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Scientific and Medical 
Books, and all objects 
of Natural Historv. 

A. E. FOOTE. IV- • 

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UPPER Carboniferous Flora 


^ <^ "^ A »* , V A L 

S. W. PENI^SYLYANIA. '^^?*^' 


Late Professor of Ohemistry and Physics in the University of West Virginia. 
Now Cocoran Professor of Geology in the University of Virginia. 

I. C. WHITE, A. M., 

Professor of Natural Uistoryinthe University of West Virginia, and Assistant 
Geologist on the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 





I~^f^ I A'^ 


Entered, for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in the year ]880, according 

to acts of Congress, 


/Secretary of the Board of Commissioners of Geo/or/ical /Survey, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at 

Washington, D. C. 

Stereotyped anrl printed liy 

LANE S. HART, State Printer, 

Harrisburfc, Pa. 


His Excellency, HENRY ^I. IIOYT, Governor, 

aiui eai-o^Scio President of the Board, Harrjsburg. 

Akio Pardee, --------- liazleton. 

William A. Ingham, ------- Philadelpliia. 

Henry S. Eckert, -------- Reading. 

Henry McCurmick, -------- Harrisburg. 

James Macearlane, ----..-- Towanda. 

John B. Pearse, - - - - . . - . PhiladeliJiia. 

Joseph Willcox, -------- Pliiladeli3liia. 

Hon. Daniel J. Morrell, ------ Johnstown. 

Henry W. Oliver, -------- Pittsburgh. 

Samuel Q. Brown, - - - Pleasantville. 

William A. Ingham, ------ Philadelphia. 

Peter Lesley, ---------- Philadelphia. 


Persifor Fbazeb, Jr. — Geologist in charge of tlie Survey of Adams, York, 

Lancaster and Cliester counties. 
AMBROSE E. Lehman— Topographical Assistant, for niapijing the South 

Fbederick Prime, Jr. — Geologist in charge of the Survey of Northampton, 

Lehigh, and Berks counties. 

E. V. d'Invilliebs — Topographical Aasistant, for mapping the Easton-Read- 
ing range. 

Franklin Platt — Geologist in charge of tlie Survey of the coal fields ot 
Tioga, Bradford, Potter, Lycoming, and Sullivan counties. 

W. G. Platt — Geologist in charge of the Survey of Armstrong and Jefferson 

R. H. Sanders — Topographical Assistant in Dauphin, Lebanon and Berks 

1. C. White — Geologist in charge of the Survey of Crawford and Erie coun- 

J. F. Carll — Geologist in charge of the Survey of the Oil Regions. 

H. M. Chance — Geologist in charge of the Survey of Clinton and Clarion 

C. A. Ashburner — Geologist in charge of the Survey of McKeau, Elk, Came- 
ron and Forest counties. 

A. W. Sheafer — Assistant in McKean county, &g. 

F. A. Genth — Mineralogist and Chemist at Philadelphia. 
F. A. Genth, Jr — Aid in the Laboratory. 

A. S. McCreath— Chemist, in charge of the Laboratory of the Survey, 223 

Market street, Harrisburg. 
John M. Stinson— Aid in the Laboratory. 
C. E. Hall— Geologist in charge of the Survey of Delaware county, and 

Palseontologist in charge of the Museum. 
N. A. Stockton— Aid in the Museum. 
M. G. Cabraher— Aid in the Museum. 
Charles Allen— Assistant in locating outcrops in Delaware county, and 

for Records of Railroad and other Levels, Harrisburg. 
H. C. Lewis— Volunteer geologist for the survey of the gravel deposits of 

south-eastern Pennsylvania. 
Leo Lesquereux— Fossil Botanist, Columbus, Oliio. 

E. B. H ARDEN-Topographer in charge of Oflflce Work, &c. 1008 Clinton street, 

O. B. Harden- Assistant in preparing illustrations. 

F. W. FoRMAN— Clerk in charge of the Publications of the Survey, 223 Market 
street, Harrisburg. 



Preface by the authors, vii 


Vespertine group, (Pocona formation,) 3 

Its flora, 6 

Umbral sliale group, (Mauch Chunk formation, } . . . 9 

Conglomerate group, (Pottsville formation, ) 10 

Its flora, 11 

Lower productive coal measures, 15 

Their flora, IG 

Horizon of the Kittanning coal bed, 17 

Lower barren measures, 19 

Their flora, 20 

Upper productive coal measures, 21 

Upper barren measures, 24 

Three general sections, 29 

Chaptek 2. 

Description of ^2:)ecies. 

Equisetites, 33 

Calamites, 34 

Sphenophyllum, 3(i 

Annularia, 38 

Sphenopteris, 40 

Neuropteris, 40 

Odontopteris, '^2 

Callipteris 54 

Callipteridium, 55 

Pecopteris, 61 

( V pp. ) 

vi PP. kp:port of pkoo7if,ss. foxtaink A: white. 


Gonio2-)tpris, 81 

Cymoglot^sa, 84 

AletlioiDteris, . 87 

Tseniopteris, '. . . 90 

Rhacopliyllum, 93 

Caiilopteris, 95 

Sigillarea, 96 

Cordaites, 97 

Pliabdocarpus, 98 

Carpolitlies, 98 

Giiiliemites, 99 

Saportsea, 99 

Baiera, 103 

Gerablattina, 1<»4 

Description of plates, 121 

Index to names of species, 135 


About two years ago a number of well preserved plant 
impressions were observed at Cassville, in Monongalia 
County in West Virginia, in the sliale associated with the 
coal bed worked at that village.^ This bed is called the 
" Waynesburg," in the nomenclature used in describing 
the strata of the " Appalachian Coal Field." It is the high- 
est worked bed which occnpies any important area in this 
great field. 

The beauty of the impressions, and the fact that some of 
them were new, led to further examination. The result 
was, that many new forms were found at this place ; other 
and remote localities were visited, and it was found that at 
many exposures the coal was accompanied by remarkably 
fine plants. Various horizons above this bed were found 
to afford plant imjDressions, many of them being new. 
Where these horizons are exposed in the adjoining States 
of Pennsylvania and Ohio, they appear to afford compara- 
tively few plants. There was little prospect then, that the 
surveys of these States would obtain material sufficient to 
throw much light on the plant life of the upper beds of this 
important coal field. There was also little prospect that 
the State of West Virginia would, in any short time, author- 
ize such a survey as would give this material to the scientific 

As the result of our collections seemed to us to be of 
some interest and value to science, we were induced, in our 
private capacity, to study this material, and prepare our 
conclusions for publication as a contribution to science. 

( vii PP. ) 


We were led to confine our examinations and collections 
to tlie strata above the Pittsburg coal bed by several induce- 
ments. One important reason was, that only in this por- 
tion of the Carboniferous strata could we expect to find any 
change in the flora pointing to the assumption of a Per- 
nuan facies. Again, the fullest development of the highest 
beds occurs in West Virginia, and seem to be richer in plant 
impressions than elsewhere. Another reason was, that the 
plant impressions found in the Pittsburg and underlying 
beds, had already received, or would soon receive, ample 
study in the surveys of the adjoining States. 

Unfortunately we met with many difficulties in our ex- 
aminations and collections. The interval between the Pitts- 
burg coal and the Waynesburg is almost barren of plants. 
This is due, in part, to their destruction by maceration, and 
in part, to the fact that much of the interval is occupied by 
limestones and other rocks deposited under water during 
an extensive submergence. The paucity of material from 
this series of strata is all the more to be regretted seeing 
that the period during which it was deposited seems to be 
marked by important changes in the flora. 

The Waynesburg coal, as noted elsewhere, is exception- 
ally rich in plants, and is the highest horizon where they 
can he obtained with tolerable ease, or in any abundance. 
This bed, when it is exposed, is generally worked, and thus 
affords access to undecomposed shales yielding well pre- 
served plants. But even in this bed, as the plants occur in 
the shales left by the miners as a roof, special excavations 
had to be made by us to gain the plants. 

Owing to persistent search, and to visits paid to every 
point promising good material, we can claim to have made 
a collection from this bed which is fairly representative of 
its flora. Some of the localities which have afforded us 
good material from this bed are as much as 70 miles in air 
line distance apart, and the points examined are quite 

Above the Waynesburg bed the exposures are few and 
poor. Few excavations have been made for raikoads 
and other public works. No coal bed is worked on this 


horizon. The strata are mostly of a material which soon 
breaks down into clay and loose matters whicli obscure the 
outcrops. Beside this, there has been much surface action, 
and owing to the depth to which decomposition has pene- 
trated it is very difficult to get sound material. These 
causes have prevented us from procuring from the upper- 
most beds such a collection as we wished ; hence we cannot 
claim to present, from this portion of the tield, such com- 
jjrehensive details as from the Waynesburg coal bed. Still, 
we have plants from widelj^ separated localities and hori- 
zons in this upper portion, and they suffice to give import- 
ant indications of the character of its flora. 

As we made our collections ourselves we had opportuni- 
ties to study the plants in situ, and to examine and com- 
pare a large amount of material which we could not have 
had if the collecting had been done by others. 

In the preparation of our work we are indebted to Prof. 
Newberry, of Columbia College, New York, for the use of 
books, and especially to Prof. Lesquereux of Columbus, 
Ohio, for the liberal loan of many works not otherwise ac- 
cessible to us. 

Mr. G. Gutenberg and Prof. Mertz, of Wheeling, W. Va. 
have kindly loaned to us, for the purpose of comparison, 
specimens of plants collected by them from the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal, near Wheeling. Mr. T. L. Hazzard, of 
Washington and Jefferson College, Penn., also loaned us 
plants collected by him from the UpiDer Barrens of Penn- 
sylvania. To all these gentlemen we return our thanks. 

The Authors. 

W. Ya. University, 

MoRGANTOWTsr, W. Va., Juue 25, 1878. 

Note. — The order of our names on the title page has no significance, as we 
are equally and jointly responsible for this work. 

The Authors. 







A sketcli of the geology of the Carboniferous Formation in 
West Virginia. 

The different groups which include the strata of Carbon- 
iferous age, as found in the Aj^palachian Coal Field, are 
in some respects better delined, and more sharply separated 
from each other in West Virginia than elsewhere. 

The names finally adopted by the former State Geologists 
of Virginia and Pennsylvania, Prof. W. B. and H. D. Rog- 
ers, for the grand divisions of the series, commencing with 
the lowest, were Vespertine Sandstone, Umbral Limestone, 
Umbral Red Shale, Serai Conglomerate and [Productive] 

Coal Measures. 



These had been previously numbered by them X (Ves- 
pertine), XI (Umbral), XII (Conglomerate) and XIII (Coal 

In the Reports of Progress of the Second Survey of Penn- 
sylvania the following names have been employed : — Po- 
cono Sandstone (X), Mountain Limestone, Maucli Chunk 
Red Shales (XI), Pottsville Conglomerate (XII), Coal Meas- 
ures (XIII.) 

Where the Catskill (IX) or "Old Red Sandstone" of 
the English Geologists is found, it is capped by the Vesper- 
tine, but where it is wanting, the Vespertine succeeds the 
Chemung (VIII.) 

The Vespertine forms a well marked horizon, including 
the oldest of the strata of Carboniferous age. The Umbral, 
or No. XI of the old surveys, includes two very different 
series. The lower portion is a great limestone, correspond- 
ing to the "Mountain," or "Lower Carboniferous Lime- 
stone," of European Geologists. The upper portion is, 
along the eastern border of the Virginia field, a mass of 
shales and sandstones, mostly red. Owing to the fact, that 
in Pennsylvania, the limestone thins out, and gives place 
to a great mass of shales and sandstones, some geologists 
class the limestone as a member of the Umbral Group. 
As, however, in West Virginia, the limestone is in great 
force, and is well distinguished from the overlying sand- 
stones and shales, and as it is identified with a world-wide 
formation, we will place it as an independent member, in 
the grand divisions. 

The Productive Coal Measures are found to be naturally 
divided into four well marked groups, two yielding work- 
able beds of coal, and two, which are almost devoid of 
persistent workable coal beds. Accordingly, the fifth divi- 
sion above named, or the Productive Coal Measures, has 
been sub-divided into {a) The Lower Productive Measures, 
(5) The Lower Barren Measures, (c) The Upper Productive 
Measures, {d) The Upper Barren Measures. 

In this sketch of the general geology of our field, we do 
not pretend to give the reader anything more than a mere 
outline, sufficient to enable one not familiar with the order 


of succession, and the character of the strata, to form an 
intelligent idea of the occurrence of the plants, and to gain 
some knowledge of the changes shown, in ascending from 
lower to higher horizons, in the Carboniferous strata of 
West Virginia. 

The Vesper Line Orowp. 

At the base of the Carboniferous strata in West Virginia, 
we find the Vespertine Group, which contains the oldest 
land i^lants yet found in this State. The group being a 
shore formation, is quite variable in thickness, thinning as 
we proceed from the east (which was the ancient shore) 
to the west. It thickens in a remarkable manner to the 
north and south of the northeastern corner of the State. 
Along the eastern border of this State, it ranges in thick- 
ness from about 200 feet, to over 1000 feet. The lower 
lindt is given on the authority of Prof. Wm. B. Rogers, 
who determined this thickness on the Potomac River, in 
Hampshire county. 

Owing to the absence of fossils, and the great variability 
of the strata for some distance above the highest strata of 
the Chemung containing fossils, there is some difficulty 
about fixing the base of the Vespertine, unless, as seems 
natural, we accept as a base the first stratum which, by its 
persistence and well marked physical character denotes a 
decided and widely prevailing change in the conditions of 
deposition. Such a stratum we find in a peculiar conglom- 
erate which everywhere makes one of the lower members 
of the Vespertine Grouj), and which is the very lowest 
which can be identified at widely separated points. 

This rock is a highly siliceous white sandstone, and is 
almost always a pronounced conglomerate. It usually has 
large pebbles which have the peculiarity of being flat, in- 
stead of possessing an ovoid or elliptical form, as is usually 
the case with the pebbles of conglomerates. These flat 
pebbles characterize this rock at widely separated points, 
such as Montgomery Co. Va. and Cheat River in Monon- 
galia Co. W. Va. 

Between this conglomerate and lower beds which are cer- 


tainly Chemung, as shown by their fossils, there is an in- 
terval occupied by strata which contain no fossils. The 
lowest of these have a bright red color and the general char- 
acter of the Catskill group as seen elsewhere, and hence 
they may be of that age. The upper beds, lying next under 
the conglomerate above described, are mainly flaggy sand- 
stones, of a dingy ^rey color, and may be of Vespertine 
age. At the White Sulphur Springs in Greenbrier Co. W. 
Va. the red beds are about 340 feet tliick, and the flaggy 
sandstones occupy an interval of about 600 feet. 

AVhere all the members of the Vespertine exist in Vir- 
ginia the group is trijDle, composed of the conglomerate 
and firm silicious sandstones at the base, with a middle 
portion of grey sandy shales containing coal, and an upper 
member of red shales and sandstones. All three vary a 
good deal in thickness, but the coal of the middle member 
is usually found included within an interval of 100 feet. 
Two distinct beds are usually found, about 40 feet apart, 
but the coal is sometimes found distributed in thin layers 
a few inches thick over a space of 40 or 50 feet. This is 
the composition of the group along the eastern and south- 
eastern border of W. Virginia. In Montgomery Co. Va. 
we find two workable beds of coal in the middle member. 
At the White Sulphur, these may still be distinguished, 
but they have thinned down to 6 or 8 inches. In W. Va. 
along the southeastern border, there are no persistent work- 
able beds, and the coal exhibits a tendency to break up into 
thin layers. The coal is found near the central portion of 
the middle member. The overlying red rocks, forming the 
third member, are by some geologists considered as form- 
ing a portion of the Umbral and placed in one group with 
the Lower Carboniferous Limestone. But the limestone 
forms a clearly defined limit to these rocks, and there was 
evidently an important change, at this horizon, in the con- 
dition of the deposition. In the absence of all fossils from 
these strata, it would seem best, in W. Va. at least, to place 
them with the underlying Vespertines, into which they pass 
by insensible gradations. 

As stated above, Prof. Wm. B. Rogers found the entire 


group only 200 feet thick on the Potomac River, near the 
villages of Westernport, in Hampshire Co. W. Va. From 
this point of miniumm development it thickens to the 
northeast, southeast, and west, but much more rapidly in 
the two directions first named. Towards the northeast, in 
Huntingdon Co., Pennsylvania, according to Mr. Ash- 
burner, it is 2133 feet thick, with a coal bearing member 
near its center, 303 feet thick, which contains 19 small seams 
of coal.* 

Traced to the southeast, in Montgomery Co. Va. we 
lind it nearly 2700 feet thick, and containing, as previously 
stated, two important coal beds. 

While the group, as a rule, becomes much thinner as we 
follow it to the west, yet traced in this direction from West- 
ernport, the locality of its least development, it thickens. 
Hence in the eastern part of Monongalia Co. W. Va. on 
Cheat River, as recently determined by us, it is over 500 
feet thick, the base not being seen. 

The physical character also changes, as shown in the 
western exposures, for we find on Cheat River the follow- 
ing strata in descending order : 

1. Lower Carboniferous (Umbral) Limestone. 

2. Flaggy Sandstones. 90 feet. 

3. Massive White Sandstone. 100 feet. 

[*Tliat is, 2133 feet up to the base of the red beds beneath the Mountain 
Limestone. Mr. Ashburner very properly excluded these red beds from the 
Vespertine, and considered them the lower member of the Umbral. I cannot 
agree "with Professors Fontaine and White in thinking that "it seems best in 
W. Virginia " or any where else "to place them with the underlying Vesper- 
tines into which they " certainly do not, at least along an outcro23 of 150 miles 
in Pennsylvania, " pass by insensible gradations." 

The Mountain Limestone is an interpolated deposit in the red shales, since 
it thins away to nothing in eastern Pennsylvania; in Middle Pennsylvania 
not only lies 141 feet above the well marked lower limit of the red shales, but 
it is itself nothing but a group of frequently alternating red shales, red shaly 
limestones, red silicious limestones, variegated red and grey limestones, red 
and grey mottled calcareous shales, (fee, through a vertical space of 45 feet. 
There seems to me no more reason for making the Mountain Limestone of 
XI a horizon line separating two great formation, than for using the Ji^cm/er- 
OMS Xi'mesiowe of the Lower Productive Coal Measures, or the Great Lime- 
stone of the Upper Productive Coal Measures for that purpose. At all events, 
any such line of demarkation would be absurd for the nomenclature of our 
Anthracite Coal Region. — J. P. L.] 


4. Flaggy Sandstones. 300 feet. 

5. Conglomerate witti flat pebbles not fully exposed. 
No. 2 is conglomeratic in many portions. The base of 

J^o. 5 was not seen. No coal was seen here in the group, 
and, so far as observed, it is always wanting in the more 
westerly outcrops. 

The Ves2?ertine Flora. 

The collections made of Vespertine plants, are rather 
meagre, hence caution must be used in making deductions 
from the material obtained. The number of localities, how- 
ever, afl'ording plants is considerable, and as they are widely 
separated we may consider that the facts observed, have 
considerable weight in fixing the character of the flora. 

In the flrst place, we are struck by the distinctly cliarac- 
terized facies, which would, in every collection made from 
any locality, at once indicate its Vespertine age. Indeed 
most of the plants do not pass above this group. Such as 
do are cosmopolitan forms of wide vertical and horizontal 

Another noteworthy feature is that while the number of 
individuals of a species at a given locality is often very 
great, the number of species is small, and we find one or 
two plants forming the entire flora. The most abundant 
species found at the localities in W. Va. are the following : 

Lepidodendron Veltheimianum, Sternb. 

L Sternbergii, Brongt. 

IrixDhyllopteris Lescuriana, (Cyclopteris Lesc. of Meek.) 

T Virginiana, (C, . . . Virg. of Meek.) 

Archaeopteris (Cyclopteris, Daws. Noeggerathia, Lesq.) 
olitusa. Lesq. 

A Alleghanensis,(Cyclopteris All. of Meek.) 

A (Noeggerathia Bock. Lesq.) Bockschiana, 


A (Palaeopteris Hib. Schimp.) Hibernica. 


Besides these, we find commonly, several species of Lepi- 
dodendron allied to Veltheimianum ; several species of Ar- 
chaeopteris of the type of A. Jacksoni, (Cyclopteris Jack- 
soni. Daws.) ; one or more species of Triphyllopteris, all 
not described as yet. 


More rarely we find a Neuroi3teris allied to N. flexuosa, 
but, if not identical with it, a plant allied to Dawson's 
Cyclopteris valida ; Cardiopteris I'rondosa, Schimp. and 
other plants. 

The localities yielding the most abundant plants are Lewis 
Tunnel near the White Sulphur Springs ; the Dora Coal 
Field in Augusta Co. Va. ; and the coal beds of Montgom- 
ery Co. Va. These are points whose extreme distance apart 
is more than 100 miles. The Lewis Tunnel locality yields 
the greatest variety of plants. 

The plants which especially characterize the group are 
the Lepidodendra, the Archaeopterids, and the Triphyllop- 

The Triphyllopterids form two types. The first has the 
lobes less deeply cut, but broad and obtuse, like Meek's 
Cyclopteris Virginiana, or Dawson's CycloiDteris valida. 
The second type, has narrow, deep, and pointed lobes, like 
Meek' s Cyclopteris Lescuriana. There are probably several 
new species of each kind ; but in the case of these plants, 
and of the Archaeopterids, the transition from one form to 
another is so gradual that a large amount of material is 
needed to establish new species. 

The Archaeopterids also show two types. That which 
is most abundant in species and individuals has narrow and 
small pinnules, like Dawson's Cyclopteris Jacksoni. The 
second type has broader and more flabellate leaflets, like 
the Noeggerathia obtusa of Lesquereux. 

There is ax^parently a transition, on the one hand througli 
the type of Archaeopteris Jacksoni into the Triphyllop- 
terid form, with broad obtuse lobes, and on the other hand 
through the type of Archaeopteris obtusa into the form of 

Indeed all these plants, as well as the broad leaved Sphe- 
nopterids of the lower coals, such as Sphenopteris macilenta, 
have the facies of Archaeopteris. 

Besides these positive features, there is a negative one, 
which, of course, so long as the collections are :ipeagre, can- 
not possess much weight. 

No Pecopterids, Sphenopterids, Neuropterids (with one 


exception,) and no Sigillariae, not to mentionmore recent 
forms, have as yet been found, and this deficiency adds much 
to the antique aspect of the flora. 

From Pennsylvania Mr. Ashburner gives, on the authority 
of Prof. Leo Lesquereux, the following species in his " Meas- 
ured Section of the Paleozoic Formations :" 

Sphenopteris flaccida. 

Ulodendron majus. L. &H. 

Stigmatocanna Wolkmanniana. 

Knorria acicularis. Goepp. 

Stigmaria niinuta. Goepp. 

Lepidodendron. Spec ? 

The U'indral, or Lower Carboniferous Limestone. 

The only fossils found in this limestone are invertebrate, 
and they show that it corresponds in age with the Lower 
Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone. In West Virginia 
it is a well defined and thick mass ; but in Pennsylvania the 
limestone thins out almost entirely, while the red shales 
and sandstones, which in W. Virginia, mainly overlie it, be- 
come greatly developed. The same condition of things ap- 
pears to exist to the southeast, in Montgomery Co. Va. 
This passage of the limestone into the shales and sand- 
stones of the Umbral causes a difficulty in the grouj)ing of 
the Umbral and the Limestone, and has led some geolo- 
gists to place both in one group. On the other hand, to 
the west and southwest the shales and sandstones disap- 
pear, and leave the limestone with increased thickness. As 
showing the variations in thickness of this rock we give 
the following measurements : 

Near the White Sulphur Springs in Pocahontas Co. 
Prof, Wm. B. Rogers determined its thickness to be 822 
,feet. Towards the north it thins rapidly, for near West- 
' ernport Prof, Rogers found it only 80 feet thick. On 
Cheat River, in Monongalia Co, it is about 100 feet thick, 
and 25 miles farther north, in Fayette Co, Pa. it is ac- 
cording to Stevenson only 40 feet thick. In Huntingdon 
Co. Pa. Mr. Ashburjier finds it to be 49 feet thick, ^ 

[*See foot note to page 5 above ; and Report of Progress Second Geol. Sur. 
Peona. F, 1878, page 195.— J. P. L.] 


This group, so far as known, contains in W. Va, no 
fossil plants. The subsidence ca.using the deposition of 
this limestone, and the accompanying destruction of plant 
life no doubt had an important influence in bringing about 
the change which we find to have taken place in the flora 
of the Conglomerate Series, which is the next plant-bear- 
ing horizon above the Vespertine. 

The Umbral Shale Group. 

This group, in West Virginia, consists of shales and 
sandstones of various hues and textures, and, where fully 
developed, like the Vespertine group, possesses a trip- 
pie character. The lower member consists of red, poorly 
laminated shales or marlites, and red or brown, argil- 
laceous sandstones. The shales are remarkable for their 
deep blood-red color and crumbling, friable texture. The 
middle portion is mainly composed of pretty siliceous sand- 
stones, of a grey or white color ; grey flags ; and grey or 
greenish marlites. The upper member is, like the lower, 
composed of deep red shales and sandstones. On New 
River, in the vicinity of Richmond Falls, the group appears 
in great force. Here it is nearly 1500 feet thick. It shows 
at this locality the triple division in a marked manner. 
This group also is a shore formation, and reaches its great- 
est development in the east, thinning out entirely as we pass 
to the west. Like the Vespertine, it shows great variations 
in thickness, even along the eastern border, and follows 
nearly the same law of change. 

The following measurements will indicate the variations 
in different quarters : 

Prof. Wm. B. Rogers finds it in Pocohontas Co. near 
the White Sulphur to be about 1310 feet thick, while on 
the Potomac River near Westernport, Md. he finds it to 
be 738 feet thick. 

In Huntingdon Co. Pa. Mr. Ashburner finds 1100 feet of 
Umbral Rocks, including 49 feet of Umbral or Lower Car- 
boniferous Limestone, in several layers, f On Cheat River 
in Monongalia Co. the interval between the Lower Carbon- 

[f And iifcluding also, in his 1100 feet, 141 feet of reddisli and green Umbral 
shales below the Limestone. — J. P. L.] 


iferous Limestone and the Conglomerate Group is occu- 
pied by sandy shales 170 feet thick. These are of a grey 
color, and contain no red material, except one or two feet 
of red crumbling marlite immediately in contact with the 

No plants have been found in the Umbral in W. Va. 
and no important coal beds are known to exist in it. In 
the western part of Greenbrier Co. and near Quinnimont 
in Fayette Co. W. Va. one, and perhaps several coal beds 
exist near the top of the group. This portion of the State 
is but little explored, and may yield plants. 

The Conglomerate Ch'oup. 

. This group also, where fully developed in West Virginia, 
forms a triple series. 

The typical arrangement is as follows : At the base we 
find a massive conglomerate, often of brownish grey color. 
In the center, shales and flaggy sandstones, containing coal 
beds, alternate with massive siliceous sandstones. At the 
top we have a heavy bedded white siliceous sandstone, 
with many conglomerate layers. 

The upper bed is the most persistent of the series, and 
forms the floor of Coal Measures of West Virginia. 

The Conglomerate, like the groups above described, varies 
much in thickness and composition. This is especially true 
of the middle and lower members. The middle, or coal- 
bearing member, often thins out so as to bring the upper 
and lower members close to each other, and then, the coal 
is almost, or quite, cut out. The lower member is often 
wanting, as in East Tennessee, and possibly in Alabama. 

The character of the strata, and of the coal beds, indi- 
cates rather rapid subsidence, and frequent sudden changes 
' in the conditions of deposition. As a consequence we find 
the coal beds varying rapidly in thickness, even when 
workable, but usually too thin to be of much' value. The 
variable character of the beds underlying the upper mem- 
ber causes them to contrast strongly with the more uni- 
form strata found above it, which constitute that portion 
of the Carboniferous Formation commonly called "The 
Productive Coal Measures." 


The following measurements will indicate the character 
of the group at different points : 

At Quinnimont, on New River, in Fayette county, West 
Virginia, it perhaps attains its maximum development. 
Here, at the base, we find a conglomerate, 80 feet thick ; 
in the middle, a great series of shales and sandstones, with 
nine coal beds. This middle member is about 950 feet 
thick, and is overlaid by a massive sandstone, largely con- 
glomeratic, 150 to 200 feet thick. The coals are mostly 
thin and variable. Only one bed is known to be workable 
over an extended area. 

The same group continues south into East Tennessee, and 
probably into Alabama. 

Farther north, in Randolph county, West Virginia, Dr. 
Stevenson finds it 600 feet thick, with at least one coal bed, 
near the central portion. 

At the northern line of the State, on Cheat River, in 
Monongalia county, the group is 325 feet thick. The top 
is a massive sandstone, highly conglomeratic, 175 feet 
thick. Under this, at some localities, a small coal bed, 
with some associated shales is found, and at these places 
the entire interval between the coal and the base is occu- 
pied by sandstone, similar to that lying above. The coal 
is not persistent, for at other localities it is wanting, and 
the entire group is composed of massive conglomeratic 

Flora of the Conglomerate Group. 

At numerous points where the shales associated with the 
coal beds are exposed, we find many well preserved plants, 
and the sandstones yield great numbers of nut-like fruits. 
On New River, at Quinnimont, and at Sewell station, we 
find the following plants : 

Alethopteris Heiense, Lesqx. ; Pecopteris nervosa, Brt. 

A lonchitica, Brt. Var. ! P muricata, Brt. 

A grandifolia, Newb. 

Sphenopteris Hceninghausi, Brt. 

S obtusiloba, Brt. 

S niacilenta, L. & H. 

S adiantoides, L & H. 

Lepidodendron selaginoides, Stern b 
Oalamites cannseformis, Schloth. 

Neuropteris Sniithiana, Lesqx. 

N. tenuifolia, Brt. 

Megalopteris Hartii, Andr. 
M. ... Sewellensis, Font. 
Odontopteris neuropteroides, Newb. 
O. . . . graoillima, Newb. 
Asterophyllites aeicularis, Daws. 


Besides the above named, we find a small Archseopteris, 
very near to Dawson's Cyclopteris Jacksoni ; a Cordaites, 
allied to C. Robbii, Daws ; and fragments of what mnst 
have been a very large leaf resembling a Tgeniopteris. The 
midrib of this is broad, and from it, closely placed, parallel 
nerves pass at right angles. The facies of this plant re- 
sembles closely Tfeniopteris Smithii, Lesqx. from the 
low^er coal beds of Alabama, and also the genus Orthogon- 
iopteris, of Andrews, founded on plants occurring in the 
lower coal strata of Ohio. The above list does not assume 
to be exhaustive of the plants found on New River, in the 
Conglomerate. It may be. stated here, as Megalopteris 
Seioellensis has never been figured, that it is a plant near 
Neuropteris (Megalopteris) Dawsoni, as given by Dawson, 
but the leaflets are smaller, thicker, and not so acuminate 
as in this plant. 

Alethopteris Helense, Neuropteris Smithiana, and Tseni- 
opteris Smithii, are figured and described in Prof. Lesque- 
reux's Report P on the " Coal Flora of Pennsylvania, &c." 

In Western Pennsylvania the most abundant plants of 
this group are : 

Alethopteris lonchitica, Brt. 

A grandifolia, Newb. 

Neuropteris flexuosa, Brt, 

Besides these, numerous species of Lepidodendron, Sigil- 
laria and Cordaites nre found, with a great number of fruits 
belonging to the Genera Trigonocarpus, Cardiocarpus, and 

Professor Leo Lesquereux has given in '"The Report of 
Progress of the Geological Survey of Alabama," for 1875, a 
list of plants sent to him from the coal field of Alabama, by 
Dr. Smith, the chief of the Survey of that State. In this 
there are many plants identical with those found in the 
Conglomerate on New River, and some which occur only at 
these two localities. Sphenopteris Hseninghausi, Brt., 
Neuropteris Smithiana, Lesqx., and Alethopteris Helense, 
Lesqx. are plants common to the two localities, and not 
found elsewhere in the Appalachian Coal Field. Pecop- 

Pecoptoris nervosa, Brt. 
Splienopteris macilenta, L. & H. 


teris muricata, Brt. and P. nervosa, Brt. are abundant in 
the Conglomerate on New River, as well as in Alabama. 
Besides these, we find as common to both localities Sphen- 
opteris obtusiloba, Brt., Alethopteris lonchitica, Brt., and 

It may not be possible to establish by stratigraphy the 
existence of the Conglomerate Group in Alabama, but the 
identity of many of the plants, and the close resemblance 
of the facies of the flora found on New River and in Ala- 
bama point strongly to the Conglomerate age of at least 
the lower portion of the Alabama Coals. 

If Mr. Richard P. Rothwell is correct in his report on 
"Alabama Coal and Iron," quoted by Dr. Smith in the 
above mentioned Report of Progress, the stratigraphy also 
indicates the existence of the Conglomerate Gfroup, for he 
mentions two groups separated by a Conglomerate, and 
states that the lower one contains 8 coal beds. 

One of us has had recently an opportunity to examine 
a collection of plants made from the lower coals of East 
Tennessee, and he found the species identical with those 
existing in the Conglomerate on New River. We may then 
conclude that a portion of the coal beds of this State are 
also of Conglomerate age. 

There is a remarkable resemblance between the Conglom- 
erate flora as determined in West Virginia, and that of the 
lower coals of Ohio, up to coal No. 4, as given by Dr. New- 
berry and Prof. Andrews. With few exceptions the plants 
are identical, and the general facies of both floras differs 
from that of the Productive Coal Measures. The finding 
of plants in the Conglomerate of W. Va. similar to those 
of Prof. Andrews, such as Archoeopteris and Megalop teris, 
along with many of the species occurring with Coal No. 1 of 
Ohio, seems to indicate no great difference in the age of the 
three fioras. Dr. Newberry states that in Ohio the fiora of 
Coal No. 1 is characteristic, that it changes with Coal No. 
4, and that above the latter no divisions can be made in the 

Prof. Lesquereux gives Whittleseya elegans as found in 
Alabama, and as it occurs nowhere else, except in the fiora 


of Coal No. 1 of Ohio, it is a very significant bond of union 
between this bed and the Alabama Coals. 

Taken as a whole, the flora of the conglomerate group 
has a well characterized facies which distinguishes it from 
that of the Vespertine below, and from that of the Pro- 
ductive Coal Measures above. It retains some of the Ves- 
pertine types, in the Archaeopterids, and possibly the Me- 
galoiDterids, (though the latter have not as yet been found 
in the Ves^Dertine of W. Va., but in Canada are Devoni- 
an.) It possesses a large number of plants peculiar to it- 
self, or not found above it. Among these we may mention 
the large coarse Alethopterids, A. grandifolia and several 
varieties of the A. lonchitica, along with the typical form ; 
the peculiar Odontopteris neurojDteroides ; Neuropteris 
Smitliiana, and many others. Again it possesses a consid- 
erable quota of plants which, with specific changes, pass 
up into the Productive Coals. 

