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Full text of "The perception and cognition of environment (annotated)"

s/o 



Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography 



January 1974 



516 



THE PERCEPTION AND COGNITION OF ENVIRONMENT (Annotated) 



James D. Harrison 
Department of Geography 
Southwest Texas State University 



Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 



COUNCIL OF PLANNING LIBRARIANS Exchange i-ibliography #$lS 



TIS PERCEPTION AJJD COGNITION OF EI^H/IROMENT 
(Annotated) 



by 



James D. Harrison 

Department of Geography 

Southwest Texas State University 



Introduction 

Four years have passed since the Council of Planning 
Librarians released my first bibliography (Exchange Eibliography 
#93) on the subject of Environmental Perception. Since that 
time the field has changed significantly, providing not only nev: 
and more clearly conceived research directions, but also more 
sophisticated scaling techniques leading to better results. 

This bibliography represents a complete revision of that 
earlier work. There are many new entries, several of which 
are annotated in Part 1. There are also some deletions from 
the first bibliography, particularly in the research areas of 
psychological experimentation and architectural design, 
ioiyone interested in these areas might also obtain a copy of 
Exchange libliography #93. 

The entries are divided into two parts. Part 1 includes 
annotations and cross-listings for over l50 works. The organ- 
ization of these materials has also been revised as follows: 

I. Personality and Perception: Psychological and 
Pliilosophical Views 

II. Attitude Formation 

A. Philosophical and Terporal Views 

B. Image and Symbolism 

C. Spatial Theory, Social Space, and Territoriality 

III. Environmental Sensitivity and Selection 

A. Snvironmenfal Cognition and Adjustment 

B. Preferences and Needs 

C. Perceptual Variation as a Function of Background 

Characteristics 

IV. Environmental Effects and Behavioral Maripulation 



2. CPL iixchange Bibliography #5l6 

V. Strategies for Change 

VI, IleasTirement and Scaling 

VII. Reviews and Collections 

Part 2 is a listing of other materials relevant to these 
research themes, ilo attempt is made to crganizo these materials 
intc the above classification scheme, partly because of the 
overlapping nature of perception studies, and partly because 
it was felt that entries are often more readily located in a 
single listing. Works annotated in Part 1 are not repeated 
in Part 2. 

This bibliography does not, of course, approach an 
inventory of the subject; the field is much too extensive 
and diverse for any complete listing. Hopefully, hov.'ever, 
this bibliography I'dll serve in aiding the initial library 
search. 



PART 1 

iinnotated Entries 

I. PERSOMALITY aND P3x1CEPTI0N: PSYCHOLOGICAL ANB PHILOSOPHICAL 
VIli/S 

1. Dretske, Fred I. Seeing and Knoving . Chicago: University 

of Chicago Press, 15'dS. 

A descriptive philosophy of "seeing" as a basis for 
"what we know and how we know it". Readable overview 
of existing theory, although of only indirect appli- 
cation to macroenvironmental concerns. 

2. Estvan, Frank J. and Elizabeth W. The Child's Viorldt 

His Social Perception . New York: G. P. Putnams, 1?59. 

Although dated, tliis vrork is interesting in that 
elementary school age cMldren from a variety of 
backgrounds are asked to evaluate certain envircnraentsl 
displays (the Village, the City, the Old Beach, etc.) 
which are presented to them. 



3. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

3. Gibson, James J. The Perception of the Visual World . 
Boston: Houghton Idfflin, 1950. 

Although dated, this is one of the very important 
works in this fieldj often cited and imperative for 
any reader interested in the psychology of perception. 

Gibson likens perception to other forms of "education" 
(such as use of sounds in speech) and that we cannot 
understand an individual's (or culture's) perception 
of things, space, etc., until ve understand his back- 
ground, memory, and past stimulation. Thus, the 
past lays the foundation for our present perception 
capability. Gibson identifies 13 varieties of per- 
spective XiThich aid to analyze our perception systems. 

it. . The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems . 

Boston; Houghton I'iifflin, 1966, 

Although the book concentrates on the sense mechanisms, 
it is an extremely stimulating work for aJiyone inter- 
ested in how we perceive the environment. Gibson 
deals with complex subject matter in a highly readable 
and non-technical wayj thus making the book valuable 
for non-psychologists. Highly recommended 

5. Goffman, Erving. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life . 

Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor, p^erback, 1959. 

Utilizing th3 metaphor of the theatrical performance 
as the framework to analyze the behavior of self among 
others, Goffman presents an interesting discussion of 
everyday social intercourse. Beyond the satisfaction 
of seeing one's self as Goffman' s actor in many social 
roles, the book provides a sound basis toward the 
understanding of individual perceptual mechanisms and 
their significance in understanding human thought and 
behavior. 

6. Koroscil, Paul il. "The Behavioural Environmental Approach." 

Area , III, 1971, 96-99. 

A very brief, but good, introductory view of the 
importance and inplications of Gestalt and Stimulus- 
Response theories to studies of environmental perception. 



U. CPL Sxchcnge Bibliography #5l6 

7. Lindzey, Gardner, editor. Assessment of Human Notives . 

Neir York; Rinehart and Coirpany, 19i)ti. 

Designed for the more serious students of psychological 
aspects of perception, llany of the articles are at 
the "frontier" of our understanding. /JLthough all are 
interesting, Kelly's "Han's Construction of His Alter- 
natives"; Murray's "Drive, Time, Strategy, Heasurement, 
and Our Uay of Life"; and Allport's "^Jhat Units Shall 
He Employ?" are the most meaningful to the non-pro- 
fessional. 

8. llasloir, p., H. I.otivation and Personality . New York: 

Harper, 195U. 

In this edition, Haslou discusses the ascending hier- 
archy of human need levels (physiological, safety, 
love and bclongingness, self-esteem, and self-actual- 
ization) and that each lovrer level must be satisfied 
before going on to next level. This concept has 
become somevrhat popular in developing "sector" and 
advocacy planning strategies . 

9. idller, George A. "The I-Iagical Ilumber Seven, Plus or Minus 

Two." PsycholosLcal Reviev? , LXIII, liarch 1956, 81-97. 

How many simple pieces of information can the average 
person differentiate, one from the other? iiiller 
believes that the n\imber seven (give or take two) 
represents something of an "average" per person. 
Utilizing "bits" (amount of information needed to make 
a decision between two like attributes) and 'chunks" 
(two or more "bits" organized into a unit), the author 
points to a basic limitation of man in vieiving his 
environment unless effective receding (chunking) 
processes can be learned. 

10. Murphy, Arthur E. Normative Discourse . Englewood Cliffs: 

Prentice-Hall, 1961. 

Normative discourse involves three basic concepts: 
the concept of the "good thing", the concept of a 
"right act", and the concept of "what-one-cught-to- 
do". j'ji exanination of evaluation and prescription, 
key coiqjonents in decision-making and planning, foms 
the thema of the book. 



5. CPL ixchange Bibliography #^16 

11. Piaget;, Jean and Barbel Inhelder. The Child's Conception 

of Space . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul^ viS'^' 

The development of the child's perception and under- 
standing of both abstract and tangible "space". 
Reraains a classic for both environraental perception 
research involving child behavior and for planners 
engaged in developing environments for all ages. 

12. Ryan, T. A. and ii. S. Ryan. "Geographical Oirientation." 

■American Journal of Psychology ^ LIII, 191^05 20l;-2l5. 

Experiments concerning spatial orientation in human 
beings, generally in laboratory settings. The major 
conclusion was that the perceived field includes 
much more than the physical surroundings j involving a 
type of "mariner's compass" as a reference system. 

13. Wallace, Anthony F. C. Culture and Personality . Mew 

York: Random House, 1961. 

A definitive work in the "new" field of social an- 
thropology. For the geographer, an approach heavily 
emphasizing the psychological in dealing with the age- 
old question of cause and effect in culture and en- 
vironment. For the "perceptionist", a broad overview 
placing perception in context is provided. This 
woi'k should be considered by the more serious students 
interested in environmental perception. 

Also see numbers: 111, 1^2, 1^3, iSk 



II. ATTITUDE FORiyiATIOM 

A. Pliilosophical and Temporal Viex^rs 

lU. Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time^ and Architecture . 
Cambi-idge: Harvard University Press, 195i|« 

Essentially an account revieidng the historical rela- 
tionsliips between environment and arcliitecture, this 
vjork is one of the best comprehensive treatments of 
this subject. 



6. CPL Exchange ribliography ,f5l6 

15. Glacken, Clarence J. "Chensing Ideas of the Habitable 

World." Man's Role in Chengj-ng the Face of the Zlarth . 
ildited by 'illliam L. Thomas. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1^56. 

Ranging in both time and space, Glacken gives a 
brilliant accoxmt of hou nan has vievred his environ- 
ment. Glacken points out that man has generally 
failed to be inspired to study what environmental 
changes have been made by human cultures. Utilizing 
excellent documentetion, he moves through the v.'estem 
tradition, concluding that our present awareness of 
man as a purposeful power disregards the "devious 
paths" that he has taken in the past. :]bccellent 
bibliography. 

16. . Tr£.ces on the Rhodian oho re; Nature and 

Culture in i/esbem Thou^-ht fron /--ncient Tines to the 
"::nd of the jlighteenth Centur;y . Berkeley; University 
of California Press, 1^67. 

Glacken surveys the evolution of attitudes and ideas 
about the habitable earth held by western thinkers 
over the last twenty-three centuries. An extremely 
articulate work. 

17. Mar:c, Leo. The liaC'iine in the Garden , ilew York: Oxford 

University Press, 1961^. 

A fascinating and thorouglily readable account of 
America's pastoral ideal (the Garden) as threatened 
and overriin by man's technological irorks (the liachine). 
Utilizing the works of many American and some ^^uropean 
writers, Mar:c captures our long tradition of "the 
sudden appearance of the machine in the garden (as) 
an arresting, endlessly evocative image". Hai-rthome's 
"Sleepy Hollow" or Thoreau's "Walden" are but two early 
examples of a sirple pastoral ideal, whose origins are 
in 3urope and to irhich we have never fully accepted the 
intrusion of our own technology. 



7. CPL Exchange Eibliography v^lo 

18. Northrop^ F. S. C. "Man's rielation to the "ilarth in Its 

Bearing on Ilis Aesthetic, Ethical, and Legal iyalues." 
Han's Role in ChanginR the Face of the "larth , Idlliam 
L. Thomas, Jr., ed. Chicago: Universitj'- of Cliicago 
Press, 1956. 

The author of The Taming of "Nations argues that the 
difference between a teclinological and non-technological 
civilisation is based in physical chemistry and 
physics. liodern physics gives us an abstract vision of 
our tiorld, xrhereas the descriptive sciences (such as 
biology, geography, etc.) give us an aesthetic vieir. 
If tliis be true, then respective values must also 
differ. For example, the music of a technological 
society is based in the intellectual linear theory of 
timej in non-technological societies from a cyclical, 
temporal order. Painting and the notion of beauty 
itself, are all guided by our methods of perception. 

