. M. G. Hallwachs. Under G. C. Gasser, 


a small church ^Yas built and dedicated January i, 1905, and all services were 
changed into the English language. This church was served in connection with 
Trinity church until April, 191 1, when the present pastor was assigned in 
charge. There is now a church membership of twenty. They have a Sunday 
school of 150 members, also two young people's societies with sixty members, 
and a Ladies' Aid Society of thirty. George Koerner is Sunday school superin- 
tendent, Miss Nettie Sturm, president of Young People's Alliance, Clarence 
Powers, president of Junior Alliance and Mrs. H. Allowby is president of the 
Ladies' Aid Society. 

The board of control consists of G. J. Degenkolb, pastor; George Koerner, 
president; Miss Nettie Sturm, secretary; J. Harry Kopp, treasurer; C. E. Lott- 
man and George Umdenstock, stewards ; also r^Irs. C. E. Lottman and .Mrs. 
George L'mdenstock. 


This society dates its organization from December i, 1853, with twelve mem- 
bers. In the following year, 1854, a church building was erected on Sanford 
street but in 1863 a lot was purchased on the corner of First and Goodwin 
streets and the building removed thereto. In 1883 the church rebuilt at 
a cost of $1,500 and in 1888 this was replaced by a new and commodious struc- 
ture, at a cost of $14,500. This church has been instrumental in founding sev- 
eral missions in this county and elsewhere. There is also a school and kinder- 
garten in connection with the churcli, a new building having been erected in 1898, 
to replace the old one, which was built in 1863. The present building cost 
$6,200. From the time the society was organized to 1877 seven pastors served 
the congregation and from that time to the present. Rev. Frederick B. Bess has 
served as pastor. 


This congregation was organized June 17, 1857, with thirteen charter mem- 
bers. The following year a small church at a cost of $2,000 was erected at the 
corner of Warner avenue and Maple street, where the parochial school is still 
located. In 1875 the old church gave way to a new structure, which was erected 
opposite the old structure on Maple street, at a cost of $8,000. This is one of 
the largest congregations of this denomination in the city. The first to serve as 
pastor of this congregation was Rev. I->ed Boeling, who was installed June 17, 
1858. and after two years was succeeded by Rev. Paulus Heid. who came in 
[anuary, 1861, and remained until 1878, his successor being Rev. Gottlieb Traub, 
who remained until January i, 1892, and was succeeded by Rev. Otto L. Hoen- 
stein, who remained "for a long period. The present pastor is Rev. Ernest Flach. 


This society was formerly a mission of Trinity church but was organized as 
an independent congregation' December 9. 1894, with thirty-si.x charter members. 
In the summer of 1892 Trinity church erected a building for the use of the 
mission in the southern part of 'the city, on Malone avenue and Chandler street, 
at a cost of $5,000. This building was destroyed by fire June 25, 1895. This 
was immediately replaced bv a new structure, at a cost of $8,000, together with 
a parochial school building,' at a cost of $2,000. Rev. Frederick W. Jass has 
served as pastor from the time of its organization to the present. 


This church was organized August 4, 1883, with thirty-four members. The 
first church was located on Easton street near the Vienna Mills. In the spring 


of 1888 the building was removed to Glendale avenue near Hamilton street. 
This building was sold in 1896 for $2,800, and the present church, built of brick 
and stone, at a cost of $10,000, was erected at Bluff street and Hamilton boule- 
vard. The pastors who have served the church are: Revs. August Xorrbom, 
1887-90; E. C. Jessup, 1891-93; Alfred Appell, 1893 — . 


The Universalist church was organized May 6, 1843, and among the first 
members were Orin Hamlin, Dennis Blakeley, Aaron Oakford, Moses M. Webb, 
J. P. Dennis, John King, Caleb Whittemore, and Norman Howe and wife. At 
first meetings were held in the courthouse. Rev. F. J. Briggs became the first 
pastor and his successor was Rev. W. B. Lindell, who remained about two years. 
The society eventually purchased the building which was located on F"ulton 
street and had formerly been used by the First Presbyterian church. This con- 
tinued to be their place of worship until 1863. Rev. William Rounseville was 
pastor from 1853 until 1858 and was succedeed in the latter year by Rev. D. M. 
Reed, during whose pastorate the church was reorganized as the Church of the 
Redeemer, with eighty-three members. Subsequently they held services in various 
buildings until 1867, when a new church was erected and dedicated January i, 
1868, and named the Church of the Messiah. Rev. Reed was succeeded in 1865 
by Rev. H. R. Nye, and when the new church was completed Rev. Royal H. 
Pullman was installed as pastor. His successors have been: Revs. H. B. Smith, 
J. Murray Bailey, S. A. Gardner, G. W. Kent, W. S. Ralph, George B. Stocking, 
R. B. :Marsh, Frank McAlpine, T. B. T. Fisher and Barlow Carpenter, who is the 
present pastor. About 1885 the name of the church was changed to Bradley 
Memorial First Universalist church, in memory of Tobias S. Bradley, who had 
been a devoted member and liberal contributor to the church, and whose death 
occurred in 1867. The present church was erected about 1902 and stands on 
Hamilton boulevard. 


The First Society of the New Jerusalem church of the city of Peoria was 
formed a corporate body in January, 1846. The first church building was erected 
on Jefiferson street, near Hamilton, about 1846. In 1855 this building was re- 
placed by a brick structure on Hamilton street, between Madison and Jefferson. 
In 1896 this building was condemned by the city inspector and the furnishings 
were sold. Since then no regular services have been held but the society still exists 
as an organization. The pastors who have served the congregation are : Revs. 
John Randolph Hibbard, Nelson C. Burnham, Thomas S. Storey, Jabez Fox, 
George H. Marsten, A. J. Bartels, George F. Stearns, George Nelson Smith, 
George Hardon, J. R. Hibbard, W. H. Schliffer and Samuel C. Eby. 


On the 29th day of August, 1892, seven persons met together, taking the 
initial step in forming a church which would inculcate Christian Science, as 
taught by Rev. Mary Baker G. Eddy. A board of three directors, a treasurer 
and a clerk were elected, and the name — Church of Christ, Scientist, of Peoria, 
Illinois, was adopted. On the 6th of October, 1894, the church was incorporated, 
and the name changed to First Church of Christ, Scientist, of Peoria, Illinois. 

Beginning the year 1898, with eighty-seven members, efforts were directed 
towards building a church edifice on the lot on Hamilton boulevard, corner of 
Bluff street, which had been purchased the previous year. The building was 
erected during the latter part of the year at a cost, including the lot. of nearly 
$30,000. The first services, dedicating the building, were held on the 15th of 
January, 1899. 




The organization of the Christian church, or Disciples of Christ, was effected 
in 1S45, with twelve charter members, the last of whom, Mrs. Eliza Wadsworth 
Smith, died in 1904. 

William Tilford was the first elder and Sampson Schockley (grandfather of 
Mrs. John L. Miller) the first deacon. For a brief period the congregation met 
from house to house, and later in the engine house in the 200 block, North 
Adams street. Subsequently the old courthouse was used for their religious 

The first church building was erected at the corner of Seventh avenue and 
Franklin street in 1855, the building which still stands being converted into a 
dwelling some time later. The trustees of this building were James Maxwell, 
P. C. Reding (father of ]\Irs. William Ford, Jr.), and Elias Randall. The 
present location at the corner of Monroe and Fulton streets containing an obsolete 
building was purchased from the New School Presbyterians and first occupied 
in May, 1875. The former location on Seventh avenue was thereupon rented 
and later sold to a congregation of Jews. 

In the year 1894, the present edifice of the Central congregation was erected 
the entire property costing approximately $25,000. Some of the early preacher 
who came with infrequent regularity were William Davenport, William Brow ., 
Barton W. Stone, Mr. Young and Milton P. King, and often when withou? a 
preacher. Deacon Schockley spoke. 

The first pastor of the congregation after the completion of the Seventh 
avenue building was John Lindsay, ]\larch 15, 1855 to August 17, 1856. He was 
followed by I. N. Carman, 1857; Elder Howe, 1861 ; John Miller, 1863; John 
O'Kane, 1864; William Thompson, 1866. Student preachers from the college 
at Eureka served the congregation from 1867 to 1872, among them Messrs. 
Wagner, Hart, Crow and lirunner. The next regular pastor was Ira J. Chase, 
1872. later Governor of Indiana. Barton O. Aylsworth, now president of Colo- 
rado .Agricultural college, followed in 1880; T. B. Mayfield, 1882; N. S. Haines, 
1885: J. M. Kersey, 1892; J. P. McKnight, 1896; G. B. VanArsdall, 1900; H. F. 
Burns. 1905; and W. F. Turner, 1909. 

The longest continuous memberships are today held by Miss Paulina White 
1854, Mrs. Naomi Mounts, Mrs. Wm. Ford, Jr. (then 'Miss Reding), 1865; 
William Ford, Jr., 1867. The present number of communicants is 625. 

The chapel at 224 Howett street, now the Howett Street Christian church 
is the outgrowth of a mission established by Alexander G. Tyng, Sr., of the 
Episcopal Church who conducted for six or eight years what was known as 
the "Tyng Mission" at the corner of Cedar and 15rotherson streets. This effort 
was abandoned and was later taken up by the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, assisted by a few of our people who conducted what was known as a 
temperance Sunday school. This likewise was abandoned after about three 
years' effort, the Disciples following in 1885. The superintendents of the Sunday 
school at the chapel and church have been F. M. Barrett — but recently deceased — 
Samuel Cunningham, Joseph Ray. William Reichel, J. A. Martin, G. W. Rey- 
nolds, Lewis Lawson, J. C. Murray, C. A. Brown and .M. W. Rotchford. For 
twenty-three years Miss Lorena Simonson has been continuouslv a teacher at 
the Howett street church and its predecessor, the Tyng Mission. Regular ])reach- 
ing services (evenings) began in 1900, with B. C. Piatt, minister, followed by 
H. II. Jenner, C. A. Marsh, L. P. Schooling, and William Price. The present 
building was erected in 1890, the plant costing al)out $2,500. 

Present number of communicants is 180. 

The West Bluff Christian chapel the "church built in a day" was constructed 
May 30, 1910, by the brotherhoods of the Howett street Christian and the Central 
Christian churches, assisted voluntarily by about sixty members of the Local 
Carpenters Union, No. 183. Williani Price, minister of the Howett street church, 


laid the foundation. Earl D. Stout, superintended the construction of the build- 
ing. Ashley J. Elliott fathered the idea of building the church in a day and A. 
J. Buckwalter and A. W. Lew were presidents of the two brotherhoods. The 
building was dedicated June lo, 1910, by Dr. Arthur Holmes. A school was 
immediately organized and has continued since. The superintendents thereof 
have been E. J. Haney, A. J. Elliott and A. I. Buckwalter. A two weeks' preach- 
ing service was held in February, 191 1, by W. E. Harlow. The building is lo- 
cated at the corner of Underbill and Main streets. 

The Christian church in Peoria has had a slow but steady growth. The 
principal plea of the Disciples of Christ is "The Restoration of Primitive New 
Testament Christianity and the Union of God's People on that Basis." 




At the meeting of the General Conference of the Alethodist Episcopal church, 
in May, 1824, the territory included in the states of Illinois, Indiana and Wis- 
consin, as indicated in Stephen R. Begg's "Early History of the West and North- 
west," which had been included in the Missouri conference, was separated there- 
from and designated "The Illinois Conference." 

In the fall the Illinois conference, and the .Missouri conference both met at 
the same place — Padtields, twenty miles east of St. Louis. At this session of 
the Illinois conference, Peter Cartwright and Andrew Monroe, elders of the 
Kentucky conference, were received by transfer. 

When the assignments were made, Jesse Walker was appointed to the circuit 
which included Peoria, or Fort Clark, as it was then called. 

When Jesse Walker arrived at the settlement, he found a few persons of the 
Methodist faith and formed the first class, consisting of sixteen members. Beggs, 
who was on the work in 1830 gives the names of the original si.xteen members as 
Jesse Walker and wife; James Walker and wife; Mrs. Abner Eads ; Sister 
Dixon, wife of the proprietor of Dixontown, on Rock river; Sister Hamlin, 
mother of John Hamlin and another sister, converts that winter ; William Holland 
and wife: William Eads and wife; William Blanchard ; Rev. Reeves McCormick. 
and Mary Clark. 

The next summer \\'alker, assisted by his son James and others, one of whom 
was Rev. Reeves McCormick, who appears to have been a located preacher, held 
a camp meeting on the west side of the lake about a mile above the village, which 
was probably either just above the Galena road, now North Adams street, or 
in a lieautiful grove on Plum Point, down on the bank of the lake. 

William .See travelled the Peoria circuit in 1827, and S. L. Robertson in 1828. 
The circuit then covered a very large territory. During the summer of 1828 a 
camp meeting was held at a place about three miles east of Peoria, in Tazewell 
county, probably, in the Farm Creek bottoms about where Farmdale is located. 
Samuel P. Thompson was presiding elder, and Robertson, Jesse Walker, and 
probably See assisted. At this camp meeting. Governor Edwards, the first gover- 
nor of Illinois, was present. 

From the conference held at Edwardsville, Illinois, September 18, 1829, 
Stephen R. P.eggs was sent to the Logansport Mission, embracing Logansport, 
Delphi and I.aFayette. Indiana, .\fter the first quarterly meeting, his presiding 
elder transferred him to the llloomington circuit and at the next conference, 
which was held at \'incennes, Indiana, he was sent to the Tazewell circuit, which, 
from his description, would appear to be the same as the Bloomington circuit, 
barring some possible cliiuiges in preaching points. He describes the most 
prominent preaching places as Peoria, Holland's Grove, now Washington ; Mud 
Creek; Walnut Grove; Alackinaw Town; Stout's Grove; Dry Grove; Blooming 



Grove, now Bloomington ; Randolph's Grove; Big Grove; Cherry Grove; from' 
thence down Salt Creek to the Falling Timber country; Brother Beck's on Sugar 
creek; Ilittlc's Grove, and Dillon's, where there were two appointments; from 
there I went to Grand Prairie ; from thence to several neighborhoods and back 
to Peoria.'" So it appears that he served the iMethodist people at Peoria three- 
fourths of the conference year 1830 and all of the year 1831. He was united in 
marriage with a daughter of William Pleath, September, 1831. He was succeeded 
in 1832 by William Royal, and he by Z. Hall in 1833. At this time it seems 
the assignment was called Fort Clark Mission, the boundaries of which are de- 
scribed as follows : Peoria, Lancaster, or LaSalle I'rairie ; Brother Jones' on 
Snack River; Princeville, Essex schoolhouse; Fraker's Grove, now Lafayette; 
thence to Princeton, some thirty miles distant ; to Troy Grove twenty-five miles 
farther; to Brother Long's near LaSalle; down the river to Aliller's school- 
house, five miles below I'eru, then on to John Hall's one hundred fifty miles 
around. In the spring of 1833 there appears to be the added names of Sister A. 
Hale, a Sister Waters, David Spencer and some others. At this time John Sin- 
clair was presiding elder. The Sister Hale mentioned was the wife of Asahel 
Hale, who afterwards donated the lot at the corner of Madison and P'ulton 
streets for the First Methodist Episcopal church and the property at Maiir 
and High streets for Hale Memorial church. 

Hall was succeeded in 1834 by Joel Arrington, who seems to have re-vivified 
the membership and was by some given the credit of having established the 
first class, when in fact Jesse Walker was ahead of him by nine years. More- 
over, the forming of a class by Arrington would be no evidence that the former 
organization or class had lapsed or that there was no previous church, as under 
the system established by John Wesley, a Methodist church might consist of 
one class or an aggregation of classes. In each case the class had a leader and 
in early days these classes often met week day evenings at the homes of the 
leaders, when the members spoke of their religious experience and the leader 
advised or exhorted. 

The quarterly meeting service was always accompanied by the love feast, or 
general class meeting. To be admitted to the love feast was considered a great 
privilege, and for a time during early times in Peoria, admission was only ob- 
tained upon ticket, which ticket was only given to faithful attendants upon 
class meetings and religious services. 

Copies of love feast tickets : 

"Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the earth." — Matthew V-5. 
The Lord hath spoken good to me. 

His word my hope secures ; 
He will my shield and portion be, 
As long as life endures. 
Peoria Station. (Signed) C. Hobart S. P. (Station Preacher). 

3d Quarter. 1843. 

James Hazzard 
"Blessed be the Lord: for He hath showed me His marvelous kindness in 
a strong city." Psa. XXXII-21. 
3 Qr. April 20, 1845. 
(Signed) J. Chandler. 

The tickets referred to are now in the possession of J. F. Hazzard of this city. 

Beggs says that upon one such occasion, feeling in good spirits while he was 
attending the door and being in a liberal mood he admitted several who had not 
the proper credentials. Good Brother K. came to him and said : "Brother Beggs, 
what do you mean by admitting so many to our love feast, you have even let in 
old man H." At the close of the service Beggs says he called for any who 


might desire to join the church to present themselves and old man II. was the 
first to come. 

Referring to the original class formed in 1825, McCulloch, in his history of 
Peoria city and county gives the name of Rivers Cormack instead of Rev. Reeves 
McCormick as Beggs gives it. As Beggs was on the ground a few years after- 
ward he has proljal:>ly given the correct name. McCulloch says H. H. Farkington 
travelled the Peoria circuit in 1820 and also gives the name of Isaac Scarrett 
for the same work the same year. By the conference of September, 1829, James 
Latta was assigned to the circuit in which Peoria was included, and as Stephen 
R. Beggs was transferred to the circuit from the Logansport mission about Janu- 
ary, 1830, it is probable that Latta was transferred also, but to what work we 
are not informed. 

At this time Peter Cartwright was ]iresiding elder, and his district extended 
from Chicago to Peoria, and from the Illinois river to the Mississippi. 

The same author gives the name of Zadoc Hall, as the preacher on tlie circuit 
in 1S32 and 1833. He. finding that several of the class formed by Walker had 
removed, re-organized the class and from that time the organization became per- 
manent. Joel Arrington came in 1833. By the conference of the fall of 1834, 
Rev. L. S. Walker was sent to this work, and by that of 1835 W. C. Cumming, 
who was the father of the venerable Rev. J. S. Cumming, now assigned to the 
Second Methodist Episcopal church at Moline, Illinois. While here Rev. William 
C. Cumming lived in the cottage on Washington street which belonged to Daniel 
Brestel. I'eoria was made a station in 1836 and that fall the conference assigned 
James W. Dunahy to the work. He remained about six months, and N. G. 
Berryman was sent to supply the place. Beggs says John Sinclair also was here 
in 1836. It is jjrobable he did his work on the circuit. It was in the year 1837 
that Asahel Hale and Mark M. Aiken donated part of a lot, 71 feet by 72 feet 
at the corner of Fulton and Madison streets, as a site for a church. 

Beggs. who was assigned to the Peoria church by the conference of 1839, 
says A. E. Phelps, was his predecessor and says he was a powerful preacher, 
and on account of Ijeing fully able in debate, to protect his faith and creed, became 
very ])o]3ular. McCulloch says Phelps was assigned here in 1837 and William !•'. 
Williams and William Cundilt in 1838. The dates have probably been reversed, 
and one of the latter was on the circuit work. 


In the summer of 1835 there came to Peoria, from Ilarrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
a young man. a carpenter by trade, and a local Methodist preacher, Daniel lirestel 
by name, who, with his family consisting of his wife and four young daughters 
had sought a home in the west, and had made choice of Peoria for such a home. 
He came well recommended and a letter, commending him as a man of high 
moral character and a competent mechanic dated Harrisburg. Pennsylvania, April 
25, 1835. and signed by sixteen business and professional men, who are desig- 
nated by marginal notes as "State Clerk." "Congressman," "Station Preacher" 
and ".Merchants" with several "Gentlemen" is still in existence and in the pos- 
session of one of his descendants. Upon the arrival of the family in Peoria, the 
onlv place of shelter they could get, was one or two rooms in Hunt's Row, a 
long frame, one-story building containing four or five tenements, located at tfte 
west corner of Adams and Fulton streets, where the B. & M. clothing store now 
stands. There was no chimney, or fire place in this tenement, only a hole in the 
floor and another in the roof ; and with such accommodations, or rather lack 
of accommodations, they were compelled to get along until more suitable quarters 
could be found. Mr. Brestel having brought some means with him, purchased 
for $1,000 a lot 72 feet front on the northwest side of Washington street, by 171 
feet deep toward Adams street, on which was a small cottage of four or five 


The next year, perhaps, in 1836, he built a good, substantial carpenter shop; 
and a substantial two-story frame building on the front of the lot and on the line 
of sidewalk. This building contained a larg£ storeroom on the first floor and 
two large living rooms above, which were reached by a stairway on the outside 
of the building. The carpenter's shop was situated on the alley between Wash- 
ington and Adams streets and immediately in the rear of what is now the Schnel- 
bacher building, but across the alley, being between Main and l-'ulton streets. This 
property is now covered with business houses and worth, probably $75,000. 

Daniel Brestel and his family came from Pennsylvania by wagon most of the 
way, and were from five to six weeks making the trip. Upon their arrival, being 
Methodists, they naturally fell in with that people, whom they found at that time 
worshiping in the old log court house on the bank of the river near wdiere the 
electric light plant now stands. Stephen R. Beggs tells us in his "Early History 
of the West and Northwest," that at times preachers of other denominations 
occupied the court house, and consequently the Methodists were compelled to 
hold services in the houses of some of the members. After Daniel Brestel built 
his carpenter shop they had the use of it for services, and it was there and not 
in a shop on the alley between Washington and Water street, as stated in 
McCulloch's history, where their services were held. 

Samuel Markley was also a carpenter and a partner of Daniel Brestel, later 
Markley built a house and lived on North Adams street, about where number 
407 now is. A front part was built on since his death, and the old house remains 
there yet. It probably belongs to a grandson, C. M. Comegys. 

Daniel Brestel's house was always open to the circuit riders and Methodist 
preachers, and Peter Cartwright, Stephen R. Beggs, Richard Haney, Henry 
Summers, Jacoby, of Cincinnati, and Winebrenner, of Pennsylvania, were among 
his guests. 

Born and raised in Pennsylvania of French and German lineage, Brestel 
was able to read, write and speak English and German equally well, and was 
always in demand to serve in preaching and marriage services, especially among 
the Germans, who had no church organization of any kind when he first arrived. 
He was not averse to preaching the gospel to the colored people and frequently 
rendered such services for them in a schoolhouse which then stood on Walnut 
street, between Adams and Washington streets. As the German Methodists 
had no organization here then, he took great interest in them, and was to a 
large degree instrumental in organizing the German Methodist Episcopal church, 
and was a member of their first board of trustees, though himself a member of 
the English Methodist Episcopal church. He was a zealous student of the scrip- 
tures and was able to c|uote almost any passage he might be asked for, or if he 
heard a quotation, to locate the book, chapter and verse. However, not content, 
and desiring to lietter understand the Bible, he studied Greek and Hebrew after 
he was fifty years of age. 

In 184D, about which time Peoria was considered a thrifty and promising 
young place, there came from Philadelphia a young bricklayer, James Hazzard, 
by name, seeking employment at his trade and a place to locate. Being a Metho- 
dist he became acquainted with the Brestel family, and in 1842 was married to 
IMargaret, the second daughter, the service being read by Rev. Chauncey Hobart, 
the then preacher in charge, and who but recently died in Red Wing, ^linnesota, 
after nearing the century mark in years. 

An interesting fact in connection with this family and the Methodist church 
is, that from the coming of Daniel Brestel in 1835, when he became connected 
with the church, to the present time, there has been continuous service upon the 
official board of some Methodist church, by some member of the family. Daniel 
Brestel, by virtue of his being an ordained minister; his son-in-law becoming a 
member of the board of trustees of the First ^lethodisf Episcopal church; a 
granflson, first for about three years a steward of the Second church, from 
which he transferred to Hale Chapel in 1868, becoming one of the first trustees, 


in which capacity he has continued ever since ; while a great grandson is now, 
and has been for a number of years a steward and treasurer of Hale Memorial 
church, a continuous period of more than seventy-six years. 

In 1839, the lUinois conference held its session at I'.loomington, and at that 
session, Stephen R. Beggs was appointed to the church at Peoria, by Bishop 
Morris. .As some of the members of the church had set their hearts on securing 
another preacher, a relative of one of the then prominent members, Beggs' recep- 
tion on the part of some was not very cordial, in fact rather discouraging, but 
being a man determined to do his duty as he saw it, he went to work vigorously. 
He made his first appearance Sabbath morning. He says: "Our only place of 
worship was Brestel's" (Beggs incorrectly spells the name Bristol) "carpenter 
shop, and there I preached among jackplanes and chisels." He took his first 
dinner in Peoria with Brestel's family. It soon became so that the carpenter 
shop would not hold the people who came to the services, so one evening Beggs 
pro|)osed that they start in and build a church. As is always the case, there 
were doubtful ones, and they began to object. The period, the winter of 1839-40, 
was a season of gloomy aspect ; money was hard to get, and so the prospect was 
not very encouraging. Furthermore, it seems that about two years before, an 
attempt had been made to build a frame church, and some material collected, 
but a reverend brother thinking that a frame church would be out of keeping 
with certain ideas of dignity, and, possibly pride, discouraged the project, insist- 
ing on a brick church or none, and the materials collected had been sold and the 
little money received for it had been pocketed by a Mr. A. 

In si)ite of all the discouraging circumstances and conditions and in face of 
all objections. Beggs insisted that a frame building would he better than none 
and carried his point. .\ place for the building having been secured, he per- 
suaded some of the men to take their axes and sleds, go into the timber and fell 
trees and haul them in on the snow, score and hew the timbers for sills and plates. 

Quite a number fell in with his plans, and by the spring of 1840 they had the 
hewn timbers ready, r)eggs having made a "bee" for that purpose. He went 
to the sawmills and begged other necessary lumber and also secured bricks in the 
same way. One Sabbath he invited the men, as many as would assist, to be on 
the ground the next morning to frame the timbers so that they might have the 
frame raised by the next Saturday evening. Monday morning he appointed 
Daniel Brestel, foreman, and the men who came were set to work. About noon, 
however, the foreman was taken sick and the preacher had to secure another, 
which he did, presumably Samuel Markley, also a member of the church. At the 
time there was great stagnation and work was scarce, so Beggs went about the 
village and solicited every idle man he met to go and assist, which many did will- 
ingly. He found some masons who went at once and laid the foundation walls, 
and by Saturday evening the frame of the first Methodist church building was 
raised. Even then the croakers were not tiuieted and predicted that it would never 
go any farther ; but Beggs was of a diflierent mind. He took his horse and buggy, 
and started out. soliciting one dollar or more from every man he met. He went 
as far as .Alton, St. Louis and Belleville, and secured sixty-five dollars in all ; his 
largest subscription being twenty-five dollars. On his return, he again went 
among the sawmills, and secured donations of sheathing and flooring, and 
Josiah Fulton having given a large oak tree which was made up into shingles, 
he soon had the building ready for plastering. This work Leonard L. Loomis 
kindly agreed to do if some one would do the lathing. Lathing in those days was 
done by taking thin sawed boards, generally of oak, nailing one edge ; then split- 
ting with a hatchet and spreading, and nailing again, s])litting and s])reading 
and nailing until the board covered all the space it would, and then repeating the 
operation until all the walls were covered. This work Beggs found men to do, 
and Loomis plastered the building. 

The doors and winflows were gotten, presumably, with the money raised on 
the southern trip ; and with temporary seats and pulpit, the building was ready 


for services, with less than ten dollars indebtedness, the total money cost being 
something over $70. This building was erected on a part of lot ten, block thirty, 
original town of Peoria, being 72 feet on Madison street by 71 feet on Fulton 
street at the west corner, opposite the present city hall. 

It has been said and written that this lot was donated by Asahel Hale and 
Alark \l. Aiken, the latter a member of the church at that time, and the former 
becoming so later. An examination of the records of deeds, however, does not 
exactly bear this out. On page 515, Book G of Transcribed Record of Deeds 
in Peoria county, is the transcript of the deed which transfers the above described 
part of lot 10 to Mark M. Aiken and Asahel Hale, trustees, which explicitly pre- 
scribes the uses and purposes for which it is to be used, and directs that it shall 
descend to their successors in office, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
This deed was made and executed by one William Pierce, and the consideration 
named was $500 in coin. This amount was probably fictitious, as the lot then 
was on the outskirts of the town, and lots on Adams street were valued less, 
many years later. This deed is dated March 2, 1837, acknowledged before 
William Mitchell, notary public and filed for record March 3, 1837. At the same 
time Pierce transferred to Hale and Aiken, in fee simple, the balance of lot 10, 
block 30, being 29 feet on Fulton street by 72 feet on the alley, consideration $400. 

The whole transaction would seem to indicate that the plat yz feet by 71 feet 
may have been donated to the church by William Pierce, probably at the solicita- 
tion of Asahel Hale and Mark M. Aiken, and in consideration of the sale of the 
other part of the lot to them. 

There is no deed on record from Mark M. Aiken conveying any part of said 
lot to the church, but he conveyed his interest in the other part of lot 10 to Asahel 
Hale, and on page six hundred and twenty-three. Book Y of Record of Deeds, 
is the transcript of a deed from Asahel Hale and Laura Hale, his wife, to George 
Wilkenson, James R. Hazzard, Samuel B. King. Asahel Hale, Jesse L. Knowl- 
ton, Joseph J. Thomas and John Easton, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, transferring part of lot 10, being 50 feet on Fulton street by 71 feet deep, 
commencing 71 feet from Madison street, for a consideration of $200. This 
deed is dated April 20, 1847, and was acknowledged before William H. Fessen- 
den. Justice Peace. April 30, 1847, but not filed for record until June 23, 1851. 
The provisions in this deed are the same as those in the deed from Pierce in 1837 
and this plat was, no doubt, donated by Asahel Hale and Laura Hale, his wife. 

Some nine years after the erection of the first building, which had been 
enlarged in the meantime, it was moved to one side to make way for the erection 
of a large brick church ; later the old frame building was moved to the corner of 
Harrison and Water streets, immediately in the rear of the board of trade build- 
ing site, and became part of a hotel owned and operated by James AfcFadden; 
which was afterward known as the Central House and operated under that name 
many years by John Phillips. Of late years it has given way to a large business 

Daniel Brestel died in November, 1859, aged sixty-six years and his remains 
lie in Springdale cemetery. Of his descendants there are now living, one daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Elizabeth Bowman, living at Los Gatos, California, aged about eighty- 
one years; seven grand children, six of whom live in Peoria and one in Lincoln, 
Nebraska ; eighteen great grandchildren and about as many great great grand- 
children. The late Rev. David G. Stouflr'er was a nephew of Samuel .Markley. 

When Stephen R. Beggs arrived with his family in Peoria in the fall of 1839, 
the only house he could obtain was an old, dilapidated dwelling, long tenanted 
by rats and vermin, which vigorously contested the intrusion for several months. 
One time, while the preacher was away, Judge George B. Parker, not then a 
church member nor even a professor of religion, found and rented a good com- 
fortable dwelling and moved the preacher's family in before he returned. 

That Daniel Brestel was an ordained minister is attested by the fact that he 
performed many marriage ceremonies, especially for German couples. W'e have 

^si>^'' 'Vlii,,^ i\^^ii,\ 

1!K\'. STKl'llKX 1!. Hl-XJGS, 
Will) as |i:i>tiir nl tlii' Mrtlioilist Episcdpiil 
Cluiii'li nt I'mria. Iiiiilt tlie first ■'Metli- 
iiilisl liu'i'lilif; lliillsc." 

Came to I'enria in is:!.') from T'ciin- 
sylvaiiia. First prcaclicr assigned to 
preaeli to (icrmaii-spealiiiif.' Mrtli 
odists, 1S4:i. 



no record of just when lie was ordained, but there are persons living who know 
of the fact, one of whom is Johnson L. Cole. Joseph F. Hazzard remembers 
of his performing marriage ceremonies. Ira E. Benton records that at the 
quarterly meeting held on the camp ground at Ten-i\[ile Creek, in Tazewell 
county, August 19, 1843, Daniel lirestel resigned as member of the official board 
to begin work as preacher to the Ciermans in Tazewell county. 

The writer had the privilege of meeting and entertaining Stephen R. Beggs 
in 1868 and at that time obtained from him a copy of his "Early History" just 
then published. 

With an interest engendered by family connections with the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, extending into three centuries, and more than sixty years of personal 
recollections ; with associations and memories of nearly all of the persons and 
events, it has been the intent of the writer to give in a concise form, historic 
facts without diversions but surely the names of such arduous, energetic, self- 
sacrificing men as Jesse Walker, Stephen R. Beggs, Peter Cartwright, Henry 
Summers, Richard Haney, John Chandler, the generous, far-sighted .\sahel 
Hale, the willing, ever-ready carpenter-preacher, Daniel Brestel, and Samuel 
Tart, for many years a class leader, with many others mentioned, ought to be 
known and held in reverence by all 'Methodists in the city and county of Peoria. 

It is said that in 1840 Bishop Beverly Waugh preached in the new church and 
wrote to the New York Christian Advocate, "The Alethodists of Peoria have a 
new church building, but it is half a mile from the village." 


The building erected by the zeal and energy of Stephen R. Beggs and his 
willing supporters in 1840, was 31 feet by 40 feet in size. In 1843, the work 
having prospered greatly and congregations necessitating more room, the build- 
ing was lengthened by the addition of 16 feet to the rear. In 1841 and 1842 
Rev. Nathaniel P. Cunningham was pastor. Rev. Cuimingham was the father 
of Mrs. J. D. ]\IcClure. By the general conference of 1840 the Illinois conference 
w^as again divided and the Rock River conference formed. According to assign- 
ments of ministers as given by S. R. Beggs, this conference included a large 
part of the state of Illinois, and the states of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 
and enough territory was included in one presiding elder's district to form two 
conferences now. 

In the fall of 1842 N. P. Cunningham transferred to Chicago and was as- 
signed to the church there. By the same conference Chauncey Hol^art was sent 
to the church at Peoria and served until the following fall, when Richard Haney 
succeeded him. Haney was a giant in stature, and a powerful preacher, who 
was well known in Peoria by many of the present generation. John Chandler 
was the pastor in 1845-46. In the latter year, the congregation was incorporated 
and James Hazzard, George Wilkinson, Samuel B. King, Jesse P. Knowlton, 
Joseph J. Thomas, John Easton and Asahel Hale were the members of the first 
board of trustees. 

In the fall of 1846 Rev. F. A. McNeal was appointed to the church and in 
1847 N. P. Heath ; Init he being sent oflf on a financial mission, Rev. McNeal again 
served the people. In 1848 and 1849 Silas IjoIIcs was preacher in charge, and 
it was under his administration that the second church building was erected. 

The little frame church erected by S. R. Beggs, after having been enlarged 
had again been outgrown, and the congregations demanded more room, con- 
sequently, a new brick building 60x90 feet was erected, with an audience room, 
which, with a lobby, covered the entire second floor, a lecture room, 42x60 feet, 
and several class rooms in the basement. This building was very plain. The 
brickwork was done by Card and Hazzard, and it is thought the carpenter work 
was done by Thomas & Bain, and the plastering by Loomis & Brown. Finances 
being short, no more than a base for a spire was ever built, and so remained 


until May 13, 1858, when a severe hurricane, which passed over the city, partly 
unroofed the church while it blew the spires off almost every other church in 
the city. 

This building was dedicated in September, 1849, Bishop Edmund S. Janes 
preaching the sermon. The building had a gallery over the lobby so that the 
seating capacity was the entire interior size of the building. However, with the 
entering into the new building an innovation was introduced and musical instru- 
ments, and singers were installed in the gallery. The instruments were a bass 
viol and a flute, the latter of which was played by Edgar M. Banvard, and the 
former by George Thorpe, as near as can be ascertained. 

Of the members of the choir, the following names have been obtained. 
Stark R. Reed. Joseph Brown, Joseph C. Parker, Edward Story, Mrs. Louise 
Reed and Miss Marie Banvard, sisters of E. M. Banvard; Miss Mary Reed, 
daughter of S. R. Reed, and Miss Mary Brown, daughter of Joseph Brown ; 
and Airs. Leah Benton. Of these Edward Story is the only one of whom we 
have any information at present time. He resides with his wife and daughter 
at 212 West Armstrong avenue, Peoria. One rather comical feature, was that 
when the congregation arose for the singing, all turned their backs to the pulpit 
and "faced the music." 

The Rev. Peter Cartwright was a rough, uncouth, plain-spoken man and a 
powerful preacher. One of his antagonisms was to instrumental music in the 
church. It is said that at one time when about to open services, he announced 
the hymn, and read it as was customary, and casting his eyes up, he saw the 
bass viol and said, "You will now please fiddle and sing the hymn as announced." 

Edgar M. Banvard was about this time superintendent of the Sunday school, 
but not many years afterwards left for California, and was succeeded by Joseph 

In 1850 J. C. Parks was assigned to this church, and he was followed by 
C. C. Best, who also was reappointed the next year. 

About this time "The Wesleyan Seminary of Peoria" was started and a lease 
secured on the "Alitchell House," which had been built by William Mitchell, 
former county clerk, for a hotel, but which was not a success in that capacity and 
had been closed. It was located on the corner of Jefferson avenue and Fulton 
street, where the "Star" office and two or three other business buildings are now 
situated. The seminary was not a success, and the building was afterward 
remodeled and opened as a hotel, under the name of "The Massasoit House," 
and did quite a business for some time. 

About this time William Jones taught a school in the basement of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. Some of the names, remembered of scholars who 
attended that school are : Henry B. Rouse. Walter P. Colburn, Edward S. Easton, 
Charles Easton, Edwin C. Ely. Selby Whittlesy, a cousin of Ely's, Joseph F. 
Hazzard, Miss Alice Hill, Emeline Shelly, now the widow of the late 'Martin 
Kingman, Mary Mossman, and Virginia Cunningham, now widow of Colonel J. D. 
McClure, cousins. 

In 1852 and 1853, J. W. Flower was pastor and during his pastorate a small 
mission church, known as Aloft'att church, was built on lower Adams street, 
about opposite where the Barrett Manufacturing Company's plant is now located. 
This was used as a mission church by the First church for a few years and then 
discontinued. In 1855 Caleb Foster was appointed to the church. 

The general conference of 1856 having divided the Rock River conference 
and formed the Central Illinois conference the new conference held its first ses- 
sion in the ]\Iethodist Episcopal church in Peoria, beginning September 19, 1856, 
being presided over by Bishop Edmund S. Janes. Since that time six other 
sessions of the annual conference have been held in Peoria, to-wit : 1871, 1886, 
1895. igoo. 1905 and the last session held in Hale ^Memorial church, commencing 
September 6, 191 1. 

By the conference of 1856, Rev. William H. Hunter, who had transferred 


from the Erie conference of Pennsylvania, was appointed to the Peoria church. 
At first he was strongly objected to by some on account of his pronounced anti- 
slavery proclivities, but the events of the next few years wi])ed out all such objec- 
tions, and \\'illiam H. Hunter liecame a tower of strength to Methodism, not 
only in Peoria and the Central Illinois conference, but in the nation. He was 
several times elected a delegate to the general conference. He was also a good 
business man and financial manager, and by husbanding the very small allowances 
of his earlier days and the somewhat more liberal income of later years, he 
accumulated quite an amount of property. He was, nevertheless, of a liberal 
turn of mind, and quite often assisted his less fortunate, or more improvident, 
brethren in the ministry, as well as giving of his means to worthy causes. Almost 
at the commencement of Rev. Hunter's ministrations to the church here, a mis- 
sion Sunday school was started in a small brick building on North Jefferson 
street, which stood where the three-story Ijrick building, the "Annex" to the 
"liailie," now stands. This building was formerly the Swedenborgian church. 
It had also been used for a private school. In 1857 George R. Parker was super- 
intendent, C. Dunham, secretary and James Hazzard, librarian of this Sunday 
school. Joseph F. Hazzard has in his possession several certificates of member- 
ship in this school, issued to members of his family in April, 1837. However, 
prior to this, proljably in 1855 and 1856, there was a Sunday school, largely 
under the auspices of Methodist people, conducted in an old frame building which 
was originally a foundry and had afterwards been used as a schoolhouse, located 
on the northwest side of Perry avenue, between Fayette and Jackson streets, 
and which belonged to George C. Greenwood. In this Sunday school, Mrs. Mary 
E. Phenix was a teacher, and Joseph F. Plazzard and the girl who is now his wife 
were attendants. About the time of the opening of the Sunday school in the 
building on Jefferson street, the school on Perry avenue ceased to exist, and a 
number of the attendants transferred to the new location. A feature about this 
new .Sunday school was that the library books, which were mostly for the 
younger grade of children were kept in a carpenter's tool chest, loaned by Wil- 
liam Comegys. ]\lilton L. Haney, a brother of Richard Haney, was assigned to 
Peoria mission, and this Sunday school formed a nucleus from which he or- 
ganized the Second Alethodist Episcopal cliurch, whose successor is Madison 
.Avenue ]\Iethodist Episcopal church. 

In 1857, R. C. Bolles was appointed to succeed W. H. Hunter and he in turn 
was succeeded by R. C. Rowley. In 1859, S. G. J. Worthington, one of the grand 
old men of the Central Illinois conference, and father of Judge Nicholas E. 
Worthington. was appointed to the First church, in Peoria, and remained till 
1862, when Rev. J. S. Gumming, a son of Rev. William C. Gumming, who was 
on the Peoria circuit in 1836, followed. It is said that it was during Cumming'.s. 
time that the first organ, what was known as a parlor organ, was installed in the 
church. Also at this time the first camp meeting was held at Oak Hill, and a 
camp meeting has been held there annually ever since. Rev. Gumming remained 
until the conference of 1863 again assigned Rev. Richard Haney to the charge, 
and the next year Rev. G. G. Knowlton. Rev. Knowlton was re-appointed but 
resigned in Fel^ruary, 1866. and James Tubbs supplied until the conference of 
1866. which appointed -Andrew Magee. 

I'.v the conference of 1868. J. P. Brooks was sent and in the fall of i86g, J. S. 
Gumming again was assigned to the work, and continued tliis time for three years. 
In 1872 E. Wasmuth was appointed. He remained three years. In 1875 ''^^ ^• 
Morgan came for a three years' term, and was followed in 1878 by Selah W. 
Brown for two years. By the conference of 1880 James T. McFarland, now in 
charge of the Sunday school publication of the jMethodist Episcopal church, was 
assigned as pastor, William Hunter as assistant, and they remained two years. 
This brings us to the end of the chapter so far as the brick church building of 
1849 is concerned, for in 1S82 it was sold and the next year aliandoned for church 


The writer has thought it might be interesting to many to recall the names of 
many well remembered as being connected with the First Methodist Episcopal 
church and its activities at the time of, and immediately following its dedication 
in 1849. Among those best remembered are: Daniel Brestel and wife, and Eliza- 
beth Bowman, their daughter, now living in California, where she has been since 
1853: I'eter S. Shelly and wife; Enoch I'. Sloan, L. Keyon, Nathaniel Curtiss 
and family; Leonard L. Loomis and wife; James llazzard and wife, the latter 
a daughter of Daniel Brestel; Joseph J. Thomas and wife, and daughters, Mrs. 
Leah Benton and Miss Mary Thomas; Samuel B. King and wife; Samuel Tart 
and wife and daughter, the latter afterwards the wife of Colonel Chas. H. Deane ; 
Ira E. Benton and Caroline Chandler, who afterwards became his wife; Jesse L. 
Knowlton and wife; Edward D. Shutts and wife; I'ather Bowen and wife; 
Father Bunn and wife and J. H. Bunn ; Wm. Comegys and wife; Mother .]Mark- 
ley ; Mother Slough; Dr. J\Iossman; Dr. McNeal and wife; Edgar AI. I'anvard 
and wife; Mother Banvard and Mrs. Lizzie Sloan; Mrs. Louise Reed and Miss 
Maria Banvard, her daughters; Nathan Giles; Wm. Giles; Columbus Dunham; 
Asahel Hale and wife, the latter of the class formed in 1832 ; Wm. Hale, the 
first mayor of Peoria, and his wife; Henry Story and wife, parents of Edward 
and F. M. Story of this city; Levi B. Gibson; James M. Woodbury and wife; 
Mrs. Cunningham, widow of the Rev. N. P. Cunningham, and mother of Mrs. 
Colonel J. D. AlcClure; Stark R. Reed and family; and Clark B. Stebbins, for 
many years a justice of the peace. 