Alethopteris lonchitica, and its varieties, is a plant highly 
characteristic of the group. The Pecopterids are few, and 
in the case of the P. muricata, and P. nervosa, which are 
perhaps the most abundant, show composite types, includ- 
ing the features of the true Pecopterids, with those of the 
Neuropterids, and Sphenopterids. These not fully differ- 
entiated forms find their analogues in the composite type 
shown in a gronp of Sphenopterids, which is especially 
characteristic of the Conglomerate flora. This group, in- 
cluding Sphenojpteris macilenta, L. & H. ; S. obtusiloba, 
Brt. ; S. latifolia, Brt., and others, retains the facies of the 
obtusely lobed Triph3^ilopterids, in conjunction with fea- 
tures marking the true Sphenopterids, and Pecopterids. 

The Productive Qoal Measures. 

This as a whole, is distinguished from the Conglomerate 
group, by the greater uniformity of the conditions under 
which the various strata and Coal beds, were formed. As 
stated in another connection, this group is naturally divided 
into sub-groups, each of which requires a separate descrip- 
tion. We will commence with the lowest of these : 


Tlie Lower Productive Coal Measures. 

This series of strata is limited below by the upper mem- 
ber of the Conglomerate, and above by the Mahoning 
Sandstone. This latter, is nsually a thick sandstone, often 
conglomeratic, and forms a natural base to the next series 
above, viz : The Lower Barren Measures. 

The Lower Productive Coal Measures, like the group last 
described, attains its maximum thickness in the southern 
part of the State, and thins greatly in passing north. It 
has its greatest development along the Great Kanawha 
River, in Kanawha, and the adjoining counties, where it is 
not less than 1200 feet thick. The details of the geology 
of this portion of the State, are not known. No minute 
examinations in the interests of pure science, have ever 
been made here. The investigations which are made, are 
usually in behalf of land-owners, or purchasers, and have 
for their object the determination of the number, character, 
thickness, &c., of the coal, and iron- ore beds. Enough how- 
ever is known of tlie stratigraphy, to show that the 1200 
feet of rocks are almost entirely devoid of limestone, but 
are composed of thick strata of shale, and sandstone, hold- 
ing numerous, valuable beds of coal. 

Mr. M. F. Maury, M. E., has made a section of the Lower 
Productive Measures, on Paint Creek, Kanawha Co. at a 
point where the base of the series is not shown. Yet in 
this section, 974 feet of strata are shown, holding 14 coal 
beds, whose united thickness is 51 feet 10 inches, besides 
7 beds, whose out-crop only, was seen. 

The flora of this portion of the Productive Measures, is 
entirely unknown. From the accounts given by amateur 
collectors, it would seem to be abundant and varied. 

In the northern portion of the State, both the strati- 
graphy, and the character of the flora, are better known, 
though our knowledge of the latter, is still imperfect. 
Here the entire thickness of the series is barely 250 feet. 
We find more limestone, with fewer and thinner beds of 
coal. There are only 4 important coals, aggregating about 


15 feet ill thickness, and of these only two ai-e workable 
over large areas.* 

Flora of The Lower Productwe Measures. 

No special search has been made for plants in this portion 
of the Coal Strata in West Virginia, and no doubt the list 
given below might be largely increased by further investi- 
gations. Two horizons have yielded most of the plants. 
Tlie lowest is that of the Kittanning Coal Seam near the 
base of the Series, and the highest is that of the Upper 
Freeport Coal Seam near the top. 

From the Kittannino- Coal we have : 

Lepidostrobus ornatus. L. & H. 
Lepidopbyllum. Spec? 

Neuropteris heterophylla. Brt. 

N Clarksoni Lesq. 

Lepidodendron Sternbergii. Brt. 

From the Upper Freeport we have : 

Meuropteris acutifolia. Brt. I Pecopteris arborescens. Schloth. 

OdontoiJteris subcuneata. Bunb. I Asterophyllites rigidus. Brt. 

At both horizons the following pkints occur : 

Pecopteris villosa, Brt. 
Sphenopbyllum Schlotheimii. Brt. 

Neuropteris flexuosa. Brt. 

N liirsuta. Lesqx. 

N rarinorvis. Bunb. 

But in Western Pennsylvania Mr. I. F. Mansheld has 
made a large collection of plants for the Second Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania from the Darlington bed, which 
next overlies the Kittanning bed ; and Prof. Lesquereux, 
the fossil botanist of the Survey, has determined from this 
material the following species, published in Report of Pro- 
gress Q, White, 187S, p. 55. 

[* Considering the known thickness of tlie Lower Productive Coal Meas- 
ures, " barely 250 feet " in the northern counties of West Virginia, — consider- 
ing that this thickness is wonderfully well preserved in Penns^-lvania for a 
hundred miles north north-west into the Beaver Valley country, and for more 
than 150 miles nortla north-east nearlj; to the New York State line, — and con- 
sidering the absence of reliable data for identification in Middle and Soutliern 
■ West Virginia, acknowledged in the text, — one cannot be too cautious in 
generalizing respecting so extraordinary a thickening of tlie series in that di- 
rection. My own surveys on Sandy waters in East Kentucky in 18G4, led 
me to quite the opposite view; for the normal thickness is maintained in that 
region, if the Hill Sand Rock of Tug Fork be the Mahoning. It will need 
much "minute examination in the interests of pure science" between the 
Cheat and the Kanawha before the Mahoning Sandstone can be rightly placed 
on the latter river; and until that be done it is unsafe to dogmatize about the 
thickening of the Lower and thinning of the Upper Coal Measures in that 
direction. — J. P. L.J 


PP. 17 

Fossil Plants from the Horizon of the Kittannlng Coal. 


Asterophylliles : 

Calamites : 

Sphenophyllum : 
longi folium, 

Annularia : 

Equisitites : 

Calamostachys : 


Cyclopteris : 

Neuroptci'is : 
vermicular is. 
plica ta. 

Odontopteris : 

Dictyoptcris : 

Callipteridium : 


2 PP. 

Alethopteris : 

Pecopteris : 

Sphenopieris : 

Hy')nenop>hyllites: : 

Spiropteris : 

Stemmatopteris : 

Mansfieldi. • 

Caulopteris : 

Lepidodendro7i : 

mod ulatum. 

Lepidojyhylhim : 

Lepidostrobus : 


Lepidophloios : 

Sigillaria : 

Syringodendron : 

Sligmaria : 

Oordaites : 

Dicranophyllum : 

Cordianthus : 
fl. masculina (1 Species.) 
fl. femiaa (Antholithes) 2 Species. 

Artisia : 


Carpolithes : 

Rkabdocarpus : 

Trigonocarpus : 

Cardiocarpus : 


Pinnularia : 

Rhizomorpha : 


Since the publication of the abo^e list, Prof. Lesquereux 
has published in the "Proceedings of the American Philo- 
sophical Society," a paper on Cordaites, in which he gives 
the following additional species : 

Cordaites : 








Cordianthus : 

Corduistrobus : 

Grand Euryi. 

Dicranophyllum : 

Taeniophyllum : 



Desmiophylluin : 

Lepidoxylon : 


The above lists give the plants found at one locality only, 
and though this occurs in Pennsylvania, the plants may 


be considered as representing also the flora of the Lower 
Productive Measures of West Virginia. Of course, with 
more extended and careful search, we may expect to find 
many additional species. The lists are especially valuable, 
as showing the change which has taken place in the group- 
ing of the plants since the Conglomerate period. 

Tlie Lower Barren Measures. 

This series takes its name from the comparatively small 
amount of workable coal which it contains. It has for its 
base the Mahoning Sandstone, and extends up to the Pitts- 
burg Coal bed. Its thickness, in the southern part of the 
State, is not known, but is perhaps about 700 feet. It is 
the last of the groups which have their maximum thickness 
in the South. In the northern portion of the State, its 
thickness ranges from 550 to 600 feet. 

Its physical character is pretty uniform. The base is 
composed of a sandstone, (the Mahoning, ) which is usually 
thick and coarse, and quite often conglomeratic. From 
near the base to the middle portion we find some thin 
marine limestones. One of them, the highest persistent 
limestone showing marine fossils, is noteworthy as being 
the last stratum which gives evidence of the extensive 
prevalence of marine conditions, and for its great extent 
and uniform character. Though hardly ever more than 
two feet thick, it extends over an area in W. Virginia of 
more than 30,000 square miles, showing everywhere the 
same lithological character, and containing the same fossils. 

This stratum, the " Crinoidal Limestone," of the Ohio and 
Pennsylvania survej^s, is of great importance, as a geologi- 
cal horizon, since it furnishes an easily recognized initial 

Up to this horizon, the incursions of the sea were not un- 
common, as is shown by the marine fossils of the limestones 
of the underlying groups. Limestones are not uncommon 
in the succeeding measures above, but they are usually im- 
pure, and of fresh water origin. There must then, at this 
point, have been an important change in the physical 
geography of the coal field. 


Associated with this limestone, and passing higher in 
the series, we find incoherent shales, of a brilliant red, or 
mottled color. These alternate with grey sandstones and 
shales, and are covered at the top of the series by impure 
fi^esh water limestones. 

Flora of the Lower Barren Measures. 

There are but few horizons in these measures which afford 
plants, and but little examination of these has been made. 
The most promising, is that about 20 feet below the Pitts- 
burg coal. This horizon, in the vicinity of Wheeling, West 
Virginia, has yielded the following plants : 

Ncurcptcris : 

Jiirsuta, Lesqx. 

rarinervis, Cunb. 

acuti folia, Brongt. 

flexuosa, Brongt. 

Loschii, Brongt. 

Grangeri, Brongt. 
Sphcnojjteris : 

furcata, Brongt. 

miuuti-secta, Sp. uov. 
Pecoptcris : 

Pluckeneti, Brongt. 

Bucklandi, Brongt. 

(Alethopteris, Lesqx.,) siDinulosa. 

CandoUeana, Brongt. 

notata, Lesqx. 

dentata, (plumosa form,) Brongt. 

pteroides, Brongt. 

aquilina, Brongt. 

Sp. nov. allied toA.Gigas of Gei- 

Lescuropteris : 

Moorii. (Lesq.); (Sch.) 

Sp. nov. allied to obtusiloba of 
Aiimilaria : 

longifolia, Brongt. 

S23henophylloides, Ung. 
Cordaites : 

borassifolius, Ung. 
Sphenojihyllum : 

filiculnie, Lesqx. 

trifoliatum, Lesqx. 
Aster ojyhylites : 

Sp.? near equisetiformis. 
Hhacojyhyllum : 

filiciforme, Schinip. 
Calamites : 

cannseformis, Schloth. 
Syringodendron : 

pes-capreoii, Gein. 

The above list is the result of but slight effort at collect- 
ing from this j)lant- bearing horizon, and could be largely 
increased by further search. 

A sj)ecimen of Neuropteris hirsuta from this locality, 
shows six pinnules arranged as they would stand when at- 
tached to a common rachis, which unfortunately has been 
broken off from the stone. The locality is remarkable for 
the number of fruiting sj)ecimens of Pecopterids. Several 
fruiting leaflets of even Neuropteris hirsuta are found. 


Many fine fruiting specimens of Aletliopteris aquilina 
occur. There are numerous s]3ecimens of Pecopteris Can- 
dolleana, which differ somewhat from the forms found in 
the Waynesburg Coal at West Union, and which will be 
described further on. The plant at the horizon now in 
question has thinner leaflets, on which the nerves are very 
distinctly shown, while the West Union plant has very 
obscure nerves, and a very thick leaf-substance, as well as 
longer and more deciduous pinnae. The remarkable jplant, 
Lescuropteris Moorii, hitherto found only at a higher hori- 
zon, in the Upper Productive Measures, is found in detached 
pinnae here. 

The Upper Productive Coal Measures. 

This is the only one of the sub-divisions of the Carbon- 
iferous Formation which has not a great sandstone every- 
where at its base. But even in this case, we often find a 
tendency in the rocks of the Lower Barren Measures to pass 
into sandstone, within a short distance below the Pittsburg 
Coal bed. 

The Upper Productive Coal Measures begin with the great 
Pittsburg Coal Bed, and end with the Waynesburg Coal. 
In the northern part of the State, the average thickness is 
about 350 feet. The series thus begins and ends with an 
important coal bed. The Pittsburg Coal, which forms the 
base, is the most widely extended and important coal bed 
in the Appalachian Coal Fields. It covers an area of more 
than 20, 000 square miles in W. Virginia. Its greatest thick- 
ness is towards the east, where it is often from 10 to 14 
feet thick, as is shown in Mineral Co. W. Va. and in the 
Cumberland Coal basin of Maryland. The least thickness 
is found in the southern part of the State, where, towards 
the southern line of its outcrop, it thins down to 3 or 3^ 
feet of coal. 

But little is known of the character of the Upper Produc- 
tive Coal Measures in the southern part of the State, but it 
seems evident that they are less developed there than in 
the northern portion, both in thickness, and in the number 
of the coal beds which they contain. In the south, we find 


but two beds in the series. The most important of these is 
the Pittsburg, which, in some places, attains a maximum 
thickness of 6 feet. The other coal lies above, at an un- 
known distance. Its thickness is not known, as it seems to 
be too unimportant to have attracted any attention. The 
comparatively small development of this series, in the 
south, is but a continuation of that change in the conditions 
controlling the dejDosition of the strata, which we find com- 
menced in the underlying Lower Barren Measures, and 
which we will find intensified in the succeeding Upj)er Bar- 
ren Measures. This change consists in the reversal of the 
comparative thickness of the groups in the northern and 
southern portions of the State, and in the production of a 
greater development to the northwards. 

In the north, we find two coal beds, sejDarated by small 
intervals from the Pittsburg. The lowest of these is the 
Redstone, which occurs 25 to 40 feet above it, and the other 
is the Sewickley, which is found 80 to 100 feet above. A 
third coal, not so persistent in W. Va. as the two last named, 
is found from 90 to 100 feet below the top of the series. 
This is the Uniontown Coal, a seam which attains its max- 
imum development in the adjoining portions of Pennsyl- 

The strata composing the Upper Productive Measures in 
the northern portion of W. Virginia are limestones, often 
quite impure, grey shales, and argillaceous thinly bedded 
sandstones. The entire mass indicates the deposition of 
sediment in pretty deep water, during a widespread sub- 
mergence which removed the shore lines to a considerable 
distance. Indeed the prevalence of fine sediment which 
marked the subsidence following the formation of the 
Mahoning Sandstone in the Lower Barren Measures, holds 
throughout the entire interval up to the AVaynesburg Sand- 
stone, and seems not to have been affected by the elevation 
of the surface which gave rise to the formation of the Pitts- 
burg Coal. The great amount of limestone found in the 
interval between the Pittsburg Coal and the Waynesburg 
indicates a very considerable subsidence of the Appalachian 
Region where such a mass of limestone is found. This 


subsidence is of importance in furnishing a cause for the 
great difference shown in the flora of the Pittsburg and 
Waynesburg Coals. In order to bring out more distinctly 
this feature we give three graphic sections of the Upper Pro- 
ductive Measures, as found at three points, which may be 
taken as fairly representative of the whole.* 

It must be noted that these limestones show no marine fos- 
sils, and none of the shells so abundant in the limestones 
up to the middle of the Lower Barren Measures are found 
in them. The only organic remains which they contain are 
a few minute bivalve crustaceans. They vary a good deal 
in composition, but are usually impure. They are most 
probably of fresh-water origin, A portion of themi may 
have been formed in brackish water. These features all in- 
dicate that an important change in the physical features of 
the country took place towards the close of the period in 
which the Lower Barrens were formed. 

We see from the sections, that in Monongalia Co. W. 
Va. we get between the Pittsburg and Waynesburg Coals 
88 feet of limestone ; at Wheeling, W. Ya., not including 
the intercalated shales, 150 feet ; and in Greene Co., Penn., 
119 feet. 

According to the geologist's method of reckoning time 
the formation of so much limestone, and of such a mass of 
fine shales, requires a long period, and this, combined with 
the amount of subsidence which must have occurred over 
wide areas, would fully explain that change in the facies of 
the flora which we find exhibited in the plants of the 
Waynesburg Coal bed. This change will be better under- 
stood after an examination of the fossils found associated 
with that coal seam. 

The following section of the Waynesburg coal bed is 
given to show the mode of occurrence of the plants. The 
bed is one of the most important and persistent of the 
Upper Coal beds, covering as it does an area in West 
Virginia and Pennsylvania of at least 15,000 square miles. 
Where best developed it contains fully 8 feet of coal, and 

* See Sections and Figs. 1, 2, 3, at the end of this chapter. 


over large areas it is 5 or 6 feet thick, exclusive of part- 

Section of the Waynesbicrg Coal at Cassville, Monongalia Co., W. Va. 

1. Roof shales, with niany plants, 1 tol2 feet. 

2. Coal, 12 inches. 

3. Clay parting, with many jjlants, 6 " 

4. Coal, 18 " 

5. Shale of very variable thicliness, 6 in. to 6 feet. 

6. Coal, main layer, 4| feet. 

7. Floor. 

The Up'per Barren Measures. 

These measures commence with the Waynesburg Sand- 
stone (a rock which overlies the Waynesburg Coal bed) and 
extends to the highest beds of the Carboniferous Forma- 
tion. The existence of the Waynesburg Coal, and its ac- 
companying sandstone, is not known in the Southern part 
of W. Virginia. Hence the dividing plane between the two 
measures is not made out in that quarter. jS'othing is 
known of the character and thickness of the Upi^er Bar- 
ren Measures in that direction. Only their existence is 
known, and the fact that they are much less developed 
than in the north. Every indication from the few facts 
known about this, and the series immediately underlying 
it, points to the fact, that after the period of formation of 
the Lower Barrens the area of great subsidence and abund- 
ant sedimentation was shifted from the southern i)ortion 
of the State to the northern. 

The series along the northern line of the State, is much 
better known, both in its stratigraphy^, and its flora. Of 
the plants of this and the preceding series in the south 
we know absolutely nothing. 

As these beds, to the tojD of the geological column, con- 
tain no fossils of consequence excejit plants, and as very 
few of these have hitherto been collected and studied, the 
entire mass of rocks, up to the highest exposures in the Ap- 
palachian Coal Fields, has been assumed to be of Carbonif- 
erous age rather from the lack of evidence to show the 
presence of any other formation, than from any positive 
proof that carboniferous strata do really extend to the sum- 
mit of the column. 


Whether any of .these strata should be placed in a more 
recent series as, " Permo-Carboniferous," or "Permian," 
may be better determined after a review of the evidence af- 
forded by the plant-life. 

It is only necessary here to refer to the general section of 
the strata made in passing from the western part of Monon- 
galia Co. where the highest strata occur, to the east where 
the Waynesburg Coal appears at Cassville.^ 

This section does not give the entire thickness of the Up- 
per Barren Measures in W. Ya., since in Wetzell and Mar- 
shall counties the column of rocks extends from 200 to 300 
feet higher. We have had no opportunity to examine and 
measure these beds. 

The upper 300 feet of the section given are never fully 
exposed, so that not much can be said about the strata oc- 
cupying this space. A very massive sandstone is often 
found near the top, and probably one or two small lime- 
stones occur near the center, as they appear at this horizon 
in the adjoining portions of Pennsylvania. 

In naming and numbering the different beds of lime- 
stone, coal, &c., found in this series, we have followed the 
nomenclature of Dr. John J. Stevenson in his Report of 
Progress, K, on Greene and Washington Counties in Penn- 
sylvania, 1876. 

No. 3 of the section was by him called Limestone X. It 
is one of the most persistent members of the series, as we 
have traced it over a wide area in Monongalia, Wetzel, and 
Marshall counties, always finding it at the proper horizon. 

None of the coals of this series ever attain workable di- 
mensions except No. 20, or the Washington Coal. The 
other coal beds are 1 to 1|- feet thick, and are never mined 
except by "stripping" at points where they lie near the 

The upper half of the series is quite variable in thQ char- 
acter of its strata. In some places, we find it containing 
a great deal of massive sandstone, with drab, argillaceous 
beds, mainly incoherent shales. At other points, we find 
on the same horizon, several hundred feet of red shales, 

*See Section and Fig. 4 at the end of this chapter. 


often mottled with green, buff, or yellow spots, and streaks. 
Towards tlie south, the red and variegated shales increase 
in thickness, and descend lower in the series, sometimes 
even nearly to the horizon of the Waynesburg Coal. The 
red shales are quite conspicuous in Marshall Co., and in 
the 600 feet of strata shown at Bellton we find about 400 
feet of red shales, not in a single bed, but in several beds, 
from 40 to 60 feet thick, alternating with brown sandstones 
or drab-colored shales. 

The Waynesburg Sandstone, the rock which forms the 
base of the series, is an imj)ortant stratum, since its phys- 
ical character denotes plainly a great change in the condi- 
tions which had prevailed for a long period previous to the 
time of its formation. As has been previously stated, these 
conditions were quiet subsidence, and deposition of fine 
shales, with much limestone. But in the sandstone now de- 
scribed, we find many evidences of strong currents, which 
tore up the previously formed coal, and brought in a vast 
amount of coarse material. The approach of this unquiet 
condition of things is indicated in the structure of the 
Waynesburg Coal itself. 

The Waynesburg Coal bed usually contains a parting of 
blue shale, near the middle, which shows extraordinary 
fluctuations in thickness. It sometimes disappears entire- 
ly, but rarely falls below 4 inches in thickness. The most 
common mode of occurrence is with fluctuations from a 
few inches up to several feet. It is not uncommon to find 
in a few yards distance, a sudden thickening from 5 or 6 
inches up to six feet, and even more. The peculiarity of 
this shale is made more striking by the fact, that it pos- 
sesses this character over an area of many thousand square 
miles ; and while the changes are thus sudden the material 
is always of fine texture. It is to be observed that the 
plants yielded by this coal bed are found in the roof-shales, 
some distance above this variable parting. 

The Waynesburg Sandstone, well characterized, forms a 
marked feature in the geology of the district where it oc- 
curs. Its usual thickness is from 50 to 75 feet, and its ordi- 
nary character that of a coarse conglomeratic rock, in which 


the pebbles are often so numerous and large as to cause it 
to rival the Great Conglomerate of the Coal Measures. The 
rock is sometimes a mass of pebbles from J of an inch to 
one inch in diameter. This sandstone often descends, and 
cuts out a portion, sometimes nearly all, of the underlying- 
coal. Immediately under it, come the roof shales of the 
Waynesburg Coal, which contain the plant impressions 
which form a considerable portion of those to be described 
in the following pages. 

The roof shales which yield the plants, are usually from 
5 to 10 feet thick, of a dark dove color, and quite fine 
grained. The plants are generally finely preserved. The 
physical character of these shales is remarkably uniform, 
and differs but little at widely separated localities, so that 
it alone is sufficient to decide the horizon of the specimen 
showing it, especially when containing some of the many 
plants which it affords. 

The most striking difference shown between the mode of 
occurrence of the plants in the roof shales of tiie Waynes- 
burg Coal and of those found at higher horizons^ is seen in 
the fact, that in the latter the species are few, while the 
number of individuals is very great, and these species ex- 
tend over the entire areas of the coal field. Thus we find 
a few plants forming the entire flora of localities, when 
from the immense number of individuals, and from the ex- 
cellent preservation of the material, we are led to expect to 
find a great variety. 

At the Waynesburg horizon, on the contrary, while the 
number of individuals of a species is great, we also find a 
larger number of species. Again, we find the plants dis- 
tributed in the most singular manner, they being grouped 
in colonies, which are confined within very narrow limits ; 
so that the plants which abound in one opening for coal, 
will be entirely wanting in another only a few hundred 
yards distant, where we find instead of them a collection 
of species so different, that it might well characterize a 
different horizon. The same rule holds good at the ex- 
posures of the bed in other places, but not in so marked a 
manner as at Cassville. 


We find also at this place plants which have not as yet 
been seen at any other locality. The shales which contain 
the plants, though varying much in thickness, are pretty 
evenly bedded, and of fine texture, showing no evidence of 
differences of level or of currents which could account for 
the peculiar distribution of the plants. The unquiet con- 
dition of things marked by the fluctuations of the shale 
parting inclosed in the coal-bed, seems to have been suc- 
ceeded by a period of quiet deiDosition of sediment, which 
was followed by an era of great disturbance, productive of 
the Waynesburg Sandstone. 


Sections to illustrate tlie Introductory CJiapter. 


Mg. 1. Upper Productive Coal Measures near Wlieelingl 

W. Va. 

Waynesburg Coal, 3' 6" 

Shales, 20' 

Limestones and shales, interstratified, 60' 

Shales, 45' 

Limestone, 60' 

Sandstone, 40' 

Sewickley Coal, 6" 

Sewickley Limestone, 35' 

Bedstone Coal, 8 ' 

Bedstone Limestone, 20' 

Pittsburgh Coal, , 8' 


' R" 

I^lg. 2. Upper Productive Coal Measures in Monongalia 

Co., W. Va. 

Waynesburg Coal, 7' 

Shales, 35' 

Lirrvestone, 8' 

Shales, 10' 

Limestone, 1' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 40' 

(Uniontown Coal,) black slate, 5' 

Limestone, 10' 

Sandstone, 35' 

Limestoyie, 6' 

Shales, 10' 

Sandstone, 40' 

Limestone, 20' 

Sandstone, 35' 

Sewickley Coal, 5' 

Shales, 11' 

( limestone, 10' 

Sewickley << shales, 12' 

[ limestone, .... 18' 

Shales, 15 

Bedstone Coal, 4' 

Bedstone limestone, 15' 

Slates and shales, 20' 

Pittsburgh Coal, 10' 



Fig. 3. Upper Productive Coal Measures, exposed near 
Mice' s landing in Greene county, Pennsylvania. 

Wayneshurg Coal, 5' 

Shales, 40' 

Litncstone, , 6' 

Sandstone and Shale, 45 

Uniontoivn Coal, 1' 6" 

Uniontoivn limestone, 6' 

Shale and sandstone, 38' 

Great Limestone, 82' 

Seiuickley Coal, 1' 9' 

Sandstone, 40' 

Limestone, 25' 

Shale, sandj^ 30' 

Redstone Coal, 1' 6" 

Pittsburgh Upper Sandstone, \ ooJ^ 

< massive, 30' 

Pittsburgh Coal, 8' 

374' 9" 


Fig. ^. Ujpper Barren Measures of Monongalia Count; 

W. Va. 

Sandstones, shales, and concealed rocks, 300' 

Sandstone, shaly, 50' 

Limestone No. X, of Report K., (Ste- 
venson,) 9 

Shales, red, argillaceous, sandy and con- 
cealed, 1~0' 

Washington TJpper Limestone, 12' 

Shales and Sandstones, 40' 

Jolleytown Coal, 1' 6' 

Shales, clays, and sandstones, ....... 87' 

Goal, 1' 

Sandstones and shales, 37' 

Washingtoii Middle Limestone, 1' 

Sandstones and shales, red, 70' 

Coaly shales, 3' 

Shales and sandstone, 42' 

Limestone, 2' 

Shales and sandstone, 35' 

Plant bearing coaly shales, 3' 

Washington Lower Limestone, 5' 

Black slate, •• 4' 

Washington Main Goal, 3' 

Sandstone, finely laminated, 18' 

Washington Little Coal, 1' 

Sandstone, massive, 18' 

Waynesburg Coal B, 1' 

Sandstone and shales, 30' 

Limestone, 8' 

Waynesburg Coal A, . 1' r>' 

Limcstoyie, 1' 

Shales, 5 

Waynesburg Conglomeratic Sandstone, 

massive, 75 

Plant bearing shale, 0' to 10' 







--- <g^ ^ J 


Equisetides, Schimper. 

Equisetides rugosus, Scliimp. PI. I, Fig. 6. 

In tlie roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, at West 
Union, W. Va., we find fragments of a i3lant which seems 
more nearly allied to this species than any other. 

The specimen best characterized is represented on PL I, 
Fig. 6. It differs from the figure given by Geinitz and 
Schimper, in not seeming to be so fleshy, since the frag- 
ment represented in our figure seems to have been leaf -like 
in nature. The base of the specimens seems to show that 
the fragment had been attached in a sheathing manner to a 

Equisetides elongatus, Sp. nov. PL I, Figs, 1-4. 

(Stem unknown, sheath comparatively very long, and 
wide, composed of cylindrical ribs, obtusely rounded at the 
end, and consolidated together ; ribs fleshy, and marked 
with a cord of nerves, apparently composed of several vas- 
cular fibres united together ; attachment apparently by the 
entire base, in a sheathing manner. Yer}^ deciduous.) 

Fig. 1 shows a very long and broad sheath, whose at- 
tachment was not seen. Figs. Sand 4 show the attachment, 
but do not extend up to the summit of the sheath. These 
sheaths must have been easily detached, since we looked 
carefully for the stems on which they might have been 
borne, but in a great number of specimens could only find 
the obscure attachments which we have figured. We find 
them in fragments, lying scattered through the shale. Some 
of these nre even longer than the one figured in Fig. 1. On 
3 PP. (33) 


one face of the ribs we see the nerve bundle distinctly 
marked, l)ut the opposite side leaves in the shales only a 
smooth furrow-like impression, without any sign of nerves. 
This singular plant might at first sight seem only the im- 
pression of the stem of a calamite, but its fragmentary 
character, and the fact that the entire leaf substance is well 
preserved, with all its carbon intact, and that in this no 
trace of anything can be seen but the agglutinated rod-like 
ribs, precludes the idea of its being anything like a Cala- 
mite. The ribs which compose the entire plant, seem in 
their original condition to have been cylindrical, but they 
now ai)j)ear flattened by pressure. Our plant resembles 
somewhat Goeppert's Bockschia flabellata, "Die Ton. 
Farnk." PL I, Figs. 1 and 2. 

It seems allied in some respects to Phyllotheca, Brongt. 
and may stand as a connecting link between that genus 
and Equisetldes. The sheaths seem to have been stripped 
oif from the stem which bore them, in laminae, for we often 
find at the base, near what must have been the insertion, a 
thinning down of the sheath to a mere film of epidermal 
matter, as if it had been torn away from the stem which it 
had embraced. 

Habitat — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, W. Va. 

Equisetldes striatus, Sp. no v. PI. I, Fig. 5. 

( Stem unknown, sheath seen only in long narrow strips, 
formed of several consolidated, strongly striated ribs, 
which terminate in long slender teeth.) 

The ribs show no central vascular cord, or mid-nerve, but 
are marked with very strong strijie, which resemble nerves. 
This species is found sparingly, and never attached. 

Habitat— Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, AV. Va. 

Calamite>!, Brongt. 
This genus, so abundant at the lower horizons of the Car- 
boniferous Formation, has almost disappeared at the higher 
levels. We find only one species, and that is very sparingly 


represented, only a few specimens being found in the entire 
mass of material at the localities which afford thousands of 
examples of other plants. Above the Waynesburg Coal we 
do not certainly find any Calamites. 

Calamites SucJcowii, Brongt. 

This species is found very sparingly at the horizon of the 
Waynesburg Coal, at Cassville and West Union. It does 
not differ from the typical form, except perhaps in the 
greater flatness of the ribs. 

Neinatophylliim, gen. nov. (vij/ia, thread, oXhr^^ leaf.) 

Stem covered with a thick, very finely striate epidermis ; 
internodes rather remote, swollen ; leaves verticillate, nu- 
merous, very long and thread-like, of equal width through- 
out, finely striate, without nerves, united at the base, in a 
narrow annular band. 

We have found it necessary to form a new genus to in- 
clude the plant figured on PI. II, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, since 
it cannot properly be placed under Aster ophyllUes, (Cala- 
mocladus, Schimp) lacking some of the essential features 
of that genus, especially the ridged stem and leaves with 
mid rib. This genus is defined by all the authors as con- 
taining leaves free to the base, and furnished with mid rib. 
Heer, in his Pfl. d., Steink. Per. d. Scliw. p. 50, decribes a 
plant under the name of Asterophyllites longifolius, which 
would certainly not seem to be an Asterophyllites, but 
agrees closely with our genus. Again, Heer in Plf. d. Trias 
u. Jura, p. 78, describes under the name of Schizoneura 
Meriani. another species, which is not known to possess 
the essential feature of Schizonura, viz : union of the leaves 
at some stage of growth. This plant has nearly all the fea- 
tures of our genus, and most probably should be included 
in it. 

Nematophyllum angustum^ Sp. nov. PI. II, Figs. 1-5. 

The specific character of this plant is that of the genus, 
with the addition that the number of leaves is from 10 to 20, 


their widtli 1^ to 2 mms. , their length over 10 cms. The stem 
of the plant is usually from 1 to 1^ cms. wide, and is rather 
fleshy than woody in texture. Examined with a strong lens, 
the epidermis, as well as the leaves, show striae which are 
quite distinct, and under the lens look like fine nerves. 
They are of the same kind in both, and the leaves contain 
usually from three to four. 

We have seen leaves over 10 cms. long, and even then 
the ends were not preserved. 

Habitat — Roof Shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville 
and West Union, W. Va. 

Sphenophyllum, Brongt. 

This genus is well represented at the horizon of the 
Waynesburg Coal, both in species and in the number of 
individuals. It becomes very rare above this coal bed, and 
like a great many other genera, seems to have been al- 
most extinguished during the formation of the conglom- 
eratic sandstone which overlies the Waynesburg Coal. 
We have met with specimens only from one locality at the 
higher levels, and these were very few in number. 

Sphenopliylhmi latlfolium Sp. nov. PI. I. Figs. 10 and 11. 

Stem, rather strong and rigid, rough leaves, large and 
very broadly curvate, with the margin incised irregularly, 
forming lobes of unequal size, and irregular shape, lobes 
rounded dentate on the margins ; nerves passing out flabel- 
latelj^ from the insertion, and thrice forlving, sending a 
branch into each tooth on the margin ; whorls, composed 
of six leaflets, which are often more or less united near their 
insertion on the stem. 

This plant is more nearh^ allied to Sphenophyllum long- 
ifolium. Germ., than any other described plant, but it dif- 
fers from it in many important particulars, being wider, 
and not so long in proportion. We never find our plant 
with bifid leaves, a point which seems common in S. longi- 
folium. The nervation also is quite different in the two. 


The tendency of the leaflets to unite near their insertion is 
a featnre pecnliar to onr planr. 

Habitat — Roof Shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville 
and West Union, West Virginia. 

Sphenojyhyllumjillciilniis, Lesqx., PI. I, Fig. 8. 

Fig. 8, PI. I, rejoresents S. JiUculmis, Lesqx., "Geol. of 
Penn.," vol. II, part 2, Plate I, Fig. 6 : It is one of the best 
characterized sj^ecies of Sphenophyllum in the entire Car- 
boniferons flora, always having its lower pair of leaflets 
shortened, and detiexed along the stem. 

This i)\-di\t is qnite abnndant at the horizon of the 
Waynesburg Coal. We find it in the roof shales of this 
bed at Cassville, West Union, and Carmichaers. It seems 
to be confined to this horizon, as we have never seen it 
above or below this coal bed. The name fiUculmls is not 
well suited, as we find it with stems often anj- thing but 
thread-like, they being half a cm. wide. Prof. Lesquereux 
has informed us by letter, that he intends to change the 
name in his forthcoming "Carboniferous Flora," which he 
is preparing for the Geol. Survey of Pennsylvania. 