19. Strauss, imslem L. Images of the American City . New York: 

Free Press of Glencoe, 1S^61. 

"/jnericana" through timej this book focuses on the 
minutia of everyday living around uliich man apparently 
structures both time and space. Intex-esting to read, 
it is valuable foremost in shoviing hoir little atten- 
tion has been paid by the modern "urbanologist" in 
understanding the values placed on the elements of 
the urban setting. 

20. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Man and Hature . Resource Paper No. 10. 

Wasliington: Association of American Geographers, 1971. 

An excellent view of the interrelationships between 
man and natiire as viewed witliin different traditions 
and time periods. Among the topics discussed are 
"Man as Agent for Change", "Structuring the World", 
(excellent vjith regard to certain aspects of spatial 
organization), and "Instability: The Population 
Dilemma". Yi-Fu Tuan is the author of a number of 
other VTorks revolving around this general theme. 

21. . "Attitudes Toward Environment: Themes and 

Appro ache s . " Environmental Perception and Behavior , 
David Loiienthal, ed.. Department of Geography Research 
Paper Ho. 109, University of Chicago. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1567, U-17. 

The author briefly characterizes attitudes which man 
has had toward his natural environment. His major 
discussion centers around how writers and painters 
have reacted to different types of landscapes through 
time. 



8. CPL Ibcchange Bibliography #5l6 

22. Uebb, Falter P. The Great Plains . Boston: Ginn, 1931. 

Uebb's work is, of course, considered a classic view 
of the North Marican v7oodinen's negative reaction to 
the Great Plains. The vnrlting vividly captures the 
environment through the eyes of its former inhabitants. 

23. V/hite, Morton and Lucia. The Intellectual Versus the City; 

From Jefferson to Frank Llo7/d i/riRht . Cambridge: 
Harvard and M.I. T. Press, lp62. 

Although the title is self-explanatory, the '..'hites 
note that the present urban crisis has precipitated 
"tender concern" from today's intellectuals. Thic 
contrasts quite sharply vdth our heritage of the 
intellectual alienation idth the city. The l.Tiites 
refute the notion that all intellectual criticism of 
the city has been around romanticist ideals to return 
to nature. Utilizing the vjorks of many influential 
American vnriters, statesmen, etc., the authors make 
the case that since the Civil /Jar the city has been 
viewed as "under civilized"] not too little nature but 
too much. A general theme of city acceptance ("All 
the world's a city novr and there is no escaping 
urbanization...") pervades the essay. 

B. Image and Symbolism 

2I4. Appleyard, Donald. "Miy Buildings Are Kno^m.'' j^vironment 
and Behavior , J, December 1969j 131-156. 

The emphasis is distinctly on components of design, 
particularly as these relate to imageability. 

25. , Kevin Lynch and John R. Keyer. The View Frcn 

the Road . Cambridge: H.I.T. Press, 196k. 

Deriving its basic philosopliy from the Image of the 
City (LjTich), this book atterpts to systematically 
record visual experiences wliile driving along the 
highVTay, Valuable primarily for some of its fresh 
approaches in methodology, View From the Road is de- 
signed as an e:cperiment. 



9. GPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

26. Brower, Sidney N. "Territoriality, the lixterior Spaces: 

The Signs Ife Learn to Read." Landscape ^ Autumn 19^$, 
9-12. 

The physical form of an object and the mental picture 
in the mind of all observers are not identical | thus, 
we can no longer be concerned only with the physical 
composition of the environment but must understand the 
visual information it "sends". A good living environ- 
ment, then, Tidll be developed only in light of the 
purposes and values of the clients who live vathin 
them. A fascinating acco-unt of different types of 
territorial occupancy. 

27. Carr, Stephen and Dale Sciiissler, "The City as a Trip." 

Environment and Behavior , I, June 19^9, 7-35» 

The attitude and image that we have as we move through 
our city has developed into a small, but rather dis- 
tinct, research theme (See Appleyard, et. al.. The 
View From the Road j or Steinitz, "Meaning and the 
Congruence of Urban Form and Activity"). Tliis parti- 
cular article again emphasizes the importance of 
activity to image-bviilding. 

28. De Jonge, Derk. "Images of Urban Areas: Their Structure 

and Psychological Foundations." Journal of the 
American Institute of Planners , November 19c>2, 266-276. 

Utilizing a sirplified version of the methodology 
developed by Kevin Lynch ( The Image of the City ) , the 
author investigated the perceived structure of some 
urban areas in the Netherlands. Many findings in 
support of the Lynch study are revealed by De Jonge . 
Interestingly, De Jonge notes that where areas are 
confusing to the respondents, maps vrhich leave out 
detail and distort pattern are best able to alleviate 
that confusion (See Miller, ''The Magical Number 
Seven"). This would seem to indicate that many 
notions of the Gestalt psychologists on form perception 
are Vclid (See Kstz, Gestalt Psychology , particiilarly 
pp. 2U-28 and l|0-Ul). 

29. Dichter, llrnest. "The Strategy of Human Desires." 

Planning I96I . Chicago: American Society of Planning 
Officials. 

"Vrtiat is needed is the scientific development of an 
image for each major city,'' which Dichter goes on to 
explain is basically a question of "vmiqueness" . 



10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

30. G\ilick, Jolin. ''Images of an Arab City." Journal of the 

iimarican Institute of Planners; XZIX, August 1$'63, 
179-l?b. 

Gulick utilized the basic techniques developed by 
Lynch in The Image of the City in intervievdng 35 
residents of Tripoli, Lebanon. His findings conclude 
that perception is related to both visual cues and 
sociocultural associations. Irportant also for some 
criticisms and questions around the techniques of 
perception study developed by Lynch, 

31. -iarrison, James D. and Uilliam A. Hov;ard. "The Role of 

lieaning in the Urban Image." ■:}nvirorment end F-ehavior , 
IV, December 1972, 385-lill. 

Sxtends the basic techniques of Lynch in an effort to 
derive components of iraageability. Four component 
groupings are defined: location, appearance, meaning 
and association. Components of location end meaning 
are shovm to be most significant in element description. 

32. Xepes, Gyorgy. "Notes on Expression and Communication in 

the Cityscape." The Future Metropolis , Lloyd Rod>an, 
ed. Hew York: Goerge brazLller, 1^61, 190-213. 

Valuable comments on the use of symbols in expressing 
foi-m and function viithin our urban environment. Kepes 
argues that only through symbolic "articulation of 
the city" vdll we be able to produce a "legible" 
environment. 

33. Lynch, Kevin. Tho Image of the City . Cambridge: M.I.T. 

Press, i960. 

One of the most important books dealing lath urban 
form and design yet vnn.tten. The concept of 'imagea- 
bility" defined as those vivid and memorable elements 
v.dthin the city, provides a working methodology to 
understand the relationship betv/een the citizens and 
their environment . This study has been the major 
impetus to a" subsequent regeneration of not only 
hoiT urban forms are perceived but to a major "new 
movement" vatliin several diverse disisiplines. 



11. CPL Exchange Biblio2raphy if$L6 

3li. Parr, A. ^. "ilnvironriental Design and Psycholog/." 
Lgndscape , XIV, \dnter 156i|-1965> 15-18. 

I.\ailt around the notion that "image" is htunan and 
'•substanc3'' (reality) is not, the author maintains 
that sensory deprivation deranges the mind. I'Jhcn we 
spesk of "exhilarating" or "relaxing" areas x.dtliin 
cities we are speaking of the relationsliip between 
physical form and mental state. 

3^. Passonneau, Joseph Russell. "The Emergence of City Form." 
Urban Life and Form , Werner Z. liirsch, ed. New York: 
Holt, Piinehart;, and Winston, 1965. 

A discussion and revievj of the problem of the inter- 
pretation 01 urban form through time leads Passonneau 
to feel that "the city" is the uniting of both temporal 
and spatial dimensions idthin the "image" that ;ire have 
of that city. The values that we attach to these 
dimensions may then work to remake our cities in a 
form more nearly that of our "ideal image" . 

36. Steinitz, Carl. "Meaning and the Congruence of Urban 

Form and iictivity." Journal of the iimerican Institute 
of Planners , ZXXIV, July I96B, 233-2Ua. 

Steinitz views the physical (man-made) environment as 
a field of communication concerning activity systems, 
that is, the relationship between form and activity 
organization. This enpirical studj'' sets up a number 
of hj^otheses concerning tliis relationship and concludes 
that the city designer can significantly influence the 
development of a more meaningful environment. 

37. Wohl, x^l. Pdchard and Anselm L. Strauss. "Sjonbolic Repre- 

sentation and the Urban Milieu." /American Journal of 
Sociolo^, LXIII, March 1958, 523-I32T 

Robert Park's comment that the city is "a state of 
mind" leads the authors in search of those features 
within a city viliich an individual utilizes to "see" 
and comprehend his surroundings. Cities are shoi-m to 
be viexjed symbolically, involving extensive simplifi- 
cation in their perception. It is by this method of 
symbolization and simplification that a citizen de- 
velopes a ''personality" for the urban milieu and 
around wliich he organizes liis life. 



12. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

C. Spatial Theory. Social Space, and Tsrritoriality 

38. Boyce, Ronald R. "^^sidential nobility and Its Iirplica- 
tions for Urban Spatial Change." Proceedings of 
the Association of i-merican Geographers , 1, 1?69> 
22-26. 

Boyce utilizes the econondst's notions of "push" and 
"pull" factors in a review of intracity residential 
relocation. 

35. Buttimer, Anne. "Social Geography." International 

llncyclopedia of the Social Sciences, David L. Sills, 
ed,, VI, 196b. 

The term "social space" is often applied to link 
psycho-social morphology to physical space, parti- 
cularly of the city. Buttimer reviev;s the concept in 
geographical terms, relating to formal areas (based on 
socio-economic characteristics), functional areas 
(based on social activity), and circulatory lines 
(flow of goods, people, etc.). 

ho. . "Social Space in Interdisciplinary Perspective." 

Geographical Review , LIX, July 1969, I4I7-U26. 

A review of the historical development of the concept 
of social space. Although not intended to be complete, 
it does provide a good introductory statement to the 
subject. 

lil. Chapin, F. Stuart, Jr. "Activity Systems and Urban 

Structure: A Working Schema." Journal of the American 
Institute of Planners . XXXIV, January 1960, 11-1«. 

and Richard K. Erail. "Human Activitj' Systems 



in the J^ietropolitan United States." ';]nvironment and 
Behavior , I, December 196?, 107-130. 

The above tiro articles report on efforts to develop a 
systems approach to human activity, based upon stages 
in the life cycle and environmental constraints. 
Together the articles present important findings 
relating to "activity space", particularly as this 
concept influences urbnn spatial structure. 



13. GPL Exchange Bibliography #^l6 

ii2. Flachsbart, Peter G. "Urban Territorial Behavior." 

