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Full text of "Shakespeare Pericles : being a reproduction in facsimile of the first edition, 1609, from the copy in the Malone collection in the Bodleian library, with introduction and bibliography"

CENTRE 
for 
REFORMATION 
and 
RENAISSANCE 
STUDIES 

VICTORIA 
UNIVERSITY 

TORONTO 



PERICLES 

FACSIMILE 



LONDON 
HENRY FROWDE M.A. 
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 
OF OXFORD 



SHAKESPEARES 

PERICLES 

BEING A REPRODUCTION IN FACSIMILE OF 

THE FIRST EDITION 
6o 9 

FROM THE COPY IN THE MALONE COLLECTION 
IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY 

WITH INTRODUCTION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 
BY 
SIDNEY LEE 

OXFORD: AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
MDCCCCV 



OXFORD 
PHOTOGRAPHS AND LETTERPRESS 
BY HORACE HART) M.A. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



I 

TE play of Pericles, Prince of" Tyre, dramatizes a tale of The novel 
of Apollo- 
great antiquity and world-wide popularity. The fiction deals ni.s of Tyre. 
with the adventurous travels of an apocryphal hero called 
Apollonius of Tyre, who in the play is re-christened Pericles. 
The vein is frankly pagal. The story was doubtless first 
related in a Greek novel of the first or second century A. i. 
The incidents of a father's incestuous love for his daughter, of 
adventures arising from storms at sea, of captures by pirates 
of the abandonment for dead of living persons, are very 
common features of Greek novels of the period. But the 
Greek text has not survived. It is in a Latin translation that 
the story enjoyed its vogue through the Middle Ages. More 
than a hund red mediaeval manuscripts of the Latin version are 
extant, of which one at least dates from the ninth century.  The 
Latin version was printed about 4zo for the first tilne but 
the volume has no indication of place or date of production.  
Meanwhile the Latin tale was rendered into almost all t V-.ro- 
the vernacular languages of Europenot only into Italian pean vogue. 

' There are eleven in the British Museum. 
- A vast amount of energy has been devoted in Germany to a study of 
the story of Apollonius of Tyre in the Latin version, and of its developments 
and analogues in modern languages. A useful summary of results, with 
a good account of the vast German literature on the subject, will be found in 
Mr. Albert H. Smyth's Shakespeare's Perlcle and .lpollonlus of Tyre : a study iu 
comparative literature Philadelphi% ,898. A valuable paper by N. Delius 
on the play ' Ueber Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre ; in )ahrbuch der 
Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft 868 (iii), pp. x7-zo4, should be read 
with papers by Mr. F. G. Fleay (in his Shakespeare lauual, t878 , pp. zog-z) , 
and by Mr. Robert Boyle on ' Wilkins" share in the play called Pericles', x88z. 



8 PERICLES 

The. English 
Ve l'$1011S. 

Spanish, Provencal, French, and English, but also into German, 
Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and mediaeval Greek. It found its 
way into cyclopaedias of mediaeval learning like Godfrey 
de Viterbo's Pantheon (c. i  8 6), and into the popular collection 
of stories, Gesta lymanorum, in which it figured from the 
fourteenth century onwards. A version was included in 
Belleforest's Histoires tragiques (t. vii, Histoire cxviii, pp. i  3- 
2o6, x6o4), a French compendium of popular fiction which 
had an universal vogue i it was there described as 'une 
histoire tir6e du grec '. 
In English the earliest version belongs to the eleventh 
century. A manuscript of that date is in the library of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. At the end of the 
fourteenth century the poet Gower introduced an original 
English rendering into his onfessio 4mantis. An English 
translation of a French prose version was made by Robert 
Copland, and was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in  ', o. 
In  )-76 the tale was again gathered into English [prose] 
by Laurence Twine, gentleman ', under the title: The 
Patterne of painefull Aduentures, Containing the most 
excellent, pleasant, and variable Historie of the strange 
accidents that befell vnto Prince Apollonius, the Lady Lucina 
his wife and Tharsia his daughter. Wherein the vncertaintie 
of this world, and the fickle state of roans life are liuely 
described. Gathered into English by Lavrence Twine Gentle- 
man. hnprinted at London by William How. , )-76. 't This 
 The book was licensed by the Stationers' Company to the printer and 
publisher William HowJuly x7 176  thus:  Willm Howe. Receyved of 
him for his licence to ymprint a booke intituled the most excellent pleasant 
and variable historie of the strange adventures of prince Apollonius Lucin. 
his wif% and Tharsa his Daughter .... viijd.' No copy of How's edition is 
known. Only a copy of the third edition now seems accessible. This is ha 
the Bodleian Library and has the imprint  Printed at London by Valentine Sims, 
x6o7.' The second undated edition bore the imprint  Imprinted at London 