The occurrence of the x)lant at widely separated locali- 
ties with the constant feature of depressed, shortened leaf- 
lets, precludes the idea that this "is a consequence of any 
accidental distortion. 

Splienopliyllum densifoliatum, Sp. nov., PI. I, Fig. 7. 

Stems, rather slender, containing numerous closely i:)laced 
whorls of leaflets ; whorls containing four leaflets ; leaflets 
narrowly oblong-cuneate, united in pairs for a short space 
above the point of attachment, cut at the extremity into 
two short, closely approximated lobes, which have each 
two teeth ; nerves single in the base of each leaflet, forking 
near the insertion, and each branch forking again a short 
distance above, and sending a long branch into each tooth 
at the end of the leaflet. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, West Virginia. 


SpJienopliyllum tenuifoUum, Sp. nov., PI. I, Fig. 9. 

Stem slender, furnislied with rarher remotely placed 
whorls of six leaflets ; leaflets, linear-cuneate, six- toothed 
at the end, without lobes ; nerves, single in the base of 
the leaflet, forking three times above, so as to send a branch 
into each tooth of the leaflet. 

This form is so well marked, and different from any spe- 
cies hitherto described, that we are compelled to assign it 
speciflc value. It occurs often by itself, with constant 
features ; hence it cannot be an abnormal form of some, 
other described species. It is a little like Germar s S. an- 
gustifolius. There is no connecting link to unite it with 8. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville and West Union, West Virginia. 

BplieMopliyllibm loiujifolluin, Germar. 

This species is not rare in the roof shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, at Cassville, and West Union. Some of its leaves 
have been seen which were more than an inch in length. 

SplieuopJtyllicm obloiigifuUwm^ Germar. 

This is another species which is not uncommon. It is 
seen in great quantities in the shale parting which supports 
the roof coal of the Waynesburg bed at Cassville, West 
Virginia. Though often associated with ^S". Jillculmis, it 
always presents an entirely different aspect, and they are 
without doubt different species. 

Annulaeia, Sternb. 

This genus is well represented in the Upper Carboniferous 
strata, ascending into the highest beds, where Annularia 
longifolia., Brongt, is one of the most common plants. The 
following species have been seen : 

Annularia carinata, Gutb. 

This is a verv abundant form, and has been seen at Cass- 


ville, and at West Union, in the roof-shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, and at Bellton, 400 feet above this coal bed. 
From West Union we have some very tine specimens of the 
plant, showing a stem bearing many long leafy branches. 
It is exactly like Gutbier's species. 

Annularia longifolia, Brongt. 

This species, as previously stated, ranges throughout the 
entire thickness of the strata above the Waynesburg Coal. 
It becomes more abundant towards the top of the series, 
where so many other plants, common at lower horizons, 
have disappeared. 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, at Cass- 
ville, West Union, and throughout the Upper Barren Meas- 

Annularia sphenophylloides, Ung. 

This well marked species has been seen at only one local- 
ity and horizon, and that was in the roof shales of the 
Waynesburg Coal, at Cassville, West Virginia. 

Annularia radiata^ Brongt. 

At Cassville, West Virginia, in the roof-shales of the 
Waynesburg Coal, we find a very delicate species of annu- 
laria which very much resembles A. radiata Brongt. It is 
smaller, and the leaves are narrower, but the difference is 
not sufficient to separate the two. 

AnniLlaria minuta, Brongt. 

This well marked little species was seen in immense 
quantities in the roof shales of the Washington Coal, near 
Little Washington, Penna. The leaflets are very short, 
and the joints of the stem seem to be swollen at the points 
of attachment. Though not seen in West Virginia, the 
nearness of the locality in Pennsylvania to the West Virginia 
localities, entitles it to mention here as throwing light upon 
the flora of our Upper Barren Measures. 



Sphenopteris, Brongt. 

The Sphenopterids are by no means so fully represented 
in the flora of the Upper Carboniferous, either in the num- 
ber of species, or individuals, as are the Pecopterids. The 
specimens of this genus are found sparingly, and the indi- 
viduals are never, as is the case with many Pecopterids, 
abundant enough to form the preponderating element in the 
flora of any locality. The facies has changed greatly from 
that shown in these ferns at lower horizons. We find no 
species retaining the composite type shown in the Sphenop- 
terids of the Conglomerate and Lower Coal Groups, as ex- 
emplified in S. macilenta, S. latifolia, &c. The facies of 
the plants of the upper beds seems rather to belong to 
horizons higher even than the Carboniferous, and reaching 
into the Rhaetic, and Oolite. It is a peculiar fact that we 
find, as yet, no well characterized Sphenopterid above the 
horizon of the Waynesburg Coal, although in many locali- 
ties the shale is of a nature fitted to preserve the most deli- 
cate plants. 

Splienopteris acrocarpa, Sp. nov. PI. Ill, Pigs. 1-3; 
PI. IV, Figs. 1-5. 

( Frond, tripinnate ; primary pinnse, triangular, or lanceo 
late in outline, curving upward from the rachis at an acute 
angle ; secondary pinnfe, sub-alternate, long, narrow, and 
somewhat pointed, the lowest one on the upper side being 
the longest and most complex in division, and extending 
up parallel with the principal raclds ; pinnules of the lower 
and middle porticms, lanceolate in outline, acute, and la- 
ciniate on the margin, the incisions making a very acute 
' angle with the mid-rib of the pinnule, contracted at the 
base, and attached under a very acute angle to a narrowly 
winged rachis ; laciniee of the lower pinnules of the frond, 
and pinnse, notched and toothed ; of the middle portion, 
passing into teeth; and in the upper pinnae, being lost, caus- 
ing the incised pinnules, to pass into small ovate ones, with 
entire margins ; mid nerve of the pinnule, somewhat fiexu- 


ous ; lateral nerves, passing off at an acute angle into the 
segments or lacinise, pinnately divided, or forking ; fructi- 
lication, j)laced on the terminal lobe of the pinnules, at the 
extremity of the median nerve, and consisting of six sori. 
grouped radially around a central axis.) 

The primary, and the secondary rachis, are both beauti- 
fully channeled on the upper side, and this is a feature so 
constant, that we may recognize fragments by its means 
with certainty. After the figures of the plant given on 
Plates III and IV had been engraved, fertile pinnse were 
found, showing the character of the fructification much 
more cleai'ly, than that given on PI. III. We are fortu- 
nate in possessing a large number of specimens of this 
plant, as its complex character, and the great changes that 
it exhibits in passing from the lower to the upper part of 
the frond, would lead otherwise to the foundation of sev- 
eral si)ecies upon the different parts of this single plant. 
Indeed it is difficult to do justice to it, either in a short de- 
scription, or without using many hgures. 

The star shaped arrangement of the sori, seems to ally 
the plant with Asterocarpiis, of Weiss, and the general fa- 
des and nervation, with Sphe/iopteris denticidala, Brongt, 
from the Oolite Formation. The terminal position of the 
sori causes it to resemble the Hymenophylloid section of 
the Sphenopterids, and in this point, it reminds us of 
Schenk's Acropteris ciineata, from the Rliaetic. 

Habitat — Found only in the Roof shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, at one coal mine, at Cassville, W. Va. 

SpTienopterls cortacea, Sp. nov., PI. V, Figs, o and 6. 

(Frond, bipinnate ; pinnae, inserted at an acute angle on 
the broad, leathery, winged primary rachis, and terminating 
at the summit in a three-lobed leaflet ; pinnules triangu- 
lar in outliiie, somewhat contracted at base, and decurrent 
on the winged secondary rachis, cut into 3 or 4 rounded 
lobes, the uppermost one being somewhat elongated ; lateral 
nerves obscure, or wholly concealed in the thick leathery- 
like parenchyma of the lobes.) 

This very peculiar plant has, as yet, been found only in 


the roof-sliales of the Washington Coal, 175 feet above the 
Waynesbnrg Coal. It occurs in company with Callipterls 
con/erta^Brongt, covering with its leathery pinnge, the sur- 
face of a thin layer of calcareous iron ore. It seems to be 
allied to Splierio]jteris oxydata^ Goepp. and ^plieiiopteris 
lyratifolia, Weiss, both of which occur in the Permian of 
Europe. Unfortunately the maceration, to which the frag- 
ments have been subjected, disguises somewhat the details 
of the plant, and it is found only in fragments. In some 
features it resembles Calllpteris^ especially in its thick, 
dense parenchyma, in the immersion of the nerves, and in 
the occurrence of ]3iiini^l<^s on tlie principal rachis. 

Habitat. — Roof-Shales of the Washington Coal, near 
Brown s Bridge, Monongalia Co., W. Va. 

Sphenopteris deutata, Sp. nov,, PL V, Figs. 7-8. 

Frond, bi or tripinnate ; j^innae, linear-lanceolate, alter- 
nate, going off at almost a right angle ; pinnules, ovate, 
slightly contracted at the base, and furnished with sharply 
pointed teeth ; primary nerve, faintly marked in some of 
the pinnules ; lateral nerves, wanting, or concealed in the 
thick leather-like parenchyma of the pinnules. 

This beautiful little plant, is closely allied to Splieiiopteris 
Sarana^ Weiss, but it differs from it in its more pointed 
pinnules, and its apparent want of lateral nerves. 

Hal )i tat. — Roof-Shales of the AVaynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Sphenopteris species f PI. XI, Figs. 5-7. 

The fragments depicted in Figs. 5, 6, 7, PI. XI, may rep- 
resent a new species, but they are too small and imperfect 
to fix the specific character. Fig. 6 resembles some forms 
of Splienopter is Lesquereuxii, Newb. and may be identical 
with it, but the lobes of this plant are sharper, and more 
deeply cut, than those of the above named S2:)henopteris. 

Habitat. — Roof-Shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, AV. Va. 

Sphenopteris auriculata, Sp. nov., PL VII, Figs. 3-4. 
Frond, bi or tripinnate ; |')rincipal rachis, pretty stout, 

DESCiiiPTiox OF species;. pp. 43 

and smooth ; jiiiinee long, linear-lanceolate, alternate, going 
off at almost a right angle, somewhat arched ; pinnules, ob- 
long-ovate, alternate, incisely-lobed, the lobes more or less 
dentate, the lowest lobe on the upper side being larger 
than the others and projecting along the secondai'v ra(!his 
imparts an auriculate character to the pinnule ; mid-nerve, 
strong, and well marked ; lateral nerves, branching dicho- 
toniousl y, a branch passing into each tooth of the lobes. 

This plant seems more closely related to Spltenopieris cris- 
iata, Brongt, than any other described Sphenopteris, and 
like the latter, as remarked by Brongniart, it possesses 
characters which ally it with Pecopteris. 

Some of the pinnules, like that shown in Fig. 3Z>, have no 
denticulations on the lobes, and then their resemblance to 
Pecopteris is more marked. These occur in the lower por- 
tion of the plant. 

Habitat — Roof Shales of the Waynesburg Coal. Cassville, 
West Virginia, 

Sphenopteris mlnidl-secta^ Sp. nov., PL Y, Figs. 1-4. 

Frond, quadripinnate ; secondary pinnse, short, and tri- 
angular, going off at nearly a right angle from the stout 
primary rachis ; tertiary pinn?e, oblong-linear ; quaternary 
divisions (pinnules) small, alternate, narrowed at the base, 
and decurrent on the rachis, obliquely inserted and cut into 
very small, almost microscopic lobes, which in tlie lower 
pinnules are notched at the extremity, and in the upper 
ones entire and tooth-shaped ; mid-nerves of the pinnules, 
rather stout at the base, and soon becoming attenuate. 
Lateral nerves, slender, passing into each lobe of the ])in- 
nule, forking in the lower lobes, and single in those toward 
the extremity of the pinnule. 

The ultimate divisions of this plant are so fine that they 
can be followed only with the aid of a lens. The texture of 
the pinnules is thin and delicate. AVe were fortunate in 
finding it in shale of great fineness and evenness, so tliat 
it is most beautifully preserved, the impressions being as 
distinct as if engraved on stone. The plant differs widely 
from any Splienox)teris hitherto described in the extreme 


minuteness of its lobes. This is tlie only Splienopteris 
wliicli comes np from a lower liorizon into the upper beds, 
as it is found 20 feet below the Pittsburg coal near Wheel- 
ing, W. Va. The resemblance in facies of the plant to the 
genus Thyrsopterls, Heer, from the Oolite, is very striking, 
and, so far as the form is concerned, it would belong to that 
genus. The fructification however of Thyrsopteris is not 
found, and as the plants are so Avidely separated in time, 
it is best to place it among the Sphenopterids in the absence 
of proof of its Thyropteris character. 

Habitat — Twenty feet below the Pittsburg Coal near 
Wheeling, and in the roof shales of the Waynesbui'g Coal, 
West Union, W. Va. 

Bphenoijteris fol'iosa^ Sp. nov., PI. V, Figs. 9-11. 

Frond, tripinnate ; secondary p)inna3, very long ; linear- 
lanceolate, rigid ; tertiary pinnfe. short, oblong lanceloate 
sub-opiX)site, inserted at an angle of 45° ; pinnules, sub- 
quadrate or rotundate, decurrent, cut into slightly marked 
segments, which are notched into two rounded teeth, or are 
simple ; mid-nerve, well defined but slender ; lateral nerves 
passing off obliquely, and forking into the incisions, a branch 
passing into each tooth. 

The |3lant has a thick, fleshy leaf substance, and belongs 
to the Pecopteroid section of the Sj^henopterids, a section 
which seems most abundant in the upper beds. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, AVest Virginia. 

Splienopteris Lescuriana,'^'^. nov. PI. VI, Fig. 1; VII, 1-2. 

Frond, quadri pinnate ; rachis of primary pinute, stout 
and smooth ; rachis of secondary pinnge, strong, going off 
at right angles from the primary one, and arching slightly 
outwards ; secondary pinnules, long, oblong-elliptical in 
outline ; tertiary pinnae, numerous, linear-lanceolate, alter- 
nate ; quaternary pinnae (pinnules) lanceolate, densely 
crowded, those near the base of the secondary pinnae, again 
divided, with jjinnatifid lobes or divisions, the lowest pin- 
nule (quaternary i:)inna) heteromorphous, being larger 


and more complex in division than the rest, and deilexed 
along the secondary racliis, incisely lobed, with the divi- 
sions bluntly toothed, slightly decurrent on the tertiary 
rachis, and becoming united towards the end of the pinnge ; 
primary nerve of the pinnule, strong and somewhat tiexu- 
ous, giving off nerves which l)ranch palinately into the 
rounded, slightly marked lobes of the pinnules, a branch 
passing into each of the crenate teeth of these lobes. 

The ultimate pinnae, or pinnules, at the lower part of 
the secondary pinna^, are so much larger and deeply cut 
than the rest, that in them the plant is quinquepinnatifid at 
least. The tertiary pinnae near the base of the secondary 
ones, are shorter than the normal ones, and have contracted 
pinnules, whose nervation is distorted somewhat, and 
shows a tendency to inflation, as if this portion of the plant 
might become fertile, but no fructification can be made 
out. The dwarfing of this portion of the pinnse, is con- 
trary to the rule, as w^e find generall}^ that the length of 
the pinnee diminish from the base to the summit of the 
rachis which bears them. Another of the curious features 
of this plant is the marked heteromorphism and deflexed 
position of the basal pinnules on the lower side of the 
pinnge. The pinnules on the loAver portion of the pinn?e 
are slightly decurrent, and united each by a narrow wing- 
to the next lower, while towards the summit they are more 
and more united. The value of the peculiar dwarfing of 
the lower portion of the secondary pinnae we cannot determ- 
ine, as we found only one specimen showing this part of 
the frond. It may be specific. It will be observed that 
this iDortion is preceded by a pair of large complex pinna3, 
such as we might expect from their position, which is next 
to the primary rachis. 

This plant, wdiich is one of the finest in the entire Carbon- 
iferous flora, is beautifully preserved in the fine grained 
shale, on which it is found, and every detail can be easily 
made out. Its affinities seem to be with Pecopteris cris- 
tata, Brongt., which it resembles in some points, and it evi- 
dently belongs to the Pecopteroid section of the Sphenoji- 


The existence of such well inarked types, unitino- the 
features of Sphenopteris and Pecopteris, as was first noticed 
by Brongniart, would seem to call for their separation into 
a sub-genus, which as the SiDhenopteris facies is that best 
marked, might be styled Spheiiopteris-Pecopterides. 

The plant is named in honor of the eminent pal?eo-botan- 
ist, Prof. Leo Lesquereux. 

Habitat — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, W. Va. 

SpJienopteris pacTiynerms, Sp. nov., PI. VII, Figs. 5-6. 

Frond, bi or tripinnate, pinnae opposite, going off fi-om 
the main rachis at an angle of about 50°, lanceolate in out- 
line ; jDinnules are alternate, closely set, and incisely lobed, 
the lobes often toothed ; primary nerve very thick ; lateral 
nerves, very large, passing into each of the lobes of the 
pinnules, and usually forking once or twice. 

This plant also resembles the type shown in Pecopteris 
cristata, Brongt., but is sharply distinguished by the great 
size of its nerves. The texture of the parenchyma is cori- 
aceous, and this serves to exaggerate somewhat the nerves. 

Habitat — Roof shales of the Waynesbui-g Coal, West 
Union, W. Va. 

Splienopteris hastata, Sp. nov., PI. VII, Fig, 7. 

Frond, bipinnate ; pinnae, long and linnear ; rachis of 
pinnfe, slender and terete ; pinnules, alternate, lanceolate, 
with a somewhat hastate base, formed by a sudden con- 
traction at the insertion of the pinnules ; lobes, on each 
lamina 4 to 5, with the lobes^ possessing two or three teeth ; 
mid-nerve, rather strong ; lateral nerves, rising at an acute 
angle into each lobe of the pinnule, and forking so as to 
send a branch into each tooth of the same. 

Habitat — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Neuropterts, Brongt. 
The only species of this genus which pass from the lower 
to the upper beds above the Pittsburg Coal, are those cos- 


mopolitan forms N. liirsiita and N. fiexuosa. These range 
nearly tlirough the entire carboniferous formation. They 
extend to the highest portions of the Upper Barren Meas- 
ures where plants are found, forming by far the larger 
part and sometimes nearly all of the flora of the highest 

Neuropteris hirsuta, Lesqx., Figs. 7 and 8, PI. VIII. 

This species is one of the most abundant plants at all 
horizons and at all localities in the Upper Barrens. It is a 
noteworthy fact, that where it and N. flexuosa abound, 
we rarely And many other species, these two plants seem- 
ing to exclude the small foliage ferns, such as Sphcnop- 
teris, Precopteris, &c. This peculiarity is so marked that, 
Avhile in the particular part of the stratum holding the 
neuroi3terids in question we find no other ferns, yet in a 
layer above or below, deposited under different conditions, 
and separated by but a few inches of space from the first 
named, we often find great numbers of Pecopterids &c. 
but no Neuropteris hirsuta and N. flexuosa. Their mode 
of growth and exposure to transj)ort l)y water must have 
been totally different from those of most other genera of 

The hirsute character of iV. liirsuta is almost never seen 
in the upper beds ; but the form, nervation &c. are identi- 
cal with those of the plant which shows this featu]-e when 
found at lower horizons. 

During our researches into the flora of the various beds 
of this and adjoining States we were so fortunate as to find 
undoubted fruiting forms of N. Mrstita, and are thus able 
to throw some light on the character of the fructification of 
this important genus, a point which has long remained in 

This fructification, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8, PL VIII, con- 
sists of linear-elliptical sori, 4^ mms. long and 1 mm. wide 
at the middle. They are normally placed in groups of four, 
the sorus nearest the base of the pinnule being situated 
near the middle of the lamina of the pinnule, while each suc- 
ceeding sorus of the group approaches nearer to the mid- 

48 PP. REPor/r of progress, fontatxe Sz wiiitf- 

rib, until the last one comes quite close to it, thus forming- 
rows, each containing 4 sori, and each row inclined towards 
the mid-rib. The general method of fructification is very 
similar to that of Scolopendrium oulgare, the sori appear- 
ing to lie between adjoining branches of adjacent nerves. 
They have a raised margin on each side, which closely re- 
sembles the double indusium of Scolopendrium. 

Bunbury, in vol. Ill, Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. on PL 21. 
figures a hirsute plant from CajDe Breton, whicli he con- 
siders as Neuropteris cordata. It is plainly identical with 
N. hirsuta. On it are depicted depressions like those on 
our plant, though smaller, and showing a similar arrange- 
ment, i. e. groups of four (when complete), the uppermost 
depression being nearest to the mid-rib. He states that 
they lie between the veins, and thinks them the result of 
disease. They are probably impressions of sori as in our 
plan t. 

Brongniart, in his Hist. d. Yeg. Fos. PI. LXY, Fig. 3, 
gives what he considered as the fructification of X. flexuosa. 
The arrangement of these markings seems to be without 
definite order, and judging from their general character, 
they appear not to form fructifications. They do not agree 
with the fructification given for this plant by Dr. Heer in 
his '^Uhr. d. Schweitz ; " Die Pfl. d. Steink. Periode." We 
have seen a pinna of jN". flexuosa, containing 6 pinnules, each 
pinnule marked by a row of elliptical elevations on each 
side of the mid-nerve. These, which are evidentl\^ impres- 
sions of sori, agree essentially with Heer's fructification, 
but they are larger and more elongate ellij)tical in shape. 
This specimen was in the collection of Mr. Gustav Guten- 
berg of Wheeling, and was collected at the locality afford- 
ing the fructified N. hirsuta. Mr, Gutenberg kindly offered 
to place it in our hands for descrij)tion and figuring, but it 
was unfortunately lost before reaching us. 

The specimens figured in Figs. 7 and 8, as well as others 
of the same character, were found by us near Bellaire, 
Ohio, 20 feet below the Pittsburg Coal, in a very fine grained 
shale which has beautifully preserved the plants contained 
in it. 


Neuropteris Jlexuosa, Brongt. 

This plant is one of the most widely diffused and per- 
sistent of all the Carboniferous flora. It ascends from tho 
Vespertine, where, (as at Lewis Tunnel,) it is slightly modi- 
fied, to the top of the Carboniferous system. In the upper 
beds, it forms by far the most abundant plant, often exclud- 
ing all others from certain localities. 

Plate yill. Fig. 6, shows a very singular form of this 
species, which would, if found isolated, be taken for a dif- 
ferent species ; but so many intermediate forms, connecting 
it with the normal plant, occur, that it cannot be separated 
from it. Tlie pinnules are very small, somewhat falcate, 
and attached by all of the somewhat contracted and rounded 
base. This form is found in the roof-shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, at Carmichaels, Penna. 

Plate VIII, Fig. 1, shows a form of flexuosa, which dif- 
fers from the normal type sufficiently to constitute a variety 
at least. This may be styled : Neuropteris flexuosa^ var. 
longifolia. It is distinguished from the typical forms of 
the species, by having much longer pinnules, which, are also 
opioosite, a feature not seen in N. flexuosa, or indeed com- 
monly in Neuropterids. It is not a new species, for we 
find intermediate forms connecting this with the normal 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, W. Va., with great numbers of the normal form. 

Neuropteris dictyojjteroidcs, Sp, nov., PL VIII, Figs. 

Frond, pinnate or bipinnate ; pinnules, alternate lanceo- 
late, with cordate base, and attached by a cordate base to 
a rather stout rachis ; mid-nerve, very broad and appear- 
ing to be made up of parallel adjoining nerves, which are 
formed by the union of the lateral nerves, pioducing a flat 
ribbon-like bundle ; lateral nerves, dichotomizing in passing 
to the margin as usual in Neuropteris, very fine, and rather 
indistinct in their course, sending off delicate thread-lilve 
branches which anastomose with the adjoining lateral nerves, 
at an acute angle and forming elongate meshes. 
4 PP. 


The delicate thread-like branches, on leaving the lateral 
nerve, rise somewhat towards the surface of the parenchy- 
ma of the leaf, and unite with the adjoining lateral nerve, 
on the upx)er side of it, thus giving the nervation of the 
plant a peculiar aspect ; for we can detect the Neuropteris 
nervation under what appears to be a net work of delicate 
thread-like branches, which partly overlies it. At hrst 
sight these delicate branches might be taken for hairs, but 
they are plainly off -shoots from the lateral nerves. The 
plard has thus the appearance of a Dictyopteris. Von Rohl 
hgures in his "Fos. Fl. d. Steink. West." &c., PI. XV, 
Fig. 6, PL XXI, Fig. 75, a iDlant which would seem to be 
close to ours, and which he calls Dictyopteris neuroptei'- 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union ; Bellton, Marshall county, 4U0 feet above the 
Waynesburg Coal. 

Neuropteris auriculata, Brongt. 

This species seems quite widely distributed in the Upper 
Carboniferous strata, though seldom found in great abund- 
ance. At Cassvilie, in the roof shales of the Waynesburg 
Coal, we find a fern which agrees quite closely with Brong- 
niart's Neuropteris Villersii, which, as Schimper correctly 
states, is identical with auriculata, for our plant passes 
into the typical auriculata. Neuropteris auriculata is 
abundant at West Union in the roof shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, and passes up high in the Upper Barren Meas- 
ures, occurring at Bellton 4i)() feet above the Waynesburg 
Coal, and at other localities. 

Neuropteris odontopteroides, Sp. nov., PL IX, Figs. 

(Frond, pinnate; rachis, very stout, and broad; pinnae, 
alternate, or sub-opposite, oblong-ovate, or lanceolate, 
going off nearly at a riglit angle, attached by the lower 
part of the base, the upper being free and slightly cut 
away, which, with the cutting away of the end of the pinnule 
on the lower side, gives a squamose aspect to the same ; 


toward tlie summit of the pinna, tlie broad racliis widens 
out into a heteromorphous terminal pinnule, which is 
usually somewhat falcate, and slightly eared at base, or 
lobed occasionally, by consolidation with the adjoining- 
small pinnules of the terminal part of the pinna ; the 
upper pinnules tend to unite and pass into lobes, by grow- 
ing smaller and being attached by their whole base ; mid- 
nerves distinct to about one-quarter the length of the pin- 
ule, and formed of three principal nerves consolidated to- 
gether ; these three principal nerves split up and repeat- 
edly branch, until they fill the entire pinnule ; at their 
lower portion, by consolidation, they form a broad, flat, 
strap-shaped bundle of nerves, which in their insertion 
occupy a considerable portion of the base of the pinnule ; 
in the upper pinnules, the nerves go off from the entire base, 
as in Odontopteris ; they are tolerably strong, and are very 

This plant has a facies much like Odontopteris Dio- 
fresnoyii (Brongt.) Schimp., in nervation, and modes of 
attachment of the pinnules. From the great size of the 
rachis and other points it would seem to be simply pinnate, 
and apparently to belong to Schimper's sub-genus Neii,- 
ropteridium^ which contains plants belonging to the Trias. 

Habitat — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass villa 
and West Union, W. Va. 

Neuropteris jtmhriata, Lesqx. 

In the roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, at Carmi- 
chael's, Penn., we find very fine specimens of this plant 
2 inches long and as many wide. It occurs there associated 
with Neuropteris flexuosa. 

Neuropteris species f PL X, Fig. 11. 

This huge leaflet was found associated with abundant re- 
mains of N. flexuosa near JoUeytown, Greene Co. Penn. 
400 feet above the Waynesburg Coal. It is probably a ra- 
chial leaflet of N. flexuosa. 

Neuropteris cordata, Brongt. 

This plant, as limited by Schimper, is quite common in 


the roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal at West Union, 
forming with N. dictyopteroides, the greater part of the 
plants found in some layers. It is very abundant at Cass- 
ville at the same horizon. The pinnules are often of very 
large size reaching the length of 6 inches and the width 
of 1^ inches. It has often a falcate form, and reminds us 
of the shape of N. Rogersi of Lesqx., bat is proportionally 
longer. It is confined to horizons above the Pittsburg Coal 
in West Virginia. 

Odontopteris, Brongt. 

This genus is represented in the Upper Carboniferous 
fiora of W. Va. by only a few species, mostly of types 
found in the Permian of Europe. 

The individuals, except of one species, are also rare in 

Odojitoptej-is obtusiloba, Var. rarinerdls. PI. X, Fig. 4. 

The fragment, depicted in the above named figure, diif ers 
from Odordopteris ohtusa, Naum, as figured by Weiss, 
Geinitz, and others, only in having fewer nerves, and a 
stronger rachis. The overlapping of the pinnules is pre- 
cisely the same with that shown by Geinitz: "Dyas,'' PL 
XXVIII, Figs. 1 — 4. It occurs in a bed of red shale 400 
feet above the Waynesburg Coal, at Bellton, Marshall Co., 

Odontopteris nervosa, Sp. no v. PL X, Figs. 1-2. 

( Frond bi-pinnatifid ; pinnules very deciduous, oblong- 
linear, at the insertion cut into rounded or oval segments 
nearly to the rachis, the segments towards the extremity 
less and less deeply cut, at the extremity entire ; nerves 
rather distant, very strong, and sharply defined, passing 
from the entire base of the lobes with no median nerve.) 

The plant has a striking similarity to some forms of the 
Odontopteris obtusa, but is distinguished by the fewer and 
coarser nerves. Fig. 2. shows the tendency of the termi- 
nations of the pinnules to become entire, a feature shown 
also in 0. ohtusa. The specimens found, which are not un- 


common at West Union, are almost always fragments of 
pinnules as in Fig. 8. They have never been seen attached 
except in a single specimen (Fig. 1) seen at Cassville. 

Habitat— Roof Shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville. 
and West Union, W. Va. 

Odontopteris pacliyderma, Sp. nov., PL X, Figs. 5-10. 

(Frond, bipinnate ; primary rachis, stout, secondary 
racliis, slender and delicate ; pinnse, alternate and somewhat 
closely placed, very deciduous, going off at nearly a right 
angle ; pinnules, oblong and ovate, inclined forward, some- 
times falcate, the lowest one on the lower side heteromor- 
phous, being bilobed, apparently formed of two consoli- 
dated pinnules, the lowest ones on the upper side occasion- 
ally heteromorphaus, the lowest pinnules of the lower part 
of the plant separate nearly or quite to the base, with 
rounded lobes or undulate on the margins, pinnule of the 
middle and upper portions united at base, ovate and acute, 
becoming more united towards the summit of the frond 
where the pinnae pass into pinnules, and also toward the 
end of the pinnas, being almost entirely united at the ex 
tremity ; leaf-substance, exceedingly thick and dense. ; mid- 
nerve more or less distinct and splitting up dichotomously 
into branches which diverge in an angular manner ; lateral 
nerves coming olf from the principal rachis also, and branch- 
ing dichotomously, all very delicate, and almost always 
concealed in the dense parenchyma.) 

The nerves are so line, and the leaf substance so dense, 
that out of the large number of specimens examined only 
one or two showed the details of the nervation. 

The plant usually leaves a dense shining film on the shale. 
The form of some of the pinnse and pinnules strikingly re- 
sembles Heers Pecopteris iriassica, ''Pfl. d. Trias u. des 
Jura,'- PI. XXV, Figs. 1 and 2, but the nervation is totally 
different. The singular nervation approaches nearer to that 
of Odontopteris alpina, Heer. It would come in the sub- 
genus, O. Mixoneura of Weiss, as would all the species 
found as yet in the upper beds of West Virginia. 

Habitat — Abundant in the roof shales of the Waynes- 


burg Coal at Cassville, W. Va., also found abundantly 500 
I'eet above this horizon in Greene Co. Pennsylvania. 

OdontoiDteris densifoUa^ Sp. nov., PL X, Fig. 3. 

Frond, pinnate, or bipinnate ; pinnules, ovate, inclined 
forward, densely jjlaced, touching by their borders so as to 
appear imbricated, nerves, going off from the entire base ; 
at the center a bundle of nerves issues, which is quickly dis- 
solved into branches, all exceedingly fine but distinct, dich- 
otomosing again and again so as to fill in a fiabellate man- 
ner the end of the pinnules. 

The issuing of the bundle of nerves at the middle of the 
base of the pinnule gives the appearance of a short mid- 

The leaf substance is very dense and thick. 

Habitat — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Callipteris, Brongt. 

Callipteris conferta, (Sternl).. ) Brongt, PI. XI, Figs. 1-4. 

The plant which w^e have identified with Callipteris con- 
ferta, is found in consideral)le quantities, covering the sur- 
face of a calcareous iron ore which occurs in the roof of 
the Washington Coal, 175 feet above the base of the Up- 
per Barren Measures, near Brown's Bridge, Monongalia 
Co., W. Va. It is associated with Splienopteris coriacea, 
F. & W., and these two plants form almost the entire flora 
at the place mentioned. We find there all the forms of C. 
conferta that have been figured by Weiss in his " Foss. Fl. 
d. Jiinst. Steink. u. Roth." except the fruiting form wdiich 
he gives. The plant, as we find it, is very thick and leather- 
like. There seems to have been a fleshy epidermis extend- 
ing over the rachis in the upper portions of the plant, 
which caused this to appear much wider than it really is, 
as is shown in Fig. 4a, which represents an enlarged portion 
of Fig. 4. The lower part gives the appearance of the pinna 
when the thick epidermis is removed, and the upper part 


when it is present. It seems to be Ccaiised by the extension 
of the epidermis of the leaflets over the rcachis. The nerves 
are immersed in the dense leaf-substance, which may be 
pulled off from the stone in flakes, leaving an imprint in 
which no sign of the lateral nerves appears. The nerves 
of the broader and larger pinnules ajDpear to fork once, 
while those of the narrower and longer pinnules, which 
appear in the middle portions of the frond, seem simple. 
They are usually so enclosed in the dense leaf-substance as 
to betray their presence by creases, which no doubt are 
much stronger than the true nerves. As we could see only 
these creases, indicating the course of the nerves, we have 
depicted them in the lateral nerves given in the figures. 
The nervation as thus determined, appears to agree with 
that given by Weiss. We cannot agree witli Weiss in re- 
ferring the plant to AletJiopteris, as it is entirely different 
from any species of that genus known to us. 

This is the only species of true Callipteris that has ever 
been found in the Appalachian Coal Field, and its appear- 
ance marks an important change in the flora of the horizon 
containing it. The other species from this held attributed 
to Callipteris are either Alethopterids, like A. Sullivanti, 
or plants of the Pecopteris type, and belonging to Callip- 

In Europe this plant is regarded as a characteristic Per- 
mian species. 

Calliptekidium, Weiss. 

Dr. Weiss has established under the name of Callipter- 
idium a genus to include plants which, with the facies of 
Pecopteris, have a nervation resembling that of Neurop- 
teris. Schimper gives the following as the generic cliarac- 
ter : ' ' Median-nerve of the pinnules, strong, vanishing ; 
secondary nerves obliquely spreading, simply or doubly 
forked, jDarallel to each other." 

