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PERSIAN FOR TRAVELLERS. 

By ALEXANDER FINN, F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S., 

H.J1. CONSUL AT RESHT, 

$art h \ 

RTJIDIIMENTS OW GRAMMAR. 
ENGLISH-PERSIAN VOCABULARY, 

LONDON: 
TRUBNER & CO., 57 & 59, LUDGATE HILL. 

1884. ^2*~$ *!' 

\_All rights reserved.'] ( • 



TO 

MADAME SCHOFER, 

IN REMEMBRANCE OF CONVERSATIONS HELD AT TAJREESH, ON THE 

SUBJECT OF THE PERSIAN LANGUAGE, THIS WORK IS 

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY HER VERY OBEDIENT 

SERVANT, 

THE COMPILER. 



PREFACE. 



This is a work of no pretensions. It is essentially a work for begin- 
ners. To those who wish for a complete grammar I can recommend 
no better than that by Mirza Ibrahim (Allen, 1841). Richardson's 
Dictionary still holds its own as the best extant. There are even 
words in this which would not find their way into a learned lexicon, 
but are nevertheless useful, not to say necessary, to those holding 
intercourse with the natives {i.e. slang). No learned attempt has 
here been made to phoneticize the words or always to represent the 
same Persian by the same English letters; each word has been 
written down as seems to be necessary for any Englishman to be able 



VI PEESIAN GEAMMAE. 

to pronounce it intelligibly to Persian ears at first sight and without 
hesitation. 

Englishmen, on seeing a word for the first time, usually strain their 
mouths and their voices in order to give the words what they imagine 
to be a proper accent and sound, especially when dealing with the 
vowels. I entreat those who may use this book to treat the words as 
though they were English. I have done my best to produce the 
proper effect by the usual methods. Where an a has to be pronounced 
long, or broadly, I have marked it with the sign we used at school in 
dealing with Latin, and have avoided French accents and Hunterian 
marks, the use of which, except by the initiated, only end in producing 
results as curious as unnecessary. 



PREFACE. Vit 

The letter g, whenever it appears, should be pronounced hard, as in 
give and get. 

As a rule h when met with must be aspirated (unless after c. g, k, s, 
t, z, when of course that combination has its proper sound), as in belt- 
ter (better). When at the end of a word h has to be aspirated it has 
been written double as in vazehJi (evident). 

Here I beg to express my thanks to Hajji Mirza Hassan Moonshee, 
of the British Legation, for the valuable assistance he has rendered me 
in writing in the Persian words of this Vocabulary. 

ALEXANDER FINK 



INTRODUCTION, 



Pebsian Grammar is simplicity itself. There is only one declension and 
two conjugations. 

Substantives have the nominative and aocusative, the latter formed 
by adding ra to the former : the other cases, with the exception of the 
genitive, are formed by the addition of the usual particles, as be (to) to the 
dative, az (from) to the ablative, &c. The genitive alone is peculiar, 
and is formed either by the particle az, or, as in other Oriental languages* 
by the termination of the previous word in i ; for example, 

J^d. t. . Utah. 

The cover of (sign of genitive) the book. 

Sag* », shuma. 

The dog of (sign of genitive) you, i.e. your dog. 



X PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

A'i sag i shumd amad jild i kitdbra az khdneh be beiroon burd. 

A'i Oh! (vocative) sag dog (nominative) i of [sign of genitive) shumd 
you amad came jild cover i of (sign of genitive) kitdb the book-ra (sign 
of accusative) az from (ablative) khdneh the house be to (dative) beiroon 
outside burd took. 

ADJECTIVES 

are declined in the same way as substantives. There are three degrees 
of comparison. For comparative add ter to the positive, and for the super- 
lative add tereen ; for example, 

bad badter badtereen 

bad worse worst 





VEEBS. 






JuRaJ 

sefeed 
white 


sefeedter 
whiter 




sefeedter een 
whitest, &c. 


To this there is one exception, 






Ichoob 


h elder 




behtereen 


good 


hetter 




worse 


PRONOUNS are treated 


as suhstan 


lives. 



XI 



VERBS. 



For ordinary use only three tenses are necessary, the present, past and 
future, besides the imperative. Colloquially the present is almost invari- 
ably used instead of the future. 



x ii PEESIAK GEAMMAB. 

There are two conjugations, the one ending in tan and the other in dans 
as a rule the latter is perfectly regular. The perfect tense is formed 
directly from the root of the infinitive, in both conjugations, ex. grat., 
dddan ' to give,' dad being the root. For the first person singular add an to 
the root; for the second person add ee; the third person is the same as the 
root. In the plural add eem to the root for the first person, eed for the 
second, and and for the third, thus :— 

^.ita Dddan. — Infinitive. 

Singular. Plural* 

1. pata dadam, 1. ^ata dadeem 

2. \jo^ dadee 2. Jjota dadeed 

3. <>b dad 3. ^b dadand 



Veebs. 



xm 



Imperative. 



2nd pers. sing., jTbe koon 
2nd pers. plur., JuiJo be kooned 



^f Kardan.-*" To do." 

Past Participle. 



Singular 1 . 

1. *^« mi kiinam 

2. jj^c mi kiini 

3. jJ^* mi kunad 

1. j.^ kardam 

2. ^^kardee 

3. ^T kard 



PEESENT. 



PeEFECT. 



i^rkardeh 



Plural. 

1. ^C* mi kuneem 

2. »v*l« mi kuneed 

3. .x^o mi kunand 

1. *}.}/' kardeem 

2. Jj^T kardeed 

3. Jj^Tkardand 



XIV 



FEBSIAN GEAMMAB. 



FlJTUEE. 



1. »sf j»\y» kbabam kard 

2. if ^y* kbabee kard 

3. ^Jjfclji. kbabad kard 



1. >ap *jj»lja. kbabeem kard 

2. if^fi\y^ kbabeed kbard 

3. i>j J^lji. kbaband khard 



Imperative. 
2nd pers. sing., ^ besbo 
2nd pers. plural, Jjj^j besbaveed 

Peesejstt. 
Singular. 



,J-- Shudan. — " To become." 

Past Participle. 



L. 



« ft'i V i' ; t .O 



9 . '■ 



mi sbavam 
mi sbavee 
mi sbaveed 



sJw. shudeb 



Plural. 

1. *jj^« mi sbaveem 

2. Jj^^o mi sbaveed 

3. Jo*£-<a mi sbavand 



VEEBS. 



XV 



Pekfect. 



1. -J-i. shudam 

2. i^J^i shudee 

3. oi shud 



1. >X£> ** ^» 



khaham shud 
kkahee shud 
khahad shud 



1. ^Jwi shudeem 

2. OiJ£ shudeed 

3. JJJ-2> shudand 



Ftjtuee. 






khaheem shud 
khaheed shud 
khahand shud 



o 0j> Boodan. 
Imperative. 
2nd pers. sing., Jil? bash 
2nd pers. plur., J^l. basheed 



"To be." 

Past Participle. 
sjjj boodeh 



XVI 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR, 



Present. 



1, 
2, 
3, 



bastam 
hastee 



o-a bast 



1* **y boodam 

2. ^sy boodee 

3, zy bood 



1. *y iSk 1 ^ kbabam bood 

2. j»jj i^ 1 ^*- kbab.ee bood 

3. iy ^y, kbabed bood 



Perfect. 



Future, 



1, 

2, 
3. 



basteem 
hasteed 
bastand 



p>ty. boodeem 
. Joji^j boodeed. 
3» Jisy boodaud. 



1 

2 



1. *y t*^y* kbabam bood 

2. zy JuaI^. kbabeed bood 

3. ty Xjklji. kbahaud bood 



VEBBS. 



XV U 



».>b dadeb. 



^.sb Dadan.—" To give." 
ImperaWi*. ^ s ' PatrUcvple 

2nd pers. sing., »^> bedeb 
2nd pers. plur., ***> bedeheed. 

Present 

Singular. 

1. **J** mi dabam 

2. ,/^ m i dabee 

3. JaJ-o mi dabad 



1. 

2. 
3. 



Plural. 
^stbj-* mi dabeem 
j^jujo mi dabeed 
j^j«-o mi daband. 



1. ..ab dadan 

2. t$ib dadee 

3. ab dud 



Perfect. 



1. ^ab dadeem 

2. Joob dadeed 

3. jjjb dadand 



xvm 



PEESIAN GEAMMAB. 



FUTTJEE. 



1. alo y*'»i. khaham dad 



2. 
3. 



r^y- 



^IJ> 



1*3. khahee dad 



c^y- 



jb Jj»1 



khahad dad 



y^J^i. Khdstan. — •" To will 

Imperative. 
2nd pers. sing., s\j& bekhah 
2nd pers. plur., J*fcjy» bekhaheed 



1. jU **»)_>» khaheem dad 

2. ^b J^W> khaheed dad 
2. jU jjj^ji- kbaband dad 

; to wish ; to want." 

Past Participle. 
.vzwlfti. kbasteb 



Singular. 

1. **ly** mi khaham 

2. ^'^a** nii khahee 

3. jjklyt* mi khahad 



Pee sent. 



Plural. 

1 . *t*>\y&* mi khaheem 

2. J** 1 ^" mi khaheed 

3. J^Jkly** mi khahand 



VERBS. 



XIX 



Perfect. 



1. 

2. 
3. 






khastam 
khastee 



L**' ' j 



Iti. khast 



1. 
2. 
3. 



-_t. 



Future. 
khaham khast 1. 



Us. ^fcl^i. kkahee khast 
oJ^i. J*lji khahand khast 



2. 
3. 



1. *=-Jj±. kkasteeni 

2. Jtf-»V" khasteed 

3. J^-ly- kkastand 



(^Jy. ^e»lj» khaheem khast 
o-\j4- J^y- kkaheed khast 
' i» jj^ly. khahand khast 



Eemark 
In quoting another person's words the Persians give, as nearly as they 
can, the words that he actually used. In English we say, - He said that 
he was coming ;" in Persian they say, " He said I am coming. ' 



XX PEBSIAN GEAMMAB. 

PRONOUNS. 

The pronouns are, as in other languages, three, but in Persian they have 
no geuder, and are as follows : — 

I, ^ Mun We, L Ma 

Thou, y To You, Li Shuma 

He or she, \ An, vulg., Oon. They, l«3l .AnTia, vulg., Oon/ia 

Colloquially the possessive is formed by adding, 

In the Singular, ui, o, f m, t, sh 
In the Plural, ^li, 'J, U ma, tan, shan 

In the substantive, ex. gfrat., asp, a horse. 



IS aspcm, my horse 
£2\ aspat, thy horse 
jJL\ aspash, his horse 



1. eL yek 

2. j* do 

3. a-, seh 

4 # .l^a. chehfir 



KTJMEEALS. 

t* fcJ3 aspi-rna, our horse 
JL1A aspi-tdn, your horse 
a t£\ aspi-shdn, your horse 

NUMEEALS 



XXI 



5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



jj panj 
shesh 



oft* 7ia/£ 
hasht 
ii noh 



10. »J $a7i 

11. o^jlj yazdah 

12. s^ doazdeh 

13. sisja* seesdeh 

14. sj.'^ chehardeh 

15. s^jb panzdeh 

16. s^b shdnsdeh 

17. jjift heevdeh 

18. *>*£* lieejdeh 



xxu 



PEESIAN GEAMMAE. 



19. 


«^jy noozdeh 


60. 


o-oi s7ias£ 


20. 


o—-o beest 


70. 


^ Ilia, haflad 


21. 


dj j o-rf &ees£ o yek 


80. 


jbila hashtdd 


22. 

» 


2* s o~-j beesi o do, &c. 


90. 


oy navad 


30. 


^ see 


100. 


Jw» sttd 


40. 


J**, chehel 


1000. 


^l^t hezdr 


50. 


»UJi punjah 


500,000. 


JZr kroor 



First, Jjl .4 ml 
Second, vj.s Duyum 

id 

Third, ^ Seyum 
Fourth, pl^ Cheharum 
Fifth, ^ Panjum 



Sixth, -li Sheeshum 
Seventh, -i* Haftum 
Eighth, *aij* Hashtum 
Ninth, *$3 Noliurn, 
Tenth, **>* Ddhum 



PEESIAN VOCABULARY. 



VOCABULARY. 



A. 

A, an, ek yek. 

Abandon, v., ^j^Tdy tarfc kardan. 
Abase, v., ^sf <-«*&■ khafeef Jcardan. 
Abash, v., C ^-»L sJ^~»ji> sharmandeh 

sakhtan. 
Abbreviate, «., ^^T^s* mukhtasar 

/cardan. 
Abdicate, v., ^ata * W=— \ istefa dadan. 
Abdomen, &> shaJcam. 
Abet, v., &sy>j {jj^. yari nemoodan. ' 



Abettor, Jk ydr ; e!^* moharek. 
Abide, ^JoU mandan ; a &pi { j^> 

sukna nemoodan. 
Ability, «y kooveh, ^jj zarangi. 
Able, d3jj zarang. 
Ablution, J~£ ghasl. 
Abode, ^K* makdn; { j^» sukna. 
Abolisb, v., y*f ^-sfy. maukoofko.r- 

dan. 
Abound, v., *y. &k) zidd boodan. 
Above, ^? bald. 



YOCABTJLAEY. 



About, jj± dor. — (concerning), 
yj>yi^. ji dur Jchesoos. 

Absolute, jlia* mutlak; Jax~n> mus- 

takil. 
Abscond, v., crM, j J dur r of tan, 

tf&kf gureekhtan. 
Absent, v., c J-i t-*il£ gha'ib shudan ; 

— in mind, J»lc ghafil ; Je\± ^^.ji 

perishan-i-khater. 
Abstain,!'., ^Jj^ji parheez kardan; 

(to avoid), y&J?i^\a&\ ijtenab kar- 
dan. 
Abstinence, j-ft^ parlieez. 
Absurd, jou^j bee hoodeh; ^/j***-? bee 

ma'ani. 



Absurdity, ^^a beehoodehgee. 

Abundance, ,J^J faravani. 

Abundant, J\j\j faravdn. 

Abuse, v., yj^ »U£.> doshnam da- 
dan. 

Abuse, -Ilia doshnam. 

Accelerate, v., ±J~ J-? 3 " ta'ajeel 
kardan. 

Accept, v., ytjf^jj kabool kard.an. 

Acceptance ^J \j> Aj pezeerdi'. 

Access, cj/ fcwrb. 

Accident, jlol itifak. 

M 

Accidental, ^^J'l itifaki. 
Accidentally, IsUjI itifakan. 



VOCABT/LAKY. 



Accompany, v., osfj^j** Jiamrahee 
Tcardan. 

Accomplice, <2k^£. shareeJc. 

Accomplish, v., ^ j»US tamam Tcar- 
dan. 

Accordingly, IJ*! le haza. 

According (to), &\yc mo-afiJc ; ^^■_^ 
la mo-jib. 

Account (news), j*z» Tchabar ; (mo- 
ney), uL» his sab. 

Account, v., yjjb v_jL^. Jiisab dadan. 

Accumulate, v., *f*+z. jam Jcardan. 

Accuracy, i^*-" sihhat. 
Accurate, ->*"" sahheeJih. 



Accusation, \^>X^ shilcaet; U^l idaa; 

(false), o-^j' tuhmat. 
Accuse, ^if oi^i shilcdet Jcardan ; 

i>f\s.±\ ida'a Jcardan. 

Accuse (falsely), ^j o»# tuhmat 
zadan. 

Accuser, (J ^= ] £ shalci ; ^<u muda'i ; 

w 

*#u mutahim. 
Ache, ij* dard. 
Ache, v., gsf i>ji> dard Jcardan. 

Acid, <J>j tursh. 

Acknowledge, v., o^tfj]/^ ihrar Jcar- 
dan. 
Acorn, kjij baloot. 



4 



VOCABULAKY. 



Acquaint, v., ^U U^l ashnd salch 



tan ; 



a 



iUS 



t 



!W»1 -it-iZa dadan. 



Acquaintance, U-l ashnd. 

Acquire, v., ^jl »-iyaa fee tesaroof 
awardan ; ^t* ydftan. 

Acquit, v., yj^j t-iW ma' af kardan; 

{ 2zjT u e>'h» khelass kardan. 

Acquittal, ^^.i khelas. 

Across, ^--^jl az sar be sar. 

Act, v., ^f kardan ; ^^J %e- 
moodan. 

Action, ^as fi-el. 

Actual, J*??*- hakeeki; aJL, hali-eh. 

Add (arithmetic), v., ^j/a^. jam' 
kardan; (increase), O ^js\afzoodan. 



Adhere, v., ^J* 



chaspeedan ; 



^ysjf jlai' ta'aluk giriftan. 
Adhesive, e)U-~~*. chaspndk. 
Admire, v., ^^x^jpasand kardan. 
Admit, v., o^J* 5 kabool kardan; 

(to a room), ^f Ji-b ddkhel 

kardan. 
Admonish, v., ^ta otf^' naseehat 

dadan. 
Admonition, o.*^ naseehat. 
Adopt, v., ^^j jUil ikhtidr ne- 

moodan. 
Adoration, o^Lc ibddet ; J^~^ P * 

ris£es7i. 



YOCABTJLAET. 



Adore, v., ^^^ji peresteedan. 

Adorn, v., &»\j\ arastan; ^[^jpee- 
rastan. 

Adulterate, v., *f tjli malhloot 
kardan. 

Adultery, lij zena. 

Advance (money), v., ^ata J~ri peesh 
dfidan ; (proceed), ^j J~j peesh 
raftan. 

Advance-guard, J 5 l/» J~i peesh ka- 
raool ; (advanced camp), a*-* J^i 
peesh Tcheimeh ; (advanced in 
years), ti>j^^> sal Tchoordeh. 
Advantage, »J^ fai-edeh. 



Adversary, &+Z* do simian ; <-kj* 

hareef ; j^^ vandal. 
Adversity, \ held; j^^ lad bakhti. 
Advertise, v., a af j^> viuntesher 
kardan; a &\a /-^ intishfir da- 
dan. 
Advice, \s^f naseehat. 
Advise, v., d* o&* naseehat da- 
dan. 
Affair, j Vkfir; j*\ amr. 
Affidavit, ^S hasam. 
Affirm, aifj)f\ Mr fir Jcardan. 
Affirmation, j\j\ ikrar. 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



Affix, v., cjJ^-* chaspeedan; (seal), 

^.i^gj nemooden. 
Afflict, v., a*f)^* dilkhor kardan ; 

sy. e)U^ ghumnak boodan. 
Affluence, ^J^j^ dowlet mundee.. 
Affluent, J^^j* dowlet onund. 
Affront, v., ^f *s~j# bee hormat 

kardan. 
Afraid (to be), a *~>j tarseedan. 
After, ±*> la' ad; u^fus. 
Afternoon, j^- asr. 
Afterwards, v. See After. 
Again, jl> bdz ; ^^ do bdrah. 
Against, <-i^« khelaf ; ^> zid ; J* 1 *- 
mukabil. 



Age,j+* umr. 
Agent Jij vakeel. 
Agile, jjfirx ; &j) zarang. 
Agility, &J firzee ; J^jj zarangi. 
Aggrandize, v., ±f ^jj->. btizurg 
kardan. 

Agree, v., c ^> ^f>\ rdzi shudan. 

Agreement, j\j kardr. 

Agriculture, u~p1j zaru'at. 

Ague (and fever), j) 3 ^ tab va larz. 

Ah ! si ah; »\j vali ; J\j vdi. 

Ahead, J~i peesh. 

Aid, &Skomek ; «>J- medad. 

Ail, 1'., o*# ^ ^ ee ^ boodan. 



VOCABULARY. 



Aim (object), &y*U mdhsood ; (tar- 

get), -ullj nishdneh. 
Aim, v., &*/ JjI/ Icaraool giriftan. 
Air, lj* haw a. 
Alarm, i^-t* * Mrs >' p** ^eem; uiji 

fe/iof. 
Alas. See Ah. 

Alcove, i^A 5 «^» s ^"^ nesheen. 
Alert, jl-A* ho shy dr. 
Alien, aJ^j beegdneh. 
Alight, v., e)J^ *>»W piddeh shudan, 
Alike, ^ barabar ; Ji* raisl. 
All, *♦* hameh. 



Allegiance, o*U»l itd-at ; ifj\*j$*j 

ferman berdari. 
Alleviate, v., &*ff kam hardan. 
Alliance, J^ ahd; J&Sl itifak. 
Allow, v., ^\^guzdshtan ; ^b &** 

izn dddan. 
Alloy, j \? iydr. 

Alloy, v., o*£M *V« r fccw^om. 
Allure, ujdb u-i/ /areeb dadan. 
Ally, £& ra/eefc; ,U a/ar ; cv-jJ 

doost. 
Almanack, *jj&j tahveem. 
Almighty (the), JU J\>& khodd 
ta'ald. 



8 



V0CABT7LAKY. 



an 



Almond, J^Ij bddam. 

Almost, eloji nazdeek ; >-*>.J^ 

kareeb. 
Alms, <wJw> sadakeh. 
Aloe,^ sabr. 
Alone, V-> tanlia ; dJ talc. 
Along, ^jljJo be derdzee. 
Aloof, J^ ba'eed. 
Already, u-jj j\ J^j peesli as vaklit ; 

(as a question), tjsj) ^ be een 

zoodee. 
Also, ** hum ; yj neez ; \J»\ a'izan. 
Alter, v., v^v^j* avaz liar dan. 
Altercation, ataU* nwjadileh. 



Although, ** f\ igur cheh. 
Altitude, t^xL boolandi; clai'jl irtifa\ 

Altogether, **U bahum ; U^**. ja- 
mee'dn. 

Alum, Jl'j zak. 

Always, *£-♦* hameesheli. 

Am (I), *x~a hastam. 

Amanuensis, *_J : lf katib. 

Amass, v., sjf *j? jam' kardan. 

Amaze, v., ^Jf^^*. hayran Tcardan. 

Amazement, <—*s? ajab; o^ hayrat; 

t— .s 50 ta'ajub. 
Ambassador, , J* ' eelchi. 
Amber, \^ kahruba. 



VOCABULARY. 



Ambition, yj>j» Mrss ; jJb,ki nazar 

buland. 
Ambitious, Ji5jJb buland nazar. 
Amble, &/_ yurgheh. 
Amble, v., ^j &ji yurgheh raftan. 
Ambuscade, v^Skameen. 
Amend, v., ^j^o--,^ drust kardan; 

cJ i J T ^s^ tas'hheehh kardan. 
Amendment, **?*** tas'hheehh. 
Amiable, iy^j^ ndzeneen. 
Amity, j^j* doostee ; <J^*« mehri- 

bdnee. 
Among, ^jL* micin ; Jo-1^ dakhil. 
Amount, *i*o mublagh. 



Ample, \^i^kejdiet ; ^kafi. 
Amputate, v., ^^ji buridan. 
Anathema, e^aJ la'anat. 

o 

Ancestors, ^ba-1 ajdad. 

Anchor, f£ langar. 

Ancient, **J£ kadeem ; i^kohneh. 

And, j xa, o. 

Anecdote, a-oS kisseh. 

Anew, y)\ azno. 

Angel, *£>j ferishteh ; ell* malak. 

Anger, ^3 kahr. 

Angle, jS'kung ; i^^goosheh. 

Angry, jl» jfkaj khulk. 



10 



YOCABULAET. 



AnguJsh,jlj1 azdr. 

Animal, jjSW jawwer s o^ haiwdn. 

Animosity, i^Tceeneh; j+£± dosh- 

mdni; ojIj^ adawat.[]chan i zoreki 
Ankle, c^ srTwtssefc; J, 5 j ^y^ ] ustu- 
Annals, &,\y tawdreekh. 
Annex, v., ^jH payvastan. 
Annihilate, v., o*f ^ tamdn Tear- 
dan. 

Announce, &&\*j& Wwhr dadan. 

Anoint, «., ^f^Jrs charl kardan ' 

Another, f.s Jk yeki deeger. 

Answer, vlja. jaivab. 

Answer, v., &a\a v\j> jawal dadan. 



Ant, ^jy murcheh. 

Antagonist, u%» hareef; J>'*« mo- 

kabil. 
Antelope, 1p* jay ran. 
Anterior, c^r-s-i Jpeesheen. 
Antimony, ^ surmeh. 
Anxiety, J^.^ tashveesh. 
Any, ,*» lieech. 
Apart, \J«. jwd# ; \y» seevd. 
Apartment, ^y-> manzel. 
Aperient, J4-* mos'hil. 
Apologize, v., tr-ly- jj* «zr TcMstan. 
Apology, j <& uzr. 
Apoplexy, *£~> sakMeh. 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



11 



Apostle, Jj~^ resool. 

Apothecary, j^s- atdr ; jLlj-a dawfi- 
sfiz. 

Apparatus, uLI ash fib ; i=>511 alat. 

Apparel, db_# poshfiTc. 

Apparent, >lt zfiher ; ^vfizehh. 

Appear, v., ^ o^.Uj nimayfin shu- 
dan; ^J^ta^ nemoodfir shudan. 

Appearence, y»Ui sa7ier; U5 nema . 
jj£, zehoor. 

Appertain, v., ^ ^ tfibeh shudan. 

Appetite, l^l ishtiha. 

Applaud, v., ^^.}\ afereen guftan. 

Apple, <-~-» seeb. 



Apply (to put together), v., a tyj Islt 
alka nemoodan; (to ask), ^^-^ 
Tchdstdn ; c^/Jlf- soofil Tear dan. 

Appoint, o^'jy^ ma'amoor Tcardan. 

Appointment, c^j-U, ma'amoori-et. 

Apportion, v., d j/ow Tcismet kar- 



dan. 

Appraise, v., ^/c^" Tcaimat Tcar- 
dan. 

Apprehend (to sieze), v., jaf girif- 
tan; (to fear), ±*~>J turseedan; 
^\z &+s>\j vfihemeh dasMan. 

Apprehension, v*J turs; a+*\j vfihe- 
meh. 



12 



VOCABULARY. 



Apprentice, ^/li shagird. 
Approach, v., v&izj nazdeek. 
Approbation, x*~j pasand; JoJjI^* 

sawdbdeed. 
Approve, v., ^^jJj— j pasandeedan ; 

*p Jw-j pasand kardan. 
Apricot, jlbj zard aloo. 
Apt, J? Is kdbil ; Jj}) ld-yik ; t_— »L« 

Aquatic, <^1 abee. 
Arbiter, cJU sd-liss. 
Arbitrary, ,JU; zdlim. 
Arch, jll» £a& ; ul^ mihrdb. 
Archer, j ljiJ-» sadaltddr. 



Architect, o-J^ mohandaz. 
Archives,^! - Is ^ def titer. 
Ardour, o^c gheirat. 
Are, (v., Introduction). 

Area, ^Ij^ may dan. 

Argue, 'u., *f ^sS guft o goo kar- 

dan ; y^ib J^+zS' keshmdkish 
ddshtan. 

Arid, elli. khuskh, j>_[i bdyer. 
Aries, J*a. hernial. 
Aristocracy, ^y> buzurgdn. 
Arithmetic, l-jL-s. hisdb. 
Ark, 4uLi safeeneh. 
Arm, jjl bazoo. 



VOCABULARY. 



13 



Arm, v., j^x-j as^' asleheh bastan; 

ly^jSkamar bastan. 
Armoury, aiU. *&. jubbeh Tchaneh. 
Armour, j\j. yea rah. 
Armpit, J*j baghal. 
Arms, asM aslaha, t^j* o^l alat i 
harbieh; elba. oj.il adawati jang. 
Army, J& leshkar^jC^- asTcar. 
Around, tj^ijfgerdagerd; j^ dor. 
Arouse, v., ^^T^Ijuj beedar Tcardan. 
Arrange, v., ^^0-,^ drust Tcardan; 

^ta J*3 nazm dddan. 
Arrangement, o~j j ^ band bast. 
Arrear, JU bafct; a*3 tetumeh. 



\ JLmI - 



s jJ 



Arrest, v., j&f giHftan; ±f 

habs Tcardan. 
Arrival, tjjj verood; Jy>j vesool 
Arrive, v., &±~>j rasidan ; a 

vdrid shudan. 
Arrogance, j^/- gheroor. 

Arrogant,jj^i* maghroor. 
Arrogate, v., ^J U^l ida a Tcardan. 
Arrow, j£ teer. 

Hi 

Arsenal, *3 1* x&jubbeh Tchaneh. 
Arsenic, yij-eK- marg-i-moosh. 
Art, ^ /an ,• (jpl. yi /anoon-). 
Artery, \^> sher'yan ; is), rag. 



14 



VOCABULAKY. 



hI 

Articulate, v., oif^ talafuz kar- 
dan. 
Artifice, aL* Jieeleh. 
Artificial, ^y** masnoo-ee. 
Artillery, *i\&y toopkhdneh. 
Artless, <-jj3j*j bee vekoof ; i*\~> 

Seidell. 
As, a y* clioon. 
Ascend, v., ^J^l 91} bdld-dmadan ; 

^jbol^j ber dmadan. 
Ascertain, v., &sf&** tahkeek kar- 
dan ; ^f^* mo-ai-yen kardan. 
Ascribe, v., .o^ta c>»— i nisbat dadan. 
Ash (tree), eLt^V»j zeban, gunjishk. 



Ashamed, »J^u/. sharmandeh. 
Ashes, i~^»ls. klictkistei: 



Aside, jbTjJ der kendr ; <J>}> j* bar 

taraf. 
Ask, i?., cj J^-^i purseedan ; &*/$}* 

soodl kardan. 
Asleep, sJ^j^i. kliabeedeh. 
Asparagus, ajj^U war choobeh. 
Ass, j* khar ; s$\ olak. 
Assassin, <jy* khoonee ; Jjls fcatil. 
Assassinate, v., l jd^kusJitan. 
Assassination, Jx§ featl. 
Assault (military), <u** hamleh ; 



VOCABULAEY. 



J.j^yoorish; pp hejoom ; (high- 
way) o-ij'^ vah zadan. 

Assault,!?., a &) zadan; (military), iU* 
a aj> hamleh burdan ; &*jj\ fj** 
hejoom awardan ; (highway), tjj*], 
zf rah zani kardan ; (night), 
^fjSju shalgeer kardan. 

Assay (metal), jU iyar. 

Assemblage, u-V majlis ; o***?» 
jam'eeat. 

Assemble, v., *J\ f)f feraham 
dverdan ; *f <**=> iom' kardan ; 
d ^*5 Jgyrf tah-seel nemoodan. 



15 

jemd'at ; <j*hs c 



Assembly, o*Ua. 

majlis. 
Assent, J/M pezerd-ee ; J^ kabool. 
Assert, v., &sf j\j\ ikrar kardan; 

y&fi-aijsj ta'areef kardan. 

Assertion, j \j>\ ikrar. 
Assiduous, J.*s* mukay-id. 
Assign, v., ^^fv^ ta-yeen kardan. 
Assist, ^U eUS" komek dadan ; aa* 

^■ib mojdad dadan. 
Assistance, <&£' komek; ^ ydri; 

ix» madad. 
Assistant, j^i yar ; ;U-J dustyar. 



16 



YOCABULAET. 



Associate, *)/** humrah ; c>-^U» 
humdust; &j rafeek; e^ sliereek. 
Associate, v., &f J>V» hamrahee 
Icardan; ^^ ^ shereek shudan. 
Assurance (certainty), &k yakeen ; 
oJUUmowat; (trust), *\s&\ itakadj 
(impudence), ^j^ bee sliurmee. 
Assure, v., &*}&&■ V dkeen kardan; 
vzffi**-}^ kliaterjcim' kardan. 
Asthma, u-» ■** t an gi' e nef ass - 
Astonish, »., d-*/ e>W *«*«**» fecw- 
ckm ; (to be astonished), o-'/W 1 
taajub kardan. 
Astonishment, c-^' taajub. 



Astrologer, ^ munajim. 
Asunder, W jwda. 
Asylum, staUj pendligah. 
At, ^ wuza' ,• u^ pees/i. 
Atheist, u^a duhri. 
Athirst, a^i' tishneh. 
Atmosphere, !j» hdwa. 
Attach, v., ji~,j-ipayvastan. 
Attach, A+=» hamleh ; J^ji yoorish ; 

f^sf 6 hijoom. 
Attain, v., ^l* yaftan. 
Attempt, v., ^^\ ikdam kardan; 

^ \g~> sa-ee kardan. 



Attend (to be present), v., &*y. 



S" 



VOCABTJLAET. 



17 



Mzer hoodan ; (to pay attention), 
ij> v-Jj)j- mo-azib loodan. 

Attendance, ux>^ khidmeb. 

Attendant,^ noker ; j£-Ai fc/ad- 
metgar. 

Attention, a^y tavajuh ; o-Wj* we- 
i>a;zet>w£. 

Attest, v., bj^U o.sl«£ shehadet da- 
dan. 

Attire, v., ^ji pooslxeedan. 

Attitude, £-»j uuz'e. 

Attorney, Jij vakeel. 

Attract, v., ±~sfkeslieedan. 

Attribute, v., & *\* i=*«~i nisbut da- 
dan. 



Auction, ^\jt hardj. 

Aunt (paternal), <wc ummeh; (ma- 

ternal), ilU. klialeli. 
Auspicious, i=*aa eU neefc 6ttfcM. 
Authentic, _^° sahheehh. 
Authority, o,j5 kudrtit. 
Autograph, Wj£->.> dust fcTmi. 
Avarice, Ja? bwfc/il; o~~~i- kliassees- 

sat. 
Avaricious, u-*-*- khassees. 
Avert, v., c) ,> ./'£f' 3 ^a/'e kardan ; 

jj\sf gardaneedan. 
Avoid, v., ^J'^^ ijtenab kardan. 
Avow, v., oifj\fi\ ikrdr kardan. 



1% VOCABTJLAEY. 

Await, v., a ±Z>Jaz^ muntezir shudan. 



Awake, v., &sfj\<**> beeddr Tcardan. 
Awake, jW* beeddr. 
Away (absent), Lj-jIs gliaib. 
Awe, \j»j turss ; <-»>» hhof. 
Awhile, <JJ« mudetti; lJUj zamdni. 
Awl, u^ darafsh. 
Awry, J"fcej ; us—ljli ua ?'asi; j1j»»li 
na hamvdr. 

Axe, j~> tabar ; (pickaxe), eUT £o- 
lan-ci. 

Azure, ,j;j*- samavi ; l|I aM. 



B. 



Babe, as: bachali ; J^ ti/L 
Baboon, ^^^ maymoon. 
Bachelor, sjj* azctb. 
Back, o^ T pwsW ; ^ zahr ; (back 

again), "jU bdz ; *j\>j& do-bdreh ; 

u-j puss. 
Backgammon, &j s& tdkht i nurd. 

Bad, Jo bacL 

Badge, &^ nishdn ; ex.'&e. aldmat. 

Bag, *~fkeesseh; (horse's nose-bag), 

y y tubreh; (sack), Jlj* jaual; 

(saddle-bags), ^j* hhoorjeen ; 

(carpet bag) a^- chanta. 



VOCABULARY. 



19 



Baggage, & honeli ; yL! asbdb. 
Bail, ojU^ zemanat; ^^kefdlat. 

Bailiff, Jij vakeel ; J-o** moliussil. 
Bake (in oven), c ^ii jyS j* der tanoor 

•pookhtan ; e ^ jpookhtan. 
Baker, l_yU ndnvd. 
Balance (scales), jj\j> tardzoo ; (of 

an account) J>[) bake; a*i> tetum- 

meh. 
Bald, tfkal; ^fkechel. 
Bale, az— j basteh. 
Ball (playing), i_>jj toop ; (musket) 

Aft' galooleli ; (globe), sjS^kureh, 
Bamboo, &\;j± kliayzerdn. 



Band (party), jo-^ dusteli. 
Bandage, J^ bund. 
Bandit, ^jt\j rdh zan ; ^ duzd. 
Banish, v., cJ .^r_lj»l ikhrdj kardan. 
Bank (of river), jSkendr ; t-J lub. 
Bankrupt, y-la* mufliss ; az~&j ver- 

shekesteh. 
Banner, J& alam ; J^j bayduk. 
Banquet, oiL» zidfat ; <iW> meh~ 

mdnee. 
Bar, J*« meel ; (of a river), Jw» sudd; 

Barb (of an arrow), jU. khdr. 



20 

Barbarian, ^ ajnahi ; Vi> 9^' 

reek. 
Barber, A dalldh ; jU- salwawi. 
Bare, ^ herehneh; ^ arydn. 
Bargain, jV kerdr ; as* ata. 

Bargain, v, d ^3 -»W c ^ _rie71 s,odon ' 
Bark (of a tree), >z~>y,poost. 

Barley, 3* >. 

Barracks, »W)V serlazhhaneh. 

BarreKofagun),^ looleh ; (cask), 

Sr-4 P ee P- , x 

Barren (land), ^ bfiyar.-j (season), 
iClo. Tchuski. 

Barricade, JL, sudd ; ^ bund. 



VOCABULARY. 



Barter, «., o>>/^ U modvezeh Tear- 
dan; ^/^moladelehkardan. 

Base, JJJ zaleeZ; ^ fcato0r; (of a 
building), aVft honydd. 

Bashful, »J^> sharmandeh. 

Basil (berb), d W, ree/iaw. 



A.J 



fkdseli. 



Basin, ^1 Zegraw; 

Basket, J-- sabad; *is feu#0%j &j) 

zanbeel- 
Bastard, ^ f 1> hardm zddeh. 
Bastion, ^/. burj. 
Bat (animal), ^ u^ s7mb pereh. 
Bath, r U» hammdm. 
Bathman, ^W* Jimvmdmi. 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



21 



Ml 

Bathe, ^j *La. hammam raftan. 
Battle, t&j*jang ; 1^-i dd-wd. 
Bawl, ^j tjxi na'areh zadan. 
Bay (sea), g±* Tchaleej ; (colour), j^ 

kahar. 
Bayonet, »js^-* sar nayzeh. 
Be, ■»., £&y boodan ; c ^~ * hastan. 