Journgl of the Arnera.can Institute of Planners , XXXV, 
November l?6?s Ijl2-l4l6. 

iin overview of some of the research findings involving 
territorial behavior in animals, and extensions, 
where possible, of these findings to human social 
dynamics, while the argument is sometimes disjointed, 
the conclusion that social roles and intercourse are 
dependent upon level of adaptation to a new community 
is of interest. 

U3. Fried, Marc. "Grieving for a Lost Home: Psychological 

Costs of Relocation." Urban Renevral; The Record and 
the Controversy , James Wilson, ed. Cambridge: 
M.I.T. Press, 1966, 3^9-379. 

¥orld.ng under the subheadings of "The Spatial Factor" 
(p. 361) and "The Sense of Spatial Identity" (p. 365), 
Fried presents a short, but very irrportant, discussion 
of human attachments to space, particularly among the 
poor. 

kh. and Peggy Gleicher. "Some Sources of Residential 

Satisfaction in an Urban Slum." Journal of the 
American Institute of Planners , XXVII, November 1961, 
305-315. 

One of the most often cited articles involving the 
relationsliips betTJeen a distinct background group and 
their physical environment. Set in the well-studied 
West 3nd Ui'ban Renewal Project of Boston, the study 
emphasizes this area as a "place" id.th a unique 
spatial identity for the one-time residents. The 
question of low rents was not nearly as important as 
the "sense of belonging", the interpersonal ties — 
that is, the "territorial" sense in the perception of 
space. 

Ii5. Hall, Sdxrard T. The Hidden Dimension . Garden City: 
Doubledaj'-, 1966. 

. The Silent Lanffliage . Garden City: Doubleday, 

1959. 

The author develops the study of what he terms 
"proxemics" as the " . . .interrelated observations and 
theories of man's use of space as a specialized ela- 
boration of culture" . 



Ik. CPL 3xchang2 Libliography ^'5l6 

. Truly rewarding books, particularly for the geographer 
interested in environmental perception, they remain 
suggested reading for all persons in the field. 
Ranging from a discussion of distance and space 
behavior among animals, to biological considerations 
in the human perception of space, to art and literature 
as clues to perception. Hall develops a fascinating 
account of how different cultures relate to space. 
Good bibliographies. 

U6. Haynes, ilobin M. "Behavior Space and Perception Space: 
A Reconnaissance." Paper Wo. 3, Department of Geo- 
graphy, Pennsylvania State University, June 196S. 

An e:q)loratory effort T:hich attempts to understand 
behavior lathin the contercb of different theoretical 
concepts of space (suclidoan, behavior, and perception 
space). Rather sin^ile, but v/ell-v;ritten, points 
regarding networks, space stress and distortion are 
given. 

U7. Horton, Frsiik '5. and David R. Reynolds. "Effects of 
Urban Spatial Structure on Individual Behavior." 
Economic Geography , XLVII, January 1?71, 36-U8. 

An exploration of an individual's action space (ie., 
known and potential contact areas of city) based upon 
background factors which i-jill influence perception 
and cognition. Two distinct sairple groups are sxirveyed. 

U8. Jackson, J. B. "The Stranger's Path." Landscape , VII, 
19^7, 11-1^. 

There is a path in every city vfhich introduces the 
city to the transient stranger; in turn, it serves to 
introduce new life to the city. The tendency to view 
the city as a self-contained unit, invariably 
reflected by the "clean" and static maps of the city 
planner, fails to admit a "real" part of xirban 
culture. Beyond recognition, tho path should be 
given imaginative treatment in renewing its vitality 
and robustness, remembering that it caters to all 
classes. It may be the one lively thread in an other- 
wise increasingly dull urban life. 



1^. GPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

k9. Lee, Terence. "Perceived Distance as s Inunction of 

Direction in the City." 3nvironinent and Behavior , 
II, June 1970, ^2-73. 

An enpirical test of "Brennan's Lau", uhich states 
that suburban residents have their view fixed on the 
toTm center, found that distance judgments were 
consistently biased in favor of locations toward 
toxm, lending support to the notion. 

50. . "Urban Neighborhood as a Socio-Spatial 

Schema." Hunan Relations , XXI, August 1968, 2I4I-267. 

The concept of neighborhood is examined in a good 
introductory overview from the point of view primarily 
of sociology and planning. The empirical study is 
set in Great Britain and involves having residents 
draw in a perceived neighborhood boundary and relating 
these to different schemata (social acquaintance, 
homogeneous, and Unit) as well as background variables 
of the subjects. Although the conclusions may not all 
be relevant to U.S. neighborhoods, the article is 
inportant to any concerned with perceptual space or 
neighborhood planning. 

51. Lowry, Robert A. "Distance Concepts of Urban Residents." 

Environment and Behavior , II, June 1970, 52-68. 

Empirical study designed to gauge distance judgments 
to various urban facility classes, and groups of 
classes. A niuiiber of techniques are devised to develop 
tMs theme. Conclusions such as the finding that if a 
person considers facilities in pairs that the going to 
the first one x-dll be perceived as more difficult than 
the going to the second, have implications to both^ 
spatial theory and planning. 

52. Olsson, Gtmnar and Stephen Gale. "Spatial Theory and 

Human Behavior." Papers and Proceedin^'^s of the Regional 
Science Association , XXI, 1968, 229-2U2. 

Spatial analysis must s'nift away from economic and 
other strongly deterministic approaches to a more 
behaviorlstic position. Individual attitudes, know- 
ledge, information sources, and location ties to Hxed 
locations are among the behavioral factors which must 
be telcen into account. 



16. CPL Exchange Zioliography 7r5l6 

B3' -lainvater. Las. 'Tear and the ."louse-ss-Hevsn in tha Loiter 
Clffcs." Joximsl of the /jnerican Institute of Planners, 
XEGEI, JsnuiiTj IS 56, '^3-31. "^^^ 

The question of neighborhood as an e::tan3ion of the 
home arcong louer income groups is examned. 

$k' "Ushton, Gerard. "iJialysis of Spaticl Eehcvior by 

Revealed ipsce Preference." /Jinals of the .-.saociation 
of ijnerican Geographers , LIX, June IS^iS^, 3Sl-iiC0. 

The article discusses certain theoretical questions 
involved in the study of spatial behavior. The 
concept of Ilevealad Space Preferences, as given by 
I^shton, atteripts to organize behavioral theory 
around spatial choice, uhich is a coripaj.'ason of alter- 
native spatial opportunities. Preferences for paired- 
cornpea-lsons of these opportunities relates to the 
methodology eriployed. 

55. . ''Behavioral Correlates of Urban Spatial 

otructui'-e . " ^JlcononLc Geography , XLVII, January 
1S71, l+?-58. 

.'ji e:ccellcnt argument for studying spatial structure 
from the research position of exainining individual 
spatial behavior independent of the spatial alterna- 
tives from i:liich the choice is made. liushton exaiiiLnes 
the "realism of postulates", as v.'ell as several research 
themes end contx-ibutions, in his argument. 

56. Sanoff, Henry. "Social Perception of the Ecological 

neighborhood." -^ki sties , I, j^.ugust 1S70, 130-132. 

Short revieiT of an enpirical study uhich attenpts to 
derive acti'vity patterns involved in a ■■subjecti've" 
(perceived) neighborhood. 

57. Seeley, Jolin R. ''The Slum: Its ilature. Use, and Users." 

Journal of the .'jnerican Institute of Planners, XXV, 
l-'ebiaici-y 1S5^, 7-lU. 

Jm often-cited articl; irliich characterises the 
component factors involved in slum area analysis 
(space, population, value-posi'tion, etc.), and tj'pes 
of sluir. duellers (on a matrix involving "pennanent- 
temporcry" and 'necessity-opportunity" scales). 



17. CPL Exchange Bibliography ■;''5l6 

^8. SoTimer, Robert. "Man's Pro^dmate Environment." Journal 
of Social Issues , XXII, October 1?66, 59-70. 

An excellent short review of certain key concepts 
involving territoriality, including "personal space" 
and arguments over the significance of density. 

59. Stea, David. "Territoriality, the Interior Aspect: 

Space, Territory, and Human Movements." Landscape ., 
Autumn 1965^ 13-16. 

Using an office building and a sin^e office I'dthin 
to demonstrate the concept of our perception of 
internal space, Stea identifies three related aspects: 
personal territory (territorial unit), territorial 
cluster (enclosing peoples and channels in interaction), 
and territorial conplex (a set of clusters). Stea 
demonstrates hypothetically that changing "the defining 
characteristics of territory changes behavior", as well 
as the converse. 

60. I'Jebber, Melvin M. and Carolyn C. "Culture, Territoriality, 

and the Elastic Mile." Taming Megalopolis , I., H. 
XJentworth IJlldredge, ed. Garden City, New York: 
Doubleday (Anchor paperback), 1967> 35-53' 

The perception of space as organized around the 
dichtomy of values between the "Intellectual Elites" 
and the "Uorldng Class". The Webbers' discussion 
highlights the various vievjpoints between these two 
groups in dealing i-dth space and presents some serious 
considerations in formulating public policy from an 
understanding of these perspectives. 

61. and others. Explorations into Urban Structure . 

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 196ii. 

This is imperative reading for the academic planner or 
geographer. The essayists are all from the academic 
side of city planning schools, but their e:q)loratory 
foraj'-s into urban spatial structure provide the geo- 
grapher with the incentive to "get to Txork". Parti- 
cularly important along tliis line is Foley's "An 
Approach to Metropolitan Spatial Structure". 

For the perceptionist, Uebber's "The Urban Place and 
the Non-Place Urban Realm" is must reading. Essen- 
tially, Webber develops the theme that future urban 
areas mil become less space-based and unifocal and 
more process-based and multi-focal. 



16. CPL icchange xJibliography ji'5l6 
Also see numbers: 6?, 71, 75, 77, 73, 83, 67, ?7, 5&, lOU, 

105, UJ, 127, 132, 133, 13U, 138, 1U6, 1U7, U6, 150, 
151, 152, 153, 15U, 155, i56, 157. 

III. .in/ijjoinmiTAL s^i^siTiviTY jm szliiction 

A. Snviromnsntal Cognition and Adjustment 

62. Burton, Ian end Hobert vJ. Katss. "The Porception of 

ilatursl Ilezards in Ilesource ilanagenent." ilatural 
:i3sourc.3G Journal , III, 196U, Ul2-iiijl. 

Rsmains the best overviau article on tliis research 
theme. The authors classify the vailous types of 
"natural hazards", and then relate the frequencies of 
these natural events to variations in perception, 
partiCTjlarly as this is a function of differences in 
the background characteristics of the perceiver. 

63, Carson, Daiiiel H. ''Population Concentration and Human 

Stress." j::qDlorations in the Psycholop:/ of Stress gnd 
Arudet?/, Byron P. llourlce, ed. Don ialls, Ontario: 
Longmans Canada, l^oS'. 

The question of density end size on human behavior is 
examined, including an examination ox pertinent 
animal and human studies. Suggestions for approaclies 
to the studj' of overcroTKiing form the conclusions. 

*"» oil. Firey, V/alter. Lan, Mind, and Land. Glencoe, Illinois; 
Free Press, 1960. 