These plants' are amongst the finest found in the Upper 
Carboniferous strata, and in W. Va. are peculiar to them, 


for no Callipteridium has been found in this State below 
the Pittsburg Coal. Many of the Pecopterids of the Upper 
Carboniferous show a tendency to assume the characters 
of Callipteridium. 

CalUpteridiiim Bowsonianum, Sp. nov., PI. XIII, Figs. 
1-2, and PL XIV, Fig. 1. 

(Frond, tripinnate, or tripinnatifid; rachisof the primary 
pinna, strong and rough ; secondary pinnae, lanceolate- 
linear, alternate, going off at an angle of from 45° — G0° ; 
secondary rachis, rather strong ; pinnules, united at the 
base, ovate and inclined slightly towards the apex of the 
pinna, terminal pinnule, rounded-elliptical, or obovate, 
lowest pinnule on the lower side, half inserted on the pri- 
mary rachis ; mid-nerves of the pinnules, strong, and van- 
ishing toward the apex of the loinnule ; lateral nerves, 
forked near the insertion, and again forking near the mid- 
dle of the lamina, arising at a very acute angle, the branches 
curving out and i:)assing off nearly parallel to each other, 
the lowest nerves of adjacent pinnules meeting at the 
sinus, several nerves arising from the secondary rachis be- 
low the insertion of the mid-nerve. 

This splendid plant, which we have named in honor of 
Principal J. W. Dawson, the distinguished paleo-botanist, 
is very large, and must have been arborescent. We find 
its huge fronds spreading over the surface of the shale, and 
the fragments seen are sometimes 2 feet wide and 3 feet 
long, as was the case with the specimen of whicli one of 
the primary pinna? is depicted in Fig. 1, Plate XIII. The 
texture of the pinnules seems to have been coriaceous, and 
thick. The nervation and facies of the plant are much like 
t\iosQ oillQev' s Meranlopteris angusta^ figured in his "Pfi. 
d. Trias u. Jura," PI. XXXVII. 

Habitat — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, West Virginia. 

Callipteridium oblong i folium, Sp. nov., PL XII, Figs. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; secondary pinnse rigid, and rather 


remote ; rachis of the primary pinna, large and very rigid, 
that of the secondary, rather slender; pinnules of the 
lowest portion of the frond, undulate on the margin as 
if about to become lobed, those of the middle and up- 
per portions very entire, all oblong, obtuse, and very rigid 
with a dense leather-like leaf -substance, slightly cut away 
at the base on the upper side, inserted at an acute angle on 
the secondary rachis, alternate ; mid-nerve, strong at the 
lower portion, but splitting up and vanishing toward the 
end ; lateral nerves in the lowest pinnules, grouped fla- 
bellately in the lobes or forking with parallel branches, and 
the two adjoining nerves inserted at a common point, those 
of the pinnules higher on the frond forking near the inser-' 
tion and sending parallel branches to the margin ; fructifi- 
cation consisting of two rows of sori, one on eacli side of 
the mid-nerve, elliptical in form, and leaving very sharply 
defined i)its on the surface of the pinnules ; fertile pinnules 
thick and dense, with no lateral nerves, and an obscurely 
defined mid-nerve.) 

The form, and sharp definition of the impressions of the 
sori, Avith the nervation and shape of the sterile pinnules, 
cause our plant to resemble Heer's Asterocarpus ( Pecoj)- 
teris) Meriani, PI. XXIV, Figs. 4, 5, 6, "Die Pfl. d. Trias 
u. des Jura," but in our species the pinnules are separate 
to the base. 

The fertile form given in PL XII, Pig. 2, we attribute to 
C. oblongifolium ; though we have never seen it attached to 
the sterile portion of the plant, we find it with the sterile 
portions of the plant, and the resemblance in facies is evi- 
dent. We find the fructified part of the plant, with the 
leaf-substance preserved on the stone. This seems to have 
been thick and leather-like, for the organic matter now re- 
maining presents the form of a dense shining film, in which 
we find the elliptical pits showing the places of the sori. 
These pits are beautifully distributed, and seem to indicate 
that the sori were placed in indentations on the surface of 
the lamina. As the sori themselves seem to have fallen 
out before the entombment of the plant we could not de- 
tect their nature. 


Habitat — Poof -shales of the Waynesburg- Coal, Cassville, 
W. Va., and at Bellton, 400 feet above the Waynesburg 


Callipteridium grandifoliura. Sp, nov., PI. XV, Figs. 
1-4, and PL XVI, Figs. 2-4. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary rachis, strong and ro'flgh ; 
secondary pinnse, going off at an acute angle, alternate, 
approximate, linear-lanceolate in outline ; pinnules, closely 
placed, quite variable in shape, but normally oblong, often 
passing into elliptical forms more or less broad, slightly 
narrowed by being cut away on the upper side of the base, 
and rounded on the lower side, obtusely rounded at the 
end, separate except towards the summit of the frond and 
pinnae, alternate; those of the lower part of the plant, 
slightly round-lobed, the lobing irregular in the number of 
lobes on different sides of the same pinnules and on adja- 
cent pinnules ; terminal lobes of the pinnae, round-ellipti- 
cal and united with the adjacent pinnules ; pinnules to- 
wards the summit of the frond becoming more united and 
smaller, so that the ultimate pinnae grow shorter and less 
deeply lobed and linally pass into pinnules of the normal 
kind ; lower pinnule on the lower side of the pinnae usu- 
ally inserted half on the secondary rachis; lower i)innules 
on the upper side of the ultimate pinnae often somewhat 
heteromorphous ; ( Figs. 3 and 4), mid-nerve, strong to- 
wards the base and splitting up towards the end ; lateral 
nerves, rising at a very acute angle, forking near the inser- 
ti(m and again about the middle of the lamina, arching off 
suddenly and strongly and passing with the branches 
nearly parallel so as to meet the margin at nearly a right 
angle, several nerves passing from the secondary rachis ; 
fructification composed of elongate sori, placed on or be- 
tween the branches of the lateral nerves, and extending 
nearly from the mid-nerve to the margin of the pinnule. ) 

This plant, from the great size and width of its pinnules, 
its numerous nerves, and vanishing mid-nerves, at first sight 
might be taken for a Neuropteris, but it clearly belongs to the 
genus Callipteridium. From the size, and arrangement of 


the parts of the plant, as seen in. situ, it must have been 
one of the hirgest of the Carboniferous ferns, surpassing 
in size C. Dawsonianum. Owing to the nature of the con- 
taining shale it could only be obtained in a rather frag- 
mentary condition. The leaf-substance was exceedingly 
thick and leather-like, leaving deep indentations in the 
shale. The fructified pinnules were too poorly preserved 
to show the details with distinctness. The rounded lobes 
of the lowest pinnules, owing to the thick nature of the 
leaf-substance, and pressure into the yielding mud on which 
they fell, often have their margins curved down, causing 
the surface of the lobe to stand out in relief. Fio-. 1 shows 
the lowest part of the frond, with the irregular lobing ; Figs. 
2 and 3 show portions of the middle of the frond ; Fig. 4, 
shows a somewhat higher portion, and Pig. 2, PI. XVI, gives 
the summit of the primary pinnae. Fig. 4 shows that the 
fertile pinnules are more distinct, and more contracted at 
base, than the normal sterile pinnules. 

This plant in several features has a close resemblance with 
Geinitz's plant which he figures in Steinkoh. von Sachs. 
PI. XXXII, Figs. 1-5, as Alethopteris (Pecopteris) ptero- 
ides, and which as Grand 'Eury correctly says, seems to 
be a different plant from Brongniart's P. jDteroides. The 
points of difference however are too numerous to permit us 
to unite them. 

The fructified pinnae, and the mode of fructification, are 
most strikingly like those of Asplenites Ottonis, Schenk, 
from the Rhaetic, and given in his "Foss. Flor. d. 
Grenzsch," &c., PI. XI, Figs. 1 and 2. It forms another 
of the many plants which we find in the Upper Carbonif- 
erous of West Virginia, foreshadowing in a striking manner 
Triassic and Rhaetic types. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, West Virginia. 

Callipteridium odontopteroides, sp. nov.,Pl. XVI, Fig. 1. 

(Frond, bi or tripinnate ; principal racliis, slender ; j)ri- 
mary pinnae, or frond, elliptical in outline ; pinnae, numer- 
ous, crowded together and growing shorter towards the 


summit, and passing into simi^le pinnules, linear ; second- 
ary racliis, slender ; pinnules, united at the base, oval, in- 
clined forward, or falcate, becoming more united towards 
the end of the x^innje, and towards the summit of the frond 
or pinna, and smaller, until near the apex the ultimate 
pinnjB liave passed into pinnules of the normal kind; low- 
est pinnule on the lower side, heteromorphous, and ap- 
proaching the character of Odontopteris, being also in- 
serted partly on the primary rachis, and toward the sum- 
mit of the frond having no mid-rib ; mid-nerve, well 
marked, and splitting up towards the end ; lateral nerves, 
numerous and going off from the mid-nerve at a very 
acute angle, forking once dichotomously, the lowest branch 
of the lowest nerve, on the ujiper side of the pinnule, turn- 
ing up into the sinus of the united pinnules ; lateral nerves, 
passing off from the princix)al racliis, one or more.) 

This singular plant combines with the tyjje of Callij)- 
teridum some marked features belonging to Odontopteris, 
as the great length of the i^innai, their peculiar method of 
passing into pinnules near the summit of the frond, and 
the heteromorphous lower pinnule. It is quite distinct 
in facies from any other j)lant in the upper strata. The 
texture of the pinnules seems to have been thin and deli- 
cate, and the nerves, though slender, to have been shari3ly 
defined. It was evidently a large arborescent plant, as the 
fragment figured was only a primary pinna. 

Habitat. — Shales some 15 feet above the Waynesburg 
Coal, near Arnettsville, West Virginia. 

CalUpteridium unitum, sj). nov., PI. XIV, Figs. 2 and 3. 

(Frond, tripinnate, or tripinnatifid ; pinnae, going off 
acutely, somewdiat detlexed ; i)i*iin^iT rachis, stout and 
rigid ; secondary rachis, rather slender ; pinnules, near the 
base of tlie pinnai, and especially on the lower side, cor- 
date-ovate, from the lamina} being constricted above the in- 
sertion ; the rest, falcate, inclined forwards, all united, the 
union increasing towards the ends of the pinna ; lowest 
pinnule, on the lower side, usually deflexed along the pri- 
mary rachis ; mid-nerve distinct, but soon dissolving into 


branches ; lateral nerves, near the base twice-forked, in as- 
cending only once forked, with one of the branches again 
forking, nppermost nerve only once forked.) 

This plant is peculiar in many respects. The nerves, and 
facies of the pimniles, reseml)le the genus Clacloplilebiim 
established by Schimper for certain perculiar Pecopterid 
forms which characterize the Rhaotic and Oolite formations. 
Its heteromorphous pinnules ally it to Odontoj)teris. It is 
much like the plant described by Weiss in his Foss. Flor. 
d. Stein, und Rothl. under the name of Neuropterls cor- 
dato-oimta, PI. I, Fig. 1. 

Our plant evidently belongs to the same type as Weiss'. 
Neither of them are truly neuropterid, and indeed there is 
no genus which will properly include this composite type. 
It would seem best to form a new genus to receive them, 
which could thus include all plants with the pinnules of 
Pecopterid type, combined with heteromorphism in the 
lower ones, and containing the nervation of Neuropterls. 
This might be styled " Fecopterldiumy The generic char- 
acter would then be : Frond bi or trij)innate ; pinnules uni- 
ted at base, the lower pinnules on each pinnae constricted 
near the base, the rest ovate and attached by a broad base ; 
midnerve quickly dissolved into branches ; lateral lower 
nerves twice forked, upper nerves once forked. 

We place it however provisionally in the genus Callip- 

Pecoptehis, Brongt. 

This genus, in the Upper Carboniferous Flora of West 
\7'irginia, is richer than any other in the number of species, 
and, with the exception of Neuropterls, in the number of 
individuals also. The section Cyatheides furnishes the 
greatest number of species and individuals. While some 
species occurring at lower horizons are found here, yet the 
facies, as a whole, is changed by the addition of many new 
forms, and we find ourselves compelled to add considerably 
to the already long list of Pecopterids. 


There is a tendency to pass into the form of Callipteridium, 
even in cases where the departure is not sufficient to separ- 
ate the plant from Pecopteris. The pinnae of the last order 
often assume an elongate, linear form, and the pinnules, a 
falcate shape not usually seen in the Pecopterids of lower 
horizons. We also find that the lowest pinnule, on the 
lower side of the ultimate pinnge, is often heteromorphous, 
and inserted partly on the rachis of superior order. The 
forms occurring in older strata which do pass up into the 
upper beds are generally considerably changed, so as to 
present a different facies, though they retain the leading 
features on which their specific value depends. In the 
case of some the change is so great that we may have erred 
on the side of conservatism in identifying them with species 
already described. 

The plants of this genus which, being found in older 
strata, also occur at the higher hori2ions are those which 
immediately follow. 

Pecopteris arhorescens, (Schloth.) Brongt. 

The representatives of this species are among the most 
abundant of the plants, occurring in the upper horizons. 
Among the many specimens seen, we find none that agree 
entirely with the typical form of the plant as seen in the 
lower horizons of the Carboniferous Strata. 

Nearly all the forms seen are more closely allied to the 
Permian plant which Groeppert has described under the 
name CyatUeites Schlothelmii. Many specimens are much 
more delicate and finely cut than Goei)j)ert's plant. The 
characters of this form are so constant and distinct that it 
may well be questioned whether it should not remain a dis- 
tinct species. We find this plant in every portion of the 
upper beds where fossils are found, as at Carmichaels in 
Pennsylvania, and at Cassville, West Union, Bellton, &c. in 
West Virginia, both associated with the Waynesburg Coal 
and at liigher levels. Along North Ten Mile Creek in 
Washington Co. Penn. it is very abundant at the horizon 
of the Washington coal. 


Fecopteris arhorescens^ Var. integripinna^ PI. XXVII. 
Fig. 6. 

This curious looking plant has its pinnules somewhat 
similar in form with P. arborescens, but the general facies 
is quite different. We at tirst supposed that it might have 
derived its peculiar character from some malformation, or 
some effect produced by compression and distortion, but 
we find it at three widely distant localities, viz : Tyler, 
Marshall and Monongalia counties, unfortunately always 
failing to show the minute details of its nervation, a point 
which if known would decide its specific character. It is 
not a fructified pinna of some large Pecopteris. for some 
of the sjpecimens show that the seeming pinnules are really 
composed of united pinnules of the tj^pe of P. arborescens. 
As may be seen, the pinnae are very short and broad, simu- 
lating 23innules in form. They show no tendency to lengthen 
as we pass to a lower part of the common rachis. The plant 
in Tyler and Marshall counties occurs from 400 to 600 feet 
above the Waynesburg Coal, and in Monongalia county it 
is found on the horizon of this bed. 

Pecopteris Candollemia, Brongt. Plate XX, Figs. 1, 2, 
and 3. 

West Union in Doddridge Co. is the only locality at which 
this plant iias been seen. It occurs there in great abund- 
ance in the roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal. The facies 
of the plant differs somewhat from Brongniart's species. 
but closely resembles the plant figured by Germar. With 
these well known forms we find some which present differ- 
ences suflacient to call for description. The ultimate pin- 
nae of what appears to be the lower part of pinnse of a su- 
perior order, are seen to possess crenulated pinnules, and 
these more rarely pass into lobed pinnules, while the ner- 
vation becomes correspondingly more complex. The nor- 
mal form has in the pinnules lateral nerves, forking once, 
or at most with one of the veinlets forking again, as Germar 
well shows. In the crenulated pinnules of our specimens 
the lateral nerves are twice forked. The lobed pinnules do 
not show the details of the nervation, owing to j)Oor preser- 


Tlie crenulated pinnules are quite long, being usually 2 
centimetres in length. Fig. 2 shows the pinnules with 
crenulate margins, and Fig. 3, those with more pronounced 
lobes. The lower basal pinnules of the normal forms show 
a tendency to heteromorphism, in being elongated and de- 
pressed along the rachis to which its pinnae is attached. 
We would call attention to the difference in the facies of 
Brongniart's plant from that of G-ermar. Our specimens 
show all the forms figured by Germar, almost mfac-simlle. 

It is worthy of note that we find the same form of fruit- 
ing pinnules with those given by Germar, only the impres- 
sions of the sori are larger. They seemed to be formed by 
inllations of the ends of the lateral nerves, and often occupy 
the entire space between these nerves. Fig. 1 represents 
a fruiting pinna, and la an enlarged portion of the same. 
The crenulate and lobed forms are very rare. 

Pecopterls ellipUca, Bunb. PI. XVII, Fig. 1. 

Several specimens of this rare and well characterized 
species Avere found in the roof-shales of the Waynesburg 
Coal at Cassville, Monongalia Co., but they are very rare 
here, and we have found the plant nowhere else. Bunbury 
found at Frostburg, Maryland, a few fragments of a plant 
which seems identical with ours. He gives figures of it in 
"The Quar. Jour, of the Geol. Soc," Vol. II, 1845, under 
the name Pecopteris elliptica. Our specimens are much 
larger, and show the details and facies better, as figured on 
Plate XVII, Fig. 1 and la. Schimper is in error when he 
states that "the lateral nerves of the pinnules diverge 
strongly after forking," for in Bunbury' s plant, as in ours, 
the divergence is quite slow. The plant seems to have had 
a very robust, rigid aspect, and thick leathery pinnules. 

The strata for a considerable distance above the Pitts- 
burg coal are exposed at Frostburg, and it is quite probable 
that the plant occurs there at the same horizon as at Cass- 

Pecopteris Oreopteridia, {Scldoih.), Brongt, 

In the Upper Barren Shales, at Bellton in Marshall Co., 


400 feet above tlie Waynesbnrg coal, we find a form of Pe- 
copteris wliicli we identify with the above species. It has 
precisely the character of the plant figured by Groeppert 
in his Foss. Flor. d. Perm. Form. Plate X, as Sphenojrteris 
Integra. The nervation agrees exactly with Brongniart's 
P. oreopteridia. We have not seen this plant at any lower 

Fecopteris pennceformis, Brongt. ; Vai*. lati folia, PI. 
XVII, Figs. 4 and 5. 

None of the typical forms of P. pennseformis have been 
seen in the upper measures of W. Va., but at Cassville we 
find with the Waynesburg coal a form which we consider 
a variety of this plant, and which we describe as Var, lati- 

The pinnules of our variety are broader in proportion to 
their length than those of Brongniart's plant, and the nerv- 
ation is somewhat different, as the lateral nerves make a 
greater angle with the mid-rib, in the pinnules. The facies 
is much like Heer's P. pennseformis, as figured in his Flor. 
Foss. Hel. 

Pecopteris Miltoni, Artis, PL XXIII, Figs. 2 and 8. 

On plate XXIII, Figs. 2 and 3, we give a form of this 
species which differs somewhat from all hitherto figured. 
It seems much more slender and narrow than the typical 
form. The mode of passing from entire pinnules, at the 
end of a compound pinna, tlirougli crenulate forms, into 
lobed ones, and finally into simple pinnules, is very gradual, 
and produces often very slender, elongate pinnee and pin- 
nules. Still this plant is so closely connected by transi- 
tion forms with the typical one, that it cannot be separated 
even as a variety. 

At Carmichael's, Penn., where this form occurs, we find 
immense numbers of this plant, which seems to exclude al- 
most all other forms at this place. At West Union, in W. 
Va. also the plant is very common. The pinnse often ex- 
hibit a spread of 2 and 3 feet, and fragments in great num- 
5 PP. 


bers of tlie stipes are found, many 5 or 6 inches in diam- 

At other localities we find the variety polymorpha, given 
by Brongniart as a distinct species (P. polymorpha.) This 
form usually occurs at different localities from those where 
the forms of Miltoni are abundant, and the facies of the 
plant is different, the pinnules being broader, longer, and 
less rounded at the extremity. Some splendid specimens 
of i)rimary pinnae, complete to the extremity, are found 
more than a foot long. Our forms of Miltoni agree pre- 
cisely with those given by Artis, and have a somewhat differ- 
ent facies from that of Brongniart' s plant. 

Pecopteris dentata, Brongt. PL XXII, Figs. 1-5. 

We find at Cassville, in the roof shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, several forms of a plant which is so closely allied 
to this very polymorphous s^iecies that we do not think it 
proper to separate them further than as varieties. Figs. 
1-4, PI. XXII, show a well marked type, which is the most 
abundant form, and might be denominated P. deniata, var. 
crenata. The form figured in Fig. 4 exhibits some points 
of difference from that given in Fig. 1, in the pinnules being- 
narrower and more constricted at the base, and more remote, 
and also in the tendency to become shorter towards the in- 
sertion of the ultimate pinnae. The form given in Fig. 1 
assumes more of the aspect of the typical plumosa form of 
P. dentata, especially in the lower pinnae. Seen sejiarately, 
the two plants might be taken as distinct species, or at least 
varieties, but we have so many intermediate forms at this 
place that no dividing line can be drawn between them. 

The plant figured on plate XXII, in Fig. 2, differs a good 
deal from all the forms of the var. crenata above mentioned, 
and assumes the facies of the plumosa form of dentata. It 
differs how^ever from Brongniart' s plumosa in its more mi- 
nutely dentate pinnules in the small size and delicacy of 
the pinnules, which, unlike the European plumosa, show 
no tendency to increase in size as we descend to lower pin- 
nae. It is still more widely separated from the form identi- 


fied by somepalseo-bolanists as P.iilumosa, from the Lower 
Coal Measures of America. This form might be distin- 
guished by the varietal name parva. 

We find a great number of well preserved forms of tlie 
true dentata, at Cassville, among which we find most of the 
forms figured by Brongniart, Geinitz and Heer; but we have 
as yet seen it at no other locality. 

Pecopieris pteroides, Brongt. 

This is one of the most widely distributed plants that we 
find in the Upper Carboniferous Strata, it being found at 
every locality where we have examined the flora of the 
Waynesburg Coal. Near Arnettsville, between Fairmont 
and Morgantown, in Monongalia Co., it is very abundant in 
the roof shales of this coal seam, and compound or primary 
pinnae were seen 1^- feet long and a foot wide. Our plant 
has the facies and nervation of Grermar's, given on plate 
XXXVI, in his Yerst. d. Stein. Form. v. Wettin u. Lobj. 
At Carmichaels, Penn. it is very abundant. 

Pecopteris Pluckeneti, Brongt. PI. XXI, Figs. 4 and 5. 

At West Union, in Doddridge Co. we find countless num- 
bers of this plant, with every known and some new forms. 
Indeed the variableness of the plant is simply astonishing, 
and can be appreciated only when we have, as here, a great 
amount of well preserved material, which enables us to 
follow it through its many changes. Besides being thus 
abundant at this locality it is a widely diffused plant, for 
we find it at numerous other localities, in the Waynesburg 
Coal, as well as at all the higher horizons nearly to the to}) 
of the series. Figs. 4 and 5 give the most common forms 
of the plant as found at West Union, and it will be seen 
that though they do not differ essentially from some of the 
numerous types already figured by others, yet have a facies 
of their own. This plant must have been an arborescent 
species, from the great size which some of the specimens 
show. Some of the stipes are 5 or 6 inches in diameter. 
and fragments of fronds were seen 18 to 24 inches in length 
and width. The plant becomes much rarer as we ascend 


into the upper beds, and is much less abundant at other lo- 
calities, in the Waynesburg Coal. 

Pecopteris Pluckeneti, Brongt. var. consfricta. PL XXI, 
Fig. 3. 

Fig. 3, PI. XXI, represents a species of Pecopteris which 
has many of the features of P. PlucJceneti, and yet differs 
from it in some important points. The general shape of the 
X^innules is different, since it is cut away or constricted at 
the base, which, being a constant feature, may determine 
the varietal name. The nerves also are different from those 
of Pluckeneti proper, since they branch more, and are 
more sharply defined and distinct from the parenchyma of 
the pinnule. It is possible that this may represent an en- 
tirely new species, and should it so prove, after the collec- 
tion and examination of more and better material, it might 
then bear the name Pecopteris constricta. It occurs with 
P. pluckeneti in the roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, 
at West Union, Doddridge Co. 

Pecopteris notata, Lesqx. 

At the horizon of the Redstone Coal, near Wheeling, W. 
Va., we find a very beautiful little plant, which in the form 
of its pinnules, and in its nervation, cannot be distinguished 
from P. notata, as given by Prof. Lesquereux, in the "Geol. 
of Penn.," Vol. II, Part 2, PI. XVIII, Fig. 4. It lacks the 
point-like dots which distinguisli the plant of Lesquereux. 
This may however not be of sj^eciiic value, since our plant 
resembles it so much in other respects. 

Pecopteris Germari, (Weiss,) F. and W. PI. XIX, Figs. 

Under the head of Cyatheites Pluckeneti, Weiss, in his 
excellent work on the "Fossile Flor. d. jlin. Stein-kohlen- 
formation u. des Rothliegenden," describes a sub-species, 
Cyatheites Germari^ and gives for it the following charac- 
ters by which it is separated from Cyatheites Pluckeneti. 
" Pinnules pinnately parted, smoothe, contracted at the base ; 


lobes rotundate to siib-quadrate ; nervation, as in C. Pluck- 

The form ligured by G-ermar in his work, "Verst. d. 
Stein." &c., PI. XVII, Fig. 4, is referred by Weiss to the 
same sub-species. 

At West Union we find in the roof shales of the Waynes- 
burg Coal abundant and beautifully preserved specimens 
of a plant which agrees exactly with this description. Al- 
though it occurs with immense numbers of all possible forms 
of P. Pluckeneti, yet it preserves always a distinct facies 
which enables us at a glance to detect it, and no intermedi- 
ate or transition forms are seen to indicate that it may pass 
into P. Pluckeneti. It would seem then to be entitled to rank 
as a distinct species. The characters may be given as fol- 
lows : 

Pecopteris Germari. 

(Frond quadripinnate, elongate-elliptical in outline ; sec- 
ondary pinnae, linear-lanceolate, inserted under an angle of 
nearly 90°, stiff in aspect, with a broad flat rachis, which is 
marked by a raised woody ridge on each border, and a 
strongly striated, depressed central portion ; tertiary pin- 
nae, linear to oblong, inserted at an angle of 45°, slightly 
decurrent and in the lower portions of the frond cut into 
from 5 to 7 pairs of rotundate, subquadrate or broadly 
spatulate pinnules in the middle portions ; these pinnules 
pass into rounded lobes, which become less and less defined 
until the pinnse of this order pass in the terminal part of 
the frond into pinnules ; nerves diverging flabellately in the 
pinnules or segments, being composed of lateral nerves 
which fork once, and are nearly as strong as the middle 
nerve. ) 

The parenchyma of the plant seems to have been thick 
and dense, for it leaves a smooth shining film of carbona- 
ceous matter. The nerves seem to have been imbedded in 
the parenchyma, hence they are usually difficult to make 
out. On macerated specimens they are seen to be rather 
slender and sharply defined. 

This plant, which is one of the most beautiful in the en- 


tire flora of the Coal Measures, has a considerable resem- 
blance to Sphenopteris nummularia, Gutb., and aj^proaches 
still more nearly to Pecopteris pinnatifida, (Gutbier) Gein. 
which, as is known, is a rare Permian plant. 

It is found also at Cassville at the same horizon, and here 
the forms showing distinct pinnules on tlie ultimate pinnae 
are more common. PL XIX, Fig. 6, represents a more 
finely divided form. 

F. Ger7nai% Variety crassinerms. PL XX, Fig. 5. 

Fig. 5, plate XX, represents a form of Pecopteris so closely 
allied to P. Germari, that we have thought it best to con- 
sider it only as a variety of this species. It is distinguished 
from the typical form by its very thick nerves, which are 
shown slightly enlarged in Fig. 5a. 

The pinnules have also a crenulated border, and the whole 
plant differs somewhat from P. Germari. Better and larger 
specimens may show it to be a distinct species. 

It is found associated with P. Germari in the roof shales 
of the Waynesburg Coal, at West Union, W. Va. 

P. Germari, Variety, cusiyidata. PL XX, Fig. 4. 

Figs. 4 and 4a, Plate XX, represents another form, al- 
lied to P. Germari, and found at West Union in the rich 
store of plants afforded by that locality. This plant dif- 
fers considerably from the forms on which the typical spe- 
cies is founded. 

The lobes of the pinnules are tipped with sharp, rigid 
teeth, which, in part at least, are due to the prolongation 
of the nerves beyond the jiarenchyma of the pinnules. 
These are usually three or four in number in each lobe. 
The most divergent forms have but a slight resemblance to 
P. Germari, but there are so many intermediate forms that 
we cannot separate it as a distinct species. It is found in 
the roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal at West Union, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris sub-falcata. Sp. nov., PL XXI, Figs. 1-2. 
(Frond bi]3inate ; x^rimary pinnae large, triangular in out- 


line, with a stout and rough rachis ; secondary pinnae long, 
narrow and pointed, alternate, departing from the main 
rachis under an angle of 60° ; secondary rachis, terete, 
straight, and rather strong ; pinnules, rounded at the apex, 
slightly falcate, alternate, all inclined forward, or obliquely 
inserted, and decurrent ; primary nerve of the pinnules 
slender, but distinct ; secondary, or lateral nerves, diverg- 
ing at an acute angle, forking once near the insertion, and 
each branch, or only one, again forking before reaching the 

This plant seems to stand about midway between Pecop- 
teris and CalUpterldium. for it has some of the features of 
the latter genus in its nervation. The primary nerve how- 
ever does not split up soon enough to form a true Callip- 
teridium. 'The Pecopteris nearest allied to it is probably 
P. pteroides, Brongt., from which it differs in its long, 
pointed j)innse, and also in the shape, insertion, and ner- 
vation of the pinnules. It resembles some of the Rhaetic 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris rarinerms. Sp. nov., PL XX, Figs. 6, 7 and 8. 

(Frond bipinnate ; primary rachis slender and smooth ; 
pinnae alternate, linear-lanceolate, and going off at nearly 
a right angle ; secondary rachis, slender and rigid ; pin- 
nules alternate, short, ovate, rounded at the apex, united 
for a short distance above the base in the lowest ones, and 
becoming more united as we pass up towards the summit 
of the frond, where the pinnae pass into pinnules of linear 
shape, with undulate margins ; primary nerve of the 23in- 
nules distinct, and somewhat fiexuous ; secondary nerves 
few, passing off at an acute angle, and forking dichoto- 

The nervation of this plant is similar to that of Pecopteris 
Bredovi, Germar. The primary nerve is more distinct in 
our plant, and the facies differs somewhat from that of 
Germar' s species. 


Htibitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris imbricata. Sp. nov., PL XXIII, Fig. 1. 

(Frond tripinnate, and large, with a stout and rough pri- 
marj'- rachis ; pinnae alternate, and going off at nearly a 
right angle, linear-lanceolate, and terminated by an obo- 
vute, or oblong-elliptical pinnule ; pinnules apparently im- 
bricated by the adjacent edges nearly to their summits. 
Very obtuse at the apex ; middle nerve well defined, side 
nerves simple, and passing off at an angle of about 45°. 

The basal pinnule on the lowest side is often inserted 
partly, and sometimes almost wholly, on the primary 

This plant resembles very much P. adiantoides^ L. & H. 
in some of its features, but differs from it in the imbrica- 
tion of the pinnules, in the mode of departure of the lateral 
nerves from the median nerves of the pinnules, and in its 
more densely crowded appearance. The pinnae themselves 
are often imbricated. 

Habitat.^ — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris asplenioides^ Sp. nov., PL XXV, Fig. 1. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary rachis, strong and rough ; 
pinnae, close, and densely crowded, alternate, and going oft" 
at nearly a right angle ; pinnule, alternate, ovate-oblong, 
and slightly contracted at the base, crowded closely to- 
gether on the strong secondary rachis ; primary nerves of 
the pinnules well marked, and extending to the a^iex ; sec- 
ondary or lateral nerves going off at an acute angle, fork- 
ing once near the insertion, and each branch forking again 
near the margin of the xjinnule ; fertile pinnules on the 
same pinnae intermingled with the sterile ones ; fructifica- 
tion, arranged in two rows, composed of linear- elliptical 
sori which are inclined to the mid-nerve at an angle of about 
60°, and extend from it to the margin of the pinnule.) 

The sori appear to be placed on the lateral nerves. The 
resemblance of the fructification to that of Asplenium has 


given the name to the species. The intermingling of fertile 
and sterile pinnules is a rare feature. 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Pecoptejis rotundlfolia, Sp. nov., PL XXIV, Fig. 6. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary pinnae, lanceolate in outline, 
with a slender and somewhat llexuous rachis ; secondary 
pinnse, linear, alternate, and going off at nearly a right 
angle, with slender rachis ; pinnules, short, rounded, united 
in the upper portion of the frond for some distance above 
their attachments, separate in the lower portions ; mid- 
nerve, slightly Hexuous, and not strongly marked ; lateral 
nerves, passing off at an acute angle, forking once near the 
margin of the pinnule or lobe, and arching slightly up- 
wards. ) 

Some forms of this plant have a slight resemblace to P. 
concinna^ Lesqx. in the mode of nervation, but in our 
plant the lateral nerves fork, while in P. concinna they are 
mostly simple. 

Habitat. — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Pecopteris platynerols, Sp. nov., PL XVIII, Figs. 1-6. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary rachis, strong, rough, and 
marked with pointed dot-like elevations ; secondary pinnae, 
alternate, linear-lanceolate, going off at nearly a right 
angle ; secondary rachis, stout at the insertion, but taper- 
ing rather rapidly to the apex, where it is rather slender ; 
pinnules, short, oblong, obtusely rounded at the apex, sep- 
arate to the base in the lower and middle portions of the 
frond, becoming more and more united toward the summit, 
until they pass through pinnules with lobed and undulate 
borders finally into simple pinnules of the normal form ; 
mid-nerve of the i^innules well marked and distinct to the 
apex ; lateral nerves broad and flat, usually forking just at 
the point of insertion, thence diverging, without branching 
and almost without arching, to the margin, thus foi'ming a 


V shaped figure ; in tlie lowest portion of the frond one 
branch again divides before reaching the margin.) 

Tliis plant varies a good deal in appearance according to 
the portion of the frond from which the specimen comes. It 
. has always a peculiar rigid asx:)ect. It is allied to P. oreop- 
teridla, Brongt., but differs in the broad lateral nerves and 
their peculiar mode of diverging from the midnerve, and in 
the more gradual passage of pinnae into pinnules toward 
the summit of the frond. 

Figs. 6, 6a, 65, PI. XXVIII, show normal and magnified 
forms of a i)inna and pinnules from the lower portion of 
the frond where the pinnules are larger and have the lateral 
nerves more complex than in the usual form. PI. 18, Fig. 
25, shows the peculiar flat lateral nerves as seen under a lens 
when they are shown to consist of two consolidated bundles 
of nerves instead of one, as is usually the case in these lat- 
eral nerves. These two fibres, closely placed side by side, 
give the nerves their broad character. Fig. 1, PI. 18, repre- 
sents a segment of the middle portion of a primary pinna ; 
Fig. 2 of the same plate a portion nearer the end, and Pigs. 
4 and 5 the extremity of the same pinna. Fig. 3 is probably 
a primary pinna near the summit of the frond. 