Hi 

Beach, sjbTfcenare/i; JoZshutt; Ja.U 

sa7ieZ. 
Bead, jjla ddneh; i&o molvreh. 
Beak,jlou murikdr ; «& n>«fc. 
Beani,^a> teer. 
Bean, ^iU bdkld. 
Bear, y*^. khirss. 



Bear (suffer), v., (0^) j^sAb J*as ta- 

hamuldashtan,orkardan; (carry), 

yj^j burdan. 
Beard, ^j reesh. 
Bearer, J*U. hdmil. 
Beast, jylja* hayvdn ; jy\* janivar. 
Beat, 1?., £•>; zadan; (conquer), ^Jte 

^sXi glxdlib shudan. 
Beautiful, o,^-> yi^i fcTios/i, soorat ; 

jj jija. fc/ios7i roo ; <sLi» kashang. 
Beau, s., ebis kasliang. 
Becafico, j^ja?s' aryeer fe/jor. 
Because, il/j zeera fceh; d _j» choon. 
Beckon, v., a &fsJJS>\ islidreh kardan. 



22 



* VOCABUIiAET 



Become, v., a ±* shudan. 
Bed, B^y. Miabgah. 
Bedding, M^ 5 ^ rakht * kMh - 
Bedroom, -iSly tfW otdk M>0 5fc ' 
Bedfellow, v^r* ham Wldl - B 

sheet, J~S. sfcwrnwd; v^molafeh. 
Bee,^j zanboor; J-^J *<*»boor- 

i-asal. 

Beer, 3* ^ 06 ijo. 

Beetroot, j J^ cheghondar. 
Befal, i'., tf J£ o*> «™ z sMdan - 
Before, jM P eesJl » J** peeahter ; 
Jjl aval. 



Beg, r., ^fj\^gedd-ee Tcardan. 
Beggar, \SSTgeda. 

Begin, v., c^/er ** M ™'* ardan - 
Beginning, \<&\ ibtidd ; Jj\ avaZ. 
Behalf, AJj vaseteh. 
Behave (respectfully), v., 0^ M ^ 
adab beja aivardan; (carelessly), 
^JA J»l* gM/ZZ sTwdan. 
Behaviour, oi> harakat ; (good), 

^i\ aclab. 
Behind, u-j pus; ^ ahab ; c^ 

pusht. 
Behold, ^/xK negdhhardan; UW 
j ^ftamasba lardan. 



VOCABULAET. 



23 



Belch, v., i$j\ arogh (vulg. or oh) 

Jcardan. 
Belief, .ilL^l itikdd ; ^UjI ayman. 
Believe, v., $f } )\> haver kardan ; 

cJ iib .ilLxsl itikad dashtan. 
Bell, ebj zang. 
Belly, J3. shulcum. 
Belong, v., <xi, jjlsx* muta , alah shu- 

dan. 
Beloved, jijc azsez. 
Below, jij zeer. 
Belt, ^jSkummerband. 
Bemoan, y±jy» i^-^~il afsooss khur- 

dan. 



Bend, v., sf ' j» khum Tcardan. 
Beneath, jij zeer ; oj£ taht. 
Benefit, sJoU fa'ideh. 
Benefit, v., tJ~jSZj neekoo kardan 
£*fjt±. khair kardan. 

Benevolence, ^y- j** khair kliahee. 
Benevolent, slji^ khair khdh. 

Bent (past of to bend), S'kej ; J- 
khum. 

Bequeath, v., d ^c>s-»j veseeyet kar- 
dan ; ^jT*** hebeh kardan. 

Berry, <uU ddneh; ^^ hub. 

Beseech, ^^T^UxJl iltimass kardan ; 



24 



YOCABTTLABY. 



^^IcjiJ istida'a kardan ; ^J>j^ 

^sfarz liar dan. 
Beset, v., y^f&l*.} ihdteh ~kardan. 
Beside, v&isy nazdeek; *y nuzd; _^a 

■pahloo. 
Besides, iy^s- eldveh. 
Besiege, ^^j^W mohassereh kar- 

dan. 
Besmear, y&fssj] aloodeh kardan. 
Best, tf.jH* behtereen,. 
Bestir, ^ify^Sj^. harakat kardan. 
Bestow, S\s dddan ; ^sf J^lSi 

bakhshesh kardan ; ^J^a, bakh- 

slieedan. 



Bet, \>jti shart ; j jo nuzr. 

Bet, v., ir ^~ j \>jt> shart bastan ; j J5 
j;^— > nuzr bastan. 

Betray, v., ^^5 oj^ khidnat ne- 
moodan. 

Betroth, v., d ^T^l3 namzad kardan. 

Better,^? behter. 

Between, ^L* midn ; ca-> bayn. 

Beverage, u-jji shurbut. 

Bevy, xjj" grooh. 

Bewail, v., ^^j^- (_^-j — »1 afsooss khur- 
dan. 

Beware, v., ^oi. j\*j?* khabrddr 

shudan; ^^ tV] dgah boodan ; 
^ ji aik* mutili' shudan. 



VOCABULARY. 



25 



Beyond, i_i^a>i an taraf; c^ ^1 an 

samt. 
Bible, w>&» i->\£* kitab-i-molcaddas. 

Old Test. &\jy tor at. New Test. 

J-s^ anjeel. 
Bid (order), ^U ^jUy/ermaw dddan. 
Bier, o»jIj taboot. 
Big, djjj buzurg. 
Bigot, Lg^ wg j mttta-assib. 
Bile, !/*» sufra. 
Bill (money), s!^ her at; (of a bird), 

Bind, v., j^— j bastan. 
Biped, ii'^j^ dojpdyah. 



Bird, c^* murgh. 

Birtb, J^« mowlood; jJy tavalud. 

— day, t^fe&f?- eed i mowlood. 

Bit (piece), ^b pdreh; iS3 tekkeh; 

(snaffle), \jjy£.\ ab khoory ; (curb), 

is** dahaneh ; (curb chain), j^j 
zanjeer. 

Bitch, eL* ».ilo mddeh sag. 

Bite, i\, ^_f gazeedan ; ^f gtjfa 

denddn giriftan. 

Bitter, Jj talkh. 

Bitterness, j^ talkhi. 

Black, *t-» siydh. 

Blackbird^ L sdr. 



26 



Blacken, v., &/*+ siyah lardan. 
Blackguard, .dj-lj- hardmzadeli. 
Blacksmith, £»\ ahenger. 
Blame, je*3 takseer ; ^ ^ eta '> 
sbT gunah. 

Blameless, >U tf *<* ^ seer ' 

Bland, pi*. mol«i/em. 

Blanket, & petoh. 

Blaze, ^ shuuleh ; $* 0X0. 

Bleach, v., &f*>* se f eed lcardan - 
Bleed.v.^f^Moongiriftan; 

tj d, rag zadan. 
Blemish, y-~? anjb* 
Ble8B,i;.,o^^ w " barttidadaW 



VOCABtTLAET. 

Blessing, o^? larakat. 

Blind, ,/fcoor ; (window), ■** par- 

dah. 
Blind, v., v*fjfkoor Urdan. 

zadan. 
Bliss ej-ib-j saadat. 
Blister, A>\ abileh. 
Block, sj3 teereh. 
Blockhead, j—1 alimdk. 
Blood, y» fcTioon. 
Bloodshed, J^ kail ; &jy> ^ oon ' 

reezy. 
Bloody, ^> Tihoonee. 



VOCABTTLABY. 



27 



Bloom, ihj&> shekoofeh. 

Blossom, iij&> shekoofeh ; ^fgul. 

Blot (stain), ad) lekeh. 

Blow, ^y> zarb. 

Blow, v., o^jjj varzeedan. 

Blue, ^jf alee ; ijfkebood; (dark), 

Ju> neeli ; (light), &*)}j<? feeroo- 

zeh-ee. 
Blunder, 'J** kheta ; laic ghalat. 

Blunt, J^ kund. 

Blush, v., ^J^ 3f>j-* surkhroo shu- 

dan. 
Boar, e)ji fcTioofc ; ^» khanzeer. 
Board, a^i takhteh. 



Boast, <-i^ laf ; ,jZ>jj» •>>» fc7iw<2 

/roos7iee. 
Boast, v., ^^j <-i^l laf zadan. 
Boat, Li ?^ kerejee ; j~£ keshti ; 

£) lotka. 
Boatman, ^ j*S kerejee ban. 
Bodkin, J^j* darafsh. 
Body, *> badan; J> tan ; (dead), 

jl^l AasTi. 
Bog, ivh&p murdab. 
Boil, v., oif ji ^ abpuz-kardan ; 

^jujj^a. joosheeddn ; ^^ \J>j*- 

joosh dadan. 
Bold,^^ dileer ; jj~*> jassoor. 



28 



Bolster, &> mutaka ; soi* 
adeh. 

w 

Bond (for debt), cL~»J tamasulc ; 

(ligament), J^ bund ; J^J A:a?/d. 

Bondage, ^^-.1 asseeri ; \jJ*>J^ girif- 
tari. 

Bone, ^>£~^ ustikhan. 

Book, ^JtTketab; — keeper, u«ls* 

mohdssib ; ; b jiz daftar dar ; 

— binder, uJU-» sahc/f; — seller, 

^jj L_>l6 Icetab feroosh. 
Boot, *♦£*. chekmeh. 
Booty, o,lc glutrat. 
Border, tJ^S'kenuveh; ^b daman. 



VOCABTJLAET. 

inulih- 



Bore, r., i^f ^jy sooraTch kardan. 

Born, &£y> moivlood. 

Borrow, v., ^^ \j>J karz giriftan. 

Bosom, a~-. seeneh. 

Both, j^/» liar do. 

Bottle, A^ii sheesheh ; ^^ butree ; 
eXo tung. 

Bottom, j>_j zeer ; c^ taht. 

Bough, ^M> sliakh. 

Bought, sJo^i- khareedeh. 

Boundary, da. hud ; J^-j sarhud. 

Bound (gratified), ^y** mamnoon ; 

(obliged), jy^s* majboor ; (tied), 

busteh. 



VOCABUIAEY. 



29 



Bounteous, Jil> bdzil. 

Bounty, Ja? bazl. 

Bow }C) Uf feem«n; u-j 5 ^os; — maker, 
yTiUT Icemanger ; saddle — , J^ 
Tcaltdlc. 

Bow (reverence), ^ku ta'azeem. 

Bowels, s&jj roodeh. 

Bowl, ,.1?. jam; ^Xltdseh. 

Box, jjJ^-» sandook ; (small), 
ja'abeh; J>j> bootee; (tree), .i 
sliemshdd' ; (theatre), U^VL tak 
nemd; (on the ear), ,J~> seelee. 

Box, «., &*) «^-£m> musht zadan. 

Boy, j~j pesser &\y* jdwdn. 



i*£3* 



Boyhood, ,j\y>- jdwdni. 
Bracelet, Sjj y } \> bazoo band. 
Brackish, jy> shoor. 
Brag, v., ^j « — s"^ Idf zadan. 
Braid, v. ^l* bdftan. 
Braid, s.,j\y navdr. 
Brain, sU^ demdgh. 
Bramble, j l» fc7i«r. 
Bran, i^r- sa booss. 
Branch, ~\2> shdhh. 
Brand, &U d##7i, 
Brand, t 1 ., a" 3 /"^ ^ a ^ 1 Cardan. 
Brasier (brass- worker), ^C~ m ' iss 
ger. 



30 



YOCABULAEY. 



Brass, Jj> Urenj. 

Brave, Z>\^ hajura* at ; ^ shuja. 

Bravery, x>\j> jura' at; o*W* shu- 

ja'at. ( 

Bravo ! (exclamation) &j\ afereen. 

Bray (of a donkey), &f f f a ™ r 

Tcardan. 
Breach (opening), «-»Ki shekaf. 
Bread, U rwm (vulg. pr. noon). 
Breadth, W* patina. 
Break, r., cr-^ sUkastan; —faith, 
-j& ^a s7iari sliekastan; —one's 
word, ^ Jy fcol sliekastan. 
Breakfast, j W weMr. 



Breast, a~-> seeneh. 
Breath, u-w Tie/ass. 
Breathe, v., o^u-" nefasskesliee- 

dan. 

Breeze, -s-J noseew. 

Brethren, c^jj braderdn. 

Brevity, j\*&-\ ikhtissdr. 

Briar, ^U. &&«*•• 

Bribe, *j£, risTireTt ; JJ^j fcarteeZ. 

Bribe, *., o^b yA, WsfouaTi d^dan. 

Brick (unburnt), o^ khisU ; 
(baked), ,J «jw; (tile), *jf 
kooreh ; -maker, JU o^ &&*&*' 



YOCABTTLAEY. 



31 



Bride, u-j^ arooss ; —groom, &L\* 

ddmdd. 
Bridge, s., Jj pul. 
Bridle, s., <u*»> dehaneh. 
Bridle, v., ^.s^ajjo dehaneh kardan. 
Brief, s\ijTkootah ; j-*& mukhtasser. 
Briefly, \j<£& mukhtussirdn ; fcaSJI 

il kisseh ; -»WU b'iljumleh. 
Bright, adj., ^jj roshan. 
Brighten, v., ^U ^jj roshan 

sakhtan. 
Brightness, fj^jj roshnaee. 
Brilliant (of a precious stone), jljjl 

dbddr. 



Brim, t-J lub. 

Brimful, j+J IvJbreez. 

Brimstone, sffgoogird. 

Brine, } y^\ ab-shoor. 

Bring, v., &*j}\ awardan, or averdan. 

Brink, lJ lub ; } \^kendr. 

Brisk, Jl?. juld; JoUj o-^ c?w$£ o 

chabook. 
Briskness, ^^L. juldee. 
Brittle, djU ndzuk. 
Broad, ^ pV» ; u*^ areez. 
Brocade, LgJj^^ 3 kolabdoozee. 
Broken, a=~Jw> shekesteh. 

Ml 

Broker, J"^ deZ«I. 



■— 



32 



YOCABTFLARY. 



Brook, > nalvr. 

Broom, u^U J" roob - 

Broth, ^ shorU. 

Brother, ^ brod-r / (adopted), 

«ji\y.j^ ^«der kh'andeh. 
Brought, rtj «werdefc, or aiourdeTi 

Brown, «^ fc^^a^T/rf 

gandoom goon ; J^ ^ kee > ^ 

a horse), > fcaTiar. 
Browse, «., .^ chereedan. 
Bruise, vjj* zurl. 
Brush s., J*j br«s7i; (hair), r- u-^ 

whX£i (clothes), e)^ 

jmahootpak toons (wood), ^ 
he&meh. 



Brute, tf V- /iayv«w. 

Bubhle, i->^» 7iw6«b. 

Bucket,^ dulu. 

Buckle, el>*- sei/e7c. 

Bud, **V ghunchehi »f* shetoofeh. 

Buffalo, j^^gclvmeesh. 

Bug, u- 1 -" s ^ ss * 
Bugle, j_^is7iaypoor. 

Build, v., cv»A beu ^ fcar(2au; J^ 
c) j. j rbenn^-ee-fcai"dau. 

Builder, *U> ben-na. 

Building, Jl* balm** J c>A* 

imdrat. 



VOCABULARY. 



33 



Bulb, jL$ peedz. 

Bull, i^J nur gdv. 

Bullet, A^f gelooleh. 

Bullrush, kjj> burydh. 

Bunch, &2>y» khoosheh ; a=-».j dusteh. 

Bundle, ax— j busteh ; as 5 ? bukcheh. 

Burden, s.,j\i bar. 

Burden,!'., o^j^j-i zeer-bur-kardan. 

Burial, ij^c*. jendzeh ; ^Jo tadfeen. 

Burn, v., i j&-j~> sookhtan. 

Burnish, v., ^ta ^ jeld dddan. 

Burst,!., ^sfj tarakeedan ; ^\£L 

shekdftan. 
Bury, v., ^sf ^z duf'n kardan ; 

^^TdU. khdk kardan. 



Bush, ai} buteh. 
Business, Jfkdr ; Jii. shugh'l. 
Bustard, tjyt. hooberreh. 
Bustle, awKLt hengdmeli. 
Busy, s., J^ii* mushghool. 
Busy, v., 2>jf ^yJL* mushghool kar- 
dan. 

But, jQ laykin ; U! am-ma. 

Butcher, i_>L>9 kassub. 

Butler, ^kl3 ndzir. 

Butt (mark), ailii nishdneh ; (of a 

gun), (jlj-3 konddk. 
Butter, sj^kcreh. 
Butterfly, *>\jjj parvdneh. 



34 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



Button, dJ^j pulek ; a*Sj dukmeh. 
Buy, v., &^.J» hilar eedan ; ±f e\^\ 

ibtid kardan. 
Buyer, j^.j* kJvareeddr ; \jj£~* 

mushtery. 
By, jl aa; k bd. 

C. 

Cabbage Jfkalam. 
Cabin, jlkl otdk. 
Cabinet, *$!$)* doldbcheh. 
Cage, vJS kafass. 

Cajole, v., ±f \Jo ] y navdzesh kar- 
dan. 



Cake, J^ komdj ; ^.jtf J^> ndn i 
shireen. 

Calamity, toil dfat; "&> beld. 

Calculate, v., cJ ^/'v r )L«a. hissdb kar- 
dan; yJj+Z shumurdan. 

Caldron, u&a deeg. 

Calendar, mju takveem. 

Calf, d\~>y gosdleh. 

Caligrapby, ^j-iy^j*. khosh nevees- 
see. 

Call, v., O i>j-S~\x~o sedd kardan; 
jjjjJJ* talabeedan ; (out) i>j ^b 
dad zadan; (to account) oi^Ji* 
mas'ool kardan. 



TOCABULAET. 



35 



Call, s., \ J-» sedd ; iJJ nedd ; ^b dad ; 

eUU bong. 
Calm, s., Ai ardm; o^ L sdkat; 

^^L. moldyem. 
Calm, v., u^ fV or«m kardan; 

ijf \zS^L> sdJcet Tcardan. 
Calumniate, v., ^.jj o^j tuhmat 

zadan; ^y&'si bad guften. 
Camel, ^i- shutur. — driver, q^jA 

shut-urban. 
Camp, j£j\ urdoo. 
Camphor, } y>V kdfoor. 
Can, s., **y* doolcheh. 
Canal, »\j>'\ dbrdh; J Us handl. 



Cancel, v., ^f Jkl? baieZ Tcardan. 

Cancer, ^Uj^ surtan. 

Candid, cJU sdf; JjJw» sadeeh; \J>J^. 

bee gharaz. 
Candle, £♦£ shani'e. 
Candy (sugar), oUi nabdt. 
Cane (sugar), J^-*i ney shelcer; 

(walking), L»* asd; ±>f$ choob ; 

^»,.1«j taaleemi. 
Cannibal, j ly. *^1 «da?ra khor. 
Cannon, ujy toop. 
Cannoneer, j*^y toopchi. 
Cannot (it cannot be), *jt~^ neh mi 

shavad; o—s* jyC* murrikin neest; 



36 



VOCABULAET. 



(I cannot do), J& f\y+& neh mitd- 

ivdnam bekunam. 
Canon (rule), ^yls kanoon. 
Cap, t^lcola. 
Capable, J>U kabil. 
Capacious, *~~j vasee'. 
Capital (of a county), ois ^V P^ 

takht. 
Cape (headland), acL.5 demdgheh. 

3 

Caper (jump), j^-o— » just o kheez ; 

(plant), jS" Tcdber. 

Capitulate, v., ±\a *Jl-J tasleem da- 
dan. 

> '. 
Captious, T y4 lojooj. 



Captivate,?;., o^siJ^J* dilroha'i kar- 

dan. 

> 
Captive, j~»\ aseer; u*^s* maliboos ; 

(to take) ^fj^A aseer giriftan. 
Captivity, J-9 kayd; ^J^sjTgiriftaree. 
Caravan, \^kdrawdn; JiU kdfileh; 

ijlr 1 ^J^ kdrawdn serai. 

Carcass, ^^ lash. 

Cards (playing), jjj varak; <u*P gun- 

jafeh. 

in 

Cardboard, \yU mukavd. 

ttl 

Care, c^*a him-mut; <jj\&k» khabr 
ddree; kUa.1 ihtiydt. 



VOCABTTLABY. 



37 



Careful (to be), ^^fLUa.1 ihtiyat 
kardan; ^j^l^-i. khdbr ddr shu- 
dan. 

Careless, kUa*.!^ bee ihtiyat. 

Caress, v., ^-^y navdkhtan. 

Caress, jli ndz; \J»j\y> navdzish. 

Cargo, j U bar. 

Carnage, J» katl; ^jjij &j± khoon 
reezee. 

Carnation (flower), e%° meekhek. 

Carnelian, j-Jic akeek. 

Carpenter, j U najjdr. 
Carpet, -kfgeleem; J^s farsh; ^ 
Tcdlee. 



Carriage, t&j* droshTceh; jOIT ka- 

leskeh; (of things), ^ La. hamdlee. 
Carrion, ^"i Idsh. — eater, J\y» yi^l 

lashkhor. 
Carrot, e)j,j zardek; £y>. haveej. 
Carry, v., tj> burdan; zjT J^a. 

haml kardan. 
Cart, i>\f- erdbeh; ^ gdree. 
Cartridge, <&£6 fashang. 
Carve, v., J±j bureedan. 
Cascade, jUujI dbshar. 
Case (legal), a*jJu> mukadammeh; 

(box, large), jjX^sandook; (sheath), 

i_i}U gheldf; (pen case), ^IJ-Js ka- 



38 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



lamddn; (condition), cJU. hdlat; 

(in no), **•_)$# be heech vuj'h; 

(statement of), JU. <jjs. arz-hdl. 
Cash, J& nukd. 
Cashier, jb Jj^s tahveel ddr. 
Cask, 1--^ peep. 
Casket, sJj>xi* sandvk cheh. 
Cast, v., jyii.ljJl anddkhtan. 
Castle, Asia kala'eh. 
Castor oil el^S^cj^ roghan karchek; 

i[ft ^jj roghan cherdgh. 
Castrate, v., sjT*x»\ akhteh kardan. 

Casual, ,j\su\ itifdkee. 
Cat, iij'gurbeh. 



Catalogue, i=*-^5 fihrist. 
Catarrh, -ISj zukdm; &y nazleh. 
Catastrophe, "k> fceZ#. 
Catch, v.j c r»/' giriftan. — cold, 

&3jy» \»j* sermd khurdan; ^J^l*. 

chd'idan. 

Catchword, ^b pasekh. 
Catechise, v., ^^Jlj-j sooaZ kardan. 
Cauliflower, JT^lT kalam gul. 
Cause (reason), c---. subub; C*U 

Cause, v., sJ 'kardan. 
Caused, tsfkardeh. 



YOCABULARY. 



39 



Caustic (nitrate of silver), ^t- ^ 

sang i jehennum. 
Cauterise, v., tf-s/'cU dagh kardan. 
Caution, ktx=J ihtidt. 
Cautious, kU»ll; ha ihtidt. 
Cavalcade, j 1^-. «— s dusteh saw dr. 
Cavalier (horseman), j\>~» sawdr. 
Cavalry, ^j- sawdran. 
Cave,jlc ghdr. 
Cease, u, &f *-*$y* mowkoof Tear- 

dan. 
Ceiling, <-&-> sukf. 

Celebrated, ^*- mdroof; jj^» 
mash-hoor. 



Celerity, ^^ chdbukee. 
Cellar, &+jf..j zeer zdrneen. 
Cement, ^j,j\~> sdrooj. 
Cemetery, ^1^5 kabristdn. 
Censure, J*jj»> sarzanish. 
Cent, jTgraz. 
Centipede, \>J\j* hezdrpd. 
Centre, ajW« midneh; la~»j vast. 
Century, aJUj-» sad sdleh. 

Ceremony, uXl taUeef; <Jfc taka- 

luf. 
Certain, && yakeen; g*° saheehh. 
Certainly, Z}\ albetta; <s&"h leld 

shah. 



40 



TOCABULAEY. 



Certificate, a«Ij c^^ rezdyet nameh. 
Certify, v., ^.sta sjl^i, shehddet liar- 
dan. 

Chaff (chopped straw), sVk&h. 

Chagrin, *£• ghum. 

Chain, j^j zanjeer. 

Chain, v., ^jT^j zanjeer Tcardan. 

Chair, ^J^ sandali. 
Chalk, J-a-» Jf gil-i-safeed. 

o > 

Chamber, tj^- hujreh; jltjl otdk; 
*il». khdneh. 

Chamois, ^^y. buzkoohee. 



Chamomile, a^L bdbooneh. 

Chance, oj? bukht; j\u\ itifdk. 
Chancery, ail>pj daftar khdneh. 
Chandelier, c|^ J^. chehel chirdgh. 
Change, jJu taghieer; (money), *$jy» 

khoordeh. 
Change, v., ydzjJZ taghieerdddan; 

cjV u^ avaz kardan; ^J J Jo 

badal kardan. 

Channel, ^jjsfi mujrd. 
Chapel, Os-** musjid. 
Chapter, ^U bub ; J-oj fusl. 
Character (writing), *-»/-»• harf; 



YOCABULABY. 



41 



(reputation), 3 j\ dbroo; (good), 
J.U5Q neekndm; (bad), |.U^» bad- 
ndm. 

Charcoal, Jlej zughal. 

Charge (custody), oiU imanet ; (v., 
(accusation), oj^ shekdyet; c^i 
tuhmat; (of soldiery), A** hamleJi. 

Charity, J^** muhabat; (alms), 
khairdt ; <w.x« sadakat. 

Charm (amulet), Uj> du-a. 

Chart, *■£»£ nuksheh. 

Chase,j&. shekar. 

Chase, v., &*/]&> shekar kardan. 

Chasm, <-i&i> shekdf. 



>\j* 



Chaste, ^\<&\ pdkddmen ; y»U» iaTi- 

7ier. 
Chastise, ^jT^u-uj tanbeeh kardan. 
Chastity, ^tae)^ pdkddmeni. 
Chat, j&S gzift o goo. 
Chattels, »->L-l «sbab ; Li.1 dshiyd ; 

JU wiaL 
Cheap, ^Ijjl cwzart. 
Cheapen, v., a *j&» &))J arzdn kar- 

dan. 
Cheat, v., ^ab c-o> /areeb dadtan ; 

Check, o«jU« memana'at. 
Check, -Wbj c^^ wa'e kardan. 



42 



VOCABTTLAKY. 



Checkmate, oL »l- shah mat, or oL 

mat. 
Checkmate, v., ^^ToUmaifeardan. 
Cheek, ~j rukh ; ^> } \s. driz. 
Cheer, v., ^ta -sti shad dddan ; 

y^L. JW**^i. khosh hdl sdkhtan. 
Cheerful, isJUr^i. khosh hdlat; 

khandeh roo. 
Cheese, ^ paneer. 
Cherish, v., ^^ToiUa. hamayet kar- 

dan ; o^jJL^ parvareedan. 
Cherisher, ^ parvar. 
Cherry (white-heart), u-l^T gerdss ; 

(morella), j]yi alabaloo. 



Chess, jj**> shatranj. 
Chessman,^, muhr ; king, »t- shah; 

queen,^jjj vazeer; castle, ~y rukh; 

bishop, Js» feel ; knight, »-— 1 asp ; 

pawn, »^Lj piddeh. 
Chest (box), <jjX** sandook; ^IJis 



yakhddn ; (breast), <i~-» seeneh. 
Chestnut,^ »li shah baloot;(co\oxir) , 

tskjTkorang. 
Chew, v., Q^iy? javeedan. 
Chicken, a*.j*. joojeh. 

Chide, v.j zf^jj~> sarzanish kar- 

dan. 
Chief, tr-jj rey-iss ; tiLyt buzurg. 



VOCABULARY. 



43 



Chiefly,^ akser; UU ghdliban. 
Child,* isi bacha. 
Childhood, J^. bachagee. 
Chill, \+j» sarmd. 
Chilly, ^r» sard ; eLi. khanuk. 
Chimney, jX'*)* dood hash. 
Chin, aJU. chdneh. 

China (country), v& cheen ; (porce- 
lain), jj-^ cheenee. 
Chintz, o** cheet. 
Chisel, aJw! eskeneh. 



* This word is used by Persians when 
calling for their servants— a remnant of 
feudal times. 



Choice, oU* 3 ! inthikhab. 

Choke, v., ly^Tito. khufeh Tcardan. 

Cholera, *1jj vebd. 

Choose, v., ^/m^ 5 ' intikhab kar- 

dan. 
Chosen, «-»i^ muntikhib. 
Christ, ^^ c^a* Huzret i Eesd. 
Christian, ,jrj~~c- Eesdvl. 
Chuckle, *f J^-vJ lubkhund kar- 

dan. 
Cinder, )y* *s» neemsooz. 
Cinnamon, j** j\? darcheeni. 
Cipher (secret writing), J>j rumz. 
Circle, *jjb ddyereh. 



44 



VOCABULAEY. 



Circulate, v., sf [ J,i>j' gerdesh ~kar- 

dan. 
Circumspect, j Lla hoshydr. 

Circumstance, iz+JS hey '-fee- at. 

Cistern, «U chdh; ^Lil t_»l db-ambdr. 

Citizen, (^- shahri. 

Citadel, d,l a?'gr. 

Citron, dJ^U bddrang. 

City,j4& shahr. 

Civil, w)^ moad-dub. 

Civility, u->^1 adwb. 

Claim, v-JJ» talab ; »U^1 ida'd. 

Claim, v., ^.sjT *U.iWcZa'a Jcardan; 



(to Lave a), ^Ij t_-it talab ddsh- 
tan. 

Claimant, ^J*, muda-ee. 

Clamour, tlj farydd. 

Clan, 4wll» tdyefeh. 

Clandestine, ^^ mukhfee. 

Classify, v., ^i/^iL sdfhardan. 

Claw, isLa. chang. 

Clay, JTsftlL 

Clean, db pat. 

Clean, v., ^^T e)b pat Tcardan. 

Cleanliness, ^/ij^i pdheezegee. 
Clear, lJU s#/. 



VOCABULABY. 



45 



Clear-sighted,^-} teez nazar. 
Clemency, ^ rahhm. 
Clerk, sJ±~jy neveessendeh. 
Clever, Jo*lib ddneshmund ; <J>j*\> 

bd hoosh. 
Climate, \y» vl db o hawd. 
Clock, c^L sd-at. 
Clockmaker, jLo*!- sd-at sdz. 
Clod, -.^ kelookh. 
Close, v., c ^~j bustan. 
Close (near), vk±j> nazdeek. 
Cloth, ojJkL mahoot; (table), »>- 

sufra; (saddle),^" Jj* arak geer. 
Clothe, v., >yj\-*>i pooshaneedan. 



Clothes (clothing), o», rukht ; o^i, 
rukhoot ; u-U lebdss ; (bed), c>i.j 
^jlji. rukht-i-khdb. 

Cloud, j>\ abr. 

Clove (spice), <&&* meekhek. 

Clover, &&■ yungia. 

Club (stick), jU* chomdk ; — to- 
gether, ^jfiii'!^ slierdket kardan. 

Coal, eL- Jlfcj swgrfral i sang ; (char- 
coal), J^J zughdl. 

Coarse, o^>> drusht. 

Coast, ij\£~kindreh. 

Coat, ^ fcafca. 



46 

Cobweb, &y fr wpvdeK atikeboot. 

Cock (bird), u-j> ^ oos 5 ^'^ 
sheer; (gun), jU* cWmai 

Coffee, j^5 kahveh. 
Coffin, c^ taboo*. 
Coil, ^i yeecfc. 
Coin, ^- sikkeh. 

Coin, *., ^J & "»* zadan ' „ 

Cold, *., V soma"; (rheum), fi 

zulidm; *j> nuzleh. 
Cold, adj., Aj* sard. 
Colic, gi peecli. 



ham 



YOCA.BTJLABY. 

Colleague, &?j rafeeh ; *~** r* 
w/iwisub. 

Collect, *., o^/e^ ' W fcordan - 
College, i-,J- medresseh. 
Colonel, bLv- sarfcong. Lieut.- 
colonel, eUr- w*« »uw?> sarhang. 
Colour, «&, rang. 

Colour, v., *>f&j rang hardan, or 
i\ &j rang zadan. 

Colt, tfMrreh. 

Column, a j~ setoon. 

Comb, *3^ shtineh. 

Combat, \?& dawa. 

Come, v., o^ amadan. 



VOCABULABY. 



47 



Come, imp., Lj lee-ah. 

> 
Comet, j\& f* ij\z-> stdreh dum ddr. 

Comfort (consolation), JLj tessald ; 

(ease), o»]j rdhat. 
Comfort, v., o*f L ^ tessald lardan. 
Comical, ds-** muz- hik. 
Coming (future), *J±>.\ dyendeh. — 

and going, >x- tx»\ drnad o shud. 
Command, ^ hukm; J^>J fermdn ; 

•J dmr. 
Command, v., ^r-J fermoodan ; 

^ata ^>J> ferman dddan. 
Commander, sJoL/ fermdndeh. 



Commend, v., c ,^T«-ai / aJ ta'areefkar- 

dan. 
Commendation, *-»*/« ta'areef. 
Commerce, c^U: tejdret. 
Common (universal), ^y& emoo- 

mee; (plenty), ^J feravdn. 
Commotion, \zS^- harakat. 
Communicate, v., ^J j\&>\ iz'har 

kardan. 
Companion, jjj rafeeh; il^ ham 

rah. 
Company, u-W* mijliss ; (soldiers), 

JutjJ' goroohdn. 
Comparatively, U~J nisbetan. 



VOCABULARY. 



«o YOCAiJU-LAiix. 

Compare, •, <fif 'A»U ^rMbdek I Competence, M**** 



kardan. 

Compass, U3 aL5 kibleh nemdh. 
Compassion, &£• meru-at ; fj 

rahm. 
Compassionate, ^j rahman ; s-*^ 

-», sahib rahm; &3j* ^ ba me- 

ruat. 
Compatible, u— U mwnassib. 

Compel, v., oi,j\ j3) *oor awardan. 
Compensate, a *f j^ - tel«/i fcardan- 



^\* J>^ avaz dadan. 

ompe 

lafi. 



Competent, Ji$ la'ik. 
Complacent, Jj^y. khdshdil. 
Complain, «., *•>/ *>&> shekayat 

kardan ; ^ nalidan. 
Complainer, ^^^ shakee. ^ 
Complaint, o>J& shekdyet; X gel- 

leh; *\>Jferyad. 
Complaisance, J>y» ^ dilkhdshi. 
Complete, r U tamdm. 

Complete, v., &f ^ * a ™"~™ kai " 
dan. 



aaiv, 
.-. , Complex, &j> & peech der peech 
Compensation, J>f avaz; ^ te- | ^ f .^ > ^ mnMUt i roo . 



I Complexion,/; *, rang i roo. 



VOCABTJLAET. 



49 



Compliance, cwUj rezdyet. 
Complicate, sf ***# peecheedeh 

Icardan. 
Complication, Jj^gi peechedigee. 
Compliment, lj&S tekalluf ; j.^-. 

saldm ; e>~# tahhniet. 
Compliment, v., O ^o~4> tahhniet 

Icardan; ^ata j»^-» saldm da dan ; 

&*jj\ W*. <-^' takaluf be jd dwar- 

dan. 
Comply, v., ^ ^j rdzi shudan ; 

^•JjTJ^J Icabool Icardan. 
Compose, ^f^-Sj> tarkeeb Icardan ; 

(a difference), ^•aU ^> selahh 

dddan. 



m > 



Composer, C ii** musannif. 

Comprehend, v., J~+& fahmeedan ; 
yzjT^^ji dar ydfi Icardan, 

Compromise, &J\** musdlihheh. 

Compromise, v., ^j^aJlo. musdlih- 
heh Icardan. 

Compulsion, ^ } zoor ; j*> jubr. 

Compunction, i-s-Ij ta-asuf. 
Conceal, v., o'ifo^H penhdn Icardan. 
Concede, v., &*\* «jW-l ijdzeh dddan. 
Conceited, jjju maghroor. 
Concern, ^\i *s^ ildlceh ddshtan; 

^xib J»^ dukhl ddshtan. 
Concession, *jM ijazeh. 



50 



VOCABTJLAET. 

Conciliate, v,^/^ 5 *^^^^ 

dan; ^f^j Bdzilardan. 

Concise, j^^ muUasser. 
Conclude, w ., ^/fU tomam tor 

e,^^ fe/iatm feardaw. 

Conclusion, ^ Ma*™ ; >1 fl^er- 

Concubine, ***-> seegheh. 

Concur, «., ^ J* V movafihsJiv^m. 

Condemn, »., ^ ^ (^ ^ 
seyasset dddan. 

Condition, JW Ml* c^ ^ let ' 
J^\ aliwal; i*f bay fiV et; & 
imfe; (stipulation), V shurt. 



Conditional, ^ ba s7iuri. 

Conduct, j^j ra/tar. 

Conduct, v., 0*1 bfirdan,; (lead, as 

troops), ^kesheedan. 
Conductor, LJ t\j rah nema. j 
Confer (discuss), v., a/v^Jl£ 
sooal o jawab Tcardan; *S^*~ 
moUlemeh lardan; (give), ^^. 
luhhsheedan ; a *\* dddan. 
Confess, v., ^fjjb «»* torda^. 
Confession,^ *™r; u*1^1 t'tara/. 

Confide, «., 0*/^ b^»" feardarl; 

d ^T,iUfr\ itimad Tcovrdan. 
Confidence, -sUp! itimad. 



V0CABT7LAET. 



51 



Confine (imprison), v., cJ ^T' Lr -a. hubs 
kardan ; ^J^jjj bund kardan. 

Confirm (investigate), v., ^sjT £<&£ 
tahhkeek kardan ; (strengthen), 
^j\jj \jpaidar kardan; (certify), 
jj.jjTj^juw tasdeek kardan. 

Confiscate, v., i>jf)*~<> zubt kardan. 

Conflict, el-La. jung ; ^ji. j jj zad o 
khurd. 

Confound, v., gdj *«y bar hum zadan; 

^jjy evjLc" makhloot kardan. 

Confuse, v., j^U y\£±ji perishdn 
sdkhtan ; $$f yii^J tashveesh 
kardan. 