The development of a theoretic framevrork for the use 
and conservation of natural resources. .. resource 
system is a man, mind, and land ccmple:: wliich, if 
understood, should cllou for effecting changes in 
people's use of land and resources. Building around 
a three-fold theoretical structure of ecological, 
etiiiiological, and economical optir.iuri resource pixicesses 
and ' gain.?ul'' and "non-gainful" practices, being done 
in decision-making and resource maiiagenent. An 
important "introductory" book for those beginning 
^rork in the decision-makinE aspects of perception. 



19, ' CPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

65. Kates, Robert \I. Hazard and Choice in Flood Plain 

Hanagenent. Cliicago: Department of Geography 
Research Paper Wo. 78, University of Chicago. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Pi-ess, 1962. 

An excellent study which combines our loiouledge of 
flood plain control with recent work in the theory 
of human behavior and decision-making. This work 
is one of the better examples in demonstrating how 
perception studies can aid the geographer, and others, 
in solving immediate problems. In tliis instance, 
Kates documents his findings (derived through 
extensive interviews) of the perception and adoption 
of alternatives in the human adjustment to living 
and worldng on flood plains in La Follette, Tennes- 
see and live other towns. 

66. . "The Perception of Storm Hazards on the 

Shores of ilagalopolis." Environmental Perception and 
Behavior, David Lowenthal, ed. Department of Geography 
Research Paper No. 109, University of Cliicago. 
Chicagos University of Chicago Press, 1967. 

This paper is part of a larger study on the growth and 
development of coastal areas along Ilagalopolis which 
are subject to flooding. Utilizing intervieirs from 15 
sites along the coast from North Carolina to New 
Hampshire, Kates finds that despite a relatively 
intelligent and affluent sample, most dwellers gi-eatly 
minimizG the danger of living by the sea. Over 75^ 
of the saitple found order where ncne exists or assigned 
their fates to a higher power as means to explain 
their habitation. 

67. Lee, Douglas H. K. "The Role of Attitude in Response to 

Environmental Stress." Journal of Social Issues , 
XXII, October 1966, 83-91. 

Rather elementary, but clearly stated, discussion of 
factors involved in attitude formation and adjustment 
xrhen confronted i-jith a change in the environment. 

68. ItLchelson, I'illiam. "Urban Sociology as an Aid to Urban 

Physical Development: Some Research Strategies." 
Journal of the American Institute of Planners, XXXIV, 
March I960, 105-lOtt. " 

Several directions for futre research orientations are 
cited, but most of the article is devoted to differ- 
entiating between "mental congruence" (desire of 
environmental types) and "experimental congruence" 
(environments which actually accommodate behavioral 
wants and needs). 



20. GPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

65. Moore, Eric G. Residential Ilobility in the City . Resource 
Paper ilo. 13. ^'ashington: Association of ijnerican 
Geographers, 1572. 

In many vrays this paper can be viewed as a rigorous 
updating of Rossi's work, \Jhy Fanilies Move . The 
emphasis, however, is much more on systems theory and 
model building, particularly as thess relate to the 
decision to seek a nevr residence and the actual 
search and selection of the home. 

70. Rapoport, ijnos and Ron Hawkes . "The Perception of Urban 

Complexity." Journal of the American Institute of 
Planners . XXXVI, iiarch 197O, 1C6-111. 

Although the article emphasizes urban form and design, 
the discussion relates primarily to perceptual input 
as potentiiil information. Ifhat information that 
becomes usable varies lath several backgroimd variables, 
including culture, personal experience and learning, 
and individual mental and emotional state. This 
article serves as a short introduction and review to 
this topic, pcrticularly as it relates to complexity 
of form. 

71. Rossi, Peter. Miy Families Move . Glencoe: Free Press, 

1955. 

Although dated, this is a standard work for those 
interested in residential relocation. Many of the 
ideas, as \;ell as conclusions, appear to remain valid. 
Perhaps the basic wealcness of the work is its a- 
spatial treatment of residential location. But geo- 
graphers, among others interested in spatial analysis, 
will nevertheless find a wealth of information. 

72. Southworth, Michael. "The Sonic Environment of Cities." 

Environment and Behavior , I, June 1969, U9-70. 

Environmental perception studies are not all based 
on the visual sense. Tliis one attenqsts to identify 
an "urban soundscape" on several scales. Interesting 
scaling tecliniques are used. 



21. CPL Exchange Bibliography ^!$lG 

73. Torrance, Zllis P. "Comparetive Studies in Strsss- 
■ Seelcing in Thirteen dubcultures." IJhy Hen Take 
Chances; Studies in Stress-oaeking , 3. Z, ICLausner, 
ed. Garden City; Anchor Books, 1968. 

Although most of the articles place the emphasis on 
psychological aspects of human motivation, Torrance's 
work is interesting in a cross-cultural sense. 
Torrance concludes that cultures differ in their 
need for stress-seekingj America being a high stress- 
seeking cultui-e. 

, 7li. Uohlxjill, Joacliim F. "The Physical Environment: A 

Problem for a Psychology of Stimulation." Journal of 
Social Issues , XXII, October 1966, 25-3U. 

Psychological and perceptual studies have identified 
major attributes of the environment tjliich produce 
stimulation: intensity, novelty, complexity, teirporal 
change or variation, surprisingness, and incongruity. 
Each dimension may be a "U-shaped" curve between 
magnitude of stimiiilation and arousal or interest in 
environment. 

75. Wolpert, Julian. "Migration as an Adjustment to Environ- 

mental Stress." Journal of Social Issues, XXII, 
October 1%5, 92-102. 

Possible environmental dimensions Xidthin metropolitan 
arsas and nan's sensitivity to them, particularly as 
this sensitivity may lead to the desire for relocation 
in order to attain or avoid the condition. 

76. Wong, Shue Tuck. Perception of Choice and Factors Affecting 

Industrial IJater Supply Decisions in Northeastern 
Illinois . Department of Geography Research Paper No. 
117, University of Chicago, 1969. 

Ifnat role does perception play in guiding industrial 
managerial decision-making on use of water supply? 
Differences in water utilization can be shovm to be 
related to the awareness cf management regarding 
alternatives, conservation practices, and adjustment. 



22. GPL llxchange Bibliography #5l6 
• B. Preference and Heeds 

77. Doims, aoger ii. "The Cognitive Structure of an Urban 

Shopping Center." Environment a;id Behavior II, 
June 1970, 13-39. 

The image of consumer space is erpirically tested in 
a British setting. Brief overviei: of location theory 
formulations as these relate to the need for more 
behavioristic approaches, ilethodology involves a 
clear discussion of semantic differential and factor 
analysis. 

78. Gould, Peter. "On Mental Kaps." L'icliLgan Inter-Universit;/- 

Comnunity of liathonatical Geogrcphers . Discussion 
Paper No. 9. Ann j..rbor: University of iilchigan, 1966. 

Gould's noT7-famous study of student preferences of 
stotas for residential living. Students from Cali- 
fornia;, Alabama, Pennsylvania, and other areas rank 
the states in order of their preferences. /JLthough 
the results of these rankings are rather ;jell-knovm, 
perhaps of more importance are Gotild's comments 
concerning the iirplications of environmental perception 
and image studies and methodologies. 

79. Harrison, James D. "Environmental Preferences VJitliin 

Urban neighborhoods." Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
Department of Geography, University of Oklalioma, 1972. 

This empirical study (1) compares preferences for 
accessibility and neighborhood quality between Anglo- 
American and Held. can-Ameri can neighborhood groups, and 
(2) relates these preferences to selected demographic 
and socio-economic background factors of the respon- 
dents, including ethnic difference. 

\ 80. Lansing, John B. and r.obert W. iiarans. "Evaluation of 
Meighboi'hood Quality." Journal of the /jneidcan 
Institute of Planners . XXXV, Hay 1969, 195-199. 

An enjjirical evaluation of "good" and "bad" neighbor- 
hoods from the stated reactions of the architect- 
plrrmcrs and la^onen-residents. Often-cited studj- in 
support of notion that professional does not "see" the 
environment the same as do non-professional, residents, 
liaintanance level, hoise, and beauty vere among the 
most cited factors for a "good" neighborhood. 



23. CPL Exchange Bibliogi-aphy #5l6 

81. Lansing, John 3. and Robert V. rlarsns and Robert B. 

Zehiier. Planned Residential Environiaents . Institute 
of oocial Research . P.rni Arbors University of 
Mcliigan Pressj> 1970. 

An excellent einpirical study of environmental pre- 
ferences T-jitliin ten different conmunities. The 
communities i-rere differentiated as to the "degree of 
planning" (that is, two were planned new totms— 
Columbia and Reston — others were older "non-planned" 
ai'eas). Many preferences were surveyed (overall 
satisfaction, density, recreation, and mobility are 
just a few of the items recorded) and in several 
instances related to demographic and socioeconomic 
characteristics of the residents. Perhaps the most 
important conclusion was that overall community 
satisfaction was most often related to accessibility 
to community facilities, including place of work. 

82. Lucas, Robert C. "Wilderness Perception and Use: The 

acample of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area." Hatural 
Resource s Jou.rnala III, 1963> 39U-ithl. 

Studies in valderness perception are revealing dis- 
tinct preference groups. In tliis work by Lucas, he 
defines two "perceptions" of TrJilderness^ one, the 
demanding view by the canoeists, the other, a less 
demaiiding view by the motorboaters. 

83. Mchelson, William. "An ^empirical Analysis of Urban 

Environmental Preferences." Journal of the American 
Institute of Planners , XXXII , November 1966, 355-360. 

liichelson relates the residential pattern to two 
types of distance; Perceptual (similar to "social" in 
some ways) and Accessible. The empirical study asked 
residents to design "ideal environments" wliich were 
then used to develop a location model relating resi- 
dential location to selected service nodes. Among the 
background variables considered important to this 
study were value orientations and nature and extent 
of social interaction. 



2k. CPL "ixchange Bibliography ;i-'5l6 

82|. Peterson, George L. "A Modol of Preference: ^ruantitative 
^malysis of the Perception of the Visual Appearance 
of Residential neighborhoods. " Journal of Re^onal 
Science , VII, Summer 1567, 19-31. 

Resident subjects vrere asked to rank several photo- 
graphs of residential scenes along the ten scales 
of neighborhood quality. Factor analysis then reduced 
the ten variables to three independent factors. 

85. and ^Lduard S. Neumann. "Zvaluating Subjective 

Response to the Recreational Environment: a Quan- 
titative Sjialyzls of Dissimilar Preferences for the 
Visual Characteristics of Beaches.'' Technical 
Report No. 1, Department of Civil ^Engineering, North- 
western University, 1!^70. 

Two distinct groups of beach users were found. One 
group, the majority, expressed high preferences for 
natural scenic beaches vdth attractive settings of 
greenery. A second group was more interested in city 
Slamming beaches, paying more attention to sand 
quality and recreational opportunities. 