PERICLES x7 

from the play in a state anterior to Shakespeare's final revision. 
If we assume Wilkins to be author of the gTeater part 
of the play, we must conclude that in the novel he para- 
phrased his own share more thoroughly than the work of 
his revising coadjutor, or that he retained in the novel passages 
which his collaborator cut out or supplanted in the play.' 

III 

OF the popularity of the piece, both on the stage and 
among readers, there is very ample evidence. There were at 
least six editions issued within twenty-six years of its production, 
two in i6og, and one in each of the years 6i , I69, I63o , and 
x63)-. The title-page of the early editions, all of which 
announced the work to be by Shakespeare, described it as 
'the late and much admired play ', and noted that it had ' been 
diuers and sundry times acted'. Not more than six plays of 
Shakespeare were printed more frequently in quarto within the 
same period of time. It was, however, excluded from the First 
Folio of, 6  3 and _from the Second Folio of i 63 z. Together 
with the six spurious plays which had been fraudulently assigned 
to Shakespeare in his lifetime, it was appended to a reissue of 
 For example Marina's appeals to Lysimachus and to Boult in the brothel 
scene iv. 6 are far longer in the novel than in the play yet they obviously 
come from the latter, at an earlier stage of its development than that which is 
represented by the printed text. One of Marina's speeches in the novel (p. 66) 
ends thus :' O my good Lord, kill me, but not deflower me, punish me how 
you please, so you spare my chastitie, and since it is all the dowry that both 
the Gods haue giuen, and men haue left to me, do not you take it from me ; 
make me your seruant, I will willingly obey you ; make mde your bondwoman, 
I will accompt it freddome ; let me be the worst that is called vile, so I may 
liue honest, I am content : or if you think it is too blessed a happinesse to haue 
me so, let me euen now now in this minute die and lie accompt my death 
more happy than my birth." A very slight transposition of the words, with an 
occasional omission, would restore this passage to the blank verse from which 
it was obviously paraphrased. 
C 

The Fopu- 
larity of 
Pericles. 



PERICLES 

In the two following places neither text is right. But the 
 Enter ' (first) text is nearer the right reading than the  Eneer ' 
(second). In iii. z. 93-4 the sense requires  warmth breathes '. 
The Enter' copy gives warmth breath ', the Eneer' copy 
'warme breath '. In v. x. 47 the sense requires deafened '. 
The  Enter ' copy gives  defend ', the  Eneer ' copy 
 defended '. 
At least three necessary words are omitted in the  Eneer' 
copy, viz. ii. .  3 4 ' to ' ; '. 7  ' say ' ; iii. . 9 ' as '. 
Only one omission, and that a stage direction, is notice- 
able in the ' Enter ' copy, viz. ii. -. x 3  Exit '. 
The cases where the' Eneer' (second) goes right and the 
' Enter' (first) wrong are fewer. But they are not unimpor- 
tant. The five most noticeable corrections are : 

iii. . 66. Paper for Taper 
iv. Chor. x 7. ripe for right 
iv. 6. I z. Caualeres (i. e. Cavaliers) for Caualereea 
x 64. women-kinde for wemen-kinde 
v. Chor. zo. fervor for former 

Irregularities in spelling where the two editions dither Spelling 
differences, 
merely reflect the caprices of the two compositors. A super- 
fluous -e ' following words, e.g.  booke ',  keepe ',  vnlesse ', 
'returne', frequently occurs in both copies. But the words 
that have it in one copy oten lack it in the other. Where 
the one copy reads  fruite' and ' fellowe', the other copy 
reads  fruit ' and  fellow '. But the latter copy has , moun- 
taine ' and  devoure ' though the former has  mountain ' and 
devour'. Fifty words, which have the superfluous -e' in the 
 Enter' (first) edition, are without it in the  Eneer' (second) 
edition. Forty words, which have the same ending in the 
D 2 