Confused, J*jZ+ mushavash; y^i* 

mustarib. 
Confusion, ol^kil istirdb. 

Confute, v., iJ~^>\ja.)l Idjawdb kar- 
dan. 

Congratulate, v., ^y^iLfJU mobarek 
bad guftan; *f ^~ ;~ $ tuhniet 
kardan. 

Congratulation, ^.slTjL. mobarek 
bddi ; ts- ytf tuhyiiet. 

Conjugate, v., ^j^ *+*.jam' shudan. 
Conjecture, \£ gemdn ; J& zun. 

Conjecture, v., ^sf yU'gemdn kar- 
dan. 

Conjurer, jb «3* hokkeh bdz. 



YOCABTJLAEY. 

52 

Connect, v., ^jH payvastan; J-y 
,sU i"usl dadan. 



Connivance, ^jj ^ •*«*» 3300. 

she ; u*^ ighmaz. 

Connive, «., tt *** r^ desta ^ 00 ' 
•Mdofi; ^/^UWfffcnwa fcarda*. 

Connoisseur, u-^ s7reria " ss (with 
the requisite substantive before it 
as asp-shenass, a connoisseur of 

hoi'ses). 
Conquer, v., *>/# M™ kardan. 

Conscious, fV\ agah. 
Consecutive, ^^ W ^ ^ J 
Uti, nedee/j i3*l*j rea«o/et. 



Consent, Jy* kabooU} ^Su L, reas« 
■mwidi. 

Consent, v., o^ i*4 **» 57lMdcm ; 

e^/M** kalool kardan. 
Consequence, afr 5 nateejeh ; *>jA 

dkherat. 
Consider, v., o*// 5 &? £"*£'" 

^zjTuM** motale-eh kardan; &**&* 
sanjeedan. 
Consideration (thoughts), >5 .prj 
^s tafdkur; (importance), jU»\ 

Consign (give in charge), ^- su- 
purdam>. 






VOCABULARY. 

murakib shudan. 



53 



Consist,^, ^Ji 
Console,^., ^^S^JLm tussald kardan 
Conspicuous, J&>\ ashkdr. 
Conspiracy, u-jL sdzish; jWl itifdk; 

^ai' ta'ahood. 
Constancy, Uj ve/«. 
Constant,^ U 5 vefd dar; jIj day em; 

J-c mutassil. 

w 

Constantly, JLj3N.Jp aZa eZ itissal ; 
&Z~*jb hamoesheh. 

Consternation, (J^«» hayrdni. 

Construct, &&.L* sdkhtan. 



Consult, v., sf 
kardan. 



CJ 



'jiT*" 



wiashvarat 



Consume, v., ^.s^Tt-i,* sarf kardan. 
Contact, JUjI itissdl. 
Contain, v., gs&ld ddshtan. 

Contaminate, v., ^^T^-ai nejess kar- 
dan. 
Contemptible, j-fia. hakeer. 
Content (satisfaction), ojU, rezdyet: 

Contest, -taW mujadileli. 
Continual, .»»> » hameesheh'ee. 
Continue (remain), v., ^JoL manddn. 
Contraband, *y** wwwnoo' ; A* 
ha/ram. 



54 



VOCABULAET. 



Contract, Ask Is* mukati-eh ; \ojZ> 

shurt ; J^fr ahd. 
Contract, v., ^tf A*kl<u mukatieh 

kardan ; c ^-j ^J^ shurt bustan ; 

ysjTj^c. ahd kardan. 

Contradict, c fsS^ u Js-j bur aks guftan. 
Contrary, «-i^U. khelaf. 
Contrivance, ^Jj' tadbeer. 
Convention, ^b^|/ kerdr dud. 
Conversation, o-sf suh but; aJ£» 

mukalimeh ; jS&fguft o goo ; MJJ9- 

J 1 ^ j jaivab ve soo-al. 
Converse, v., &&\& o^ suhbut dash' 



tan ; O ^^^gufto goo kardan ; 

*f \J\y* j J1_j-i jawdb ve sooal 

kardan. 
Convert (to change), v., ^jJta^f 

gerddneedan ; &*f u»j* avaz 

kardan. 
Convert, a., Jo j*. jedeed. 
Convey, v., ^^ burdan ; ^J^L; 

Cook, j-il ashpuz: ~U» tub-bdkh. 

Cook, i;., c ^sJ jpilkhtan ; ^J' _>1» 
tubkh kardan ; (to boil), ^Jji, ^A 
db-puz kardan; (to broil), sjf~s« 



T0CABU1AEY. 



55 



surlch Mr dan; (to roast), & *f\^\f 
kebab kardan. 
Cool, eU. Ichonuk. 

Cool (from anger), v., ^oi oS"li 

s#&e£ shudan. 
Coop (for fowls), u-is fco/ass. 
Copious, oly »M/ad ,• ^J,]^ faravdn. 
Copper, ,j«. miss. 
Coppersmith, /*, missger. 
Copy, ■*!*■ saAJOdd; &jy* soorat. 
Coquet, «., c ,^/jl5 waz kardan. 
Coral, ^lay* murjdn. 
Cord, jyL-M^ reessmdn. 



Corn, ale ghileh; (wheat), ^OuT^un- 

doom; (barley), y* jo. — field, 

A^y* muzra'a. 
Corner, i^fgoosheh ; pfkunj. 
Corporal, ^l ,* dah bdshi. 
Corpse, s*j* murdeh; ^ Idsh. 
Correct, g=-> sahheehh ; o--,^ drust. 
Correct, v., *f ^S tass-heehh 

kardan; *f^z~,j* drust kardan. 
Correspond (by letter), v., ^h ajK. 

mukdtibehddshtan; (agree), jjlk, 

&j> motdbik budan. 
Corrupt, JO--JJ poossideh ; sju Jcf 



56 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



Corrupt, v., &J*»>yi poosidan ; $ Ji^xa 
gandeedan. 

Cost, o^i kaimat. 

Cost, v., ^^ib o^» kaimat ddshtan. 

Contemporary, oij«« ham vukt. 

Cotton, *~jpuribeh. 

Couch (sofa), oi*** 5 neemtakht. 

Cough, as^-j surfeh. 

Cough, v., *jf iij~> surfeh kardan. 

Council, *\jy* u-V° mejlis shorn. 

Counsel, c^j**^ nasseehat ; c^yu 
mushverat ; (to take), ^^Tc^yL* 
mus7it'era£ kardan ; (to advise), 
g.ita o* -1 nasseehat dadan. 



Count, v., &*/*£> shumurdan. 
Count, d J^vl— a. hissdb kardan. 

Countenance, ^ roo. 
Counterfeit, t-Js t-uZb. 

Counterfeit, to, (money), c i>j 
kulb zadan ; (persons), *f jJ# 
takleed kardan. 

Country, oj^Ij veldyet. 

Countryman, ^^j veldyeti. 

Couplet, ii~rJ bayt. 

Courage, o^V*' shujd'at. 

Courageous, cUA shujd ; ^J^ daleer. 

Courier, j UU. chdpdr. 

Course, ^Ij^ mayddn ; (race), 
^jljj l_~» 1 jjjl j*« mayddn asp devdni. 



VOCABTTLABY. 



57 



Court (palace), j\, z darbdr ; (quad- 
rangle), dL hay at. 

Courteous, eJ^L, jly. Jchosh selook ; 
»-j>>j-° moaddub. 

Courtesy, i-j.il adafc. 

Courtier, cjI£ ^"kc muldzim i rehab. 

Cousin (through paternal uncle), 
i*\jj+s. amoozddeh ; (through pa- 

Ml 

ternal aunt), s*\j i+e- amehzddeh; 
(through maternal uncle), s^j)U. 
khdloozddeh ; (through maternal 
aunt), t*\j aJU. Jchdlehzddeh. 
Covenant, J*c ahd. 



Cover, s., yi^ poosh. 

Cover, v., <xZy f poosheedan. 

Covet, v., ^b ^J, tama ddshtan. 

Covetous, dj» tama'. 

Cow, j)V gdv. 

Coward, ^li ndmard. 

Cowardice, ^j^k ndmardi. 

Coxcomb, eliii Tcashang. 

Crab, cs^^i. kharchang. 

Crack, i_jl& shelcdf. 

Crack (split), v., ^K^, shekdftan. 

Cradle, t^^galivdreh; y3 wano. 

Craft (fraud), aU. heeleh. 

Crane (bird), l^a durnd. 



58 



YOCABULABY. 



Crawl, v., ^j \j) o-J j^ chehdr 

dust o pa raftan. 
Crazy, ajI^-s deetdneh. 
Cream, ^^- sar i sheer. 
Crease, Is ta. 

Create, v., ^J*/! dfreedan. 
Created, tJi/\ afreedeh. 
Creator, tfj\ afreen ; jlU. khalik. 
Credit, o*/* hurmet ; J^-\ itibar ; 

(promise to pay), <w nassee-eh. 
Credit (to believe), v., &2>h *\z&\ 

itikdd dashtan; (to confide), .>L»1 

yjiiib itimad dashtan. 
Crescent, J^U 7*,gZaJ. 



Cress (water), jyVL balakooty. 
Crier (public), ^W- jdrchi. 
Crime, s\Sgonah. 
Criminal, _ r a&« mokasser. 
Crimson, j*J kirmiz. 
Crocodile, cl^j naheng. 
Crook (shepherd's stick), <stykajak. 
Crook-backed, oi^ jy ftooz pusht. 
Crooked, S'kej ; *i. khum. 

Cross, —U. khaj ; u .L saleeb. 



Crow, clj z«£f7i. 
Crowd, f»l*.ijl izdiham. 
Crown, -Ij t«j. 



V0CABT7LAEY. 



59 



Crucify, v., &*? ^*;W chehar meekh 
kardan. 

Cruel, ^*j bee rahm ; &xr*r> bee 

merooat. 
Crush, v., ^j^TaJ leh Jcardan. 
Cry (weep), v., zf *f giryeh Tear. 

dan; (call), if\x<, sed« harden. 
Cry, «., z\p feryad ; sm na'areh. 
Crystal,^ feaZoor. 
Cubit, c,j zar. 
Cucumber, jU k7u<m 
Cue (hint), tj\i,\ ishdreh. 
Cuff (blow), o-i- mwsta ; (of sleeve), 

u^-ir - sar-i-dsteen. 



Cuirass, r,j zereft. 

Culminate, v., a Juw, \#i\> be intiha 
raseedan. 

Hi 

Culprit, ^ai. mulcussar ; jfclf gondii 
Tear. 

Cultivate, v., ^f^s^Xjj zard'at kar- 
dan. 

Cultivation, jtf izZTkeshteh kdr. 

Cunning, J( aU. heeleh kdr. 

Cup, A\-j pialeh ; [£> finjan ; _jjs 

kadahh; a— ^ kdsseh. 

Cupola, ±J? gunbad. 

Hi 

Curator, ^^z* mutaval-li. 
Curds (and whey), sj^ doo^Ti. 



60 



VOCABULARY. 



Cure, -.^U ildj ; »,l*. char eh. 

Cure, v., sf~~Sks- ildj kardan ; »,l>. 

^sfchareh kardan. 

Curl, «-i!j zw ^/- 
Currency, -.1^, rowaj. 

Current (money), ^}j rdyej. 

Curry (horse), v., ^fj\^j teemdr 

kardan. 
Currycomb, jls kasho. 
Curse, o^jJ la'anat. 
Curse, ^Jjfet-^J la'anat kardan. 
Cursed, &y&+ mal'oon. 
Curtain, 5^ purdeh. 



Cushion, ^^ bdlesh ; £U mutakka ; 

Ml 

jAi" mukhaddeh. 
Custom, —j, russm ; sJ^ls kd'ddeh. 

' 1 CI 

Customs, &jS gumruk. 

Customs' house, ail* d^ gumruk 



khdneh. 



Cut, v., ^Jj^ bureedan; ^J^]/ fer«- 

Cut, sjo^ bureedeh; sj^i.]/ terdshee- 

deh. 
Cutlass, ^-~.».ii sham-sheer. 
Cylinder, aJ_j! looleh. 
Cymbal, jy±~> suntoor. 
Cypress, j^-. surv. 



VOCABULARY. 



61 



D. 

Dagger,^* khanjar. 

Daily, j*j> jj^ rooz be rooz. 

Dale, sjt der-reh. 

Damage, Jr b zarar ; «_~say&; c^L-i. 

khessdrat. 
Damage, v., jjL,jjj^ zarar resdni- 

dan; ^sf^s. ayb kardan. 
Damascus, «l£ shdm. 
Damp, s., ojj1»j retoobut ; J nwm. 
Damp, adj., jv^j retoobuti; jIj^J 

numddr ; JJ turr. 
Damp, v., ^1 J~*i num dadan; 



j^lov numdaslitan; y±fj turr 
kardan. 

Dance, ^j£j rukss. 

Dance, u, ^J^, ruksseedan. 

m 

Dancer, ^Isj ruhdss. 
Dandelion (taraxacum), ^Vkdssnee. 
Danger,^, khattar ; i-Jy» kJiof. 
Dangerous, dli Jai. khattarndk. 
Dare, v., ^^0,1—a. jessdrat kardan. 
Dark, <siy\) tdreek. 
Darkness, ^Jx tdreekee. 
Darling, l_>j-** mahboob. 
Darn, v., ^J'yj rafoo kardan. 
Dart, tjJ teereh* 



62 



VOCABTTLABY. 



Dash (together), v., v*j~v bdhwn 

zadan. 
Date (of time), gfi tareekh; (fruit), 

l^i khurma. 

Daughter, j*** dokhter. 

Dauntless, bJU^j bee laic. 

Dawn, ^\J-^ bamdad. 

Day, jjj rooz ; pi ydm ; (Friday), 
£j* juma'a ; (Saturday), ^ 
shunbeh; (Sunday), -~i£ y<* 
shunbeh; (Monday), *-**•> do 
shunbeh; (Tuesday), *-**- s « 71 
siiMibeh; (Wednesday), <*~ijW 
cte?w sTiurabeTt ; (Thursday), 



^i jocmj s7mnbe/i. 



— of 

Judgment, 1=**^ J3j roozi kiamet. 

— and nighty j L--i s/iwb ve rooz. 

— by day, jjyi jjj rooz be rooz. 
Every — Jjj;^ hur rooz. To-day, 
j 3r \ imrooz. — hook, eb-.» das- 

tafe ; **bjsj rooznameh. 
Dead, tt>j* murdeh. 
Deadly, eV muhlik ; s^^kushen- 

deh. 
Deaf, jT fear. 
Deaf (to be), v., *y. fkar boodan ; 

(to become), C M fkar shudan., 



VOCABULAEY. 



63 



Deal (quantity), j Jl kudr ; (a great), 
jL*j bisydr. 

Deal, v., ^^i *«— «j talcseem Tcardan. 

Dealer (trader), J^\^ sodager. 

Dear (expensive), \fgerdn; (affec- 
tionate),^^ azeez. 

Death, d^ mcwv/ ; oj< mot. 

Debt, \j>J Jcarz. 

Debtor, jU^^S karzddr. 

Deceased, *y*j+ marhoom. 

Deceit, ^ ghubn. 

Deceive, v., ^y a jJu maghboon 
Tcardan 

Decency, ^fs~>\2> shdyestegee. 



Decide, v., ^z SL hukm dddan. 
Decision, SL hukm. 

1 o 

Declaration, -yi shurhh; ^s-\ i'ldn; 

^Lj biydn. 
Declare, v., c p5'_ r i shurhh guftdn ; 

jb ^^Ul t7«u dddan ; ^sj \^ 
biydn kardan. 

Declivity, yjj.)^ sar-a-zeeree. 
Decorate, v., ^^-^I drdstan. 
Decrease, ^tfS'kam kardan. 
Decree, ^5^9 fetva. 
Decrepit, ~is«-» zaeef. 
Deduce, v., ^j}]/- ^ ar awardan. 
Deduct, r., ±f S'kam kardan. 



64 



VOCABULARY. 



Deed, &- sanad ; o* 3 " hujjet ; ~~ 
(of sale), *»W> kebdleh. Title — J^ 
bonchdk. 
Deep, ^ god ; ,>** ameek. 
Deer, y»l <x7ioo. 

Defamation, ^j.. ladndmee. 
Defame, v., ^/f U ^ bad^zm feardaw. 
Defeat, o— £i shakast. 
Defeat, u, g^b 0-&- shakast dddan. 
Defeated, *•>,> c*-** shakast khur- 

deh. 
Defect, l-~* ai/b. 
Defective, <j*^> ndkiss. 
Defend, ^Al-a »& negah ddshtan. 



Defendant, *J1 J-±* mudda'i aleyhi. 
Defer, v., eyS-tol #>*" ta'areefc a»- 

dafc Titan. 
Deference, c-/ hurmut. 
Deficiency, ^>« nuksdn. 
Defile, v., o^/^ »w»i«s kwdan; 

^o-Tdl^ ndpdk kardan. 
Defile (passage), *&> tengeh. 
Defiled, ^ najas. 
Defilement, i=~A* tvajdsat ; JW 

ndpdkee. 
Definite, ^Is fcate' ; £r> sareeh. 
Degree, a»,^ derejeh. 
| Delay, ^ deeri. 



TOCABULAEY. 



65 



Delay, v. 5C) ^r^o.lj ta'kheer Tcardan ; 

eJ-iiO" 3 deer Jcardan. 
Deliberate, tLa».l I ba ihtidt. 
Deliberate, v., *f fi filer Tcardan; 

±j> o,^!* mashverat kardan. 
Delicacy, J^\i nazuki ; ir-ilid litafat. 
Delicate, d,li ndzuk ; v-a.Wl Za£ee/. 
Deligbt, k^ few*;; ^b shddee ; 

^Ui-ji. hhosh hdli. 
Delight, v., C ^L Jl^y. fc7i5s7i fossZ 

sdkhtan. 
> 

Delighted,^—, masroor. 

Delightful, -ju mufarrah ; liX) j diZ 
goghd. 



Delirious, ^Ij* hezydn. 

Deliver (to give), v., *h r JLj fo*. 
leemdddan; (to liberate), ^a/ahl 
azid hardan; ^ata oli wejJt 
dddan; ±jTyj,\> khelass Jcardan. 

Deliverance, oUs' nejdt. 

Deluge, e)^ £o/#n,. 

Demand, v., ,^>\y- khastan ; ^J-Jk 
talabeedan. 

Demand, s., ytaly. khdhesh ; ^J» 
taZa&. 

Demolish, ^^/"(-j 1 ^ khardb hardan. 

Demon, &*■ jin. 

Den,jli ghar ; *>*) Idnek. 



66 



YGCABTJLABY. 



Denial, j Vol inhdr. 

Dense, kj£ ghaleez. 

Deny, v., sfJ6i\ inkar hardan. 

Depart, v., &*j rqftan ; a if ^f 
hooch hardan. 

Departure, ~y hooch; <zSj*- harahat. 

Depend, v., ^y <i^~j busteh boodan; 
^y jlacx* muta'alah boodan. 

Depopulate, *f &\jj vayran har- 
dan. 

Deposit, ojM amdnat. 

Deposit, v., ^UrooLl amdnat gu- 
zasktan. 

Depredate, ^J o,l* ghdrat hardan. 



Depth, ^sjfgodee; J*c- umh. 

Descend,v., ^J^l ^J^pdyeenamadan. 

Describe, v., ^jT^L^ baydn hardan; 
gzid J^-aaJ tafseel guftan. 

Description, ^Lj ba.ydn; J~a£ taf- 
seel. 

Desert, ^Lj bee dbdn; <j^i dasht ; 
\jsr° sahrd. 

Desert, v., ^\J^guzdshtan; ^f^J 
tarh hardan ; (military), otfjl? 
ferdr hardan. 

Deserter (military), ^J\j ferdri. 

Deserve, v., ^^ jO** mustahdh 
boodan. 



VOCABTTLABY. 



67 



Design (intention), ss\j\ irddeh ; 

3f*h>wa~ksood; (sketch), *£& nuk- 

sheh. 
Desire, y^\ drzoo ; J^y- khdhesh. 
Desirous, Jvi*£*l_ji. khuhesh mund ; 

ijLJLe mushtdk. 
Destroy, v., ^^f \f\j* khardb kar- 

dan. 
Destruction, (jjl^ khardbee. 
Detach, v., ^j^TIjo. judd kardan. 
Detail, J^tf tafseel. 
Detain, v., ,jz^\3 »Ki negah dashtan. 
Detest, v., ,jJ^! Jo bad dmadan. 
Devil, ^IW.- shaitdn. 



Devise, v., ^&J^Sa tadbeer kard.an. 

Devoid, ^U. khdli. 

Devote, v., { ^,\_f J \j Tcerar guzashtan; 

&&£ <j\jj3 korbani kardan. 
Devoted, jj^u mutassadik ; (your 

devoted), Li ^J* faddvi shuma. 

Devotee, s., c^-Ju* mukaddass ; l_— ,'~~, 

muta'assib. 
Devotion, c^Le ibddat. 
Dew, J c_~i shub num. 
Dexterous, jl-X kar sdz. 
Dialogue, ol^j Jlj- soodl vejaivab; 

y^stTguft o goo. 
Diamond, y-Ul almass. 



68 



VOCABTTLABY. 



ul 

Diarrhoea, Jl*J iss-hal; ^jj Sz> 
sheTcem ravish. 

Diary, a*^ roozndmeh. 

Dice )V $* muhr. 

Dictionary, u>»J loghut. 

Die, v., a M oji fot shudan; $*j* 
murdan. 

Diet, v., ifj^jj parheez kardan. 

Differ, v., tf&\& jj farlc ddshtan ; 

c ^- > b cjjIw tefdvut ddshtan. 

Difference, jjs /<xr A;; ojUj tefdvut; 
t_»^i»l ikhtilaf. 

Different, 1j^ judd; »J^^c alahe- 

deh ; jtp gheir. 



Difficult, J££* mushkil ; j\fZt* dosh- 
vdr. 

Diffidence, a*Jj vahemeh. 

Dig, v., Jj^Tcandan. 

Digest, v., ^j Ji^j' tahleel raftan. 

Dignified, ^ISjl ba vekdr. 

Dignify, v., ^L t-J^ musharaf 

sdkhtan. 
Dignity, jl»j vekdr ; a li» shd'an. 

o > 

Dilatory, v^ — . sust ; J~j tunbul. 

Diligence, * 1*2*1 ihtimdm. 

Dilute, v., c) j/' ^Is fca£t kardan; 

±J'] ^s* makhloot kardan. 
Dim,^b tar. 



VOCABULARY. 



69 



Dimension, i^-U' kidss ; ^IaIo mikddr. 

Diminish, v., ±jT £ Team kardan ; 
O zf*\>^koota kardan. 

Dine, v., &Sjy* *& sham khurdan. 
Dinner, -li. sham. 
Dip, v., tfsfjj* ghurh Tcardan. 
Direct, o-»^ rdst; ~ ? - ~- ~-<> mustakeem. 
Direct, v., ^if A\jit\j rdhnama'i 

Tcardan. 
Directly (straight), ^^—c Ui,^ dar 

Tchut-i mustakeem. 
Dirt, u>6\~S~kesafat ; jfj* chirkee. 
Dirty, U^fkeseef ; d^. chirk. 



Dirty, v., sf \j^ keseef kardan ; 

yjji^d^. chirk kardan. 

Disagree, v., ^b (_i^bi.l ikhtildf 
ddshtan. 

Disallow, v., ^J^> J^5 Jcdbool ne 
kardan. 

Disappear, v., ^Ji Jja-i* mafkoot 

shudan. 

Disappoint, v., &f±#>\ li na omeed 

kardan. 
Disapprobation, ^J^~j U na jpassan- 

dee. 
Disaster, o»1 afat; ^ held. 
Disbelieve, v., ^J^ j^. haver ne 

kardan. 



70 



YOCABULABY. 



Discernment, jUxJ imtidz. 

Discharge, 1;., a S\& o^a. jawab da- 
dan ; C ^J> ^iy* murakhas kar- 
dan ; ^j^j^ beyroon kardan. 

Discharge, s., ^^j* murakhassi. 

Disciple, *>/\i shdgird; Jo^ mureed. 

Discipline, ^Ikal intizdm ; Ji3 wuzra. 

Discipline, v., ^.sta ,.1*3 wmw dddan ; 
uji/o-iji tarbidt kardan. 

Disclose, -y., ^.^f^l^l iz-hdr kardan. 

Discomposure, ujl^uil izterab ; t^-la-j 
vahhshat; ij^jjperishdni; jh**. 



Disconcert, ^L tj^Li* muzterib 
sdklitan. 

Discontent, cwU,U w« rezdyet. 

Discover, v., & &f\j&.\ ikhtird kardan. 

Discourse, jkJ nutk ; olki. khetdb. 

Discourteous, ^1<j_ foe a<2ct&. 

Disease, ^^ maraz ; ^ji-li n« fe7io- 
s7u ; i^j dartZ. 

Disgrace, Jl^ rissvdee. 
Disgrace,!'., ^j/Ij-, rissoa kardan; 

o^sljk ti &ee aferoo kardan. 
Disguise,!'., ^/^U Jjjuj tabdeel-i- 

lebdss kardan. 

Disgust, o^ ?i(/rai. 



YOCABULAEY. 



71 



Dishjoliio boshkdb ; ^Jji zdrf. 
Dishonour. See Disgrace. 

Dislike, v., ^ J^ pasand ne 

kardan. 
Dislocate, v., ^f ^~i fuskh kardan. 
Disloyal »\f» esUi nemelc hardrri; U^j 

bee vefd ; ^-klxdyen. 
Disloyalty, ^j*- KiU5 nemak hardmi; 

(ojUi. klviydnat. 

Dismal, eJUJ^ft, Mlndk. 

Dismay, v., ^JujLj^ tarsdneedan. 

Dismiss, v., ^^f <j^v* muraklias 
kardan; yzjT^j*] ikhrdj kardan. 

Dismissed, sJC, <jx»j* muraklias sliu- 
deh. 



Dismount, v. act., ^o^ s^Ij piddeh 
shudan. 

Dismount, v. pass., ^^fuLi piddeh 
kardan. 

Disobedience, jUy li na farmdni ; 
L5 £ftlt1 b" na ita'ati. 

Disobedient, <^s-%\ j bee itd-at ; 
aJa^jJi gheyr i mutee. 

Disorder, j&jj^j tashveesh ; { J!~>.j u-i 
puss o peeshee. 

Dispatch, v., sJ~ ii\jj rawdneh kar- 
dan ; jjj^U-^ feristadan. 

Dispensary, <uU. \j* daivd khdneh. 

Disperse, v., ^^b pdsheedan; 
^sfjuiii pakhsh kardan. 



72 



VOCABULARY. 



Displease, v., ^Jj*! jiy. fc7ios7i ne 
amadan; (vex) ^U jft^ ranjesh 
dddan. 

Displeasure, Jj ranj. 
Disposition, (temper), _Jj* mizdj ; 
oJU. hdlat. 

Disposition (arrangement), t-~jy 
tarteeb *u>j vuz'e. 

iy\sY>ossess,v.,^jZ.\ji.\iJchrdjlcardan. 

Dispute, clji neza; J-s j JU &«Z o 
fcai/Z. 

Dispute, v., ^J^y neza kardan. 

Disrespect, (S »]/»-\ ^ bee ihterdmi. 

Distance, toiL* musdfat; A*\s fds- 

sileh. 



Distant, j3 J door ; Juw ba'eed. 
Distinct, -»lj vdzehh. 

Distinguish, v., tf a j j^ tameez dd- 
dan. 

Distress, \->\)a*>\ izterab ; *^% feld- 
hat; Ji^jj jperishanee. 

Distress, v., *f ^li^ perishdn 

kardan ; ^jT^JaJn muzterib kar- 
dan. 

Distribute, v.. zfj>J3 tafreek kar- 
dan ; ^$j> *s-«o takseem kardan. 

Distribution, i^~«— I kismat ; «e-&5 
takseem ; Jif3 tafreek. 



VOCABULARY. 



73 



District, ew^j velayet; <^**£L. hekoo- 

■mat. 
Disturbance, s^fitneh ; ^^ aslioo- 

bi ; \i-y- g hog ha. 

Disturb, v. (moral), ^f o~^A P e ~ 
rishdn Jcardan ; ^s>J J^.y^> tash- 
veeshkardan; (physical), o^».U.jl 
^j<i az jd hardkat dddan. 

Disunion, JfljS ferak ; ^s*- juddee. 

Ditch (of a town), JJ^* khandak ; 
(in a field), ujI »], rah db ; jj i-j1 ab- 
ro ; j4 nahr. 

Ditto, Lajl ayzan ; ^ neez ; **> hum. 



Divan, o£*^ neem takht; \^SJ? 

neemkat. 
Dive, v., £*j»> £>£■ ghooteh khur- 

dan. 
Divers, ^^m ba'azi ; J^ chand. 

Diverse, jjz* mutafarek; &y^f 

goonagoon. 
Diversion, 1-i.Uj' tamdshd ; —J3 ta- 

faruj ; oiU-» ziafat. 
Divert, v. (please), ^L^jy— > mas- 

roor sdkhtan ; (turn off") .*^tf 

garddnidan. 
Divide, v., ^j? *~~x* takseem kar- 

dan. 



74 

Dividend, ow Itismat. 

Divine, ^AJI ill alii ; ^si. khoddee. 

Divorce, jWo teldk. 

Divorce, v., ^b j^k faZafe dadan. 

Divulge, v., &*fj\j>} ibrdz kardan. 



L 



Dizzy, ptS'geech. 

Do, v., *J^ kardan; (make), 
sdkhtan. 

Doctor (medicine), k-~-J» tabeeb ; 
(learned man), **£* hakeem; lib 
da?i« ; (of laws), J^s* mujtahed. 

Document, Js-^fkaghaz ; >xu- sanad. 

Dog, eL- sa^f ; (greyhound), ^jli 



TOCABULAET. 

tdzee ; (sporting), ^^> tooleh ; 
(puppy), <sL»a3ji> tooleh sag « eU^. 

Dog-star, \jjs£> she* tree. 

Doll, ^Lijj/s aroossek. 

Dome, -xS gunbud. 

Domestic (servant), j£y noker ; (not 

wild), ,_/iili- khdnegee. 
Dominion, o~bL< sultanat. 
Donation, J^£- bakhshesh ; J*il 



Donkey, cYl oZafc ; J* khur. 
Door,^^ dur. 
Doorkeeper, \>jt durbdn. 



VOCABULARY. 



75 



Dormitory, *fc <->^y» Tchdbgah. 

Dot, alaiii nuTcteh. 

Double (twice), tj\i)*dobareh; (folcU, 

Vo dolah. 
Double (letter of alphabet), J^Juiilj 

ba tashdeed. 
Double-faced,^ j* do roo. 
Double-tongued, ^jj^ l_-^.U sahib 

do zebdn. 
Double, v., &*f^ td Icardan; *jT)lji 

dold Icardan. 
Doubt, a~i shubheh; tsli sliak. 
Doubt v., ^\^ s^ shubheh dash- 



tan; y^ib eLi s7*afc dashtan ; 

j^xil JJLTgemaw dashtan. 

Doubtless, (sli ^ bee s7iafc. 

Dove, l^s Mmree; (ring), &f\ ]/ a 
fcereera. 

Dough, ^*i. khameer. 

Dower, »^o mihreh. 

Down (below), ycb pdeen; (on chin), 

sj~- subzeh. 
Down fallen, *jt»l vftddeh. 
Downhill, jL)\r> sarazeer. 
Doze, v., g&j c^a. churt zadan. 
Drag, v., ^J^S'Tcasheedan. 
Dragon, U^jl izhdihd. 



Draper, )\jt bazaz. 

Draught, ^ bad. 

Draw (to drag), ^sJS'kasheedan ; 

(sketch), ±~^ && nuksheh ka- 

sheedan. 
Dread, \j*J tarss. 
Dream, Lj\ji- ktidb. 
Dress, u-lJ lebdss ; dby, poshdk. 
Dried, g^Telii. khushk harden. 



VOCABULARY. 

Dropsy, 



Drill, 



..ila 



mashh dddan. 



Drink, v , ^J^y nusheedan (khur- 
dan, 'to eat,' is usually employed 
instead of nusheedan). 

Drop, s., tJaS kutreh. 



i«»! istiskd. 
Drought, t J^- khushki. 
Drown, v., ^j^» J/ 1 - ghurk kar- 

dan. 
Drug, IjJ daw a. 
Drum, JJ» tubl. 
Drunk, o-* must. 
Dry, elio. khushk. 
Duck, d-^l urduk. 
Due, ja- 7iafc. 
Dull (not sharp), &fkun&. 

Dumb, i&S'gung ; JV Idl. 
Dung, y pehen. 



VOCABULAET. 

Duplicate, *ja i^- 5 nuskheh-i-du- 

yum. 
Durable, -1j^ U fea dawdm. 
During, *ta U ma dam. 

Dust, isJU. &7itffc; jU ghuhdr; *f 

gard. 
Duty, o^> min-nat; <-iX> takleef. 
Dwarf, J5 s^^kootdh hud. 
Dwell, v., gjsita UC. suknd dashtan. 
Dye, elj, ran^. 
Dynasty, aLJL silsaleh. 

Dysentery, Jl*-1 ishaZ. 



77 



E. 



Each, yt liar; ck,» haryek. 

Eager, jUt* mushtdk. 

Ear, J^J'goos'h. — ring, t } ^<fgoosh- 
vareh. — of corn, *Zy» khoosheh. 

Early, >>jj zood. — rising, ^j-z*> j** 
sahr-kheezee. — in the morn- 
ing, ■ijj -*-» subh zood. — spring, 
jl& Jjl aval i behdr. — fruits, 
j>£ no her. 

Earnest, J*i—> musta'idd. 

Earth, is)!*- khdk ; et*j zameeu. 



78 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



Earthy, ^U. TchdTcy. 

Ease, o^|; ra-hut ; ^id^,] asoo- 
degee; ^yL-1 assanee. 

East, Jij2-° musliruk. 

Easily, ^Ul \> ba assanee. 

Eat, v., &i>jy» khurdan. 

Ebb (tide), j ja.juzr. 

Ebony, u-yjl dbnooss. 

Eddy, \J\$y q irdab. 

Edge, »* dum. 

Edict, ^U/ fermdn. 

Educate, i>j o*j,-j tarbeeyat liar- 
dan ; uMjij?, parvareedan. 



Education, o-o^ tarbeeyat. 
Effect,^'! asar ; as^ nateejeh. 
Effeminacy, ^>*t%> moldy am at ; ^-.y 

nurmee ; \j^j* k na mardee. 
Effort, J^jT Itooshish ; ^jj-. s«'ee. 
Effrontery, ^j^^. be shurrnee ; 

^^^.S'gostdkhee. 
^SE) £j* t^ tttkhm murgh; (to lay 

eggs), j^jf^-z tukhm guzashtan ; 

(soft boiled),^) ^J »a£ tukhm neem 

puz ; (hard boiled), 2^ ci- s(/*£ 

pukhteh ; (fried), *j ~3 neem roo ; 

(yoke of) j jj zardeh ; (white of), 



YOCABTJLAET. 

(shell), u>~»jj 



79 



slji khdh; (.!>>%* 



sX*Ju* seefeedeh j 
poost. 
Eight, v^lft Jiasht. 

Either, U i/a ; 

heech kuddm 
Eject, v., ^jT^jj^ beroon kardan; 

^sf J\j»\ ikhrdj kardan. 
Elbow, Jj\ drenj. 

Elect, v., ^^T'l-jI^' intikhdb kardan. 
Elected, l_»«^* muntakhib. 
Elegance, o^j zeenat. 
Elephant, J-i feel. 
Elevation, \uj\ irtifd. 

Elin-tree, ^15 ndrvan. 



Elongate, v., ^^iSj^ derdz kasliee- 
dan. 

Eloquent, j5^" sukhan goo. 

Else, *ja. juz ; >j& be juz. 

Emancipate, v., ±f i\j\ dzdd kar- 
dan. 

Embarrass, v., sf *»-! dshufteh 
kardan ; ^J~ t-^ka* mustarib 
kardan. 

Embellish, v., [ ^\ J \ ardstan. 

Emblem, ^liJ nishdn. 

Embrace, v., ^f J* baghal girif* 
tan; tf>y <J>$\ j* der aghoosh 
girifian. 



80 



VOCABULARY. 



Embroidery, <jjj* jj zar doozee. 

Emerald, Sy) zumurud. 
Emetic, Ji^'j-J dawa-i-kay. 
Eminence (rank), ^fyf. buzurgee ; 

(hill), Kjj]/\r- sarafrdzee; ^jJo 

bulandi. 

Eminent, dy» buzurg. 

Emit, v., a ^/^.\jaJ\ ikhrdj kardan. 

Emotion, ^}^>\ izterdb; { J^&\ a- 

shuftegee. 
Emperor, j^S ka'isser ; »li^»>Lii shah 

in shah. 

Employ, v., a &\& J*i shughl da dan ; 
jjj^U j% Tear dad an ; yiji J^.« 
mashghool hardan. 



Empower, v., ^^/^Ui* mukhtdr har- 
dan. 

Empty, jJU. Ichdli. 

Enamel, U~o mee?w&. 

Encampment, j^,l urrdoo. 

Enclose, v., *J^A>\*.\ ihdteh kardan. 

Encore! -J ] afereen; tj^^o dobdreh; 
La.;* marhaba. 

Encourage, v., $f jlz daleer kar- 
dan. 

End,^! dkher ; j-» sar ; *rfl anjdm; 
«sa. khatm ; \&i\ intihd. 

Endanger, i\, c ^!jJl^lai. >> ji ciar fc/ia- 
tar anddkhtan. 



VOCABULARY. 



81 



Endeavour, Jut>f kooshish ; { jt~> 

sa'ee; *Ui*l ihtimdm. 
Endurance, <-jU tab ; osll» takat. 

Enemy, c ^i-^ doshman. 

Energetic, )j> firz ; *&>jj zarang. 

Engage, c ^-^ o^co da'wat khas- 

tan. 

> 

Engine, *£L mangeneh. 
English, i^r-lCjl Engleez. 

Engrave, v., ^J^kandan. 

