CENTRE for REFORMATION and RENAISSANCE STUDIES VICTORIA UNIVERSITY TORONTO PERICLES FACSIMILE LONDON HENRY FROWDE M.A. PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD SHAKESPEARES PERICLES BEING A REPRODUCTION IN FACSIMILE OF THE FIRST EDITION 6o 9 FROM THE COPY IN THE MALONE COLLECTION IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY WITH INTRODUCTION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY BY SIDNEY LEE OXFORD: AT THE CLARENDON PRESS MDCCCCV OXFORD PHOTOGRAPHS AND LETTERPRESS BY HORACE HART) M.A. PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY I TE play of Pericles, Prince of" Tyre, dramatizes a tale of The novel of Apollo- great antiquity and world-wide popularity. The fiction deals ni.s of Tyre. with the adventurous travels of an apocryphal hero called Apollonius of Tyre, who in the play is re-christened Pericles. The vein is frankly pagal. The story was doubtless first related in a Greek novel of the first or second century A. i. The incidents of a father's incestuous love for his daughter, of adventures arising from storms at sea, of captures by pirates of the abandonment for dead of living persons, are very common features of Greek novels of the period. But the Greek text has not survived. It is in a Latin translation that the story enjoyed its vogue through the Middle Ages. More than a hund red mediaeval manuscripts of the Latin version are extant, of which one at least dates from the ninth century. The Latin version was printed about 4zo for the first tilne but the volume has no indication of place or date of production. Meanwhile the Latin tale was rendered into almost all t V-.ro- the vernacular languages of Europenot only into Italian pean vogue. ' There are eleven in the British Museum. - A vast amount of energy has been devoted in Germany to a study of the story of Apollonius of Tyre in the Latin version, and of its developments and analogues in modern languages. A useful summary of results, with a good account of the vast German literature on the subject, will be found in Mr. Albert H. Smyth's Shakespeare's Perlcle and .lpollonlus of Tyre : a study iu comparative literature Philadelphi% ,898. A valuable paper by N. Delius on the play ' Ueber Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre ; in )ahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft 868 (iii), pp. x7-zo4, should be read with papers by Mr. F. G. Fleay (in his Shakespeare lauual, t878 , pp. zog-z) , and by Mr. Robert Boyle on ' Wilkins" share in the play called Pericles', x88z. 8 PERICLES The. English Ve l'$1011S. Spanish, Provencal, French, and English, but also into German, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and mediaeval Greek. It found its way into cyclopaedias of mediaeval learning like Godfrey de Viterbo's Pantheon (c. i 8 6), and into the popular collection of stories, Gesta lymanorum, in which it figured from the fourteenth century onwards. A version was included in Belleforest's Histoires tragiques (t. vii, Histoire cxviii, pp. i 3- 2o6, x6o4), a French compendium of popular fiction which had an universal vogue i it was there described as 'une histoire tir6e du grec '. In English the earliest version belongs to the eleventh century. A manuscript of that date is in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. At the end of the fourteenth century the poet Gower introduced an original English rendering into his onfessio 4mantis. An English translation of a French prose version was made by Robert Copland, and was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in ', o. In )-76 the tale was again gathered into English [prose] by Laurence Twine, gentleman ', under the title: The Patterne of painefull Aduentures, Containing the most excellent, pleasant, and variable Historie of the strange accidents that befell vnto Prince Apollonius, the Lady Lucina his wife and Tharsia his daughter. Wherein the vncertaintie of this world, and the fickle state of roans life are liuely described. Gathered into English by Lavrence Twine Gentle- man. hnprinted at London by William How. , )-76. 