By the conference of 1882, Rev. J. E. Keene was appointed to the First 
Methodist Episcopal church, and during his incumbency the present church edifice 
at the junction of Fulton, Franklin and Sixth avenue was built. Mr. Keene 
was quite a young man, at that time being only twenty-eight years of age. He 
was transferred from the church at Kewanee. When he arrived here, he found 
that the old church building had been sold, and the congregation was worshiping 
in what was known as "The Old Armory," at the east corner of Madison avenue 
and Liberty street. This latter was in fact built as a Cumberland Presbyterian 
church and known as the Glover church but not used long as such. Glover was 
the name of the pastor when it was built. 

Mr. Keene found that the lot for the new church building had been purchased, 
and that his predecessor, Rev. James T. McFarland, had memoranda of some 
persons who had promised to make subscriptions. Plans had also been prepared 
and accepted, so that he started in at once to get the subscription in more tangible 
form, and of sufficient amount, which he found to be a most arduous task. In the 
meantime a most efficient building committee, consisting of Isaac Brown, J. H. 
Bunn, and H. C. Lines, now all passed to their reward, proceeded with the con- 
struction of the building, with James P.ramble, as contractor. But the building 
was not completed until the fall of 1884. Mr. Keene preached the first sermon 
in the unfinished building in May, 1884, but it was not dedicated, according to 
Ira E. Benton, until 1S88, when Rev. Peter A. Cool, had taken charge. The 
dedication services were held October 18, 1888, the dedicatory sermon being 
delivered by Bishop Charles H. Fowler. The cost of the building including site 
was al)out $35,000. Several years after the building was completed finding that 
there was not enough seating capacity, it was remodeled by tearing out the end 
walls of the wings of the transe])t, and extending them and putting in galleries 
over them. 

Rev. George W. Gue was appointed in 18S-I and served the church three 
years, being succeeded in 1887 by Rev. George C. Wilding, who remained one 
year. By the conference of 1888 Rev. P. A. Cool was appointed to the church, 
and reappointed for the second year, being followed in 1890 by Rev. H. D. Clark, 
who served three years. 

In the fall of 1893 T. W. McYety was appointed pastor and remained three 
years; Rev. Nelson G. Lyons coming in 1897 and serving three years, being fol- 
lowed in 1900 by R. E. Buckey. Since that time the pastors have been Rev. 


R. Crewes, Rev. O. T. Dwinell, Rev. R. A. Brown and Rev. W. E Shaw, who is 
now serving his second year. 

The church has a very line parsonage property, located on Hamilton street 
between Perry and Glendale avenues. The building is a substantial brick, built 
about two years ago. 

The report to the last ainiual conference gives a total membership in the 
church of six hundred twenty-four; in the Sunday school of forty-three officers 
and teachers and five hundred twenty-two scholars, including cradle roll and 
hon)e department, with seventy-seven members of the Epworth League. 


l!y the .session of the Central Illinois conference which was held in the First 
.Methodist Episcopal church in i85(j, .Milton L. Haney was appointed to "'Peoria 
Mission." With the Sunday school which had been started in the old Sweden- 
borgian church on Jefferson street, where the ".Annex" to the "Bailie" now stands, 
as a nucleus, Haney started in to form and organize a church. With such object 
in view he proceeded to collect funds, and leased a lot from William E. Robin- 
son, on .Monroe street, near what was then called Eaton street, but now Bryan 
street, and in the summer of 1857 erected thereon a plain frame building. liaving 
secured a building he proceeded to organize the Second Methodist church, with 
a board of trustees composed of Samuel Tart, William Goklsborough, Hugh B. 
-McFall. William Thompson and Xelson Green. The building was quite primitive, 
heated by stoves, and lighted at first by lardoil lamps, which were later super- 
seded b\- camphene bracket lamps, until one of the members, |ohn Lane, a year 
or two later, installed lamps in which it was attempted to i)urn a dark, foul smell- 
ing Huid, which was the first kerosene oil introduced, and so poor was it, that 
frequently the lights would go out and leave the place in darkness. Rev. Daniel 
r.restel and Rev. John Borland occasionally preached in this church. 

This church building was removed in 1864 to a triangular lot at the west 
corner of Perry and Eaton streets which adjoined the ^lasonic cemetery and 
again removed to a site on Jefferson street, on the north corner opposite the 
Greeley school building, b'rom there it was transferred to Madison street, near 
the present site of the Aladison avenue church and is now retained as the annex 
to the newer building. 

Among the well remembered earlier members of this church are Rev. James 
Hitchcock and wife; Chas. McFall, wife and daughter; Mrs. William Hughes; 
Miss Mary Hughes, her daughter, now Mrs. Dr. L. B. ^Martin; Mrs. Dr. J. W. 
Martin ; George C. Babcock and wife and two daughters, one of whom is now 
Mrs. Jennie E. Stouft'er, the very efficient truant officer of the school board ; 
Mrs. Mary E. Phenix and two daughters; Judge George B. Parker and wife; 
Mrs. Mary .Stewardson ; leather and r}iIother Borland, the parents of James and 
Robert liorland and Mrs. Janet .Apple; Joseph (liles, wife and two daughters; 
and a little later Joseph F. Hazzard ; John Schleigh and wife; Joshua S. Onstott ; 
Martha Stewardson ; and Stephen Martin. Nelson Green and his wife, Han- 
nah, and Mother Sturgis. who became a noted army nurse, must not be forgotten. 
Of the early pastors M. L. Haney. who was appointed to the Peoria mission 
by the conference of 1856, was appointed to the Second church in the fall of 
1857, also serving a church in South Limestone at the same time. 

By the conference of 1858, R. N. Morse was appointed to this charge in 
Peoria and was succeeded by George R. Palmer in the fall of 1859. N. C. Lewis 
succeeded George R. l^almer and remained one year. By the conference of 1861 
a young man named T. W. Stewart was assigned to this church, but remained 
but part of the year, when he raised a company and enlisted in the army, and 
Henry Apple was secured to supply the place and reappointed by the conference 
of 1862. He was succeeded by Benjamin .Applebee. It was Rev. .Applebee, who, 
recognizing the folly of continuing to pay rent for the lot on Monroe street 


went energetically to work, raised money and purchased a triangular lot on the 
west corner of I'erry and Eaton streets, had the church building moved onto it 
and put in repair. 

At this time the male membership of the church was greatly decimated by 
enlistments in the army and there were but few left; consequently the question 
of finances for the undertaking was quite problematical ; but the pastor was 
equal to the solving of it. He went out among the business men and solicited 
funds, even going to saloon keepers, to some of whom he said: "Here, you 
fellows are the cause of the necessity of churches to a great extent and it is no 
more than right that you should help pay the expenses; I want some of your 
money for this work," and he usually got it. Our best information is the cost 
was about $i,ooo. Benjamin Applebee died February 22, 1897, aged nearly 
seventy-seven years. Rev. John Chandler, one of the staunch old time ministers 
of the Methodist church, whose home was in Peoria, succeeded Applebee, 
remaining in charge two years. 

The conference of i86b assigned Rev. P. A. Crist to this church and he was 
succeeded in the fall of 1867 by Rev. H. I. Brown, who is now and has for many 
years been a resident of this city. By the conference of 1868, no assignment was 
made to the Perry street church, as it was often called, but Hale Chapel being 
then in the course of construction. Rev. William A. Spencer was appointed to 
Hale Chapel, which was as yet not organized, with instructions to fill the pulpit 
at the Perry street church until the organization of a church at Hale Chapel. This 
he did and when later his work was transferred to Hale, a supply for the Second 
church was found by the presiding elder. 

Henry Apple was again appointed to this church by the conference of 1869. 
He was followed by Rev. W. B. Frazelle, for one year; P. A. Crist again, for 
one year. The latter afterwards removed to Washington City and was con- 
nected with the agriculture and other departments of the government for a 
number of years. H. J\I. Laney followed for one year; then P. A. Cool, who 
remained two years ; then George F. Merideth, who remained three years. iMere- 
dith was a young man, very sensational, and drew very large congregations, but 
lasting results for good, from his pastorate, have not been very apparent. 

In 1878 Frank H. Cumming, a son of the venerable and revered Rev. Joseph 
S. Cumming, was assigned to this church and remained three years. He was 
succeeded by Rev. J. A. Riason, who remained one year and in the fall of 1882 
J. W. Frizelle, the present district superintendent of the Kankakee district, was 
appointed pastor and remained three years. About the time of the pastorate of 
W. B. Frazelle, the church building was moved from the corner af Perry and 
Eaton streets to North Jefferson street and about the time of P. A. Cool's 
pastorate the building was transferred to the present location of the ^Madison 
Avenue church. Captain Wm. A. Hall, became a member of the church, and 
Dr. j. H. Wilkinson took a great interest in it. They were strong financial backers. 

Succeeding Rev. J. W. Frizelle came Alexander Smith in the fall of 1885, 
remaining three years. It was Alexander Smith who took up the work of build- 
ing a new church and amid many discouragements and much adverse criticism 
pushed the project to completion, which resulted in the present building, of which 
the original, constructed under M. L. Haney in 1857, and known as the "church 
on wheels." is a part. Alexander Smith is the present district superintendent 
of Rock Island district. 

Following Alexander Smith came C. W. Ayling in the fall of 1888: then 
Laughlin McLean, one year; then D. S. McCown, two years; A. M. Lumkin in 
1892 for one year. In 1893, C. W. Green supplied the church three months. 
About January i, 1894, Rev. E. R. Fulkerson, a missionary, home on furlough 
from Japan, took charge of the church and remained five months. He was a 
brother of the wife of Rev. J. R. Wolf, then pastor of Hale Chapel, and it was 
through this connection that he came to Peoria. He returned to Japan, in the 
service of the board of foreign missions. 


Wlien E. R. Fulkeison departed, Rev. D. T. Black, a local preacher, a mem- 
ber of Hale Chapel, and a very successful revivalist, took charge for the remain- 
ing four months, till the meeting of the conference of 1894. By that conference. 
Rev. V. Hunter Brink was appointed to Madison avenue, and then reappointed, 
but deciding to remove from the jurisdiction of Central Illinois conference, he 
only served one half of the conference year, and was followed by Rev. W. R. 
Watson, who remained till the conference of 1897, appointed Rev. J. A. Chapman 
to tile charge. Chapman was a tine preacher and very popular and remained 
pastor of Aladison Avenue church five years. After Chapman came Douglas for 
one year; W. J. Leach, two years; Gilbert, two years; J. B. Rutter, one year; 
J. N. Brown, one year, and the present pastor Rev. W. D. Evans, for two years. 

In the early days, during the revival meeting it was not considered out of 
place for the worshippers to shout, if they felt like it, and sometimes quite a 
good many felt like it, and indicated it pretty loudly, so that the rough element 
nicknamed them "The Ranters," but some of this same element became convinced 
of the error of their ways and joined these same "Ranters." So strong were 
the convictions sometimes that persons now living have seen some fall upon tlie 
church floor as in a trance and remain so for a long time. 

The report to the last session of the Central Illinois conference shows this 
church to have a membership of two hundred fifty, with a Sunday school of 
twenty-five officers and teachers and two hundred sixty-six scholars, with an 
F.pworth League of sixty members and with church property valued at $8,000. 


.-\sahel Hale, the founder of Hale Chapel, was born in Vermont, December 
10, 1791. He and his wife, Laura, came to Peoria in 1831. and she being a Meth- 
odist, became a member of the class formed by Zadoc Flail, or Joel Arrington, 
in 1832 or 1833, while he joined the Alethodist Episcopal church in 1840. He 
invested in a large body of land lying along the top of the bluff, practically 
extending from High street to Elizabeth street and from Elizabeth street along 
High street and Xorth street, as they are now, to Chambers avenue. November 
26, 1861, Asahel Ilalc made his will, and with a wisdom and foresight quite sur- 
prisin.g, he provided for the erection of a Methodist Episcopal church, in what 
was destined in coming years to be one of the best parts of the city of Peoria, 
and upon one of the most sightly locations. By his will he left one half of his 
estate for such purposes, and at his death which occurred March 23, 1864, there 
was turned over to the three trustees he had selected, $11,530.54 to carry out 
his wishes in this regard. The trustees whom he had selected were William 
(iiles, Ira E. Benton and Columbus Dunham. And here again I\Ir. Hale dis]ilaved 
his wisdom and sagacity, for three more upright, conscientious and honorable 
men could not have been chosen. This writer was personally acquainted with 
all of them. They were all members of the First Methodist Episcopal church, 
as was also Jesse L. Knowlton, who with Laura Flale, the wife of the testator, 
were executor and e.xecutrix, respectively. 

The moneys left for the church were partly loaned, so that not until the 
winter of 1867-68, did the trustees of the will decide that it was time to proceed 
with the building. They then consulted with Joseph F. Hazzard, junior member 
of the building firm of James Hazzard & Son, and he having spent some time in 
the office of an architect in Brooklyn, New York, as well as being a practical 
builder, they employed him to make plans and draw up specifications for the 
liroposed Iniilding. In doing this he was guided and controlled by the provisions 
of the will ; for Mr. Hale had so thoroughly digested the matter that he had pro- 
vided that the building should be a plain, substantial brick structure, with a 
basement, Sunday school and classrooms, and an audience room above, also 
that the church should be provided with a belfry and bell. All of these direc- 
tions were explicitly carried out and a very neat, substantial and commodious 
building, 40 by 70 feet, erected. 


At that time, Henry Grove, a very eccentric and atheistic lawyer, owned a 
large tract of land directly across Main street and lived there in a one-story 
frame cottage which remained until a few years ago, when it was removed to 
make way for the two very neat brick residences now occupying the site. When 
the drawings for the church were completed it was suggested that, as a matter of 
courtesw they be taken and shown to Henry Grove, which was done. Grove 
looked the tloor plans and elevations over, and then said: "Well, boys, I've always 
been opposed to putting a church on that corner, but I guess it will be a d — 
sight better for old Grove's property than a saloon ; go ahead." 

The contract for the building was let to James Hazzard & Son in May, 1868, 
for $11,500. The corner stone was laid June 22, 1868, and the building was so 
far completed that the first service was held in the basement, November ist of 
that year. 

Some two years previous to the organization of Hale Chapel, D. B. Allen had 
organized a Sunday school in an old shop on Elizabeth street lietween High and 
Main street, which had grown to a membership of about on« hundred twenty- 
five, and this school was at once transferred to the new church. D. B. Allen, 

The building was dedicated January 15, 1869. Rev. R. M. Hatfield, then of 
Chicago, preaching the dedicatory sermon. The church was organized November 
8. 1868. Among the first members were Daniel B. Allen and wife; Isaac Evans 
and wife; Joseph F. Hazzard and wife; Mrs. Mary E. Phenix and Laura E. 
Phenix; Miss .Mary Cooper, afterward Mrs. H. N. Frederick, Mrs. Laura Hale, 
J. G. Sanson! and 'wife; H. M. Behymer and wife, and others, of whom but 
three, Isaac Evans and J. F. Hazzard and wife now remain. 

The first board of trustees consisted of Daniel B. Allen, J. G. Sansom, R. B. 
\an Petten, Joseph F. Hazzard, Isaac Evans, Jonathan Haley, and H. M. Behy- 
mer, members of the church; and as the polity of the Methodist Episcopal church 
allowed the election of a minority of the board from non-members, Henry Grove 
and Augustine Greenwood were so elected. Greenwood shortly after with his 
wife, became a member of the church but Grove, while he would attend the 
official meetings and take part in the business proceedings, would never enter 
the church to attend a religious service, though his wife became a faithful and 
useful member. And withall. Grove was a very useful member of the board of 
trustees, and a liberal contributor to the financial necessities. At the time of 
the dedication, the cost of furnishings, bell, etc., over and above the building 
contract, necessitated the raising of some money. Previous to the commence- 
ment of the services, J. F. Hazzard was on the walk in front of the church, and 
Henry Grove coming across the street said: "See here, young fellow, how much 
money is needed to pay up?" The reply was: "About eighteen hundred dollars." 
Grove said: "Well, you tell them up there, that old Grove thinks he ought to 
pay ten per cent of that." So one hundred eighty dollars was subscribed for 
Grove and he paid it. William Reynolds and wife were also liberal donors. 

The Central Illinois conference' at its session in 1868 appointed as pastor to 
Hale Chapel, William A. Spencer, a man who became very prominent in the 
church, and who would, had he lived, no doubt have been one of the bishops ere 
this. He was Hale Chapel's first pastor, and Hale Chapel was his first charge, 
and he remained three years, the full limit of time then permitted by the rules of 
the church. He became very popular and was greatly in demand for exchanging 
with other pastors of the city. Henry Grove Ijecame fond of him personally, and 
was a liberal contributor to his support, but not through the church treasury. 
Rev. Spencer was married just as he came to take charge of the church, and 
arriving several weeks before the building was far enough along to hold service 
in, he officiated at the Second Methodist Episcopal church, to which no pastor 
had been assigned bv the conference, until Hale Chapel could be occupied. To 
Rev. and Mrs. Spencer a daughter was born while they were at the Hale Chapel, 
and was named Clarissa Hale" Spencer. She is now world's general secretary of 

FouncU'i- of Hale Chapel and doiiDi- i.f (iixf 
lot for First .Aletliodist Episcopal i liiiivli in 

Wife ,.f Asalicd Hale, and nii'inlier of the 
lirst licimancril .lass of (lie Methodist 
Episcojial ( liiiirh ill is:i2. 


Uiidt in ISGS— Rennncd in HlOO — I'ar^nna^c Iniill in 1S72 


the Young Woman's Christian Association, with heack|uarters in London, Eng- 
land. She served a number of years as a missionary in Japan. 

Rev. WilHam A. Spencer's term of service ended in the fall of 1871. He 
afterwards transferred to the Rock River conference, served several churches 
in Chicago and became presiding elder of one of the districts of that conference. 
He finally removed to Philadelphia and became general secretary of the Church 
Extension Society, which position he held at the time of his death. He was a 
tine singer and loved to sing, "The Ninety and Nine" and "Help a Little," playing 
iiis own accompaniment. The latter hymn was his own composition. 

By the conference of 1871, Rev. W. C. Knapp was appointed to Hale Chapel, 
which, under the administrations of William A. Spencer, had become accounted 
as one of the best appointments in the conference. 

Quite a large number of ]:)eople had come into the church, including Patrick 
Galbraith and family, A. J. White and wife. H. M. Summers, D. C. Holcomb and 
wife, Mrs. Jane Craig and her daughter, now Mrs. Eliza S. Bennett, and very 
many more, so that the church was in a prosperous condition. About the time 
the church was being completed, a bell having been purchased, many people 
living in that part of the city began to ask for a city clock in the belfry of Hale 
Chapel, and Daniel B. Allen. Patrick Galbraith and possibly another one or two 
soon raised the money and purchased and installed a Howard tower clock costing 
about $600, which was a landmark and convenience as long as the old building 
remained. It was during Knapp's pastorate that the parsonage was built. 

Henry Lirove still remained on the board of trustees, and at one of the 
meetings he said, "Mr. Hale's will, which I drew up, provided that if the church 
should want the triangular lot on the south side of the church, you should have 
it for four hundred dollars. Better take it ; I will pay one hundred dollars on 
it." So the lot was purchased, and Rev. Knapp raised the means to build a six 
room house, which was done w'hile he was pastor. Later another pastor came 
with more of a family and D. C. Holcoinb added another room by raising the 
south wing. Still later other additions were made until it became a nine room 
house. Rev. Knapp remained as pastor three years. Lie is still living and 
resides at Xornial, Illinois. 

Rev. C. C. Knowlton was assigned to Hale Chapel in 1874 and served two 
years. He was followed by C. W. Ayling. two years. R. G. Pearce, one year. 
His health failing he was compelled to take a superannuate relation, and has 
been for a number of years custom officer at Rock Island, Illinois. William 
McPheeters succeeded R. G. Pearce and remained one year. 

James Haney, son of the veteran Richard Haney was appointed in 1880 and 
he was succeeded in the fall of 1881 by Rev. C. O. McCulloch, who was pastor 
two years. Rev. W. I"". Wilson came next and was well liked by the church 
people. Rev. M. A. Head w'as appointed in 1885 and served two years. 

h'or several years, a (|uartette, consisting of Walter L. Cleveland, Mary 
Cleveland, his sister, William J. Steube and Emma Steube, his sister, had charge 
of the singing, .-\bout three years later, Walter Cleveland and W. J. Steube and 
wife, who had been Mary Cleveland, removed to Los Angeles, California. Mrs. 
Steube died there, and \\'alter L. Cleveland is a very prominent and influential 
member of Boyle Heights Methodist Episcopal church, Los Angeles. 

Rev. TuUis succeeded Rev. Head and he and his wife were very popular, 
especially witli the young people, a great many of the latter becoming members 
of the church during his pastorate, which lasted four years. 

John R. Wolf succeeded A. K. Tullis, and served four years and was followed 
by Rev. D. N. Stafford. About a year and a half later, Stafford went to New 
Jersey and Rev. J. H. Batten from that conference took his place. He remained 
until the fall of 1899. He has since gained quite a reputation in the northwest 
on the lecture platform. His home now is in Grand Forks, North Dakota. His 
successor was Rev. A. Wirt Lowther, who at once took steps toward the pro- 
curement of a new church building. It was found that the lot to the south of 


the church, wliicli had been purchased and used for parsonage purposes, could 
be sold and that sufficient room for the residence building could be found on the 
church lot, west of the church building. Consequently, the old parsonage was 
moved, and entirely remodelled and the lot disposed of to Dr. J. C. Roberts. 
The remodeling of the house cost about $1,900. In the meantime a building 
committee was selected which proceeded to secure plans for a new church build- 
ing. The contract for the erection of the same was let to Harrison Johns, of 
Ohio, in the spring of 1900, and gave satisfaction to all. The farewell service in 
the old chapel was held April i, 1900, attended by several former pastors and 
many former members of the church. 


The contractor for the erection of the new building purchased the. old one, 
and at once commenced to wreck it. This accomplished, he immediately pro- 
ceeded with the erection of the new church building. The corner stone was 
laid September 20, 1900, by Bishop Ninde, assisted by Bishop Hartzell and Rev. 
W. A. Spencer. Mr. Johns had the building ready for the decorative work 
early in the spring of 1901. The decorating (art glass work, painting and fres- 
coing) was done by U. C. Grooms, then a member of the church. The building 
was completed and dedicated June 13, 1901, Bishop Charles H. Fowler preach- 
ing the dedicatory sermon, J. \V. Powell, of Buffalo, New York, had charge of 
the finances. The amount subscribed at that time was something over $11,000. 
The total cost of church and furnishings was about $43,000. 

The pastors who have served Hale Memorial church are : A. Wirt Lowther, 
till the fall of 1903: Rev. A. M. Stocking, fall of 1903 to the fall of 1906; then 
Rev. W. B. Shoop for three years. Up until the time of Rev. Shoop's pastor.^te 
the only organ in the church was a reed organ, and in the Sunday school a piano, 
the gift of Mark D. Bachelder, was in use. In the second year of Rev. Shoop's 
pastorate he got into correspondence with the secretary of Andrew Carnegie, 
which resulted in the placing in the church of the very sweet-toned organ now in 
use, Mr. Carnegie paying one-half the net cost of the instrument, while the 
church membership paid the other half and also for the necessary changes in the 
organ loft and rostrum. The cost of the instrument was about $1,875 ^"d the 
total cost about $2,200. 

The present pastor, Rev. Sanford P. Archer was assigned to the church by 
the conference of 1909. 

It was the privilege of Hale Memorial church to entertain the fifty-sixth 
session of the Central Illinois conference held September 6 to 11, 1911. The 
program and entertainment were pronounced as never excelled in the history of 
the conference. 

The body of Asahel Hale, the founder of Hale chapel and for whom Hale 
church is a memorial, lies buried in a little cemetery in Kickapoo township, just 
above Pottstown, where he and his brother had donated land and built a little 
church, when they, with George G. Greenwood, operated a mill there, which is 
still remembered as Hale's Mill. 


In the summer of 1870 Jesse L. Knowlton, a merchant, whose place of busi- 
ness was near the corner of Water and Liberty streets, opposite where the 
Chicago, Rock Island and Peoria station now stands, a member of the First 
Methodist Episcopal church, recognizing the need for a Protestant Sunday school 
in the then extreme lower end of the city, purchased two lots, numbers 11 and 
12, in block 18 of Curtenius & Griswold's subdivision, and at once erected 
thereon a small building. 

The Rev. Joseph S. Gumming was appointed by the session of the Central 

First l':is|()i- 1,1 Ihili' ( li:i|icl. Mctlioilist lOpisnijial Clnin-li. I'cciriii, in IsiiS-im-TI) 


Illinois conference, in the fall of 1870, to the pastorate of the First Methodist 
Episcopal church. On the 4th day of December of that year he, accompanied 
by a number of members of the First church and some Presbyterians, among 
whom was the late William Reynolds, went to Knowlton's little church, which 
he had called Wesley Mission, and dedicated it. The next Sunday a school was 
organized with Jesse L. Knowlton as superintendent. Rev. Gumming attended 
at three o'clock Sabbath afternoons and often preached. In 1871 he held meet- 
ings every evening for three weeks, having about twenty-five conversions. With 
these and about ten members of the First church, a society was organized which 
.was the origin of \\'esley church. 

The building erected by Knowlton was a low, L-shape building, built with 
the idea of accommodating a mission Sunday school. July 24, 1878, the lots 
were deeded to the First Methodist Episcopal church by M. Griswold. ' In 1883 
Rev. George J. Luckey, then presiding elder of the Peoria district, secured John 
W. Dieffendorf, a local preacher, then living on a farm, to come to Peoria and 
undertake the task of raising the means and building a more commodious church 

DietYendorf made a success of the church enterprise and was in charge 
a little less than three years. Succeeding Dieffendorf, the following pastors 
have served this church: David Tasker, two years; W. P. Ferguson, one year; 
W. W. Carr, two years; James Johnson, about one and a half years; and G. 
M. Webber, six months as a supply. In the fall of 1893 David B. Johnson was 
assigned to this church and remained three years. He was succeeded by the 
late Rev. J. P.. Dille for about one year; and then came G. M. Boswell, who re- 
mained two years; Rev. E. H. Alford followed and served three years; A. C. 
Kelly, one year; Alfred Dixon, three years. Rev. R. li. Figgins two years; 
Charles Fitzhenry as a supply less than a year; Henry T. Shook two months. 
Commencing September, 1909, Isaac Woodrow, two years and he was succeeded 
by the present pastor, F. E. Ball, who also serves the Mossville church. 

The report of the conference of 191 1 showed that these churches were quite 
prosperous. Membership, including thirteen probationers, two hundred sixty- 
five ; Sunday school officers and teachers, twenty-five ; scholars, three hundred 
fifty-nine; an Epworth League of fifty-six members and a Junior League of 
forty-three. Two churches were reported valued at $9,200 and one parsonage 
valued at $1,600, which belongs to the congregation of Wesley church. 


In 1896 some of the members of the Hale Memorial church who lived in 
what is now the extreme northwest corner of the city near the corner of Uni- 
versity street and Knoxville road, believing that a Methodist church could be 
maintained in that neighborhood, being joined by a few from the First Methodist 
E])iscopal church, on the evening of the nth of December of that year, formed an 
organization by electing as trustees, Henry Apple, J. E. Sherwood, James Flan- 
agan, W. E. Hack and Mr. Miller, and as stewards Sisters Sherwood, Hack, 
Apple, Flanagan, Peters, Neff and Mable Nelson, and J. E. Sherwood as super- 
intendent of the Sunday school. Rev. W. F. Merrill was presiding elder and 
lie secured J. F. Bliss to act as pastor. 

At the present time O. T. Dwinel! is district superintendent and Rev. Black- 
man, pastor. This church reported to the conference of 191 1: Membershi]i. 
sixty-nine ; Sunday school, teachers and officers, sixteen ; scholars, one hundred 
sixty-three ; church property, $3,000. 

The church is now prosperous, with everything paid up to date and money 
in the treasury and its members are contemplating improvements in the way of 
a basement and an extension of the wing to better accommodate their increasing 
Sunday school. 



On August 19, 1843, Daniel Brestel resigned his membership on the official 
l)oard of the First RIcthodist Episcopal church to accept the appointment as 
preacher to the German people, principally in Tazewell county, a German mission 
having been formed. The assignment was probably made by the conference 
of 1843, the session of which was then at hand. He probably preached the first 
sermons in the German language in Peoria and Tazewell counties. 

In September, 185 1, several German Methodist families moving from Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, to Peoria, resulted in the establishment of a German Methodist 
Fpiscopal church here, H. F. Koeneke being pastor. Especially active in this 
direction were the Oechsle, Venneman and lluehner families, all of whom the 
present writer remembers well. The initial meetings were lield in a schoolhouse 
on the west side of Monson street, just south of Fifth (the Hinman schoolhouse, 
where Bob Burdette was a scholar). A German Methodist Episcopal Sunday 
school was organized here, and as a result of this, and preaching services, Casper 
Westemeyer, Herman Albrecht, H. Ludwig and others were brought under the 
influence of the gospel, and became pillars in the church. After little more than 
two years of successful laljor the first church building was erected at the corner 
of Fifth and Monson streets, which was completed in 1854, Frederich Fiegen- 
baum and F. M. Winkler being each a part of the time pastor. The dedicatory 
sermon was delivered by Rev. G. L. Mulfinger. The site is now occupied by 
the African Methodist Episcopal church. Several years later, during the pas- 
torate of William Zuppan, this first church was sold and the congregation leased, 
temporarily, the Cumberland Presbyterian church building, located at the east 
corner of Madison and Liberty streets. Here the centennial jubilee of ]\Iethodism 
was celebrated in 1866. A short time later the congregation purchased a lot 
at the corner of South Adams and Chestnut streets for $3,500, and erected 
thereon a two-story frame church building, at a cost of- $7,000, under the pastor- 
ate of Rev. C. Schneider. This building is still standing, being used at present 
by the Salvation Army, and formerly by a German singing society. A stirring 
revival took place in this church, during the pastorate of Rev. M. Roeder. Under 
Rev. Chas. Becker a mission chapel was built on the triangular plot at the head 
of Cedar street near the Webster school, where Sunday school and preaching 
were held for a tuimber of years ; the property then being sold, and the proceeds 
applied on a new Mission church on the corner of Sanger street and Oakland 
avenue, wdiere is now an active congregation. The old mission church at the 
head of Cedar street was transformed into a dwelling which still stands in the 
same location. 

During the pastorate of Rev. W. H. Traeger, another notable revival oc- 
curred in the Chestnut street church. A frame parsonage, fronting on Adams 
street, and costing $1,700, was erected on the church property during his term 
of service. The congregation having outgrown the capacity of this building, 
plans were made for obtaining larger quarters m a more suitable location and, 
in the following pastorate of Rev. E. E. Hertzler, the property corner of Fifth 
and Sanford streets was purchased and the present church edifice erected, repre- 
senting an outlay of $20,000. Previous to this mission, .Sunday schools were 
conducted for a time, one in the north end of the city by Herman Albrecht, and 
another in the lower end, on Garden street, l)y Brethren George E. Green and 
Jacob Hoffmann. 

During the pastorate of Rev. C. A. C. Achard, a sweeping revival took place, 
conducted by Evangelist Flilmer. 

In May, 1903, the fiftieth anniversary of the church was celebrated with an 
apjiropriate series of meetings, concluding with the dual celebration of the two- 
hunrlrcdth anniversary of the birth of John Wesley and the semi-centennial 
of the foumling of the congregation, by a union service in the I-'irst 'Methodist 
Episcopal church, corner Sixth and Franklin streets, on Sunday evening. May 


10. 1903, which was addressed (in English) by Dr. George R. Addicks (now 
deceased), then president of Central Wesleyan College, VVarrenton, Alissouri, 
his theme lieing "John Wesley and his times." 

The following pastors have served this church : 

Henry F. Koeneke, 1851 to 1852; Christian Koeller, 1852 to 1853; Friederich 
Fiegenbaum, 1853 ^'^ i'^54; F- ^I- Winkler, 1854 to 1855; R. Fickenscher, asst., 
1855 to 1856: Christian Holl. 1856 to 1857; H. F. Koeneke, 1857 to 1858; John 
Haas, 185S to 1859; Jacob Young, 1839 to 1861 ; A. F. Korfhage. 1861 to 1862; 
Chas. Holtkanip, 1862 to 1865; Wilhelm Zuppan, 1865 to 1866; Karl Schneider, 
1866 to i8fi8; Heinrick Thomas, 1868 to 1871 ; Fleinrick Lahrmann, 1871 to 1872; 
Tulius Franz. 1872 to 1874; Gerhard Tinken, 1874 to 1877; Michael Roeder, 
"1877 to 1880; Phillipp Kuhl. 1880 to 1881; Chas. G. Becker, 1881 to 1884; 
William H. Traeger. 1884 to 1887 ; E. E. Hertzler, 1887 to 1891 ; C. A. C. Achard. 
1891 to 1894: Wilhelm Balcke, 1894 to 1897; J. L. J. Earth, 1897 to 1900 ; William 
H. Schwiering, 1900 to 1904; E. C. Margaret, 1904 to 1909; William H. Schwier- 
ing, 1909 to 1910: E. H. Muelder, 1910 and the present pastor. 

Church membership about one hundred sixty; Sundav school, fifteen officers 
and teachers, and one hundred twenty scholars. This church owns a parsonage 
property adjoining the church, valued at about $4,000. 

The German churches are not connected with the Central Illinois conference, 
but are under the jurisdiction of the St. Louis conference of the German Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. 

The mission church heretofore referred to at the corner of Sanger street 
and Oakland avenue is known as the Sanger Street German Methodist Episcopal 
church. The organization dates from February 3, 1889. The church edifice is 
a very neat, tasty, little building and there also is a very comfortable parsonage 
on the same lot, tiie whole being worth, probably $8,000 to $10,000. 

The pastors have been : G. Schuch, C. W. Hertzler, L. Hermann Kosiski, G. 
L. Zocher, Karl Buch and II. Schlueter, the present pastor. This pastor also 
serves a mission church in Jubilee. 


Thus church was organized in the year 1846 by Rev. Philip Ward, of Bloom- 
ington, with ten memiiers. William Gray (commonly known as "Uncle Billy''), 
was local preacher, class leader, steward and a great deal of the time janitor, all 
in one. "Uncle Billy" was a good man, and quite a gentleman. He was also 
very industrious. At first these people, like others of their day, held their 
meetings in the homes of the members and friends ; then they rented a small 
schoolhouse on Walnut street below Adams, where their meetings were held 
until 1848, when they transferred to the schoolhouse on Monson street between 
Fourth and Fifth streets, known as the Hinman school. This school was on the 
site now occupied by the Heneberry Apartment building. 

In 1850 they were compelled to find new ciuarters. and for some time again 
held their meetings at the homes of their members. About this time a circuit 
was organized, composed of the churches of Peoria, I'llooniingtonand Galesburg, 
with Rev. William Brooks as pastor, William Gray still being local preacher and 
class leader. 

In 1853, Rev. William J. Davis was appointed to this charge and proved to be 
quite an energetic and acceptable pastor : a small frame church on Chestnut 
street, above .\dams, was bought, and answered their purposes until i8(56, when 
they purchased the little brick, at the corner of l-'ifth and .Monson streets, from 
the German Methodists. 

In the early days of their e.xistence, it sometiiues happened that these people 
could not at all times secure the services of a preacher of their own people, 
and under such circumstances, Daniel Brestel, the carpenter-preacher of the 
First Methodist Episcopal church, would fretiuently preach to them. 


This congregation purchased the Httle brick church on Fifth and Monson 
streets for $2,600. In 1889 the old building was torn down and a more modern 
and commodious building erected. The building is still in use by them. The 
following pastors have served them. In 1856, Rev. A. T. Hall; 1857, Rev. J. 
Mitcheni; 1858. Rev. William J. Done; Rev. Mitchem reappointed for 1859. 
In 1866, when the little church was purchased from the German ^lethodists Rev. 
Alyers was pastor. The following are without dates: A. T. Hall, Nathan Mitchem, 
T. I'erkins, James Semis, 1. M. Perkins, H. Brown, M. M. Becklev, George H. 
Hand, A. W. White, J. W. Daneson, Henry Simmons, T. A. Clark, A. J. Mc- 
Cracken, Jesse Woods, B. M. Lewis, J. W. Wilkerson, Charles Sheen, S. J. 
Johnson, S. A. Hardison and H. W. Jamieson the immediate predecessor of the 
present pastor Rev. J. T. Morrow. 

Number of members, one hundred thirty-four. Sunday school officers, seven; 
teachers seven and scholars one hundred twelve. 


In the fall of 1880, William A. Huston and his wife Mary, members of the 
Free Methodist church of Paxton, Illinois, removed to Peoria, at which time 
there was no organization of that church here, and they were the only members. 
They commenced holding neighborhood prayer meetings in the home of the 
people and seeing good results, and securing a number of conversions, they 
were encouraged to send for Rev. William Manley, chairman of the Galva dis- 
trict of the Illinois conference of their church, who came in the month of 
December, 1881, and held a ten days' revival meeting, which resulted in the 
organization of the Peoria society in the building known as the Olivet Mission, 
on Walnut street, between Washington and Adams street, which had formerly 
been Calvary Presbyterian mission, and at which place the late William Reynolds 
had for many years conducted a Sunday school. The society was organized 
December 29, 1881, with the following six charter members: \Vm. A. Huston, 
Mary E. Huston, Jonathan Haley, Belle Orr, Eliza Ward and Cynthia ^Morris. 

In 1882, Revs. W. G. Hanmer, William Kelsey and P. C. Hanna, held a 
series of revival meetings in the Mission building on Walnut street, which re- 
sulted in an addition of fifty members. William A. Huston was the first class 
leader, and has served continuously in that capacity to the present date, — a period 
of more than thirty years. 

Rev. Manle}', who organized the church, has passed away. William Kelsey 
is now pastor of the Englewood Episcopal -Methodist church, Chicago, and P. C. 
Hanna is the United States minister plenipotentiary to the Republic of Mexico. 

The organization of the Free Methodist church is very similar to the organiza- 
tion of the Methodist Episcopal church, including the itineracy; consequently, 
pastoral changes are frecjuent. 

The following pastors have served this church: Rev. J. D. ]\Iarsh, 1882-84; 
G. W. Whittington, 1884-85; F. A. Arnold, 1885-86; Jaiiies Sprague, 1886-87; 
]. T. Taylor and John Harvev, 1887-89; J. D. Marsh, 1889-92; D. M. Smahey, 
'1892-93; J. T. Taylor, 1893-95; B. D. Fay, 1895-98; W. H. Winter and Lizzie 
Haist, 1898-1901; Henry Lenz, 1901-03; W. C. Willing, 1903-06; John Harvey, 
1906-07; W. J. Bone, 1907-08; R. G. Wilkin, 1908-10; H. J. IMcKinnell, present 
pastor since 1910. 

The society worshiped in the Ijuilding on ^\'alnut street ten years. The 
church building on the corner of South Underbill and Windom streets. West 
Bluff, was built during the second pastorate of Rev. J. D. Marsh and was dedi- 
cated by General Superintendent (Bishop) B. T. Robberts, December 6, 1891. 
The parsonage on Windom street was built during the pastorate of Rev. B. D. 
Fay in 1897. The society has a mission church at the corner of Broadway and 
Nebraska streets, built by members of the parent society. A district parsonage 
has recently been built on Underbill street, under the charge of District Elder 


E. G. Cryer. The number of members at the present time, February, 1912, is 
forty-six. The Sabbath school at Underhill and Windom streets numbers thirty, 
while the school at Broadway and Nebraska streets numbers eighty. This so- 
ciety is also conducting a Sabbath school at 2021 South Washington street, 
which has a membership of forty. 

They have an active Women's Foreign Missionary society, which raised and 
paid for foreign missions last year $156. 


Some of the records of this church having been destroyed it is not possible 
to ascertain to a certainty the earliest date at which Methodist ministers preached 
at Chillicothe. but September 29, i85i,John Chandler was appointed presiding 
elder and R. H. JMoffitt pastor of the circuit to which Chillicothe was attached 
and it is said there was then quite a flourishing class, and that the church organ- 
ization was formed about 1850 with about twenty members. .Services were at 
first held in a schoolhouse. In 1852 the congregation purchased a lot on the 
corner of Beech and l-'ourth streets upon which a parsonage was at once erected. 
Later they erected a church, which was dedicated December 28, 1856, Rev. 
Milton L. Haney preaching the dedicatory sermon. The parsonage continued 
to be used in its original form until 1892, when it was remodeled. The first 
church building continued in use until 1898, when during the pastorate of Rev. 
D. B. [ohnson, the ])resent church was built on the corner of Chestnut and Sixth 
streets, at a cost of about $8,000 and at the time of building, was the largest 
and finest church in the cit)'. 

While it is uncertain as to just when the earliest services were held, and 
consequently the names of pastors prior to September, 1851, cannot be ascer- 
tained, since that time the following have served in that capacity : R. H. Moffitt, 
William Atchison, I. B. Craig, James Cowden, A. J. Jones, J. S. Millsap, D. S. 
Main, S. L. Hamilton. Benjamin Applebee, J. A. Windsor, J. C. Price, W. B. 
Frazelle, M. H. Shepherd. G. I. Bailev, T. H. Sanders, H. I. Brown, J- A. 
Windsor, Thos. Chipperfield, E. N. Bentley, G. M. Webber, R. W. Ames, Wm. 
Crapp, A. R. Jones, A. M. Limikin, O. AI. Dunlevy, B. E. Kaufman, D. B. 
Johnson. T. A. Beal. John Rogers, B. F. Eckly and the present pastor W. D. 
Benjamin, who is now, January, 1912, serving his second year. 

The church is in a prosperous condition, the number of members reported 
to the conference of 191 1 being one hundred eighty-five; Sunday school officers 
and teachers si.xteen and scholars, two hundred seventy-eight, with an Epworth 
League of fifty members, and a Junior League of fifty members. 

In connection with the Chillicothe church and served by the same pastor is the 


This is probably the most peculiar church in the Central Illinois conference. 
To the conference session of 191 1, it was reported as having eight members 
with a Sunday school consisting of ten officers and teachers and forty scholars. 
Nevertheless, it is an old organization which has been maintained for more than 
seventy years. In 1841, a schoolhouse was built in the north part of Hallock 
township, a short distance southeast of Lawn Ridge, and a revival service was 
held in it, which resulted in forming a Methodist class, and Blue Ridge has been 
an appointment in the conference ever since. 

On April 14, 1849, John Ferguson. Isaiah Nurse, Jacob Booth, George Nurse 
and William R. W'ill were elected trustees and empowered to secure funds and 
build a church. They secured in cash and labor $787.80 and the church was 
enclosed and used for worship, but was not completed and dedicated until 1856, 
when it was dedicated by John Chandler, P. E. This structure served the people 
more than forty years when on February 22, 1898, a farewell service was held 


and the time worn and weather beaten old building was torn down. A new 
structure was built by the combined energy of Rev. D. C. Martin and the loyal 
people and was dedicated September 4th, 1898, by F. W. Merrill, P. E., now of 
the Rock River conference. John Chandler was the first preacher and W. D. 
Benjamin the present pastor. 

In the summer of 1856, a church was built on the land of David Shane, Sr., 
about three miles south of Lawn Ridge, and was dedicated under the name of 
Mount Hedding Methodist Episcopal church, by Rev. Henry Summers. The 
principal movers in this project were, David Shane, Sr., Isaac Weidman, and 
John Ferguson. Some years later it was decided to move the building to Lawn 
Ridge, which was done in the spring of 187 1, and it was re-dedicated July 226 
of that year, and was afterward known as the Lawn Ridge Methodist church. 
For some reason this church seems to have ceased to exist, as no mention is now 
made of it in the conference minutes. 


This church is in Hallock township at the village of Northampton a few 
miles west of north from the city of Chillicothe. A Methodist class was organ- 
ized here in 1851 and services held in a schoolhouse until 1871, when a church 
was built. The circuit relations of the church were changed quite often and no 
records are available. 

Services are not now held in the church building, which is controlled bv the 
trustees of Chillicothe church, and the people probably worship with the mem- 
bers of that church. 



hrom the days of the early '30s Princeville had the preaching of the circuit 
riders. In those days, known as Prince's Grove, it was on the Peoria circuit, 
which extended to Lafayette, Princeton, and near to La Salle and back to Peoria. 

Stephen R. Beggs states that the first preaching service was in 1833 by T. 
Hall. However, there must be an error in the name and it must have been 
Zadoc Hall who was on the Peoria circuit at that time. However there was no 
class formed at that time. 