Enjoin, v., ^^Tjo b' ta'keed Tcardan. 

Enjoy, v , ±j> laa. huz Tcardan ; J^y- 
c .xi jfkhush guzdsTitan. 



Enlarge, v., Mpf&jjk buzurg Tcardan; 
i>y z\>_) ziyad Tcardan. 

Enlighten, v., ^J~ ^j roshan Tcar- 
dan. 

Eumity, ^^ doshmani ; ^Ss. 
adawat. 

Enough, y-j buss; c^&'lcefayeb. 

Enter, v., ^.xi Ji-b dakhel shudan; 
> 

^j y too raftan. 
Entire, ^VTcdmel ; -Uj tamdm. 
Entirely, J*Ub bil-kul. 
Entrails, s^ roodeh. 
Entrance, Jy-o delchool. 



82 



VOCABULABY. 



Entreat, v., ^a/'u-UsJI iltimtiss kar- 
dan. 

Envelope, -wW lefafeh ; ^Ipaket. 

Envoy, ^-J»J eelchi. 

Envy, J-.* hassad. 

Envy, v., ^j>. <*-*» hassad burdan. 

Epilepsy, pL, ^- sar sam. 

Epipbany, \y> ^ Mu& shooyan. 

Epitome, s*s*? mukhtasser. 

Equally b&raber ; J* la. mukabel ; 
j\*+* hamvar; ^j 1 — musavee. 

Equator, 1^-1 ^ khut-i-istwd. 

Eradicate, ^ gH jl a« beefc7t feaw " 
dowi. 



Erase, v., ^^T^^ saf kardan. 
Erect, v. ^f v-* > nasb kardan ; 

^TjJj buland kardan. 
Erection, J^l^J istadigee ; i.l»1 

ikamat; (building), JW bend'ee; 



cj,U& irndrat. 



Ermine ijI^" senjdb. 

Err, t'., uVO*- sa ' M ' kardan ; !aic 
^jTghalat kardan ; a sf ^ ftfceta 
kardan; *f^ khubt kardan; 
^o^j^i khelcif kardan. 

Errand, ^4 pay g ham. 

Error, U& ghalat. 

Erudition, yjta ddnish ; ^ Urn. 



VOCABULAEY. 



83 



Escape, v., &&$' gureekhtan ; j]/ 
^sjTfrdr kardan. 

Escape, y.f gureez ; j\J> ferdr. 

Escort, iS,Si badrakeh. 

Especially, L^as.* makhsoossan; l Js- 
yoj^sJi ala el khesooss. 

Essence, jty* jo liar; <z>\j zdt. 
Establish, v., i>_f It y her pa kar- 

dan ; ^jja* mukarar kardan; 

^j^La) nasb kardan. 
Estate, JU mdl. 
Esteem, v., ~JA* y..f azeez ddshtan; 

^^1.} *jzs* muhterem ddshtan. 

Estimate, v., ±f ^j]^ bar-dvard 



kardan; *j jyua takfimeen za- 
dan. 

Estrange, v., ^sfj^ door kardan. 
Et-cetera, s^cj vagheyreh. 
Eternal, fd^-^a hameesheh-ee ; ^Jol 
abadee ; «>U day em. 

Eternity, Jo\ abad. 

Evacuate, v., &fjk. khdli kardan; 

^3j*A£ takhlieh kardan. 
Eve, L_~i> shub. 
Even (of numbers), o-a?. juft ; (odd 

or even), us*Sa.l» dJ tak ydjilft. 
Even, adv., +* hum ; jJ neez. 
Even (to make), ^^uJU sdf kar- 



84 



J^L. j\y* 



hamvdr sdkh 



shut. 
i^-» sar-gu 



dan; 

tan. 
Even, adj., ^jl— » musdvee ; j\>«* 

hamvdr. 
Evening. -Ifi sham; 
Event, j'ii'l itifdk; 

zasht. 
Ever, <ii^»» hameesheh. 
Every, j* hur. 

Evict, v., tf^f -\f*\ ikhrdj kardan. 
Evidence, »«sWi> shehddat. 
Evident, J^ dslikar ; ^>\j vazehh 

Evil, adj., Jo had. 



*j]A 



slier drat ; 



VOCABULARY. 

Evil, ^jS) bad.ee; 

(misfortune), "h held. 
Eunuch, ^ ] y- khdjeh. 
Euphrates, ^>\J ferdt. 
Ewe, ^J^c sjU madeh meesh. 
Ewer, aj'^1 af tab eh. 
Exact, \z~*\j rdst ; ^u be-ayneh. 

o 

Exaggerate, v., Jw£l ighrdk. 
Exalt, v., ^1/1 afrdkhtan. 
Exalted, j\j>\ afrdz. 
Examine, v., &<*yj\ azmoodan ; ^^*\ 

3 

^■ifimtihdn kardan. 
Examination, o \0*\ imtihdn. 



VOCABULARY. 



85 



Example (specimen), -uj*3 nemooneh; 

(model), ^j-» soorat. 
Excavate, v., ^xS^kandan. 
Exceed, v., { j^^guzas'htan. 
Exceeding, u>j»L«J nihdyat ; o^lj 

ziyddet; jL~ ? bisydr. 

Excel, »., a J.i J-iU /flzti shudan. 
Excellence, J-is /azL 
Excellency (title), vUa.jen«b. 
Except, v., sj\^~,\ istisnd kardan. 
Except, 1_j~» sivd. 
Exception, UizJ istisnd. 
Excess, J> .ilij ziyadetee. 



Excessively, jJ 1 jy file el hddd ; 
»jU]| jy f5k el a'adeh. 

Exchange, v., i>fj>*s- avaz kardan; 
^if J^Lo mobddeleli kardan. 

Exchange, *., j>y- avaz; Jjo badal ; 
JojJ' tabdeel ; dJ^L. wobddeleh. 

Excite, v., i2&f>\ angeehhtan. 

Exciting, jS'A angeez. 

Exclude, i>J P-y°y* mowzoo kar- 
dan. 

Excuse, j^s- uzr ; u^Jj«* ma'azarat. 

Excuse, v., ^ J .... *. B bakhsheedan ; 
(one's self), ^^J* -uzr fcftas- 



86 



VOCABITLAEY. 



tan ; c j-^«.1jj 
kha'stan. 



o,j*^ ma'azarat 



Execrable, ^^Ju mal'oon. 
Execute (to do), d\z ^y soorat- 
dadan ; (to kill), ^^S'kushtan. 

Executioner, t jf M> nasakchi ; &%>. 
jal-lad. 

Executor, ***) vasee. 

Exempt, i_iU-e ma'df. 

Exempt, v., ^.i^-il** ma' df kardan. 

Exercise, ji-o maslik; [J»jj* varzash; 

(ground), ji-. \j~* may dan i 
mashk. 

Exercise v., a i\i jJL* mashk dadan; 



J+ijj varzeedan ; (a horse), \jk*f 

^ij gardash burdan. 
Exert, v., ^>J> j^>jT kooshesh kar- 

dan. 

Exhaust (to empty), zjT J\± khali 

kardan; (fatigue), ^$fx^~± khasta 
kardan. 

Exhausted, ^U. khali; ax-»i khasta. 
Exigence, --W1 ihtiyaj. 
Exist, v., j^-a hastan; a 2j> boodan. 
Existence, ^^^ hastee ; *y*j vejood. 
Exodus, o,.** hejreh. 
Expect, v., ^xita jUiJl intizar dash- 
tan ; ^\z ;Jy tavaku' dashtan. 



YOCABTJLAEY. 



87 



Expectation, jllxjl intizdr ; gSy ta- 

vaku. 
Expediency, cu-~»U_« munasibat ; 

\X~j.li shayestehgee. 
Expedient, i_— >\u mundsib. 
Expedite,!;., o^lW" to? ajeelJcardan. 

s 

Expedition, j\a.jald; ^ tund ; isJ^lU. 

chaldk. 
Expel, v., ^sf —\f*\ ikhrdj kardan ; 

^^T^c^j beyroon kardan. 
Expenditure, -y*. kharj. 
Expensive, J\jTgerdn. 
Experience, ^.Ujl azmdyesh; ^jd 

tajrubeh. 



Experiment, ^UJ'' imtihdn. 
Expert, .al=~>l ustdd; ^*±.Ij ba lchabar ; 

Expiration, *UiiJl inkiza ; j~> sar. 
Expire (time), v., ^J^ *UfiJl inkiza, 

shudan ; ^J^l j-> sar amadan. 
Explain, v., jJ^^Uj bay an kardan; 

^U. liali. 
Explanation, ~jt> shurhh; Lj ba- 

ydn. 
Expletive, J^lj pfkelam zdyed. 
Explicit, fa> sareehh. 
Expose, v., tfj\£>\ izhar kardan ; 

sf )\j>\ ibrdz kardan. 



88 



YOCABTTLAEY. 



Expression (pronunciation), Soak tala- 
fuz ; (phrase), c^Lt i b drat. 

Expunge, v., ^j Js Jcalam zddan. 

Exquisite, »-iJJ lateef. 

Extend,!;.,^ xJ^j\jt> derdz Jcasheedan. 

Extension, J^ tool; ^jj\j* derdzee ; 
o*-j vusa'at. 

Extensive, £*~>j vusee\ 

Exterminate, ^ (•J^** maadoom 

Jcardan. 
Extinguish, ±f yi^U. Ichamoosh 

Icardan. 
Exterior, oiJ ^. beyroon; ^l* Tcharej. 
External, &3j*o\ azbeyroon; k^&- 

Jcharejan. 



Extol, v., 2>J^<~&>j*i ta'areef Jcardan. 

Extort, ^J'jsj^. bd zoor giriftan. 

Extraneous, aibCo bee gdneh; \->if- 
ghareeb. 

Extraordinary, t-^s* ajab; jjU mdder; 
»«sUSl jji fok el a'adeh ; v_^c gha- 
reeb. 

Extreme, l$a! intihd ; j»1 dkher. 

Exuberance, ^jS'jiisrat ; J^J z-w/a- 

Eye, *£•*• clieshm. 

Eyebrow, j^l dbroo. 

Eyeglass (spectacles), isl~£ eynek. 

Eyelash, ^y* muzhgdn. 



TOCABULAET. 



89 



Eye (pupil), eUjy. mardamek. 
Eyesight, _,1jo.j deeddr. 

F. 

id 

Fable, ±*3 kisseh; ^l^ta das tan ; 

ooKL. hekdyet. 
Fabricate, v., j^l- sdkhtan. 
Face,^, roo ; s^. chehreh; J^j pay- 

leer ; ~j i uxli. 
Face to face, jj jj roo be roo. 
Face, v., $f Jj'Ju mukabel kardan. 
Facetious, ±jL shooJch. 
Facilitate, U ^/' U L1 asdn Tcardan; 

yjjjS^J^. sahl kardan. 



Facility, <JU asdnee ; o^-» sehoo- 

lat. 
Fact, ofliSa. Tidkeekat. 
Faction, jiilk tdyefeh. 
Factory, jiUylTfear khdneh. 
Factotum, tJ^*+*> hameh kdreh. 
Fade, ^J^ *•*/* Ji pazh murdeh shu- 

dan. 
Faint, t— ^ za-eef. 
Faint, v., ^J^ ur 1 ^-? & ee hoosh $hu- 

dan. 
Fair, i_ uj& zareef ; ^jy> u-j* khosh 

soorat. 
Fairy, ^ #eri. 



90 

Faith, ^UjI aymdn. 
Faithful, jta &* deenddr ; jtaU j vefa 
dar. 

Fall, ^alal iiftddan. 

False, c^-i deroogh ; \->&Mzb. 

Fame, -.13 nam. 

Family, a3'i- Jal ahel-i-khdneh. 

Famine, J^ kahh-tee. 

Famous, j^-^-» mash-lwor ; 

ma? roof. 
Fan, y. *\i odd bezan. 
Far, jjz door. 
Farewell, *taj vedd. 
Farrier, J^> J*3 na'al band. 



VOCABTJLABY. 

Farther, jjjji doorter. 

Fashion, --, russm. 

Fast, tjjj roozeli. 

Fast, v., j^b tjjj roozeh dashtan. 

Fast, adj, vXu tund. 

Fast (fixed), \>y^ mazboot ; Ss+ 

muhkem. 
Fasten, v., ^jTby^ mazboot kar- 

dan ; ^sfj^s* muhkem kardan ; 
c ^~j bustan. 
Fat, >-j^- churb. 

Fatal, 12&4* mahlik ; JiU kdtil. 
Fate, ji<&i takdeer ; l-.. ^3 naseeb ; 

£1* tale'. 



W* 



VOCABTJLAKY. 



91 



Father, j Jj pedar. 
Fatigue ^^-^ hhastagee. 
Fatigue, v., ^fyz~± TchastehJcardan. 
Fault, u_~& ayb ; late ghalat. 
Favour, ^L^ meliribani ; i-AJ 

lutf; oldl UUfat. 
Favour, v., ^b oldl iltifat ddshtan. 
Favourite, i_**.U<, musdhib. 
Fear, ^-pr turss ; <-Jji. fc/io/. 
Feast, c^iUi zidfat ; ^L*** rnilimd- 

nee. 
Feather, ^j per. 
Feed, v., ^b cJl,y. Tchordlc dddan ; 

i\^ j.UL td-dm dadan. 



Feel, v. , ^jf^-J ?ams kardan ; ^-o. 

^^T^-iss Icardan. 
Felt (cloth), Jl»3 namad ; (p. p . of 

To feel), (.^--s* mahsoos. 
Female, oU mddeh. 
Fermentation, ^J>y*. joosh. 

Ferocious, ,^>j vahhshee ; sJJ,c 

derendeTi. 
Fertile, jb J-.U. li&silddr. 

Festival, J^ eecJ. 

Fetch, v., ^jl dwurdan. 
Fetid, sJjjS'gandeedeh ; ^^u muta- 
'afin. 



92 



VOCABULAKY. 



Fever, l_«j tub. 

Few, J'kam; JJiS kaleel ; dJJl andak. 

Fidelity, Uj vefd. 

F\g,j~<\ anjeer. 

Fight, ellia. jawa ; ly^.3 da'aiva. 

Fight, v., ±f ska. ^"aw a kardan; 

sf\f.$ da'aiva kardan. 
Figure, JC* haykal. 
Filbert, jJci funduk. 
File, yjU^i sohdn. 
Fill, a;., o-i/^i pw kardan. 
Filth, oiLi'&esa/at. 
Find, v., ^^Ij^j paydd kardan. 
Fine, a*^ jereemeh. 



Fine, v., ^^i a*^ jereemeh kardan. 

Fine (thin), adj., d^L bdreek; (beau- 
tiful), isLls kashang ; yiji. khosh. 

Finder, oiiol angusht. 

Finish, ^^p j.Uj tamdm kardan. 

Fir-tree, —^kaj. 

Fire, ^'1 aiesTi 

Fire (to set on), tj JB 1 aies7i zadan ; 
(to make a), ^^T^tjl aies/i Car- 
dan. 

Finn, J JjU pai' dar ; j\/j> bar kerdr ; 
pj.U Tcdyem ; L^u mazboot* 

First, Jjl awal. 

Fish, ^U mdhi. 



VOCABULARY. 



93 



Fisherman jf j^* mahi geer. 

Fist, cu£-> musht. 

Fit (proper), }^ sezdvdr ; 

mundsib. 
Fix, v., *f Ss» muhkam Icardan. 
Flag, JJ*-> baydalc. 
Flame, <*1«^ shu'leh. 
Flash, ,fsMJu±ji> darakhshandegee. 
~F\sit,j\}+* hamvdr; >-i'ue sdf; e)lji_?>- 

Flax, ^^Mtan. 
Flea, dTfcefe. 

Flee, v., j&f' gureekMan ; o'irj^J 
ferdr Icardan. 



Flesh, ^jfgooslit. 
Flexible, ^.i plchMiur. 
Flight, jifgureez ; }j> ferdr. 

Flock, & gilleh. 

Flog, v., *j zadan. 

Flood, J~» sayl. 

Floor, cn*j zameen. 

Flour, ij\ drd. 

Flow, Uk xi e^U. jdri shudan. 

Flower, $gul. 
Fly, ,^-C magas. 
Fly, v., cjJ^ri pereedan. 
Foal, tjTliureh. 
Fodder, «-Jlft 'ala/. 



94 



VOCABULARY. 



Fog, ao meh. 

Fold, b td. 

Fold, v., *fk td kardan. 

Follow, v., ^J'i^ie. dkab Tcardan. 

Follower, £% tale' (pi. &>*>& ta- 

be'een). 
Folly, c^sLa. hemdkat. 
Food, (2)ij^a. khordk. 
Fool, ,j*&.1 alimak. 
Foot, b pa. 

For, ^^ berai; l#£ be jaJiateh. 
Forbid, v., &fa~* man'a kardan. 
Force, j^j zoor. 
Ford, i^jjf guzargdh ; j*x+ ma'abar. 



Forehead, ijlt-j peeshdni. 

Foreigner, i_^£ ghareeb. 

Forementioned, jjTl* mazkoor. 

Forenoon,^;! ,jLo peesft az zw/ir. 

Forest, JKX». jangal. 

Forfeit, *+ij=* jareemeli ; jU» ta'oon. 

Forgery, J*?. ^'a'aZ. 

Forget, v., ±f~ J±y>\j faramoosh 

kardan. 
Forgive, v., ^sJLki bakhsheedan. 
Fork, JKIa. chengdl. 
Forlorn, J^r> bee kas. 
Formal, ajU—j rasmdneh. 
Former, ^si-o peeshter. 



VOCABULARY. 



95 



Forsake, v., ^\jfguzdshtan. 

Fort, Asia kala'eh. 

Fortify (a castle), v., ^f\>yJu, maz- 

boot kardan; (a sick man), oy 

^\^ koovet dddan 
Fortunate, u^i-^y- khosh bukht. 
Fortune, o-as bukht; l-~-oJ naseeb. 
Forward, (jt-j peesh. 
Foul, eh*, chirk. 

Foul-mouthed, ^j^ bad zebdn. 
Foundation, t^-Ll asdss; jLj bunydd. 
Fountain, »,1y fovdreh. 
Fowl, £,* murgh. 
Fox, «ljj roobah. 



Fragment, s^b par eh. 

Fragrance, y^y* khosh boo. 

Frame, y^" kdb. 

France, a-JI^s Frdnseh. 

Free, ah\ azdd. 

Freedom, ^Ijl azddee. 

Freeze, v., ^j^-i & yakh bustan. 

Fresh, »j'u' tdzeh. 

Friend, o—j-s doost ; j\ ydr. 

Friendship, j~>)* doostee. 

Fright, u*J turss. 

Frighten, v., ^J^Laj turssdndan. 

Frivolous, jJj^J bee ma'anee. 

Frog, <w^/ kurbdkeh. 



96 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



From, jl az. 
Frontier, j^-. sarhad. 
Froth, uSkaf. 
Frown, -i-1 dkhm. 
Frozen, J^* munjamid. 
Frugal, *j\$ ledne'. 
Fruit, »j ; * meeveh. 
Fry, v., $frj~> surhh Icardan. 
Fuel, *♦-* heemeh. 

Fulfil, v., zf^$3 taTcmeel Icardan. 
Full, jj pur. 
Funeral, »jUa» jendzeh. 
Furnace, J> furn (vulg., foor) ; jyj 
tanoor. 



Furlough, i^j* muraTchassee. 
Furniture, *iU. t_>LJ asbdbi Ichdneh. 
Future, sJ^l dyendeh ; <^\ dtieh. 
Futurity, c^i.1 dkherat ; sJ^.\ dyen- 
deh. 

G. 

Gain, *ii nafa' ; J-*U hdsil. 

Gain, v., ^L ydfban ; ^y. J-oU. 

hdsil burdan. 
Gait, t\j rah. 
Gallop, »z do. 

Gallop, v., ^JojJ daveedan. 
Gamble, v., ^.i^Ls Tcomdr Icardan. 



VOCABULARY. 



97 



Game <j}\> bdzi. 

Game (sport), JCi, shekar ; (to make 

game ot any one), ^siljol ci~o 

dust anddkhtan. 
Gang, «j'J» tail ef eh 
Gaol, u ^^. huhss ; ^1 jJj zendan. 
Garden, c'o bdgh. 
Gardener, \J>\> baghban. 
Garlic,^--, seer. 
Garment, ^LJ lebass. 
Garrison, jliL sdkhloo. 
Garter, .x^lj zdnoo band. 
Gasli, *ij zukhm. 
Gate, 5jlj;.J dervdzeh. 



Gather, v., ^if^jam' kardan. 
Gelding, axil akhteh. 
General, k^y sarteep. 
Generally, ^j** umoomee ; Lj** 

Generation, J-J nasi. 
Generosity, ojli- sekhdvet. 
Gentility, ojUi nejdbat. 
Gentle, ^^U moldy em. 
Gently, ax-aI dhesteh. 
Genuine, J~J dseel. 
Get, v., ^f giriftan ; ^l yaftan. 
Giddy, ^fgeej. 

Gift, yt^itf bakhshesh ; ajJ* hedich. 

H 



98 



YOCABULABY. 



Gild, v., sjr%3-* rnutald Icardan. 

Ginger, J~*ij zanjebeel. 

Girdle, &~>j£~kamar band. 

Girl,^s.^ dokhter. 

Girth, eLj' tang. 

Give, v., (j-ita dddan; ^sJm, bakh- 

sheedan. 
Glad, ^b shad; JW-ji. khosh-hdl ; 

.jyiji. khoshnud. 
Glance, «& negdh. 
Glass, <v£~2» sheesheh; ^Ks-1 istikdn. 

Looking— azA dyeneh. 
Glazier,^ aJL-i, sheesheli bur. 
Glimmer, ti^Aj; rooshndee. 



Glitter, v., ^.xJLi.j.i darakhsheedan. 

Globe, i) kureh. 

Glory, J^U. jelldl. 

Glove, (jiXLi^ dustkash. 

Glue, \J-ij-* sareesh. 

Go, v., ^j ruftan. 

Goat,jj buz. 

God, IJo. fcTwda; JSt JiZaTi. — pre- 
serve you, ajfo s&j ljUi lJ* khodd 
bhumdrd negdh ddrad. — forbid, 
JaXj Ijo. khodd nekunad; *Ulj»s-»l 
istaghfer dllah. Good — ! C j^- J 
*U\ subhan ullah. O — , 1^1 tfj/ 



YOCABtTLAET 

khodd. For — 's sake, 1j±. J\j>j\ 

azbera'i Tchoda. willing jJJULul 

inshullah ; Jalya |ja. klwdd be- 
khdhad. 

Gold, ill, feZ/s. 

Goldsmith, ,Sjj zargar. 

Good, ijy. Jchoob. 

Goodness, Ljji. khoobee. 

Goods, ljL.,1 asbdb ; JL wa£. 

Goose, jU Zc«z. 

Govern, v., ^.^fcu-j^. hekoomat kar- 
dan. 

Government, l^£L hekoomat. 
Governor, J"U hakim. 



99 

Gradual, ffjcam kam ; ^Sb ba 

tadreej. 
Grain, ii\* ddneh. 
Granary, ; Lil unbar. 
Grand, ^kc azeeni; &$ buzurg. 
Grant, v., *\* dddan ; .ib «jL| 

ijdzeh dddan. 
Grape, ^ylii dngoor. 
Grass, ^_eic alaf. 

Grasshopper, JL malctkh. 
Gratis, cui* mufti ^ ! ** mejdnan. 



Gratitude, JiL shukr. 
Grave, jJ kabr. 

I Gravel, eL v , reeg. 



100 



YOCABULABY. 



Gray (in material), ^Jli khdkes- 
teri ; (horse), J/ kiz-zil. 

Graze, v., o^i^ cheridan. 
Grease, ti^ charbi. 
Great, djyj buzurg. 

Green, j~. subz. 

■i 
Grief, *t ghum; a-»e ghusseh. 

*t 
Grieve, v., o^J* **"* ghusseh khur- 

dan. 
Grind, v., c3 j/'cjL-1 asydb Icardan ; 

(paints and drugs), &&/ *3L» saZa- 

•yeh kardan. 
Groan, v., u >x r ir'<»3l3 naleh kashee- 

dan; yjJ^^'jl «7i kasheedan. 



Groan, <^U naleh; »l a/i. 

Grocer, Jl& bakkd 

Grove, jlj o*^ darakht zar. 

Grow, v., ^J^jj roo-ee-dan ; a J-i. rijj 

buzurg shudan. 
Grumble, w., ^j »>xJ lundeh zadnn. 
Guarantee (person), ^U zamin ; 

(warranty), ojU* zemdnat. 

Guard, mL ; lj passbdn ; ^J kara- 
ool. 

Guard, v., ^^'hi*. hifz kardan. 

Guardian, fe&5—« mustahfiz ; (of a 

minor), Jk\j ndzer. 

Guest, ^We* mehmdn. 



Y0CABT7LA.BY. 



101 



Guide, JJu balad ; Uit\j rahnemd. 

Guide, v., ^ \J\+J *\j rah nemdee 
Jcardan. 

Guilt, tl^gondh ; j~*£J takseer. 

in 

Guilty, jja» muhasser. 

Gulf, -sJ^. Tihaleej. 

Gum (arabic), g,^ *+~, sumgh arabi; 
J?>\ angum ; (of the teeth), oij^ 
yjljo^ gooshti-denddn. 

Gun, eL« tufang ; (cannon), u>y 
ioojp. — barrel, *)j! looleh. — 
stock, jljul konddle. Hammer of 
gun, jl»Sa. chukmdh. Trigger, 
<i^>b jpdslineh. 



Gunner, ^.Ljy toopchi. 

Gunpowder, c^l bdroot. 
Gutter, yjljjU ndvdan. 

H. 

Haberdasher, jl^j bazdz. 
Habit, ojU 'ddet. 
Habitation, ,j£l-» muskan. 
Hail, e)^' tagarg. 

Hair, j* moo ; (of woman), ij-fgeess. 
Half, j*j neera. 
Hall, ^b ddldn ; j^llj tdldr. 
Halter, ^ Li 1 dfsdr. 



102 



VOCABULARY. 



Hammer, ui^- chakush. 
Hamlet, sjft^ dehkeddeh. 
Hand, o-o dust. 
Handful, o-^* inusht. 
Handkerchief, J'>*s-».s dust-mcll. 
Handle, jJ^^ dust-geer. 
Handmaid, ^ keneez . 

3 

Haudsome, sj^y- khoshroo ; uzLZJ 

kashang. 
Handwriting', Lst-".} dust-khut. 
Hang, v., t^jl aveekhtan ; ^J'^ji^ 

aveezdn kardan. 
Happen, v., ±S> aS\^ voice' shudan. 
Happiness, ^yiji. khoshnudi. 



Happy, .iy^i. khdshnud. 

Harass, v., ^^Tevo.il aziat kardan. 

Harbour,jJ^j bunder. 

Hard, ^^^ sakht; (difficult), Jy^J 

doshvar ; j£~° mushkil. 
Hardship, ( j& > sakhtee. 
Hare, sj>f/* khargoosh. 
Harem, x>\jjzendneh; ^ ; ^j' dnderoon. 
Harm, l_~s 'ayb; jj^> zarar ; ^^js* 

zarar kardan. 
Harsh, o^,.a drusht; j>) zibr. 
Harvest, J-.U hdsil. 
Haste, As? 'ajaleh; J*? 3 ^ ta'ajeel. 
Hat, t^lcolu. 



VOCABULAKY. 



103 



Hatchet, ^J tabar. 

Hate, v., ^^U Jo bad ddnestan. 

Have, ,^'.3 ddshtan. 

Hawk, ^y koosh. 

Head,^ sar. 

Headache, ^~» .^a durd i sar. 

Heal, v., ^^ J\s. eldj kardan ; <jJU* 

y&fmo'dlejeh kardan. 
Health, —\j+ ruizaj. 
Healthy, o-*,.i js tun-drust. 
Hear, v., J~£ shuneedan. 
Heart, J^ dil. 

Heat, ^J'garmi; vxj\j» herdrat. 
Heathen, o-^ o? but-parast. 



Heaven, oi« behesht. 

Heavy, [ ^L> sangeen. 

Heel, u£>\i pdshneh. 

Height, ^oJb bulandi; c\$j\vrtifa'. 

Heir, cj,1_j vdris. 

Hell, ~#± jehannum. 
Helmet, ^ sWkold khood. 

J 

Help, vAS ko mek ; *x» madad ; s^U. 

chareh. 
Help, v., d ^b (sUi* Jcomek dudan 

$f£yX* madad kardan'. 
Helpless, j U.v> ndchdr. 

Hem, ^,.s Jarz. 
Hen, i*.j*. joojeh. 



101 



VOCABULARY. 



Hence, U^l j! dz eenjd. 
Herb, i\Jf geedh ; c^Li nabdt. 

Herd, dTgelleh. 

Here, U.^.1 eenjd. 

Hereon, Ida J* 'ala hazd. 

Hereditary, ^j^y> mauroossi. 

Heretofore ^J^, peeshtee ; ^\j\ J^, 
peesh dzeen. 

Heron, J-y» havasel. 

Hesitate, v., ^jS &&jj taradud Icar- 
dan. ' 

Hesitation, ^j/ taradud. 

Hiccup, aC-C saksakeh. 

Hide, v., ^jjT-iU kdyem kardan. 



High, jJb buland. 

Highway, 2aU jLi. shah jddeh. 

Hill, aJ' tuppeh. 

Hilt, *-M kubzeh. 

Him, or Her, l^jl oora. 

Hinder, v., ^J^ ^U mane* shudan. 

Hindoo, ^J^ hindee. 

Hinge, ±!y looleh. 

Hint, »jLi.l ishdreh. 

Hire, v., ^-i/ u}jf kerayeh kardan ; 

(to lend on), a &\& i-Ajf kerdyeh 

dddan. 
Hire, sAfkerdyeh. 
Hireling, j**.\ ajeer. 



VOCABULARY. 



105 



His, jl oo. 

History, &/5 tfireekh. 
Hog, e)^i. khook ; j>.y±. khanzeer. 
Hold, v., cJ ii^b a£i negdh dashtan. 
Hole, f^jy* soordkh ; ^y soolakh. 
Holiday, j^ eed. 
Hollow, s., JUjT^odaZ. 
Hollow, v., ^U. khdlee. 
Holster, JJ kubul. 
Holy, (^-JiU mukaddas. 
Home (house), ajU. khdneh; (coun- 
try), ^j vatan. 
Honest, o-J, r#s£ ; ^b ^..s deenddr. 
Honey, J— s. 'asal. 



Honour, 9j >\ abroo ; e^» hurmut. 
Honourable, fj&» muhtarem. 
Hood, jLil bdshlik. 
Hoof, -* sum. 
Hook, t->}U kulldb. 
Hoop, <wL. halkeh. 

Hope, J-J umeed. 

Hope, a?., jyiita Ju*l umeed ddshtan. 

Hopeless, Ju*l li w« umeed. 

Hops (plant), J*» khemel. 

Horizon, j»l u/«&. 

Horn, ^li shdkh. 

Hornet, jjJj zamboor. 



106 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



Horrible, d'J^ holnak. 

Horse, t-~J asp ; (blood), J~-l aseel; 
(mongrel breed), jjIj yahoo ; (bay), 
jS' Jcahar ; (black), sL- sidh ; 
(gray), J^5 femi; (cbestnut), J.i/" 
Jcorand, also ^jTkorang ; (sorrel), 
ij>j>\ abrash ; (piebald), j^u! ab- 
Zafc ; (cream-coloured), J^-, sa- 
mand ; (led), djo yedek ; (bolter), 
(jiS^-j sarkasli ; (ambling), ts-j. yur- 
gheh; (master o?), j^\ j^\ ameer 
akhor, vulg. j_y-[r^ mirakhor. 

Horseback, ij\y* sawdreh. 

Horseman, J\y* saivdr. 



Horse-race, ^j* »-~-l asp deevdni. 

Horse-shoe, J«3 na'al. 

Hospitable, e>— j^ ^W-s-* mehmdn- 

doost. 
Hospital, ajU. yaj/* onareez khdneh. 
Host^b ^U^-o mehmdndar ; &[>)** 

meezbdn. 
Hostage, jjgero ; J^f kafeel. 
Hot, ^fgarm. 
Hour, o^L sd'at. 

HoWjj^Lda. chetor ; *>£L chegooneh. 
Howl, v., c j>^_j c >* 'oiy-'ou? kardan. 
Human, ^L-i! insdni. 
Humble, j*** liakeer. 



Hump, jy kooz. 
Humpback, ^^ijy koozpfisht. 
Hundred, Ju> sad. 
Hung, xj2j1 aveekhteh. 

Hunger, ^J^J'guresnegee. 
Hungry, &~>fguresneh. 
Hunt, v., zj~ jfcj shikar kardan 
(look for a thing), ^^JS gashtan. 
Hunter, ^sj£z> shikari. 
Huntsman, i j>j&> shikdrchi. 
Hurry, J;-* 50 taajeel. 
Hurt, Jjd diird. 

Hurt, v., C *J ±jS diird kardan. 
Husband, j*yZ> shoher. 



VOCABULARY. 

Husk, 



107 



*y, poost. 

2 2 3 

Hut, tXkuTbeh. 
Hyacinth, J~^> sunbul. 
Hyena, J \so'kafbar. 
Hypocrisy, j>,^y tazveer. 

ul 

H\pocrite,^jj< muzaver. 

I. 

I, ^ mun. 

Ice, ut yakh. 
Idea JUi kheyal. 
Identical, c ^*j be 'ayn. 
Idiom, J^*\ istilahh. 
Idiot, A>\ ableh. 



108 



VOCA.BTJLAET. 



Idle, J~S tunbul. 

Idleness, i J^j tunbuli. 

Idol, ioo but. 

Idolator, <z~*jj o* but parast. 

Idolatry, j~>ji co but parasti. 

lf,j^*\ agar. 

Ignite, v., ^J-io al*ii sho'aleli ka- 

sheedan. 
Ignorance, J^W- jdhalee ; <j\^ 

ndddnee. 
Ignorant, JaV jdhel ; ^tali nddan. 
Ill, (jiji.li ndkhosh. 
Illegal, s.A i-i^li khelaf-i-shar' eh ; 

J*' 



.13 ndhak. 



Illegitimate, »^lj (.1^. haram zddeh ; 

Ml 

IjjJIjJj veled-ez-zend. 
Illiberal, d~*< momsek. 
Illiberality eil — .1 imsdlc. 
Illiterate, ^lj- <4 bee sawdd. 
Illness, ,<i>ji-^ ndkhoshi. 
Illumination, ^Lcl^. cherdghban. 
Illustrious, jU«U ndm-ddr. 

Ml 

Imagination, j_^u tessdwur ; JU» 

khidl. 
Imagine, ^j/^dJ tessawur kardan ; 

^.j^JLi. khidl hardan. 
Imbecile, Jac- J'hami 'aid. 
Imitate, v., ^j^jJju takleed kardan 



VOCABULARY. 



109 



Immediately, ^yl 1 J fil.for. 

Immemorial, \jja fo-ran. 
Immense, »j1 Jol ^ bee anddzeh. 
Immoderate, Jljcxl ^ bee i'tiddl. 
Immodest, »jt> ^ bee shurm. 
Impartial, ^-ijo ^ bee taraf. 
Impatience, \jj~e ^ bee sabri. 

Impatient, j~o ^ bee sabr; aL-j*. g bee 
hdseleh. 

Imperfect, yosli ndkis. 
Impertinence, ^fl^yt^j bee hoodeh- 

gee; ^W* lJ &ee hyd-ee. 
Important, *&> mohim. 
Importunate, J^»L mo'dkad. 



Impose, (j-il^i nehddan. 

Impossible, jQ+j-i gheir-i-momlin. 

Imprison, v., *J ^^a. ?itt6ss Aar- 

dcm. 
Imprisonment, ^^^ hubss. 
Improbable, J«* jljjJ door az'akl. 
Impure, e)b U na pdh ; u ^i nejjess. 
h),j* door. 

Inability, gly U n« tairdnee. 
Inaccurate, ^>s^\i nd sahheehh. 
Inattention, cJu* ghifat. 
Inauspicious, ^-i nahss. 
Incautious, <*lia.^L <j bee moldhezeh. 
Incessant, ^b day em. 



110 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



Inch, sj^gereh. 

Incident, jlafl itifdk. 

Inclination, J~« mayl. 

Include, v., &f^\i> ddkhil Jcardan, 

Income, J->U htisil ; J».Ij* mucld- 

khil. 
Incomparable, Js* gj bee missel. 
Incomplete, -Uj li n« tarn dm. 
Incompetent, J? Is l> «a kabil. 
Inconsistent, ,jlu mundfi. 

Inconstant, -Jj.J ^^ mutalaven el 
mezdj. 

Inconvenient, o^aj zahhmat- 



Incorrect, ^s° \jnd sahlieeh; c^-j>s U 

n# drust. 
Increase, »il>j ziyddat ; «U1 izdfeh. 
Incredible (it is), -i/jjk ^j.» a »i nerai 

shaved haver hard. 
Incurable, --Uc 5) J# 'ildj. 
Indebted, u°jij^ makrooz. 
Indecent, lj-i li «a sez«. 
Iudef .tigable, ^^^—i- tj bee khastegee. 
Independent, Jai— < mustakil. 
India, Ja Hind. 
Indian-corn, o» zurat. 
Indicate, v., Sj~ sj\z,\ ishdret kar- 

dan ; yjJy^J nemoodan. 



VOCABULAET. 



Ill 



Indication, ^b.1 ishdreh. 

Indifferent (not caring), JsU ghdftl; 

(impartial), <-J>Je c > lee taraf. 

Indigent, ^di. muftis. 

Indignant,^-«x« mutaghayer. 

Indigo, JJ neel. 

Indulgence, ^^,4* mehrildnee ; d»j\y 
navdzish. 

Industrious, J^Vkdrkoon; ^Ljsd'ee. 
Inebriate, o~-> must. 
Inexperienced, s^j-oj! U nd azmoo- 

deh. 
Infancy, ^J^i bacheh gee. 
Infant, ^_ bacheh. 