3:- PERICLES 

publishing fbr himself a new edition of Pericles in quarto in 
163 '. Cotes' edition closely follows Bird's text of  630, and 
is equally incoherent. 
The Third No further edition of Pericles appeared till I664, when 
roiorewint, the play was at length included in a collective edition of 
Shakespeare's works. It then figured in the opening pages 
of an appendix containing in addition six other plays which 
had been falsely ascribed to Shakespeare in his lifetime. 
The volume was the second (not the first) impression of the 
Third Folio. The first impression, which has the imprint, 
 London. Printed for Philip Chetwinde I663; reproduces 
the thirty-six plays which appeared in the First and Second 
'olios. The second impression has a new title-page running:m 
 M r. William Shakespear's Comedies, Historie% and Tragedies. 
Published according to the true original copies. The 
third Impression. And unto this Impression is added seven 
Playes, never before printed in Foil% viz. Pericles Prince 
of Tyre. The London Prodigall. The History of Thomas 
L d. Cromwell. Sir John Oldcastle Lord Cobham. The 
Puritan Widow. A Yorkshire Tragedy. The Tragedy of 
Locrine. Printed for P. C: London, 1 664.' 
The seven  Playes never before printed in Folio' appear 
at the end of the volmne with new paginations and new 
signatures. The text of Pericles fills ten leaves, of which the 
first six belong to a quire signed a', and the second four to 
a quire signed 'b'. The pagination runs I-zo. The intro- 
ductory heading runs:The much admired Play called 
Pericles, Prince of Tyre, with the true Relation of the 
whole History, Adventures, and Fortunes of the said Prince, 
Written by W. Shakespeare, and published in his life time.' 
Chetwinde's text is that of the quarto of 163 ', but there are 
many conjectural alterations. For the first time the play is 



34- PERICLES 

The two 
editions of 
I734. 

Malone's 
revised text. 

works of 7o9 (as well as in the reissue of I74), based his 
text on that of the Fourth Folio and included Pericles and the 
six spurious pieces. Rowe attempted for the first time to 
distinguish the verse from the prose, and he made a few 
verbal emendations. But he did not go far in the elucidation 
of the text. Pope and the chief eighteenth-century writers 
excluded Pericles, together with the spurious plays, from their 
editions of Shakespeare's works. Although Theobald did 
not reprint the piece in his edition of Shakespeare ( 733), he 
was a careful student of it, as manuscript notes by him in 
extant copies of the 63o and  63 >- editions amply show (see 
Nos. XLIX and LXV infra). 
Two rival reprints in x 2mo of the Fourth Folio version 
of Pericles appeared in London in 734, independently 
of any collective edition. One of these (' Pericles Prince 
of Tyre by Shakespear,' sixty pages) was printed and pub- 
lished by R. Walker at the Shakespear's Head. The other 
((Pericles Prince of Tyre By Mr. William Shakespear,' 
sixty-seven pages) was 'printed for j. Tonson and the 
rest of the Proprietors '. To Tonson's edition was prefixed 
an advertisement by William Chetwood, prompter at the 
Drury Lane Theatre, challenging Walker's pretensions to 
print this and other of Shakespeare's plays ' from copies made 
use of at the Theatre '; Chetwood denounced Walker's text 
as'useless, pirated, and maimed . But Tonson's version is 
little better than his rival's. Pericles was not republished again 
until Malone printed it (in 78o) with all the doubtful pieces 
in his Supplement to Johnson and Steevens' edition of 
 778 . Malone for the first time recovered the verse from the 
prose of the early version, and .by somewhat liberal emenda- 
tions rendered most of the text readable and intelligible. 
It was at the suggestion of Dr. Richard Farmer that 



40 PERICLES 

0 



6 LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 

WANAMAKEI(, JOHN. 
WARREN, The Rev. F. 
WATANA3, C. 
WATERHOUSE, J. 
WATERS, A. G. 
WATT, A. P. 
WEbSTEr, ISaaC. 
WEIR, R. S. 
WELDON & CO. 
WroTE, W. Hrz. 
WmaN F Pv, re L,a,v. 
WL,o, Eowo S. 

WILLIAMS, ARTHUR JoHn. 
WILLIAMS 8 NORGATE. 
WILLIS, JUDGE. 
WINCH, H. 
WITEa, DAVID. 
WISE, H. E. 
WITHERS, PERCY. 
WREN, ALFRED. 
WREY, Sir BOURCHIER, Bart. 
WRIGHT, C. T. HAGBERG. 
YOUNG, HAROLD E. 
Zsogv, Josv.