On the 2d of April, 1838, Rev. John Hill came from the state of New York 
to Illinois and arrived at Princeville. At the time of his arrival he found but one 
Methodist sister in the neighborhood. He found here a great opening for minis- 
terial work and commenced work in good earnest and preaching in the neigh- 
borhood, he soon formed a class of nine persons. 

In 184 1, William Pitner was appointed to Peoria circuit and held a camp 
meeting at Princeville. At the first the circuit riders preached in Aunt Jane 
Morrow's fine log cabin, on the northwest quarter of section 30, of Akron town- 
ship ; then in the old log schoolhouse ; then in the stone schoolhouse. In March, 
1842, at a two days' meeting in the house of Ebenezer Russell, a boy a little less 
than ten years old was converted. That boy matured into the grand old minister 
Joseph S. Cumming, now, January, 1912, pastor of the Second Methodist Epis- 
copal church, Moline, Illinois, at the age of about eighty-one. 

The first Methodist church building was commenced in 1853 and completed 
the following year on lots i and 2 block 16 and was later sold to the Seventh. 
Day Adventists. The next church was built in 1867 on lots 7 and 8, block 24 
(Edward Anten's Academy building) and used until the erection of the edifice 
corner of South and Clark streets in 1889. 

The preachers, many of whom were circuit riders, have been Z. Hall, J. Hill, 
Pitner, Whitman, William C. Cumming, Beggs, Chandler, B. C. Swartz, T. F. 
Royal, J. W. Stogdill, John Luccock, U. J. Giddings, J. B. Craig, H. N. Gregg, 


C. B. Couch, P. T. Rhodes, J. B. Alills, J. S. Millsap, Ahab Keller, W. J. Beck, 
G. \V. Brown, S. B. Smith, John Cavett, M. Spurlock, G. W. Havermale, E. 
W'asniuth. ]. Collins, W. B. Carithers, W. D. H. Young, Stephen Brink, J. S. 
Millsap, M. v. B. White, H. M. Laney, F. W. Merrill, Alexander Smith, R. 
B. Seaman, J. U. Smith, J. E. Conner, J. Rogers, R. L. Vivian, L. F. Cullom, 
X. J. Brown, T. A. Beal and the present pastor J. W. Pruen. Princeville was 
made a station in 1889. 

The membership of the church September ist, 191 1, was two hundred eleven; 
of Sunday school, eighteen officers and teachers, and one hundred thirty-five 
scholars ; Epworth League, thirty. 



On November ist, 1836, Rev. Zadoc Hall organized the first Methodist class 
in the village of Brimfield. The members of the first class were: L. L. Guyer, 
who remained a member of the church continuously until his death a few years 
ago, Isaac Harrison, Francis J. Hoyt, Ephraim Hoyt, Benjamin F. Berry and 
Polly W. Berry, Sarah Harrison, David Stansberry, Susanah Stansberry and 
Susan Stansberry, Martha Johnston, Margaret Johnston, Catherine Johnston, 
Jacob Snider, Catherine Snider, Samuel Snider, Eliza Martin and Susan Wills. 
Samuel Snider was chosen class leader. 

At this time the circuit was called Kickapoo Mission with twenty-eight 
preaching points, and emjjracing the entire northern part of the state rei|uirnig 
three hundred miles' travel to get over it, which traveling was usually done on 
horseback. In consequence. Rev. Hall reached this place once in four weeks. 

In the year 1848, a new church building was commenced and the corner 
stone was laid in August of that year, the Rev. A. E. Phelps ofiiciating. The 
following year the building was completed and paid for. This building was of 
brick, 28 by 44 feet in size, well finished and seated, being a very great improve- 
ment over the log cabins and barns which had previously served the people as 
places of worship. 

In the year 1876 an addition of brick was built, new jjews and furniture pro- 
cured, and the church carpeted, at an outlay of about $2,200. Thus improved 
and enlarged, the building satisfied the needs of the church until the year 1910, 
when it was torn down and a new and modern church edifice erected, with mod- 
ern conveniences, and carpeted throughout, at a cost of $7,000. Within the 
year ending .September, 191 1, $1,417 had been expended in betterments and im- 
provements, so that with the lot the church property was valued at $10,500, while 
the congregation also own a parsonage valued at $3,500. 

Owing to the loss of certain records, it is not possible to give fully and cor- 
rectly the succession of preachers, but commencing with the fall of 1857 the fol- 
lowing is practically correct, the dates ijeing from conference session to con- 
ference session. 

J. S. Millsap, 1857-58; John Luccock, 1859-61 ; S. G. J. Worthington, 1862-65; 
Peter Warner. 1865-68; A. Bower, 1868-70; 1870-74, no record; Rev. F. Smith, 
1874-77; William E. Stevens, 1877-78; T. J. Wood, 1878-79; W. K. Collins, 
1879-81; Stephen Brink, 1881-83; lames Ferguson, 1883-86; G. W. Arnold, 
1886-88; D. S. McCown, 1888-90; W. J. Minium, 1890-92; C. L. Davenport, 
1893-95; W. H. Clark, part of 1895; John W. Denning, 1895-98; J. E. Mercer, 
1898-1903; G. F. Snedaker, 1903-05; M. P. Lackland. 1905-09; R. W. Ames, 
190Q-10; and E. J. Sellard, present pastor from 1910. 

This church was made a separate station at the session of the Central Illinois 
conference held in Peoria. September, 191 1. 

Membership, two hundred ; Sunday school officers and teachers, twenty-eight ; 
scholars, two hundred twenty-four ; members of Epworth League, seventy-four. 




Like almost every other Methodist church, in early days, this church began 
with a class, organized some time prior to the year 1850, in the home of Absalom 
Kent, who then lived a short distance to the southwest of the present location of 
Elmwood near a grove known as Harkness' Grove. In this vicinity most of the 
early comers had settled and here were located the homes, and probably a shop 
and store. 

Of the first members of the first Methodist class, there is record of Absalom 
Kent and wife, Abner Smith and wife, Eliza Smith, David Morey and wife, 
John Jordan and wife, and Rufus Kent and wife. This preaching point seems 
to have been at first designated as Kent, and was connected with the Canton 
circuit. Later it was in the Farmington circuit. At first, the people here, as 
elsewhere, worshiped in private homes; afterwards in an upper room over Mr. 
Snyder's store. David Morey was the first class leader. 

In September, 1854, such an adjustment was made of circuits as to form the 
Elmwood circuit, with Jervis G. Evans assigned as preacher in charge, the 
preaching place having been removed, the previous spring to the village of Elm- 
wood, then consisting of but few houses. The circuit at that time had the fol- 
lowing points, or preaching places: Elmwood, Gould's about where Yates City 
now is, Remington's school house, near ]\Iaquon, the Stone house, near Spoon 
river, north of Elmwood and French creek. Rev. Jervis G. Evans was later, for 
some years, president of Redding College. 

In the spring of 1855 the congregation began the erection of a church building 
on Silock street which was completed and dedicated in the fall of the same year 
by Rev. Silas Bolles, of Chicago, who had recently been for two years, pastor 
of the First church in Peoria. 

This first church building served the people until 1893 when a new building 
was erected on Main street at a cost of $10,000. 

The first distinctively Methodist Sunday school ' was organized in the first 
church building shortly after its erection, with Francis Minor as its first super- 

The pastors who served Elmwood circuit were: J. G. Evans, 1854; A. Magee, 
1856; A. Magee and George R. Palmer, 1857; Milton L. Haney and J. W. Stewart, 
1858; M. L. Haney and P. Spurlock, i860; B. C. Swartz and George \V. Gue, 
1861 ; A. Magee and C. B. Couch, 1862; William Watson, 1863. In 1865 Yates 
City was joined with Elmwood with J. H. Sanders as pastor. Martin D. Heckard 
was appointed in 1866; T. C. Workman, 1868; T. E. Webb, 1869; W. B. Frazelle, 
1871, T. S. Falkner, 1873; Tames Ferguson, 1876; L T. McFarland, 1879; R. B. 
Williams, 1880; E. P. Hall", 1882; R. R. Pierce, 1883; W. B. Alexander, 1884; 
J. W. Denning, 1885; H. K. Metcalf, 1888; O. T. Dwinell, 1893; M. A. Head, 
1898; J. A. Riason, 1899; J. S. Gumming, 1900; N. J. Brown, 1903; J. B. Bartle, 
1906, and A. E. loder the present pastor in 1910. This church has been served 
by some of the best preachers in the conference. 

Rev. J. B. Dille, for many years an honored member of Central Illinois con- 
ference, passed away at his home in Elmwood, November 30, 191 1. 

Rev. H. K. Metcalf was pastor when the church was built and under the 
pastorate of O. T. Dwinell the following year a new parsonage was built. 

Membership total, one hundred ninety-six ; Sunday school officers and teach- 
ers, twenty-one ; and scholars, two hundred forty-nine ; Epworth League, forty ; 
Junior League, fifty members. 




The Trivoli work is known as Trivoli circuit, Wrigley Chapel and Graham 
Chapel, both in Rosetield township being connected with the Trivoli church and 
served by the same pastor. 

In 1838, in a newly built schoolhouse, a Methodist class was organized. The 
first church was built in 185 1. The first pastor was a Rev. Mr. Emery. The 
pastors of which there is any record, following the first were Revs. Smith, 
Milton L. Haney, Richard Haney in i860, H. I. Brown in 1863. Rev. R. H. 
Figgins is the present pastor. 

The membership on the circuit is given as one hundred sixty-one; Sunday 
school officers and teachers, forty; and scholars, one hundred fifty; with one 
Epworth League with forty-two members. There are three churches and one 
parsonage. A new church was Iniilt in Trivoli in 1910, at a cost of $io,ocx). 

There is another Methodist Episcopal church in Trivoli township located on 
the northeast quarter of section 30. It is known as the Concord church, and is 
on a circuit with two churches in Fulton county. It has a small membership, 
and maintains a Sunday school. The circuit is at present served by Ernest 
Shult as a supply. ' • 


was organized in 1854 with a membership of ten. Joseph Dunn was class leader. 
Robert Wrigley and Henry Robins were first trustees and Rev. J. M. Snyder 
first pastor. They worshipped in a schoolhouse until i860, when they built a 
frame house of worship at a cost of about $1,600. One of the early preachers 
was Rev. Mr. Wyckoft', father of Professor Wyckoff, now of Bradley institute. 


was organized in i860. Rev. Richard tianey was the first circuit preacher to 
serve this church. Statistics of membership and Sunday schools are included 
with Trivoli church. Rev. R. H. Figgins is the present pastor. 

A Methodist church which has been known as the Rosefield church was 
organized about the year 1844, with twelve members, located about three miles 
north of Hanna City. The first house of worship was built in 1844 but in 1874 
it was abandoned and a new church erected across the road at a cost of $1,650. 
This church is now familiarly known as the Cottonwood church. In its church- 
yard many of the early settlers are buried. Among these are Thomas Edwards 
and wife. Dr. J. H. Wilkinson and wife, Ed Edwards and wife, David Harper 
and wife and Sylvester Edwards and wife. 

Another church of the denomination was organized in 1837 and erected a 
building known as the Combs meeting house on section 14, which appears to 
have been the first church organized in the township. It has long since been 


This society was organized in 1845. The congregation held their meetings 
in a schoolhouse until 1858, when they erected a church building, the congrega- 
tion then numbering sixty. The building cost about $1,200. 

Oak Hill and Cottonwood churches are now in Kickapoo circuit, and with 
the other churches are being served by F. W. Appleby as a supply. 

About 1865 a camp ground comprising a beautiful grove, with good spring 
water, and but a short distance northeast of the village, was purchased and since 
then a camp meeting has been held here each summer, where thousands of people 
have gathered for religious services and a week of relief from business cares. 




The first services by a Methodist minister were conducted by Rev. Whitman 
about the year 1843, in the house of William Young. A church organization must 
have been formed shortly after. 

This charge has always been in connection with a circuit, and Rev. U. J. 
Giddings was the circuit rider in 185 1 and 1852. At that time there was quite a 
large membership, and they soon began the erection of a church edifice which 
was completed in 1855 under the pastorate of Rev. P. T. Rhodes. The church 
cost $1,662. A parsonage was built about the same time and both have been in 
use ever since. 

The pastors on Kickapoo circuit have been: Rev. U. J. Giddings, 1851 to 
1852; John Luccock, 1852-53; C. B. Couch, 1853-54; P. T. Rhodes, 1854-56; J. 
B. iMills, 1856-58; G. R. I'almer, 1858-59; Robert Cowan, 1859-61 ; Ahab Keller, 
1861-64; John Cavett, 1864-66; S. S. Gruber, 1866-69; ^- M- Hill, 1869-70; J. II. 
Scott, 1870-72; T. F. Sanders, 1872-74; Amos Morey, 1874-75; T. J. Wood, 
1875-77; H. Stahl, 1877-78; C. W. Green, 1878-80; J. A. Riason, 1880-81; D. S. 
Main, 1881-82; G. M. Webber, 1882-85; I. Jones and William Rowciiff, 1885-86; 
J. L. Reid, 1886-87; A. P. Rolen, 1887-89; A. Smith, 1889-90; J. W. Moles, 1890- 
93; J. C. Zeller, 1893-95; J- Ferguson, 1895-96; B. Rist, H. M. McCoy and H.. 
Manship, 1896-97, each serving part of the time; E. O. Johnson, 1897-98; John 
Gimson, 1898-99; J. H. Wood and L. J. Blough, 1899-1901 ; J. D. Johnson, 1901- 
02; George Browne, 1902-03; H. M. Blout, 1903-05; C. W. Green, 1905-06; 
Thomas Bartram, 1906-07; H. T. Russell, 1907-08; W. B. Carr, 1908-09; L. J. 
Blough, 1909-10; C. E. Dunlevy, 1910-11 ; and F. W. Appleby, 1911-12. Several 
of these serving in later years have been students. 

The latest statistics give the number of members on the circuit at fifty-five; 
Sunday school officers and teachers twenty ; and scholars one hundred and thirty- 
three, with three churches valued at $4,000 and one parsonage valued at $2,000. 

The church at Edwards on this circuit has had an organization for many 
years, but had no church building until recently. The services were held at what- 
soever convenient place might be had, with sometimes the circuit preacher to 
minister to them, and sometimes a local preacher. We are informed that Daniel 
Taylor, is, or has been a local preacher and superintendent of the Sunday school, 
and that he has been an active and efficient worker for a long time. Unfortunately 
the old records of the church were burned, and we are unable to learn the date 
of the first organization or the names of the first pastor, or of members of the 
first official board, except that James Greenough was one member of it. In the 
year 1866, James Greenough and his daughter 'Alary J. Greenough, with a few 
others, were seeking better things, and better conditions for themselves and 
neighbors, and organized a Sunday school in the schoolhouse, with E. Y. Forney 
as superintendent. JNIr. Greenough was a quiet, unobtrusive man, but it was 
very largely through his efforts that the Methodist church was organized at 
Edwards. This charge has been and is connected with the Kickapoo circuit. 

The late Dr. J. H. Wilkinson had land at Edwards, and after his death and 
that of his wife, a part of the land fell to Sylvester Edwards, and we are in- 
formed that he donated to the church at Edwards an acre of land upon which 
they erected a building in 1905, at a cost of about $1,500, with a seating capacity 
of two hundred fifty. The present membership is twelve; membership) of Sunday 
school, eighty-five. The pastor is F. W. Appleby. 


The only Methodist church in this township, is the German Methodist Epis- 
copal Mission church. This church was organized in the year 1870. It is located 
in the village of Jubilee. It lias always been a Mission church, and served by the 


pastors in charge of the Sanger Saint Mission in Peoria. The first pastor was 
Henry Thomas with Fhilhp tjruenewald as assistant. Succeeding the first two, 
the following pastors have served this church : G. Timken, M. Roeder, |. Lem- 
kan, J. C. Rapp, Henry Balcke, C. H. Becker, E. S. Havighorst, G. Schuli, C. W. 
Hartzler, L. Harmel, J. Gisler, H. J. Petersen, L. E Kettlekamp, Herman Kasiski, 
("i. L. Zoclier. Karl Iluch and H. Schlueter. 



This church was organized in 1880 with seven members, the first pastor being 
Rev. Humphreys. The first church building was erected at Smithville in 1854, 
but in 1888 the location was removed to Hanna City, where a new church build- 
ing was erected at a cost of $2,000 and a parsonage costing $1,200. 

The pastors since 1886 have been J. A. Windsor, H. Coolidge, Wm. Crapp, 
Daniel Cool, P. S. Garretson, J. N. Fawcett, J. W. Moles. H. C. Birch, Hugh C. 
Gibson, .\. C. Kelley, Charles Fitzhenry, B. R. Nesbit, George Shepherd, W. R. 
Warner and R. W. Stocking, the present pastor. 

There is another -Methodist P'piscopal church in Logan township known as 
Pleasant Grove church, located two miles southwest of the village of Eden. This 
church was organized about 1840, with eighteen members. The first pastor was 
William Pitner. The members first worshipped in the homes and cabins, and 
then in a schoolhouse in the vicinity. In the year 1848, the first church was 
built, which was used until 1869, when a more comfortable and commodious 
building was erected. 

Limestone church is also on the same circuit. The statistics given in the 
minutes of the conference of 191 1 show one hundred sixty-eight members includ- 
ing twelve probationers ; thirty Sunday school officers and teachers and one hun- 
dred fifty scholars; one Epworth League with twelve members. The circuit has 
three churches valued at $5,300 and one parsonage, value $1,500. 



was organized in 1849 with twenty-seven members. The first church building 
was located on section 4 on the Farmington road, and was built in i860 at a 
cost of $1,000. It was dedicated by the noted, venerable Rev. Peter Cartwright, 
December 21, i860. Rev. John Borland was preacher in charge. 

Being on the Hanna City circuit this church has been served by the same 
pastors, and its statistics of membership, etc., are included with that charge. 

Bartonville Methodist Episcopal church is in the southeast part of Lime- 
stone township and adjoining the city of Peoria. It is served by a pastor in 
connection with the Madison Avenue Methodist Episcopal church, Peoria. 

Before the village was known as Piartonville although the Barton family 
lived in that vicinity, the people worshipped at the brick schoolhouse, known as 
South Limestone school, one mile west of where the church now stands, having a 
Sunday school and preaching services; (as early as 1857, M. L. Haney, preached 
there). The old brick building finally became so dilapidated, that a new school- 
house was built one-half mile east of the former location in the year 1862, and 
the people worshipped in it for about twenty years, being called the South Lime- 
stone cluirch. 

Al)out thirty years ago, that is, about 1882, the people built the present church 
building, which is located one half mile further east than the second school- 
house, referred to, and across the street from the splendid new school building 
which the town of Bartonville now affords. Continuing the numbers from South 
Peoria on Adams street, the church is located at 6019 South Adams street, Bar- 


lohn A. Riason, now of Siloam Springs, Arkansas, was the pastor of the 
Bartonville and Madison avenue, Peoria, churches, when the Bartonville Meth- 
odist Episcopal church was built in 1882. Present pastor, Rev. W. D. Evans, 
now in his third year. Number of members, fifty; a fine Sunday school of one 
hundred twenty, average attendance seventy-five; A. E. Scheidel, superintendent 
and an Epworth league of forty members ; Miss Audra Wright, president. 



In the year 1836 the first Methodist organization was formed at Rochester, 
near the extreme northwest corner of the township and county. Rev. William 
Gumming, who was then the station preacher at Peoria, preached the first sermon, 
in the house of John Smith. The original members were John Smith and wife, 
Therrygood Smith and wife, William .Metcalf, and an unmarried daughter of 
John Smith, and John Smith, Sr., was chosen class leader. 

In 1838 a house of worship was commenced, but was completely destroyed 
by a hurricane on May 8th of the same year. Through deaths and removals, 
the church at one time became almost extinct but later another building was 
secured which had belonged to the Congregationalists, and though the legitimate 
successor of the first church it is known as Elmore church, the name of the post- 
office being Elmore. This church is now connected with the West Jersey church 
in Stark county. The present pastor is E. L. Fahnestock. 


The church at Laura was built in the summer of 1889 at a cost of $1,300 
and furnished at a further outlay of about $200. The first pastor was Rev. D. S. 
McCown, now pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal church at Moline, Illinois. 

For quite a long time this church was served in connection with the church 
at Monica, but is now in connection with the church at Williamsfield, Knox 
county. Rev. Stanley Ward is pastor. The statistics give for the two charges, 
one hundred forty-nine members, twelve Sunday school officers and teachers 
and one hundred forty scholars ; with one Epworth League with forty members ; 
two churches valued at $5,000 and one parsonage of a value of $1,500. 



In 1856 or 1857, West Princeville near the west side of Princeville town- 
ship, was started by the erection of a manufacturing plant, on the south side of 
the road between sections 19 and 30. 

In 1858, Mt. Zion Methodist Episcopal church was organized in the same 
neighborhood, the memliers holding their first meetings in the Nelson school- 
house. In 1867 the society built a church in the southwest corner of section 20, 
a little east of West Princeville. This was a frame building 32 by 45 feet and 

cost $2,200. . , , , ■ r .1. 

The starting of Cornwell now Monica occasioned by the construction of the 
Cincinnati, Burlington & Ouincv railroad, spelled disaster for West Princeville, 
nearly all of the buildingsT including the church being moved to the new town. 
This 'transfer occurred in 1877. This church was in connection with the Prince- 
ville charge until 1894, when it was re-organized and with the church at Laura, 
Millbrook township, became the Monica charge. Rev. Thomas J.' Wood was 
the first pastor after re-organization and was followed in succession by P. S. 
Garretson, 1895; O. M. Dunlevy, 1896; H. C. Birch, 1898; H. C. Gibson, 1900; 
and James G. Blair, 1901. The church connection is now with Duncan. The 
present pastor is T. T. Bliss. The membership of the charge is eighty-seven; 


Sunday school officers and teachers, ten ; scholars ninetj'-two. Two churches 
valued $4,000; one parsonage $1,600. 


The Methodist churches in this township have existed under varied and 
rather peculiar conditions. As early as 1840 the missionaries and circuit riders 
held services in the homes of the people, before there were even any school- 
houses. Their first church was organized and a building erected in the year 
i860, though no doubt they had class meetings prior to that date. This first 
church was located about one mile west of where the village of Alta now is. Its 
principal members and supporters were George Divelbiss, at one time sheriff of 
the county and Wesley Smalley, farmers. The church was named the Glendale 
church. In its pastoral relations, it was then connected with Kickapoo church 
and Mt. Hedding, in Hallock township, with the pastoral residence at Kick- 
apoo. After the village of Alta was laid out, Glendale church was moved to that 
village, which is in .Medina township, the pastor still residing at Kickapoo. 

In 1884, a church was organized at Dunlap, and the next year a church 
was built, under the pastorate of Rev. George AI. Webber, and the jiastoral 
residence changed to Dunlap and the Alta church connected with Dunlap. 

In the year 1865, the Methodists built a church called the Salem church on 
the northwest quarter of section 16 near the schoolhouse, some five miles north- 
west of Alta. The leading members of this church organization were prominent 
farmers: A. J. Gordon. John Jackson and Wesley Strain. After a number of 
years, removals and deaths having weakened the membership, the organization 
was aliandoned for lack of support. The building was sold and another erected 
on section 18, some two miles west, and near the line of Juijilee township. This 
church was called Zion church and its pastoral relations were in connection with 
Kickapoo. The principal men in the church were William Rowcliffe and Daniel 
Corbett. The membership was small, and this church seems also to have been 
abandoned, as no mention is made of it in the conference minutes of 191 1. 

The membership of the two churches is one hundred forty-five; two Sunday 
schools with twenty-eight officers and teachers and one hundred seventy scholars ; 
one Epworth League with forty-five members and one Junior League with 
fifteen members. Two churches valued at $6,750 and one parsonage, at Dunlap, 
valued $2,200; $2,250 were expended during the conference year for building 
and improvements. Rev. G. L. Kneebone is pastor. 



This is the only Methodist church in the township. It was organized in 1886 
by Robert Burden, a local preacher, with the following members: Mrs. Wm. 
Harris, Mrs. Emma Newsam, Mrs. Mary Galloway, Mr. and Mrs. James Brad- 
shaw, Mr. and Mrs. Lorenzo Walker, Mrs. Mona Thrush, Mrs. J. T. Newsam, 
Mrs. Ann Galloway, Mr. and Mrs. John Scheidel and Aliss Kate Jones. They 
have a small church building which was erected in 1890 and dedicated by Rev. 
Jervis G. Evans, president of Hedding College, at Abingdon, Illinois, in November 
of that year. The membership is small, being, September i, 191 1, but thirteen, 
with a Sunday school of thirty-five scholars and five teachers. Rev. Harry M. 
Blout since transferred to liumside, Hancock county, was pastor. 



About the year 1890, a small church was built at Glasford. At that time Dr. 
William A. Brisendine. an old resident and practicing physician, who from his 


youth had taken an active interest in religious work made application, and was 
licensed as a local jireacher in that year, and often thereafter, tilled the pulpit 
from time to time in his home church and probably in others in the neighborhood 
as well. 

September i, 191 1, the total membership of the Glasford church was forty- 
five; Sunday school enrollment, one hundred two scholars, with eight teachers; 
an Epworth League of twelve members. 


A church was organized at Kingston Mines prior to the year 1885, and about 
that year they erected a church building which was destroyed by a hurricane 
about 1896. There is still an organization and a Sunday school maintained. 
Church membership nine; Sunday school scholars about sixty. 


In the southwest part of Timber township there w-as a small Methodist church 
built in 1882, and named Bethel. This church has been maintained ever since 
and now has a membership of nineteen, with a Sunday school of forty-five 
scholars and only five teachers. 

These churches in Timber township, together with the one at Mapleton form 
the Glasford circuit with pastoral residence at Glasford, with a parsonage located 
there valued at $1,500. Pastor, H. M. Blout. 



About the year 1869, the late G. W. Schnebly acting for the people who were 
interested in the Presbyterian church at Mossville, employed the building firm 
of James Hazzard & Son of Peoria, who erected for him a neat, comfortable, 
small brick church building, seating about two hundred people, at a cost of about 
$2,600. A large percentage of the membership residing on High Prairie, in the 
vicinity of Alta, found the location at Mossville inconvenient and on October 9, 
1875, it was decided to remove to the former place. The church building at 
Mossville was sold, and purchased by the late Samuel C. Neal for the Methodists, 
and has since been used by them, they having put in a modern hot-water or steam 
heating plant. As might be surmised the membership has been small — some fif- 
teen or twenty, with a Sunday school of about forty members. Under these cir- 
cumstances the pastoral service has been either in connection with some other 
church, or by a supply appointed by the presiding elder or district superintendent. 
The present pastoral service is by Rev. F. E. Ball, pastor of Wesley Methodist 
Episcopal church, Peoria. 

While the Methodist church at Alta is in Medina township, the early organiza- 
tion, and location of the church was in Radnor, and as its pastoral connections 
and residence are still there, it was thought best to so give its history. 



The only Methodist Episcopal church in Richwoods since Grace Methodist 
Episcopal church was taken into the city, is the Averyville church. This society 
was organized about 1894 by Rev. T. W. Mc\'ety when he was pastor of First 
church, Peoria. The church was organized in the village hall and its members 
worshipped there for a short time. Shortly afterwards lots were purchased on 
Madison avenue from Mr. Luthy and the present church building erected at a 
cost of about $2,600, beside the cost of the lots. 

ci^, 9rf^. ^'-'■c^^ 



This church now (January, 1912) has forty-live members with a Sunday 
school of seventy-five members and an average attendance of fifty-two. 

The Ladies' Aid Society, of which Mrs. Charles Koch is president, has thirty 
members. Frank McBridge is Sunday school superintendent. 

This church has always been served in connection with some other church. 
Its present connection is with the church at Putnam. H. Wakefield is pastor. 
The valuation of the church property including furnishings is $3,950. 



The real trial of the characters of men occurs before the great outbreak in 
all revolutionary or critical situations when each man must align himself on one 
side or the other of the great questions presented according to his own judgment 
and convictions. It is comparatively easy after an alignment is made for one to 
fill his place and battle in forum or in field for the side he approves. It is not 
easy in the beginning to determine what position to take, for this involves two 
things, the abstract question of what is right and the question of how ditferences 
of conscientious convictions can be adjusted. Men are so constituted that they 
look upon important questions from dilTerent points of view and conscientiously 
differ as to what is just, therefore, in order that we may live together in peace, 
concessions must be made and the conscientious convictions of others must not 
be ruthlessly disregarded. It is in such trying times that men of sound judg- 
ment, strong character, great moral courage, kindness of heart and charitable 
feelings towards others appear as leaders. Lincoln was pre-eminently such a 
man. He had strong convictions in regard to slavery and more strong in regard 
to the necessity of preserving the Union. His problem was "what do the people 
think?" "What can they be relied upon to do? Can they be induced to work 
together for the support of right and for the preservation of the Union?" These 
were cjuestions of very great difficulty calling for solution by the president elect. 

It was, therefore, thought desirable by Mr. Lincoln and some of his most 
intimate friends that a projwsition of compromise with the southern states, as 
liberal as possible toward their views should be oft'ered, which if accepted might 
prevent a long, l)loody and expensive war and whether adopted or not might 
secure for the administration the support of Mr. Douglas and his powerful party. 
Such an attempt was made as appears from the following article which was pre- 
pared by the late Hon. David McCulloch, after those events had been long 
enough passed to allow men to think calmly and at the same time was written 
before those who had personal knowledge of the facts had passed away. It was 
submitted to the surviving friends of those interested, most of whom are now 
gone. It narrates circumstances which probably have not found a place in per- 
manent print before. 


The rejoicing over the great republican victory (in the fall of i860) was 
soon turned into a serious consideration of the gravity of the situation. On the 
next day after the election, the "Palmetto Flag," South Carolina's emblem, was 
unfurled from the shipmasts in Charleston harbor, and on the next day after the 
great illumination at Peoria, the legislature of that state passed a bill for the 
equipment of 10,000 men and ordered an election of delegates to consider the 
necessity of immediate secession. Two days thereafter both her senators in con- 
gress resigned their seats. Then men began to inquire of each other, "Do you 
think the south is in earnest in its threats of secession?" 



Georgia followed South Carolina on the i8th of November by appropriating 
$1,000,000 for the purpose of arming her citizens. Then the inquiry began, "Do 
you think we are going to have war?" 

December 3d came and with it the assembling of congress. In his message 
Mr. Buchanan declared secession to be unlawful, but denied the power of the 
general government to coerce a sovereign state. This was an announcement to 
the secessionists that they were at liberty to go on with their unlawful purposes 
without hindrance from the government during the last four months of his 
administration. Although the republicans had won the victory their hands were 
completely tied. It began to look as if the Union was to be dissolved without 

Stormy times had now set in. On December 5th the United States treasury 
suspended specie payment. Then the cabinet began to dissolve by the succes- 
sive resignation of its members. On the 20th South Carolina passed its ordinance 
of secession. On the 24th its representatives in congress resigned their seats and 
returned to their homes. Still men continued to inquire, "Do you think they mean 
war or only bravado?" We were in a state of war without knowing it. But the 
war at this period was on one side only. There was no resistance. Forts and 
arsenals of the United States were quietly taken possession of by the seceding 
states ; senators and congressmen resigned their seats as their respective states 
seceded ; on December 27th the United States Revenue Cutter, "The William 
Aiken" was surrendered to the authorities of South Carolina. On January g, 
1861, another one "The Star of the West" on her way from New York with pro- 
visions and reinforcements for Fort Sumter was fired upon by South Carolina 
batteries and compelled to return. Still men continued to inquire, "Do you think 
there will be war?" 

A pall of terror seemed to have spread itself over the whole North. It was 
the recoil produced by the discharge of a broadside. People began to consider 
whether they might not have gone too far in the late election. When confronted 
with the horrors of internecine war, they began to quail before its awful con- 
sequences. Especially in the eastern cities it began to look as if the North was 
ready to give up all it had gained. We began to wonder if we had a country to 
fight for. or whether our boasted constitution was a rope of sand. The flag itself 
had disappeared. Except on national holidays, or when carried as an ornament 
at tlie head of some military display, it had for some years ceased to attract any 
considerable degree of admiration. During this lull before the storm it inspired 
little enthusiasm. The slave power had no further use for it ; the new forces of 
freedom were awaiting their turn. Congress itself seemed to have caught the 
infection "While the secession leaders were engaged in their schemes for the 
disruption of the national government and the formation of a new confederacy, 
congress was employing every effort to arrest the disunion tendency by making 
new concessions, and offering new guaranties to the offended power of the 
South." No sooner had it convened than "in each branch special committees of 
conciliation were appointed. They were not so termed in the resolutions of the 
senate and house, but their mission was solely one of conciliation." In the senate 
they raised a committee of thirteen, representing the number of the original 
states of the Union. In the house the committee was composed of thirty-three 
members, the representatives from the Peoria district, William Kellogg being a 
member of the latter. Proposition after proposition was introduced, until, as 
Mr. Blaine afterwards said they would have filled a large volume. 

But the South emboldened by the vascillating course of congress became more 
defiant than ever. One of their leaders contemptuously said if the North would 
sign their names to a blank sheet of paper and submit it to the South to fill in 
the terms of re-union they would not do it. With the president at its back the 
South had the North on the run. With the North it was surrender or fight with 
the fighting postponed until the incoming of the new administration. 

Among the measures prominently brought forward for the pacification of 



the country was a proposed anieiulnienl to the constitution submitted by the 
venerable and highly respected John J. Crittenden, senator from Kentucky. 
Coming from a border state senator, it was looked upon by many as the embodi- 
ment of the sentiments which might be agreed upon by the whole country. This 
proposition had been rejected by the senate but afterwards brought forward in the 
liouse as a substitute for the measures purposed by the house committee of thir- 
teen. The report of that committee was so obno.xious to the northern representa- 
tives as to meet with but little favor in the house. To his credit be it said that 
our repre.sentative. Judge Kellogg, was one of the three who voted against it in 

Hut many of the republicans, rather than have war, were willing to go to great 
lengths in the way of conciliation, believing that conciliation was better than dis- 
union. It was even hinted that Senators Cameron and Seward, both of whom 
were named in connection with cabinet positions, had shown signs of a willing- 
ness to compromise on terms agreeable to the border states. 

It was during this period of excitement, when four states had already seceded 
and others were in process of seceding; when the princii)a! forts, arsenals and 
navy yards in the South had fallen into the hands of the seceding states and 
the surrender of Fort Sumter had been demanded, that our congressman, Wil- 
liam Kellogg, on the 20th day of January, 1861, visited Air. Lincoln at his home 
in Springfield. What occurred at that interview may never be known. It is 
known however, that a long interview took place reaching far into the night. It 
is known too, that Mr. Lincoln was in favor of securing to the people of the 
South all their constitutional rights even to the restoration of their fugitive slaves. 
It is also known that he had great solicitude about the retention of the border 
states in the Union, if disunion should become an accomplished fact. But so far 
as known he had never by any word publicly uttered or by any letter written re- 
ceded one jot or one tittle from the principles of the platform upon which he had 
been elected. But who knows that he never entertained the thought that, if 
by so doing, war might be averted, the seceding states brought back and the 
Union restored, he might have considered it his duty to yield? He had already 
seen enough of the vascillating course of some of the party leaders, both in and 
out of congress to awaken his deep solicitude for the future, yet still continued 
to counsel a firm adherence to the principles of "No more slave territory." 

It was a matter of great surprise therefore, that w'ithin ten days after his 
return from Springfield, that Mr. Kellogg who was supposed to stand very near 
the president-elect should present in congress a measure of compromise which 
was interpreted by all parties as a departure from the Chicago platform. His 
proposition was presented on February i, for the purpose of having it printed 
and at the proper time ofl:'ered as a sul^stitutc for the Crittenden amendment. 
The supposed nearness of political relationship of Judge Kellogg to Mr. Lincoln 
was at once seized upon by the democrats in congress as a circumstance indicative 
of a willingness on the jxirt of the president-elect to concede more than his party 
had been willing to do. But no sooner had this intimation been thrown out than 
Judge Kellogg declared upon the floor of congress that no human hand other 
than his own was in any way responsible for the proposition. 

The Crittenden amendment embraced the following points : To renew the 
Missouri line of 36° 30' and carry it to the Pacific ocean ; to prohibit slavery 
north and permit it south of that line : to admit new states with or without slavery 
as their constitutions might provide ; to ])rohil>it congress from abolishing slavery 
in the states or in the District of Columbia so long as it should exist in X'irginia 
or Maryland; to permit free transmission of slaves by land or water in any state; 
to pay from the National treasury for fugitive slaves rescued after arrest; to 
amend the Fugitive Slave Law in respect to commissioners' fees and to ask the 
northern states to repeal their personal liberty laws in regard to such fugitives. 

The proposition of Judge Kellogg embraced the following points: To renew 
the Missouri line of 36° 30' and extend it to the Pacific ocean; to prohibit slavery 


north of that line and to permit slave owners in the states to take and hold them 
in territory south of it while such territory should remain under territorial govern- 
ment ; to admit new states formed from territory either north or south of it with 
or without slavery as their constitutions might provide ; that the general gov- 
ernment should have no power to abolish or establish slavery in any state ; that 
congress should have power to enact laws for the return of fugitive slaves ; that 
the foreign slave trade should be abolished and that no new territory should be 
annexed or acquired by the United States unless by treaty to be ratified by a vote 
of two-thirds of the senate. 

There was nothing new in this proposition ; every article thereof having in 
one form or another been before the house. It seems to have been an effort to 
collect and condense into one amendment those points which had met with the 
greatest favor. It was, however, interpreted by both democrats and republicans 
as a plain departure from the Chicago platform in permitting the extension of 
slavery into new territory lying south of tlie line of 36° 30'. For this Judge 
Kellogg was severely condemned by his constituents, and within a week there- 
after the I'eoria district congressional committee met and called a delegate conven- 
tion to be held at Peoria on the 226. day of February, ostensibly to take such 
action as they might see fit ; but, for their utterances made at the time, it would 
appear that the true object of the convention was to pass judgment upon the 
course of Judge Kellogg. The several counties responded to the call by calling 
either delegate county conventions or mass meetings, at which resolutions were 
passed deprecating any departure from the Chicago platform. One or two 
called upon Judge Kellogg to resign ; while one commended his motives while 
differing with him in his plan. The resolutions passed at the caucus held in the 
city of Peoria were emphatic in declaring the party had not advocated one set of 
principles before election to be discarded and another set substituted after elec- 
tion ; that the Kellogg proposition met with their hearty condemnation and they 
entered an earnest and emphatic protest against them. 

During all this time the republican papers of the district were filled with 
articles denunciatory of Kellogg's course, some charging him with treachery to 
the party, some calling him a renegade, and some called upon him to resign. 

The republicans of Peoria county met in convention on the 21st day of Feb- 
ruary to elect delegates to the congressional convention. In their resolutions 
they had declared that Kellogg had forfeited all claim to the confidence of his 
constituents and ought not to be considered as the representative of republican 
principles. This resolution when first presented contained this further clause: 
"And it is the sense of this convention that he ought to resign his trust into the 
hands of the people by whom he was elected," but after some debate it was 
stricken out by the convention. 

In the congressional convention which met in Peoria on the next day it was 
resolved "That we enter our solemn protest against the resolutions oft'ered by our 
representative in congress to amend the federal constitution, believing them to 
be subversive of our plighted faith, our party's honor and the spirit of our institu- 
tions, and we earnestly urge him to an unfaltering support of republican principles 
as enunciated in the Chicago platform." An attempt was made to add the words 
"or to resign" but after a sharp debate it failed by a vote of 79 to 88. The 
Transcript in an editorial said that "most of those who voted against the amend- 
ment believed that Judge Kellogg was a man of honor and if he could not com- 
ply with the request of the convention he would resign without being asked, and 
if he was not a man of honor he would not resign although asked, and it would 
be a waste of breath." But Kellogg did not change his course nor did he resign. 
Nor was the demand renewed. Possibly the most radical of his opponents had 
not stopped to consider that his term was about to expire and that his resignation 
of his then pending term would serve no good purpose. Should he resign the 
term to which he had just been elected the vacancy would have had to be filled 
by a new election, which in the then excited state of the country might not have 


resulted in a republican victory. It is possible, too, that Mr. Lincoln may have 
thrown his advice against the party's insisting on Kellogg's resignation. 

Here is an enigma in politics which is heightened by the fact that for ten 
days, during which time this excitement was raging in the fourth district of 
Illinois, Mr. Lincoln was on his way to Washington, stopping first at Indianapolis, 
then at Cincinnati, Columbus, Pittsburg, Cleveland, Buffalo, Albany, New York, 
Trenton, and Philadeljihia, making speeches at all important points addressing 
the legislatures of three states and arriving at Washington on the day next after 
this congressional convention. If Mr. Lincoln had then regarded his old friend 
as a traitor to his party, is it to be supposed he would have maintained a profound 
silence or would he not have made it known in some way that his course did not 
meet with his approval ? For five days this silence was maintained and no steps 
taken by Kellogg to recede from his position. 

On the 28th day of February, however, with the proceedings of the Peoria 
convention before him he made the formal presentation of his proposed amend- 
ment by moving it as a substitute for that known as the Crittenden amendment. 
This was as far, however, as it ever got. Congress was in a turmoil. One 
proposition after another was swept away as by a cyclone until nothing remained 
but a simple proposal to amend the constitution to the effect that congress should 
have no power to interfere with slavery in the states where it then existed. This 
])roposition was adopted by the requisite vote in each house and sent to the sev- 
eral states for their approval. But the logic of events dispensed with the neces- 
sity of its being acted upon, for within sixty days from that date the rebellion 
was in full sway and greater issues were upon the country. 

fudge Kellogg remained in congress for two years thereafter, during which 
time his district was changed and he was not again a candidate. But Mr. Lincoln 
oft'ered him the position of minister of the United States to Nicaragua, which 
oft'er he declined. He then appointed him chief justice of Nebraska territory, 
a position he continued to hold until its admission as a state March i, 1867, 
nearly two years after Mr. Lincoln's death. It is quite evident therefore, that 
Judge Kellogg never lost the confidence of Mr. Lincoln as he must have done 
if the latter had regarded him as a -traitor to his party. 

The history of the time also shows that other republicans in congress had 
made as bad breaks, or worse than this of Judge Kellogg. Particularly was this 
the case with Charles Francis Adams, w'hom Mr. Lincoln appointed minister 
to the court of St. James. Mr. Seward was also accused of weakening and his 
home organ, the Albany Evening Journal, edited by Thurlow Weed, was out- 
spoken in favor of some compromise'. Yet Mr. Seward was then known to be 
slated for and afterwards received a cabinet appointment. The Chicago Journal 
came out decidedly in favor of Kellogg's course, and the idea seemed to be 
floatin.g in the air that, if not Mr. Lincoln, at least Mr. Seward looked with favor 
upon his proposed amendment. Early in February, the Illinois State Journal, 
the leading republican paper at Mr. Lincoln's home, and before he had started 
for Washington had said: "Our dispatches from \\'ashington this morning state 
that Mr. Kellogg had received a message from a leading re)niblican here (Spring- 
held ) stating that his proposition is satisfactory. Such is not the case. We 
believe no republican of character has transmitted such a dispatch. The Breck- 
enridge jjlatform will never be received by the people of Illinois as a basis of an 
adjustment." Although not mentioning his name the evident purpose of this 
emphatic denial was to exculpate Mr. Lincoln before the public from any con- 
nection with the Kellogg proposition. 

What motive had Judge Kellogg for his course upon this occasion? He must 
have known his proposition would meet with defeat. He must have known 
he would be condemned at home. There was nothing to gain at that time either 
personally or politically from his course. It is possible he thought to lay this 
last burden upon the conscience of the south ; to offer them this last peace offer- 
ing, to hold out to them this last olive branch, which if accepted by them would 


have thrown the responsibilities of the war upon the north, but if rejected by 
them would justify the incoming administration in the adoption of such measures 
as should be found necessary to maintain the national authority. Whatever 
his underlying motives may have been and by whomsoever advised it is certain 
Judge Kellogg never shirked the whole responsibility of his actions but went 
to his death bearing his reproach. 