Infantry, j.lki oL piddeh nezdm. 
Infatuate, v., ^jTuty) ^ lee vekoof 

Icardan. 
Inferior, y^Skamter ; y~~j puster. 
Infidel,^ kafer ; ^j ^ lee deen ; 
Infirm, i-jL«-. za'eef; Ji* 'aleel. 
Inform, v., ^^^ khalar dddan. 
Inherit, v., ^JjT&j] irss giriftan. 
Inheritance, uy,1 irss; <^\^ mee- 

rdss. 
Inhuman, ***.j ^ lee rah'm. 



Injunction, jJIj ta'keed. 

Injure, ^jJL^j-i zarar resdndan. 

Injury, }J i zarar. 



112 



YOCABULAEY. 



Injustice, ^/^Jl j> bee insdfee. 

Ink, i_-T ,» murakkab. 

Inkstand, cjIjj dawdt. 

Inlaid, a^* murrassa. 

Inn, a3U:U*~o mehmdn khaneh. 

Innocent, »^-> bee gondh. 

Inquire, o^^ji purseedan ; &&2>kyi 

jooyd shudan. 
Insane, <u1^o deevdneh. 
Insanity, j3\y„* deevdnegee. 
Inscription, J2.,& negarish; 

khutt. 
Insect, ffkirm. 



Ml 



Insecure, ^1 li nd dmn ; _,Uftl ^> be 
i'tibdr. 

Insensible, yj'yji bee hoosh. 

Insert, v., ^jT J±.ta ddkh.il kardan. 

Inside, y too ; j£>\ dndar ; j& dar. 

Insincere, Uj-o bee vafa. 

Insipid, sj+ ^j bee muzeh. 

Insolvent, ^-U* mujiis ; ^b 15 na dar. 

Inspect, v. , ^-^ <*ka.}L wMldhezeh 
kardan. 

Instant, -.^ dum; \ an. 

Instead, ^y- 'avaz. 

Institute v., ^jTjji+ mukarar kar- 
dan. 



VOCABULAEY. 



113 



Instruct, xy&.y] dmookhtan. 
Instructor, jb, mo'alem. 
Instrument, o3Jl diet. 
Insult, ^\j^\ ^ bee ihterdmee. 
Insurrection (^yi shoorish. 
Intellect, Jac 'alcl ; JHyt hoosh. 



Intelligence, 
bar. 



khabar ; jL±\ dkh- 



Intemperance, Jljccl ^ bee itiddl. 
Intend, v., ^IJ % A \j\ irddeh dash- 
tan. 
Intention, s*\J\ irddeh. 
Intense Jo Jui shadeed. 
Intentional, Ijl.1 dmddn. 



Intercede, ^^aLJj vdseteh kardan. 

Intercourse, *^\j+ murdvedeh. 

Interdict, v., ^ *-. man'a kar- 
dan. 

Interest (money), J^i; tanzeel ; s.j> 

fure; (in a matter), j>j- <jha- 

raz. 

Interior, ^j deroon. 
Interminable, j»\ ^j bee akher. 
Internal, ao-ta ddkheleh ; ,^,Jo1 
dnderoonee. 

Interpret, ^ . 

dan. 
Interpretation, &+*>J tarjumah ; (of 

dreams), ^~jt» ta'abeer. 

I 



ddkheleh; ^jj* 
*.J tarjumah kar- 



114 



YOCABULABY 



Interpreter, **>/* mutarjam. 

Interrogate (to), ^^Tj'j-. sno'dlkar- 
dan,- gzj' j\ZJcJ\ istifsdr kardan. 

Interval, oj L-* musdfat. 

Interview, oli^L middkdt. 

Intestine, t^jj roodeh. 

Intimacy, j^. ek yek jalietee. 

Intimidate, v., ^jiLy tarsdneedan. 

Into, j* dar ; ^j fee ; ,$*,& duroon ; 
jjj\ dndar. 

Intolerable, J-*^ j£- ghair motalia- 
mal. 



Intoxicated, 



must. 



Intoxication, { j^* mustee. 



Intrepid, dl? ^j bee bah. 
Intricate, ,^ ^~j peech-ddr. 
Intrigue, J!>j{~> sdzish. 

Introduce (a person), v. ^J tjj** 
mvJarajee kardan ; (a thing), Ji-'.J 
^^j> ddkhd kardan. 

Intrust, v., ^j^> supurdan. 

Invent, v., ^^Aj^.\ ikhterd kardan; 
sj> Ij^j paidd kardan. 

Inventory, o*-^ fehrist ; <utL-- 
sidheh. 

Investigate, v., ^j^ ^^ tahkeek 
kardan ; ^ u os* ) tafahuss kar- 
dan. 



VOCABUIAET. 



115 



Invitation, o^j da'avat. 

Invite, v., ^o^ da'avat Tear- 

dan. 
Inundation, J*-* sayl. 
Involuntary, jL^I ^ lee ikMiar. 
Iron, ^1 alien. 
Irregular, sJclio lee-kdadeh. 
Irresolute, J&ixJ ^ beeistilddl. 
Irrigate, t\, ^Ijol db-dddan. 
Island, s^ja. jazeereh. 
Issue, v., iJ~j* [ *> sddir Tcardan. 
Itch, J^j\s- khdresh. 
Item, £>j furd. 
Itself, oj» Jchud ; (ji^i. khadesh. 



Ivory, ^lc «/ 
Ivy, islsji peecheJc. 

J. 

Jackal, Jlii. shaghdl 
Jail, gljjj zenddn. 
Jar, ttylcoozeh. 
Jasmine, ^^o— lj yasmeen. 
Jasper, ^ yashm. 
Jaundice, ^teg yerkdn • 

ydn. 
Jaw, isii /<x7c. 
Jen lous, ^^^a. hesond. 
Jealousy, J-^ Jiassad. 



glj-i;; ran?- 



116 



VOCABULARY. 



Jerusalem, t^-o*J1 o*j bait el mu- 

kaddes. 
Jest, iJ-jZ, shookhi. 
Jester, ^ji shookh. 

Jesus Christ, { j~ t ?- e^aa. hazrat Eesd. 

Ml 

Jet (of water), »,ly favvareh. 
Jew, ^>J>«i yahoodi ; tye*. jaliood. 
Jewel, ^»_ja. johar. 

Jeweller, c£/*_??- johari ; Jjj zerger. 
Jockey, jl^-. iskU chabuk sawdr. 
Join, v., o>v J- ^* mutassil kardan; 

Hi 

^ala JLaj'l itissdl dddan. 
Journal, <u^j_j; roozndmeh. 



Journey, y~» safar. 

Joy, ^^^ dilkhoshi. 

Joyful, ^jli shddee. 

Judge, ^U kdzee ; c/j |»^=»^» hakim 

i-shur'e (not hakeem ; for which 

see Doctor). 
Judgment, J^- hukem ; \ys fatvd. 
Judicious, Joe i_*a.L» saheb 'aid. 
Jug, ijf koozeh. 
Juggle, v., ^./'cS;^ ^k hoka bdzee 

kardan. 
Juggler, jl ik hoka bdz. 
Juice, m1 db ; Jjj-*- arak ; 

sheereh. 



8 / ■* - *- 1 



VOCABTTLAKY. 



117 



Juicy, j\^\ dbddr. 

Jump, v., ±iji pereedan ; 

justan. 
Jupiter, IJJ&+ musliteree. 
Just, J^U 'ddil. 
Justice, oJIj* iddlet. 
Juvenile, ^y* jawdnee. 

K. 

Keen,j-J teez. 

Keep, v., ^aili ȣ negdh ddshtan. 

Keepsake, ^tol ydd-gdr. 

Kernel, ja* maghz. 

Kettle, yjj£ kitree. 



Key, jJflceleed. 

Kick, j& laggad. 

Kick, v., Aj oO leggad zadan. 

Kid, aJlcjj 6uz ghdleh. 

Kidney, &X kulbeh. 

Kill, c ^lT kushtan. 

Kiln, sj^lcooreh. 

Kind (sort), j^joor; p~3 kissm; uf 

gooneh; (friendly), Uj+* meh- 

riban. 

Kindle, v., tr^jyl dfrookhtan ; yjs\ 

y&f ' dtesh kardan. 
Kindness, { J>^.j^> mehribdni. 
Kindred, j.y kom ; u&jji kheesh. 



118 



YOCABULABY. 



King, t\iishdh; sli^b pddishdh. 
Kingdom, liXA*-o mamlakat. 



Kiss, --L mdch. 



Kiss, v., ^3jT—\* mdch Tcardan. 
Kitchen, iiUjj <_£! dsh-puz klidneh ; 

^-k. matbakh. 
lvuei\d,v., {: r±-{~>j~*±kliameer sakhteri. 
Knee, ylj zdnoo. 
Kneel, v., y\j ^ do zdnoo ; ^^i-iJ we- 

sheshtan. 
Knife, ^kard; (clasp), $sL., chdkoo; 

(pen), fjAjiJs kalam-trdsh. 
Knob, a*TS dukmeh. 



Knock, v., ^j zadan; ^J^jf koo- 

beedan. 

Knot, tj gerreh ; (to make a), tjT 

c yi~j gerreh bastan. 

Know (a thing), v., cJ i~iU ddnestan; 
(a person), ^zi-Ui shendkhtan. 

Knowingly, *x-Jb ddnesteh. 

Knowledge, J* Urn. 

Knuckle, ^ bund. 



b «- sar-i-pdket. 



U^'iT kdrkhdneh. 



Label, c: 
Laboratory) *J 

Labourer, al*c amaleh 

Lace, ; _jk toor. 



VOCABULARY. 



119 



Lad, ^'ja. jaw an ; <&\j*. jawanek. 

Ladder, ^<sj nardvdn. 

Ladle, j&Tkaf-geer. 

Lady, jU. khanwm. 

Lake, ^^ darydcheh. 

Lame, ekJ lang. 

Lament, yjfo zdree. 

Lamp, h\j* chirdgh. 

Lance, s^J nayzeh. 

Lancet, j~~> neshter. 

Land, &■.*) zameen. 

Landlord (of a house), jjU. l_^.U 

sdheb klianeh ; (of land), eU* i_>a.L 

sdheb milk. 



Lane, i^jfkoocheh. 

Language, ] oj zabdn. 

Languid, o— > sust. 

Lantern, y-jili fdnooss. 

Lap, J« baghal. 

Large, is); a buzurg. 

Lark, ^Ji'V kdkoolee. 

Last, ac?j.,^i.| akher. 

Last, r., ^^p j,lj^ dawdm kardan. 

Last, s., t-JU kdleb. 

Lastly, s*>y\ J*\ akher el 'amr. 

Latch, Jos kujl. 

Late )vf o deer. 

Lather, s., ^jflcaf. 



120 



YOCABTJLABY. 



Lattice, eLi shabak. 

Laugh, v., (jjojji. khandeedan. 

Laugh, s., »J^i- khandeh. 

Law (sacred), c/i shar'e; (civil), 

i-jjC- y urf ; (rule), a y\s kanoon. 
Lawful, Lj t r i shar'ee ; J^ft 'urfee. 
Lawsuit, **h\j* morafe'eh. 
Lay, v., ^W nehddan. 
Lazy, J~J tunbul. 
Lead, s., m^- sitrb. 
Lead, v., ^^^ kesheedan; ^j 

burdan. 
Leaf (of a tree), c^> burg; (of a 

book), j^j varak. 



League (bond), J^t WicZ; \>Ju shurt. 
League (in Persia, 4 miles), isk-^ 

farsang ; ±-j» farsakh. 
Lean, adj.,J?i Idgher. 
Lean, v., ^J~iJJi tekieh kardan. 
Leap, v., c> =~*- justan. 
Leap, s., jJ* kheez. 
Learn, ^jT z\>_ ydd geriftan ; J-ass 

^J'tahseel kardan. 
Learned, adj., lib ddnd ; Je- t--o.L» 

sdheb 'ilm. 
Learning, Jc 'ilm. 
Lease, *,U.l ijdreh. 
Leather, *^. churm; ~L«j teemdj ; 



Y0CABT7LABY. 



121 



(untanned, or chamois),^**, jeer ; 

(Russia), ; lalo hulghar. 
Leave, s., ijWI ijdzeh; ( j**-j+ mura- 

khassee; &J\ izn. 
Leave, v., ^\ jf guzdshtan ; (to 

give), fji\<i ^il izn dddan ; <jx»j+ 

yjfmuralchas kardan; (to obtain), 

^y ^il izn giriftan; ^f jjU! 

ijazeh giriftan ; ^jf \^j* mura- 

Ichassee giriftan. 
Leaven, jjU mdyeh. 
Leavings, jjJL ,jL bdki mdndeh. 
Led (horse), e)Jo «-— .1 asp-i-yedek. 



Ledger, /» ^ daftar. 

Leech, ^113 zdloo. 

Left, *--». chup. 

Leg, b pa ; b jL sdk-i-pd. 

Legacy, ew^j vesdyet. 

-^ e g a ^ t/tr* shar'ee. 

Legend, cj^ hekdyat. 

Legerdemain, u «jl? <»&». 7iofra ha zee. 

Legible, \^y* kh'dnd. 

Legion, tjj^gerooh. 

Leisure, io-^» fursat; o^ /era- 

Lemon, y*^ ley moo. 

Lend, v., ^ta u*/ Ararz dadun. 



122 



TOCABULAHY. 



Length ^j^ dardzee ; J J» tool. 

Lenient, *jiL moldy em. 

Lenity, c^i^-* moldy emat. 

Lent ( Christian ),j-j^j pa r/ieez ; (Mo- 
hammedan), &"*+j ramazdn. 

Lentil (vegetable), u*-^ 'adass. 

Leo (zodiac), x~* 'asad. 

Leopard, gJjL palang. 

Leper, ^>}j^> mabrooss. 

Leprosy, <j>j> buruss. 

Less, j^S~ kamtar ; (more or less), 
(jt-o U S'liam ya beesh. 

Lessee, jta ij\*.\ ijdreh dar ; jcJ^~~e 
mosta'jar. 



Lessen, v., ^jS^Tcam kardan. 
Lesson, (_>-,>> dv/rss. 
Last taU* mabddd. 
Let (hire), ^ta s.iL.1 ijdreh dddan ; 
(permit), j^JS" guzashtan ; ^il 



j^b izn dadan ; a^f. 



<J**j* 



mu- 



rakhass kardan. 
Letter (of alphabet), i-»/s» 7iwr/ 
(pi. ^jt^hroof) ; (epistle), ii^A-a- 
ghaz ; xAy nevishteh; (from in- 
ferior to superior, lit., a petition); 
i-eijS- areezeh (superior to in- 
ferior), ^j rukum ; (of recommen- 
dation), A*Li,lft~j safdresh-ndmeh. 



YOCABUIABY. 



123 



saf; }a~+ 



Lettuce, y*^ Jcahoo. 
Levee, -iL. saldm. 

Level, j\j+* liamvar ; tiU 
mosattahh. 

Levity, ^C- sabukee. 

L ; ar, y^jj* drooghgoo. 

Liberal, ^s?* sakhi ; (in ideas), 

JLa. tx~>y tose' Jihial. 
Liberty, ^j^j\ dzddee. 
Library, u\isi\^S"ioitab Jchaneh. 
Licence, sj\a.\ ijdzeh ; j\#- jawdz. 
Lick, v., ^jJss— J leesseedan. 
Licorice, u"f> ±>; rube 1 sooss. 
Lid (of a vessel), <J>y,j~> sarpoosh ; 



(of tbe eye), .&£». »*,> pardeh-i- 
chesm. 
Lies, ijjj> droogh. 

Lie, v., jxS' £)j3 droogh guftan ; (to 
give tbe lie), ^^ v-i^' takzeeb 
harden; (to recline), ^Ju-lTj^ di- 
raz Jcasheedan. 

Lieutenant, «_-o U naib. 

Life,^*c 'omr ; ^Mj zendagee. 

Lifeless, ^^ beejdn. 

Ligament, ^j pey. 

Ligbt, s.j J&jjj roshani ; <j^3j rosh- 
nd'ee. 



124 



VOCABTJLABY. 



Light, v., y&f ' £r>3j roshan Tcardan ; 

^fj^i\ atesh Icardan ; (to bring 

to ligbt), ^jj»&> zdhar Icardan. 
Light (not heavy), adj., eL- sabuk. 
Lighten v., sf<&~» sabuk Tcardan. 
Lighten (flash), ^JuJLi^ darakh- 

sheedan. 
Lightminded, i- aJ& . khafeef. 
Lightning, J/, burk. 
Like, jjU mdnend ; Ji« misl ; a-~i> 

shabeeh. 
Like, v., iy xita ks^»^ doosi dashtan. 



Likelihood, JUii.1 ihtimdl. 
Likeness, j*~£J tashbeeh. 



Limb, yat uzv (pi. Ufil a'za). 
Lime, d*1 ahek. 

Limit, Jj*. hud. 
Limpid, <— »L» sdf. 

Line, W±. Ichut. 

Line (clothes), v., o^j^ 9 J^ 

kardan. 
Linen, J'dfketdn. 
Linger, v., ^\s J_jL tool dddan. 
Lining,^-. I aster. 
Link,^»aij Asia, hallceh zanjeer. 
Linseed, ejyj bazrdk. 
Lintel, j tf sardar. 
Lion,^-i sheer. 



aster 



YOCABULAEY. 



125 



Lip, cJ lub. 

Liquidate (debts), v., ^ U\ add 
kardan. 

List, o~j4? fihrist i a*L- siydheh. 

Listen, v., ^^U ^jTgoosh dddan. 

Listless, o— . sust. 

Litigant, ^^ muda'ee. 

Litter, ois takht. 

Little, e) Jol andak ; S^ ham ; Jis 

kaleel ; isi^^koochek. 
Live, v., ^Jwi »J3j zendeh shudan. 
Livelihood, \ } jf guzeran. 
Lively, o— »■ chust. 
Liver, ^ jigger. 



Living, iJJ} zendeh. 

Lizard, is*ji buz-mejeh. 

Load, s.,j\). bur. 

Load, v., &z>fj\ bar kardan; ^j/J**. 

Tiam'l kardan. 
Loaded, tsf } \i bar kardeh; (of a 

gun), f^ji pur kardeh. 
Loaf, -XS'komaj ; ^ojkurss. 
Loan, j>/ kurz. 
Lobby, ^jj^kerijdss ; ^ yjJTkafsh 

kan. 
Lock, s., Ji» kufl. 
Lock, v , ti^Ja* kufl kardan. 



126 



YOCABULAEY. 



Locust, J-o malakh. 

Lodge, v., o^J;-^ munzel Tear dan ; 
j^U Jj^< munzel ddshtan. 

Lodging, Jj^ munzel. 
Lone, \#3 tanlia. 
Long, j\ji derdz. 
Look, s., »& negah. 

Look, v., ^_f s& negah kardan ; 
^Jo-s deedan. 

Loosen, ?'., ^-i/ J-i> shul hardan; 
goshdd kardan. 

Lop (trees), v., ^J^y terasheedan. 

Loquacious, i-Jl^a. harrdf. 



Lord, dyi buzurg (pi. d ^ buzur- 
gdn) ; jgf\ ameer (pi. c-^1 ome) # a'). 

Lose, v., $j £~ gum kardan. 

Lot (chance), l-..., ^ 3 naseeb. 

Lots (to cast), r., ^j a^i kure'a 
zadan. 

Loud, jJo buland. 

Love, j^ ishk. 

Loved, ijj-la- ma'ashook. 

Lover, ,j^lc 'dshik. 

Louse, u-?- 1 shepesh. 

Low, ac7j. o~j pits*. 

Lower, a?., ^^jj/ /roo kardan; ^3^ 
zf pa-yeen kardan. 



VOCABTTLAKY. 



127 



Loyal f>?)ac mutee' ; j^^j rafaddr, 
Luck, o£ bukht, L-.-.-aJ nasseeb. 
Lucrative, j?ju mufeed. 

Ludicrous, >x± khande'ee. 
Lukewarm, *};*?* sheer garm. 
Lull, ,j-iy A I dram kardan. 
Luscious, Jo.JJ lazeez. 
Lust, oj^ii shahvat. 
Lustre, ^J^jj roshndee. 
Lusty, c^-j;^ J> tan drust. 
Lynx, dJj j^j yuz palang. 

M. 
Mace, J^j topuz ; jL* cliomak. 



Machine, o^l aZ^i ; .til* raan^en-e/i. 
Mad, i3^.^ deevdneh. 
Madder, s., u*^3j ronass. 
Made, aoi-L sakhteh. 

Magazine, \j& makhzan; j\j\ am- 

bar. 
Maggot, *f~lirm, 
Magnificience, o^j-i. shoket ; J^U. 

jelal. 
Magpie, jM cXTkeldgh ablak. 

Maid,^^ dokhtar. 

Majestic, <ul»ll shalidneh. 

Ml 

Mail (armour), «jj zerreli. 



128 



VOCABULARY. 



Maintain (to assert), v., a sf <-kf* 

ta'areef kardan ; (support), ^b»^5 

sf negdhdari kardan. 
Make, v., ^\-> sdkhtan. 
Make, s., aUsi-L, sdkhtemdn ; i-~& 

tarkeeb. 
Malady, J>j* murraz. 
Male,y3 nur. 

Mallow (plant), ^"U- khdtemi. 
Man, p^l ddam; *j* murd. 
Manage, v., zfj~>S> tadbeer kar- 

dan. 
Manager. ^^ dabeer;^^ mobdsher; 
jKi-j peeshkdr. 



Mane J'j ydl. 

Manful, aSl^y. murdaneli. 

Manger, ^±.1 dkhoor. 

Mango, sJ\ anbeh. 

Manhood, oJj^ rejooliyet. 

Manifest, J&\ ashkdr ; ^>\j vdzehh. 

Manifest, v., *f \^ nemaydn 

hardan. 
Manifestation, j^> zelioor. 
Mankind, ^\ J-i beni ddam. 
Manner, ^> turhh ; £-ij vuz'aij^ 

joor ; jjb turz. 
Manufacture, c^*i-> sana'at. 
Manumission, ^\j\ azddee. 



TOCABTJLAET. 



129 



■I 

Manuscript, ki£~M dust Jchutt. 

Many,j\~~!lisijdr; \ 3 \j feraviin. 

Map, Julaj nuksheh. 

Marble, j*j+ murmur. 

Mare, ^le^U madidn. 

Margin, <j~iU hdshieh. 

Marigold, j\# *L~+a> hameesheh be- 

hdr. 
Marjoram, ^ pooneh. 
Mark, \lj nishun; l_^}U ildmat. 
Market, j IjU bazar. 
Marriage, ^jj* 'aroosee. 
Marrow, y^ mughz. 
Marry, v., ^p^TjU iyal giriftan; 



(for a man), ^ & j zun burcL 
(for a woman), *fj*^ sho 
kardan. 

Mars (planet), ^ mereekh. 
Marsh, ol^ murdab ; _,Uj noysar. 
Marvel, s., e^s* 'ajab. 

Marvel, v., a if c_Jk ta'ajub har- 
dan. 

Ml 

Masculine, fx, muzakker. 
Mason, *la bannd ; (stone-), ^ly 12L- 
sang trash. 

Massacre, J^s fruf I. 
Mast, JJuj baydak. 



130 



VOCABULARY. 



Master (lord or chief), tsl agha; (of 
•a trade), alx-»l ustdd ; (teacher), 

^su mo all em. 

Mat,^,~~^ hasseer. 

Match (for a light), sz+ijS' kibreet ; 

(pair), cj» juft. 
Material, s., i»,b pdrcheh. 
Maternal, ^^U mdderee. 
Mathematical, ^Aia hendissee. 
Matter, «^>U mddeh. 
Mattress, d£«.i ddsliek. 
Mature, ^J*-, raseedan. 
Mausoleum, jlj- mazdr. 
Meadow, ^-^ chaman. 



Mean, jifi^. hakeer ; (despicable), JJ3 

zaleel. 
Mean, ajLo miydneh; (middle), \j~« 

meyzdn. 

Mean, v., ^Ij Jao ma'ani ddshtan. 

Meaning, <j** wta'emi. 

Means (revenue), JU rndl ; J^a 

dukhl. 

> 

Measles, el>^ swrkhek. 

Measure, til*^ peymdneh .; u*\J ki- 

ydss ; »j\ Jol anddzeh. 
Measure, v.j ^^T^U-j peymdn kar- 

dan ; gijS" u-l^ kiydss kardan ; 

^jS^sjljol anddzeh giriftan. 



TOCABULAEY. 



131 



Meat, iz^^gooskt. 

Meddle, v., ^f &>\ J* muddkheleh 

kardan. 
Mediate, v., ^^S^aL-Ij vdseteh kar- 

dan. 
Mediation, h~>y tavasut. 
Medical, <JJ» tib-bee ; e^U» tebdbat. 
Medicine, \j<> daw a. 
Meditate, v., ^3*?* sanjeedan; sffi 

filer kardan. 
Medlar, Jijl azgeel. 
Meek, v.^U moldyem ; »jil«* maz- 

loom. 
Meet, v., ^jTcjlsiL moldkdt kardan. 



Meeting, u-1** mujliss; oliiL mold' 

kdt. 
Melancholy, ekJ.s diltang ; jS2* dil- 

geer. 
Mellow, sJ---, raseedeh. 
Melodious, ljw» <,J>y» khosh sedd. 
Melon (yellow), *jy.j± kharboozeh 

(water-), ajIj-xl* hindoodneh. 
Melt, v., &xz* vl db shudan. 
Memorandum, c^ta ^, ydd dasht. 
Memory, .sU ydd; akiU. hdfizeh. 
Men, (jt.^* mardumdn. 
Mend, v., zfjt*£ ta' ameer kardan. 
Mendicant, \£ gedd. 



132 



VOCABULARY. 



Mention, jJl zikr. 

Merchandise, c^Us cjL-iI asbab 

tajareh. 
Merchant, ^U tdjer ; f\$y> soddger. 
Mercifal, -e»y raheem. 
Mercury (planet), ^Ikc itarud. 
Mercy, ^-j rahm. 
Mere, c.^-. sirf; ,>** mate. 
Merit, ^^j-* sezdvari. 
Meritorious, j lj]^ sezdvar ; &"$ la- 

yek. 
Message, »U*j payghdm. 

Messenger, t^^J f crista deh; (horse), 
jlU. chapdr ; (foot), J->U kdsid. 



Metal, *JJ» filiz. 

Metaphor, <uUS~ kendyeh. 

Meteor, vW- shehdb. 

Method, ~)o turhli. 

Metropolis, o^ n>\jpdyeK takht. 

Midday,^ zuh'r. 

Middle, I»~»j vussat ; ^L* miydn. 

Midnight, t_~i < a-<a3 nisf-i-shub. 

Midway, t\j *a*.J neemelx-rah. 
Midwife, LU> mama. 

Might, oy koovai. 
Mild, *j^L moldyem. 
Military, ^^i nizdmev. 
MilJ !r , >f -i sheer. 



VOCABULARY. 



133 



Mill, L-1 asya. 

Miller, ^b L-l asya ban. 

Mill-stone, Lt.| eL* sang -i- asya. 

ml 

Mimic, jJji* moTcallid. 

Mince (cut small), v., ^ *+J kay- 

meh kardan. 
Mind, JSc 'akl. 
Mine, s., ^j*. ma'adan. 
Mine, v., ^.^TL-aJ nuhb kardan. 

Minister, ^ijj vazeer ; (Prime Mini- 

ster), Jafi] jj^> sadr aazami. 
Minor, j^> sagheer. 
Mint (plant), cLo na'ana ; (place 



for coining money), *L i_>|> =ara6 
khaneh. 

Mint, v., ^o; a£L sikkeh zadan. 

Minute, <wJj dakeekeh. 

Miracle, «js*<> mo'jezeh. 

Mirror, <ml dyeneh. 

Mirth, ^^.s dilkhoslti. 

Miser, j-ds bakheel. 

Miserable, JJi zaleel. 

Misfortune, j^.^ bad-bukhti. 

Miss (a mark), ^^T Iki. khetu kar. 

dan. 
Mist, a* meh. 
Mistake, s., Li. khubt ; ^-» sah'c. 



134 



YOCABTTLAET. 



Mistake, ^j£=> Li. khvbt kardan; 
3j^j4~> saWv kardan. 

Misunderstand, s~+& t_J^U. kheldf 
fo.hmeedan. 

Mitigate, ^.ita <-AJ& takhfeef dddan. 

Mix, v., c ^fij\3 kdti kardan ; \>^s? 
qsJ> makhloot kardon. 

Moan, v., ^Jtj ndleedan. 

Moat, jJwii. kliunduk. 

Mob, (.'^-ijl izdeluim ; Ic^c ghoghd. 

Mock, v., ^J'ijsr* maskhareh kar- 
dan. 

Model, stsj nv.ksheh. 

Moderate, Jj^a* mo'tadil. 



Modern, »jIj tdzeh ; y no ; Oe^a. 

jadeed. 
Modest, tffAjZ, sharm-geen ; La.1 bd 

hyd. 
Moist, adj., J num. 
Moisten, ^^b J num dadan. 
Molest, v., C) ±J~ ij^su ta'dee' kardan. 
Moment, ^1 an. 
Monarch, sli.iL padishdh. 
Monday, i~£>^ do-shambeh. 
Money, J^j pool; sUi^ tankha. 
Monkey, ici)y_ boozeeneh; &y+#> may- 

moon. 
Month, »U mdh. 



VOCABULARY. 



135 



Monument, j fob yadgar. 

Moon, sL mdh; i_>Us>L mahtdb ; 

(new), J^ helldl; (full), j Jo badr. 
More, »^Ijj ziyddeh; yi-j beesh; ^i-o 

beeshter. 
Moreover, ^j s^^U aldveh ber-een. 
Morning, ^> sub'h. 
Morrow (to,), \sj> farda. 
Morsel, *+& lukmeh. 
Mortal (a), l~Jl insan ; (deadly), 

t ju^T" kusJiendeh. 
Mortar (for pounding), ^U havan ; 

(cannon), j^L^- khumpdreh ; jJ 
kopuz. 



Mosque, J^*** miusjid. 

Moss, Jy* mZrkk (pr. mZrgh). 

Most, ^51 dksar. 

Moth, aj'j^j parvaneh; */ r l-~^ s7<(tb- 
/?erre7i. 

Molten, j^U mdder ; »^lj valedeh. 

Motion, Lr^a. harakat. 

Motion (to set in), ,^ta lt^/». hara- 
kat dddan. 

Motive, L_~~i subub ; tl^l bd'isr. 

Mould, cJU kdlib. 

Mouldy, d/" kerek ; (to become), 
^jj dj^kerek zadan. 

Mound, «y tuppeh; J> tut. 



136 



VOCABTJLABY. 



Mountain, s^kooh, 

Mourn, v.,^j^. t^-j-Jl afsooss khur- 

dan ; &±f \sfo zdri kardan. 
Mourning, {jj\^j* 'azaddri. 
Mouse, yij* moosh. 
Mouth, ^<i dahan. 
Mow (to), v., i>f jj& dero kard.an. 
Much,jL~J bisyar ; ^^-U. khaili. 
Mud, ^fgil ; jiU»l> bc'ctldk. 
Muddy, ; b' Mr. 
Mulberry (white), oy toot; (black), 

ojJ jli s7iaft. toot. 
Mule,^ls 7iatw*. 
Mundane, ^yi^ dunydvee. 



Munificence, o$U"» sekhdvat. 
Murder, s., JxS katl • c ^iS^ kushtan. 
Murder, i\, i j^kus'htan. 

Murmur, 5., & gilleh. 

Murmur, v., ^j »J^J lundeh zadan. 

Muscle, aLaff azaleh. 

Mushroom, —j\S kdrch. 

Music (vocal), jljl <n'«z; (instru- 
mental), jl~» s«z. 

Musician (vocal), jJJlji. klidnendeh; 
(instrumental), jJjjL sazendeh ; 
t-^k* mutrib. 

Musk, eli- mislik. 

Musket, eliS tufeng. 



VOCABULARY. 



137 



Musketeer, ^isUaj tufeng -chee. 

Muslin, JJL malmal. 

Mussulman, ^U — » musulmdn. 

Mustachio, J~-» sabeel. 

Mustard, J-^p. Tchardal. 

Musty, ^jfljtu mutaafan. 

Mutineer, ^l yd ghee. 

Mutiny, s., &\~J fesad. 

Mutiny, v., ^Jti ( y-\jydghees?iudan. 

Mutter, -v., ^JjJ^J landeedan. 

Mutton, jjJ^jT c^jf goosht-i-goos- 

fond. 
Mutual, tfs^k tarafayn. 
Muzzle, j^jsjjj poozehband. 



Myrtle, ■i ) y> moord. 
Mysterious, ^Jis* makhfi. 
Mystery, j^, rdz. 

N. 

Nail (finger), ^'o nakhun ; (peg) 

jtf-o meekh ; (claw), do>. chung. 
Naked, s^tj berehneh ; &•>_/■ 'arydn. 
Name, s., *\i nam ; ^1 ism. 
Name, v., ^J^k ntfmeecfom. 
Namely, ^^o yaani. 
Nap (of cloth), idfkurlc. 
Nap, s., c^». churt. 



138 



VOCABULARY. 



Nap (to take a), v., ^aj o^. churt 

zadan. 
Napkin, JLjj, roomal. 
Narcissus, ^jSji nergess. 
Narration, oi^- hekayat. 
Narrow, eUi' tung. 
Nation, v^lo mil-lut. 
Native, ,Ju»l aslee. 
Nativity, &j>y mowlood. 
Natural, j^ tubeo'ee ; J>li zatee. 
Nature, o»*-l> tabee'at ; oli z«i. 
Naval, i^fS*. bahree. 
Near, ck.jp nazdeek. 
Neat, j-J tameez. 



Necessaries, ^Ujlj) lowazemat. 

Necessary, »p lazim. 

Neck, aJ, rakdbeh ; zfgardayi. 

Necklace, J^j ^jTgardan-bund. 

Nectarine, Jii shaleel. 

Need, s., o<?-U. hajat; ^_W^ ihtidj. 

Need, v., ^U *-W^ ihtidj dashtan ; 

^ji -.U-s* mohtaj shudan. 
Needle, ^jj- soozan. 
Needless, pjVli na lazem. 
Needy, -A=s* mohtaj. 
Neglect, v., zf<z^s£. gihjlat kardan. 
Negligent, Ji^ gliafil. 



YOCABTIIAEY. 



139 



Negociate, v., i^ ^^ moameleh 

Tcardan. 
Negociation, aLU* moameleh. 
Neighbour, .uL^ humsdyeh. 
Neighbourhood, ^fi^-** hamsdyeh- 

gee. 
Neither, ^1*5 ^JaS ne-een ne-an. 
Nephew, i^j } ^ji brdder zddeh ; 

s^\jjst\j^ Jch'dher zddeh. 

Nerve, (— ~at assab. 
Nest, <uV laneh ; *^\ ashyaneh. 
Net, } £> toor ; ^ dam. 
Nettle, vj^gezeneh. 



Never, Jy» Imrgez ; oSj ^* heech 

voikt. 
Neutral, <-»}> ^ bee tarof. 
New, y no ; »j^' tdzeh; J4*i» jadeed. 
News, j± hhabar ; (good), *^> 

muzhdeh. 
Next (adjoining), J-»^ mutassil ; 

a^,^ payvasteh; (following), »Xi\ 

ayende/i. 
Nib, eli wiZA-. 
Niece. See Nephew. 
Night, e~i shub. 
Nightgown, s~i ^^ pcrdhani- 

shub. 



140 

Nightingale, ^ bulbul. 

Nimble, elU. chahuk. 

Nipple, ^^-j pistdn. 

Nitre, a^i slworeh 

Nobility, ^j> buzurgee; j^ji bu- 

zurgawar ; ^V nejabat. 
Noble, c-~si nejeeb ; v£jj* buzurg. 



Oj-e 



VOCABULABY. 



Nobleman,^*-! ameer. 
Nobody, u-^ft" heechkass. 
Noise, 1 Xo sedu ; j\j\ avdz ; 
sot ; eJolj bong. 

Noisome, j** muzirr. 

Nominal, ^y furzee ; ,JW- khialee 

None, ^a heech. 



Nonsense, ^J* j^-j bee hoodegee; ^>^> 

bee ma'ani. 
Noose, yX^kamand. 
North, JUi sliemal. 
Nose, sU^ demagTi; <j~o beenee. 

Nosegay, JS* <u->.s dusteh gul. 
Not, U -na; &> neh. 
Note, Jj rakkam. 
Nothing, -£* heech. 

Notice, ^"M i'ldn. 
Notion, JU. fcTiiaZ. 
Noun, j,-.! ism. 

Nourish, t\, ^Joj^j parvareedan. 
' Now, ^5)1 aZ-aw ; ¥L 7iaZa. 



VOCABULARY. 



Ill 



Nowhere, U. **^>j* der lieech jd. 

Number, ^Js. adad. 

Nurse, jjU ddyeh. 

Nut (hazel or filbert), jJ^i funduk ; 
(wall-), )*f girdoo ; (pistachio), 
x^jpisteh; (cocoa), J*?-^ narjeel. 

Nutmeg, J^lj^- juz-el hind. 

Nutriment, \J* ghezd. 



O. 



O ! ij\ at. 
Oak, ojli baloot. 
Oar, j;b par oo. 
Oath, *~J kassam. 



U-i sa- 



Obdurate, Jj o^** safefcf diZ 
Obedience, o-cU»l ita'nt. 
Obedient, *Ja* muted. 
Obeisance, *&*> ta'azeem; ^ 

lam. 
Obey, v., ^i/'c^W itaat kardan 
Object, s., ^yiA* maksood. 
Object, v., ^f i\j\ irad giriftan. 



_. I 



cy~* 



wamnoon 



Oblige, v., 

sdkhtan, 
Oblique, Uo,j\ ureef. 
Obliterate, v., &±ff~> naskh kardan; 

&i>f^>, puk kardan. 
Oblivion, J^y^J fardmooshee. 



