HENRY FROWDE M.A.
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY
BEING A REPRODUCTION IN FACSIMILE OF
THE FIRST EDITION
FROM THE COPY IN THE MALONE COLLECTION
IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY
WITH INTRODUCTION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
OXFORD: AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
PHOTOGRAPHS AND LETTERPRESS
BY HORACE HART) M.A.
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY
TE play of Pericles, Prince of" Tyre, dramatizes a tale of The novel
great antiquity and world-wide popularity. The fiction deals ni.s of Tyre.
with the adventurous travels of an apocryphal hero called
Apollonius of Tyre, who in the play is re-christened Pericles.
The vein is frankly pagal. The story was doubtless first
related in a Greek novel of the first or second century A. i.
The incidents of a father's incestuous love for his daughter, of
adventures arising from storms at sea, of captures by pirates
of the abandonment for dead of living persons, are very
common features of Greek novels of the period. But the
Greek text has not survived. It is in a Latin translation that
the story enjoyed its vogue through the Middle Ages. More
than a hund red mediaeval manuscripts of the Latin version are
extant, of which one at least dates from the ninth century. The
Latin version was printed about 4zo for the first tilne but
the volume has no indication of place or date of production.
Meanwhile the Latin tale was rendered into almost all t V-.ro-
the vernacular languages of Europenot only into Italian pean vogue.
' There are eleven in the British Museum.
- A vast amount of energy has been devoted in Germany to a study of
the story of Apollonius of Tyre in the Latin version, and of its developments
and analogues in modern languages. A useful summary of results, with
a good account of the vast German literature on the subject, will be found in
Mr. Albert H. Smyth's Shakespeare's Perlcle and .lpollonlus of Tyre : a study iu
comparative literature Philadelphi% ,898. A valuable paper by N. Delius
on the play ' Ueber Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre ; in )ahrbuch der
Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft 868 (iii), pp. x7-zo4, should be read
with papers by Mr. F. G. Fleay (in his Shakespeare lauual, t878 , pp. zog-z) ,
and by Mr. Robert Boyle on ' Wilkins" share in the play called Pericles', x88z.
Spanish, Provencal, French, and English, but also into German,
Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and mediaeval Greek. It found its
way into cyclopaedias of mediaeval learning like Godfrey
de Viterbo's Pantheon (c. i 8 6), and into the popular collection
of stories, Gesta lymanorum, in which it figured from the
fourteenth century onwards. A version was included in
Belleforest's Histoires tragiques (t. vii, Histoire cxviii, pp. i 3-
2o6, x6o4), a French compendium of popular fiction which
had an universal vogue i it was there described as 'une
histoire tir6e du grec '.
In English the earliest version belongs to the eleventh
century. A manuscript of that date is in the library of
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. At the end of the
fourteenth century the poet Gower introduced an original
English rendering into his onfessio 4mantis. An English
translation of a French prose version was made by Robert
Copland, and was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in ', o.
In )-76 the tale was again gathered into English [prose]
by Laurence Twine, gentleman ', under the title: The
Patterne of painefull Aduentures, Containing the most
excellent, pleasant, and variable Historie of the strange
accidents that befell vnto Prince Apollonius, the Lady Lucina
his wife and Tharsia his daughter. Wherein the vncertaintie
of this world, and the fickle state of roans life are liuely
described. Gathered into English by Lavrence Twine Gentle-
man. hnprinted at London by William How. , )-76. 't This
The book was licensed by the Stationers' Company to the printer and
publisher William HowJuly x7 176 thus: Willm Howe. Receyved of
him for his licence to ymprint a booke intituled the most excellent pleasant
and variable historie of the strange adventures of prince Apollonius Lucin.
his wif% and Tharsa his Daughter .... viijd.' No copy of How's edition is
known. Only a copy of the third edition now seems accessible. This is ha
the Bodleian Library and has the imprint Printed at London by Valentine Sims,
x6o7.' The second undated edition bore the imprint Imprinted at London
from the play in a state anterior to Shakespeare's final revision.
If we assume Wilkins to be author of the gTeater part
of the play, we must conclude that in the novel he para-
phrased his own share more thoroughly than the work of
his revising coadjutor, or that he retained in the novel passages
which his collaborator cut out or supplanted in the play.'
OF the popularity of the piece, both on the stage and
among readers, there is very ample evidence. There were at
least six editions issued within twenty-six years of its production,
two in i6og, and one in each of the years 6i , I69, I63o , and
x63)-. The title-page of the early editions, all of which
announced the work to be by Shakespeare, described it as
'the late and much admired play ', and noted that it had ' been
diuers and sundry times acted'. Not more than six plays of
Shakespeare were printed more frequently in quarto within the
same period of time. It was, however, excluded from the First
Folio of, 6 3 and _from the Second Folio of i 63 z. Together
with the six spurious plays which had been fraudulently assigned
to Shakespeare in his lifetime, it was appended to a reissue of
For example Marina's appeals to Lysimachus and to Boult in the brothel
scene iv. 6 are far longer in the novel than in the play yet they obviously
come from the latter, at an earlier stage of its development than that which is
represented by the printed text. One of Marina's speeches in the novel (p. 66)
ends thus :' O my good Lord, kill me, but not deflower me, punish me how
you please, so you spare my chastitie, and since it is all the dowry that both
the Gods haue giuen, and men haue left to me, do not you take it from me ;
make me your seruant, I will willingly obey you ; make mde your bondwoman,
I will accompt it freddome ; let me be the worst that is called vile, so I may
liue honest, I am content : or if you think it is too blessed a happinesse to haue
me so, let me euen now now in this minute die and lie accompt my death
more happy than my birth." A very slight transposition of the words, with an
occasional omission, would restore this passage to the blank verse from which
it was obviously paraphrased.