The distribution of this plant is somewhat i^eculiar. At 
Cassville it is confined to the seam of shale which separates 
the highest layer of coal from the main mass, and has not 
certainly been seen above or below this 12 inch bed of shale. 
It occurs nowhere else, apparently, in the Upper Measures, 
but is found here in immense quantities. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris rotundiloba^ Sp, nov., PI. XVII, Fig. 2. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary rachis rather thick ; second- 
ary pinnae, going off at an acute angle with a slender rachis ; 
pinnules alternate linear with rounded lobes ; primarj^ nerve 
rather strong, and divided into nervules towards the end ; 
nerves of the lobes mostly simple, and going off acutely 
from a well marked midnerve. In the terminal lobe, wliich 
is the largest, the midnerve divides dichotomously.) 


Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris Schimperiana. Sp. nov. PI. XXIV, Figs. 1-5. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary racliis stout, and rather 
rough • secondary pinnse alternate, linear-lanceolate, taper- 
pointed, going off at nearly a right angle ; pinnules, short- 
ovate, or triangular in outline, alternate, decurrent, and 
united near the base in the lower pinnae, and more and 
more united as we pass towards the summit of the frond, 
or of the pinnae ; texture, thick and leathery ; mid-nerve, 
strong and flexuous, extending to the apex ; lateral nerves 
stout, and forking dichotoraously in a straggling manner. 
The branches all being deflexed, so as to meet the margin 
of the pinnules almost under a right angle.) 

This plant is one of the most distinctly characterized ones 
that we have met with in the Upper Carboniferous tlora. 
It shows two forms, which present a somewhat different 
facies, viz : that given in Figs. 2, 1, 3 and 5, and the one 
depicted in Fig. 4. The first form has more acute pinnules, 
which, in small pinnae near the summit of the frond, become 
quite pointed. The form given in Fig. 4, has obtuse, falcate 
pinnules. This if seen alone might be taken as a dis- 
tinct species, or at least variety ; but the peculiar nerva- 
tion of the form first described is possessed by this also, 
and the presence of intermediate links forbid the separation 
of the two. 

This species in several features closely resembles Brong- 
niart's P. Sulziana, from the base of the Trias, as figured 
in the Hist. d. Veg. Foss., p. 225, Tab. CV, Fig. 4. It is 
possible that the change of facies seen in Fig. 4 is caused 
by the fact that this portion of the plant comes from the 
top of the frond. Fig. 2 shows a fragment from the lower 
part of the plant, where the triangular pinnules begin to 
show a tendency to become lobed, as if about to form new 
divisions. It is probable that still lower these may pass 
into pinnatifid pinnae. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, AVest Virginia. 


Pecopteris 'pachypteroides. Sp. nov., PL XXVI, Figs. 1^. 

(Frond, trij)innate ; iDrimary rachis, rather stout ; second- 
jiry pinnae, alternate, somewhat remote, having a narrowly 
winged, somewhat flexuoas rachis ; tertiary pinnae (pin- 
nules) numerous, alternate, very obliquely inserted on the 
rachis, and cut into 6-10 pairs of lobes ; mid-rib broad and 
leather-like ; lobes of the pinnules dense and coriaceous, 
with an indistinct mid-nerve, from which lateral nerves pass 
in a ]Dinnate manner, but are obscurely shown, apparently 

The texture of the X3innules is so dense, and the nerves 
are so deeply hurried in the leaf substance, that the details 
of the nervation cannot be made out clearly. The lobes of 
the pinnules have a ^Deculiar falcate or hooked form in the 
middle and upjDer part of the frond. In the lower portion 
they become crenate, as is shown in Pig. \a. 

Figs. Ic and \b are enlarged pinnules from the middle 
and npper part of the frond, and show the form of the lobes 
there. Fig. 4 represents a detached terminal portion of a 
compound pinna. 

Some of the forms of this plant have a strong resemblance 
to P. dentata, Brongt., but the plant is more finely cut and 
slender, while the decurrent pinnules and winged rachis are 
not found in P. dentata. It has a strong resemblance to 
Pachypteris^ Brongt. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris angustipinna, Sp. nov., PL XXVII, Figs. 1-3. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary pinnae, triangular in outline ; 
primary rachis strong and arborescent ; secondary pinnae, 
elongate-linear, narrow, alternate and thickly set; second- 
ary rachis stout and rigid ; pinnules ovate-obtuse, slightly 
inclined forward or falcate, united at the base, the amount 
of union increasing toward the summit of the frond ; pa- 
renchyma dense and leather-like ; basal pinnule on the 
lower side, often j)artly inserted on the primary rachis ; 
mid-nerve well defined ; lateral nerves going oif at an acute 
angle and forked.) 


This plant resembles P. arborescens somewhat; but the 
union of the pinnules, the nervation, and the insertion of the 
pinnules distinguish it from that species. It was evidently 
a very fleshy plant, as the nerves are usually so deeply 
buried that they are seen with difficulty. 

Habitat.— Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, West Virginia. 

Pecopteris Heeriana, Sp. nov., PL XXY, Figs. 3-7. 

(Frond, tripinnate; secondary pinnse, alternate, somewhat 
flexuous, going off at nearly a right angle ; pinnules, 
slightly falcate, remotely placed and decurrent on the 
rachis, so as to render it distinctly winged ; lowest j^innule 
on the lowest side, often inserted partly on the principal 
rachis ; pinnules on the lower portion of the plant, notched 
or lobed ; mid-nerve, well defined and extending to the apex 
of the pinnule ; lateral nerves, going off at an acute angle, 
forming 4 or 5 pairs, simple ; fructification, composed of 
numerous shield-shaped sori covering the surface of the 
pinnule. ) 

The texture of the pinnules is thick and leather-like, usu- 
ally obscuring the nerves. The plant presents a type un- 
usual in the Carboniferous strata, but characteristic of the 
Rhaetic flora. It belongs to Schimper's section of Pecop- 
teris acrostichides, and recalls forcibly the appearance of 
Pecopteris Williamsoni,Brongt., both in the form of the pin- 
nules, and in the character of thefructiflcation. Named in 
honor of Dr. Oswald Heer of Zurich. 

Habitat, — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Pecopteris tenuinerms. Sp. nov., PI. XXYIII, Figs. 1-4. 

(Frond, trij)innate; primary rachis, strong, and somewhat 
rigid ; secondary pinnffi, linear-lanceolate, alternate, closely 
placed, becoming gradually shorter towards the apex of the 
primary pinna, thus giving this a triangular outline ; pin- 
nules very shoi't, narrow and alternate, the lowest one, on 
the lower side, always heteromorphous, it having a crenu- 
late margin, and being larger than the rest ; pinnules to- 


ward the lower part of the plant, all longer and larger than 
the normal ones, and possessing rounded lobes; pinnules of 
the middle portion (normal pinnules), small, oblong, ob- 
tusely rounded at the end; pinnules near the summit of the 
same shape, but very minute ; mid-nerve, well-defined, but 
slender ; lateral nerves, all very delicate, those in the lower 
lobed pinnules twice forked, those in the central portion of 
the plant once forked a short distance above their insertion ; 
fructification, consisting of two rows of rounded or slightly 
elliptical sori, raised like mamillse, placed on each side of the 
mid-nerve, and covering the greater portion of the surface 
of the pinnule.) 

The texture of the plant seems to have been pretty dense, 
and the compression of the slender nerves in this thick 
substance causes them usually to have a peculiar entangled 
appearance. The sori are so closely placed, that they often 
appear to be imbricated. Fig. 1 represents the x)innules 
from the lower part of the plant, where they appear to tend 
to pass into pinnae. The general facies of the plant resem- 
bles the more delicately cut forms of P. arborescens, but 
the points of difference are well marked and constant. 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Pecopteris Merianiopteroides. Sp. nov., PL XXIX, Figs. 

(Frond, tripinnate; primary pinnae, triangular in outline; 
secondary pinnae, linear-lanceolate, going off at almost a 
right angle ; pinnules, obtusely ovate, united at the base, 
and inclined slightly forward ; mid-nerve well defined, lat- 
eral nerves numerous, once forking, and departing under 
an acute angle, those from the lower side of the pinnule 
passing off from the attachment of the pinnule to the 
rachis. ) 

The general facies of the plant, together with its nerv- 
ation, very much resemble the form described by Heer in 
his "Trias u. Jura. Pflanzen," on which he founded the new 
genus of Merianiopteris, hence the name w^e have given it. 


Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia, and Carmichiael's, Pennsylvania. 

Pecopteris ovokles. Sp. nov., PL XXIX, Fig. 3. 

(Frond, tripinnate; primar}' pinnae, tapering rapidly to 
the summit ; secondary pinnae, alternate, placed thickly, 
and going off from the primary rachis at an acute angle ; 
pinnules, ovate, united at the base ; mid-nerve, strong ; lat- 
eral nerves, making yery acute angle w^ith the mid-nerve, 
forming 6 or 7 pairs only, simple.) 

Habitat. — Chocolate shales, 400 feet above the Waynes- 
burg Coal, Bellton, Marshall county, West Virginia. 

Pecopteris lanceolata. Sp. nov. PL XXIX, Figures 7, 8 
and 9. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; secondary i^innse, alternate, some- 
what crowded ; pinnules, lanceolate, united for some dis- 
tance, and curving slightly forwards ; mid-nerve distinct ; 
lateral nerves few in number, going off almost at a right 
angle, simple.) 

This beautiful little plant has some resemblance to Pe- 
copteris Unita, Brongt., but the pinnules are more delicate 
than those in that species, and have a characteristic for- 
ward inclination not seen in P. unita. 

Habitat.— A shale at Bellton, 400 feet above the Waynes- 
burg Coal; and at Mounds ville, West Virginia, at the ho- 
rizon of the Waynesburg Coal. 

Pecopteris latifoUa. Sp. nov., PL XXIX, Figs. 5-6. 

(Frond, tripinnate; principal rachis strong; secondary 
pinnae very closely set, alternate ; secondary rachis very 
stout ; pinnules united at the base, broad, bluntly ovate ; 
mid-nerve well marked ; lateral nerves going off at an acute 
angle, and once forking near the insertion. ) 

This plant has a large vertical range, as w^e find it at Cass- 
ville, in the roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, and also 
at Bellton, West Virginia, 400 feet above the Cassville ho- 


Pecopteris incllnata. Sp. nov., PL XXIX, Fig. 4. 

(Frond, bi-trii)i3innate; pinnse small and delicate; pin- 
nules bluntly lanceolate, separate, alternate, and inserted 
on the racliis at a very acute angle ; mid-nerve well defined, 
and extending to the apex ; lateral nerves few, simple, and 
going off at an angle of 45°.) 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris, Species ? PI. XXVII, Fig. 5. 

Fig. 5. PI. XXVII, represents a form of Pecopteris that 
we find in fragmentary specimens at Cassville, in the roof 
shales of the Waynesburg Coal, associated with Goniop- 
teris einarginata, Scliimp., which in the texture and taper- 
ing nature of pinnse somewhat resembles what we might 
suppose the lower pinnse of this Goniopteris to be; but the 
forking lateral nerves of the pinnules, their slight union, 
and falcate form show that it is a different plant. It is 
very probably a new species, but as we have not se'en any 
larger specimens than the one figured, we cannot fix Avith 
sufficient certainty its specific character, and hence forbear 
to give it a name. 

Pecopteris Species f PI. XXVII, Fig. 4. 

In Fig. 4, PI. XXVII, we give a small fragment of a 
plant which very much resembles P. sub-falcata, F. & W., 
but the insertion of the pinnules is quite different from 
that in the latter plant, and the mid-nerve, which in P. sub- 
falcata is rather slender, is here very thick, especially to- 
wards its base. It may represent a new species, but as yet 
we have not sufficient material to fix its specific character. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris goniopteroides. Sp. nov., PL XXV, Fig. 2. 

(Frond, tri-pinnate; principal rachis very stout; second- 
ary pinnse alternate, narrow, almost linear, going off at 
nearly a right angle ; secondary rachis quite slender ; pin- 
nules united to near the middle, ovoid, inclined forward ; 


median nerve slender, but distinctly marked ; lateral 
nerves ascending under a very acute angle, producing a 
flabellate nervation, forking once near tlie middle of the 
pinnule, the two lowest adjoining pairs from each pinnule 
arching up abruptly towards the sinus, so as to leave tri- 
angular spaces destitute of nerves, as in Goniopteris, or 
Cymogiossa, to both of which genera it has a strong re- 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the AVaynesburg Coal, Cassville. 
West Virginia. 

Pecopteris Spf PL XXIV, Fig. 7. 

This beautiful little fragment is well marked, and dis- 
tinct from all species known to us, so far as the portion of 
tlie frond shown in the specimen can determine this. The 
pinnae are slender, obliquely placed, and cut into rounded 
ovate lobes, which are directed forwards. The free lower 
margin of the lobes is much longer than the upx)er ; the 
rachis of the pinnae is very slender ; the lobes have a slen- 
der mid-rib, furnished w^ith simple lateral nerves, which go 
off so as to be directed toward the end of the j^innule. 

The plant resembles a Goniopteris. Though so well 
marked we have thought it best not to fix the species on so 
small a fragment. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

GonioptePkIS, Presl, emend. Al. Braun. 

The plants of the genus Goniopteris, as limited by Schim- 
per, are among the most characteristic ones of the Upper 
Carboniferous. They are in some localities very abundant, 
and form one of the features by which the flora of the 
higlier strata is distinguished from that of lower horizons. 
No species of the genus is found in West A^irginia below 
the horizon of the Pittsburg Coal. It occurs in all hori- 
zons from tlie AVaynesburg Coal up to 800 feet above it, 
and near the top of the Upper Barren Group. 


Goniopteris emarginata (Groepp) Schimp. 

This species was found by Biinbury in the Prostburg 
Coal Basin. We have in our remarks on Pecopteris ellip- 
tica stated that it is probable that the horizon of the 
Waynesburg Coal is exposed in that Basin in Maryland. 
It is found in W. Va. throughout the entire thickness of 
the Upper Barrens, at the following localities : roof-shales 
of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, W. Va. and red 
shales at Bellton, Marshall Co. 800 feet above the Waynes- 
burg Coal. The plant is not quite so large as Goeppert's, 
but in other respects it is identical. The pinnules of our 
plant, and especially the forms found at the Bellton lo- 
cality, are shorter than those of the typical species. 

Goniopteris elegans^ (^Germ.j Schimp. 

A few fragments of this plant have been seen in the roof- 
shales of the Waynesburg Coal at Cassville, and their 
identity with Germar's species is unquestionable, since the 
fragments in question are distinct, and almost fac-similes 
of the typical plant. 

Goniopteris longifolia, (Brongt.) Schimp. 

A few fragments of this beautiful little x^lant were recog- 
nized in the roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal at Cass- 
ville, W. V. A detached pinna 6 inches long was seen, in 
which the end was not preserved. The parenchyma was 
evidently thick and leather-like, and the specimens have a 
smooth shining appearance. 

Goniopteris arguta (Brongt.) Schimp. 

This species is quite abundant both at Cassville and at 
West Union, in the roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal. 
It is slightly changed from the type given by Brongt., hav- 
ing somewhat longer pinnules or segments, which taper 
rather more towards their apex. The nerves are also rather 
stronger than those of the typical plant. Our plant rather 
resembles Geinitz' s figures for this s2:»ecies, given in his Stein. 
V. Sachs, than those of Brongt. 


Ooniopteris elliptica, Sp. nov., PI. XXX, Fig. 1. 

(Frond, bipinmite; pinnae closely placed ; racliis slender 
and somewhat llexiious ; pinnnles alternate, narrow, ellip- 
tical, and somewhat acute, united too neai* the middle ; mid- 
nerve well marked, slender and extending to the apex ; 
lateral nerves simple, about 6 on a side, the lowest pairs of 
adjacent nerves usually meeting at an acute angle, and all 
going off at an angle of somewhat less than 45"".) 

Habitat. — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Goniopteris Species f PL XV II, Fig, 6. 

This fragment of a pinna was found in the Roof-shales of 
the Waynesburg Coal at Cassville, W. Va. and resembles 
the plant figured by Prof. Lesquereux on Plate XIII, Fig. 
12 Illinois Report, and referred by him to Pecopterls {Go- 
niopteris) arguta. Our plant is fruiting, as is that of Prof. 
Lesquereux. This plant does not agree with the typical 
form of G. arguta, which we find at the same locality, and 
it is probable that it should be referred to a new species. 

Goniopteris obloiiga, Sp. nov., PI. XXX, Figs. 3-5. 

(Frond, bipinnate; primary rachis rough and stout; pin- 
pse toward the base of the frond alternate, closely placed, 
going off at angle above 45°, arching downward slightly, 
with a rigid aspect, linear-hmceolate ; pinnules, alternate, 
crowded, rounded at the apex, united to near the middle ; 
in ascending, more and more united; terminal pinnules, 
nnited to the summit; lowest pinnule on the lower side, 
more or less deflexed ; pinnae toward the summit of the 
frond, becoming shorter in ascending, with lol)es less and 
less defined, until they pass into pinnules with undulate 
margins ; mid-nerve strong and extending to the apex of 
the lobe ; lateral nerves simple, going off at an acute angle, 
the lowest pair anastomosing with the corresponding pair 
of the adjacent lobes at the sinus.) 

Habitat. — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, W. Va. 


Ooniopteris Newberriana^ Sp. nov., PL XXX, Fig. 2. 

(Frond, tripinnatifid; primary pinnae, triangular in out- 
line, tapering rapidly toward tlie apex; rachis, rather stout 
and rigid ; secondar}^ pinnse (pinnules), alternate, linear- 
lanceolate, narrow, closely placed and going off at almost a 
riglit angle with the primary rachis, cut into numerous 
ovate-acute segments or lobes, which are minutely dentate 
and become narrower, more acute and more united toward 
the summit of the pinnse; mid-nerve, well defined; lateral 
nerves, passing off into each segment or lobe, from which 
branches proceed in a pinnate manner, one into each tooth, 
the lower pair of branches j^roceeding to meet the corre- 
sponding branches of the adjacent segments at the sinus, 
but not uniting with them.) 

This beautiful and finely cut plant has a thick coriaceous 
leaf subst-ance which leaves a shining film on the stone. It 
differs slightly from the typical Gonioi^terids in the lowest 
pair of nerves failing to anastomose with their neighbors, 
but its features in all other points corresponds so fully with 
those of the genus that we do not feel justified in se^Darat- 
ing it from Goniopteris. It is much like Pecopteris arguta 
of Brongt., Schimper's Goniopteris arguta. but much more 
finely cut, and is also smaller. It is named in honor of Dr. 
J. S. Newberry, the distinguished palseobotanist of Colum- 
bia College. 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, West 
Union, W. Va. 

Cymoglossa, Schimper. 

The genus Cymoglossa was founded by Schimper on the 
Pecop)teris Goepperti of Morris, a plant from the Permian 
of Russia. According to Schimper it includes plants with 
the facies of Goniopteris, but having the tertiary or ulti- 
mate nerves of the lobes or pinnules in large part forked. 
He gives the following as the generic character : 

"Frond pinnate; pinnse, broadh^ oblong, or elongate- 
lingulate, undulate (whence the name ; glossa, tongue, 


Tcuma, wave) margin, with short round lobes. Nerves of 
the united pinnules, leaving the rachis of the pinnse under 
an acute angle, arcuate-diverging, alternate ; secondary 
nerves of the pinnules (tertiary of the pinna), arising at a 
very acute angle, numerous, all verging towards the margin 
of the pinna, the two lowest anastomosing at the sinus of 
the lobules with their neighbors, simple, forming with the 
rachis a long triangle destitute of nerves, the others reach- 
ing the margin of the lobule, simple, and forked." 

As this generic character is based on a single species, and 
since we have several plants which have the essential fea- 
tures of the genus, but differ in the nervation from Goni- 
opteris too much to be included in the latter genus, we 
think it proper to amend rhe generic character, as given by 
Schimper, so as to include the plants found by us. As 
amended we would have the following : 

Frond, pinnate or bipinnate ; pinnae, linear-elongate, or 
elongate-oblong; undulate, or pinnatifid; mid-nerve of the 
united pinnules, leaving the rachis under an acute angle, 
alternate ; lateral nerves, rising at a very acute angle, all 
verging upwards towards the margin of the pinnules, the 
two lowest uniting with or meeting the corresj)onding ones 
of the preceding and following pinnules at the sinus of the 
lobes, simple or forked, and forming with the principal 
rachis a triangular area destitute of nerves, the others reach- 
ing the margin of the lobes, simple or forked. 

Cymoglossa ohtusifolia. Sp. nov., PI. XXXI, Figs. 5-6. 

(Frond, bipinnate ; pinnae, long, narrow, and tapering 
gradually to the summit, sessile, with a cordate appearance 
at the base, produced by the projecting downwards of the 
lowest pair of lobes or united pinnules; rachis, rather strong 
and pilose ; pinnules, ovate or elliptical, obtuse, united to 
near the apex, rather tieshy, the lower pair heteromorphous, 
larger than the normal ones, and slightly deflexed ; primary 
nerves, distinctly marked, slender ; lateral nerves, very dis- 
tinct, but slender, leaving the median nerve under an acute 
angle, arching upwards towards the margin of tlie pinnules, 
normally simj)le, but frequently forking; the lowest pair. 


simple, anastomosing with the corresponding ones of the 
adjoining pinnules, forming triangular spaces devoid of 
nerves; lateral nerves of the heteromorphous lower pinnules, 
more complex than on the lower side of the pinnules, fork- 
ing occasionally twice, and all on the upper side once fork- 

The facies of this plant is much like that of Goniopteris 
eviarglnaia (Goepp.) Schimp. but the forking nerves re- 
move it from that genus, as limited by Schimper. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Cymoglossa hreinloba. Sp. nov., PL XXXI, Fig. 3. 

(Frond, bipinnate ; pinnae short, oblong, sessile, and 
slightly contracted at the base, alternate, inserted at a 
right angle with the primary rachis; margin slightly lobed, 
or only undulate; nerves passing off very acutely in groups 
into the segments or pinnules, which by their union com- 
pose the pinnules or pinnae, all reaching the margin, fork- 
ing, and simple, the two lowest anastomosing with the 
corresponding ones of the adjoining segments at the sinus 
of the lobes, and forming long, curved, triangular areas 
without nerves.) 

This beautiful fern corresponds closely with the typical 
plant of Schimper, Cymoglossa Goeppertiana^ but is a 
smaller plant, and tlie one of the anastomosing nerves 
nearer the end of the pinnule is generally forked and 
unites with its neighbors by one branch. The texture is 
dense and leather-like, and the nerves, though rather 
slender, are very distinct and sharj^ly outlined. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Cymoglossa formosa. Sp. nov., PL XXXI, Figs. 1-2. 

(Frond, bipinnatiiid ; pinnae long, linear, and tapering 
slowly to the extremity; rachis, rigid, rather slender, and 
marked by a raised, cord-like line along each margin; 
united pinnules or segments, oblong-lanceolate, terminating 
acutely, and dentately lobed ; mid-nerve of the segments 


going off at an acute angle, somewhat arcuately diverging, 
strong and rigid, extending to tlie a^^ex ; lateral nerves 
thick and rigid, leaving at an acute angle, verging upwards 
and passing into each tooth, forking near the extremity, 
the two adjoining lowest ones of adjacent segments meeting 
abruptly, and interlacing, forming the usual triangular 
space withtmt nerves.) 

This i^l^nt has a close reseml)lance with Goniopteris 
arguta (Brongt.) Schimp., especially the plant figured for 
this species bv Geinetz, in his Steinkohl. von Sachs, but 
its strong forking nerves and thick parenchyma distinguish 
our plant. In Fig. 2, PI. XXXI, we depict a pinna as found 
near a fragment of a stem, which is most probably a por- 
tion of the primary rachis to which were attached the iso- 
lated pinnae, which are the only forms found. This frag- 
ment is stout, rigid, and smooth, agreeing well with what 
we would expect to be the racliis of a primary pinna. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Cymoglossa lobata. Sp. nov.. PL XXXI. Fig. 4. 

(Frond, simply pinnate ; ratlier slender and delicate ; 
pinnules oblong, crenately lobed, or undulate ; primary 
nerve strong, and distinctly marked ; lateral nerves passing- 
off at an acute angle, and branching dichotomously,- so as 
to form a iiabellate group in segment of the pinnule, the 
lowest branch on adjacent sides of two groups meeting at 
the sinus near the margin of the pinnules and forming tri- 
angular areas without nerves.) 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Alethopteris, Sternb. 

This genus is remarkable for the rarity of its occurrence 
in the Upper Carboniferous. We have seen but two species 
above the Pittsburg Coal, and this at only one locality. In 
the flora of the Lower Productive Measures, as well as in 


that of the Conglomerate group, this is one of the most 
abundant forms, forming almost the entire flora, as in the 
Sharon Coal of the Conglomerate of Pennsylvania. In 
species in the upj^er strata we have to note a total change 
of facies from the coarse large forms with strong and spar- 
ingly forked nerves found at lower horizons, to the type 
which approaches close to Callipteridium in nervation, 
while it is more slender, and shows a tendency to hetero- 

AlethopterisYirginiana^ Sp. nov., PI. XXXII, Figs. 1-5. 
PI. XXXIII, Figs. 1-4. 

(Frond, tripinnate ; primary rachis strong and rough ; 
primary pinnae triangular in outline, and tapering rapidly 
to the summit ; secondary pinnae, opposite or alternate, 
going off at nearly a right angle, long and tapering slowly, 
with a large and rather rigid rachis ; pinnules, alternate, 
separate below^ but united above, and becoming more so as 
we approach the summit of the primary pinnae where the 
pinnules have all united, and the ultimate pinnae are re- 
duced to long, undulate or lobed pinnules, which finally 
pass into simple j^innules of the normal kind ; the pinnules 
also coalesce towards the ends of the ultimate pinnae, and 
are often swollen at the base, as if by two sori, placed one 
on each side of the mid-nerve at the base, as shown in Fig. 
1, PI. XXXIII ; mid-nerve well marked, and extending to 
the apex ; lateral nerves numerous, closely placed, going off 
nearly at right angles with the rnid-nerve. Very fine, fork- 
ing once normally, or wdth one of the branches, (occasionally 
both) again forking, simple nerves occasionally interspersed, 
all proceeding nearly parallel to each other to the margin; 
lowest pinnule on each side of the base of the pinna., 
of the ultimate order, heteromorj^hoas by having the lower 
side of the pinnule lobed while the upper side is entire.) 

Fig. 2, PI. XXXIII, shoAvs a form from the lower part 
of the plant, where the pinnules have a tendency to become 
lobed ; and Fig. 2 shows this lobing in a more decided 
manner, thus causing the plant to tend to a quadripinnat- 
itid character. 


The pinn?e of the ultimate order in this plant were very 
long, for we have seen them incomplete and yet more than 
a foot in length. They must also have been very decidu- 
ous, for we find almost always only, detached pinnae. They 
lie by thousands in the shale, forming often all the plants 
found in a particular layer. 

The distribution of this plant is very peculiar at Cass- 
ville where it occurs. The Waynesburg Coal is divided 
into three benches, by two partings of shale, one near the 
middle and the other near the top of the bed, and above 
this last or second parting there is usually about 12 inches 
of coal. In the shale under this top or " roof coal," is the 
habitat of our plant. The shale itself is usually about 12 
inches thick, of line grain and well adapted to the preser- 
vation of plants. 

The Alethopteris occupies this shale, and excludes al- 
most entirely all other plants. Above the "roof -coal," in 
the roof-shales, where we find nearly all our other plants 
from this locality, we never find the Alethopteris, either 
here or elsewhere. It seems extinguished in the subsidence 
causing the deposit of this shale. The plant is very poly- 
morphous, so much so indeed, that but for the abundant 
material afforded, which enables us to obtain a number of 
intermediate forms, we would have been tempted to form 
several species out of this one. Fig. 1, PI. XXXIII, gives 
an enlarged form of the pinnules with swellings at the base, 
which we take for fructifications. Prof. Lesquereux, in the 
Illinois Report, Vol. IV, PI. 10, Fig. 6, gives a similar form 
of fructification, as shown in his Alethopteris injlata. 

Aletliopteris gigas, Gein. Plate XXXIII, Figs. 5 and 6. 

We give on PL XXXIII, in Figs. 5 and 6, a representation 
of a plant which in its general appearance cannot be distin- 
guished from A. gigas, Gein. It has the same shaped pin- 
nules, the same large and swollen looking mid-nerve of the 
pinnules, and the same general facies. The plant is found 
only in sandy shale, which does not x>i"eserve its lateral 
nerves, hence we cannot identify it positively with Geinitz's 


We find near Bellaire, Ohio, 20 feet below the Pittsburg 
Coal, a plant which resembles the one found in the Upi3er 
Barren Measures, but it is larger and stouter in every re- 
spect. In this the lateral nerves are preserved, and are 
coarse and single, or once forked; hence this is not A. gigas 
of the Permian. The resemblance of this plant to the one 
now in question throws some doubt on the identity of the 
Upper Barrens' plant with the Permian form. But for the 
possibility that the Bellaire species has ascended into the 
Upper Strata, we should have no hesitation in identifying 
the plant at the higher horizon \vith A. gigas. 

Habitat. — Sandy shale, at Bellton, Marshall Co. 500 feet 
above the Wavnesburo- Coal. 

Taeniopteris, Brongt. 

The finding of Taeniopterids with a well marked Per- 
mian facies among the plants of the horizon of the Waynes- 
burg Coal, is a most significant indication of the important 
changes which the flora of the Carboniferous upper strata 
have undergone when compared with that of the horizons 
below the Pittsburg Coal. No plants of such a type have 
been found at any lower horizon. 

A still more interesting feature is the discovery of fruit- 
ing forms of this genus, which show the character of the 
fructification, hitherto unknown, in the most unmistakable 

Scliimx^er has separated the genus Oleandridiwm from 
Taeniopteris, taking apparently as his ty^e species Taeiil- 
02:)teris Ylttata, Brongt. He gives no reason for sei3arating 
T. Yittata from the rest, or for founding a distinct genus 
''Oleandridium." Had he defined this genus better we would 
perhaps find ourselves compelled to 23lace our fruiting plant 
in it, as this form is much like Oleandra in form and ner- 
vation, and besides, possesses a fructification not unlike 
Oleandra, in position at least, and arrangement. We place 
all our forms provisionally in the genus Taeniopteris. 


Taenioptefls Lescuriana, Sp. nov., PI. XXXIV, Fig. 9. 

(Frond, simple, broad, elongate ; mid-rib, rather strong 
and rough ; lateral nerves, rather remote, somewhat numer- 
ous, going off from the mid-rib at an acute angle, forking 
once near the insertion, each branch usually forking again 
a short distance from the mid rib, arching strongly outward 
so as to pass to the margin at right angles to it; sometimes 
the branches fork near the margin, but rarely.) 

As will be seen from the figure, the specimen given is 
only a fragment in which the margin of the part seen is not 
preserved. The part of the lamina preserved is 4 c. m.'s 
wide, and the entire plant must have been 10 cms. wide, 
as not one half is shown in the figure. 

The nearest relative of our plant seems to be Taeiiiopterls 
multinerms of Weiss, Flor. d. jiinst Steink, u. d. Roth. 
Tab. 81, Fig. 13. 

Our plant however is larger, has a more slender mid-rib 
and few lateral nerves, with a different mode of forking, 
though the departure from the mid-ribs is similar. 

Our 2:)lant resembles in size and form the Macrotaeniop- 
terids of the Rhaetic and Oolite, and may be the ancestor 
of those found in the Ri(3hmond coal field. 

It has a remarkably strong resemblance to Macrotaeniop- 
teris (Schenk) gigantea of the Rhaetic, as figured by Sclienk 
in his " Foss. Flor. d. Grensch," PI. XXVIII, Fig. 12, both 
in the nervation as shown in the lower part of Schenk' s fig- 
ure in the size of the mid-rib and in the probable dimen- 
sions; for in our plant the width could not have been much 
less than that of M. gigantea. 

Our plant is named in honor of Prof. Leo Lesquereux, 
who has done so much to advance the science of palseo- 

Habitat.— Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville. West Virginia. 

TaenioiDteris Newherrlana. Sp. nov., PL XXXIV, Figs. 

(Frond, simple, elongate, narrowly elliptical, tapering 
slowly to the apex and base; mid-rib, of medium size, tap- 
ering gradually from the base to the apex of the frond ; 


sterile fronds, about 2| cms. wide, and 20 cms. long; leaf- 
substance, rather thick and coriaceous, having a smooth, 
shining, carbonaceous lilm; lateral nerves, very fine, closely 
placed, and immersed in the parenchyma of the frond, 
leaving the mid-rib at a right angle, or with a very slight 
arch immediately at the insertion, mostly simple, but fre- 
quently branching once at irregular distances from the 
mid-rib, more rarely one or both of the branches again 
branching, all in a j)eculiar dichotomous manner, so that 
the nerves and branches continue parallel to each other to 
the margin ; fertile frond, usually much smaller than the 
sterile one, and narrower, entire near the base, cut into seg- 
ments which extend about half way to the mid-rib in the 
middle, and upper part of the frond; segments separated 
by very acute angled sinuses, round to truncate at the ex- 
tremity, void of nerves, and containing beneath the sinus 
oval sori, which are apjDarently attached by their broad 
base to a receptacle near the mid-rib; receptacle, ellii^tical, 
flattened on one side, and leaving on each side of the mid- 
rib a roAV of distinct impressions of the same shape.) 

The fertile frond contains two rows of broadly ovate sori, 
wliicli stand one on each side of the mid-rib, and are so 
placed that the axis of each sorus stands perpendicular to 
the mid-rib, and just under the sinus separating each pair 
of segments. The sori extend just up to the bottom of 
the sinus. The basal portion of the fertile frond is free 
from segmentation and fructification, and possesses nerves 
like the sterile frond. The segmented portion shows no 
nerves. The segmentation of a frond often begins before 
the appearance of the sori, as shown in the plant given in 
Fig. 7. Fig. 2 gives the normal form of the fruiting frond. 
Fig. 1 is the middle portion of a fertile frond. Fig. 3 shows 
the plant with the impressions left by the insertions of the 
base of the sori. 3a gives an enlarged representation of 
the impressions, and Fig. la of the sori, with their bases 
at the upper part of the figure. Neither the sterile nor the 
fertile fronds have been seen entire. Figs. 4, 5, and 6 give 
the base, middle portion, and end of the sterile frond. 