86. and R. D. 'v.^rrall. "An Analysis of Individual 

Preferences for Accessibility to Selected Neighborhood 
Services." Paper presented before US'th Annual Meeting 
of Highi/ay Research Board, V/ashington, IJTO. 

Using an e:q)erimental "accessibility game", the 
authors asked subjects to relate home to eight urban 
facilities, using a variety of scaling techniques. 

87. Selle, Heinrich D. "The Quality of the liivironment: 

Quantitative /'Jialysis of Human Response," Jarir S. 
Dajani and George L. Peterson, eds. Department of 
Civil JIngineering. Svanston: Northvrestern University, 
1969. 

A collection of papers by staff or students at North- 
viestern University ;jhich are relevant to studies in 
environmental perception. Janong the best contributions 
are Peterson's "The i^uality of Visual Residential 
ilnvironments" and Redding' s "The Quality of Residential 
Environments: Preference for Accessibility to Resi- 
dential Opportunities". 



25. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

68. ^'Jilson J Robert L. "Livability of the Cit/: Attitudes and 
Urban Developraent . " Urban Groxfth Dynamics in a 
• Regional Cluster of Cities , F. Stuart Chapin, Jr.^ 
-and Stanley F. IJeisS;, eds. New York? Jolin V.'iliey, 
1962. 

Those things x^hich contribute to the general image 
and evaluation of a city are tenned "factors of 
livability". This case study involves two North 
Carolina cities in a scheme of "game playing" to 
determine the most important factors of livability 
among some of the residents. An iirportant metho- 
dology to determne values xdthin our cities. 

C. Perceptual Variation as a Function of Backgroimd 
Characteri sties 

89. Botka, D. "A Descri-ptive Model of Social Contacts I.ithLn 

a Community." EldsticS j I, August 1970, 110-116. 

Botka lists seventeen variables as "most relevant" to 
community behavior, including education, sex, income, 
mobility, length of residence, neighborhood location, 
family ties, and density. 

90. Broek, Jan 0. M. "Natural Character in the Perspective 

of Cultural Geography." Annals of the Academy of 
Political and Social Science , CCCLXX, 1967, b-13. 

Raising the question of the relationship between man 
and land, Broek directs the attention to man's per- 
ception of the habitat as a means to detect "national 
character" in regional studies. Factors little uti- 
lized by geographers, such as electoral patterns and 
the novelist's fiction, are encouraged. For, as 
Broek states, "IJhat is worth Imowing cannot always be 
measured exactly" . 

The article appears in the issue of the Annals entitled 
"National Character in the Perspective of the Social 
Sciences". 



26. CPL ibcchange Bitliography ;f$l6 

?1. Carson, Dsniel H. "Watural Landscape as iieaningfxil 
Space for the Aged.'' Spatial Eehavior of Older 
People, L. A. Pastelan and D. II. Carson, eds . 
Institute of Gerontology, University of idchigan, 1970, 

The irportance of nature to the aged, including 
urban parks as vrell as valdemess areas, forms the 
general ther.ie. Carson reviews some of the most 
pertinent arguments (including, for exanple, stress 
reduction, spiritual stimulation, and activity 
orientation) for providing natural environments for 
select background groups. 

52. Crothers, R. J. "Factors Related to the Community Index 
of oatisfactoriness," Elastics, I, iiugust 1970, 
107-109. 

A short review of those factors in an individual 
background irliich are most related to liis preference 
for community. Among the factors evaluated are house- 
hold composition, housing, length of occupancy and 
residence ■tdtliin the community, and proximity to 
friends and relatives. 

93. Feldman, Arnold 3. and Charles Tilly. "The Interaction 

of Social and Physical Space." American Socialogical 
Reviexr, XXV, December I960, QV-'EEIT. 

The question of the importance of economic considera- 
tions {occupation, laiid rent, etc.) as opposed to 
life style concerns (environmental preferences, ethnic 
makeup, etc.) is examined v.dth regard to residential 
patterns. 

9U. Hartman, Chester i^ "Social Values and Housing Orienta- 
tions." Journal of Social Issues , XIX, >ipril 1963, 
113-131. 

Jln argument for housing based upon user perceptions 
(needs and desires) rather than one single-class 
values. Each physical configuration must be judged 
as to its value by its inhabitants, v;hich Hould 
demand the provision of alternative housing environ- 
ments based upon different life styles and needs. 



27. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

9$. -lendrickSj, Frsncis and Malcolm llacNair. "Concepts of 

Dnvironraental Quality Standards Based on Life Styles." 
Skis tics , I, August 1970, I39-IUI4. 

Consideration of independent and dependent backgroiind 
variables vrhich generate various life styles, and the 
relationships of these life styles to neighborhood 
structure. The article provides a concise but well- 
irritten argument for providing alternative environ- 
ments to meet different life styles. 

96. Kolodny, Robert and Jerome G. Rose. "Planning Environments 

for Older People." Journal of the American Institute 
of Planners , ffiCXVI, March 1970, 12U-129. " 

Direct applications of behavioral theory in social 
sciences to developing special "prosthetic environments" 
for older people. 

97. Ladd, Floi-ence. "Black Youths View Their Environment." 

Environment and Behavior , II, June 1970, 7ii-99. 

Follows the basic Lynch techniques of having subjects 
map their images of urban surroundings. laJhile there 
were great variations in response, it was concluded 
that image formation among black youths was quite 
similar to those for white areas. 

98. Lowenthal, David and Hugh C. Prince. "English Landscape 

Tastes." Geographical Review , LV, April 1965> 182-222. 

Working mth the, hypothesis that "landscapes are 
formed by landscape tastes", these two authors pre- 
sent a jaunty and refreshing look at the English 
countryside as seen by the English. 

99. Horilll, Richard L., Robert J. Earickson end Philip H. 

Rees. "Factors Influencing Distances Traveled to 
Hospitals." Economic Geography , XL VI, April 1970, 
161-171. 

The use of public facilities, in this case hospitals, 
is sho^m to vary someijhat according to certain back- 
ground characteristics, including religion, race, and 
income. 



28. CPL 3xchange Bibliography #5l6 

100. Murdie, Robert A. "Cultural Differences in Consumer 

Travel." Bconoinic Geography , 'IJA, Jxily 1565, 
211-233. 

Two groups of goods and services are defined for 
two distinct cultural groups: Old Order Kennonites 
and "modem" Canadians, both in southv/estem 
Ontario, "liodem" goods and services v?ere preferred 
about the same by both groups, but there were 
distinct patterns of difference for more "traditional" 
conmodities . 

101. Parr, A. <L. "The Five Ages of Urbanity." Landscape , 

XVII, Spring 1568, 7-10. 

Each of us experiences our urban environments 
through five different need and preference stages, 
based primarily upon our age, but city planning 
generally is designed for only one, or perhaps two, 
of these stages. 

102. Rapoport, Amos. "Cultural Variability in Physical 

Standards . " Transactions of the Bartlett Society , 
1969, 63-83. 

Among the physical design considerations vrhich 
Rapoport considers as "culturally-defined" are 
density thresholds, particularly as related to the 
expression of "crowding". 

103. Rosenberg, Gerhard. "City Planning Theory and the 

Quality of Life." American Behavioral Scientist , 
K, December 1965-Janusry 1966, ilo. 1x^5, 3-1 • 

Planners must come to admit that they do not know 
where they are going, or v;hat is "ideal", and 
therefore shoxild join vdth the behavioral scientist 
in developing the "now urban condition" . Fcllcvang 
this conclusion, the author revievrs some of the 
more pertinent points in our striving for "quality 
of life" reised by "experts" on human needs for (1) 
children, (2) old people, (3) young adults, and (U) 
adults. Important concerns between the environment 
and mental health are cited. 



29. GPL Sxchange Bibliography j/5l6 

10i|. Sonnenfcld, Jossph. "Personality and Behavior in 'ilnviron- 
raent . " Proceedings of the Association of /mericsn 
Geographers -, I, 19o9, 136-lUO. 

Each individual displays an "attitude" or personality 
toward the environment. Sonnenfeld relates this 
concept to four scales: sensitivity to the environ- 
ment; mobility^ need for control over the environment| 
and iask-tald.ng. 3ach scale -will develop a "normal 
curve" which can then be related to individual and 
group background factors. 

105. . "Variable Values in Space and Landscape: An 

Inquiry into the Nature of Environmental Necessity." 
Journal_of Social Issues , XXII, October I966, 71-82. 

Sonnenfeld distinguishes between landscape scales 
("mountains-plsinsy "seashore-interior", etc.) and 
spatial scales ("open-closed", "area-location", 
etc.). He relates these to change (both "adjustment" 
and "adaptation") and concludes that man's ability 
to accommodate environment is much greater than 
most researchers recognize. This article is excel- 
lent for those group background variables and 
environm.ental perception. 

Also see numbers; 11, 30, 37, 38, iA. U2, ^3, hks U5. U6, U7, 

50, 57, 60, 61, 108, 113, nU, 117, 118, 115, 12U, 

125, 127, 128, 139, mo, 1U2, 1)43, lii8, 152, 153, 

151;, 155. 



IV. EMVIROroiENTAL EFF3CTS Ai'ID BEHAVIOHAL MAiaPULATION 

106. Euston, Andrew F., Jr. "Toward a Socio-Physical Tech- 
nology." Planning 1970 . Chicago: JJierican Society 
of Planning Officials, 1970. 

iilthough much has been vrritten and said, there has 
yet to be a systematic study of the effects of the 
built- environment on man. This short article 
reviexrs some of the considerations, including 
contributing fields and pertinent research areas, 
which should go into such an effort. 



30. GPL 2Ixchenge Bibliography #5l6 

107. Field, Hermaiin H. -I^ffects of the Physical Snvircnnent 
on Human Behavior." Planning 1970 . Chicago: 
American oociety of Planning Officials, 1970. 

iui argument for "behaviorally-oiiented" planning, 
using a systems approach, 

-^ 108. Gutman, Robert. "Site Planning and Social Behavior." 

Journal of 3ocial Issues , XXII, October 1566, 103-115. 

Does a site influence the behavior that takes 
place there? In ^7hat i/ays? Can ve predict behavior 
from physical site analysis? These and other 
questions are examined by Gutman in a good over- 
view article concerned vdth the effects of the 
physical environment on human behavior. 

109. Hufochiridtj ilaynard. "Environmental Planning.'' ionerican 

Behavioral Scientist , X, September 1966, 6-8. 

Summary article concerned •with revievdng the major 
concerns involved in environmental planning, par- 
ticularly iJith regard to physical and mental health, 
aesthetic pleasure, and economic uealth. 

110. Rosow, Irving. "The Social "^Iffects of the Physical 

Znvi ronmen t . ' ' Journal of the /jnerican Institute of 
Planners , XXVII, May 1961, 127-133. 

Piosow provides a short review of the question: 
"Can planned manipulation of the physical environ- 
ment change social patterns?" Among the research 
themes briefly explored are social pathology, 
livability, community integration, and aesthetics. 
Rosou takes the position thrt oxtremes in the 
environment as v;ell as extremes in human sensitivity 
will resvilt in a positive response to the question. 