After his death, however, those who had knowledge of the aiTair gave to the 
country the solution of the problem. Judge Kellogg died at Peoria, December 
20, 1872, and was buried on the Sunday following. On the day of his death a 
meeting of the Peoria Bar was held, at which meeting a committee was appointed 
to draft resolutions commemorative of his life and services, of which committee 
Elbridge G. Johnson, who had been a member of the legislature in 1861, was 
made chairman. On the Tuesday following, at the convening of the circuit court, 
Hon. Sabin D. Puterbaugh presiding, Mr. Johnson presented to the court the 
resolutions which had been adopted by the bar and moved that they be spread 
upon its records. On the day following (Wednesday, January 8, 1873), an 
account of these proceedings was published in the Peoria Transcript, then the 
leading republican paper in the district, in which allusion is thus made to the 
remarks of Mr. Johnson : "In speaking of the memorable compromise resolutions 
offered in congress by Judge Kellogg, Mr. Johnson stated that the resolutions 
had been prepared in Springfield by Judge Kellogg and Mr. Lincoln, the presi- 
dent-elect, who gave them his hearty indorsement. At the same time he felt 
that in the agitated state of the country, the presenter of them might fall a victim 
of popular prejudice. Judge Kellogg, notwithstanding he felt the full force of 
the danger of political death presented the resolutions and met the fate he feared 
awaited him, but gave no sign as it would never have done to commit Lincoln 
to any line of policy." 

The Daily National Democrat edited by William T. Dowdall, was at that 
time a leading democrat paper published at Peoria. It did not publish its account 
of the proceedings in court on the 8th of January, but deferred it until the next 
day so as to be able to write out its hastily taken notes at greater length. It 
reports Mr. Johnson as saying: "In the winter of i860, when a member of con- 
gress, and when the country was on the verge of Civil war, Mr. Kellogg pre- 
sented to that body a plan of compromise for which he was severely censured by 
his constituents, and a convention called by them publicly demanded his resigna- 
tion. I here declare to you that he was unjustly censured on that occasion. 
Before taking the step he did, he went to Springfield and was closeted with 
President-elect Lincoln all night, and, at the suggestion, request and approval 
of Mr. Lincoln he offered his compromise measure in congress. I know this 
to be true. I was then in the legislature at Springfield, but it was deemed improper 
to state the facts at the time. Mr. Kellogg was made the conductor that carried 
out that lightning which blasted himself. While Mr. Lincoln lived, Mr. Kellogg 
was sure of recognition and reward, and, had he lived, that recognition would 
have been continued. With heroic bravery he marched to his duty, though he 
could not but foresee what risks he ran in its performance." 

No one who knew Mr. Johnson would doubt his word on such an occasion, 
and on a subject of so great importance. Neither can it be doubted that we have 
in the foregoing extracts one from a republican, the other from a democratic 
paper, a substantial report of what he said. In corroboration of this is the fact 
that Mr. Johnson's office was within two blocks of each of these papers, they 
being the leading papers of the city, read by every one. and no word of dissent 
appeared from .Mr. Johnson, or any other person in Peoria. It is more probable 
that the account published in the National Democrat underwent his personal 

The interpretation placed upon his words by those present was well voiced 
by Lucien H. Kerr, who in the legislature next preceding had represented this 
district in the senate, who said: "In the explanation that has been made by Mr. 

Taken at Peoiia. O.tdlier HI, is.-it 


Johnson, justice has been done to Judge Kellogg. At the time he stepped forward 
it was necessary for the safety of the country that Mr. Lincoln should stand 
uncommitted. The mind of the nation was deeply moved and nothing but blood 
seemed to satisfy the demands of the crisis. Kellogg stepped into the breach. 
He knew it would be his political death, but he died politically for his country 
as heroically as the soldier who faces and braves the sword or bullet of his 
enemy. And he went down to his death and made no sign. He kept it all within 
his own bosom. Knowing he had been maligned he raised no voice. This is the 
last, the greatest, the highest tribute to his memory. 

Mr. Alonzo M. Swan, a life-long citizen of Canton and the historian of the 
city, in a communication to a friend gives a long statement of the occurrence 
from which the following extracts are taken. "Republican statesmen in the 
north who foreseeing the terrible cost of human life and sacrifice that would 
follow war, were hopeful it might be averted. Among this number were Simon 
Cameron and William H. Seward, already slated for ])ositions in Mr. Lincoln's 

The Hon. William Kellogg * * * arrived in Springfield on Sunday 
morning. January 20, bearing confidential communications from Messrs. Cameron 
and Seward to Mr. Lincoln. These communications were of so grave a character 
that Mr. Lincoln summoned David Davis. * * * ^he Hon. Joseph Gillespie, 
State Senator from Madison county, * * * David (William) Butler, then 
State Treasurer of the .State of Illinois, and one or two others to consider the 
communications of Cameron and Seward. At this conference a new series of 
compromise resolutions were submitted which Cameron and Seward proposed 
should be introduced in the house of representatives at Washington by Mr. Kel- 
logg. These resolutions were on similar lines to the already rejected Crittenden 
resolutions, but it was argued by their authors that, even if they were rejected, 
they could furnish an argument for the north that the south had the olive branch 
extended, not only by Crittenden, a border state statesman, but by a radical 
republican from Mr. Lincoln's own state, and, therefore, it might be inferred, 
representing his own views." 

"Just before midnight Mr. Kellogg came to my room (at the Cheney House) 
and awakened me saying that he wanted to talk to me. I was from Canton, Kel- 
logg's town, and had been placed, by his arrangement, in charge of the political 
editorials of the "Galesburg F"ree Democrat," the leading republican paper of his 
district, and was considered a protege of his. Kellogg was evidently worried and 
' paced back and forwards for several moments before he spoke, when turning sud- 
denly to me he said 'Swan, I have agreed to-night to dig my own political grave — 
, a grave so deep that when I am buried no political archangel can ever resurrect 
I me.' He then went on to tell me that he had been sent by Cameron and Seward, 
!by Mr. Lincoln's suggestion, to show the resolutions he afterwards offered to Mr. 
I Lincoln for his approval and suggestions, as to any changes he might desire. These 
; resolutions had been under discussion all the afternoon and evening, and had been 
'modified in some particulars and amplified in others by Mr. Lincoln's own hand. 
[Said Kellogg, 'I have not the slightest confidence in their efficiency. Their only 
(possible effect I believe will be to bury me politically. If I lived in Washburn's 
i district it might be different, but you know how radical Galesburg is, and Knox 
( county controls the fourth district.' I asked him why he proposed to introduce 
I the resolutions knowing, as he did, the personal consequences. T love Lincoln' 
was his reply, 'and he has asked me to sacrifice my personal ambition for my 
country's sake and I cannot resist him.' " 

The next afternoon Mr. Kellogg called up Swan in the hall of the house of 
I representatives and, together, they called upon Mr. Lincoln (who then occupied 
the governor's room in the state house. — McCulloch), who said, "I know how 
you feel, Kellogg, about those resolutions, and the personal results to you ; but 
I promise you I will stand by you in the future, no matter what may come." Mr. 
Lincoln did not appear to believe that the resolutions would lead to any compro- 

Vol. I— 1 4 


mise, but did l)elicve they would furnish a justification for any future action in 
defense of the Union which he might be called upon to make. 

Mr. Swan then speaks of the convention at Peoria, which he says was held 
to demand his resignation, but at Mr. Lincoln's personal request, a few prominent 
men succeeded in preventing the passage of such resolutions, although resolutions 
were passed, and speeches made roundly denouncing his action. He concludes by 
saying: "True to his promise, Air. Lincoln stood by Kellogg, appointing him 
chief justice of Nebraska after his term in congress expired, and giving him 
more appointments in the first distribution of patronage than were received by 
any other congressman from Illinois." 

These statements, liowever plausible they may appear, seem at first to be 
irreconcilable with what Mr. Lincoln wrote to Seward on the same day Kellogg 
first presented his resolutions in congress. In a letter of February i, he says to 
Seward. "On the 21st ult. Hon. W. Kellogg, a republican member of congress 
of this state, whom you probably know, was here in a good deal of anxiety for 
our friends to go in the way of compromise on the now vexed question. While 
he was with me I received a dispatch from Senator Trumbull at Washington, 
alluding to the same question and telling me to await letters. ... I say 
now, however, as I have all the while said, that on the territorial question — that 
is, the question of extending slavery under the national auspices — I am inflexible. 
I am for no compromise which assists or permits the extension of the institution 
on soil ow'ned by the nation. And any trick by which the nation is to acquire 
territory and then allow some local authority to spread slavery, is as obnoxious 
as any other. I take it that to effect some such result as this, and to put us again 
on the high road to a slave empire, is the object of all these proposed compromises. 
I am against it." 

These sentences doubtless express Air. Lincoln's real sentiments. They were 
also the sentiments of Judge Kellogg up to the time of his apparent desertion of 
his party on the occasion of the introduction of these compromise resolutions. 
According to Mr. Swan they continued to be his sentiments even after he had 
resolved to take the course he did. The letter to Mr. Seward was doubtless 
written for perusal by others besides himself, as a spur to keep his friends in 
line. But there are times in a man's public life, as well as in war when strategy 
is justifiable. Lincoln was firm in his belief, but had doubtless apprehended 
that in view of the horrors of internecine war and possible disunion compromise 
might be resorted to before he should reach the presidential chair. If one was to 
come, that of Crittenden seemed the most likely to Ije adopted. It is possible 
that oft'ered by Kellogg was intended as a flank movement, to eliminate some 
of the objectionable features of the former, and to make a fair divide between 
north and south of the common territory, while it might remain under territorial 
governments, and to apply the doctrines of popular sovereignty to it when ready 
for admission. Even if Cameron, Seward and Lincoln were all concerned in it, 
it is not to be considered as a backing down on their ])art. but simply as a plan 
by which in the event of an offer of compromise the slave power should gain as 
little advantage as possible. In the meantime it was of the utmost importance 
that the name of neither of them should publicly appear as connected therewith, 
but Kellogg should stand alone — a scape-goat as it were to bear the burden. In 
this view it was proper for Lincoln to write to Sew-ard as he did. It is possible 
the latter might have had little acquaintance with Kellogg, and yet he may have 
been chosen as the bearer of confidential dispatches between Cameron and Seward 
at Washington and Mr. Lincoln at Springfield. Subsequent events show that 
Mr. Lincoln never lost confidence in Kellogg, but that the latter was holding a 
valuable appointment under the president at the time of his assassination. Pos- 
terity will therefore be justified in believing what Mr. Johnson and Mr. Swan 
have stated, without imputing insincerity, or duplicity to Mr. Lincoln or a want 
of adherence to principle on the part of judge Kellogg. In their struggles to save 
the country from a gigantic rebellion, which at that time seemed almost certain 


to result in the dissolution of the Union the wisest statesmen were at their wits 
end and many of them may have done things which posterity may have con- 
demned, but whatever the verdict of posterity may be as to the wisdom of Judge 
Kellogg's course, none can imi)ugn his patriotism or the sincerity of his motives 
on that occasion. If he was not faithful to his party, as party fealty is under- 
stood, it was because his country stood nearer to his breast tiian his party. If 
he was misjudged he meekly bore his reproach rather than betray the confidence 
reposed in him by the great martyr. In any event this movement of his formed 
one of the most interesting episodes in the political history of that most exciting 

In the winter of 'Go and '6i, the editor was attending college in Monmouth 
and was a member of a debating society which discussed the ciuestion whether 
the south would actually go to war or whether they were only attempting to 
intimidate the north. The editor was very sure that they had too much sense to 
go to war and debated on that side of the question so earnestly as to become 
almost intemperate in his language. In a very short time after that he was 
wearing a blue uniform of the United States \'olunteers. which uniform he 
continued to wear for more than three years. 

* * * * * ;i= 

The aI)ove article was submitted by Colonel Rice to Mrs. James, the daugh- 
ter of Judge Kellogg, and she told him that it gives the true history of the Kellogg 

It was submitted to William T. Dowdall, who is mentioned in the article, and 
Mr. Dowdall, in a letter states, that in the year 1866 Judge Kellogg, while chief 
justice of Nebraska, under appointment from Lincoln, related to him the whole 
history of this proposition of compromise and that his statement fully agreed 
with what is set out in this article by Judge McCulloch, that Kellogg came 
from Washington at the request of Seward and Cameron, who had draughted 
the resolution along the lines of the Crittenden Resolution, eliminating some 
of the most objectionable clauses, and Mr. Kellogg was authorized to say to Lin- 
coln that they approved and endorsed the resolution under existing circumstances 
and Kellogg, at their request, informed Lincoln fully of the situation in Wash- 
ington and that Lincoln made a few amendments to the resolution and urged 
Kellogg to introduce it ; that Lincoln conferred, in Springfield, with Judge Joseph 
Gillespie and with E. G. Johnson, who was then member of the legislature from 
Peoria, and that Lincoln at that time promised Kellogg that he would stand by 
him and give him some appointment worth more than a seat in Congress ; and 
that it was thoroughly understood at that time that no one whatever was to be 
in any way made responsible for the offering of the resolution except Kellogg 
himself ; and that Lincoln also suggested to Kellogg that he was then already 
elected for a term of two years in Congress and that before that had expired, 
public sentiment might be so changed that his proposition of compromise would 
be approved by his constituents. 

The editor is informed by Colonel Dowdall that the article published in his 
paper (|uoted by Judge .McCulloch was sul)niitted to Mr. E. G. Johnson and had 
his approval before it was put in type and that when printed Mr. Johnson called 
at the printing office and bought a number of copies of the articles to send to his 







Notwithstanding the threats of the south that it would sever its connection 
with the Union in the event an anti-slavery president was elected, Abraham 
Lincoln was inaugurated on the 4th day of March, 1861, great precautions having 
been taken to guard him from the ruthless hand of the assassin. Even at this 
lime some of the slave-holding states had seceded and the inauguration of Lincoln 
l)ut precipitated the "irrepressible conflict." On the 12th day of April, Fort 
-Sumter was fired on by the vanguard of the southern army at Charleston, South 
Carolina, and the whole civilized world was notified by that traitorous action that 
civil war was on in the Linited States. 

The duty of the president was plain to him, as he saw it under the constitu- 
tion, and immediately after this taunting insult had been paid the flag, on the 
t4th day of April, Lincoln issued a proclamation calling upon his countrymen to 
join with him to defend their homes and country and vindicate her honor. The 
call of the president was for 75,000 men and on the 15th of April, Governor 
Richard Yates issued a call for the convening of the legislature. Pleasures were 
there and then taken to meet the wishes and demands of the president and within 
ten days after the call for troops, 10,000 men of the state of Illinois had volun- 
teered their services to their country and millions in money were at the command 
of the government from patriots in various parts of the state. Only si.x regiments 
could be accepted at this time, but, anticipating another call, the legislature 
authorized the raising of ten additional regiments and more than the requisite 
number of men to fill them at once offered themselves. In May, June and July 
seventeen regiments of infantry and five of cavalry had been raised and at the 
close of 1861 Illinois had in camp 17,000 troops and 50,000 in the field, — 15,000 
over and above her full quota. 

The president, in July and .\ugust. 1862, called for 600,000 more men, and 
.August 18 was set as the limit for volunteers, after which a draft would be 
ordered. Before eleven days had expired, men came from the fields, shops, 
stores, offices and other places of business, to the number of 50,000, showing 
by their promptitude the patriotism of a great state and of its people. On the 
2 1st day of December, 1864, the last call was made. It was for 300,000 men and 
Illinois responded generously, although her c|uota had been overdrawn to a great 

In the meantime the citizens of Peoria and the country were heartily and 
enthusiastically in sympathy with the president in his efl:orts and determination to 
put down rebellion in the states and save the integrity of the Union. There 
were mass meetings, pole raisings, patriotic speeches on rostrums, in the pulpits 
and on the street corners. Democrats vied with republicans in expressions of 
condemnation of the spirit of the southern confederacy and party affiliations 
were forgotten by the thousands of loyal men who fell over each other in their 



eagerness to sign their names to the muster rolls. Hon. William Manning, one 
of Peoria's eminent lawyers of the day, an ardent Douglas democrat, declared 
himself for the Union, the constitution and the flag. At a great meeting of citi- 
zens presided over by the mayor, William A. Williard, William B. Whififen, a 
democrat, was made one of the secretaries. The Democratic Union announced 
its policy as being unequivocally for the maintenance of the federal union and 
Robert G. IngersoU, then a brilliant young Peoria lawyer and up to that time a 
democrat, offered to raise a regiment of cavalry i,ooo strong. This offer was 
not available, but shortly after a cavalry regiment was organized and IngersoU 
was made its colonel. 

The board of supervisors appropriated $10,000 to equip her volunteer soldiers 
and provide for the families of those needing assistance. j\Iany offers from 
influential and wealthy men were made to provide for families of volunteers and 
it seemed to be in the nature of a competition among the men of aifairs to see 
who could do the most for the Union cause. 

The first departure of volunteers from I'eoria was on the 24th day of April, 
1861. On this day Captain Dennison's company of "Xational Blues" entrained 
for Springfield, their departure being witnessed by a mass of men, women a;id 
children. To the depot the "Blues" were escorted by Captain Norton's company 
of volunteers, the Peoria Zouaves and the Emmet Guards, each of which v as 
headed by a brass band. On the following day the company was made a part 
of the state militia and finally it was mustered into the United States service as 
Company E, Eighteenth Regiment Illinois \'olunteers. Richard J. Oglesby, who 
was afterwards three times governor of the state and United States sena<;or, 
was commissioned as colonel of the regiment. Of the thousands of men sent 
to the front from Illinois, many of whom never returned, Peoria contributed 
a generous share. But the tales of the war have been oft told and countless 
volumes contribute to the history of the great conflict, which make it superfluous 
to go into details in this work. The well-filled shelves of Peoria's libraries will 
furnish all that may be desired on the subject. Following is a complete list 
of names of the brave men, who fought for their country's honor and integrity, 
from Peoria county : 

EIGHTH INF.\NTRY. son. Benjamin; Loomis. -Andrew; Lutz, Henry; 

Company E Miller, Rodolphus; Martens, l-Vederick; Molden- 

bower, Ernest; Martin, Otis P.; Mund. .August; 

Captain. i\Ioehl, Emil; McCormick. Seth; Niglass, Ignatz; 

Charles E. Dennison, April 22, 1861. Nofziger. Jacob; Oberhauser, William; Pluffer. 

Cbarles H. ; Rollaman, Oscar; Schutte, Otto; 
Lieutenants. Stutsman. Xavier; Schroeder, Louis; Schuman. Fred- 
First Tobn Wetzel April 22, l'S6i; second, erick; Thomas, .Tacob; \'oris, Robert; Van Braner, 
Charles' Proebsting, April 22, 1861. -J."''"; Wills Charles; Wetzland Julius; Wetzland, 

Gustavus: Wasson, James T. ; W rage, Henry; \\ il- 

Sergeants. son, Joseph T. ; Zindle, George; Zeidler, William. 

First, Lloyd Wheaton April 25, 1861. SEVENTH INFANTRY. 
Robert Wilson. April 25, 1861. 

Alexander Jackslfalusy, April 25, 1861. Company B. 

Frederick A. King, April 25, 1861. Sergeant. 

Corporals. Dred, Richard W., enlisted February 24, 1865. 

Charles Reiss, April 25, 1861. Corporals. 

Snyder, David D. April 2^, 1S61. Protsman, Tacob C. enlisted February 24, 1865. 

Roehrig Antony April 25, 1861. s^;(,,_ wiliiam. enlisted February 20, 1S65. 

Caldwell. Samuel, April 25. 1861. Conroy. Aaron, enlisted February 20, 1865. 

Musicians Bunn, William C. enlisted February 23, 1865; 

Pierce, Henry C, April 25! :86i. promoted sergeant. 

Watton, Henry. April 25, 1861. ^ . , , ' , 

Bauman, August, enlisted February 21, 1865. 

Privates. Bristol, James, enlisted February 21, 1865. 

Enlisted .April 25, 1861. Anderson, Irwin; Babb. Bristol. Cyrus, enlisted February 20, 1865. 

Timothy; Bohn, John; Brauns, Otto; Carner, Law- Cornell. George, enlisted February 3, 1865. 

rence; Christ, Carl M.; Commensenusich, David; Crowe. Isaac, enlisted February 2,^, 1865. 

Fairke, Otto; Forrester, Asa B.; Frazer, Chastaise Curtis. Anson H.. enlisted February 23, 1865. 

S.; Fry, Charles G. ; Gray, William H.; Garsuch, Ely. Nathan J., enlisted February 20, 1865. 

Noah H.; Gilliard. John P.; Gindele. Francis; Falconer, Thomas, enlisted February 20, 1865. 

Gruse, Gustavus; Gingrich. Tacob; Gillig. Charles Gandell. Charles, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

E. ; Gaup, William; Greenlcif, Henry B.; Hetzel. Graves. Jasper, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Frederick; Hahle, Charles; Harrison. A. Y. ; Hurd, Gray, John, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

George W. ; Humphries. Tames; Irons, Charles D.; Gifford. John B., enlisted February 20, 1865; pro- 

Tackel. .Xmandus; July, Basil; Keener. Henry H. ; nioted corporal. 

Karl, Joseph; Kluge. Gustavus; Kolmbuck. Rev- Haslench. Toseph. enlisted February 21, 1865. 

nolds; Kellogg, Tohn H. ; Kuehnle, Toseph; Law- Hunter, .Abner M., enlisted February 23, 1865. 



Harlow, Moses, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Hinkle. William A., enlisted February 24, 1S65. 

Isenburg. Samuel U., enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Jordan, John, enlisted F'ebruary 23, 1865. 

Johnson. lidgar, enlisted February 20, 1S65. 

Kampmier, William, enlisted F'ebruary 21, 1865. 

Keller, Thomas, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Keppel, F^rederick, enlisted F'ebruary 23, 1865; 
promoted corporal. 

Keyser. Dennis E.. enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Kistner, Paul, enlisted February 24. 1865. 

Lorins. Julius, enlisted February 24, 1865. 

Lorins. Eugene, enlisted February 24. 1865. 

Nicholas. William, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Regan. Henry, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Shiplen. Henry F., enlisted February 24. 1865. 

Scoville, John, enlisted February 24, 1865. 

Sarver, Benjamin, enlisted February 20, 1865. 

Sessler. Emile, enlisted February 24. 1865. 

Teufel, Christian, enlisted February 23, 1865; 
promoted corporal. 

Tcufel, Andreas, enlisted February 23. 1865. 

Wagener. August, enlisted February 21, 1865. 

Vans, Charles, enlisted February 20. 1865. 

Yates, John C., enlisted February 20, 1S65. 

Young, John B., enlisted February 23, 1863. 

Company K. 

Brannen. Henry, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Company G. 
Houston, Francis, enlisted March 24, 1865. 
Lloyd Wheaton, commissioned July 25, 1863; pro- 
moted lieutenant colonel, September 23, 1865; pro- 
moted colonel but never mustered; mustered out 
as lieutenant colonel May 4, 1865. 

Frederick A. King, 

Voris. Kobert, enlisted July 25. 1861; transferred 
from Company E, July 25. 1861; reduced and re- 
transferred October i, 1862. Martin, Otis P., en- 
listed July 25, 1861; transferred from Company E, 
October i, 1862; reduced* and retransferred No- 
vember 18, 1862. 

Hospital Steward. 
Keener, Henry H.. enlisted January 5. 1864; 
transferred front Company E, March 14, 1864; mus- 
tered out May 4, 1866. 

Company H. 
Stead, William, enlisted February i, 1864. 
Transferred from Sei-entecntk Infantry. 
Campbell. William, enlisted F-ebruary 15. 1864. 
Cross, William, enlisted February 2, 1864. 
Snyder, James, enlisted December 23, 1863. 

Transferred from Eleventh Infantry. 
F'leck, Martin, enlisted September 30. 1864. 
Miller, Anton, enlisted October 7. 1864. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Easton, Clark, enlisted September 26, 1864. 
Childs, Benjamin, enlisted September 27, 
Cliff, Richard, enlisted October 10, 1864. 
Grant, Winslow, enlisted September 26, 1864. 
Harriott, Epiiraim, enlisted October 1 1, 1864. 
Wonder, John, enlisted October 1 1, 1864. 
Woods, Henry, enlisted October 11, 1864. 

Company E. 


John Wetzel, commissioned July 25, 186 1. 

Lloyd Wheaton, commissioned March 25, 1862; 
promoted major. 


First, Lloyd Wheaton, commissioned July 25, 
1861 ; promoted, 

F'irst, l-'rederick A. King, commissioned July 25, 
t86i; promoted adjutant. 

Second. F'rederick A. King, commissioned March 
25, 1862: promoted. 


l-'irst. King. Frederick A., enlisted July 25, 1861; 
promoted second lieutenant. 

Martin. Otis P., enlisted July 25, i86i; pro- 
moted sergeant major, October i, 1861; reduced 
to ranks November 22, 1862; mustered out July 
30, 1S64. 


Brown. Benjamin W., enlisted July 25, 1861; 
promoted sergeant; transferred Veteran Relief 
Corps, September 15, 1863. 

Irons. Charles D., enlisted July 2$, 186 r ; re- 
duced to ranks April, 1S63; discharged April 24, 
1863; promotion in Eighty-sixth Illinois. 

Whane. John, enlisted July 25. 1861; promoted 
sergeant; discharged July 31, 1862; wounded at 

Molineaux. Gold D., enlisted July 25. 1861; re- 
enlisted as veteran. 

Keener, Henry N., enlisted July 25, 1S61; re- 
eiilisted as veteran. 


W*alton. Henry H., enlisted July 25, 1861; mus- 
tered out July 30, 1864, 

Barrett, John, enlisted July 26, 1861. 
Beadle, Ira E., enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Davies, John M,, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Duherst, Thomas, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Easton, Charles S., enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Greenieat, Henry B., enlisted July 25, i80r. 
Masters, William J., enlisted July 25, i86i. 
McDevitt, John, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
McMurtne, James, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Meeds, John, enlisted July 25, 1S61. 
O'Connors, Kdward, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Peck, Tristam B., enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Richer, George H., enlisted July 25, i86i. 
Simpson, Isaac H., enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Suodorf, George, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Sutter, Andrew, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Tulley, Patrick, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Vidito, Henry, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Vorris, Robert C, enlisted July 25, i86r. 
Walsh, Thomas, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Wilson, Joseph F., enlisted July 25, i8bi. 
Young, Howard, enlisted July 25, 1861. 

Ash, Francis W., enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Brant, Jacob, enlisted August 20, 1861. 
Beckman, William J,, enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Burgest, Samuel, enlisted August 20, 1S61. 
Devore. William H., enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Emerson, Joseph, enlisted luly 28, 1S61. 
Herr, Sheaff L., enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Kelley, Edward, enlisted July 28. 1861. 
Kelly, Peter, enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Line, Ralph E., enlisted July 28, 1861. 
.Muwry, \\ illiam IL. enlisted December 29, 1S63. 
I'i|ipin, Barnett M., enlisted September 30, 1864. 
I'arker. Robert H., enlisted July 28, 186 1. 
I'owers, John, enlisted Seiitember 12, 1861. 
Shearer, Henry, enlisted July 28, 186 1. 
\\est. James, enlisted July 28, 1861. 
White. Hiram, enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Wood. \'iralda, enlisted July 28, 1861. 
Wetmore, Henry, enlisted August 27, 1861. 
Whane, Joseph H., enlisted December 27, 1863. 

Transferred from Eleventh Infantry. 
Cobb. George H.. enlisted January 3, 1864. 
Dav'is. Samuel, enlisted January 3, 1864. 
Rakoskie, Stanislaus, enlisted December 15, 1863. 
Stone, Joseph, enlisted January i, 1864. 

Brant. Jacob, enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Keener. Henry M.. enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Masters, Wilburn J., enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Molineaux, Goldsmith D., enlisted January 4, 

Company F. 

Clark, David, enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Incs. I'rank H.. enlisted October 10, 1861. 
Nan^;el, Joseph, enlisted March 11, 1864. 

Bensel, John E., January 5, 1864. 
Irons, Frank H,, enlisted March 31, 1864. 
Waters, Wilson F,. enlisted February i. 1864. 



Company I. 

First, Kalambach, Ryiiold. enlisted July 25, 1861; 
discharged January 1. 1863; disability. 

SmUh, Dietrich, enlisted July 25, 1861; pro- 
moted second lieutenant. 

Schlag. William, enlisted July 25. 1861 ; pro- 
moted bCLOud lieutenant. 

Aubin, Albert, enlisted July 25, 1861; trans- 
ferred to First Mississippi Heavy Artillery U. S. 

Brauns, Otto, enlisted July 25, 1861; promoted 
second lieutenant. 


Peffer, Charles, enlisted July 25, 1861; reenlisted 
as veteran. 

Guis. IJasil, enlisted July 25. 1861; promoted 

Abel, Albert, enlisted July 25, 1861; discharged 
May 26, 1 862 ; wounded Fort Donelson. 

Steen. Paul, enlisted July 25, 1861; promoted 
sereeant July 30, 1864. 

Fulfs, August, enlisted July 25, 1861 ; promoted 
sergeant July 30, 1864. 

Niglass. Enats, enlisted Tuly 25. 1861; transferred 
to Sixth Illinois Cavalry December i, 1861. 

Kluge. ("lustavus. enlisted July 25, 1861 ; killed at 
Fort Donelson February i s. 1862. 

Thomas. Jacob, enlisted July 25. 1861; reenlisted 
as veteran. 

Balser. Andreas, enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Backman, John, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Comemish, Daniel, enlisted July 25, 186 1. 
Evans. Walter F., enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Fellgra, John, enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Geible, Henry, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Hugger, Gabriel, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
I verger, I^ewis, enlisted July 25. 186 1. 
Kuhule, Joseph, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Knapii, Christian, enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Lahr, Tobias, enlisted July 25, 186 1. 
Meyer, Henry, enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Mummers, Paul, enlisted Tulv 25, 1S61. 
Mond, Augustus, enlisted July 25. 1861. 
Nabenger. Jacob, enlisted Tnly 25, 1861. 
Pleifer. Henry, enlisted Julv 25, 1861. 
Schrader, August, enlisted July 25, 1861. 
Schwedcr. Adam, enlisted July 25, tS^-i. 
Streiback, Leo. enlisted Tulv 25, 1861. 
Walter. Phillip, enlisted Tuly 25, 1861. 
Zendell. Joseiih, enlisted July 25, 1861. 

Company I. 
Altmeycr. William, enlisted August 2, 1861. 
Burcheld, William, enlisted August 2. 186 1. 
Burchard, Adam, enlisted August 9, 1861. 
Baiter. Casper, enlisted August 9, 1861. 
Bran timer. John, enlisted August 10, 1861. 
Buttner, Jacob, enlisted August 19, 1861. 
Duenaec liter, Jlelcbor J., enlisted August ig, 

Garon, George, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Harsch, Adolph, enlisted August 19. 1861. 
Hamme, John, enlisted August 19, 1861. 
Jackel, Amandus. enlisted August 8. 1861. 
Gordi, Jacob, enlisted August 19, 1861. 
Kolbatz, Edward, enlisted August 19. 1S61. 
Kohn, Franz, enlisted August 19. 1861, 
Kaechle. Andrew, enlisted August 9. 1S61. 
Kallinc. Alfred, enlisted August 19, 1861. 
Ltcberger, Peter, enlisted August i. 1861., John, enlisted August 19. i86t. 
Menges. John, enlisted Aueust iS. i86r. 
Onde'^sender, Matthias, enlisted August ig. 1861. 
Pfander. Charles, enlisted August 19, 1861. 
Ritzenccr. Andrew, August 10. 186 1. 
Richter. Edward, enlisted Aueust 2. i86r. 
Ringclle, Frederick, enlisted August 9. 1861. 
Stange. Henry, enlisted Aueust 9, 1861. 
Schronide. Charles, enlisted August 15, 1861. 
Shand, John, enlisted August 15;, 1861. 
Schreurmaun, TTenry. enlisted August 16, i8fiT. 
Schoenthaler, Charles, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Tell. William, enlisted January 15. 1864. 
Trey ens. John, enlisted August IQ, 1861. 
Wilt. Henry C, August 12. 1861. 
Zenkel, John, enlisted August ig, 1861. 


Drafted and Substititte Recruits. 
Joseph, enlisted September 26. 


Mamburg. Madison, enlisted October 1 r, 1864. 
Spenive. Jacob, enlisted September 26, 1864. 
AlcKenny, Michael, enlisted July 9, 1861. 

Basler, Andrew, enlisted February i, 1864. 
Duenaechter, Melchor, J., enlisted February i. 

Ensch, Michael, enlisted I'ebruary i, 1864. 
Judig, Basil, enlisted December 7, 1863. 
Juerger, Lewis, en isted December 25, .863 
Kohn, Franz, enlisted February x. i S64. 
Knapp. Christian, 'jiilisied February j, 1864. 
Mummert. Paul, enlisted December 26, 1863. 
Ondessender, Matthias, enlisted February ', 1864. 
Pfander. Charles, enlisted December :s, 1863. 
Ringelle, Frederick, enlisted February 1, 1864. 
Richter. Edward, enlisted February 10. 1864. 
Schroend, Charles, enlisted January 5. 1864. 
Schonthaler. Charles, enlisted February i, 1864. 
Shand. John, enlisted February i, 1864. 
Streibich, Leo, enlisted December 26, 1863. 
Thomas, Jacob, enlisted February i. 1864. 
Walter, PhiJip, enlisted February i, 1864. 

Company K. 
I^randt, Jacob, enlisted August 20, 1862. 
Cloud, George, enlisted August 24, 1862. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
jMiner, Cyrus, enlisted September 26, 1864. 
Stubbs, John, enlisted September 27, 1864. 

Transferred from Seventeenth Infantry. 
.\ckerman. William B.. enlisted January 14. 1864, 
Blind. Philip, enlisted December 15. 1863. 
Beald, William H.. enlisted February 16, 1864. 
Clumnings, William C. enlisted December i, 1863. 
!;orgarthy, Jeremiah, enlisted February 24, 1864. 
Galaway, George W., enlisted December i, 1863. 
McHenry, James, enlisted January 20, 1864. 
Mills, Samuel C, enlisted December 8, 1863. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 

Duplade, William, enlisted September 26, 1S64. 


Company C. 


First. Oscar Rollman, commissioned July 26, 

1861; transferred to Invalid Corps, November 17, 



Hale, Charles, enlisted; killed at Shiloh, April 
6, 1S62. 

Rauch. Thomas, discharged April 14, 1S62. 
Company I. 
Bright, George, enlisted September 25, 1861. 
Company K. 
L'nassigned, Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Righttinger, Parson H., enlisted October 13, 


Company B. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 

Ragan, Weldon, enlisted September 30, 1864. 

Company D. 

Drafted and Substitute Rccritif. 

Broughten, Jeremiah, enlisted September 21, 1864. 

Company H. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 

Fargo, Ralph G., enlisted September 30, 1S64. 

McClayment, Alexander. 

Ragan, Weldon, enlisted September 30, 1864. 

Company C. 

Sullivan, James H., enlisted February 27, 1865; 
deserted March 18, 1865. 




Burnitt. William, enlisted February 2;^, 1865; 
sick at muster out. 

Perry. Stephen, enlisted February 24, 1865; mus- 
tered out September 16, 1865. 

Boyd. lohn B., enlisted February 23, 186.1 ; mus- 
tered out September id. 1865. 

Tilden Edward, enlisted February 37, 1865; de- 
serted March 18, 1865. 

Brown. James, enlisted March 27, 1S65, 
Cain, John, enlisted March 2. 1865. 
Connor, John, enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Doyle, James, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Dunn. John, enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Delay, Dennis, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Ellis, George B., enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Farley, John, enlisted I*"ebruary 27, 1865. 
Furrell, Robert, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Galaway, William, enlisted February 22, 1865. 
Gannon, Joseph, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Harland, George, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
King. Thomas, enlisted February 27. 1865. 
Killfayle, James, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Lewis, Henry J., enlisted I-'ebruary 24. 1865. 
Lineback. Freeman, enlisted February 22. 1865. 
Mc Bride, James, enlisted February 22, 1S65. 
Nacy. Thomas, enlist erl February 27, 1S65. 
Newton, Neednian, enlisted February 22, 1865. 
Ross Alexander enlisted February 27 1S65. 
Smith, William, enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Sommers. George W.. enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Whalen, James, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Walsh, John, enlisted February 27. 1865. 

Company E. 

Bennett, William, enlisted February 27. 1S65. 
Jones. Edward, enlisted Marcli 2, 1865. 
Lardner. Daniel, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Stanley, William, enlisted February 27, 1865, 

Company G. 

Rruden. William, enlisted February 16, 1865. 
Dockstader, Jeremiah, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Warner, Thomas J., enlisted February 16, 1865. 
Zathlow. Charles, enlisted February 22, 1865. 

Company K. 
Unassigncd Recruits. 
Cole, Francis, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Ewing, Joshua, enlisted March '22, 1865. 
Mack. John, enlisted February 27. 1865. 
Stewart, Enos J., enlisted February 27, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Regiment of Illinois Infantry 
Volunteers was mustered into the United States 
service at Peoria, Illinois, May 24, 186 1. Left 
camp on the 17th of June for Alton. Illinois, for 
the purpose of more fully completing its organi- 
zation and arming. Late in July it proceeded from 
Alton to St. Charles, Missouri, remaining but one 
day; thence went to Warrenton, Missouri, where 
it remained in camp about two weeks. Company A 
being detailed as body guard to General John 
Pope, with headquarters at St. Charles. Regiment 
left Warrenton for St. Louis and embarked on 
tran'^ports for Bird's Point. Missouri. Remained 
at Bird's Point some weeks, doing garrison duty; 
then proceeded to Sulphur Sprin.cs Landings; dis- 
embarking there it proceeded via Pilot Knob and 
[ronton, to Fredericktown. Missouri, in pursuit of 
General Jeff Thompson and joined General B. M. 
Prentiss' command at Jackson. Missouri; thence 
proceeded to Kentucky and aided in the construc- 
tion of Fort Holt: thence ordered to Elliott's 
Mips; remained there a short time and returned 
to Fort Holt; thence to Cape Girardeau and with 
other regiments, was sent in pursuit of General 
Jeff Thompson's forces; participated in the en- 
gagement near Greenfield, lost one man killed and 
several wounded; returned to Cape Girardeau, do- 
ing provost duty until early in February, 1862, 
when ordered to Fort Henry; participated in the 
encagement at Fort Donelson, losing several men 
killed, wounded and taken iirisoners; then pro- 
ceeded to Metal Landing. Tennessee river, and cm- 
barked for Savannah, Tennessee; from thence to 

Pittsburgh Landing and was assigned to the First 
Division. Army of West Tennessee, under General 
John A. McClernand; was engaged in the battles 
of the Sixth and Seventh of April; suffered great 
loss in killed and wounded; was with the advance 
to Corinth. 

After the evacuation of Corinth marched to 
Purdy. Betliel and Jackson. Tennessee; remained 
there until July 17, when the regiment was ordered 
to Bolivar and was assigned to duty as provost 
guard. Remained at Bolivar until November. 
1862, during which time it participated in the ex- 
pedition to [uka, to reinforce General Rosecrans; 
afterward at the battle of Hatchie; returned again 
to Bolivar; remained there until the middle of 
November; then ordered to Lagrange to report to 
General John A. Logan; assigned to duty as pro- 
vost guard. Colonel Norton being assigned to the 
command of the post; early in December marched 
to Holly Springs, thence to Abbyville, guarding 
railroads; thence to Oxford. 

After the capture of Holly Springs, was as- 
signed to Sixth Division. Seventeenth Army Corps 
under Major General McPherson; then proceeded 
via Moscow, to Collierville: from there to Mem- 
phis and was assigned to duty at the navy yard. 
Remained there until January 16, then embarked 
for Vicksburg; reembarked and proceeded to Lake 
Providence, Louisiana, then the headquarlers of 
the Seventeenth Army Corps, doing duty there 
until the investment of Vicksburg commenced. Ar- 
riving at Milliken's Bend on or about May i, 
commenced to man h across the Delta to Per'kin's 
Landing, on the Mississippi river; thence to the 
crossing below Grand Gulf, advancing with !\Ic- 
Phersoii's command, via Raymond, Champion Hills, 
Jackson. Big Block and to the final investment of 
\ icksburg. After the surrender of that city re- 
mained there, doing garrison duty and making 
incursions into the enemy's country as far east as 
Meridian, west as far as Monroe, Louisiana. Re- 
turning to \'icksburg, remained until May, 1864, 
the term of service of the regiment expiring May 
24th of that year. 

The regiment was ordered to Springfield, Illi- 
nois, for muster out and finally discharged, when 
and where those of the original organization who 
did not reenlist as veterans were mustered out and 
discharged. A sufficient number not having reen- 
hsted to entitle them to retain their regimental 
organization, the veterans and recruits whose term 
of service had not expired were consolidated with 
the Eighth Illinois Infantry Volunteers, and were 
finally mustered out with that regiment and dis 
charged in the spring of 1866. 


Addison S. Norton, commissioned .^pril 2^, 1862; 
resigned July 9, 1863. 


Abraham IT. Ryan, commissioned May 25, 1861; 
promoted Captain Company A. 

Company A. 

Addison S. Norton, commissioned April ig, 1861; 
promoted lieutenant colonel. 

Abraham H. Ryan, commi.ssioned April 25, 1862; 
term expired June, 1864. 


First, Abraham H. Ryan, commissioned April 19, 
1861 ; promoted adjutant. 

First, George W. Robson, commissioned May 
20, 1861; promoted Captain Company B. 

First., Edmund E. Ryan, commissioned April 25, 
1862; mustered out October 24, 1864. 

Second. George W. Robson, commissioned April 
19, 1861 : promoted. 

Second. Gawn Wilkins, commissioned April 2$, 
1862; term expired June. 1S64. 

First. Gerard S. Crane, enlisted May 25, 
Gawn Wilkins, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Frank S. Bishop, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
William Reynolds, enlisted May 25. 1861. 


E. E. Ryan, 
first lieutenant. 

enlisted May 25. 

i86r ; promoted 



John n. Comphor, enlisted May 25. 1861; dis- 
charged December 5, 1861. 

Aaron P. Gilbert, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

John \V. Wonder, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Autcliff, Thomas H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Babcock, George C, Jr., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Barlett, Nicholas, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Barnes, James, enlisted May 25» 186:. 
Battersley, Robert, enlisted May 25. 1S6:. 
Barry, Richard, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Bennett, Elliott G., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Bohn, Julius, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Brown, Edward T., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Brown, Vincent, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Brown, John, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Buckholder, John, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Battie, Gordon, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Barton. Chauncey E, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Butt, William II., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Clemmens, Tames W., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Cliffy. Richard, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Cobb, George H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Dailey, Martin, enlisted May 25, i86i. 
Davis, Samuel, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Dyer, Horace E., enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Fisher. William, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Fisher, Albert C, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Flagler, Daniel H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Garlar, John, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Gunderlack, Charles R., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Grooms. Alfred S., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Harriett, Ephraim, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Hack, Alexander W. enlisted May 25, 1861:. 
Hamilton, Theodore F., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Howell, Alfred, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Hough, John, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Huey, Edward C, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Huey, James H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Johnson. John, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Johnson, Richard, enlisted May 25. 186 1. 
Johnson. Frederick, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Johnson, Heye, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Kellogg, Dennis, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Kellogg, Solomon, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Keshpaugh. John, enlisted May 25. 1861, 
Lamb, Frederick, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Lang. William H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Landon, Fred A., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Lazell. Joshua E.. enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Lemuel. Peter, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Miner. Justin L., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Mowell, David, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Myers, Harrison, enlisted May 25, 1S61. 
Nicholls. Charles L., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Olin. William H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
O'Neil. Patrick, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Patten, John H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Piper. John, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Plumb, Henry, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Phoenix, Charles H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Raymon, Eugene K., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Ritter. Philip, enlisted May 25, 186 1. 
Reigle, Anton, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Reed, Robert, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Rook, John, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Ruley. Stanley, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Simms, James A., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Smith. Weslev. enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Smedtt, Charles, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Shorklev, Millican, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Stillweli. John H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Stettman, Jnmes G., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Stone, Joseph, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Sykes. James B., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Taniplin. Benjamin H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Thomas, William B., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Thompson, James, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Twicgs, James, enlisted Mav 25. 1861. 
Ulricb. William, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
VanTine. James H., enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Watson. Samuel, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Wheeler. Horatio, enlisted May 25,-1861. 
Wentlett. Peter, enlisted May 25. i86i. 
Woodruff. William A., enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Woods. Henry A., enlisted May 25, 1S61. 
Woolstein, Henry, enlisted May 25. 1861. 