Macrotaeniopteris Rogersi, Schimp. of the Richmond 


coal field, contains, on specimens in our possession, ellip- 
tical depressions strikingly like the depressions seen on this 
plant, and shown in PlateXXXIV, Fig. 3. In the specimen 
from the Richmond coal the depressions are larger, and are 
placed in one row on tlie mid-rib. Prof. Wm. B. Rogers, 
however, in his description of this plant, says they often 
occur in two rows, one on each side of the mid-rib.' This 
form of fructification in Taeniopteris Newberriana, and 
the facies of T. Lescuriana, show that these Taeniopterids 
are probably the ancestors of the Macrotaeniopterids of the 

Our plant has a very considerable resemblance to T. co- 
riacea, Goeppert, but is larger. It also resembles T. vlttata, 
Brongt., in nervation and general form, but the mid-rib is 
flatter and more delicate. In general form, nervation, and 
in the position and arrangement of the sori, this plant is 
strikingly like Oleandra nereiformis^ Presl., from the Isl- 
and of Luzon, and this I'esemblance might call for the 
placing of it in the genus Oleandridium, Sch. if this were 
more distinctly defined. 

The segmentation of the fertile frond has a curious re- 
semblance to the pinnules of Pterophyllum, a plant which 
makes its appearance with well marked features in the 

Taeniopteris Newherriana, Var. angusta. PI. XXXIV, 
Fig. 8. 

We find with the normal broad form a narrower and 
smaller frond, which is also seen in fructification. This, in 
all points except size, is similar to the larger plant. It 
may perhaps be placed as a variety under T. Newhtrriana. 

RiiACOPiiYLLUM, Schimp. 

Rhacophyllumfiliciforuie, Var.majus. PL XXXV, Fig. 1. 

The plant figured in Fig. 11, PI. XXXV, resembles the one 
figured by Schimper, in Pal. Veg. Tab. XLVIII, Figs. 3- 
6, so mucli in its general aspect, that we consider it as only 
a variety of R. filiciforme. It is much larger than Schim- 


per's, and seems to possess more woody material in its 
ribs. Our plant is found associated with Pecopteris tenui- 
nervis, though it has never been seen attached to any plant. 
The frond and segments show no distinct nerves. Along 
the axis of the plant we find a sort of woody rib, which 
sends obscure ribs into the lobes, which dissolve in stria- 
tions. • The texture is fleshy. The Eremopterid facies and 
obscure nervation cause the plant to resemble the fine Glei- 
chenites Neesil of Goeppert, from the Permian of Europe. 

Schimper figures his plant as attached to the stijDe of P. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

RhaGophyllum lacinlatiuni. Sp. nov., PL XXXV, Fig. 2. 

(Frond, simple, smooth, tapering rapidly to the base or 
point of attachment, and presenting a cuneate outline ; la- 
ciniae, numerous, not deeply incised into the frond, and 
mostly simple, but in some cases again cut into segments ; 
nervation, not very distinct, nerves diverging flabellately 
from the base, forking frequently, branches passing into 
the laciniae.) 

This plant is most nearly allied with R. filiciforme 
(Gutb.) Schimp. but is less coriacious, and the nerves are 
more distinct. It is found attached to Pecopteris dentata. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cassville, 
West Virginia. 

Rhacophyllum lactuca, (Sternb.) Schimp. 

In the roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, at Cassville, 
West Union, W. Va. and at Carmichael's, Penn, we find 
kirge specimens of this plant. It seems to have been quite 

Rhacopliyllum spealocusimum., Schimp. (Schizopteris 
lactuca, (Presl.) Roehl.) 

We find several specimens of this splendid plant at Car- 
michael's, Penn. in the roof shales of the Waynesburg 


Coal, some of them 8 inches long, and 6-8 inches wide, in- 
dicating a form fully as large as the fine plant figured by 
Von Rdhl in his Foss. Flor. von Westp., Tab. XVIII. 

Caulopteeis, Lind et Hut. 

Caulojoteris elliptica. Sp. nov., PL XXXV, Figs. 4 
and 5. 

(Scars large, arranged in quincunx order, mostly ellipti- 
cal in outline, but some api)roaching an oval form ; outer 
surface of the bark ornamented by irregular pits, and 
punctate elevations, perhaps from the inseition of aerial 

Fig. 3 represents a single isolated scar which was found 
unconnected with others. It x^ossesses a somewhat different 
shape from those shown in Fig. 4, being oval, and it is 
also somewhat larger; it may belong to a different species, 
but as it has so much in common with those of Fig. 4, we 
do not separate them. 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Caulopteris gigantea. Sp. nov.,Pl. XXXVI, Fig. 1. 

(Caudex, rough, very large, and furrowed; cicatrice, very 
large, broadl}^ ellii^tical, not confluent at the extremities; 
vascular bundles, producing longitudinal furrows, and caus- 
ing a roughened or broken appearance at the extremities of 
the scars, or sometimes near their centers ; outer surface of 
the bark, ornamented witli rounded pits and elevations 
Fig. 5, PI. XXXV. 

This species is more closely allied with O. macrodiscus^ 
Corda, than with any other hitherto described species; but 
it differs from O. macrodiscus in the different shape and 
larger size of the scars. Both have smooth bordering spaces 
running around the scars like a frame. In our plant these 
are seen to have on the outer surface the markings given in 
Fig. 5. The smooth borders are apparently caused by im- 
pressions of the inner side of the bark surrounding the 


scars. It is probable that this may be the caudex of the 
fern wliich in its fronds gives us the forms of Alethopteris 
Yirginiana, as the two are always associated in the roof 

Specimens of this Caulopteris have been seen more than 
1^ feet broad. ^ 

a (jlgantea, Stipes. PL XXXVII, Fig. 5. 

This figure represents certain forms which we find, by the 
hundred, in the same shale with Aletho23teris Virginiana and 
Caulopteris gigantea. They are of varying lengths and have 
sometimes the thickness of 2 or more inches. They seem 
to be impressions of the bark of fern stipes, and may be- 
long to C. gigantea. 

SiGiLLARiA, Brongt. 
Sl.gillaria approximata, Sp. nov., PL XXXYII, Fig. 3. 

(Leaf scars, very ornamental, hexagonal, horizontal diame- 
ter nearly twice as long as the vertical, and terminating in 
acute angles at the extremities of the longer diameter, 
closely approximate ; decorticated stem, marked by longi- 
tudinal furrows, one between each row of leaf scars ; vascu- 
lar scars, thin, the middle one slightly concave above and 
convex below, larger than the lateral ones, and transversely 
elongated, the two lateral scars are placed slightly above 
the middle scar, one at each end, and are punctiform and 
miicli smaller than the middle scar.) 

This plant l^elongs to the Sigillaria of the type of S. Me- 
nardl, a form characteristic of the upper portions of the 
Carboniferous S3^stem everywhere. It is the only Sigillaria 
except S. Menardi that we have seen in the upper beds 
above the Pittsburg Coal in West Virginia. It is very rare, 
only two specimens having been seen. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal near 
Arnettsville, W. Va. 


Slgillaria Brardii^ Brongt. 

This species has not been seen in W. Va., bnt near Wash- 
ington, Penn. it is very abundant in the roof of the Wash- 
ington coal. 


Cordaites crassinerms, Sp. nov., PI. XXXVII, Fig. 10. 

Fig. 10, PI. XXXVII, seems to represent a species of 
Cordaites quite different from any hitherto described. The 
fragment has a very tapering form, and is somewhat thicli 
and coriaceous. The nerves are very large and coarse, and 
are seen to branch again and again in leaving the point of 
attachment or base of the leaf. This plant may not belong 
to Cordaites^ it may possibly represent a ijsygmopliyllum. 
Not enough is shown to determine this point. 

Habitat. — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Oenus ? PL XXXVII, Fig. 4. 

We have given in Fig. 4, PI. XXXVII, a very curious 
looking plant, of which we have not found more than one 
specimen, which is not sufficient to fix its generic position. 
It is flabellate in outline, and possesses rigid looking ribs 
which diverge from the central axis, and often fork before 
reaching the margin. The true termination is not preserved. 
It has some resemblance to Aplilehia patens Germ., Stein. 
Fl, V. Wet. u. Lobj. The epidermis of the plant has a 
smooth aspect marked with the strong impressions of the 

Habitat. — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville. W. Va. 

7 PP. 



Rhabdocarpus, Goepp. et Berg. 

BJiabdocarpus ohlongatus, Sp." nov., PI. XXXVII, Figs. 
8 and 9. 

In figs. 8 and 9, PI. XXXVII, are depicted fragments of a 
fruit which seems to belong to Rhdbdocarpus of Gfoep. and 
Berg. It is elliptical or oblong in form, and shows 6 or 7 
longitudinal ridges. Fig. 8 shows a nut with the pericarp 
detached, in which the body of the nut seems quite smooth, 
and marked only by longitudinal lines. 

Habitat.— Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Carpolithes, Sternb. 

At only one locality in the Upper Carboniferous strata 
have we ever seen any nutlets. This is at Cassville, W. 
Va., where we have found so many and varied j)lants. The 
most of the nutlets here come associated with the remains 
of Caulopteris. 

Carpolithes hl-carpa. Sj:), nov., PL XXXVII, Figs. 6 and?. 

(Fruits borne in pairs on a common jiedicel, rather rough, 
oval in shape, with the larger extremity free and tapering 
to the point of attachment.) 

This fruit is evidently somewhat closely allied to C.fas- 
cieulatus, Lesqx., Vol. II 111. Rep., PL 46, Fig. 7. ' We 
have seen four specimens of the fruit, and in all cases they 
showed the form here figured, i. e., in pairs. 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

Carpolithes marginatus. Sp. nov., PL XXXVII, Fig. 1. 

(Fruit with a very regular elliptical outline, and margined 
all around by a raised rim or border. The surface is rather 
smooth and shows no point of attachment. This fruit was 


evidently not very solid or woody in texture, for it left 
only a flat leaf -like scale on the shale.) 

Habitat. — Roof-shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Va. 

GuiLiELMiTES, Geinitz. 

Guilielmites orbicularis. Sp. nov., PI. XXXVII, Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2, PI. XXXVII, represents an impression of a form 
which we find in considerable numbers at Cassville. It 
agrees so well with the fruit styled Guilielmites by Geinitz, 
that we place it in that genus. ' The point of attachment 
sometimes shows imperfect marks of a stem, and is shown 
by the place from which the lines radiate. It is in nearly all 
the specimens excentrically placed, and the woody lines, re- 
sembling coarse veins, which radiate from it, fork frequently, 
in an irregular manner, as they pass to the margin. It is 
without doubt a vegetable impression, since it leaves a film 
of coal on the shale which is sharply defined, and cannot 
possibly be caused by any compression of the shale, as Car- 
rut hers thinks is the case with Geinitz' s forms, 

Geinitz thought that this fruit was allied to the Palms, 
while Schimper considered them to represent the Cycas. 
We have no data that can decide this question. The forms 
are all orbicular in outline, but vary considerably in size, 
that drawn being of average size. Some are considerably 

Habitat. — Roof -shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, West Virginia. 


S.A.P0RT^A, gen. nov. 

Leaves simple, subreniform-fiabellate, or suborbicular- 
cuneate in outline, bordered at the base with a woody rim. 
which is apparently an extension of the leaf -stalk ; termi- 
nal margin of the leaves, incised more or less deeply ; petiole 


long, slender and grooved on tlie upper surface ; nerves de- 
parting liabellately from the summit of the petiole and from 
the woody basal rim throughout its length, under a more 
or less acute angle, all passing into the lamina, forking 
sparingly, usually first near the point of insertion, and 
again once or twice, the branches departing very slightly 
from each other, and continuing to the terminal margin, 
nearly parallel to each other, strongly marked, and not 
closely placed ; leaf-substance rather thin, and apj)arently 
rather easily torn into strips. 

This very interesting plant has no affinity with any fossil 
form found in the Coal Measures, unless it be allied to Daw- 
son's Noeggerathia dispar, "Acadian Geology," Fig. 73. 

The plant has characters in common with certain forms 
of ferns, and also with the coniferous genus Salisburia. 
The ferns which most resemble this plant are those forms 
of Adiantum, which like Adiantum reniforme, L. have a 
flabellate nervation, with a simple frond, marked by a basal 
nerve which on each side follows the lower border some lit- 
tle distance from the rachis, and then dissolves into branches. 
This basal nerve however is simply a somewhat more largely 
developed and freely branching nerve-bundle, and does not 
differ in function from the adjoining nerve-bundles which 
pass into the leaf. The forking of the nerves in these ferns 
is much more frequent than in the fossil, and the nerves or 
branches are much stronger. 

The points of resemblance to Salisburia, on the other 
hand, possessed by the fossil, are so numerous and striking 
that Count Saporta. who saw a figure of the specimen de- 
picted in Fig. 1, PI. XXXVIII, was strongly inclined to 
consider it a true Salisburia. We think however that if 
the celebrated French palseobotanist had seen all the fig- 
ures illustrating this genus, he would not have come to this 

The following are some of the more prominent features 
possessed in common by our plant and by Salisburia. They 
induce us to consider the plant as a new genus of conifers, 
nearly allied to Salisburia. 

Both have the same rather thin leaf substance, with an 


incised terminal margin, a grooved petiole, strongly defined, 
sparingly forked nerves, with branches nearly parallel, and 
a dichotomous mode of forking which is very character- 

The points of difference which induce us to separate the 
plant generically from Salisburia are the following :— 

In Salisburia, the basal cord is merely a branching nerve 
of no more value than its neighbors. This may be plainly 
seen on the lower surface of the leaf. The woody bundles 
in the petiole of the leaf divide at the base of the lamina 
into two principal nerve-bundles, and each of them on en- 
tering the leaf divides into two principal nerves on each 
side. These by successive forkings, in a dichotomous man- 
ner, till the entire leaf with their branches. The nerve 
which follows the margin of the leaf has none of the char- 
acters of a petiole, and does not send out independent 
nerves, but simply splits up by dichotomy into a succes- 
sion of branches of equal value, and which all pursue the 
same general direction with the principal nerve. The char- 
acter of the forking is the same with that shown in the 
principal nerves which enter the leaf more towards the 

The case is different with the woody border on the fossil 
plant. This seems to perform the functions of a petiole, or 
of the rachis in ferns. The mode of dej^arture of the nerves 
sent off by it, as shown by Fig. la is much like that of the 
lateral nerves from the rachis of a Tgeniopteris. It sends 
off nerves independent of each other, and not mere branches, 
produced by the splitting up of a parent nerve. AVe do not 
find the branches which enter the lamina, in the fossil leaf, 
to follow so closely the direction of the marginal woody 
cord, as do the branches in Salisburia. They even, as shown 
in Fig. 4, attain a direction at right angles with it. 

We name the genus in honor of Count Saporta, the cele- 
brated pala3obotanist of France. 

Saportcea grandifolia. Sp. nov., PI. XXXVIII, Fig. 4. 

(Leaf, with a strong woody cord passing around the base, 

and descending into a rather slender, long petiole, which 


is grooved on the upper side. Shape of leaf probably sab- 
reniform-flabellate ; nerves, arising from the summit of 
the petiole and from the basal rim, the latter strongly di- 
verging from the rim, and soon passing in a direction at 
right angles to it, on to the terminal margin of the leaf, 
forking near the point of insertion, and again forking once 
or twice, the branches diverging but slightly, and soon be- 
coming nearly, parallel to each other. ) 

This tine leaf was seen only in a fragmentary condition. 
It must have had a considerable expanse. The length of 
the lamina of the leaf seen is 8 cm. ; the width, 9|- cm. ; 
length of petiole seen, nearly 10 cm. ; thickness, 6 mm. 
The furrow on the i)etiole is very distinct, and the thick- 
ness of the basal woody rim is 2^ mm. Fragments of the 
lamina, seen on the shale containing the portion depicted 
in Fig. 4, PL XXXVIII, show by their position that they 
belonged to the same specimen, and indicate a leaf at least 
15 cm. from base to summit, with a lateral expanse of 20 cm. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Ya. 

Sa/portcea salisburioides. Sp. nov., PL XXXVIII, Pigs. 

(Leaf, suborbicular-cuneate, fiabellate, margin slightly in- 
cised into ribbon-like lacinise ; petiole, slender ; nerves, 
arising from the summit of the petiole and from the basal 
rim, the latter departing under an acute angle, much as in 
Salisburia, all forking sparingly with the characters of the 
genus ; basal woody cord comx)aratively slight, but well 

The dimensions of tlie most perfect s]3ecimen seen showed 
the length from base to summit to be 7|- cm., and the lat- 
eral dimensions to l)e about 10 cm. The plant was evi- 
dently much smaller than Saportgea grandifolia, and does 
not seem to have been so liable to split up, during growth, 
into laciniae. The right hand segment of the leaf depicted in 
Fig. 3, PL XXXVIII, shows incisions which seem normal to 
the species, and not the result of accidents ingrowth. This 
plant, also, was always found in a fragmentary condition, 


though enough of the leaf is preserved in some specimens to 
show pretty clearly what must have been its shape. Fig. 
11, PI. II, represents a small fragment of a plant which 
may be different from S. salisburioides, as its texture is thin- 
ner, and the fragments found associated with the pieces 
depicted indicate a leaf of larger size. The fragments are 
too small to give us any indication of the shape of the en- 
tire leaf. They may belong to S. salisburioides in a more 
advanced stage of growth of the leaf. Plate XXXVIII, 
Fig. 2, represents a larger fragment, to which also the 
above remarks may apply. 

Habitat. — Roof shales of the Waynesburg Coal, Cass- 
ville, W. Ya, 

Baiera, (Fr. Braun,) emend. Heer. 

We follow Heer, in his emendation of the generic char- 
acter of Baiera, in which he sejDarates it from Salisburia (Cy- 
clopteris,) and unites it with Jeanpaulia. 

Baiera Virginiana. Sp. nov., PI. XXXVII, Figs. 11, 12. 

(Leaf, llabellate, divided into numerous lacinige towards 
the summit, and narrowing into a wedge shape towards 
the base, undivided for some distance above the base ; 
lacinise, slowly diverging, and each forking dichotomously 
once or twice, divisions strap-shaped and truncate ; leaf- 
substance, thick and leathery ; nerves, several in each 
lacinia, strongly marked, forking once or twice, and pro- 
ceeding parallel to each other.) 

The plant has never been seen entire. Fig. 12 repre- 
sents the most perfect specimen ; Fig. 11 gives a fragment 
showing more numerous and delicate lacinise. This plant, 
in its robust character and thick leaf substance, has much 
resemblance to Baiera longifolia (Jeanpaulia) Heer, of the 
Jurassic, given in Vol. IV, Foss. Flor. Arct. PI. IX, Figs. 
1-11. It is very nearly allied to B. digitata, Heer, figured 
by Geinitz in his Dyas, PI. XXVI, Fig. 2, under the name 
of Zonarites digUatns, Brongt. 


The finding of this plant in our Upper Barrens, although 
it is not specifically identical with the Permian species, is 
very significant. 

Gerablattina balteata. Pl. XXXYIil, Fig. 5. 

This species of cock- roach is represented by the l.irger 
part of an ux)per wing, with its neuration well preserved. 

The genus in which it is placed is characterized in a paper 
on palaeozoic cock-roaches, now publishing in the ''Memoirs 
of the Boston Society of Natural History." It is closely al- 
lied to Blattina pro2)er, (or Etoblattina, as it must be called, j 
and next to it, it is of all the fossil genera the richest in 
species ; and while these belong mostly to the Old World, 
two of them, including the present form, come from Amer- 
ica. Gerabl. balteata is distinguished from its neighbors 
not only by peculiarities in its neuration, and particularly 
in the course of the internomedian vein and its forked 
branches, but also by a characteristic which has suggested 
the specific name, and which does not appear to exist in any 
other fossil cock-roach, viz : the banded appearance of all 
the veins and their branches, each being accompanied on 
either side by a broad, regular border of black carbonaceous 
matter, upon which are impressed frequent and slight trans- 
verse lines. These lines are common to many fossil cock- 
roaches, but here, instead of traversing the interspaces, as 
usual, from vein to vein, they do not pass beyond the limits 
of the black bands. The specimen was found in the roof 
shales of the Waynesburg coal, at Cassville, W. Va. 

S. H. S. 


Summary of Chapter ^, %oitli some conclusions to he drawn 
from the same. 

We come now to the important inquiry as to the rekitive 
age of that class of rocks which figure, in the present Amer- 
ican nomenclature, under the name of " Upper Barren Coal 
Measures," since all the plants that have been described 
in Chapter 2 occur in this series. 

In order to have the evidence all before us, we shall ar- 
range these plants in three columns, putting in the first all 
the plants which we have found in the Upper Barrens ; 
in the second, all of their number which have been rejDor ted 
from the Upper or Lower Coal Measures of the U. S. ; and 
in the third, those which are common to our Upper Bar- 
rens and the Permian of Earope. 

Arranging the plants in the manner indicated, we get the 
following : 

Table of Distribution of Species. 

Equisetides rugosus, 

" elongatus, 

" striatus, 

Calamites suckowii, 

Nematophylluni angustuni, . . 
Sphenophyllum latifolium, . . . 

" filicuimis, . . . 

«• densifoliatum, . 

" tenuifolium, 

" longjfolium, . . 

*» obiongifolium, 
Annularia carinata, 

" longifolia, 

U. Barrens of 

W. Va. 

and Penn. 

Coal Meas. of 
the U. S. 

(105 PP.) 

Permian, Eu- 


Annul aria sphenopliylloides, 

" radiata, 

" minuta, 

Sphenopteris acrocarpa, 

" coriacea, . . . 

" dentata, 

" auriculata, 

" minutisoota, 

" Ibliosa, 

*' Lescuriana, 

" pachyiiervis, 

" hastata, 

Neuropteris hirsuta, 

" llexuosa, 

" flexuosa longUblia, . . 

" dictyopteroides, . . . . 

" auriculata, 

" odontopteroides, .... 

" fimbriata, 

" cordata, 

Odontopteris obtusiloba, 

" nervosa, 

" pachyderma, 

" densifolia, 

Callipteris conferta, 

Callipteridiuni Dawsmiianum, . . . 

*' oblonn'it'olium, . . . 

" grandifoliuai, .... 

" odontopteroides, . . 

" unituui, 

Pecopteris arborescens, 

" arborescens integri-j^inna, 

" Candolleana, 

" elliptica, 

" oreopteridia, 

" pennaetbrmis latitblia, 

" Miltoni, 

" dentata, 

" pteroides, 

" Pluckeneti, . . . . . 

" Pluckeneti constricta, . . 

" notata, 

" Gerniari, . . . 

" Germari crassinervLs, . . 

" Germari cusjaidata, . . . 

" sub-falcata, 

" rarinervis, 

" iinbricata, 

" asplenoides, 

" rotundifolia, 

" platynervis, 

" rotundiloba, 

«» Schimperiana, 

" pachyptei-oides, 

" angusti-pinna, 

<' Heeriana, 

" tenuinervis, 

" merianopteroides, 

" ovoides, 

" lanceolata, 

" latifolia, 

" inclinata, 

" goniopteroides, 



allied to S. 
oxydata and 


PP. 107 

Goniopteris eniarginata, 

" eleoraijs, . 

" longifolia, . , 

" arguta, . . . . 

" elliptica, . . . 

" oblonga, 

*' Newberriana, 

Cymoglossa obtusifolia, . . 

'• breviloba, . . 

" foriiiosa, . . . 

" lobata, . . . . 

Alethopteris Virginianu, . 

" aigas, . . . . 

Taeniojiteris Lescuriana, . 


Rbacophyllum filiciforme, . . 
" laciniatum, . . 

" lactuca, . . . , 

" speciocissimuui, 

Caulopteris elliptica, , 


Sigillaria approxiniata, . . 

" Brardii, ... 

Cordaites crassinervis, . . 
Rhabdocarpus oblongatus, 

Carpohtbes bicarpa, . . . 

" marginatus, . . 

Guilielinites orbicularis, . 

Saportaea grandifolia, 

" Salisburioides, 
Baiera Virginiana, . . . 





Near to T. 
Near to 7'. 


. t. • . 


Allied to 
C. peAtiqerd. 
Allied to C. 



Allied to 6. 
Go p. 

Allied to 
B. digitala. 


Before proceeding to an analysis of the table, and the 
conclusions to be derived from it, we may properly decide 
what sort of evidence we shall admit to determine the age 
of a formation, and what is the relative value of that de- 
rived from each source. So far as the question of relative 
value is concerned, this can only arise in the case where we 
have to consider the contiicting evidence of different classes 
of organisms, for no one will deny that the life of a period, 
if well represented, is of the highest value in determining 
questions of age. For our purpose we need only to con- 
sider the claims of the three classes usually most relied 
upon by Palaeontologists, viz : Marine Mollusks, Verte- 


brates, and Plants. It seems to ns erroneous to claim ab- 
solutely, that one of these must be valued more highly 
than another, for the evidence it affords. We must limit 
the applicability of the evidences from each class. 

A priori, we might decide as follows : Mollusks, from 
the simplicity of their structure, and the nature of the 
medium in which they live, could not be seriously aifected 
by slight changes of the surrounding conditions, and hence, 
when not interrupted by cataclysmal agencies, their re- 
mains can only be used to denote general changes, requir- 
ing long periods of time. They are the hour hand of the 
palseontological clock. But we must admit the possibility 
of the existence of special local causes, which may hasten 
their changes. The same may also occur to modify the 
normal character of the Vertebrates and Plants. We must 
however have positive evidence of their existence. Plants, 
being more dependent on aerial conditions, and less caj^able 
of resistance, should give better data for indicating slighter 
changes, involving shorter periods. They are the minute 
hand of our clock. Vertebrates are in structure the most 
complex of the three. They dej^end in part on plants, and 
in j)art, on aerial conditions, or the arrangement of the land 
and water. Hence they are the most sensitive time indica- 
tors, and mark slighter changes requiring shorter intervals. 
They record the seconds on our clock. Their sensitiveness 
unfits them for the determination of the longer intervals, 
which have been founded on the evidences derived from 
Mollusks or Plants. Relying on them, we would antedate 
the age of the formation which affords them. 

We may hence consider that so far as we can lay down 
a general rule for the ax)i)licability and relative value of the 
evidence from the three most important classes of organ- 
isms, it would be as follows : The evidence of Mollusks 
should be most weighty in determining long periods ; that 
of Plants, most important in shorter intervals, and that of 
Vertebrates in the shortest. Of course we must take into 
consideration all the forms of any one of these classes. It 
is no more necessary to take a grouj^ of plants, in order to 
get evidence of value, than it is to study the entire collec- 


tion of marine mollusks, or vertebrates. Modern researcli 
shows that many single forms continue to live after the 
period of their culmination. We must then consider the 
question of the culmination and decadence of species. The 
evidence from the existence of exceptionally long lived 
forms, in any series of strata, must be considered of slight 

Again, in assigning their relative value to the component 
parts of any of these three classes of organisms, we must 
consider that representative or closely allied forms should 
have hardly less value than identical ones, in certain cases. 
This is especially true where we find many closely related, 
and few identical species. We must not necessarily con- 
clude that the age of two formations in such a case is dif- 
ferent, but that surrounding conditions had sufficient power 
to modify specific characters. We must assign consider- 
able value to resemblance, or difference, in type, for a 
change of type implies a change in the conditions of ex- 

It is good evidence that we have to deal with a more re- 
cent formation, when we find it to show a decadence of old 
forms, and an introduction of new ones, destined to reach 
their culmination at a later period. Thus if we find, in a 
series of rocks, plants characteristic of the Carboniferous 
formation, and perceive that these die out and disappear, 
we should not conclude from their mere presence, that the 
age of the strata is Carboniferous, but rather that it is Per- 
mian. So also the finding of genera and species, even 
identical with those of the Trias or Jurassic, would not 
necessarily imph^ a Triassic or Jurassic age. If we find 
them to be exceedingly rare, their presence is rather indi- 
cative of a formation older than the Trias or the Jurassic. 

It is only by taking into consideration all the above named 
characters, and other points which may be presented by 
the entire body of specimens, that we can determine the 
nature of the evidence offered by the life of a formation. 
It will not suffice to say arbitrarily, that this or that fea- 
ture is without value as evidence. Circumstances might 
reverse the normal relative weight of the evidence from the 


several sources and give preponderating weight to what 
would, if unaffected by them, have slight value. 

Having thus established the evidence of one class of or- 
ganisms, we must combine it with that of any other class 
afforded by the strata, and the general facies of the entire 
life only can be used in determining the age. But the 
evidence from this source must not stand alone, if we can 
supplement it with that derived elsewhere, we must search 
all possible sources. 

A source from which we may often derive evidence of 
great value is the stratigraphy, and especially the lithology. 
Many geologists unduh^ depreciate the value of the latter. 
It is easy to see that where the strata have such a character, 
that they could only be formed under special conditions, 
they must have a certain vahie as evidence, especially when 
this is combined with the diminution, or disappearance of 
beds characteristic of a certain formation. Thus in ascend- 
ing from a known carboniferous horizon, to superimposed 
formations, if we find the coal abundant in the lower beds, 
and disapi:)earing in the upper, while great masses of lime- 
stone and fine grained red shales come in, surely this would 
be weighty evidence to show that carboniferous conditions 
had changed to Permian. If the life of the period is very 
scantily represented by fossil forms, cases might occur 
where we would be called upon to determine the relative 
value of the two, and we would find the evidence of Lith- 
ology of superior weight. It is not impossible to find cases 
where the evidence of Lithology resembles in character 
and degree that of fossils. Certain strata may have such 
a peculiar character, that when their eroded fragments enter 
into the composition of later formed brecciae, or conglomer- 
ates, they may be recognized with certainty a hundred 
miles and more from the parent source. This is actually the 
case with certain conglomerates of the eastern portion of 
Virginia, which are of Potsdam quartzites. 

We may also employ the evidence to be derived from the 
"Breaks" and physical changes found to occur. If two 
formations are separated by strata giving evidence of a 
change in the prevailing conditions sufficient to cut off or 


modify the life of the lower, the existence of this convul- 
sion alone wonld be of weight in indicating a later age for 
the higher formation. We need not have necessarily un- 

Let us now turn to the table of species, and determine 
the bearing of the evidence to be derived from it on the 
question now before us. 

Considering first the identity of the species named in the 
table, we see that out of 107 found in the Upper Barrens of 
West Virginia, 22 occur in the C6al Measures proper, while 
28 are found also in the Permian of Europe, according to 
Goppert, Weiss, Schimper, Geinitz, Grand' Eury, Gutbier, 
Heer and others. 

Of the 22 species which are common to the Upper Bar- 
rens and to the Coal Measures below them, 16 are also 
found in the European Permian, leaving 6 not hitherto 
found in the Permian. Of these 6, one is given by Bun- 
bury as occurring at Frostburg, Maryland. This is Pecop- 
teris elliptica. Bunbury makes no distinction of horizons 
at Frostburg, and as the Upper Barrens occur there, it is 
almost certain that this si)ecies should be credited to them. 
This leaves 5 species, viz : Sphenophyllum filiculmis, Neu- 
ropteris hirsuta, N. fimbriata, Pecopteris notata, and Go- 
niopteris arguta. Goniopteris arguta is found by Prof. 
Lesquereux only in the flora of Illinois, which flora is pe- 
culiar in possessing many Permian types. The presence of 
Neuropteris hirsuta may be explained by the fact that it is 
a long lived plant, enabled by vigor of growth and consti- 
tution to pass above the horizon which it characterizes. 
Pecopteris notata occui's in the Anthracite Coal Region of 
Pennsylvania. The geological horizons are not yet fully 
worked out there, but enough is known of the height of the 
column of coal measures in the deepest parts of the basins 
to make it almost certain that the horizon of the Waynes- 
burg Coal occurs there. 

But even supposing that these 6 species should be 
credited without qualification to the true coal measures, 
the number of true coal measure species in the above list 
would be surprisingly small. 


Grand' Eury, in his account of the Permian of Central 
France, in his " Flor. Car. du Departement de la Loire, 
et du Centre de la France," says that the U]3per Coal Meas- 
ures' flora passes insensibly into the Permian, there being 
a mixture of the two floras, and that he often finds it al- 
most imjjossible to draw the line of separation. He states 
that the researches of himself, Weiss, and Goeppert, have 
raised the number of species common to the Coal Measures 
and to the Permian to fifty. 

Of these 6 species, Neuropteris hirsuta is the only one 
found above the Waynesburg Sandstone, so that whatever 
significance their presence in the transition beds between 
the Waynesburg Coal and Sandstone may have, this is 
lost in passing above them. 

Let us now consider the species common to the Upper 
Barrens and to the European Permian. Of these 28 spe- 
cies, 12 have never been found in the Coal Measures of the 
United States, and two, CalUpteris conferta and Alethop- 
teris gigas, are exclusively Permian. The presence of 
Callipteris conferta, is usually considered as proof of the 
Permian age of the strata containing it. Odontopteris 
obtusiloba, though commencing in the highest strata of 
the Carboniferous, as Grand' Eury shows, is a characteristic 
Permian plant. Annularia carinata, if distinct from An- 
nnlaria calamitoides, would be peculiarly a Permian plant. 
It seems to us, however, to be the same with A. calami- 

Passing to representative and allied species, we have 
some whose presence bears weightily in the argument. 

Baiera Yirginiana differs from B. digitata, the Permian 
plant, chiefly in its greater size and robustness. The genus 
Baiera begins in the European Permian. 

Taeniopteris Lescuriana is the representative of T. mul- 
tinervis, an exclusively Permian plant ; while T. Newberry- 
iana is closely allied to T. coriacea, also Permian. Both, 
in many features, seem prototypes of much more recent 
forms found in the Mesozoic, 

Sphenopteris coriacea is closely allied to the Permian 


species S. oxydata, and is its representative in our flora. 
It is also allied to the S. lyratifolia of Heer. 

Grand' Eury is disposed to regard the Sphenopterids of 
this type as forms of Callipteris. This view is confirmed 
by the leatlier-like character of S. coriacea, and by the fact 
that it occurs associated with Callipteris conferta. At any 
rate the type of Sphenopteris shown in S. coriacea, is ex- 
clusively Permian. 

The genus Cymoglossa, founded by Schimperon one spe- 
cies, is exclusively Permian. Its very considerable devel- 
opment in our flora is of great weight as indicating a period 
later than the true Coal Measures. The plants of this 
genus are evidently modifications of the Goniopteris type, 
which is itself characteristic of the closing period of the 
Coal Measures and of the Permian. 

The genus of Nematophyllum, in the absence of mid-nerve 
in the leaflets, in their great elongation without marked 
change of width, and in their union, at least at base, is allied 
to the genus Schizoneura, which begins in, and is highly 
characteristic of the Permian. 

We may state here that we hesitated for sometime about 
separating this plant from Schizoneura, and were finally in- 
duced to do so from the fact that we nowhere saw the leaf- 
lets united together, and attached unmistakably to a stem. 
The union of the leaflets in the young state is the most im- 
portant character of the genus Schizoneura. Yet we saw 
many fragments of leaves, having precisely the texture, 
striation, &c, of the leaflets of Nematophyllum, which 
were an inch or more wide, and showed a splitting, to a 
greater or less depth, into thread-like laciniee of the width 
of the leaflets of Nematophyllum. These Avere never 
attached, and if they represent the united younger leaves 
of a Schizoneura they must be very deciduous. 