111. Skinner, B. F. Beyond Freedom and Dignity . New York: 

ICnopf, 1971. 

Skinner's theme is well-knoim; sinply that man's 
total environment conditions his behavior. There- 
fore, ve can alter man's actions tlirough "behavioral 
teclinology" xdiich, in this influential and contro- 
versial book. Skinner proposes as necessary to man's 
survival. I^ji inportant work, but a position which 
is vehemently opposed by humanistic". 



31. CPL Exchange Bibliography i'/5l6 

112. Studer, Tlay. "Behavioral llanipulation." Elastics , ITT, 
June 1?68, U09-iil2. 

A short abstract of a major thene which essentially 
follows the "Skinner School" of environmental 
conditioning. Tliis particular article is elementary 
in its discussion of "operant" behavior^, but pays 
particular attention to these ideas as applied to 
environmental design. 

Also see numberss 6, 8, 1^2, U5, hi > 58, 3'?5 63, 73, 1^, 90, 91, 

93, 95, 98, 102, 103, 105, 118, 121, lUO, liiit, lli9, 

150, 152, 153, 15U, 156. 



V. STRATEGICS FOR CHAiTOS 

113. Blessing, Charles A. "Perception in Planning." Journal 
of the American Institute of Planners , XXXVI, 
February I960, 2-a. 

Planning is both an art and science uliich must 
harmonise man Tvdth his environment through an under- 
standing of the mind and spiilt of the people. 

llii. Churcliill, Henry S. "LJhat land of Cities Do IJe IJant?" 
The Future of Cities and Urban Redevelopment , 
Coleman Woodbury, ed. ClxLcagos University of 
Chicago Press, 1953. 

/Jthough this collection of articles is primarily 
designed for understanding the Federal Urban Renexjal 
Program, the first section deals xd.th the logic 
beliind our renewal effort. Churchill's article has 
been xddely quoted as a plea for direction in rede- 
velopment . 

115. "Community Decision Behavior: The Culture of Planning." 
Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 
}D'JCV, September 1969, 301-310. 

An attempt to develop a behaviorial model based 
upon the classic model of human rationality. This 
is felt to describe how city planning and decision- 
maldng actually talce place. 



32. CPL Exchange Bibliography ^!^\S 

116. Crane, David A. "The Public Art of City Bviilding." 

Aniials of the Ajiorican Academy of Politiccl and 
Social Science , GGCLII, harch 196U, fcU-SU. 

iiany of the great cities of the world were built 
under autocracies— what role should government 
play in modern, democratic societies? 

117. Dyckman, Jolin. ''Planning and Decision Theory." Journal 

of the /jnerican Inctitute of Planners, XXVII, 
November 1961, 335-3U5. 

A short review of the interdisciplinary state of 
decision-maiding theory followed by a listing of 
110 works dealing tath the subject. 

118. Cans, Herbert, People and Plans . New York: Basic 

Books, 1968. 

/. Collection of articles by Cans T:l-iich are inte- 
grated around the theme that most physical planning 
has failed to consider the needs and grants of the 
residents. i.Mle Cans generally supports the 
notion that Gpatial and environmental stractures 
influence behavior, he attacks" . . .planners who 
believed that the city was a system of buildings 
and land uses V7hich could be arranged and rearranged 
through planning, vdthout taking account of the 
social, economic, and political structures and 
processes that determine people's behavior, including 
their use of land". 

119. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American 

Cities . New York: Random House, 1961. 

Jacob's famous and controversial book attacks 
"orthodo:: planning" and planners. licploiting the 
theme that few planners have any idea irtiat the 
citizeni'y value and that the planners' "ideal" 
Utopias are, at best, steiulc environments, this 
book contains a wealth of insights into the need 
for perception studies. 

120. Hontogomery, Roger. "Improving the Design Pix»cess in 

Urban Ronev^al." Journal of the American Institute of 
Planners , February 196^, i'20. 

"Conprehensive planning" has been disappointing in 
guiding design within urban areas . Recent innova- 
tions which place the enphasis on "process compre- 
hensiveness' rather than "plan comprehensiveness" 
would seem to have better possibilities in guiding 
urban groTith. 



33. CPL Exchange Bibliography ]l$lL 

121. Simon^ H, A. Adna ni 3 1 r ati ve Eeh avi r . Second edition. 

NeT7 York; Iiacrnillan, 19^1. 

Portions of tMs x-:ork are valuable to the "percep- 
tionist" particularly those intei-ested in "man's 
rationality". Simon feels the social sciences are 
"schizophrenic" in their treatment of tliis subject, 
ranging from the economist's ultra- rational man to 
the social psychologist's Freudian purists irho 
reduce all cognition to affect. 

122 . Spreiregen, Paul D. Urban Design; The Arcliitecture of 

ToT?ns and Cities . New Yoi'k: McGrau-Hlll, 1%5. 

One of the more valuable arcliitecturally-oraented 
te:cfcs available. Much more than a book of ''ideal" 
design, Spreiregen provides interesting commentary 
and rich illustrations on topics ranging from 
aesthetics to governmental regulation. 

123. Tunnard, Christopher and Boris Pushkarev. lian-Made 

Merica; Chaos or Control? Wexj Haven; Yale 
University Press, 1963. 

Another account from the "comprehensive architectural 
school" J tlii-s one directed primarily at the "non- 
design" man-made features of our landscape. Given 
the "low level of popular tastes", the authors com- 
ment that "beauty can only emerge from a deliberate 
effort to express the encounter between society and 
environment in significant form". Beauty, then, is 
the product of the professional planner's under- 
standing and e-qpression of the human life arovind him. 

12U. van den Haag, Ernest. "Creating Cities for Human Beings." 
The American Scholar , TLTLll, Autumn 1959, Iil9-It31. 

1. much-cited article, van den Haag works arovind the 
theme that cities are foremost human entities wliich 
must foster individual responsibility. Ilodern 
planning, according to the author, is essentially 
functional efficiency generally unresponsive to 
human motivations. 



3k' CPL ::^xchange bibliography #pl6 

125. 'tliyte, l.alliam H., Jr. "/^3 Cities Un-iiaarLcan?" The 

E;a-)locLLng iletropolis . Fortune, ed, Neir York: 
Double d27, 1?53, 1-31- 

A rtiuch-read anti-plan anthology which rejects modem 
planning "Utopias" and "efficiency theory" in 
favor Ox spontaneous and hur.ian- oriented development. 
Included mthin this collaction is an article by 
Jane Jacobs, "Doimtovm is for People." 

/.Iso see numbers: 29, hQ, $0, Si, 61, 6U, 65, 75, 81, 82, 87, 

Sh, ?6, 99, 101, 103, 107, 111, 112, 126, 13U, 153, 

15U, 155, 158. 

VI. ilMSURSIEilT AilD SCi^ilNG 

126. City Planning Department. ='Heasuring the Visual Ziiviron- 

ment." Comr.iunity TisneTral Program Report ITo. 11. 
Kansas City, iiissouri, June 1S67. 

One Ox the better "applied studies" using a more 
sopliisticated form of the Lynch techniques. 

127. Collins, Jolin B. "Perceptual Dimensions of /irchitectural 

Space Validated r.gainct Behavioral Criteria." 
Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psy- 
chology, University of Utah, /iUgust 1569. 

/ji attempt to develop a common language for des- 
cribing the environment among different background 
groups. The author develops ai operational language 
based upon user perceptions uliich are verified by 
behcvioral e:q)orienc3. The use of factor rotation, 
together idth a form of semantic differential, make 
this stud;'- interesting for its methodology. 

'128. Craik, Kenneth II. "The Comprehension of the Everyday 
Physical :^vironm3nt." Journal of the /imerican 
Institute of Planners . XXaIV, January 1960, 29-37. 

A good overviev; article concerning elements in- 
volved in perceptual studies, including (1) observers, 
(2) pi'esentation of environmental displays, (3) 
nature and format of judgments, and (U) validational 
criteria. Response formats for descriptive assess- 
ment of environmental displays are described and 
evaluated . 



35. GPL Exchange Bibliography iV^lo 

129. Sastinaii, Charles 11. ''iilxplorctions of the Cognitive 

Processes in Design." Unpublished Report, Depart- 
ment ox Architecture and Computer Science, Car- 
negie-Iiellon University, Pittsburgh, February I968. 

/ji attempt to model cognitive processes in archi- 
tecture and product design. The model is subjected 
to computer simulation in order to compare existing 
and proposed alternative processes. Follows the 
intuitive processes of a designer from problem 
identification to selection, 

130. Goodey, Brian. "Perception, Gaming, and Delphi; lil^iper- 

imental Approaches to Environmental Education." 
Centre for Urban and Hegional Studies, University 
of BirriB-ngham, 1970. 

Mthough the approach emphasizes education, the 
discussion of gajiiing and Delphi techniques to 
environmental perception is a valuable introductory 
revieTX of both the techniques and e:d.sting applications, 

131. Gould, Peter. "Han Against His Environments A Game 

Theoretic Framexrork." Annals of the Association of 
/'jnerican Geographers , LIII, September 1963? 290-297. 

Utilizing the Theory of Games ijith some hypothetical 
situations in Ghana, the author shoirs hoii Gaiae 
Theory ridght be applicable to problem-solving in 
economic geography. Gould also points to information 
theory, linear programming, and the theory of 
queues in solving geographical problems. 

Tliis article serves also as an introduction to the 
notion beliind Game Theory for the uninitiated. 

132. Hall, Edirard T. "A System for the notation of Proxemc 

Behavior." American Anthropologist , L"[V, 19^3? 
1003-1026. 

Ho-iJ to observe and measure "proxemcs", that is, 
the stud^r of hou man unconsciously structures 
microspace . 

133. Loiienthal, David. "Assuriptions Behind the Public i.tt±- 

tude s . " Environmental Quality in GroTdny Economy , 
Henry Jarrett, od. Baltimore? Jolins Hoplans 
Press, 1966. 

Lotienthal discusses some of the basic questions 
involved in surve;dng public opinion regarding man- 
environraent themes . 



36. CPL Sxchange Bibliography j'/5l6 

13li. L;Tich, Kevin. "An Analysis of the Visual Form of Erook- 
line." Community Renevral Program, Lrookline, 
Massachusetts, September 1965. 

Lynch experiments viith techniques developed in The 
Imafie of the City in devising a visual analysis for 
the toTTi of ..rookline. In his conclusion, LjTich 
points to a weakness in past methodology and suggests 
new avenues of approach, particularly in reference 
to city planning. 

135. Osgood, C. 2., C. J. Suci and P. ;i. Tannenbaum. The 

iieasurement of i-iegning . Urbana: university of 
Illinois Press, 1557. 

Several sections are directly relevant to scaling 
problems related to environmental perception and 
cognition. 

136. , and . "The Logic of 

Semantic Differentiation." Psycholingui sties , 
S. Seports, ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, I56I, 

A very clear discussion of this scaling technique. 