't This The book was licensed by the Stationers' Company to the printer and publisher William HowJuly x7 176 thus: Willm Howe. Receyved of him for his licence to ymprint a booke intituled the most excellent pleasant and variable historie of the strange adventures of prince Apollonius Lucin. his wif% and Tharsa his Daughter .... viijd.' No copy of How's edition is known. Only a copy of the third edition now seems accessible. This is ha the Bodleian Library and has the imprint Printed at London by Valentine Sims, x6o7.' The second undated edition bore the imprint Imprinted at London PERICLES x7 from the play in a state anterior to Shakespeare's final revision. If we assume Wilkins to be author of the gTeater part of the play, we must conclude that in the novel he para- phrased his own share more thoroughly than the work of his revising coadjutor, or that he retained in the novel passages which his collaborator cut out or supplanted in the play.' III OF the popularity of the piece, both on the stage and among readers, there is very ample evidence. There were at least six editions issued within twenty-six years of its production, two in i6og, and one in each of the years 6i , I69, I63o , and x63)-. The title-page of the early editions, all of which announced the work to be by Shakespeare, described it as 'the late and much admired play ', and noted that it had ' been diuers and sundry times acted'. Not more than six plays of Shakespeare were printed more frequently in quarto within the same period of time. It was, however, excluded from the First Folio of, 6 3 and _from the Second Folio of i 63 z. Together with the six spurious plays which had been fraudulently assigned to Shakespeare in his lifetime, it was appended to a reissue of For example Marina's appeals to Lysimachus and to Boult in the brothel scene iv. 6 are far longer in the novel than in the play yet they obviously come from the latter, at an earlier stage of its development than that which is represented by the printed text. One of Marina's speeches in the novel (p. 66) ends thus :' O my good Lord, kill me, but not deflower me, punish me how you please, so you spare my chastitie, and since it is all the dowry that both the Gods haue giuen, and men haue left to me, do not you take it from me ; make me your seruant, I will willingly obey you ; make mde your bondwoman, I will accompt it freddome ; let me be the worst that is called vile, so I may liue honest, I am content : or if you think it is too blessed a happinesse to haue me so, let me euen now now in this minute die and lie accompt my death more happy than my birth." A very slight transposition of the words, with an occasional omission, would restore this passage to the blank verse from which it was obviously paraphrased. C The Fopu- larity of Pericles. PERICLES In the two following places neither text is right. But the Enter ' (first) text is nearer the right reading than the Eneer ' (second). In iii. z. 93-4 the sense requires warmth breathes '. The Enter' copy gives warmth breath ', the Eneer' copy 'warme breath '. In v. x. 47 the sense requires deafened '. The Enter ' copy gives defend ', the Eneer ' copy defended '. At least three necessary words are omitted in the Eneer' copy, viz. ii. . 3 4 ' to ' ; '. 7 ' say ' ; iii. . 9 ' as '. Only one omission, and that a stage direction, is notice- able in the ' Enter ' copy, viz. ii. -. x 3 Exit '. The cases where the' Eneer' (second) goes right and the ' Enter' (first) wrong are fewer. But they are not unimpor- tant. The five most noticeable corrections are : iii. . 66. Paper for Taper iv. Chor. x 7. ripe for right iv. 6. I z. Caualeres (i. e. Cavaliers) for Caualereea x 64. women-kinde for wemen-kinde v. Chor. zo. fervor for former Irregularities in spelling where the two editions dither Spelling differences, merely reflect the caprices of the two compositors. A super- fluous -e ' following words, e.g. booke ', keepe ', vnlesse ', 'returne', frequently occurs in both copies. But the words that have it in one copy oten lack it in the other. Where the one copy reads fruite' and ' fellowe', the other copy reads fruit ' and fellow '. But the latter copy has , moun- taine ' and devoure ' though the former has mountain ' and devour'. Fifty words, which have the superfluous -e' in the Enter' (first) edition, are without it in the Eneer' (second) edition. Forty