142 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



Obscene, isJIjIs na-pdk. 
Obscure, ^^ tdreek. 
Observe (to look), a *f s£ nig ah 

kardan ; (to keep), ^^ s& nigdh 

dashtan. 
Obstacle, >uL mane*. 
ObstiDate,^-^. khudsar. 
Obstruct, v., ^^TojuU- memana'at 

kardan. 
Obstruction, o*iL* memana'at. 
Obtain, ^Ij ydftan; ^^TJ^U 7iaseZ 

kardan* 
Obviate, o*f £*j raft kardan. 
Obvious, j&\ dshkdr. 



Occasion, \z~»f fursut ; Js* mahal. 
Occasional, J>\&\ itifaki. 
Occupant, «— »yz* mutesarif. 
Occupation, Jii shfighil; Jfkar. 
Occur, v., *xZ> *s\j vdlceh shudan. 
Occurrence, ir^iiS^i sar-guzasht. 
Ocean, L^ ^, bahr moheet. 
Odd (not even), *? furd; (strange), 

i_^e gliareeb. 
Odour, _^ boo. 

Off, or far off, J**j ba'eed ; ^ door. 
Offence,^~aa-> takseer. 
Offend, v., ^-XJlsij ranjdneedan. 
(Offender, ^roiu mukasser. 



YOCABULABY. 



1-13 



Offer, v., ^fuJd tahleef kardan. 
Office (post), c_~^ munsub ; (chan- 

eery), jjU^j daftar khdneh. 
Officer, >_ ^ ; o l-o-U sahib munsub. 
Offspring, £>jj> farzand. 
Oh ! J\j vai. 
Oil, c^JJ roghan. 

Oilman, J> 3 j ^jj roghan feroosh. 
Old (aged) ,^> peer; (ancient), pM 

lcadeem; (not new), ^fkuh-neh. 
Oleander, i^s. khar-zahreh. 
Olfactory, jl-iy booddr. 
Olive, ^yaj zaytoon. 
Omelette, £fkookoo. 



Omen,^! dkhter ; JU /aZ. 
Omnipotence, o,JJ kudrat. 
On, ji bar; Vl» b«Z«; Jy /o&; ^ 

aZa. 
Once, a«9jJo yek-dafa'a; h>j*£>. yek- 

murtaba ; j^i yek-bdr. 
Oneself, 3j» fe/tud. 
Onion, jl*j piydz. 
Only, V 3 ' tanhd. 
Onward, u~-j peesh. 
Onyx, (JU-L. dL- sang i suleimani. 
Open, «., &/$*. *>az kardan ; oif^3 

vd kardan. 
Open, j l» b«z ; jb vaz. 



144 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



Openly, *J&,\ dshkdreh. 

Opinion, sJ^ac akeedeh ; ^$]j raee. 

Opium, 12) Ia/ tar yak. 

Opponent, <-hj*- hareef. 

Opportunity, o-^i fursat; o-sj 

vakt. 
Oppose, v., sfxz> zid kardan. 
Opposite (in position), ^.oj, roo- 

be-roo ; J>li-« mukabil ; (adverse), 

ijSs- aks. 
Opposition, oilli" mukhdlifat. 
Oppress, v., ±j> Jk> zulm kardan; 

^^T^jjy ta'adi kardan. 
Oppressed, *j&>* mazloom. 



Oppression, jJJj zulm. 

Oppressor, J'J» zalim. 

Or, \> yd. 

Orange, JUj^ portughdl ; (mandarin), 

,j£>j^ ndrengee ; (Seville), J>J^ 

ndrenj. 
Orator, ,jLl3 ndtik. 
Orchard, cli bdgh. 
Order (command), tJ-i^J farmdyesh ; 

»&* hukm ; (disposition), ^~jy 

tarteeb ; J*> nuzm. 
Order (command), v., ^y>/ far- 

moodan ; ^ata S*. hukm, dddan ; 

(arrange), ^ata t-~-V J ' tarteeb dd- 



VOCABULARY. 



115 



dan ; ab Ji3 nuzm dadan ; ^> 

gAjfmunazam kardan. 
Ordinarily, L^c imoomdn. 
Oriental, ,_//-• mushraki. 
Origin, J*>l «sL 
Original, ^Jul asli. 
Ornament, jyj zeever. 
Orphan, *~> yateem. 
Ostensible, jt^ zdhir. 
Ostrich, pj+j£> shutur murgh. 
Other, J&z deeger ; y_L sdyer ; j£ 

ghair. 
Oven 5J yj tanoor. 
Over, ¥1? bald. 



Overhead,^-. ^VU bald-isar. 
Overhear (to tell tales), v., &* a *" 

&fsukhan cheen kardan. 
Overlook (a house), r., ^ >_*/-. 

muslirif boodan. 
Oversee, v., ^f 'c^iU mubdsherat 

kardan. 
Overseer, ^U nmbdsher. 
Oversight, ^4- sa fi v. 
Ought, Jo.Ij bayed. 
Our, U ma. 

Out, or Outside, ^ beroon. 
Outrage, j^^j zubberdusti. . 
Owe, v., ,^-ta J>j* kurz dashtan. 



146 



TOCABULAEY. 



Owl, *y. boom; <ix* chughd. 

Own, ^=* khud. 

Own, v., o*f jj>\ ihrar kardan ; 

^jT^]^] i'tirafkardan. 
Owner, t_~=*L> sahib ; dJL malik. 
Ox, j^ gdv. 
Oyster, i_iJ-» sadaf. 

P. 

Pace, *J£ hadam. 
Pacify, dJLa* musaliheh. 
Pack, v., c ^~j bustan. 
Packing-needle, jja y}\j*. javal dooz. 
Padlock, J» fcii/i. 



Pagan, o-«^ e>? bwt jparoM. 

Page (of a book), js?-* safha ; (at- 
tendant), c^-J^ J~j (.^c gholam 
peesh-khidmet. 

Pageant, l-Ui' tamtisha. 

Paid, »J^> Ul ad# shudefi. 

Pain, j, j cZitrcZ. 

Paint, s., dJ, rangr. 

Paint, v., a &j v&>j rang zadan ; { Ji3j 
^f nuksh Icardan. 

Pair, ofl?. juft. 

Palace, s^^ dargah ; c^Uc imdrat. 

Palanquin, a \^j o>=? takliterawan. 

Palatable, ^W-* muzzehdur. 



VOCABULARY. 



147 



Palate, ^^ <-JH-j sukf-i-dahan. 
Palm (tree), Up. kliorma; (of hand), 

o—i t_sT kuf-i-dust. 
Palsey, &Z*j ra'asheh. 
Paltry, iz~~^ pust. 
Pant, v., ^J^-k tapeedan. 
Pantaloons, j IjLa shalwar. 
Panther, eLb palang. 
Pantry, <uU. io^ sliarbat klidneh. 
Paper, J*1T kdghaz ; (news), t*\jjjj 

Paradise, cJl« behesM. 
Parallel, ^L-*, musdvi. 
Paralysis, J& faleej. 



Paramour, jJ, rafeek. 
Parcel, as-j busteh ; ^ bukcheh. 
Parchment, y»\ u--^ poost-i-ahoo. 
Pardon, yi-li? bakhshesh ; ^_j'-«-. 

ma' a/. 
Pardon, cJ -i/' «— *\** ma'af kardan j 

^jJLic baklisheedan. 
Pare, v., ^J^i.1/ tarasheedan. 
Parent, JJlj v filed. 
Parole, Jy kol. 
Parrot, ^>£> tootee. 
Parrot-like, jj^lj ^^ tootee vfiree. 
Parsimony, J* bukhl. 
Parsley, l£^«* ja'aferi. 



148 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



rtrfTfc 



Part, Sj'j pdreh ; a£j> tikkeh ; 
hisseh. 

Particular,, ^ya*? makhsoos ; u^li. 

khass. 
Pai'ticularly, U^ai. khesoosan ; leyasfi 

makhsoosan. 

Partner, d^ snareek. 

Partridge (red-legged), eLS" kubk ; 

(royal), ^^ dX fca&fc derree ; 

(stone), j^i teehoo. 
Pass (mountain), uijTgardaneh. 
Pass, «., ^^^ guzaslitan. 
Passage (river or mountain), ^ju> 

ma'abar; (in a house), jyl, rah-ro. 

Passenger, yl~* musdfer. 



Passport, s/jJ tezkereh. 

Past, x^jfguzashteh. 

Paste, ^-»i khameer. 

Pasture (ground), Vj* marta'. 

Pasture, v., cj^W cherdneedan. 

Patch, iL»j vasleh. 

Paternal, ^Jo pedderee. 

Patience,^ sa&r,- <jL>ja. hoseleh. 

Patriot, o-j^ ^j vatan doost. 

Patron, <jy* murubi. 

Pattern, <s3^»5 nemooneh. 

Pave, v., ^.Tyi^ tsk-i sangr /arsft. 

fcardcm. 
Pavement, yj>j> d^~. sang farsh. 



VOCABULARY. 



1 l«J 



Pavilion, ,Xi/ t^kolah ifrengi. 

Paw, L pa ; *& penjeh. 

Pawn, v., ^SfjJ'gero guzashtan. 

Pawn. See Chess. 

Pay, t-«a.lj-<> mowajib. 

Pay, v., zf\i>\ add Icardan ; ^U Ul 

add dadan. 
Pea (green), ^j* ty£ nakhood fren- 

gi ; (chick), ^syd nakhodcheh. 
Peace, Xo sulhh. 
Peacock, i^-jU» taoos. 
Peach, jl^*. hooloo. 
Peak, ts kelleh. 
Pear, ^^W gulabi. 



Pearl, Jo^ljj-o mv.rwareed. 

Peasant, ojU, ra'ayat. 

Peculiar, ^U. khdss. 

Pedigree, J~i nasi. 

Pedlar, u-jy '^.J* khurdeh froosh. 

Peel, o- ^ poost. 

Peg, j^-o meekh. 

Pen, Js kalam. 

Pencil, ^IJld Js kalam med ad ; &\» 

medad. 
Penetration, ^y^ teezhooshi. 
Penitence, o-1jj nedamat. 
Penknife, \J^J^ kalamtrdsh. 
Penman, y-jy Jij> klwsh nevees. 



150 



VOCABULAKY. 



u) 



Pension, asJjj vazeefeh ; ^j+z~* mus- 

tamurree. 
Pensioner, jy» iLkj vazeefeh khor. 
Pensive, Jdsu mutafdkvr. 
Penury, _ Ua.1 ihtiaj. 
People, jU. khalk ; Jjis* maklilook. 
People, v., ysj> M abdd Tcardan. 
Pepper, JaU filfil. 
Perceive, v., ^JA o^l« multafat shu- 

dan. 
Peremptory, ^Lls kati'. 
Perfect, *Uj' tamdm. 
Perfidy, o3L±. khiyanat. 
Perfume, ^k* 'at**. 



Perfume, v., a sfjvu mu' attar Icav 

dan. 
Perhaps, Juli shayed. 
Peril, Jai. khattar. 
Permanent, Jta day em. 
Permission, sjL>l ijdzeh ; ^il izn. 
Perquisite, Ji.lj*> muddkhil. 
Persia, ^1^1 ir^im. 
Person, ^^r 1 shukhss. 
Personally, Lwr- shukhssan. 
Perspicuity, Jajj^ teeznazar. 
Perspiration, j^ 'ara&. 
Persuade, «., ^if ^j ra " z ^ kardan. 
Pestilence, ^Ik tdoon. 



VOCABULAEY. 



151 



Pestle, ^j^* *^>* dasteh havan. 
Petition, a^p 'o/reezeh. 
Pheasant, Jjl5/ karkaool. 
Phlegm, Jij balgha-m. 
Phrase, J^>\ istilahh; <z>jlz ibarat. 
Pick, «., ^^ cheedan. 
Pick (tooth), J^U. feTieZil. 
Pickaxe, xXlcoland. 

Pickle, J^J turslii. 

Picture, a££5 naksheh ; &jy> soorat. 

Piebald, jl»l aftkfc. 

Piece, JjIj pdreh ; & tikkeh. 

Piety, is*>l»i diyanat. 

Pig, d^i. khook. 



Pigeon, /$i" kabootar ; (vulg. >af 

Tcaftar) . 
Pike, sj-j nayzeh. 
Piles (disease), ^-V boraseer. 
Pilgrim, jljj zowdr ; (to Mecca), ^L* 

Pilgrimage, o/jj ziarat. 
Pill, »--» 7iub. 
Pillage, o,lc ghdrai. 
Pillar, j=~> setoo?i. 
Pillow, £u mutaka. 

Pin, d j^- soozan. 

> 
Pincers, ^1 anbur. 

Pinch, ^fj^> nishkun giriftan. 



152 



VOCABULARY. 



Pious, t^>JJu muTcudas. 

Pipp» Jt^ chebuoh. 

Pi q u a n t, j b ^o muz z e hdar ; 

muzzeli. 
Pistachio, <i^~j pisteli. 
Pistol, as: Li' tabanclieh. 
Pitch, eJj zift ; Jt ? keer. 
Pitch (with pitch), v., ^J^U 

maleedan ; ^JJ'-* j£ keer 

dan ; (a tent), &j ji>\. 

zadan. 
Pitcher, tj^koozeli. 
Pitiless, *3"j<3 bee rah' m. 
Pith, ji* mughz. 



i j-c 



l» &a 



maZee- 
chadur 



Pity, *&•; ration. 

Place, U- j« ; J&* makan. 

Plague, ^U> ta'oon. 

Plain, s., \j£° sahra. 

Plain, adj.,j\)+to hamvdr ; ^_i 

(ugly), oij zisht. 
Plaintiff, ^J^ mudaee. 
Plan, d-laJ naksheh. 
Plane (tree), jU^. chenar. 
Plank, ais: takliteli ; r _jJ Zo/Ji 

Plaut, sz> biitteh. 
Plaster, Sgach. 
Plate. oU^j boshkab. 
Platform, £~> sakoo. 



U sa/; 



VOCABULARY. 



Play, s., ^jl bazi. 

Play, v., ^f i^jlj bazi kardan. 

Pleasant, ui^- khosh ; (of a place), 

U-» o ba sefd ; »j» khoram. 
Pleiades, ^j. parveen. 
Plenipoteuce, J^&~>1 istikldl. 
Plentiful, \j\ji ferdvdn. 
Plough, psr 1 shukhm. 
Pluck (flowers), v., a J#* cheedan; 

(a bird), '^.^Sc^l abreet kardan. 

Plum, j)l aloo. 
Plunder, c^lc ghdrat. 
Plural, ***. jame'. 
Pocket, <-~a. jeeb. 



153 

a*: Li" ketabcheh 



Pocket-book, J« 

baghali. 
Poern,^i> shiHr. 
Poet,^cli sliair. 
Point (dot), JaftJ nukteh ; (of a 

speech, etc.), <uCi nukteh ; (of a 

sword, etc.) >>r - sar. 
Poison, y*j za7i'r. 
Pole (geographical), c_Ja» feuft; (of 

a tent), d,.> derefc. 
Policeman, ^-J^ poleess. 
Polite, ^^U mo'adab. 
Pollute, yzj'v-? no/as kardan. 
Pomegranatejlil andr. 



154 



VOCABULABY. 



Pomp, o^ia- hishmet. 

Pond, ij>y* hoz; ^^ istakhr (vulg. 

J^J istalkh). 
Ponder, v., ^J*^* - sanjeedan. 
Ponderous, c ^£-j sangeen. 
Poniard, &*s kameh. 
Poor, jjis fakeer ; tj\$i bee chdreh. 
Poppy, ^IsA* khashkhdsh. 
Populace, -It '#m. 
Porcelain, ^j^ cheenee. 
Porcupine, ^ i*.y± joojeh teghee. 
Port,jJ^ bunder. 
Porter, ^'u,^ durban ; ^yj* ka- 

poochi. 



Portico, ^kjl di/van. 

Portion, a^a. Msseh. 

Position, Js* mahal. 

Positive, ^jftju yakeen. 

Positively, Uj*j yakeenan ; Lk* 7iu/c- 

Possess, v., ^jiita dashtan ; i—^m 
^jiita tassaruf dashtan. 

Ml 

Possession, i-J^ai' tassaruf. 

Possible, ^Co mumkin. 

Possibly, JoU. shayad. 

Possibility, K*\ imkdn. 

Post (letter), ii.->^j poos£; (situation), 



VOCABTJLABY. 

mansab ; (timber, etc.), J*« 



155 



meel. 
Posterior, t-^ 'akab. 
Posterity, ^j\ owldd. 
Postmaster, diU?~4 ^j reis posta- 

khdneh. 
Post-office, ail* ix-i posta khdneh. 
Postpone, v., ^ >-*yy mowkoof 

kardan. 
Pot, eHj«j deeg ; ijykoozeh. 
Potash, cjU^-9 Italy db. 



Potato, 



kS^J 



seeb-i-zameeni. 



Potter, J^tjfkoozeliger. 
Pour, v., ,.jxa£j reekhtan. 



Poverty, ^J\S^ geddee. 

Powder (gun- ), ^^bdroot ; (medi- 
cine), ujy-. sefoof. 

Power, oy koovat; ty,Ji kudrat; jj) 
zoor. 

Practice, j£- mashk. 

Praise, Uoju ta'areef. 

Prank, i^> sheeveh. 

Prawn, £~» maygoo. 

Prayer, U^ dud ; jLi nemdz. 

Preach, v., ^f^-3 va'az kardan. 

Preacher, Mj vd'iz. 

Mi 

Precedent, a*jJu mukadameh. 
Precious, ^f gerdn-, j-»-S kaimati. 



156 



VOCABULAKY. 



Precipice, sV&jjptirtgah. 

Preface, *>.Ljj deebdcheh ; s+J&c mu- 

kadameh. 
Prefer, v., a\± *^h tarjeelih 

dddan. 
Preference, •>=►./ tarjeelih. 

Preferment, JiJ turukki. 
Pregnant, yji-ol dbestan. 
Premium, ^tab pdddsh. 
Preparation, e^lJo teddruk ; i-^ 

tehieh. 
Prepare, v., ^>t> d,ljJ tedaruk dee- 

daw; ytj a.J tehieh kardan ; ^U 

Q&jTlidzer kardan. 



Presence, ^.a*. hezoor ; £y±j vejood. 

Present (not absent), ^U. hdzir ; 
(from inferior to superior), i_i,l*y 
ta'druf; J^J-ti 2 ) &eshkesh ; (su- 
perior to inferior), old! iltifdt ; 
(of money), ..Ui! ana' dm; (present 

w 

tense), -vJU hdlieh; (at present), 
5)U. fraZa ,- (for the present), Jiio 

Preserve (jam), s., l^* murabbd. 
Preserve, v., t ^\^ siJnegah ddshtan. 
Press (squeeze), v., *j2J feshurdan ; 

^^jl djj' iaua dwardan. 
Presume (imagine), v., ^ JU-^ 



YOCABULABY. 



157 



khidl kardan ; (be presumptuous), 

^ijT&j^ a. j essdr at kardan. 
Presumption, ^^— ?• jessdrat. 
Pretence, «jjI# bahdneh. 
Preternatural, sJs-\3 ui^-i. khaldf-i- 

Tcaadeh. 
Prevail, v., ^J^ c-J^ ghdlib shit- 

dan. 
Prevent, v., c ^i^ j\>. bdz dashtan ; 

^j^, «iU mdn'e shudan. 
Previous, j~~j peeshter. 
Prey, J** sayd ; J&, shekdr. 
Price, o*s5 kaymat. 
Priceless, o-o-S ,j bee Tcaymat. 



Pride, jj;/; ghroor. 
Prince, .oljsli. shdhzddeh. 
Princelike, ajUli shdhdneh. 
Princess, JU. *^lj«lii shdhzddeh hh.a- 

num. 
Principal (sum), J-.1 oslj (chief), 

^-J, reHss. 
Print, «., ^^TujU c/wp kardan. 
Printer, ^j^V chdpzan. 
Prison, ^r^- hubss ; gUij zenddn. 
Prisoner, u-^** mahbooss. 
Privacy, e^U. khalvat. 
Private, u»l> khdss; u>y*& makh- 

sooss. 



158 



TOCABTJLABY. 



Privately, J& mukhfee; J\h j* 

dur penhdnee. 
Prize, v., ^\z jij* 'azeez dashtan. 
Probable, [ J^> mumkin. 
Probability, J&\ imkdn. 
Procession, tz~>z dusteh. 
Procrastinate, v., &&J'\sf 3)ijA ^ m " 

rooz o fardd kardan. 
Produce, v., &* j3 \ j> bar awardan; 

^J^jtt^i zaher kardan. 
Profit, £» nafe ; s&M fdyedeh. 
Profitable, sJu> mofeed. 
Profound, j*** 'ameek. 
Prohibit, v., oif^* man ' e kardan; 



^j&U jb bdz dashtan; &&\* 1j va 
ddshtan. 

Project, s., s*]j\ irddeh. 

Project, v., *f **\j\ irddeh kar- 
dan. 

Promise, »J*j va'adeh; Jy kol. 

Promise, v., a *h f^j va'adeh da- 
dan; &&\& JjS kol dddan. 

Promote, v., a *\* JJ turukki dddan. 

Promotion, J>J> turukki. 

Promulgate, v., a *\* ^j^ shuhrat 
dddan. 

Pronunciation, fcaS talafuz. 

Proof, J^-i daleel. 



VOCABTTLABY. 



159 



Proper, l^*-^ drust ; L-—.U-* mu- 
ndsib. 

Property, JU mal. 

Prophet, jr**~> payghambar. 

Proposal, i— flJ£>' takleef. 

Propose,^., .«i>j k-ftJ^i' takleef kardan. 

Proprietor, c_-a.U sahib ; eUU 
malik. 

Propriety, { f^\t> shdyestigee. 

Prospect, Ja^c munzur. 

Prosperity, Jtsl ikbdl. 

Prosperous, JU1 I? ba ikbdl. 

Protect, v., ^jfo-iU*. hemdyet kar- 
dan. 



Protector, ^.U. Titfmi. 

Proud, j^«* maghroor ; jSL> muta- 

kabir. 
Prove, v., ^^p l^o^ sdbit kardan. 
Provender, jJ* 'aleek. 
Proverb, Ji* masal. 
Provided, £XjL> beshart-i-kch. 
Province, oe^j veld yet. 
Providence, ysfa^j)/* vorcardi-gari. 
Provision, tjt±j zakhireh. 
Proviso, \>jZ* shart. 
Provocation, ekys tahreek. 
Provoke, v., y^-Cll angeekhtan; vkj£ 

^f tahreek kardan. 



160 



VOCABULARY. 



an- 



Provoker, is),** muhank ; jt± 
geez. 

Prudence, c^u haseerat ; ^jLi* 

hoshydri. 
Prudent, j Ll* Iwshyar ; Jslc '#HL 
Public (the), s. pie ^m. 
Puff out, v., ^/ly foot hardan. 
Pull, v., s^lcasheedan. 
Pulley, ^a. cha/rkh. 
Pulpit, ^~u muriba/r. 
Pulse, ^ nabz. 
Pumpkin, j>>S" Tcadoo. 
Pun, -lajl iliam. 
Puuisb, «., ^^S^a-^" tanbeeh hardan. 



Punishment, a~jj tanbeeh; 

sidssat. 
Pupil, ^Sj^=>\z, shagird. 
Purchase, s., Jo^i. Jchareed. 
Purchase, v., ^J^p- Ichareedam. 
Purchaser, j\ Jo^i. Ichareed.ar ; ^jj^** 

mushtari. 
Pure, tiU *«/; j^L sddeh. 
Purgative, Jf-~» mus-liil. 
Purify, v., (jjj/'iJ'wi sdf hardan. 
Purple (crimson), ,j\^-j\ drghawdni; 

(blue), *ii^ benefshehi. 
Purport, i_Jlu matlab. 
Purpose, ji_^aio mahsood. 



TOCABULAET. 



101 



Purse, i^S"keese% ; ^jS"keef. 

Pursue, v., ^y^is. 'aliab kardan. 

Push, v., $4$j ui-j peesh randan. 

Put, v., { ^\J^ guzdshtan ,• ^U 5 ne- 
hadan. 

Putrefy, v., g&xS'gandeedan. 

Putrid, t&jJUTgandeedeh. 

Puzzle, v., yj^T J\ri^- hay ran kar- 
dan. 

. Q 

Quadrangle (court), oU hay at ; 

(square), /ijj* muraba. 
Quadruped, t,W*- chdrpd. 



Quadruple, J/JLjl-a-*. chehdr muka- 

bil. 
Quail, c^yjJ^ bildercheen. 
Quality, jIjju mikddr. 
Quantity, ^1 Jiu mikddr. 
Quarrel, *«»U* murafe'eh; ^jy-tda'wa. 
Quarter, q rub'e ; i^ ; U*- chehdr- 

yeky or d,U chdrek. 
Queen, a^L> malakeh. 
Quell, v., £,$£ \s^*\~> sdkit kardan. 
Quench (fire), ^.^Tji^U. kharno 

kardan; (thirst), ^sf ^Xi3 £.9, 

ra/'e tishnagi kardan. 
Question, Jj£- soo-al. 



162 



VOCABULARY. 



Quick (speedy), J^J tund ; (living), 

^a. ha'i ; »JJj zendeh. 
Quicksilver, jh-ij zaybak ; ty-^a. je e- 

veh- 
Quiet, J,1 dram. 
Quilt, t— »U lahdf. 
Qaince, jj beh. 
Quit, v., ^^J>[tarlc Cardan. 

IN 

Quite, *J^=Jl? bil-kulli-eh. 

Quotation, J£i mtH. 

Quote, v., zf^& nuTcl kardan. 



R 

Rabbi, *U.«. khdkhdm. 



Rabbit, <J»fj» khargoosh. 
Rabble, -u&a hengdmeh. 
Raddish, aa-y torubcheh. 
Radiance, Ji^jj roshndee. 
Rafter, ^j teer. 
Rag, a^j peeneh. 
Railing, j^* ma'jur. 
Railway, ^\i\, rdh-i-dhen . 
Raiment, y-U lebas. 
Rain, ^l bar an ; J^j^ barish. 

Rain, ^J^ bdreedan. 
Rainbow, ^jS^y kos-i-kazahh. 

Raisp, v., ^Ijjj bar ddshtan. 
Rake, ySTeJla. khak-kesh. 



TOCABULAET. 



1G3 



Ram, l Ji ir c meesh. 
Ramble, ^J^. sayr kardan. 
Ramrod, a~-« sunbeh. 
Rancid, ***£ tukhmaee. 
Rancourous, i^'keenehee. 
Random, ,J^\ itifdki. 

Rank, ^li sha'an. 

Ransack, ^^/"c^lc ghdrat kardan. 

Ransom, a> ji fadiyeh. 

Rapid, jJ teez ; Jo tund. 

Rapier, s^IjJ kaddreh. 

Rare, t->'o Skam yah. 

Rascal. t&\j p\j*. hardm zadeh. 

Rascality, u 5^1j »\^ hardm zddehgee. 



Rash, l»l>1 j> bee ihtidt. 

Ravage, v., &*f^3 tardj kardan.. 

Raven, t\) zdgh. 

Raw, J.U. kham; tali ndpookhteh. 

Ra y> jilrf porta 

Razor, (j*—^ AJ tee^i daldki. 

Reach, v., ^ajL, o— j dust resdnee* 

dan. 
Reach, s., u-j Lr~—> dust rus. 
Read, p.p., sJily. khdndeh. 
Read, v., ^Ail^i. khdndan. 
Readily, J^Ij bdmayl. 
Ready, ^L. lulzer. 
Ready-cash, JJii nukd. 



164 



VOCABULAET. 



hdkeeki. 
hakeekatan. 
^=Jl*-o mamlakat. 



Real, J' 
Really, 

Realm, 

Heap, v.,- o^Jj^ ^ er0 kardan. 

Rear (bring up), v., a <kj%i parvaree- 

dan; (as a horse), ^L~il Ijj^j 

bardopd istddan. 

Eeason (mind), Jae akl ; (proof), 
JJa daleel. 

Rebel, J^_ yaghi. 
Rebel, v., jjJw. .^V yaghi shudan. 
Rebound, v., c ^Tjb fraz gashtan. 
Rebuke, v., ±f *JJjj~> sarzanesh 
kardan. 



Recall, v., ^A~& j^ baz talabeedan. 

Recede, v.. <j£>j>. bargasMan; {:} ^Sj^ 
bdzgashtan. 

Receipt, J*-, raseed ; ^> kubz. 

Receive, ^J> giriftan ; ^^Tj^J ka- 
bool kardan. 

Recent, sjl; tdzeh. 

Recite, v., ^^fjai nakl kardan. 

Reckon, v., ^-^.T'cjl-^a. hissdb kar- 
dan. 

Recognise, v., c ^i.Li shendkhtan. 
Recollect, v., ^a\>_ ydd kardan. 
Recommend, v., ^sf uV* - sefd- 
resh kardan. 



YOCABTTLAEY. 



16; 



Recommendation, ^la- sefdreshi. 
Recompence, <J>\*L pdddsh ; sy* 

muzd ; olslC mukdfdt. 
Reconcile, v., ^^b zJ^\ dshti dddan. 
Record, v., i>f^^4 suit kardan. 
Recover (get back), v., ^IjjIj bdz 

ydftan; (health), ^l lii shefd 

ydftan. 

Rectitude, jJu» sidh ; ( jJ\ J rdstee. 
Red (crimson), j*J kirmiz; (scarlet), 



ty 



surkh. 



Reduce, v., ±f S^kam kardan. 
Reed, ^ nay. 

Reel, £i3*b£ kaldfeh-nakh. 



Refer, v., c *j~ *+\j rdji' kardan; 

^ijj\j^y\^ vaguzdr kardan. 
Reflect (think), v., ^j^x-^ son 

dan. 
Refrain, ^^JLT'o— j dust kasheedan. 
Refuge, «b pendh. 
Refuge (to take), v., a ^\ *tj pendh 

awardan. 
Refuse, v., ^J^ Jj-» kabool nekar- 

dan. 
Refute, v., ^J'^j rud kardan. 
Regard (esteem), v., j&\* j>je- 'azeei 

ddshtan; (look at), ±jfi& ne<jdh 

kardan. 



166 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



Regard (esteem), fir^ iMiram. 
Regent, *li* -i^ kd'im makdm; ^^V 

ja-nesheen. 
Regiment, ~y foj. 
Region, ^V naivdliee. 
'Register, s.,>»o daftar (pL>l»a de- 
bater) . 
Register, v., &*f*z4 subt kardan. 
Regret, u->~^ afsooss. 
Regret, v., ^sib ^-j-il a/sooss d«s7i- 

ian. 
Regular, *J*te ^ 6« kd'adeh. 
Regularly, sO^U jsl^ mo' dfik-i-ka' a- 
deli. 



Regulate, v., C )'ib *~e£tanzeem dadan 
Regulation, sJ^V§ kd'adeh; ^y^ kd- 
noon. 

Reign, s., oJJL- sultanat. 

Reign, v., ^.a^o^aLi sultanat /car- 
dan. 

Rein, jl». o-»«> dust-i-jelo. 

Relate, v., c-iT J 55 ^ w7cl kardan; 
^jdfsj* kisseh guftan. 

Release, v., ^^T^jl dzdd kardan. 

Religion, &a deen ; l-*»J* muzhab. 

Relish, tj* muzzeh. 

Rely, v., jj^-U atefcl itakad dashtan. 

Remain, v., JoL mandan. 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



Remainder, ^st bdki. 
Remarkable, t-^ 'ajab. 
Remedy, ^s. ilaj ; »,L. chdreh. 
Remember, ^b at ydd ddshtan. 
Remembrance, .si ydd; (souvenir), 
^tat yddgar, 

Remind, v., ^jl at y#d mvardan ; 

ij-tf u^'^' - ydddveri kardan. 
Remissness, cJisc. ghiflat. 
Renew, v., ^^Tjoj^J' tajdeed kar- 

dan. 
Renounce, v., ±fJCA inkar kardan. 
Rent (fissure), dU. c/iafc ; (bire), 



S, -s. 



ijdreh; a^kerdyeh. 



167 

ta'ameer 



Repair (mend), ^a^S" 

Cardan. 
Repairs, oj^w ta'ameerat. 
Repeal, v., ^^Tjtt 6a£ e £ A:arf7<>>i. 
Repeat, «., ^pTjl i« 3 guftan ; j\jZj 

v^ftikrar kardan. 
Repeatedly, ^^C mukarar. 
Repent, v., j^ ^I^JLj peshimdn 

shudan. 
Repentance, J>^+Ai peshimdni. 
Repetition, jl^Gi tikrdr. 
Replete, ^U-» mamlu. 
Reply, ^l^a- jawab. 
Report, j*± khabar ; cj^i. shuhret. 



168 



VOCABULARY. 



Repose, v., ^f e^o.1^.1 isterahat 

kardan. 
Repose, s.,o^l/-l isterahat; ^Jiiy~>\ 

dsoodegee. 
Represent (expose), v., sf j\&>\ iz- 

hdr kardan. 
Reprieve, oU* mulilat. 
Reproach, d «5j &&> ta'aneh zadan. 
Reprove, v., sf J^)j~> sarzanish 

kardan. 
Reptile, ; jjU. janiver. 

Reputation, )j>\ abroo ; i^-mIj nd- 

mooss. 
Reputable,^** md'taber. 



Request, v., *f u 8 *!?* kha'hesh 

kardan. 
Request, s., (ji*^ kha'hesh. 
Require, v., ^\j± khdstan. 
Requisite, &*p Idzemeh. 
Rescue, oU nejdt. 
Rescue, v., ^b oUs nejdt dddan. 
Resemblance, oaI~£> shebdhat. 
Resemble, ^j^-ib o-ab-S. shebdhat 

ddshtan. 
Reside, v., ^^b U£- suknti ddshtan. 
Residence, <J^~* musken. 
Resign, v., ^^b U~~*l isteefd dddan. 

Resin, *£j1 angum ; y>~> sakkaz. 



YOCABTTLABY. 



169 



Resist, v., &*/ jTs^li-jl istadigee 

Tcardan. 
Resolve, v., &&/],[? kerdr giriftan. 
Resolution, J\J kerdr. 
Respect, s., f\f=-\ iMirdm. 
Respect, v., cJ x-Jb *jzsfi muhtarem 

ddnestan. 
Respectable,^*- mo'taber. 



\j~*> 1 



isterd- 



Rest, s., o*]; rdhat ; 

hat. 
Rest, v, ^j o=»l; rdhat Tcardan. 
Rest (support), aS3 tekieh. 
Result, istP nateejeh. 
Resurrection, o<U kiydmat. 



Retail, J^jj *i>j* khoordeh feroo- 

shee. 
Retain, v., { ^\<i j& negdh dashtan. 
Retribution, oljW* mujazdt. 
Return, s., \z**\p murdja'at. 
Return (come back), v., ^^ ' j> bar 

gashtan; ^J~ o*?^ murdja'at 

kardan; (give back), & &U ^ pus 

dddan. 
Reveal, ^f\J&\ dshkdreh kardan. 
Revenge, *taal intikdm. 
Revenue, oUU mdlydt. 
Review, s., ^L sdn. 
Review, v., ^jo ^L* sdn deedan. 



170 



YOCABTTLAKY. 



Revolution, ^J,^ gardish. 
Revolve, v., ^Jj^S" gardeedan. 
Revolver, aJy,^^ as'Lk tapdncheh 

sheshlooleh' ee. 
Reward, «., ^.sb pdddsh ; c>*».j ja. 

hak-i-zahmat ; -Uil ana' dm. 
Reward, v., ±\i -Uil ana? dm dddan. 
Rhubarb (medecine), Jiy mJ rawand ; 

(fruit), w°\y.j rivas. 
Rhyme, aJls kdfieh. 
Rib, «JJ^ dendeh. 
Ribbon, j ly navdr. 
Rice, J^j berinj ; (plain boiled) ^U. 

chelo ; (with sauce, &c), _jb pilo. 



Rich, cJ«>5 L_-a.U. sdhib doiclet. 
Riddle, U»u> muammd. 
Ride, r , ^J-i.^!^-. sawar shudan. 
Rider, j'^-i sawdr. 



Ridge, x^ljp-ushteli. 

Ridicule, j^sr** muskhareh. 

Right (not left), Li~-^ rdst ; (due), 

jp. liaklc. 
Righteous, jiJ-» sadeek ; ^j\xi si- 

ddkat. 
Righteousness, jSu> sidk. 
Rigid, oL. stf£ ; o^- 1 sakht. 
Eing, «L. halkeh ; (of finger), _/^Jol 



YOCABULAEY. 



171 



Ring, v., ^j^i^ebj zang kasheedan. 

Riuglet, i-dj Z W- 

Kiot, Ifcjfe ghogha. 

Ripe, jJu-jj raseedeh. 

Rise, v., e ^-.U.^j bar khdstan ; ^J^V 

pa shudan. 
Risk,^lai- khatar. 
Rival, *-sjj». hareef. 
River, ^ rood ; jjU.^ roodkhaneh. 
Rivulet, ^3 Tia^ir. 
Road, i\j rah ; *^V jddeh. 
Roar, v., .>j */a na'areh zadan. 
Roast, v., ^^\fkabab kardan. 
Rob, v., ^^ diczdeedan. 



Robber, &)& duzd ; (highway), tfAj 

rdhzan. 
Robbery, ^j^ diizdee. 
Robe, Us kebd. 
Robust, J^lS tanomund. 
Rock, jS'kamar. 
Rocket,^ sli. shdh-teer. 
Rogue, ^j\ abash; j./> shareer. 
Roguery, c^fi sherarat. 
Roll (list), o-> fihrist; (of linen, 

&c), ^ looleh. 
Roll (on the ground), r., ^V* ghal- 

teedan ; (make a), ^U Jj! fooZeh 

safc/i&m. 



172 



VOCABULARY. 



Rolling-pin, aj.s,j vardeneh ; <v^&. 

choobeh. 
Roof, t-ii-» sak'f ; *1j bam. 
Rook, i.'Xf'keldgh. 
Room, jU»jl otafe. 
Root (of a plant), ii^j reesheh ; (of 

a matter), Jol dsl ; ^ beekh. 
Rope, ^U— ij reesmdn. 
Rosary, ^t-^J tasbeehh. 
Rose (ordinary), ~j~> jTgul-i-surkli; 

(grafted), ^j^Jj-j-j payvandi ; 

(monthly), j^j jT gul-i-rashti. 