The authors of the European species of Schizoneura, 
however, seem to attach little value to this union in the 
younger leaves. Schizoneura Meriani, Schimp. of the 
European Trias, closely resembles our Nematophyllum in 
many other features, as well as in the separation of the 
leaves. Heer in his "Pfl. der. Trias u. Jura," states 
8 PP. 


that the union of the leaves has never been observed in this 
plant, and yet he admits it as a Schizoneura, although vs^ith 

Among the fruits we find Guilielmites orbicularis, closely 
allied to the Permian species of Geinitz, Gr. permianus. 

The decadence in the Upper Barrens of certain plants 
highly characteristic of the Coal Measures proper is an- 
other feature pointing strongly to their age as Permian. 
This feature, as is well known, characterizes the Permian 
of Europe, and is of hardly less value than the identity of 
species in distinguishing this formation. 

The European Permian, according to Grand 'Eury, pos- 
sesses the last representatives of Lepldodendron, of 8lgil- 
laria, and of Calamites ; while it contains many Pecop- 
terids^ the greater portion of them have become subarbo- 
rescent. The Alethopter Ids are rare, as are also the Odon- 
topterids, which have the Mixoneura type of nervation in 
this formation. The Callipterids now make their first ap- 

All these conditions are fulfilled, in the most striking 
manner, in our Upper Barrens. 

Not a single Lepidodendron occurs. Only two species 
of Sigillaria are found. One of them, S. Brardii, passes 
up into the Permian, and the other is of the peculiar type 
of S. Brardii, which is more characteristic of the Permian 
than of the Carboniferous. Only one Calamite occurs, and 
this also passes up into the Permian. Of the Alethopterids 
we get only two species, one, A. Virginiana, more nearly 
allied to Callipteridium than to the Alethopterids which 
characterize the Coal Measures proper ; the other, A. gigas, 
i^a characteristic Permian form. 

Of Odontopteris we find 4 species only, all with Mixo- 
neura nervation, and one, O. obtusiloba, rather Permian 
than Carboniferous. 

Nearly all the Pecopterids show the arborescent charac- 
ter. This is seen in the greater exj)anse of their fronds, 
and in the considerable size of their stipes, many of which 
are from four to six inches in diameter. Most of the species, 


also, belong to Schimper's section Cyatlieides, of wliicli Pe- 
copteris arborescens is the type. 

AVhile the marked decadence of characteristic Carbonif- 
erous forms lias affected the facies of the flora of the Upper 
Barrens, a still greater change is produced by the introduc- 
tion of new features, among which we find the first appear- 
ance of types destined to reach their culmination in the 
Mesozoic. We will specify only a few of these new features. 

The Neuro'pterids show a, Permian character in the ten- 
dency of the middle nerve to split up, and in the approach 
of their nervation to the Mixoneura type of the Odontop- 
terids. In this feature, and in the great size of the rachis, 
they resemble i^iQ Permian Neuropterids of the type of N. 
Dufresnoyii Brongt. The Sphenopterids, in the delicacy 
of their foliage, and the character of their lobing, differ 
much from those of the Carboniferous, and show affinities 
with Mesozoic forms. Si^henopteris minutisecta resembles 
a Thyrsopteris ; S. acrocarpa, in the foliage of the sterile 
plant, resembles this genus ; while the only fossil plant 
Ivuown to us which has a somewhat similar fructification, 
is the Acropteris cuneata of Schenk, found in the Rhaetic 
of Europe. Our Equisitides elongatus, in the long linear 
divisions of the sheath, consolidated except at the toj), 
and terminating with obtusely rounded ends, as well as in 
the strong middle nerve which runs down the surface in the 
middle of each leaflet, is more like the peculiar Equisetum 
triphyllum, of Heer, from the Trias of Switzerland, than 
any other described fossil form. Pecopteris merianiopte- 
roides, is strikingly like Heer's Triassic genus, Merianiop- 
teris ; while Pecopteris pachypteroides, has many of the 
features of Pachypteris. 

A very interesting feature shown in some of the forms of 
Pecopteris, and Callipteridium, is the foreshadowing of 
some of the characters of the Mesozoic Pecopteridae, of 
the type of Pecopteris Whitbyensis. In the falcate, acute 
pinnules, the long, almost linear pinnae and the nervation, 
we have the features of the genus Cladophlebis, as limited 
by Saporta. 

The appearance in the Upper Barrens of Saportaea, a ge- 


nus SO nearly allied to Salisburia or Gingko, is of great im- 
portance, both as indicating that great changes were occur- 
ing in the flora, and also as establishing the fact that the 
peculiar coniferous type, which in Gingko or Salisburia, 
attains such importance in the Jurassic, had already made 
its appearance in the Permian. 

Heer, in his fourth volume of the Arctic Flora, shows 
that the Gingko, or Salisburia, had acquired a great devel- 
opment in the number of forms and in the abundance of in- 
dividuals in the Jurassic. Hence a priori we should ex- 
pect to And the first appearance of the type in a much older 
formation. It is interesting to note also, that the genus 
Baiera, as limited by Heer, which appears in such develop- 
ment in the Jurassic, associated with Salisburia, makes its 
first appearance in our Upper Barrens along with Saportaea, 
which we may consider as the ancestor of the Jurassic forms 
of Salisburia. 

There are two important plant-bearing horizons in the 
Upper Barrens. The lowest, is the shale which forms the 
roof of the Waynesburg coal. This contains all the spe- 
cies which have ascended from the Coal Measures proper, 
along with many new forms. The second horizon is that 
of the Washington Coal, where we find all the Coal Meas- 
ure species (with the exception of Neuropteris hirsuta) to 
have disappeared, and note the first occurrence of Callip- 
teris conferta, Sphenopteris coriacea and others. Hence 
the evidence of the Permian age of this series of strata, 
lying above the Waynesburg Sandstone, is not at all weak- 
ened by the presence of characteristic Coal Measure forms. 

The evidence from animal life is not weighty, but so far 
as it goes it is in favor of the Permian age of the strata in 
question. The limestones and shales affording the animal 
forms found, which are moUusks, and bivalve crustaceans, 
appear to have ])een deposited in fresh water, and this ac- 
counts for the uncertain character of the evidence. Among 
them we find species of the Cypris and Estheria very 
closely allied to those of the Trias. A univalve mollusk 
also, of almost microscopic proportions, is very abundant 
in certain lavers. 


Not a single s%)ecies of the very abundant and varied mol- 
luscan forms of the Coal Measures passes up into the Uj)- 
per Barrens, and the only genus from the lower measures 
that we have ever seen in the upper, is Solenomya^ which 
is represented by a form quite close to S. permlensls . 

A suite of specimens, representing about all the animal 
life that we find in the Upper Barrens, was submitted to 
Prof. James Hall, the eminent paleontologist of Albany, 
N. Y., and he gave it as his opinion that there was nothing 
among them which might not be of Permian age. 

We may next inquire whether we have evidence of any 
considerable change which would suffice to produce an im- 
portant effect, and alter the conditions which prevailed in 
the lower beds, which all recognize as of Carboniferous age. 
For this purpose we must turn to the general geology of 
the district. From this we find, after ascending above the 
Pittsburg Coal, and its associated coals the Kedstone and 
Sewickley, two horizons which give evidence of extensive 
physical changes. 

The first of these horizons marks the general sub- 
mergence which produced the important limestones and 
calcareous shales which occupy much of the interval be- 
tween the Sewickley and the Waynesburg. We find no 
plants until we reach the roof shales of the last named coal. 
These shales, as we see from our analysis of the table, 
contain nearly all the characteristic Carboniferous plants 
which pass into the Upper Barrens, mixed with a great 
number of new forms. The physical change here was not 
sufficient to entirely alter the flora. 

The second horizon of changing conditions, is found in. 
and immediately above the Waynesburg Coal. In the 
rapid fluctuations in thickness of the clay parting of this 
coal we see the first indications of unquiet, and of the ap- 
proach of that much greater disturbance which produced 
the important Waynesburg Sandstone which in its extent 
and character gives ample evidence of wide spread change. 

The Waynesburg Sandstone often rivals the great Con- 
glomeratic Sandstone, which forms the base of the Product- 
ive Coal Measures in the amount of pebbles which it con- 
tains. It is often 75 feet thick, and in expanse is co-extensive 


with the Upper Barrens. To form an idea however of the 
amount of the change required to produce this great mass, 
we must not simply consider the character of the stratum 
per se, but must contrast it with the strata which immedi- 
ately precede it. Leaving out of view the Waynesburg 
Coal, all the rocks for a considerable distance under it are 
either limestones or fine grained shales, which show that the 
deposition of sediment must have taken place under con- 
ditions of general quiet. The shale roof of the Waynes- 
burg Coal is not always present. We sometimes find the 
sandstone lying immediately on the coal, and even descend- 
ing into it. 

When, then, in such localities we see the immense sand- 
stone loaded with pebbles lying immediately upon the coal 
with its subjacent tine-grained beds, we are forcibly im- 
pressed with the magnitude of the change which has taken 
place. The character of the pebbles also is significant. 
They are not of sandstone but of quartz, and hence must 
have been brought from remote localities. 

Let us now consider what is the evidence from the Lith- 
ology of the strata of the Upper Barrens. Leaving out of 
consideration the finding of a conglomerate at the base of 
the series, a feature which it has in common with the Per- 
mian of Europe, we find in it a great deal of red shale, 
another feature of the Lower Permian of Europe. These 
red shales occur in beds 20-30' thick, sometimes commencing 
immediately above the Waynesburg Sandstone. They are 
a pretty constant feature, and are often, as at Bellton, 
several hundred feet thick. These features, taken alone, 
are not entitled to much weight, except as showing con- 
ditions unfavorable for the formation of coal, as they are 
found also in the barren portions of the Carboniferous for- 
mation proper. Besides these characteristics which mark 
the Lower Permian of Europe, the Upper Barrens have some 
in common with the Zechstein or Upper Permian, in the 
presence of a large amount of limestone. 

It is a significant feature that these limestones are devoid 
of marine fossils, showing that the sea had access at no time 
during their formation. 

The evidence from the total disappearance of coal beds 


in the higher portions of Upper Barrens, and from the ex- 
tremely small amount of it found in the lower portions, is 
of more value, as indicating a great change from the con- 
ditions which prevailed during the Carboniferous proper. 
The beds of coal gradually disappear as we pass upwards, 
and with the exception of the Washington Coal, are never 
more than one or two feet thick, while the uppermost 200 
or 300 feet contain none at all. This diminution of the coal 
is accompanied with a great loss in the amount of plant 
life. Only about 20 p. c. of the forms existing below the 
Waynesburg Sandstone pass above it, and of these, many 
are sparingly represented, and seem to be in process of ex- 
tinction. These features are represented to be character- 
istic of the European Permian. Grand' Eury, in his Fl. 
Car. du Dep. de la Loire et du Centre de la France," 
states that he finds the Permian to be marked by a diminu- 
tion of coal, and a decadence of the flora. This is what we 
would expect a 'priori^ if w^e should regard the Permian, 
not as a distinct formation, but as the close of the Carbon- 
iferous. The idea of its distinctness arose from the fact 
that the Permian was first studied in Saxony and other 
countries where a complete physical break exists, and 
where the evidence of gradual passage could not be derived 
from the stratigraphy and fossils. More extended study 
of the formation in such countries as France shows that 
this break is not universal, and that the passage from the 
Carboniferous proper to the Permian is a gradual one. 
The investigations of Weiss, Grand' Eury, and others, indi- 
cate that the Permian is merely the closing x^eriod of the 

In the United States, there is no iinconformity in the 
strata from the low^est beds of the Carboniferous to the 
highest stratum found in the Aj^palachian Coal Field. In 
view^ of this, it is remarkable that we should find such 
great changes in the flora as we actually do discover. 

To sum up finally the evidence derived from all sources, 
we find ourselves irresistibly impelled to the conclusion, 
that the age of the Upper Barrens of the Appalachian 
Coal Field are of Permian age, by a consideration of : 


1. The Evidence from the Identity of Species. 

2. The Evidence from Allied Species. 

3. The Evidence from the decadence of Coal Measure 

4. The introduction of Types characteristic of later For- 

5. The existence of an important Physical change at the 
beginning of the Series. 

6. The nature of the Lithology ; the disappearance of 
Coal ; the diminution in the Amount of Plant Life. 

The evidence of the animal life of the Upper Barrens is 
of no particular weight in determining the question. So 
far as it goes, it is favorable to the conclusion that the age 
is Permian. 

It might perhaps be best to separate the roof shales of 
the Waynesburg Coal and Wayuesburg Sandstone from 
the beds overlying the sandstone, and as they contain a 
mixed flora, consider them as transition beds of Permo- 
Carboniferous age. Perhaps the strata down to and in- 
cluding the great limestone overlying the Sewickley Coal 
should be included with these, but in the absence of fossils 
this cannot be decided. The beds above the Waynesburg 
Sandstone should, however, be considered as strictly Per- 

If this conclusion be correct, it will have an important 
bearing on the history of the changes which have affected 
the Physical Geography of our portion of the North Amer- 
ican Continent. Our great Appalachian Revolution would 
have occurred at the close of the Permian Period, and in- 
stead of standing almost alone, would be in harmony with 
those mighty changes which elsewhere operated at the 
close of the Permian to extinguish the forms of Palseozoic 

It would also explain the absence of Permian beds in the 
Mesozoic areas of the eastern portion of the Continent, and 
the Triassic age of the oldest beds there found. For, if our 
views be correct, the basins in which these beds were laid 
down were formed at the close of the Permian, instead of 
the Carboniferous proper. 


Plate I. 

Figs. 1-4. Eqiiisetides elongatus, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Equisetides elongcatus. A large fragment. 

'' 1". Enlarged rib of same to show mid-nerve. 

" 2. Equisetides elongatus, a smaller and more slender 


*' 3. The same. A specimen showing what is prob- 

ably the base of the sheath. 

" 4. The same. A specimen showing the inser- 

tion of sheath. 

" 5. Equisetides striatus, Spec. nov. 

'* 6. Equisetides rugosus, Schimp, 

" 7. Sphenophyllum densifoliatum, Spec. nov. 

" 7". A pair of leaflets of the same enlarged. 

" 8. Sphenophyllum filiculmis, Lesqx. 

" 8". Leaflet of the same enlarged. 

" 9. Sphenophyllum tenuifolium, Spec. nov. 

" 9". Leaflet of the same enlarged. 

" 10-11. Sphenophyllum latifolium, Spec. nov. 

"■ 10. Sphenophyllum latifolium. Specimen showing 
the toothed and irregular terminal border. 

** 10". A leaflet of the same enlarged. 

" 11. The same, with the terminations of the leaf- 

lets wanting. 

Plate IL 

Figs. 1-5. Nematophyllum angustum, Gen. nov. et spec, 

(121 PP.) 


Figs. 1. Nematopliyllum angustum. A fragment of stem 

with several joints. 
" 2. Two stems of the same apparently diverging 

from a point of junction. 
" 3. A fragment of the same showing a whorl of 

leaves united at base into a ring. 
'' 4. A fragment of the same showing apparent 

union at the base of the leaflets. 
" 4i^. Enlarged leaflet of the same to show the 

" 5. A fragment of the same showing more or 

less union at the base of the leaflets. 
" 6. An undetermined specimen. Apparently 

it is a portion of a flabellate leaf. 

Plate III. 

Figs. 1-3. SiDhenopteris acrocarpa, Spec. nov. 
" 1. Sphenopteris acrocarpa, sterile j)lant. 

" 1**, 1*. Enlarged pinnules to show nerves. 

" 2, 3. Portions of fertile plant. 

" 2* Fertile pinnules of the same enlarged. 

" 2*. Fructiflcation of the same still more en- 

larged to show group of sori. 

Plate IV. 
Figs. 1-5. Sphenopteris acrocarpa. 

" 1. Sphenopteris acrocarpa. Portion of sterile frond 

towards the summit. 

" 1*. Enlarged pinnule of the same to show the 

nerves and segments. 

'' 2. Portion of the same plant from near the ex- 

tremity of a compound pinna. 

" 3. Portion of the plant from near the summit 

of the frond. 

'* 4. Portion of the same from towards the base 

of the frond. 

*' 5. Portion of the plant from near the extremity 

of a compound pinna. 

" 5". Pinnule of the same enlarged to show nerva- 


description of plates. pp. 123 

Plate Y, 

Figs. 1-4. Sphenopteris minutisecta, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Sphenopteris minutisecta. A portion of the 

frond from towards the base. 

" 1", A pinna of the same enlarged. 

" 2. A portion of the same plant from higher up 

in the frond. 

" 3. A portion of the same plant from the sum- 

mit of a compound pinna. 

" 4. A portion of the same from near the sum- 

mit of the frond. 

" 4°, A pinnule of the same enlarged. 

" 5. Sphenopteris coriacea, Spec. nov. 

" 5°. Pinnules of the same enlarged. 

<' 6. A fragment of a pinna. 

" 7. Sphenopteris dentata, Spec. nov. 

" 7°. Pinnules of the same enlarged. 

" 8. A fragment of the same from lower down 

in the frond. 

" 9. Sphenopteris foliosa, Spec nov. A pinna. 

" 9". A pinna of the same enlarged. 

" 10. Fragment of an ultimate pinna from a low- 

er part of the frond. 

" 11. A fragment from near the summit of a com- 

pound pinna of the same plant. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Sphenopteris Lescuriana, Spec. nov. 
" 1. Sphenopteris Lescuriana. A compound pinna. 

'• 1°. A portion of the extremity of one of the ul- 

timate pinnffi of the same enlarged. 
" 1*. Pinnules of the same enlarged. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Summit of the compound pinna given in 

Fig. 1, Plate VI. (The size of the plate 
did not permit the insertion of the entire 
figure on one plate.) 


Fig. 2. Terminal portion of a compound pinna cor- 

responding to Fig. 1, Plate VI. 
" 3. Sphenopteris auriculata, Spec. nov. A portion 

from the upper part of tlie frond. 
" 3° Enlarged pinnules from different parts of 

3* the same. Fig. 3" is a portion of a pin- 
s'' nule from the lower part of the speci- 
" 4. A portion of the lower part of the frond of 

the same plant. 
" 4°. An enlarged portion of an ultimate pinna 

or pinnule of the same. 
" 5. Sphenopteris pachynervis, Spec. nov. 
" 5". An enlarged pinnule of the same. 

*' 6. Summit of a pinna of the same. 

" 7. Sphenopteris hastata, Spec. nov. A portion of a 

" 7". An enlarged x^innule of the same. 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1. Neuropteris flexuosa, Brongt., var. longifolia. 

" 2. Neuropteris platynervis, Spec. nov. 

" 3. Neuropteris dictyopteroides, Spec. nov. An 

entire pinnule. 

" 4, The same plant. Fig. 4° is an enlarged 

portion of the base of one of the pinnules 
of the last, to show the reticulation. 

" 5. The same plant. The sj^ecimen shows the 

summit of the pinna or frond. 

" 6. Neuropteris flexuosa, Brongt. A small abnor- 

mal form. 

" 7, 8. Neuropteris hirsuta, Lesqx. Fructified leaflets. 

" 8". A portion of the pinnule enlarged, to show 

sori on the veins. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Neuropteris odontopteroides, Spec. nov. A pinna 
pinna from the lower part of the frond. 
" 1". An enlarged pinnule of the same. 


Fig. 2, 3, 4, 5, Pinnse of the same, showing vari- 

ations in shape and distance of pinnules. 
" 2". Enlarged pinnule of Fig. 2. 

" 6. Summit of pinna of the same plant. 

Plate X. 

Figs. 1-2. Odontopteris nervosa, Sp. nov. The specimen 
shows the insertion of the pinnules. 

'« 2. Terminal portion of a pinna, of the same. 

" 3. Odontopteris densifolia, Spec. nov. 

" 8°. Pinnule of the same, showing nervation. 

" 4. Odontopteris obtusiloba, Naum. Variety, rari- 


" 4". Pinnule of the same, showing nervation. 

" 5-10. Odontopteris pachyderma. Spec. nov. 
5. An entire pinna. 

" 6. The same. A portion of a pinna from lower 

down in the frond, showing crenulated 

" 7. A fragment of the same, showing the most 

common form of pinnules. 

" 7". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 8. A fragment of the same, showing a portion 

of the upper part of the frond. 

" 9. A portion of the same, showing insertion 

of the pinna, and tlie auriculate pinnules 
at their base. 

<><- 10. Basal portion of a large pinna of the same. 

" 10". Basal leaflet of the same, enlarged. 

" 11. Neuropteris, species not determined. Basal por- 
tion of a large rachial leaflet. 

Plate XI. 

Figs. 1-4. Callipteris conferta, Brongt. The normal form. 
<' 1". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2. Terminal portion of a pinna. 

" 3, Fragment from the upper part of a com- 

pound pinna. 


Fig. 4. Fragment of a compound pinna from the 

upper part of tlie frond. 
*' 4^ Enlarged ultimate j)inna of the same. 

*' 5, 6, 7. An undetermined plant, probably a Callipteri- 

dium, 5" gives the nervation of a pinnule 

of Fig. 5. 

Plate XII. 

Pigs. 1-5. Callipteridium oblongifolum, Spec. nov. 
" 1. Shows a portion of the lower part of the 

" 1^. A normal pinnule of the same enlarged, 

" 1*. A portion of the basal pinnules in the lower 

pinnae of the specimen enlarged to show 

the grouping of the lateral nerves. 
'* 2. Fructified form of the same plant, 

** 2". Pinnules of the same enlarged. 

" 3. Fragment of a pinna with large pinnules. 

" 4. Shows another form of the same plant, 

*' 4*^. An enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 5. A fragment from near the summit of the 


Plate XIII. 
Figs. 1-2, Callipteridium 'Dawsonianum, Spec, nov, 
" 1. A portion of a compound pinna. 

" 1". Enlarged pinnules from the lower pinnae of 

the same. 
1". Enlarged pinnules from the upper pinnser of 

the same. 
2. A portion of an ultimate pinna from a lower 
part of the frond. 

Plate XIV. 

Figs. 1, Callipteridium Dawsonianum. The terminal por- 
tion of the compound pinna shown in 
PL XIII, Fig. 1. 
'* 1". A portion of an ultimate pinna of the same 





Figs. 2, 3. Callipteridium unitum, Spec. nov. 

" 2. Represents a part of the frond higher than 

that shown in Fig. 3. 

" 2". Enlarged pinnules of Fig. 2. 

*' 3°. Enlarged i^innules of Fig. 3 to show nerva- 

tion and constricted base of pinnules. 

Plate XY. 
Figs. 1-4. Callipteridium grandifolium, Spec. nov. 
" 1. Shows the irregularly lobed pinnules of the 

lower part of the frond. 
" 2. Gives the normal pinnules. 

" 2°. An enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 3. Shows a heteromorphous form with more 

remote pinnules. 
" 4. The terminal portion of a compound pinna. 

" 4°. An enlarged pinnule of the same. 

Plate XVI. 

Fig. 1. Callipteridium odontopteroides, Spec, nov, 

" 1". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2-4. Callipteridium grandifolium. Spec. nov. 

" 2. The summit of a compound pinna. 

" 3. Shows a form with elliptical pinnules. 

" 4. A fructified portion of the same. 

Plate XVIL 

Fig. 1. Pecopteris elliptica Bunb. 
" 1". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 2. Pecopteris rotundiloba, Spec. nov. 

" 2". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 3. Pecopteris sj^ecies ? 

" 3". Pinna of the same enlarged. 

" 4-5. Pecopteris pennaeformis, Brongt., Var. lati- 

" 5". Pinnule enlarged. 

" 6. Pecopteris species? The fragments show very 

large sori. 
" 6°. Enlarged pinnules of the same. 


Plate XVIII. 

Figs. 1-6, Pecopteris platynervis, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Gives the normal pinnules from the middle 

part of the frond. 

" 2. A compound pinna of the normal form. 

Fig. 2". Pinnules of the same enlarged. 
Fig. 2''. Gives a portion of the same pin- 
nules still more enlarged, to show the 
double character of the lateral nerves. 

" 3. A portion of a compound pinna from the 

upper part of the frond. 

" 3". An enlarged pinna of the same. 

" 4. The summit of a compound pinna. 

" 5. A portion from near the summit of a com- 

pound pinna. 

" 5". An enlarged pinna, of the same. 

" 6. An ultimate pinna from near the base of 

the frond. Fig. 6". Enlarged i:)innules of 
the same with more comjDlex nervation. 
Fig. 6*. A fragment of the same still more 
enlarged to show the flat nerves. 

Plate XIX. 

Figs. 1-7. Pecopteris German (Weiss). Font. & White. 

'* 1. A compound pinna from the upper part of 

the frond. 

" 2. A portion of the lower part of the frond. 

'* 2°. Enlarged ultimate pinna of the same. 

" 3. A small fragment of an ultimate pinna from 

the lower part of the frond. 

" 3*. A pinnule of the same enlarged. 

" 4. The summit of a compound pinna. 

" 5. The basal portion of the same. 

" 6. A portion from the summit of the frond. 

" 6". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 7. Summit of compound pinna, showing a 

more distant arrangement of the ulti- 
mate x>innae. 


Plate XX. 

Figs. 1-3. Pecopteris, Candolleana. Brongt. 

" 1. A portion of a pinna showing fructilication. 

" 1*^. An enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 2. A portion of a pinna from the lower part 

of the frond, showing the beginning of 
the lobing of the pinnules. 

" 3. A portion of a pinna, showing more com- 

plex nerves than the normal pinnules. 

" 3". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 4. Pecopteris Germari, var. cuspidata. Var. nov. 

" 4". Pinnules of the same, enlarged. 

" 5. Pecopteris Germari, var. crassinervis. Var. nov. 

" 5". Pinnule of the same, enlarged. 

'' 6-8. Pecopteris rarinervis, Spec. nov. 

" 7,8. Show portions from near the extremity of 

compound pinnae. 

" 6". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

Plate XXI. 

Figs. 1,2. Pecopteris subfalcata, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Gives the normal form. 

" 1". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2. Gives an abnormal form. 

" 3. Pecopteris Pluckeneti. Brongt. Var. constricta. 

" 3". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 4-5. Pecopteris Pluckeneti. Brongt. 

" 4". Enlarged pinnule of Fig. 4. 

Plate XXII. 

Figs. 1-5. Pecopteris dentata, Brongt. 
" 1". Enlarged pinnules from the lower part of 

Fig. 1. 
" 1^. Enlarged pinnules from the upper part of 

Fig. 1. 
" 2. A form corresponding with Pecopteris plu- 

mosa of Brongt. 
" 3, 4, 5. Give different forms of P. dentata. 

9 PP. 


Plate XXIII. 

Fig. 1. Pecopteris imbricata, Spec. noY. 
"• 1". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2-3. Pecopteris Miltoni, Brongt. These are varietal 
forms of this polymorphous plant. 


Figs. 1-5. Pecopteris Schimperiana, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Gives the normal form. 

" V. Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2. A portion from the lower part of the frond, 

" 2". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 3, 4. Give another form somewhat different. 

" 5. A portion from the upper part of the frond. 

" 6. Pecopteris rotundifolia. Spec. nov. 

" 6". Portion of a pinna of the same enlarged. 

' ' 7, 1^. Pecopteris species ? 


Fig. 1. Pecopteris asplenioides, Spec. nov. 

1". Fertile and sterile pinnules enlarged. 

" 2. Pecopteris gonioj^teroides, Spec. nov. 

" 2*. Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 3-7, Pecopteris Heeriana, Spec. nov. 

" 3. Fructified portion of the plant. 

" 3". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 4, Portion of the sterile plant from the upper 

part of the frond. 

" -:". Pinnules of the same enlarged. 

" 5. Portion of the lower j^art of the frond show- 

ing crenulated pinnules. 

*' 6. A portion of a pinna from near the summit 

of the frond. 

" 7. Summit of compound pinna or frond. 

" 7", Pinna of the same enlarged. 


Plate XXVI. 

Figs. 1-4. Pecopteris pachypteroides, Spec. nov. 
" 1. Portion of the frond showing incipient teeth 

in the pinnules of the lower pinnge. 
" l"". Enlarged lower part of the frond showing 

the incipient teeth. 
" l^ 1". Enlarged pinnae from the upper and middle 

portions of the frond. 
" 4. Summit of a compound pinna. 

Plate XXVII. 

Figs. 1-3. Pecopteris angustipinna, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Normal form. 

" 1". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2. Portion of the lower part of frond. 

" 3. Portion of the upper part of the frond. 

" 3*. Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 4, 4*. Pecopteris species ? 

" 5, 5". Pecopteris species ? 

" 6. Pecopteris arborescens ? 

Plate XXVIII. 

Figs. 1-4. Pecopteris tenuinervis, Spec. nov. 
'■ 1. A iwrtion from the lower part of the frond 

showing undulate pinnules. 
" 1". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 2. Compound pinna from the middle portion 

of the frond. 
" 2". Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 3. Portion from the upi^er part of a compound 

" 4. Fructified portion of the plant. 

" 4". Pinnules of the same enlarged. 

" 4*, 4*. Sori enlarged. 


Figs. 1-2. Pecopteris merianiopteroides, Spec, nov, 
" 2, Summit of a pinna. 


Figs. 3, 3°. Pecopteris ovoides, Spec. nov. 
"■ 4, 4". Pecoj)teris inclinata, Spec. nov. 
" 5, 6, 6°. Pecopteris latifolia, Spec. nov. 
" 7, 8, 9. Pecopteris lanceolata, Spec. nov. 
" 8. Extremitj^ of a pinna. 

'' 9. A pinna from the lower part of the frond. 

Plate XXX. 
Figs. 1". Goniopteris elliptica, Spec. nov. 

" 2, 2". Goniopteris Newberriana, Sx)ec. nov. 

" 3, 4, 5. Goniopteris oblonga, Spec. nov. 

" 3. Gives the normal form. 

" 3**. Enlarged pinnules of the same. 

" 4. A portion of the upper part of the frond. 

" 4". Enlarged pinnnles from the lower part of 

Fig. 4. 

" 4*, 4*^. Enlarged portions of pinnse from the up- 

per part of Fig. 4. 

" 5. Summit of a p»inna enlarged. 

Plate XXXI. 

Figs. 1, 2. Cymoglossa formosa, Spec. nov. 
" 1° Enlarged i^innules of Fig. 1. 

" 3. Cymoglossa breviloba, Spec. nov. 

" 3®. Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 4. Cymoglossa lobata, Spec, nov. 

" 4". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 5. 6. Cymoglossa obtusifolia, Spec. nov. 
" 6. The basal portion of a pinna showing het- 

eromorphous pinnules. 
" 6". The same enlarged to show nervation. 

Plate XXXII. 

Figs. 1-5. Alethopteris Yirginiana, Spec. nov. 
" 1. A compound pinna from the middle of the 

" 1". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

" 2. An ultimate pinna from the lower part of 

the frond showing undulate pinnules. 


Fig. 3. The basal portion of an nltimate pinna, 

showing heteromorphous pinnules. 

" 4. Summit of a comjDOund pinna. 

" 5. A fragment of a pinna, showing one of the 

variations of the pinnules. 


Figs. 1-4. Alethoptei'is Virginiana. 

" 1. Pinnules showing what appears to be sori 

at the base of the pinnules. 

" 2. A fragment of the lower jDortion of a com- 

pound pinna, showing undulate basal 

'' 3. Summit of a pinna of the normal form. 

" 4. Fragment of a pinna with large pinnules of 

tlie normal form. 

'^ 4". Enlarged pinnule of the same. 

5, 6. Alethopteris gigas ? Gein. 

Plate XXXIV. 

Figs. 1-8. Taeniopteris Newberriana, Spec. nov. 

" 1. Portion of a fructified frond. 

" 1". Fructification as seen on the upper surface 

of the frond. 

" 2. Basal portion of a fructified frond. 

'• 3. Fragment showing imprints of the inser- 

tions of the sori. 

" 3**. The imprints of the insertions of the son 


" 4, 5, 6. Portions of the sterile frond. 

'' 5", A portion of the same enlarged. 

" 7. Basal portion of a frond which is possibly 

fructified higher up. 

" 8. A smaller sterile frond of probably the same 


" 9-9^*. Taeniopteris Lescuriana, Spec. nov. Fig. 9 
shows a fragment of one side of the leaf. 

134 pp. keport of progress. fontaine & white. 

Plate XXXV. 

Fig. 1. Rhacopliyllum filiciforme, Var. ma jus. 

'' 2. Rhacopliyllum laciniatum, Spec. nov. Fig. 2. 
Shows the plant on Pecopteris dentata. 

'' B-4. Caulopteris eliptica, Spec. nov. 

'-'- 5. A portion showing the imprint of the outer 

ba]'k of the border around the scar, and a 
part of the scar of Caulopteris gigantea. 

Plate XXXVl. 

Caulopteris gigantea, Spec. nov. 

Plate XXXVII. 

Fig. 1. Carpolithes marginatus, Spec. nov. 
" 2. Guilielmites orbicularis. Spec. nov. 
'• 3. Sigillaria approximata, Spec. nov. 

4. Undetermined plant. Apparently a portion 
of a large flabellate leaf. 
" 5. Impression of apparently the l)ark of an un- 

determined plant. Caulopteris ? 
"• 6-7. Carpolithes bicarpus, Spec. nov. 
8-9. Rhabdocarpus oblongus. Si)ec nov. 
10. Cordaites crassinervis, Spec. nov. 
• • 11-12. Baiera Virginiana, Spec. nov. 
'' 12". A portion of 12, showing nervation. 

Plate XXX VIE . 

Figs. 1-4. Saportea, Gen. nov. 

1-3. Saportea Salisburioides, Spec. nov. 
1". Shows the nervation of Fig. 1. 
2. Gives a portion of a large leaf of the plant. 
•' 3. Shows in the right hand corner what seems 

to be a portion of the terminal margin of 
the leaf. 
'• 4. Saportea grandi folia, Si)ec. nov. 

" 5, 5**. A wing of a cockroach Gerablattina 

balteata, Scudder. 