words, which have the same ending in the D 2 3:- PERICLES publishing fbr himself a new edition of Pericles in quarto in 163 '. Cotes' edition closely follows Bird's text of 630, and is equally incoherent. The Third No further edition of Pericles appeared till I664, when roiorewint, the play was at length included in a collective edition of Shakespeare's works. It then figured in the opening pages of an appendix containing in addition six other plays which had been falsely ascribed to Shakespeare in his lifetime. The volume was the second (not the first) impression of the Third Folio. The first impression, which has the imprint, London. Printed for Philip Chetwinde I663; reproduces the thirty-six plays which appeared in the First and Second 'olios. The second impression has a new title-page running:m M r. William Shakespear's Comedies, Historie% and Tragedies. Published according to the true original copies. The third Impression. And unto this Impression is added seven Playes, never before printed in Foil% viz. Pericles Prince of Tyre. The London Prodigall. The History of Thomas L d. Cromwell. Sir John Oldcastle Lord Cobham. The Puritan Widow. A Yorkshire Tragedy. The Tragedy of Locrine. Printed for P. C: London, 1 664.' The seven Playes never before printed in Folio' appear at the end of the volmne with new paginations and new signatures. The text of Pericles fills ten leaves, of which the first six belong to a quire signed a', and the second four to a quire signed 'b'. The pagination runs I-zo. The intro- ductory heading runs:The much admired Play called Pericles, Prince of Tyre, with the true Relation of the whole History, Adventures, and Fortunes of the said Prince, Written by W. Shakespeare, and published in his life time.' Chetwinde's text is that of the quarto of 163 ', but there are many conjectural alterations. For the first time the play is 34- PERICLES The two editions of I734. Malone's revised text. works of 7o9 (as well as in the reissue of I74), based his text on that of the Fourth Folio and included Pericles and the six spurious pieces. Rowe attempted for the first time to distinguish the verse from the prose, and he made a few verbal emendations. But he did not go far in the elucidation of the text. Pope and the chief eighteenth-century writers excluded Pericles, together with the spurious plays, from their editions of Shakespeare's works. Although Theobald did not reprint the piece in his edition of Shakespeare ( 733), he was a careful student of it, as manuscript notes by him in extant copies of the 63o and 63 >- editions amply show (see Nos. XLIX and LXV infra). Two rival reprints in x 2mo of the Fourth Folio version of Pericles appeared in London in 734, independently of any collective edition. One of these (' Pericles Prince of Tyre by Shakespear,' sixty pages) was printed and pub- lished by R. Walker at the Shakespear's Head. The other ((Pericles Prince of Tyre By Mr. William Shakespear,' sixty-seven pages) was 'printed for j. Tonson and the rest of the Proprietors '. To Tonson's edition was prefixed an advertisement by William Chetwood, prompter at the Drury Lane Theatre, challenging Walker's pretensions to print this and other of Shakespeare's plays ' from copies made use of at the Theatre '; Chetwood denounced Walker's text as'useless, pirated, and maimed . But Tonson's version is little better than his rival's. Pericles was not republished again until Malone printed it (in 78o) with all the doubtful pieces in his Supplement to Johnson and Steevens' edition of 778 . Malone for the first time recovered the verse from the prose of the early version, and .by somewhat liberal emenda- tions rendered most of the text readable and intelligible. It was at the suggestion of Dr. Richard Farmer that 40 PERICLES 0 6 LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS WANAMAKEI(, JOHN. WARREN, The Rev. F. WATANA3, C. WATERHOUSE, J. WATERS, A. G. WATT, A. P. WEbSTEr, ISaaC. WEIR, R. S. WELDON & CO. WroTE, W. Hrz. WmaN F Pv, re L,a,v. WL,o, Eowo S. WILLIAMS, ARTHUR JoHn. WILLIAMS 8 NORGATE. WILLIS, JUDGE. WINCH, H. WITEa, DAVID. WISE, H. E. WITHERS, PERCY. WREN, ALFRED. WREY, Sir BOURCHIER, Bart. WRIGHT, C. T. HAGBERG. YOUNG, HAROLD E. Zsogv, Josv.