Rose-water, iS^giildb. 
Rot, v., yJ~~>y r poosedan. 



Rotation, ^sj'gardesh. 
Rough, jjj zibr ; c^i,^ drusht. 



Roughly, (j^j-i I? bd drushtee. 
Round, ^S ^ird ; j3 x» modavar ; (of 

ul 

artillery), eUi sheleeJc. 
Row (line), «_»-» sw/; Wi. A'Tiai. 
Row (in a boat), v., *j jj/o paroo 

Royal, djLli slidhdneh. 
Rub, v., ^JJU maZeecZan.. 
Rubbing, ^U rndlish. 
Rubbish, Jli^l dshJchdl. 
Ruby, JJ Za'Z. 
Rug, *s?l» kdlicheh. 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



173 



Ruin (building), *>[£. khardbeh ; 

(destruction), ^j1> khardbi. 
Ruined, ^Jw. i-jl^i. khardb shudan ; 

^ijsf makhroob. 
Rule (canon),^l dmr; (government), 

o-j^. hekoomat. 

Rule (lines), «., ^J^T k±. fc7ia£ fca- 
sheedan ; (govern), ±jf \z~*>f*> 
hekoomat kardan. 

Ruler (for lines), jX^-» musdar ; 
(governor), *^=>^ hakim. 

Rumour, c^i. shuhrat. 

Run, v., ^Jjj.5 daveedan ; ..^^ 



Runner (footman), JoiL shdtir. 
Rust, ebj zan^. 

S 

Sable (fur), mV" - sanjab. 

Sabre, j*Z-C> shamsheer. 

Sack, s., J^ jawdl. 

Sack, i'., ^T £^U j L^i.lj tefcM o 
tdrdj kardan. 

Sacred, ^-Ji- mukuddus. 

Sacrifice, s., ^l?/ kurbdn. 

Sacrifice, v., o'if ok/ kurbdn kar- 
dan. 

Sad, eU- x diltang 



174 



YOCABULABY. 



Saddle, &) zeen ; (pack), .^\j pdldn. 

Safe, ^\ amn. 

Safely, ^-»^L. Ij bd saldmat. 

Safety, i»}L, saldmati. 

Saffron, ^J&j za'aferdn. 

Sage (wise), Jsls- 'dkil. 

Said (aforesaid ),jj^J^ mazkoGr. 

Sail, ^W^ bddbdn. ■ 

Sailor, ,j^j» bahri. 

Saint, ^ peer ; a^lj^Ll imdmzddeh. 

Sake J>f kU. Jchdter. 

Sal-ammoniac, j ^U.J neshddur. 

Salary, t—-^.^ mawdjib. 

Sale, a-j bay ; j-^ feroosh. 



Saliva, i-Jj £w/. 

Sallow, vkjtjj zardrang. 

Salt, dUi nemek. 

Salt-cellar, a \i eU5 nemek-dan. 

Salty, jy± shoor. 

Saltpetre, * ; yi shooreh. 

Salubrious, JL sdlim. 

Salver, acj**« majma'eh. 

Salutation, j«iL. salarn. 

Salute, v., a &\a |»^L, saldm dddan. 

Same, l j~+a, hameen. 

Sample, *i^*i nemooneh. 

Sanction, *jl».l ijdzeh. 

Sand, <j-U mdseh. 



VOCABULABY. 



175 



Sandal, j,U. eharuk. 
Sandal- wood, J*u- sandal. 
Sanguinary, ^y£y» khoonkhdr. 
Sap, ij>£> sheereh. 

■-Sapphire, J^ajslj yakoot kabood. 
Sarcasm, ±±sh ta'aneh. 
Satin, u-itl atlas. 
Sash, AzijS kamarband. 
Satan, ^^A 1 shaitan. 
Satisfaction, oil*} rezdyet. 
Satisfy, v., o^ ^j r5a1 ' kardan. 
Saturate, v., o&J }t?» klieess kardan. 
Saucer, ^XJuo nd'albeki. 
Save, v., ^ta olsi wej«£ dddan. 



Saving (frugal*, jljJl ^^j pus dnddz. 

Savour, oJJ lizzet ; tj+ muzzeh. 

Saw, sj\ arreh. 

Say, v., ^giiftan. 

Saying, j\xfgv ft dr. 

Scabbard, «— »"$£ gheldf. 

Scafiblding, ^xj v>*- choob nabdi. 

Scale, a \jt^ meezdn. 

Scar, eta ddgh. 

Scarce, S" kam ; JJs kaleel ; ^ f 

kam-ydb. 
Scarcity, JaJ kahtee. 
Scare, v., Juil~>/ tarsdneedan. 
Scarlet, ~j~> surkh. 



176 



VOCABTTBABY. 



Scatter, v., ^J^Ij pdskeedan ; ^J& 
v^fpakhsh kardan. 

Scent, y, boo. 

Scent, v., o^fy. boo kardan. 

Scholar (pupil), *j£=\2> sliagird ; (di- 
vinity), <h-LL talabeh ; (learned 
man), J* l-^U sahib VVni. 

School, ju-^j^o madrasseh ; t_~iC 
malctub ; (fellow), t_-^ ^ hvmi 
maktub ; (master), J** mo'allem. 

Science, Jic ilm. 

Scissors, i>)/* mikrdz ; ^si? kaychi. 
Scold, v., i^f J*)j~> sarzanish kar> 
dan. 



Scorch, v., ^3-. sookhtan. 
Scorpion, i-ys- akrab. 
Scoundrel, **\j*\j* hardmtddeh. 
Scout, (j-^-U. jdsoos. 
Scrape, v., ^j-il^. khardsTieedan. 
Scratch, v., see scrape. 
Scream, v., ^j j**. jeek zadan. 
Screen, a>y r pardeh. 
Screw, g} peech. 

Scribe, ^Kkdtib. 

Scruple, a^. shubheh; ek. shak. 

Sculpture, ^Isi nakdahi. 

Scum, (-aTfea/. 

Sea, \)j& daryd. 



VOCABULARY. 



177 



Seal, j4» rrmh'r ; (animal), 1 ; a eU 

sag-i-daryd. 
Seal, v., ^J'jt* muh'r kardan. 
Seam, c*jJ dookht; jji dwrz. 
Search, v., ^a~a. justan ; if j*~*- 

just ojoo kardan; ^ \s*^ tafa- 

hus kardan. 
Season, ^j* mowsam; J-as/us'Z. 
Seat, cJ i— ti ^U. jdee neshestan. 
Second (time), A,Jl> sdni-eh ; (posi- 

tion), js_s duyum ; ^Jl? sirct. 

Secret, jl, r<£z. 
Sect, aAjU» tdyefeh. 
Section, -adal kuta'e'h. 



Secure, ky«* mahfooz. 

Scarcity, l=^>^-i seldmat. 

Sedition, ^Li fasdd ; *u» fitneh. 

See, v., b)«*><s deedan. 

Seed, j*s? tukhm. 

Seek, e ^~ ». justan. 

Seem, v., ,j«>>*5 na?noodan ; Jui^»'.ii 
zaTwr shudan. 

Seize, ^pfgirijtan. 

Seldom, b'^, JJ nudratan; jiSkamtar. 

Select, v., ±f <-i\&\ intikhdb kar- 
dan. 

Select, p,p., ir^* muntakhib. 

Self, *ji. khud. 

x 



178 



YOCABTTLABY. 



Selfish, ir~->.> uji. khud doost. 
Sell, v., &&-JJ* ferooJchtan. 
Send, v., ^\^ji feristddan. 
Senior, ^ peer ; jSkebeer. 
Senna (drug), U- senna. 

Vi 

Sense (feeling), y-a. hiss; (intellect) f 

Jiit 'akl. 
Senseless (wanting life), J^^. bee- 

hoosh; (without meaning), ,y**? 

bee-ma'anee. 
Sent, s3\z~>j9 feristddeh. 
Sentence (phrase), \z>\* ibdret. See 

Judgment. 

Sentinel, ^U-b pdssbdn. 



Separate, 1 J**, judd. 

Separately, o***^ eldhedeh; 1^*- !«**. 
judd-judd. 

Separation, ^J\J*- judd-ee. 

Sepulchre, fi fgoor. 

Sequel, &J&A dkherat. 

Sequester, ^$f\>~i> zubt liar dan. 

Sergeant, ^£»l? a dah bdshi. 

Serious (affair), *$* mohim; (person), 
j^L. sangeen. 

Serpent, j U mar. 

Serpentine, -£,L mdrpeech. 

Servant, j&*£ noker ; p^U. Mid- 
dim. 



VOCABULAEY. 



179 



Serve, v., ^sf^fy nokeri kardan ; 
^^"oowXi. khidmat Jcardan. 

Service, \jj>y nokeri; o-J^- khid- 

met. 
Set, v., ^loT guzashtan ; ^jI^J ne- 

hddan. 
Settle, v., ^jTjjZ* mukarar kardan; 

(jail J^j}j5 kerdr guzashtan. 
Several, jo*, chund ; ^.J^- chun- 

deen. 
Severe, ^.j-* sakht ; Jo j*£i shedeed. 
Sew, y^iji dookhtan. 
Shabby, ^*H». hakeer. 
Shade, 4jL» say eh. 



Shake, v., c a\i ^Kj takdn dddan. 
Shame, *jit shurm ; L> hyd. 
Shameless, *jL ^ bee shurm ; W (_j 

See 7iya. 
Shank, jL safe. 
Shape, J£-i. shikl ; o-» hey at. 
Share, v., ±jiz~+~a kismat kardan. 
Sharp, jJ teez. 

Shatter, v. } $jT Sj^i. khoord kardan 
Shave, v., ^J-i]/ terdsheedan. 
Shawl, Jli shdl. 
Shed, v., ij&j reekhtan. 
Sheet, J-*^ shamad ; ii\» moldfeh. 
Shelf, *J Ik tdkcheh. 



180 



VOCABULARY. 



Shell (fish), i_»J^ sadaf; (bomb), 

Sj\j *». hhonvpdreh. 
Shelter, *Uj pendh. 
Shepherd, c ;^»»- choopdn. 
Sherbet, o^> sharbat. 
Shield, j~* neper. 
Shiue, v., ^j^jIj tdbeedan ; ^Ju-1^ 

dara/c/iseedaw. 

Ship, s.,j{&. jehdz ; f j£S'~keshtee. 
Ship, -y., yjj^J^a. 7i,a?uZ ~kardan;j\i 
^fbdr Jcardan. 

Shiver, v., ^>jj larzeedan. 

Shock, aoJwj sudmeh ; uj,.* 2iw&; ^K)' 



Shock (to give a), ^Ij ^Ki takdn 

dddan. 
Shoe, L £ i S'lcafsh ; (horse), JsJ na'ai ; 

(canvas), tyS 'geeveh. 
Shoemaker, jj^ ^jufkafsh-dooz. 
Shoot (a bird, &c), v., z>) zadan ; 

(to fire upon), ^jTjZ cUtf tufang 

dar kardan. 
Shoot, s., As^-lii shdkhcheh. 

Shop, ^fo dukdn; tj^-hujreh; y wine), 
ails*- maykhdneh ; (apothecary's), 
ajU. j^ dawdkhdneh. 

Shore, *JS k endre h. 

Short, t^jfkootdh. 



YOCABTTLAKY 



181 



Shortly (in short), j^s." rrmkhtasser ; 

(presently), j^^ filfor ; 5H 

dldn. 
Shortsighted, ^^kambeen. 
Shot, a^.Li sachmeh. 
Shovel, Jrf &eel. 
Shoulder, jjI- shdneh. 
Shout, s., jb dad; jljl dvdz. 
Shout, v., i/"j>b dad kardan ; jhjl 

jjj^/'ai'az kardan; 2jT \j«, sedd 

kardan. 

Show, s., liLi' tamdshd. 

Show, v., ^^b ^llj nishdn dddan. 

Shower, yi/o bdresh. 



Shrewd, ^Li.^* hoshyar. 

Shriek. See Scream. 

Shrimp, £* maygoo. 

Shrink, v., jJLT-* ; .> dar 7ium la- 

sheedan. 
Shroud, ^kajan. 
Shrub, &* booteh. 
Shuffle, v., &*j~*j> barhum zadan. 
Shun, v., ^.ip vUs&.l ijtendb kardan. 
Shut, v., c >i~j bustan. 
Shy, J^- khijil. 
Sick, yiji-li ndkhosh ; Ju.j* mareez; 

o-! 1 ^? behdlat ; JJ* aleel ; 

za'eef. 



18S 



YOCABTJLABY. 



Side, ^Jjo taraf; ^ pahloo. 
Siege, s^-ls* mohdssereh. 
Sieve, J^c gharbeel. 
Sift, v.j ^^ beekhtan. 
Sigh, xJjTi\ dh kesheedan. 
Sight,^lii nazar ; sfc negdh. 
Sighted (short), ^.S' kambeen ; 

(dim), ^ eb,b tareek-been; (loug), 

^^j^i doorbeen, 
Sign, ^li-3 nishdn ; u^«^U 'ilamat. 
Signal, Sjlil ishdreh. 



Signature, 



f'uiol -iniza'. 



Significant, ( _ f ^* 'o ba nza'anee. 



Signify, v., i ^\^ i a*+ ma'anee dash' 
tan. 



Silence, 



<S"J* 



U. khdmooshee. 



Sick, *i^?l aferesTiam. 

Silly, *^_j*j beehoodeh. 

Silver, tj& nukreh. 

Similar, J^L manend. 

Simple, *.>'•— sddeh. 

Sin, »UT gundh. 

Sin, i>., L j>i/'»Ur5rz7jia7i, kardan. 

Since, ^j^ choon; *&y$ choonkeh. 

Sincere, j^U s«cZiA; ; >_»L> .sa/. 

Sincerity, i^5ljs-> seddkat. 

Sinful, ^ITsUS gondhkar. 



YOCABUEALY. 



1S3 



Sing, ^J^y- khdndan. ; ^Jil^i )W 

dvdz khdndan. 
Singer, sJcJlji. khdnendeh. 
Single, eiJ tak ; (unmarried), ^s* 

mujurrad. 
Singular, &ju mufrad. 
Sink, v., j*j 3} froo raftan ; j> 

a J£> ghurk shudan ; ^jj* ^°J* 

ghooteh khurdan. 
Sinless, «U£o beegondh. 
Sinner, JC*\£ gondh-kdr. 
Sip, v., ^yiy»j* muzmuzeh kardan. 
Sir, L_*&.L» sahib. 
Sirup, fj*^ sheer eh. 



Sister, j*\y» khdher ; *^i~»» ham- 

sheereh. 
Sit, v., c ^— 15 neshestan. 
Situation, ^(C makdn. 
Situated, *slj vake'. 
Size, Ji kud ; *j1jj1 dnddzeh. 
Size (glue), J^ sereesh. 
Skewer, ^s-i seekh. 
Skilful, jjls fca&ik 
Skill, o-k^ kdbiliyat. 
Skin, s., o-_>i poost. 
Skin, v., xS'^->y, poost kandan. 
Skirt, ^b damen. 
Skulk, v., J-i ^W^ penhun shudan. 



184 



VOCABULARY. 



Sky, ^U-.] asmdn. 
Slack, tj>— » sust. 

Slacken, v., ^fiz~~~> sust kardan. 
Slap, ^^L-i seelee. 
Slaughter, Ji» kutl. 
Slave, j.iU gholam. 
Slay, v., ^^ifkushtan. 
Sleek, *>j furbeh. 
Sleep, s., vl}» khdb. 
Sleep, v., ^j-olji. khdbeedan. 
Sleeplessness, ^[5-*^ beekhdbee ; 
^Ijuj beeddree. 

Sleeve, ^t^] asteen. 
Slender, ek,U bareek. 



Slide, v., ^Sijii laghzeedan. 

Slide, s., tj^Ju shurshureh. 

Slight. See Slender. 

Slime, ^ lejjen. 

Sling, eU-- <J5 kulbeh sang. 

Slip, v., &&_$ laghzeedan. 

Slip, s., ^p^i! laghzesh; (of a plant), 

Js kalam ; (of the pen), *l»j«- 

sah'v-i-kalam. 

Slippery, JJ Zeez. 
Slit, v., ^pte. shakdftan. 
Slow, ai~j»1 dhisteh ; ^y. yavdsh ; 
jSkund. 

Slowly, <vi~jb1 dhisteh. 



VOCABULARY. 



185 



Sluggard, Jp tunbul. 

Sly, hJ^j zeereJc. 

Small, eUjTfciicTiefe ; ^y- khoord. 

Sinallness, J^fkoochekee. 

Smallpox, Jbl ableh. 

Smart, j/^« ; (P ain )> u£j*» sooxesTi. 

Smear, v.. ^^U maleedan. 

Smell, «.,_}> feoo. 

Smell, v., o^y. boo Tcardan. 

W _ I 

Smile, s., ~~3 tabassum; J^a-t-J 

lubkhund. 

* 

Smile, v., *J> p~~3 tabassum kar- 

dan ; yjif Ji±.t_J lubkhund Tcar- 
dan. 



Smite, v., &j zadan ; ^^koobee- 

dan. 
Smith (black), fi*\ ahenger ; (gold), 

jQ zargar. 
Smoke, Jj^ dooci ; ^U-s dukhdn. 
Smoke (chimney), v., *j~ dj-a dood 

Tcai'dan ; (tobacco), ^J^lfkashee- 

dan. 
Smooth, (_il<» saf. 

Smother, v. , zf&* khufeh kardan. 
Snare, -b dam; j^kamand. 
Snake,jU mar. 

Sneeze, v., a ^f^s- 'atseh kardan. 
Snipe, j^di nukderuz. 



186 



VOCABULARY. 

khurkhur tar- 



Snore, v., Sjfj»j± 

dan. 
Snout, >jy r poozeh. 
Snow, s., (_ *j> barf. 
Snow, v., ^Jo^ ±Jj> barf bareedan. 
Snuff, sJ6\ dnfieh. 
Snuff-box, ^ta-uwl dnfiehddn. 
So, t^*** humcheen; £_>*** hum 

choon. 
Soak, v., g&fu***. kheess kardan. 
Soap, e)^^ saboon. 
Sober, jL^» hoshyar. 
Sociable, oaM lj bd Hi fat. 
Society, u~*.Lm musdhabat. 



Sock, ^jyt- jurdb. 

Soda, vUi kalidb. 

Sofa, c.Q neemkat. 

Soft, (•/ nurm. 

Softly, «-»*! ahesteh. 

Soil, v., ^^jT'g^jJI aloodeh kardan. 

Soil, s., elU. khdk ; ^j zameen. 

Sojourn, i-Jsy tawakuf. 

Solace, v., zJTL3 tasali kardan. 

Sold, <^jy ferookhteh. 

Solder, ~J laheem. 

Soldier, jU^ sarbaz. 

Sole (only), Wi" tanha. 

Solely, laai fakat. 



VOCABULAET. 

khdhesh kar- 



187 



Solicit, v., ^ J^y* 
dun. 

Solid, J^* munjamid. 

Solve, v., $yj&>\ ashkdr kardan. 

Sometime, j*j eb yek vakti. 

Sometimes, ^jtfgahi; »\fs\fgah-gdh. 

Somewhere, J^jd-ee. 

Son, s~j pesser ; Jjjj? jarzand ; Jj 
valad ; (grandson), sy neveh ; (of 
Adam), -.si ^/i beni Adam; (of 
a king), t&\) »^> slidh-zddeh ; (of a 
nobleman), it>\) j#>\ ameer-zddeh ; 
(only), J^-j tf>1 -il>?t voahhad ; (in- 
law), .sLta ddmdd. 



Song, »jl_j1 avdzeh. 

Soon, Jjj zood ; ^^>jy. be zoodee ; S*? 

jald. 
Sop, A«ii! lukineh. 
Sorcerer, J^^ jddooger. 
Sordid, cU» tamd\ 
Sore, «&j zakhm. 
Sorrow, ^ gharri ; ^jjf^ dilgeeree ; 

sjjil andooh. 
Sorry, dl^c- ghamnak ; j£}± dil- 

geer. 
Sort, fj rakkam ; ^r^. jins ; jy*. 

joor ; cy no'e; *~5 ktssm; a3^ 

gooneh. 



1S8 



VOCABULARY. 



Sought, »juJl» talabeedeh ; lj^IL* 

mutloob. 
Soul, -jj rooh ; \*.jdn. 
Sound, 1j-» seda; \z>y> sot. 
Soup, \>jyi> shorbd ; oi^Tl dbgoosht. 
Sour, J±j tursh. 
Source (water), &+£-* cheshmeh ; 

(origin), J->1 asl. 
South, <->y+ jenoob. 
Sow, v., ^f ' \sss\j) z era 1 at Tcardan ; 

ij^X kdshtan. 

Space, Ui fezd ; o»-ij vusaat. 
Spacious, a~-j vusee'. 
Spade, J* beel. 



Span, »—^j vajab. 

Spangle, eU_^ jmlak. 

Spark, sj\j jUl atesh par eh ; £j* 

cherekeh. 
Sparkle, v., ^Jy-li^,^ daraJchaheedan. 
Sparrow, d~^> gunjishk. 
Speak, v., ^fguftan ; ^j <— i^*. harf 

zadan. 

Spear, sjJ nayzeh. 
Special, yej^s viakksooss. 
Species, ^^^ jinss ; p~5 kissm. 
Specimen, ujJ nemooneh. 

Speck, iLiii nuHeh; A3 lekkeh. 
Spectacle, liUi' tamdshd. 



YOCABULAET. 



189 



Spectacles, <2k*c 'aynek. 

Speech, a \ij zebdn. 

Speed, aisP 'ajaleh ; i-jIsA shetdb. 

Speedily, us&jj> be zood.ee ; l$±^> be 

tundee. 
Spell, v., ^^f iLl im la Icardan. 
Spend, v., ±fi-»j* sarf Icardan; ^J» 

*jfkharj Icardan. 

Spice, &i)$\ advieh. 

Spider, o^Jop 'ankaboot. 

Spill, v., j&j reekhtan. 

Spin, v., ^j rustan ; ^U bdftan. 

Spinach, p-^-1 ispenaj. 

Spiral, j^^i peechdar. 



Spirit, £.<}j rookJi. 

Spirited, o^c »_^L> saheb-i-gheyrat. 

Spiritless, #*£ beejdn. 

Spiritual, ^^jj rohdnee. 

Spirits, j*y± johar ; (out of), iU.> ^ 

bee-demagh. 
Spit (for roasting), >--> seekh. 

Spit, v., yji/'t-aJ tuf kardan. 
Spite, xJfkeeneh. 
Spittle, \J& tuf. 
Splendid, Jia. jalleel. 
Splendour, J^U jellal. 
Split, v., ^Ki shekdftan. 
Spoil, s., o,le gharat. 



190 



TOCABULAEY. 



Spoil, v., ^sj ±)\j± kherdb kardan ; 

^j/^jU zaye' kardan. 
Sponge, ^1 dbr. 
Spoon, j^W kdshook. 
Sport (games), ^jjl bdzi ; (fun), 

j^y^ shookhi ; (chase), J& she- 

kdr. 
Sportsman, \jj&> sliekdri. 
Spot, JU. khdl ; Aim nukteh ; a^J 

lekeh. 
Spout, *!_jl looleli. 
Sprain, v., ^J^. el^ ^rag-berag shu- 

dan. 
Sprain, u if^ peechesh. 



Spread (carpet, &c), ^^f\J>y farsh 
kardan. 

Sprightly, c — ^chust; elYU. chdldk. 

Spring (season), jV+4 behdr ; (of 
water), < « * , ^ cheshmeh. 

Sprinkle, v., ^J^U ptisheedan. 

Sprout, v., cjJ'-jjj rooeecZan. 

Spurs, j-**-> mahmeez. 

Spurious, t_Ji fraZb ; J«a. ja'al. 

Spy, s., (_hj^U. jdssooss. 

Spy, v., g^ ^^-j'-a-jassoossee Arardan. 

Squadron, alL, ressaleh. 

Squander, v., c $jT <*j\jj\ israf kar- 
dan. 



VOCABTJLAET. 



191 



Square, £ij* murubba' ; i^j^^e* 

chehar goosheh. 
Squeeze, v., *j^2J feshdrdan. 
Squills, Jjfl-il askail. 
Squint, s., Jjja.1 ahval. 
Squint, v., ^y. J[y»-1 ahval budan. 
Stab, v., &&) tjV Tcdrd zadan ; j*^ 



$j khanjar zadan. 



Stable, s., A*^ taveeleh. 
Stability, <jj^\ paiddree. 
Stack, ^j^ Jcharman. 
Staff, L~£ 'asd. 
Stag, lyj^j^ gdvikoohee. 
Stage, j£* sakoo. 



Stagnant, ».>1=~j1 istddeh. 

<*, 
Stain, ixJ lakkeh. 

■i 
Staircase, A>pelleh. 

Stake (wood), £. meefc7i ; (at play), 

L^i. shurt. 
Stale, ai^ kohneh ; (victuals), *iLA 

shuhdneh. 
Stalk, jL safc. 
Stall (for cattle), j>1 dkhoor. 
Stamina, a~j bunyeh. 
Stammer, v., ^J? &Uj zebdn gvrif- 

tan. 
Stamp, v., ij zadan. 
Stamp, s.,j*» muh'r. 



192 

Stand, v., gds-tl istadan ; 

^j^b pasheedan. 
Standard, JJ^> baydak. 
Star, Jjlx-il istdreh. 
Starch, jl_^-IJL-j nishdsteh ; j\ — »1 

dhdr. 
Starling, j L» sar. 
Start (to begin journey), ^1»1 »b 

rah uftadan ; (from sleep), ^-Ajp-j\ 
,-^r-j ) dz kh'db burjustan. 
Startle (for terror), v., ±f p ram 

kardan. 
Starve, v., d a f . j^-J^ az guresnegee 

murdan. 



VOCABULAET 

(up), 



State (condition), cJU. hdlat ; J1_H 
dhwdl ; Jl» hal ; (rank), *3j* 
martubeh; (pomp), J^U- jelldl; 
(in this state of affairs), o)W*y 
dor een hdlat ; (affairs of state), 
cXUj^l dmoor i mamlakat. 

Station, jC~» muskun ; J^ munzul ; 
j5y murkaz ; && makdn. 

Stationary, «.il=~jl istddeh. 

Stationer, ^jj &K kaghaz feroosh. 

Statue, **~*° mojussameh. 

Stature, JJol anddm. 

Statute, y\s kanoon. 

Stay, v., ^JjU mancZan. 



TOCABULAEY. 



193 



tead (instead of ), j>f- avaz ; Us bejd. 

teadfast, ^ kayem. 

teal, v., c ;Jo-ij«i duzdxedan. 

team, j&. bukhdr. 

teel, ^y fooldd. 

teep (downhill), y„;^- sarazeer; 

(uphill), %_,-> sarabdld. 
•tench, »jj j^j^ &oo-ee gandeedeh ; 

ajjo badboo. 
tep, ,.Ji kadam j (of promotion), 

a»y.> derejeh; i^j* martabeh; (of 

staircase), aL pelleh. 
Step, v., ^JT +J3 kadam giriftan. 
5 tew, ^^ yakhni. 



Steward, ^U nazir. 

Stick, ujj*. c/ioob ; U* 'assa. 

Stick, v., o^w* chaspeedan. 

Sticky, dl~~*- chaspndk, 

Stiff, o^" safcfrt ,■ is-*- s<f*. 

Stifle, v., c ,j/'"i» t/ia/a kardan. 

Stifling, aii. khafa. 

Still, 3^» henooz ; j\> baz. 

Stillness, ^1,1 drdmi. 

Stimulate,"!'., cr^l angeekhtan. 

Sting, s., u~> wees7i. 

Sting, v., cj>>j J~> *««& sadan. 

Stingy, ij-^keniss. 

Stink. *See Stench. o 



194 



VOCABTJLAET. 



Stipulate, v., a Aj\ji> shart kardan. 

Stipulation, )*ju shart. 

Stir, v., ^_f^r- harakat Tcardan. 

Stirrup, yJCj rehab. 

Stock (of a gun), J\<MS konddk. 

Stocking, u! ; j» jurab. 

Stolen, jJ^jj duzdeedeh; (property), 

ijtp JU mal-i-duzdee. 
Stomach, s J*- mctadeh; ^> shakam. 
Stone, dL- scmgr. 
Stony, ^VeL- sanglakh. 
Stood, s^Ii-jJ istadeh. 
Stool, *i^jW charpayeh. 
Stoop, v., o^ (■*" khum shudan - 



a M\* 



Stoop, s., *» fclFntm. 

Stop, v., ^ala-il istadan ; 

mdndan. 
Stop, s , aWs nukteh. 
Store, ,U1 dnbdr. 
Stork, jld lukfoik. 
Storm, ^Ujt to/So. 
Story (narrative), oi^- hekdyat ; 

Jai wtifcl ; (of a bouse), *&> taba- 

keh. 
Stove, ijj\&, bukhdri. 
Stout, j J*s katoor ; (strong), \>y±> 

mazboot. 
Straight, o-j, rast ; (in a straight 



YOCABULABY. 



1D5 



line), m««< !**■ bekhut-i-musta- 

keem. 
Strain. See Squeeze and Sprain. 
Strange, t_-i^ ghareeb ; l-^s* ajeeb. 
Stranger, »— o^ ghareeb ; m'Cj bee 

gdneh. 
Strangle, v., ^^T^wa. khufeh kardan; 

^ji ^ geloo giriftan. 
Strap, s*~J tusmeh. 
Stratagem, <sL» heeleh. 
Straw, s^kdh. 

Strawberry, ^'ij \z>y tooti frangi. 
Stray, v., zf ' S'^j rah gum Icardan. 
Stream,^ nahr. 



Street, j^jT koocheh. 
Strength, jjj zoor ; oy koovat. 
Strengthen, v., *f ^ muhkam 

Icardan. 
Stretch, v., ^^kasheedan. 
Strict, j^ dakeek. 
Strictly, e^l? bddik'at. 
Strife, a!^U* mujddeleh. 
Strike, v., *j zadan; ^J^^koobee- 

dan ; ^ykuftan. 
String, ^U—i, reesman. 
Strip (make naked), v., ^ u>J 

lukht kardan. 
Strive, v., O ^f,j^^kooshesh kardan. 



196 



"VOCABULARY. 



Stroke, s., ^j^ zurb. 

Stroke, v., ^J^U maleedan. 

Stroll, v., ^3j J^^f garddsh raftan. 

Stroll, s., ^zjfgardash. 

Strong, ^y kavee. 

Struggle, v., ^ijTj^aj J+jadvajalid 
hard an. 

Stubborn, j~»sy» khudsar. 

Stuff", s., A^,b parcheh. 

Stuff, v., &<**& chapeedan. 

Stupid, j^-1 ahmak ; &j~> safee. 

Stumble, v., ^j p*r> sar-i-sum raf- 
tan. 

Stvle (in writing), *lii1 insha. 



Subject, o~£, rtfaxjet ; aIL £ab'e. 
Sublime, ^Jl* a'ah'. 
Submission, c>*U»l itd'at. 
Submissive, /di* mutee'. 
Subsequent, Jw ha' ad. 
Substance, oli z#£. 
Substantive, «-.! -mn. 
Substitute, v., cJ ^/'ji J-i' tabdeel kar' 

dan. 
Substitute, s.n^t^\^. jane sheen; <j>^ 

} avaz. 
Subtract, v., ^J'l^, minha kardan. 

Subvert, v., oifjjJJJ zeer ° ro ° ^ ar ' 
dan. 



VOCABULARY. 



197 



Succour, iJ^» medad. 

Such (as this), e>s*"> hamcheen; c^- 

chaneen ; (as that), o^** ham- 

chendn ; ^ chenan. 
Sudden, sfc'li ndgdJi. 
Suddenly, Uai ghijlatan. 
Suffer, v., *f \y+sc taliamul kardari; 

(loss), yj£ jj* zarar Tcasheedan. 
Suffice, v., u J^ 4^ kafi shudan. 
Sugar, &3 kund; (unrefined), J2> 

sheker ; (candy), oU3 nabdt ; 

(plums), JS3 nukl; (cane), J^~> 

ney-i-sheker. 
Suggest, v., ^b »j^1 ishdreh dadan. 



Suit (of clothes), a=-».i dusteh. 

Suit (agree), v., ^L f*\> bdhum 

saklitan. 
Suitor, j>j y s. 'ariz. 

Sulphur, tfj? googird. 

Sultan, ^UiLj sultan. 

Sultry, ai> Ichufeh. 

Sum (of money), £* mublugh; 

(arithmetic), yL* hessdb. 
Summer, Wo tubistan; (crops), 

iu-o say fee. 
Summit, sKkelleh. 
Summon, s., .j±~& talabeedan. 



198 



VOCABULAEY. 



Sun, vUl dftdb ; JJ^,^- kliursheed ; 
(disk of), v-jUjI voj kurs-i-dftab > 
(worshipper), o--^ v^l dftdb 
parest; (exposed to), ^ i->l»1 dftab 
roo; (beam), i_>U!y^j part d-i-df tab; 
(flower), t-jksl ^fgul-i-djtdb; (rise), 
vial c^lt teloo' -i-dftdb ; (set), «^«^ 

Superb, *iic 'azeem. 

Superfluous, Jolj zdyid. 

Superintendent, J*\i ndzir. 

Supper, |.Ll sham. 

Support (endure), ^U is*llt tafcai 



Suppose, -u., ^jTyl^Tg email kardan. 

Suppress, v., ^jfj^ makhfi kardan. 

Sure, v., (^ yakeen. 

Surety, ^U zdmin. 

Surface, jj roo. 

Surgeon, — 1^. jarrahh. 

Surname, t-Jil lakkab. 

Surpass, v., c ^i. XTguzasMan. 

Surprise, t-*^ ta'ajub. 

Surprise, v., $y v*?*^ muta'ajib 
kardan. 

Surprised, v., ^f^^ ta'ajib kar- 
dan. 



TOCABTTLAET. 



199 



Surrender,^, i^f^ - tasleem dddan. 
Surround, v., aif'j-^ muhdssereh 

kardan. 
Survey, v., o*3**i paymoodan. 
Surveyor, j~~> momayiz. 
Suspect, v., a &ji ^Sgeman burdan; 

tf&U Aji shubheh dashtan. 
Suspicion, a lS gemdn ; ^ shubheh. 
Sustain, jA^ji bar dashtan. 
Swallow, s., A^J* chelchelleh. 
Swallow, v., &*/. }J froo burdan. 
Swamp, cjb^> murddb. 
Swear, v., ^jy- f* kassam khurdan. 
Sweat, Jj* arak. 



Sweep, v., o ^/^3j^J ar00h kardan. 

Sweet, ,j>.j^> shireen. 

Swell, v., a*f?ji varam kardan. 

Swift, J^j' tund. 

Swim, ^fy^ sheno kardan. 

Swing, (2)^1 dbrak. 

Switch, &) tarkeh. 

Swoon, ,J& ghush. 

Swoon, v., ±fj* ghush kardan. 

Sword, jfM.a. shamsheer ; (rapier) 

'* 
ij\j3 kuddreh. 

Symbol, c^>^e ilamat. 

Symptom,jUi dsdr. 

Synonymous, ^j** f* hum mani. 



200 



YOCABULABY. 



WW 

Syringe, djJjl dbdozek. 
System, ^yls kcinoon. 

T. 

Table, j~. mee«; (cloth), >/-» sufreh,; 

(to lay a), v., ^J-^- 8,.*— sufreh 

cheedan. 
Tablet, ts£ takhteh. 
Tail, -^ dura. 
Tailor, tUi. khdyydt. 
Take, v., ^J^ giriftan ; *j bur. 

clan; (away), ^s&lo^ barddshtan ; 

(care of ), C ,J^> l_-U , ^» moiuazib shu- 

dan; (the part of), ^T ^U-^t 



iara/ dari kardan ; (by the hand), 

^o-J dust giriftan. 
Tale, a-»9 kisseh; t^-oK^. hikdyat; 
^l^ta da stun. 

Talent, o-lls kdbeleeyat. 
Talisman, -JJ» telism. 
Talk, jj v-j/a. 7mr/ zadan. 

Talker, v-J^ hardf. 

Tall, jJb buland. 

Tallow, Jbj pee. 

Tally, s., Wi.y^. choobkhut. 

Tally, v., ySZ' Jj^u mukdbil shudan. 

Tambourine, *j\s ddyereh. 



V0CABT7LAEY. 



201 



Tame, adj., ^ ram. 

Tame, v., ^L. p\j ram sdhhtan. 

Tan, v., o^f ^^ dubdghee hardan. 

Tank, <je>y- hoz. 

Tantamount, J^U. mo'adil. 

Tar, a \J*£ kaytrdn. 

Tarantula, Jjj rotel. 

Tart (acid), J»J tursh. 

Taste, v., J~^- chesheedan. 

Taste, s., *> muzzeh. 

Tattler, ^ ^ sahhan cheen. 

Taught, J«* muta'alim. 

Taunt, v., o-sj <^*1> ta'aneh zadan. 

Tavern, <ulit« mayTchaneh 



Tawny, ^ffXfgandum goon. 

Tax, oUL mdliat ; ^> baj. 

Tea, ^U- c7iai. 

Teach, v., ^b ak 3/^ dddan; ^y»\ 

dmoolcMan. 
Tear (a rent), dl* c7i«fc. 
Tear, w., ej^^a^ra fcardan. 
Tear, s., eli\ ashfc. 
Tears (to shed), ^j eli! osfc* 

.Hi _ 

Tease v., ^f^>i^ dziet Jcardan. 
Teeth, U d ljj^ denddnhd. 
Telescope, ^jo doorbeen. 



202 



VOCABULARY. 