Albright. Frederick, enlisted ^lay 25, 18G1. 
AutclifT, Arthur T., enlisted September 17, 1R61. 

Bush, George M., enlisted June 24, 1861. 
Broadman, John, enlisted May 28, i86t. 
Dodge. James, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Dupam, Anton, enlisted November 23. 1863. 
Howell. Alfred, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Jones, George H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Kelley, Lewis, enlisted July 5, 1861. 
Pfifer, August, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Piper, James W., enlisted August 1 1, 1862. 
Recter. Philip, enlisted January 25, 1864. 
Schmunck, George, enlisted May 25. 1861. 
Spiniing. William H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Woods. George E.. enlisted October 25, 1862. 

Cobb, George C, enlisted January 3, 1864. 
Davis, Samuel, enlisted January 3, 1864. 
Stone, Joseph, enlisted January i, 1864. 

Company B. 

First, John Hough, commissioned August 26, 
1861; resigned April i6, 1862. 

First, Albert W. Jones; commissioned April 16, 
1862; resigned September 13, 1S62. 

Second, Albert W. Jones, commissioned May 15, 
1861; promoted. 


Pollock. George W., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Thurston, William, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Brick, John, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Brackett, Aiois, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Denton, Isaac, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Dureniper, John, enlisted i\Iay 25, 1861. 

Daily, Daniel, enlisted May 25. 1861. 

Davidson, George, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Elliott, John, enlisted May 25, 1801. 

Ellis, John H., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Falkenburg, Thomas J., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Francis, 'ihomas J., enlisted Alay 25, 1861. 

Galamo, J. W., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Glass, William E., enlisted May 25, 1861, 

Hartman, Augustus, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Jones, Job, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Litherow', William, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Mateland. John, enlisted May 25. 1861. 

Morris, David, enlisted May 25, 186 1. 

Martin, James R., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Riley. James, enlisted May 25, 1S61. 

Wickett, John B., enlisted May 25. 1861. 

Willoughby, M. E., enlisted May 2$, 1861. 

Wagner, L, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Ackerman, William B., enlisted January 14, 1864. 
Blind, Philip, enlisted December 15, 1863. 
Beal, William H., enlisted February 16, 1864. 
Britzenhart, John, enlisted May 26, 186 1. 
Cross, William, enlisted February 2, 1864. 
Clemmens, William E., enlisted December i, 

Davis, Oscar R., enlisted May 29, 1S61. 
Fogarty, Jeremiah, enlisted February 24, 1864. 
Miller, Samuel C, enlisted December 8, 1863. 
McHenry, James, enlisted January 20, 1S64. 
McGrath, James, enlisted February 25, 1864. 

Rakoskie, Stanislaus, enlisted December 15, 1863. 
Company C. 

Bayne, James, enlisted May 25, i86r. 
Wisner, Jacob S., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Company D. 
Price, Samuel, enlisted May 25, 1S61. 

Moore, James, enlisted June 22, 186 1. 
AlcKinney, Michael, enlisted July 9, :S6i. 

Company E. 


Brophy, James, enlisted June 15. 1861. 
Bryan, Moore, enlisted June 15, 1861. 
Berry, Terry, enlisted June 24, 1861. 



Bateman. James A., enlisted Tune 24, 1861. 
Carroll, Edwin, enlisted June 24. 1861. 
Howell. Israel, enlisted June 15, 1861. 
McCee, William T., enlisted June 15. 1861. 
Smith, Oliver, enlisted Tune 24, 1S61. 
Wilson. Walter, enlisted' June 24, 1861. 

Company G. 

Scliell. William, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Borne. James, enlisted June 25, 1861. 
Towers, E. J., enlisted June 24, 1861. 

Company H. 

Yates. William E., enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Law, Thomas J., enlisted May 28, 1861. 
Lowers, Calvin G.. enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Company I. 


Workman, James M., enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Kelley. Lewis, enlisted June 24, 1861. 
Phelps. James M., enlisted June 24. 1861. 
Shuflfield. Nelson M., enlisted Tune 26. 1861. 
Stead. William H., enlisted February i, 1864. 
Wright, William M., enlisted July i, 1864. 

Company K. 
First. John Q, A. Jones, commissioned April 23. 
1861; died in service. 

Second, Andrew J. Bruner, commissioned April 
24. 1861; died in service. 

Pfifeshcr. Raymond, enlisted May 25, 1861. 
Warren. Aaron, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

\'andoran. Jacob, enlisted May 28, 1861. 

Unassigncd Recruit. 

Campbell. William, enlisted February 15, 1864. 


Company E. 


Hanlan, Thomas, enlisted December 16, 1863. 


Company E. 


Murphy. John, enlisted February 27, 1865. 

Mockhart. George, enlisted February 27, 1865 
Mooney, Peter, enlisted February 25, 1865. 

Company F. 
First, George Foster, commissioned March 16, 
1865: dishonorably dismissed June 29, 1865.- 
McCoy, Michael, enlisted March 5, 1865: deserted 
March 2i, 1865. 

Campen, William H., enlisted March 8, 1865: de- 
serted .March 26, 1865. 

Buckley, Charles A., enlisted March 10, 1865. 
Clumer. Thomas, enlisted .March 9, 1S65. 
Collins, Murray, enlisted March 8. 1865 
Curtis. George, enlisted March 6. 1865. 
Dainise, George W., enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Fairlcy, William, enlisted March 8, 1865. 
Frank, Nicholas, enlisted ,March 10, 1865. 
Morgan, Thomas, enlisted March 8, 1865. 
Miles, Michael, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Owen, John, enlisted March 8, 1S65. 
Ryan. John, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Riley, John, enlisted March 11, 1865. 

Company G, 

Ryan. \\'illiam. enlisted February 27, 1865. 

Co.mpany I. 
Dawson. Cornelius, enlisted February 28, 1865. 

Harper. Thomas, enlisted February 23 1865 
King, Lewis M., enlisted February 28, 186s 
Miller, James D., enlisted March i, 1865. 

Company G. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Turnbull, Esquire, enlisted October 13, 1864. 

Company G. 
Cronen. Timothy, enlisted June 21, 1862. 


Company A. 


Alexander J, Kelfalusy, commissioned Tuly i 

1862; term expired August 6. 1864. 

Company 1', 
First. Alexander J. Kelfalusy, commissioned June 
29. 1861; promoted to captain Company A. 

Wernick. William, enlisted July 8, i86r. 


Company D. 


Anderson, George W., enlisted September 20 
1861. •* 

Company G. 
Second. Henry Lewis, commissioned March 21 
1S65; dishonorably dismissed, May 2, 1865. 

Second, Thomas Henderson, commissioned Au- 
gust 23, 1865; promoted. 

First, Thomas Henderson, enlisted March 15, 
1865; promoted to second lieutenant. 

Canady, William R., enlisted March 8, 1865; as 
corporal; mustered out March 8, 1865. 

Gaylor. John L., enlisted March 8, 1865, as musi- 
cian; died at Cairo, April 2, 1S65. 

Howe, George W., enlisted March 8, 1865. 
Corber, Con., enlisted March 14, 1865. 
Kelley, Samuel, enlisted March 16, 1865. 
Curley^ James, enlisted iMarcli 11, 1865. 
Lewis, Henry, enlisted March 14, 1865. 
Lewis, Robert, enlisted March 14, 1865. 
Mulligan, Thomas S., enlisted March 14. 1865. 
Morrissey, Michael, enlisted March 14, 1865. 
Norton, Charles, enlisted Jlarch 14, 1865. 
Price, David A., enlisted March 8, 1865. 
Sherer, Hurdy Hill, enlisted March 11, 1865. 
Thompson, Abram IJ., enlisted March 14, 1865. 
Wise, David B., enlisted March 8, 1865. 

Company E. 
Jones. Martin L., enlisted August 31, 1864. 
Company K. 
William R. Brown, enlisted August 24. 1861; mus- 
tered out .August 28, 1864; term expired. 

Garner. George W., enlisted August 24. 1861; 
mustered out August 28, 1864; term expired. 



Davis, Thomas \V.. enlisted January i. 1864. 
Farris, Christopher, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Grover, Isaiah, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Huston, Gilbra, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Hedgar, Job, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Markwell, Abner S., enlisted January i. 1864. 
Wilkins, William T., enlisted January i, 1864. 

Davis, William, enlisted August i5t 1864. 
Kurst, Thomas K., enlisted August 15, 1864. 
Igo, Daniel, enlisted August 15. 1864. 
Tones. Samuel S., enlisted August 15. 1864. 
"Markwell, Georpe \V.. enlisted August 15. 1864. 

Company I. 
Hamer, Henry, enlisted August 11, 1861. 


Company A. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Andrews, William, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Andrews. W. H., enlisted September 27, 1864. 
McCurdy. John, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Lair, George H., enlisted September 27. 1864. 
McKinnon. J., enlisted December 15, 1864. 
Savage. William C, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Slygh, Charles C, enlisted September 29, 1864. 
Soaper, Tohn, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Wheeler," John, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Ward. Roswell, enlisted September 27, 1864. 

Company B. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Mills, Robert E., enlisted October 13, 1864. 

Company D. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 

Taylor, Isaac D., enlisted September 27, 1864. 

Watson, William, enlisted September 13, 1864. 

Company G. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Xreft, Frederick, enlisted October 19, 1864. 
Company H. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Noble, Enoch, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Company I. 
Martin, Isaac, enlisted August 15. 1861. 
Sheen. Patrick, enlisted August 15, 1861. 
Winkey, John S., enlisted August 15, 1861. 


Company A. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Wilson, Finley T., enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Company G. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Patterson, William, enlisted September 26, 1861. 
Company I. 
Second, Hiram R. Walgamot, commissioned April 
25, 1865; mustered out September 16, 1865. 

Hiram R. Walgamot, enlisted November 7, 1861, 
as sergeant ; reenlisted as veteran. 


David M. Cawser. enlisted November 5, 1861, as 
corporal; reenlisted as veteran. 

Miles R. Goodwin, enlisted November 7, 1861; 
discharged April 28, 1862; disability. 

William Whitlow, enlisted December 17, 1861, as 
corporal; reenlisted as veteran. 

Buck. Abram, enlisted November 5. 1861. 
Crackel, James, enlisted October 2. 1861. 
Compton. Thomas, enlisted November i, i86i. 
Diselms. Washington, enlisted November 5. 1861. 
Fuller, William, enlisted November 5, 186 1. 

Fuller, Samuel, enlisted November 5, 1861. 
Fuller, John, enlisted November 5, 1861. 
Fuller. Nathan, enlisted November 28, 1861. 
Gold, Thomas, enlisted October 16. 1861. 
Jones, George, enlisted November 30, 1861. 

Krisher, John, enlisted January 2, 1864. 
Peters, Samuel L., enlisted January 2, 1864. 
Wliitlow, William, enlisted June 2, 1864. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Buck. Miller H., enlisted October 26, 1864. 
Blue, James W., enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Boher. Joseph, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Juller, Isaac, enlisted September 2O, 1864, 
James, Jesse, enlisted .September 26, 1864. 
Pyle, George, enlisted September 26, 1865. 
Preston, Samuel, enlisted September 26, 1864, 
Walter, James, enlisted September 27, 1864. 

Company K. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
\'inson, Ira, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Baker, Joseph, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Craig. John, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Hamline, W'ade H., enlisted September 27, 1864. 

Unassigned and Substitute Recruit. 
Scholler, Jacob, enlisted November 15, 1864. 
Winter or Minor, C. A., enlisted August 15, 
1861; mustered out August 15, 1862. 

Company B. 
Packer, William K., enlisted August 20, 186 1 ; 
died Ironton, Missouri, November 27, 1861. 

Ingraham, Edward A., enlisted August 20, 186 1. 
Mayo, William J. R., enlisted August 20, 1S61. 
Robinson, Martin B., enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Morgan, Sidney O., enlisted March 29, 1864. 


Chase, Edward D., enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Company D. 

Leary, Richard, enlisted January 28. 1S65. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Corley, James, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
Davis, Charles P., enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Johnson, David, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
Keenan, William, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
McLeod. Murdock. enlisted February 25, 1865. 
McCarthy, Timothy, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
McCarthy, Lawrence, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
McKnight, Henry, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
Stewart, Alexander, enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Simms, Michael, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
White, John, enlisted March 3, 1S65. 
Dolan, Juhn, enlisted March 3. 1865. 
Dalton, James, enlisted March 3, 1S65. 

Company C. 
Recruits transferred from Eighty-sixth Infantry. 
Hindbaugh. Philip, enlisted January 4, 1864. 
Sanderen, Charles, enlisted January 2, 1864. 

Company E. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
LeGrass, George, enlisted March 25, 1864. 

Company F. 
Recruits transferred from Eighty-si-vth Infantry. 
Gladfetter, Albert, enlisted February i, 1864. 
Hughes, William, enlisted February i, 1864. 
Harris, Joseph 1).. enlisted January 23, 1865. 
Lvncli, James A., enlisted January 23. 1865. 
Nail. William, enlisted January 21, 1864. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Bane, Matthew, enlisted March 4, 1865. 




Company G. 
Recruits Transferred from Eighty-sixth Infantry. 

Frank. Henry, enlisted December 29. 1863. 

Holtmeyer, Joseph W., enlisted December 17, 

Preston. Tohn R., enlisted December 29. 1863. 

Preston, David, enlisted Deceinber 22, 1863. 

Company I. 
Recruits transferred from Eighty-sixth Infantry. 
Green. Andrew S., enlisted December 21, 1864. 
Glasford, John, enlisted December 28, 1S64. 
Glasford, George, enlisted December 28, 1864. 
Kelley, Nelson, enlisted February 21. 1865. 
Petty. Ezekiel. enlisted December 28. 1864. 
Petty. John R., enlisted December 28. 1864. 
Sayler. William C. enlisted January 25. 1864. 

Company K. 

Transferred from Eighty-sixth Infantry. 
Reardon. Charles, enlisted March 25, 1865. 
Anderson, Joseph, enlisted January 30. 1865. 
Unassigned, Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Farrell. John, enlis^ted Marcli 21, 1865. 
Flynam. Thomas, enlisted March 21, 1865. 

Company B. 
Bradley. Seymour W.. enlisted July 3. 1861, as 
corporal: mustered out September 27, 1864. as pri- 

Company A. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Wilder, George F., enlisted September 26. 1864. 
Company R. 
McGee, Joseph, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Company C. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Kepsah, Michael, enlisted October 11. 1864. 
Roleum, Julius, enlisted October 17, 1864. 

Company D. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Nolan, Thomas, enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Laison. William, enlisted October 12, 1864. 

Company I. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Miller. Joseph, enlisted October 11. 1864. 
Strange. Henry, enlisted October 11. 1864. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Williams. William S., enlisted February 28. 1864. 
Benton, Charles, enlisted February 28, 1864. 

Company A. 
Ennis, John, enlisted July is. 1861. 
Howey. Thomas, enlisted Tuiy 15. 1861. 
Rollins. Gilbert, enlisted July 15, 1861. 
Sheehan. Thomas, enlisted July 15, 1861. 


Company G. 


Borchers, Hermanus, enlisted August 30, 1861. 

Klumpp. William, enlisted August 30, 186 1. 

Klumpp, Jacob, enlisted September 4, 1861. 


Company A. 


Carter. James W., enlisted August 21. i86t. 

Company C. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 

Bune. John, enlisted October 13, 1864. 

Company F,. 
Swan. William, enlisted January i. 1864. 

Company 1'. 
Cook, James H., enlisted July 29. i86i. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Riteman. William H., enlisted September 27, 1864. 
Company II. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Caswell, Chester B., enlisted September 27, 18 — . 
Company I. 
Thilieg. Christian F., enlisted January i. 1864. 
Bennett. William H., enlisted August 15. 1861. 


Company D, 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 

Clausen, Hein G., enlisted September 26, 1864. 

Company G. 

Woolcnmann. John, enlisted September r, 1861. 

Company H. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 

I-'auI, John, enlisted September 26. 1864. 


Company K. 


Carroll, Timothy, enlisted March 30. 

Company A. 

Schrader, Charles, enlisted July i 1861 
Wirtb. Frederick, died at Rolla, Missouri. Decem- 
ber 21. iR6r. 

Birieinbacb, John, enlisted July i, 1861. 
Company E. 
Ernest Moldenhawer, commissioned February 6 
1862; died of wounds, January 16. 1863. 


First. Ernest Moldenhawer, commissioned Decem- 
ber 27, 1861; promoted. 

Second. Ernest Moldenhawer, commissioned Au- 
gust 14, 1861; promoted. 

Nicbaus, Franz, enlisted September i. 1861. 
Company K. 
Second. William Gebhardt. commissioned August 
14. 1861; resigned January 16. 1862. 

Henrich Wilz, enlisted September i, 1861; ser- 
geant, transferred to Invalid Corps. 

Buchrig. Christian C. 

Degermeyer. George, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Haager, Julius, died February i, 1863. 
Heinz. Philip, enlisted September i. 1861. 
Hiscb, Fred W., enlisted September i, 1861. 
Meder, August, enlisted September i, i86r. 
Meyer. Christian, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Romann. Peter, enlisted September i. 1861, 
Yogel, Lewis, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Weth, Frederick, enlisted July i, 1861. 

Bohmann. Peter, enlisted September i, 1864. 
Duermeyer, George, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Kennel, Andreas, enlisted January i, 1864. 
Klassert. William, enlisted January i, 1864. 

Albers. Henry, enlisted March 30. i860. 
Buchler. Johannus. 
Berge. Burkhad. 
Denzel, Lewis. 
Essig, George. 



Sclimult, Carl. 
Steiihen, Juseph. 

Itf-fbergTMax, enlisted January .9, .864. 
Company B. 
Dresser, Charles W.. enlisted October 2, 1861. 
Company I. 
Rccmils transferred from Eleventh Illinois Infantry. 
Hunter, John D., enlisted October 7. '»(>*■ 
HuSer,' George, enlisted October 7, .864. 
Mauel, Frank, enlisted October 12, ;864. 
Vickery, Chester, enlisted October i^ 1864. 
Clay, Charles H., enlisted March 4. 1S64. 

The Forty-seventh Illinois Infantry Volunteers 
was first organized and mustered nUo the service 
of the Un°ted States at Peoria, Hlinots, on the i6th 

'leptembTt3,"'s6., the regiment moved by rail 
from Peoria to St. Louis. Missouri, going into 
quarters at Benton Barracks, near the cty, where 
?t "as clothed and armed complete; reman ed m 
Benton Barracks, undergoing a thorough drilling 
daiW until the 9th dav of October, when it moved 
b? ^raU o Jefferson City, Missouri where it re- 



St Charles, where it arrived hebruary iS. crosseo 
the river at St. Charles and moved by rail to St 
Touis where it embarked on the steamer W,ar 
Fagle and moved down the river, arriving at Cairo 

'"'FebJuary^'^sth it moved back up the river thirty 
mifes to Commerce, Missouri, where the "giniem 
disembarked and joined Pope's c°mrnand then pre^ 

?retS[aSri^d ""?a;?hed^ro^ ^Son": °Mlsso?,"rS! 
Sarch 2d arriving in front of the enemy's works 

^'o^^n'Ihe'ni^M of"urci;':oth, the regiment with 
the Eleventh Missouri Infantry marched ten miles 
below N?w Madrid, taking with 'h-:™, ^''^""^^^ 
U^ht artillery to Point Pleasant, blockading the 
dfer and cut=;,ng off the enemy's convmunication^ by 
river below New Madrid and Island No. 10 Here 

swamp, with continual heavy rains, until the 7tn 
■^'Th"/ enemv hav'ing evacuated New Madrid on 

and on the Qth were paid four months' pay by 
''^cjn%hr moving of April 10th tbe regiment em- 
Sed^ °w!lth^°?h^ i;;:mf rw:n^t'he\P;ern^ea?ly 
Fort PiUow returning'on the morning of the nth 

took on coal, and on the nigni 01 inc „ •„ „ 
up the Tennessee river, arriving a H^"""", 
landing. Tennessee, on the ■"o^""'/ rWer 

Corinth, ."portion of the way it had to constru t 


forces as far as Bonnesville, Mississippi, returning 
,0 Camp Clear Creek, six miles ^o"'h of Corinth 
June li, 1862, where, m a few days, tl'= /58' 
ment received two months' pay from Major t-t""g. 
On the 3d of July the regiment marched to 
Rienzi Mississippi, remaining there until August 
fs, on which day Colonel John Bryner <ook leave 
of the regiment, his resignation having been ac- 
cepted on account of poor hf "^, '''V.?"^' ^^ 
broke Camp Rienzi and marched to l^scumb a 
Alabama, rejoining the brigade °" '^e road a riv 
ing there August 22d, and on the ^4'h receivea 
two months' pay from M^JO--^ H<nnpstead 

Marched from Tuscumbia September 8th and ar 
rived at Camp Clear Creek, . September i4th^ 1-eft 
Clear Creek on the morning of the i»tn anu 
marched "ward luka. Mississippi ; P-t.c.pated m 
the battle of luka on the ■ 9th, where the a^my 
under General Rosecrans defeated the ^^%'"l^. 
forces under General Sterling Price. In tins en 
gageraent Major John Cromwell was taken P"S°>;f • 
fXwei iheVetreating army of 'he eneniy one day 

^S^r0^tXrai^d'^o^k",rj:'t in"lhrb^tre"o?Vc^ 

iflffi^ ^ t!norid cl^^Sf 
Thruii was killed while bravely leading his om- 
S^.;? £ ^:;ri:illed^^^t;;iai^^H^rnSn Ji^rews 

"Tfter.l^s"™;tgrenf he regiment accomp^^^^^^ 
"SiThf U.h"'of%c''to!,er the regiment, returned 

J"i'aCr;y''8rrrchJd™om^a;a;i^>nction by w.y 


Ss E^iECl I ?3 

reposing in water at nighty ^^^^^^^ ;„ 

On the 2d of May t lie g Mississippi 

the army d.°"" .,"^^^, ''g'l„d Gulf, and with the 
'Al'- ,TtZ, Corll Then commanded by General 

On .the morning "f^^^^, '^^'^^^.^^.i^Then' command- 
leaving .the city Colonel Lromwe ,,^^„t of 
ng regiment, rode bacK to sec ,,, _„„!„., ..-ere 

The, regimen, participated " the ha.^e 
;riui:<rtd^iVte'a"mUer wounded. Durm^ 
"le siege of Vicksburg Major .John a McUure 
received a severe wound^ On the 4U1 o ^^^ 

regiment participated "' t^ tne or g 
mind of C.eneral Josepl_^ A. Mower^.^_m ^. .^^^^ _ 

of a force of the ft^e^y.-.^^^^ near the Yazoo 

,i,sippi, thirty -'f /;,7„Vt'ickIburg.^during the 
"' ,h= of \ugust September and October, the 
rg?ment Encamped at Be'ar Creek, twenty miles east 

°S;',''',he'' middle of November. 1S63 the regiment 
In the 'rt;2°'%.' ,3 Memph s. Tennessee, and 
moved up the iiver to ."ci"i . g^j ng the 

from thence to Lagrange. Tennessee.^g^ ^^g 

?i'o7''orthr'time" hoover', was occupied scouting 



after the rebel General Forrest's command. On 
the 26th of January, 1864, left Lagrange and ar- 
rived at Memphis, January ^Sth. February 1st 
embarked on board steamer for Vicksburg. where 
it arrived February 3d and went into camp at Black 
River Bridge, twelve miles from Vicksburg. Feb- 
ruary 23d marched to Canton. Mississippi; returned 
to Black River, March 3d and to Vicksburg. March 
7th, where it embarked on the 10th on board steamer 
Mars for the Red River Expedition ; was present 
at the capture of Fort DeRussey, Louisiana, March 

Participated in the battle of Pleasant Hill. Louisi- 
ana, April 9, 1864. During this expedition the 
regiment was under fire several times and suffered 
many very severe hardships. On the 22d of Alay 
the regiment arrived, with General Sjiiith's com- 
mand, at Vicksburp, having been for three months 
engaged in as tedious and fatiguing a campaign 
as has ever fallen to the lot of any army to undergo. 
June 5th the regiment embarked for >Iemphis; 
moved up the river to Lake Chicot, di=:embarked. 
moved inland and came in contact with a force 
of the enemy under General Marmaduke. who was 
defeated and completely routed. Regiment lost in 
this engagement eleven men killed and quite a 
number wounded. Major Miles received almost 
a fatal shot in the neck and Captain Biser was 
killed. The regiment then proceeded to Memphis 
and accompanied General A. J. Smith to Tupelo, 
Mississippi, with the exception of ten men who 
had reenlisted. numbering about one hundred, who 
left the regiment in Moscow, Tennessee, and went 
to Illinois on veteran furlough. 

The veterans returned to the regiment on the 
8th of August and with the regiment accompanied 
General A. J. Smith's expedition to Oxford, Mis- 
sissippi; returned to Memphis, August 27, 1864. 
The original term of service of the regiment hav- 
ing expired, it was ordered to Springfield. Illinois, 
where it was finally discharged October 1 1. 1864. 
The veterans and recruits of the regiment number- 
ing 196 men left Memphis, September 2, 1864, un- 
der command of Lieutenants Edward Rouham and 
Royal Olmstead. accompanying General Mower's ex- 
pedition up White river, to Brownsville. Arkansas, 
and from there marched north into Missouri after 
the rebel General Price's army, which was raiding 
in that state. Arrived at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, 
October 4th. and took steamer for Jefferson City, 
October 6th, arriving at Jefferson City on the 
15th: thence moved by rail to Otterville; thence 
marched to Warren sburg, where it arrived October 
26th; left Warrensburg by rail for St. Louis. No- 
vember 2d; arrived at St. Louis on the 4th. From 
St. Louis the veteran detachment was ordered to 
Chicago. Illinois. November gth, 1S64. to assist 
in quelling any riot, should tliere he any on the 
day of election. Their services not being required, 
they were ordered to report to the superintendent 
of recruiting service at Springfield. Illitiois. and 
were stationed at Camp Butler, where, on the 28th 
of November, it received 200 drafted men and a 
battalion of four full companies was organized and 
Lieutenant Bouham commissioned as maior. and 
Lieutenant Olmstead commissioned as captain of 
Company A. December 3d the command was or- 
dered to the field, reporting by way of St. Louis 
to General Rosecrans. At St. Louis the order was 
modified and its destination changed to Louisville. 
Kentucky; from here it was ordered to Bowling 
Green. Kentucky, where it remained till January 
27, i86s, when it moved by rail to Nashville, thence 
down the Cumberland and up the Tennessee river 
to Eastport. Mississippi, where it rejoined its old 
brigade — Second Brigade. First Division. Sixteenth 
Army Corps — accompanying it to New Orleans, 
thence to Mobile Bay, taking part in the reduction of 
Spanish Fort. While laying in front of Spanish 
Fort, six additional companies arrived from Spring- 
field. Illinois, making the organization once more 
complete. After the fall of ^^obile the regiment 
marched with the Sixteenth Corps to Montgomery, 
Alabama, where it arrived April 25, iS^s- I^c- 
cember 31, 1865, the regiment was stationed at 
Selma. Alabama. Mustered out January 21. 1866, 
at Selma and ordered to Springfield, Illinois, where 
it received final pay and discharge. 

John Bryner, commissioned July 27, 1861: re- 
signed September 2, 1862. 

William A. Thrush, commissioned September 2, 

1862; killed in battle before Corinth, October 3, 

John N. Cromwell, commissioned October 3, 1862; 
killed in battle at Jackson, Mississippi, May j6, 1863. 

John D. McCIure. commissioned May 16, 1863; 
term expired October 1 1, 1S64. 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
William A. Thrush, commissioned May 9, 1862; 


William A. Thrush, commissioned August 25, 
1861; promoted. 

John N. Cromwell, commissioned May 9, 1862; 

John D. McClure. commissioned October 31, 
1S62; promoted colonel. 

Rush W'. Chambers, commissioned August 24, 
186 1 ; promoted major. 

Samuel A. A. Law, commissioned August 8, 1863; 
term expired 1864. 


George L. Lucas, commissioned August 14, 1861 ; 
term expired September 19, 1864. 

First Assistant, Timothy Babb, commissioned Au- 
gust 14. 1861; resigned August J3, 1863. 

Jeremiah Hazen, commissioned September 20, 
1861 ; resigned November i, 1862. 

Sergeant Major. 
W^illiam E. Kuhn, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; pro- 
moted second lieutenant Company F. 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 
Edward E. Tobey. enlisted September 8, 1861, pro- 
moted second lieutenant Company G. 

Principal Musicians. 

James D. Wonden, enlisted August 14, 1861; dis- 
charged August 25. 1862; disability. 

Henry C. Pierce, enlisted August 14. 1861; dis- 
charged April 18, 1863. 

Company A. 
John N. Cromwell, commissioned August 25. 
1861 ; promoted major. 

Converse Southard, commissioned May 9, 1862; 
resigned October 29. 1S62. 

John T. Bo wen, commissioned October 29, 1S62; 
term expired October 1 1, 1864. 


First. Converse Southard, commissioned August 
25. 1861; promoted. 

First. John T. Bow'en, commissioned June 17, 
1862; promoted. 

First. William W. Poole, commissioned October 
29, 1862; term expired October 11, 1864. 

Second. John T. Bo wen, commissioned May 9, 
1862; promoted. 


First. John T. Bowen. enlisted August 16, 1861 ; 
promoted second lieutenant. 


Jacob J. Crook, enlisted August 16, 1861; mus- 
tered out October 1 1. 1864, as private; reduced 
at his own request. 

James Parr, enlisted August 16, 1861; mustered 
out October 11, 1864, as private; reduced at his 
own request. 

William W. Poole, enlisted August 16, 1861; 
promoted first lieutenant. 

Simpson Logan, enlisted September 20, 1861; 
mustered out October 11, 1864. 

Blair, Alexander, enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Burgland, Frederick, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Batchor, Neal. enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Crank, Charles R., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Cole, Samuel W., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Button, Isaac, enlisted August 16, 1861. 



Ewing, John W. N., enlisted August i6, 1861. 
Green, Edward A., enlisted August 16. 1861. 
Green, Tohn W., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Grume. "Charles A., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Hills, Horace, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Hart, James, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Huston, Robert E.. enlisted August 15, 1861, 
Ready, Thomas, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Lowe, Hiram, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Logan, George, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
McFarland, John, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Mcintosh, John, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Murray, Daniel, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Odell, Leroy E., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Patton, William, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Phillips. Erancis M., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Proctor. Harry F., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Robinson, George, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Rice. Elisha. enlisted .Vugust 16. 1861. 
Susdorf. Charles, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Smith. Henry, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Stevens, Cha'rles, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Toland. George W.. enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Waston, Wiltz, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
W'endle, John R., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Wilson, tohn G., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Wilson, John W., enlisted August 16. 1861. 
Wilkison. Phineas R.. enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Bonsbaugh, Charles G., enlisted September 18, 

Clifton, David, enlisted February 29, 1864. 
Cleary, Tohn. enlisted November 30, 1863. 
Dellingham, Tohn D., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Dutton, William H.. enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Harvev. Tames T.. enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Harvey, Thomas Y., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Longshore, John D., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Longshore. Aaron, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Meyer. William, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Reed. Bcniamin. enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Wheeler. Tohn W.. enlisted January 4. 1864. 
Young. Calvin, enlisted January 4. 1864. 
Young. Tames, enlisted February 26. 1864. 
Young. Andrew, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Yates, Tohn M., enlisted August 13. 1S62. 
Yates. William, enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Company C. 
John D. McClure. commissioned August 25. 1861; 
promoted major. 

George Broad, commissioned August 31. 1862; 
term expired October 11, 1864. 


First. George Broad, commissioned June 17, 1862; 

First, Samuel A. A. Law, commissioned August 
31, 1862; promoted quartermaster. 

First, Christopher C. Gilbert, commissioned De- 
cember 14, 1863: term expired October 11, 1864. 

Second, George Broad, commissioned August 25. 
j86i: promoted. 

Second, Samuel A. A. Law, commissioned June 
17. 1862: promoted. 

Second, Christopher C. Gilbert, commissioned Au- 
gust 31, 1862: promoted. 


First, Samuel A. A. Law. enlisted .\ugust 18. 
1861: promoted second lieutenant. 

Israel Howell, enlisted August 18, 1861; dis- 
charged May 7, 1862; disability. 

Dexter M. Camp, enlisted August 18, 1861; mus- 
tered out October II, 1864. 

James W. .\rmour. enlisted August 18, 1861: 
deserted March 11, 1863. 


Thomas Swan, enlisted August 18, 1861 ; mus- 
tered out October 11. 1864. 

Benjamin J. Gates, enlisted August 18, 1861; 
mustered out October 11, 1S64. 

Christopher Gilbert, enlisted August 18, 1861; 
promoted second lieutenant. 

Addison F. Slatin, enlisted August 18, 1861; 
deserted September 19, 1862. 

William Wanser, enlisted August 18, 1861; mus- 
tered out October 11. 1864, as private. 

John Balfour, enlisted August 18, 1861; mustered 
out August 24, 1864. 

Lewis M. Cady. enlisted August 18, 1861; sup- 
posed to be captured August 11. 1864. 

Isaac J. Pratt, enlisted August 18, 1861: died at 
Memphis, September 10, 1864. 

Anten, James, enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Booth, Henry A., enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Brittingham. William H.. enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Baldwin. Albert H., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Center, Lemuel L.. enlisted August 18, 1861, 
Clough, Cassius M., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Conley. James, enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Crawford, John E., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
DeGrummond. John J., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Davison. Tohn. enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Farris. John S.. enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Gilbert. 'Charles W.. enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Hathaway. George H., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Himes. Charles H., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Hartz. Tohn H.. enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Harper.' Oliver P.. enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Hackenburg, William H., enlisted August 18, 

Kelley, Stephen, enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Lapham, Aaron M., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
McCoy, Daniel, enlisted August 18. 1861. 
McRil'l. Thomas, enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Mason. Isaac F., enlisted August iS. 1861. 
Mendall. Ira L.. enlisted .August 18, 1861. 
Orton. Augustus L.. enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Patterson, Caster, enlisted August 18. 1861. 
Pohlman. Tohn H., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Randall, Peter, enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Stewart, Collins P... enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Vancamp, Isaac, enlisted ,\ugust 18, 1861. 
Wickersham. Hiram O., enlisted August 18, 1861. 
Wheeler. Joseph, enlisted August 18, 1861. 

Baldwin, Albert H., enlisted February 22, 1864, 
Anten, James B., enlisted February 22, 1864. 

Blanchard. Ira W., enlisted September 20 1861. 
Burdett. Robert T.. enlisted August 4, ,1862. 
Cavanaugh. Tames, enlisted December 8. 1863. 
Ford Swell G., enlisted August 20. 1862. 
Freeman. Charles H., enlisted September 14, 1861. 
Hayes, Morris, enlisted August 25, 1862. 
Johnson, Augustus, enlisted August 25. 1861. 
'Kellogg. Philander, enlisted September 20. 1861. 
Murray. Daniel, enlisted September 6. 1861. 
Swimm. Peter, enlisted September 6. 1861. 

Company D. 
Boyee. Artemus, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Dickerson, Jonathan, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Green. Tose'ph D., enlisted August 16. 1861. 
Merrill. 'James G., enlisted August 16. 1861. 

Green. Joseph D., enlisted February 19. 1864. 
Boyce. 'Artemus. enlisted February 19. 1864. 


Murray. Tames, enlisted. 

Smith. John, enlisted January iS. 1864. 

Company E. 
Samuel R. Baker, commissioned August 25, 1861; 
promoted to lieutenant colonel. 

Company F. 
Lyman W. Clark, commissioned August 25, 1861; 
resigned December 27. 1861. 

Theodore M. Lowe, commissioned December 28, 
1861: resigned April 12. 1863. 

George W. Carter, commissioned April 12, 1863; 
resigned August 21, 1863, 

First. Theodore M. Lowe, commissioned August 

21. 1861: promoted. 

Second. George H. Carter, commissioned October 

22, 1862: promoted. 

L. "■■■J 


V ^ 


■ ■ ■ 

"ssg/lP ^HH 

\ V i ^ 


i li 

% 4 


^ 11 

#i- ^^ 

THE LAST OF l'Kn|;iA (orNTVS MKXK A\ WAi; sri;\'l\i n;s. I'.idi; 






First, George H. Carter, enlisted August i8, i86i- 
promoted second lieutenan*. 

William C. Gonclier, enlisted August 21, i86i- 
discharged December 8, 1862; disability. 

Patrick Curran, enlisted August 21, 1861; mus- 
tered out August II, 1864. as private. 

Moody W. Lowe, enlisted August 21, i86i- dis- 
charged October 24, 1862; disability. 


Henry Swartwood. enlisted August 21, i86i; mus- 
tered out October 11, 1864, as sergeant. 

John Noonan, enlisted August 21, 186 1; mustered 
out October 11, 1864. 

James Swartwood, enlisted August 21, 1861; dis- 
charged December 17, 1861; disability. 


John Joyce, enlisted August 21, 1861; discharged 
November 21, 1862; disability. 

Edward Fisher, enlisted August 21, 1861; dis- 
charged April 9, 1862; disability. 


Bulaw, Patrick F., enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Burns, Nicholas, enlisted August 21, 1861, 
Bair, David, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Bogan, John, enlisted August 21, i86i. 

Cunningham, James, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Carnick, Joseph H., enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Conely, Francis, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Cochran, Joseph, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Collerige, Job, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Carrey, Larius, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Dempsey, Frank, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Donnely, Patrick, enlisted August 21, i§6i. 

Dagan, John, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Dennegan, James, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Ewing, Noah JVI., enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Gaffney, James, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Galvin, Patrick, enlisted August 21, 18C1. 

Hollihan, Dennis, .•\ugust 21, 1861. 

Hawkins, William, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Huffman, Charles, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Hampton, George S.. enlisted ."Vugust 21, 1861. 

Kelley. William, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Kyle, John, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Leisenburge, John, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

McLaughlin, Peter J., enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Lonsdale. Ellis, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Merrick. Alonzo W., enlisted August 21, ig6i. 

Maily, Michael, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
McDermott, James, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
McCarty. Jeremiah, enlisted August 21, 1861. 

Murphy, William, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
McDermott, John, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Moreton, Henry, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Morgan, Edward, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Mclntyre. James, enlisted August 21, 1861, 
Norton, Henry, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Perry, Peter, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Porter. William, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Powell, John, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Ryan, John, enlisted August 21, i86i. 
Ryan. Patrick, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Rether. Joseph, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Swartwood, William, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Sundren. Charles, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Shaw, Owen W., enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Snyder, Nicholas, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Smith, John, enlisted .Xugust 21, 1861. 
Trernpe. Isaac, enlisted August 21, 1861. 
Willis, Jackson, enlisted August 21. 1861. 
Walker. Augustus, enlisted August 21. 1861. 

Beare, David, enlisted February 22, 1864. 
Hampton. George S.. enlisted February 22, 1864. 
McLoughlin, Peter J., enlisted February 22, 1864. 
Ryan. Patrick, enlisted February 22, 1864. 
.Swartwood, W'illiani, enlisted February 22, 1864. 

Company G. 
Sturman. William L., enlisted August 16. 1861; 
discharged December g, 1862; disability. 

Alfolder, Samuel, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Bixler. Samuel, enlisted Au&ist 16, 1861. 
Bower, Martin, enlisted August 16, i86i. 
Vol. 1—15 

Baley. Daniel, enlisted .August i6, 1861. 
Miller, Robert F., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Maurice, .'\dam. enlisted August 16. 1861. 
Putnian. Judson. enlisted August 16, 1861, 
Reed, Thomas R., enlisted August 16, 1861. 
.Seely, William, enlisted August 16, 1861. 
Wilson, liennett, enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Byrne, Edward, enlisted August 13, 1862, 
Strum, T. JelTerson. enlisted .'\ugust 27, 1861 
Stone, Stephen, enlisted September 19, 1861. 

Company H. 
Rogers, Eli B., enlisted September i. 1861: dis- 
cha_rged October 24, 1862; disability. 

Gordon, William, enlisted September i, i86i- 
discharged October 10. 1863; disability. 

Williams, Charles, died at Ridgway Station, Tulv 
24. 1863. 


Levi R. Adkinson, enlisted September i, i86i- 
died at Rienzi, Mississippi, July 10, 1862. 

Samuel Gordon, enlisted September i, 1861 ■ 
mustered out October 11. 1864. 

Mahlon McGowen, enlisted September 1, i86i- 
discharged September 29, 1862; disability. 

Bailey, John, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Bailey, Richard, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Dickison. John, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Drummond, John P., enlisted September i, 1861. 
Dumbelle. William H.. enlisted September i, 1861. 
Drum, Patrick, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Elson. John, enlisted September I, 1861. 
Flemming. Michael, enlisted September 1, 1861. 
Fenens, William, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Harlan, John, enlisted September i, 186 1. 
Harlan. Joseph, enlisted September 1, 1861. 
Hall, George, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Holeman, Samuel K. P., enlisted September i, 

Hendrick. Joel, enlisted September r. 1861. 
Johnson. Nathan, enlisted September i. 1861. 
Kingdon. John, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Kingdon, Tames, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Keough, Thomas, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Moore, Bolin L, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Mendall. David, enlisted September i, 1861, 
Moffitt, Aaron C, enlisted September I, 1861. 
O'Connor, James, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Phalan. Michael, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Sutherland. Jacob, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Smith, John, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Staples, Silas, enlisted September i, i86r. 

Bailey, John, enlisted February 22, 1864. 
Kingdon, John, enlisted February 22, 1864. 
Kingdon, James, enlisted February 22, 1864. 
Moffitt, Aaron C, enlisted February 22, 1864. 

Brown. George, enlisted -August 14, 1862. 
Dimon. Jacob, enlisted September 14, 1862. 
Hall. Gilbert, mustered out November i. 1864. 
Hartley. Daniel, enlisted August g, 1862. 
Harlan. Tames I'., enlisted August 2, 1862. 
Martin, David A., enlisted August g, 1862. 

Company \. 
William D. Bell, enlisted September 4. 1861: 
killed at Jefferson City. Missouri, November 6, 
1861: run over by a wagon. 

Behymer. Henry M.. enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Cox, Joseph, enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Dredgo. John C, enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Kershaw, John, enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Miller, George M., enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Macon. John, enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Nelson. Thomas, enlisted .September 4, 1861. 
Nicholas, John S., enlisted September 4, 1861. 
Pritchard, Thomas, enlisted September 4. 1861. 
Rowley, Martin E., enlisted September 4, 1861, 



Upshaw, George \V., Jr.. enlisted September 4. 

Allison. James, enlisted December 28, 1863. 
Pratt, Edmun M. 
Pratt. Nathan W. 
Rogers, Richard. 
Ryan, Robert R. 

Company K. 
Armtrout. J. B., enlisted September 6. 1861 
Buckley. Tohnson. enlisted September 18 1861. 
Boughslow, Charles G., enlisted September 6, 

Carter Charles W.. enlisted September 8. 1861. 
Jacobs. Henry, enlisted September 25. '^^'^ 
Hutchinson. Franklin, enlisted September 6.J861. 
Locan. Simpson, enlisted September 18, i8&;- 
McGregor, Henry B., enlisted September 6. 1861. 
Tobey. Edward E.. enlisted September 8. 1861. 
Williams. George, enlisted September 19, i8t)i. 



Company A. 


Davison. James, enlisted January 3. 1862. 

Davison, Tames, enlisted March 7. 1865. 
Sweet. Alfred, enlisted March 16, 1865. 
Recruit transferred from One Hundred and Eighth. 
Greenville, George, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Company B. 
Green Gilbert L., enlisted November 16, 1864. 
Petty, John W., enlisted November 16. 1864. 
Wiar, John, enlisted November 29, 1864. 

Green. Hedriik, enlisted January 23. 1865 
Recruits transferred from One Hundred and Eighth. 
Alldrich. George C. enlisted March 6. 1865. 
Bailey, Henry C. enlisted March 6. 1865. 
Budley, Tohn, enlisted ^larch 6, 1865. 
Guyer. George C. enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Fox. Reads, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Hibbs. Eben L., enlisted March 6. 1865. 
King, Joseph, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Prior. "Richard, enlisted March 6, 1865. 

Company D. 


Burbank, Israel, enlisted September 13, 1864. 

Recruit transferred from One Hundred and Eighth. 

Trotman, Frank L., enlisted January 23, 1864. 

Company E. 
Thomas Lynch, commissioned March 9, 1865; 
mustered out January 21, 1866. 