AcROPTERis cuneata (Schenk), 41 ' 

Adiantum, 100 

A. reniforme (L), 100 

Alethoptkris (Sternb.), 55,87,89,114,115 

A. (typical form), 14 

A. ambigua (Lx.), 17 

A. aquilina (Brongniart), 20,21 

A. gigas (Geiuitz), 80,90,107,112,114— PI. XXXIII, Figs. 5, 6. 

A. grandifolia (Newberry), 11,12, 14 

A. Helenae (Lesq.), 11, 12 

A. inflata (Lesq.), 89 

A. lonchitica (Brt. Var.), 11,12.13,14, 17 

A. nervosa (Brgt.), 17 

A. Fluckeneti (Schlotli.), 17 

A. pteroides (Geinitz), 59 

A. Serlii (Brgt.), 17 

A. Sullivantii (Lx.), 17, 55 

A. Virginiana (spec, nov.), .... 88,96,107,114,— Pi. XXXIl, Figs. 1-5. 

PL XXXIII, Figs. 1-4. 
A. (species nova, allied to (/i^os of Geinitz) , 20 

Annularia (Sternb.), 38 

A. calami toides (Schimp.), 112 

A. carinata (Gutb.), 38,105,112 

A. longifolia (Brt.), 17,20,38,39,105 

A. minuta (Brt.), 39,106 

A. radiata (Brt.), 39,106 

A. sphenopliylloides (Ung.) 17,20,39,106 

Aphlebia patens (Germ.), 97 

Arch^opteris (Daws.), 7,13,14 

A. Alleghanensis (r'?/c?op<e?-ts Allegli.) (Meek.), 6 

A. Bockscliiana {Noeggerathia Bock.) (Goepp.), 6 

A. Hibernica {Palaeopteris Hib.) (Forb.), 6 

A. Jacksoni (Cj/c?o^<e?'is Jacks.) (Daws.), 6 

A. obtusa {Cyclo'pteris of Dawson, Noeggerathia of Lesquereux) 

(Lx.), 6,7 

Artisia transversa (Sternb.), 18 

( 135 PP. ) 



AsPLENiTES Ottonis (Schenk), 59 


AsTEUOCARPUS (Weiss), 41 

A. Meriani (Pecopteris) (Heer,), 57 


A. acicularis (Dawson), 11 

A. equisetiforinis (Brt.), 17, 20 

A. foliosus (Lind. & Hutt.) 17 

A. longifolius, (Goepp.), 35 

A. rigidus (Brt.), 16 

A. subleevis (Lx.), 17 

A. species ? (near equisetiformis), 20 

Baiera (Fr. Brauu), 103,106 

B. digitata (Heer), 103,107,112 

B. Virginiana (sp. nov.), 103,107,112 

B. longifolia (Heer), 103 

B. Virginiana (sp. nov.)— PI. XXXVII, Figs. 11, 12. 

Blattina, species ? (See Gerablatlina), 104 

BocKSCHiAflabellata (Goep.), 34— PI. XXXVIII, Fig. 8. 

Calamites (Brt.), 34,35,114 

C. approximatus (Sternb.), 17 

C. cannseformis (Schloth.), 11, 20 

C. nodosus (Schloth.), 17 

C. ramosus (Artis.), 17 

C. Suckowii (Brt.), 17,35,105 

Calamocladus (Scliimp.), 35 

Calamostachys tuberculata, (Brt.), 17 

Callipteridium (Weiss.), 55,56,58,60,61,62,71,88,115 

C. Dawsonianum (sp. nov.), . . 56,59,106— PI. XIII, Figs. 1, 2. PL XIV, 

Fig. 1. 
C. grandifoliuni (sp. nov.), 58,106— PI. XV, Figs. 1-4. PI. XVI, Figs. 2-4. 

C. Mansfieldii (Lx.), 17 

C. odontopteroides (sp. nov.), 59,106— PI. XVI, Fig. 1. 

C. oblongifolium (sp. nov.), 56,57,106-Pl. XII, Figs. 1-5. 

C. unitum (sp. nov.) 60, 106— PI. XIV, Figs. 2, 3. 

CAJ.L1PTERIS (Brt.), 42,54,113,114 

C. conferta (Brt.), 42,54,103,112,113,116— PI. XI, Figs 1-4. 

Cardiocarpus (Brt.), 12 

C. nianiillatus (Lx.), 18 

Cardiopteris frondosa (SchimiJ.), 7 

Carpolithes (Sternb.), .98 

C. bicarpa (sp. nov.), 98,107— PI. XXXVII, Figs. 6, 7. 

C. Canneltoni (Lx.), 18 

C. cl\'23eifonnis (Lx.), . . • 18 

C. fasciculatus, (Lesq.), 98 

C. fraxinitorniis, 18 

C. marginatus (sp. nov.), 98,107— PI. XXXVIII, Fig. 1. 

C multistriatus (Sternb ), 18 

G. platiniarginatus (Lx.), 18 

C. vescicularis (Lx.), 18 

INDEX. PP. 137 


CAUiiOPTERis (Lind. & Hut.), 95,107— PI. XXXVII, Fig. 5. 

C. elliptica (sp. nov.) 95,107— PI. XXXV, Figs. 3, 4. 

C. gigantea (sp. nov.), .... 95,107— PL XXXV, Fig. 5, PI. XXXVI. 

C. macrodiscus (Brt.), 95,107 

C. obtecta (Lx.), 17 

C. peltigera (Brgt.), 107 

Cladophlebis (Scbimp.), ol,71,115 

CoRDAiSTROBUS (Grand 'Eury), IS 

CoRDAiTES (Ung.), 12,18,97 

C. borassifolia (Ung.), 18, '.^0 

C. communis (Lx.), IS 

C. costatus (Lx.), 18 

C. crassinervis (sp. nov.), 97, 107— Pi. XXXVII, Fig. 10. 

C. crassus (Lx.), , 18 

C. diversifolius (Lx.), 18 

C. gracilis (Lx.), 18 

C. grundifolius (Lx.), 18 

C. Manstieldi (Lx.), 18 

C. principalis (Daws.), 18 

C. reflexa (Lx.), ■ 18 

C. Robii (Daws.), 12 

C. serpens (Lx.), 18 

C. validus (Lx. ), IS 

. CoRDiANTHUs fl. feniina (2 species) {Antliolithes) , 18 

C. fl. masculina, 18 

C. geminifer (Grd. Eury), 18 

Cardiopteris, 7 

Cyatheites Germari (Weiss), 68 

C. Pluckeneti (Brt.), 68, 69 

C. Schlotheimii, (Goep.), 02 

C. {^eaiion Pecopteris), 61,113 

Cyulopteris (Brt.), 105 

C. Allegbanensis (Archaeopteris all.) (Meek.), 6 

C. elegans (Brt.), 17 

C. finibriata (Lx.), 17 

C. Jacksoni (Daws.), 6,7,12 

C. Lescuriana (Meek), , 6,7 

C. obliqua (Lx.), 17 

C. trichomanoides (Lx.), 17 

C. undans (Lx.), 17 

C. valida (Daws.), 7 

C. Virginiana (Meek), 6,7 

(also see ArchccojHcris obtusa.) 

Cymoglossa (Schinip.), 81,84,113 

C. breviloba (sp. nov.), 86,107— PI. XXXI, Fig. 3. 

C. formosa (sp. nov.), 86,107— PL XXXI, Figs. 1, 2. 

C Goeppei-tiana (Schimp.), 86 

C. lobata (sp. nov.), 87,107— PI. XXXI, Fig. 4. 

C. obtusifolia (sp. nov.), 85,107— PI. XXXI, Figs. 5, 6. 

Cypris, 116 



Desmiophyllum gracile (Lx.), 18 

DiCRANOPHYi^LUM species, 18 

D. (limorphuni (Lx.), 18 

DiCTYOPTERis (Gutb.), 50 

D. neuropteroides (Von Rohl), 50 

D. obliqua (Bunb.), 17 

Equisetides (Schimp.), 33,34 

E. eloiigatus (sp. nov.), 33,105,115,121— Plate I, Figs. 1-4. 

E. rugosus (Schimp.), 33,105,121— PI. I, Fig. 6. 

E. striatus (sp. nov.), 34,105,121— Plate I, Fig. 5. 

1']quisetites infundibuliformis (Schimp.), 17 

Equisetum triphyllum (Hear), 115 

pjREMOPTEBis (Schimp.), 94 

estheria, 116 

Genus ?, 97 

Gerablattina balteata ("^cudder), 104 — PI. XXXVIIT, Fig. 5. 

GiNGKO (see tSalisburia), 116 

Gleichenites Neesii, (Goep.), 94 

GONIOPTERIS (Presi.), 80,81,84,85,113 

G. arguta (Schimp.), 82,83,84,87,107,111 

G. elegans (Schimp.), • • . . 82,107 

G. eiliptica (sp. nov.), 83,107— PI. XXXI, Fig. la. 

G. emarginata (Schimp.), 80,82,86,107 

G. iongifolia, (Schimp.), 82,107 

G. Newbeniana (sp. nov.), 84,107— PI. XXX. 

G. oblonga (sp. nov.), 83,107— PI. XXX, Figs. 3-5. 

G. species ?, 83 

GuiLiELMiTES (Geinitz), 99 

G. orbicularis (sp. nov.) 99,107,114— PI. XXXVII, Fig. 2. 

G. permianus (Goei^p.), 107,114 

Hymrnophyllites expansus, 17 

H. Gutbierianus (Presl.), 17 

H. laceratus (Lx.), 17 

H. lactuca (Gutb.), ■ 17 

Jeanpaulia, 103 

J. Iongifolia (Heer), 103 

Knorria acicularis (Goejj.), 8 

Lepidodendron (Sternb.), 7,12,114 

L. modulatum (Lx.), 17 

L. obovatum (Sternb.), .... 17 

L. quadratum (Lx.), 17 

L. sehiginoides (Sternb.), 11 

L. Sternbergii (Brt.), 6,16,17 

L. Veltheimianum (Sternb.), 6 

L. species?, 6,8 

liEPiDOPHLOios IjARIOInus (Stcmb.), 18 

LepidophylLiUM auricalatum (Lx.), 17 

L. foliaceum (Lx.), 17 

L. Mansfieldi (Lx.), 17 

L. undulatum (Lx.), 17 

L. sjjecies? 16 

INDEX. PP. 139 


Lepidostkobus ornatus (Brt.), 16,17 

L. variabilis (L. it H.), 17 

LepidoxaIjON anoinaluin (Lx.), 18 

Lescuroptkris Moorii (Scliimp.). 20,21 

Macrotaeniopteris (Schimp.), 93 

M. glgantea (Scheiik), 91 

M. Rogers!, (Sohlinp), 92 

Mkgalopteris (Daws.), 13,14 

M. Hartii, (Andr.), 11 

M. Sewellensis (Font.), 11,12 

Merianiopteris (Heer), 78,115 

M. angusta (Heer), 56 

MixoNEURA (sub-genus; Weiss), 53,114,115 

Nematophyllum (gen. nov.), 35,113 

N. angustuni, 35,105,121— PL II, Figs. 1-5. 

Neuropteridium (sub-genus; Schiniper), 51 

Neuropteris (Brt.), 7,14,46,49,50,55,58,61,115 

N. acutifolia (Brt.), 16,20 

N. angustifolia (Brt.), 17 

N. auriculata (Brt.), 50,10(> 

N. Clarksoui (Lesq.), 16,17 

N. cordata (Brt.), 48,51,106 

iST. cordato-ovata (Weis), , 61 

N. cordifolia (Lx.), 17 

N. crenulata (Brt.), 17 

N. Dawsoni (Hartt.), 12 

N. dictyopteroides (sp. nov.), 14,.".2,106— PL VIII, Figs, 3-5. 

N. Dufresnoyi (Brt.), 115 

N. friinbriatus (Lesq.), 51,106,111 

N. flexuosa(Brt.), . . . 7,12,16,17,20,47,48,49,51,106— PL YIII, Fig. 6. 

N. flexuosa, Var. longifolia, 49,106 

N. Grangeri (Brt.), 20 

N. heterophylla (Brt.), 1*3 

N. hirsuta(Lesq.), . . . 16,17,20,47,48,106,111,112,116— PL YIII, Fig.8. 

N. Loschii (Brt.), 17,20 

N. odontopteroides (sp. nov.), 50,106— PL IX, Fig. 16. 

N. platynervis (sp. nov.), PL VIII, Fig. 2. 

N. plicata (Sternb.), 17 

N. rarinervis (Bunb.), 16,20 

N. Rogersi (Lesq.), 52 

N. Smithiana (Lesq.), 11,12,14 

N. tenuifolia (Brt ), 11,17 

N. vermicularis (Lx.), ... . 17 

N. Villersii (Brt.), 50 

N. species? 51— PL X, Fig. 11. 

Noeggerathia (See Archceopteris oMusa.) 

N. Bocksohiana, (Archceopteris B.), 6 

N. dispar (Dawson), IWi 

N. obtusa (Lesq.), 7 

Odontoptbris (Brt.) 52,60,114,115 



O. alpina (Heer), 53 

O. densifolia (sp. nov.), 54,103 

O. Dulresnoyi (Brt.), 51 

O. gracilliuia (Newb.), 11 

O. nervosa (sp. nov.), PI. X, Figs. 1-2, 52,108 

O, neuropteroides (Newb.), 11,14 

O. obti'.sa (Naiim.), 52 

O. nervosa (sp. nov.), 106,112,114— PI. X, Figs. 1-2. 

O. obtusiJoba, Var. rarinervis, 52 — PL X, Fig. 4. 

O. padiyderma (sp. nov.), 53,100— Pi, X. Figs. 10. 

O. Sciaotlieiniii (Brt.), 17 

O. subcuneata (Biinb.), 16 

O. (sp. nov. allied to obtiisiloba), 20 

Oleandba nereiformis (Presl.), 93 

Oleandridium (Schlmp.), 90,93 

Orthogoniopteris (Andr.), 12 

Pachyptkris (Brt.), 70,115 

Palaeopteris Hibernica {Archceopteris H.) (Forb.), 6 

Pecopterdium (suggested genus,) 61 

Pecoptebis (Brt.), .... .7,14,20,40,43,46,47,55,50,01,02,03,71,114,115 

P. (section Cyalheides), 61,115 

P. acrostichoides (Schiaiper), 77 

P. adiantoides (L. &H.), 72 

P. angustipinna (sp. nov.), 70,106— PI. XXVII, Figs. 1-3. 

P. arborescens (Schloth.), 10,02,03,77,78,106,115 

P. arborescens, Var. «j^cr/?-?jji9i?i a 03,106 

P. arguta (Brt.), 83,84 

P. asplenioides (sp. nov.), 72,106— PI. XXV, Fig. 1. 

P. Bredovi (Germ.), 71 

P. Buctclandi (Brt.), 20 

P. Candoileana (Brt.), 20,21,03,106— PI. XX, Figs. 1-3. 

P. clioerophylloides (Brt.), 17 

P. concinna (Lesq.), 73 

P. constricta, 68 

P. cristata, (Brt.), 45,46 

P. dentata, (Brt.). 07,70,94,106— PI. XXII, Figs. 1-5. PL XXXV, Fig. 2. 

P. dentata. Var. crenata, 66 

P. dentata. Var. parva, 67 

P. dentata. Var. pZM???05a, 20,66— PL XXII, Fig. 2. 

P. elliptica (Bunb.), 04,82,106,111— PL. XVII, Fig. 1. 

P. Germari (Weiss), Font. & White), . 68,69,70,100— PL XIX, Fig. 1-7. 

P. Germari Var. crassnie?-uis, 70,100 — PL XX, Fig. 5. 

P. Germari Var. CMspuZa^a, 70,100— PL XX, Fig. 4. 

P. Goepperti (Morris), . 84 

P. goniopteroides (sp. nov.), 80,103— PL XXV, Fig. 2. 

P. Heeriana (sp. nov.), 77,106— PL XXV, Figs. 3-7. 

P. hemiteloides (Brt.) 17 

P. imbricata(sp. nov.), 72,106— PL XXIII, Fig. 1. 

P. inclinata (sp. nov.), 80,100- PL XXIX, Fig. 4. 

P. lanceolata (sp. nov.) 79,106— PI. XXIX, rig.s. 7-9. 

INDEX. PP. 141 


P. latifolia (sp. nov.), 79,106— PI. XXIX, Figs. 5,6. 

P. Merianiopteroides (sp. nov.), . . . 78,106,115— PI. XXIX, Figs. 1,2. 

P. Meriani CHeer), 57 

P. microphj-lla (Lx.), . . 17 

P. Miltoni (Artis), 65,106— PI. XXIIT, Figs. 2,3. 

P. Miltoni Yar. polymoiyha, 66 

P. niuricata (Brt.), 11,13,14 

P. nervosa (Brt.), 11,12,13,14 

P. notata (Lesq.), 20,68,106,111 

P. sub-falcata (sp. nov.;, 70,80,106 

P. oreopteridia (Brt.), 64,74,106 

P. ovoides (sp. nov.), 79,106— PI. XXIX, Fig. 3. 

P. pachypteroides (sp. nov.), .... 76,106,115— PL XXVI, Figs. 1-4. 

P. pennaeformis (Brt.), 65,100 

P. pennaeformis Var. /ft<?/t)/ia, . ..... .65,106 — PI. XVII, Figs. 4,5. 

P. pinnatitida (Gutb.), (Gein.), 70 

P. platynervis (.sp. nov.), 73,106— PI. XVIII, Figs. 1-6. 

P. Pluckeneti (Brt.), 20,67,68,69,100— PI. XXI, Figs. 4,5. 

P. Pluckeneti Var. cons<9-ic<rt, 68,106— PI. XXI, Fig. 3, 

P. pi u mesa (Brgt.), 17,67 

P. iwlyniorjiha (Brt.), 17,66 

P. pteroides (Brt.), 20,59,67,71,106 

P. rarinervis (sp. nov.) 71,106— PI. XX, Figs. 6-8. 

P. rotundifolia (sp. nov.), 73,106— PI. XXIV, Fig. 6. 

P. rotundiloba (sp. nov.), 74,106— PI. XVII, Fig. 2. 

P. Schimperiana (sp. nov.), 75,106— PI. XXIV, Figs. 1-5. 

P. Sillimani (Brgt.), 17 

P. spinulosa (Lesq.), 20 

P. squamosa (Lx.), 17 

P. snbfalcata (sp, nov.), PI. XXI, Figs. 1,2. 

P. Sulziana (Brt.), 75 

P. tenuinervJs (sp. nov.), 77,94,106— PI. XXVIII, Figs. 1-4, 

P. triassica (Heer), 53 

P. truncata (Lx.), 17 

P. iinita (Brt.), 79 

P. villosa (Brt.) 16 

P. Whitbiensis(Brt.), 

P. Williamsoni (Brt.), 77 

P. species? . . . . 80,81,82— PL XVII, Figs, 3,6; PL XXIV, Fig. 7 ; PL 

XXVII, Figs. 4,5,6. 
P. (See Asterocarpus Merianus.) 

Phyllotheca (Brt.), 34 

PiNNULARiA capillacea (LI. & Hutt.), IS 

psygjiophyllum, 97 

Pterophyllum, 93 

Rhabdocarpus (Goep. and Berg.), 12,98 

R. am^'gdalaeforniis (Goepp.), 18 

R. Boohsianiis, 18 

R. clavatus (Sternb.), ... 18 

R. oblongatus (sp. nov,), 98,107— PL XXXVII, Figs. 8,9. 


Rhacophyllum (SchimiD.), 93 

R. filiciforme (Schimp.), 20,93,94,107 

R. filicifoime Var. majus, 93— PI. XXXV, Fig. 1. 

R. laciniatum (sp. nov.), 94,107— PI. XXXV, Fig. 2. 

R. lactuca (Sternb), 94,107 

R. speciocissiinuni (Scliimp.), 94,107 

Rhizomorpha sigillariae (Lx.), 18 

Salisburia (Gingko), 100,101,102,103,116 

SAPORTiEA (gen. nov.), 99,115— PI. XXXVIII, Figs. 1-4. 

S. grandifolia (sp. nov.), .... 101,102,107— PL XXXVIII, Fig. 4. 

S. Salisburioides (sp. nov.), . . . 102, 103, 107- PI. XXXVIII, Figs. 1-3. 

SCHIZONEURA, 35,113,114 

S. Meriani (Heer), 35,113 

ScHizoPTKRis lactuca (Presl.), 94,107 


S. vulgare (Lx.), 48 

SlGiLLARiA (Brt.), 7,12,96,114 

S. alternans (LI. &Hutt.), 18 

S. approximata (sp. nov.), 96,107— PI. XXXVII, Fig. 3. 

S. Brardii (Brt.), 97,107,114 

S. elliptica (Brt.), 18 

S. mainillaris (Brt.), 18 

S. Menardi (Brt.), 96 

S. monostigma (Lx.), 18 

S. i^es-capreoli (Gein.), 20 

S. reniforniis (Brt.), 18 

S. sculpta (Lx.), 18 

S. tessellata (Brt.), 18 


S. permiensis (White), 117 

Sphenophyllxtm (Brt.), 36,37 

S. angustifoliuni (Germ.), 37 

S. densifoliatum (sp. nov.), 37,38, 105,121— PI. I, Fig. 8. 

S. emarginatum, 17 

S. tiliculmis (Lesq.), 20,37,38,105,111,121— Plate I, Fig. 8. 

S. latifolium, (sp. nov.), 36,105,121— PL I, Figs. 10, 11. 

S. longifolium (Germ.), 17,36,38,105 

S. oblongifolium (Germ.), 38.105 

S. Schlotheimii (Brt.), 16,17 

S. tenuifolimTi (sp. nov.), 38,105,121— PL I, Fig. 9. 

S. trifoliatum (Lesq.), 20 

Sphenopteris (Brt) 7,14,40,43,46,47,113,115 

S. {Pecopteroid Section), 44,45 

S. acrocarpa(sp.nov.), 40,106,115,122— PL III, Figs. 1-3. PL IV, Figs. 1-5. 

S. adiantoides (L. <fe. H.), 11 

S. Artemisiaefolia (Sternb.), 17 

S. auriculata (sp. nov.), 42,106— PL VII, Figs. 3, 4. 

S. coriacea (sp. nov.), 41,54,106, 112,113,116,123— PL V, Fig. 5. 

S. cristata(Brt.), 43 

S. dentata (sp. nov.), 42 , 106 , 123— PL V, Figs. 7, 8. 

INDEX. PP. 143 


S. denticulata (Brt.), 41 

S. flaccida (Lx.), 8 

S. foliosa (sp. nov.), 44,106,123— PI. Y, Figs. 9-11. 

S. furcata (Brt.), 20 

S. hastata (sp. nov.) 46,106— PL YII, Fig. 7. 

S. Hoeninghausi (Brt.), .» . . 11,12 

S. Integra (Goep.), Go 

S. latifolia (Brt.), 14,40 

S. Lescuriana (sp. nov.), . . 44,106— PL VI, Fig. 1. PL VII, Figs. 1, 2. 

S. Lesquereuxii (Nevvb.), 42 

S. lyratitbJia (Weiss), 45,105,113 

S. macilenta (L. &H.), 7,11,12,14,40 

S. minuti-secta (sp. nov.), 20,43,106,115— PL V, Fig. 1-4. 

S. mixta (Scliimp.), 17 

S. Newberryi (Lx.), 17 

S. Nunimularia (Gutb.), 70 

S. obtusiloba (Brt.), 11,13,14 

S. oxydata (Goep.), 42,106,113 

S. pachynervis (sp. nov.), 46,106— PL VII, Figs. 5, 6. 

S. species ?, 42 

S. Sarana (Weiss), 42 

Sphenopteris Pecop^ertdes (suggested sub-genus) , • • • 46 

Spiropteris villosa (Lx.), 17 

Stemmatopteris Manstieldi (Lx!) 17 

Stigmaria niinuta (Goep.), 8 

S. ficoides (Brt.), 18 

S. Wolkniannia, 8 

Syringodendron cyclostignia (Brt.), . . 18 

S. pes-capreoli (Brt.), 18 

Taeniophyllum contextum (Lx.), 18 

T. decurrens (Lx.), 18 

T. deflexum (Lx.), 18 

Taeniopteris (Brt.), 12,90,93,101 

T. coriacea, (Goep.), 93,112 

T. Lescuriana (sp. nov.), 91,93,107,112— PL XXXIV, Fig. 9. 

T. multinervis (Weiss), 91,107,112 

T. Newberriaua (sp. nov.), .... 91,93,107,112— PL XXXIV, Figs. 1-8. 

T. Newberriana Var anguste, 93 

T. Smitbii (Lesq.), 12 

T. vittata (Brt.), 91,93,107 

Thyrsopteris (Heer), 44,115 

TRiGONOCARprs (Brt.), 12 

T. Daviesii, 18 

Teiphyllopteris, 7,14 

T. Lescurianna (Meek.), 6 

T. Virginiaua (Meek.), 6 

T. (species undescribed), 6 

UiiODENDRON majus L. & H.), 8 

Whittleseya elegans (Newb.), 13 

ZoNARiTES digitatus (Gein.), 103 

Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

REPORTS FOR 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, AND 1879. 

The following Reports are issued for the State by the Board of Conimis*- 
missioners, at FTarnsburg, and the prices have been fixed as follows, in ac- 
cordance with the terms of the act : 


A. HiSTORiCAT^ Sketch of Geological Explorations in Pennsylvania 
and otlier States. By J. P. Lesley. With apj^endix, coiituining Annual 
Reports for 1874 and 1875 ; pp. 220, Svo. Price in jmper, |0 S.') ; postage, $0 OG. 
Price in cloth, gO 50 ; postage, $0 10. 

B. Preliminary Report of the Mineralogy of Pennsylvania — 

1874. By Dr. F. A. Genth. With appendix on the hydro-carbon compounds, 
by Samuel P. Sadtler. 8vo., pji. 206, with viap of the State for reference to 
cx:)unties. Price in i>aper, ?0 50; postage, ?0 08. Price in cloth, $0 75; i) 
age, ?0 10. 

B.- Preliminary Report of the Mineralogy of Pennsylvania for 

1875. By Dr. F. A. Genth. Price in j^aper, ?0 05 ; postage, SO 02. 

C. Report of Progress on York and Adams Counties — 1874. By 
Persifor Frazer, Jr. Svo., ^i]). 198, illustrated by 8 maps and seciio7is and other 
ilhistrations. Price in paper, |0 85; postage, ?0 10. Price in cloth, ^l 10; 
postage, §0 12. 

CC. Report of Progress in the Counties of York, Adams, Cumber- 
land, AND Franklin — 1875. Illustrated by maps and cross-sections, show- 
ing the Magnetic and Micaceous Ore Belt near the Avestern edge of tlie Meso 
zoic Sandstone and the two Azoic systems constituting the mass of the South 
Mountains, with a preliminary discussion on the Dillsburg Ore Bed and 
catalogue of specimens collected in 1875. By Persifor Frazer, Jr. Price. $1 25 ; 
postage, SO 12. 

D. Report of Progress IN THE Brown Hematite Orf; Ranges of Le- 
high County — 1874, witli descriptions of mines lying between Emaus, Al- 
burtis, and Foglesville. By Fredericlc Prime, Jr. 8vo., pp. 73, witli a contour- 
line 7)iap and 8 cuts. Price in paper, $0 50 ; postage, $0 04. Price in cloth, 
?0 75 ; postage, ?0 06. 


DD. The Brown Hematite Deposits of the Siluro-Cambrian Lime- 
stones OF Lehigh County, lying between Shimersville, Millersto'svn, 
Schencksville, Ballietsville, and the Lehigh river — 1875-G. By Frederick 
Prime, Jr. 8 vo., pp. 99, with 5 map-sheeta and 5 plates. Price, §1 60 ; post- 
age, §0 12. 

E. Special Report on the Tiiap Dykes and Azoic Rocks of South- 
eastern Pennsylvania, 1875 ; Part I, Historical Introduction. By T. Sterry 
Hunt. 8 vo., pp. 253. Price, |0 48 ; postage, ?0 12. 

P. Report of Progress in the Juniata District on Fossil Iron Ore 
Beds of Middle Pennsylvania. By John H. Dewees. With a report of the 
AuGiiwiCK Valley and East Broad Top District. By C. A. Ashbur- 
ner. 1874-8. Illustrated with 7 Geological maps and 19 sections. 8 vo., pp. 
305. Price, ?2 55 ; postage, !fO 20. 

(Jr. Report OF Progress IN Bradford AND Tioga Counties — 1874-8. I. 
Limits of the Catskill and Chemung Formation. By Andrew Sher- 
wood. II. Description of the Barclay', Blossburg, Fall Brook, Arnot, 
Antrim, and Gaines Coal Fields, and at the Forks of Pine Creek in 
Potter County^. By Franklin Piatt. III. On the Coking of Bitumin- 
ous Coal. By John Fulton. Illustrated with 2 colored Geological county 
ma2JS, '6 plates and So cuts. 8 vo., pp. 271. Price, ^1 00; postage $0 12. 

H. Report of Progress in the Clearfield and Jefferson District 
OF THE Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania — 1874. By 
Franklin Piatt. 8vo., pp. 296, illustrated by 139 cuts, 8 maps, and 2 sections. 
Price in paper, ?1 50 ; postage, |0 13. Price in cloth, ?1 75 ; postage, ?0 15. 

HH. Report of Pjiogress in the Cambria and Somerset District 
OF the Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania — 1875. By F. 
and W. G. Piatt. Pp. 194, illustrated with 84 ivood-ciits and 4 maps and sec- 
tions. Part I. Cambria. Price, ^1 00 ; postage, ?0 12. 

1£HH. Report of Progress in the Cambria and Somerset District 
OF THE Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania — 1876. By F. 
and W. G, Piatt. Pp. 348, illustrated by 110 wood-cuts and 6 maps and sec- 
tions. Part II. Somerset. Price, SgO 85 ; postage, ?0 IS. 

HHHH. Report of Progress in Indiana County — 1877. By W. G. 
Piatt. Pp. 316. Witii a colored map of the county. Price, |0 80 ; postage, 
fO 14. 

I, Report of Progress in the Venango County District — 1874. By 
John F. Carll. With observations on the .Geology around AVarren, by F. A. 
Randall; and Notes on the Comparative Geologj-- of North-eastern Ohio and 
Northwestern Pennsylvania, and Western New York, by J. P. Lesley. Svo., 
pp. 127, with 2 majis, a long section, and 7 cuts in the text. Price m paper, 
|0 60 ; postage, $0 05. Price in cloth, §0 85 ; jjostage, $0 08. 

II. Report of Progress, Oil Well Records, and Levels — 1876-7. 
Bv John F. Carll. Pp. 398. Published in advance of Report of Progress, III. 
Price, |0 60 ; postage, |0 18. 

J. Special Report on the Petroleum of Pennsylvania — 1874, its 
Production, Transijortation, Manufacture, and Statistics. By Henry E. Wrig- 
lev. To which are added a Map and Prolile of a line of levels through Butler, 
Armstrong, and Clarion Counties, by D. Jones Lucas: and also a jNIap and 
Profile of a line of levels along Slipperj^ Rock Creek, by J. P. Lesley. 8 vo., 
pp. 122; 5 maj)s and sections, n plate and 5 cuts. Price in paper, 50 75; post- 
age, SO 06. Price in cloth, $1 00 ; postage, |0 OS. 

K. PfcEPORT ON Greene and Washington Counties — 1875, Bituminous 
Coal Fields. By J. J. Stevenson, S vo., pp. 420, illustrated by 3 sections and 2 
county maps, showing the depth of tlie Pittsburg and Waynesburg coal bed, 


beneath the surface at numerous points. Price in paper, §0 65 ; postage, ?0 Ifi. 
Price in cloth, gO 90 ; postage, §0 IS. 

KK. Repokt op Pkogkess ix thk Fayettk and Westmoreland Dis- 
TiiiCT OP THE Bituminous Coal Fields op Western Pennsylvania — 
187G. By J. J. Stevenson ; pp. 437, illustrated by 50 wood-cuts and 3 county 
maps, colored. Part I. Eastern Allegheny County, and Fayette and West- 
moreland Counties, west from Chestnut Kidge. Price, $1 40 ; postage, $0 20. 

KKK. Report op Progress in the Fayette and Westmoreland 
District of the Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Penns3'lvania — 1877. 
By J. J. Stevenson. Pp. 331. Part II. The Ligonier Valley. Illustrated 
with 107 wood-cuts, 2 plates, and 2 county maps, colored. Price, %l 40; post- 
age, §0 IG. 

L. 1875 — Special Report on the Coke Manufacture op the Yougk- 
lOGHENY River Valley in Fayette and Westmoreland Counties, 
with Geological Notes of the Coal and Iron Ore Beds, from Survey's, by Charles 
A. Young; hy Franklin Piatt. To which are a^jpended: I. A Report on 
Methods of Coking, by John Fulton. II. A Report on the use of Natural Gas 
in the Iron INIanufacture, by John B. Pearse, Franklin Piatt, and Professor 
Sadtler. Pp. 252. Price, 51 00 ; postage, ?0 12. 

M. PbEPORT of Progress in the Laboratory of the Survey at 
IIarrisburg — 1874-5, by Andrew S. McCreath. 8 vo., pp. 105. Price in pa- 
per, §0 50; postage, $0 05. Price in cloth, 50 75 ; postage, ^ 08. 

MM. Second Report of Progress in the Laboratory op the Sur- 
vey at IIarrisburg, by Andrew S. McCreath — 1S7G-8, including I. Classifica- 
tion of Coals, by Persifor Frazer, Jr. II. Firebrick Tests, by Franklin Piatt. 
III. Notes on Dolomitio Limestones, by J. P. Leslej-. IV. Utilization of An- 
thracite Slack, by Franklin Piatt. V. Determination of Carbon in Iron or 
Steel, by A. S. McCreath. With 3 indexes, plate, and 4 page plates. Pp. 438. 
Price in cloth, gO C5 ; postage, ?0 18. 

N. Report of Progress — 1875-G-7. Two hundred Tables of Elevation 
above tide level of the Railroad Stations, Summits and Tunnels ; Canal Locks 
and Dams, River Riffles, etc., in and around Pennsylvania ; with riiap ; pp. 279. 
By Charles Allen. Price, |0 70 ; postage, $0 15. 

O. Catalogue of the Geological Musuem — 1874-5-6-7. By Charles E. 
Hall. Part I. Collection of Rock Specknens. Nos. 1 to 4,264. Pp.217. Price, 
10 40 ; postage, ?0 10. 

P. 1879 — Atlas of the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and of the 
Carboniferous Formation throughout the United States. 87 plates 
with explanations. By Leo Lesquereux. Price, f 3 35; postage, |0 22. 

Q. Report of Progress in the Beaver River District op the Bitu- 
minous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania. By I. C.White; pp. 
337, illustrated with 3 Geological maps of parts of Beaver, Butler, and Alle- 
gheny Counties, and 21 plates of vertical sections — 1875. Price, ?1 40 ; jjost- 
age, 50 20. 

QQ. Report of Progress in 1877. The Geology of Lawrence County, 
to Avhich is appended a Special Report on the Correlation of the Coal 
Measures in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. 8 vo., pp. 336, with 
a colored Geological Map of the county, and 134 vertical sections. By I. C. 
White. Price, §0 70 ; postage, CO 15. 

V. Report of Progress— 1878. Part I. The Northern Townships of But- 
ler county. Part II. A special survey made in 1875, along the Beaver and 
Shenango rivers, in Beaver, Lawrence and Mercer Counties. 8 vo., pp. 248, 
with 4 m,ops, 1 profile section and 154 vertical sections. By II. Martyn 
Chance. Price, ?0 70 ; postage, |0 15. 



other Reports of the Survey are in the hands of tlie printer, tind will soon 
be published. 

Tlie sale of copies is conducted according to Section 10 of the Act, -which 
reads as follows : 

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shall be donated to all public libraries, universities, and colleges in the State, 
and shall be furnislied at cost of ^publication to all other U2>2)licants for 

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and orders concerning sales should be addressed to him, at 22;i Market street, 
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