Tell, v., ^h/gujtan; ±f ^ nukl 

kardan. 
Temerity, j»\z~S gostakhi. 
Temper, ^y- khoo ; ji» khulk ; 

(good), jli \J>f- khosh kliulk ; 

(bad), y- Jo bad klioo. 
Temperament, o*~k tabee'at; ^> 

tube' 
Temperate, Jj^-«-« moHadil ; ^.5U 

molayem. 
Temple, Ss^> musjed. 
Tempt, v., a if^ ighva kardan ; 
Temptation, \^\ ighva. 
Tenacious, ^" mussir. 



Tenant, ^f^— mustajir. 

Tend, v., o^T J^ nww/2 kardan; 
^j> JjL mayil boodan. 

Tender, a., e)jl> nazwfc ; o^ n ^ e " 
ween ; */ nurm. 

Tender, s., *-JJ& takleef. 

Tenderly, o^.^L ^ &# moldyemat. 

Tendon, ^ 'pay. 

Tenour, &y*** mazmoon. 

Tent,j^U chadur; (to pitch a),j^W 
yj chadur zadan ; (to take down 
a), jjfj*\*. chadur kandan;(yo\e), 
&j* derek ; (pegs), ^ meekh. 

Term, c^Ut ibdret. 



YOCABTTLABY. 



203 



Terminate, v., j^^> f^ khatm 
sakhtan; ^jl r ^ *J be injam 
awardan. 

Terrace, &Az*\* mdhtdbeh. 

Terrible, 12) U>». holndk. 
"Terrify, v., ^J^^y tursdneedan. 

Territory, eiU milJfe. 

Terror, of 3 turss ; o^»j vahshat. 

Test, ^U*^ imtihdn. 

Testify, v., ^l- 5 i^W^ sheliadet 
dddan 

Text (original), JJ dsl ; (verse), *J 

<zye7i. 
Than, jl «». 



Thank, v., ^ta^ shukr dadan. 
Thankful, u-Ui J*- fcwfc shendss. 
Thankfulness, ^ii tashukur. 
That, dew. pro., 1 aw (vulg., oon) ; 
(that which), ^ I ancheh; (seeing 
that), ejj*- cTuxm; (that is to say), 
jju ya'anee; (in order that), 
b' id. 
Thaw, r., ^J^ <^ #° shudan. 
Theatre, ajU. liUi' tamaslid khaneh. 
Theft, l5^-s duzdee. 
Themselves, ^>^ khudishan. 
Then (- ■ that time), taSyl dnvakt ; 



204 



VOCABTJLAET. 



Thence (= from that place), \d\J\ 

dzdnjd. 

There (= that place), Uil anja 
(vulg., oonja). 

Thereabouts (= in those places), 

\s*\j?\jS derail] (ilia. 

Therefore, \X£ lehaza ; ^jl^la bend- 
her an. 

Thick, vizis' kulufb ; ssS'gundeh. 

Thief, *j& duzd. 

Thigh, gjlj ran (vulg., roon). 

Thimble ailsiiol angooshtdneh. 

Thin (as paper), ehls ndzook ; (as a 
stick), dojL bdreek ,- (liquid), 
&fjrakeek; (lean), j&^ lugher. 



Thing, jjj* cheez. 

Think, «., ^.s^" J'-» fefrwzZ Tcardan ; 

^sjiLi jol dwleesheh Tcardan. 
Thirst, (jX^' tishnagee. 
Thirsty, <uio tishneh. 
This, j^l een,. 
Thorn, ^li. A-7ior. 
Those, l#1 dnhd (vulg., oonlia). 
Thou, y to. 
Though, ja.J\ igerclxeli. 
Thought, JLs. fc7i/i<«£ ; ^j _^fcr. 
Thoughtful, JZ'ku mutafeker. 
Thoughtless, JW-^i bikhidl. 
Thousand, J^y* hezdr. 



VOCABTJLABT. 



205 



Thrash, t\, o^j J^ s7iaZafe zadan. 
Thread (end), ^U-jj reesmarii (of 

conversation), a^> rishteh. 
Threat, o^" tahdeed. 
Threaten, r., ^/ *.*' ta/uZeed 

ka/rdan. 
Three, *-» seh. 
Threshold, *ils-»l dstdneh. 
Throat, jJfgeloo. 

Throne, is**? tuM& 

Through, ,-1^- sotr-a-sar ; }1 az j (to 

pass), ^AJfguzasMan. 
Throughout, >1 tt J^ « 2avat <( * 

dicker. 



Throw, t\, ^IjJI dndakhtan. 

Thrush, tfy toofea. 

Thumb, ^jj>. v-i^l dngusht buzurk ; 

o^ai ehast. 
Thunder, J*, ra'ttd. 
Thus, &/* chome&n,} ^ff» ham- 

chuneen. 
Tickle, v., d ab J 1 *- 5 dughldk dddan. 
Tide (flood), J- mud; (ebb), j>> 

jazr. 
Tidings, j-» khabar ; (glad), «•>> 

rav.zhdeh. 
Tie, i'., cr - ^ tustan. 
Tier, &^ tabakeh. 



206 



VOCABULARY. 



Tiger, j*> babr. 

Tight, eb3 tang. 

Tile, JUj^, sufal. 

Till, Is ta; 4^.1" £dfce7i. 

Timber, i->j* choob. 

Time, o$j uafci. 

Timid, Ly iarsan. 

Tin, ^jJo. halabi. 

Tinder, -uij-. sookhteh. 

Tinsel, uy fooeh. 

Tip, eli noofc. 

Tipsy, o— * must. 

Tiptoe, i?ij~> saripanjeh. 

Tire, v., gsj'iz**. khasta kardan. 



Tissue, <~i^>j) zar baf. 

Tithe, el* a dali yek. 

Title, t-Ji! lakab. 

Tobacco, ^yJjS tutun; (for narghileTi 

or ghalidn), jS\$ tunbaku. 
Toe, b o-^ol angusht i pa. 
Together, *»l> bahum. 
Toil, J^?. jahd. 
Token, i£—5U ildmat. 
Told, s&gufieh. 
Toll, ^bsl, rdhddree. 
Tomb,^J fcafrr. 
Tongs, ^-il anbur. 
Tongue, gly zeb<m. 



VOCABULAET. 



2Vi 



Tool, oM diet. 

Tooth, tfU-J denddn; (-ache), a,a 
\^durdidenddn; (-pick), J^ 

kheldl. 
Top,^~ sar; VU bald. 
Topsy-turvy, ^3 &» hurj ° WU7 > 
Torch, Ja^- musha'al. 
Torment, «* ^U *U» W& dddan. 
Torrent, Js- sayl. 
ortoise, s^i <^- sang-pusMj e!5) 
o^j lak-pusht. 
Torture, ^^ shekenjeh. 
Toss, v., ^^andakhtan; (to toss 



head or tails), ^/^V) ^ s?ieer 
vakhut Idzi kardan. 
Total, J^£»» jam'-i-kul. 

Touch, «., o^J tS ~ i dust zadan * 
Tour, J,*/ gardesh ; tjy doreh. 
Tow (drag), 0., ^fccw7iefidan. 
Towards, »jj roo-be. 
Towel, Ay holeh. 
Tower, -j> b&rj- 
Town,>i. shahr. 

Townsman, ^ shehri ; (fellow- 
townsman), ysj* f hum shahri. 
Toy, tgfa bdzeecheh. 
Trace, o«^ ilamat. 



208 



VOCABULART. 



Trade, o,lsi tejdrat ; M~> _j aU dad, u 

sitad. 
Trader, ^l? tajer. 
Traitor, ^.U. khdyen. 
Trample, v., C) i/'J^^ pamal hardan. 
Tranquil, s.s^-1 dsoodeh; j»lj! ardm. 
Transact, U., ^b^ pcrddkhtan. 
Transfer, v., o-s^JS nukl kardan. 
Translate, v., $sf ***J tarjumeh 

hardan. 
Transplant, v., oi^ 9 W* 3 & be ■?'* 

Tear dan. 
Transport, v., c^J** haml kardan. 
Transpose, v., &*f_j&k j {*<&> tafo 



deem va Id kheer kardan; ^ 
o*f\J-*l3 P u vapeesh kardan. 

Trap, As tileh. 
Trappings, j]^ yerdk. 
Travel, i\, j^jj^ safar raftan. 
Traveller, ^sL-« musafrr. 
Tray, ,J~» seenee ; <**♦«* mujma'a. 
Tread, D., #*} U p« zadan. 
Treason, oJ^i- khidnat. 
Treasure, Sganj. 
Treasurer, jUjjUa. khezunehddr. 
Treasury, ti\j&. khezdneh. 
Treaty, a-U J^c 'ahd ndmeh ; (con= 
vention), .ita ^ kerdr dad. 



VOCABULAET. 



209 



Treble, JjU« a-> seh mukabil. 

Tree, o*,^ darakht. 

Trellis, s*J> nurdeh. 

Tremble, o^-j) laTzeedan. 

Trench, JJ^. khunduk. 

Trial, ^W^ imtihdn ; ytjUj) azmd- 

yesh. 
Triangle, aIjS^j- seh goosheh. 
Tribe, ik^> tdyefeh. 
Tribulation, ,lj1 azdr. 
Tribunal, a*£=* mahkemeh. 
Tribute, p\> baj. 
Trick, aLa. heeleh ; i^Z, sheeveh ; (to 

play a trick), ,jOj ty-A> sheeveh zadan. 



Trifle, s., Jj*. juz'ee. 

Trifle, v., ^pTg^ harzeh guftan. 

Trim, »j a ^==»b pdkeezeh. 

Trip, v., ^-ij Jj topuk zadan; ^ j~ 
^j sar i sum raftan. 

Tripod, ajUa-j sehpdyeh. 

Triumpb, ^fat'h; (triumphal arch), 

OpoJ jlL tdk-i-nosrat. 

Troop, sjjfgerooh; ^cl^. jemd' at. 

Troops, J^ leshker. 

Trot, s., 4+jj> yoortmeh. 

Trot, v., ^j <u-y_ yoortmeh raftan. 

Trouble, s., o-»*j zahmat. 



210 



VOCABULARY. 



Trouble, v., & &\a o-*-*j zahmat 

dddan. 
Trousers, j\^2> shalwdr. 
Trowel, aJL mdleh. 
Truce, cV muhlet. 
True, \z*Jj rast. 
Truly, SfljaJl^ filhakeekat ; \z&t&* 

liakeekatan. 
Trunk (of a tree), &3 tanah ; (bos), 

^Jj- yakhddn. 
Trust, s., ^laxcl itikad. 
Trust, v., c ^ib jlwl itikdd ddshtan. 
Truth, (JJ-o sidle, 
Try, v., *f~ \£*\ imtihdn kardan. 



Tube, iljl looleh. 

Tuck, v., &&f&ai clieen kardan. 

Tuft, ax> buteh. 

Tulip, aJV Z«te7i,. 

Tumble, v., ^ksl uftddan. 

Tumult, 4*l£ui hengdmeh. 

Tune, eUftl dhang. 

Turban, <ul»c emdmeh. 

Turbid, ±^>\^ gilalood. 

Turf, cr *». chaman. 

Turk, (^L^ Osmdni. 

Turn, v., ^Juil-sy gerddneedan. 

Turnip, **1^ sliulghum. 

Turpentine, ja- _/»_>?• johar sekkez. 



VOCABULARY. 



ZIL 



dodafa'eh. 



Turquoise, *)3j# firoozeh. 
Turtle-dove, ^ kumri. 
Tweezers, J&+ munkash. 
Twice, jVjji doMr; **i*j* 
Twin, JSj.5 doghuli. 
Twine,~s.,^" Mtmeh. 

Twine, ,;., d */ u^ P™ chesh kar ' 
dan. 

Twist, «., o^ pe«cfcflfida»; 
. j^s4 b«7iuw peecheedan. 

Tyrant, ^ vaUm. 

Tyranny, -& zuliw. 



^ 



U. 

zishtee. 



Ugliness, j^>j 
Ugly, o^j a*«W« 
Ulcer, f-j zakhm. 
Ultimate,^ dkher. 
Umbrella,^ chatr. 
Umpire, cJl> salts. 
Unanimous, Jfc* mutafik. 
Unawares, Uic ghijlatan. 
Unbecoming, «~i^ ndsMyiiteH. 

Unbounded, J^ be«fcu<l; oiW 

bee nehdyat. 
Uncertain, fJ J«.U iwma'aloom. 



^ 



212 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



Uncharitable, Jj>do tangdil. 

Uncivil, l_>.}1 ^ bee it dab. 

Uncle (paternal), y>* 'amoo ; (mater- 
nal), _}!-- khilloo. 

Unclean, dUl3 napdk; y-as nejess. 

Uncomfortable, co.1; 14 bee ruhat. 

Uncommon, ^-15 nadir. 

Unconcerned, <£ j. bee-gham. 

Uncurable, ^s. ^ la ilaj. 

Undeceive, v., _)«>;jl o3/- 8 ^-^ J^ ^z 
ishtibah beroon awardan. 

Undeniable, -*--> ^ bee shubheh. 

Under,^ij zeer. 

Undermine,^., ^^fs^Ju nukb kardan. 



Understand, v., &•*-•& fahmeedan ; 

^jvi JU. Julli shudan. 
Undertake,!;.^ JjTj-al ikdam kardan. 
Undeserved, j£~*ji* gheir i musta- 

hak. 
Undesigned, 5_/3 JU. khial neker- 

deh. 
Undesirable, !j-» U wa sez#. 
Undetermined, s^> nukrah. 
Undisciplined, jjii g free nuzm. 
Uneasiness, u-il^Sa-vl izterab. 
Uneasy, c^k-u muzterib. 
Unequal, j^»» l3 nd hamvdr. 
Unequivocal, -^-i. _j bee shubheh. 






VOCABULARY. 



213 



Unerring', U»» i_j bee khetd. 
Unexampled, Jiu <_} missl. 



Unexpected, 



A+3jZo jfS- 



gheir-i-mutara- 



kabeh. 
Unfailing, *»1j day em. 
Unfavourable, j*\~* \i nd musaid. 
Unfeigned, JL**- hakeekee. 
Unfinished, ^ U %a tamam. 
Unfit, c_— iU«l3 ndmundsib. 
Unfold, v., o^/jV b«2 kardan. 
Unforseeu, sj&su^ glieir-i-munta- 

zereh. 
Unforgotten, »J^ yi^./ammoos/i 
ne shudeh. 



Unfortunate, o.3?Jo bttd bukht. 
Unfruitful, J-»'^ bee hdssel. 
Ungenerous, j^^l,^ doorazdoostee. 
Ungentlemanly, ajM <j beeddabuneh. 
Ungovernable, ,_£^-» sarkash ; y-<x^i 

tundkhoo. 
Ungraceful, <-Sj ^ bee tarkeeb. 
Ungracious, oUJl g bee iltifdt. 
Ungrateful, Jj* isUJ neniek behardm. 
Unhappy, a.-...-^*. J^ dii shekesteh ; 

eki' J^ cZti tangr. 
Unhealthy, plL, Is nd sdlim. 
Uniform, adj., /j> herd-bar. 
Uniform, s.,,**-, u-U leb«ss russmi. 



214 



VOCABULARY. 



Unimportant, c5U»! ^ hee itilu. 
Uninformed, ^ <j, bee khabar. 
Unintelligent, Jac y bee tiki. 
Unintelligible, .j#u j± gheir-i-maf- 

Jioom. 
Unintentional, 1^~> sahvan. 
Uninterested, j>/- <_j bee gharaz. 



"J <&* 



bedooni 



Uninvited, «J. 

va'adeh. 
Union, «>U1 itilidd. 
United, J^» mutahid. 
Unity, L ^=*J^i yekdnegee. 
Universal, ^y** emoomee. 
Universe, y\&.jehdn; ^jJfgeetee. 



Unjust, jp-k ndhak. 
Unjustifiable, L-o beepd. 
Unkind, o^* tj bee mohubut. 
Unlawful, sji> ^J"^. kheldji shure. 
Unlike, J»l_j- ^ nd movdfik. 
Unlimited, J^ ^ bee hud. 
Unloose, v., ^Js\> baz karden. 
Unmanagable, J^> sarkash. 
Unmanly, ii\*j» \i nd marddneh. 

Hi 

Unmarried, z>js* majurrud. 
Unmeaning, ( J3u <ji bee ma'anee. 
Unmerciful, **, ^j bee rah'm. 
Unnamed, sj^o'o _^j _»,l ^ bee ism 
o rasm nandmideh. 



VOCABULARY. 



215 



Unnatural, ( j^> j^- gheir i tabee-i. 
Unnecessary, *p U ndlazeem. 
Unneighbourly, ^j*** <-*^ Tcheldf 

hamjavaree. 
Unobstructed, *JL% beta mane*. 
Unoffending, ~U haleem. 
Unowned, c-o-U ^ bee sahib. 
Unperceived, *J-U o«Ju multqfat 

ne shudeh. 
Unpleasant (personage), JJ o^^» 

goosht tulkh. 
Unpolite, v-jI ^ free adab. 
Unprejudiced, <-i>J* ^j bee taraf. 
Unpretending, U>Xi ^ bee takleef. 



Unprincipled, oi^ ^j bee hakeekat. 
Unprofitable, «JoU ^ bee fdyedeh. 
Unpropitious, ^^ nahss. 
Unprotected, ^^ bee Kami. 
Unproved, oj^^-c gheir -i-sabit. 
Unquestionable, ^J,^^L> bela-hurf ; 

dLi.}lj bela-shuk. 
Unreasonable, *-?j-o j-*-* gheir- i- 

movajeh. 
Unreceived, sjJLi J^J kabool i\e 

s hud eh. 
Unresisted. See Unobstructed. 
Unrestrained, \uA\ jlU. mutlak el 

enun. 



216 



TOCABULAET. 



Unrevenged, jJJ^j ^"ki taldfi ne 

shudeh. 
Unrighteous, ^.J^ beedeen. 
Unripe, »Ju-y ne-reseedeh. 
Unsafe, ^1 li nd dmn. 
Unsatisfactory, s^u> j-p gheir i 

matboo\ 
Unseasonable, *3y> ^ bee mo'ke'. 
Unskilled, a^- ^j bee serishteh. 
Unsound, j^\ ^j bee itibdr. 
Unsociable, ^*^=J.i ^j bee dilgarmee. 
Unspeakable, { J^=*> nugufbanee. 
Unspecified, . . j— » j-^ ghair-i- 

mo'ayen. 



Unsteady, xlc, ra'asheh. 
Unsubdued, j£~* j-** gheir i mo- 

sakhar. 
Unsuccessful,^? ^U^c gheir i moasser. 
Unsuitable, .u-^li U nd shayesteh. 
Unsupported, U j> bee pd ; <sL^» { j 

bee komek. 
Untasted, sJ^-i^. b nd chesheedeh. 
Unthinking, JJ^ bee fikr ; JLsj? bee 

khidl. 
Untie, v., o^j^- baz kardan. 
Until, b' td. 

Untimely, uw»j*j bee vakt. 
Untouched, isj o— .i dust ne zadeh. 



VOCABULARY. 



217 



Untrained, -iw ^ bee ta'aleem. 
Untried, 5«xl> ^ja tajrubeh ne shu- 

deh. 
Untrue, ja. 13 nd hale. 
Unusual, »J^l£ t-J^U. kheld.fi kd'adeh. 
Unwashed, ax~«£> U nd shusteh. 

Unwilling, ^\j U nd rdzi. 
Unwise, ^b U ii« daw. 
Unworthy, Jsr**-* U na mustahak. 
Upbraid, v., *f J^j j- sar zanesh 

kardan. 
Uphold, v., i>\inz+>.yotu'kveeatdadan. 
Upon,^ bar ; VU bald. 



Upright, e~- j rust. 
Uproar, Jls j J-5 fceeZ o HL 
Upside-down, j>.j\j~> sar a zeer. 
Urge, v., z>f j\j*\ isrdr kardan. 
Urgent, jji^i zaroor. 
Usage, sJfiU' kd'adeh. 
Use, JUa^-1 isWrnal. 

Used, J »»-•»« musta'mil. 
Useful, >M- mufeed. 
Useless, »J^'i ^ bee fayedeh. 

Usual, J_y»«- ma'amool. 

Usury, \>j riba. 

Utensil, <-Jj& zarf; oVI dldt. 



218 



VOCABULABY. 



Utility, sJok fdyedeh. 
Utterly, LW tamdman. 

V. 

Vacancy, ojk. Ichilvat. 

Vacant, ^U. khdli. 

Vagabond, (jitjl obdsh. 

Vague, ..&- rnobhim. 

Vain (in), u~-^ •ij* khud parast. 

Vainly, sJoU ^ beta fdyedeh; »Ji'«s ^ 

bee fdyedeh. 
Valet, i^y* (_£!/ ferrash i khelvat. 
Valiant, sis 1 slmjd'. 
Valid, ^s-> saheehh. 



Valley, »;»> derreh. 
Valuable, o^i kaimati. 
Value (put price on), ^., c ,j/" 

ka'imat Jcardan. 
Vanguard, ^-i. ui~-£ peesh khaymeh. 
Vanish, v., ^J^> Aya* rnafkood shu- 

dan. 
Vanquish, v., ^J'^ fat'h Tcardan ; 

£&]& c^— ^3. shekest dddan. 
Variable, ^\j t-J^bi.1 ikhtildf-i-rd ee. 
Variety, v., ys»ljjf ' goonagoon. 
Vault, jlk tdk. 
Vaunt, v., gdj i-iV laf zadan. 
Veal, £\~t^yz~Z>^gooshl-i-gosaleh. 



VOCABULAET. 



219 



Vegetable, ,jjf* subzee. 

Veil, ^>3j rooband. 

Vein, <3j rag. 

Vellum, >»! o-# poost-i-ahoo. 

Velocity, ^J^ tundee ; ^>V sura'at. 

Velvet, J-*i" makhmal. 

Venerate, v., &ato p* muUirim 

dashtan. 
Veneration, fSf*-\ ihtirdm. 
Vengeance, J"^ telafi. 
Venison, J& ci/ goosht-i- shikar. 
Venture, «., d ^jW jessdrat fear- 

daw. 
Venturous, j^~* jassoor. 



Venus, «y»j zuhreh. 
Verbal, Jl>j zebawee. 
Verbose, r ^J> tool-i-keldm. 
Verdigris, j&j zengfar. 
Verification, j^ tahkeek. 
Verily, s^^ /*•' hakeekat. 
Verjuice, *,jfc v^ db % ghooreh. 
Vermillion, ^J^ shunjurf. 

Vernal, ^W behari. 

Verse,^*i> shi'ir. 

Very,j^~> bisyar. 

Vessel, i*> zwrf; (ship), j^Skeshti. 

Viands, el^y. khorak. 

Vice, ^ir" sherdrat. 



220 



YOCABULAEY. 



Vicegerent, {:J ^ U. jd nesheen. 

Vicinity, ^t^J nazdeekee. 

Victim, ^j> korban. 

Victor, L_Jli ghdlib. 

Victory, ^p faith. 

Victuals, d\,y» khoorak. 

View, v., ^Jo^ deedan; ^J*> nazar 

kardan ; sfs& nig ah kardan. 
View, s.,j\oj nazar. 
Vigilance, ^Li^j, hosTi/ydri. 
Vigorous, ^5 kavee ; &+j}j zoor- 

rnund. 
Vile, ^4-J kabeeh. 
Vilify,!'., ^^S'j.lijo badndm kardan. 



Village, »^ deh. 

Villager, J> ] *>* dehdtee. 

Villain, jal^L*. haramzadeh. 

Villainous, e)l^ ndpdk. 

Vindicate, o^j^ 9 «^» hemdyat 

kardan. 
Vindictive, ^^f keenehv er . 
Vine, ^» mo. 
Vinegar, £j~> serkeh. 
Violate, &*f j<^ tejavuz kardan; 

^^yoiiJ mtfes kardan. 
Violence, ^ zoor. 
Violet, iikj benefsheh. 
Viper, ig^jca^L mar-i-ja'aferi. 



VOC ABU LAKY. 



221 



Virgin, tjS»\i baker eh. 
Virtually, UgJ*. hakeekatan. 
Virtue, y* honur. 
Virtuous, jj^/a honurmund. 
Virulence, <^«^> shiddut. 
Virulent, cjj^>Ij bashiddut. 
Vision, Jaj nuzur. 
Visit, s., ols^L muldkat ; *>_z 

deedan ; ^>j\j zidrat. 
Visit, v., ^j^» cjIs^L* mulakdt 

kardan. 

Vitriol, J\j zdj. 
Vivacious, yJ>J> firz. 
Vizier, j>.)^ vazeer. 



Vocabulary, o*! loghat. 

Vogue, -Ajj ravdj ; (in), v^ bab. 

Voice, 1j-> sedd ; jljl dwdz. 

Void, adj., ^JU. khdli. 

Void, v., ^^T JIjU o«£^ Jcardan. 

Volcano, a lii (jtj'l »jS" kooh i dtesh 

feshdn. 
Volley, isUi sheleek. 
Volume, ^xla. jild. 
Voluntary, jy? tji* klxud bekhud. 
Volunteer, aJL j ^ do talabeh. 
Vomit, v., &*/&> ,_/ bay kardan; 

uj^T'jKas-.l istifrdgh kardan. 



222 



VOCABULARY. 



Vouch, v., gjdlj o^l^-i. shehddat 
dadan. 

Vow, s., jjj nuzr. 

Vow, v., ^sjfjSj nuzr kardan. 

Voyage, ^-i safar ; lSjIj^ bdzdri. 

Vulgar, J.jt JU m«Z i awdm. 

Vulture, j^i-*^ Idshkhur. 

W. 

Wafer, t^~»i l *^ surchusp kha- 

meeri. 
Wag, ~y^ shookh. 
Wager, jj^gero. 
Wages, t— ^-\_y° movdjib. 
Wail, v., ^.^Talli ndleh kardan. 



Waggish, ±yU shookh. 

Waggon, J^\i barkash. 

Waist, jSkam&r. 

Wait, v., ^i>f j~o subr kardan. 

Wake, v., &*j\j~> beedar shudan. 

Walk, v., ^j »^Uj piddeh raftan. 

Walkingstick o-»^ y^ clwob-i- 

dust; L»t 'asd. 
Wall, j\y_s deevdr. 
Wallflower, y t-~i shub-boo. 
Walnut, j^girdao. 
Wander, r., oi/^" ^^j^ 9 9^ r desh 

kardan. 
Want, v., ^^-^j* khdstan. 



VOCABULARY. 



Want, s., jt»ly- Tchahish. 

War, eU=. jung. 

Wardrobe, a^^j* doldbcheh. 

Ware, y-^. jmss. 

Warm, ^gwrw; (climate) , > *- 

gfitrm seer. 

Warm, v., ^/f^ wm kardan ' 

Warmth, ^fgurmee. 

Warn, v., o«^^ kliabar dadan. 

Warrant, J^-» sanad. 

Wart, Jjlj zeZooZ ,• J«£j vig&* 

Wary, tW^ ^->»^» sa/ilb ihtidt. 

Was, ^ boocL 

Wash, v., .-^—^ shustan. 



223 
dead), j^A »*r* 



Washer (of the 
murdeh shoor. 
Washerman, y. o», rufc7ii *fto. 

Waste, v., c»/ P lr 7tarim fcardan ; 
c" 1 kjJB tafreet. 

Waste (desert), ^Vri beeahan. 

Watch, o*L- sa'at. 

Watch (guard), v., c-s/^W 2>«ss- 

bani kardan. 
Watchman, cV-lj ptfssbatt. 
Water, ±A ab ; (running), gig, **>\ 
ab-i-rowan; ^U ±>\ db-i-jdri ; 
(salt), ^ Ml «b-i-s7ioor; (warm), 
^ M* ab-i-gurm; (spring of). 



224 



YOCABTJLAEY. 



c_>1 u»*..% cheshmeh-i-db ; (closet), 
JL. mdbdl ; u->1 jU-T kenar-i-ab ; 
(watering pot), (_pb u*l a& pas7i ; 
(barley), j-^ »U md-i-shaeer ; 
(to pour out), ^^ k_>1 ftb reekh- 
tan; (cresses), ^l»_j»5)U boldhooty ; 

(carrier), Lfl— sakka ; (melon), 

joljjt^fc hindooaneh. 

Wave, --^o mdj. 

Wax, ^ moom. 

Way, »]; raTi. 

Weak, j»j J kam zoor ; oy ^ 
hoovat ; ^J> t «* zdeef. 

Wealth, cJj.j dowlat. 



bee 



Weapon, o^l «Z«t. 

Wear, «., ^J*^ poosheedan. 

Wear out, v., ^^T *£ kuhneh Car- 
dan. 

Weariness, (J £L~ » khastagee; ^fi^^* 
mandegee. 

Weary, ax—*, khasta. 

Weasel, *,^-U mdsooreh. 

Weather, 1_>* haw a. 

Weave, v., ja\> bdftan. 

Web,jy toor. 

Wedge, tjfgo-eh ; 156 gdveh. 

Weed, ijj* v-ilt 'alaf harzeh. 

Week, km, hafteh. 



VOCABULABY. 



22.') 



Weep, v., !>f*fgaryeh kardan. 
Weigh, v., s^kasheedan ; &*/oJ3 

vuzn kardan ; ±f oV kapdn 

kardan. 
Weight, ) 3 vuzn. 
Welcome (you are), inter., ^.x>\ ,»■ 

khosh amddeed. 
Welfare, yj**-^. behboodee. 
Well (cistern), s., »U- chdh. 
Well (in health), adj., J>y» khosh ; 

(_j>3>- khoob. 
Well, adv., ,jij& fcTiosfc ; eti neefc. 
Well-bred, vrf* najeeb. 
Well done ! ^./l dfareen. 



Well-natured, ,3'* u->* fclW«A khulk, 

Well-wisher, *lj»j^« khayr khdh. 

West, M/«* mughreb. 

Wet, adj.,j> tur. 

Wet, v., o^jO * wr kardan. 

What, **. c/ie7i. 

Whatever, **/» harcheh. 

Wheat, (.xT'^aiidooHi. 

Wheel, £/* churkh. 

When, J'kay. 

Whence, V ;1 az fctt/fl. 

Whenever, *3^»«y» ha/r vukt i keh. 

Where, \*fkuja ; f koo. 

Whereas, gj$ choon. 

Q 



226 



VOCABULARY. 



Wherefore, I J^3 lehazd ; &$=* a \ jl dz 

dnjahat. 
Wherever, U? >» hur Tcujd ; t& U. y* 

7utr jd-i-keh. 
Whet, v., *J si teez kardan. 
Whether, \A dyd. 
Whetstone, uL sU- sang i sab. 
Whey (curds, &c), cj^ ±>\ db-oo- 

doogh. 
Which, - *\ST kuddm ; (that which), 

as:! dncheh ; aSol a?i keh. 
Whichever, -1 j5^.» hur kudam. 
Whine, v., ^jJU naleedan. 
Whirlpool, i->^f girddb. 



Whirlwind, jW^I loolehbdd. 

Whisper, s., l^si nujvd. 

Whisper, v., c pS^ J^^ $ too goosh 
guftan. 

Whistle, s., o_j-» soot. 

Whistle, v., ^.sj ojw soot zadan. 

White, »Mw safeed. 

White ant, <ul^* mooryaneh. 

White-lead, *te <^\jJu, sefeedab-i- 

kal'e. 

Whiteness, ^jJJ>~t safeedee. 

Whither, \J kujd. 

Who, £kee. 

Whole, -Uj tamdm; \-~s- ^ bee 'ayb. 



VOCABTJLAET. 



227 



Wholesome^L sazegdr ; ^\jndfe'. 

Wholly, UUj tamdmdn. 

Whom, \j^keerd; (to), a£ bekee. 

Whosoever, S'jt liar Jceh. 

Why, 1^ chird ; a* ^ berai die ; 

i*. l#£ bejaheti die. 
Wick, J~9 fateel. 
Wicked, Jo bad ; jj/. sheroor. 
Wickedness, ojl/i sherdrat. 
Wicker, o^-» sabat. 
Wide, u^ 'areez ; Wj pahnd. 
Widen, r., :>fj».f- 'areez hardan. 
Widow, s_)jo beeveh. 
Width, J\iy pahnaee; J>j- arz. 



Wife, c ) zun ; *+j) zdjeh. 

Wild, J^-s vafishee. 

Wile, dLa. heeleli. 

Wilful, l5^^- Tchudra'ee. 

Will, s., •>!,« murdd; (testament), 
xe\> ^~<>) vaseeat ndmeh. 

Will, v., er - '^ khastan. 

Willing, ^\j razee ; (volens nolens), 
sly: s)y£ bekhdh nekhah; (God will- 
ing), Jjk 1 ^. 1 J* khodd bekhdhad ; 
dill *l£3l insJia' allah. 

Willingness, ooU, rezayat. 

Willow, Ju-> beed. 



228 



VOCABTTLAEY. 



Win, v., ±j> burdan. 

Wind, s., ^U bad. 

Wind, v., oJ^i peecheedan ; (a 

watch), ^6jTkook kardan. 
Windfall, ^b Ijo. khodd dad. 
Window, gjM panjareh. 
Wine, tjl/j sherdb. 
Wing, Jl> bdl; -U* jenahh. 
Wink, v., tj **j> j^a. cheshm bar 

hum zadan; (wink at, connive), 

^ju-ijj *£» cheshm poosheedan ; 

$J~ ^j>\+s\ ighmaz Icardan. 
Winter, ^Is— j zemestdn. 
Wire, *~- seem. 



Wisdom,^ytJ. s/ie'oor; jKcafcZ; u&lo 

ddnesh. 
Wise, J?W Tcdbil ; jy& l> b# s/ie'oor; 

jo*£J|.j daneshmund ; Jac t_-*L> 

Wisely, aj^jU 'dkelaneh. 

Wish, s., (jtikl^i. Tchahesh. 

Wish, v., Juwkj^i. Ichdheshmund. 



Wit, 



£J- 



shookh. 



With, l» &a. 

Withdraw, «., ^^T jl? &#z giriftan ; 

(retire), C ^~^J »_-Sc'afca& neshestan. 
Wither, v., ^J^ s^ )> pezh murdeh 

shudan ; ^J^ii. khiishkeedcm. 



VOCABULARY. 



229 



Within, j* dur;j£>\ andur. 
Without, ^ bee; (outside), ^. 

beyroon. 
Withstand, v., *fJ^*^~>\ istddegee 

Icardan. 
Witness, J^^> shdhed. 
Wolf, tifgurg. 
Woman, OJ zun. 
Wonder, s., u^ 'ajab. 
Wonder, v., s-^" ta'ajub Icardan. 
Wood, mj* choob; (firewood), ,»>» 

heezoom; a*«* heemeh ; (forest), 

J3ca. jungul. 
Wool, f^i 'puslim. 



Woollen, iJ ~-i pushmee. 

Word, aJT kilemeh; U lufz ; (by 

word), <**£ ^kilemeh be kilemeh; 

(of God), d\ ^kildm ullah; (to 

keep one's) ^sib «K> Jy fcol negdh 

ddshtan. 
Wovk,jVkdr. 

Work, «., sfJ(kdr kardan. 
Workman, A*e amaleh ; &a fa-'aleh. 

World, ejWM^i ^ dUm; ^ 

dunya. 
Worldly, ^jj* dunyavee. 
Worm, (.jT kirm. 
Wormwood, a *i~i\ afsantine. 



230 



VOCABULARY. 



Worn, u-?^ malbooss ; *<x-£>ji poo- 
sheedeh ; (worn out), J**!-* mus- 
ta'mil ; LliLiI iskat. 

Worship, s., o^l-^ ebadet ; \J^~>y v 
perestesh. 

Worship, v., &<*~~>jj peresteedan. 

Worshipper (of fire), c=~^ ySJ'1 ates/i 



~y, 



L_) 



parast; (of the sun), 

a/iab parast. 
Worth, cx-5 Icaymat; Ji^l arzesh. 
Worthless, o-j j)ust ; oo-S ^ 6ee 

kaymat ; j»j» ^-? free khud. 
Worthy, jljlj- sezavar ; JjV Zayifc ; 

js :u ~* mustahak. 



Wound, s., j^j zakhm. 

Wound, v., ^^T *ij zakhm kardan. 

Wrap, v., ^J^ peecheedan. 

Wrapper, asU) lefafeh ; -*=*? bukcheh. 

Wrath, t-j—ac ghuzab. 

Wreath, s^». chunbareh. 

Wrestle, v., ^r \-J^kushti kardan. 

Wretch, ^-C- mws&een. 

Wring, v., ^^iil dfshurdan. 

Wrinkle, (^ cheen. 

Wrist, ^o much. 

Write, v., &&y nevishtan; *fj* 

cr i-i,b markoom ddshtan ; j-ij-£ 

0&$ tah/re&r kardan. 



VOCABTJLAEY. 



231 



Writing, ^y nevishteh; f, ruk- 

kum, ; jtj* tahreer. 
Wrong, s. , -& zulm ; ^ nahakk. 
Wrong, v. *f ',JJ* zulm kardan. 
Wrongfully, j»^i nahakk. 
Wrought, <u»l-> sakhteh. 

Y. 

Yard, s,3 zw'e. 

Yawn, s., ^W- khamyazeh. 

Yawn, t'., c) a a ir*jW khamyazeh 

kesheedan. 
Year, JU s«Z. 
Yearly, ajUL. salyaneh. 



Year (by year), JI-? J^~» sal be sal. 

Yellow, s>y } zurd. 

Yes, ^ beZZi ; ^? beZZift ; gj|l « r »- 

Yesterday, jjji* dierooz. 

Yet, Cl am-ma; jQ laykin. 

Yoke (for oxen), o«* 3110 fc*. 

Yolk (of an egg), **,j zurdeh. 

You, U-ii shumd. 

Young, tflja. iavort. 

Youth, J\j» javuni. 

Z. 

Zeal, c^i ghayrat; 
Zealous, oj-fclj baghayrat. 



232 



YOCABIILAET. 



naseem. 



Zephyr, *~~i 

Zest, *j* muzzeh. 

Zigzag, J*3 ^peeclx valchem. 



Zinc, —jj roohh. 

Zodiac, -y? s3j\j* doazdeh burj. 

Zone, sj>\i dayereh. 



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