First. Dennis Brennan. commissioned March 9, 
1865: mustered out January 21, 1866. 

Second. William Morrisy. commissioned March 9, 
1865; mustered out January 21, 1866. 

Avery, Frank, enlisted February 24. 1865. 
Burningham. John, enlisted February 24. 1865. 
Casey. Michael, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Callahan, John, enlisted February 27. 1865. 
Dunnivan,* John, enlisted February 20. 1865. 
Kelley. Patrick, enlisted February 23. 1,865. 
Keefe, James, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Long, Martin, enlisted March i. 1865. 
McCarthy, James, enlisted February 27. 1S65 
McCormick, Edward, enlisted February 25. 1865. 
McManus, Michael, enlisted February 24^ 1865. 
McGowan. Thomas, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
O'Leary, Thomas, enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Powers, Joseph, enlisted February 24. 1865. 
Roberts. Daniel, enlisted March i. 1865. 
Shelmody, Thomas, enlisted February 24. 1865. 
Williams. John, enlisted February 25, 1865. 
Zondergani William, enlisted March i, 1865. 

Company I. 

Privates. - 

Couse. Ironie, enlisted March 9, 1865. 
Divelbliss, John, enlisted March 7, 1865. 
Hutton, Solomon, enlisted March 7, 1865. 

Brockett, J. B.. enlisted March 22, 1865. 

Company K. 
John J. Ross, commissioned March 23, 1865; mus- 
tered out January 2 1, 1866. 


First, Andrew P. Gibson, commissioned March 
21. 1865; mustered out January 21. 1866. 

Second. John Merrill, commissioned March 23, 
1865; died of smallpox at Cahawba, Alabama, No- 
vember 25. 1865. 

Second. Henry Hill, commissioned December 19, 
1865; not mustered; mustered out as sergeant Jan- 
uary 21, 1866. 


James G. Johnson, enlisted ^March 5, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out January 21, 1866. 

Albert S. Hoag, enlisted March 14. 1865; mus- 
tered out January 21, 1866. 


Robert Eaton, enlisted March 3, 1865; mustered 
out January 21. 1866, sergeant. 

James A. Gilbert; enlisted March 3. 1865 ; mus- 
tered out January 21, 1866. 

Ethan A. Hartz, enlisted March 3, 1865; mus- 
tered out January 21, 1866. 

Mortimer D. Hebberd, enlisted March 7, 1865; 
mustered out January 3, 1866. 


Edward Bartholomew, enlisted March 7, 1865; 
mustered out at Mobile^ Alabama. 

Edward D. Richardson, enlisted Jtarch 7, 1865; 
mustered out January 25, 1866. 

Blind. Charles, enlisted March 6. 1S65. 
Cole. John, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
Clay pole. James J., enlisted March 3, 1865. 
Crane, George, enlisted March 4, 1865. 
Calaway, Jefferson, enlisted March 7, 1865. 
Eten. Henry, enlisted March 3, 1865. 
Elliott. John, enlisted March 7. 1865. 
Green, John H., enlisted March 7, 1865. 
Heath, or Hiatt. Nicholas, enlisted March 7, 1865. 
Tohnson. Philander, enlisted March 7. 1865. 
Kern, Frederick, enlisted March 14, 1865. 
Knox. James E., enlisted March 3. 1865. 
Lanscha, George, enlisted March 14. 1865. 
Moats, Tobias, enlisted March 7, 1865. 
McCoy. William, enlisted March 7. 1865. 
Nickson. William H.. enlisted March 14. 1865. 
Pratt, Stephen, enlisted March 7. 1865. 
Short. William, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Sanger, Lewis, enlisted March 3. 1865. 
Smith. John, enlisted March 6. 1S65. 
Todd, Robert M.. enlisted March 7, 1865. 
Watters, John, enlisted March 4. 1865. 
Willett, Austin, enlisted March 4, 1865. 

Brown, Russell, enlisted ]March 8, 1865. 
Bachelder, Leonadus. enlisted March 10, 1865. 
McGinnis. Kenweth, enlisted March 21. 1865. 
Morrow, Erastus. enlisted March 14, 1865, 
McMullen. Samuel, enlisted March 20, 1865. 
Moore, Aurora C, enlisted March 20, 1865. 
Smith. Jeremiah, enlisted March 10, 1865. 
Recruits' transferred from Ninety-fifth Illinois. 
Albats, Tohn. enlisted March 8, 1865. 
Adams, "George, enlisted March 13, 1865. 
Bruen. Tames, enlisted March 10, 1865. 
Bon, Seth. enlisted March 31. 1865. 
Clark. William E.. enlisted March 21. 1865. 
Campbell. Tames, enlisted March 7. 1865. 
Davis. Alfred, enlisted March 8. 1865. 
Hastings, William, enlisted November 29, 1864. 
Hennesey, John, enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Murray, Tohn, enlisted March 10. 1865. 
McMahan". Michael, enlisted April 3. 1865. 
Murphy. John, enlisted April 3. 1865. 



Meyers, Charles, enlisted April 3, 1865. 
McGuircs, Peter, enlisted April 7, 1S65. 
Maloney, John, enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Price, Robert, enlisted April 3, 1865. 
Reed, John, enlisted March 8. 1865. 
Wilson. David, enlisted March 8, 1865. 
Warner, John, enlisted March 31, 1865, 
WiUiamson, J., enlisted March 31, 1865. 

Company A. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Crowder. Richard, enlisted September 27. 1864. 
McGrail, Anthony, enlisted November 17, 1864. 

Company B. 
Dels, Wesley A., enlisted April 3, 1865. 
Company G. 
Benthall. Asa W.. enlisted March 22. 1865. 
Kelley. Isaac, enlisted jMari:h 20, 1865. 
Neal, George W.. enlisted March 20, 1865. 
Oglesby, Reuben, enlisted March 17, 1865. 
Webb, Richard, enlisted March 22. 1865. 

Company F. 

White, John W., enlisted August 18, 1861. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Heighton. Hugh, enlisted December i, 1864. 
Company K. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Eirlerman, John H., enlisted December i, 1864. 
Furguson, Tames, enlisted December i, 1864. 
Plummer, John F., enlisted December 1, 1865. 

Unassigned Recruit, 
Hager, John, enlisted December i. 1864. 
Company A. 
Parker. John R., enlisted October 1, 1861; trans- 
ferred to "Signal Corps, January 27, 1864. 

Fox, William, enlisted October 24, 1861. 

Green, Thomas, enlisted November 23, 1S61. 
Welch, James, enlisted November 1, 1861. 

Company F. 
Brown, George, enlisted July 15. 1862. 
Brown, Shadrach, enlisted July 15. 1862. 
Keele. Leonard, enlisted July 15, 1862. 
Power, Robert, enlisted July 15. 1862. 
Sill, John, enlisted July I5i 1862. 

Company K. 
Raymond, Eugene K., enlisted December 13, 1861. 
Non Commissioned Staff. 
Hiram A. Hunter, commissioned November 27, 


Roderick F. Stocking, enlisted October 12. 1S61. 
William H. Miller. 

Company A. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Snow, John, enlisted December 6, 1864. 
Smith, Henry, enlisted December 6, 1864. 
Shean, James, enlisted December 6, 1864. 

Company C. 
Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Harding. Arnet T.. enlisted October 20, 1864. 
Kellv. Charles, enlisted December 27. 1864. 
Lines. Sylvester, enlisted November 17. 1864. 
Rice, Hobert or Robert, enlisted November 17, 

Reeder, Thomas, enlisted December 6, 1864. 
Thomas, David, enlisted December 7, 1864. 

Company D. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 
Folley. Adam, enlisted December 7, 1864. 
Lindsay, XN'lUiani, enlisted December 5j 1864. 
Tuthill, Samuel, enlisted December 7, 1864. 

Company E. 
Boxwell, Robert, enlisted March 12, 1862. 
Box well. Jolni, enlisted March 11, 1862. 
Largent, Jolin, enlisted March 12, 1862. 

Drafted and Stibstitutc Recruits. 
Bruce, Samuel G., enlisted December 5, 1864. 
F'olce, Adam, enlisted December 2, 1864. 

Company F. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Burth, Jesse S., enlisted November 29, 1864. 
Company H. 
Arbuckle, Abner, enlisted December 29, 1861. 
Darvey, Isaiah. 
Denvy, William. 

Hattield, Abel, enlisted December 7, 1861. 
Flaherty. John, enlisted December 29, 1861. 
Hunter, Hiram A., enlisted November 2, 1861. 
Hitt, Andrew J., enlisted December 27, 186 1. 
Holahan, John, enlisted December 29, 1861, 
McClanan, William, enlisted December 29, 1861. 
Neill, Stewart, enlisted November 7, 1861. 
Nelson, John, enlisted December 29, 1861. 
Pollard, Patrick, enlisted December 29, 1861. 
Thomas, Seymour, enlisted December 29, 1861. 

Temple, Thomas, enlisted l-'ebruary 28, 1864. 

Reynolds, Abner, enlisted March 12, 1862. 
Stocking, Frederick F., enlisted February 3, 1862. 
Wilmot, W. F.. enlisted February 14, 1862. 
Thompson, Henry, enlisted March lo. 1862. 
Thompson, William, enlisted March 10, 1862. 

Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Reese, Alexander, enlisted October 13, 1864. 
Company I. 
Unassigned, Drafted and Substitute Recruit. 
Jaeger, Joseph, enlisted December 8, 1864. 
Company F. 
First, William M. Jones, enlisted December 15. 

Company G. 


Smith, Lyman B., enlisted December 2, 1861. 

Company K. 


Wright. James R., enlisted February 29, 1864. 

Unassigned Recruit. 
Smith, William IL, discharged August 13, 1864. 
Company C. 
O. W. White, enlisted December 26, 1861 ; cor- 
poral; died May 4, 1862. 

Robert A. Howard, enlisted December 23, 1861; 
mustered out January 14, 1865. 

Draper. James E.. enlisted December 18, 1861. 
Davis, Willis, enlisted December 18, 1S61. 
Ernst, Adam, enlisted December 23, 1861. 
Frank. Simon B., enlisted December 16, i86i. 
German, Robert .S., enlisted December 13, 1861. 
Howard, Robert B., enlisted December 25, 1861. 
Higgins. Moses G., enlisted December 20. 1861. 
Houk, Conrad, enlisted December 26, 1861. 



Maurice, Joseph H., enlisted December 15. 1861. 
Notistine. John A., enlisted December 24, 1861. 
Rouse, lohn D.. enlisted December 24, 1861. 
Steele, William, enlisted December 25, 1861. 
Stewart. William B., enlisted December 18, 1861. 
Smith. T. William, enlisted December 15, 1861. 
Throatt^ Frederick, enlisted December 10, 1861. 
Weld. William H., enlisted December 13. 1861. 
Wonder, Benjamin F., enlisted December 16, 1861. 

Company G. 

Wolf, John, enlisted December 16, 1861. 
Wagner, Casper, enlisted December 16, 1861. 


Company E. 


Holden, William, enlisted August 14. 1861. 

Hedding, George, enlisted September 20, 1861. 

Nichols. Thomas, enlisted August i, 1861. 

Company G. 
Turner. James, enlisted September 14, 1861. 
Company K. 
Forbes, John, enlisted October 22, 1861; sergeant; 
promoted to first lieutenant. 

Connor, John, enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Besson, H. V., enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Brown, C. F., enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Tackson, M. H.. enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Lower. R. A., enlisted October 22, 1S61. 
Rouse, T. S., enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Simmons, Edmund, enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Vickery, Albert, enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Widener, M., enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Waddell, William, enlisted October 22, 1861. 
Walker, William, emisted October 22, 1861. 

Dewey, Isaacher B., enlisted November 8, 1861. 
McMuUen, Robert W., enlisted November 7. 1861. 
Smith, H. F., enlisted November 9, 1861. 

Company H. 
William H. H. Sterling, enlisted October 10, 
:86i; mustered out December 25, 1864. 

Clifford, William P., enlisted March 10, 1861. 
Horsley, Thomas E., enlisted October 20, 1861. 
Morris, Demetrius E., enlisted October 10, 1861. 
Siygh. Henry S., enlisted October 7, 1861. 
Slygh. John A., enlisted October 7. 1861. 
White, Isaiah or Joshua, enlisted October 7. 1861. 

Unassigned Recruit. 
Jackson, Henry, enlisted March 23, 1865. 
Company B. 
Martin H. Summes, enlisted October 28, 1861; 
deserted March, 1863. 

Black, John, enlisted November 12, 186 1. 
King, Moses B., enlisted December i, 1861. 
King, Alexander, enlisted October 31, 1861. 
Matteson, H. A., enlisted October 31, 1861. 
Oakley, James H., enlisted October 28, 1861. 
Summes, Thomas H., enlisted October 28, 1861. 

Halsey, Robert J., enlisted January i, 1863. 
Sutherland. John, enlisted August 16, 1863. 
Cunningham, J. C.. enlisted July 29, 1863. 

Company E. 
Duffy, Richard, enlisted March 11, 1865. 
Delaney, Patrick, enlisted March 11, 1865. 

Grover. Moralde. enlisted March ii, 1865. 
Goodwin, Thomas, enlisted March 22, 1865. 
Hart, John, enlisted March 28. 1865. 
McGinnis, Thomas, enlisted March 21. 1865. 
O'Brien, John, enlisted March 18, 1865. 
Brothers, Evan M., enlisted March 28, 1865. 
Salsbury. Richard, enlisted March 16, 1865. 
Woods, William, enlisted March 28, 1865. 

Company F. 
DeGan. George, enlisted March 22, 1865. 
McBain, Joseph, enlisted March 24. 1865. 
Snow, Frank, enlisted March 22, 1865. 

Company H. 

Craig, \\'illiam. enlisted March 24, 1865. 
Aladison, John, enlisted March 24, 1865. 
Worthy, VVilliam. enlisted March 24. 1865. 

Company I. 

John M. Willis, enlisted March 27. 1865; de- 
serted April I, 1865. 

Harvey, Allison, enlisted March 27. 1865; mus- 
tered out April I, 1866. 


lohn S. Hoffer, enlisted March 27, 1865; de- 
serted April 8, 1865. 

Thomas Warns, enlisted March 25, 1S65; de- 
serted April 8, 1865. 


Allen, George, enlisted March 25, 1865. 

Backus, Henry, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Black, Nicholas, enlisted March 26, 1865. 

Blong, Ambrose, enlisted March 26. 1865. 

Bateman, Daniel, enlisted March 25, 1865. 

Curren. Peter, enlisted March 25. 1865. 

Dunn, James, enlisted March 2, 1865. 

Fuller, Charles, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Hutchinson. James or John, enlisted March 27, 

Habes. Anthony, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Hurley. John, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Konner or Hower, Matthews, enlisted March 27, 

Kinsley. John B., enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Lewis, William H.. enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Logan, James, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Morris, George, enlisted March 27, 1865 . 

McCain. George, enlisted March 27. 1865. 

Mason, George, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Ragen, James, enlisted March 23. 1865. 

Thomas, Charles M., enlisted i\Iarch 27, 1865. 

Wallace. John C, enlisted March 27, 1865. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Burton. James C, enlisted March 1, 1865. 
Stone, Charles S., enlisted March i. 1865. 


Company F. 


Ambler, Monroe, enlisted December 16. 1863. 

Company E. 
Hendrickson. Hartwell, enlisted January 24. 1865. 


Lieutenant Colonel. 
David E. Williams, commissioned September 3. 
1S61; discharged account disability, September 12. 

Company E. 


Donevan, Cornelius, enlisted November 1. 1861. 

Company F. 
Putnam, H. W., enlisted Mar-ch 12, 1862. 



Company A. 
Nevens, Frank E., enlisted November 4. 1861. 
Lieutenant Colonel. 
Eugene K. Oakley, commissioned June 13. 1862; 
mustered out October 6, 1862. 

Company F. 
First. Abram D. Van Veckten, commissioned June 
13, 1862; mustered out September, 1862. 

Second, Horace E. Dwyer, commissioned June 13, 
1862; mustered out September, 1862. 

Horace E. Dwyer, enlisted May 31, 1862; ser- 
geant; promoted second lieutenant. 

Brock, M. \V., enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Bailey. John, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Miller, William F., enlisted May 31, 1862. 
Slaughter. William, enlisted June 4, 1862. 

Company G. 
Charles K. Purple, commissioned June 13. 1862; 
mustered out September, 1862. 


First, Jeremiah Dockstader. commissioned June 
13. 1862; mustered out September. 1862. 

Second, Edward K. X'alentine, commissioned June 
13, 1862; mustered out September, 1862. 

John Simpson, enlisted June 2. 1862. 
John E. Durham, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Cornelius C. Holenbeck, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
John P. Goodwin, enlisted June 2, 1862. 

Daniel D. Stevison, enlisted June 2, 1S63. 
Daniel D. Miller, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
George W. Summers, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Robert W. Vansaw, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Henry J. B. Stillman, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
James Bryant, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
William L. Wilds, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Edward S. Esston, enlisted June 2, 1862. 

Atkinson, John D.. enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Bishop, William H.. enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Brady. Charles, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Branner, Theodore J., enlisted June 2. 1862. 
Brennan, Dennis, enlisted June 10, 1862. 
Callester, Joseph, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Dickanson, Griffith A., enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Drysdale. William, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Davis, Henry, enlisted June 2. 1862. 
Ellis. Henry, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Eakin, David, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Forbes. Andrew G,, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Farrell, Patrick, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Garthwait. William, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Gillon. Milo C, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Hookey. William, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Harvey. Henderson, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Harvey. John, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Harbert, John, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Hallock. Clinton, enlisted Tune 2, 1862. 
Jones. Winfield S., enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Johnston, Harmon, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Kastner. Charles, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Kettelle, Charles, enlisted Tune 4, 1862. 
King. Samuel T., enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Eong. David M.. enlisted June 2. 1862. 
McCormick. Thomas J., enlisted June 2, 1862, 
Merrill. John, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Moore, James, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
McClure, Samuel S., enlisted Tune 2, 1862. 
Mendenhall, Amos H., enlisted June 2. 1862. 
Mackey, Robert C, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Morse. Samuel M., enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Osterhout. Charles, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Opdyke, Benjamin, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Philip, Ellis, enlisted June 2, 1862. 

Patten. William 11.. enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Rogers, David, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Ruse, Isaac, enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Spence, Clark, enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Smith. Edwin A., enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Spellam. Timothy, enlisted June 4. 1862. 
Snyder, \'ictor. enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Smith, IJurdsy A., enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Stillwell, R. J., enlisted June 4. 1862. 
Stum. John T., enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Tomlinson. Ambrose, enlisted June 4. 1862. 
Tripp, David T., enlisted June 4. 1862. 
Thurston. Frank, enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Woodruff, John H., enlisted June 4. 1862. 
Willey, John A., enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Wardlow. Robert, enlisted June 4, 1862. 

Valentine, E. IC, enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Vandorer, Gilbert, enlisted June 4. 1862. 

Company K. 

Adams, Austin, enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Brown, Charles, enlisted June 4, 1862. 
Blue. James H., enlisted June 2, 1862. 
Friedhaber, John M., enlisted June 4. 1862. 
Gowan. George, enlisted June" 4, 1862. 
X'arley, Jacob, enlisted June 4. 1862. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY (three months). 
Company K. 
Philip B. Fuller, enlisted June 2. 1862. 

Campbell, William, enlisted June 2. 1862. 
Fickes, Thomas, enlisted June 9, 1862. 

Company C. 
Kill, James, enlisted July 7, 1862. 
Robinson, Abram, enlisted July 7, 1862. 

Company D. 
Brobts. Jacob, enlisted July 4, 1862, 
Company E. 
First. Alfred S. Hemmant, enlisted July 3, 1862; 
mustered out October 29, 1862, 

Brackley, Samuel R., enlisted Jime 30, 1862. 
Erackley, William H., enlisted June 30, 1862. 
Conrad, Charles, enlisted July 7, 1862. 
Clayton, Isaac, enlisted July 3, 1862. 
Deal, William, enlisted June 3. 1S62. 
Hammer. Henry, enlisted July 2, 1862. 
Keeps, Jesse, enlisted June 30, 1862. 
Nealy, Andrew, enlisted June 30, 1862. 
Schrimpf, Ernest, enlisted July 9, 1862. 
Stewart, Erastus W.. enlisted July 7, 1862. 

Company C. 
Spencer. John F., enlisted August, 1862. 


The regiment was fully organized and mustered 
into the United States service September 3, 1862, 
at Peoria. Illinois. Remained in camp at that 
place until October 4. at which time it proceeded to 
Covington, Kentucky, and reported to Major Gen- 
eral Gordon Granger, commanding army of Ken- 
tucky, who assigned it to duty in the division com- 
manded by General A. J. Smith. 

Marched from Covington with the division, Oc- 
tober 17th, and reached Lexington on the 29th, 
and Richmond, November 2d. Marched from that 
point November nth and arrived at Louisville on 
the 17th. Nothing of interest transpired during the 
sojourn of the regiment in Kentucky, there being 
no force of the enemy in the state at that time; 
and the campaign there was merely a march of 
about one hundred and fifty miles into the interior 
and a march back again. 

November 20, 1862, the regiment embarked on 



steamer for Memphis, Tennessee, in company with 
the whole division, under the same commander. 
Arrived at the latter place November 27tli; .re- 
mained there until December 20th. 1 he division 
was reorganized and reported for duty to Major 
General Sherman; embarked at Memphis. Decem- 
ber 2oth and proceeded down the river with bher- 
inan'3 army for the capture of Vicksburg. Dis- 
embarked in the Yazoo river near Chickasaw Bayou 
on the 27th. The Seventy-seventh occupied the 
extreme right of the line and participated in the 
attack on the rebel works. After four days' fight- 
ing the attack was abandoned and the army em- 
barked on their boats and proceeded to Milliken s 
Bend, Louisiana. At this place Major Ceneral Mc- 
demand arrived and assumed command of the 
army. He organized it into two corps— the Thir- 
tieth and Fifteenth. The Seventy-seventh was as- 
signed to the Tenth Division, Thirteenth Arniy 
Corps. Division was commanded by General A. 
J Smith and Corps by General McClernand. Left 
Milliken's Bend, January 5. 1863, and arrived at 
Arkansas Post on the loth. Immediately disem- 
barked and on the following morning participated 
in the assault. After a few hours' hard hghting, 
carried the place by assault, capturing all it con- 
tained. The loss of the regiment here was six 
killed and thirtv-nine wounded, some of the latter 
mortal. The regiment in this battle behaved ad- 
mirably and was complimented by the commanding 
general for its gallant conduct. , , . 

January 14th again embarked and proceeded to 
Young's Point, Louisiana. Arrived there on the 
22d and went into camp, remaining until March 9!*, 
engaged in the dieging on the canal across the 
point opposite Vicksburg. In March changed camp 
to Milliken's Bend. „, . , _ 

In the first part of April the Thirteenth Corps 
marched from Milliken's Bend for Grand Gulf. 
The Seventy-seventh broke camp and moved for- 
ward about 'the middle of April. Crossed the river 
below Grand Gulf on the last day of April and 
marched all night, arriving at Port Gibson early 
on the morning of the ist of May and participated 
in the engagement there during the entire day. 
The regiment remained with General Grant s army 
during the entire campaign around Vicksburg and 
the siege of the latter place until its surrender. 
The regiment was engaged in the actions at 
Chami.ion Hills, May 17; Black River Bridge May 
19; first charge on Vicksburg. May 22 and 23. 
losing in these engagements twenty killed, eighty- 
six wounded and twenty-six missing. , 
Vicksburg surrendered on the 4th of July and 
the next day the regiment marched for Jackson 
with the armv under Sherman. Arrived there 
Tulv 9th and 'was under the fire of the enemy 
a^ 'that place until the i6th when Jackson was 
evacuated and the Seventy-seventh returned to 
Vicksburg. Remained in camp at Vicksburg until 
August 2Sth. then embarked for New Orleans, 
where it remained in camp until October 3d; left 
New Orleans at that time for western Louisiana; 
marched up Bayou Teche through Franklin to 
New Iberia. Louisiana; camped there until Decem- 
ber 6 1863, when it marched back to New Or- 
leans- left there on December 17th by steamer 
and disembarked at Paso Cavalo. Texas December 
20th. Remained in camp until the last of February, 
then embarked on Vessels and were transported to 
Berwick Bay, Louisiana. Thence marched to Alex- 
andria, Louisiana, with the army mder General 
Banks, bound for Shreveport. From Alexandria 
marched up Red river, driving the eneniy until 
Sabine Cross Roads was reached, April 8, ist>4. 
where it met the enemy in force and was im- 
mediately engaged. .... 

The Seventy-seventh belonged to the division un- 
der command of General Ransom, which division 
was first ordered forward to support the advance 
cavalry. Before the armv could he brought forward 
to their support, the whole rebel army came down 
on them and overwhelmed the whole division In 
this eneagement the Seventy-seventh suffered ter- 
ribly Lieutenant Colonel Webb was killed instantly 
by a musket ball through the brain and one hun- 
dred and seventy-six officers and men were killed, 
wounded and made prisoners, leaving only about 
one hundred and twenty-five men in the regiment 

°On tiie next dav General A. J. Smith's corps 
came up and at Pleasant Hill another battle was 
fought, ending in the complete defeat of the rebels. 

The regiment remained with General Banks through- 
out his retreat down Kcd river and until he reached 
the Mississippi. Here it was ordered into camp 
at Baton Rouge until the first part of August. At 
that time, with five or six other regiments, it em- 
barked and was transported to Dauphin's Island 
under command of General Gordon Granger. Here 
it assisted in the reduction of Forts Gaines and 
Morgan and then returned to Morganzie Bend on 
the Mississippi. In October, the regiment was 
ordered to New Orleans for provost duty and re- 
mained there until the first part of March, 1865, 
when it was assigned to the First Brigade, Third 
Division. Thirteenth Army Corps and transported 
to Mobile Point, where it joined General Canby's 
armv for the capture of Mobile. General Granger 
collected his thirteenth corps at this point and 
during the month of March moved up the penin- 
sula toward Spanish Fort. The regiment was with 
General Canby's armv during the entire siege and 
capture of Spanish Fort, Blakely and Mobile and 
was under fire during the entire time. 

The day following their entry into Mobile the 
Third Division, in which the Seventy-seventh served, 
marched out of the city and proceeded up the Tom- 
bigbee river in search of General Dick laylor's 
army. It proceeded up the river about sixty 
miles, when it was recalled to Mobile — the rebel 
forces throughout the country having surrendered. 
Remained in camp in Mobile until July 10, 1865. 
at which time it was mustered out of service and 
ordered to Springfield, Illinois, for final payment 
and discharge, where it arrived July 23, 1865. The 
Seventv-seventh Illinois during its term of service 
was engaged in sixteen battles and sieges and in 
every one of them carried itself with honor and 
credit to the state. 

Charles Ballance, commissioned August 18, 1862, 

David P. Grier, commissioned September 12. 1862; 

LicutctJant Colonel. 
Lysander R. Webb, commissioned September 3, 
1862; killed in battle, April 8, 1864. 
Memoir V. Hotchkiss, commissioned September 3, 
1862; resigned February 2, 1864. 

John Hough, commissioned September 6, 1862; 
promoted assistant adjutant general on staff of 
General A. J. Smith. 

David McKinney, commissioned September 12, 
1862; transferred. 

William G. Pierce, commissioned September 2, 

Sergeant Major. 
Walter B. Hotchkiss. enlisted August 12, 1862; 
discharged September 22, 1864; disability. 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 
George W. Cone, enlisted August 14, 1864; pro- 
moted second lieutenant Company I. 
Commissary Sergeants. 
Nathan R. Wakefield, enlisted August 9, 1S64; 
transferred to Company C. December 21, 1864. 

William H. Bennett, enlisted August 12, 1864; 
mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Principal Musicians. 
Daniel B. Allen, enlisted August 12, 1864; dis- 
charged March 1,=;. 1865; disability. 

John W. Carroll, enlisted August 7, 1064; mus- 
tered out July 10, 1865. 

Lemon H. Wiley, enlisted August IS. 1864; mus- 
tered out July 10. 1865. 

Company A. 
Walter B. Hotchkiss, enlisted August 12, 1862; 
promoted sergeant major. 

John F. Campbell, enlisted August 7, 1B62; killed 
at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 





Arthur H. Rugg, enlisted August 12, 1862; dis- 
charged December 18, 1863, as private. 

W. D. Putnam, enlisted August 14. 1862; dis- 
charged December 17, 1S63. 

Abraham, Andrew J., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Ash, Francis W., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Develbliss, Tames H., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Develbliss, "Samuel S., enlisted August 7. 1862. 
Edwards, Ulysses, enlisted August 12, 1S62, 
Fry, Benjamin, enlisted August 11, 1S62. 
Holler, Conrad, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Hurd, Charles T., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Kroeson, Chrys A., enlisted August 12, .1862. 
Kroeson, Washington, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Moss, 1. R., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Russell', Luther G., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Summers. Fred, enlisted .Vugust 11, 1862. 
Stone, Lester T.. enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Sturgeon. William, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Trench. Daniel B., enlisted .\ugust 11, 1862. 
Varley. Henry, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
White, Mason M., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Wilson, Henry, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Wilson, John R., enlisted August 15, 1862 
Wilson. Samuel R., enlisted August 15, :862. 

Babcock, William H., enlisted December 30, 1863. 
Crow. Henry, enlisted January 7, 1864. 
Cutler, Daniel B., enlisted December 26, 1863. 
Cutler. James H., enlisted December 26, 1863. 
Crawford. Tames, enlisted December 30. 1863. 
Cook. Darius T-, enlisted February 13, '^65 
Downard, Benjamin F.. enlisted January 4, 1864. 
Kunert. Joseph, enlisted January 4, 1864. 
Lockbaum. Andrew J., enlisted November 23, 1S64. 
Lynch. Thomas, enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Martin, lohn. enlisted December 29. 1S63. 
Smith, James, enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Sutton, George W., enlisted January ii, 1864. 

Company B. 


Joe. K. Stevison, commissioned January 16, 1863. 

First. Charles C. Tracy, commissioned January 

16. 1863. 

Second, Joe K. Stevison, commissioned January 
16, 1863; promoted. 


Blakeslee. William W.. enlisted August 9, 1862. 

Fisher, Elias, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Stevenson, Toe H., enlisted August 5, 1862. 

Tracy, Cliarles C, enlisted August 6, 1862. 


McFarland, Henry S. 

Murden. Alonzo F., enlisted March 14. 1865. 

First. William A. Woodruff, commissioned Sep- 
tember 2, 1862. 

John S. Hornbacker. enlisted August 9. 1862. 

Albert Shepherd, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
John Sewell. enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Thomas S. Patton, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

Charles Moses, enlisted August 14. 1862. 

Bennett, Robert, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Bennett, William N., enlisted .August 12. 1862. 
Crow, James, Jr.. enlisted .\ugust 12, 1862. 
Dunbar, John, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Duff, [)ennis. enlisted August 9. 1862. 
ITall, Edward, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Lindsay. James A., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
McCracken. James R., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
McCartney, Philip H., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Pitcher, Benjamin, enlisted .August 19, 1862. 
Pinkerton. John A., enlisted August 7, 1862. 

Pinkerton. William M., enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Wallace. Edward, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Wiley. John I'., enlisted .August 14, 1862. 
Woodburri. George M., enlisted August 21, 1862. 

Company D. 

Hake. Frederick W., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Stockton, David B., enlisted August 9, 1862. 

Barney, Tompkin C, enlisted November 16. 1863. 
Company E. 
Edwin Stevens, commissioned September 2, 1862. 

First, Samuel T. Smith, commissioned September 
2, 1862. 

Second, James H. Schnebly, commissioned Sep- 
tember 2, 1862. 

Second. Henry L. Bushnell, commissioned March 
28, 1S63. 

First, William Dawson, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
George B. Stiles, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
William J. Brooks, enlisted .August 9, 1862. 
Henry E. Slough, enlisted August 14. '862, 
James Parr, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

Erasmus D. Richardson, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
William G. ATorris. enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Benjamin F. Robins, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Ellis Hakes, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Andrew J. Dunlap, enlisted August 4, 1862. 
Davis R. McKee. enlisted July 22, 1862. 
Henry Paff, enlisted August 14. 1862. 

Daniel E. .Allen 
John W. Carrol 

Louis Z. 


unlisted August 12, 

enlisted August 7, 

Rench, enlisted August 15. 



Adams, Henry, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Adams, Joseph, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Brooks, Henry M.. enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Bunting, Samuel G., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Buterick, John, enlisted .August 12. 1862. 
Berrings, James, enlisted .August 15. 1862. 
Bowers, Simeon P., enlisted August 4, 1862. 
Cord. George F. 

Carter, Charles W., enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Collins, Tohn. enlisted August 15, 1S61. 
Cook. Daniel, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Chamblin, French, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Cord, Lorenzo W. 

Clark. Franklin R., enlisted .August 16, 1862. 
Dawson, Isaac S., enlisted .August 6. 1862. 
Dawson, Joseph N.. enlisted August 4, 1862. 
Dailey, .Tohn, enlisted .August 13, 1862. 
Evans. John, enlisted .August 15, 1862. 
Enslon, Frank W., enlisted .August 9. 1862. 
Forbes. Thomas, enlisted .August 9, 1862. 
French. Tohn S., enlisted .August 8, 1862. 
Fisher, Silas W.. enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Fulton, Joseph, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Gutting. Frederick, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Goodman. Philip, enlisted .August 14, 1862. 
Hoffman, Gustavus, enlisted .August 14, 1862. 
Hamerbacker. John S., enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Hutchinson, James, enlisted .August 6, 1862. 
James, Gran\-^lle, enlisted .August 22, 1862. 
Kinder. Alexander, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Letterman. Joseph, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Loughman. John B.. enlisted August 8. 1862. 
McStravic. Tames, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
McGee, Wifliani H., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
McGee, .Ashford, H., enlisted xVugust 9. 1862. 
Mankle. Joseph, enlisted .August 13. 1862. 
Mills. Joseph T.. enlisted August 11. 1862. 
McDerinott. Francis M., enlisted .August 6. 1862. 
McTntyre. John IL. enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Nixon, Thomas J., enlisted August 7. 1862. 
Nash, LeRoy, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Parr, Harris, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Pierce, Charles, enlisted .August 9, 1862. 



Perry, Samuel, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Rathburn, Samuel A., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Reeves, Asa H., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Ratcliff. Richard W., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Ruse, Solomon, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Randle, Thomas J., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Rogers, David, enlisted August 13. 1S62. 
Smith, Otis B., enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Smith, John W., enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Smith, Joseph A., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Stevenson, Cosmer A., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Sumners, Robert W., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Sweet, James M.. enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Sutton. Albert, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Shipler, Smith E., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Thurston. Cheney \V., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
\''inson, Daniel R., enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Wood, John W., enlisted August Q, 1862. 
White, Thomas, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
White. Leonard T.. enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Wiggins, David T., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Watson. James, enlisted August 21, 1S62. 

Babcock, James W., enlisted February 24. 1864. 
Donaldson, W^illiam, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Houghtalinsr. Tames, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Hayes, William H. 

Jenkins, Newton, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Sargent, Henry, enlisted February 24, 1865. 

Company F. 


William W. Crandall, commissioned September 2. 

Oliver F. Woodcock, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Endress M. Conklin, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Lewis Hamrick, enlisted August 22. 1S62. 
James Sluth, enlisted August 22, 1S62. 

Mitchell Graham. 

enlisted August 22 

Rolander. Frederick, enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Buckman. Joseith, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Brown, Chister, enlisted Augnst^ 22.. 1862. 
Bush, John O.. enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Beach. Hugh P., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Crosson. Jesse, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Cook. John, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Carrigan. Michael, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Doran, John, enlisted August 10, 1862. 
Ewing, Thomas J., enlisted August 22, 1862. 
McMulIer, A., enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Mitchell, Allen T., enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Norman. George, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Stone, Jonali, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Shipler. Peter W., enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Stone, Monterville, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Walters. Henry, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Wright. William M.,. enlisted August 9. 1862. 
White. Henry, enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Wiley, William, enlisted August 5, 1862. 

Company G. 

John D. Rouse, commissioned September 2. 1862. 

First, Charles Island, commissioned September 2, 

First, Henry T, Wyman, commissioned March i, 

Second, Hiram M. Barney, commissioned March 
28. 1863. 


First, Hiram Barney, enlisted July 22, 1862; pro- 

John Loynbee. enlisted August 5, 1862. 

Henry Wyman, enlisted August 5, 1862; pro- 

Edward Burt, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

William W. Miller, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Henry G. Huey, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Hugh Smart, enlisted August 7, 1862. 

Joseph S. Nightingale, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Timothy Martindale, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Stephen J. Cook, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
John Curran. enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Thomas W. Beckett, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Hitz B. Petres, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Wesley R. Andrews, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Robert Cooper, enlisted August 21, 1862. 

Aten, Adrian R., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Aldrich, Delos, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Bailey, Jacob, enlisted August 6. 1862. 
Belford. Franklin, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Beck, Daniel, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Burt, Moses, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Barnes, Henry, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Burnell, Eleazer, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Brassfield. Henry C, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Baronett, David, enlisted August 18, 1862. 
Curran, William, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Campbell, David O.. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Campbell, Charles L., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Campbell, Samuel W., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Camp. Joseph J., enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Cady, Henry F.. enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Com, Charles W.. enlisted August 1 5, 1862. 
Darby. Russell, enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Doty. Hiram B.. enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Davidson, John, enlisted August 1 5, 1862. 
Dustin, Austin M., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Dimmick, Francis O., enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Eaton, William, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Fisher, Moses, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Flemming, James, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Flower, Fayette, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Gilbert, Erastus, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Gillins, James, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Hanna, William H.. enlisted August 13, 1862, 
Hart, David, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Hackenburg. Jacob, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Hatsell, Thomas, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Jones. Romeo VV., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Johnson, Frederick R., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Lawson, William, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Lambertson. William M., enlisted 

Lauchlin. Heslip W.. enlisted August 
Mendall, John A., enlisted August 8, 
Moore, Heiirv P., enlisted August 1 1 
McComb, William, enlisted August 10, 1862. 
Onslott. William, enlisted August 19, 1S62. 
Purcell, James T.. enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Robison, tiavlord, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Rogers, Joseph, enlisted August 1 5. 1862. 
Swan. Tohn, enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Sbinmell, Daniel W.. enlisted August 12. 1862. 
Shull. Joseph, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Shull. John, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Shade, Daniel, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Slocum, Joseph W.. enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Stanton, Franklin, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Smith. Francis, enlisted August 22, 1S62, 
Stock well, Cyrus H.. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Tanner, Joseph, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Ward, John M., enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Wilson, Washington, enlisted August 12, 1862, 

Bolen. Michael, enlisted February 20, 1S64. 
Clougli. Cassius RL, enlisted January 27, 1864. 
Clough. Caleb G., enlisted January 27, 1864. 
Griswold, Francis \\'. 

Hunter. Bcniamin G.. enlisted November 5, 1863. 
Hunter, Joseph, enlisted November 1 1, 1863. 
Huffman. George W., enlisted January 27, 1864. 
Williams. Benjamin F., enlisted January 18, 1864. 

Company H. 
Joseph H., 

August I 

14, 1862. 


enlisted January 25, 


Wayne O' Donald, commissioned September 
1862; mustered out at consolidation. 

First. Silas 
ber 2, 1862. 

Wagoner, commissioned Septem- 



First, John H. Eno, commissioned March 17, 

First, George W. Cone, commissioned Tune 22, 

Second, John H, Eno, commissioned September 
2. 1862. 

Second, GeorRe \V. Cone, commissioned March 
17, 1863. 


Imlo L. Eno, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

George W. Cone, enlisted August 14. 1862. 

George L. Lucas, enlisted August 14. 1862. 

Robert J. Briggs. enlisted August 14, 1862. 


Edward F. Bartholomew, enlisted August 14. 

Rufus Atherton. enlisted August 14. 1R62. 
Rli H. f'lowman, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Toseph M. Lee, enlisted Aupust 14. 1862. 
Tohn T. Rose, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Tohn Willis, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
John McMuIlen, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Alfred B. Reed, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Tasper S. Baker, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Jacob H. Snyder, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Alonzo G. Klsworth. enlisted August 14. 1862. 

Aten. Austin C, enlisted August iS. 1862. 
Bevans, Lewis J., enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Beeny, Frederick, enlisted August 24, 1S62. 
Bentley, William H., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Brown. Isaac, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Biggs, John T., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Clark, John H., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Cook. Asa A., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Cadwell, Tames D.. enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Cowley, Richard, enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Oarnell, George, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Frisbie, Enos, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Fisher. Jacob, en'isted August 15, 1862. 
Fox, Joel J., enlisted August 14. 1S62. 
Fox, Hiram B.. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Furguson. William H., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Gibbs, Ichahod O.. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Hand, Lemuel, enlisted August 15, 1S62. 
Hyne. John, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Humphrey. Eli. enlisted " August 14. 1862. 
Huffman. Joseph, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Higbee, Homer H., enlisted August 14. 1862. 
TIand. Burner, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Horner, Benedict M. S.. enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Jacobs, Thomas F., enlisted August 14. r862. 
Jones. Butler K.. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Jarman, Theodore P.. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Moore. James C, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
McCann. George W., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Macey, Micajah C-. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Murphy, Richard, enlisted August 21. 1862. 
Nunn. Milton, enlisted August 21, 1862. 
Poe, John \V.. enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Pense. Garrett D., enlisted August 14, 1863. 
Richardson. William H.. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Rockingfield. Scout H., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Rockincficld. Cleves S.. enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Redfield. Frank A., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Randall. John A., enlisted August 15. "1862. 
Smith. Lyman H., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Smith. George S.. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Smith, Mvron C. enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Scanlan. Robert, enli'ited August 22, 1862. 
Talen, William, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Widner, Tohn C. enlisted August 14, i86r. 
W^arne. William H., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Wiley. T^eman TT., enli'ited August 15, 1862. 
Wasson. Jacob P.. enli'Jted August 14, 1862. 

Bigelow, Frank E.. enlisted December 30. i86^. 
Cone. Wi'liam D.. enlisted June 4, 1864. 
Jacobs. William W, 

Murphy, Daniel T>., enlisted December 23. 1863. 
Pratz, William W., enlisted February 29, 1864. 
Whitehead. Wesley J., enlisted January 25, 1864. 

Company K. 
Ephraim E. Rynearson, commissioned September 

William K. White, commissioned October 21 



First, William K. White, commissioned Septem- 
ber 2, 1862. 

First, Sylvester S. Edwards, commissioned Octo- 
ber 21, 1862. 

Second, Marcus O. Harkness, commissioned Oc- 
tober 21. 1862. 

Survetus Holt, enlisted August g, 1862. 
John Vinger, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
George Edwards, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Harvey R. Brackett, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

John White, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Francis Shroder, enlisted ^\ugust 12, 1862, 
John AL Harper, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
George W. Aurl. enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Enlee E. Coulson. enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Andrew J. Vleet, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Oswell B. Green, enlisted August 14, 1862, 
Richard M. Holt, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

Daniel Slane, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Charles E. Lines, enlisted August 11, 1862, 

Clement S. Padget, enlisted August 22. 1862. 

Beck, William, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Brown, Eli, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Brown. J. ITenry, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Brown, Patrick, enlisted August 7, 1862, 
Behrens. Harry, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Camp, John, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Cronan, John, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Clayton, William, enlisted August 12. 1862. 
Donnelly. William, enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Dumhaugli, Uriah, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Enders. John A., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Frank. Jacob, enlisted August 16. 1862. 
Greenhalch. John, enlisted August 12, 1862, 
Gilson. Frederick, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Greenough. Roger, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Gurtcrti, Auxilius, enlisted August 12, 1S62. 
Haynes, Jolin, enlisted August 11, 1862, 
Harper, William S., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Holt, Richard M., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Harding, Adam, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Holt. Thomas J., enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Hollings worth, Warner, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Hoffman. Peter, enlisted August 11, 186^. 
Ibick, John, enlisted August 17, 1862, 
Thick, Lawrence, enlisted August 1 1, 1862. 
Kingsley. Charles, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
King, Joseph M., enlisted August 16, 1862. 
Kirkman, Samuel, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
King, Levi H.. enlisted August 9. 1862. 
King, William W., enlisted August 0, 1862. 
Kingsley, Alonzo, enlisted August 7. 1862, 
Lafollett. John, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Lafolletl, Jacob, enlisted August 1 1, 1862. 
Landes, George, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
T.argent, Henry, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Largent. Madison, enlisted August 15, 1862, 
Miller. James, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Morris, Richard, enlisted August 12, 1863. 
Moody, Tames AI., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Merilt, Tohn, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Meek. Andrew J., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Mulvancy, William, enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Nelson, I*eter. enlisted August 1 5, 1862. 
Parnham. Charles, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Perry. Tlenry. enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Powell. Samuel B., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Potts. Joseph, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Pr it chard, John, enlisted August 16. 1862. 
Rynearson. Francis, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Rench. I-yman T., enlisted August 11. 1862, 
Race, Williaip, enlisted August 8, 1862. 