In the two following places neither text is right. But the
Enter ' (first) text is nearer the right reading than the Eneer '
(second). In iii. z. 93-4 the sense requires warmth breathes '.
The Enter' copy gives warmth breath ', the Eneer' copy
'warme breath '. In v. x. 47 the sense requires deafened '.
The Enter ' copy gives defend ', the Eneer ' copy
At least three necessary words are omitted in the Eneer'
copy, viz. ii. . 3 4 ' to ' ; '. 7 ' say ' ; iii. . 9 ' as '.
Only one omission, and that a stage direction, is notice-
able in the ' Enter ' copy, viz. ii. -. x 3 Exit '.
The cases where the' Eneer' (second) goes right and the
' Enter' (first) wrong are fewer. But they are not unimpor-
tant. The five most noticeable corrections are :
iii. . 66. Paper for Taper
iv. Chor. x 7. ripe for right
iv. 6. I z. Caualeres (i. e. Cavaliers) for Caualereea
x 64. women-kinde for wemen-kinde
v. Chor. zo. fervor for former
Irregularities in spelling where the two editions dither Spelling
merely reflect the caprices of the two compositors. A super-
fluous -e ' following words, e.g. booke ', keepe ', vnlesse ',
'returne', frequently occurs in both copies. But the words
that have it in one copy oten lack it in the other. Where
the one copy reads fruite' and ' fellowe', the other copy
reads fruit ' and fellow '. But the latter copy has , moun-
taine ' and devoure ' though the former has mountain ' and
devour'. Fifty words, which have the superfluous -e' in the
Enter' (first) edition, are without it in the Eneer' (second)
edition. Forty words, which have the same ending in the
publishing fbr himself a new edition of Pericles in quarto in
163 '. Cotes' edition closely follows Bird's text of 630, and
is equally incoherent.
The Third No further edition of Pericles appeared till I664, when
roiorewint, the play was at length included in a collective edition of
Shakespeare's works. It then figured in the opening pages
of an appendix containing in addition six other plays which
had been falsely ascribed to Shakespeare in his lifetime.
The volume was the second (not the first) impression of the
Third Folio. The first impression, which has the imprint,
London. Printed for Philip Chetwinde I663; reproduces
the thirty-six plays which appeared in the First and Second
'olios. The second impression has a new title-page running:m
M r. William Shakespear's Comedies, Historie% and Tragedies.
Published according to the true original copies. The
third Impression. And unto this Impression is added seven
Playes, never before printed in Foil% viz. Pericles Prince
of Tyre. The London Prodigall. The History of Thomas
L d. Cromwell. Sir John Oldcastle Lord Cobham. The
Puritan Widow. A Yorkshire Tragedy. The Tragedy of
Locrine. Printed for P. C: London, 1 664.'
The seven Playes never before printed in Folio' appear
at the end of the volmne with new paginations and new
signatures. The text of Pericles fills ten leaves, of which the
first six belong to a quire signed a', and the second four to
a quire signed 'b'. The pagination runs I-zo. The intro-
ductory heading runs:The much admired Play called
Pericles, Prince of Tyre, with the true Relation of the
whole History, Adventures, and Fortunes of the said Prince,
Written by W. Shakespeare, and published in his life time.'
Chetwinde's text is that of the quarto of 163 ', but there are
many conjectural alterations. For the first time the play is
works of 7o9 (as well as in the reissue of I74), based his
text on that of the Fourth Folio and included Pericles and the
six spurious pieces. Rowe attempted for the first time to
distinguish the verse from the prose, and he made a few
verbal emendations. But he did not go far in the elucidation
of the text. Pope and the chief eighteenth-century writers
excluded Pericles, together with the spurious plays, from their
editions of Shakespeare's works. Although Theobald did
not reprint the piece in his edition of Shakespeare ( 733), he
was a careful student of it, as manuscript notes by him in
extant copies of the 63o and 63 >- editions amply show (see
Nos. XLIX and LXV infra).
Two rival reprints in x 2mo of the Fourth Folio version
of Pericles appeared in London in 734, independently
of any collective edition. One of these (' Pericles Prince
of Tyre by Shakespear,' sixty pages) was printed and pub-
lished by R. Walker at the Shakespear's Head. The other
((Pericles Prince of Tyre By Mr. William Shakespear,'
sixty-seven pages) was 'printed for j. Tonson and the
rest of the Proprietors '. To Tonson's edition was prefixed
an advertisement by William Chetwood, prompter at the
Drury Lane Theatre, challenging Walker's pretensions to
print this and other of Shakespeare's plays ' from copies made
use of at the Theatre '; Chetwood denounced Walker's text
as'useless, pirated, and maimed . But Tonson's version is
little better than his rival's. Pericles was not republished again
until Malone printed it (in 78o) with all the doubtful pieces
in his Supplement to Johnson and Steevens' edition of
778 . Malone for the first time recovered the verse from the
prose of the early version, and .by somewhat liberal emenda-
tions rendered most of the text readable and intelligible.
It was at the suggestion of Dr. Richard Farmer that
6 LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS
WARREN, The Rev. F.
WATERS, A. G.
WATT, A. P.
WEIR, R. S.
WELDON & CO.
WroTE, W. Hrz.
WmaN F Pv, re L,a,v.
WL,o, Eowo S.
WILLIAMS, ARTHUR JoHn.
WILLIAMS 8 NORGATE.
WISE, H. E.
WREY, Sir BOURCHIER, Bart.
WRIGHT, C. T. HAGBERG.
YOUNG, HAROLD E.