137. Rummel, R. J. Applied Factor Analysis . 3vanstcn: 

Northwestern University Press, 1970. 

Since factor analysis is iddely used in both geo- 
graplTical and cognition research, this v;ork re- 
presents an important contribution to concerns for 
methodology. 

138. Rushton, Gerard. "The Scaling of Locational Preferences." 

Behavioral Problems in Geo.":raphy; A Symposium , 
Kevin Cox and RegLnsld Golljdge, eds. Studies in 
Geography ilo. 17. Evanston: Northvrestern University, 
1969. 

Host important for its discussion of the technique of 
paired-comparisons developed in psychology, as 
applied to problems in geographical perception. 

139. Sanoff, Henry. "Visual Attributes of the Physical 

Environment." School of Design, North Carolina 
State University, Raleigh, December 1969 . 

The study is important for its techniques in measuring 
the visual attributes of the environment along 
certain scales of perception. Uhile the study has 
essentially a design orientation, its use of semantic 
differential with factor analysis is quite clear. 



37. CPL Exchange bibliography j^5l6 

lij.0. Sims, Jolin and Thomas F. Saarinen. "Coping with "in- 

virorunental Threats Great Plains and Farmers and 
the Sudden Storms." Annals of the Association of 
American Geographers ^ LTA, December 196S, l?tb-biib. 

Use of the Thematic Appreciation Test (TA.T) in 
measuring the effects of weather and climate on 
human behavior. 

llil. Sokal, Robert il. and Peter H. Sneath. Principles of 

Numerical Taxonomy . San Francisco: ¥. H. Freeman, 
1963. 

Several sections of this T;ork are valuable xdth 
regard to scaling techniques^ particularly regarding 
procedures for grouping observations. 

Ik2 . Sonnenfeld^ Joseph. "Environmental Perception and 
Adaptation Level in the Artie." Environmental 
Perception and Behavior , David Louenthal, ed. 
Department of Geography Research Paper Ho. 109, 
University of Chicago. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 196?. 

Valuable primarily for technique and research pos- 
sibilities involving environmental perception. 
Three types of tests were utilized: a questionnaire, 
a "semantic differentials" test (developed by 
psychologists generally for cross-cultural testingj 
see Osgood, et. al.. The Measurement of Meaning ) 
and a photo-slide testj the last of these recorded 
in some detail in the paper. In this, several dis- 
tinctive populations xirere compared as to preferences 
for relief, vegetation, water, and temperature by 
selecting one in a paired group of slides. (See 
Eeck, "Spatial Meaning...." in same work.) 

1U3« . "Equivalence and Distortion of the Perceptual 

Environment." Environment and Behavior , I, June 
1969, 83-99. 

This empirical study compares environmental sensi- 
tivity of two distinct background groups: Alaskan 
Eskimo, and Delaxjare students. The study is most 
important for its early use of certain scaling 
teclTniquesj particularly semantic-differential and 
paired photo-slide comparisons as cross-cultural 
measures. 



38. GPL Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

lUU. Thiel, Philip. "An Old Garden, a New Tool, and Our 

Future Cities.'' Landscape Architecture , July 1562, 
227-232. 

Because our urban experience is a sequence of 
vistas, not a static view, we should Deem to roani- 
piilate urban forms to communicats a sequence of 
meanings to us. This is termed "sequence-experience" 
which can be mapped, analyzed, and conceptualized. 
Major portion of the paper deals vdth mapping tech- 
niques. (See also Lynch, The Image of the City on 
future research suggestions, and /.pplayard, et . al., 
View from the Road . ) 

1U5. Torgerson, Uarreij 3. Theory and Ilethods of Scaling . 
New York: Wiley, 195ti. 

Perhaps the basic work for those interested in 
measuring perception and cognition. Torgerson* s 
"Law of Comparative Advantage" which provides the 
basis for paired-coirp arisen techniques, forms a 
section of this book. 

Also see numbers: 2. 7, 25, 31, 33, 37, 5U, 68, 69, 72, 78, 79, 

83; 8U; 86, 87, 88, lOU, 117, 152, 153, 156. 



VII. KHVIJvJS Ai^ID COLLliCTIONS 

lU6. Erookfield, H. C. "On the Environment as Perceived." 
Progress in Geography , I, Christopher Board, et. 
al., eds. New York: St. Martin's Press, I969. 

This review is written to both trace the development 
of "environmental perception" as a research theme 
within geography as well as a criticism of various 
philosophies on the subject. To this end, certain 
themes are enphasized while others are virtually 
ignored. Nevertheless, the treatmant vdll serve as 
an excellent introduction to graduate level research 
in environmental perception. 



39. GPL Sxchange Bibliography #5l6 

1U7. Campbell, Robert D. "Personality as an Element of 

Regional Geography." Annals of the Association of 
American Geographers , LVIII, December 15'tb, 7Ub-759. 

The author attempts to review the state of the 
rapidly groidng field of "psychological interpre- 
tation" (including perception) in the various dis- 
ciplines, but particularly as these disciplines 
contribute to the .geographer's conceptualization of 
region. Campbell points out that what xre believe to 
exist is often more important than what actually 
exists, 

lli8. jlnglish, Paul W. and Robert C. Mayfield, eds. Man, 

Space, and ICnvironment . New Yorks Oxford University 
Press, 1972. 

A very good collection of articles relevant to 
geographic themes and research. One section is 
devoted to some well-kno^m works related to "En- 
vironmental Perception and Behavior", but several of 
the other sections contain materials relevant to the 
perception theme. 

ll;9. Kates, Robert liT. and Joachim F. Wohlwill. "Man's 

Response to the Physical Environment." Journal of 
Social Issues , XXII, October 1966, 15-19. 

TMs issue of the journal is comprised of articles 
relevent to perceptual studies , This particular 
article is, in part, an introduction to this special 
edition of the .journal and, in part, a review of the 
man- environment research theme. 

• 1^0, Kuhn, Michael. "Researches in Human Space." Hkistics , 
XXV, June 1968, 395-398. 

A short review article briefly summarizing research 
in such topics as the biological basis for aesthe- 
tics, territorialism, systems, and culture. There 
is an architectural theme. Introductory. 



UO. GPL icchange tibliography #5l6 

151. Loi;enthal, Devid. "Geography, ^iqjerience, and Imagina- 

tion: ToTrerds a Geographical 'Episteinology." 
Cultural Geography; Selected "leadings , Fred S. 
Dohrs and LaiTence M. Sonmers, eds. Hew York: 
Thomas Y. Croirell, 156?. 

This article not only makes the case for a psycho- 
logicel approach vathin geography but demonstrates 
that man's vieivpoint may be as in^ortant to our 
understanding of our environment as the environment 
itseli. Good philosophical argument. 

152. , ed. ''Human Dimensions of Environmental 

Behavior," Environment and Behavior , IV, September 
1972. 

This issue of Environment and Behavior is devoted 
to material relevant to environmental perception. 
Host of the articles are essentially reviev^s of 
certain research areas, although some extend more 
deeply into philosophical, as well as eirpirical, 
arguments. The articles include: 

Kenneth H. Craik, "Psychological Factors in Land- 
scape Appraisal" 
Joseph Sonnenfeld, "Social Interaction and Environ- 
mental Relationship" 
Ism. Buttimer, "Social Space and the Planning of 

Presidential Areas" 
Yi-Pu Tuan, "Structuralism, Existentialism, and 

Environmental Perception" 
David LoTrenthal, "Research in Environmental 
Perception and Behavior." 

'■ 1^3' Proshansky, Harold, William H. Ittelson and Leanne G. 
Rivlin, eds. Environmental Psychology; Han and 
Mis Physical Setting; . New York: Holt, Pane hart, 
and V.lnston, 13^70. 

In many ways, tliis is the most coirplete and compre- 
hensive collection of articles dealing with environ- 
mental perception. lianj"^ of the articles contained 
vatliin this anthology are annotated in this biblio- 
graphy. Although the selection of material is quite 
good overall, there is som.e expected bias toward 
social psychology. 



I4I. CPL Jilxchange Bibliography #5l6 

e'l^ii. Rapoport, 7;inos. "Observations Regarding Man- llnvironment 
Studies." Man-3nvironinent Studies ^ January 1970, 
1-28. 

A comprehensive overview of the research involving 
perception and per caption- related theraes. Among the 
many topics discussed are ''perception and cogni- 
tion'', "cultural variability", "images, values, and 
schemata", "propinquity, friendsMp, and interaction". 
The treatment is extremely brief on any single 
work or topic, and it tends to be oriented to design 
and social interaction (as opposed to spatial organ- 
ization, where the review is very weak). Neverthe- 
less, the annotations are clear and are folloxred by 
an extensive bibliography. 

155. Saarinen, Thomas 7. Perception of Environment . Resource 

Paper No. 5. IJashington; Association of American 
Geographers, 1969. 

This remains one of the best reviews of this research 
area witliin geography. Saarinen places his dis- 
cussion I'jithin a spatial hierarchy! ascending from 
riiicrogeograplTical space (including "personal space") 
to macrogeographical space (the world, and its sub- 
regions). Tliis review is ideal for introductory 
students to environmental perception, and it also 
provides a good basic bibliography to the subject. 

156. IiJhite, Gilbert F. "Formation and Role of Public 

Attitude s . " Environmental Quality in a Growing: 
Economy . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966. 

In what ways do our attitudes influence decision- 
making? Is there a generally "good" environment for 
all? IJhat are the major research areas involving 
attitude investigations? How do attitudes held by 
professionals differ from those of the laymen? 
These are some of the major questions xjhich Vi/hite 
discusses in tliis overview. 



[t2 . CPL :i:chon;se 3ibliosraphy ;v'5l6 

157. \rrightj Jo'iii IC. "Terre Incognitse: Ths Plecs of the 

IraEgLnction in G3o:ir£phy. r-nnsls Ox the association 
of ijosrican Geo^rephers ^ AITUlf l^hli 1-15. 

Hen has constantly pushed back those ragions of the 
unlcnoT/n— tsrre incoyiitae. /ithough little of the 
uoi-ld rsr.iains totall.:' unknovn to the sci3ntific 
geosrrpher today^ vsst personal terrcS incognitees 
i.lll clTrays reinain lor each nev gensrrtion of. men. 
Thus, ('right argues, in this presidential address 
before the iissociation, that "controlled" imagination 
in all xorBis is to be desired in the expression of 
oux geographical research; for interest end 3xcite- 
ment are the foundation of intellectual curiosity. 

158. Zeisel, Jolin. "Lehaviorel Research and "Environmental 

Design: ^i Larriage of ilecossit"-. • Design and 
^im£onriient, I, opring IS^TO, 50-^1, 6U-66 . 

Ilather sinplistic ovorviev: emphasizing research 
directions in arC'.iitecture, behavioral studies, 
perception, and psycho-physics. 

nso see nuTiibers: 3S > UO, 62, 109, 110, 117, 110, 128. 