3- 1863. 

Roberts, John, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Sleeth, Thomas, enlisted August 10, 1862. 

Smith. George W., enlisted August 15, 1863. 

Sherwood, Samuel J., enlisted August 8, 1862 

Shcpard, Ephraim R., enlisted August 9. 1862 

Sharkev, Samuel, enlisted August 22. 1862. 

Shorden, John, enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Sheibling. August, enlisted August 15. 1862. 

Throp, William, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Thompson. Robert, enlisted August 15. 1862 
Whale or White. Ed P., enlisted August 15. 
Walker, Austin, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Wholstenhohm, John, enlisted August 15. 1862 
Yerby, Joseph, enlisted August 12. 1862. 

Archdale. George, enlisted December 24. 186 
Caulson, Henry. 

Haines, John, enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Hamilton, John H., enlisted December 3, 
Halstead, Edward. 
Morris, Henry S. 

Orr, Isaac, enlisted January 25, 1864. 
Parker, Thomas, enlisted April 7, 1864. 
Powell, Lyman J., enlisted January 20, 
Rynearson. Robert J., enlisted December , 
Stevenson. William. 
Somers, Edwin R.. enlisted January 2. 1864. 
Thurston. George, enlisted February 29, 1864. 
Wholstenhohm, John D., enlisted April 5, 1864. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Wilson, John, enlisted March i, 1865. 
Atkins, Richard, enlisted Maich i, 1865. 
Bun, Thomas, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Bennett, James, enlisted March i, 1865. 
Brown, William H., enlisted February 26, 1864. 
Conners, James, enlisted March 2, 1S65. 
Flannigan. Patrick, enlisted September 9, 1864. 
Folz, William. 
Grunman, Chauncey W. 

Haley, James, enlisted February 28, 1865. 
Hurbert, John, enlisted March 2, -'863. 
Hayes, John, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Hayes. William, enlisted January 30, 1S65. 
Kerr, Silas, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Kelley, Daniel, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Kahli'ng, Alfred, enlisted February 27, 1865. 
Karmany. Henry M. 

Miller, John, enlisted February 28, 1865. 
McElhenry. Hugh F., enlisted March 14. 1865. 
McGru, Jolm, enlisted January 13, 1864. 
McManus. Henry P., enlisted February 29, 1864. 
Percival, George H. 
Pemble, David B. 

Sorner, Andrew, enlisted February 28, 1S65. 
Sowders, William, enlisted January 30. 1865. 
Shurry, John. 
Stewart, John G. 
Sanford, Louis. 
Wardsworth, Samuel. 

Colon eL 
David P. Grier, commissioned September 12, 1862. 

Edwin Stevens, commissioned July 15. 1865, 

David McKinney, commissioned September 12. 

Company E. 
Edwin Stevens, commissioned September 2, 1862. 

First, Samuel J. Smith, commissioned September 
2, 1862. 

Second, Henry L. Bushnell, commissioned March 
28, 1863. 

Company G. 
John D, Rouse, commissioned September 2, 1862. 

First. Henry J. Wyman, commissioned March 1. 

Company K. 

Second, Marcus O. Hark/iess, commissioned Oc- 
tober 21, 1862. 


Assistant Surgeon. 
First, Emil Brendil, commissioned August 20, 

Company B. 
First, Charles Lanzendorfer, commissioned March 
12, 1863. 

Company D. 
Rudolph Mueller, commissioned October 7, 1863. 
Company E. 
John Zimmermann. enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Joseph Schwabe, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Sebastian Winterer, enlisted July 13, 1862. 

Barth, Jacob, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Borkhauser. Theodore, enlisted August 9, 1862.. 
Bevechle, Anton, enlisted August ji, 1862, 
Dening, Henry, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Diefenbach, John, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Geiger, Joseph, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Geisser, John, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Gingericli, Christian, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Goerges, Peter, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Kessler, Francis J., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Leuke, Ferdinand, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
May, Christian, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Moorsberger, , enlisted August 14, 1862. 

MunighofF. Theodore, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Navy, Nicholas, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Nagele, Charles, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Odenwalder. John, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Pauly, Frederick, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Ritth'aller, Michael, enlisted July 24. 1862. 
Schelikoph, Joseph, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Schoner, William, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Seifker, Adolf, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Simmemmacher, Adam, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Stawitzky. Thomas, enlisted August 4, 1862. 
Walker. Conrad, enlisted August 4, 1862. 
Wall. Nicholas, enlisted August 4, 1862. 
Wetschell, John, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Zimmerman, Andrew, enlisted August 15. 1862. 

Company G. 
Theodore Werth, enlisted August 2, 1862. 
Company H. 
KnaufT, George F., enlisted August 7. 1862. 
Company K. 
Blank, Victor, enlisted August s. 1862. 
Bischoff, Ferdinand, enlisted July 28. 1862. 
Kuhn. Frederick, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Kohler, Morand, enlisted August 18, 1862. 


Company I. 
Brown. James W., enlisted March 22, 1865. 

Unassigned Recruit. 
Higgins, Patrick, enlisted February 6, 1865. 

The Eighty-fifth Illinois Infantry Volunteers was 
organized at Peoria. Illinois, in August, 1862, by 
Colonel Robert S. Moore, and mustered into service 
August 27, 1862. Ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, 
September 6. 1862. and assigned to Thirty-sixth Bri- 
gade. Eleventh Division, Third Army Corps, Colo- 
nel D, McCook commanding division, and Major 
General Gilbert commanding corps. The Eighty- 
fifth marched in pursuit of the enemy under Gen- 
eral Bragg, October i, 1862, and was engaged in 



the battle of Champion Hills, at Perryville, Ken- 
tucky, October 8th, and moved with tlie army to 
Nashville, Tennessee, arriving November 7. 186^;. 
Regiment mustered out June 5, 1865, at Washing- 
ton, D. C. and arrived at Camp Butler, Illinois, 
June II, 1865, where they received final payment 
and discharge. 

Company A. 
Harrison, William C, enlisted August 10, 1863. 
Company C. 
Dunn, Joseph, enlisted September i, 1862. 
Company F, 
John O'Brien, enlisted June 16, 1862. 
George Deford, enlisted June 21, 1862. 

Hamilton, Reuben, enlisted Tune 2, 1862. 
Hamilton. David, enlisted Tune 21, 1862. 
Jones, Ed., enlisted June 21, 1862. 
Landers, Maurice, enlisted June 21, 1863. 
Quinlan. William, enlisted June 21, 1862. 
Wrest nour, Fitzhugh, enlisted June 16, 1862. 

Greteron, John, 


Company K. 

Burr, Nelson, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Kelso, James A., enlisted August 15, 1862. 


The Eighty-sixth Infantry Illinois X'olunteers was 
organized at Peoria, Illinois, in August, 1862, by 
Colonel David D. Irons, and mustered in August 
27th. Moved for Louisville and camped at Jo Holt, 
on the Indiana side. September 10, 1862. Was 
assigned to Thirty-sixth Brigade, Colonel D. ^Mc- 
Cook. with Fifty-second Ohio and Eighty-fifth Illi- 
nois and One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois. 
Eleventh Division, Brigadier General P. H. Sheri- 
dan commanding. Marched from camp October ist 
and on the 8th was engaged in the battle of Perry- 
ville, losing one killed and fourteen wounded. 
Moved thence to Crab Orchard and to Nashville, 
arriving November 7th. Soon after moved to Mill 
Creek. Returned to Nashville December loth. 
Moved to Brentwood, April 8, 1863. Returned to 
Nashville June 3d. On the 30th moved to Murfrees- 
boro. Returned July igth. Marched August 20th 
via Franklin and Columbia to Huntsville, Alabama, 
and on the 4th of September marched to Chatta- 
nooga. The Eighty-sixth was here assigned to the 
Reserve Corps under Major General Gordon Gran- 
ger. Engaged in the battle of Chickamauga. Sep- 
tember 19, 20 and 21. Brigade assigned to Second 
Division, Fourteenth Army Corps. Moved into 
Lookout Valley October 2gth. In the night of 
November 23d crossed the river on a pontoon and 
camped at the foot of Missionary Ridge. Pursued 
the enemy on the 26th to Ringgold and was then 
ordered to Knoxville. Tennessee. Marched as far 
as Little Tennessee river and returned to Chatta- 
nooga December iSth after a most severe march. 
Was engaged on the reconnoissance to Buzzard 
Roost Gap near Dalton, February 24, 1864. fighting 
the enemy two days. Lost one man killed and 
seven wounded. March 6th moved to Lee and Gor- 
don's Mills and May 3d joined General Sherman's 
army at Ringgold, Georgia. Was engaged at Buz- 
zard's Roost, ^lay g, 10 and 1 1 ; Resaca, May 14 
and 15; Rome. May 1 7 — six killed and eleven 
wounded; Dallas, from May 27 to June 5; Kenesaw 
Mountain from June 11 to 27, losing one hundred 
and ten killed and wounded. 

Was again engaged with the enemy on the banks 
of the Chattahoochie on the i8th of July; at Peach 
Tree Creek on the igth and near Atlanta from the 
20th to the 22d. Engaged in the siege of Atlanta, 
Colonel Dills worth commanding brigade, Brigadier 
General J. D. Morgan commanding division, and 
Brevet Major General Jefferson C. Davis command- 
ing the corps. Engaged at Jonesboro. September 
ist. September 2qth moved by rail to Athens, Ala- 
bama, and marched to Florence, driving Forrest 
across the Tennessee. Moved to Chattanooga and 

thence to Galesville. Alabama, Kingston and to At- 
lanta, arriving November 15th. Commenced the 
march to the sea. November i6th. Arrived at Sa- 
vannah, December 21st. Moved January 20, 1865, 
on the campaign of the Carolinas, Brevet Brigadier 
General B, D. Fearing commanding the brigade. 
Engaged in the battle of Averysboro. March i6th 
and of Bentonville, igth and 20th. and arrived at 
Goldsboro. March 23d. March to Raleigh, April 
loth. After the surrender of Johnson marched via 
Richmond to Washington City, at which place it 
was mustered out of service, June 6, 1865, by Lieu- 
tenant George Scroggs, and ordered to Chicago, Il- 
linois, where it received final pay and discharge. 
Died, killed and wounded, 346; marched 3,500 
miles; by rail, 2.000 miles. 

David D. Irons, commissioned August 27. 1862. 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
David W. Magee, commissioned August 27, 1862. 

James S. Bean, commissioned August 27, 1862. 
Joseph F. Thomas, commissioned March 25, 1864. 

James E. Prescott, commissioned August 27. 1862. 

Charles IL Deane. commissioned August 11, 1862. 

Massena M. Hooton, commissioned August 27, 

Assistant Surgeon. 
First. Israel J. Guth, commissioned July 14. 1864. 
Company A. 
Quartermaster Sergeants. 
John C. Adams, enlisted August 4. 1862. 
Charles Magee, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Brown, Jasper A., enlisted August 28, 1862. 
Company B. 

George W. Berdim, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Berdim, Walter I., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Brown. Harvey S.. enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Crouch, Ansel, enlisted August 13. 1863. 
Lee, Charles, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Lemons, George, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Sham, John W., enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Warren, James, enlisted August 15. 1S62. 
Wallace, Alexander, enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Company C. 

Joseph F. Thomas, commissioned August 27. 1862. 
William G. McDonald, commissioned March 25. 



I'iv^t. lohn IL Bachelder, commissioned August 
27, 1862. , . 

Second, Reuben B. Beebe. commissioned August 
27, 1862. 

Second. Edwin C. Stillman, commissioned June 
12. 1865. 


Alfred S. Proctor, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

William Arnsworth. enlisted August 13, 1862. 
James Mitchell, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Stephen L. Easton. enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Isaac M. McCulley, enlisted August 8. 1862. 

Abel W. Brown, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Benjamin Swigger, enlisted August 7. 1862. 

John Buggs, enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Beebe, William J., enlisted August 5, 1862. 



Bowers, Joseph, enl.stetl -V'S"'' .'t' s' ^862 
BlanJ, William J., enl.sted A"B"5t ?■ '»^'- 
Bland, John, enl.sted August ». 'f"- „, 

Baldwin, W.lliam J., enl.sted A"KUSt .5, 1862. 
Bell, John H.. enl.sted August ■'. -S^^- 
Bell, James, enlisted August 1 1, 1862. 
Carver, Horace C. enlisted Augitst -3. -SS^- 
Carter, Elhert S.. enlisted August '2. 'S^^- 
Clawson, Henry, enlisted August ii, .862. 
Clark Cvrus C, enlisted August 9, loo-^- „, 
Rlwell, 'George' W., enlisted August .2 1862. 
Damon. Hiram S., enl.sted August .3. 1862. 
Dray, Henry S.. enlisted August 8. 'Sfi^- 
Do.iovan, Michael, enl.sted August 8 .862. 
Easton. William D., enl.sted August 8, 862 
Furguson, James B.. enl.sted August 8 >862 
Flanders, Chauncey H., enlisted August .3. -862. 
Glaze. Isaac, enlisted August .2. i8b2. 
Gallop. Ralph P.. enlisted August 13, 186^. 
Hutchinsonl Enoch H.. enlisted August .3. 1862. 
Hunt. Isaac, enlisted August 8, iBU^- 
Harrington, John, enlisted August 14. '»6-=- 
Jenkins. Albanus L., enl.sted August 12. 1862. 
Jenkins, William M., enl.sted Augijst 11, 1862. 
Mason, John, enlisted August 9, 1862- 
Marsh, tames, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Maxson," Mathew. enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Nurs, Henry H., enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Parsons, Ahraham S.. enl.sted August 8, 1862. 
Putman, Allen, enlisted August 12. 1865. 
Prentiss. Benjamin, enl.sted August 7, 1862. 
Root. Cvrus. enlisted August 11. 1862. 

Rutherford, Jacob J., enl.sted August 5. 1862 

Rutherford, Andrew J., enl.sted August 5, 1862. 

Robertson, Tames, enlisted August 0, 1862. 

Stowell, Oscar, enlisted August n- '862. 

Sarver, Jacob, enlisted August 7. 1862. 

Sarver, John, enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Sanger, Adna T., enlisted August ■'.■«<'-■ 

Sexton, Frederick I-., enl.sted August 11, 186-. 

Selders. John B.. enlisted August 5. 1862. 

Selders. Thoitias B.. enlisted August 13, 186- 

Sirlott. James, enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Stewart, John, enlisted August 13, '862 

Stittman, Anson P.. enl.sted August 8 1862 

Stittman, Sanford H., enlisted .August 8, 1862. 

Thomas, John, enlisted .\ugust 8, 1862 

Troxell, William, enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Troxell. Absalom, enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Vining, William H.. enlisted August 13. 1862 

Weldman. Charles E., enl.sted August 8, 1862. 

Wilson, Loren J., enlisted August 14, 1S62. 

Wilson. George" N.. enlisted August .,■;, 1802. 

Young. Charles M., enlisted August ... 186.. 


Brown. Harvev L. Wallace, Alexander. 

Shane, John W. T.e.non. George. 

Company D. 


Frank Hitchcock, commissioned August 27, 1862. 

Second, William H. Hall, commissioned August 

27, 1862. 


Augustus \^ Johnson, enlisted August '3, 1862. 
Samuel Y. Horine, enl.sted August 14, 1862. 
John Kiefman, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Lemuel R. KHiot. enlisted August 1 1. 1862. 
George R. Davis, enl.sted August 8, 1862. 
Robert M. Tones, enlisted August 13 1862. 
Thomas Cobb, enlisted August 12, 1862 
William Treeley. enlisted August 13, 1S62. 
Mfred M. McKenney. enl.sted August 14. 18O2. 
John Decker, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Tsaach H. Moore, enlisted August 15. 1862. 

Frank G. Luther, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Richard McCarty, enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Daniel W. Johnson, enlisted August 15. 1862. 

\nderson. David IL, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Arnold. William B.. enlisted August 14. 1862 
Bickford. Leonard B., enlisted August it, 1862. 

Bohanan, James W., enl.sted August .1 862. 

Boshwick, W.lliam K., enl.sted August 14, 862. 

Bauman, Keinhart, enl.sted August .1, 1862. 

Beal, George, enlisted August II, 1862. 

Bennett. William, enlisted July 21, 1862 

Crane, Asa F., enlisted August 13, 1862 

Conrad, Ezra K., enlisted August 9, 1862 

Conrad. Elias H.. enl.sted August '■. '862. 

Cobb, Daniel, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Cramer. Arthur, enlisted August 14, '8'>2- 

Champ, Victor R.. e.^li^'^'i A"8U"t '4. 1862. 

Duffield. William, enlisted August 11, 1852. 

DiUaplaine, John W.. enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Dailev, Henry, enlisted July 30, 1862. 

Frank, Tesse, enlisted August 11, '862. 

Greenhaigh, Richard W., enl.sted Angus .3, 1862. 

Gregory, John F.. enlisted August 15. 1862 

Graham. Abram S.. enlisted August ■■■ -862. 
Graham. William, enl.sted August 15, 1862- 
Hart. Tohn W., enlisted July 24, '8*>2 
Hartman, Henry, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Hartman. Christopher, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Kingon. Perry, enlisted Aueiist 11, 1862 
Kennedy, William S., enlisted August 14. 186-. 
Krouse, Martin, enlisted August 14. 1S62. 
Krouse. Tohn. enlisted August 9. "862 
Kingon, 'John, enlisted August 9, 1862 
Kribbler.'Tohn. enlisted August 13, 1862 
Kimsey. Joel L., enlisted August 14. 1862 
Love, Samuel D., enlisted August i4. 1862. 
Lee William D.. enlisted August 11, 1862 
Long. Thomas M., enlisted August I. 1862. 
Lobaugh. Abraham, enlisted August 15, .862 
Moore, Francis R.. enlisted August I S. 1862. 
Magee. Charles, enlisted .\ugust i ., 1862 
McCov, Thomas, enlisted August 15. i8b2. 
Miller, Samuel, enlisted August 8. 1862 
McManus. James J., enlisted August '4. '«62. 
Morris. Tames F., enl.sted August ^'' [^^z. 
Miller, George, enlisted August "• '862 
McCoy, Lerov S.. enl.sted August 11, 1862 
Memeyer. William F enl.sted August ,1 .862. 
Palmer. Rosaloo. enlisted August 14, i«t>2. 
Priston, Martin, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Root Merritt R.. enl.sted August 9. 1862. 
Rkhardson. William M. enlisted August 14, .862, 
Stoffer Alva, enlisted August 11, i8b2. 
Thatcher, Tacob B.. enlisted August .4. 1862. 
Taylor. Charles E., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Taggart. Robert, enlisted .\ueust "• ■''^-A,, 
Wesrott. Chariton, enl.sted August .8. 1862. 
Williamson. John, enlisted August 12, 1862 
Wriglev, William E., enl.sted August .2, 1862. 
Wescott. Horatio, enlisted August 8 '862 
Williamson, Joseph, enl.sted August ■ ■ '86- 
Wridev. Joseph, enl.sted A"R"5' ','• 'j,?°^- 
Wikoff. William, enl.sted August ■'■ "^b^- „,, 
Wilson William E., enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Young. William M.. enl.sted August 11, 1862. 


Fry. William F. M. „, 

Friik Henrv, enlisted December 29, i863- 
Hal m'ever Tokeph. enlisted December 16, 1863. 
Ke. pie' Charier B., enlisted December 29. .863. 
Pres on, Tohn R., enlisted December 29, 1863. 
Preston David, enl.sted December 22, 1863. 
Walker. Benjamin F., enlisted January 2, 1863. 

Company E. 

Frederick A. Woldorf. commissioned December 26, 



Iram Murray, enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Ghert. Ambrose, enlisted August .3. 1862. 
Graham, Tohn. enl.sted August 13. 1862. 
Mallon. Tames, enl.sted August '3, 1862. 
Sumner. Thomas J., enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Anderson. Joseph, enlisted January 30, 1865. 
Bridegroom, Julius, enlisted January .9. 1864. 
Sumner, Anthony W. ,„ ,0/:, 

Smith. Benjamin F., enlisted January 19. -864. 

Company G. 


Upshaw. Thomas J., enlisted August 22. 1862. 



Cain, David L. 

Hindbaugh, Philip, enlisted January 4, 1864. 
Sandern. Charles, enlisted January 2, 1S64. 

Company H. 

John H. Hall, commissioned August 27. 1862. 

First, Edwin E. Peters, commissioned August 27, 

Second, Davilla W. Merwin, commissioned Au- 
gust 27. 1862. 

Second. John II. Henderson, commissioned Tune 
12, 1865. 

Mathew Murdock. enlisted July 31, 1862. 
John C. Adams, enlisted August 4, 1862. 

W^illiam T. Keener, enlisted August 5, 1862. 
William C. Stewart, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Jonathan Haley, enlisted August i, 1862. 
John T. Geerling, enlisted August 16, 1862. 

Salem E. Martin, enlisted August i, 1862. 

J( agoner. 
George Farnsworth, enlisted July 19, 1862. 

Anthony, Jacob, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Alger, Josiah J., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Buck, William, enlisted July 18, 1862. 
Buck. Millar, enlisted July 18, 1862. 
Bremer, John, enlisted August 1. 1862. 
Black well, Thomas, enlisted July 31, 1862. 
Beasemore. Robert G.. enlisted July 29, 1862. 
Blundcl, William, enlisted July 26, 1862. 
Brings. William, enlisted July 22, 1862. 
Cole. Oliver W., enlisted" August 6. 1862. 
Cain, David L., enlisted July 28. 1862. 
Claver, David, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Church, Andrew G., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Charles, H. Charles, enlisted August 27, i86j. 
Dolan, John, enlisted July 31, 1862. 
Edwards, Evans, enlisted August i, 1862. 
Ewing. John W. H., enlisted August 4. 1862. 
Flick, Erwin, enlisted July 8, 1862. 
Foster, Robert, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Fullerton, James, enlisted August 2, 1862. 
Fuller. George, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Flagler, John W.. enlisted July 31, 1862. 
Faskitt. Byron O.. enlisted August 4. 1862. 
Faskitt, Lyman W.. enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Gasney, William, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Hackan, Sebalt, enlisted July 19, 1862. 
Jayne, Jacob, enlisted August 2. 1862. 
Kellogg, Lewis F., enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Kellogg. William P., enlisted July 18, 1862. 
Keack, Daniel C, enlisted August 2, 1862. 
Kruger, Edward H.. enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Kilver. Henry J,, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Ley. William L., enlisted August 15, 18G2, 
Mason. Richard, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Macinley. William A., enlisted August 1. 1862. 
McFarland, Tames A., enlisted July 18. 1862. 
McConncll, Robert A., enlisted August 6, 1862. 
McKone. John, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
McMahan. Sylvester, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
McGee. Charles, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Nowlon, William W.. enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Oburph, Francis V.. enlisted August 5, 1862. 
Place. Emerson, enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Place. John N., enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Peters. Andrew W., enlisted August 11. iSfij. 
'^onk, Ch.irles. enlisted August 6, 1862, 
Reed. An?us M.. enlisted August 6. 1862. 
Ramsay. Harrison, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Stone. Ely. enlisted August 2, 1862. 
Smock, William, enlisted July 30. 1862. 
Schleigh. John J., enlisted August 5. 1862. 
Slocum. George, enli'^ted August 6, 1862. 
Scott, James, enlisted August 6. 1862. 
Sharpnerk. William, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
\'anpatten. Emerson, enlisted August 6. 1862. 
Wayne. Isaac T^., enlisted August 6. 1862. 
Wayne. Samuel, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Wallace. Charles, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Wilkins, John J., enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Zimmerman. Jesse, enlisted August 6, 1862. 

Bennett, William. 
Darley, Henry. 
Moore, George M. 

Company I. 

Thomas J. Love, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
William P. Parker, enlisted August 9, 1862. 


Clark. William L.. enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Clark. John, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Jones. Francis M., enlistetl August 14, 1862. 
Lemaster, Isaac, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Lindenberger, Ernst F. C, enlisted August o, 

Slick, Ezra, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Sill, William P. J., enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Sill, George D., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Sill, Isaac M., enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Thomas; David, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Cromwell. John, enlisted December 28. 1863. 
Green, Andrew S., enlisted December 28, 1863. 
Glassford. John, enlisted December 28. 1863. 
Glassford, George, enlisted December 28. 1863. 
Johnson, Cyrus, enlisted December 29, 1863. 
Kelley, Nelson, enlisted February 21, 1865. 
I*etty, Ezekiel. enlisted December 28. 1863. 
Petty. John R., enlisted December 28, 1863. 
Sayler, William C, enlisted January 25, 1864. 
Wolf, Jonathan B., enlisted October 11, 1864. 

Company K. 


John F. French, commissioned August 27, 1862. 

Levi A. Ross, commissioned April 20, 1865. 

First, James B. Peet, commissioned August 27, 

First, John Morrow, commissioned August 20. 

Second, Henry F. Irvin, commissioned August 27, 

Second. John McGinnis, commissioned Tune 12, 

First, Peter H. Snyder, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Alexander Buchanan, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Elijah Coburn. enlisted August 7, 1862. 

John Carter, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Edwin L. Smith, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Levi A. Ross, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
John Z. Slone, enlisted August 9, 1863. 
Kbenezer M. Armstrong, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Samuel Bohrer, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
John J. Anderson, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
William H. Anton, enlisted August 7, 1862. 

David Smith, enlisted August 9. 1862, 
John E. White, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

John Dukes, enlisted August 7, 1862. 

An ten, George, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Alter, Charles E., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Andrews, Henry A., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Aten, Charles S., enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Anderson, Warren T., enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Butler, Sylvester, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Beach. Frank, enlisted August 7. 1862, 
Bickner, Andrew J., enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Blanchard. William H., enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Burgess. Green, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Butler, Henry, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Burns, Patrick, enlisted August 12, 1S62. 
Coburn, Samuel C., enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Cook. George, enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Cowley, John J., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Dinesmore. Peter, enlisted August 7, 1862, 
Debord. Jefferson, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Debord, Nelson, enlisted August 7. 1862. 



Deal William, enlisted August 9, ^f/- 
Debord, John, .-'-''■''.^AuKUSt 3, .86^. 
Foley, Hezekiah, enhsltd A>^«"f /• '° 
Kram-is loseph, enlisted August 9, i8«- 
G adfither! Jacib. enUstcd August 7, ■86^- 

Hnre Henrv H., enlisted August 8, iSb.. 

R^ 'u „ (Vnrse W , enlisted August 9.^>«o2. 

SX""'H. enlisted August 9, .86.. 

Ke e Emanuel, enlisted August 7, .86^. 

Ke er Andrew, enlisted .\ugust 7. 86^. 

K^ er Edmund, enlisted August 7. -S^J- 

h,v Andrew J , enlisted August 7. '862. 

^H^s, Ben Imiil' enlisted August 9,-86.. 

T ttle Henry, enlisted August 8. 1862. 

M lie; James enlisted August 7. "862. 

^ Mman,"john, enlisted August 7, .86 

Parents Joseph, enlisted August 7. .862. 
Pots Wlliam. enlisted August 7. .862. 

Pons John T:..„!="l'"f„,,4XAug'us 9 '.862. 
Ru^ssell lames A., enlisted August 8 1862 
Russe "James M., enlisted August 8, .862. 
Reed! Philander, enlisted August 8 .862. 
Roney, Hugh, enlisted Augus 8. 862. 
Roney Peter, enlisted August 8, 1862 
Rook William, enlisted August .2 1S62 
Mea, Simon W.. enlisted August 8 .862. 
Smith John W., enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Sm h Isaae L., enlisted August 7. .862- 
levies Moses M.. enlisted August L, .862. 
lay e : Thomas, enlisted August .1 .86.. 
pTfer' ^ElUai/B '^"nli^te-ltu u'st''.'!- :862. 
!;;;'?' Archii'ald. enlisted August 8 ■862. 
sSger. Madison, enlisted August 7, &6z. 
Sahin John M.. enlisted August 7, .»62. 
|™n ' And"ew j.. enlisted August 9. .86.. 
Timnons, Francis, enlisted August 7, .862 
Wa"tson\TamesSenhsted Augusts, ^^8^ 

^'Hre?^Vl1iia^'''l^^%ef A"f r ■862-''^- 

Wh e James E., enlisted August 8 1862. 
Wiley Charles, enlisted August 9. 'f6^- 
Young. Harrison, enlisted August .■■ .86|. 
Zikr Jeremiah C, enlisted August u, .862. 

Dehord Henry, enlisted August 19, '^62. 
Hladtetier Abert, enlisted February ., .864. 
Hughs William, enlisted February .. -864. 
"lafrs Joseph D., enlisted January 23, .865. 
Lynch tames A., enlisted January 23, 865. 
Nail! William T., enlisted January 2., 1864. 
Unassigned Recruits. 
\mbler, Monroe, enlisted December 6. .863. 
Brwn! Chester F., enlisted October 22. 1863. 
Company A. 
Smith, Samuel, enlisted August 13, .862 
Urie, David R., enlisted August 13, .86-. 
Company G. 
Baves, Adelbert, enlisted November. 1863. 

Hunt. James, enlisted November 28, 1863. 
Company C. 
Corwin, Thomas R., enlisted April 12. 1865. 
Pa™ons, John, enlisted December 5. 864. 
Parker, James, enlisted April 11, .865. 

Ryon, John, enlisted March 31. '865. 
Timmons, John, enlisted April 12, 1865. 

Company K. 
Godfrey, Michael, enlisted March 31, .865- 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Baker. James, enlisted April 11, 1865. 
Cody, Patrick, enlisted April 11, 1865. 
Clark, Thomas J., enlisted April 1 1, 1865. 
Dougherty, lohn, enlisted March 9. .865. 
Flynn. Frank, enlisted March 9. 1865. 
Farrington. George, enlisted March 29, .865. 
Higgins. John, enlisted April 11. .865. 
Hellvard. Thomas, enlisted March 22. 1865. 
Jenkins. William K.. enlisted March ... .865. 
Mulcahy. Patrick, enlisted April ... '865. 
Morgan. James, enlisted March ii. .865. 
O'Brien. Patrick, enlisted March 9. .865. 
Powers. William, enlisted March 9, 1865. 
Welsh. James, enlisted April 11, 1865. 
Zonowski, Louis, enlisted March 22. 1865. 

John Warner, commissioned August 28. 1862. 

Lyman W. Clark, commissioned October 26. 1864. 

Benjamin T. Foster, commissioned August 23. 

'^Henry C. Fursman, commissioned June 23, 1864. 
George W. Raney, commissioned August 18, 1862. 

Sergeant Majors. 
John E. McDermot, enlisted August i. 1862. 
tdward Pratt. 

Quartermaster Sergeants. 
George B. Raney, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Anson Adams. 

Commissary Sergeants. 
John M. Dodge, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
George Hindson. 

Hospital Steward. 
Henry C. Fursman, enlisted September 15, .862. 

Principal Musician. 
Frederick Wham. 

Company B. 
Coons, Andrew J., enlisted A"gust M, .862. 
Coons Martin, enlisted August .1, '86.. 
Crall William H.. enlisted August 4, .86-. 
Horton Joseph W., enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Ingalls.- WiUiam R., enlisted August .4, .862. 
Company E. 
Sylvester V. Dooley. commissioned August 28, 



First. Patrick Moore., commissioned August 28, 
'^lecond. Thomas Lynch, commissioned August 28. 
'^Peter Young, commissioned August i, 1865. 
Patrick Lvnch. enlisted August 7, '862. 
Fames Freeman, enlisted August .5, .862 
Akxander Pitcher, enlisted August .3, .862. 

George Simons, enlisted August '5. '862. 

Tohn Mangan, enlisted August .5. .862. 
£-"ku^SU^Aigusl^": -62. 



Tames Brophy, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
James Byan, enlisted August 15, 1862. 


Henry Hammond, enlisted August 9. 1862. 

Bradley, Robert, enlisted August 9. 1862. 

Brophey, John, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Barnard, James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Burke, John, enlisted August 8, 1862. 

Carroll, Michael, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Corbet, Joseph, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Crass, James, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Cranson, John, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Chamblin, Elisha, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Crowder, John, enlisted August 13, 1S62. 

Cation, William, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Dodd, George, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

Davis, livan, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Dodge, John, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Don, Levy Joseph, enlisted August 22, "1862. 

Driscal, Dennis, enlisted August 15. 1862. 

Dickerson, I'Vank. enlisted August 18, 1862. 

Diving. Cyrus, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Ewing. George \\ ., enlisted August 3, 1862. 

Eads. Thomas, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Fentrop, Henry, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Fleming, Michael, enlisted August 22, 1862, 

Flanagan, Thomas, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Gross, Daniel, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Groatatoaut, Jesse, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Guppy, Samuel, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Gillit. Julien, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Graves, Isaac, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Higgins, John, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Hidson, George, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Hutchinson, Samuel, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Hogan, Barnard, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Hughes, George, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Jones, Avrein. enlisted August 5, 1862. 
James, John, enlisted August 16, 1862. 
Jenkins, John, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Kelley, James, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Kenny, James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Lushman, Thomas, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Loomis, Michael, enlisted August 22, 1862, 
Loinan. Thomas, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Lockland, Michael, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Murphy, William H., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
McKone. Michael, enlisted August 13, 1863. 
^IcComb, James, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Moore, John, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
McCarty, John, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Merry, Edward, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Ml Knight. James, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Roberts. George, enlisted August S. 1862. 
Rice, George, enlisted August 16, 1862. 
Simons, John, enlisted August 15, 1862, 
Strately, James, enlisted August 7, 1862. 
Simmers. John, enlisted August 12, 1862, 
Smith. Edwin, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Summers, William, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Thorp, Charles, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Taylor. Tames, enlisted August 17, 1862. 
Upton. James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Whitty, Samuel, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Walters, Andrew, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
Walters. John, enlisted August 22. 1862. 
Yost. Bartholomew, enlisted August 22, 1862. 

Company D. 
Gabriel, Philip, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Hartman, William, enlisted August n, 1862. 
Kellogg. Nathan, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Pank. Alexander, enlisted August 20. 1862. 
Page, James H., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Snyder, James, enlisted September 5, 1862. 


Greenwell, George, enlisted February 23. 1S65. 

Company F. 

Doman. John, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Edwards. Henry O., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Everingham. Joseph H.. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Fursman. Henry C. enlisted September 18, 1862. 
Kirkner. George, enlisted August 1 5. 1862. 
McKown, Robert, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Phillips, George, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Perdue. Wil.iam F.. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Stine. George A., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Sonderland, Olof, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Twigs, James L., enlisted August 15, 1862. 


Kyle, John, enlisted January 26, 1865. 
Company G. 
George R. Haglitt, commissioned August 28. 1862. 
Samuel H. Harts, commissioned January 13, i86j. 
Henry C. Somniers. commissioned May 30, 1863. 
John E. McDermott. commissioned June 13, 1864. 

First. James* H. Wynd. commissioned lune 13, 

Second. James Bradshaw, commissioned Aucust 
I. 1865. 

First. George W. Morris, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
George Angus, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
John S. Phillips, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Sylvanus H. Williams, enlisted July 28, 1862. 
William R. Caldwell, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Alfert F. Simons, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Lewis Elwell, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Clinton \'. B. Reader, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Lewis Mitchell, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Samuel K. Mobery, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Aaron T. Sharp, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Ephraim Bartlett, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
William C. Mawberry, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Anson Adams, enlisted August 15. 1862. 

Atkinson, Henry, enlisted August 15, 1862, 
Berdine, George W., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Buchard. Thomas, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Brown. Reuben W., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Bowers. Isaac, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Bradshaw. W illiam, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Blanchard, Robert A., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Brummel, Charles, enlisted July 16, 1862. 
Broomfield. Obadiah. enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Brown, John H., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Conroy, Charles AL, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Craig, Hiram D.. enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Conroy, James A., enlisted August 15, 1S62. 
Curtis. James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Crouch, John A., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Cochran, James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Dunne, James, enlisted August i, 1862. 
Easter, I'ranklin. enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Easter, Noah, enlisted October 12, 1862. 
Frazier. Thomas J., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Grundy, James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Homer, Landow, enlisted August 12, 1S62. 
Harris, Charles T., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Hartley, John J., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Holmes. Jesse N., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Johnson. William, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Kippenbrock, Lewis AL, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Keefer, Jacob, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Kirkman, Clement, enlisted August 1 1, 1862. 
Kippenbrock, Henry A., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Lewis, Barney, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Lewis, Charles, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Long, Joseph M.. enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Lama. John, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Larimar, James, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
I^yton. Sylvester, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Mitchel. Martin, enlisted July 22, 1862. 
Meyer. John, enlisted August '11. 1862. 
Meyers, William J. D., enlisted August 17, 1862. 
McDermot. John E., enlisted August r, 1862. 
Moore. John S., enlisted July 28, 1862. 
McComb. Andrew, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Owens. Robert, enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Owens. Pleasant, enlisted July 15. 1862. 
Odell. George, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Penny, Brayton A., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Porter. Jackson, enlisted August 7, 1862 
Pernell, M., enlisted August 14. 1862. 




Powell, lidward, enlisted AuKUSt 12. 1862 
Phillips, Valentine, enlisted August 15, >»02- 
Ranev, George B., enlisted August is, 
Randall, Icremiah E., enlisted July 28, 
Rose Washington, enlisted August 15, 
Rice, George, enlisted August 15, >862 
Stock, Valentine, enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Sommers, William, enlisted August 5, 1862 
Sommers. Leonard, enlisted August ■ 5. 1862. 
Staples, Toshua, enlisted August is. 1862 
Sherwood, Samuel, enlisted August 10, 1862. 
Tipton, James R., enlisted August 19, 1862 
Webell, George W., enlisted August IS, 1862. 
Watts, Robert, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Wright, William, enlisted August is, 1862. 
Worth, Samuel R., enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Zuber, .Tohn J., enlisted July 28, ^1862, 

Aldrich, George, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Bailey, Henry C enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Butler, John, enlisted March 6, i86s. 
Fox. Reed, enlisted March 6. 1865. 
Guyer, George, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Hibbs, Evan, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
King, Joseph, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Prior, 'Richard, enlisted March 6, 1865. 

Company H. 
Kirby, Patrick, enlisted September 5. 1862. 
Moran, Michael, enlisted September 20, 1862. 

Company I. 
Tohn W. Carroll, commissioned August 28. 1862. 
Patrick Needham, commissioned March 28, 1862. 


First Richard Scholes, commissioned August 28, 
'862. ... 

Second, Daniel Dulanv. commissioned August 28, 

Edward Pratt, commissioned August I, l86s. 

First, John S. Stater, enlisted August 2, 1862. 
James Sook, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
'Dauphin H. Kendall, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Tohn Smith, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
David Rockford, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Richard Walsh, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Noal Hungertord, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
George Myers, enlisted August, 1862. 
Thorhas Byron, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Edward Grant, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
John Kearns, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Harvev Steele, enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Frederick Wham, enlisted August 27, 1862. 

Dudley Willits. enlisted August 11. 1862. 

Briggs, Samuel, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Bachus, Francis, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Brown, Thomas, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Barry, Daniel L., enlisted August 17, 1862. 
Cook, Henry H.. enlisted August 14. 1862. 
Curtis. George P.. enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Crews, Thomas M., enlisted August 10, 1862. 
Carey, Tames, enlisted August 16, 1862. 
Cullen, Mathew. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Dnnningan. Alpbeus. enlisted Aygust 14, 1862. 
Dillon, Edward, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Delong. William H., enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Dillon. Christopher, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Dunne. Patrick, enlisted .\ugust 14, 1862. 
Eagan. William, enlisted August 15. 1S62. 
Evans. David, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Gabriel, Andrew, enlisted August ll. 1862. 
Grimes. Terrence, enlisted ,\ugust 15. 1862. 
Hodees. Alexander, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Harding. Samuel C. enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Heyers, Reuben, enlisted August 14. 1862. 
T^armon. John, enlisted August, 1862. 
Hirsh. Beniamin F., enlisted September 22. 1862 
Jackson. Victor, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Jones, John, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Kershau, Thomas, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Kinney, James, enlisted August is, 1862. 
McGinnis. Green, enlisted August 8. 1862. 
Murphy, Michael, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Moore, John S.. enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Murphy, lames, enlisted August, 1862. 
Orr, William, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Phillips, Andrew, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Powers, Thomas, enlisted September 1. 1862. 
Phillips, William, enlisted August is, 1862. 
Rockford, David, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Ryan, James, enlisted August u, 1862. 
Roystcr, Joshua, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
Ransom, Henry, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Rodgers, Tames, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Ryan, William, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Skidmore, William, enlisted August 29, 1862. 
Sommers. Leonard, enlisted ,-\ugust 29, 1862. 
Shultz, Samuel, enlisted August 28, 1862, 
Sedgwick, Charles, enlisted August 9. 1862. 
Smith, John, enlisted August 20, 1862. 
Shomaker, William, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Smythe. Charles, enlisted .\ugust 9, 1862. 
Sealer. Anthony, enlisted September i, 1862, 
Sill. William M., enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Thenne. Mathias. enlisted September 17, 1862. 
Turner. John G., enlisted August 16. 1862. 
Taggert, Robert M., enlisted August 20, 1862. 
Tvler. Cassius M., enlisted August 18, 1862. 
Van Volson, Joshua, enlisted .August 11, 1862. 
Walker, Samuel, enlisted August 18. 1862. 
Wasterman, Charles C, enlisted August 19. 1862. 
Walsh, Edward, enlisted August 12. 1S62. 
Walsh, Tohn, enlisted September 17, i5i62. 
Walsh. Tames, enlisted September 17, 1862. 
Walsh. William, enlisted September 17. 1862. 

Company K. 
Lyman W. Clark, commissioned August 28, 1862. 

Preston H. Bnrch, enlisted February 15. 1862. 

James Balfour, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Alder, George, enlisted August 28. 1862. 
Alexander. Gilbert, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Carroll, Michael, enlisted July 22, 1862. 
Cliver. Thomas H., enlisted August 28, 1862. 
Evans. David, enlisted August 4, 1S62. 
Guy, Samuel S., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Howard. John, enlisted August 28, 1862. 
Huien, Patrick, enlisted August 22, 1862. 
King, Alexander, enlisted July 28, 1862. 
Leonard, Tohn C. enlisted August 15, 1862. 
O'Neil, Peter, enlisted July 17, 1862. 
Pattee. John F., enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Robbie. August, enlisted August 11, 1862. 
Snyder, Daniel H., enlisted August 6. 1862. 
Tinker. Daniel A., enlisted .August IS, 1862. 
Vandover, Gilbert, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
Wham John L, enlisted August 28, 1862. 
Yaw, George L., enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Davidson, Tames, enlisted February 24, i86s. 
McOuirk, Bernard, enlisted September 22, 1864. 
Swartwood, Henry. 

Company D. 

Keazel. Tohn D., enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Sergeant', Jeremiah, enlisted August 12, 1862. 
Dardis, Michael, enlisted January 24, i86s. 

Sergeant Major. 
Samuel A, Wilson. 

Company B. 
T'irst John Teffcoat. commissioned August 26, 

'^''3- ' r- . , 


Miltnn W. Ronnsaviille. enlisted August 9, 1862. 



Loyal S. Blair, enlisted August 8, 1862. 
John R. Blanchet, enlisted August 11. 1862. 

Albert '1". Nicholas, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Tleech. Rilev V., enlisted August 6, 1862. 
Carroll, Thomas, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Fundy, John, enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Shays, George E., enlisted August 5. 1862. 
\'^an Valkenburg. George T., enlisted August 7, 

Wheel. Alexander, enlisted August 13. 1862. 

Company E. 
Bit tie. Melcheur, enlisted March 3. 1865. 
Behrens. Ferdinand, enlisted March 8. 1865. 
Deitz, Andrew, enlisted March 10, 1865. 
Edller, Lawrence, enlisted March S. 1865. 
Steelig. Christian, enlisted March 8, 1865. 