?J■^^.T 2 
Other Listings 



Aarons, .".nitr. ''Lan snd Transrort.'' /.rcl-d. lecture Canada, 

:aiii, August 1966, 21-22'. 

Aberic, D. 7. ''Culture and Socialization." Ps:.'cholo'"j.cal 
/mthropolo^:": ..pproaches to Cultui^e gnd Personality . 
.'lomerood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, l^ol. 

Ackeman, Idrrard A. "l.liere is a ".esearch Frontier?" Annala 

of the Association of .American Geo.^r aphers, LIII, December 
1963, h2^MW. ^ '^ 

Mlee, V.'arder C. The Social Life of Animals , 'roston: 
Beacon Press, 1^58. 

.'-JLlport, F. K. 'rheoi-les 01 P3rc>?ption and fu Concept of 
otructure. iieW York: Jo'.in "."il^y and Sons, 1951?. 

/J.lport, Gordon '.. I'ecomin ;: Pasic Considerations for a 

Psycholo.-;^^ of Per G onslit^' . Hev .Isven: Yale University 
Press, 1955. 



k3' CPL Sxchsnge Eibliography ,^5l6 

Anderson, Edgar. "The City is a Garden." Lends cape . Winter 
1957-1958, 3-5. 

"Anthropics; Public Participation in Decision-HakLng." 
31dstics, }[X:a:V, August 1972, 7C-72. 

Antonovsky, H. F, and L. Ghent. "Cross -Cultural Consistency 

of Children's Preferences for the Orientation of Figures." 
American Journal of Psychology , LXXVII, 196I4, 295-297. 

Applej'"ard, Donald. ''Experiments in Open Space." Connection , 
Spring 1966. 

. "Motion, Sequence, and the City." The Nature and 

Art of liotion , G. Kepes, ed. Hev? York: Braziller, 1965 • 

snd iiark Lintell. "The Environmental Quality of 



Streets: The Residents' Vieii;point . " Journal of the 
American Institute of Planners , XXXVIII, March 1972, 
bU-101. " ' 

Architectural Forum. "A Ilew /:pproach to New-ToT-m Planning." 
11, August-September 196U. 

Ardrey, Robert. The Territorial Imperative . ITcw York: 
Ajitheneuia, 1966 . 

Amhein, R. Art and Visual Perception . Berkeley: University 
of California Press, 196i4. 

Attneave, F. "Some Informational Aspects of Visual Perception." 
Psychological Revievr , LXI, 195U, 183-193. 

Axelrod, lioi-ris. "Urban Structure and Social Participation." 
American Sociological Review , XXI, February 1956, 13-18. 

Ayer, Alfred J. The Foxuidations of Empirical KnoTiledge . 
London: liacmillan, 1955- 

Babcock, ¥. H. "St. Brendan's Explorations and Islands." 
Geographical Review , VIII, 1919, 39-51. 

Bachelard, G. The Poetics of Space . Mew York: Orio" Press, 
1963. 

. The Psychoanalysis of Fire. Boston: Beacon 



Press, 196U. 

Bacon, Edmond il. "Urban Design." Planning, 1958 . Cliicago: 
American Society of Planning Officials, 1958. 



iiU. CPL "icchange Biulio£Taphy #5l6 

Baird, Jolin C, et. al. "Studont Planning of Toim Configura- 
tion." Znvironinent and Behavlor j IV, Jun3 1572, 157-188. 

Ealint, li. "Friendly llxpenses-HorirLd Zrpty Spaces." Inter- 
national Journal of Psychoanalysis , JuZ/TTLy IS 55, 225-2iil. 

Bangs, Herbert P., Jr. and Stucrt llahler. "Users of Local 
Parks." Journal of the /jnerican Institute of Planners , 
XX.XVI, September 1970, ^Z'J-^^^h. 

Bardet, Gaston. "Social Topography; An Analytico-Synthetic 
Understanding of the Urban Texture." Studies in Human 
Zoology, George A. Theodorson, ed. Evanston: Row, Pe- 
terson and Company, 1961. 

Barker, iiary L. "The Perception of Vater Quality as a Factor 
in Ccnsiimer Attitudes and Space Preferences in Outdoor 
Recreation." Unpublished ilaster's Thesis, Department of 
Geography, University of Toronto, 1968. 

Barker, uoger G. Ecological Psycholog/': Concepts and Kethods 
for Studying the Enviroiiment of Hvman Behavior . Stanford: 
Stanford University Press, 196ii. 



'i;:^ 



E:g3lorations in Ecological Psychology." American 



Psycholonist , :C[, 1965, 1-lU. 

. The Streai.i of Behavior; E::plorations in Its 

Structure and Content , ilew York; ^ppleton, 19^*3 • 

. "On the Nature of the Environnant ." Journal of 



Social Issues , JOEX, October 1963, 17-38. 

and Herbert F. Uright. Iiidw3st and Its Children; 



The Psychological Ecology of an American Tovm . Evans ton: 
RovT, Peterson, and Company, 195ii. 

Barry, H. A., I. L. Child and h. K. Bacon. "Relation of 

Cliild Rearing to Subsistence Economy." American Anthro- 
pologist , e:i, 1959, 5l-6[i. 

Bates, Frederick L. and Lloyd Dacon. "The Commvinity as a 

Social System." Social Forces , L, liarch 1972, 371-379. 

Bechtol, Robert B. "Hiiman Ilovement and Arcliitecture." Trans- 
Action^ IV, liay 1967, 53-56. 



h$» CPL Ikchangs Bibliography #516 

Beck, ?cob8rt. Ths Psychology of .Spacg . San Francisco: 
JoGse;."' Bass, l?6t>. 

. "Spatial lieening, end ths Propertias of the 



2n\ri romnent . ' ' Environ msntel Perception and Behavior , 
David LoTjenchal, ed. Department of Geography Research 
Paper No. 10!?, University of Chicago, I967. 

Bennis, 1J. C. Chan CT-ng Orp:ani2ations; 3s says on the Devel- 
opment and ^Ilvolution of Human Organizations , ileH York; 
McGraw-Hill, 1966. 

, K. D. Bemie and D. Cliin. The Planning of Change; 



ileadings in Applied Behavioral Science . Heu York: 
Fdnehart and IJinston, l^cl. 

Eerger, Bennett. "Suburbia and the iimerican Dream." The 
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Doims, Rof.er li. "Approaches to and Problems in the Measurement 
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Droettboom, Theodore, Jr., et. al. "Urban Violence and 

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51. CPL "ixchange Bibliograph-y -HSlG 

Dubo3, Rsne. "Ths Crisis of IJan and His liin^'ironrisnt." Elastics, 
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Elner, Frank L. and Duncan B. Sutherland, Jr. "Ui'ban Design 
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Ericksen, E. H. ''Identity and the Uprootedness of our Time." 
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Exzaad, i.llliam R., Jr. "Cityscspe." Planning 1962 , Chicago: 
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52. CPL exchange bibliography 7/516 

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Frsnkfort, Henri, i-irs. Henri Frankfort, John A. I.'ilson end 

Thorkild Jccobsen. Before Philosophy; The Intellectual 
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Gist, M. P., and 3. F. Fava. "The Social Psychology of Urban 
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Glassr, ilathan. "Housing and the Consumer." Iietropolis; 

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__, Ron Briggs and D. Danl^o. "The Configuration of 

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Gcodman, Paul. "Seating Arrangements." Utopian Essays and 
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56. CPL Exchange Bibliography #$l6 

Gough, H. G. ''The Adjective Check List as a Personality 
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Gould, Peter 11. "Structuring Information on Spacio-Tenporal 
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and Rodney 11. l/hite. "The l^ental Lsp of Zritish 



School Leavers." General Systems , XIV, I96S, 51-66. 

Greonberg, liichael 2. and ThomaG D. Eosvell. "Neighborhood 
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Greer, Scott. The Illmerging City . Glencoe, Illinois: Free 
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Gump, Paul V. "idlieu. Environment, and Behavior." Design 
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Gutheim, Frederick. "Urban Space and Urban Design." Cities 
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Haddon, Jolin. ''A Viet; of Foreign Lands." Geography , LXV, 
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Hall, Sdward T. "Human Needs and Inhuman Cities." Smithsonian 
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"Proxemics, the Study of Man's Spatial Relations." 



Lan's Image in Medicine and Anthropology . 

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Haller, A. 0. and C. E. Wolff. "Personality Orientations of 
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Hslprin, L. "liotation." Progressive Arch itecture, Jtily 1S65, 
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Hajnlyn, D. W. Sensation and Perception; A Mistory of the 
Philosophy of Perception , London: iloutledgo and Kegan 
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Harris, C. \I,, ed. P roblems in Measuring Change . Madison: 
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?Iarrison, James D. "Components of Imagesbilitys A Case 
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Harvey, D. ¥. I]:cplanation in Geography . London: E. J. 
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Haskell, Douglas. "The Drive for Beauty and the Popular 
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Has si d, S. Developm ent and Application of a System for 

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Hauser, Philip l-I. "Ecological Aspects of Urban Research." 
The State of the Social Sciences , L. D. l.'hite, ed. 
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Heathcote, R. L. ''Drought in i'ustralia: A Problem of Percep- 
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Land and ?tesourcet>, with Special Reference to the Sami- 
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Hechscher, /iUgust. "Public U'orks and the Public Happiness." 
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Hendricks, Jon. "Leisure Participation as Influenced by 

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$8. CPL ixchenge Bibliography #$16 

Henry, V/. ^. The Analysis of Fantasy . Hew "iork: John V?iley, 
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Heyman, h. "Space and Behavior: A Selected Bibliography." 
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Himes, Harold W., ed. Ser. I: Environmental i-.bstrccto . 

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62, CPL Exchange LioliosTEph/ fr^lo 

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63. CPL 'Exchange Bibliography #5l6 

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68. CPL lixchsnge rlbliography #5l6 

Osborn, F. J. and A, I'Mttick. "The Aesthetic i-.spsct of 

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Perilla, Oscar. "Motivation, Limiting Pi-inciples, Household 

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Priddle, George B. ''Recreational Use and 'Wildei-ness Percep- 
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Prokop, D. "Image and Functions of the City: An Essay on 
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Redfield, Robert and Ililton Sin2er. "The Cultural Role of 

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Rein, Martin. "Decentralization and Citizen Participation 
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Journal of the American Institute of Planners , XXXV, 
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Reiner, T. The Place of the Ideal Community in Urban Planning . 
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Reisman, David. ''Some Observations on Community Plans and 

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Rosenberg, Gerhard. "City Planning Theory and the Quality of 
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Rosoi;, Irving, "Old People: Their Friends and Neighbors," 
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Rozelle, Richard li. and James C. Baxter. "Meaning and Value 
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71. CPL Exchange BiblioQ:raphy ;v5l6 

^tushtorij, Garard. "Behavioral Correlatos of Urban .Spatial 
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Hussell, Bertrand, The Problems of Pliilosophy. Hew York: 
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jfiusso, Nancy F. and ?iobert Sommer. ''Invasions of Personal 
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79. GPL Exchange Bibliography {!$lS 



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