Company F. 


Wilson. Samuel A., enlisted November 4. 1863. 

Company H. 


Hall, Moses W., enlisted August 1 1. 1862. 

L'tiassigncd Recruit. 
Schulze, John G., enlisted February 24. 1863. 

Company E. 


First, Lewis R. Hedrick, commissioned May 27, 

Ashley Pettibone. enlisted August 1 1. 1862, 

Contrail, Edward D., enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Lemows, Joseph, enlisted August 15. 1862. 
Petticord, Higginson, enlisted August ji. 1862. 
Rhodes. William K., enlisted August 11, 1862, 
South. Leonard, enlisted August 14, 1862. 
Wells, John, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

George. James XL, enlisted August 11. 1862. 
Company L 
Woodron. Samuel, enlisted July 25, 1862, 

Atkinson. Robert V.. enlisted July 25, 1862. 
Johnson, Orren D., enlisted July 25. 1862. 
McCane. William, enlisted July 25, 1862. 
Savle. Amos, enlisted July 25, 1862. 


Company G. 
\'olney Prosper, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Mark Feary, enlisted February 16, 1864. 



Vnassigned Recruit. 

Murray, James, enlisted March 23. 1865. 


Company F. 


John D. Rouse, commissioned September 2. 1862. 


Company D. 
First, H. A. Anderson, commissioned June i, 


First. AiKlrew V. Gibson, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

William Thatcher, enlisted May 9, 1864. 

John Darnel, enlisted May 9, 1864. 

Bradshaw. Charles, enlisted May 13, 1864. 
Beesm. Charles N., enlisted May 5, 1864. 
Darby. Henry H., enlisted May 8, 1864. 
Eaton. Robert N.. enlisted May 5. 1864. 
Furman. Warner, enlisted May 27. 1864. 
Herbert. Daniel K., enlisted May 6, 1864. 
Humphrey, T. T., enlisted May 5. 1864. 
Jay, W. Scott, enlisted May 5. 1864. 
Lockwood. W. P., enlisted May 5. 1864. 
Oldham, Charles T.. enlisted May 25, 1864. 
Plummer. Charles H., enlisted May 10. 1864. 
Robinson. James, enlisted Mav 2. 1864. 
Richardson, E. D., enlisted May 5. 1864. 
River, Matthew, enlisted May 26, 1864. 
Smith. William, enlisted Mav 2, 1864. 
Welton. Charles P.. enlisted May s. 1864. 

Bartholomew. A. G. 

Freudenburger. Edward, enlisted May 12, 1864. 

Peter Davidson, commissioned June i, 1864. 

David N. Sanderson, commissioned June i, 1864. 

John Bryner. commissioned May 18. 1864. 
Company A. 
Edward B. Dunbar, enlisted May 7, 1864. 

Thomas Entz. enlisted May 9, 1864. 

Clifton, Joseph H.. enlisted June i, 1864. 
Farden. James, enlisted May 9, 1864. 
Leonard. John R., enlisted May 9, 1864. 
Shaw, James F., enlisted May 9. 1864. 
Shepard. Mortimer H., enlisted May 10, 1864. 
Thompson. Henry B., enlisted May 9. 1864. 
Thomas, Charles H., enlisted May 9. 1864. 

Company C. 

Campbell, James B., enlisted May 5, 1864. 
Lawless. Thomas, enlisted May 5. 1864. 
Lynch. James, enlisted May 7, 1864. 

Company B. 


George W. Odell, commissioned June i, 1864. 


First. Henry M. Evans, commissioned hine i. 

Second. Alonzo Attwood, commissioned Tune i, 

Thomas E. Horslcy, enlisted May 27. 1864. 
William Orr, enlisted May 7, 1864. 
John Uppole, Sr.. enlistee! May 20, 1864. 
Albert Soper. enlisted May 2:7, 1864. 

Vol. T— 1 C 



Francis A. Claridge. t'tilisted May lo, 1864. 
Ebon Curran. enlisted May 4. 1864. 
Alvah Moffatt, enlisted May 4, 1864. 

Reuben M. Grove, enlisted May ig. 1864. 
John W. Crandall, enlisted May 14, 1864. 

Earl Brooks, enlisted May 5, 1864, 

Barfoot, Edward A., enlisted May 6, 1864. 
Barnes, Tames H., enlisted May 14, 1864. 
Breed, William H., enlisted I\[ay 10, 1864. 
Cook, James H., enlisted April 27, 1864. 
Couse, Irvin, enlisted May S. 1864. 
Cummins. Thomas, enlisted May 23, 1864. 
Camp, James M., enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Dunlevy, Andrew, enlisted May i, 1864. 
Deel, William, enlisted May 6. 1864. 
Douglas. Samuel, enlisted May 14. 1864. 
Dukes. William, enlisted May 17. 1864, 
Deal. James N., enlisted May 23, 1864. 
Dubord. William P., enlisted May 18. 1864. 
Dubord. William H.. enlisted May 19. 1864. 
Ellington, George, enlisted May 17. 1864. 
Haley. William, enlisted May i'6. 1864. 
Hedrick. Simpson, enlisted May 14, 1864. 
Hedrick. Thomas J., enlisted May 14. 1864. 
Hayes. William, enlisted May 23. 1864. 
Hardin. Charles, enlisted May 24. 1864. 
Hart, Pliny M.. enlisted May 23. 1864. 
Hackney. Washington, enlisted May 14, 1864. 
Harseby. Zebulon. enlisted May 18'. 1864. 
Hitchcock. F.. enlisted May 18. 1864. 
Harrison. Ira D., enlisted May 18. 1864. 
Hill. John, enlisted May 18. 1864. 
Kinnah. Joseph, enlisted May 17. 1864. 
King, James, enlisted May 4, 1864. 
Livingston. William M., enlisted Mav 5, 1864. 
Lmsey, Abraham D.. enlisted May '17. 1864 
MofFatt. Joseph W., enlisted May 4, 1S64. 
McMaster, Henry, enlisted May 9, 1864. 
Martin, Bradley, enlisted May 4, 1864. 
McClown, Joseph, enlisted Mav 6. 1864. 
McGinley, Edward, enlisted May 16, 1864. 
McDaniels, Stadden, enlisted May 16, 1864. 
Mohrmon, Casper, enlisted May 24. 1864. 
Opdyke. Benjamin, enlisted May 3, 1864. 
Richardson, Christopher C, enlisted May 29. 1864. 
Russell, Joseph, enlisted May 24, 1864, 
Roth. Henry, enlisted May 30. 1864. 
Shepard. Benjamin, enlisted May 17, 1864. 
Stondminger. Charles, enlisted May 3. 1864. 
Sweely. Michael, enlisted May 17'. 1864. 
Sheeler. William R., enlisted Mav 24. 1864. 
Sonders. John P.. enlisted May '31. 1864. 
Tuthill. Samuel, enlisted Mav 24, 1864. 
Uppole. John, Jr., enlisted May 20, 1864, 
Uppole, Henry, enlisted Mav 20, 1864. 
Walker, Thomas, enlisted Mav 6, 1864. 
Wakefield, Henry, enlisted May 25, 1864. 
Wilson, Richard, enlisted May 25', 1864. 

Company F. 

Herman W. Snow, commissioned June i, 1864. 


First. Appleton K. Fitch, commissioned June i. 

Second, James C. McKenzie, commissioned Tune i, 

First. Samuel D. Scholes. enlisted May 13. 1864. 
Levi A. Tapham. enlisted May 12. 1864. 
George R. Carter, enlisted Mav 16, 1864. 
William O. Wann. enlisted May 14, 1864. 

Robert L. Farr, enlisted May 16, 1864. 
Thomas J. Scholes, enlisted May 14, 1864. 
John B. Frost, enlisted May 24. 1864. 
Charles F. Rummell, enlisted May 19, 1864. 
Robert J. Stilwell. enlisted May 25, 1864. 

Calvin G. Towers, enlisted May 12, 1864. 

Abbott. George S.. enlisted May ig, 1864. 
AUemony. Robert, enlisted May 14. 18^4. 
Austin. Charles S., enlisted May 12. 1864. 
Avling, Charles W., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Bliss, William E., enlisted May 24, 1864. 
Ballance, Charles, enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Baringer, Horatio G., enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Boyd, John, enlisted May 12. 1864. 
Barnum. William C. enlisted May 12. 1864. 
Brooks. Thomas G., enlisted May 12. 1864. 
Brown. Charles, enlisted May ig, 1S64. 
Barstow, Alfred, enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Cowell, Joseph H., enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Caffyn. Tames, enlisted May 21. 1864. 
Comegys, Charles M.. enlisted May 16. 1864. 
Conrad. Oliver, enlisted May 12. 1864. 
Clarke. Emit M., enlisted May 21, 1864. 
Clauson, Henry T-, enlisted May 20. 1864, 
Day, Fred J., enlisted May 13, 1864. 
Day, William H., enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Davis, Edward L., enlisted May 13, 1864. 
Elson. Martin, enlisted May 12, 1864, 
Fuller, Tonas, enlisted Mav 19, 1864. 
Fuller, Jonas J., enlisted May 19. 1864. 
Feighmer. Francis L.. enlisted May 13, 1864. 
Gray, Bushrod, enlisted May 16. 1864. 
Gillet. Edward, enlisted May 11. 1864. 
Gray. James A., enlisted May 11. 1864. 
Hamaker. Abram G.. enlisted May 17. 1864. 
Hoag. Albert S.. enlisted May I'S. 1864. 
Horendin, George W.. enlisted Mav 16. 1S64. 
Hunter, William F.. enlisted May 14, 1864. 
Harsch, Goodly, enlisted May 14. 1864. 
Hotchkiss. James M., enlisted May 20. 1864. 
TelTries. Thomas, enlisted May 21.' 1864. 
Keelcr. Edmond. enlisted May ig, 1864. 
Kent. George V., enlisted May 13. 1864. 
Loomis, Charles M.. enlisted May 20. 1864. 
Lathy. T. F.. enlisted Mav 12, 1864. 
Morrow, Nathan, enlisted Mav 23, 1864. 
McKenzie, William, enlisted Mav 11, 1864. 
Moore, Herschel J., enlisted May 16, 1864. 
■ Miller, Charles, enlisted Mav 12, 1S64. 
Moore, Thomas F., enlisted Mav 11. 1864. 
Paige, Kascoe F., enlisted May' 26. 1864. 
Patten. Joseph G., enlisted Mav 12. 1864. 
Patten, Robert, enlisted Mav 12, 1864. 
Quinn, Frederick, enlisted May 16, 1864. 
Rauschkolb, Peter C enlisted May 20, 1864, 
Rouse, Rudolphus. enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Steel. Lewis G.. enlisted Mav 21, 1864. 
Smith, Franklin, enlisted May 12. 1864. 
Sharp, William, enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Steinke, Theodore G., enlisted May 26, 1S64. 
Stowell, Albert N., enlisted Mav 24, 1864. 
Thompson, James B., enlisted May 13, 1864. 
VanDoren, Tacob. enlisted Mav 16, 1864. 
Wertzel, William, enlisted May 16. 1864. 
Whitham. Toseph S.. enlisted May 16, 1864. 
Wilbur, Charles B., enlisted Mav 16, 1864. 
Williamson. Franklin, enlisted Mav 16, 1864. 
Weigand, Philip, enlisted Mav :2," 1864. 
Wright, Roswell B., enlisted 'May 14, 1864. 
Whittlesey, Henry B.. enlisted May 14, 1864. 

Company G. 
Britton, Andrew, enlisted Mav 30, 1864. 
McCraw, George, enlisted Mav '20, 1864. 
Wilcox, Charles L., enlisted May 30, 1864. 

Company H. 
Burns. Quinstus, enlisted May 24, 1864. 
Cox, Thomas, enlisted Mav 31, 1864. 
Dolstrum, Tohn, enlisted May 24, 1S64. 
Plum, Daniel, enlisted Mav 24, 1864. 
Richmond, Austin, enlisted May 24, 1864. 
Shellenbarger. Charles T-. enlisted Mav 24. 1864. 
Williamson, David, enlisted May 23, 1864. 
Watson, James T., enlisted May 30, 1864. 

Company I. 
Hittle. Henry, enlisted May 24, 1864. 





Company F. 
Frazee, Henry, enlisted September 15. 1S64. 
Gilstrap, Levi, enlisted September 15, 1864. 

Company G. 
Bybee, William H., enlisted September 5, 1S64. 
Barkley, Henry, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Button, Almon M., enlisted September 6. 1864. 
Cassel, George, enlisted September 6, 1S64. 
Heller, Daniel H., enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Jerome, Samuel, enlisted September 5, 1S64. 
Jerome, Elias. enlisted September 5. 1864. 
Lisenby, John W.. enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Lisenby, George W.. enlisted September s, 1864. 
Miller, John H., enlisted September 5, 1S64. 
Orton, Luther M., enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Ramsay. William R., enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Sharp, William F., enlisted September 5. 1864. 
Shell, Milton, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Stutes, Perry, enlisted September 5, 1S64. 
Thomas, Daniel C, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Thorp, John W., enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Wren, Oscar, enlisted September 5, 1 864. 

Company I. 


Second, John D, Heckathorn, commissioned Jan- 
uary 29, 1865. 

Samuel P. Murchant. enlisted August 30, 1864. 
John C. Barber, enlisted September 2, 1864. 

Martin V. Smith, enlisted September 2, 1864. 
William M. Cloud, enlisted August 30, 1864. 

George M. Gass, enlisted August 24, 1864. 
Frederick H. Pitt, enlisted August 30, 1864. 

Aukland, Shadrach, enlisted August 31, 1864. 
Adleman, Charles, enlisted September i, 1864. 
Beasmore, Robert G., enlisted September 6. 1864. 
Beatty, John, enlisted August 31, 1864. 
Burt, Edward R., enlisted August 26. 1S64. 
Barnes, Joshua, enlisted August 29, 1864. 
Brown, Millard F., enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Bamber, Robert, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Boden. Simon J., enlisted September i, 1864. 
Culp, Franklin B., enlisted August 31, 1S64. 
Conrad, William E., enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Cress, Andrew J., enlisted August 31, 1864. 
Donahue, Charles M., enlisted September 6, 1864. 
Dunbar, Robert, enlisted September 8, 1864. 
Dougherty, Samuel H., enlisted September 9. 1S64. 
Forbes. Henry, enlisted September 13, 1864. 
Fosdick, John, enlisted Se[itember 6, 1864. 
Gates, James F., enlisted September 7, 1864. 
Hipgins, Oscar S., enlisted September i, 1864. 
Hiner, Isaac, enlisted August 24, 1864. 
Hartz. John H., enlisted September 2, 1864. 
Holt, Jonah F.. enlisted September 2, 1864. 
Jones. Amos P., enlisted September 1, 1864. 
Long, Thomas, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
McCulloufih, Isaac P.. enlisted September 25, 1864. 
Merrill. Joiin, enlisted September 6, 1864. 
McMullin, Absalom, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
McMuIlin, Charles E., enlisted September i, 1864. 
Robinson. Thomas H., enlisted August 29, 1864. 
Rogers, James, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Rogers, David, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Reed, Campbell XL. enlisted September 10, 1864. 
Storey, Jacob, enlisted September 29, 1864. 
Schleigh, Robert P., enlisted September 6. 1864. 
Schradcr, William, enlisted September 5, 1864. 
Stilwtll, John, enlisted September 9, 1864. 
Tussing, Joseph A., enlisted September 8, 1864. 
Upton, Thomas S., enlisted August 25, 1864. 
Watts. George W., enlisted August 30. 1864. 
Westerfield. Samuel F., enlisted August 31, 1S64. 


Crawford. George, enlisted September 13, 1864. 
Smith, Wade, enlisted March 22, 1865. 


Company B. 


McGregor, William, enlisted February 1, 1865. 

Company I. 


Milbun, August, enlisted February ^, 1865. 


Company C. 

Smith, James W., enlisted February, 1865. 

Clark. Thomas M., enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Griffer, Eugene, enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Haley, Wool ten. enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Hill. John, enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Harbers, Hair C, enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Hillier. Edgar, enlisted February 8, 1865. 
McClary, John P.. enlisted February 8. 1865. 
Shepherd. John M., enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Shofe, John W., enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Smith, Robert S., enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Saylor, Joseph F., enlisted February 8, 1865. 
Taylor, William F., enlisted February 8, 1 865. 

Company F. 

George W. Armor, enlisted February 11. 1865. 

Blake well, John, enlisted February 11, 1865. 
Coe, Samuel K., enlisted February 1 1, :865. 
Dixon. Harrison W., enlisted February 11. 1865. 
Eddings, Martin M., enlisted January 30, 1S65. 
Myers. Jacob S., enlisted February 1 1, 1865. 
Phelps. George, enlisted February 2, 1865. 
Reed, Morrow P., enlisted Febrviary 11, 1865. 
Reed, John C, enlisted February 11, 1865. 
Rounds. William, enlisted February n, 1865. 
Snyder, Martin H.. enlisted February 11, 1S65. 
White, George, enlisted February n, 1865. 

Company G. 
Moffatt, Joseph W., enlisted February 2, 1865. 
MotTatt. Aquilla, enlisted February 6, 1865. 
Ray, Charles, enlisted February 8^ 1865. 
Robertson, George, enlisted February 4, 1865. 
StJlwell, Robert J., enlisted January 26. 1865. 
I'Ppole. William H., enlisted February 4, 1865. 
L'ppole, John, enlisted February 4, 1865. 
Wheeler, Lewis, enlisted February i, 1865. 

Company 1. 
Walter, V. W., enlisted February 11, 1865. 

Company A. 

Brown, Jacob, enlisted January 27, 1865. 
Goodrun, Herbert, enlisted February i, 1865. 

Company F. 
Welch, John, enlisted January 26, 1865. 


Lieutenant Colonel. 
Herman W. Snow, enlisted February 25, 1865. 

Principal Musician. 
Henry C. Pierce. 

Company A. 


Second, Harrison Elliott, commissioned February 
21. 1865. 



Merwin. DoviUa W., enlisted February 'I- -865. 
Hulse, Henry N., enlisted 1-ebruary 6, 865. 
Mason, Isaac I'., enlisted February 9, 1865. 

Samuel S. DeWitt. enlisted February '■■ >865. 
lUuk. William, enlisted l-ebruary 6, 1865. 
ilammet. William H., enhsted February 9 .865- 
Walters, Joseph, enlisted February 9, i865- 

Joseph McCowan, enlisted February 9. 1865. 

Anderson, Simeon, enlisted February 1 5- 1865. 
Amsler, William, enlisted February 9. 1865. 
Aj-ends, Henry, enlisted February 11, 1S65. 
Bates, Chauncey, enlisted February 10, 1865. 
Buck, John M.. enlisted February 11, 1865. 
Birkle, 'William, enlisted February 9. 1865. 
Boerchus. Lohurtus, enlisted February 11, 1865. 
Brown, John, enlisted February 9. '865. 
Crow. Isaac INI., enlisted February 11, 1865. 
Crotz, Baltzer B., enlisted February 3. '865: 
Clayton. Isaac, enlisted February 15. 1865. 
Davis, Isaac, enlisted February i, 1865. 
Dowdell, Tackson, enlisted February 2, 1865. 
F.l- ards. Thomas II., enlisted February 14. '865. 
Errion, Richard, enlisted February 11. 1865. 
FJliott Harrison, enlisted February 9. 1865. 
Farnstock, Charles, enlisted February 10, 1865. 
Graham, Andrew, enlisted February 15, 1865. 
Hunt. Arctus L.. enlisted February 2. 1865. 
Hay. George, enlisted February 2. 1865. 
Howard. Tames L.. enlisted February 9, 1865. 
Keady, Alexander, enlisted February 15- '865. 
KinR, Daniel, enlisted February 14, '865. 
I.ottmann. Henry, enlisted February 11, 1865. 
I.aiiton, Edward, enlisted February 11, 1865. 
Lamav, Joseph, enlisted February 10, 1865. 
Largent.' Sanford, enlisted February 14, 1865. 
Morse, Samuel M., enlisted February 6, 1865. 
Martin. Bradlev. enlisted February 11. 1865. 
Martin. Amos K.. enlisted February 15, 1865 
Stockton. Tames C, enlisted February 14. 1865. 
Smith. Tohn W.. enlisted February 14, i86.|. 
Thomas, James W., enlisted February 13, 186s. 
Vanpatten. Washington, enlisted February 9- '865. 
Wakefield, Tohn T.. enlisted February 15. 1865. 
Woods, Patrick, enlisted January 30, "865 
Wilson, Edward T.. enlisted January 31. 1865. 
Woodruff, Ambrose H., enlisted February 2, 1865. 

Company B. 
Barringer. William, enlisted February 9, 1865- 
Wilson, William, enlisted February 6, 1865. 

Company E. 
Snow, commissioned February 23, 


Carter, commissioned February 

Herman W. 

First, George R 

26, 1865. 


Charles L. Ballance. enlisted February 15, '865. 
Tames Gray, enlisted February 9. 1865. 
William E. Neadles, enlisted February 9, i865. 

Francis G. Darr. enlisted February 13. 1865. 
Charles M. Comegss. enlisted February 10. 1865, 
Franklin Smith, enlisted F'ebruary 15, 1865. 

Joseph Clifton, enlisted February 18, 1865. 

Barron. Tohn. enlisted February 11, 1865- 

Carroll, tohn W.. enlisted February 10, 1865. 

Cameron, Tohn, enlisted February 15, 1S65. 

Buck, Tam'es A., enlisted February 10, 1865. 

Clark, Emmett M., enlisted February 9. i865- 

Clark T. O. A., enlisted February 13. 1865 

Crandall, Moses H., enlisted February 13, 1865. 

Carter, George R., enlisted February 17, ■865. 

Desmond, Patrick, enlisted February 11, 1865. 

DriscoU, Thomas, enlisted February 10, 1865. 

Dugdall, Edward, enlisted February 9. 1865. 

Eaton, Edward F.. enhsted February 10, 1865. 
FeighAer. Francis L.. enlisted February 10, 1865. 
Frye. Samuel, enlisted February 14. 1865- 
Fuller, Jonas, enlisted February 9. '865- 
Fuller, Ephraim, enlisted February 14, 1865. 
Groffy. George, enlisted February 16, 1865. 
Griggs, W^illiam H., enlisted February 10, 1*65. 
Green, Silas T., enlisted February 10, 1865. 
Hogan. William, enlisted February U. i865- 
Kain. Barney, enlisted February 6, i8b5- 
Nave, Peter, enlisted February 13, i»05. 
Opie, Henry, enlisted February to, >865- 
Selser. William, enlisted February 10. 1865. 
Sanders. John P.. enlisted February 10, 1865. 
Vanpatten. William, enlisted February 17, i865. 
Van Norman, William, enlisted February 17, 1865. 
Watson, William, enlisted February 10. 1865- 
Wetzler. Adam, enlisted February i, 1865. 

Company G. 
James Macfarlane. enlisted February 16. 1865. 

Thomas I McCormick, enlisted February 14. 1865. 
Henry C. Pierce, enlisted February 16. 1865. 

Dredge, Henry W., enlisted February 16, 1865. 
Hanna, W'illiam H., enlisted February 16. 1865. 
McHenry, John, enlisted February 20. 1865. 
Murry. Elijah, enlisted February 14. 1865. 

Company I. 
Hills, William, enlisted February 6, 1865. 
Morgan, James, enlisted February 6, 1865. 

Company K. 

Dunlap, John, enlisted February 4. 1865. 


Company G. 


Grav, Noah E., enlisted February 17. '865. 

Miff'ord, Andrew J., enlisted February 17, 1805. 

Company H. 
Hazell, David, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Peterson, George, enlisted February 20, 1865. 

Company A. 


Jacob B. Yeagley, commissioned February 2f 



Deering, Paul, enlisted February 22, 1S65, 
Oachsle, Matthias, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Schuster. Frank, enlisted February 22, 1865. 

Company F. 


Watson. William B., enlisted January 23, 1865. 

Company G. 


First John Miller, commissioned F'ebruary 2 



Francis M Wood, enlisted February 20. 1865. 
George Helmbolt, enlisted February 21. 1865. 
Tohn Berry, enlisted February 23, 1865. 

James Burke, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Peter Kelsey, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
P M Wells, enlisted February 22, 1865. 
Edward Cadlin. enlisted F'ebruary 20. 1865. 

,\dam Robert H.. enlisted February 20. 1865. 
Barnes, Tames, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Burnes, Patrick, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Brown. George H.. enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Buyrne. Tames, enlisted February 20. 1865. 
Canady, John, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Crawley. Dennis, enlisted February 23, 1865. 



Cosmer or Cashman, David, enlisted February 17, 

Davidson, Robert, enlisted February 23. 1865. 
Dailey, Thomas, enlisted February 24, 1S65. 
Dickson. John, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Eagan, James, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Failey. John H., enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Fairfield, Ksterfier. enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Frost, John, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Hurley. Thomas, enlisted February 21. 1865. 
Ives, Thomas, enlisted February 23. 1865, 
Jones. George, enlisted February 22, 1865. 
Killey, Thomas, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Leonard, Richard, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Lynch, Michael, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Morris, Henry, enlisted February 23, 1S65. 
Moore, John, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Maloy, John, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Miller, John, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Neagle, Augustine, enlisted February 21, 1865. 
Neadon, William, enlisted February 28, 1865. 
Neeley, William, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Reiley, John, enlisted February 20, 1865. 
Reed, James, enlisted February 20, 1S65. 
Reedman, Henry. enliste<l February 24. 1865. 
Shutt, Paul C, enlisted February 23, 1865. 
Smitli, James H., enlisted February 23, 1865. 

Company A. 

Underwood, James A., enlisted January 4. 1S64. 
Wright, Benjamin L., enlisted January 4. 1864. 

Uitassigncd Recruit. 
Bates, John A., enlisted December 23, 1864. 

Company B. 
William C. Dorwin, enlisted August 13. 1861. 

William J. LaBour, enlisted August 13. 1861. 

Erwin, Richard, enlisted August 13, 1861. 
Erwin, Philip, enlisted August 13, 1861. 

Veteran Recruit. 

Wagoner, Frederick, enlisted August 13, 1861. 

Company K. 

Veteran Recruit. 
Harkness, Kelton W., enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Company B. 

Burke. James, enlisted January 24, 1865. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Bain, John, enlisted March 25, 1865. 
Rowen. Frank, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Connors, Henry, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Connay, Martin, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Donley, Joseph, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Evers, William, enlisted March 10. 1865. 
Greer. William, enlisted April i, 1865. 
Jackson. Jolni M., enlisted Marcli 2, 1865. 
Kelly, James, enlisted March 25, 1865. 
Parks. John, enlisted February 24. 1865. 
Phillips. John, enlisted April 5, 1865. 
Rogers. George W^, enlisted March 21, 1865. 
Stout. Jerry, enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Smith, Charles, enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Spicer, John C, enlisted March 3. 1B65. 
Sulli\-an. George, enlisted February 24, 1865. 
Tide. William H., enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Williams. Franklin, enlisted March 2, 1865. 


Company G. 


Durkee. Daniel, enlisted October 15, 1861. 

Company H. 


Durst, Edwin S., enlisted November 15, 1861. 


John N. Niglas, commissioned October i, 1861. 

Company B. 

Veteran Recruit. 
Wlnte. George, enlisted April 3. 1865. 

Company C. 

Veteran Recruits. 
Vincent. Thomas D., enlisted March 22, 1865. 
Wall. Hardin J., enlisted March 22, 1865. 

Company E. 

Veteran Private. 

Niglas, Ignatz, enlisted March 10, 1864. 

Clark D. Rankin, commissioned October 28, 1861. 

Company A. 

Veteran Recruit. 
miey. James, enlisted March 20, 1865. 

Company G. 
Hames or Ilawes, William, enlisted March 31. 

Little. William H., enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Roberts, John E., enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Smith. Frederick, enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Wise. Columbus, enlisted March 31, 1865. 

Company I. 

Wilson, William N., enlisted March 22, 1865. 

Unassigned Recruits. 
Brown, James, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Connover, Frank, enlisted March 31, 1865. 
Fralicks, William, enlisted March 2, 1865. 
Gorman, Thomas, enlisted April 11, 1865. 
Gell, Henry, enlisted April 11, 1865. 
Gorman. James, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Grant, Charles, enlisted March i, 1865. 
McCarty, Michael, enlisted March 6, 1865. 
Moody, Michael, enlisted March 30. 1865. 
Smith, Frederick, enlisted March 31. 1865. 
Towner, Sims S., enlisted January 20. 1865. 
Ward, William, enlisted March 31, 1865. 

Company G. 
Quartermaster Sergeant. 
Walker Inglis. enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Horace J. Capron. enlisted September 14. 1861. 
William Gouda. enlisted September 14. 1861. 


Ajinis. Judson, enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Barlow, Robert, enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Barfoot, James, enlisted September 14. 1861. 

Comeys. Benjamin F., enlisted September 14. 

Cottingham, Thomas S., enlisted September 14. 

Emerson, Luther W.. enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Kennedy. S. P., enlisted .September 14. 1861. 

Morris, James, enlisted September 7. 1S61. 

Pray, Louis C, enlisted September 7, 1861. 

South wick, Hamilton B. 

Sherman. Henry J., enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Speers, J. S.. enlisted September 14, 1861. 

Westheffer, William, enlisted September 14. 1861. 

Goudy, William L., enlisted November 30, 1863. 
Kennedy, Richard H., enlisted November 30, 1863. 

Company K. 

Unassigned Recruit. 
Foster, Walter, enlisted December 16, 1864. 



Company G. 

McCormick, John, enlisted March 30. 1865. 
CoMP.^Ny L. 
Gordon, Richard, enlisted March 21, <865. 
Tarman, Thomas P., enlisted February 7, 1864. 
Jones, Joseph, enlisted March 21, 1865. 
Mathewson, John, enlisted February i. 1864. 
Rilev, Anthony, enlisted December 28. i8b3- 
Waterhouse, George E., enlisted December 10, 

Unassigned Recruits. 

Ryan, Edward, enlisted March 31. '865 
Murray, Andrew, enlisted March 31, 1865. 

Company E. 
Second, Edwin B. Neal, commissioned May 31. 

Company G. 
Clark, Willard, enlisted January 3, 1864. 
Elgan, William, enlisted January 3, 1864. 
Lasure, William, enlisted January 3, 1864. 

Company M. 
Hall, Willis A., enlisted January 14. 1864. 
TENTH CAVALRY (as Consolidated.) 
Company C. 
Edwin R. Neal, commissioned December 31, 1864. 
Robert G. Ingersoll, commissioned October 22, 

Otto Funke, commissioned April 8, 1865. 

Lieutettant Colonels. 
Balzil D. Meek, commissioned October 22, 1S61. 

Sabine D. Puterbaugh, commissioned October 22, 

David J. Waggoner, commissioned October 25, 

James F. Johnson, commissioned October 25, 1861. 
Philip F. Elliott, commissioned March 28. 1865. 
Theophilus Schaever, commissioned August 31, 

David T. N. Sanderson, commissioned September 

6, 1862. . . . T^ u o 

Joseph Robinson, commissioned December 28. 

William Currie, commissioned October 22, 1861. 
Eugene RoUman, commissioned June 30, 1864. 

Company A. 
Otto Funke, commissioned December 20, 1S61. 
Anthony Rochrig, commissioned November i, 

Theophilus Schaever, commissioned September 18, 

John E. Fraesenius, commissioned September 18, 

Second, Herman Herold, commissioned November 
I, 1862. ... , , •, 

Second, Louis Ludwig, commissioned April 20, 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 
John Edwards, enlisted October 20, 186 1. 

Herold H. First, enlisted October i. 1861. 
Frederick Kallenberg, enlisted November 7, 1S61. 

William Mester. enlisted September 21, 1861. 
Tobias Indermaur, enlisted October 11, 1861. 
Julius Klenboehl, enlisted September 22, 1861. 
Henry Schmidt, enlisted November 14, 186 1. 

Charles Pfeifer, enlisted October 27. 1861. 

Beutel, Adam, enlisted September 25, 1861. 
Brickwald. Frank H., October 24, 1861. 
Birkel. Philip J., enlisted November 2, 1861. 
Bumiller. Joseph, enlisted November 19, 1861. 
ueckerich. Nicklaus. enlisted November 21, 1861. 
Brum, Jacob, enlisted December 1, 1861. 
Carsens. John, enlisted September 23, 1861. 
Dood, Henry, enlisted October i, 1861. 
Douk. Henry, enlisted September 23. >86i. 
Frey, Charles, enlisted September 23, 1861. 
Gans, George, enlisted November 12, 1861. 
Hill, George, enlisted November 4, 1861. 
Iscrt. John, enlisted November 21. 1861. 
Johnson, Christian, enlisted November 23, 1861. 
Tillinghaus, Frederick, enlisted September 20, 1861. 
Kehl, Adam, enlisted October 27, 1861. 
Lowman. George, enlisted November 12, 1861. 
Lutzelschvvai, Charles, enlisted November 20, 1861. 
Limbert, Fritz, enlisted December 19, 1861. 
Miller. Jonn. enlisted September 21, 1861. 
Nehlig. Henrv, enlisted September 2,3. 1861. 

Noark, Frank, enlisted October 21, 1861. 

Potinius H. J., enlisted October 21, 1861. 

Reiten. Peter, enlisted October 15. 1861. 

Rockle. Herman, enlisted November 9, 1861. 

Rollman. Eugene, enlisted November 16, 1.^61. 

Rake. Hervey, enlisted November 25, 1861. 

Scherkenbach. Edward, enlisted September 23, 

Seybold. Frederick, enlisted September 23, i56i. 

Tanner. John, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Umbrecbt. John, enlisted October 11. 1861. 

Winter, Jacob, enlisted October 21. 1861. 

Witman." Anton, enlisted November 16. 1861. 

Zeisler. Jacob, enlisted November 11, j86i. 

Breckwaldt. Frank, enlisted December 20. 1863. 
Bumiller, Joseph, enlisted December 20, 1863. 
Seitz. Charles, enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Dood, Henry, enlisted December 28, 1863. 
Farrer, Jacob, enlisted October 11, 1861. 
Gruebe. Henrv. enlisted October 3. 1861. 
Harford. T. H.. enlisted November 12, 1862. 
Hodapp, Sebastian, enlisted January 5. 1865. 
Holder. Leonhard, enlisted October i. 1861. 
Harford. F. W.. enlisted November i. 1861. 
Keisenberg, Charles, enlisted March 3. 1864. 
Mc.\ndrew, John M.. enlisted February 28, 1865. 
Meyer, Herman, enlisted April 13, 1864. 
Mandt. August, enlisted March 31, 1864. 

Noark. Frank, enlisted February 19, 1864. 

Pfannenshil. Emil, enlisted February 14. 1S62. 

Stolzman, William, enlisted March 30, 1864. 

Snell. Henrv, enlisted March 31. 1864. 

Seitz. Charles, enlisted January 10. 1S63. 

Wade. Henry, enlisted December 23^ 1863. 

Widemever. Frank, enlisted February 28. 1865. 

Williams, Tarkson. enlisted November i, 1S62. 

Watroubeck, Joseph, enlisted January 31. 1864. 

Zimmerman. Fritz, enlisted March 31. 1864. 

Company B. 


Tohn W. Bumans. enlisted September 7, 1861. 

Thomas T. Sims, enlisted September 10, 1861. 

Charles Campbell, enlisted September 7, 1861. 

William Julg, enlisted September 9. 1861. 

Akin. Tames H., enlisted November 8. 1861. 
Campbell. William, enlisted September 7. 1861. 
Green .Mbert. enlisted November 19. 1861. 
Hall. William, enlisted December 7. '861. 
Hart Covington, enlisted November 23. 1861. 
Lawless, Thomas, enlisted November 20. 1861. 
McCann. Alexander D.. enlisted November i. 1861. 
Miller, Joseph, enlisted December i. 1861. 



Phillips, George T.. enlisted December 3, 1861. 
Stinyard. Augustus, enlisted November 8. 1861. 
Sims, David H.. enlisted September 24. 1861. 
Sans, Robert, enlisted October 12, 1861. 

Akin, Tames H., enlisted December 20. 1863. 
Hall, William, enlisted December 20. 1863. 
Kinzey, John W., enlisted December 30. 1863. 
McCann. Alexander, enlisted December 20. 1863. 
Manning. John J., enlisted December 31, 1863. 
Phillips. George F.. enlisted December 20. 1863. 
Sims. Thomas T.. enlisted December 28. 1863. 
Sims. David \V., enlisted December 20. 1863. 
Stinyard, Augustus, enlisted December 20, 1863. 
Teneycks, Jacob, enlisted February :, 1864. 

Adams, Joseph, enlisted September 25, 1861. 
Bonnivilie. Gaylord. enlisted July 14. 1864. 
Castnor. Joseph, enlisted January 23. 1864. 
Campbell," Alexander, enlisted January 29. 1004. 
Frank, William H., enlisted January 25. 1865. 
Hitchcock. Frank, enlisted September 3, 1861. 
Tones. Robert M., enlisted October n. i8o4. 
Kimpey. Tohn W., enlisted December 30. 1861. 
Lawrence! John G.. enlisted January 2. 1862. 
Manning. John J., enlisted December 31, 1865. 
Matthewson, Byron, enlisted January 8, 1862. 
Teneycks. Tacob, enlisted February 1, i8b2. 

Company C. 
N. Sanderson, 


First, David T. 
March 20, 1862. 

Burns, Richard, enlisted October 29. 1861. 
Bunker, Tames M-. enlisted November 30. 1861. 
Hoover. Christian, enlisted November 30, 1861. 
Hone. John, enlisted October 30, 1861, 
Harmon, Philip, enlisted December 20. 1861. 
Morris, Amos, enlisted November 15, 1861. 
Myers. John, enlisted November 9. 1861. 
Newell. "Tudson L.. enlisted November 30, 1861. 
Williams; Josenh D. S.. enlisted November 4. 1861. 

Cheal. Tames T.. enlisted I-'ebruary 27, 1862. 
Craig, Samuel, enlisted March 31. 1864. 
Fash, James M.. enlisted August 13. 1862. 
Powers, Martin, enlisted January 3, 1862. 
Snyder, James, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Company D. 
Louis H. Armstrong, commissioned December 20, 

First. George W. Odell, commissioned December 
20. 1861. 

First, Stephen Andrews, commissioned May 5. 

Second. William P. Armstrong, commissioned De- 
cember 20. 1861. 

Second, John E. Hedrick, commissioned November 

6. 1862. ' . . . .r u 

Second, Stephen Andrews, commissioned March 
28, 1865. 

Second, William N. Peet, commissioned May 5, 


First, Ira K. Hopkins, enlisted September 23, 


Leonard Wilmoth. enlisted September 23. 1861. 

Thomas Jledrick. enlisted September 23. 1861. 

Charles Stewart, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

William C. Ward, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Horsley, George H., enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Joseph Vandoren, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

William Warhust, enlisted September 24. 1861. 

U^a goner. 
Elmer Russell, enlisted November 17, 1861. 


Ames. George M., enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Bronson, Henry, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Brown, John \V., enlisted September 21, 1861. 

Brome, George, enlisted September 24. 1861. 

Bruer, Abram, enlisted November 12, 1861. 

Cain, Matteson, enlisted October 2, 1861. 

Count, Thomas, enlisted September 30. 1861. 

Carney, Thomas, enlisted October 12. 1861. 

Corn well, Hughes, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Coburn, William, enlisted September 30, 1861. 

Cawley, John, enlisted December 19, 1861. 

Clusson, Josiah H., enlisted October 14, 1861. 

Drake. Albert, enlisted September 25, 1861. 

Dwyer, Dennis, enlisted November 30, 1861. 

Foreman, James, enlisted September 25, 1861. 

Gumble, Levi D., enlisted October 14, 1861. 

Glens. George K., enlisted October 14, 1861. 

Hemming. \VilIiam. enlisted September 30. 1861. 

Hooner, Moses, enlisted December 16, 1861. 

Henderson. Robert, enlisted September 24. 1861. 

Hubbard, Sylvester, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Hedrick, Hiram, enlisted November 28, 1861. 

Heel, Horace, enlisted November 27, 1861. 

Hoban, William, enlisted October 22, 1861. 

Harris. Nathaniel, enlisted December 16. 1861. 

House, A\'iliiam, enlisted October 14, 1861. 

Knapp, James, enlisted November 1 1. 1861. 

Kilver. John H,. enlisted November 26, 1861. 

Lambert, \'ictor, enlisted October 17. 1861. 

Mahon, John, enlisted November 28. 1S61. 

McMahen, Alexander, enlisted October 23. 1861. 

McMillan. James C, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Miller, John, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Myers, Herman, enlisted September 23, 186 r. 

Northup, Jonah, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Osterhont, Daniel, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Oertley. Leonard, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Phillips, James N., enlisted December 16. 186 1. 

Prentiss, John D.. enlisted November 13. 1861. 

Price, John H.. enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Pellman, John, enlisted September 25, 1861. 

Purcel, Thomas, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Potts, David, enlisted December 11, 1861. 

Reeves, John IL. enlisted December 5, 1861. 

Russell, Conrad E., enlisted September 24. 1861. 

Russell, George W., enlisted September 24, 186 1. 

Russell, Ebenezer F., enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Randool. George W., enlisted September 24. 1861. 

Smith, Cyrus S.. enlisted September 25, 1861. 

Shceler. John, enlisted September 24. 1861. 

Stewart, William, enlisted September 20. 1861. 

Shire, Jacob, enlisted December 16, 1861. 

Sheridan. Edw^ard, enlisted September 24. 1861. 

\'anhousen. Leonard, enlisted October 1 1. 1861. 

Whitley. James, enlisted October 9. 1861. 

Whitley. John, enlisted October 26, 1861. 

Welch, James, enlisted October 22. 1861. 

Welch, John, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Ward, Charles W., enlisted November 7, 1861. 

White, Maxwell A. W., enlisted September 25, 

Zimmer, Joseph W. N,. enlisted September 20, 


Andrew. Stephen, enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Cornwell, William H.. enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Peet. William N., enlisted December 20. 1863. 

Redd, James W., enlisted January 2. 1864. 

Smith, Henry AT., enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Stewart. Charles H., enlisted December 20, 1863. 

\'andoren. Joseph, enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Whitby, James, enlisted December 20, 1S63. 

Whitby, John, enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Alford, Elmore, enlisted December 24. 1863. 

Alford. William J., enlisted December 24. 1863. 

Alford, Isaac W.. enlisted December 5. 1862. 

Ballard, Anderson, enlisted December 20, 1863. 

Brush. Henry R.. enlisted October 14, 1861. 

Chandler. Henry, enlisted January 24, 1865. 

Dukes. Cornelius, enlisted December 26. 1863. 

Dukes, William, enlisted March 22. 1865. 

?Tare. George, enlisted September 24. 1861. 

Hart. T^ewis C, enlisted January 24, 1862. 

Kanouse, Tames E.. enlisted November 12, 1861. 

Mills. William H., enlisted Tanuary 23, 1863. 

Murphy. Ri< Iiard. enlisted January 21. 1865. 

Morton. William H.. enlisted September 23. i86t. 

Morris. John B.. enlisted September 23. 1861. 

Osborne, N. F., enlisted December 20, 1864. 

Phillips, Francis M., enlisted December 20, 1864. 



Redd, lames W.. enlisted January 2. 1862. 
Smith. 'Franklin D., enlisted September 23, 1861. 
Smith, Henry M., enlisted October 1, 1861, 
Staimet, Reuben, enlisted March 1, 1862. 
Thurston, William, enlisted December 20, 1864. 
Vanpatten, Albert J., enlisted January 20 1865. 
Walla, Edmund, enlisted January 23, 1865. 
Young, John, enlisted September 23, i86t. 

Company E. 
Company E of the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry was 
organized at Peoria and left camp Lyon under com- 
mand of Captain J. R. Zeigler 1-ebruary 21, 1862, 
and arrived at Benton Barracks, St. Loiiis, Missouri 
about the ist of March, and reported to Colonel 
Eonyville, commanding post. Erom there the regi- 
ment went to Pittsburg Landing and fought in 
the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, under General Pren- 
tice. Thence they went to Purdy and captured it 
March 15; also participated in the siege of Corinth 
under General McKean. The company engaged in a 
number of skirmishes and battles in their advance, 
capturing Boliver, Pocahontas, Shewally, Kossuth, 
Ripley and Memphis, making long and wearisome 
marches to the towns about Corinth, Mississippi, un- 
til the 15th o